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Sample records for gross regional volumes

  1. Variation of gross tumor volume and clinical target volume definition for lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Jun; Li Minghui; Chen Dongdu

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To study the variation of gross tumor volume (GTV) and clinical target volume (CTV) definition for lung cancer between different doctors. Methods: Ten lung cancer patients with PET-CT simulation were selected from January 2008 to December 2009.GTV and CTV of these patients were defined by four professors or associate professors of radiotherapy independently. Results: The mean ratios of largest to smallest GTV and CTV were 1.66 and 1.65, respectively. The mean coefficients of variation for GTV and CTV were 0.20 and 0.17, respectively. System errors of CTV definition in three dimension were less than 5 mm, which was the largest in inferior and superior (0.48 cm, 0.37 cm, 0.32 cm; F=0.40, 0.60, 0.15, P=0.755, 0.618, 0.928). Conclusions: The variation of GTV and CTV definition for lung cancer between different doctors exist. The mean ratios of largest to smallest GTV and CTV were less than 1.7. The variation was in hilar and mediastinum lymphanode regions. System error of CTV definition was the largest (<5 mm) in cranio-caudal direction. (authors)

  2. Labor Absorption and Its Impact on Gross Regional Domestic Product

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    Made Ika Prastyadewi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to examine the determinants of labor absorption in the trade, hotel and restaurant sector and its impact on Gross Regional Domestic Product/GRDP at Bali Province. This study is important due to the fact that the GRDP in this sector is the highest compared to other sector but the labor absorption is lower than the agriculture sector. This study used panel data comprising 9 regencies/cities at Bali Province in the period 2003-2009 including fixed effect model and simultaneous equation model of Two-Stage Least Square. The results showed that GRDP, working age population, and the minimum wage have positive effect on employment, while the educated unemployment has no significant effect on the employment in the trade, hotel and restaurant sector. In addition, increases in employment and workers productivity have positive and significant effects the GRDP in the trade, hotel and restaurant sector at Bali Province.

  3. Gross tumor volume (GTV) and clinical target volume (CTV) for radiation therapy of benign skull base tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maire, J.P.; Liguoro, D.; San Galli, F.

    2001-01-01

    Skull base tumours represent a out 35 to 40% of all intracranial tumours. There are now many reports in the literature confirming the fact that about 80 to 90% of such tumours are controlled with fractionated radiotherapy. Stereotactic and 3-dimensional treatment planning techniques increase local control and central nervous system tolerance. Definition of the gross tumor volume (GTV) is generally easy with currently available medical imaging systems and computers for 3-dimensional dosimetry. The definition of the clinical target volume (CTV) is more difficult to appreciate: it is defined from the CTV plus a margin, which depends on the histology and anterior therapeutic history of the tumour. It is important to take into account the visible tumour and its possible extension pathways (adjacent bone, holes at the base of skull) and/or an anatomic region (sella turcica + adjacent cavernous sinus). It is necessary to evaluate these volumes with CT Scan and MRI to appreciate tumor extension in a 3-dimensional approach, in order to reduce the risk of marginal recurrences. The aim of this paper is to discuss volume definition as a function of tumour site and tumour type to be irradiated. (authors)

  4. Definition of gross tumor volume in lung cancer: inter-observer variability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Steene, Jan; Linthout, Nadine; de Mey, Johan; Vinh-Hung, Vincent; Claassens, Cornelia; Noppen, Marc; Bel, Arjan; Storme, Guy

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To determine the inter-observer variation in gross tumor volume (GTV) definition in lung cancer, and its clinical relevance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Five clinicians involved in lung cancer were asked to define GTV on the planning CT scan of eight patients. Resulting GTVs were

  5. Modeling of the Gross Regional Product on the Basis of Production Functions

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    Sadovin, Nikolay S.; Kokotkina, Tatiana N.; Barkalova, Tatiana G.; Tsaregorodsev, Evgeny I.

    2016-01-01

    The article is devoted to elaboration and construction of a static model of macroeconomics in which economics is considered as an unstructured holistic unit, the input of which receives the resources, and the output is the result of the functioning of economics in the form of gross domestic product or gross regional product. Resources are…

  6. Adaptive Radiotherapy Planning on Decreasing Gross Tumor Volumes as Seen on Megavoltage Computed Tomography Images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodford, Curtis; Yartsev, Slav; Dar, A. Rashid; Bauman, Glenn; Van Dyk, Jake

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate gross tumor volume (GTV) changes for patients with non-small-cell lung cancer by using daily megavoltage (MV) computed tomography (CT) studies acquired before each treatment fraction on helical tomotherapy and to relate the potential benefit of adaptive image-guided radiotherapy to changes in GTV. Methods and Materials: Seventeen patients were prescribed 30 fractions of radiotherapy on helical tomotherapy for non-small-cell lung cancer at London Regional Cancer Program from Dec 2005 to March 2007. The GTV was contoured on the daily MVCT studies of each patient. Adapted plans were created using merged MVCT-kilovoltage CT image sets to investigate the advantages of replanning for patients with differing GTV regression characteristics. Results: Average GTV change observed over 30 fractions was -38%, ranging from -12 to -87%. No significant correlation was observed between GTV change and patient's physical or tumor features. Patterns of GTV changes in the 17 patients could be divided broadly into three groups with distinctive potential for benefit from adaptive planning. Conclusions: Changes in GTV are difficult to predict quantitatively based on patient or tumor characteristics. If changes occur, there are points in time during the treatment course when it may be appropriate to adapt the plan to improve sparing of normal tissues. If GTV decreases by greater than 30% at any point in the first 20 fractions of treatment, adaptive planning is appropriate to further improve the therapeutic ratio

  7. Evaluation of the contributions of four components of gross domestic product in various regions in China.

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    Wu, Sanmang; Lei, Yalin; Li, Li

    2015-01-01

    Four major components influence the growth of the gross domestic product in Chinese provinces: consumption, investment, transnational exports, and inter-provincial exports. By splitting a competitive input-output table into a non-competitive input-output table, this study used an input-output model to measure the contributions of the four components of gross domestic product in various regions in China. We found that international exports drove the growth of the gross domestic product more strongly in the eastern region than in other regions. Investment and inter-provincial exports were the major impetus for gross domestic product growth in the central and western regions. We also found that consumption played a minimal role in driving the growth of the gross domestic product in all regions in China. According to these findings, although various regions can share much in terms of policies to transform the impetus for economic growth, there should be different foci for different regions. Their shared policy is to increase the role of final consumption in stimulating economic growth. Region-specific policies mandate that the eastern region should strengthen the driving force provided by international exports and that the central and western regions should strengthen indigenous growth capabilities by improving scientific innovation, industrial support, and institutional innovation.

  8. Evaluation of the contributions of four components of gross domestic product in various regions in China.

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    Sanmang Wu

    Full Text Available Four major components influence the growth of the gross domestic product in Chinese provinces: consumption, investment, transnational exports, and inter-provincial exports. By splitting a competitive input-output table into a non-competitive input-output table, this study used an input-output model to measure the contributions of the four components of gross domestic product in various regions in China. We found that international exports drove the growth of the gross domestic product more strongly in the eastern region than in other regions. Investment and inter-provincial exports were the major impetus for gross domestic product growth in the central and western regions. We also found that consumption played a minimal role in driving the growth of the gross domestic product in all regions in China. According to these findings, although various regions can share much in terms of policies to transform the impetus for economic growth, there should be different foci for different regions. Their shared policy is to increase the role of final consumption in stimulating economic growth. Region-specific policies mandate that the eastern region should strengthen the driving force provided by international exports and that the central and western regions should strengthen indigenous growth capabilities by improving scientific innovation, industrial support, and institutional innovation.

  9. Radiotherapy volume delineation using 18F-FDG-PET/CT modifies gross node volume in patients with oesophageal cancer.

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    Jimenez-Jimenez, E; Mateos, P; Aymar, N; Roncero, R; Ortiz, I; Gimenez, M; Pardo, J; Salinas, J; Sabater, S

    2018-05-02

    Evidence supporting the use of 18F-FDG-PET/CT in the segmentation process of oesophageal cancer for radiotherapy planning is limited. Our aim was to compare the volumes and tumour lengths defined by fused PET/CT vs. CT simulation. Twenty-nine patients were analyzed. All patients underwent a single PET/CT simulation scan. Two separate GTVs were defined: one based on CT data alone and another based on fused PET/CT data. Volume sizes for both data sets were compared and the spatial overlap was assessed by the Dice similarity coefficient (DSC). The gross tumour volume (GTVtumour) and maximum tumour diameter were greater by PET/CT, and length of primary tumour was greater by CT, but differences were not statistically significant. However, the gross node volume (GTVnode) was significantly greater by PET/CT. The DSC analysis showed excellent agreement for GTVtumour, 0.72, but was very low for GTVnode, 0.25. Our study shows that the volume definition by PET/CT and CT data differs. CT simulation, without taking into account PET/CT information, might leave cancer-involved nodes out of the radiotherapy-delineated volumes.

  10. Definition of gross tumor volume in lung cancer: inter-observer variability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van de Steene, Jan; Linthout, Nadine; Mey, Johan de; Vinh-Hung, Vincent; Claassens, Cornelia; Noppen, Marc; Bel, Arjan; Storme, Guy

    2002-01-01

    Background and purpose: To determine the inter-observer variation in gross tumor volume (GTV) definition in lung cancer, and its clinical relevance. Material and methods: Five clinicians involved in lung cancer were asked to define GTV on the planning CT scan of eight patients. Resulting GTVs were compared on the base of geometric volume, dimensions and extensions. Judgement of invasion of lymph node (LN) regions was evaluated using the ATS/LCSG classification of LN. Clinical relevance of the variation was studied through 3D-dosimetry of standard conformal plans: volume of critical organs (heart, lungs, esophagus, spinal cord) irradiated at toxic doses, 95% isodose volumes of GTVs, normal tissue complication probabilities (NTCP) and tumor control probabilities (TCP) were compared for evaluation of observer variability. Results: Before evaluation of observer variability, critical review of planning CT scan led to up- (two cases) and downstaging (one case) of patients as compared to the respective diagnostic scans. The defined GTVs showed an inter-observer variation with a ratio up to more than 7 between maximum and minimum geometric content. The dimensions of the primary tumor had inter-observer ranges of 4.2 (transversal), 7.9 (cranio-caudal) and 5.4 (antero-posterior) cm. Extreme extensions of the GTVs (left, right, cranial, caudal, anterior and posterior) varied with ranges of 2.8-7.3 cm due to inter-observer variation. After common review, only 63% of involved lymph node regions were delineated by the clinicians (i.e. 37% are false negative). Twenty-two percent of drawn in lymph node regions were accepted to be false positive after review. In the conformal plans, inter-observer ranges of irradiated normal tissue volume were on average 12%, with a maximum of 66%. The probability (in the population of all conformal plans) of irradiating at least 95% of the GTV with at least 95% of the nominal treatment dose decreased from 96 to 88% when swapping the matched GTV

  11. Precise determination of universal finite volume observables in the Gross-Neveu model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korzec, T.

    2007-01-26

    The Gross-Neveu model is a quantum field theory in two space time dimensions that shares many features with quantum chromo dynamics. In this thesis the continuum model and its discretized versions are reviewed and a finite volume renormalization scheme is introduced and tested. Calculations in the limit of infinitely many fermion flavors as well as perturbative computations are carried out. In extensive Monte-Carlo simulations of the one flavor and the four flavor lattice models with Wilson fermions a set of universal finite volume observables is calculated to a high precision. In the one flavor model which is equivalent to the massless Thirring model the continuum extrapolated Monte-Carlo results are confronted with an exact solution of the model. (orig.)

  12. Precise determination of universal finite volume observables in the Gross-Neveu model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korzec, T.

    2007-01-01

    The Gross-Neveu model is a quantum field theory in two space time dimensions that shares many features with quantum chromo dynamics. In this thesis the continuum model and its discretized versions are reviewed and a finite volume renormalization scheme is introduced and tested. Calculations in the limit of infinitely many fermion flavors as well as perturbative computations are carried out. In extensive Monte-Carlo simulations of the one flavor and the four flavor lattice models with Wilson fermions a set of universal finite volume observables is calculated to a high precision. In the one flavor model which is equivalent to the massless Thirring model the continuum extrapolated Monte-Carlo results are confronted with an exact solution of the model. (orig.)

  13. Gross tumor volume and clinical target volume: soft-tissue sarcoma of the extremities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lartigau, E.; Kantor, G.; Lagarde, P.; Taieb, S.; Ceugnart, L.; Vilain, M.O.; Penel, N.; Depadt, G.

    2001-01-01

    Soft tissue sarcomas of the extremities are currently treated with more conservative and functional approaches, combining surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. The role of external beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy has been defined through randomized studies performed in the 80's and 90's. However, the ubiquity of tumour location for these tumours makes difficult a systematic definition of local treatments. Tumour volume definition is based on pre and post surgical imaging (MRI) and on described pathological report. The clinical target volume will take into account quality of the resection and anatomical barriers and will be based on an anatomy and not only on safety margins around the tumour bed. General rules for this irradiation (doses, volumes) and principal results will be presented. (authors)

  14. Preliminary study of the internal margin of the gross tumor volume in thoracic esophageal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jiancheng; Pan, Jianji; Wang, Linhua; Zhao, Yunhui; Liu, Di; Chen, Cheng; Zhang, He Ping; Wang, Xiaoliang

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. - To measure the displacement of the tumor of the gross tumor volume (GTV) of thoracic esophageal cancer in the calm states of end-inspiration and end-expiration for determining the internal margin of the GTV (IGTV). Methods. - Twenty-two patients with thoracic esophageal cancer who were unable to undergo surgery were identified in our hospital. The patients received radiotherapy. By using 16-slice spiral computed tomography (CT), we acquired the calm states of end-inspiration and end-expiration. The displacement and volume changes in tumor target volume were measured, and the changes were analyzed to determine if these were associated with the tidal volume and the location and length of the target volume V. In the end, we analyzed the displacement of tumor target volume and calculated the internal margin of the GTV by empirical formula. Results. - The average tidal volume was 463.6 ml. The average GTV at end-inspiration was 33.3 ml and at end-expiration was 33.35 ml. Three was not any significant between two groups (T -0.034, P > 0.05). The IGTV (X-axis direction) was 3.09 mm for the right sector and 4.08 mm for the left border; the IGTV (Z-axis direction) was 3.96 mm for the anterior border and 2.83 mm for the posterior border; and the IGTV (Y-axis direction) was 7.31 mm for the upper boundary (head direction) and 10.16 mm for the lower boundary (feet direction). The motion of the GTV showed no significant correlation with the tidal volume of patients and the length of the tumor, but in relation to the tumor location, the displacement of the lower thoracic and the middle thoracic target volumes occurred in the direction of the anterior and right, which were not significantly different (T = 0.859, 0.229, P > 0.05) The significant differences were observed for the other directions (P < 0.05). Conclusions. - Because of respiratory and organ movements, the displacement of the tumor target volume was different in all directions. Therefore, we recommend that

  15. Does gross capital formation matter for economic growth in the CEMAC sub-region?

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    Emmanuel Nkoa Ongo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the effect of gross capital formation on the economic growth of the CEMAC sub- region. It draws inspiration from the endogenous growth model. Data for the study is collected from the World Bank Development Indicators. The estimation technique used for this study is the Generalized Least Square estimation technique. The results show that private investment has a significant positive association with economic growth. This is also the case of technical progress and infrastructural development. On the contrary, labour force tends to affect negatively economic growth in this sub-region. This suggests that countries of the sub region need to implement realistic employment policies.

  16. Developments of regional gross domestic product and the unemployment rate in Romania during 2000 - 2012

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    Schonauer (Sacală Corina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Economic development of territorial units can be characterized by measuring the ability of producing goods and services and by measuring labor force in the area. The capacity of producing goods and services is measured by calculating the gross domestic product indicator. This article presents a comparative analysis of the evolution of regional GDP and the ILO unemployment rate at the level of the eight regions in Romania for a period of 13 years. The presented data come from the National Institute of Statistics of Romania.

  17. Artifacts in conventional computed tomography (CT) and free breathing four-dimensional CT induce uncertainty in gross tumor volume determination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Gitte Fredberg; Nygaard, Ditte Eklund; Af Rosenschöld, Per Munck

    2011-01-01

    was to compare delineated gross tumor volume (GTV) sizes in 3DCT, 4DCT, and BHCT scans of patients with lung tumors. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A total of 36 patients with 46 tumors referred for stereotactic radiotherapy of lung tumors were included. All patients underwent positron emission tomography (PET)/CT, 4DCT...

  18. Soil gross nitrogen transformations in responses to land use conversion in a subtropical karst region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dejun; Liu, Jing; Chen, Hao; Zheng, Liang; Wang, Kelin

    2018-04-15

    Gross nitrogen (N) transformations can provide important information for assessing indigenous soil N supply capacity and soil nitrate leaching potential. The current study aimed to assess the variation of gross N transformations in response to conversion of maize-soybean fields to sugarcane, mulberry, and forage grass fields in a subtropical karst region of southwest China. Mature forests were included for comparison. Gross rates of N mineralization (GNM) were highest in the forests, intermediate in the maize-soybean and forage grass fields, and lowest in the sugarcane and mulberry fields, suggesting capacity of indigenous soil N supply derived from organic N mineralization was lowered after conversion to sugarcane and mulberry fields. The relative high indigenous soil N supply capacity in the maize-soybean fields was obtained at the cost of soil organic N depletion. Gross nitrification (GN) rates were highest in the forests, intermediate in the forage grass fields and lowest in the other three agricultural land use types. The nitrate retention capacity (24.1 ± 2.0% on average) was similar among the five land use types, implying that nitrate leaching potential was not changed after land use conversion. Microbial biomass N exerted significant direct effects on the rates of N mineralization, nitrification, ammonium immobilization and nitrate immobilization. Soil organic carbon, total N and exchangeable magnesium had significant indirect effects on these N transformation rates. Our findings suggest that forage grass cultivation instead of other agricultural land uses should be recommended from the perspective of increasing indigenous soil N supply while not depleting soil organic N pool. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Impact of PET - CT motion correction in minimising the gross tumour volume in non-small cell lung cancer

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    Michael Masoomi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available AbstractObjective: To investigate the impact of respiratory motion on localization, and quantification lung lesions for the Gross Tumour Volume utilizing an in-house developed Auto3Dreg programme and dynamic NURBS-based cardiac-torso digitised phantom (NCAT. Methods: Respiratory motion may result in more than 30% underestimation of the SUV values of lung, liver and kidney tumour lesions. The motion correction technique adopted in this study was an image-based motion correction approach using, an in-house developed voxel-intensity-based and a multi-resolution multi-optimisation (MRMO algorithm. All the generated frames were co-registered to a reference frame using a time efficient scheme. The NCAT phantom was used to generate CT attenuation maps and activity distribution volumes for the lung regions. Quantitative assessment including Region of Interest (ROI, image fidelity and image correlation techniques, as well as semi-quantitative line profile analysis and qualitatively overlaying non-motion and motion corrected image frames were performed. Results: the largest transformation was observed in the Z-direction. The greatest translation was for the frame 3, end inspiration, and the smallest for the frame 5 which was closet frame to the reference frame at 67% expiration. Visual assessment of the lesion sizes, 20-60mm at 3 different locations, apex, mid and base of lung showed noticeable improvement for all the foci and their locations. The maximum improvements for the image fidelity were from 0.395 to 0.930 within the lesion volume of interest. The greatest improvement in activity concentration underestimation, post motion correction, was 7% below the true activity for the 20 mm lesion. The discrepancies in activity underestimation were reduced with increasing the lesion sizes. Overlay activity distribution on the attenuation map showed improved localization of the PET metabolic information to the anatomical CT images. Conclusion: The respiratory

  20. Impact of disaster-related mortality on gross domestic product in the WHO African Region

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    Aldis William

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disaster-related mortality is a growing public health concern in the African Region. These deaths are hypothesized to have a significantly negative effect on per capita gross domestic product (GDP. The objective of this study was to estimate the loss in GDP attributable to natural and technological disaster-related mortality in the WHO African Region. Methods The impact of disaster-related mortality on GDP was estimated using double-log econometric model and cross-sectional data on various Member States in the WHO African Region. The analysis was based on 45 of the 46 countries in the Region. The data was obtained from various UNDP and World Bank publications. Results The coefficients for capital (K, educational enrolment (EN, life expectancy (LE and exports (X had a positive sign; while imports (M and disaster mortality (DS were found to impact negatively on GDP. The above-mentioned explanatory variables were found to have a statistically significant effect on GDP at 5% level in a t-distribution test. Disaster mortality of a single person was found to reduce GDP by US$0.01828. Conclusions We have demonstrated that disaster-related mortality has a significant negative effect on GDP. Thus, as policy-makers strive to increase GDP through capital investment, export promotion and increased educational enrolment, they should always keep in mind that investments made in the strengthening of national capacity to mitigate the effects of national disasters expeditiously and effectively will yield significant economic returns.

  1. Structural Change of Gross Regional Product in the Subjects of Ural Federal District

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    Valeriy Vladimirovich Gamukin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The important factor of the stability of the national economy is the adaptive capability of regional economies to damping of external and internal factors of risk. It occurs thanks to the variety of the developed industry structures of the economy in regions as well as to the constant process of their transformation that finds reflection in the structure of the gross regional product (GRP. It is possible to consider three main strategies of the development of the structure of regional economy: 1 the reduction of the economies of regions to the balanced condition; 2 the emphasis on the individualization of the structure of regional economy; 3 the combined strategy, when regions with various structure of economy are integrated into macro-regions in which there is a compilation of structure. In the latter case, this can result in both the leveling of the GRP structure of the territorial subjects of the Russian Federation included in the region and its convergence to macro-region indicators, in general (for example, to the federal district’s indicators. For the confirmation of this hypothesis, the analysis of GRP of the subjects included in the Ural Federal District for the period of 2005–2014 is carried out. As a result, a number of conclusions are formulated. Thus, the measurements with the use of the Ryabtsev Index and Szalai Index have shown that the GRP structure of autonomous areas is most close to the GRP structure of the federal district. At the same time, during the analyzed period, there was a reducing in a share of mining operations along with the increase in a share of GRP types referred to the auxiliary and social component of economic activity. In the federal district, there is a slow movement to a more balanced participation of regions of the district in the generation of GRP total amount. When using the author’s index of the structure determined by the double calculation of the sum of squared deviations, the tendency towards

  2. Regional crop gross primary production and yield estimation using fused Landsat-MODIS data

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    He, M.; Kimball, J. S.; Maneta, M. P.; Maxwell, B. D.; Moreno, A.

    2017-12-01

    Accurate crop yield assessments using satellite-based remote sensing are of interest for the design of regional policies that promote agricultural resiliency and food security. However, the application of current vegetation productivity algorithms derived from global satellite observations are generally too coarse to capture cropland heterogeneity. Merging information from sensors with reciprocal spatial and temporal resolution can improve the accuracy of these retrievals. In this study, we estimate annual crop yields for seven important crop types -alfalfa, barley, corn, durum wheat, peas, spring wheat and winter wheat over Montana, United States (U.S.) from 2008 to 2015. Yields are estimated as the product of gross primary production (GPP) and a crop-specific harvest index (HI) at 30 m spatial resolution. To calculate GPP we used a modified form of the MOD17 LUE algorithm driven by a 30 m 8-day fused NDVI dataset constructed by blending Landsat (5 or 7) and MODIS Terra reflectance data. The fused 30-m NDVI record shows good consistency with the original Landsat and MODIS data, but provides better spatiotemporal information on cropland vegetation growth. The resulting GPP estimates capture characteristic cropland patterns and seasonal variations, while the estimated annual 30 m crop yield results correspond favorably with county-level crop yield data (r=0.96, pcrop yield performance was generally lower, but still favorable in relation to field-scale crop yield surveys (r=0.42, p<0.01). Our methods and results are suitable for operational applications at regional scales.

  3. MRI to delineate the gross tumor volume of nasopharyngeal cancers: which sequences and planes should be used?

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    Popovtzer, Aron; Ibrahim, Mohannad; Tatro, Daniel; Feng, Felix Y; Ten Haken, Randall K; Eisbruch, Avraham

    2014-09-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been found to be better than computed tomography for defining the extent of primary gross tumor volume (GTV) in advanced nasopharyngeal cancer. It is routinely applied for target delineation in planning radiotherapy. However, the specific MRI sequences/planes that should be used are unknown. Twelve patients with nasopharyngeal cancer underwent primary GTV evaluation with gadolinium-enhanced axial T1 weighted image (T1) and T2 weighted image (T2), coronal T1, and sagittal T1 sequences. Each sequence was registered with the planning computed tomography scans. Planning target volumes (PTVs) were derived by uniform expansions of the GTVs. The volumes encompassed by the various sequences/planes, and the volumes common to all sequences/planes, were compared quantitatively and anatomically to the volume delineated by the commonly used axial T1-based dataset. Addition of the axial T2 sequence increased the axial T1-based GTV by 12% on average (p = 0.004), and composite evaluations that included the coronal T1 and sagittal T1 planes increased the axial T1-based GTVs by 30% on average (p = 0.003). The axial T1-based PTVs were increased by 20% by the additional sequences (p = 0.04). Each sequence/plane added unique volume extensions. The GTVs common to all the T1 planes accounted for 38% of the total volumes of all the T1 planes. Anatomically, addition of the coronal and sagittal-based GTVs extended the axial T1-based GTV caudally and cranially, notably to the base of the skull. Adding MRI planes and sequences to the traditional axial T1 sequence yields significant quantitative and anatomically important extensions of the GTVs and PTVs. For accurate target delineation in nasopharyngeal cancer, we recommend that GTVs be outlined in all MRI sequences/planes and registered with the planning computed tomography scans.

  4. Variability of Gross Tumor Volume in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Using 11C-Choline and 18F-FDG PET/CT.

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    Jun Jiang

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the variability of gross tumor volume (GTV using 11C-Choline and 18F-FDG PET/CT images for nasopharyngeal carcinomas boundary definition. Assessment consisted of inter-observer and inter-modality variation analysis. Four radiation oncologists were invited to manually contour GTV by using PET/CT fusion obtained from a cohort of 12 patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC and who underwent both 11C-Choline and 18F-FDG scans. Student's paired-sample t-test was performed for analyzing inter-observer and inter-modality variability. Semi-automatic segmentation methods, including thresholding and region growing, were also validated against the manual contouring of the two types of PET images. We observed no significant variation in the results obtained by different oncologists in terms of the same type of PET/CT volumes. Choline fusion volumes were significantly larger than the FDG volumes (p < 0.0001, mean ± SD = 18.21 ± 8.19. While significantly consistent results were obtained between the oncologists and the standard references in Choline volumes compared with those in FDG volumes (p = 0.0025. Simple semi-automatic delineation methods indicated that 11C-Choline PET images could provide better results than FDG volumes (p = 0.076, CI = [-0.29, 0.025]. 11C-Choline PET/CT may be more advantageous in GTV delineation for the radiotherapy of NPC than 18F-FDG. Phantom simulations and clinical trials should be conducted to prove the possible improvement of the treatment outcome.

  5. Improved longitudinal length accuracy of gross tumor volume delineation with diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, Dong-Liang; Shi, Gao-Feng; Gao, Xian-Shu; Asaumi, Junichi; Li, Xue-Ying; Liu, Hui; Yao, Chen; Chang, Joe Y

    2013-01-01

    To analyze the longitudinal length accuracy of gross tumor volume (GTV) delineation with diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Forty-two patients from December 2011 to June 2012 with esophageal SCC who underwent radical surgery were analyzed. Routine computed tomography (CT) scan, T2-weighted MRI and diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) were employed before surgery. Diffusion-sensitive gradient b-values were taken at 400, 600, and 800 s/mm 2 . Gross tumor volumes (GTV) were delineated using CT, T2-weighted MRI and DWI on different b-value images. GTV longitude length measured using the imaging modalities listed above was compared with pathologic lesion length to determine the most accurate imaging modality. CMS Xio radiotherapy planning system was used to fuse DWI scans and CT images to investigate the possibility of delineating GTV on fused images. The differences between the GTV length according to CT, T2-weighted MRI and pathology were 3.63 ± 12.06 mm and 3.46 ± 11.41 mm, respectively. When the diffusion-sensitive gradient b-value was 400, 600, and 800 s/mm 2 , the differences between the GTV length using DWI and pathology were 0.73 ± 6.09 mm, -0.54 ± 6.03 mm and −1.58 ± 5.71 mm, respectively. DWI scans and CT images were fused accurately using the radiotherapy planning system. GTV margins were depicted clearly on fused images. DWI displays esophageal SCC lengths most precisely when compared with CT or regular MRI. DWI scans fused with CT images can be used to improve accuracy to delineate GTV in esophageal SCC

  6. Gross tumor volume dependency on phase sorting methods of four-dimensional computed tomography images for lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Soo Yong; Lim, Sang Wook; Ma, Sun Young; Yu, Je Sang [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Kosin University Gospel Hospital, Kosin University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-09-15

    To see the gross tumor volume (GTV) dependency according to the phase selection and reconstruction methods, we measured and analyzed the changes of tumor volume and motion at each phase in 20 cases with lung cancer patients who underwent image-guided radiotherapy. We retrospectively analyzed four-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT) images in 20 cases of 19 patients who underwent image-guided radiotherapy. The 4D-CT images were reconstructed by the maximum intensity projection (MIP) and the minimum intensity projection (Min-IP) method after sorting phase as 40%–60%, 30%–70%, and 0%–90%. We analyzed the relationship between the range of motion and the change of GTV according to the reconstruction method. The motion ranges of GTVs are statistically significant only for the tumor motion in craniocaudal direction. The discrepancies of GTV volume and motion between MIP and Min-IP increased rapidly as the wider ranges of duty cycles are selected. As narrow as possible duty cycle such as 40%–60% and MIP reconstruction was suitable for lung cancer if the respiration was stable. Selecting the reconstruction methods and duty cycle is important for small size and for large motion range tumors.

  7. Comparison of different width detector on the gross tumor volume delineation of the solitary pulmonary lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongping Shang

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: Different width detector had no impact on the volume and geometric position of GTV of SPL during 3DCT simulation. Using wide detector would save time and decrease radiation dose compared with the narrow one. 3DCT simulation using either 16 × 1.5 mm detector or 4 × 1.5 mm detector could not cover all tumor motion information that 4DCT offered under free breathing conditions.

  8. Comparison of imaging-based gross tumor volume and pathological volume determined by whole-mount serial sections in primary cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Y

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Ying Zhang,1,* Jing Hu,1,* Jianping Li,1 Ning Wang,1 Weiwei Li,1 Yongchun Zhou,1 Junyue Liu,1 Lichun Wei,1 Mei Shi,1 Shengjun Wang,2 Jing Wang,2 Xia Li,3 Wanling Ma4 1Department of Radiation Oncology, 2Department of Nuclear Medicine, 3Department of Pathology, 4Department of Radiology, Xijing Hospital, Xi'an, People's Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workObjective: To investigate the accuracy of imaging-based gross tumor volume (GTV compared with pathological volume in cervical cancer.Methods: Ten patients with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage I–II cervical cancer were eligible for investigation and underwent surgery in this study. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG PET/computed tomography (CT scans were taken the day before surgery. The GTVs under MRI and 18F-FDG PET/CT (GTV-MRI, GTV-PET, GTV-CT were calculated automatically by Eclipse treatment-planning systems. Specimens of excised uterine cervix and cervical cancer were consecutively sliced and divided into whole-mount serial sections. The tumor border of hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections was outlined under a microscope by an experienced pathologist. GTV through pathological image (GTV-path was calculated with Adobe Photoshop.Results: The GTVs (average ± standard deviation delineated and calculated under CT, MRI, PET, and histopathological sections were 19.41 ± 11.96 cm3, 12.66 ± 10.53 cm3, 11.07 ± 9.44 cm3, and 10.79 ± 8.71 cm3, respectively. The volume of GTV-CT or GTV-MR was bigger than GTV-path, and the difference was statistically significant (P 0.05. Spearman correlation analysis showed that GTV-CT, GTV-MRI, and GTV-PET were significantly correlated with GTV-path (P < 0.01. There was no significant difference in the lesion coverage factor among the three modalities.Conclusion: The present study showed that GTV defined under 40% of maximum standardized

  9. Optimal gross tumor volume definition in lung-sparing intensity modulated radiotherapy for pleural mesothelioma: an in silico study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botticella, Angela; Defraene, Gilles; Nackaerts, Kristiaan; Deroose, Christophe M; Coolen, Johan; Nafteux, Philippe; Peeters, Stephanie; Ricardi, Umberto; De Ruysscher, Dirk

    2016-12-01

    The gross tumor volume (GTV) definition for malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is ill-defined. We therefore investigated which imaging modality is optimal: computed tomography (CT) with intravenous contrast (IVC), positron emission tomography-CT (PET/CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Sixteen consecutive patients with untreated stage I-IV MPM were included. Patients with prior pleurodesis were excluded. CT with IVC, 18FDG-PET/CT and MRI (T2 and contrast-enhanced T1) were obtained. CT was rigidly co-registered with PET/CT and with MRI. Three sets of pleural GTVs were defined: GTV CT , GTV CT+PET/CT and GTV CT+MRI . Quantitative and qualitative evaluations of the contoured GTVs were performed. Compared to CT-based GTV definition, PET/CT identified additional tumor sites (defined as either separate nodules or greater extent of a known tumor) in 12/16 patients. Compared to either CT or PET/CT, MRI identified additional tumor sites in 15/16 patients (p = .7). The mean GTV CT , GTV CT+PET/CT and GTV CT+MRI [±standard deviation (SD)] were 630.1 cm 3 (±302.81), 640.23 cm 3 (±302.83) and 660.8 cm 3 (±290.8), respectively. Differences in mean volumes were not significant. The mean Jaccard Index was significantly lower in MRI-based contours versus all the others. As MRI identified additional pleural disease sites in the majority of patients, it may play a role in optimal target volume definition.

  10. Anatomy, gross tumor volume and clinical target volume: tumors of the lower third of the esophagus and the gastro esophageal junction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calais, G.; Asquier, E.; Louisot, P.

    2001-01-01

    The esophagus is divided into four regions: cervical esophagus, intrathoracic esophagus with upper, mid and lower thoracic portion. Cancer may occur on each of these regions. Computed tomography of the thorax and superior abdomen and endoscopic ultrasound are necessary for reliable staging. CT simulation allows accurate definition of tumor volume. GTV includes tumor volume and regional lymph nodes. CTV encompasses GTV plus safety margin and lymph nodes areas considered to harbor potential microscopic disease. The extent of prophylactic lymph node irradiation depends on the anatomic location of the primary tumor. (author)

  11. Interobserver variability in gross tumor volume delineation for hepatocellular carcinoma. Results of Korean Radiation Oncology Group 1207 study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Suk [Jeju National University School of Medicine, Department of Radiation Oncology, Jeju National University Hospital, Jeju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jun Won; Lee, Ik Jae [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Radiation Oncology, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Won Sup [Korea University Medical Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, Ansan Hospital, Ansan (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Min Kyu [Kyungpook National University School of Medicine, Department of Radiation Oncology, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae Hyun [National Cancer Center, Center for Liver Cancer, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin Hee [Keimyung University School of Medicine, Department of Radiation Oncology, Dongsan Medical Center, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyung-Sik [Dong-A University College of Medicine, Department of Radiation Oncology, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hee Chul [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Hong Seok; Kay, Chul Seung [The Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Sang Min [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Radiation Oncology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Mi-Sook [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seong, Jinsil [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Radiation Oncology, Severance Hospital, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    There has been increasing use of external beam radiotherapy for localized treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with both palliative and curative intent. Quality control of target delineation in primary HCC is essential to deliver adequate doses of radiation to the primary tumor while preserving adjacent healthy organs. We analyzed interobserver variability in gross tumor volume (GTV) delineation for HCC. Twelve radiation oncologists specializing in liver malignancy participated in a multi-institutional contouring dummy-run study of nine HCC cases and independently delineated GTV on the same set of provided computed tomography images. Quantitative analysis was performed using an expectation maximization algorithm for simultaneous truth and performance level estimation (STAPLE) with kappa statistics calculating agreement between physicians. To quantify the interobserver variability of GTV delineations, the ratio of the actual delineated volume to the estimated consensus volume (STAPLE), the ratio of the common and encompassing volumes, and the coefficient of variation were calculated. The median kappa agreement level was 0.71 (range 0.28-0.86). The ratio of the actual delineated volume to the estimated consensus volume ranged from 0.19 to 1.93 (median 0.94) for all cases. The ratio of the common and encompassing volumes ranged from 0.001 to 0.56 (median 0.25). The coefficient of variation for GTV delineation ranged from 8 to 57 % (median 26 %). The interobserver variability in target delineation of HCC GTV in this study is noteworthy. Multi-institution studies involving radiotherapy for HCC require appropriate quality assurance programs for target delineation. (orig.) [German] Die externe kurative Strahlentherapie ist zunehmend bei der lokalisierten Behandlung hepatozellulaerer Karzinome (HCC) in palliativer und kurativer Absicht in Gebrauch. Eine Qualitaetskontrolle der Zielabgrenzung beim primaeren HCC ist entscheidend, um die passende Dosis fuer die

  12. Comparison of 2D and 3D algorithms for adding a margin to the gross tumor volume in the conformal radiotherapy planning of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoo, V.S.; Bedford, J.L.; Webb, S.; Dearnaley, D.P.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the adequacy of tumor volume coverage using a three dimensional (3D) margin growing algorithm compared to a two dimensional (2D) margin growing algorithm in the conformal radiotherapy planning of prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Two gross tumor volumes (GTV) were segmented in each of ten patients with localized prostate cancer: prostate gland only (PO) and prostate with seminal vesicles (PSV). A margin of 10 mm was applied to these two groups (PO and PSV) using both the 2D and 3D margin growing algorithms. The true planning target volume (PTV) was defined as the region delineated by the 3D algorithm. Adequacy of geometric coverage of the GTV with the two algorithms was examined throughout the target volume. Discrepancies between the two margin methods were measured in the transaxial plane. Results: The 2D algorithm underestimated the PTV by 17% (range 12-20) in the PO group and by 20% (range 13-28) for the PSV group when compared to the 3D algorithm. For both the PO and PSV groups, the inferior coverage of the PTV was consistently underestimated by the 2D margin algorithm when compared to the 3D margins with a mean radial distance of 4.8 mm (range 0-10). In the central region of the prostate gland, the anterior, posterior, and lateral PTV borders were underestimated with the 2D margin in both the PO and PSV groups by a mean of 3.6 mm (range 0-9), 2.1 mm (range 0-8), and 1.8 (range 0-9) respectively. The PTV coverage of the PO group superiorly was radially underestimated by 4.5mm (range 0-14) when comparing the 2D margins to the 3D margins. For the PSV group, the junction region between the prostate and the seminal vesicles was underestimated by the 2D margin by a mean transaxial distance of 18.1 mm in the anterior PTV border (range 4-30), 7.2 mm posteriorly (range 0-20), and 3.7 mm laterally (range 0-14). The superior region of the seminal vesicles in the PSV group was also consistently underestimated with a radial discrepancy of 3.3 mm

  13. The application value of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in gross tumor volume delineation of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou Dongliang; Shi Gaofeng; Gao Xianshu

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the application value of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWMRI) in gross tumor volume (GTV) delineation of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Methods: Twenty-nine patients with esophageal SCC treated with radical surgery were analyzed. Routine CT scan, MRI T 2 -weighted and DWMRI were employed before surgery; diffusion-sensitive gradient b-values were taken 400, 600 and 800 s/mm 2 . GTVs were delineated using CT, MRI T 2 -weighted images and DWMRI under different b-value images. The length of GTVs measured under different images was compared with the pathological length and confirm the most accurate imaging condition. Use radiotherapy planning system to fuse DWMRI images and CT images to investigate the possibility of delineate GTVs on fused images. Results: The difference of GTV length value between CT, T 2 WI images and specimen was 3.36 mm and 2.84 mm. When b =400,600 and 800 s/mm 2 , the difference between GTV length value on the DWMRI images and on specimen was 0.47 mm, -0.47 mm and - 1.53 mm; the correlation coefficient of the measuring esophageal lengths on DWMRI images and the pathological lengths was 0.928, 0.927 and 0.938. DWMRI images and CT images could fuse accurately on radiotherapy planning system. GTV margin could.show clearly on fused images. Conclusions: DWMRI images can display the esophageal carcinoma lengths and margin accurately. When DWMRI images fused with CT images, GTV margin could show clearly,it can be used to delineate GTV accurately. (authors)

  14. Comparison of 2D and 3D algorithms for adding a margin to the gross tumor volume in the conformal radiotherapy planning of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoo, Vincent S.; Bedford, James L.; Webb, Steve; Dearnaley, David P.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the adequacy of tumor volume coverage using a three-dimensional (3D) margin-growing algorithm compared to a two-dimensional (2D) margin-growing algorithm in the conformal radiotherapy planning of prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Two gross tumor volumes (GTV) were segmented in each of 10 patients with localized prostate cancer; prostate gland only (PO) and prostate with seminal vesicles (PSV). A predetermined margin of 10 mm was applied to these two groups (PO and PSV) using both 2D and 3D margin-growing algorithms. The 2D algorithm added a transaxial margin to each GTV slice, whereas the 3D algorithm added a volumetric margin all around the GTV. The true planning target volume (PTV) was defined as the region delineated by the 3D algorithm. The adequacy of geometric coverage of the GTV by the two algorithms was examined in a series of transaxial planes throughout the target volume. Results: The 2D margin-growing algorithm underestimated the PTV by 17% (range 12-20) in the PO group and by 20% (range 13-28) for the PSV group when compared to the 3D-margin algorithm. For the PO group, the mean transaxial difference between the 2D and 3D algorithm was 3.8 mm inferiorly (range 0-20), 1.8 mm centrally (range 0-9), and 4.4 mm superiorly (range 0-22). Considering all of these regions, the mean discrepancy anteriorly was 5.1 mm (range 0-22), posteriorly 2.2 (range 0-20), right border 2.8 mm (range 0-14), and left border 3.1 mm (range 0-12). For the PSV group, the mean discrepancy in the inferior region was 3.8 mm (range 0-20), central region of the prostate was 1.8 mm ( range 0-9), the junction region of the prostate and the seminal vesicles was 5.5 mm (range 0-30), and the superior region of the seminal vesicles was 4.2 mm (range 0-55). When the different borders were considered in the PSV group, the mean discrepancies for the anterior, posterior, right, and left borders were 6.4 mm (range 0-55), 2.5 mm (range 0-20), 2.6 mm (range 0-14), and 3

  15. Comparison of Rigid and Adaptive Methods of Propagating Gross Tumor Volume Through Respiratory Phases of Four-Dimensional Computed Tomography Image Data Set

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezhil, Muthuveni; Choi, Bum; Starkschall, George; Bucci, M. Kara; Vedam, Sastry; Balter, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To compare three different methods of propagating the gross tumor volume (GTV) through the respiratory phases that constitute a four-dimensional computed tomography image data set. Methods and Materials: Four-dimensional computed tomography data sets of 20 patients who had undergone definitive hypofractionated radiotherapy to the lung were acquired. The GTV regions of interest (ROIs) were manually delineated on each phase of the four-dimensional computed tomography data set. The ROI from the end-expiration phase was propagated to the remaining nine phases of respiration using the following three techniques: (1) rigid-image registration using in-house software, (2) rigid image registration using research software from a commercial radiotherapy planning system vendor, and (3) rigid-image registration followed by deformable adaptation originally intended for organ-at-risk delineation using the same software. The internal GTVs generated from the various propagation methods were compared with the manual internal GTV using the normalized Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) index. Results: The normalized DSC index of 1.01 ± 0.06 (SD) for rigid propagation using the in-house software program was identical to the normalized DSC index of 1.01 ± 0.06 for rigid propagation achieved with the vendor's research software. Adaptive propagation yielded poorer results, with a normalized DSC index of 0.89 ± 0.10 (paired t test, p <0.001). Conclusion: Propagation of the GTV ROIs through the respiratory phases using rigid- body registration is an acceptable method within a 1-mm margin of uncertainty. The adaptive organ-at-risk propagation method was not applicable to propagating GTV ROIs, resulting in an unacceptable reduction of the volume and distortion of the ROIs

  16. Comparison of Quantitative Analysis of Image Logs for Shale Volume and Net to Gross Calculation of a Thinly Laminated Reservoir between VNG-NERGE and LAGIA-EGYPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Z. Nooh

    2017-09-01

    The gamma ray log data resolution is considerably lower than the FMI log to reflect accurate lithology changes in thinly bedded reservoirs. It has been found afterthought some calibrations and corrections on the FMI resistivity log, the new processed log is used for clay volume and net to gross calculation of the reservoir, indicating the potential of this log for analysis of thin beds. A comparison between VNG-NERGE, NORTH SEA WELL, NERWING and LAGIA-8, LAGIA, EGYPT indicates the calculation for shale volume at different intervals using FMI tools.

  17. ANALYSIS OF GROSS REGIONAL PRODUCT FLUCTUATIONS AND ELECTRIC POWER CONSUMPTION IN 2005- 2014. RESERVES FOR DECREASING ELECTRIC POWER PRICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suslov N. I.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work we considered the trajectories of change in indicators characterizing the status of economics and power industry: gross regional product, electric power consumption, industrial production, energy prices and costs of delivering electric power to consumers in Russian regions for the last 10 years. Low global commodity prices and sanctions led to a sharp decrease of equipment import, which resulted in an acute problem of import substitution. The level of tariffs of natural monopolies is of great importance for industrial development. The goal of this work was to analyze possibilities for reducing electric power prices by changing the institutional and economic conditions of management. We analyzed not only the official information from Rosstat, but also government regulations, figures given in the official government publication «The Rossiyskaya Gazeta» as well as articles and interviews on economic problems of the electric power industry over the recent years published in «The Kommersant» newspaper. High tariffs of network marketing companies for electric energy transmission, state regulation of heating prices, financing the construction of new capacities by charging the payment in power provision contracts, high price of electric power of nuclear power plants lead to an annual increase in electric power prices for end users. In this work we considered possible solutions to limit the growth of electric power prices.

  18. A comparative study on the volume and localization of the internal gross target volume defined using the seroma and surgical clips based on 4DCT scan for external-beam partial breast irradiation after breast conserving surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Yun; Li, Jianbin; Wang, Wei; Wang, Suzhen; Wang, Jinzhi; Ma, Zhifang; Shao, Qian; Xu, Min

    2014-01-01

    To explore the volume and localization of the internal gross target volume defined using the seroma and/or surgical clips based on the four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) during free-breathing. Fifteen breast cancer patients after breast-conserving surgery (BCS) were recruited for EB-PBI. On the ten sets CT images, the gross target volume formed by the clips, the seroma, both the clips and seroma delineated by one radiation oncologist and defined as GTVc, GTVs and GTVc + s, respectively. The ten GTVc, GTVs and GTVc + s on the ten sets CT images produced the IGTVc, IGTVs, IGTVc + s, respectively. The IGTV volume and the distance between the center of IGTVc, IGTVs, IGTVc + s were all recorded. Conformity index (CI), degree of inclusion (DI) were calculated for IGTV/IGTV, respectively. The volume of IGTVc + s were significantly larger than the IGTVc and IGTVs (p < 0.05). There was significant difference between the DIs of IGTVc vs IGTVc + s, the DIs of IGTVs vs IGTVc + s. There was significant difference among the CIs of IGTV/IGTV. The DIs and CIs of IGTV/IGTV were negatively correlated with their centroid distance (r < 0, p < 0.05). There were volume difference and spatial mismatch between the IGTVs delineated based on the surgical clips and seroma. The IGTV defined as the seroma and surgical clips provided the best overall representation of the ‘true’ moving GTV

  19. Optimized estimation and its uncertainties of gross primary production over oasis-desert ecosystems in an arid region of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H.; Li, X.; Xiao, J.; Ma, M.

    2017-12-01

    Arid and semi-arid ecosystems cover more than one-third of the Earth's land surface, it is of great important to the global carbon cycle. However, the magnitude of carbon sequestration and its contribution to global atmospheric carbon cycle is poorly understood due to the worldwide paucity of measurements of carbon exchange in the arid ecosystems. Accurate and continuous monitoring the production of arid ecosystem is of great importance for regional carbon cycle estimation. The MOD17A2 product provides high frequency observations of terrestrial Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) over the world. Although there have been plenty of studies to validate the MODIS GPP products with ground based measurements over a range of biome types, few have comprehensively validated the performance of MODIS estimates in arid and semi-arid ecosystems. Thus, this study examined the performance of the MODIS-derived GPP comparing with the EC observed GPP at different timescales for the main arid ecosystems in the arid and semi-arid ecosystems in China, and optimized the performance of the MODIS GPP calculations by using the in-situ metrological forcing data, and optimization of biome-specific parameters with the Bayesian approach. Our result revealed that the MOD17 algorithm could capture the broad trends of GPP at 8-day time scales for all investigated sites on the whole. However, the GPP product was underestimated in most ecosystems in the arid region, especially the irrigated cropland and forest ecosystems, while the desert ecosystem was overestimated in the arid region. On the annual time scale, the best performance was observed in grassland and cropland, followed by forest and desert ecosystems. On the 8-day timescale, the RMSE between MOD17 products and in-situ flux observations of all sites was 2.22 gC/m2/d, and R2 was 0.69. By using the in-situ metrological data driven, optimizing the biome-based parameters of the algorithm, we improved the performances of the MODIS GPP calculation

  20. Comparison of different threshold 18FDG PET with computer tomography for defining gross tumor volume in non-small cell lung carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Shaoqing; Yu Jinming; Xing Ligang; Gong Heyi; Fu Zheng; Yang Guoren

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Under different standard uptake value(SUV), to assess gross tumor volume (GTV) definition for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with 18-fluoro-deoxy-glueose positron emission tomography( 18 FDG PET) both under definite threshold (42 percent threshold) and various relative threshold (threshold SUV/maximum SUV) derived from the linear regressive function, threshold SUV=0.307 x (mean target SUV) + 0.588, with computer tomography(CT). Methods: Of 20 patients with non-small cell lung cancer, the CT GTV (GTV CT ), PET GTV with 42 percents threshold (GTV 42% ) and PET GTV with relative threshold (GTV relate ) were obtained and compared. Results: The mean GTV 42% , mean GTV relate and mean GTV CT was (13 812.5±13 841.4), (24 325.3±22 454.7) and (28350.9± 26 079.8) mm 3 , respectively, with the difference in mean GTV among these three methods significant (F =. 10, P 42% was smaller than the GTV relate and the GTV CT (P relate and GTV CT (P = 0.125 ). Conclusion: The relative threshold is more suitable to define the gross tumor volume than the definite threshold. (authors)

  1. SU-E-J-182: A Feasibility Study Evaluating Automatic Identification of Gross Tumor Volume for Breast Cancer Radiotherapy Using Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MR Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, C; Horton, J; Yin, F; Blitzblau, R; Palta, M; Chang, Z

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a computerized pharmacokinetic model-free Gross Tumor Volume (GTV) segmentation method based on dynamic contrastenhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) data that can improve physician GTV contouring efficiency. Methods: 12 patients with biopsy-proven early stage breast cancer with post-contrast enhanced DCE-MRI images were analyzed in this study. A fuzzy c-means (FCM) clustering-based method was applied to segment 3D GTV from pre-operative DCE-MRI data. A region of interest (ROI) is selected by a clinician/physicist, and the normalized signal evolution curves were calculated by dividing the signal intensity enhancement value at each voxel by the pre-contrast signal intensity value at the corresponding voxel. Three semi-quantitative metrics were analyzed based on normalized signal evolution curves: initial Area Under signal evolution Curve (iAUC), Immediate Enhancement Ratio (IER), and Variance of Enhancement Slope (VES). The FCM algorithm wass applied to partition ROI voxels into GTV voxels and non-GTV voxels by using three analyzed metrics. The partition map for the smaller cluster is then generated and binarized with an automatically calculated threshold. To reduce spurious structures resulting from background, a labeling operation was performed to keep the largest three-dimensional connected component as the identified target. Basic morphological operations including hole-filling and spur removal were useutilized to improve the target smoothness. Each segmented GTV was compared to that drawn by experienced radiation oncologists. An agreement index was proposed to quantify the overlap between the GTVs identified using two approaches and a thershold value of 0.4 is regarded as acceptable. Results: The GTVs identified by the proposed method were overlapped with the ones drawn by radiation oncologists in all cases, and in 10 out of 12 cases, the agreement indices were above the threshold of 0.4. Conclusion: The proposed automatic segmentation method was shown to

  2. SU-E-J-182: A Feasibility Study Evaluating Automatic Identification of Gross Tumor Volume for Breast Cancer Radiotherapy Using Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MR Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, C; Horton, J; Yin, F; Blitzblau, R; Palta, M; Chang, Z [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To develop a computerized pharmacokinetic model-free Gross Tumor Volume (GTV) segmentation method based on dynamic contrastenhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) data that can improve physician GTV contouring efficiency. Methods: 12 patients with biopsy-proven early stage breast cancer with post-contrast enhanced DCE-MRI images were analyzed in this study. A fuzzy c-means (FCM) clustering-based method was applied to segment 3D GTV from pre-operative DCE-MRI data. A region of interest (ROI) is selected by a clinician/physicist, and the normalized signal evolution curves were calculated by dividing the signal intensity enhancement value at each voxel by the pre-contrast signal intensity value at the corresponding voxel. Three semi-quantitative metrics were analyzed based on normalized signal evolution curves: initial Area Under signal evolution Curve (iAUC), Immediate Enhancement Ratio (IER), and Variance of Enhancement Slope (VES). The FCM algorithm wass applied to partition ROI voxels into GTV voxels and non-GTV voxels by using three analyzed metrics. The partition map for the smaller cluster is then generated and binarized with an automatically calculated threshold. To reduce spurious structures resulting from background, a labeling operation was performed to keep the largest three-dimensional connected component as the identified target. Basic morphological operations including hole-filling and spur removal were useutilized to improve the target smoothness. Each segmented GTV was compared to that drawn by experienced radiation oncologists. An agreement index was proposed to quantify the overlap between the GTVs identified using two approaches and a thershold value of 0.4 is regarded as acceptable. Results: The GTVs identified by the proposed method were overlapped with the ones drawn by radiation oncologists in all cases, and in 10 out of 12 cases, the agreement indices were above the threshold of 0.4. Conclusion: The proposed automatic segmentation method was shown to

  3. The application of positron emission tomography/computed tomography in radiation treatment planning: effect on gross target volume definition and treatment management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iğdem, S; Alço, G; Ercan, T; Unalan, B; Kara, B; Geceer, G; Akman, C; Zengin, F O; Atilla, S; Okkan, S

    2010-04-01

    To analyse the effect of the use of molecular imaging on gross target volume (GTV) definition and treatment management. Fifty patients with various solid tumours who underwent positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) simulation for radiotherapy planning from 2006 to 2008 were enrolled in this study. First, F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET and CT scans of the treatment site in the treatment position and then a whole body scan were carried out with a dedicated PET/CT scanner and fused thereafter. FDG-avid primary tumour and lymph nodes were included into the GTV. A multidisciplinary team defined the target volume, and contouring was carried out by a radiation oncologist using visual methods. To compare the PET/CT-based volumes with CT-based volumes, contours were drawn on CT-only data with the help of site-specific radiologists who were blind to the PET/CT results after a median time of 7 months. In general, our PET/CT volumes were larger than our CT-based volumes. This difference was significant in patients with head and neck cancers. Major changes (> or =25%) in GTV delineation were observed in 44% of patients. In 16% of cases, PET/CT detected incidental second primaries and metastatic disease, changing the treatment strategy from curative to palliative. Integrating functional imaging with FDG-PET/CT into the radiotherapy planning process resulted in major changes in a significant proportion of our patients. An interdisciplinary approach between imaging and radiation oncology departments is essential in defining the target volumes. Copyright 2010 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Re-irradiation after gross total resection of recurrent glioblastoma. Spatial pattern of recurrence and a review of the literature as a basis for target volume definition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straube, Christoph; Elpula, Greeshma [Technische Universitaet Muenchen (TUM), Department of Radiation Oncology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Muenchen (Germany); Gempt, Jens; Gerhardt, Julia; Meyer, Bernhard [Technische Universitaet Muenchen (TUM), Department of Neurosurgery, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Muenchen (Germany); Bette, Stefanie; Zimmer, Claus [Technische Universitaet Muenchen (TUM), Department of Neuroradiology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Muenchen (Germany); Schmidt-Graf, Friederike [Technische Universitaet Muenchen (TUM), Department of Neurology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Muenchen (Germany); Combs, Stephanie E. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen (TUM), Department of Radiation Oncology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Muenchen (Germany); Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, Institute for Innovative Radiotherapy (iRT), Department of Radiation Sciences (DRS), Oberschleissheim (Germany)

    2017-11-15

    Currently, patients with gross total resection (GTR) of recurrent glioblastoma (rGBM) undergo adjuvant chemotherapy or are followed up until progression. Re-irradiation, as one of the most effective treatments in macroscopic rGBM, is withheld in this situation, as uncertainties about the pattern of re-recurrence, the target volume, and also the efficacy of early re-irradiation after GTR exist. Imaging and clinical data from 26 consecutive patients with GTR of rGBM were analyzed. The spatial pattern of recurrences was analyzed according to the RANO-HGG criteria (''response assessment in neuro-oncology criteria for high-grade gliomas''). Progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier method. Furthermore, a systematic review was performed in PubMed. All but 4 patients underwent adjuvant chemotherapy after GTR. Progression was diagnosed in 20 of 26 patients and 70% of recurrent tumors occurred adjacent to the resection cavity. The median extension beyond the edge of the resection cavity was 20 mm. Median PFS was 6 months; OS was 12.8 months. We propose a target volume containing the resection cavity and every contrast enhancing lesion as the gross tumor volume (GTV), a spherical margin of 5-10 mm to generate the clinical target volume (CTV), and a margin of 1-3 mm to generate the planning target volume (PTV). Re-irradiation of this volume is deemed to be safe and likely to prolong PFS. Re-irradiation is worth considering also after GTR, as the volumes that need to be treated are limited and re-irradiation has already proven to be a safe treatment option in general. The strategy of early re-irradiation is currently being tested within the GlioCave/NOA 17/Aro 2016/03 trial. (orig.) [German] Patienten mit einem rezidivierten Glioblastom (rGBM) werden, wenn eine komplette Resektion (GTR) des makroskopischen Rezidivs durchgefuehrt wurde, aktuell meist systemisch adjuvant behandelt oder einer engmaschigen Nachsorge

  5. Impact of life expectancy, literacy rate, opened unemployment rate and gross domestic regional income per capita on poverty in the districts/city in Central Sulawesi Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tombolotutu, A. D.; Djirimu, M. A.; Lutfi, M.; Anggadini, F.

    2018-05-01

    Research was conducted in several districts/city in Central Sulawesi Province in order to determine the effect of life expectancy, literacy rate, opened unemployment rate, and gross domestic regional income per capita on poverty at the districts/city in the province. The analysis used is Panel Data Regression. The results show that first, life expectancy and gross domestic regional income have a negative and significant impact on the poverty level in the districts/city in the Province. Second, the opened unemployment rate has a positive and significant effect on the poverty level in the districts/city in the province. Third, literacy rates show a positive effect and insignificant effect on the poverty level in the districts/city in the Province of Central Sulawesi. Fourth, these four variables simultaneously affect the poverty in the districts/city in Central Sulawesi

  6. Comparison of three approaches to delineate internal gross tumor volume based on four-dimensional CT simulation images of non-small-cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Fengxiang; Li Jianbin; Zhang Yingjie; Shang Dongping; Liu Tonghai; Tian Shiyu; Xu Min; Ma Changsheng

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To compare positional and volumetric differences of internal gross tumor volume (IGTV) delineated separately by three approaches based on four-dimensional CT (4DCT) for the primary tumor of non-small cell lung cancer (NLCLC). Methods: Twenty-one patients with NLCLC underwent big bore 4DCT simulation scan of the thorax. IGTVs of the primary tumor of NSCLC were delineated using three approaches as followed: (1) the gross tumor volume (GTV) on each of the ten the respiratory phases of the 4DCT image set were delineated and the ten GTV were fused to produce IGTV 10 ; (2) the GTV delineated separately based on 0% and 50% phase were fused to produce IGTV EI+EE ; (3) the visible tumor on the MIP images were delineated to produce IGTV MIP . The position of the target center, the volume of target, the degree of inclusion (DI) and the matching index (MI) were compared reciprocally between IGTV 10 , IGTV EI+EE and IGTV MIP . Results: Average differences between the position of the center of IGTVs on direction of x, y and z axes were less than 1 mm, with no statistically significant difference. The volume of IGTV 10 was larger than that of IGTV EI+EE , the difference was statistically significant (t=2.37, P=0.028); the volume of IGTV 10 was larger than that of IGTV MIP , but the difference was not statistically significant (t=1.95, P=0.065). The ratio of IGTV EI+EE with IGTV 10 , IGTV MIP with IGTV 10 were 0.85±0.08 and 0.92±0.11, respectively. DI of IGTV EI+EE in IGTV 10 , IGTV MIP in IGTV 10 were 84.78% ± 8. 95% and 88.47% ±9.04%. MI between IGTV 10 and IGTV EI+EE , IGTV 10 and IGTV MIP were 0.85 ±0.09, 0.86±0.09, respectively. Conclusions: The center displacement of the IGTVs delineated separately by the three different techniques based on 4DCT images are not obvious; IGTV EI+EE and IGTV MIP can not replace IGTV 10 , however, IGTV MIP is more close to IGTV 10 comparing to IGTV EI+EE . The ratio of GTV EI+EE with IGTV 10 is correlated to the tumor motion

  7. An evaluation of an automated 4D-CT contour propagation tool to define an internal gross tumour volume for lung cancer radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaede, Stewart; Olsthoorn, Jason; Louie, Alexander V.; Palma, David; Yu, Edward; Yaremko, Brian; Ahmad, Belal; Chen, Jeff; Bzdusek, Karl; Rodrigues, George

    2011-01-01

    Background and purpose: To evaluate an automated 4D-CT contouring propagation tool by its impact on the inter- and intra-physician variability in lung tumour delineation. Materials and methods: In a previous study, six radiation oncologists contoured the gross tumour volume (GTV) and nodes on 10 phases of the 4D-CT dataset of 10 lung cancer patients to examine the intra- and inter-physician variability. In this study, a model-based deformable image registration algorithm was used to propagate the GTV and nodes on each phase of the same 4D-CT datasets. A blind review of the contours was performed by each physician and edited. Inter- and intra-physician variability for both the manual and automated methods was assessed by calculating the centroid motion of the GTV using the Pearson correlation coefficient and the variability in the internal gross tumour volume (IGTV) overlap using the Dice similarity coefficient (DSC). Results: The time for manual delineation was (42.7 ± 18.6) min versus (17.7 ± 5.4) min when the propagation tool was used. A significant improvement in the mean Pearson correlation coefficient was also observed. There was a significant decrease in mean DSC in only 1 out of 10 primary IGTVs and 2 out of 10 nodal IGTVs. Intra-physician variability was not significantly impacted (DSC > 0.742). Conclusions: Automated 4D-CT propagation tools can significantly decrease the IGTV delineation time without significantly decreasing the inter- and intra-physician variability.

  8. The Impact of Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography in Edge Delineation of Gross Tumor Volume for Head and Neck Cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashamalla, Hani; Guirgius, Adel; Bieniek, Ewa; Rafla, Sameer; Evola, Alex; Goswami, Ganesh; Oldroyd, Randall; Mokhtar, Bahaa; Parikh, Kapila

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To study anatomic biologic contouring (ABC), using a previously described distinct halo, to unify volume contouring methods in treatment planning for head and neck cancers. Methods and Materials: Twenty-five patients with head and neck cancer at various sites were planned for radiation therapy using positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT). The ABC halo was used in all PET/CT scans to contour the gross tumor volume (GTV) edge. The CT-based GTV (GTV-CT) and PET/CT-based GTV (GTV-ABC) were contoured by two independent radiation oncologists. Results: The ABC halo was observed in all patients studied. The halo had a standard unit value of 2.19 ± 0.28. The mean halo thickness was 2.02 ± 0.21 mm. Significant volume modification (≥25%) was seen in 17 of 25 patients (68%) after implementation of GTV-ABC. Concordance among observers was increased with the use of the halo as a guide for GTV determination: 6 patients (24%) had a ≤10% volume discrepancy with CT alone, compared with 22 (88%) with PET/CT (p 3 in CT-based planning to 7.2 cm 3 in PET/CT-based planning (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Using the 'anatomic biologic halo' to contour GTV in PET/CT improves consistency among observers. The distinctive appearance of the described halo and its presence in all of the studied tumors make it attractive for GTV contouring in head and neck tumors. Additional studies are needed to confirm the correlation of the halo with presence of malignant cells

  9. Effects of Respiration-Averaged Computed Tomography on Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography Quantification and its Potential Impact on Gross Tumor Volume Delineation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chi, Pai-Chun Melinda; Mawlawi, Osama; Luo Dershan; Liao Zhongxing; Macapinlac, Homer A.; Pan Tinsu

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Patient respiratory motion can cause image artifacts in positron emission tomography (PET) from PET/computed tomography (CT) and change the quantification of PET for thoracic patients. In this study, respiration-averaged CT (ACT) was used to remove the artifacts, and the changes in standardized uptake value (SUV) and gross tumor volume (GTV) were quantified. Methods and Materials: We incorporated the ACT acquisition in a PET/CT session for 216 lung patients, generating two PET/CT data sets for each patient. The first data set (PET HCT /HCT) contained the clinical PET/CT in which PET was attenuation corrected with a helical CT (HCT). The second data set (PET ACT /ACT) contained the PET/CT in which PET was corrected with ACT. We quantified the differences between the two datasets in image alignment, maximum SUV (SUV max ), and GTV contours. Results: Of the patients, 68% demonstrated respiratory artifacts in the PET HCT , and for all patients the artifact was removed or reduced in the corresponding PET ACT . The impact of respiration artifact was the worst for lesions less than 50 cm 3 and located below the dome of the diaphragm. For lesions in this group, the mean SUV max difference, GTV volume change, shift in GTV centroid location, and concordance index were 21%, 154%, 2.4 mm, and 0.61, respectively. Conclusion: This study benchmarked the differences between the PET data with and without artifacts. It is important to pay attention to the potential existence of these artifacts during GTV contouring, as such artifacts may increase the uncertainties in the lesion volume and the centroid location

  10. Attributing regional trends of evapotranspiration and gross primary productivity with remote sensing: a case study in the North China Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Xingguo; Chen, Xuejuan; Hu, Shi; Liu, Suxia; Xia, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Attributing changes in evapotranspiration (ET) and gross primary productivity (GPP) is crucial for impact and adaptation assessment of the agro-ecosystems to climate change. Simulations with the VIP model revealed that annual ET and GPP slightly increased from 1981 to 2013 over the North China Plain. The tendencies of both ET and GPP were upward in the spring season, while they were weak and downward in the summer season. A complete factor analysis illustrated that the relative contributions of climatic change, CO2 fertilization, and management to the ET (GPP) trend were 56 (-32) %, -28 (25) %, and 68 (108) %, respectively. The decline of global radiation resulted from deteriorated aerosol and air pollution was the principal cause of GPP decline in summer, while air warming intensified the water cycle and advanced the plant productivity in the spring season. Generally, agronomic improvements were the principal drivers of crop productivity enhancement.

  11. ERO and PIC simulations of gross and net erosion of tungsten in the outer strike-point region of ASDEX Upgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hakola

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We have modelled net and gross erosion of W in low-density l-mode plasmas in the low-field side strike point region of ASDEX Upgrade by ERO and Particle-in-Cell (PIC simulations. The observed net-erosion peak at the strike point was mainly due to the light impurities present in the plasma while the noticeable net-deposition regions surrounding the erosion maximum could be attributed to the strong E ×B drift and the magnetic field bringing eroded particles from a distance of several meters towards the private flux region. Our results also imply that the role of cross-field diffusion is very small in the studied plasmas. The simulations indicate net/gross erosion ratio of 0.2–0.6, which is in line with the literature data and what was determined spectroscopically. The deviations from the estimates extracted from post-exposure ion-beam-analysis data (∼0.6–0.7 are most likely due to the measured re-deposition patterns showing the outcomes of multiple erosion-deposition cycles.

  12. [The "Baltic Frontier" revisited. Power structures and gross-cultural interactions in the Baltic region. Proceedings of the international symposium in Florence, February 29th and March Ist, 2008] / Karsten Brüggemann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Brüggemann, Karsten, 1965-

    2010-01-01

    Arvustus: The "Baltic Frontier" revisited. Power structures and gross-cultural interactions in the Baltic region. Proceedings of the international symposium in Florence, February 29th and March Ist, 2008. Vienna, 2009

  13. The impact of MRI sequence on tumour staging and gross tumour volume delineation in squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prezzi, Davide; Mandegaran, Ramin; Gourtsoyianni, Sofia; Owczarczyk, Katarzyna; Gaya, Andrew; Glynne-Jones, Robert; Goh, Vicky

    2018-01-01

    To compare maximum tumour diameter (MTD) and gross tumour volume (GTV) measurements between T 2 -weighted (T 2 -w) and diffusion-weighted (DWI) MRI in squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal (SCCA) and assess sequence impact on tumour (T) staging. Second, to evaluate interobserver agreement and reader delineation confidence. The staging MRI scans of 45 SCCA patients (25 females) were assessed retrospectively by two independent radiologists (0 and 5 years' experience of anal cancer MRI). MTD and GTV were delineated on both T 2 -w and high-b-value DWI images and compared between sequences; T staging was derived from MTD. Interobserver agreement was assessed and delineation confidence scored (1 to 5) by each observer. GTV and MTD were significantly and systematically lower on DWI versus T 2 -w sequences by 14.80%/9.98% (MTD) and 29.70%/12.25% (GTV) for each reader, respectively, causing T staging discordances in approximately a quarter of cases. Bland-Altman limits of agreement were narrower and intraclass correlation coefficients higher for DWI. Delineation confidence was greater on DWI: 40/42 cases were scored confidently (4 or 5) by each reader, respectively, versus 31/36 cases based on T 2 -w images. Sequence selection affects SCCA measurements and T stage. DWI yields higher interobserver agreement and greater tumour delineation confidence. (orig.)

  14. Investigation of the Relationship Between Gross Tumor Volume Location and Pneumonitis Rates Using a Large Clinical Database of Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinogradskiy, Yevgeniy; Tucker, Susan L.; Liao Zhongxing; Martel, Mary K.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Studies have suggested that function may vary throughout the lung, and that patients who have tumors located in the base of the lung are more susceptible to radiation pneumonitis. The purpose of our study was to investigate the relationship between gross tumor volume (GTV) location and pneumonitis rates using a large clinical database of 547 patients with non–small-cell lung cancer. Methods and Materials: The GTV centroids of all patients were mapped onto one common coordinate system, in which the boundaries of the coordinate system were defined by the extreme points of each individual patient lung. The data were qualitatively analyzed by graphing all centroids and displaying the data according to the presence of severe pneumonitis, tumor stage, and smoking status. The centroids were grouped according to superior–inferior segments, and the pneumonitis rates were analyzed. In addition, we incorporated the GTV centroid information into a Lyman–Kutcher–Burman normal tissue complication probability model and tested whether adding spatial information significantly improved the fit of the model. Results: Of the 547 patients analyzed, 111 (20.3%) experienced severe radiation pneumonitis. The pneumonitis incidence rates were 16%, 23%, and 21% for the superior, middle, and inferior thirds of the lung, respectively. Qualitatively, the GTV centroids of nonsmokers were notably absent from the superior portion of the lung. In addition, the GTV centroids of patients who had Stage III and IV clinical staging were concentrated toward the medial edge of the lung. The comparison between the GTV centroid model and the conventional dose–volume model did not yield a statistically significant difference in model fit. Conclusions: Lower pneumonitis rates were noted for the superior portion of the lung; however the differences were not statistically significant. For our patient cohort, incorporating GTV centroid information did not lead to a statistically significant

  15. Pancreatic gross tumor volume contouring on computed tomography (CT) compared with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): Results of an international contouring conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, William A; Heerkens, Hanne D; Paulson, Eric S; Meijer, Gert J; Kotte, Alexis N; Knechtges, Paul; Parikh, Parag J; Bassetti, Michael F; Lee, Percy; Aitken, Katharine L; Palta, Manisha; Myrehaug, Sten; Koay, Eugene J; Portelance, Lorraine; Ben-Josef, Edgar; Erickson, Beth A

    Accurate identification of the gross tumor volume (GTV) in pancreatic adenocarcinoma is challenging. We sought to understand differences in GTV delineation using pancreatic computed tomography (CT) compared with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Twelve attending radiation oncologists were convened for an international contouring symposium. All participants had a clinical and research interest in pancreatic adenocarcinoma. CT and MRI scans from 3 pancreatic cases were used for contouring. CT and MRI GTVs were analyzed and compared. Interobserver variability was compared using Dice's similarity coefficient (DSC), Hausdorff distances, and Jaccard indices. Mann-Whitney tests were used to check for significant differences. Consensus contours on CT and MRI scans and constructed count maps were used to visualize the agreement. Agreement regarding the optimal method to determine GTV definition using MRI was reached. Six contour sets (3 from CT and 3 from MRI) were obtained and compared for each observer, totaling 72 contour sets. The mean volume of contours on CT was significantly larger at 57.48 mL compared with a mean of 45.76 mL on MRI, P = .011. The standard deviation obtained from the CT contours was significantly larger than the standard deviation from the MRI contours (P = .027). The mean DSC was 0.73 for the CT and 0.72 for the MRI (P = .889). The conformity index measurement was similar for CT and MRI (P = .58). Count maps were created to highlight differences in the contours from CT and MRI. Using MRI as a primary image set to define a pancreatic adenocarcinoma GTV resulted in smaller contours compared with CT. No differences in DSC or the conformity index were seen between MRI and CT. A stepwise method is recommended as an approach to contour a pancreatic GTV using MRI. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Radiation Oncology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Investigation of the relationship between gross tumor volume location and pneumonitis rates using a large clinical database of non-small-cell lung cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinogradskiy, Yevgeniy; Tucker, Susan L; Liao, Zhongxing; Martel, Mary K

    2012-04-01

    Studies have suggested that function may vary throughout the lung, and that patients who have tumors located in the base of the lung are more susceptible to radiation pneumonitis. The purpose of our study was to investigate the relationship between gross tumor volume (GTV) location and pneumonitis rates using a large clinical database of 547 patients with non-small-cell lung cancer. The GTV centroids of all patients were mapped onto one common coordinate system, in which the boundaries of the coordinate system were defined by the extreme points of each individual patient lung. The data were qualitatively analyzed by graphing all centroids and displaying the data according to the presence of severe pneumonitis, tumor stage, and smoking status. The centroids were grouped according to superior-inferior segments, and the pneumonitis rates were analyzed. In addition, we incorporated the GTV centroid information into a Lyman-Kutcher-Burman normal tissue complication probability model and tested whether adding spatial information significantly improved the fit of the model. Of the 547 patients analyzed, 111 (20.3%) experienced severe radiation pneumonitis. The pneumonitis incidence rates were 16%, 23%, and 21% for the superior, middle, and inferior thirds of the lung, respectively. Qualitatively, the GTV centroids of nonsmokers were notably absent from the superior portion of the lung. In addition, the GTV centroids of patients who had Stage III and IV clinical staging were concentrated toward the medial edge of the lung. The comparison between the GTV centroid model and the conventional dose-volume model did not yield a statistically significant difference in model fit. Lower pneumonitis rates were noted for the superior portion of the lung; however the differences were not statistically significant. For our patient cohort, incorporating GTV centroid information did not lead to a statistically significant improvement in the fit of the pneumonitis model. Copyright

  17. Proximal Femoral Varus Derotation Osteotomy in Children with Cerebral Palsy: The Effect of Age, Gross Motor Function Classification System Level, and Surgeon Volume on Surgical Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore, Benjamin J; Zurakowski, David; Dufreny, Chantal; Powell, Dustin; Matheney, Travis H; Snyder, Brian D

    2015-12-16

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate mid-term results of proximal femoral varus derotation osteotomy (VDRO) in children with cerebral palsy and determine what effect age, Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) level, and surgeon volume had on surgical success. We analyzed a cohort of children with cerebral palsy who underwent VDRO for hip displacement at a tertiary-level pediatric hospital between 1994 and 2007. Age, sex, GMFCS level, preoperative radiographic parameters, previous botulinum toxin administration or soft-tissue release, adjunctive pelvic osteotomy, the performance of bilateral surgery at the index VDRO, and surgeon volume (the number of procedures performed) were recorded. Results were analyzed via univariate and multivariate analyses for association with the need for revision hip surgery. Kaplan-Meier survivorship curves were generated, determining the time from index surgery to failure (defined as the need for subsequent surgical procedures on the hip and/or pelvis, or a hip migration percentage of >50% at the time of final follow-up), and were further stratified according to osseous versus soft-tissue revision. A total of 567 VDROs were performed in 320 children (mean age [and standard deviation], 8.2 ± 3.8 years). The mean follow-up was 8.3 years (range, three to eighteen years). Of the initial 320 patients, 117 (37%) were considered to have had failure. Multivariate Cox regression analysis confirmed that younger age at surgery (p < 0.001), increased GMFCS level (p = 0.01), and lower annual surgical hip volume (p = 0.02) were significant independent predictors of any type of surgical revision. Furthermore, soft-tissue release at VDRO was protective against revision (p = 0.02). Five-year survivorship analysis revealed a 92% success rate for children classified as GMFCS levels I and II compared with a 76% success rate for those of GMFCS level V (p < 0.01). This study demonstrated a 37% failure rate after VDRO in children with

  18. Time series analysis of brain regional volume by MR image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Mika; Tarusawa, Ayaka; Nihei, Mitsuyo; Fukami, Tadanori; Yuasa, Tetsuya; Wu, Jin; Ishiwata, Kiichi; Ishii, Kenji

    2010-01-01

    The present study proposed a methodology of time series analysis of volumes of frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital lobes and cerebellum because such volumetric reports along the process of individual's aging have been scarcely presented. Subjects analyzed were brain images of 2 healthy males and 18 females of av. age of 69.0 y, of which T1-weighted 3D SPGR (spoiled gradient recalled in the steady state) acquisitions with a GE SIGNA EXCITE HD 1.5T machine were conducted for 4 times in the time series of 42-50 months. The image size was 256 x 256 x (86-124) voxels with digitization level 16 bits. As the template for the regions, the standard gray matter atlas (icbn452 a tlas p robability g ray) and its labeled one (icbn.Labels), provided by UCLA Laboratory of Neuro Imaging, were used for individual's standardization. Segmentation, normalization and coregistration were performed with the MR imaging software SPM8 (Statistic Parametric Mapping 8). Volumes of regions were calculated as their voxel ratio to the whole brain voxel in percent. It was found that the regional volumes decreased with aging in all above lobes examined and cerebellum in average percent per year of -0.11, -0.07, -0.04, -0.02, and -0.03, respectively. The procedure for calculation of the regional volumes, which has been manually operated hitherto, can be automatically conducted for the individual brain using the standard atlases above. (T.T.)

  19. A Phase II Comparative Study of Gross Tumor Volume Definition With or Without PET/CT Fusion in Dosimetric Planning for Non–Small-Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC): Primary Analysis of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 0515

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, Jeffrey; Bae, Kyounghwa; Choi, Noah; Forster, Ken; Siegel, Barry A.; Brunetti, Jacqueline; Purdy, James; Faria, Sergio; Vu, Toni; Thorstad, Wade; Choy, Hak

    2012-01-01

    Background: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 0515 is a Phase II prospective trial designed to quantify the impact of positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) compared with CT alone on radiation treatment plans (RTPs) and to determine the rate of elective nodal failure for PET/CT-derived volumes. Methods: Each enrolled patient underwent definitive radiation therapy for non–small-cell lung cancer (≥60 Gy) and had two RTP datasets generated: gross tumor volume (GTV) derived with CT alone and with PET/CT. Patients received treatment using the PET/CT-derived plan. The primary end point, the impact of PET/CT fusion on treatment plans was measured by differences of the following variables for each patient: GTV, number of involved nodes, nodal station, mean lung dose (MLD), volume of lung exceeding 20 Gy (V20), and mean esophageal dose (MED). Regional failure rate was a secondary end point. The nonparametric Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-ranks test was used with Bonferroni adjustment for an overall significance level of 0.05. Results: RTOG 0515 accrued 52 patients, 47 of whom are evaluable. The follow-up time for all patients is 12.9 months (2.7–22.2). Tumor staging was as follows: II = 6%; IIIA = 40%; and IIIB = 54%. The GTV was statistically significantly smaller for PET/CT-derived volumes (98.7 vs. 86.2 mL; p < 0.0001). MLDs for PET/CT plans were slightly lower (19 vs. 17.8 Gy; p = 0.06). There was no significant difference in the number of involved nodes (2.1 vs. 2.4), V20 (32% vs. 30.8%), or MED (28.7 vs. 27.1 Gy). Nodal contours were altered by PET/CT for 51% of patients. One patient (2%) has developed an elective nodal failure. Conclusions: PET/CT-derived tumor volumes were smaller than those derived by CT alone. PET/CT changed nodal GTV contours in 51% of patients. The elective nodal failure rate for GTVs derived by PET/CT is quite low, supporting the RTOG standard of limiting the target volume to the primary tumor and involved nodes.

  20. Toward Prostate Cancer Contouring Guidelines on Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Dominant Lesion Gross and Clinical Target Volume Coverage Via Accurate Histology Fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, Eli; Bauman, Glenn S.; Romagnoli, Cesare; Cool, Derek W.; Bastian-Jordan, Matthew; Kassam, Zahra; Gaed, Mena; Moussa, Madeleine; Gómez, José A.; Pautler, Stephen E.; Chin, Joseph L.; Crukley, Cathie; Haider, Masoom A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Defining prostate cancer (PCa) lesion clinical target volumes (CTVs) for multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) could support focal boosting or treatment to improve outcomes or lower morbidity, necessitating appropriate CTV margins for mpMRI-defined gross tumor volumes (GTVs). This study aimed to identify CTV margins yielding 95% coverage of PCa tumors for prospective cases with high likelihood. Methods and Materials: Twenty-five men with biopsy-confirmed clinical stage T1 or T2 PCa underwent pre-prostatectomy mpMRI, yielding T2-weighted, dynamic contrast-enhanced, and apparent diffusion coefficient images. Digitized whole-mount histology was contoured and registered to mpMRI scans (error ≤2 mm). Four observers contoured lesion GTVs on each mpMRI scan. CTVs were defined by isotropic and anisotropic expansion from these GTVs and from multiparametric (unioned) GTVs from 2 to 3 scans. Histologic coverage (proportions of tumor area on co-registered histology inside the CTV, measured for Gleason scores [GSs] ≥6 and ≥7) and prostate sparing (proportions of prostate volume outside the CTV) were measured. Nonparametric histologic-coverage prediction intervals defined minimal margins yielding 95% coverage for prospective cases with 78% to 92% likelihood. Results: On analysis of 72 true-positive tumor detections, 95% coverage margins were 9 to 11 mm (GS ≥ 6) and 8 to 10 mm (GS ≥ 7) for single-sequence GTVs and were 8 mm (GS ≥ 6) and 6 mm (GS ≥ 7) for 3-sequence GTVs, yielding CTVs that spared 47% to 81% of prostate tissue for the majority of tumors. Inclusion of T2-weighted contours increased sparing for multiparametric CTVs with 95% coverage margins for GS ≥6, and inclusion of dynamic contrast-enhanced contours increased sparing for GS ≥7. Anisotropic 95% coverage margins increased the sparing proportions to 71% to 86%. Conclusions: Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging–defined GTVs expanded by appropriate margins

  1. Toward Prostate Cancer Contouring Guidelines on Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Dominant Lesion Gross and Clinical Target Volume Coverage Via Accurate Histology Fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibson, Eli [Robarts Research Institute, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada); Biomedical Engineering, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada); Centre for Medical Image Computing, University College London, London (United Kingdom); Department of Radiology, Radboud University Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Bauman, Glenn S., E-mail: glenn.bauman@lhsc.on.ca [Lawson Health Research Institute, London, Ontario (Canada); Department of Oncology, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada); Romagnoli, Cesare; Cool, Derek W. [Department of Medical Imaging, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada); Bastian-Jordan, Matthew [Department of Medical Imaging, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada); Queensland Health, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia); Kassam, Zahra [Department of Medical Imaging, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada); Gaed, Mena [Robarts Research Institute, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada); Department of Pathology, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada); Moussa, Madeleine; Gómez, José A. [Department of Pathology, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada); Pautler, Stephen E.; Chin, Joseph L. [Lawson Health Research Institute, London, Ontario (Canada); Department of Urology, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada); Crukley, Cathie [Robarts Research Institute, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada); Lawson Health Research Institute, London, Ontario (Canada); Haider, Masoom A. [Department of Medical Imaging, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); and others

    2016-09-01

    Purpose: Defining prostate cancer (PCa) lesion clinical target volumes (CTVs) for multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) could support focal boosting or treatment to improve outcomes or lower morbidity, necessitating appropriate CTV margins for mpMRI-defined gross tumor volumes (GTVs). This study aimed to identify CTV margins yielding 95% coverage of PCa tumors for prospective cases with high likelihood. Methods and Materials: Twenty-five men with biopsy-confirmed clinical stage T1 or T2 PCa underwent pre-prostatectomy mpMRI, yielding T2-weighted, dynamic contrast-enhanced, and apparent diffusion coefficient images. Digitized whole-mount histology was contoured and registered to mpMRI scans (error ≤2 mm). Four observers contoured lesion GTVs on each mpMRI scan. CTVs were defined by isotropic and anisotropic expansion from these GTVs and from multiparametric (unioned) GTVs from 2 to 3 scans. Histologic coverage (proportions of tumor area on co-registered histology inside the CTV, measured for Gleason scores [GSs] ≥6 and ≥7) and prostate sparing (proportions of prostate volume outside the CTV) were measured. Nonparametric histologic-coverage prediction intervals defined minimal margins yielding 95% coverage for prospective cases with 78% to 92% likelihood. Results: On analysis of 72 true-positive tumor detections, 95% coverage margins were 9 to 11 mm (GS ≥ 6) and 8 to 10 mm (GS ≥ 7) for single-sequence GTVs and were 8 mm (GS ≥ 6) and 6 mm (GS ≥ 7) for 3-sequence GTVs, yielding CTVs that spared 47% to 81% of prostate tissue for the majority of tumors. Inclusion of T2-weighted contours increased sparing for multiparametric CTVs with 95% coverage margins for GS ≥6, and inclusion of dynamic contrast-enhanced contours increased sparing for GS ≥7. Anisotropic 95% coverage margins increased the sparing proportions to 71% to 86%. Conclusions: Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging–defined GTVs expanded by appropriate margins

  2. Regional hippocampal volumes and development predict learning and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamnes, Christian K; Walhovd, Kristine B; Engvig, Andreas; Grydeland, Håkon; Krogsrud, Stine K; Østby, Ylva; Holland, Dominic; Dale, Anders M; Fjell, Anders M

    2014-01-01

    The hippocampus is an anatomically and functionally heterogeneous structure, but longitudinal studies of its regional development are scarce and it is not known whether protracted maturation of the hippocampus in adolescence is related to memory development. First, we investigated hippocampal subfield development using 170 longitudinally acquired brain magnetic resonance imaging scans from 85 participants aged 8-21 years. Hippocampal subfield volumes were estimated by the use of automated segmentation of 7 subfields, including the cornu ammonis (CA) sectors and the dentate gyrus (DG), while longitudinal subfield volumetric change was quantified using a nonlinear registration procedure. Second, associations between subfield volumes and change and verbal learning/memory across multiple retention intervals (5 min, 30 min and 1 week) were tested. It was hypothesized that short and intermediate memory would be more closely related to CA2-3/CA4-DG and extended, remote memory to CA1. Change rates were significantly different across hippocampal subfields, but nearly all subfields showed significant volume decreases over time throughout adolescence. Several subfield volumes were larger in the right hemisphere and in males, while for change rates there were no hemisphere or sex differences. Partly in support of the hypotheses, greater volume of CA1 and CA2-3 was related to recall and retention after an extended delay, while longitudinal reduction of CA2-3 and CA4-DG was related to learning. This suggests continued regional development of the hippocampus across adolescence and that volume and volume change in specific subfields differentially predict verbal learning and memory over different retention intervals, but future high-resolution studies are called for. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Quantification of gross tumour volume changes between simulation and first day of radiotherapy for patients with locally advanced malignancies of the lung and head/neck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishan, Amar U; Cui, Jing; Wang, Pin-Chieh; Daly, Megan E; Purdy, James A; Chen, Allen M

    2014-10-01

    To quantify changes in gross tumour volume (GTV) between simulation and initiation of radiotherapy in patients with locally advanced malignancies of the lung and head/neck. Initial cone beam computed tomography (CT) scans from 12 patients with lung cancer and 12 with head/neck cancer (head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC)) treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy with image guidance were rigidly registered to the simulation CT scans. The GTV was demarcated on both scans. The relationship between percent GTV change and variables including time interval between simulation and start, tumour (T) stage, and absolute weight change was assessed. For lung cancer patients, the GTV increased a median of 35.06% (range, -16.63% to 229.97%) over a median interval of 13 days (range, 7-43), while for HNSCC patients, the median GTV increase was 16.04% (range, -8.03% to 47.41%) over 13 days (range, 7-40). These observed changes are statistically significant. The magnitude of this change was inversely associated with the size of the tumour on the simulation scan for lung cancer patients (P lung cancer cases) did not correlate with degree of GTV change (P > 0.1). While the observed changes in GTV were moderate from the time of simulation to start of radiotherapy, these findings underscore the importance of image guidance for target localisation and verification, particularly for smaller tumours. Minimising the delay between simulation and treatment initiation may also be beneficial. © 2014 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  4. Reproducibility of 'Intelligent' Contouring of Gross Tumor Volume in Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer on PET/CT Images Using a Standardized Visual Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayne, Michael; Hicks, Rodney J.; Everitt, Sarah; Fimmell, Natalie

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) is increasingly used for delineating gross tumor volume (GTV) in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The methodology for contouring tumor margins remains controversial. We developed a rigorous visual protocol for contouring GTV that uses all available clinical information and studied its reproducibility in patients from a prospective PET/CT planning trial. Methods and Materials: Planning PET/CT scans from 6 consecutive patients were selected. Six 'observers' (two radiation oncologists, two nuclear medicine physicians, and two radiologists) contoured GTVs for each patient using a predefined protocol and subsequently recontoured 2 patients. For the estimated GTVs and axial distances, least-squares means for each observer and for each case were calculated and compared, using the F test and pairwise t-tests. In five cases, tumor margins were also autocontoured using standardized uptake value (SUV) cutoffs of 2.5 and 3.5 and 40% SUV max . Results: The magnitude of variation between observers was small relative to the mean (coefficient of variation [CV] = 3%), and the total variation (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] = 3%). For estimation of superior/inferior (SI), left/right (LR), and anterior/posterior (AP) borders of the GTV, differences between observers were also small (AP, CV = 2%, ICC = 0.4%; LR, CV = 6%, ICC = 2%; SI, CV 4%, ICC = 2%). GTVs autocontoured generated using SUV 2.5, 3.5, and 40% SUV max differed widely in each case. An SUV contour of 2.5 was most closely correlated with the mean GTV defined by the human observers. Conclusions: Observer variation contributed little to total variation in the GTV and axial distances. A visual contouring protocol gave reproducible results for contouring GTV in NSCLC.

  5. MRI versus {sup 68}Ga-PSMA PET/CT for gross tumour volume delineation in radiation treatment planning of primary prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamboglou, Constantinos; Kirste, Simon; Fechter, Tobias; Grosu, Anca-Ligia [University Medical Center Freiburg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Freiburg (Germany); German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), Heidelberg (Germany); Wieser, Gesche [University Medical Center Freiburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Freiburg (Germany); Hennies, Steffen [University Medical Center Goettingen, Department of Radiation Oncology, Goettingen (Germany); Rempel, Irene; Soschynski, Martin; Langer, Mathias [University Medical Center Freiburg, Department of Radiology, Freiburg (Germany); Rischke, Hans Christian [University Medical Center Freiburg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Freiburg (Germany); Jilg, Cordula A. [University Medical Center Freiburg, Department of Urology, Freiburg (Germany); Meyer, Philipp T. [German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), Heidelberg (Germany); University Medical Center Freiburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Freiburg (Germany); Bock, Michael [German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), Heidelberg (Germany); University Medical Center Freiburg, Department of Radiology, Freiburg (Germany)

    2016-05-15

    Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) is widely used in radiation treatment planning of primary prostate cancer (PCA). Focal dose escalation to the dominant intraprostatic lesions (DIPL) may lead to improved PCA control. Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is overexpressed in most PCAs. {sup 68}Ga-labelled PSMA inhibitors have demonstrated promising results in detection of PCA with PET/CT. The aim of this study was to compare {sup 68}Ga-PSMA PET/CT with MRI for gross tumour volume (GTV) definition in primary PCA. This retrospective study included 22 patients with primary PCA analysed after {sup 68}Ga-PSMA PET/CT and mpMRI. GTVs were delineated on MR images by two radiologists (GTV-MRIrad) and two radiation oncologists separately. Both volumes were merged leading to GTV-MRIint. GTVs based on PET/CT were delineated by two nuclear medicine physicians in consensus (GTV-PET). Laterality (left, right, and left and right prostate lobes) on mpMRI, PET/CT and pathological analysis after biopsy were assessed. Mean GTV-MRIrad, GTV-MRIint and GTV-PET were 5.92, 3.83 and 11.41 cm{sup 3}, respectively. GTV-PET was significant larger then GTV-MRIint (p = 0.003). The MRI GTVs GTV-MRIrad and GTV-MRIint showed, respectively, 40 % and 57 % overlap with GTV-PET. GTV-MRIrad and GTV-MRIint included the SUVmax of GTV-PET in 12 and 11 patients (54.6 % and 50 %), respectively. In nine patients (47 %), laterality on mpMRI, PET/CT and histopathology after biopsy was similar. Ga-PSMA PET/CT and mpMRI provided concordant results for delineation of the DIPL in 47 % of patients (40 % - 54 % of lesions). GTV-PET was significantly larger than GTV-MRIint. {sup 68}Ga-PSMA PET/CT may have a role in radiation treatment planning for focal radiation to the DIPL. Exact correlation of PET and MRI images with histopathology is needed. (orig.)

  6. Regional reference values of thyroid gland volume in Turkish adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şahin Ertan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. It is important to know the size of the thyroid gland, and its normal value may vary among different geographic regions. Objective. In this study, we aimed to establish reference ranges for thyroid volume in euthyroid adults and to compare these results with the literature data. Methods. Between June 2011 and June 2012, 461 patients with normal laboratory results (serum TSH, anti-TG, anti-TPO antibodies and urine iodine level that underwent thyroid gland ultrasound examination were retrospectively analyzed. Two hundred and 92 patients were females and 169 were males; the age range was 18-61 years with mean age 30.84±9.97 years. Length, breadth and thickness were measured, and the volume of each lobe was estimated using the ellipsoid formula. Results. The overall mean thyroid volume in all patients who were examined was 12.98±2.53 mL. The mean thyroid volume in females and males was 12.09±2.05 mL and 14.53±2.55, respectively (p<0.05. The right thyroid lobe volume was greater than the left in all patients of both sexes. In addition, the study establishes a significant correlation between the thyroid volume and height, weight and body surface area of the subjects of both sexes (p<0.05. In the light of our findings we can provide reference values in order to evaluate patients who have thyroid hyperplasia or who are considered as normal. Conclusion. We consider that further studies are necessary to establish national references thyroid volume for each country.

  7. Methodological Approaches for Estimating Gross Regional Product after Taking into Account Depletion of Natural Resources, Environmental Pollution and Human Capital Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Alengordovich Korobitsyn

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A key indicator of the System of National Accounts of Russia at a regional scale is Gross Regional Product characterizing the value of goods and services produced in all sectors of the economy in a country and intended for final consumption, capital formation and net exports (excluding imports. From a sustainability perspective, the most weakness of GRP is that it ignores depreciation of man-made assets, natural resource depletion, environmental pollution and degradation, and potential social costs such as poorer health due to exposure to occupational hazards. Several types of alternative approaches to measuring socio-economic progress are considering for six administrative units of the Ural Federal District for the period 2006–2014. Proposed alternatives to GRP as a measure of social progress are focused on natural resource depletion, environmental externalities and some human development aspects. The most promising is the use of corrected macroeconomic indicators similar to the “genuine savings” compiled by the World Bank. Genuine savings are defined in this paper as net savings (net gross savings minus consumption of fixed capital minus the consumption of natural non-renewable resources and the monetary evaluations of damages resulting from air pollution, water pollution and waste disposal. Two main groups of non renewable resources are considered: energy resources (uranium ore, oil and natural gas and mineral resources (iron ore, copper, and aluminum. In spite of various shortcomings, this indicator represents a considerable improvement over GRP information. For example, while GRP demonstrates steady growth between 2006 and 2014 for the main Russian oil- and gas-producing regions — Hanty-Mansi and Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrugs, genuine savings for these regions decreased over all period. It means that their resource-based economy could not be considered as being on a sustainable path even in the framework of

  8. Regional reference values of thyroid gland volume in Turkish Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şahin, Ertan; Elboğa, Umut; Kalender, Ebuzer

    2015-01-01

    It is important to know the size of the thyroid gland, and its normal value may vary among different geographic regions. In this study, we aimed to establish reference ranges for thyroid volume in euthyroid adults and to compare these results with the literature data. Between June 2011 and June 2012,461 patients with normal laboratory results (serum TSH, anti-TG, anti-TPO antibodies and urine iodine level) that underwent thyroid gland ultrasound examination were retrospectively analyzed.Two hundred and 92 patients were females and 169 were males; the age range was 18-61 years with mean age 30.84±9.97 years. Length, breadth and thickness were measured, and the volume of each lobe was estimated using the ellipsoid formula. The overall mean thyroid volume in all patients who were examined was 12.98±2.53 mL. The mean thyroid volume in females and males was 12.09±2.05 mL and 14.53±2.55, respectively (pbody surface area of the subjects of both sexes (pcountry.

  9. COMPARATIVE GROSS AND HISTOMORPHOLOGICAL STUDIES ON THE SPLEEN OF SHEEP AND GOAT OF JAMMU REGION OF INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalini Suri

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted on the histology and micrometry of the spleen of sheep and goat of Jammu region. The spleen of goat was quadrangular whereas that of sheep was triangular. The biometrical measurements of the spleens of sheep and goat revealed that the weight of spleen of sheep was 81.39 ± 12.79 gm while that of goat was 64.48 ± 7.82 gm. The length of the spleen was 12.70 ± 0.81 cm and 11.48 ± 0.73 cm in sheep and goat, respectively. The width of spleen of sheep was recorded to be 9.26 ± 0.38 cm and that of goat was measured as 9.37 ± 0.79 cm and the thickness of spleen was found to be 2.69 ± 0.2 cm and 2.37 ± 0.21 cm in sheep and goat, respectively. Histologically, spleen was covered by thick capsule with thickness 282.27 ± 14.88 µ in goat and 150.13 ± 8.14 µ in sheep. The thickness of trabeculae in goat was 224.67 ± 67 µ and in sheep was 104.35 ± 8.92 µ. Average diameter of white pulp was 478.20 ± 26.88 µ in sheep and 412.22 ± 47.85 µ in goat. Number of white pulps per field at 100 X magnification was 1.30 ± 0.21 in sheep and 1.60 ± 023 in goat. Similarly, number of white pulps per mm2 was 1.32 ± 0.22 in sheep and 1.62 ± 023 in goat. Red pulp consisted of spleenic cords and sinusoids. Sinusoids were lined by endothelial cells with large nuclei bulging into the sinusoidal lumen.

  10. Comparing Volume Loss in Neuroanatomical Regions of Emotion versus Regions of Cognition in Healthy Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressman, Peter S; Noniyeva, Yuliana; Bott, Nick; Dutt, Shubir; Sturm, Virginia; Miller, Bruce L; Kramer, Joel H

    2016-01-01

    Many emotional functions are relatively preserved in aging despite declines in several cognitive domains and physical health. High levels of happiness exist even among centenarians. To address the hypothesis of whether preservation of emotional function in healthy aging may relate to different rates of age-related volume loss across brain structures, we performed two volumetric analyses on structural magnetic resonance neuroimaging of a group of healthy aging research participants using Freesurfer version 5.1. Volumes selected as supporting cognition included bilateral midfrontal and lateral frontal gyri, lateral parietal and temporal cortex, and medial temporal lobes. Volumes supporting emotion included bilateral amygdala, rostral anterior cingulate, insula, orbitofrontal cortex, and nucleus accumbens. A cross-sectional analysis was performed using structural MRI scans from 258 subjects. We found no difference in proportional change between groups. A longitudinal mixed effects model was used to compare regional changes over time in a subset of 84 subjects. Again, there was no difference in proportional change over time. While our results suggest that aging does not collectively target cognitive brain regions more than emotional regions, subgroup analysis suggests relative preservation of the anterior cingulate cortex, with greater volume loss in the nucleus accumbens. Implications of these relative rates of age-related volume loss in healthy aging are discussed and merit further research.

  11. NM Gross Receipts Baseline

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  12. Gross National Happiness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giri, Krishna Prasad; Kjær-Rasmussen, Lone Krogh

    This paper investigates practices related to the ideology of infusing Gross National Happiness (GNH) into school curriculum, the effectiveness of the meditation and mind training and the implication of GNH for school environment. It also explores how GNH ambience has been managed and practiced...... of Gross National Happiness and Educating for Gross National happiness....

  13. Quantification of regional fat volume in rat MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacha, Jaroslaw P.; Cockman, Michael D.; Dufresne, Thomas E.; Trokhan, Darren

    2003-05-01

    Multiple initiatives in the pharmaceutical and beauty care industries are directed at identifying therapies for weight management. Body composition measurements are critical for such initiatives. Imaging technologies that can be used to measure body composition noninvasively include DXA (dual energy x-ray absorptiometry) and MRI (magnetic resonance imaging). Unlike other approaches, MRI provides the ability to perform localized measurements of fat distribution. Several factors complicate the automatic delineation of fat regions and quantification of fat volumes. These include motion artifacts, field non-uniformity, brightness and contrast variations, chemical shift misregistration, and ambiguity in delineating anatomical structures. We have developed an approach to deal practically with those challenges. The approach is implemented in a package, the Fat Volume Tool, for automatic detection of fat tissue in MR images of the rat abdomen, including automatic discrimination between abdominal and subcutaneous regions. We suppress motion artifacts using masking based on detection of implicit landmarks in the images. Adaptive object extraction is used to compensate for intensity variations. This approach enables us to perform fat tissue detection and quantification in a fully automated manner. The package can also operate in manual mode, which can be used for verification of the automatic analysis or for performing supervised segmentation. In supervised segmentation, the operator has the ability to interact with the automatic segmentation procedures to touch-up or completely overwrite intermediate segmentation steps. The operator's interventions steer the automatic segmentation steps that follow. This improves the efficiency and quality of the final segmentation. Semi-automatic segmentation tools (interactive region growing, live-wire, etc.) improve both the accuracy and throughput of the operator when working in manual mode. The quality of automatic segmentation has been

  14. Effects of the international soybean trade on the dynamics of Gross Primary Productivity in soybean-producing regions in China and Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viña, A.; Silva, R. F. B. D.; Yang, H.; Liu, J.

    2017-12-01

    The international trade of agricultural commodities, such as soybean, is driven by a series of pull and push factors linked to market demand. These in turn fluctuate based on changes in economic affluence, infrastructure development, and socioeconomic homogenization, among others, in both sending and receiving systems. While many studies have analyzed some of these push/pull factors and their environmental effects in either sending or receiving systems, few studies have assessed these effects simultaneously in both sending and receiving systems. This study evaluates the effects of the soybean trade between Brazil and China on the spatio-temporal patterns of gross primary productivity (GPP) in both sending and receiving systems. The GPP is a measure of the amount of biomass produced through photosynthesis across space and through time. This metric is directly related with the amount of carbon that is sequestered from the atmosphere, and thus is related with the impacts of land use/cover dynamics on global climate change. The spatio-temporal patterns of both GPP and land use/cover were evaluated simultaneously in two soybean-producing regions (state of Mato Grosso in Brazil, and Heilongjiang province in China) through the use of surface reflectance data acquired by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) onboard NASA's Terra satellite, combined with a production efficiency model (PEM) entirely based on remotely sensed data. Results from this analysis provide new insights on the consequences of the international trade at local/regional scales, and allow assessing how changes in market demand for agricultural commodities may generate drastic environmental effects in both sending and receiving systems, with global implications on carbon sequestration and thus on climate change.

  15. Classification and multivariate analysis of differences in gross primary production at different elevations using biome-bgc in the páramos, ecuadorian andean region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Minaya

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Gross primary production (GPP in climate change studies with multi- species and elevation variables are difficult to measure and simulate. Models tend to provide a representation of dynamic process through long-term analysis by using generalized parameterizations. Even, current approaches of modelling do not contemplate easily the variation of GPP at different elevations for different vegetation types in regions like páramos, mainly due to data unavailability. In these models information from cells is commonly averaged, and therefore average elevation, ecophysiology of vegetation, as well as other parameters is generalized. The vegetation model BIOME- BGC was applied to the Ecuadorian Andean region for elevations greater than 4000 masl with the presence of typical vegetation of páramo for 10 years of simulation (period 2000-2009. An estimation of the difference of GPP obtained using a generalized altitude and predominant type of vegetation could lead to a better estimation of the uncertainty in the magnitude of the errors in global climate models. This research explores GPP from 3 different altitudes and 3 vegetation types against 2 main climate drivers (Short Wave Radiation and Vapor Pressure Deficit. Since it is important to measure the possible errors or difference in the use of averaged meteorological and ecophysiological data, here we present a multivariate analysis of the dynamic difference of GPP in time, relative to an altitude and type of vegetation. A copula multivariable model allows us to identify and classify the changes in GPP per type of vegetation and altitude. The Frank copula model of joint distributions was our best fit between GPP and climate drivers and it allowed us to understand better the dependency of the variables. These results can explore extreme situations where averaged simplified approaches could mislead. The change of GPP over time is essential for future climate scenarios of the ecosystem storage and release

  16. The effects of intracranial volume adjustment approaches on multiple regional MRI volumes in healthy aging and Alzheimer’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga eVoevodskaya

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In neurodegeneration research, normalization of regional volumes by intracranial volume (ICV is important to estimate the extent of disease-driven atrophy. There is little agreement as to whether raw volumes, volume-to-ICV fractions or regional volumes from which the ICV factor has been regressed out should be used for volumetric brain imaging studies. Using multiple regional cortical and subcortical volumetric measures generated by Freesurfer (51 in total, the main aim of this study was to elucidate the implications of these adjustment approaches. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI data were analyzed from two large cohorts, the population-based PIVUS cohort (N=406, all subjects age 75 and the Alzheimer disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI cohort (N=724. Further, we studied whether the chosen ICV normalization approach influenced the relationship between hippocampus and cognition in the three diagnostic groups of the ADNI cohort (Alzheimer’s disease, mild cognitive impairment and healthy individuals. The ability of raw vs adjusted hippocampal volumes to predict diagnostic status was also assessed. In both cohorts raw volumes correlate positively with ICV, but do not scale directly proportionally with it. The correlation direction is reversed for all volume-to-ICV fractions, except the lateral and third ventricles. Most grey matter fractions are larger in females, while lateral ventricle fractions are greater in males. Residual correction effectively eliminated the correlation between the regional volumes and ICV and removed gender differences. The association between hippocampal volumes and cognition was not altered by ICV normalization. Comparing prediction of diagnostic status using the different approaches, small but significant differences were found. The choice of normalization approach should be carefully considered when designing a volumetric brain imaging study.

  17. Gross Sales Tax Collections

    Data.gov (United States)

    City of Jackson, Mississippi — This data is captured directly from the MS Department of Revenue and specific to the City of Jackson. It is compiled from Gross Sales Tax reported by taxpayers each...

  18. Loovkirjutamist õpetab Philip Gross

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    T.S. Elioti luulepreemia laureaat Philip Gross on Tallinna Ülikooli talvekooli rahvusvahelise kursuse "Poetry: A Conversation between Words and Silence" läbiviija. Oma seminarides keskendub ta lisaks loovkirjutamisele ka loova lugemise vajadusele

  19. Northeastern Regional geologic characterization report. Volume 3. Plates. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-08-01

    Volume 7(3) contains the following maps: index map; faults, ground acceleration, and in situ stress; rock and mineral resources; drainage basins and ground water discharge zones; ground water resources; and crystalline rock bodies

  20. Revised draft: Northeastern Regional geologic characterization report. Volume 3. Plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-11-01

    Volume 7(3) contains the following maps: Index Map; Faults, Ground Acceleration, and In Situ Stress; Rock and Mineral Resources; Drainage Basins and Groundwater Discharge Zones; Groundwater Resources; and Crystalline Rock Bodies

  1. {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose-PET/CT to evaluate tumor, nodal disease, and gross tumor volume of oropharyngeal and oral cavity cancer: comparison with MR imaging and validation with surgical specimen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seitz, Oliver; Chambron-Pinho, Nicole; Sader, Rober [JW Goethe University, Department of Oromaxillofacial Surgery, Frankfurt (Germany); Middendorp, Markus [JW Goethe University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Frankfurt (Germany); Mack, Martin; Vogl, Thomas J. [JW Goethe University, Department of Radiology, Frankfurt (Germany); Bisdas, Sotirios [Eberhard Karls University, Department of Neuroradiology, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2009-10-15

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the impact of adding combined {sup 18}F-PET/CT to MRI for T and N staging of the oral and oropharyngeal cancer and calculation of the gross tumor volume (GTV) having histopathology as reference standard. PET/CT and MRI were performed in 66 patients with suspected oral and oropharyngeal cancer (41 primary tumors/25 recurrent tumors) and nodal disease (114 nodes). Statistical analysis included the McNemar test, sensitivity, specificity for the diagnostic modalities as well as regression analysis, and Bland-Altman graphs for calculated tumor volumes. There was no statistically significant difference between the two modalities compared to pathological findings regarding detection of disease (P{>=}0.72). The sensitivity/specificity for tumor detection were 100/80% and 96.72/60% for MRI and PET/CT, respectively. The sensitivity/specificity for nodal metastases were 88.46/75% and 83.81/73.91% for MRI and PET/CT, respectively. In 18% of cases, the MRI-based T staging resulted in an overestimation of the pathologic tumor stage. The corresponding rate for PET/CT was 22%. Regarding the treated necks, both modalities showed 100% sensitivity for detection of the recurrent lesions. In necks with histologically N0 staging, MRI and PET/CT gave 22% and 26% false positive findings, respectively. The mean tumor volume in the pathologic specimen was 16.6{+-}18.6 ml, the mean volume derived by the MR imaging was 17.6{+-}19.1 ml while the estimated by PET/CT volume was 18.8{+-}18.1 ml (P{<=}0.007 between the three methods). The Bland-Altman analysis showed a better agreement between PET/CT and MRI. The diagnostic performance of FDG-PET/CT in the local staging of oral cancer is not superior to MRI. (orig.)

  2. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose-PET/CT to evaluate tumor, nodal disease, and gross tumor volume of oropharyngeal and oral cavity cancer: comparison with MR imaging and validation with surgical specimen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seitz, Oliver; Chambron-Pinho, Nicole; Sader, Rober; Middendorp, Markus; Mack, Martin; Vogl, Thomas J.; Bisdas, Sotirios

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the impact of adding combined 18 F-PET/CT to MRI for T and N staging of the oral and oropharyngeal cancer and calculation of the gross tumor volume (GTV) having histopathology as reference standard. PET/CT and MRI were performed in 66 patients with suspected oral and oropharyngeal cancer (41 primary tumors/25 recurrent tumors) and nodal disease (114 nodes). Statistical analysis included the McNemar test, sensitivity, specificity for the diagnostic modalities as well as regression analysis, and Bland-Altman graphs for calculated tumor volumes. There was no statistically significant difference between the two modalities compared to pathological findings regarding detection of disease (P≥0.72). The sensitivity/specificity for tumor detection were 100/80% and 96.72/60% for MRI and PET/CT, respectively. The sensitivity/specificity for nodal metastases were 88.46/75% and 83.81/73.91% for MRI and PET/CT, respectively. In 18% of cases, the MRI-based T staging resulted in an overestimation of the pathologic tumor stage. The corresponding rate for PET/CT was 22%. Regarding the treated necks, both modalities showed 100% sensitivity for detection of the recurrent lesions. In necks with histologically N0 staging, MRI and PET/CT gave 22% and 26% false positive findings, respectively. The mean tumor volume in the pathologic specimen was 16.6±18.6 ml, the mean volume derived by the MR imaging was 17.6±19.1 ml while the estimated by PET/CT volume was 18.8±18.1 ml (P≤0.007 between the three methods). The Bland-Altman analysis showed a better agreement between PET/CT and MRI. The diagnostic performance of FDG-PET/CT in the local staging of oral cancer is not superior to MRI. (orig.)

  3. A Comparison of Regional and SiteSpecific Volume Estimation Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joe P. McClure; Jana Anderson; Hans T. Schreuder

    1987-01-01

    Regression equations for volume by region and site class were examined for lobiolly pine. The regressions for the Coastal Plain and Piedmont regions had significantly different slopes. The results shared important practical differences in percentage of confidence intervals containing the true total volume and in percentage of estimates within a specific proportion of...

  4. Final report : Occupational gap analysis, volume 2 Wood Buffalo region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-06-01

    The general economy of the Wood Buffalo region of Alberta has improved in recent years due to the expansion of the oil sand industry. Many of the oil sands projects are situated in the southern part of the region and are serviced out of Lac LaBiche. This paper examines the implications of this economic growth for the regional supply and demand of workers in key occupational categories. In particular, it projects employment opportunities that are directly attributed to the regional economic expansion, and assesses whether there will be an adequate supply of workers to meet the demand for new and replacement employees. The report includes: an overview of the regional economy; a population forecast for the region and the demand for workers in selected occupations; an analysis of whether or not the new labour force entrants will choose the selected occupations; and, a supply and demand analysis. 7 tabs., 2 figs., 5 appendices

  5. Gross alpha and gross beta determination in surface and groundwater water by liquid scintillation counting (LSC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faria, Ligia S.; Moreira, Rubens M.

    2013-01-01

    The present study has used 40 samples of groundwater and surface water collected at four different sites along the period of one year in Brumadinho and Nova Lima, two municipalities in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, as part of a more extensive study aiming at determination of the natural radioactivity in the water used for domestic use. These two sites are inside an Environmental Protection Area is located in a region of very intensive iron ore exploration. In addition of mineral resources, the region has a geological characteristic that includes quartzitic conglomerates associated with uranium. Radioactivity levels were determined via liquid scintillation counting (LSC), a fast and high counting efficiency method that can be advantageously employed to determine gross alpha and gross beta activity in liquid samples. Previously to gross alpha and gross beta counting the samples were acidified with concentrated HNO 3 in the field. The technique involved a pre-concentration of the sample to obtain a low detection limit. Specific details of the employed methodology are commented. The results showed that concentrations of gross alpha natural activity and gross beta values ranged from less than the detection limit of the equipment (0.03 Bq.L -1 ) to 0.275 ± 0.05 Bq.L -1 for gross alpha. As regards gross beta, all samples were below the limit of detection. (author)

  6. Comparison of investigator-delineated gross tumor volumes and quality assurance in pancreatic cancer: Analysis of the pretrial benchmark case for the SCALOP trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fokas, Emmanouil; Clifford, Charlotte; Spezi, Emiliano; Joseph, George; Branagan, Jennifer; Hurt, Chris; Nixon, Lisette; Abrams, Ross; Staffurth, John; Mukherjee, Somnath

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the variation in investigator-delineated volumes and assess plans from the radiotherapy trial quality assurance (RTTQA) program of SCALOP, a phase II trial in locally advanced pancreatic cancer. Participating investigators (n=25) outlined a pre-trial benchmark case as per RT protocol, and the accuracy of investigators' GTV (iGTV) and PTV (iPTV) was evaluated, against the trials team-defined gold standard GTV (gsGTV) and PTV (gsPTV), using both qualitative and geometric analyses. The median Jaccard Conformity Index (JCI) and Geographical Miss Index (GMI) were calculated. Participating RT centers also submitted a radiotherapy plan for this benchmark case, which was centrally reviewed against protocol-defined constraints. Twenty-five investigator-defined contours were evaluated. The median JCI and GMI of iGTVs were 0.57 (IQR: 0.51-0.65) and 0.26 (IQR: 0.15-0.40). For iPTVs, these were 0.75 (IQR: 0.71-0.79) and 0.14 (IQR: 0.11-0.22) respectively. Qualitative analysis showed largest variation at the tumor edges and failure to recognize a peri-pancreatic lymph node. There were no major protocol deviations in RT planning, but three minor PTV coverage deviations were identified. . SCALOP demonstrated considerable variation in iGTV delineation. RTTQA workshops and real-time central review of delineations are needed in future trials. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparison of investigator-delineated gross tumour volumes and quality assurance in pancreatic cancer: Analysis of the on-trial cases for the SCALOP trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fokas, Emmanouil; Spezi, Emiliano; Patel, Neel; Hurt, Chris; Nixon, Lisette; Chu, Kwun-Ye; Staffurth, John; Abrams, Ross; Mukherjee, Somnath

    2016-08-01

    We performed a retrospective central review of tumour outlines in patients undergoing radiotherapy in the SCALOP trial. The planning CT scans were reviewed retrospectively by a central review team, and the accuracy of investigators' GTV (iGTV) and PTV (iPTV) was compared to the trials team-defined gold standard (gsGTV and gsPTV) using the Jaccard Conformity Index (JCI) and Geographical Miss Index (GMI). The prognostic value of JCI and GMI was also assessed. The RT plans were also reviewed against protocol-defined constraints. 60 patients with diagnostic-quality planning scans were included. The median whole volume JCI for GTV was 0.64 (IQR: 0.43-0.82), and the median GMI was 0.11 (IQR: 0.05-0.22). For PTVs, the median JCI and GMI were 0.80 (IQR: 0.71-0.88) and 0.04 (IQR: 0.02-0.12) respectively. Tumour was completely missed in 1 patient, and⩾50% of the tumour was missed in 3. Patients with JCI for GTV⩾0.7 had 7.12 (95% CIs: 1.83-27.67, p=0.005) higher odds of progressing by 9months in multivariate analysis. Major deviations in RT planning were noted in 4.5% of cases. Radiotherapy workshops and real-time central review of contours are required in RT trials of pancreatic cancer. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Experimental estimation of regional lung water volume by histogram of pulmonary CT numbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Shiro; Momoki, Shigeru; Asai, Toshihiko; Shimada, Takeshi; Tamano, Masahiro; Nakamoto, Takaaki; Yoshimura, Masaharu

    1989-01-01

    Both in vitro and in vivo experiments were made to assess the ability of pulmonary CT numbers to quantitatively determine regional water volume in cases of pulmonary congestion or edema associated with left heart failure. In vitro experiment revealed a good linear correlation between the volume of injected water and the determined CT number of polyethylene tube packed with sponge. In the subsequent in vivo experiment with 10 adult mongrel dogs, lung water volumes obtained by pulmonary CT numbers were found to be consistent with the actual volumes. Pulmonary CT numbers for water volume proved to become parameters to quantitatively evaluate pulmonary congestion or edema. (Namekawa, K)

  9. Northeastern Regional geologic characterization report. Volume 1. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-08-01

    This report presents available geologic information pertinent to siting a repository for high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont. For each of the states within the Northeastern Region, information is provided on the geologic disqualifying factor and the geologic regional screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening. The geologic factor and variables include deep mines and quarries, rock mass extent, postemplacement faulting, suspected Quaternary faulting, seismicity, rock and mineral resources, major ground-water discharge zones, ground-water resources, state of stress, thickness of rock mass, and thickness of overburden. Information is presented on age, areal extent, shape, composition, texture, degree and type of alteration, thickness, and structural features associated with each rock body or complex. Regional seismic and tectonic information is presented, including patterns of earthquake occurrence, earthquake magnitudes, horizontal ground accelerations, and vertical crusal movements. Also included are discussions of the rock and mineral deposits or mines located within or near crystalline bodies; ground-water resources and regional hydrology; postulated changes in climate and the associated effects; and landforms, surface processes, and surficial materials on or near the rock bodies. A discussion is also presented on the relationship between the US Department of Energy (DOE) Siting Guidelines (10 CFR 960) and the geologic disqualifying factor and regional screening variables to be used in the region-to-area screening process

  10. North Central Regional geologic characterization report. Volume 1. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-08-01

    This report presents available geologic information pertinent to siting a repository for high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in Minnesota, Wisconsin, and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. For each of the states within the North Central Region, information is provided on the geologic disqualifying factor and the geologic regional screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening. The geologic factor and variables include deep mines and quarries, rock mass extent, post-emplacement faulting, suspected Quaternary faulting, seismicity, rock and mineral resources, major groundwater discharge zones, groundwater resources, state of stress, thickness of rock mass, and thickness of overburden. Information is presented on age, areal extent, shape, composition, texture, degree and type of alteration, thickness, and structural features associated with each rock body or complex. Regional seismic and tectonic information is presented, including patterns of earthquake occurrence, earthquake magnitudes, horizontal ground accelerations, and vertical crustal movements. Also included are discussions of the rock and mineral deposits or mines located within or near crystalline rock bodies; groundwater resources and regional hydrology; postulated changes in climate and the associated effects; and landforms, surface processes, and surficial materials on or near the rock bodies. A discussion is also presented of the relationship between the US Department of Energy Siting Guidelines (10 CFR 960) and the geologic disqualifying factor and regional screening variables to be used in the region-to-area screening process. 43 figs., 15 tabs

  11. Smaller global and regional carbon emissions from gross land use change when considering sub-grid secondary land cohorts in a global dynamic vegetation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Chao; Ciais, Philippe; Li, Wei

    2018-02-01

    Several modelling studies reported elevated carbon emissions from historical land use change (ELUC) by including bidirectional transitions on the sub-grid scale (termed gross land use change), dominated by shifting cultivation and other land turnover processes. However, most dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs) that have implemented gross land use change either do not account for sub-grid secondary lands, or often have only one single secondary land tile over a model grid cell and thus cannot account for various rotation lengths in shifting cultivation and associated secondary forest age dynamics. Therefore, it remains uncertain how realistic the past ELUC estimations are and how estimated ELUC will differ between the two modelling approaches with and without multiple sub-grid secondary land cohorts - in particular secondary forest cohorts. Here we investigated historical ELUC over 1501-2005 by including sub-grid forest age dynamics in a DGVM. We run two simulations, one with no secondary forests (Sageless) and the other with sub-grid secondary forests of six age classes whose demography is driven by historical land use change (Sage). Estimated global ELUC for 1501-2005 is 176 Pg C in Sage compared to 197 Pg C in Sageless. The lower ELUC values in Sage arise mainly from shifting cultivation in the tropics under an assumed constant rotation length of 15 years, being 27 Pg C in Sage in contrast to 46 Pg C in Sageless. Estimated cumulative ELUC values from wood harvest in the Sage simulation (31 Pg C) are however slightly higher than Sageless (27 Pg C) when the model is forced by reconstructed harvested areas because secondary forests targeted in Sage for harvest priority are insufficient to meet the prescribed harvest area, leading to wood harvest being dominated by old primary forests. An alternative approach to quantify wood harvest ELUC, i.e. always harvesting the close-to-mature forests in both Sageless and Sage, yields similar values of 33 Pg C by both

  12. Wind energy resource atlas. Volume 9. The Southwest Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, R.L.; Norman, G.T.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

    1980-11-01

    This atlas of the wind energy resource is composed of introductory and background information, a regional summary of the wind resource, and assessments of the wind resource in Nevada and California. Background on how the wind resource is assessed and on how the results of the assessment should be interpreted is presented. A description of the wind resource on a regional scale is then given. The results of the wind energy assessments for each state are assembled into an overview and summary of the various features of the regional wind energy resource. An introduction and outline to the descriptions of the wind resource given for each state are given. Assessments for individual states are presented as separate chapters. The state wind energy resources are described in greater detail than is the regional wind energy resource, and features of selected stations are discussed.

  13. Regional Disparities in Online Map User Access Volume and Determining Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, R.; Yang, N.; Li, R.; Huang, W.; Wu, H.

    2017-09-01

    The regional disparities of online map user access volume (use `user access volume' in this paper to indicate briefly) is a topic of growing interest with the increment of popularity in public users, which helps to target the construction of geographic information services for different areas. At first place we statistically analysed the online map user access logs and quantified these regional access disparities on different scales. The results show that the volume of user access is decreasing from east to the west in China as a whole, while East China produces the most access volume; these cities are also the crucial economic and transport centres. Then Principal Component Regression (PCR) is applied to explore the regional disparities of user access volume. A determining model for Online Map access volume is proposed afterwards, which indicates that area scale is the primary determining factor for regional disparities, followed by public transport development level and public service development level. Other factors like user quality index and financial index have very limited influence on the user access volume. According to the study of regional disparities in user access volume, map providers can reasonably dispatch and allocate the data resources and service resources in each area and improve the operational efficiency of the Online Map server cluster.

  14. 18F-FDG PET/CT-based gross tumor volume definition for radiotherapy in head and neck Cancer: a correlation study between suitable uptake value threshold and tumor parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kao, Chia-Hung; Hsieh, Te-Chun; Yu, Chun-Yen; Yen, Kuo-Yang; Yang, Shih-Neng; Wang, Yao-Ching; Liang, Ji-An; Chien, Chun-Ru; Chen, Shang-Wen

    2010-01-01

    To define a suitable threshold setting for gross tumor volume (GTV) when using 18 Fluoro-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography and computed tomogram (PET/CT) for radiotherapy planning in head and neck cancer (HNC). Fifteen HNC patients prospectively received PET/CT simulation for their radiation treatment planning. Biological target volume (BTV) was derived from PET/CT-based GTV of the primary tumor. The BTVs were defined as the isodensity volumes when adjusting different percentage of the maximal standardized uptake value (SUVmax), excluding any artifact from surrounding normal tissues. CT-based primary GTV (C-pGTV) that had been previously defined by radiation oncologists was compared with the BTV. Suitable threshold level (sTL) could be determined when BTV value and its morphology using a certain threshold level was observed to be the best fitness of the C-pGTV. Suitable standardized uptake value (sSUV) was calculated as the sTL multiplied by the SUVmax. Our result demonstrated no single sTL or sSUV method could achieve an optimized volumetric match with the C-pGTV. The sTL was 13% to 27% (mean, 19%), whereas the sSUV was 1.64 to 3.98 (mean, 2.46). The sTL was inversely correlated with the SUVmax [sTL = -0.1004 Ln (SUVmax) + 0.4464; R 2 = 0.81]. The sSUV showed a linear correlation with the SUVmax (sSUV = 0.0842 SUVmax + 1.248; R 2 = 0.89). The sTL was not associated with the value of C-pGTVs. In PET/CT-based BTV for HNC, a suitable threshold or SUV level can be established by correlating with SUVmax rather than using a fixed threshold

  15. Revised draft: Southeastern Regional geologic characterization report. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-11-01

    This report presents available geologic information pertinent to siting a repository for high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in Georgia, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Virginia. For each of the states within the southeastern region, information is provided on the disqualifying factor and the screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening. These factors and variables include hydrologically significant natural resources, rock mass extent, postemplacement faulting, suspected Quaternary faulting, seismicity, rock and mineral resources, major ground-water discharge zones, water resources, ground-water salinity, and state of stress. Information is presented on the age, areal extent, shape, thickness of overburden, composition, texture, degree and type of alteration, and structural features associated with each rock body or complex. Regional seismic and tectonic information is presented, including patterns of earthquake occurrence, earthquake magnitudes, horizontal ground accelerations, and vertical crustal movements. Also included are discussions of the rock and mineral deposits or mines located within or near crystalline bodies; groundwater resources and regional hydrology; postulated changes in climate and the associated effects; and landforms, surface processes, and surficial materials on or near the subject rock bodies. A discussion of the relationship between the DOE Siting Guidelines and the geologic disqualifying factor and regional screening variables to be used in the region-to-area screening process is also presented

  16. Revised draft: North Central Regional geologic characterization report. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-11-01

    This report presents available geologic information pertinent to siting a repository for high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in Minnesota, Wisconsin, and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. For each of the states within the North Central Region, information is provided on the disqualifying factor and the screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening. These factors and variables include hydrologically significant natural resources, rock mass extent, post-emplacement faulting, suspected Quaternary faulting, seismicity, rock and mineral resources, major groundwater discharge zones, water resources, groundwater salinity, and state of stress. Information is presented on age, areal extent, shape, thickness of overburden, composition, texture, degree and type of alteration, and structural features associated with each rock body or complex. Regional seismic and tectonic information is presented, including patterns of earthquake occurrence, earthquake magnitudes, horizontal ground accelerations, and vertical crustal movements. Also included are discussions of the rock and mineral deposits or mines located within or near crystalline rock bodies; groundwater resources and regional hydrology; postulated changes in climate and the associated effects; and landforms, surface processes, and surficial materials on or near the subject rock bodies. A discussion of the relationship between the DOE Siting Guidelines and the geologic disqualifying factor and regional screening variables to be used in the region-to-area screening process is also presented

  17. North Central Regional environmental characterization report. Volume 1. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-08-01

    This report presents available environmental information pertinent to siting a repository for high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in Minnesota, Wisconsin, and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. For each of the states within the North Central Region, information is provided on those environmental disqualifying factors and regional screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening. These environmental factors and variables include existing and proposed Federal-protected lands, proximity to Federal-protected lands, components of national forest lands, existing state-protected lands, proximity to state-protected lands, population density and distribution, proximity to highly populated areas or to 1-mile square areas with 1000 or more persons, national and state forest lands, designated critical habitats for threatened and endangered spcies, surface water bodies, and wetlands. In addition, supplementary descriptive information providing a general characterization of the region is presented, as is information on environmental parameters that will be of use at later phases of screening. Also included is a discussion of the relationship between the US Department of Energy Siting Guidelines (10CFR 960) and those environmental disqualifying factors and regional screening variables to be used in the region-to-area screening process

  18. Revised draft: Northeastern Regional environmental characterization report. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-11-01

    This report presents available environmental information pertinent to siting a repository for high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, northeastern and southeastern New York, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, northern New Jersey, and eastern Pennsylvania. For each of the states within the Northeastern Region, information is provided on those environmental disqualifying factors and regional screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening. These environmental factors and variables include existing and proposed federal protected lands, proximity to federal protected lands, existing state protected lands, proximity to state protected lands, population density and distribution, proximity to highly populated areas, national and state forest lands, state wildlife lands, designated critical habitats for threatened and endangered species, surface water bodies, and wetlands. In addition, supplementary descriptive information providing a general characterization of the region is presented, as is information on environmental parameters that may be of use at later phases of screening. Also included is a discussion of the relationship between the US Department of Energy (DOE) Siting Guidelines and those environmental disqualifying factors and regional screening variables to be used in the region-to-area screening process

  19. Revised draft: Southeastern Regional environmental characterization report. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-11-01

    This report presents available environmental information pertinent to siting a repository for high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in central Maryland; noncoastal Virginia, North Carolina, and South Carolina; and northern Georgia. For each of the states within the Southeastern Region, information is provided on those environmental disqualifying factors and regional screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening. These environmental factors and variables include existing and proposed federal protected lands, proximity to federal protected lands, existing state protected lands, proximity to state protected lands, population density and distribution, proximity to highly populated areas, national and state forest lands, state wild-life lands, designated critical habitats for threatened and endangered species, surface water bodies, and wetlands. In addition, supplementary descriptive information providing a general characterization of the region is presented, as is information on environmental parameters that may be of use at later phases of screening. Also included is a discussion of the relationship between the US Department of Energy (DOE) Siting Guidelines and those environmental disqualifying factors and regional screening variables to be used in the region-to-area screening process

  20. Northeastern Regional environmental characterization report. Volume 1. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-08-01

    This report presents available environmental information pertinent to siting a repository for high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, northeastern and southeastern New York, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, northern New Jersey, and eastern Pennsylvania. For each of the States within the Northeastern Region, information is provided on those environmental disqualifying factors and regional screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening. These environmental factors and variables include existing and proposed Federal-protected lands, components of National Forest Lands, proximity to Federal-protected lands, existing State-protected lands, proximity to State-protected lands, population density and distribution, proximity to highly populated areas, or to 1-mile-square areas with 1000 or more persons, National and State forest lands, designated critical habitats for threatened and endangered species, surface water bodies, and wetlands. In addition, supplementary descriptive information providing a general characterization of the region is presented, as is information on environmental parameters that will be of use at later phases of screening. Also included is a discussion of the relationship between the US Department of Energy Siting Guidelines (10 CFR 960) and those environmental disqualifying factors and regional screening variables to be used in the region-to-area screening process

  1. Revised draft: North Central Regional environmental characterization report. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-11-01

    This report presents available environmental information pertinent to siting a repository for high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in Minnesota, Wisconsin, and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. For each of the states within the North Central Region, information is provided on those environmental disqualifying factors and regional screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening. These environmental factors and variables include existing and proposed federal protected lands, proximity to federal protected lands, existing state protected lands, proximity to state protected lands, population density and distribution, proximity to highly populated areas, national and state forest lands, state wildlife lands, designated critical habitats for threatened and endangered species, surface water bodies, and wetlands. In addition, supplementary descriptive information providing a general characterization of the region is presented, as is information on environmental parameters that may be of use at later phases of screening. Also included is a discussion of the relationship between the DOE Siting Guidelines and those environmental disqualifying factors and regional screening variables to be used in the region-to-area screening process

  2. Southeastern Regional Environmental Characterization Report. Volume 1. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-08-01

    This report presents available environmental information pertinent to siting a repository for high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in central Maryland; noncoastal Virginia, North Carolina, and South Carolina; and northern Georgia. For each of the States within the Southeastern Region, information is provided on those environmental disqualifying factors and regional screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening. These environmental factors and variables include existing and proposd Federal-protected lands, components of National Forest Lands, proximity to Federal-protected lands, existing State-protected lands, proximity to State-protected lands, population density and distribution, proximity to highly populated areas, or to 1-mile-square areas with 1000 or more persons, national and State forest lands, designated critical habitats for threatened and endangered species, surface water bodies, and wetlands. In addition, supplementary descriptive information providing a general characterization of the region is presented, as is information on environmental parameters that will be of use at later phases of screening. Also included is a discussion of the relationship between the US Department of Energy Siting Guidelines (10 CFR 960) and those environmental disqualifying factors and regional screening variables to be used in the region-to-area screening process

  3. Salient regions detection using convolutional neural networks and color volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guang-Hai; Hou, Yingkun

    2018-03-01

    Convolutional neural network is an important technique in machine learning, pattern recognition and image processing. In order to reduce the computational burden and extend the classical LeNet-5 model to the field of saliency detection, we propose a simple and novel computing model based on LeNet-5 network. In the proposed model, hue, saturation and intensity are utilized to extract depth cues, and then we integrate depth cues and color volume to saliency detection following the basic structure of the feature integration theory. Experimental results show that the proposed computing model outperforms some existing state-of-the-art methods on MSRA1000 and ECSSD datasets.

  4. Southeastern Regional geologic characterization report. Volume 1. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-08-01

    This report presents available geologic information pertinent to siting a repository for high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in central Maryland; noncoastal Virginia, North Carolina, and South Carolina; and northern Georgia. For each of the states within the Southeastern Region, information is provided on the geological disqualifying factor and the geologic regional screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening. The geological factor and variables include deep mines and quarries, rock mass extent, postemplacement faulting, suspected Quaternary faulting, seismicity, rock and mineral resources, major ground-water discharge zones, ground-water resources, state of stress, thickness of rock mass, and thickness of overburden. Information is presented on the age, areal extent, shape, composition, texture, degree and type of alteration, thickness, and structural features associated with each rock body or complex. Regional seismic and tectonic information is presented, including patterns of earthquake occurrence, earthquake magnitudes, horizontal ground accelerations, and vertical crustal movements. Also included are discussions of the rock and mineral deposits or mines located within or near crystalline bodies; ground-water resources and regional hydrology; postulated changes in climate and the associated effects; and landforms, surface processes, and surficial materials on or near the rock bodies

  5. Wind energy resource atlas. Volume 7. The south central region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, R.L.; Graves, L.F.; Sprankle, A.C.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

    1981-03-01

    This atlas of the south central region combines seven collections of wind resource data: one for the region, and one for each of the six states (Arkansas, Kansas, Louisiana, Missouri, Oklahoma, and Texas). At the state level, features of the climate, topography, and wind resource are discussed in greater detail than that provided in the regional discussion, and the data locations on which the assessment is based are mapped. Variations, over several time scales, in the wind resource at selected stations in each state are shown on graphs of monthly average and interannual wind speed and power, and hourly average wind speed for each season. Other graphs present speed, direction, and duration frequencies of the wind at these locations.

  6. A Method Validation for Determination of Gross Alpha and Gross Beta in Water Sample Using Low Background Gross Alpha/ Beta Counting System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zal Uyun Wan Mahmood; Norfaizal Mohamed; Nita Salina Abu Bakar

    2016-01-01

    Method validation (MV) for the measurement of gross alpha and gross beta activity in water (drinking, mineral and environmental) samples using Low Background Gross Alpha/ Beta Counting System was performed to characterize precision, accuracy and reliable results. The main objective of this assignment is to ensure that both the instrument and method always good performed and resulting accuracy and reliable results. Generally, almost the results of estimated RSD, z-score and U_s_c_o_r_e were reliable which are recorded as ≤30 %, less than 2 and less than 1.5, respectively. Minimum Detected Activity (MDA) was estimated based on the counting time of 100 minutes and present background counting value of gross alpha (0.01 - 0.35 cpm) and gross beta (0.50 - 2.18 cpm). Estimated Detection Limit (DL) was 0.1 Bq/ L for gross alpha and 0.2 Bq/ L for gross beta and expended uncertainty was relatively small of 9.77 % for gross alpha and 10.57 % for gross beta. Align with that, background counting for gross alpha and gross beta was ranged of 0.01 - 0.35 cpm and 0.50 - 2.18 cpm, respectively. While, sample volume was set at minimum of 500 mL and maximum of 2000 mL. These proven the accuracy and precision result that are generated from developed method/ technique is satisfactory and method is recommended to be used. Therefore, it can be concluded that the MV found no doubtful on the ability of the developed method. The test result showed the method is suitable for all types of water samples which are contained several radionuclides and elements as well as any impurities that interfere the measurement analysis of gross alpha and gross beta. (author)

  7. Oceanic Area System Improvement Study (OASIS). Volume IV. Caribbean Region Air Traffic Services System Description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    OASIS) U Final Report This report i.s one of a set of companion documents which includes the following volumes: Volume I Executive Summary and...Northern Coastal Region of 4 the Directorate of Engineering and Systems (Direccion de Ingenieria y Sistemas ), which is responsible for maintenance of the

  8. Regional Gray Matter Volume Deficits in Adolescents with First-Episode Psychosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Joost; Parellada, Mara; Moreno, Dolores; Graell, Montserrat; Fraguas, David; Zabala, Arantzazu; Vazquez, Veronica Garcia; Desco, Manuel; Arango, Celso

    2008-01-01

    The regional gray matter volumes of adolescents with first-episode psychosis are compared with those of a control group. Magnetic resonance imaging was conducted on 70 patients with early onset FEP and on 51 individuals without FEP. Findings revealed that volume deficits in the left medial frontal gray matter were common in individuals with…

  9. Revised draft: Northeastern Regional geologic characterization report. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-11-01

    This report presents available geologic information pertinent to siting a repository for high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont. For each of the states within the Northeastern Region, information is provided on the disqualifying factor and the screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening. These factors and variables include: hydrologically significant natural resources, rock mass extent, post-emplacement faulting, suspected Quaternary faulting, seismicity, rock and mineral resources, major ground-water discharge zones, water resources, ground-water salinity, and state of stress. Information is presented on its age, areal extent, shape, thickness of overburden, composition, texture, degree and type of alteration, rock mass thickness, and structural features associated with each rock body or complex. Regional seismic and tectonic information is presented, including patterns of earthquake occurrence, earthquake magnitudes, horizontal ground accelerations, and vertical crustal movements. Also included are discussions of the rock and mineral deposits or mines located within or near crystalline bodies; ground-water resources and regional hydrology; postulated changes in climate and the associated effects; and landforms, surface processes, and surficial materials on or near the subject rock bodies

  10. Revised draft: North Central Regional geologic characterization report. Volume 2. Plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-11-01

    Volume 8(2) comprises the following maps pertaining to the North-Central Region: Index Map; Overburden Thickness; Faults and Ground Acceleration; Rock and Mineral Resources; Groundwater Basins and Potential Major Zones; Groundwater Resource Potential; and a Geologic Map

  11. Transport volume in regions of the Czech Republic in relation to the production of waste

    OpenAIRE

    Pojkarová, Kateřina; Hruška, Roman

    2010-01-01

    The article deals with the transport volume in regions of the Czech Republic in relation to the production of waste. On the basis of waste statistics and transport statistics is researched the greatness of the relation between the transport volume and the production of waste in regions of the Czech Republic. The relation is illustrated graphically too. We have many kinds of waste which we can monitor. The most important kinds of waste are municipal waste, industrial waste, construction ...

  12. Semiautomatic regional segmentation to measure orbital fat volumes in thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy. A validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comerci, M; Elefante, A; Strianese, D; Senese, R; Bonavolontà, P; Alfano, B; Bonavolontà, B; Brunetti, A

    2013-08-01

    This study was designed to validate a novel semi-automated segmentation method to measure regional intra-orbital fat tissue volume in Graves' ophthalmopathy. Twenty-four orbits from 12 patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy, 24 orbits from 12 controls, ten orbits from five MRI study simulations and two orbits from a digital model were used. Following manual region of interest definition of the orbital volumes performed by two operators with different levels of expertise, an automated procedure calculated intra-orbital fat tissue volumes (global and regional, with automated definition of four quadrants). In patients with Graves' disease, clinical activity score and degree of exophthalmos were measured and correlated with intra-orbital fat volumes. Operator performance was evaluated and statistical analysis of the measurements was performed. Accurate intra-orbital fat volume measurements were obtained with coefficients of variation below 5%. The mean operator difference in total fat volume measurements was 0.56%. Patients had significantly higher intra-orbital fat volumes than controls (p<0.001 using Student's t test). Fat volumes and clinical score were significantly correlated (p<0.001). The semi-automated method described here can provide accurate, reproducible intra-orbital fat measurements with low inter-operator variation and good correlation with clinical data.

  13. Moral values are associated with individual differences in regional brain volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Gary J; Kanai, Ryota; Bates, Timothy C; Rees, Geraint

    2012-08-01

    Moral sentiment has been hypothesized to reflect evolved adaptations to social living. If so, individual differences in moral values may relate to regional variation in brain structure. We tested this hypothesis in a sample of 70 young, healthy adults examining whether differences on two major dimensions of moral values were significantly associated with regional gray matter volume. The two clusters of moral values assessed were "individualizing" (values of harm/care and fairness) and "binding" (deference to authority, in-group loyalty, and purity/sanctity). Individualizing was positively associated with left dorsomedial pFC volume and negatively associated with bilateral precuneus volume. For binding, a significant positive association was found for bilateral subcallosal gyrus and a trend to significance for the left anterior insula volume. These findings demonstrate that variation in moral sentiment reflects individual differences in brain structure and suggest a biological basis for moral sentiment, distributed across multiple brain regions.

  14. Multi-region unstructured volume segmentation using tetrahedron filling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willliams, Sean Jamerson [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dillard, Scott E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Thoma, Dan J [MDI, INSTITUTES; Hlawitschka, Mario [UC DAVIS; Hamann, Bernd [UC DAVIS

    2010-01-01

    Segmentation is one of the most common operations in image processing, and while there are several solutions already present in the literature, they each have their own benefits and drawbacks that make them well-suited for some types of data and not for others. We focus on the problem of breaking an image into multiple regions in a single segmentation pass, while supporting both voxel and scattered point data. To solve this problem, we begin with a set of potential boundary points and use a Delaunay triangulation to complete the boundaries. We use heuristic- and interaction-driven Voronoi clustering to find reasonable groupings of tetrahedra. Apart from the computation of the Delaunay triangulation, our algorithm has linear time complexity with respect to the number of tetrahedra.

  15. Prospects of Oil, Gas and Petrochemical Industries in the Arab Region: Opportunities and Challenges, Volume 1 and Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The publication has been set up as proceedings of the Chemical Engineering conference, Prospects of Oil, Gas and Petrochemical Industries in The Arab Region Opportunities and Challenges., the conference contains of the following subjects: Gas Processing; Oil Refinery Engineering; Petrochemical Industry; Fuels Technologies and Transport Phenomena; Project Management Economics and Control; Materials and Corrosion Engineering; Biochemical and Environmental Engineering; Water Treatment and Pollution Control. This conference consists of two volume and 1534 pages., figs., tabs., refs

  16. Tritium volume activity in natural waters of NPP Temelin region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomasek, M; Wilhelmova, L [Academy of Sciences of the Czech Rep., Prague (Czech Republic). Nuclear Physics Inst., Dept. of Radiation Dosimetry

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents the results of tritium measurement in selected rivers of NPP Temelin before its operation obtained during the period 1991-1994. Particular attention is paid to Vltava river into which liquid effluents will be discharged and which is also utilized as a drinking water supply for the capital Prague. Samples from the Vltava river were collected near the mouth of NPP waste canal (point Hladna)and in front of the intake into Prague water works (point Podoli). Tritium content was analysed also in surface waters of Paleckuv, Temelinsky and Strouha streams which can be affected by gaseous effluents due to atmospheric removal processes. Tritium activity was measured with Tric-Carb 1050 TR/LL liquid scintillation counter. The mean annual tritium activities of investigated river waters varied within 1.9-3.0 Bq/l during the period 1991-1994 and that their trend has been slowly decreasing. This fact, as well as seasonal variability, suggests, that tritium level in the surface waters of studied region is largely governed by this radionuclide global atmospheric fallout. The results of this work indicate the trend of background tritium in examined natural waters and make possible the evaluation of their potential future contamination. (J.K.) 1 tab., 2 figs., 4 refs.

  17. Cervical Gross Tumor Volume Dose Predicts Local Control Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging/Diffusion-Weighted Imaging—Guided High-Dose-Rate and Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography—Guided Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyk, Pawel; Jiang, Naomi; Sun, Baozhou; DeWees, Todd A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri (United States); Fowler, Kathryn J.; Narra, Vamsi [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri (United States); Garcia-Ramirez, Jose L.; Schwarz, Julie K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri (United States); Grigsby, Perry W., E-mail: pgrigsby@wustl.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri (United States); Division of Nuclear Medicine, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri (United States); Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri (United States); Alvin J. Siteman Cancer Center, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri (United States)

    2014-11-15

    Purpose: Magnetic resonance imaging/diffusion weighted-imaging (MRI/DWI)-guided high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy and {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) — positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT)-guided intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for the definitive treatment of cervical cancer is a novel treatment technique. The purpose of this study was to report our analysis of dose-volume parameters predicting gross tumor volume (GTV) control. Methods and Materials: We analyzed the records of 134 patients with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stages IB1-IVB cervical cancer treated with combined MRI-guided HDR and IMRT from July 2009 to July 2011. IMRT was targeted to the metabolic tumor volume and lymph nodes by use of FDG-PET/CT simulation. The GTV for each HDR fraction was delineated by use of T2-weighted or apparent diffusion coefficient maps from diffusion-weighted sequences. The D100, D90, and Dmean delivered to the GTV from HDR and IMRT were summed to EQD2. Results: One hundred twenty-five patients received all irradiation treatment as planned, and 9 did not complete treatment. All 134 patients are included in this analysis. Treatment failure in the cervix occurred in 24 patients (18.0%). Patients with cervix failures had a lower D100, D90, and Dmean than those who did not experience failure in the cervix. The respective doses to the GTV were 41, 58, and 136 Gy for failures compared with 67, 99, and 236 Gy for those who did not experience failure (P<.001). Probit analysis estimated the minimum D100, D90, and Dmean doses required for ≥90% local control to be 69, 98, and 260 Gy (P<.001). Conclusions: Total dose delivered to the GTV from combined MRI-guided HDR and PET/CT-guided IMRT is highly correlated with local tumor control. The findings can be directly applied in the clinic for dose adaptation to maximize local control.

  18. Regional cerebellar volume and cognitive function from adolescence to late middle age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Jessica A; Leopold, Daniel R; Calhoun, Vince D; Mittal, Vijay A

    2015-03-01

    Cerebellar morphology and function have been implicated in a variety of developmental disorders, and in healthy aging. Although recent work has sought to characterize the relationships between volume and age in this structure during adolescence, young, and older adulthood, there have been no investigations of regional cerebellar volume from adolescence through late middle age. Middle age in particular has been largely understudied, and investigating this period of the lifespan may be especially important for our understanding of senescence. Understanding regional patterns of cerebellar volume with respect to age during this portion of the lifespan may provide important insight into healthy aging and cognitive function as well as pathology from adolescence into later life. We investigated regional cerebellar volume using a highly novel lobular segmentation approach in conjunction with a battery of cognitive tasks in a cross-sectional sample of 123 individuals from 12 to 65 years old. Our results indicated that regional cerebellar volumes show different patterns with respect to age. In particular, the more posterior aspect of the neocerebellum follows a quadratic "inverse-U" pattern while the vermis and anterior cerebellum follow logarithmic patterns. In addition, we quantified the relationships between age and a variety of cognitive assessments and found relationships between regional cerebellar volumes and performance. Finally, exploratory analyses of sex differences in the relationships between regional cerebellar volume, age, and cognition were investigated. Taken together, these results provide key insights into the development and aging of the human cerebellum, and its role in cognitive function across the lifespan. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Differences in regional grey matter volumes in currently ill patients with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillipou, Andrea; Rossell, Susan Lee; Gurvich, Caroline; Castle, David Jonathan; Abel, Larry Allen; Nibbs, Richard Grant; Hughes, Matthew Edward

    2018-01-01

    Neurobiological findings in anorexia nervosa (AN) are inconsistent, including differences in regional grey matter volumes. Methodological limitations often contribute to the inconsistencies reported. The aim of this study was to improve on these methodologies by utilising voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis with the use of diffeomorphic anatomic registration through an exponentiated lie algebra algorithm (DARTEL), in a relatively large group of individuals with AN. Twenty-six individuals with AN and 27 healthy controls underwent a T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan. AN participants were found to have reduced grey matter volumes in a number of areas including regions of the basal ganglia (including the ventral striatum), and parietal and temporal cortices. Body mass index (BMI) and global scores on the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) were also found to correlate with grey matter volumes in a region of the brainstem (including the substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area) in AN, and predicted 56% of the variance in grey matter volumes in this area. The brain regions associated with grey matter reductions in AN are consistent with regions responsible for cognitive deficits associated with the illness including anhedonia, deficits in affect perception and saccadic eye movement abnormalities. Overall, the findings suggest reduced grey matter volumes in AN that are associated with eating disorder symptomatology. © 2017 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Substance use and regional gray matter volume in individuals at high risk of psychosis

    OpenAIRE

    Stone, James; Bhattacharyya, Sagnik; Barker, Gareth J; McGuire, Philip K; Bhattacharyya, Sagnik

    2012-01-01

    Individuals with an at risk mental state (ARMS) are at greatly increased risk of developing a psychotic illness. Risk of transition to psychosis is associated with regionally reduced cortical gray matter volume. There has been considerable interest in the interaction between psychosis risk and substance use. In this study we investigate the relationship between alcohol, cannabis and nicotine use with gray matter volume in ARMS subjects and healthy volunteers. Twenty seven ARMS subjects and 27...

  1. Thalamic Volume Is Reduced in Cervical and Laryngeal Dystonias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waugh, Jeff L; Kuster, John K; Levenstein, Jacob M; Makris, Nikos; Multhaupt-Buell, Trisha J; Sudarsky, Lewis R; Breiter, Hans C; Sharma, Nutan; Blood, Anne J

    2016-01-01

    Dystonia, a debilitating movement disorder characterized by abnormal fixed positions and/or twisting postures, is associated with dysfunction of motor control networks. While gross brain lesions can produce secondary dystonias, advanced neuroimaging techniques have been required to identify network abnormalities in primary dystonias. Prior neuroimaging studies have provided valuable insights into the pathophysiology of dystonia, but few directly assessed the gross volume of motor control regions, and to our knowledge, none identified abnormalities common to multiple types of idiopathic focal dystonia. We used two gross volumetric segmentation techniques and one voxelwise volumetric technique (voxel based morphometry, VBM) to compare regional volume between matched healthy controls and patients with idiopathic primary focal dystonia (cervical, n = 17, laryngeal, n = 7). We used (1) automated gross volume measures of eight motor control regions using the FreeSurfer analysis package; (2) blinded, anatomist-supervised manual segmentation of the whole thalamus (also gross volume); and (3) voxel based morphometry, which measures local T1-weighted signal intensity and estimates gray matter density or volume at the level of single voxels, for both whole-brain and thalamus. Using both automated and manual gross volumetry, we found a significant volume decrease only in the thalamus in two focal dystonias. Decreases in whole-thalamic volume were independent of head and brain size, laterality of symptoms, and duration. VBM measures did not differ between dystonia and control groups in any motor control region. Reduced thalamic gross volume, detected in two independent analyses, suggests a common anatomical abnormality in cervical dystonia and spasmodic dysphonia. Defining the structural underpinnings of dystonia may require such complementary approaches.

  2. Thalamic Volume Is Reduced in Cervical and Laryngeal Dystonias.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff L Waugh

    Full Text Available Dystonia, a debilitating movement disorder characterized by abnormal fixed positions and/or twisting postures, is associated with dysfunction of motor control networks. While gross brain lesions can produce secondary dystonias, advanced neuroimaging techniques have been required to identify network abnormalities in primary dystonias. Prior neuroimaging studies have provided valuable insights into the pathophysiology of dystonia, but few directly assessed the gross volume of motor control regions, and to our knowledge, none identified abnormalities common to multiple types of idiopathic focal dystonia.We used two gross volumetric segmentation techniques and one voxelwise volumetric technique (voxel based morphometry, VBM to compare regional volume between matched healthy controls and patients with idiopathic primary focal dystonia (cervical, n = 17, laryngeal, n = 7. We used (1 automated gross volume measures of eight motor control regions using the FreeSurfer analysis package; (2 blinded, anatomist-supervised manual segmentation of the whole thalamus (also gross volume; and (3 voxel based morphometry, which measures local T1-weighted signal intensity and estimates gray matter density or volume at the level of single voxels, for both whole-brain and thalamus.Using both automated and manual gross volumetry, we found a significant volume decrease only in the thalamus in two focal dystonias. Decreases in whole-thalamic volume were independent of head and brain size, laterality of symptoms, and duration. VBM measures did not differ between dystonia and control groups in any motor control region.Reduced thalamic gross volume, detected in two independent analyses, suggests a common anatomical abnormality in cervical dystonia and spasmodic dysphonia. Defining the structural underpinnings of dystonia may require such complementary approaches.

  3. Thalamic Volume Is Reduced in Cervical and Laryngeal Dystonias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waugh, Jeff L.; Kuster, John K.; Levenstein, Jacob M.; Makris, Nikos; Multhaupt-Buell, Trisha J.; Sudarsky, Lewis R.; Breiter, Hans C.; Sharma, Nutan; Blood, Anne J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Dystonia, a debilitating movement disorder characterized by abnormal fixed positions and/or twisting postures, is associated with dysfunction of motor control networks. While gross brain lesions can produce secondary dystonias, advanced neuroimaging techniques have been required to identify network abnormalities in primary dystonias. Prior neuroimaging studies have provided valuable insights into the pathophysiology of dystonia, but few directly assessed the gross volume of motor control regions, and to our knowledge, none identified abnormalities common to multiple types of idiopathic focal dystonia. Methods We used two gross volumetric segmentation techniques and one voxelwise volumetric technique (voxel based morphometry, VBM) to compare regional volume between matched healthy controls and patients with idiopathic primary focal dystonia (cervical, n = 17, laryngeal, n = 7). We used (1) automated gross volume measures of eight motor control regions using the FreeSurfer analysis package; (2) blinded, anatomist-supervised manual segmentation of the whole thalamus (also gross volume); and (3) voxel based morphometry, which measures local T1-weighted signal intensity and estimates gray matter density or volume at the level of single voxels, for both whole-brain and thalamus. Results Using both automated and manual gross volumetry, we found a significant volume decrease only in the thalamus in two focal dystonias. Decreases in whole-thalamic volume were independent of head and brain size, laterality of symptoms, and duration. VBM measures did not differ between dystonia and control groups in any motor control region. Conclusions Reduced thalamic gross volume, detected in two independent analyses, suggests a common anatomical abnormality in cervical dystonia and spasmodic dysphonia. Defining the structural underpinnings of dystonia may require such complementary approaches. PMID:27171035

  4. Global and regional changes of cardiopulmonary blood volume under continuous work load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeck, A.; Schuerch, P.; Freundlieb, C.; Vyska, K.; Kunz, N.; Feinendegen, L.E.; Hollmann, W.

    1980-01-01

    The present study describes a method for the continuous determination of global and regional stress-induced alterations of cardiopulmonary blood volumes in normals, trained athletes and patients with latent cardiac insufficiency. In contrast to normals and athletes there is an increase of the total cardiac blood volume in the cardiac patients. There are also significant differences in blood volume changes of the left lung between normals and athletes on the one hand and the cardiac patients on the other. The method is simple and non-hazardous; it permits the observation of the obviously different adaptation of the cardiopulmonary system during exercise in normals, athletes and cardiac patients. (orig.) [de

  5. Cooperative rearranging region size and free volume in As-Se glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saiter, A; Saiter, J-M [Laboratoire PBM, UMR 6522, LECAP, Institut des Materiaux de Rouen, Universite de Rouen, Faculte des Sciences, Avenue de l' Universite BP 12, 76801 Saint Etienne du Rouvray (France); Golovchak, R; Shpotyuk, M; Shpotyuk, O [Lviv Scientific Research Institute of Materials of SRC ' Carat' , 202, Stryjska street, Lviv, UA-79031 (Ukraine)

    2009-02-18

    Glasses of the As-Se system have been used as model objects of the covalent disordered inorganic polymers to investigate the correlation between the cooperative rearranging region (CRR) size determined at the glass transition temperature and the free volume fraction in the glassy state. The CRR size has been determined using temperature modulated differential scanning calorimetry data according to Donth's approach, while the free volume fraction in the investigated materials has been estimated using positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy data. The obtained results testify that the appearance of open-volume defects greater than 80 A{sup 3} leads to a significant decrease in the CRR size.

  6. Cooperative rearranging region size and free volume in As-Se glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saiter, A; Saiter, J-M; Golovchak, R; Shpotyuk, M; Shpotyuk, O

    2009-01-01

    Glasses of the As-Se system have been used as model objects of the covalent disordered inorganic polymers to investigate the correlation between the cooperative rearranging region (CRR) size determined at the glass transition temperature and the free volume fraction in the glassy state. The CRR size has been determined using temperature modulated differential scanning calorimetry data according to Donth's approach, while the free volume fraction in the investigated materials has been estimated using positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy data. The obtained results testify that the appearance of open-volume defects greater than 80 A 3 leads to a significant decrease in the CRR size.

  7. Gross decontamination experiment report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, R.; Kinney, K.; Dettorre, J.; Gilbert, V.

    1983-07-01

    A Gross Decontamination Experiment was conducted on various levels and surfaces of the TMI - Unit 2 reactor building in March 1982. The polar crane, D-rings, missile shields, refueling canals, refueling bridges, equipment, and elevations 305' and 347'-6'' were flushed with low pressure water. Additionally, floor surfaces on elevation 305' and floor surfaces and major pieces of equipment on elevation 347'-6'' were sprayed with high pressure water. Selective surfaces were decontaminated with a mechanical scrubber and chemicals. Strippable coating was tested and evaluated on equipment and floor surfaces. The effectiveness, efficiency, and safety of several decontamination techniques were established for the large, complex decontamination effort. Various decontamination equipment was evaluated and its effectiveness was documented. Decontamination training and procedures were documented and evaluated, as were the support system and organization for the experiment

  8. Gross xenon stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewins, J.D.; Wilson, P.P.H.

    1997-01-01

    The effect of xenon in thermal reactors on steady operation is generally destabilizing. Illustrating this involves the study of appropriate transfer functions, which may be conveniently displayed in three ways: as Bode, Nyquist, and root-locus diagrams. The three forms allow different aspects to be highlighted. These are illustrated for the effect of xenon with allowance not only for the stabilizing effect of the direct yield in fission but also to show the consequences of neglecting the time dependence due to the thermal capacity of the reactor. With careful interpretation, all these forms give an interpretation of stability that is consistent with direct evaluation and promote the understanding of the onset of gross oscillations in power

  9. Gross decontamination experiment report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, R.; Kinney, K.; Dettorre, J.; Gilbert, V.

    1983-07-01

    A Gross Decontamination Experiment was conducted on various levels and surfaces of the TMI - Unit 2 reactor building in March 1982. The polar crane, D-rings, missile shields, refueling canals, refueling bridges, equipment, and elevations 305' and 347'-6'' were flushed with low pressure water. Additionally, floor surfaces on elevation 305' and floor surfaces and major pieces of equipment on elevation 347'-6'' were sprayed with high pressure water. Selective surfaces were decontaminated with a mechanical scrubber and chemicals. Strippable coating was tested and evaluated on equipment and floor surfaces. The effectiveness, efficiency, and safety of several decontamination techniques were established for the large, complex decontamination effort. Various decontamination equipment was evaluated and its effectiveness was documented. Decontamination training and procedures were documented and evaluated, as were the support system and organization for the experiment.

  10. Differential regional gray matter volumes in patients with on-line game addiction and professional gamers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Doug Hyun; Lyoo, In Kyoon; Renshaw, Perry F.

    2015-01-01

    Patients with on-line game addiction (POGA) and professional video game players play video games for extended periods of time, but experience very different consequences for their on-line game play. Brain regions consisting of anterior cingulate, thalamus and occpito-temporal areas may increase the likelihood of becoming a pro-gamer or POGA. Twenty POGA, seventeen pro-gamers, and eighteen healthy comparison subjects (HC) were recruited. All magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed on a 1.5 Tesla Espree MRI scanner (SIEMENS, Erlangen, Germany). Voxel-wise comparisons of gray matter volume were performed between the groups using the two-sample t-test with statistical parametric mapping (SPM5). Compared to HC, the POGA group showed increased impulsiveness and perseverative errors, and volume in left thalamus gray matter, but decreased gray matter volume in both inferior temporal gyri, right middle occipital gyrus, and left inferior occipital gyrus, compared with HC. Pro-gamers showed increased gray matter volume in left cingulate gyrus, but decreased gray matter volume in left middle occipital gyrus and right inferior temporal gyrus compared with HC. Additionally, the pro-gamer group showed increased gray matter volume in left cingulate gyrus and decreased left thalamus gray matter volume compared with the POGA group. The current study suggests that increased gray matter volumes of the left cingulate gyrus in pro-gamers and of the left thalamus in POGA may contribute to the different clinical characteristics of pro-gamers and POGA. PMID:22277302

  11. Regional respiratory inflation and deflation pressure-volume curves determined by electrical impedance tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frerichs, I; Dargaville, P A; Rimensberger, P C

    2013-06-01

    Measurement of regional lung volume changes during a quasi-static pressure-volume (PV) manoeuvre using electrical impedance tomography (EIT) could be used to assess regional respiratory system mechanics and to determine optimal ventilator settings in individual patients. Using this approach, we studied regional respiratory system mechanics in healthy and lung-injured animals, before and after surfactant administration during inflation and deflation PV manoeuvres. The comparison of the EIT-derived regional PV curves in ventral, middle and dorsal regions of the right and left lungs showed not only different amounts of hysteresis in these regions but also marked differences among different landmark pressures calculated on the inflation and deflation limbs of the curves. Regional pressures at maximum compliance as well as the lower and upper pressures of maximum compliance change differed between the inflation and deflation and increased from ventral to dorsal regions in all lung conditions. All these pressure values increased in the injured and decreased in the surfactant treated lungs. Examination of regional respiratory system mechanics using EIT enables the assessment of spatial and temporal heterogeneities in the ventilation distribution. Characteristic landmarks on the inflation and especially on the deflation limb of regional PV curves may become useful measures for guiding mechanical ventilation.

  12. Regional respiratory inflation and deflation pressure–volume curves determined by electrical impedance tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frerichs, I; Dargaville, P A; Rimensberger, P C

    2013-01-01

    Measurement of regional lung volume changes during a quasi-static pressure–volume (PV) manoeuvre using electrical impedance tomography (EIT) could be used to assess regional respiratory system mechanics and to determine optimal ventilator settings in individual patients. Using this approach, we studied regional respiratory system mechanics in healthy and lung-injured animals, before and after surfactant administration during inflation and deflation PV manoeuvres. The comparison of the EIT-derived regional PV curves in ventral, middle and dorsal regions of the right and left lungs showed not only different amounts of hysteresis in these regions but also marked differences among different landmark pressures calculated on the inflation and deflation limbs of the curves. Regional pressures at maximum compliance as well as the lower and upper pressures of maximum compliance change differed between the inflation and deflation and increased from ventral to dorsal regions in all lung conditions. All these pressure values increased in the injured and decreased in the surfactant treated lungs. Examination of regional respiratory system mechanics using EIT enables the assessment of spatial and temporal heterogeneities in the ventilation distribution. Characteristic landmarks on the inflation and especially on the deflation limb of regional PV curves may become useful measures for guiding mechanical ventilation. (paper)

  13. Calculating regional tissue volume for hyperthermic isolated limb perfusion: Four methods compared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecchin, D; Negri, A; Frigo, A C; Bui, F; Zucchetta, P; Bodanza, V; Gregianin, M; Campana, L G; Rossi, C R; Rastrelli, M

    2016-12-01

    Hyperthermic isolated limb perfusion (HILP) can be performed as an alternative to amputation for soft tissue sarcomas and melanomas of the extremities. Melphalan and tumor necrosis factor-alpha are used at a dosage that depends on the volume of the limb. Regional tissue volume is traditionally measured for the purposes of HILP using water displacement volumetry (WDV). Although this technique is considered the gold standard, it is time-consuming and complicated to implement, especially in obese and elderly patients. The aim of the present study was to compare the different methods described in the literature for calculating regional tissue volume in the HILP setting, and to validate an open source software. We reviewed the charts of 22 patients (11 males and 11 females) who had non-disseminated melanoma with in-transit metastases or sarcoma of the lower limb. We calculated the volume of the limb using four different methods: WDV, tape measurements and segmentation of computed tomography images using Osirix and Oncentra Masterplan softwares. The overall comparison provided a concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) of 0.92 for the calculations of whole limb volume. In particular, when Osirix was compared with Oncentra (validated for volume measures and used in radiotherapy), the concordance was near-perfect for the calculation of the whole limb volume (CCC = 0.99). With methods based on CT the user can choose a reliable plane for segmentation purposes. CT-based methods also provides the opportunity to separate the whole limb volume into defined tissue volumes (cortical bone, fat and water). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Region-specific reduction in brain volume in young adults with perinatal hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bregant, Tina; Rados, Milan; Vasung, Lana; Derganc, Metka; Evans, Alan C; Neubauer, David; Kostovic, Ivica

    2013-11-01

    A severe form of perinatal hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE) carries a high risk of perinatal death and severe neurological sequelae while in mild HIE only discrete cognitive disorders may occur. To compare total brain volumes and region-specific cortical measurements between young adults with mild-moderate perinatal HIE and a healthy control group of the same age. MR imaging was performed in a cohort of 14 young adults (9 males, 5 females) with a history of mild or moderate perinatal HIE. The control group consisted of healthy participants, matched with HIE group by age and gender. Volumetric analysis was done after the processing of MR images using a fully automated CIVET pipeline. We measured gyrification indexes, total brain volume, volume of grey and white matter, and of cerebrospinal fluid. We also measured volume, thickness and area of the cerebral cortex in the parietal, occipital, frontal, and temporal lobe, and of the isthmus cinguli, parahippocampal and cingulated gyrus, and insula. The HIE patient group showed smaller absolute volumetric data. Statistically significant (p right hemisphere, of cortical areas in the right temporal lobe and parahippocampal gyrus, of cortical volumes in the right temporal lobe and of cortical thickness in the right isthmus of the cingulate gyrus were found. Comparison between the healthy group and the HIE group of the same gender showed statistically significant changes in the male HIE patients, where a significant reduction was found in whole brain volume; left parietal, bilateral temporal, and right parahippocampal gyrus cortical areas; and bilateral temporal lobe cortical volume. Our analysis of total brain volumes and region-specific corticometric parameters suggests that mild-moderate forms of perinatal HIE lead to reductions in whole brain volumes. In the study reductions were most pronounced in temporal lobe and parahippocampal gyrus. Copyright © 2013 European Paediatric Neurology Society. All rights reserved.

  15. Regional assessment of aquifers for thermal-energy storage. Volume 2: Regions 7 through 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-01

    The geologic and hydrologic framework, major aquifers, aquifers which are suitable and unsuitable for annual thermal energy storage (ATES) and the ATES potential of the unglaciated central region, glaciated Appalachians, unglaciated Appalachians, coastal plain, Hawaii, and Alaska are discussed.

  16. Substance use and regional gray matter volume in individuals at high risk of psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, James M; Bhattacharyya, Sagnik; Barker, Gareth J; McGuire, Philip K

    2012-02-01

    Individuals with an at risk mental state (ARMS) are at greatly increased risk of developing a psychotic illness. Risk of transition to psychosis is associated with regionally reduced cortical gray matter volume. There has been considerable interest in the interaction between psychosis risk and substance use. In this study we investigate the relationship between alcohol, cannabis and nicotine use with gray matter volume in ARMS subjects and healthy volunteers. Twenty seven ARMS subjects and 27 healthy volunteers took part in the study. All subjects underwent volumetric MRI imaging. The relationship between regional gray matter volume and cannabis use, smoking, and alcohol use in controls and ARMS subjects was analysed using voxel-based morphometry. In any region where a significant relationship with drug was present, data were analysed to determine if there was any group difference in this relationship. Alcohol intake was inversely correlated with gray matter volume in cerebellum, cannabis intake was use was inversely correlated with gray matter volume in prefrontal cortex and tobacco intake was inversely correlated with gray matter volume in left temporal cortex. There were no significant interactions by group in any region. There is no evidence to support the hypothesis of increased susceptibility to harmful effects of drugs and alcohol on regional gray matter in ARMS subjects. However, alcohol, tobacco and cannabis at low to moderate intake may be associated with lower gray matter in both ARMS subjects and healthy volunteers-possibly representing low-level cortical damage or change in neural plasticity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Renewable Resources: a national catalog of model projects. Volume 1. Northeast Solar Energy Center Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-07-01

    This compilation of diverse conservation and renewable energy projects across the United States was prepared through the enthusiastic participation of solar and alternate energy groups from every state and region. Compiled and edited by the Center for Renewable Resources, these projects reflect many levels of innovation and technical expertise. In many cases, a critique analysis is presented of how projects performed and of the institutional conditions associated with their success or failure. Some 2000 projects are included in this compilation; most have worked, some have not. Information about all is presented to aid learning from these experiences. The four volumes in this set are arranged in state sections by geographic region, coinciding with the four Regional Solar Energy Centers. The table of contents is organized by project category so that maximum cross-referencing may be obtained. This volume includes information on the Northeast Solar Energy Center Region. (WHK).

  18. Renewable Resources: a national catalog of model projects. Volume 3. Southern Solar Energy Center Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-07-01

    This compilation of diverse conservation and renewable energy projects across the United States was prepared through the enthusiastic participation of solar and alternate energy groups from every state and region. Compiled and edited by the Center for Renewable Resources, these projects reflect many levels of innovation and technical expertise. In many cases, a critique analysis is presented of how projects performed and of the institutional conditions associated with their success or failure. Some 2000 projects are included in this compilation; most have worked, some have not. Information about all is presented to aid learning from these experiences. The four volumes in this set are arranged in state sections by geographic region, coinciding with the four Regional Solar Energy Centers. The table of contents is organized by project category so that maximum cross-referencing may be obtained. This volume includes information on the Southern Solar Energy Center Region. (WHK)

  19. Renewable Resources: a national catalog of model projects. Volume 4. Western Solar Utilization Network Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-07-01

    This compilation of diverse conservation and renewable energy projects across the United States was prepared through the enthusiastic participation of solar and alternate energy groups from every state and region. Compiled and edited by the Center for Renewable Resources, these projects reflect many levels of innovation and technical expertise. In many cases, a critique analysis is presented of how projects performed and of the institutional conditions associated with their success or failure. Some 2000 projects are included in this compilation; most have worked, some have not. Information about all is presented to aid learning from these experiences. The four volumes in this set are arranged in state sections by geographic region, coinciding with the four Regional Solar Energy Centers. The table of contents is organized by project category so that maximum cross-referencing may be obtained. This volume includes information on the Western Solar Utilization Network Region. (WHK)

  20. Evolution of brain region volumes during artificial selection for relative brain size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotrschal, Alexander; Zeng, Hong-Li; van der Bijl, Wouter; Öhman-Mägi, Caroline; Kotrschal, Kurt; Pelckmans, Kristiaan; Kolm, Niclas

    2017-12-01

    The vertebrate brain shows an extremely conserved layout across taxa. Still, the relative sizes of separate brain regions vary markedly between species. One interesting pattern is that larger brains seem associated with increased relative sizes only of certain brain regions, for instance telencephalon and cerebellum. Till now, the evolutionary association between separate brain regions and overall brain size is based on comparative evidence and remains experimentally untested. Here, we test the evolutionary response of brain regions to directional selection on brain size in guppies (Poecilia reticulata) selected for large and small relative brain size. In these animals, artificial selection led to a fast response in relative brain size, while body size remained unchanged. We use microcomputer tomography to investigate how the volumes of 11 main brain regions respond to selection for larger versus smaller brains. We found no differences in relative brain region volumes between large- and small-brained animals and only minor sex-specific variation. Also, selection did not change allometric scaling between brain and brain region sizes. Our results suggest that brain regions respond similarly to strong directional selection on relative brain size, which indicates that brain anatomy variation in contemporary species most likely stem from direct selection on key regions. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  1. Big Cat Coalitions: A Comparative Analysis of Regional Brain Volumes in Felidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Sharleen T; Arsznov, Bradley M; Hristova, Ani E; Yoon, Elise J; Lundrigan, Barbara L

    2016-01-01

    Broad-based species comparisons across mammalian orders suggest a number of factors that might influence the evolution of large brains. However, the relationship between these factors and total and regional brain size remains unclear. This study investigated the relationship between relative brain size and regional brain volumes and sociality in 13 felid species in hopes of revealing relationships that are not detected in more inclusive comparative studies. In addition, a more detailed analysis was conducted of four focal species: lions ( Panthera leo ), leopards ( Panthera pardus ), cougars ( Puma concolor ), and cheetahs ( Acinonyx jubatus ). These species differ markedly in sociality and behavioral flexibility, factors hypothesized to contribute to increased relative brain size and/or frontal cortex size. Lions are the only truly social species, living in prides. Although cheetahs are largely solitary, males often form small groups. Both leopards and cougars are solitary. Of the four species, leopards exhibit the most behavioral flexibility, readily adapting to changing circumstances. Regional brain volumes were analyzed using computed tomography. Skulls ( n = 75) were scanned to create three-dimensional virtual endocasts, and regional brain volumes were measured using either sulcal or bony landmarks obtained from the endocasts or skulls. Phylogenetic least squares regression analyses found that sociality does not correspond with larger relative brain size in these species. However, the sociality/solitary variable significantly predicted anterior cerebrum (AC) volume, a region that includes frontal cortex. This latter finding is despite the fact that the two social species in our sample, lions and cheetahs, possess the largest and smallest relative AC volumes, respectively. Additionally, an ANOVA comparing regional brain volumes in four focal species revealed that lions and leopards, while not significantly different from one another, have relatively larger AC

  2. Big Cat Coalitions: A comparative analysis of regional brain volumes in Felidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharleen T Sakai

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Broad-based species comparisons across mammalian orders suggest a number of factors that might influence the evolution of large brains. However, the relationship between these factors and total and regional brain size remains unclear. This study investigated the relationship between relative brain size and regional brain volumes and sociality in 13 felid species in hopes of revealing relationships that are not detected in more inclusive comparative studies. In addition, a more detailed analysis was conducted of 4 focal species: lions (Panthera leo, leopards (Panthera pardus, cougars (Puma concolor, and cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus. These species differ markedly in sociality and behavioral flexibility, factors hypothesized to contribute to increased relative brain size and/or frontal cortex size. Lions are the only truly social species, living in prides. Although cheetahs are largely solitary, males often form small groups. Both leopards and cougars are solitary. Of the four species, leopards exhibit the most behavioral flexibility, readily adapting to changing circumstances. Regional brain volumes were analyzed using computed tomography (CT. Skulls (n=75 were scanned to create three-dimensional virtual endocasts, and regional brain volumes were measured using either sulcal or bony landmarks obtained from the endocasts or skulls. Phylogenetic least squares (PGLS regression analyses found that sociality does not correspond with larger relative brain size in these species. However, the sociality/solitary variable significantly predicted anterior cerebrum (AC volume, a region that includes frontal cortex. This latter finding is despite the fact that the two social species in our sample, lions and cheetahs, possess the largest and smallest relative AC volumes, respectively. Additionally, an ANOVA comparing regional brain volumes in 4 focal species revealed that lions and leopards, while not significantly different from one another, have relatively

  3. Regional volumes and spatial volumetric distribution of gray matter in the gender dysphoric brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoekzema, Elseline; Schagen, Sebastian E E; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P C; Veltman, Dick J; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; Delemarre-van de Waal, Henriette; Bakker, Julie

    2015-05-01

    The sexual differentiation of the brain is primarily driven by gonadal hormones during fetal development. Leading theories on the etiology of gender dysphoria (GD) involve deviations herein. To examine whether there are signs of a sex-atypical brain development in GD, we quantified regional neural gray matter (GM) volumes in 55 female-to-male and 38 male-to-female adolescents, 44 boys and 52 girls without GD and applied both univariate and multivariate analyses. In girls, more GM volume was observed in the left superior medial frontal cortex, while boys had more volume in the bilateral superior posterior hemispheres of the cerebellum and the hypothalamus. Regarding the GD groups, at whole-brain level they differed only from individuals sharing their gender identity but not from their natal sex. Accordingly, using multivariate pattern recognition analyses, the GD groups could more accurately be automatically discriminated from individuals sharing their gender identity than those sharing their natal sex based on spatially distributed GM patterns. However, region of interest analyses indicated less GM volume in the right cerebellum and more volume in the medial frontal cortex in female-to-males in comparison to girls without GD, while male-to-females had less volume in the bilateral cerebellum and hypothalamus than natal boys. Deviations from the natal sex within sexually dimorphic structures were also observed in the untreated subsamples. Our findings thus indicate that GM distribution and regional volumes in GD adolescents are largely in accordance with their respective natal sex. However, there are subtle deviations from the natal sex in sexually dimorphic structures, which can represent signs of a partial sex-atypical differentiation of the brain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. North Central Regional geologic characterization report. Volume 2. Plates. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-08-01

    Volume 8(2) contains the following maps: Geologic map of the Lake Superior Region (Minnesota, Wisconsin, and northern Michigan); Index Map; Overburden Thickness; Faults and Ground Acceleration; Rock and Mineral Resources; Ground Water Basins and Potential Major Discharge Zones; and Ground Water Resource Potential

  5. Multiple determinants of whole and regional brain volume among terrestrial carnivorans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eli M Swanson

    Full Text Available Mammalian brain volumes vary considerably, even after controlling for body size. Although several hypotheses have been proposed to explain this variation, most research in mammals on the evolution of encephalization has focused on primates, leaving the generality of these explanations uncertain. Furthermore, much research still addresses only one hypothesis at a time, despite the demonstrated importance of considering multiple factors simultaneously. We used phylogenetic comparative methods to investigate simultaneously the importance of several factors previously hypothesized to be important in neural evolution among mammalian carnivores, including social complexity, forelimb use, home range size, diet, life history, phylogeny, and recent evolutionary changes in body size. We also tested hypotheses suggesting roles for these variables in determining the relative volume of four brain regions measured using computed tomography. Our data suggest that, in contrast to brain size in primates, carnivoran brain size may lag behind body size over evolutionary time. Moreover, carnivore species that primarily consume vertebrates have the largest brains. Although we found no support for a role of social complexity in overall encephalization, relative cerebrum volume correlated positively with sociality. Finally, our results support negative relationships among different brain regions after accounting for overall endocranial volume, suggesting that increased size of one brain regions is often accompanied by reduced size in other regions rather than overall brain expansion.

  6. A Means for the Scintigraphic Imaging of Regional Brain Dynamics. Regional Cerebral Blood Flow and Regional Cerebral Blood Volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potchen, E. J.; Bentley, R.; Gerth, W.; Hill, R. L.; Davis, D. O. [Washington University School Of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States)

    1969-05-15

    The use of freely diffusable inert radioactive gas as a washout indicator to measure regional cerebral blood flow has become a standardized kinetic procedure in many laboratories. Recent investigations with this technique have led us to conclude that we can reliably distinguish regional flow with perfusion against regional flow without perfusion from the early portion of the curve. Based on a detailed study of the early curve kinetics in patients with and without cerebral vascular disease we have defined the sampling duration necessary for application of the Anger gamma camera imaging process to regional changes in cerebral radioactivity. Using a standard camera and a small computer, a procedure has been developed and based upon entire field to determine the time of maximum height followed by analysis of the data in a matrix. This will permit a contour plot presentation of calculated regional cerebral blood flow in millilitres per 100 grams perfused brain per minute. In addition, we propose to augment this data by the display of regional non-perfusion blood flow versus regional cerebral flow with perfusion. Preliminary investigation on sampling duration, and Compton scattering were prerequisite to clinical scintigraphy of regional cerebral blood flow. In addition, the method of interface for the conventional Anger gamma camera to digital computers used in this procedure are discussed. Applications to further assess regional cerebral dynamics by scintigraphy are presented. (author)

  7. Regional assessment of aquifers for thermal energy storage. Volume 1: Regions 1 through 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-01

    The geologic and hydrologic framework, major aquifers, aquifers which are suitable and unsuitable for annual thermal energy storage (ATES) and the ATES potential of the western mountains, alluvial basins, Columbia LAVA plateau, Colorado plateau, high plains, and glaciated central region are discussed.

  8. Postmenopausal hormone therapy and regional brain volumes: the WHIMS-MRI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, S M; Espeland, M A; Jaramillo, S A; Hirsch, C; Stefanick, M L; Murray, A M; Ockene, J; Davatzikos, C

    2009-01-13

    To determine whether menopausal hormone therapy (HT) affects regional brain volumes, including hippocampal and frontal regions. Brain MRI scans were obtained in a subset of 1,403 women aged 71-89 years who participated in the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study (WHIMS). WHIMS was an ancillary study to the Women's Health Initiative, which consisted of two randomized, placebo-controlled trials: 0.625 mg conjugated equine estrogens (CEE) with or without 2.5 mg medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) in one daily tablet. Scans were performed, on average, 3.0 years post-trial for the CEE + MPA trial and 1.4 years post-trial for the CEE-Alone trial; average on-trial follow-up intervals were 4.0 years for CEE + MPA and 5.6 years for CEE-Alone. Total brain, ventricular, hippocampal, and frontal lobe volumes, adjusted for age, clinic site, estimated intracranial volume, and dementia risk factors, were the main outcome variables. Compared with placebo, covariate-adjusted mean frontal lobe volume was 2.37 cm(3) lower among women assigned to HT (p = 0.004), mean hippocampal volume was slightly (0.10 cm(3)) lower (p = 0.05), and differences in total brain volume approached significance (p = 0.07). Results were similar for CEE + MPA and CEE-Alone. HT-associated reductions in hippocampal volumes were greatest in women with the lowest baseline Modified Mini-Mental State Examination scores (scores equine estrogens with or without MPA are associated with greater brain atrophy among women aged 65 years and older; however, the adverse effects are most evident in women experiencing cognitive deficits before initiating hormone therapy.

  9. Tracking Regional Tissue Volume and Function Change in Lung Using Image Registration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunlin Cao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We have previously demonstrated the 24-hour redistribution and reabsorption of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid delivered to the lung during a bronchoscopic procedure in normal volunteers. In this work we utilize image-matching procedures to correlate fluid redistribution and reabsorption to changes in regional lung function. Lung CT datasets from six human subjects were used in this study. Each subject was scanned at four time points before and after BAL procedure. Image registration was performed to align images at different time points and different inflation levels. The resulting dense displacement fields were utilized to track tissue volume changes and reveal deformation patterns of local parenchymal tissue quantitatively. The registration accuracy was assessed by measuring landmark matching errors, which were on the order of 1 mm. The results show that quantitative-assessed fluid volume agreed well with bronchoscopist-reported unretrieved BAL volume in the whole lungs (squared linear correlation coefficient was 0.81. The average difference of lung tissue volume at baseline and after 24 hours was around 2%, which indicates that BAL fluid in the lungs was almost absorbed after 24 hours. Regional lung-function changes correlated with the presence of BAL fluid, and regional function returned to baseline as the fluid was reabsorbed.

  10. Regional volumes and spatial volumetric distribution of gray matter in the gender dysphoric brain.

    OpenAIRE

    Hoekzema, Elseline; Schagen, Sebastian E. E.; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P. C.; Veltman, Dick J.; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T.; Delemarre-van de Waal, Henriette; Bakker, Julie

    2015-01-01

    The sexual differentiation of the brain is primarily driven by gonadal hormones during fetal development. Leading theories on the etiology of gender dysphoria (GD) involve deviations herein. To examine whether there are signs of a sex-atypical brain development in GD, we quantified regional neural gray matter (GM) volumes in 55 female-to-male and 38 male-to-female adolescents, 44 boys and 52 girls without GD and applied both univariate and multivariate analyses. In girls, more GM volume was o...

  11. Regional brain volumes, diffusivity, and metabolite changes after electroconvulsive therapy for severe depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, A.; Magnusson, P.; Hanson, Lars G.

    2016-01-01

    , and metabolite changes in 19 patients receiving ECT for severe depression. Other regions of interest included the amygdala, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), orbitofrontal cortex, and hypothalamus. Patients received a 3T MR scan before ECT (TP1), 1 week (TP2), and 4 weeks (TP3) after ECT. Results......: Hippocampal and amygdala volume increased significantly at TP2 and continued to be increased at TP3. DLPFC exhibited a transient volume reduction at TP2. DTI revealed a reduced anisotropy and diffusivity of the hippocampus at TP2. We found no significant post-ECT changes in brain metabolite concentrations...

  12. Structural covariance of brain region volumes is associated with both structural connectivity and transcriptomic similarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Yohan; Fernandes, Darren J; French, Leon; Ellegood, Jacob; Cahill, Lindsay S; Vousden, Dulcie A; Spencer Noakes, Leigh; Scholz, Jan; van Eede, Matthijs C; Nieman, Brian J; Sled, John G; Lerch, Jason P

    2018-05-18

    An organizational pattern seen in the brain, termed structural covariance, is the statistical association of pairs of brain regions in their anatomical properties. These associations, measured across a population as covariances or correlations usually in cortical thickness or volume, are thought to reflect genetic and environmental underpinnings. Here, we examine the biological basis of structural volume covariance in the mouse brain. We first examined large scale associations between brain region volumes using an atlas-based approach that parcellated the entire mouse brain into 318 regions over which correlations in volume were assessed, for volumes obtained from 153 mouse brain images via high-resolution MRI. We then used a seed-based approach and determined, for 108 different seed regions across the brain and using mouse gene expression and connectivity data from the Allen Institute for Brain Science, the variation in structural covariance data that could be explained by distance to seed, transcriptomic similarity to seed, and connectivity to seed. We found that overall, correlations in structure volumes hierarchically clustered into distinct anatomical systems, similar to findings from other studies and similar to other types of networks in the brain, including structural connectivity and transcriptomic similarity networks. Across seeds, this structural covariance was significantly explained by distance (17% of the variation, up to a maximum of 49% for structural covariance to the visceral area of the cortex), transcriptomic similarity (13% of the variation, up to maximum of 28% for structural covariance to the primary visual area) and connectivity (15% of the variation, up to a maximum of 36% for structural covariance to the intermediate reticular nucleus in the medulla) of covarying structures. Together, distance, connectivity, and transcriptomic similarity explained 37% of structural covariance, up to a maximum of 63% for structural covariance to the

  13. Differential regional gray matter volumes in patients with on-line game addiction and professional gamers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Doug Hyun; Lyoo, In Kyoon; Renshaw, Perry F

    2012-04-01

    Patients with on-line game addiction (POGA) and professional video game players play video games for extended periods of time, but experience very different consequences for their on-line game play. Brain regions consisting of anterior cingulate, thalamus and occpito-temporal areas may increase the likelihood of becoming a pro-gamer or POGA. Twenty POGA, seventeen pro-gamers, and eighteen healthy comparison subjects (HC) were recruited. All magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed on a 1.5 Tesla Espree MRI scanner (SIEMENS, Erlangen, Germany). Voxel-wise comparisons of gray matter volume were performed between the groups using the two-sample t-test with statistical parametric mapping (SPM5). Compared to HC, the POGA group showed increased impulsiveness and perseverative errors, and volume in left thalamus gray matter, but decreased gray matter volume in both inferior temporal gyri, right middle occipital gyrus, and left inferior occipital gyrus, compared with HC. Pro-gamers showed increased gray matter volume in left cingulate gyrus, but decreased gray matter volume in left middle occipital gyrus and right inferior temporal gyrus compared with HC. Additionally, the pro-gamer group showed increased gray matter volume in left cingulate gyrus and decreased left thalamus gray matter volume compared with the POGA group. The current study suggests that increased gray matter volumes of the left cingulate gyrus in pro-gamers and of the left thalamus in POGA may contribute to the different clinical characteristics of pro-gamers and POGA. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Gross alpha/beta analyses in water by liquid scintillation counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, C.T.; Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, CA; Soliman, V.M.; Perera, S.K.

    2005-01-01

    The standard procedure for analyzing gross alpha and gross beta in water is evaporation of the sample and radioactivity determination of the resultant solids by proportional counting. This technique lacks precision, and lacks sensitivity for samples with high total dissolved solids. Additionally, the analytical results are dependent on the choice of radionuclide calibration standard and the sample matrix. Direct analysis by liquid scintillation counting has the advantages of high counting efficiencies and minimal sample preparation time. However, due to the small sample aliquants used for analysis, long count times are necessary to reach required detection limits. The procedure proposed consists of evaporating a sample aliquant to dryness, dissolving the resultant solids in a small volume of dilute acid, followed by liquid scintillation counting to determine radioactivity. This procedure can handle sample aliquants containing up to 500 mg of dissolved solids. Various acids, scintillation cocktail mixtures, instrument discriminator settings, and regions of interest (ROI) were evaluated to determine optimum counting conditions. Precision is improved and matrix effects are reduced as compared to proportional counting. Tests indicate that this is a viable alternative to proportional counting for gross alpha and gross beta analyses of water samples. (author)

  15. Measurement of regional extravascular lung density and of pulmonary blood volume with positron emitting isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larock, M.P.; Quaglia, L.; Lamotte, D.; De Landsheere, C.; Del Fiore, G.; Chevigne, M.; Peters, J.M.; Rigo, P. (Universite de Liege (Belgium))

    1982-01-01

    Studies of pulmonary blood volume changes with exercise can be performed after labelling of the blood pool by /sup 11/CO inhalation. Positron transaxial tomography permits the quantitative study of density distribution of the chest and of the pulmonary blood volume. This paper represents our preliminary experience with these techniques on models and control patients. We have first verified the linearity of transmission for density distribution below one. The tomographic examination first records a transmission image, then an emission image on the same section. We next normalize emission and transmission values on a region of unit density corresponding to blood: then we substract the emission from the transmission values to measure the extravascular pulmonary density. With crystal probes we record pulmonary blood volume variations before, during and after exercise. Peripheral hemodynamic variations explain the change recorded at the begining and at the end of exercise. Combination of these two techniques should help us to better study the importance of the acute changes in the ''formation'' of pulmonary oedema and its influence on regional pulmonary blood volume.

  16. Regional grey matter volume abnormalities in bulimia nervosa and binge-eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Axel; Vaitl, Dieter; Schienle, Anne

    2010-04-01

    This study investigated whether bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge-eating disorder (BED) are associated with structural brain abnormalities. Both disorders share the main symptom binge-eating, but are considered differential diagnoses. We attempted to identify alterations in grey matter volume (GMV) that are present in both psychopathologies as well as disorder-specific GMV characteristics. Such information can help to improve neurobiological models of eating disorders and their classification. A total of 50 participants (patients suffering from BN (purge type), BED, and normal-weight controls) underwent structural MRI scanning. GMV for specific brain regions involved in food/reinforcement processing was analyzed by means of voxel-based morphometry. Both patient groups were characterized by greater volumes of the medial orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) compared to healthy controls. In BN patients, who had increased ventral striatum volumes, body mass index and purging severity were correlated with striatal grey matter volume. Altogether, our data implicate a crucial role of the medial OFC in the studied eating disorders. The structural abnormality might be associated with dysfunctions in food reward processing and/or self-regulation. The bulimia-specific volume enlargement of the ventral striatum is discussed in the framework of negative reinforcement through purging and associated weight regulation. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Long-term occupational stress is associated with regional reductions in brain tissue volumes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Blix

    Full Text Available There are increasing reports of cognitive and psychological declines related to occupational stress in subjects without psychiatric premorbidity or major life trauma. The underlying neurobiology is unknown, and many question the notion that the described disabilities represent a medical condition. Using PET we recently found that persons suffering from chronic occupational stress had limbic reductions in the 5-HT1A receptor binding potential. Here we examine whether chronic work-related stress is also associated with changes in brain structure. We performed MRI-based voxel-based morphometry and structural volumetry in stressed subjects and unstressed controls focusing on gray (GM and white matter (WM volumes, and the volumes of hippocampus, caudate, and putamen - structures known to be susceptible to neurotoxic changes. Stressed subjects exhibited significant reductions in the GM volumes of the anterior cingulate cortex and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Furthermore, their caudate and putamen volumes were reduced, and the volumes correlated inversely to the degree of perceived stress. Our results add to previous data on chronic psychosocial stress, and indicate a morphological involvement of the frontostriatal circuits. The present findings of morphological changes in these regions confirm our previous conclusion that symptoms from occupational stress merit careful investigations and targeted treatment.

  18. Long-Term Occupational Stress Is Associated with Regional Reductions in Brain Tissue Volumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blix, Eva; Perski, Aleksander; Berglund, Hans; Savic, Ivanka

    2013-01-01

    There are increasing reports of cognitive and psychological declines related to occupational stress in subjects without psychiatric premorbidity or major life trauma. The underlying neurobiology is unknown, and many question the notion that the described disabilities represent a medical condition. Using PET we recently found that persons suffering from chronic occupational stress had limbic reductions in the 5-HT1A receptor binding potential. Here we examine whether chronic work-related stress is also associated with changes in brain structure. We performed MRI-based voxel-based morphometry and structural volumetry in stressed subjects and unstressed controls focusing on gray (GM) and white matter (WM) volumes, and the volumes of hippocampus, caudate, and putamen – structures known to be susceptible to neurotoxic changes. Stressed subjects exhibited significant reductions in the GM volumes of the anterior cingulate cortex and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Furthermore, their caudate and putamen volumes were reduced, and the volumes correlated inversely to the degree of perceived stress. Our results add to previous data on chronic psychosocial stress, and indicate a morphological involvement of the frontostriatal circuits. The present findings of morphological changes in these regions confirm our previous conclusion that symptoms from occupational stress merit careful investigations and targeted treatment. PMID:23776438

  19. Pricing, renegotiation and gross inequities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkham, J.S. (Van Cott, Bagley, Cornwall McCarthy, Salt Lake City, UT (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Reviews pricing, renegotiation and gross inequity provisions of coal supply agreements in order to provide practical assistance to an attorney called upon to draft in written form the intent of buyer and seller. 26 refs.

  20. The economic impact of regional waste disposal on advanced volume reduction technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McArthur, W.C.; Kniazewycz, B.G.

    1983-01-01

    Waste volume reduction has received increased emphasis over the past decade as annual operating costs have risen from $250,000/year to $3,500,000 for 1983. Emphasis has been given to developing and designing into new nuclear plants process and DAW volume reduction technologies such as fluidized-bed dryers incinerators, and evaporative-solidification systems. The basis for these systems was originally the correct perception that a crisis would be reached with the, then available, shallow land disposal sites which would increase costs substantially and possible jeopardize power plant operations. With the passage of the Low-Level Waste Policy Act of 1980 and increased emphasis on interim on-site storage of low-level waste, the ''economics of volume reduction'' are susceptible to increased uncertainties. This paper reviews some previous volume reduction economic analyses and evaluates the revised economics based upon the development of regional waste disposal sites, improved waste generation and processing practices, and the increased use of interim on-site storage. Several case studies are presented

  1. International conference on the role of the polar regions in global change: Proceedings. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, G.; Wilson, C.L.; Severin, B.A.B. [eds.

    1991-12-01

    The International Conference on the Role of the Polar Regions in Global Change took place on the campus of the University of Alaska Fairbanks on June 11--15, 1990. The goal of the conference was to define and summarize the state of knowledge on the role of the polar regions in global change, and to identify gaps in knowledge. To this purpose experts in a wide variety of relevant disciplines were invited to present papers and hold panel discussions. While there are numerous conferences on global change, this conference dealt specifically with the polar regions which occupy key positions in the global system. These two volumes of conference proceedings include papers on (1) detection and monitoring of change; (2) climate variability and climate forcing; (3) ocean, sea ice, and atmosphere interactions and processes; and (4) effects on biota and biological feedbacks; (5) ice sheet, glacier and permafrost responses and feedbacks, (6) paleoenvironmental studies; and, (7) aerosol and trace gases.

  2. International conference on the role of the polar regions in global change: Proceedings. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, G.; Wilson, C.L.; Severin, B.A.B. [eds.

    1991-12-01

    The International Conference on the Role of the Polar Regions in Global Change took place on the campus of the University of Alaska Fairbanks on June 11--15, 1990. The goal of the conference was to define and summarize the state of knowledge on the role of the polar regions in global change, and to identify gaps in knowledge. To this purpose experts in a wide variety of relevant disciplines were invited to present papers and hold panel discussions. While there are numerous conferences on global change, this conference dealt specifically with polar regions which occupy key positions in the global system. These two volumes of conference proceedings include papers on (1) detection and monitoring of change; (2) climate variability and climate forcing; (3) ocean, sea ice, and atmosphere interactions and processes; (4) effects on biota and biological feedbacks; (5) ice sheet, glacier and permafrost responses and feedbacks; (6) paleoenvironmental studies; and, (7) aerosols and trace gases.

  3. The effect of lifelong bilingualism on regional grey and white matter volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Rosanna K; Pangelinan, Melissa M; Bogulski, Cari; Chakravarty, M Mallar; Luk, Gigi; Grady, Cheryl L; Bialystok, Ellen

    2015-07-01

    Lifelong bilingualism is associated with the delayed diagnosis of dementia, suggesting bilingual experience is relevant to brain health in aging. While the effects of bilingualism on cognitive functions across the lifespan are well documented, less is known about the neural substrates underlying differential behaviour. It is clear that bilingualism affects brain regions that mediate language abilities and that these regions are at least partially overlapping with those that exhibit age-related decline. Moreover, the behavioural advantages observed in bilingualism are generally found in executive function performance, suggesting that the frontal lobes may also be sensitive to bilingualism, which exhibit volume reductions with age. The current study investigated structural differences in the brain of lifelong bilingual older adults (n=14, mean age=70.4) compared with older monolinguals (n=14, mean age=70.6). We employed two analytic approaches: 1) we examined global differences in grey and white matter volumes; and, 2) we examined local differences in volume and cortical thickness of specific regions of interest previously implicated in bilingual/monolingual comparisons (temporal pole) or in aging (entorhinal cortex and hippocampus). We expected bilinguals would exhibit greater volume of the frontal lobe and temporal lobe (grey and white matter), given the importance of these regions in executive and language functions, respectively. We further hypothesized that regions in the medial temporal lobe, which demonstrate early changes in aging and exhibit neural pathology in dementia, would be more preserved in the bilingual group. As predicted, bilinguals exhibit greater frontal lobe white matter compared with monolinguals. Moreover, increasing age was related to decreasing temporal pole cortical thickness in the monolingual group, but no such relationship was observed for bilinguals. Finally, Stroop task performance was positively correlated with frontal lobe white

  4. Regional Myocardial Blood Volume and Flow: First-Pass MR Imaging with Polylysine-Gd-DTPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilke, Norbert; Kroll, Keith; Merkle, Hellmut; Wang, Ying; Ishibashi, Yukata; Xu, Ya; Zhang, Jiani; Jerosch-Herold, Michael; Mühler, Andreas; Stillman, Arthur E.; Bassingthwaighte, James B.; Bache, Robert; Ugurbil, Kamil

    2010-01-01

    The authors investigated the utility of an intravascular magnetic resonance (MR) contrast agent, poly-L-lysine-gadolinium diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), for differentiating acutely ischemic from normally perfused myocardium with first-pass MR imaging. Hypoperfused regions, identified with microspheres, on the first-pass images displayed significantly decreased signal intensities compared with normally perfused myocardium (P < .0007). Estimates of regional myocardial blood content, obtained by measuring the ratio of areas under the signal intensity-versus-time curves in tissue regions and the left ventricular chamber, averaged 0.12 mL/g ± 0.04 (n = 35), compared with a value of 0.11 mL/g ± 0.05 measured with radiolabeled albumin in the same tissue regions. To obtain MR estimates of regional myocardial blood flow, in situ calibration curves were used to transform first-pass intensity-time curves into content-time curves for analysis with a multiple-pathway, axially distributed model. Flow estimates, obtained by automated parameter optimization, averaged 1.2 mL/min/g ± 0.5 [n = 29), compared with 1.3 mL/min/g ± 0.3 obtained with tracer microspheres in the same tissue specimens at the same time. The results represent a combination of T1-weighted first-pass imaging, intravascular relaxation agents, and a spatially distributed perfusion model to obtain absolute regional myocardial blood flow and volume. PMID:7766986

  5. A carbon emissions reduction index: Integrating the volume and allocation of regional emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Jiandong; Cheng, Shulei; Song, Malin; Wu, Yinyin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We build a carbon emissions reduction index (CERI). • The aim is to quantify the pressure on policymakers to reduce emissions. • Scale-related effects and carbon emissions allocations are included in the CERI. • Different standards of carbon emissions allocations are also considered. • We decompose the Gini coefficient to evaluate the effects of three factors. - Abstract: Given the acceleration of global warming and rising greenhouse gas emissions, all countries are facing the harsh reality of the need to reduce carbon emissions. In this study, we propose an index to quantify the pressure faced by policymakers to reduce such emissions, termed the carbon emissions reduction index. This index allows us to observe the effect of carbon emissions volume on the pressure faced by policymakers and study the impact of optimizing interregional carbon emissions on reducing this pressure. In addition, we account for several carbon emissions standards in constructing the index. We conclude that the variation in the index is likely to be attributable to carbon emissions volume, regional ranking, and population (population can also be replaced by GDP, resource endowment, or other factors). In addition, based on empirical data on the world’s largest emitter of carbon dioxide (China), this study analyzes the evolution of pressure to reduce emissions on a country’s policymakers. The results show that the growing volume and unsuitable allocation of carbon emissions from 1997 to 2012 imposed increasing pressure on the Chinese government in this regard. In addition, reductions in carbon emissions volume and regional ranking are primary factors that impact pressure on policymakers.

  6. Global and regional annual brain volume loss rates in physiological aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schippling, Sven; Ostwaldt, Ann-Christin; Suppa, Per; Spies, Lothar; Manogaran, Praveena; Gocke, Carola; Huppertz, Hans-Jürgen; Opfer, Roland

    2017-03-01

    The objective is to estimate average global and regional percentage brain volume loss per year (BVL/year) of the physiologically ageing brain. Two independent, cross-sectional single scanner cohorts of healthy subjects were included. The first cohort (n = 248) was acquired at the Medical Prevention Center (MPCH) in Hamburg, Germany. The second cohort (n = 316) was taken from the Open Access Series of Imaging Studies (OASIS). Brain parenchyma (BP), grey matter (GM), white matter (WM), corpus callosum (CC), and thalamus volumes were calculated. A non-parametric technique was applied to fit the resulting age-volume data. For each age, the BVL/year was derived from the age-volume curves. The resulting BVL/year curves were compared between the two cohorts. For the MPCH cohort, the BVL/year curve of the BP was an increasing function starting from 0.20% at the age of 35 years increasing to 0.52% at 70 years (corresponding values for GM ranged from 0.32 to 0.55%, WM from 0.02 to 0.47%, CC from 0.07 to 0.48%, and thalamus from 0.25 to 0.54%). Mean absolute difference between BVL/year trajectories across the age range of 35-70 years was 0.02% for BP, 0.04% for GM, 0.04% for WM, 0.11% for CC, and 0.02% for the thalamus. Physiological BVL/year rates were remarkably consistent between the two cohorts and independent from the scanner applied. Average BVL/year was clearly age and compartment dependent. These results need to be taken into account when defining cut-off values for pathological annual brain volume loss in disease models, such as multiple sclerosis.

  7. Bibliography on Cold Regions Science and Technology. Volume 35, Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-01

    miMures [1480. p.»7-91, rus) 35-1088 Arbazov, \\.A. I sing liquid chlorides in wmtet on slippery loads (1480. p 1 I. 21, ■ us...3,-2*J I sing liquid chlondes in winter on slippery roads [ 1480. p, 11. Ryan, U L Safonova, T.A. ii...volumes, ins, 35-858 Problems of the Vulb. a cmieiit bibllographs , IISII. I»«p.rtls) 35-859 Open pit nulling in aistie regions Elm . S.S

  8. The effect of glycerol on regional cerebral blood flow, blood volume and oxygen metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Masatsune; Kikuchi, Haruhiko; Nagata, Izumi; Yamagata, Sen; Taki, Waro; Kobayashi, Akira; Yonekura, Yoshiharu; Nishizawa, Sadahiko.

    1989-01-01

    Using positron emission tomography with 15 O-labelled CO 2 , O 2 and CO gases, the effects of glycerol on regional cerebral blood flow (CBF), blood volume (CBV) and oxygen metabolism (CMRO 2 ) were investigated in 6 patients with meningioma accompanying peritumoral brain edema. The same study was done in 5 normal volunteers. The changes of blood gases, hematocrit and hemoglobin were also examined. After a drip infusion of glycerol, the regional CBF increased not only in the peritumoral cortex and white matter but also in the intact cortex and white matter on the contralateral side. The increase of CBF was extensive and substantially there were no regional differences. In contrast, the changes of CMRO 2 were not significant. This was derived from the increase in oxygen extraction fraction throughout extensive areas including the peritumoral area. There were no changes in CBV. Hematocrit and hemoglobin decreased to a small degree. In the normal volunteers, the same findings were noted. Thus, glycerol increases the functional reserve for cerebral oxygen metabolism, not only in the peritumoral regions but also in the intact regions. The effects of glycerol on hemodynamics and metabolism were discussed with reference to some differences from mannitol. (author)

  9. Volume growth trends in a Douglas-fir levels-of-growing-stock study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert O. Curtis

    2006-01-01

    Mean curves of increment and yield in gross total cubic volume and net merchantable cubic volume were derived from seven installations of the regional cooperative Levels-of-Growing-Stock Study (LOGS) in Douglas-fir. The technique used reduces the seven curves for each treatment for each variable of interest to a single set of readily interpretable mean curves. To a top...

  10. Regional gray matter volume is associated with trait modesty: Evidence from voxel-based morphometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chuhua; Wu, Qiong; Jin, Yan; Wu, Yanhong

    2017-11-02

    Modesty when defined as a personality trait, is highly beneficial to interpersonal relationship, group performance, and mental health. However, the potential neural underpinnings of trait modesty remain poorly understood. In the current study, we used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to investigate the structural neural basis of trait modesty in Chinese college students. VBM results showed that higher trait modesty score was associated with lager regional gray matter volume in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, left superior temporal gyrus/left temporal pole, and right posterior insular cortex. These results suggest that individual differences in trait modesty are linked to brain regions associated with self-evaluation, self-regulation, and social cognition. The results remained robust after controlling the confounding factor of global self-esteem, suggesting unique structural correlates of trait modesty. These findings provide evidence for the structural neural basis of individual differences in trait modesty.

  11. Regional Differences in Brain Volume Predict the Acquisition of Skill in a Complex Real-Time Strategy Videogame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basak, Chandramallika; Voss, Michelle W.; Erickson, Kirk I.; Boot, Walter R.; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have found that differences in brain volume among older adults predict performance in laboratory tasks of executive control, memory, and motor learning. In the present study we asked whether regional differences in brain volume as assessed by the application of a voxel-based morphometry technique on high resolution MRI would also…

  12. Association of regional gray matter volumes in the brain with disruptive behavior disorders in male and female children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalina J. Michalska

    2015-01-01

    The present findings did not replicate previous findings of reduced gray matter volumes in the anterior insula, amygdala, and frontal cortex in youth with CD, but are consistent with previous findings of reduced gray matter volumes in temporal regions, particularly in girls.

  13. The Relationship between Processing Speed and Regional White Matter Volume in Healthy Young People.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Magistro

    Full Text Available Processing speed is considered a key cognitive resource and it has a crucial role in all types of cognitive performance. Some researchers have hypothesised the importance of white matter integrity in the brain for processing speed; however, the relationship at the whole-brain level between white matter volume (WMV and processing speed relevant to the modality or problem used in the task has never been clearly evaluated in healthy people. In this study, we used various tests of processing speed and Voxel-Based Morphometry (VBM analyses, it is involves a voxel-wise comparison of the local volume of gray and white, to assess the relationship between processing speed and regional WMV (rWMV. We examined the association between processing speed and WMV in 887 healthy young adults (504 men and 383 women; mean age, 20.7 years, SD, 1.85. We performed three different multiple regression analyses: we evaluated rWMV associated with individual differences in the simple processing speed task, word-colour and colour-word tasks (processing speed tasks with words and the simple arithmetic task, after adjusting for age and sex. The results showed a positive relationship at the whole-brain level between rWMV and processing speed performance. In contrast, the processing speed performance did not correlate with rWMV in any of the regions examined. Our results support the idea that WMV is associated globally with processing speed performance regardless of the type of processing speed task.

  14. Postural sway and regional cerebellar volume in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hove, Michael J.; Zeffiro, Thomas A.; Biederman, Joseph; Li, Zhi; Schmahmann, Jeremy; Valera, Eve M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Motor abnormalities, including impaired balance and increased postural sway, are commonly reported in children with ADHD, but have yet to be investigated in adults with ADHD. Furthermore, although these abnormalities are thought to stem from cerebellar deficits, evidence for an association between the cerebellum and these motor deficits has yet to be provided for either adults or children with ADHD. Method In this study, we measured postural sway in adults with ADHD and controls, examining the relationship between sway and regional cerebellar gray matter volume. Thirty-two ADHD and 28 control participants completed various standing-posture tasks on a Wii balance board. Results Postural sway was significantly higher for the ADHD group compared to the healthy controls. Higher sway was positively associated with regional gray matter volume in the right posterior cerebellum (lobule VIII/IX). Conclusion These findings show that sway abnormalities commonly reported in children with ADHD are also present in adults, and for the first time show a relationship between postural control atypicalities and the cerebellum in this group. Our findings extend the literature on motor abnormalities in ADHD and contribute to our knowledge of their neural substrate. PMID:26106567

  15. Restraint of appetite and reduced regional brain volumes in anorexia nervosa: a voxel-based morphometric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooks Samantha J

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI studies of people with anorexia nervosa (AN have shown differences in brain structure. This study aimed to provide preliminary extensions of this data by examining how different levels of appetitive restraint impact on brain volume. Methods Voxel based morphometry (VBM, corrected for total intracranial volume, age, BMI, years of education in 14 women with AN (8 RAN and 6 BPAN and 21 women (HC was performed. Correlations between brain volume and dietary restraint were done using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS. Results Increased right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC and reduced right anterior insular cortex, bilateral parahippocampal gyrus, left fusiform gyrus, left cerebellum and right posterior cingulate volumes in AN compared to HC. RAN compared to BPAN had reduced left orbitofrontal cortex, right anterior insular cortex, bilateral parahippocampal gyrus and left cerebellum. Age negatively correlated with right DLPFC volume in HC but not in AN; dietary restraint and BMI predicted 57% of variance in right DLPFC volume in AN. Conclusions In AN, brain volume differences were found in appetitive, somatosensory and top-down control brain regions. Differences in regional GMV may be linked to levels of appetitive restraint, but whether they are state or trait is unclear. Nevertheless, these discrete brain volume differences provide candidate brain regions for further structural and functional study in people with eating disorders.

  16. Associations between regional brain volumes at term-equivalent age and development at 2 years of age in preterm children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lind, Annika; Parkkola, Riitta; Lehtonen, Liisa; Maunu, Jonna; Lapinleimu, Helena; Munck, Petriina; Haataja, Leena

    2011-01-01

    Altered brain volumes and associations between volumes and developmental outcomes have been reported in prematurely born children. To assess which regional brain volumes are different in very low birth weight (VLBW) children without neurodevelopmental impairments ([NDI] cerebral palsy, hearing loss, blindness and significantly delayed cognitive performance) compared with VLBW children with NDI, and to evaluate the association between regional brain volumes at term-equivalent age and cognitive development and neurological performance at a corrected age of 2 years. The study group consisted of a regional cohort of 164 VLBW children, divided into one group of children without NDI (n = 148) and one group of children with NDI (n = 16). Brain (MRI) was performed at term-equivalent age, from which brain volumes were manually analysed. Cognitive development was assessed with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II (BSID-II), and neurological performance with the Hammersmith Infant Neurological Examination at the corrected age of 2 years. The volumes of total brain tissue, cerebrum, frontal lobes, basal ganglia and thalami, and cerebellum were significantly smaller, and the volume of the ventricles significantly larger, in the children with NDI than in those without NDI. Even in children without NDI, a smaller cerebellar volume was significantly correlated with poor neurological performance at 2 years of corrected age. Volumetric analysis at brain MRI can provide an additional parameter for early prediction of outcome in VLBW children. (orig.)

  17. Associations between regional brain volumes at term-equivalent age and development at 2 years of age in preterm children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Annika; Parkkola, Riitta; Lehtonen, Liisa; Munck, Petriina; Maunu, Jonna; Lapinleimu, Helena; Haataja, Leena

    2011-08-01

    Altered brain volumes and associations between volumes and developmental outcomes have been reported in prematurely born children. To assess which regional brain volumes are different in very low birth weight (VLBW) children without neurodevelopmental impairments ([NDI] cerebral palsy, hearing loss, blindness and significantly delayed cognitive performance) compared with VLBW children with NDI, and to evaluate the association between regional brain volumes at term-equivalent age and cognitive development and neurological performance at a corrected age of 2 years. The study group consisted of a regional cohort of 164 VLBW children, divided into one group of children without NDI (n = 148) and one group of children with NDI (n = 16). Brain (MRI) was performed at term-equivalent age, from which brain volumes were manually analysed. Cognitive development was assessed with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II (BSID-II), and neurological performance with the Hammersmith Infant Neurological Examination at the corrected age of 2 years. The volumes of total brain tissue, cerebrum, frontal lobes, basal ganglia and thalami, and cerebellum were significantly smaller, and the volume of the ventricles significantly larger, in the children with NDI than in those without NDI. Even in children without NDI, a smaller cerebellar volume was significantly correlated with poor neurological performance at 2 years of corrected age. Volumetric analysis at brain MRI can provide an additional parameter for early prediction of outcome in VLBW children.

  18. Associations between regional brain volumes at term-equivalent age and development at 2 years of age in preterm children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lind, Annika [Turku University Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Turku (Finland); Aabo Akademi University, Department of Psychology, Turku (Finland); Parkkola, Riitta [University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Department of Radiology and Turku PET Center, PO Box 52, Turku (Finland); Lehtonen, Liisa; Maunu, Jonna; Lapinleimu, Helena [University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Turku (Finland); Munck, Petriina [Turku University Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Turku (Finland); University of Turku, Department of Psychology, Turku (Finland); Haataja, Leena [University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Department of Pediatric Neurology, Turku (Finland)

    2011-08-15

    Altered brain volumes and associations between volumes and developmental outcomes have been reported in prematurely born children. To assess which regional brain volumes are different in very low birth weight (VLBW) children without neurodevelopmental impairments ([NDI] cerebral palsy, hearing loss, blindness and significantly delayed cognitive performance) compared with VLBW children with NDI, and to evaluate the association between regional brain volumes at term-equivalent age and cognitive development and neurological performance at a corrected age of 2 years. The study group consisted of a regional cohort of 164 VLBW children, divided into one group of children without NDI (n = 148) and one group of children with NDI (n = 16). Brain (MRI) was performed at term-equivalent age, from which brain volumes were manually analysed. Cognitive development was assessed with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II (BSID-II), and neurological performance with the Hammersmith Infant Neurological Examination at the corrected age of 2 years. The volumes of total brain tissue, cerebrum, frontal lobes, basal ganglia and thalami, and cerebellum were significantly smaller, and the volume of the ventricles significantly larger, in the children with NDI than in those without NDI. Even in children without NDI, a smaller cerebellar volume was significantly correlated with poor neurological performance at 2 years of corrected age. Volumetric analysis at brain MRI can provide an additional parameter for early prediction of outcome in VLBW children. (orig.)

  19. Measurement of regional pulmonary blood volume in patients with increased pulmonary blood flow or pulmonary arterial hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wollmer, P.; Rozcovek, A.; Rhodes, C.G.; Allan, R.M.; Maseri, A.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of chronic increase in pulmonary blood flow and chronic pulmonary hypertension on regional pulmonary blood volume was measured in two groups of patients. One group of patients had intracardiac, left-to-right shunts without appreciable pulmonary hypertension, and the other consisted of patients with Eisenmenger's syndrome or primary pulmonary hypertension, i.e. patients with normal or reduced blood flow and severe pulmonary hypertension. A technique based on positron tomography was used to measure lung density (by transmission scanning) and regional pulmonary blood volume (after inhalation of /sup 11/CO). The distribution of pulmonary blood volume was more uniform in patients with chronic increase in pulmonary blood flow than in normal subjects. There were also indications of an absolute increase in intrapulmonary blood volume by about 15%. In patients with chronic pulmonary arterial hypertension, the distribution of pulmonary blood volume was also abnormally uniform. There was, however, no indication that overall intrapulmonary blood volume was substantially different from normal subjects. The abnormally uniform distribution of pulmonary blood volume can be explained by recruitment and/or dilatation of vascular beds. Intrapulmonary blood volume appears to be increased in patients with intracardiac, left-to-right shunts. With the development of pulmonary hypertension, intrapulmonary blood volume falls, which may be explained by reactive changes in the vasculature and/or obliteration of capillaries

  20. Estimation of regional intrapulmonary moisture volumes by pulmonary CT numbers in CT views

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamoto, Takaaki; Kato, Shiro; Yoshimura, Masaharu

    1987-01-01

    In order to study the regional intrapulmonary moisture volume in normal lungs, lungs with congestion, and lungs with increased blood flow, a series of 42 subjects underwent transverse computed tomography (CT) scanning performed at a total of 17 points corresponding to the upper (7), middle (3), and lower (7) lung fields. The subjects were divided into group I (n = 24, with left-sided heart failure), group II (n = 8, with left-to-right shunt heart disease), and group III (n = 10, normals). In group I, the pulmonary peripheral minus CT numbers were inversely correlated with the pulmonary wedge mean pressure and pulmonary arterial mean pressure; and were linearly correlated with pulmonary blood flow (PBF). In group II, they were inversely correlated with PBF and left-to-right shunt volume. The pulmonary pheripheral CT numbers were significantly higher in both groups I and II than group III. In group III, these CT numbers were higher in the posterior field than the anterior field in supine position. (Hou, H.L.)

  1. Quantum Gross-Pitaevskii Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jutho Haegeman, Damian Draxler, Vid Stojevic, J. Ignacio Cirac, Tobias J. Osborne, Frank Verstraete

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a non-commutative generalization of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation for one-dimensional quantum gasses and quantum liquids. This generalization is obtained by applying the time-dependent variational principle to the variational manifold of continuous matrix product states. This allows for a full quantum description of many body system ---including entanglement and correlations--- and thus extends significantly beyond the usual mean-field description of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation, which is known to fail for (quasi one-dimensional systems. By linearizing around a stationary solution, we furthermore derive an associated generalization of the Bogoliubov -- de Gennes equations. This framework is applied to compute the steady state response amplitude to a periodic perturbation of the potential.

  2. Diffuse Matter from Star Forming Regions to Active Galaxies A Volume Honouring John Dyson

    CERN Document Server

    Hartquist, T W

    2006-01-01

    John Dyson has contributed to the study of the hydrodynamic processes that govern a wide variety of astrophysical sources which he has helped explain. In this volume dedicated to him, introductory reviews to a number of the key processes and to the sources themselves are given by leading experts. The mechanisms in which the multi-component natures of media affect their dynamics receive particular attention, but the roles of hydromagnetic effects are also highlighted. The importance of cosmic ray moderation and mass transfer between different thermal phases for cosmic ray moderation and mass transfer between different thermal phases for the evolution of flows are amongst the topics treated. The main types of regions considered include those where stars form, the circumstellar environments of evolved stars, the larger scale interstellar structures caused by the mass loss of stars, and those where the lines of AGNs form. The reviews complement one another and together provide a coherent introduction to the astro...

  3. Global and regional associations of smaller cerebral gray and white matter volumes with gait in older people.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele L Callisaya

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Gait impairments increase with advancing age and can lead to falls and loss of independence. Brain atrophy also occurs in older age and may contribute to gait decline. We aimed to investigate global and regional relationships of cerebral gray and white matter volumes with gait speed, and its determinants step length and cadence, in older people. METHODS: In a population-based study, participants aged >60 years without Parkinson's disease or brain infarcts underwent magnetic resonance imaging and gait measurements using a computerized walkway. Linear regression was used to study associations of total gray and white matter volumes with gait, adjusting for each other, age, sex, height and white matter hyperintensity volume. Other covariates considered in analyses included weight and vascular disease history. Voxel-based morphometry was used to study regional relationships of gray and white matter with gait. RESULTS: There were 305 participants, mean age 71.4 (6.9 years, 54% male, mean gait speed 1.16 (0.22 m/s. Smaller total gray matter volume was independently associated with poorer gait speed (p = 0.001 and step length (p<0.001, but not cadence. Smaller volumes of cortical and subcortical gray matter in bilateral regions important for motor control, vision, perception and memory were independently associated with slower gait speed and shorter steps. No global or regional associations were observed between white matter volume and gait independent of gray matter volume, white matter hyperintensity volume and other covariates. CONCLUSION: Smaller gray matter volume in bilaterally distributed brain networks serving motor control was associated with slower gait speed and step length, but not cadence.

  4. NM Gross Receipts January - June 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  5. NM Gross Receipts July - December 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  6. NM Gross Receipts January - June 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  7. NM Gross Receipts July - December 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  8. NM Gross Receipts January - June 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  9. NM Gross Receipts January - June 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  10. Automated lung tumor segmentation for whole body PET volume based on novel downhill region growing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballangan, Cherry; Wang, Xiuying; Eberl, Stefan; Fulham, Michael; Feng, Dagan

    2010-03-01

    We propose an automated lung tumor segmentation method for whole body PET images based on a novel downhill region growing (DRG) technique, which regards homogeneous tumor hotspots as 3D monotonically decreasing functions. The method has three major steps: thoracic slice extraction with K-means clustering of the slice features; hotspot segmentation with DRG; and decision tree analysis based hotspot classification. To overcome the common problem of leakage into adjacent hotspots in automated lung tumor segmentation, DRG employs the tumors' SUV monotonicity features. DRG also uses gradient magnitude of tumors' SUV to improve tumor boundary definition. We used 14 PET volumes from patients with primary NSCLC for validation. The thoracic region extraction step achieved good and consistent results for all patients despite marked differences in size and shape of the lungs and the presence of large tumors. The DRG technique was able to avoid the problem of leakage into adjacent hotspots and produced a volumetric overlap fraction of 0.61 +/- 0.13 which outperformed four other methods where the overlap fraction varied from 0.40 +/- 0.24 to 0.59 +/- 0.14. Of the 18 tumors in 14 NSCLC studies, 15 lesions were classified correctly, 2 were false negative and 15 were false positive.

  11. Management of low-level radioactive waste in the Southeast Compact Region: Volume 2, Management plan: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-07-01

    The Southeast Compact Commission for Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management has begun the development of a regional low-level radioactive waste management plan. They have reviewed and analyzed existing data on current low-level radioactive waste volumes shipped for disposal by generators in the Southeast region and have supplemented existing data by direct contact with State regulatory personnel, disposal site operators, and individual generators. The Commission has also projected the amounts and types of waste expected to require offsite disposal. This characterized data base and the projections of waste volumes and types through 1996 are included in this volume. Alternative disposal and treatment technologies were evaluated for management of the waste in the region. This evaluation consisted of a review of the literature concerning the several technologies in low level radioactive waste management. This information is summarized in Appendix A. 72 refs., 28 figs., 30 tabs

  12. Gross anatomy of network security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Thomas J.

    2002-01-01

    Information security involves many branches of effort, including information assurance, host level security, physical security, and network security. Computer network security methods and implementations are given a top-down description to permit a medically focused audience to anchor this information to their daily practice. The depth of detail of network functionality and security measures, like that of the study of human anatomy, can be highly involved. Presented at the level of major gross anatomical systems, this paper will focus on network backbone implementation and perimeter defenses, then diagnostic tools, and finally the user practices (the human element). Physical security measures, though significant, have been defined as beyond the scope of this presentation.

  13. Evaluation of regional cerebral blood flow and volume of rapidly exchangeable water in man by positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depresseux, J.C.; Cheslet, J.P.; Hodiaumont, J.

    1982-01-01

    The present investigation uses bolus inhalation of C 15 O 2 and sequential positron emission tomography of the brain in view to simultaneously evaluate regional cerebral blood flow and regional cerebral volume of rapidly exchangeable water in normal human subjects. Arguments allow to infer that the cerebral distribution volume of radiowater does vary with time during the initial period of invasion of tissue by the indicator. Implications of this variation on the validity of classical data procedures is discussed and an alternative original method is proposed [fr

  14. Potato production in Europe - a gross margin analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren Marcus; Bizik, Jan; Costa, Luisa Dalla

    The purpose of this paper is to examine different cropping practices, cost structures and gross margins for producing conventional table potatoes in 6 different regions within the European Union: Czech Republic, Denmark, Italy, Poland, Portugal and Slovakia. Findings from this study show that pot...

  15. Path Complexity in Virtual Water Maze Navigation: Differential Associations with Age, Sex, and Regional Brain Volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugherty, Ana M; Yuan, Peng; Dahle, Cheryl L; Bender, Andrew R; Yang, Yiqin; Raz, Naftali

    2015-09-01

    Studies of human navigation in virtual maze environments have consistently linked advanced age with greater distance traveled between the start and the goal and longer duration of the search. Observations of search path geometry suggest that routes taken by older adults may be unnecessarily complex and that excessive path complexity may be an indicator of cognitive difficulties experienced by older navigators. In a sample of healthy adults, we quantify search path complexity in a virtual Morris water maze with a novel method based on fractal dimensionality. In a two-level hierarchical linear model, we estimated improvement in navigation performance across trials by a decline in route length, shortening of search time, and reduction in fractal dimensionality of the path. While replicating commonly reported age and sex differences in time and distance indices, a reduction in fractal dimension of the path accounted for improvement across trials, independent of age or sex. The volumes of brain regions associated with the establishment of cognitive maps (parahippocampal gyrus and hippocampus) were related to path dimensionality, but not to the total distance and time. Thus, fractal dimensionality of a navigational path may present a useful complementary method of quantifying performance in navigation. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Quantification of regional cerebral blood flow and volume with dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced MR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rempp, K A; Brix, G; Wenz, F; Becker, C R; Gückel, F; Lorenz, W J

    1994-12-01

    Quantification of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and volume (rCBV) with dynamic magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. After bolus administration of a paramagnetic contrast medium, rapid T2*-weighted gradient-echo images of two sections were acquired for the simultaneous creation of concentration-time curves in the brain-feeding arteries and in brain tissue. Absolute rCBF and rCBV values were determined for gray and white brain matter in 12 subjects with use of principles of the indicator dilution theory. The mean rCBF value in gray matter was 69.7 mL/min +/- 29.7 per 100 g tissue and in white matter, 33.6 mL/min +/- 11.5 per 100 g tissue; the average rCBV was 8.0 mL +/- 3.1 per 100 g tissue and 4.2 mL +/- 1.0 per 100 g tissue, respectively. An age-related decrease in rCBF and rCBV for gray and white matter was observed. Preliminary data demonstrate that the proposed technique allows the quantification of rCBF and rCBV. Although the results are in good agreement with data from positron emission tomography studies, further evaluation is needed to establish the validity of method.

  17. Renewable Resources: a national catalog of model projects. Volume 2. Mid-American Solar Energy Complex Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-07-01

    This compilation of diverse conservation and renewable energy projects across the United States was prepared through the enthusiastic participation of solar and alternate energy groups from every state and region. Compiled and edited by the Center for Renewable Resources, these projects reflect many levels of innovation and technical expertise. In many cases, a critique analysis is presented of how projects performed and of the institutional conditions associated with their success or failure. Some 2000 projects are included in this compilation; most have worked, some have not. Information about all is presented to aid learning from these experiences. The four volumes in this set are arranged in state sections by geographic region, coinciding with the four Regional Solar Energy Centers. The table of contents is organized by project category so that maximum cross-referencing may be obtained. This volume includes information on the Mid-American Solar Energy Complex Region. (WHK)

  18. Effect of temperate climate tree species on gross ammonification, gross nitrification and N2O formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüggemann, N.; Rosenkranz, P.; Papen, H.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.

    2003-04-01

    Microbial nitrogen turnover processes in the soil, like ammonification, nitrification and denitrification, play an important role in the formation of nitrous oxide (N2O): (i) ammonification, because it releases nitrogen from organic material in the form of ammonium (NH4+), which in turn can serve as substrate for nitrification; (ii) nitrification itself (i.e. the turnover of NH4+ to nitrate, NO3-), during which nitric oxide (NO) and N2O can be released as by-products at varying ratios; (iii) denitrification, in which NO3- serves as electron acceptor and is converted to molecular nitrogen (N2) via NO and N2O as intermediates, that can also be partially lost to the atmosphere. Temperate forest soils are a substantial source of atmospheric N2O contributing up to 10% to the total atmospheric N2O budget. However, this figure is afflicted with a huge uncertainty due to a number of factors governing the soil N2O formation, consumption, release and uptake, which are not fully understood at present. To one of these factors belongs the influence of the tree species on nitrogen turnover processes in the soil and the formation of N trace gases related with them. The aim of the present work was to analyse this tree species effect for the temperate climate region. For this purpose the effect of five different temperate tree species, having the same age and growing on the same soil in direct vicinity to each other, on gross ammonification and gross nitrification as well as on N2O formation was investigated. The trees (common beech, Fagus sylvatica; pedunculate oak, Quercus robur; Norway spruce, Picea abies; Japanese larch, Larix leptolepis; mountain pine, Pinus mugo) were part of a species trial in Western Jutland, Denmark, established in 1965 on a former sandy heathland. Samples from the soil under these five tree species were taken in spring and in summer 2002, respectively, differentiating between organic layer and mineral soil. The gross rates of ammonification as well of

  19. Repeatability of Volume and Regional Body Composition Measurements of the Lower Limb Using Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjorup, Caroline A; Zerahn, Bo; Juul, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    was calculated using the density of bone mineral content, fat, and lean mass. The repeatability of the volume of the lower limb and regional thigh and lower leg tissue composition (bone mineral content, fat, and lean mass) was good with intraclass correlation coefficient values of 0.97 to 0.99, and narrow limits...

  20. Validating the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Downs, Jenny; Stahlhut, Michelle; Wong, Kingsley

    2016-01-01

    .93-0.98). The standard error of measurement for the total score was 2 points and we would be 95% confident that a change 4 points in the 45-point scale would be greater than within-subject measurement error. The Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale could be an appropriate measure of gross motor skills in clinical practice......Rett syndrome is a pervasive neurodevelopmental disorder associated with a pathogenic mutation on the MECP2 gene. Impaired movement is a fundamental component and the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale was developed to measure gross motor abilities in this population. The current study investigated...... the validity and reliability of the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale. Video data showing gross motor abilities supplemented with parent report data was collected for 255 girls and women registered with the Australian Rett Syndrome Database, and the factor structure and relationships between motor scores, age...

  1. Regional differences in brain volume predict the acquisition of skill in a complex real-time strategy videogame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basak, Chandramallika; Voss, Michelle W; Erickson, Kirk I; Boot, Walter R; Kramer, Arthur F

    2011-08-01

    Previous studies have found that differences in brain volume among older adults predict performance in laboratory tasks of executive control, memory, and motor learning. In the present study we asked whether regional differences in brain volume as assessed by the application of a voxel-based morphometry technique on high resolution MRI would also be useful in predicting the acquisition of skill in complex tasks, such as strategy-based video games. Twenty older adults were trained for over 20 h to play Rise of Nations, a complex real-time strategy game. These adults showed substantial improvements over the training period in game performance. MRI scans obtained prior to training revealed that the volume of a number of brain regions, which have been previously associated with subsets of the trained skills, predicted a substantial amount of variance in learning on the complex game. Thus, regional differences in brain volume can predict learning in complex tasks that entail the use of a variety of perceptual, cognitive and motor processes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. High spatiotemporal resolution measurement of regional lung air volumes from 2D phase contrast x-ray images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Andrew F T; Fouras, Andreas; Islam, M Sirajul; Wallace, Megan J; Hooper, Stuart B; Kitchen, Marcus J

    2013-04-01

    Described herein is a new technique for measuring regional lung air volumes from two-dimensional propagation-based phase contrast x-ray (PBI) images at very high spatial and temporal resolution. Phase contrast dramatically increases lung visibility and the outlined volumetric reconstruction technique quantifies dynamic changes in respiratory function. These methods can be used for assessing pulmonary disease and injury and for optimizing mechanical ventilation techniques for preterm infants using animal models. The volumetric reconstruction combines the algorithms of temporal subtraction and single image phase retrieval (SIPR) to isolate the image of the lungs from the thoracic cage in order to measure regional lung air volumes. The SIPR algorithm was used to recover the change in projected thickness of the lungs on a pixel-by-pixel basis (pixel dimensions ≈ 16.2 μm). The technique has been validated using numerical simulation and compared results of measuring regional lung air volumes with and without the use of temporal subtraction for removing the thoracic cage. To test this approach, a series of PBI images of newborn rabbit pups mechanically ventilated at different frequencies was employed. Regional lung air volumes measured from PBI images of newborn rabbit pups showed on average an improvement of at least 20% in 16% of pixels within the lungs in comparison to that measured without the use of temporal subtraction. The majority of pixels that showed an improvement was found to be in regions occupied by bone. Applying the volumetric technique to sequences of PBI images of newborn rabbit pups, it is shown that lung aeration at birth can be highly heterogeneous. This paper presents an image segmentation technique based on temporal subtraction that has successfully been used to isolate the lungs from PBI chest images, allowing the change in lung air volume to be measured over regions as small as the pixel size. Using this technique, it is possible to measure

  3. Volume of sealer in the apical region of teeth filled by different techniques: a micro-CT analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Vanessa Lessa; Souza-Gabriel, Aline Evangelista; Cruz Filho, Antonio Miranda da; Pecora, Jesus Djalma; Silva, Ricardo Gariba, E-mail: vanessalessa@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Escola de Odontologia. Departamento de Odontologia Restauradora

    2016-05-01

    The volume of sealer in the apical 1 mm of teeth filled using different techniques was evaluated by micro-commuted tomography (micro-CT). Sixty-four maxillary central incisors were prepared using NiTi rotary instruments. Teeth were randomly distributed into four groups according to root canal sealers (AH Plus, Endofill, Sealapex, and Sealer 26) and subdivided into two subgroups according to the filling techniques (active and passive lateral condensation; n = 8 each). Subsequently, teeth were examined using the 1174 SkyScan micro-CT device. Images were reconstructed using the NRecon software, and the sealer volume (mm{sup 3}) in the apical region was analyzed using the two-way ANOVA and post-hoc Student-Newman-Keuls test (α = 0.05). The lowest volume of sealer was observed in teeth filled with Sealapex (0.100 ± 0.009) and Endofill (0.103 ± 0.010). The highest volume was observed in teeth filled with AH Plus (0.112 ± 0.008) and Sealer 26 (0.109 ± 0.018) (p > 0.05). Regarding the filling technique, a lower sealer volume was observed using the active lateral condensation technique compared with that using the passive lateral condensation technique (0.100 ± 0.010 vs. 0.111 ± 0.012) (p < 0.05). Therefore, the lowest volume of sealer was observed in teeth filled with Sealapex and Endofill using the active lateral condensation technique. (author)

  4. Volume of sealer in the apical region of teeth filled by different techniques: a micro-CT analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, Vanessa Lessa; Souza-Gabriel, Aline Evangelista; Cruz Filho, Antonio Miranda da; Pecora, Jesus Djalma; Silva, Ricardo Gariba

    2016-01-01

    The volume of sealer in the apical 1 mm of teeth filled using different techniques was evaluated by micro-commuted tomography (micro-CT). Sixty-four maxillary central incisors were prepared using NiTi rotary instruments. Teeth were randomly distributed into four groups according to root canal sealers (AH Plus, Endofill, Sealapex, and Sealer 26) and subdivided into two subgroups according to the filling techniques (active and passive lateral condensation; n = 8 each). Subsequently, teeth were examined using the 1174 SkyScan micro-CT device. Images were reconstructed using the NRecon software, and the sealer volume (mm 3 ) in the apical region was analyzed using the two-way ANOVA and post-hoc Student-Newman-Keuls test (α = 0.05). The lowest volume of sealer was observed in teeth filled with Sealapex (0.100 ± 0.009) and Endofill (0.103 ± 0.010). The highest volume was observed in teeth filled with AH Plus (0.112 ± 0.008) and Sealer 26 (0.109 ± 0.018) (p > 0.05). Regarding the filling technique, a lower sealer volume was observed using the active lateral condensation technique compared with that using the passive lateral condensation technique (0.100 ± 0.010 vs. 0.111 ± 0.012) (p < 0.05). Therefore, the lowest volume of sealer was observed in teeth filled with Sealapex and Endofill using the active lateral condensation technique. (author)

  5. Evaluation of gross radioactivity in foodstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zorer, Oezlem Selcuk; Oeter, Cigdem

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents the results of radiological investigations of food products sampled in the summer and fall of 2011 and 2012 in different parts of Van, Turkey. Gross radioactivity measurements in food products were evaluated. Food items were divided into eight groups: (1) water, (2) fish, (3) cheese products, (4) fruits, (5) vegetables, (6) herbs, (7) walnut and (8) rock salt. The levels of the gross alpha and gross beta radioactivity in all food samples varied widely ranging from 0.070 to 10.885 Bq/g and from 0.132 to 48.285 Bq/g on dry mass basis, respectively. In one sample, gross alpha and gross beta activity concentrations were found to be relatively high according to the other samples and in all samples, the gross alpha radioactivity was measured lower than the gross beta radioactivity. The gross α and gross β activities were measured by using α/β counter of the multi-detector low background system (PIC MPC-9604).

  6. Evaluation of gross radioactivity in foodstuffs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zorer, Oezlem Selcuk; Oeter, Cigdem [Yuzuncu Yil Univ., Van (Turkey). Dept. of Chemistry

    2015-05-15

    The paper presents the results of radiological investigations of food products sampled in the summer and fall of 2011 and 2012 in different parts of Van, Turkey. Gross radioactivity measurements in food products were evaluated. Food items were divided into eight groups: (1) water, (2) fish, (3) cheese products, (4) fruits, (5) vegetables, (6) herbs, (7) walnut and (8) rock salt. The levels of the gross alpha and gross beta radioactivity in all food samples varied widely ranging from 0.070 to 10.885 Bq/g and from 0.132 to 48.285 Bq/g on dry mass basis, respectively. In one sample, gross alpha and gross beta activity concentrations were found to be relatively high according to the other samples and in all samples, the gross alpha radioactivity was measured lower than the gross beta radioactivity. The gross α and gross β activities were measured by using α/β counter of the multi-detector low background system (PIC MPC-9604).

  7. Quantitation of regional cerebral blood flow corrected for partial volume effect using O-15 water and PET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    IIda, H.; Law, I.; Pakkenberg, B.

    2000-01-01

    Limited spatial resolution of positron emission tomography (PET) can cause significant underestimation in the observed regional radioactivity concentration (so-called partial volume effect or PVE) resulting in systematic errors in estimating quantitative physiologic parameters. The authors have...... formulated four mathematical models that describe the dynamic behavior of a freely diffusible tracer (H215O) in a region of interest (ROI) incorporating estimates of regional tissue flow that are independent of PVE. The current study was intended to evaluate the feasibility of these models and to establish...... a methodology to accurately quantify regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) corrected for PVE in cortical gray matter regions. Five monkeys were studied with PET after IV H2(15)O two times (n = 3) or three times (n = 2) in a row. Two ROIs were drawn on structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans and projected...

  8. Topology of genetic associations between regional gray matter volume and intellectual ability: Evidence for a high capacity network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohlken, Marc M; Brouwer, Rachel M; Mandl, René C W; Hedman, Anna M; van den Heuvel, Martijn P; van Haren, Neeltje E M; Kahn, René S; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E

    2016-01-01

    Intelligence is associated with a network of distributed gray matter areas including the frontal and parietal higher association cortices and primary processing areas of the temporal and occipital lobes. Efficient information transfer between gray matter regions implicated in intelligence is thought to be critical for this trait to emerge. Genetic factors implicated in intelligence and gray matter may promote a high capacity for information transfer. Whether these genetic factors act globally or on local gray matter areas separately is not known. Brain maps of phenotypic and genetic associations between gray matter volume and intelligence were made using structural equation modeling of 3T MRI T1-weighted scans acquired in 167 adult twins of the newly acquired U-TWIN cohort. Subsequently, structural connectivity analyses (DTI) were performed to test the hypothesis that gray matter regions associated with intellectual ability form a densely connected core. Gray matter regions associated with intellectual ability were situated in the right prefrontal, bilateral temporal, bilateral parietal, right occipital and subcortical regions. Regions implicated in intelligence had high structural connectivity density compared to 10,000 reference networks (p=0.031). The genetic association with intelligence was for 39% explained by a genetic source unique to these regions (independent of total brain volume), this source specifically implicated the right supramarginal gyrus. Using a twin design, we show that intelligence is genetically represented in a spatially distributed and densely connected network of gray matter regions providing a high capacity infrastructure. Although genes for intelligence have overlap with those for total brain volume, we present evidence that there are genes for intelligence that act specifically on the subset of brain areas that form an efficient brain network. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Measures of Gross National Happiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruut Veenhoven

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Happiness is rising on the political agenda and this calls for measures of how well nations perform in creating great happiness for a great number, analogous to measures of success in creating wealth, such as GDP. Happiness is defined as subjective enjoyment of one’s life as-a-whole and this can be measured using self-reports. Question on happiness are currently used in large scale surveys of the general population in nations. As a result we have now comparable data on happiness in 144 contemporary nations and time-series of 25 years and longer on 11 developed nations. These data can be aggregated in different ways: If the aim is simply greater happiness for a greater number of citizens, Average happiness (AH is an appropriate measure. If the focus is on enduring happiness, it is better to combine average happiness with longevity in an index of Happy Life Years (HLY. If the aim is to reduce disparity among citizens a relevant indicator is the Inequality of Happiness (IH in the nations as measured with the standard deviation. Average and dispersion can also be combined in an index of Inequality-Adjusted Happiness (IAH. Comparison across nations shows sizable differences on all these measures of gross national happiness and these differences correspond with societal characteristics that can be influenced by policy makers, such as freedom and justice. Comparison over time shows major improvement during the last decade.

  10. Uranium, thorium, gross alpha and gross beta assessment in fountain waters in towns of the Iron Quadrangle, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Claudia A.; Palmieri, Helena E.L.; Menezes, Maria Angela de B.C.; Chaves, Renata D.A.; Dalmazio, Ilza, E-mail: cferreiraquimica@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: help@cdtn.br, E-mail: menezes@cdtn.br, E-mail: rda@cdtn.br, E-mail: id@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The Iron Quadrangle region is known worldwide for its diversity, both ores and rock types, which record a long and important period of Earth's history. For thousands of years erosive processes have exposed ancient rocks, Archean and Proterozoic, in this region. The concentration of uranium, thorium, gross alpha and gross beta activities has been assessed in 34 fountains water samples collected from different towns in the Iron Quadrangle. The results obtained were compared to values established by CONAMA nº 396/2008 and Decree nº 2914/2011 by the Ministry of Health. For Th in water consumption there is no value established in the Brazilian legislation and the concentrations in all samples were lower than 0.01 μg L{sup -1}. For uranium, the values ranged from less than 0.002 to 0.61 μg L{sup -1}, and all results were lower than the value allowed of 15 μg L{sup -1} and 30 μg L{sup -1} established by the legislations above, respectively. The results for the radiation levels of gross alpha and gross beta activity in some fountains waters were slightly above the limits (0.5 Bq L{sup -1} and 1.0 Bq L{sup -1}) established by CONAMA nº 396/2008 and Decreet nº 2914/2011, respectively. (author)

  11. Uranium, thorium, gross alpha and gross beta assessment in fountain waters in towns of the Iron Quadrangle, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Claudia A.; Palmieri, Helena E.L.; Menezes, Maria Angela de B.C.; Chaves, Renata D.A.; Dalmazio, Ilza

    2013-01-01

    The Iron Quadrangle region is known worldwide for its diversity, both ores and rock types, which record a long and important period of Earth's history. For thousands of years erosive processes have exposed ancient rocks, Archean and Proterozoic, in this region. The concentration of uranium, thorium, gross alpha and gross beta activities has been assessed in 34 fountains water samples collected from different towns in the Iron Quadrangle. The results obtained were compared to values established by CONAMA nº 396/2008 and Decree nº 2914/2011 by the Ministry of Health. For Th in water consumption there is no value established in the Brazilian legislation and the concentrations in all samples were lower than 0.01 μg L -1 . For uranium, the values ranged from less than 0.002 to 0.61 μg L -1 , and all results were lower than the value allowed of 15 μg L -1 and 30 μg L -1 established by the legislations above, respectively. The results for the radiation levels of gross alpha and gross beta activity in some fountains waters were slightly above the limits (0.5 Bq L -1 and 1.0 Bq L -1 ) established by CONAMA nº 396/2008 and Decreet nº 2914/2011, respectively. (author)

  12. Age-related differences in regional brain volumes: A comparison of optimized voxel-based morphometry to manual volumetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Kristen M.; Erickson, Kirk I.; Rodrigue, Karen M.; Voss, Michelle W.; Colcombe, Stan J.; Kramer, Arthur F.; Acker, James D.; Raz, Naftali

    2009-01-01

    Regional manual volumetry is the gold standard of in vivo neuroanatomy, but is labor-intensive, can be imperfectly reliable, and allows for measuring limited number of regions. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) has perfect repeatability and assesses local structure across the whole brain. However, its anatomic validity is unclear, and with its increasing popularity, a systematic comparison of VBM to manual volumetry is necessary. The few existing comparison studies are limited by small samples, qualitative comparisons, and limited selection and modest reliability of manual measures. Our goal was to overcome those limitations by quantitatively comparing optimized VBM findings with highly reliable multiple regional measures in a large sample (N = 200) across a wide agespan (18–81). We report a complex pattern of similarities and differences. Peak values of VBM volume estimates (modulated density) produced stronger age differences and a different spatial distribution from manual measures. However, when we aggregated VBM-derived information across voxels contained in specific anatomically defined regions (masks), the patterns of age differences became more similar, although important discrepancies emerged. Notably, VBM revealed stronger age differences in the regions bordering CSF and white matter areas prone to leukoaraiosis, and VBM was more likely to report nonlinearities in age-volume relationships. In the white matter regions, manual measures showed stronger negative associations with age than the corresponding VBM-based masks. We conclude that VBM provides realistic estimates of age differences in the regional gray matter only when applied to anatomically defined regions, but overestimates effects when individual peaks are interpreted. It may be beneficial to use VBM as a first-pass strategy, followed by manual measurement of anatomically-defined regions. PMID:18276037

  13. Alternative Measure of Wellbeing: Bhutan's Gross National ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    There is growing demand for innovative yet rigorous measures of national wellbeing beyond gross domestic product. In 2008, the Centre for Bhutan Studies - Bhutan's main policy research centre - posted data from a preliminary survey of the country's Gross National Happiness (GNH). The Centre for Bhutan Studies ...

  14. Regional Patterns of Ethnicity in Nova Scotia: A Geographical Study. Ethnic Heritage Series, Volume VI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millward, Hugh A.

    In this sixth volume of the Ethnic Heritage Series, the pattern of ethnicity in Nova Scotia (Canada) is examined by deriving indices of diversity for counties and larger towns. The historical development of ethnic patterns from 1767 to 1971 and recent changes in the ethnic pattern are discussed. Ethnic origin data is mapped for 1871 and 1971 and…

  15. Volume distribution in saw-timber types in the ponderosa pine region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen N. Wyckoff

    1939-01-01

    The forest survey, a Nation-wide project authorized by Congress in 1928, consists of a complete and detailed investigation of the country's present and future forest resources in five major parts: (1) an inventory of the country's existing forest resources in terms of areas occupied by forest-cover types and of timber volumes, by species, in board feet and...

  16. A dual resolution measurement based Monte Carlo simulation technique for detailed dose analysis of small volume organs in the skull base region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, Chi-Yuan; Tung, Chuan-Jung; Chao, Tsi-Chain; Lin, Mu-Han; Lee, Chung-Chi

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine dose distribution of a skull base tumor and surrounding critical structures in response to high dose intensity-modulated radiosurgery (IMRS) with Monte Carlo (MC) simulation using a dual resolution sandwich phantom. The measurement-based Monte Carlo (MBMC) method (Lin et al., 2009) was adopted for the study. The major components of the MBMC technique involve (1) the BEAMnrc code for beam transport through the treatment head of a Varian 21EX linear accelerator, (2) the DOSXYZnrc code for patient dose simulation and (3) an EPID-measured efficiency map which describes non-uniform fluence distribution of the IMRS treatment beam. For the simulated case, five isocentric 6 MV photon beams were designed to deliver a total dose of 1200 cGy in two fractions to the skull base tumor. A sandwich phantom for the MBMC simulation was created based on the patient's CT scan of a skull base tumor [gross tumor volume (GTV)=8.4 cm 3 ] near the right 8th cranial nerve. The phantom, consisted of a 1.2-cm thick skull base region, had a voxel resolution of 0.05×0.05×0.1 cm 3 and was sandwiched in between 0.05×0.05×0.3 cm 3 slices of a head phantom. A coarser 0.2×0.2×0.3 cm 3 single resolution (SR) phantom was also created for comparison with the sandwich phantom. A particle history of 3×10 8 for each beam was used for simulations of both the SR and the sandwich phantoms to achieve a statistical uncertainty of <2%. Our study showed that the planning target volume (PTV) receiving at least 95% of the prescribed dose (VPTV95) was 96.9%, 96.7% and 99.9% for the TPS, SR, and sandwich phantom, respectively. The maximum and mean doses to large organs such as the PTV, brain stem, and parotid gland for the TPS, SR and sandwich MC simulations did not show any significant difference; however, significant dose differences were observed for very small structures like the right 8th cranial nerve, right cochlea, right malleus and right semicircular

  17. A tensor-based morphometry analysis of regional differences in brain volume in relation to prenatal alcohol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meintjes, E M; Narr, K L; van der Kouwe, A J W; Molteno, C D; Pirnia, T; Gutman, B; Woods, R P; Thompson, P M; Jacobson, J L; Jacobson, S W

    2014-01-01

    Reductions in brain volumes represent a neurobiological signature of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Less clear is how regional brain tissue reductions differ after normalizing for brain size differences linked with FASD and whether these profiles can predict the degree of prenatal exposure to alcohol. To examine associations of regional brain tissue excesses/deficits with degree of prenatal alcohol exposure and diagnosis with and without correction for overall brain volume, tensor-based morphometry (TBM) methods were applied to structural imaging data from a well-characterized, demographically homogeneous sample of children diagnosed with FASD (n = 39, 9.6-11.0 years) and controls (n = 16, 9.5-11.0 years). Degree of prenatal alcohol exposure was significantly associated with regionally pervasive brain tissue reductions in: (1) the thalamus, midbrain, and ventromedial frontal lobe, (2) the superior cerebellum and inferior occipital lobe, (3) the dorsolateral frontal cortex, and (4) the precuneus and superior parietal lobule. When overall brain size was factored out of the analysis on a subject-by-subject basis, no regions showed significant associations with alcohol exposure. FASD diagnosis was associated with a similar deformation pattern, but few of the regions survived FDR correction. In data-driven independent component analyses (ICA) regional brain tissue deformations successfully distinguished individuals based on extent of prenatal alcohol exposure and to a lesser degree, diagnosis. The greater sensitivity of the continuous measure of alcohol exposure compared with the categorical diagnosis across diverse brain regions underscores the dose dependence of these effects. The ICA results illustrate that profiles of brain tissue alterations may be a useful indicator of prenatal alcohol exposure when reliable historical data are not available and facial features are not apparent.

  18. A tensor-based morphometry analysis of regional differences in brain volume in relation to prenatal alcohol exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.M. Meintjes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reductions in brain volumes represent a neurobiological signature of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD. Less clear is how regional brain tissue reductions differ after normalizing for brain size differences linked with FASD and whether these profiles can predict the degree of prenatal exposure to alcohol. To examine associations of regional brain tissue excesses/deficits with degree of prenatal alcohol exposure and diagnosis with and without correction for overall brain volume, tensor-based morphometry (TBM methods were applied to structural imaging data from a well-characterized, demographically homogeneous sample of children diagnosed with FASD (n = 39, 9.6–11.0 years and controls (n = 16, 9.5–11.0 years. Degree of prenatal alcohol exposure was significantly associated with regionally pervasive brain tissue reductions in: (1 the thalamus, midbrain, and ventromedial frontal lobe, (2 the superior cerebellum and inferior occipital lobe, (3 the dorsolateral frontal cortex, and (4 the precuneus and superior parietal lobule. When overall brain size was factored out of the analysis on a subject-by-subject basis, no regions showed significant associations with alcohol exposure. FASD diagnosis was associated with a similar deformation pattern, but few of the regions survived FDR correction. In data-driven independent component analyses (ICA regional brain tissue deformations successfully distinguished individuals based on extent of prenatal alcohol exposure and to a lesser degree, diagnosis. The greater sensitivity of the continuous measure of alcohol exposure compared with the categorical diagnosis across diverse brain regions underscores the dose dependence of these effects. The ICA results illustrate that profiles of brain tissue alterations may be a useful indicator of prenatal alcohol exposure when reliable historical data are not available and facial features are not apparent.

  19. Volume of sealer in the apical region of teeth filled by different techniques: a micro-CT analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Lessa ARAÚJO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The volume of sealer in the apical 1 mm of teeth filled using different techniques was evaluated by micro-commuted tomography (micro-CT. Sixty-four maxillary central incisors were prepared using NiTi rotary instruments. Teeth were randomly distributed into four groups according to root canal sealers (AH Plus, Endofill, Sealapex, and Sealer 26 and subdivided into two subgroups according to the filling techniques (active and passive lateral condensation; n = 8 each. Subsequently, teeth were examined using the 1174 SkyScan micro-CT device. Images were reconstructed using the NRecon software, and the sealer volume (mm3 in the apical region was analyzed using the two-way ANOVA and post-hoc Student–Newman–Keuls test (α = ٠.٠٥. The lowest volume of sealer was observed in teeth filled with Sealapex (0.100 ± 0.009 and Endofill (0.103 ± 0.010. The highest volume was observed in teeth filled with AH Plus (0.112 ± 0.008 and Sealer 26 (0.109 ± 0.018 (p > 0.05. Regarding the filling technique, a lower sealer volume was observed using the active lateral condensation technique compared with that using the passive lateral condensation technique (0.100 ± 0.010 vs. 0.111 ± 0.012 (p < 0.05. Therefore, the lowest volume of sealer was observed in teeth filled with Sealapex and Endofill using the active lateral condensation technique.

  20. Trauma of the Frontal Region Is Influenced by the Volume of Frontal Sinuses. A Finite Element Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srbislav S. Pajic

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Anatomy of frontal sinuses varies individually, from differences in volume and shape to a rare case when the sinuses are absent. However, there are scarce data related to influence of these variations on impact generated fracture pattern. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyse the influence of frontal sinus volume on the stress distribution and fracture pattern in the frontal region. The study included four representative Finite Element models of the skull. Reference model was built on the basis of computed tomography scans of a human head with normally developed frontal sinuses. By modifying the reference model, three additional models were generated: a model without sinuses, with hypoplasic, and with hyperplasic sinuses. A 7.7 kN force was applied perpendicularly to the forehead of each model, in order to simulate a frontal impact. The results demonstrated that the distribution of impact stress in frontal region depends on the frontal sinus volume. The anterior sinus wall showed the highest fragility in case with hyperplasic sinuses, whereas posterior wall/inner plate showed more fragility in cases with hypoplasic and undeveloped sinuses. Well-developed frontal sinuses might, through absorption of the impact energy by anterior wall, protect the posterior wall and intracranial contents.

  1. International workshop: Planning for climate change through integrated coastal management. Volume 2: Country and regional reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This workshop included reports from the following countries: Argentina; Bulgaria; Egypt; Estonia; Fiji; Indonesia; Mozambique; Nigeria; Oman; The Philippines; Senegal; Sri Lanka; Surinam; Thailand; and Tuvalu; Regional reports were included on the following: Small Island Developing States of the Pacific; South Pacific Regional Environment Program; and Sea Level Rise Impacts on Central America

  2. Multimodal evidence of regional midcingulate gray matter volume underlying conflict monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad A. Parvaz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional neuroimaging studies have long implicated the mid-cingulate cortex (MCC in conflict monitoring, but it is not clear whether its structural integrity (i.e., the gray matter volume influences its conflict monitoring function. In this multimodal study, we used T1-weighted MRI scans as well as event-related potentials (ERPs to test whether the MCC gray matter volume is associated with the electrocortical marker (i.e., No-go N200 ERP component of conflict monitoring in healthy individuals. The specificity of such a relationship in health was determined in two ways: by (A acquiring the same data from individuals with cocaine use disorder (CUD, known to have deficits in executive function including behavioral monitoring; and (B acquiring the P300 ERP component that is linked with attention allocation and not specifically with conflict monitoring. Twenty-five (39.1 ± 8.4 years; 8 females healthy individuals and 25 (42.7 ± 5.9 years; 6 females individuals with CUD underwent a rewarded Go/No-go task during which the ERP data was collected, and they also underwent a structural MRI scan. The whole brain regression analysis showed a significant correlation between MCC structural integrity and the well-known ERP measure of conflict monitoring (N200, but not the P300 in healthy individuals, which was absent in CUD who were characterized by reduced MCC gray matter volume, N200 abnormalities as well as reduced task accuracy. In individuals with CUD instead, the N200 amplitude was associated with drug addiction symptomatology. These results show that the integrity of MCC volume is directly associated with the electrocortical correlates of conflict monitoring in healthy individuals, and such an association breaks down in psychopathologies that impact these brain processes. Taken together, this MCC–N200 association may serve as a biomarker of improved behavioral monitoring processes in diseased populations.

  3. Multimodal evidence of regional midcingulate gray matter volume underlying conflict monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvaz, Muhammad A; Maloney, Thomas; Moeller, Scott J; Malaker, Pias; Konova, Anna B; Alia-Klein, Nelly; Goldstein, Rita Z

    2014-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging studies have long implicated the mid-cingulate cortex (MCC) in conflict monitoring, but it is not clear whether its structural integrity (i.e., the gray matter volume) influences its conflict monitoring function. In this multimodal study, we used T1-weighted MRI scans as well as event-related potentials (ERPs) to test whether the MCC gray matter volume is associated with the electrocortical marker (i.e., No-go N200 ERP component) of conflict monitoring in healthy individuals. The specificity of such a relationship in health was determined in two ways: by (A) acquiring the same data from individuals with cocaine use disorder (CUD), known to have deficits in executive function including behavioral monitoring; and (B) acquiring the P300 ERP component that is linked with attention allocation and not specifically with conflict monitoring. Twenty-five (39.1 ± 8.4 years; 8 females) healthy individuals and 25 (42.7 ± 5.9 years; 6 females) individuals with CUD underwent a rewarded Go/No-go task during which the ERP data was collected, and they also underwent a structural MRI scan. The whole brain regression analysis showed a significant correlation between MCC structural integrity and the well-known ERP measure of conflict monitoring (N200, but not the P300) in healthy individuals, which was absent in CUD who were characterized by reduced MCC gray matter volume, N200 abnormalities as well as reduced task accuracy. In individuals with CUD instead, the N200 amplitude was associated with drug addiction symptomatology. These results show that the integrity of MCC volume is directly associated with the electrocortical correlates of conflict monitoring in healthy individuals, and such an association breaks down in psychopathologies that impact these brain processes. Taken together, this MCC-N200 association may serve as a biomarker of improved behavioral monitoring processes in diseased populations.

  4. Multimodal evidence of regional midcingulate gray matter volume underlying conflict monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvaz, Muhammad A.; Maloney, Thomas; Moeller, Scott J.; Malaker, Pias; Konova, Anna B.; Alia-Klein, Nelly; Goldstein, Rita Z.

    2014-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging studies have long implicated the mid-cingulate cortex (MCC) in conflict monitoring, but it is not clear whether its structural integrity (i.e., the gray matter volume) influences its conflict monitoring function. In this multimodal study, we used T1-weighted MRI scans as well as event-related potentials (ERPs) to test whether the MCC gray matter volume is associated with the electrocortical marker (i.e., No-go N200 ERP component) of conflict monitoring in healthy individuals. The specificity of such a relationship in health was determined in two ways: by (A) acquiring the same data from individuals with cocaine use disorder (CUD), known to have deficits in executive function including behavioral monitoring; and (B) acquiring the P300 ERP component that is linked with attention allocation and not specifically with conflict monitoring. Twenty-five (39.1 ± 8.4 years; 8 females) healthy individuals and 25 (42.7 ± 5.9 years; 6 females) individuals with CUD underwent a rewarded Go/No-go task during which the ERP data was collected, and they also underwent a structural MRI scan. The whole brain regression analysis showed a significant correlation between MCC structural integrity and the well-known ERP measure of conflict monitoring (N200, but not the P300) in healthy individuals, which was absent in CUD who were characterized by reduced MCC gray matter volume, N200 abnormalities as well as reduced task accuracy. In individuals with CUD instead, the N200 amplitude was associated with drug addiction symptomatology. These results show that the integrity of MCC volume is directly associated with the electrocortical correlates of conflict monitoring in healthy individuals, and such an association breaks down in psychopathologies that impact these brain processes. Taken together, this MCC–N200 association may serve as a biomarker of improved behavioral monitoring processes in diseased populations. PMID:24918068

  5. Sequential assessment of regional cerebral blood flow, regional cerebral blood volume, and blood-brain barrier in focal cerebral ischemia: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Piero, V.; Perani, D.; Savi, A.; Gerundini, P.; Lenzi, G.L.; Fazio, F.

    1986-01-01

    Regional CBF (rCBF) and regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV) were evaluated by N,N,N'-trimethyl-N'-(2)-hydroxy-3-methyl-5-[123I]iodobenzyl-1, 3-propanediamine-2 HCl- and /sup 99m/TC-labeled red blood cells, respectively, and single-photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) in a patient with focal cerebral ischemia. Sequential transmission computerized tomography (TCT) and SPECT functional data were compared with clinical findings to monitor the pathophysiological events occurring in stroke. A lack of correlation between rCBF-rCBV distributions and blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown was found in the acute phase. In the face of more prolonged alteration of BBB, as seen by TCT enhancement, a rapid evolution of transient phenomena such as luxury perfusion was shown by SPECT studies. Follow-up of the patient demonstrated a correlation between the neurological recovery and a parallel relative improvement of the cerebral perfusion

  6. Long-term global and regional brain volume changes following severe traumatic brain injury: A longitudinal study with clinical correlates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidaros, Annette; Skimminge, Arnold Jesper Møller; Liptrot, Matthew George

    2009-01-01

    with percent brain volume change (%BVC) ranging between − 0.6% and − 9.4% (mean − 4.0%). %BVC correlated significantly with injury severity, functional status at both scans, and with 1-year outcome. Moreover, %BVC improved prediction of long-term functional status over and above what could be predicted using......Traumatic brain injury (TBI) results in neurodegenerative changes that progress for months, perhaps even years post-injury. However, there is little information on the spatial distribution and the clinical significance of this late atrophy. In 24 patients who had sustained severe TBI we acquired 3D...... scan time point using SIENAX. Regional distribution of atrophy was evaluated using tensor-based morphometry (TBM). At the first scan time point, brain parenchymal volume was reduced by mean 8.4% in patients as compared to controls. During the scan interval, patients exhibited continued atrophy...

  7. Department of Energy's regional solar updates 1979. Volume two. Invited papers and appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-01-01

    Twenty-six invited papers for the regional meetings at Dearborn, Michigan; Orlando, Florida; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; and Los Angeles, California are included. Separate abstracts were prepared for each paper. (MHR)

  8. The Gross-Llewellyn Smith sum rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, W.G.

    1981-01-01

    We present the most recent data on the Gross-Llewellyn Smith sum rule obtained from the combined BEBC Narrow Band Neon and GGM-PS Freon neutrino/antineutrino experiments. The data for the Gross-Llewellyn Smith sum rule as a function of q 2 suggest a smaller value for the QCD coupling constant parameter Λ than is obtained from the analysis of the higher moments. (author)

  9. Validating the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Downs

    Full Text Available Rett syndrome is a pervasive neurodevelopmental disorder associated with a pathogenic mutation on the MECP2 gene. Impaired movement is a fundamental component and the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale was developed to measure gross motor abilities in this population. The current study investigated the validity and reliability of the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale. Video data showing gross motor abilities supplemented with parent report data was collected for 255 girls and women registered with the Australian Rett Syndrome Database, and the factor structure and relationships between motor scores, age and genotype were investigated. Clinical assessment scores for 38 girls and women with Rett syndrome who attended the Danish Center for Rett Syndrome were used to assess consistency of measurement. Principal components analysis enabled the calculation of three factor scores: Sitting, Standing and Walking, and Challenge. Motor scores were poorer with increasing age and those with the p.Arg133Cys, p.Arg294* or p.Arg306Cys mutation achieved higher scores than those with a large deletion. The repeatability of clinical assessment was excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient for total score 0.99, 95% CI 0.93-0.98. The standard error of measurement for the total score was 2 points and we would be 95% confident that a change 4 points in the 45-point scale would be greater than within-subject measurement error. The Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale could be an appropriate measure of gross motor skills in clinical practice and clinical trials.

  10. Validating the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Jenny; Stahlhut, Michelle; Wong, Kingsley; Syhler, Birgit; Bisgaard, Anne-Marie; Jacoby, Peter; Leonard, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Rett syndrome is a pervasive neurodevelopmental disorder associated with a pathogenic mutation on the MECP2 gene. Impaired movement is a fundamental component and the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale was developed to measure gross motor abilities in this population. The current study investigated the validity and reliability of the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale. Video data showing gross motor abilities supplemented with parent report data was collected for 255 girls and women registered with the Australian Rett Syndrome Database, and the factor structure and relationships between motor scores, age and genotype were investigated. Clinical assessment scores for 38 girls and women with Rett syndrome who attended the Danish Center for Rett Syndrome were used to assess consistency of measurement. Principal components analysis enabled the calculation of three factor scores: Sitting, Standing and Walking, and Challenge. Motor scores were poorer with increasing age and those with the p.Arg133Cys, p.Arg294* or p.Arg306Cys mutation achieved higher scores than those with a large deletion. The repeatability of clinical assessment was excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient for total score 0.99, 95% CI 0.93-0.98). The standard error of measurement for the total score was 2 points and we would be 95% confident that a change 4 points in the 45-point scale would be greater than within-subject measurement error. The Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale could be an appropriate measure of gross motor skills in clinical practice and clinical trials.

  11. An intravenous isotope method for measuring regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and volume (rCBV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuikka, J.; Ahonen, A.; Koivula, A.; Kallanranta, T.; Laitinen, J.

    1977-01-01

    The regional cerebal blood flow (rCBF), initial slope index (ISI), transfer time (t - sub(h)) and volume (rCBV) were measured simultaneously in 43 hospital patients using a 133 Xe intravenous injection method and quantitative dynamic 99 Tcsup(m) brain scintigraphy. The measurements were made with a gamma camera and the data processing interfaced with a small digital computer. The mean values and standard deviations were obtained from 50 control hemispheres standardized to the age of 40 years. Good agreement was found between the blood flow values determined from the intra-arterial and intravenous injection techniques. (author)

  12. Requirement of radiochemical recovery determination for gross alpha and gross beta estimation in drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raveendran, Nanda; Rao, D.D.; Hegde, A.G.

    2010-01-01

    Presence of radionuclides in drinking water which emits Alpha and Beta particles are the potential sources of internal exposure in drinking water. Gross alpha and gross beta determination in drinking water and packaged drinking water (PDW) as per BIS (Bureau of Indian standards) standards is discussed here. The methods have been tested to account for losses in the radiochemical procedures using radionuclides such as 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 226 Ra, 239 Pu, 243 Am, 232 U. The methods have also been validated in an IAEA proficiency test conducted during 2009. Monitoring of gross alpha and gross beta activity observed in drinking water/packaged drinking water from various states of India were within the limits set by BIS. Average radiochemical recoveries of 84% and 63% were obtained for gross α and gross β respectively. (author)

  13. Regional gray matter volume mediates the relationship between maternal emotional warmth and gratitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Junyi; Wei, Dongtao; Wang, Kangcheng; Yi, Zili; Qiu, Jiang

    2018-01-31

    Researchers have examined how parenting behavior influences individuals' brain structure and behavioral development, primarily among people who have experienced maltreatment. However, information relating to the anatomical structure associated with the parenting behavior in young healthy individuals who have not experienced maltreatment is scant. Gratitude is an important aspect of human sociality. Both the extent to which parenting behavior influences gratitude and the neural basis of the relationship between parenting behavior and gratitude are unclear. Thus, in the present study, the primary aim was to use voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to investigate the neuroanatomical basis of parenting behavior in young healthy participants. The results showed a significant negative correlation between the maternal emotional warmth and both the dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) and the lateral rostral prefrontal cortex. Then, we used mediation analysis to investigate the neural basis of the relationship between parenting behavior and gratitude. The results revealed that the volume of the lateral rostral prefrontal cortex mediates the relationship between the maternal emotional warmth and gratitude. Together, these findings suggest that the family environment, specifically parenting behavior, might be associated with the gray matter volume of brain structure. Further, the lateral rostral prefrontal cortex might have an important role in the relationship between the maternal emotional warmth and gratitude. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. National hydroelectric power resources study. Preliminary inventory of hydropower resources. Volume 2. Pacific Southwest region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-07-01

    The estimates of existing, incremental, and the undeveloped hydropower potential for all states in the various regions of the country are presented. In the Pacific Southwest region, the maximum physical potential for all sites exceeds 33,000 MW of capacity with an estimated average annual energy greater than 85,000 GWH. By comparison, these values represent about 6% of the total potential capacity and hydroelectric energy generation estimated for the entire US. Of the total capacity estimated for the region, 9900 MW has been installed. The remainder (23,200 MW) is the maximum which could be developed by upgrading and expanding existing projects (6000 MW) and by installing new hydroelectric power capacity at all potentially feasible, undeveloped sites (17,200 MW). Small-scale facilities account for less than 4% of the region's total installed capacity, but another 600 MW could be added to these and other small water resource projects. In addition, 600 MW could be installed at potentially feasible, undeveloped small-scale sites. The small-scale resource varies considerably, with the states of California and Utah having the largest potential for incremental development at existing projects in the Pacific Southwest region. States comprising the Southwest are Arizona, California, Hawaii, Nevada, and Utah.

  15. National hydroelectric power resources study. Preliminary inventory of hydropower resources. Volume 6. Northeast region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-07-01

    In the Northeast region, the physical potential for all sites exceeds 33,000 MW of capacity with an estimated average annual energy of some 153,000 GWH. By comparison, the available data represent about 6% of the total capacity and 11% of the hydroelectric energy potential estimated for the entire US. Of the total capacity estimated for the region, 6100 MW has been installed. The remainder (27,200 MW, excluding the undeveloped capacity in the New England States) is the maximum which could be developed by upgrading and expanding existing projects (18,700 MW), and by installing new hydroelectric power capacity at all potentially feasible, undeveloped sites (8500 MW). Small-scale facilities account for about 15% of the region's total installed capacity, but another 1800 MW could be added to these and other small water-resource projects. In addition, 500 MW could be installed at potentially feasible, undeveloped small-scale sites. The small-scale resource varies considerably, with the states of New York, Maine, and New Hampshire having the largest potential for incremental development at existing projects in the Northeast region. West Virginia, Maryland, Delaware, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, New York, Connecticut, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, Vermont, and Maine comprise the Northeast region.

  16. The San Andreas fault experiment. [gross tectonic plates relative velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D. E.; Vonbun, F. O.

    1973-01-01

    A plan was developed during 1971 to determine gross tectonic plate motions along the San Andreas Fault System in California. Knowledge of the gross motion along the total fault system is an essential component in the construction of realistic deformation models of fault regions. Such mathematical models will be used in the future for studies which will eventually lead to prediction of major earthquakes. The main purpose of the experiment described is the determination of the relative velocity of the North American and the Pacific Plates. This motion being so extremely small, cannot be measured directly but can be deduced from distance measurements between points on opposite sites of the plate boundary taken over a number of years.

  17. Wind energy resource atlas. Volume 8. The southern Rocky Mountain region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, S.R.; Freeman, D.L.; Hadley, D.L.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

    1981-03-01

    The Southern Rocky Mountain atlas assimilates five collections of wind resource data: one for the region and one for each of the four states that compose the Southern Rocky Mountain region (Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, and Utah). At the state level, features of the climate, topography and wind resource are discussed in greater detail than is provided in the regional discussion, and the data locations on which the assessment is based are mapped. Variations, over several time scales, in the wind resource at selected stations in each state are shown on graphs of monthly average and interannual wind speed and power, and hourly average wind speed for each season. Other graphs present speed, direction, and duration frequencies of the wind at these locations.

  18. Building America Best Practices Series: Volume 7.1: Guide to Determining Climate Regions by County

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baechler, Michael C.; Williamson, Jennifer L.; Gilbride, Theresa L.; Cole, Pamala C.; Hefty, Marye G.; Love, Pat M.

    2010-08-30

    This report for DOE's Building America program helps builders identify which Building America climate region they are building in. The guide includes maps comparing the Building America regions with climate designations used in the International Energy Conservation Code for Residential Buildings and lists all U.S. counties by climate zone. A very brief history of the development of the Building America climate map and descriptions of each climate zone are provided. This report is available on the Building America website www.buildingamerica.gov.

  19. Economic impacts from energy efficiency programs - Variations in multiplier effects by program type and region. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, John; Skumatz, Lisa

    2007-01-01

    Research indicates that the value of omitted program effects - specifically non-energy benefits (NEBs) - represent a significant share of overall program impacts. One of the largest components of societal benefits is the direct and indirect economic and job creation effects stimulated by the investment in conservation on behalf of the program. The literature has indicated that the valuations assigned to this category of these categories can be large, but much of the literature overstates the impact of economic NEBs. We conducted extensive research to develop reliable and defensible estimates of these benefits categories. This study used input-output analysis to update the economic multipliers for NEBs in several ways. Net: Developed 'net' estimates of the multipliers (rather than 'gross' factors)Variations by Region: Estimated multipliers for multiple states and for the entire US; Variations by Program Type: Developed estimates based on different types or categories of programs (e.g weatherization vs. new construction vs. appliance programs, etc.), Variations in Baseline Assumptions: Different assumptions about where the expenditures are transferred 'from' for the net analysis (e.g. from 'generation', from a mixed market basket, etc.); and Variations over Time: Used data from multiple time periods to examine changes in the size of multipliers over time. We examined the results by state, by program type, and over time and found dramatic differences in the economic impacts by program type and territory under consideration. The results provide estimates of the economic impacts derived from the program; however, for communities or utilities with economic development goals, the results can be used to help select between program alternatives. The results are new, and the revised figures have been used to compute more reliable and tailored estimates of economic non-energy benefits that can be applied in regulatory tests

  20. NURE [National Uranium Resource Evaluation] HSSR [Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance] Quadrangle Summary Tables, North Region: Volume 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This volume presents a summary of the distribution of elemental concentrations for water and sediment samples across quadrangles located in the North Regional File. The next section briefly outlines the approach used by ISP in preparing these data tables. This is followed by an Alphabetical Index to the quadrangles contained in the North Regional File and a Quadrangle Map; both the Index and Map present a record count for each quadrangle. The last section presents the data summary tables organized by sample type (water or sediments) and displaying elements within quads and quads within elements. These data summary tables show the general ranges of values present in the NURE Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance sample data in each quadrangle or state. As with all summaries, they represent the data according to the best judgement of the professionals doing the analysis. This section gives a general description of the procedures used to produce the quadrangle summary percentiles

  1. NURE [National Uranium Resource Evaluation] HSSR [Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance] Quadrangle Summary Tables, South East Region: Volume 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This volume presents a summary of the distribution of elemental concentrations for water and sediment samples across quadrangles located in the South East Regional File. The next section briefly outlines the approach used by ISP in preparing these data tables. This is followed by an Alphabetical Index to the quadrangles contained in the South East Regional File and a Quadrangle Map; both the Index and Map present a record count for each quadrangle. The last section presents the data summary tables organized by sample type (water or sediments) and displaying elements within quads and quads within elements. These data summary tables show the general ranges of values present in the NURE Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance sample data in each quadrangle or state. As with all summaries, they represent the data according to the best judgement of the professionals doing the analysis. This section gives a general description of the procedures used to produce the quadrangle summary percentiles

  2. NURE [National Uranium Resource Evaluation] HSSR [Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance] Quadrangle Summary Tables, South West Region: Volume 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This volume presents a summary of the distribution of elemental concentrations for water and sediment samples across quadrangles located in the South West Regional File. The next section briefly outlines the approach used by ISP in preparing these data tables. This is followed by an Alphabetical Index to the quadrangles contained in the South West Regional File and a Quadrangle Map; both the Index and Map present a record count for each quadrangle. The last section presents the data summary tables organized by sample type (water or sediments) and displaying elements within quads and quads within elements. These data summary tables show the general ranges of values present in the NURE Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance sample data in each quadrangle or state. As with all summaries, they represent the data according to the best judgement of the professionals doing the analysis. This section gives a general description of the procedures used to produce the quadrangle summary percentiles

  3. NURE [National Uranium Resource Evaluation] HSSR [Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance] Quadrangle Summary Tables, East Region: Volume 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This volume presents a summary of the distribution of elemental concentrations for water and sediment samples across quadrangles located in the East Regional File. The next section briefly outlines the approach used by ISP in preparing these data tables. This is followed by an Alphabetical Index to the quadrangles contained in the East Regional File and a Quadrangle Map; both the Index and Map present a record count for each quadrangle. The last section presents the data summary tables organized by sample type (water or sediments) and displaying elements within quads and quads within elements. These data summary tables show the general ranges of values present in the NURE Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance sample data in each quadrangle or state. As with all summaries, they represent the data according to the best judgement of the professionals doing the analysis. This section gives a general description of the procedures used to produce the quadrangle summary percentiles

  4. NURE [National Uranium Resource Evaluation] HSSR [Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance] Quadrangle Summary Tables, Mid West Region: Volume 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This volume presents a summary of the distribution of elemental concentrations for water and sediment samples across quadrangles located in the Mid West Regional File. The next section briefly outlines the approach used by ISP in preparing these data tables. This is followed by an Alphabetical Index to the quadrangles contained in the Mid West Regional File and a Quadrangle Map; both the Index and Map present a record count for each quadrangle. The last section presents the data summary tables organized by sample type (water or sediments) and displaying elements within quads and quads within elements. These data summary tables show the general ranges of values present in the NURE Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance sample data in each quadrangle or state. As with all summaries, they represent the data according to the best judgement of the professionals doing the analysis. This section gives a general description of the procedures used to produce the quadrangle summary percentiles

  5. NURE [National Uranium Resource Evaluation] HSSR [Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance] Quadrangle Summary Tables, North West Region: Volume 11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This volume presents a summary of the distribution of elemental concentrations for water and sediment samples across quadrangles located in the North West Regional File. The next section briefly outlines the approach used by ISP in preparing these data tables. This is followed by an Alphabetical Index to the quadrangles contained in the North West Regional File and a Quadrangle Map; both the Index and Map present a record count for each quadrangle. The last section presents the data summary tables organized by sample type (water or sediments) and displaying elements within quads and quads within elements. These data summary tables show the general ranges of values present in the NURE Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance sample data in each quadrangle or state. As with all summaries, they represent the data according to the best judgement of the professionals doing the analysis. This section gives a general description of the procedures used to produce the quadrangle summary percentiles

  6. NURE [National Uranium Resource Evaluation] HSSR [Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance] Quadrangle Summary Tables, West Region: Volume 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This volume presents a summary of the distribution of elemental concentrations for water and sediment samples across quadrangles located in the West Regional File. The next section briefly outlines the approach used by ISP in preparing these data tables. This is followed by an Alphabetical Index to the quadrangles contained in the West Regional File and a Quadrangle Map; both the Index and Map present a record count for each quadrangle. The last section presents the data summary tables organized by sample type (water or sediments) and displaying elements within quads and quads within elements. These data summary tables show the general ranges of values present in the NURE Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance sample data in each quadrangle or state. As with all summaries, they represent the data according to the best judgement of the professionals doing the analysis. This section gives a general description of the procedures used to produce the quadrangle summary percentiles

  7. NURE [National Uranium Resource Evaluation] HSSR [Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance] Quadrangle Summary Tables, Mid East Region: Volume 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This volume presents a summary of the distribution of elemental concentrations for water and sediment samples across quadrangles located in the Mid East Regional File. The next section briefly outlines the approach used by ISP in preparing these data tables. This is followed by an Alphabetical Index to the quadrangles contained in the Mid East Regional File and a Quadrangle Map; both the Index and Map present a record count for each quadrangle. The last section presents the data summary tables organized by sample type (water or sediments) and displaying elements within quads and quads within elements. These data summary tables show the general ranges of values present in the NURE Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance sample data in each quadrangle or state. As with all summaries, they represent the data according to the best judgement of the professionals doing the analysis. This section gives a general description of the procedures used to produce the quadrangle summary percentiles

  8. A prospective study of corpus callosum regional volumes and neurocognitive outcomes following cranial radiation for pediatric brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Arif; Ram, Ashwin N; Kates, Wendy R; Redmond, Kristin J; Wharam, Moody; Mark Mahone, E; Horska, Alena; Terezakis, Stephanie

    2017-06-01

    Cranial radiation therapy (CRT) may disrupt the corpus callosum (CC), which plays an important role in basic motor and cognitive functions. The aim of this prospective longitudinal study was to assess changes in CC mid-sagittal areas, CC volumes, and performance on neuropsychological (NP) tests related to the CC in children following CRT. Twelve pediatric patients were treated with CRT for primary brain malignancies. Thirteen age-matched healthy volunteers served as controls. Brain MRIs and NP assessment emphasizing motor dexterity, processing speed, visuomotor integration, and working memory (visual and verbal) were performed at baseline and at 6, 15, and 27 months following completion of CRT. Linear mixed effects (LME) analyses were used to evaluate patient NP performance and changes in regional CC volumes (genu, anterior body, mid-body, posterior body, and splenium) and mid-sagittal areas over time and with radiation doses, correcting for age at CRT start. The mean age at CRT was 9.41 (range 1.2-15.7) years. The median prescription dose was 54 (range 18-59.4) Gy. LME analysis revealed a significant decrease in overall CC volumes over time (p memory (both p memory. Further prospective study of larger cohorts of patients is needed to establish the relationship between CRT dose, neuroanatomical, and functional changes in the CC.

  9. Bibliography on Cold Regions Science and Technology. Volume 47, Part 1, 1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-09-01

    mountain mass exchange, and runoff, [Lednikovaia sistema Af- runoff with regard to the role of snow cover and gla- systems. (Auth.) ganistana...cold regions engineering. peratre contrast betwneen the continent and the ocean Tocs - Oil Pipelines and Civil Engineering in Arctic Climates. Mar

  10. Regional volumes and spatial volumetric distribution of gray matter in the gender dysphoric brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekzema, E.; Schagen, S.E.E.; Kreukels, B.P.C.; Veltman, D.J.; Cohen-Kettenis, P.T.; Delemarre-van d Waal, H.A.; Bakkera, J.

    2015-01-01

    The sexual differentiation of the brain is primarily driven by gonadal hormones during fetal development. Leading theories on the etiology of gender dysphoria (GD) involve deviations herein. To examine whether there are signs of a sex-atypical brain development in GD, we quantified regional neural

  11. Regional volumes and spatial volumetric distribution of gray matter in the gender dysphoric brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekzema, Elseline; Schagen, Sebastian E E; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P C; Veltman, Dick J; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; Delemarre-van de Waal, Henriette; Bakker, J.

    The sexual differentiation of the brain is primarily driven by gonadal hormones during fetal development. Leading theories on the etiology of gender dysphoria (GD) involve deviations herein. To examine whether there are signs of a sex-atypical brain development in GD, we quantified regional neural

  12. Regional grey matter volume and concentration in at-risk adolescents: Untangling associations with callous-unemotional traits and conduct disorder symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohn, Moran D.; Viding, Essi; McCrory, Eamon; Pape, Louise; van den Brink, Wim; Doreleijers, Theo A. H.; Veltman, Dick J.; Popma, Arne

    2016-01-01

    Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging studies have reported volume reductions in several brain regions implicated in social cognition and emotion recognition in juvenile antisocial populations. However, it is unclear whether these structural abnormalities are specifically related to antisocial

  13. The Relationship between Regional Gray Matter Volume of Social Exclusion Regions and Personal Self-Esteem Is Moderated by Collective Self-Esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xin; Chen, Yujie; Chen, Bing; Guan, Lili; Zhao, Yufang

    2017-01-01

    According to sociometer theory, self-esteem is an internal monitor of positive social bonds to others. Social exclusion can break or threaten social bonds, which might be reflected by the brain structure of social exclusion regions. Thus, self-esteem might be influenced by structurally individual differences in these regions. It has been suggested that self-esteem can be divided into personal (PSE) and collective (CSE) self-esteem and CSE can bring individuals many benefits, such as acceptance, belonging, and social support, which could further maintain or increase their PSE. Based on this, we hypothesized that CSE might moderate the relationship between structurally individual differences in social exclusion regions and PSE. Therefore, in the present study, the moderating effect of CSE on the relationships between PSE and individual differences in regional gray matter volume (rGMV) of 10 social exclusion regions from previous meta-analysis of social exclusion were investigated using voxel-based morphometry. The results showed that CSE played a moderating role in the relationship between PSE and rGMV of the left posterior cingulate cortex (PCC). Specifically, PSE was positively associated with rGMV of left PCC in lower CSE, while there was no significant relationship between PSE and rGMV of left PCC in higher CSE. Therefore, we believe that compared with a higher CSE, because of lack of acceptance, belonging, and social support from valued groups, lower CSE individuals might be more prone to be influenced by social exclusion with decreased rGMV of the left PCC, which makes them more prone to develop lower PSE.

  14. The Relationship between Regional Gray Matter Volume of Social Exclusion Regions and Personal Self-Esteem Is Moderated by Collective Self-Esteem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Wu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available According to sociometer theory, self-esteem is an internal monitor of positive social bonds to others. Social exclusion can break or threaten social bonds, which might be reflected by the brain structure of social exclusion regions. Thus, self-esteem might be influenced by structurally individual differences in these regions. It has been suggested that self-esteem can be divided into personal (PSE and collective (CSE self-esteem and CSE can bring individuals many benefits, such as acceptance, belonging, and social support, which could further maintain or increase their PSE. Based on this, we hypothesized that CSE might moderate the relationship between structurally individual differences in social exclusion regions and PSE. Therefore, in the present study, the moderating effect of CSE on the relationships between PSE and individual differences in regional gray matter volume (rGMV of 10 social exclusion regions from previous meta-analysis of social exclusion were investigated using voxel-based morphometry. The results showed that CSE played a moderating role in the relationship between PSE and rGMV of the left posterior cingulate cortex (PCC. Specifically, PSE was positively associated with rGMV of left PCC in lower CSE, while there was no significant relationship between PSE and rGMV of left PCC in higher CSE. Therefore, we believe that compared with a higher CSE, because of lack of acceptance, belonging, and social support from valued groups, lower CSE individuals might be more prone to be influenced by social exclusion with decreased rGMV of the left PCC, which makes them more prone to develop lower PSE.

  15. Geologic Characterization Report for the Paradox Basin Study Region Utah Study Areas, Volume V, Appendices

    OpenAIRE

    United States Department of Energy

    1982-01-01

    This study is a part of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Waste Terminal Storage Program (NWTS). The scope of DOE's NWTS responsibilities include providing the technology and facilities to isolate high-level radio-active wastes for as long as the wastes represent a hazard. Emplacement of waste packages in mined geologic repositories deep underground in various types of rock formations is one method being evaluated. Using a basic site selection process (Figure 1-1), regions bei...

  16. Paleozoic and mesozoic GIS data from the Geologic Atlas of the Rocky Mountain Region: Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graeber, Aimee; Gunther, Gregory

    2017-01-01

    The Rocky Mountain Association of Geologists (RMAG) is, once again, publishing portions of the 1972 Geologic Atlas of the Rocky Mountain Region (Mallory, ed., 1972) as a geospatial map and data package. Georeferenced tiff (Geo TIFF) images of map figures from this atlas has served as the basis for these data products. Shapefiles and file geodatabase features have been generated and cartographically represented for select pages from the following chapters:• Phanerozoic Rocks (page 56)• Cambrian System (page 63)• Ordovician System (pages 78 and 79)• Silurian System (pages 87 - 89)• Devonian System (pages 93, 94, and 96 - 98)• Mississippian System (pages 102 and 103)• Pennsylvanian System (pages 114 and 115)• Permian System (pages 146 and 149 - 154)• Triassic System (pages 168 and 169)• Jurassic System (pages 179 and 180)• Cretaceous System (pages 197 - 201, 207 - 210, 215, - 218, 221, 222, 224, 225, and 227).The primary purpose of this publication is to provide regional-scale, as well as local-scale, geospatial data of the Rocky Mountain Region for use in geoscience studies. An important aspect of this interactive map product is that it does not require extensive GIS experience or highly specialized software.

  17. National hydroelectric power resources study. Preliminary inventory of hydropower resources. Volume 1. Pacific Northwest region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-07-01

    The preliminary inventory and analysis procedures provide a comprehensive assessment of the undeveloped hydroelectric power potential in the US and determines which sites merit more thorough investigation. Over 5400 existing structures have been identified as having the physical potential to add hydropower plants or increase hydropower output thereby increasing our present hydropower capacity from a total of 64,000 MW to 158,000 MW and our energy from 280,000 GWH to 503,000 GWH. While the physical potential for this increase is clearly available, some of these projects will undoubtedly not satisfy more-detailed economic analysis as well as the institutional and environmental criteria which will be imposed upon them. Summary tables include estimates of the potential capacity and energy at each site in the inventory. In some cases, individual projects may be site alternatives to others in the same general location, when only one can be considered for hydropower development. The number of sites per state is identified, but specific information is included for only the sites in Alaska, Idaho, Oregon, and Washington in this first volume.

  18. The earthquakes of stable continental regions. Volume 2: Appendices A to E. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, A.C.; Kanter, L.R.; Coppersmith, K.J.; Cornell, C.A.

    1994-12-01

    The objectives of the study were to develop a comprehensive database of earthquakes in stable continental regions (SCRs) and to statistically examine use of the database for the assessment of large earthquake potential. We identified nine major and several minor SCRs worldwide and compiled a database of geologic characteristics of tectonic domains within each SCR. We examined all available earthquake data from SCRs, from historical accounts of events with no instrumental ground-motion data to present-day instrumentally recorded events. In all, 1,385 events were analyzed. Using moment magnitude 4.5 as the lower bound threshold for inclusion in the database, 870 were assigned to an SCR, 124 were found to be transitional to an SCR, and 391 were examined, but rejected. We then performed a seismotectonic analysis to determine what distinguishes seismic activity in SCRs from other types of crust, such as active plate margins or active continental regions. General observations are: (1) SCRs comprise nearly two-thirds of all continental crust of which 25% is considered to be extended (i.e., rifted); (2) the majority of seismic energy release and the largest earthquakes in SCRs have occurred in extended crust; and (3) active plate margins release seismic energy at a rate per unit area approximately 7,000 times the average for non-extended SCRs. Finally, results of a statistical examination of distributions of historical maximum earthquakes between different crustal domain types indicated that additional information is needed in order to adequately constrain estimates of maximum earthquakes for any given region. Thus, a Bayesian approach was developed in which statistical constraints from the database were used to develop a prior distribution, which may then be combined with source-specific information to constrain maximum magnitude assessments for use in probabilistic seismic hazard analyses

  19. Feasibility of Steel Fiber-Reinforced Rubberized Concrete in Cold Regions for High Volume Intersections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou Eid, Mahear A.

    There are many challenges faced with the use of Portland Cement Concrete (PCC) in cold regions, but with the inclusion of new technologies such as steel fibers and recycled tire crumb rubber efficient construction may be possible. Research was conducted on a modified concrete material that included both steel fibers and crumb rubber. The composite material was called Steel Fiber-Reinforced Rubberized Concrete (SFRRC). The objective of this investigation was to provide evidence showing that SFRRC can reduce tire rutting compared to asphaltic pavement. In addition, the research showed that the SFRRC could withstand freeze-thaw cycles and increase service life of roadways. Several tests were performed to determine the characteristics of the material. Freeze-thaw testing was performed to determine compressive strength loss and visual deterioration of the material. Wheel tracker rut testing was performed both with the standard steel wheel and with a modified studded rubber tire to determine plastic deformation and rut resistance. An experimental test slab was cast in place on a public approach to observe the construction procedures, the effects of studded tire wear and the frost actions in cold region conditions. Based on freeze-thaw and wheel tracker test results and observations of the experimental test slab, the SFRRC material shows viability in cold regions for resisting freeze-thaw actions. The freeze-thaw testing resulted in increased compressive strength after 300 freeze-thaw cycles and very low deterioration of material compared to standard PCC. The wheel tracker testing resulted in very low plastic deformation and minor material rutting with use of the studded rubber tire. The test slab showed very minor surface wear, no freeze-thaw cracking and no rutting after one winter of use. It is recommended that further testing of the material be conducted by means of a large-scale trial section. This would provide information with respect to cost analysis and

  20. Calculation of Void Volume Fraction in the Subcooled and Quality Boiling Regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rouhani, S Z; Axelsson, E

    1968-10-15

    The complex problem of void calculation in the different regions of flow boiling is divided in two parts. The first part includes only the description of the mechanisms and the calculation of the rates of heat transfer for vapour and liquid. It is assumed that heat is removed by vapour generation, heating of the liquid that replaces the detached bubbles, and in some parts, by single phase heat transfer. By considering the rate of vapour condensation in liquid, an equation for the differential changes in the true steam quality throughout the boiling regions is obtained. Integration of this equation yields the vapour weight fraction at any position. The second part of the problem concerns the determination of the void fractions corresponding to the calculated steam qualities. For this purpose we use the derivations of Zuber and Findlay. This model is compared with data from different geometries including small rectangular channels and large rod bundles. The data covered pressures from 19 to 138 bars, heat fluxes from 18 to 120 W/cm{sup 2} with many different subcoolings and mass velocities. The agreement is generally very good.

  1. Calculation of Void Volume Fraction in the Subcooled and Quality Boiling Regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouhani, S.Z.; Axelsson, E.

    1968-10-01

    The complex problem of void calculation in the different regions of flow boiling is divided in two parts. The first part includes only the description of the mechanisms and the calculation of the rates of heat transfer for vapour and liquid. It is assumed that heat is removed by vapour generation, heating of the liquid that replaces the detached bubbles, and in some parts, by single phase heat transfer. By considering the rate of vapour condensation in liquid, an equation for the differential changes in the true steam quality throughout the boiling regions is obtained. Integration of this equation yields the vapour weight fraction at any position. The second part of the problem concerns the determination of the void fractions corresponding to the calculated steam qualities. For this purpose we use the derivations of Zuber and Findlay. This model is compared with data from different geometries including small rectangular channels and large rod bundles. The data covered pressures from 19 to 138 bars, heat fluxes from 18 to 120 W/cm 2 with many different subcoolings and mass velocities. The agreement is generally very good

  2. Measurement of gross alpha and gross beta activity concentrations in human tooth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soeguet, Omer; Aydin, Mehmet Fatih; Kuecuekoender, Erdal; Zorer, Ozlem Selcuk; Dogru, Mahmut

    2010-01-01

    The gross alpha and gross beta activity concentrations were measured in human tooth taken from 3 to 6 age-groups to 40 and over ones. Accumulated teeth samples are investigated in two groups as under and above 18 years. The gross alpha and beta radioactivity of human tooth samples was measured by using a gas-flow proportional counter (PIC-MPC 9604-α/β counter). In tooth samples, for female age-groups, the obtained results show that the mean gross alpha and gross beta activity concentrations varied between 0.534-0.203 and 0.010-0.453 Bq g -1 and the same concentrations for male age-groups varied between 0.009-1.168 and 0.071-0.204 Bq g -1 , respectively.

  3. Wind Energy Resource Atlas. Volume 11. Hawaii and Pacific Islands Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, T.A.; Hori, A.M.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

    1981-02-01

    This atlas of the wind energy resource is composed of introductory and background information, and assessments of the wind resource in each division of the region. Background on how the wind resource is assessed and on how the results of the assessment should be inerpreted is presented. An introduction and outline to the descriptions of the wind resource for each division are provided. Assessments for individual divisions are presented as separate chapters. Much of the information in the division chapters is given in graphic or tabular form. The sequences for each chapter are similar, but some presentations used for Hawaii are inappropriate or impractical for presentation with the Pacific Islands. Hawaii chapter figure and tables are cited below and appropriate Pacific Islands figure and table numbers are included in brackets ().

  4. 26 CFR 1.61-1 - Gross income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gross income. 1.61-1 Section 1.61-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Definition of Gross Income, Adjusted Gross Income, and Taxable Income § 1.61-1 Gross...

  5. Emotional intelligence moderates the relationship between regional gray matter volume in the bilateral temporal pole and critical thinking disposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Xiaonan; Yuan, Shuge; Yang, Wenjing; Chen, Qunlin; Wei, Dongtao; Hou, Yuling; Zhang, Lijie; Qiu, Jiang; Yang, Dong

    2018-04-01

    Critical thinking enables people to form sound beliefs and provides a basis for emotional life. Research has indicated that individuals with better critical thinking disposition can better recognize and regulate their emotions, though the neuroanatomical mechanisms involved in this process remain to be elucidated. Further, the influence of emotional intelligence on the relationship between brain structure and critical thinking disposition has not been examined. The present study utilized voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to investigate the neural structures underlying critical thinking disposition in a large sample of college students (N = 296). Regional gray matter volume (rGMV) in the bilateral temporal pole, which reflects an individual's ability to process social and emotional information, was negatively correlated with critical thinking disposition. In addition, rGMV in bilateral para hippocampal regions -regions involved in contextual association/emotional regulation-exhibited negative correlation with critical thinking disposition. Further analysis revealed that emotional intelligence moderated the relationship between rGMV of the temporal pole and critical thinking disposition. Specifically, critical thinking disposition was associated with decreased GMV of the temporal pole for individuals who have relatively higher emotional intelligence rather than lower emotional intelligence. The results of the present study indicate that people who have higher emotional intelligence exhibit more effective and automatic processing of emotional information and tend to be strong critical thinkers.

  6. Mapping growing stock volume and forest live biomass: a case study of the Polissya region of Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilous, Andrii; Myroniuk, Viktor; Holiaka, Dmytrii; Bilous, Svitlana; See, Linda; Schepaschenko, Dmitry

    2017-10-01

    Forest inventory and biomass mapping are important tasks that require inputs from multiple data sources. In this paper we implement two methods for the Ukrainian region of Polissya: random forest (RF) for tree species prediction and k-nearest neighbors (k-NN) for growing stock volume and biomass mapping. We examined the suitability of the five-band RapidEye satellite image to predict the distribution of six tree species. The accuracy of RF is quite high: ~99% for forest/non-forest mask and 89% for tree species prediction. Our results demonstrate that inclusion of elevation as a predictor variable in the RF model improved the performance of tree species classification. We evaluated different distance metrics for the k-NN method, including Euclidean or Mahalanobis distance, most similar neighbor (MSN), gradient nearest neighbor, and independent component analysis. The MSN with the four nearest neighbors (k = 4) is the most precise (according to the root-mean-square deviation) for predicting forest attributes across the study area. The k-NN method allowed us to estimate growing stock volume with an accuracy of 3 m3 ha-1 and for live biomass of about 2 t ha-1 over the study area.

  7. Effects of parental emotional warmth on the relationship between regional gray matter volume and depression-related personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Junyi; Yin, Ping; Wei, Dongtao; Wang, Kangcheng; Li, Yongmei; Qiu, Jiang

    2017-06-01

    The depression-related personality trait is associated with the severity of patients' current depressive symptoms and with the vulnerability to depression within the nonclinical groups. However, little is known about the anatomical structure associated with the depression-related personality traits within the nonclinical sample. Parenting behavior is associated with the depression symptoms; however, whether or not parenting behavior influence the neural basis of the depression-related personality traits is unclear. Thus in current study, first, we used voxel-based morphometry to identify the brain regions underlying individual differences in depression-related personality traits, as measured by the revised Neuroticism-Extraversion-Openness Personality Inventory, in a large sample of young healthy adults. Second, we use mediation analysis to investigate the relationship between parenting behavior and neural basis of depression-related personality traits. The results revealed that depression-related personality traits were positively correlated with gray matter volume mainly in medial frontal gyrus (MFG) that is implicated in the self-referential processing and emotional regulation. Furthermore, parental emotional warmth acted as a mediational mechanism underlying the association between the MFG volume and the depression-related personality trait. Together, our findings suggested that the family environment might play an important role in the acquisition and process of the depression-related personality traits.

  8. Gross Revenue risk in Swiss dairy farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benni, El N.; Finger, R.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated how agricultural policy reforms, including market liberalization and market deregulation, have influenced gross revenue risk of Swiss dairy producers using farm-level panel data between 1990 and 2009. Based on detrended data, variance decomposition was applied to assess how

  9. A Langevin simulation of the Gross-Neveu spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacaze, R.; Morel, A.; Petersson, B.

    1989-01-01

    We study the order parameter of Chiral symmetry, and fermion and boson masses in the Gross-Neveu model as a function of the flavour number N and of the Langevin time step ε in the scaling region. The 1/N dependence of the ε=0 value of the order parameter is in excellent agreement with an analytical calculation up to second order. Care is taken of the important two fermion contribution in the bosonic correlation functions. Mass ratios are found to be ε dependent, but their ε=0 extrapolation is compatible with the analytic expectation

  10. Global and regional brain volumes normalization in weight-recovered adolescents with anorexia nervosa: preliminary findings of a longitudinal voxel-based morphometry study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bomba M

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Monica Bomba,1,* Anna Riva,1,* Sabrina Morzenti,2 Marco Grimaldi,3 Francesca Neri,1 Renata Nacinovich1 1Child and Adolescent Mental Health Department, San Gerardo Hospital, University of Milano-Bicocca, Monza, Italy; 2Medical Physics Department, San Gerardo Hospital, Monza, Italy; 3Department of Radiology, Humanitas Research Hospital, Milan, Italy *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: The recent literature on anorexia nervosa (AN suggests that functional and structural abnormalities of cortico-limbic areas might play a role in the evolution of the disease. We explored global and regional brain volumes in a cross-sectional and follow-up study on adolescents affected by AN. Eleven adolescents with AN underwent a voxel-based morphometry study at time of diagnosis and immediately after weight recovery. Data were compared to volumes carried out in eight healthy, age and sex matched controls. Subjects with AN showed increased cerebrospinal fluid volumes and decreased white and gray matter volumes, when compared to controls. Moreover, significant regional gray matter decrease in insular cortex and cerebellum was found at time of diagnosis. No regional white matter decrease was found between samples and controls. Correlations between psychological evaluation and insular volumes were explored. After weight recovery gray matter volumes normalized while reduced global white matter volumes persisted. Keywords: anorexia nervosa, adolescent, gray matter, insula, voxel-based morphometry study

  11. Species-specific and regional volume models for 12 forest species in Durango, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Simental-Cano

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La estimación del volumen de árboles individuales es un aspecto relevante en la dendrometría y en la realización de inventarios forestales. Objetivo: Se evaluaron diferencias significativas en sistemas de ecuaciones aditivas para la estimación de volumen total de árboles individuales en nueve especies de Pinus (P. cooperi, P. durangensis, P. arizonica, P. leiophylla, P. teocote, P. engelmannii, P. lumholtzii, P. strobiformis y P. herrerae, y tres de Quercus (Q. sideroxyla, Q. durifolia y Q. rugosa, y entre unidades de manejo forestal regional (UMAFOR cuando se trata de una misma especie. Materiales y métodos: Para evaluar si el sistema de ecuaciones difiere entre especies de un mismo género y entre las UMAFOR para una misma especie, se utilizaron dos análisis estadísticos complementarios basados en el ajuste de un sistema reducido y un sistema completo de ecuaciones: la prueba F asociada al método de la suma adicional de cuadrados no lineales y el análisis de significancia de los parámetros. Resultados y discusión: Para la mayoría de las especies estudiadas, los sistemas de ecuaciones son significativamente diferentes. Se reporta la necesidad de utilizar modelos regionales en 10 de las 12 especies, exceptuando a P. strobiformis y Q. rugosa. Conclusión: Se recomienda el empleo de un modelo estatal para P. strobiformis y Q. rugosa.

  12. Endoscopic clipping for gastrointestinal tumors. A method to define the target volume more precisely

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riepl, M.; Klautke, G.; Fehr, R.; Fietkau, R.; Pietsch, A.

    2000-01-01

    Background: In many cases it is not possible to exactly define the extension of carcinoma of the gastrointestinal tract with the help of computertomography scans made for 3-D-radiation treatment planning. Consequently, the planning of external beam radiotherapy is made more difficult for the gross tumor volume as well as, in some cases, also for the clinical target volume. Patients and Methods: Eleven patients with macrosocpic tumors (rectal cancer n = 5, cardiac cancer n = 6) were included. Just before 3-D planning, the oral and aboral border of the tumor was marked endoscopically with hemoclips. Subsequently, CT scans for radiotherapy planning were made and the clinical target volume was defined. Five to 6 weeks thereafter, new CT scans were done to define the gross tumor volume for boost planning. Two investigators independently assessed the influence of the hemoclips on the different planning volumes, and whether the number of clips was sufficient to define the gross tumor volume. Results: In all patients, the implantation of the clips was done without complications. Start of radiotherapy was not delayed. With the help of the clips it was possible to exactly define the position and the extension of the primary tumor. The clinical target volume was modified according to the position of the clips in 5/11 patients; the gross tumor volume was modified in 7/11 patients. The use of the clips made the documentation and verification of the treatment portals by the simulator easier. Moreover, the clips helped the surgeon to define the primary tumor region following marked regression after neoadjuvant therapy in 3 patients. Conclusions: Endoscopic clipping of gastrointestinal tumors helps to define the tumor volumes more precisely in radiation therapy. The clips are easily recognized on the portal films and, thus, contribute to quality control. (orig.) [de

  13. Effects of maternal mortality on gross domestic product (GDP) in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    WHO African region has got the highest maternal mortality rate compared to the other five regions. Maternal mortality is hypothesized to have significantly negative effect on the gross domestic product (GDP). The objective of the current study was to estimate the loss in GDP attributable to maternal mortality in the WHO ...

  14. Monitoring of gross alpha, gross beta and tritium activities in portuguese drinking waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, I.; Madruga, M.J.; Ferrador, G.O.; Sequeira, M.M.; Oliveira, E.J.; Gomes, A.R.; Rodrigues, F.D.; Carvalho, F.P.

    2006-01-01

    The gross beta and tritium activities in the forty Portuguese drinking waters analyzed using the ISO standard methods (Portuguese Guidelines) are below the guidance levels proposed in the Portuguese Drinking Water Quality Guidelines. In what concerns the gross alpha activity only 18% exceeded the recommended level. In general, it can be concluded that the ingestion of these drinking waters does not create a radiological hazard to the human consumption, however, more detailed analyses will be necessary mainly the determinations of the individual alpha emitters radionuclide concentrations. The minimum gross alpha and gross beta detectable activities by L.S.C. methodology are higher than for the proportional counting technique (ISO method). Higher concentration factors will be needed to reach lower required detection limits. (authors)

  15. Determination of gross gamma and gross beta activities in liquid effluent samples. Phase I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, K.E.; Sood, S.P.

    1985-08-01

    Several inadequacies in the presently used procedures for gross gamma and gross beta measurements in aqueous wastes have been identified. Both the presence of suspended particulate activity and the use of cesium-137 as a calibration standard can cause gross gamma measurements to overestimate the actual activity in the sample. At the same time, sample preparation for the determination of gross beta activities causes large losses of radioiodine before the measurement step and the presence of solid material can cause a serious decrease in the beta counting efficiency. A combination of these errors could result in large discrepancies between the results obtained by the two measurement methods. Improved procedures are required to overcome these problems

  16. Regional Scale Assessment of the Gross Hydrokinetic Energy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigates the hydrokinetic energy potential of some selected rivers in the ... MWSWAT, an open source interface to SWAT using the GIS system ... the hydrological parameters of the sub-basins and other computations were done ...

  17. Activity level of gross α and gross β in airborne aerosol samples around the Qinshan NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Bin; Ye Jida; Chen Qianyuan; Wu Xiaofei; Song Weili; Wang Hongfeng

    2007-01-01

    The monitoring results of gross α and gross 13 activity from 2001 to 2005 for environmental airborne aerosol samples around the Qinshan NPP base are presented in this paper. A total of 170 aerosol samples were collected from monitoring sites of Caichenmen village, Qinlian village, Xiajiawan village and Yangliucun village around the Qinshan NPP base. The measured specific activity of gross α and gross β are in the range of 0.02-0.38 mBq/m 3 and 0.10-1.81 mBq/m 3 , respectively, with an average of 0.11 mBq/m 3 and 0.45mBq/m 3 , respectively. They are lower than the average of 0.15 mBq/m 3 and 0.52 mBq/m 3 , of reference site at Hangzhou City. It is indicated that the specific activity of gross α and gross β for environmental aerosol samples around the Qinshan NPP base had not been increased in normal operating conditions of the NPP. (authors)

  18. TERATOGENIC EFFECTS OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES: GROSS ANOMALIES

    OpenAIRE

    Jyoti Prakash; Rajniti; Deepika; Royana

    2015-01-01

    BACK GROUND: Prenatal exposure of AgNPs can induces devastative and detrimental effect in the organogenesis period of the developing embryos and foetuses. Organogenesis period is highly condemnatory and persuadable. Any injury to embryo during this period leads to dysmorphogenesis or even death AIM: The present study means to evaluate the gross anomalies on developing f o etus subsequent to silver nanoparticle ingestion during the gestational period. ...

  19. a Gross Error Elimination Method for Point Cloud Data Based on Kd-Tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Q.; Huang, G.; Yang, S.

    2018-04-01

    Point cloud data has been one type of widely used data sources in the field of remote sensing. Key steps of point cloud data's pro-processing focus on gross error elimination and quality control. Owing to the volume feature of point could data, existed gross error elimination methods need spend massive memory both in space and time. This paper employed a new method which based on Kd-tree algorithm to construct, k-nearest neighbor algorithm to search, settled appropriate threshold to determine with result turns out a judgement that whether target point is or not an outlier. Experimental results show that, our proposed algorithm will help to delete gross error in point cloud data and facilitate to decrease memory consumption, improve efficiency.

  20. A GROSS ERROR ELIMINATION METHOD FOR POINT CLOUD DATA BASED ON KD-TREE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Kang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Point cloud data has been one type of widely used data sources in the field of remote sensing. Key steps of point cloud data’s pro-processing focus on gross error elimination and quality control. Owing to the volume feature of point could data, existed gross error elimination methods need spend massive memory both in space and time. This paper employed a new method which based on Kd-tree algorithm to construct, k-nearest neighbor algorithm to search, settled appropriate threshold to determine with result turns out a judgement that whether target point is or not an outlier. Experimental results show that, our proposed algorithm will help to delete gross error in point cloud data and facilitate to decrease memory consumption, improve efficiency.

  1. Gross motor skill development of 5-year-old Kindergarten children in Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aye, Thanda; Oo, Khin Saw; Khin, Myo Thuzar; Kuramoto-Ahuja, Tsugumi; Maruyama, Hitoshi

    2017-10-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the gross motor skill development of 5-year-old Kindergarten children in Myanmar. [Subjects and Methods] Total 472 healthy Kindergarten children (237 males, 235 females) of 2016-2017 academic year from four schools in urban area and four schools in rural area of Myanmar were recruited. The gross motor skill development of all subjects was assessed with the test of gross motor development second edition (TGMD-2). All subjects performed two trials for each gross motor skill and the performance was video recorded and scored. The assessment procedures were done according to the standardized guidelines of TGMD-2. [Results] The majority of subjects had average level of gross motor skill rank. The significant differences were found on the run and gallop of locomotor skills and the most of object control skills except the catch between males and females. The significant differences were also found between subjects from urban and rural areas. [Conclusion] Gross motor skill development of 5-year-old Kindergarten children in Myanmar had gender-based and region-based differences on both locomotor and object control skills. This study added a valuable information to the establishment of a normative reference of Kindergarten aged children for future studies.

  2. Regional gray matter volume increases following 7days of voluntary wheel running exercise: a longitudinal VBM study in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumiyoshi, Akira; Taki, Yasuyuki; Nonaka, Hiroi; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2014-09-01

    The effects of physical exercise on brain morphology in rodents have been well documented in histological studies. However, to further understand when and where morphological changes occur in the whole brain, a noninvasive neuroimaging method allowing an unbiased, comprehensive, and longitudinal investigation of brain morphology should be used. In this study, we investigated the effects of 7days of voluntary wheel running exercise on regional gray matter volume (rGMV) using longitudinal voxel-based morphometry (VBM) in rats. Eighteen pairs of adult male naïve Wistar rats were randomized to the exercise or control condition (one rat for each condition from each pair). Each rat was scanned in a 7.0-T MRI scanner at three time points: before exercise, after 7days of exercise, and after 7days of follow-up. The T2-weighted MRI images were segmented using the rat brain tissue priors that were recently published by our laboratory, and the intra- and inter-subject template creation steps were followed. Longitudinal VBM analysis revealed significant increases in rGMV in the motor, somatosensory, association, and visual cortices in the exercise group. Among these brain regions, rGMV changes in the motor cortex were positively correlated with the total distance that was run during the 7days of exercise. In addition, the effects of 7days of exercise on rGMV persisted after 7days of follow-up. These results support the utility of a longitudinal VBM study in rats and provide new insights into experience-dependent structural brain plasticity in naïve adult animals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Increased Regional Epicardial Fat Volume Associated with Reversible Myocardial Ischemia in Patients with Suspected Coronary Artery Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khawaja, Tuba; Greer, Christine; Thadani, Samir R.; Kato, Tomoko S.; Bhatia, Ketan; Shimbo, Daichi; Konkak, Andrew; Bokhari, Sabahat; Einstein, Andrew J.; Schulze, P. Christian

    2015-01-01

    Epicardial adipose tissue is a source of pro-inflammatory cytokines and has been linked to the development of coronary artery disease. No study has systematically assessed the relationship between local epicardial fat volume (EFV) and myocardial perfusion defects. We analyzed EFV in patients undergoing SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging combined with computed tomography (CT) for attenuation correction. Low-dose CT without contrast was performed in 396 consecutive patients undergoing SPECT imaging for evaluation of coronary artery disease. Regional thickness, cross-sectional areas, and total EFV were assessed. 295 patients had normal myocardial perfusion scans and 101 had abnormal perfusion scans. Mean EFVs in normal, ischemic, and infarcted hearts were 99.8 ± 82.3 cm3, 156.4 ± 121.9 cm3, and 96.3 ± 102.1 cm3, respectively (P < 0.001). Reversible perfusion defects were associated with increased local EFV compared to normal perfusion in the distribution of the right (69.2 ± 51.5 vs 46.6 ± 32.0 cm3; P = 0.03) and left anterior descending coronary artery (87.1 ± 76.4 vs 46.7 ± 40.6 cm3; P = 0.005). Our results demonstrate increased regional epicardial fat in patients with active myocardial ischemia compared to patients with myocardial scar or normal perfusion on nuclear perfusion scans. Our results suggest a potential role for cardiac CT to improve risk stratification in patients with suspected coronary artery disease. PMID:25339129

  4. Spine segmentation from C-arm CT data sets: application to region-of-interest volumes for spinal interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buerger, C.; Lorenz, C.; Babic, D.; Hoppenbrouwers, J.; Homan, R.; Nachabe, R.; Racadio, J. M.; Grass, M.

    2017-03-01

    Spinal fusion is a common procedure to stabilize the spinal column by fixating parts of the spine. In such procedures, metal screws are inserted through the patients back into a vertebra, and the screws of adjacent vertebrae are connected by metal rods to generate a fixed bridge. In these procedures, 3D image guidance for intervention planning and outcome control is required. Here, for anatomical guidance, an automated approach for vertebra segmentation from C-arm CT images of the spine is introduced and evaluated. As a prerequisite, 3D C-arm CT images are acquired covering the vertebrae of interest. An automatic model-based segmentation approach is applied to delineate the outline of the vertebrae of interest. The segmentation approach is based on 24 partial models of the cervical, thoracic and lumbar vertebrae which aggregate information about (i) the basic shape itself, (ii) trained features for image based adaptation, and (iii) potential shape variations. Since the volume data sets generated by the C-arm system are limited to a certain region of the spine the target vertebra and hence initial model position is assigned interactively. The approach was trained and tested on 21 human cadaver scans. A 3-fold cross validation to ground truth annotations yields overall mean segmentation errors of 0.5 mm for T1 to 1.1 mm for C6. The results are promising and show potential to support the clinician in pedicle screw path and rod planning to allow accurate and reproducible insertions.

  5. Improvement to the gross theory of β decay by inclusion of change in parity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koura, Hiroyuki; Chiba, Satoshi

    2017-06-01

    An improvement to the single-particle structure is made to the gross theory, which is a global β -decay model. The gross theory is based on the sum rule of the intensity of the β -decay transition and a strength function. This model provides reasonable results for β -decay rates and delayed neutrons for the entire nuclear mass region. An attempt is made to improve the gross theory of nuclear β decay by considering the change in parity at the single-particle level of ground-state nuclei. In this treatment, the nuclear matrix elements are suppressed when the parity of the single neutron and proton levels is different for the allowed transition. The assignment of parity is performed using the Woods-Saxon-type single-particle potential. The discrepancies from experimental half-lives, which appeared in the vicinity of the magic numbers of neutrons and protons, are systematically improved in the nuclear mass region.

  6. The value of volume and growth measurements in timber sales management of the National Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lietzke, K. R.

    1977-01-01

    This paper summarizes work performed in the estimation of gross social value of timber volume and growth rate information used in making regional harvest decisions in the National Forest System. A model was developed to permit parametric analysis. The problem is formulated as one of finding optimal inventory holding patterns. Public timber management differs from other inventory holding problems in that the inventory, itself, generates value over time in providing recreational, aesthetic and environmental goods. 'Nontimber' demand estimates are inferred from past Forest Service harvest and sales levels. The solution requires a description of the harvest rates which maintain the optimum inventory level. Gross benefits of the Landsat systems are estimated by comparison with Forest Service information gathering models. Gross annual benefits are estimated to be $5.9 million for the MSS system and $7.2 million for the TM system.

  7. The Gross Motor Skills of Children with Mild Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonis, Karen P.; Jernice, Tan Sing Yee

    2014-01-01

    Many international studies have examined the gross motor skills of children studying in special schools while local studies of such nature are limited. This study investigated the gross motor skills of children with Mild Learning Disabilities (MLD; n = 14, M age = 8.93 years, SD = 0.33) with the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (TGMD-2, Ulrich,…

  8. 75 FR 78897 - Definition of Omission From Gross Income

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-17

    ... Definition of Omission From Gross Income AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Final regulations. SUMMARY: This document contains final regulations defining an omission from gross income for... overstatement of basis in a sold asset results in an omission from gross income. The regulations will affect any...

  9. Chemical ordering around open-volume regions in bulk metallic glass Zr52.5Ti5Al10Cu17.9Ni14.6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asoka-Kumar, P.; Hartley, J.; Howell, R.; Sterne, P. A.; Nieh, T. G.

    2000-01-01

    We provide direct experimental evidence for a nonrandom distribution of atomic constituents in Zr 52.5 Ti 5 Al 10 Cu 17.9 Ni 14.6 bulk metallic glass using positron annihilation spectroscopy. The Ti content around the open-volume regions is significantly enhanced at the expense of Ni and Cu. Our results indicate that Ni and Cu atoms closely occupy the volume bounded by their neighboring atoms while Al, Ti, and Zr are less closely packed, and more likely to be associated with the open-volume regions. The overall distribution of elements seen by the positron is not significantly altered by annealing or by crystallization. Theoretical calculations indicate that the observed elemental distribution is not consistent with the known crystalline phases Zr 2 Cu and NiZr 2 , while Al 3 Zr 4 shows some of the characteristics seen in the experiment. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  10. Associations between the self-reported frequency of hearing chemical alarms in theater and regional brain volume in Gulf War Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Linda L; Reeb, Rosemary; Esparza, Iva L; Abadjian, Linda R

    2016-03-01

    We previously reported evidence of reduced cortical gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), and hippocampal volume in Gulf War (GW) veterans with predicted exposure to low-levels of nerve agent according to the 2000 Khamisiyah plume model analysis. Because there is suggestive evidence that other nerve agent exposures may have occurred during the Gulf War, we examined the association between the self-reported frequency of hearing chemical alarms sound during deployment in the Gulf War and regional brain volume in GW veterans. Ninety consecutive GW veterans (15 female, mean age: 52±8years) participating in a VA-funded study underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) on a 3T scanner. Freesurfer (version 5.1) was used to obtain regional measures of cortical GM, WM, hippocampal, and insula volume. Multiple linear regression was used to determine the association between the self-reported frequencies of hearing chemical alarms during the Gulf War and regional brain volume. There was an inverse association between the self-reported frequency of hearing chemical alarms sound and total cortical GM (adjusted p=0.007), even after accounting for potentially confounding demographic and clinical variables, the veterans' current health status, and other concurrent deployment-related exposures that were correlated with hearing chemical alarms. Post-hoc analyses extended the inverse relationship between the frequency of hearing chemical alarms to GM volume in the frontal (adjusted p=0.02), parietal (adjusted p=0.01), and occipital (adjusted p=0.001) lobes. In contrast, regional brain volumes were not significantly associated with predicted exposure to the Khamisiyah plume or with Gulf War Illness status defined by the Kansas or Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria. Many veterans reported hearing chemical alarms sound during the Gulf War. The current findings suggest that exposure to substances that triggered those chemical alarms during the Gulf War likely

  11. Innovative procedure for the determination of gross-alpha/gross-beta activities in drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wisser, S.; Frenzel, E.; Dittmer, M.

    2006-01-01

    An alternative sample preparation method for the determination of gross-alpha/beta activity concentrations in drinking water is introduced in this paper. After the freeze-drying of tap water samples, determination by liquid scintillation counting can be applied utilizing alpha/beta separation. It has been shown that there is no adsorption or loss of solid radionuclides during the freeze-drying procedure. However, the samples have to be measured quickly after the preparation since the ingrowth of daughter isotopes negatively effects the measurement. The limits of detection for gross-alpha and gross-beta activity are in the range 25-210 mBq/l, respectively, for a measurement time of only 8-9 h

  12. Gross shell structure of moments of inertia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deleplanque, M.A.; Frauendorf, S.; Pashkevich, V.V.; Chu, S.Y.; Unzhakova, A.

    2002-01-01

    Average yrast moments of inertia at high spins, where the pairing correlations are expected to be largely absent, were found to deviate from the rigid-body values. This indicates that shell effects contribute to the moment of inertia. We discuss the gross dependence of moments of inertia and shell energies on the neutron number in terms of the semiclassical periodic orbit theory. We show that the ground-state shell energies, nuclear deformations and deviations from rigid-body moments of inertia are all due to the same periodic orbits

  13. Solitons in Gross-Pitaevskii equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, E.

    1985-01-01

    It is observed that, when the potential is integrable and repulsive, the Gross-Pitaevskii Equation, with non-vanishing boundary conditions, describes a family of planar solitons. A method is presented which provides an exact soliton field to the Dirac Delta potential and an approximation solution to any other kind of potential. As an example the method is then applied to the case of a repulsive Yukawa potential. A brief discuss the relation between these solitons and Anderson's superfluidity mechanism, is also presented. (author) [pt

  14. WE-G-BRD-07: Investigation of Distal Lung Atelectasis Following Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy Using Regional Lung Volume Changes Between Pre- and Post- Treatment CT Scans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diot, Q; Kavanagh, B; Miften, M [University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To propose a quantitative method using lung deformations to differentiate between radiation-induced fibrosis and potential airway stenosis with distal atelectasis in patients treated with stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for lung tumors. Methods: Twenty-four lung patients with large radiation-induced density increases outside the high dose region had their pre- and post-treatment CT scans manually registered. They received SBRT treatments at our institution between 2002 and 2009 in 3 or 5 fractions, to a median total dose of 54Gy (range, 30–60). At least 50 anatomical landmarks inside the lung (airway branches) were paired for the pre- and post-treatment scans to guide the deformable registration of the lung structure, which was then interpolated to the whole lung using splines. Local volume changes between the planning and follow-up scans were calculated using the deformation field Jacobian. Hyperdense regions were classified as atelectatic or fibrotic based on correlations between regional density increases and significant volume contractions compared to the surrounding tissues. Results: Out of 24 patients, only 7 demonstrated a volume contraction that was at least one σ larger than the remaining lung average. Because they did not receive high doses, these shrunk hyperdense regions were likely showing distal atelectasis resulting from radiation-induced airway stenosis rather than conventional fibrosis. On average, the hyperdense regions extended 9.2 cm farther than the GTV contours but not significantly more than 8.6 cm for the other patients (p>0.05), indicating that a large offset between the radiation and hyperdense region centers is not a good surrogate for atelectasis. Conclusion: A method based on the relative comparison of volume changes between different dates was developed to identify potential lung regions experiencing distal atelectasis. Such a tool is essential to study which lung structures need to be avoided to prevent

  15. Delineation of Supraclavicular Target Volumes in Breast Cancer Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Lindsay C.; Diehn, Felix E.; Boughey, Judy C.; Childs, Stephanie K.; Park, Sean S.; Yan, Elizabeth S.; Petersen, Ivy A.; Mutter, Robert W.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To map the location of gross supraclavicular metastases in patients with breast cancer, in order to determine areas at highest risk of harboring subclinical disease. Methods and Materials: Patients with axial imaging of gross supraclavicular disease were identified from an institutional breast cancer registry. Locations of the metastatic lymph nodes were transferred onto representative axial computed tomography images of the supraclavicular region and compared with the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) breast cancer atlas for radiation therapy planning. Results: Sixty-two patients with 161 supraclavicular nodal metastases were eligible for study inclusion. At the time of diagnosis, 117 nodal metastases were present in 44 patients. Forty-four nodal metastases in 18 patients were detected at disease recurrence, 4 of whom had received prior radiation to the supraclavicular fossa. Of the 161 nodal metastases, 95 (59%) were within the RTOG consensus volume, 4 nodal metastases (2%) in 3 patients were marginally within the volume, and 62 nodal metastases (39%) in 30 patients were outside the volume. Supraclavicular disease outside the RTOG consensus volume was located in 3 regions: at the level of the cricoid and thyroid cartilage (superior to the RTOG volume), in the posterolateral supraclavicular fossa (posterolateral to the RTOG volume), and in the lateral low supraclavicular fossa (lateral to the RTOG volume). Only women with multiple supraclavicular metastases had nodal disease that extended superiorly to the level of the thyroid cartilage. Conclusions: For women with risk of harboring subclinical supraclavicular disease warranting the addition of supraclavicular radiation, coverage of the posterior triangle and the lateral low supraclavicular region should be considered. For women with known supraclavicular disease, extension of neck coverage superior to the cricoid cartilage may be warranted

  16. Delineation of Supraclavicular Target Volumes in Breast Cancer Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Lindsay C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Diehn, Felix E. [Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Boughey, Judy C. [Department of Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Childs, Stephanie K.; Park, Sean S.; Yan, Elizabeth S.; Petersen, Ivy A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Mutter, Robert W., E-mail: mutter.robert@mayo.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Purpose: To map the location of gross supraclavicular metastases in patients with breast cancer, in order to determine areas at highest risk of harboring subclinical disease. Methods and Materials: Patients with axial imaging of gross supraclavicular disease were identified from an institutional breast cancer registry. Locations of the metastatic lymph nodes were transferred onto representative axial computed tomography images of the supraclavicular region and compared with the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) breast cancer atlas for radiation therapy planning. Results: Sixty-two patients with 161 supraclavicular nodal metastases were eligible for study inclusion. At the time of diagnosis, 117 nodal metastases were present in 44 patients. Forty-four nodal metastases in 18 patients were detected at disease recurrence, 4 of whom had received prior radiation to the supraclavicular fossa. Of the 161 nodal metastases, 95 (59%) were within the RTOG consensus volume, 4 nodal metastases (2%) in 3 patients were marginally within the volume, and 62 nodal metastases (39%) in 30 patients were outside the volume. Supraclavicular disease outside the RTOG consensus volume was located in 3 regions: at the level of the cricoid and thyroid cartilage (superior to the RTOG volume), in the posterolateral supraclavicular fossa (posterolateral to the RTOG volume), and in the lateral low supraclavicular fossa (lateral to the RTOG volume). Only women with multiple supraclavicular metastases had nodal disease that extended superiorly to the level of the thyroid cartilage. Conclusions: For women with risk of harboring subclinical supraclavicular disease warranting the addition of supraclavicular radiation, coverage of the posterior triangle and the lateral low supraclavicular region should be considered. For women with known supraclavicular disease, extension of neck coverage superior to the cricoid cartilage may be warranted.

  17. Suppressed gross erosion of high-temperature lithium via rapid deuterium implantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abrams, T.; Jaworski, M. A.; Chen, M.; Carter, E. A.; Kaita, R.; Stotler, D. P.; De Temmerman, G.; Morgan, T. W.; van den Berg, M. A.; van der Meiden, H. J.

    2016-01-01

    Lithium-coated high- Z substrates are planned for use in the NSTX-U divertor and are a candidate plasma facing component (PFC) for reactors, but it remains necessary to characterize the gross Li erosion rate under high plasma fluxes (>10 23 m −2 s −1 ), typical for the divertor region. In this

  18. Production of table potatoes in Europe – a multinational gross margin analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren Marcus; Bizik, J.; Dalla Costa, L.

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines different cropping practies, cost structures and gross margins for conventional table potato cropping in 6 different regions within the European Union: Czech Republic, Denmark, Italy, Poland, Portugal and Slovakia. Findings from this study show that potato cropping practies va...

  19. Gross Motor Skills and Cardiometabolic Risk in Children: A Mediation Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Ryan D; Brusseau, Timothy A; Fu, You; Hannon, James C

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the linear relationship between gross motor skills and cardiometabolic risk, with aerobic fitness as a mediator variable, in low-income children from the United States. Participants were a convenience sample of 224 children (mean ± SD age = 9.1 ± 1.1 yr; 129 girls and 95 boys) recruited from five low-income elementary schools from the Mountain West Region of the United States. Gross motor skills were assessed using the Test for Gross Motor Development, 3rd Edition. Gross motor skills were analyzed using a locomotor skill, a ball skill, and a total gross motor skill score. Aerobic fitness was assessed using the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run that was administered during physical education class. A continuous and age- and sex-adjusted metabolic syndrome score (MetS) was calculated from health and blood marker measurements collected in a fasted state before school hours. Total effects, average direct effects, and indirect effects (average causal mediation effect) were calculated using a bootstrap mediation analysis method via a linear regression algorithm. The average causal mediation effect of gross locomotor skills on MetS scores, using aerobic fitness as the mediator variable, was statistically significant (β = -0.055, 95% confidence interval = -0.097 to -0.021, P = 0.003). The model explained approximately 17.5% of the total variance in MetS with approximately 43.7% of the relationship between locomotor skills and MetS mediated through aerobic fitness. Ball skills did not significantly relate with cardiometabolic risk. There is a significant relationship between gross locomotor skills and cardiometabolic risk that is partially mediated through aerobic fitness in a sample of low-income children from the United States.

  20. Evaluation of free i-applications for tertiary level gross anatomy education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew F. Pollard

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe use of electronic resources in education, including i-applications used on portable handheld devices, is increasing. Apple® handheld devices are popular, with free applications the most prevalent download form. Many gross anatomy i-applications are available, however no information on the quality of free anatomy products is available. Rating such products could therefore guide product recommendations.AimTo evaluate the quality and range of free iPod® applications that are applicable for tertiary level gross anatomy education.MethodsA search of the iTunes® Application Store with keywords anatomy, free, medical, functional, clinical, gross, and human was performed, with inclusion based on free applications containing human gross anatomy usable for tertiary education purposes. Application specification was noted; each was trialled independently and rated for usability, specification, academic level, and quality (image and programme.ResultsSixty-three applications were identified and eleven met inclusion criteria. Two provided gross anatomy of the entire body, nine examined specific regions or systems. Five were judged introductory in academic level, five intermediate, and one advanced. One application was rated low quality, and four excellent. None were considered difficult to use (six easy, five medium. Application size ranged between 1.2MB and 229MB (mean 27MB.ConclusionsThere are few free i-applications for learning gross anatomy and most concentrate on individual body systems, with the academic level and usability of all products well rated. Results suggest some free I-applications could be suitable adjuncts for gross anatomy education at both an undergraduate and graduate level.

  1. Quantitation of regional cerebral blood flow corrected for partial volume effect using O-15 water and PET: I. Theory, error analysis, and stereologic comparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lida, H; Law, I; Pakkenberg, B

    2000-01-01

    Limited spatial resolution of positron emission tomography (PET) can cause significant underestimation in the observed regional radioactivity concentration (so-called partial volume effect or PVE) resulting in systematic errors in estimating quantitative physiologic parameters. The authors have...... formulated four mathematical models that describe the dynamic behavior of a freely diffusible tracer (H215O) in a region of interest (ROI) incorporating estimates of regional tissue flow that are independent of PVE. The current study was intended to evaluate the feasibility of these models and to establish...... a methodology to accurately quantify regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) corrected for PVE in cortical gray matter regions. Five monkeys were studied with PET after IV H2(15)O two times (n = 3) or three times (n = 2) in a row. Two ROIs were drawn on structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans and projected...

  2. GROSS- GAMMA RAY OBSERVATORY ATTITUDE DYNAMICS SIMULATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrick, J.

    1994-01-01

    The Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) spacecraft will constitute a major advance in gamma ray astronomy by offering the first opportunity for comprehensive observations in the range of 0.1 to 30,000 megaelectronvolts (MeV). The Gamma Ray Observatory Attitude Dynamics Simulator, GROSS, is designed to simulate this mission. The GRO Dynamics Simulator consists of three separate programs: the Standalone Profile Program; the Simulator Program, which contains the Simulation Control Input/Output (SCIO) Subsystem, the Truth Model (TM) Subsystem, and the Onboard Computer (OBC) Subsystem; and the Postprocessor Program. The Standalone Profile Program models the environment of the spacecraft and generates a profile data set for use by the simulator. This data set contains items such as individual external torques; GRO spacecraft, Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS), and solar and lunar ephemerides; and star data. The Standalone Profile Program is run before a simulation. The SCIO subsystem is the executive driver for the simulator. It accepts user input, initializes parameters, controls simulation, and generates output data files and simulation status display. The TM subsystem models the spacecraft dynamics, sensors, and actuators. It accepts ephemerides, star data, and environmental torques from the Standalone Profile Program. With these and actuator commands from the OBC subsystem, the TM subsystem propagates the current state of the spacecraft and generates sensor data for use by the OBC and SCIO subsystems. The OBC subsystem uses sensor data from the TM subsystem, a Kalman filter (for attitude determination), and control laws to compute actuator commands to the TM subsystem. The OBC subsystem also provides output data to the SCIO subsystem for output to the analysts. The Postprocessor Program is run after simulation is completed. It generates printer and CRT plots and tabular reports of the simulated data at the direction of the user. GROSS is written in FORTRAN 77 and

  3. The Determination of Gross Alpha And Beta Activity of Drinking Water in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dilaver, A.T.; Cifter, C.; Altay, T.

    2002-01-01

    Man and his environment must be protected from the adverse effects of pesticides, radiation, noise and other forms of pollutions. Radioactive materials occur naturally in the environment (for example uranium, thorium and potassium). Same radioactive compounds arise from human activities (for example from medical or industrial uses of radioactivity). Drinking water should be safe to use and aesthetically pleasing. World Health Organisation (WHO) and Turkish Standards (TSE) have established maximum contaminant levels for gross alpha and gross beta. The purpose of these study is to determine the level of gross alpha and gross beta activities of samples collected from the different Regional Directories of The State Hydraulic Works (DSI)). After that compare the results versus permissible values of World Health Organisation and Turkish Standards. Collected samples from 14 Regional Directories of The State Hydraulic Works (DSI), have completed. All the analyses results suitable for WHO and TSE. We will give all the research our final report after completed the other Regional Directories' s analyses

  4. Fractional Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook kinetic equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goychuk, Igor

    2017-11-01

    The linear Boltzmann equation (LBE) approach is generalized to describe fractional superdiffusive transport of the Lévy walk type in external force fields. The time distribution between scattering events is assumed to have a finite mean value and infinite variance. It is completely characterized by the two scattering rates, one fractional and a normal one, which defines also the mean scattering rate. We formulate a general fractional LBE approach and exemplify it with a particularly simple case of the Bohm and Gross scattering integral leading to a fractional generalization of the Bhatnagar, Gross and Krook (BGK) kinetic equation. Here, at each scattering event the particle velocity is completely randomized and takes a value from equilibrium Maxwell distribution at a given fixed temperature. We show that the retardation effects are indispensable even in the limit of infinite mean scattering rate and argue that this novel fractional kinetic equation provides a viable alternative to the fractional Kramers-Fokker-Planck (KFP) equation by Barkai and Silbey and its generalization by Friedrich et al. based on the picture of divergent mean time between scattering events. The case of divergent mean time is also discussed at length and compared with the earlier results obtained within the fractional KFP. Also a phenomenological fractional BGK equation without retardation effects is proposed in the limit of infinite scattering rates. It cannot be, however, rigorously derived from a scattering model, being rather clever postulated. It this respect, this retardationless equation is similar to the fractional KFP by Barkai and Silbey. However, it corresponds to the opposite, much more physical limit and, therefore, also presents a viable alternative.

  5. Improvement of gross theory of beta-decay for application to nuclear data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koura, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Tadashi; Tachibana, Takahiro; Chiba, Satoshi

    2017-09-01

    A theoretical study of β decay and delayed neutron has been carried out with a global β-decay model, the gross theory. The gross theory is based on a consideration of the sum rule of the β-strength function, and gives reasonable results of β-decay rates and delayed neutron in the entire nuclear mass region. In a fissioning nucleus, neutrons are produced by β decay of neutron-rich fission fragments from actinides known as delayed neutrons. The average number of delayed neutrons is estimated based on the sum of the β-delayed neutron-emission probabilities multiplied by the cumulative fission yield for each nucleus. Such a behavior is important to manipulate nuclear reactors, and when we adopt some new high-burn-up reactors, properties of minor actinides will play an important roll in the system, but these data have not been sufficient. We re-analyze and improve the gross theory. For example, we considered the parity of neutrons and protons at the Fermi surface, and treat a suppression for the allowed transitions in the framework of the gross theory. By using the improved gross theory, underestimated half-lives in the neutron-rich indium isotopes and neighboring region increase, and consequently follow experimental trend. The ability of reproduction (and also prediction) of the β-decay rates, delayed-neutron emission probabilities is discussed. With this work, we have described the development of a programming code of the gross theory of β-decay including the improved parts. After preparation finished, this code can be released for the nuclear data community.

  6. Gross changes in forest area shape the future carbon balance of tropical forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Bookkeeping models are used to estimate land-use and land-cover change (LULCC carbon fluxes (ELULCC. The uncertainty of bookkeeping models partly arises from data used to define response curves (usually from local data and their representativeness for application to large regions. Here, we compare biomass recovery curves derived from a recent synthesis of secondary forest plots in Latin America by Poorter et al. (2016 with the curves used previously in bookkeeping models from Houghton (1999 and Hansis et al. (2015. We find that the two latter models overestimate the long-term (100 years vegetation carbon density of secondary forest by about 25 %. We also use idealized LULCC scenarios combined with these three different response curves to demonstrate the importance of considering gross forest area changes instead of net forest area changes for estimating regional ELULCC. In the illustrative case of a net gain in forest area composed of a large gross loss and a large gross gain occurring during a single year, the initial gross loss has an important legacy effect on ELULCC so that the system can be a net source of CO2 to the atmosphere long after the initial forest area change. We show the existence of critical values of the ratio of gross area change over net area change (γAnetAgross, above which cumulative ELULCC is a net CO2 source rather than a sink for a given time horizon after the initial perturbation. These theoretical critical ratio values derived from simulations of a bookkeeping model are compared with observations from the 30 m resolution Landsat Thematic Mapper data of gross and net forest area change in the Amazon. This allows us to diagnose areas in which current forest gains with a large land turnover will still result in LULCC carbon emissions in 20, 50 and 100 years.

  7. Gross changes in forest area shape the future carbon balance of tropical forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Ciais, Philippe; Yue, Chao; Gasser, Thomas; Peng, Shushi; Bastos, Ana

    2018-01-01

    Bookkeeping models are used to estimate land-use and land-cover change (LULCC) carbon fluxes (ELULCC). The uncertainty of bookkeeping models partly arises from data used to define response curves (usually from local data) and their representativeness for application to large regions. Here, we compare biomass recovery curves derived from a recent synthesis of secondary forest plots in Latin America by Poorter et al. (2016) with the curves used previously in bookkeeping models from Houghton (1999) and Hansis et al. (2015). We find that the two latter models overestimate the long-term (100 years) vegetation carbon density of secondary forest by about 25 %. We also use idealized LULCC scenarios combined with these three different response curves to demonstrate the importance of considering gross forest area changes instead of net forest area changes for estimating regional ELULCC. In the illustrative case of a net gain in forest area composed of a large gross loss and a large gross gain occurring during a single year, the initial gross loss has an important legacy effect on ELULCC so that the system can be a net source of CO2 to the atmosphere long after the initial forest area change. We show the existence of critical values of the ratio of gross area change over net area change (γAnetAgross), above which cumulative ELULCC is a net CO2 source rather than a sink for a given time horizon after the initial perturbation. These theoretical critical ratio values derived from simulations of a bookkeeping model are compared with observations from the 30 m resolution Landsat Thematic Mapper data of gross and net forest area change in the Amazon. This allows us to diagnose areas in which current forest gains with a large land turnover will still result in LULCC carbon emissions in 20, 50 and 100 years.

  8. Regional frontal gray matter volume associated with executive function capacity as a risk factor for vehicle crashes in normal aging adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Sakai

    Full Text Available Although low executive functioning is a risk factor for vehicle crashes among elderly drivers, the neural basis of individual differences in this cognitive ability remains largely unknown. Here we aimed to examine regional frontal gray matter volume associated with executive functioning in normal aging individuals, using voxel-based morphometry (VBM. To this end, 39 community-dwelling elderly volunteers who drove a car on a daily basis participated in structural magnetic resonance imaging, and completed two questionnaires concerning executive functioning and risky driving tendencies in daily living. Consequently, we found that participants with low executive function capacity were prone to risky driving. Furthermore, VBM analysis revealed that lower executive function capacity was associated with smaller gray matter volume in the supplementary motor area (SMA. Thus, the current data suggest that SMA volume is a reliable predictor of individual differences in executive function capacity as a risk factor for vehicle crashes among elderly persons. The implication of our results is that regional frontal gray matter volume might underlie the variation in driving tendencies among elderly drivers. Therefore, detailed driving behavior assessments might be able to detect early neurodegenerative changes in the frontal lobe in normal aging adults.

  9. Quantitative dose-volume response analysis of changes in parotid gland function after radiotherapy in the head-and-neck region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roesink, Judith M.; Moerland, Marinus A.; Battermann, Jan J.; Hordijk, Gerrit Jan; Terhaard, Chris H.J.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To study the radiation tolerance of the parotid glands as a function of dose and volume irradiated. Methods and Materials: One hundred eight patients treated with primary or postoperative radiotherapy for various malignancies in the head-and-neck region were prospectively evaluated. Stimulated parotid flow rate was measured before radiotherapy and 6 weeks, 6 months, and 1 year after radiotherapy. Parotid gland dose-volume histograms were derived from CT-based treatment planning. The normal tissue complication probability model proposed by Lyman was fit to the data. A complication was defined as stimulated parotid flow rate 50 (the dose to the whole organ leading to a complication probability of 50%) was found to be 31, 35, and 39 Gy at 6 weeks, 6 months, and 1 year postradiotherapy, respectively. The volume dependency parameter n was around 1, which means that the mean parotid dose correlates best with the observed complications. There was no steep dose-response curve (m=0.45 at 1 year postradiotherapy). Conclusions: This study on dose/volume/parotid gland function relationships revealed a linear correlation between postradiotherapy flow ratio and parotid gland dose and a strong volume dependency. No threshold dose was found. Recovery of parotid gland function was shown at 6 months and 1 year after radiotherapy. In radiation planning, attempts should be made to achieve a mean parotid gland dose at least below 39 Gy (leading to a complication probability of 50%)

  10. Being treated in higher volume hospitals leads to longer progression-free survival for epithelial ovarian carcinoma patients in the Rhone-Alpes region of France

    OpenAIRE

    Huguet, Marius; Perrier, Lionel; Bally, Olivia; Benayoun, David; De Saint Hilaire, Pierre; Beal Ardisson, Dominique; Morelle, Magali; Havet, Nathalie; Joutard, Xavier; Meeus, Pierre; Gabelle, Philippe; Provençal, Jocelyne; Chauleur, Céline; Glehen, Olivier; Charreton, Amandine

    2018-01-01

    Background To investigate the relationship between hospital volume activities and the survival for Epithelial Ovarian Carcinoma (EOC) patients in France. Methods This retrospective study using prospectively implemented databases was conducted on an exhaustive cohort of 267 patients undergoing first-line therapy during 2012 in the Rhone-Alpes Region of France. We compared Progression-Free Survival for Epithelial Ovarian Carcinoma patients receiving first-line therapy in high- (i.e. ≥ 12 cases/...

  11. Optimal screening mammography reading volumes; evidence from real life in the East Midlands region of the NHS Breast Screening Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornford, E.; Reed, J.; Murphy, A.; Bennett, R.; Evans, A.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To assess real-life reader performance as a function of both volume of mammograms read and reading experience in a multicentre cohort. Materials and methods: Thirty-seven film readers from the East Midlands Breast Screening Programme had 3 years of consecutive screen reading results available for comparison. Markers of screening performance as the first film reader [cancer detection rates, small cancer detection rates, recall rates, positive predictive value of recall (PPV), and missed cancers] were compared with both volume of films read and years of film reading experience. For reading volume, readers were categorized according to film reading volume over the 3 year period: <15,000 (i.e., on average less than the recommended 5000/year); 15-<20,000; 20-<25,000; and ≥25,000. For years of experience, readers were categorized into the following groups: <5 years, 5-<10 years, 10-<15 years, and 15-<20 years. Results: There was no evidence to suggest a relationship between years of film reading experience and film-reading performance. For reading volume, there was a significant difference in the distribution of cancer-detection rate between the four groups (p = 0.01); however, there was no difference in small cancer-detection rates, missed cancers or PPV. The median cancer detection rate in the high-volume group (≥25,000 mammograms/3 years) was significantly lower than the other groups combined (6.9 per 1000 women screened versus 7.9 per 1000 women screened). The lowest median recall rate was also in the high-volume group, whilst those readers not meeting the NHSBSP minimum requirement had the highest median recall rate; however, there was borderline evidence to suggest a difference in the distribution of recall rates between the four groups. Conclusion: The data from the East Midlands do not provide any evidence for reducing the threshold volume of 5000 cases /year. However, there appears to be an upper limit above which reader performance deteriorates in

  12. Quantitative Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Brainstem Volumes, Plaques, and Surface Area in the Occipital Regions of Patients with Multiple Sclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alper, F.; Kantarci, M.; Altunkaynak, E.; Varoglu, A. O.; Karaman, A.; Oral, E.; Okur, A. [Ataturk Univ., Erzurum (Turkey). Depts. of Radiology, Histology, Neurology and Embryology, Psychiatry

    2006-07-15

    Purpose: To determine brainstem volumes, number of plaques, and surface areas in the occipital lobes of patients with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) and secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS), and to investigate whether there is any correlation between brainstem volume and the number/surface areas of plaque in the occipital lobes. Material and Methods: Magnetic resonance imaging was obtained on 14 relapsing-remitting (RR) and 13 secondary progressive (SP) MS patients and 26 female control subjects. The Cavalieri method was used by modern design stereology to measure brainstem volume. The point-counting grid was used to evaluate sclerotic plaque surface areas in the occipital lobe. The number of plaques in the imaging section was calculated. Results: Brainstem volumes for RR and SP with multiple sclerosis and control subjects were 3647 mm{sup 3} , 3515 mm{sup 3} , and 4517 mm{sup 3} , respectively. Mean number of plaques in the right-left occipital lobe was found to be 2.7-3.4 in RR-MS and 5.2-2.8 in SP-MS. Mean plaque surface area in the right-left occipital lobe was determined to be 58.52-88.24 mm{sup 2} in RR MS and 124.3-64.82 mm{sup 2} in SP MS. Brainstem volumes were significantly reduced in both groups of patients with MS compared to controls ( P <0.01). Conclusion: Magnetic-resonance-estimated volume and surface area values in multiple sclerosis may facilitate our understanding of the clinical situation of patients and provide a simple index for evaluating therapeutic efficiency.

  13. Quantitative Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Brainstem Volumes, Plaques, and Surface Area in the Occipital Regions of Patients with Multiple Sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alper, F.; Kantarci, M.; Altunkaynak, E.; Varoglu, A. O.; Karaman, A.; Oral, E.; Okur, A.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To determine brainstem volumes, number of plaques, and surface areas in the occipital lobes of patients with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) and secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS), and to investigate whether there is any correlation between brainstem volume and the number/surface areas of plaque in the occipital lobes. Material and Methods: Magnetic resonance imaging was obtained on 14 relapsing-remitting (RR) and 13 secondary progressive (SP) MS patients and 26 female control subjects. The Cavalieri method was used by modern design stereology to measure brainstem volume. The point-counting grid was used to evaluate sclerotic plaque surface areas in the occipital lobe. The number of plaques in the imaging section was calculated. Results: Brainstem volumes for RR and SP with multiple sclerosis and control subjects were 3647 mm 3 , 3515 mm 3 , and 4517 mm 3 , respectively. Mean number of plaques in the right-left occipital lobe was found to be 2.7-3.4 in RR-MS and 5.2-2.8 in SP-MS. Mean plaque surface area in the right-left occipital lobe was determined to be 58.52-88.24 mm 2 in RR MS and 124.3-64.82 mm 2 in SP MS. Brainstem volumes were significantly reduced in both groups of patients with MS compared to controls ( P <0.01). Conclusion: Magnetic-resonance-estimated volume and surface area values in multiple sclerosis may facilitate our understanding of the clinical situation of patients and provide a simple index for evaluating therapeutic efficiency

  14. A study of gross morphological and histological syringeal features of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study of gross morphological and histological syringeal features of true francolins (Galliformes: Francolinus, Scleroptila, Peliperdix and Dendroperdix spp.) and spurfowls ( Pternistis spp.) in a phylogenetic context.

  15. The long run relationship between foreign direct investments, exports, and gross domestic product: panel data implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet ERYİĞİT

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Foreign direct investment (FDI is defined as establishing a new company or branch of a foreign company by foreign investor or share acquisitions of a company established in host country (any percentage of shares acquired outside the stock exchange or 10 percent or more of the shares or voting power of a company acquired through the stock exchange (UNCTAD, 2012. This study investigated the long-term relationship between FDI and export volume, FDI and Gross Domestic Products (GDP, and export volume and GDP through cointegration tests. It is conducted the panel data analysis using data for the period of 2000-2010 from 15 countries making direct investment in Turkey regularly since year 2000. Panel unit-root tests showed that variables are stationary for the first difference level. Residual based and error correction based cointegration tests revealed that there is long-term relationship between FDI and export volume, FDI and GDP, and export volume and GDP.

  16. [Target volume margins for lung cancer: internal target volume/clinical target volume].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouin, A; Pourel, N

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to carry out a review of margins that should be used for the delineation of target volumes in lung cancer, with a focus on margins from gross tumour volume (GTV) to clinical target volume (CTV) and internal target volume (ITV) delineation. Our review was based on a PubMed literature search with, as a cornerstone, the 2010 European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) recommandations by De Ruysscher et al. The keywords used for the search were: radiotherapy, lung cancer, clinical target volume, internal target volume. The relevant information was categorized under the following headings: gross tumour volume definition (GTV), CTV-GTV margin (first tumoural CTV then nodal CTV definition), in field versus elective nodal irradiation, metabolic imaging role through the input of the PET scanner for tumour target volume and limitations of PET-CT imaging for nodal target volume definition, postoperative radiotherapy target volume definition, delineation of target volumes after induction chemotherapy; then the internal target volume is specified as well as tumoural mobility for lung cancer and respiratory gating techniques. Finally, a chapter is dedicated to planning target volume definition and another to small cell lung cancer. For each heading, the most relevant and recent clinical trials and publications are mentioned. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  17. A longitudinal analysis of regional brain volumes in macaques exposed to X-irradiation in early gestation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Aldridge

    Full Text Available Early gestation represents a period of vulnerability to environmental insult that has been associated with adult psychiatric disease. However, little is known about how prenatal perturbation translates into adult brain dysfunction. Here, we use a longitudinal study design to examine the effects of disruption of early gestational neurogenesis on brain volume in the non-human primate.Five Rhesus macaques were exposed to x-irradiation in early gestation (E30-E41, and four control monkeys were sham-irradiated at comparable ages. Whole brain magnetic resonance imaging was performed at 6 months, 12 months, and 3 and 5 years of age. Volumes of whole cerebrum, cortical gray matter, caudate, putamen, and thalamus were estimated using semi-automated segmentation methods and high dimensional brain mapping. Volume reductions spanning all ages were observed in irradiated monkeys in the putamen (15-24%, p = 0.01 and in cortical gray matter (6-15%, p = 0.01. Upon covarying for whole cerebral volume, group differences were reduced to trend levels (putamen: p = 0.07; cortical gray matter: p = 0.08. No group-by-age effects were significant.Due to the small number of observations, the conclusions drawn from this study must be viewed as tentative. Early gestational irradiation may result in non-uniform reduction of gray matter, mainly affecting the putamen and cerebral cortex. This may be relevant to understanding how early prenatal environmental insult could lead to brain morphological differences in neurodevelopmental diseases.

  18. Regional Gray Matter Volumes Are Related to Concern About Falling in Older People: A Voxel-Based Morphometric Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuerk, Carola; Zhang, Haobo; Sachdev, Perminder; Lord, Stephen R; Brodaty, Henry; Wen, Wei; Delbaere, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Concern about falling is common in older people. Various related psychological constructs as well as poor balance and slow gait have been associated with decreased gray matter (GM) volume in old age. The current study investigates the association between concern about falling and voxel-wise GM volumes. A total of 281 community-dwelling older people aged 70-90 years underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging. Concern about falling was assessed using Falls Efficacy Scale-International (FES-I). For each participant, voxel-wise GM volumes were generated with voxel-based morphometry and regressed on raw FES-I scores (p fall risk did not alter these associations. After adjustment for anxiety, only left cerebellum and bilateral inferior occipital gyrus remained negatively associated with FES-I scores (voxels-in-cluster = 2,426; p falling is negatively associated with brain volumes in areas important for emotional control and for motor control, executive functions and visual processing in a large sample of older men and women. Regression analyses suggest that these relationships were primarily accounted for by psychological factors (generalized anxiety and neuroticism) and not by physical fall risk or vision. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Assessing the effects of land-use changes on annual average gross erosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Brath

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of land-use changes on potential annual gross erosion in the uplands of the Emilia-Romagna administrative region, a broad geographical area of some 22 000 km2 in northern-central Italy, have been analysed by application of the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE. The presence of an extended mountain chain, particularly subject to soil erosion, makes the estimation of annual gross erosion relevant in defining regional soil-conservation strategies. The USLE, derived empirically for plots, is usually applied at the basin scale. In the present study, the method is implemented in a distributed framework for the hilly and mountainous portion of Emilia-Romagna through a discretisation of the region into elementary square cells. The annual gross erosion is evaluated by combining morphological, pedological and climatic information. The stream network and the tributary area drained by each elementary cell, which are needed for the local application of the USLE, are derived automatically from a Digital Elevation Model (DEM of grid size 250 x 250 m. The rainfall erosivity factor is evaluated from local estimates of rainfall of six-hour storm duration and two-year return period. The soil erodibility and slope length-steepness factors are derived from digital maps of land use, pedology and geomorphology. Furthermore, historical land-use maps of the district of Bologna (a large portion — 3720 km2 — of the area under study, allow the effect of actual land use changes on the soil erosion process to be assessed. The analysis shows the influence of land-use changes on annual gross erosion as well as the increasing vulnerability of upland areas to soil erosion processes during recent decades. Keywords: USLE, gross erosion, distributed modelling, land use changes, northern-central Italy

  20. Atlas based brain volumetry: How to distinguish regional volume changes due to biological or physiological effects from inherent noise of the methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opfer, Roland; Suppa, Per; Kepp, Timo; Spies, Lothar; Schippling, Sven; Huppertz, Hans-Jürgen

    2016-05-01

    Fully-automated regional brain volumetry based on structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays an important role in quantitative neuroimaging. In clinical trials as well as in clinical routine multiple MRIs of individual patients at different time points need to be assessed longitudinally. Measures of inter- and intrascanner variability are crucial to understand the intrinsic variability of the method and to distinguish volume changes due to biological or physiological effects from inherent noise of the methodology. To measure regional brain volumes an atlas based volumetry (ABV) approach was deployed using a highly elastic registration framework and an anatomical atlas in a well-defined template space. We assessed inter- and intrascanner variability of the method in 51 cognitively normal subjects and 27 Alzheimer dementia (AD) patients from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative by studying volumetric results of repeated scans for 17 compartments and brain regions. Median percentage volume differences of scan-rescans from the same scanner ranged from 0.24% (whole brain parenchyma in healthy subjects) to 1.73% (occipital lobe white matter in AD), with generally higher differences in AD patients as compared to normal subjects (e.g., 1.01% vs. 0.78% for the hippocampus). Minimum percentage volume differences detectable with an error probability of 5% were in the one-digit percentage range for almost all structures investigated, with most of them being below 5%. Intrascanner variability was independent of magnetic field strength. The median interscanner variability was up to ten times higher than the intrascanner variability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Waste minimization through high-pressure microwave digestion of soils for gross α/β analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaeger, J.S.; Smith, L.L.

    1995-04-01

    As a result of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) environmental restoration and waste management activities, laboratories receive numerous analytical requests for gross α/β analyses. Traditional sample preparation methods for gross α/β analysis of environmental and mixed waste samples require repetitive leaching, which is time consuming and generates large volumes of secondary wastes. An alternative to leaching is microwave digestion. In the past. microwave technology has had limited application in the radiochemical laboratory because of restrictions on sample size resulting from vessel pressure limitations. However, new microwave vessel designs allow for pressures on the order of 11 MPa (1500 psi). A procedure is described in which microwave digestion is used to prepare environmental soil samples for gross α/β analysis. Results indicate that the described procedure meets performance requirements for several soil types and is equivalent to traditional digestion techniques. No statistical differences at the 95% confidence interval exist between the measurement on samples prepared from the hot plate and microwave digestion procedures for those soils tested. Moreover, microwave digestion allows samples to be prepared in a fraction of the time with significantly less acid and with lower potential of cross-contamination. In comparison to the traditional hot plate method, the waste volumes required for the microwave procedure are a factor of 10 lower, while the analyst time for sample processing is at least a factor of three lower

  2. A predictive model to guide management of the overlap region between target volume and organs at risk in prostate cancer volumetric modulated arc therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattes, Malcolm D.; Lee, Jennifer C.; Einaiem, Sara; Guirguis, Adel; Ikoro, N. C.; Ashamalla Hani [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, New York Methodist Hospital, Brooklyn (United States)

    2013-12-15

    The goal of this study is to determine whether the magnitude of overlap between planning target volume (PTV) and rectum (Rectum{sub overlap}) or PTV and bladder (Bladder{sub overlap}) in prostate cancer volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) is predictive of the dose-volume relationships achieved after optimization, and to identify predictive equations and cutoff values using these overlap volumes beyond which the Quantitative Analyses of Normal Tissue Effects in the Clinic (QUANTEC) dose-volume constraints are unlikely to be met. Fifty-seven patients with prostate cancer underwent VMAT planning using identical optimization conditions and normalization. The PTV (for the 50.4 Gy primary plan and 30.6 Gy boost plan) included 5 to 10 mm margins around the prostate and seminal vesicles. Pearson correlations, linear regression analyses, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to correlate the percentage overlap with dose-volume parameters. The percentage Rectum{sub overlap} and Bladder{sub overlap} correlated with sparing of that organ but minimally impacted other dose-volume parameters, predicted the primary plan rectum V{sub 45} and bladder V{sub 50} with R{sup 2} = 0.78 and R{sup 2} = 0.83, respectively, and predicted the boost plan rectum V{sub 30} and bladder V{sub 30} with R{sup 2} = 0.53 and R{sup 2} = 0.81, respectively. The optimal cutoff value of boost Rectumoverlap to predict rectum V75 >15% was 3.5% (sensitivity 100%, specificity 94%, p < 0.01), and the optimal cutoff value of boost Bladder{sub overlap} to predict bladder V{sub 80} >10% was 5.0% (sensitivity 83%, specificity 100%, p < 0.01). The degree of overlap between PTV and bladder or rectum can be used to accurately guide physicians on the use of interventions to limit the extent of the overlap region prior to optimization.

  3. A predictive model to guide management of the overlap region between target volume and organs at risk in prostate cancer volumetric modulated arc therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattes, Malcolm D.; Lee, Jennifer C.; Einaiem, Sara; Guirguis, Adel; Ikoro, N. C.; Ashamalla Hani

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study is to determine whether the magnitude of overlap between planning target volume (PTV) and rectum (Rectum overlap ) or PTV and bladder (Bladder overlap ) in prostate cancer volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) is predictive of the dose-volume relationships achieved after optimization, and to identify predictive equations and cutoff values using these overlap volumes beyond which the Quantitative Analyses of Normal Tissue Effects in the Clinic (QUANTEC) dose-volume constraints are unlikely to be met. Fifty-seven patients with prostate cancer underwent VMAT planning using identical optimization conditions and normalization. The PTV (for the 50.4 Gy primary plan and 30.6 Gy boost plan) included 5 to 10 mm margins around the prostate and seminal vesicles. Pearson correlations, linear regression analyses, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to correlate the percentage overlap with dose-volume parameters. The percentage Rectum overlap and Bladder overlap correlated with sparing of that organ but minimally impacted other dose-volume parameters, predicted the primary plan rectum V 45 and bladder V 50 with R 2 = 0.78 and R 2 = 0.83, respectively, and predicted the boost plan rectum V 30 and bladder V 30 with R 2 = 0.53 and R 2 = 0.81, respectively. The optimal cutoff value of boost Rectumoverlap to predict rectum V75 >15% was 3.5% (sensitivity 100%, specificity 94%, p overlap to predict bladder V 80 >10% was 5.0% (sensitivity 83%, specificity 100%, p < 0.01). The degree of overlap between PTV and bladder or rectum can be used to accurately guide physicians on the use of interventions to limit the extent of the overlap region prior to optimization.

  4. Total and regional brain volumes in a population-based normative sample from 4 to 18 years: the NIH MRI Study of Normal Brain Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Using a population-based sampling strategy, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study of Normal Brain Development compiled a longitudinal normative reference database of neuroimaging and correlated clinical/behavioral data from a demographically representative sample of healthy children and adolescents aged newborn through early adulthood. The present paper reports brain volume data for 325 children, ages 4.5-18 years, from the first cross-sectional time point. Measures included volumes of whole-brain gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM), left and right lateral ventricles, frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital lobe GM and WM, subcortical GM (thalamus, caudate, putamen, and globus pallidus), cerebellum, and brainstem. Associations with cross-sectional age, sex, family income, parental education, and body mass index (BMI) were evaluated. Key observations are: 1) age-related decreases in lobar GM most prominent in parietal and occipital cortex; 2) age-related increases in lobar WM, greatest in occipital, followed by the temporal lobe; 3) age-related trajectories predominantly curvilinear in females, but linear in males; and 4) small systematic associations of brain tissue volumes with BMI but not with IQ, family income, or parental education. These findings constitute a normative reference on regional brain volumes in children and adolescents.

  5. Science and technology research in Thailand: Some comparisons from the data regarding Thailand’s position in the region based on volume of published work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry Commins

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Three different sources were used to examine the growth or otherwise in the volume of published research from Thailand. One source compares growth over the last two decades, another over the last six years, while a third examines the current status of Thailand’s position in relation to neighbouring countries in ASEAN.All three methods are based primarily on publication in international literature, with an emphasis on science and engineering. The figures do not include publication in local or regional literature and thus do not reflect the total picture in terms of volume. It was not possible using these sources to obtain a publication-per-head-per-researcher to better illustrate output on an annual basis.Despite these drawbacks, indicators from international sources can be viewed with some confidence and the overall picture is encouraging. Thailand has seen dramatic growth over the last twenty years and consistent growth over the last six. Thailand ranks second in the ASEAN region behind Singapore, in terms of volume of output, and is ahead of Singapore when this output is compared to GDP.

  6. Irradiation of the chest wall and regional nodes as an integrated volume with IMRT for breast cancer after mastectomy: from dosimetry to clinical side-effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Jinli; Li Jiongxiong; Zhu Chuanying

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To discuss dosimetric characteristics of an intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) technique for treating the chest wall and regional nodes as an integrated volume after modified radical mastectomy (MRM), and observe acute side-effects following irradiation. Methods: From June 2009 to August 2010, 75 patients were randomly enrolled. Of these, 41 had left-sided breast cancer. Each eligible patient had a planning CT in treatment position, on which the chest wall, supraclavicular,and infraclavicular nodes, +/-internal mammary region, were contoured as an integrated volume. A multi-beam IMRT plan was designed with the target either as a whole or two segments divided at below the clavicle head. A dose of 50 Gy in 25 fractions was prescribed to cover at least 90% of the PTV. Internal mammary region was included in 31 cases. Dose volume histograms were used to evaluate the IMRT plans. The acute side effects were followed up regularly during and after irradiation. The independent two-sample t-test was used to compare the dosimetric parameters between integrated and segmented plans. Results: Planning design was completed for all patients, including 55 integrated and 20 segmented plans, with median number of beams of 8. The conformity index and homogeneity index was 1.43 ± 0.15 and 0.14 ± 0.02, respectively. Patients with internal mammary region included in PTV had higher homogeneity index PT. The percent volume of PTV receiving > 110% prescription dose was max , D mean V 107% , and V 110% , between integrated and segmented plans (t=2.19 -2.53, P=0.013-0.031). ≥ grade 2 radiation dermatitis was identified in 3 2 patients (grade 2 in 22 patients, grade 3 in 10 patients), mostly occurred within 1 - 2 weeks after treatment. The sites of moist desquamation were anterior axillary fold (27/37) and chest wall (10/37). Only 2 patients developed grade 2 radiation pneumonitis. Conclusions: The IMRT technique applied after MRM with integrated locoregional target volume

  7. 26 CFR 1.832-1 - Gross income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., except that in the case of a mutual fire insurance company described in § 1.831-1 the amount of single... TAXES Other Insurance Companies § 1.832-1 Gross income. (a) Gross income as defined in section 832(b)(1... approved by the National Convention of Insurance Commissioners, as well as the gain derived from the sale...

  8. 26 CFR 1.993-6 - Definition of gross receipts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definition of gross receipts. 1.993-6 Section 1.993-6 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Domestic International Sales Corporations § 1.993-6 Definition of gross receipts. (a...

  9. 7 CFR 1424.7 - Gross payable units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... payments (APP), and base production payments (BPP). Repayment rates shall be based on previous payment... 50 gallons of net production increase. (2) For BPP, which will be made on production not eligible for... biodiesel production gross payable units. (3) Adding the APP and BPP to determine biodiesel gross payable...

  10. Guidelines for Standard Photography in Gross and Clinical Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barut, Cagatay; Ertilav, Hakan

    2011-01-01

    Photography has a widespread usage in medicine and anatomy. In this review, authors focused on the usage of photography in gross and clinical anatomy. Photography in gross and clinical anatomy is not only essential for accurate documentation of morphological findings but also important in sharing knowledge and experience. Photographs of cadavers…

  11. Psychiatric Symptoms in Children with Gross Motor Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emck, Claudia; Bosscher, Ruud J.; van Wieringen, Piet C. W.; Doreleijers, Theo; Beek, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Children with psychiatric disorders often demonstrate gross motor problems. This study investigates if the reverse also holds true by assessing psychiatric symptoms present in children with gross motor problems. Emotional, behavioral, and autism spectrum disorders (ASD), as well as psychosocial problems, were assessed in a sample of 40 children…

  12. Professor Samuel David Gross (1805-1884) and His Innovations in Surgery and Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laios, Konstantinos

    2018-06-01

    Professor Samuel David Gross (1805-1884) is considered as one of the founders of American surgery. He was a skillful surgeon who could excellently perform a lithotomy, an amputation, and a cataract surgery. He introduced many new surgical techniques and designed new surgical and medical instruments. He expertise was not limited to surgery alone; he also published studies concerning internal medicine, pathology, experimental physiology, and pharmacology. His most important treatise was his 2-volume work, A System of Surgery, Pathological, Diagnostic, Therapeutic and Operative (1861), which was a standard reference book in surgery in the United States during the second half of 19th century. Gross received many honors during his life. He was active in the operating room until his death.

  13. Regional blood flow analysis and its relationship with arterial branch lengths and lumen volume in the coronary arterial tree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molloi, Sabee; Wong, Jerry T

    2007-01-01

    The limitations of visually assessing coronary artery disease are well known. These limitations are particularly important in intermediate coronary lesions (30-70% diameter stenosis) where it is difficult to determine whether a particular lesion is the cause of ischaemia. Therefore, a functional measure of stenosis severity is needed. The purpose of this study is to determine whether the expected maximum coronary blood flow in an arterial tree is predictable from its sum of arterial branch lengths or lumen volume. Using a computer model of a porcine coronary artery tree, an analysis of blood flow distribution was conducted through a network of millions of vessels that included the entire coronary artery tree down to the first capillary branch. The flow simulation results show that there is a linear relationship between coronary blood flow and the sum of its arterial branch lengths. This relationship holds over the entire arterial tree. The flow simulation results also indicate that there is a 3/4 er relation between coronary blood flow (Q) and the sum of its arterial lumen volume (V). Moreover, there is a linear relationship between normalized Q and normalized V raised to a power of 3/4 over the entire arterial tree. These results indicate that measured arterial branch lengths or lumen volumes can be used to predict the expected maximum blood flow in an arterial tree. This theoretical maximum blood flow, in conjunction with an angiographically measured blood flow, can potentially be used to calculate fractional flow reserve based entirely on angiographic data

  14. An electronic instructor for gross anatomy dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josephson, Eleanor M; Moore, Larry J

    2006-01-01

    Gross anatomy is time consuming to teach and to learn. Because the process of dissection takes up so much student time, assistance in the form of an in-lab instructional DVD program might improve student performance. The DVD could be viewed with a portable device by individual dissection groups at their tables. Groups could dissect at their own pace, with access to step-by-step demonstrations and answers to frequently asked anatomical questions. We created an instructional DVD program demonstrating dissection of the canine ventral neck and thoracic limb. The effect on student exam scores of using the DVD versus not using it was measured in a controlled, two-sample study using incoming first-year veterinary students as volunteers. Volunteers were told the study was of two different dissection methods; the DVD was not specifically mentioned until after the students were separated into two groups (Blue/DVD group and Orange/No DVD group), and then only to volunteers in the Blue group. Except for the DVD, the two groups had the same resources. The difference in scores on an exam given after a single dissection period did not differ sufficiently to conclude that DVD use raised the mean score; however, 73% of the DVD group scored 60% or higher, while only 38% of the No DVD group scored 60% or higher. The difference in mean scores overall was 2.3 points out of a possible 49, suggesting that the DVD helped students, especially those with lower scores, to earn two to three more points than they would have otherwise.

  15. CARETS: A prototype regional environmental information system. Volume 9: Shore zone land use and land cover; Central Atlantic Regional Ecological Test Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, R. H. (Principal Investigator); Dolan, R.; Hayden, B. P.; Vincent, C. L.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Analysis of the land use and land cover maps provides a stratification of the CARETS shore area into regions which have a similar environmental organization. Different elements of the landscape are altered less frequently moving inland. Near the beach, higher frequency of monitoring is needed than is needed in the inland areas, including the marsh and estuarine areas.

  16. Regional issue identification and assessment (RIIA). Volume I. An analysis of the TRENDLONG MID-MID Scenario for Federal Region 10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilfert, G. L.; Beckwith, M. A.; Cowan, C. E.; Keizur, G. R. [comps.

    1979-07-01

    Environmental, human health and safety, socioeconomic and institutional impacts of future energy development for Federal Region 10, which includes the states of Alaska, Idaho, Oregon, and Washington, are reported. It is concluded that the reduction in electric generating capacity of 568 MWe specified by the scenario for Alaska will not be realized because of institutional constraints and economic impacts. Development of 1000 MWe of geothermal generating capacity in Region 10 called for by the scenario will not be met by 1990. Besides technical feasibility and economic contraints, procedures in Oregon and Washington for securing leases and siting permits have not been fully developed. The location and impacts associated with construction and operation of oil and gas transshipment facilities such as the proposed pipeline to transport natural gas from fields in northern Alaska to the lower 48 states and the pipeline to transport Alaskan oil through Washington State to refineries in the Midwest are likely to be important issues in the Region. The addition of 7,951 MWe to the currently existing hydroelectric generating capacity of 29,990 MWe by 1990 will intensify competition among multiple uses of limited water resources of the Columbia and Snake River systems which drain Idaho, Oregon, and Washington. Irrigation, recreation, transportation, maintenance of wildlife habitats and anadromous fisheries conflict and compete with hydroelectric power generation. Public opposition to further development of nuclear power currently exists and seems to be intensifying in light of recent events. The scenario-specified addition of 4,816 MWe of nuclear generating capacity to the Region's current nuclear capacity of 2,016 MWe may be jeopardized by this opposition; specifically the 1,174 MWe addition to Oregon's nuclear capacity may not be realized.

  17. Higher Adolescent Body Mass Index is Associated with Lower Regional Gray and White Matter Volumes and Lower Levels of Positive Emotionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James T Kennedy

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Adolescent obesity is associated with an increased chance of developing serious health risks later in life. Identifying the neurobiological and personality factors related to increases in adiposity is important to understanding what drives maladaptive consummatory and exercise behaviors that result in obesity. Previous research has largely focused on adults with few findings published on interactions among adiposity, brain structure, and personality. In this study, Voxel Based Morphometry (VBM was used to identify associations between gray and white matter volumes and increasing adiposity, as measured by Body Mass Index percentile (BMI%, in 137 adolescents (age range: 9-20 years, Body Mass Index percentile range: 5.16-99.56. Variations in gray and white matter volume and BMI% were then linked to individual differences in personality measures from the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ. After controlling for age and other covariates, BMI% correlated negatively with gray matter volume in the bilateral caudate (right: partial r = -0.338, left: r -0.404, medial prefrontal cortex (partial r = -0.339, anterior cingulate (partial r = -0.312, bilateral frontal pole (right: partial r = -0.368, left: r= -0.316, and uncus (partial r = -0.475 as well as white matter volume bilaterally in the anterior limb of the internal capsule (right: partial r = -0.34, left: r = -0.386, extending to the left middle frontal subgyral white matter. Agentic Positive Emotionality (PEM-AG was correlated negatively with BMI% (partial r = -0.384. PEM-AG was correlated positively with gray matter volume in the right uncus (partial r = 0.329. These results suggest that higher levels of adiposity in adolescents are associated with lower trait levels in reward-related personality domains, as well as structural variations in brain regions associated with reward processing, control, and sensory integration.

  18. Regional Brain Volumes Moderate, but Do Not Mediate, the Effects of Group-Based Exercise Training on Reductions in Loneliness in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Diane K; Daugherty, Ana M; Burzynska, Agnieszka Z; Fanning, Jason; Awick, Elizabeth A; Chaddock-Heyman, Laura; Kramer, Arthur F; McAuley, Edward

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Despite the prevalence of and negative health consequences associated with perceived loneliness in older adults, few studies have examined interactions among behavioral, psychosocial, and neural mechanisms. Research suggests that physical activity and improvements in perceived social support and stress are related to reductions in loneliness. Yet, the influence of brain structure on these changes is unknown. The present study examined whether change in regional brain volume mediated the effects of changes in social support and stress on change in perceived loneliness after an exercise intervention. We also examined the extent to which baseline brain volumes moderated the relationship between changes in social support, stress, and loneliness. Methods: Participants were 247 older adults (65.4 ± 4.6 years-old) enrolled in a 6-month randomized controlled trial comprised of four exercise conditions: Dance ( n = 69), Strength/Stretching/Stability ( n = 70), Walk ( n = 54), and Walk Plus ( n = 54). All groups met for 1 h, three times weekly. Participants completed questionnaires assessing perceived social support, stress, and loneliness at baseline and post-intervention. Regional brain volumes (amygdala, prefrontal cortex [PFC], hippocampus) before and after intervention were measured with automatic segmentation of each participant's T1-weighted structural MRI. Data were analyzed in a latent modeling framework. Results: Perceived social support increased ( p = 0.003), while stress ( p loneliness ( p = 0.001) decreased over the intervention. Increased social support directly (-0.63, p loneliness. Changes in amygdala, PFC, and hippocampus volumes were unrelated to change in psychosocial variables (all p ≥ 0.44). However, individuals with larger baseline amygdalae experienced greater decreases in loneliness due to greater reductions in stress (0.35, p = 0.02). Further, individuals with larger baseline PFC volumes experienced greater reductions in stress due

  19. Regional Brain Volumes Moderate, but Do Not Mediate, the Effects of Group-Based Exercise Training on Reductions in Loneliness in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane K. Ehlers

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Despite the prevalence of and negative health consequences associated with perceived loneliness in older adults, few studies have examined interactions among behavioral, psychosocial, and neural mechanisms. Research suggests that physical activity and improvements in perceived social support and stress are related to reductions in loneliness. Yet, the influence of brain structure on these changes is unknown. The present study examined whether change in regional brain volume mediated the effects of changes in social support and stress on change in perceived loneliness after an exercise intervention. We also examined the extent to which baseline brain volumes moderated the relationship between changes in social support, stress, and loneliness.Methods: Participants were 247 older adults (65.4 ± 4.6 years-old enrolled in a 6-month randomized controlled trial comprised of four exercise conditions: Dance (n = 69, Strength/Stretching/Stability (n = 70, Walk (n = 54, and Walk Plus (n = 54. All groups met for 1 h, three times weekly. Participants completed questionnaires assessing perceived social support, stress, and loneliness at baseline and post-intervention. Regional brain volumes (amygdala, prefrontal cortex [PFC], hippocampus before and after intervention were measured with automatic segmentation of each participant's T1-weighted structural MRI. Data were analyzed in a latent modeling framework.Results: Perceived social support increased (p = 0.003, while stress (p < 0.001, and loneliness (p = 0.001 decreased over the intervention. Increased social support directly (−0.63, p < 0.01 and indirectly, through decreased stress (−0.10, p = 0.02, predicted decreased loneliness. Changes in amygdala, PFC, and hippocampus volumes were unrelated to change in psychosocial variables (all p ≥ 0.44. However, individuals with larger baseline amygdalae experienced greater decreases in loneliness due to greater reductions in stress (0.35, p = 0

  20. Direct measurements of the light dependence of gross photosynthesis and oxygen consumption in the ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailleul, B.; Park, J.; Brown, C. M.; Bidle, K. D.; Lee, S.; Falkowski, P. G.

    2016-02-01

    For decades, a lack of understanding of how respiration is influenced by light has been stymying our ability to quantitatively analyze how phytoplankton allocate carbon in situ and the biological mechanisms that participate to the fate of blooms. Using membrane inlet mass spectrometry (MIMS), the light dependencies of gross photosynthesis and oxygen uptake rates were measured during the bloom demises of two prymnesiophytes, in two open ocean regions. In the North Atlantic, dominated by Emiliania huxleyi, respiration was independent of irradiance and was higher than the gross photosynthetic rate at all irradiances. In the Amundsen Sea (Antarctica), dominated by Phaeocystis antarctica, the situation was very different. Dark respiration was one order of magnitude lower than the maximal gross photosynthetic rate. ut the oxygen uptake rate increased by 10 fold at surface irradiances, where it becomes higher than gross photosynthesis. Our results suggest that the light dependence of oxygen uptake in P. antarctica has two sources: one is independent of photosynthesis, and is possibly associated with the photo-reduction of O2 mediated by dissolved organic matter; the second reflects the activity of an oxidase fueled in the light with photosynthetic electron flow. Interestingly, these dramatic light-dependent changes in oxygen uptake were not reproduced in nutrient-replete P. antarctica cultures, in the laboratory. Our measurements highlight the importance of improving our understanding of oxygen consuming reactions in the euphotic zone, which is critical to investigating the physiology of phytoplankton and tracing the fate of phytoplankton blooms.

  1. Summarized report of geothermal well Gross Buchholz Gt1; Kurzprofil der Geothermiebohrung Gross Buchholz Gt1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, Frauke; Hesshaus, Annalena; Jatho, Reiner; Luppold, Friedrich-Wilhelm; Pletsch, Thomas; Tischner, Torsten [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BGR), Hannover (Germany); Hunze, Sabine; Orilski, Judith; Wonik, Thomas [Leibniz-Institut fuer Angewandte Geophysik (LIAG), Hannover (Germany); Roehling, Heinz-Gerd [Landesamt fuer Bergbau, Energie und Geologie (LBEG), Hannover (Germany)

    2012-01-15

    The well Gross Buchholz Gt1 is a deep geothermal well intended to demonstrate the feasibility of deep geothermal energy mining from tight sedimentary rocks. It is the core part of the GeneSys (Generated Geothermal Energy Systems) project, aiming at developing single well concepts for direct use of geothermal energy. During the course of the project, three different single well concepts have been developed and tested at the research well Horstberg Z1 which is geologically comparable to the Gross Buchholzwell. The latter is intended to supply the heating energy for the premises of Geozentrum Hannover, an office and lab complex of some 35.000 m{sup 2} housing about 1000 employees. The geothermal target are the sandstones of the Lower Triassic Middle Buntsandstein Formation, which have a temperature of about 165 C at 3700 depth. The well has reached a final depth of 3901 m below ground level, penetrating a nearly complete succession from the Lower Cretaceous (Albian) to the Lower Triassic (Lower Buntsandstein), while Tertiary and Upper Cretaceous sediments are missing. This article summarizes technical and geographic data, stratigraphic classification, geophysical logging, cores, and sidewall cores of the well. (orig.)

  2. Measurement of Gross Alpha and Gross Beta Radioactivity of River Yobe, North Eastern Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abba, H. T.; Sadiq, U.; Adeyemo, D. J.

    2013-01-01

    Measurement of the gross alpha and gross beta radioactivity of River Yobe has been carried out. Fifteen samples of the river water were collected from the farming, fishing, domestic/livestock and control areas along the river and were analyzed using desktop alpha/beta (MPC 2000- DP) counting system. The count results show the average alpha activities in farming, fishing, domestic/livestock and control areas are 0.207±0.082, 0.257±0.13, 0.437±0.315 and 0.237±0.10 Bq L -1 , respectively. The average beta activities in the four areas are 0.813±0.122, 0.308±0.0145, 0.563±0.230 and 0.225±0.0096 Bq L -1 , respectively. The overall results show that the alpha and beta activities in the four areas are far below the practical screening level of radioactivity in drinking water of 0.5 Bq L -1 for alpha and 1 Bq L -1 for beta recommended by CEC-FAO and WHO and therefore may not pose any serious detrimental health side-effects to the public users of the river.

  3. Regional Issue Identification and Assessment (RIIA). Volume III. Institutional barriers to developing power generation facilities in the Pacific Northwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, F. A.; Sawyer, C. H.; Maxwell, J. H.

    1979-10-01

    The Regional Assessments Division in the US Department of Energy (DOE) has undertaken a program to assess the probable consequences of various national energy policies in regions of the United States and to evaluate the constraints on national energy policy imposed by conditions in these regions. The program is referred to as the Regional Issues Identification and Assessment (RIIA) Program. Currently the RIIA Program is evaluating the Trendlong Mid-Mid scenario, a pattern of energy development for 1985 and 1990 derived from the Project Independence Evaluation System (PIES) model. This scenario assumes a medium annual growth rate in both the national demand for and national supply of energy. It has been disaggregated to specify the generating capacity to be supplied by each energy source in each state. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has the responsibility for evaluating the scenario for the Federal Region 10, consisting of Alaska, Idaho, Oregon, and Washington. PNL is identifying impacts and constraints associated with realizing the scenario in a variety of categories, including air and water quality impacts, health and safety effects, and socioeconomic impacts. This report summarizes the analysis of one such category: institutional constraints - defined to include legal, organizational, and political barriers to the achievement of the scenario in the Northwest.

  4. Nuclear medium effects in the evaluation of Callan Gross relation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaidi, F.; Haider, H.; Athar, M. Sajjad; Singh, S.K.

    2015-01-01

    JLab has recently measured F 1 (x) and F 2 (x) structure functions separately as well as studied the difference F 2 (x) - 2 xF 1 (x) (Callan-Gross relation) using electron-nucleus deep inelastic scattering (DIS) in the energy region of 2-6 GeV of the electron beam. Theoretically, it is important to understand nuclear medium effects for a fundamental process eN → eX (N is the nucleon and X is jet of hadrons) taking place with a nucleon bound inside the nucleus. Generally, nuclear medium effects in the DIS region are understood due to shadowing and antishadowing effects, mesonic cloud contributions, Fermi motion and binding energy etc. In the present paper we have studied nuclear medium effects in microscopic model using relativistic nucleon spectral function to describe nucleon momentum distribution. The Fermi motion, binding energy effect and nucleon-nucleon correlations are taken into account using spectral functions. The spectral functions that describe energy and momentum distribution of nucleon is obtained by using the Lehmann's representation for the relativistic nucleon propagator and nuclear many body theory is used to calculate it for an interacting Fermi sea in nuclear matter. A local density approximation is then applied to translate these results to a finite nucleus. We have taken into account pion and rho mesons cloud contributions which are found to have important contribution in the intermediate region of Bjorken variable x. Furthermore, shadowing and antishadowing effects are also taken into account using phenomenological model of Kulagin and Petti. Numerical evaluation have been performed both at the leading order (LO) and next-to-leading order (NLO)

  5. Gross motor skill development of kindergarten children in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aye, Thanda; Kuramoto-Ahuja, Tsugumi; Sato, Tamae; Sadakiyo, Kaori; Watanabe, Miyoko; Maruyama, Hitoshi

    2018-05-01

    [Purpose] The purposes of this study were to assess and explore the gender-based differences in gross motor skill development of 5-year-old Japanese children. [Subjects and Methods] This cross-sectional study recruited 60 healthy 5-year-old (third-year kindergarten, i.e., nencho ) children (34 boys, 26 girls) from one local private kindergarten school in Otawara city, Tochigi Prefecture, Japan. Gross motor skills, including six locomotor and six object control skills, were assessed using the test of gross motor development, second edition (TGMD-2). All subjects performed two trials of each gross motor skill, and the performances were video-recorded and scored. Assessment procedures were performed according to the standardized guidelines of the TGMD-2. [Results] The majority of subjects had an average level of overall gross motor skills. Girls had significantly better locomotor skills. Boys had significantly better object control skills. [Conclusion] The gross motor skill development of 5-year-old Japanese children involves gender-based differences in locomotor and object control skills. This study provided valuable information that can be used to establish normative references for the gross motor skills of 5-year-old Japanese children.

  6. Estimation of inhalation doses from airborne releases using gross monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstein, N.P.

    1978-01-01

    Monitoring programs at most nuclear facilities involve continuous gross measurements supplemented by periodic isotopic analyses of release samples. The isotopic measurements are required to accurately assess the potential dose from the various effluent streams, but in between these measurements, one depends on the gross monitors to provide approximate indications of the dose. The effluent streams release a variety of nuclides, each with its own dose factor. This means that the relationship between the counting rate in a gross monitor and the potential dose of the effluent being monitored will depend on the isotopic composition of this release. If this composition changes, then the dose indicated by the gross monitor (calibrated for the original group of isotopes) may be significantly in error. The problem of indicating inhalation doses from gross monitoring of airborne releases is considered. In order for this type of monitor to accurately indicate dose, regardless of the isotopic makeup of a release, the analysis shows that its response to each isotope should be proportional to the dose factor of that isotope. These ideas are applied to the monitoring of air particulates using gross beta and gross gamma monitors. The study shows that the former more closely satisfies this condition and as a result, satisfactorily indicates the actual dose from reactor effluents, as determined from detailed isotopic data published in the literature. On the other hand, the gross gamma monitor, with its poorer fit to the condition, provided less than satisfactory accuracy in its dose estimates. In addition, a variety of other mathematical response functions were considered but their dose estimation capabilities were not much better than the straight beta response. The study shows that reasonably accurate dose estimates can be made using properly selected gross monitors, but that significant errors can result with improper ones. (author)

  7. Effect of phase behavior, density, and isothermal compressibility on the constant-volume heat capacity of ethane + n-pentane mixed fluids in different phase regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mu, Tiancheng; Liu, Zhimin; Han, Buxing.; Li, Zhonghao; Zhang, Jianling; Zhang, Xiaogang

    2003-01-01

    The phase behavior, density, and constant-volume molar heat capacity (C v,m ) of ethane + n-pentane binary mixtures have been measured in the supercritical region and subcritical region at T=309.45 K. In addition, the isothermal compressibility (κ T ) has been calculated using the density data determined. For a mixed fluid with a composition close to the critical composition, C v,m and κ T increase sharply as the pressure approaches the critical point (CP), the dew point (DP), or the bubble point (BP). However, C v,m is not sensitive to pressure in the entire pressure range if the composition of the mixed fluid is far from the critical composition. To tune the properties of the binary mixtures effectively by pressure, both the composition and the pressure should be close to the critical point of the mixture. The intermolecular interactions in the mixture are also discussed on the basis of the experimental results

  8. Learning, Adjustment and Stress Disorders: With Special Reference to Tsunami Affected Regions. Beitrage zur Padagogischen und Rehabilitationspsychologie. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witruk, Evelin, Ed.; Riha, David, Ed.; Teichert, Alexandra, Ed.; Haase, Norman, Ed.; Stueck, Marcus, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This book contains selected contributions from the international workshop Learning, "Adjustment and Stress Disorders--with special reference to Tsunami affected Regions" organised by Evelin Witruk and the team of Educational and Rehabilitative Psychology at the University of Leipzig in January 2006. The book contains new results and the…

  9. Regional applicability and potential of salt-gradient solar ponds in the United States. Volume 2: Detailed report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, E. I. H.

    1982-03-01

    A comprehensive assessment of the regional applicability and potential of salt-gradient solar ponds in the United States is provided. The assessment is focused on the general characteristics of twelve defined geographic regions. Natural resources essential to solar ponds are surveyed. Meteorological and hydrogeological conditions affecting pond performance are examined. Potentially favorable pond sites are identified. Regional thermal and electrical energy output from solar ponds is calculated. Selected pond design cases are studied. Five major potential market sectors are evaluated in terms of technical and energy-consumption characteristics, and solar-pond applicability and potential. Relevant pond system data and financial factors are analyzed. Solar-pond energy costs are compared with conventional energy costs. The assessment concludes that, excepting Alaska, ponds are applicable in all regions for at least two market sectors. Total solar pond energy supply potential in the five market sectors examined is estimated to be 8.94 quads/yr by the year 2000, approximately 7.2% of the projected total national energy demand.

  10. Preliminary environmental assessment of selected geopressured - geothermal prospect areas: Louisiana Gulf Coast Region. Volume II. Environmental baseline data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newchurch, E.J.; Bachman, A.L.; Bryan, C.F.; Harrison, D.P.; Muller, R.A.; Newman, J.P. Jr.; Smith, C.G. Jr.; Bailey, J.I. Jr.; Kelly, G.G.; Reibert, K.C.

    1978-10-15

    A separate section is presented for each of the six prospect areas studied. Each section includes a compilation and discussion of environmental baseline data derived from existing sources. The data are arranged as follows: geology and geohydrology, air quality, water resources and flood hazards, ecological systems, and land use. When data specific to the prospect were not available, regional data are reported. (MHR)

  11. Alaska Regional Energy Resources Planning Project. Phase 2: coal, hydroelectric and energy alternatives. Volume I. Beluga Coal District Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutledge, G.; Lane, D.; Edblom, G.

    1980-01-01

    This volume deals with the problems and procedures inherent in the development of the Beluga Coal District. Socio-economic implications of the development and management alternatives are discussed. A review of permits and approvals necessary for the initial development of Beluga Coal Field is presented. Major land tenure issues in the Beluga Coal District as well as existing transportation routes and proposed routes and sites are discussed. The various coal technologies which might be employed at Beluga are described. Transportation options and associated costs of transporting coal from the mine site area to a connecting point with a major, longer distance transportation made and of transporting coal both within and outside (exportation) the state are discussed. Some environmental issues involved in the development of the Beluga Coal Field are presented. (DMC)

  12. Seasonal and spatial distribution of Bacterioplankton in a fluvial-lagunar system of a tropical region: density, biomass, cellular volume and morphologic variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnólia Fernandes Florêncio de Araújo

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The temporal and spatial fluctuations of Bacterioplankton in a fluvial-lagunar system of a tropical region (Pitimbu River and Jiqui Lake, RN were studied during the dry and the rainy periods. The bacterial abundance varied from 2.67 to 5.1 Cells10(7mL-1 and did not show a typical temporal variation, presenting only small oscillations between the rainy and the dry periods. The bacterial biomass varied from 123 µgC L-1 to 269 µgC L-1 in the sampling sites and the average cellular volume varied from 0.12 to 0.54µm³, showing a predominance of the rods. The temperature showed a positive correlation with the cellular volume of the rods (R=0.55; p=0.02 and vibrio (R=0.53; p=0.03. Significant spatial differences of biomass (Mann Whitney: p=0.01 and cellular volume of the morphotypes (Mann Whitney: p=0.003 were found between the sampling sites. The strong positive correlations of the water temperature and oxygen with bacterioplankton showed a probable high bacterial activity in this system.A variação temporal e espacial do bacterioplâncton em um sistema fluvial-lagunar de região tropical foi estudada em períodos seco e chuvoso. As médias da abundância bacteriana variaram de 2,67 a 5,1 x 10(7 e não exibiram uma variação temporal marcante, tendo apresentado apenas pequenas oscilações entre os períodos chuvoso e seco. A biomassa bacteriana variou de 123 µg C L-1 a 269 µg C L-1 entre os locais de coleta e o volume celular médio de 0,12µm³ a 0,54µm³, ocorrendo predominância de bacilos. A temperatura mostrou correlação positiva com o volume celular de bacilos (R=0,55; p=0,02 e de vibriões (R=0,53; p=0,03. Foram encontradas diferenças espaciais significativas de biomassa (Mann Whitney: p=0,01 e volume celular dos morfotipos (Mann Whitney: p= 0,003, entre os locais de coleta. As fortes correlações positivas da temperatura da água e do oxigênio, com o bacterioplâncton, são sugestivas de uma provavelmente elevada atividade

  13. Determination of the thoron daughter working level by a one gross alpha-count

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigu, J.; Lau, W.K.

    1983-02-01

    A study has been done on the determination of the thoron daughter Working Level, WL(Tn), by a one gross α-count. The relationship between the gross α-count rate per unit of volume of air sampled and WL(Tn), denoted the F-factor, has been investigated as a function of sampling time, elapsed time from the end of the sampling period, i.e., waiting time, and the thoron daughter disequilibrium ratio [ThC]/[ThB]. It has been found that F depends on both the waiting time and [ThC]/[ThB]. If α-count measurements are made at least 300 min after the end of sampling, F changes by less than 10 percent over the full range of theoretical values of [ThC]/[ThB], i.e., from 0 to 1. The F-factor is independent of [ThC]/[ThB] at approximately 215 min after the end of sampling. This feature can be used to determine WL(Tn) with higher accuracy and at least 1.5 hr earlier than is commonly done using other one gross α-count methods reported in the literature

  14. Electric power annual 1997. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    The Electric Power Annual 1997, Volume 2 contains annual summary statistics at national, regional, and state levels for the electric power industry, including information on both electric utilities and nonutility power producers. Included are data for electric utility retail sales of electricity, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold; financial statistics; environmental statistics; power transactions; and demand-side management. Also included are data for US nonutility power producers on installed capacity; gross generation; emissions; and supply and disposition of energy. The objective of the publication is to provide industry decisionmakers, government policymakers, analysts, and the general public with historical data that may be used in understanding US electricity markets. 15 figs., 62 tabs.

  15. Environmental status of the Lake Michigan region. Volume 16. Amphibians and reptiles of the Lake Michigan drainage basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pentecost, E.D.; Vogt, R.C.

    1976-07-01

    The focus of this report is on regional distribution of the herpetofauna of the Lake Michigan Drainage Basin. The introduction includes a brief discussion of plant communities and their associated herpetofauna, and the importance of hibernacula and migration routes. Some aspects of the status, distribution, habitat, and life history of the amphibians and reptiles of the Basin are described in an annotated checklist. Special attention is given to uncommon and endangered species. Species range is shown on distribution maps.

  16. Environmental status of the Lake Michigan region. Volume 16. Amphibians and reptiles of the Lake Michigan drainage basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pentecost, E.D.; Vogt, R.C.

    1976-07-01

    The focus of this report is on regional distribution of the herpetofauna of the Lake Michigan Drainage Basin. The introduction includes a brief discussion of plant communities and their associated herpetofauna, and the importance of hibernacula and migration routes. Some aspects of the status, distribution, habitat, and life history of the amphibians and reptiles of the Basin are described in an annotated checklist. Special attention is given to uncommon and endangered species. Species range is shown on distribution maps

  17. 26 CFR 1.61-4 - Gross income of farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... exchange is to be included in gross income. Proceeds of insurance, such as hail or fire insurance on... include crop insurance proceeds in income for taxable year following taxable year of destruction. For...

  18. Gross efficiency during rowing is not affected by stroke rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmijster, M.J.; van Soest, A.J.; de Koning, J.J.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: It has been suggested that the optimal stroke rate in rowing is partly determined by the stroke-rate dependence of internal power losses. This should be reflected in a stroke-rate dependency of gross efficiency (e

  19. A variational approach to the Gross-Neveu model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, H.; Misra, P.; Mishra, A.

    1988-01-01

    The authors solve the instability of perturbative vacuum of Gross-Neveu model. They use a variational method. The analysis is nonperturbative as it uses only equal time commmutator/anticommutator algebra

  20. Gross morphology of rhea oropharyngeal cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio N. Rodrigues

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The rhea (Rhea americana americana is an american bird belonging to Ratite's family. Studies related to its morphology are still scarce. This study aims to describe the macroscopic structures of the oropharyngeal cavity. Five heads (2 to 6 months old formalin preserved were anatomically dissected to expose the oropharynx. The oropharynx of the rhea was "bell-shaped" composed by the maxillary and mandibular rhamphotheca. The roof and floor presented two distinct regions different in colour of the mucosa. The rostral region was pale pink contrasting to grey coloured caudal region. The median longitudinal ridge extended rostrally from the apex of the choana to the tip of the beak in the roof and it is clearly more prominent and rigid than the homolog in the floor that appeared thin and stretched merely along the rostral portion of the regio interramalis. The floor was formed by the interramal region, (regio interramalis tongue and laryngeal mound containing glove-shaped glottis. This study confirmed the basic morphology of the oropharinx of the rhea. However, important morphological information not previously described is highlighted and contradictory information present in the literature is clarified.

  1. Performance of a two-leaf light use efficiency model for mapping gross primary productivity against remotely sensed sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zan, Mei; Zhou, Yanlian; Ju, Weimin; Zhang, Yongguang; Zhang, Leiming; Liu, Yibo

    2018-02-01

    Estimating terrestrial gross primary production is an important task when studying the carbon cycle. In this study, the ability of a two-leaf light use efficiency model to simulate regional gross primary production in China was validated using satellite Global Ozone Monitoring Instrument - 2 sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence data. The two-leaf light use efficiency model was used to estimate daily gross primary production in China's terrestrial ecosystems with 500-m resolution for the period from 2007 to 2014. Gross primary production simulated with the two-leaf light use efficiency model was resampled to a spatial resolution of 0.5° and then compared with sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence. During the study period, sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence and gross primary production simulated by the two-leaf light use efficiency model exhibited similar spatial and temporal patterns in China. The correlation coefficient between sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence and monthly gross primary production simulated by the two-leaf light use efficiency model was significant (pproduction simulated by the two-leaf light use efficiency model were similar in spring and autumn in most vegetated regions, but dissimilar in winter and summer. The spatial variability of sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence and gross primary production simulated by the two-leaf light use efficiency model was similar in spring, summer, and autumn. The proportion of spatial variations of sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence and annual gross primary production simulated by the two-leaf light use efficiency model explained by ranged from 0.76 (2011) to 0.80 (2013) during the study period. Overall, the two-leaf light use efficiency model was capable of capturing spatial and temporal variations in gross primary production in China. However, the model needs further improvement to better simulate gross primary production in summer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Beta-decay rate and beta-delayed neutron emission probability of improved gross theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koura, Hiroyuki

    2014-09-01

    A theoretical study has been carried out on beta-decay rate and beta-delayed neutron emission probability. The gross theory of the beta decay is based on an idea of the sum rule of the beta-decay strength function, and has succeeded in describing beta-decay half-lives of nuclei overall nuclear mass region. The gross theory includes not only the allowed transition as the Fermi and the Gamow-Teller, but also the first-forbidden transition. In this work, some improvements are introduced as the nuclear shell correction on nuclear level densities and the nuclear deformation for nuclear strength functions, those effects were not included in the original gross theory. The shell energy and the nuclear deformation for unmeasured nuclei are adopted from the KTUY nuclear mass formula, which is based on the spherical-basis method. Considering the properties of the integrated Fermi function, we can roughly categorized energy region of excited-state of a daughter nucleus into three regions: a highly-excited energy region, which fully affect a delayed neutron probability, a middle energy region, which is estimated to contribute the decay heat, and a region neighboring the ground-state, which determines the beta-decay rate. Some results will be given in the presentation. A theoretical study has been carried out on beta-decay rate and beta-delayed neutron emission probability. The gross theory of the beta decay is based on an idea of the sum rule of the beta-decay strength function, and has succeeded in describing beta-decay half-lives of nuclei overall nuclear mass region. The gross theory includes not only the allowed transition as the Fermi and the Gamow-Teller, but also the first-forbidden transition. In this work, some improvements are introduced as the nuclear shell correction on nuclear level densities and the nuclear deformation for nuclear strength functions, those effects were not included in the original gross theory. The shell energy and the nuclear deformation for

  3. Demonstrating the use of high-volume electronic medical claims data to monitor local and regional influenza activity in the US.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile Viboud

    Full Text Available Fine-grained influenza surveillance data are lacking in the US, hampering our ability to monitor disease spread at a local scale. Here we evaluate the performances of high-volume electronic medical claims data to assess local and regional influenza activity.We used electronic medical claims data compiled by IMS Health in 480 US locations to create weekly regional influenza-like-illness (ILI time series during 2003-2010. IMS Health captured 62% of US outpatient visits in 2009. We studied the performances of IMS-ILI indicators against reference influenza surveillance datasets, including CDC-ILI outpatient and laboratory-confirmed influenza data. We estimated correlation in weekly incidences, peak timing and seasonal intensity across datasets, stratified by 10 regions and four age groups (<5, 5-29, 30-59, and 60+ years. To test IMS-Health performances at the city level, we compared IMS-ILI indicators to syndromic surveillance data for New York City. We also used control data on laboratory-confirmed Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV activity to test the specificity of IMS-ILI for influenza surveillance.Regional IMS-ILI indicators were highly synchronous with CDC's reference influenza surveillance data (Pearson correlation coefficients rho≥0.89; range across regions, 0.80-0.97, P<0.001. Seasonal intensity estimates were weakly correlated across datasets in all age data (rho≤0.52, moderately correlated among adults (rho≥0.64 and uncorrelated among school-age children. IMS-ILI indicators were more correlated with reference influenza data than control RSV indicators (rho = 0.93 with influenza v. rho = 0.33 with RSV, P<0.05. City-level IMS-ILI indicators were highly consistent with reference syndromic data (rho≥0.86.Medical claims-based ILI indicators accurately capture weekly fluctuations in influenza activity in all US regions during inter-pandemic and pandemic seasons, and can be broken down by age groups and fine geographical areas

  4. Geophysical investigations of the Western Ohio-Indiana region: Volume 7, Annual report, October 1987--September 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, S.Y.; Lay, T.; Young, C.J.

    1988-12-01

    Earthquake activity in the Western Ohio--Indiana region has been monitored with a precision seismograph network consisting of nine stations located in west-central Ohio and four stations located in Indiana. No local earthquakes have been recorded during this report period. The low level of local seismicity in the last two years suggests that the occurrence of the m/sub b/ = 4.5 earthquake, in St. Marys, Ohio, on July 12, 1986, released most of the crustal strain accumulated. Four regional events were well recorded by the array stations during this year. Their magnitudes range from m/sub bLg/ = 3. 2--4.5. The largest of these events (7 September 1988 in northeastern Kentucky, m/sub b/ = 4.5) had minor damage reported. Upper mantle P wave (P/sub n/) velocities beneath the array stations have been investigated using relative time differences of arrivals recorded by stations located at similar back azimuth from given regional earthquake epicenters. Apparent P/sub n/ velocities determined from arrival times of earthquakes in northeastern Ohio (back azimuths of 50--70/degree/) reveal similar values to those obtained from earthquakes in southern Illinois and southeastern Missouri (back azimuths of 230--250/degree/). Comparable apparent P/sub n/ velocities obtained for rays traveling both to the northeast and to the southwest requires that the Moho not dip in either of these directions beneath the stations. The average P/sub n/ velocity of 8.41 km/s is similar to the values of 8.5 and 8.4 km/s that we obtained previously from the slope of P/sub n/ travel time curves constructed for earthquakes from northeastern Ohio and southeastern Illinois respectively. These values were slightly higher than the value of 8.2 km/s obtained previously from earthquakes in southwestern Indiana, northeastern Kentucky, and northeastern Missouri. 13 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs

  5. Characterisation of radiotherapy planning volumes using textural analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nailon, William H.; Redpath, Anthony T.; McLaren, Duncan B. (Dept. of Oncology Physics, Edinburgh Cancer Centre, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh (United Kingdom))

    2008-08-15

    Computer-based artificial intelligence methods for classification and delineation of the gross tumour volume (GTV) on computerised tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) images do not, at present, provide the accuracy required for radiotherapy applications. This paper describes an image analysis method for classification of distinct regions within the GTV, and other clinically relevant regions, on CT images acquired on eight bladder cancer patients at the radiotherapy planning stage and thereafter at regular intervals during treatment. Statistical and fractal textural features (N=27) were calculated on the bladder, rectum and a control region identified on axial, coronal and sagittal CT images. Unsupervised classification results demonstrate that with a reduced feature set (N=3) the approach offers significant classification accuracy on axial, coronal and sagittal CT image planes and has the potential to be developed further for radiotherapy applications, particularly towards an automatic outlining approach

  6. Characterisation of radiotherapy planning volumes using textural analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nailon, William H.; Redpath, Anthony T.; McLaren, Duncan B.

    2008-01-01

    Computer-based artificial intelligence methods for classification and delineation of the gross tumour volume (GTV) on computerised tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) images do not, at present, provide the accuracy required for radiotherapy applications. This paper describes an image analysis method for classification of distinct regions within the GTV, and other clinically relevant regions, on CT images acquired on eight bladder cancer patients at the radiotherapy planning stage and thereafter at regular intervals during treatment. Statistical and fractal textural features (N=27) were calculated on the bladder, rectum and a control region identified on axial, coronal and sagittal CT images. Unsupervised classification results demonstrate that with a reduced feature set (N=3) the approach offers significant classification accuracy on axial, coronal and sagittal CT image planes and has the potential to be developed further for radiotherapy applications, particularly towards an automatic outlining approach

  7. Management of low-level radioactive waste in the southeast compact region: Final report: Volume 3, Siting methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-07-01

    This report is a part of the designation process and provides technical criteria and procedures for use in the designation process. It also provides information related to data sources and methodology for applying the criteria. As part of the designation process, the Commissioners will weight the recommended criteria to reflect the relative importance of the various considerations to the goal of providing facilities that will allow for the safe, environmentally sound, and cost-effective management of low-level radioactive waste in the Southeast Region. One possible method for accomplishing this weighting is described in this report

  8. Redefining the target early during treatment. Can we visualize regional differences within the target volume using sequential diffusion weighted MRI?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambrecht, Maarten; Van Herck, Hans; De Keyzer, Frederik; Vandecaveye, Vincent; Slagmolen, Pieter; Suetens, Paul; Hermans, Robert; Nuyts, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In head and neck cancer, diffusion weighted MRI (DWI) can predict response early during treatment. Treatment-induced changes and DWI-specific artifacts hinder an accurate registration between apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps. The aim of the study was to develop a registration tool which calculates and visualizes regional changes in ADC. Methods: Twenty patients with stage IV HNC treated with primary radiotherapy received an MRI including DWI before and early during treatment. Markers were manually placed at anatomical landmarks on the different modalities at both time points. A registration method, consisting of a fully automatic rigid and nonrigid registration and two semi-automatic thin-plate spline (TPS) warps was developed and applied to the image sets. After each registration step the mean registration errors were calculated and ΔADC was compared between good and poor responders. Results: Adding the TPS warps significantly reduced the registration error (in mm, 6.3 ± 6.2 vs 3.2 ± 3.3 mm, p < 0.001). After the marker based registration the median ΔADC in poor responders was significantly lower than in good responders (7% vs. 21%; p < 0.001). Conclusions: This registration method allowed for a significant reduction of the mean registration error. Furthermore the voxel-wise calculation of the ΔADC early during radiotherapy allowed for a visualization of the regional differences of ΔADC within the tumor

  9. Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Based Target Volume Delineation in Radiation Therapy Treatment Planning for Brain Tumors Using Localized Region-Based Active Contour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aslian, Hossein [Department of Medical Radiation, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sadeghi, Mahdi [Agricultural, Medical and Industrial Research School, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mahdavi, Seied Rabie [Department of Medical Physics, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Babapour Mofrad, Farshid [Department of Medical Radiation, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Astarakee, Mahdi, E-mail: M-Astarakee@Engineer.com [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khaledi, Navid [Department of Medical Radiation, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Fadavi, Pedram [Department of Radiation Oncology, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-09-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the clinical application of a robust semiautomatic image segmentation method to determine the brain target volumes in radiation therapy treatment planning. Methods and Materials: A local robust region-based algorithm was used on MRI brain images to study the clinical target volume (CTV) of several patients. First, 3 oncologists delineated CTVs of 10 patients manually, and the process time for each patient was calculated. The averages of the oncologists’ contours were evaluated and considered as reference contours. Then, to determine the CTV through the semiautomatic method, a fourth oncologist who was blind to all manual contours selected 4-8 points around the edema and defined the initial contour. The time to obtain the final contour was calculated again for each patient. Manual and semiautomatic segmentation were compared using 3 different metric criteria: Dice coefficient, Hausdorff distance, and mean absolute distance. A comparison also was performed between volumes obtained from semiautomatic and manual methods. Results: Manual delineation processing time of tumors for each patient was dependent on its size and complexity and had a mean (±SD) of 12.33 ± 2.47 minutes, whereas it was 3.254 ± 1.7507 minutes for the semiautomatic method. Means of Dice coefficient, Hausdorff distance, and mean absolute distance between manual contours were 0.84 ± 0.02, 2.05 ± 0.66 cm, and 0.78 ± 0.15 cm, and they were 0.82 ± 0.03, 1.91 ± 0.65 cm, and 0.7 ± 0.22 cm between manual and semiautomatic contours, respectively. Moreover, the mean volume ratio (=semiautomatic/manual) calculated for all samples was 0.87. Conclusions: Given the deformability of this method, the results showed reasonable accuracy and similarity to the results of manual contouring by the oncologists. This study shows that the localized region-based algorithms can have great ability in determining the CTV and can be appropriate alternatives for manual approaches in brain cancer.

  10. Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Based Target Volume Delineation in Radiation Therapy Treatment Planning for Brain Tumors Using Localized Region-Based Active Contour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslian, Hossein; Sadeghi, Mahdi; Mahdavi, Seied Rabie; Babapour Mofrad, Farshid; Astarakee, Mahdi; Khaledi, Navid; Fadavi, Pedram

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the clinical application of a robust semiautomatic image segmentation method to determine the brain target volumes in radiation therapy treatment planning. Methods and Materials: A local robust region-based algorithm was used on MRI brain images to study the clinical target volume (CTV) of several patients. First, 3 oncologists delineated CTVs of 10 patients manually, and the process time for each patient was calculated. The averages of the oncologists’ contours were evaluated and considered as reference contours. Then, to determine the CTV through the semiautomatic method, a fourth oncologist who was blind to all manual contours selected 4-8 points around the edema and defined the initial contour. The time to obtain the final contour was calculated again for each patient. Manual and semiautomatic segmentation were compared using 3 different metric criteria: Dice coefficient, Hausdorff distance, and mean absolute distance. A comparison also was performed between volumes obtained from semiautomatic and manual methods. Results: Manual delineation processing time of tumors for each patient was dependent on its size and complexity and had a mean (±SD) of 12.33 ± 2.47 minutes, whereas it was 3.254 ± 1.7507 minutes for the semiautomatic method. Means of Dice coefficient, Hausdorff distance, and mean absolute distance between manual contours were 0.84 ± 0.02, 2.05 ± 0.66 cm, and 0.78 ± 0.15 cm, and they were 0.82 ± 0.03, 1.91 ± 0.65 cm, and 0.7 ± 0.22 cm between manual and semiautomatic contours, respectively. Moreover, the mean volume ratio (=semiautomatic/manual) calculated for all samples was 0.87. Conclusions: Given the deformability of this method, the results showed reasonable accuracy and similarity to the results of manual contouring by the oncologists. This study shows that the localized region-based algorithms can have great ability in determining the CTV and can be appropriate alternatives for manual approaches in brain cancer

  11. Remote sensing of annual terrestrial gross primary productivity from MODIS: an assessment using the FLUXNET La Thuile data set

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verma, M.; Friedl, M.A.; Richardson, A.D.; Kiely, G.; Cescatti, A.; Law, B.E.; Wohlfahrt, G.; Gielen, G.; Roupsard, O.; Moors, E.J.

    2014-01-01

    Gross primary productivity (GPP) is the largest and most variable component of the global terrestrial carbon cycle. Repeatable and accurate monitoring of terrestrial GPP is therefore critical for quantifying dynamics in regional-to-global carbon budgets. Remote sensing provides high frequency

  12. Regional grey matter volume and concentration in at-risk adolescents: Untangling associations with callous-unemotional traits and conduct disorder symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Moran D; Viding, Essi; McCrory, Eamon; Pape, Louise; van den Brink, Wim; Doreleijers, Theo A H; Veltman, Dick J; Popma, Arne

    2016-08-30

    Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging studies have reported volume reductions in several brain regions implicated in social cognition and emotion recognition in juvenile antisocial populations. However, it is unclear whether these structural abnormalities are specifically related to antisocial features, or to co-occurring callous-unemotional (CU) traits. The present study employed voxel-based morphometry to assess both grey matter volume (GMV) and grey matter concentration (GMC) in a large representative at-risk sample of adolescents (n=134; mean age 17.7yr), characterized by a broad range of CU trait and conduct disorder (CD) symptom scores. There was a significant interaction between CD symptom and CU trait scores in the prediction of GMV in the anterior insula, with a significant positive association between CU traits and GMV in youth low on CD symptoms only. In addition, we found a significant unique positive association between CD symptoms and GMC in the amygdala, and unique negative associations between CU traits and GMC in the amygdala and insula. These findings are in line with accumulating evidence of distinct associations of CD symptoms and CU traits with amygdala and insula GMC in juvenile antisocial populations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Positron emission tomography in cerebrovascular disease: The relationship between regional cerebral blood flow, blood volume and oxygen metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herold, S.

    1985-03-01

    Positron emission tomography in cerebrovascular disease has demonstrated the importance of the relationship between regional cerebral blood flow and the cerebral metabolic activity. In acute stroke it has been found that within the first hours after the onset of symptoms cerebral blood flow in the affected area is more depressed than cerebral oxygen utilisation. This relative preservation of oxygen utilisation results from an increase in the oxygen extraction ratio far above its normal value. However, the oxygen extraction fraction subsequently falls in the following days indicating the transition from a situation of possibly reversible ischaemia to irreversible infarction. In patients with carotid occlusive disease an increase in the oxygen extraction ratio has been observed only in very few cases. It has been shown, however, that at an earlier stage the relationship between CBF and CBV (as CBF/CBV-ratio) provides a sensitive measure of diminished perfusion pressure which could be helpful for the selection of patients for EC-IC bypass surgery. In patients with sickle cell anaemia it has been found that oxygen delivery to the brain is maintained by an increase in cerebral blood flow, whereas the oxygen extraction ratio is not increased despite the presence of a low oxygen affinity haemoglobin. Preliminary observations in classical migraine suggest an ischaemic situation during the attack.

  14. Mineralogy, geochemistry, porosity and redox properties of rocks from Forsmark. Compilation of data from the regional model volume for SR-Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandstroem, Bjoern (WSP Sverige AB, Stockholm (Sweden)); Stephens, Michael B. (Geological Survey of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden))

    2009-11-15

    This report is a compilation of the data acquired during the Forsmark site investigation programme on the mineralogy, geochemistry, redox properties and porosity of different rock types at Forsmark. The aim is to provide a final summary of the available data for use during the SR-Site modelling work. Data presented in this report represent the regional model volume and have previously been published in various SKB reports. The data have been extracted from the SKB database Sicada and are presented as calculated median values, data range and lower/upper quartile. The representativity of all samples used for the calculations have been evaluated and data from samples where there is insufficient control on the rock type have been omitted. Rock samples affected by alteration have been omitted from the unaltered samples and are presented separately based on type of alteration (e.g. oxidised or albitized rock)

  15. MRI and gross anatomy of the iliopsoas tendon complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polster, Joshua M.; Lee, Ho; Klika, Alison; Barsoum, Wael; Drake, Richard; Elgabaly, Mohamed

    2008-01-01

    The objective was to explain the anatomic basis of a longitudinal cleft of increased signal in the iliopsoas tendon seen on hip MR arthrograms. A prospective review of 20 MR hip arthrograms was performed using standard and fat-suppressed T1-weighted images to establish whether or not the cleft was composed of fatty tissue and to define the anatomy of the iliopsoas tendon complex. Three cadaver dissections of the hip region were then performed for anatomic correlation. Fourteen out of 20 MR hip arthrograms demonstrated a longitudinal cleft of increased T1 signal adjacent to the iliopsoas tendon, which suppressed on frequency selective fat-suppressed images, indicating fatty composition. Gross anatomic correlation demonstrated this fatty cleft to represent a fascial plane adjacent to the iliopsoas tendon, in one case separating the iliopsoas tendon medially from a thin intramuscular tendon within the lateral portion of the iliacus muscle. Also noted was a direct muscular insertion of the lateral portion of the iliacus muscle onto the anterior portion of the proximal femoral diaphysis in all 3 cadavers. The anatomy of the iliopsoas tendon complex is more complicated than typically illustrated and includes the iliopsoas tendon itself attaching to the lesser trochanter, the lateral portion of the iliacus muscle attaching directly upon the anterior portion of the proximal femoral diaphysis, and a thin intramuscular tendon within this lateral iliacus muscle that is separated from the iliopsoas tendon by a cleft of fatty fascia that accounts for the MRI findings of a cleft of increased T1 signal. (orig.)

  16. Infrared renormalons and the relations between the Gross-Llewellyn Smith and the Bjorken polarized and unpolarized sum rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kataev, A.L.

    2005-01-01

    It is demonstrated that the infrared renormalon calculus indicates that the QCD theoretical expressions for the Gross-Llewellyn Smith sum rule and for the Bjorken polarized and unpolarized ones contain an identical negative twist-4 1/Q 2 correction. This observation is supported by the consideration of the results of calculations of the corresponding twist-4 matrix elements. Together with the indication of the similarity of perturbative QCD contributions to these three sum rules, this observation leads to simple new theoretical relations between the Gross-Llewellyn Smith and Bjorken polarized and unpolarized sum rules in the energy region Q 2 ≥ 1 GeV 2 . The validity of this relation is checked using concrete experimental data for the Gross-Llewellyn Smith and Bjorken polarized sum rules [ru

  17. Masked-Volume-Wise PCA and "reference Logan" illustrate similar regional differences in kinetic behavior in human brain PET study using [11C]-PIB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engler Henry

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Kinetic modeling using reference Logan is commonly used to analyze data obtained from dynamic Positron Emission Tomography (PET studies on patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD and healthy volunteers (HVs using amyloid imaging agent N-methyl [11C]2-(4'-methylaminophenyl-6-hydroxy-benzothiazole, [11C]-PIB. The aim of the present study was to explore whether results obtained using the newly introduced method, Masked Volume Wise Principal Component Analysis, MVW-PCA, were similar to the results obtained using reference Logan. Methods MVW-PCA and reference Logan were performed on dynamic PET images obtained from four Alzheimer's disease (AD patients on two occasions (baseline and follow-up and on four healthy volunteers (HVs. Regions of interest (ROIs of similar sizes were positioned in different parts of the brain in both AD patients and HVs where the difference between AD patients and HVs is largest. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR and discrimination power (DP were calculated for images generated by the different methods and the results were compared both qualitatively and quantitatively. Results MVW-PCA generated images that illustrated similar regional binding patterns compared to reference Logan images and with slightly higher quality, enhanced contrast, improved SNR and DP, without being based on modeling assumptions. MVW-PCA also generated additional MVW-PC images by using the whole dataset, which illustrated regions with different and uncorrelated kinetic behaviors of the administered tracer. This additional information might improve the understanding of kinetic behavior of the administered tracer. Conclusion MVW-PCA is a potential multivariate method that without modeling assumptions generates high quality images, which illustrated similar regional changes compared to modeling methods such as reference Logan. In addition, MVW-PCA could be used as a new technique, applicable not only on dynamic human brain studies but also on

  18. Measurement of gross alpha, gross beta, radon and radium activity concentrations in aqueous samples using liquid scintillation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaini Hamzah; Ahmad Saat; Masitah Alias; Siti Afiqah Abdul Rahman; Mohamed Kasim; Abdul Kadir Ishak

    2011-01-01

    Recently, Malaysia has taken a positive step toward providing a better water quality by introducing more water quality parameters into its Water Quality Standard. With regard to the natural radionuclides that may present in the water, 3 parameters were introduced that is gross alpha, gross beta and radium which need to be measured and cannot exceed 0.1, 1.0 and 1.0 Bq/ L respectively. This study was conducted to develop a more practical method in measuring these parameters in aqueous environmental samples. Besides having a lot of former tin mining areas, some part of Malaysia is located on the granitic rock which also contributes to a certain extent the amount of natural radionuclides such as uranium and thorium. For all we know these two radionuclides are the origin of other radionuclides being produced from their decay series. The State of Kelantan was chosen as the study area, where the water samples were collected from various part of the Kelantan River. 25 liters of samples were collected, acidify to pH 2 and filtered before the analysis. Measurement of these parameters was done using liquid scintillation counter (LSC). The LSC was set up to the optimum discriminator level and counting was done using alpha-beta mode. The results show that gross alpha and beta can be measured using scintillation cocktail and radium and radon using extraction method. The results for gross alpha, gross beta, 222 Ra and 226 Ra are 0.39-6.42, 0.66-16.18, 0.40-4.65 and 0.05-0.56 Bq/ L. MDA for gross alpha, gross beta and radium is 0.03, 0.08 and 0.00035 Bq/ L respectively. (Author)

  19. Effect of water content nitrogen gross mineralization and immobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Videla C, Ximena; Parada, Ana Maria; Nario M, Adriana; Pino N, Ines; Hood, Rebeca

    2005-01-01

    The decomposition of organic matter in soil, and the accompanying mineralization and immobilization of inorganic N, are key processes in the soil plant cycle. It is hypothesized that moisture regime may also play an important role on these processes. Two laboratory studies were carried out to investigate the effect of moisture regime on gross mineralization and immobilization of N, in and Ultisol soil, which was incubated at 25 o C, under two moisture regimes, field capacity (CC) (40% w/w) and 85% of field capacity (34% w/w): Using mirror image 15 N isotope dilution techniques, it was possible to determine gross nitrification and mineralization rates. The rates of gross mineralization and nitrification rate in this soil was extremely rapid and efficient, specially with 85% CC. The N transformations varied with moisture regime (author)

  20. Voluntary medical male circumcision: matching demand and supply with quality and efficiency in a high-volume campaign in Iringa Region, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, Hally R; Kileo, Baldwin; Curran, Kelly; Plotkin, Marya; Adamu, Tigistu; Hellar, Augustino; Koshuma, Sifuni; Nyabenda, Simeon; Machaku, Michael; Lukobo-Durrell, Mainza; Castor, Delivette; Njeuhmeli, Emmanuel; Fimbo, Bennett

    2011-11-01

    The government of Tanzania has adopted voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) as an important component of its national HIV prevention strategy and is scaling up VMMC in eight regions nationwide, with the goal of reaching 2.8 million uncircumcised men by 2015. In a 2010 campaign lasting six weeks, five health facilities in Tanzania's Iringa Region performed 10,352 VMMCs, which exceeded the campaign's target by 72%, with an adverse event (AE) rate of 1%. HIV testing was almost universal during the campaign. Through the adoption of approaches designed to improve clinical efficiency-including the use of the forceps-guided surgical method, the use of multiple beds in an assembly line by surgical teams, and task shifting and task sharing-the campaign matched the supply of VMMC services with demand. Community mobilization and bringing client preparation tasks (such as counseling, testing, and client scheduling) out of the facility and into the community helped to generate demand. This case study suggests that a campaign approach can be used to provide high-volume quality VMMC services without compromising client safety, and provides a model for matching supply and demand for VMMC services in other settings.

  1. A survey of gross alpha and gross beta activity in soil samples in Kinta District, Perak, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Siak Kuan; Wagiran, Husin; Ramli, Ahmad Termizi

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the gross alpha and gross beta activity concentrations from the different soil types found in the Kinta District, Perak, Malaysia. A total of 128 soil samples were collected and their dose rates were measured 1 m above the ground. Gross alpha and gross beta activity measurements were carried out using gas flow proportional counter, Tennelec Series 5 LB5500 Automatic Low Background Counting System. The alpha activity concentration ranged from 15 to 9634 Bq kg -1 with a mean value of 1558±121 Bq kg -1 . The beta activity concentration ranged from 142 to 6173 Bq kg -1 with a mean value of 1112±32 Bq kg -1 . High alpha and beta activity concentrations are from the same soil type. The results of the analysis show a strong correlation between the gross alpha activity concentration and dose rate (R = 0.92). The data obtained can be used as a database for each soil type. (authors)

  2. Modelagem do volume do povoamento para Mimosa scabrella Benth. na regição metropolitana de Curitiba Stand volume modelling of Mimosa scabrella benth. from Curitiba metropolitan region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastião do Amaral Machado

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi modelar o volume total com casca do povoamento da bracatinga (Mimosa scabrella Benth.. Coletaram-se dados em bracatingais com regeneração induzida pelo fogo, em 14 municípios da Região Metropolitana de Curitiba (RMC, Estado do Paraná - Brasil. Utilizou-se uma base de dados constituída por 229 unidades amostrais de 100 a 400 m². Em cada parcela, mensurou-se o diâmetro à altura do peito, bem como a altura total de todas as árvores, em bracatingais de 3 a 18 anos de idade. Para a estimativa do volume total com casca, testaram-se vários modelos de regressão selecionados da literatura, o que gerou uma matriz com 58 variáveis independentes, visando construir modelos por meio do método Stepwise. As equações de melhor ajuste foram validadas utilizando-se o teste Qui-quadrado, a análise gráfica de resíduos e o erro-padrão da estimativa. Várias equações tiveram bom desempenho, apresentaram valores de coeficiente de determinação ajustados superiores a 0,995, erro-padrão da estimativa inferior a 3% e adequada distribuição de resíduos. As duas equações de melhor desempenho foram validadas, apresentando erro-padrão da estimativa de 2,37% e 2,13%, valor não-significativo para o teste do Qui-quadrado e equilibrada distribuição dos resíduos.The objective of this research was to model the stand volume outside bark of Mimosa scabrella Benth. stands, from the Curitiba Metropolitan Region (CMR, Parana State - Brazil. To reach this aim, a database of 229 permanent and temporary sample plots measuring from 100 to 400 m² each, from 14 municipalities in the CMR, was used. In each sample plot, the diameter at breast height and the total height of all 3- to 18-year-old bracatinga trees were measured. To estimate the total volume, regression models selected from the literature were tested. A set of 58 independent variables was generated also to construct models by the Stepwise method. The equations of best

  3. Storm/Quiet Ratio Comparisons Between TIMED/SABER NO (sup +)(v) Volume Emission Rates and Incoherent Scatter Radar Electron Densities at E-Region Altitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, J. R.; Mertens, C. J.; Bilitza, D.; Xu, X.; Russell, J. M., III; Mlynczak, M. G.

    2009-01-01

    Broadband infrared limb emission at 4.3 microns is measured by the TIMED/SABER instrument. At night, these emission observations at E-region altitudes are used to derive the so called NO+(v) Volume Emission Rate (VER). NO+(v) VER can be derived by removing the background CO2(v3) 4.3 microns radiance contribution using SABER-based non-LTE radiation transfer models, and by performing a standard Abel inversion on the residual radiance. SABER observations show that NO+(v) VER is significantly enhanced during magnetic storms in accordance with increased ionization of the neutral atmosphere by auroral electron precipitation, followed by vibrational excitation of NO+ (i.e., NO+(v)) from fast exothermic ion-neutral reactions, and prompt infrared emission at 4.3 m. Due to charge neutrality, the NO+(v) VER enhancements are highly correlated with electron density enhancements, as observed for example by Incoherent Scatter Radar (ISR). In order to characterize the response of the storm-time E-region from both SABER and ISR measurements, a Storm/Quiet ratio (SQR) quantity is defined as a function of altitude. For SABER, the SQR is the ratio of the storm-to-quiet NO+(v) VER. SQR is the storm-to-quiet ratio of electron densities for ISR. In this work, we compare SABER and ISR SQR values between 100 to 120 km. Results indicate good agreement between these measurements. SQR values are intended to be used as a correction factor to be included in an empirical storm-time correction to the International Reference Ionosphere model at E-region altitudes.

  4. Influence of crosstalk phenomenon on the measurement of gross alpha and gross beta radioactivity in drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerilemandahu; Haribala; Xu Xiao; Shen Na; Sai Wenga; Bai Guilin; Wang Chengguo

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To study the influence of crosstalk phenomenon on the measurement of gross radioactivity in drinking water. Methods: The gross activity in different standard materials with different thickness and area was measured using national standard method. Results: There was no obvious change in crosstalk factor with the increase of "2"4"1Am powder amount in the measurement, whereas the larger amount of uranium used might lead to larger crosstalk factor. The different measurement channels resulted in different crosstalk factors. The influence of beta radioactivity on alpha radioactivity measurement was significant. On the contrary, the alpha-to-beta crosstalk factor was negligible. The area of sample plate imposed no significant influence on crosstalk factor. Conclusions: The gross beta activity can be corrected to decrease the influence of alpha radioactivity using powder standard samples, when simultaneous alpha and beta counting mode is applied in measurement grass radioactivity in drinking water. (authors)

  5. Determination of gross alpha and gross beta in soil around repository facility at Bukit Kledang, Perak, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adziz, Mohd Izwan Abdul; Siong, Khoo Kok

    2018-04-01

    Recently, the Long Term Storage Facility (LTSF) in Bukit Kledang, Perak, Malaysia, has been upgraded to repository facility upon the completion of decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) process. Thorium waste and contaminated material that may contain some minor amounts of thorium hydroxide were disposed in this facility. This study is conducted to determine the concentrations of gross alpha and gross beta radioactivities in soil samples collected around the repository facility. A total of 12 soil samples were collected consisting 10 samples from around the facility and 2 samples from selected residential area near the facility. In addition, the respective dose rates were measured 5 cm and 1 m above the ground by using survey meter with Geiger Muller (GM) detector and Sodium Iodide (NaI) detector. Soil samples were collected using hand auger and then were taken back to the laboratory for further analysis. Samples were cleaned, dried, pulverized and sieved prior to analysis. Gross alpha and gross beta activity measurements were carried out using gas flow proportional counter, Canberra Series 5 XLB - Automatic Low Background Alpha and Beta Counting System. The obtained results show that, the gross alpha and gross beta activity concentration ranged from 1.55 to 5.34 Bq/g with a mean value of 3.47 ± 0.09 Bq/g and 1.64 to 5.78 Bq/g with a mean value of 3.49 ± 0.09 Bq/g, respectively. These results can be used as an additional data to represent terrestrial radioactivity baseline data for Malaysia environment. This estimation will also serve as baseline for detection of any future related activities of contamination especially around the repository facility area.

  6. Gross Motor Profile and Its Association with Socialization Skills in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Hardiono D. Pusponegoro; Pustika Efar; Soedjatmiko; Amanda Soebadi; Agus Firmansyah; Hui-Ju Chen; Kun-Long Hung

    2016-01-01

    While social impairment is considered to be the core deficit in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a large proportion of these children have poor gross motor ability, and gross motor deficits may influence socialization skills in children with ASD. The objectives of this study were to compare gross motor skills in children with ASD to typically developing children, to describe gross motor problems in children with ASD, and to investigate associations between gross motor and sociali...

  7. ϵ-expansion in the Gross-Neveu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raju, Avinash [Center for High Energy Physics, Indian Institute of Science,Bangalore 560012 (India)

    2016-10-18

    We use the recently developed CFT techniques of Rychkov and Tan to compute anomalous dimensions in the O(N) Gross-Neveu model in d=2+ϵ dimensions. To do this, we extend the “cowpie contraction' algorithm of http://arxiv.org/abs/1506.06616 to theories with fermions. Our results match perfectly with Feynman diagram computations.

  8. Gross and microscopic lesions in corals from Micronesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, Thierry M.; Aeby, Greta S.; Hughen, Konrad A.

    2015-01-01

    The authors documented gross and microscopic morphology of lesions in corals on 7 islands spanning western, southern, and eastern Micronesia, sampling 76 colonies comprising 30 species of corals among 18 genera, with Acropora, Porites, and Montipora dominating. Tissue loss comprised the majority of gross lesions sampled (41%), followed by discoloration (30%) and growth anomaly (29%). Of 31 cases of tissue loss, most lesions were subacute (48%), followed by acute and chronic (26% each). Of 23 samples with discoloration, most were dark discoloration (40%), with bleaching and other discoloration each constituting 30%. Of 22 growth anomalies, umbonate growth anomalies composed half, with exophytic, nodular, and rugose growth anomalies composing the remainder. On histopathology, for 9 cases of dark discoloration, fungal infections predominated (77%); for 7 bleached corals, depletion of zooxanthellae from the gastrodermis made up a majority of microscopic diagnoses (57%); and for growth anomalies other than umbonate, hyperplasia of the basal body wall was the most common microscopic finding (63%). For the remainder of the gross lesions, no single microscopic finding constituted >50% of the total. Host response varied with the agent present on histology. Fragmentation of tissues was most often associated with algae (60%), whereas necrosis dominated (53%) for fungi. Two newly documented potentially symbiotic tissue-associated metazoans were seen in Porites and Montipora. Findings of multiple potential etiologies for a given gross lesion highlight the importance of incorporating histopathology in coral disease surveys. This study also expands the range of corals infected with cell-associated microbial aggregates.

  9. Gross morphometric study on the reproductive system of Japanese ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quail farming is emerging in commercial poultry farming to provide alternatives to domestic chicken production and also strengthen the poultry production demands for animal protein. This study was conducted to determine the gross morphometry of the ovary and oviduct of inapparently healthy adult laying Japanese quail ...

  10. Awareness and use of Gross Motor Function Classification System ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction The degree of disability in children with Cerebral Palsy (CP) can be evaluated with the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS), a valid tool which was designed for such purposes. However, there appears to be paucity of data on the awareness and use of the GMFCS particularly in the ...

  11. Gross and morphometric anatomical changes of the thyroid gland in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gross and morphometric anatomical changes of the thyroid gland in the West African Dwarf Goat ( Capra hircus ) during the foetal and post-natal periods of development. ... The right lobe was more cranially located on the larynx and trachea than the left lobe in all age groups. Thyroid isthmus was absent in few foetal thyroid ...

  12. Survey On Management Systems And Gross Profit Analysis Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Survey On Management Systems And Gross Profit Analysis Of Muturu In Southern Cross River State. ... in muturu rearing for commercial purposes. Cost price of muturu within the study area was uniform due to the influence of market associations. The selling price of muturu cattle is however influenced by the location.

  13. Interlimb Coordination: An Important Facet of Gross-Motor Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobbio, Tatiana; Gabbard, Carl; Cacola, Priscila

    2009-01-01

    Motor development attains landmark significance during early childhood. Although early childhood educators may be familiar with the gross-motor skill category, the subcategory of interlimb coordination needs greater attention than it typically receives from teachers of young children. Interlimb coordination primarily involves movements requiring…

  14. 77 FR 51706 - Gross Combination Weight Rating (GCWR); Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ... [Docket No. FMCSA-2012-0156] RIN 2126-AB53 Gross Combination Weight Rating (GCWR); Definition AGENCY... combination weight rating'' (GCWR) in our regulations. The definition currently prescribes how the GCWR is... comment, if submitted on behalf of an association, business, labor union, etc.). You may review a Privacy...

  15. 77 FR 65497 - Gross Combination Weight Rating (GCWR); Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-29

    ... [Docket No. FMCSA-2012-0156] RIN 2126-AB53 Gross Combination Weight Rating (GCWR); Definition AGENCY... combination weight rating'' (GCWR) in 49 CFR parts 383 and 390. The DFR would have taken effect on October 26... submitted on behalf of an association, business, labor union, etc.). You may review a Privacy Act notice...

  16. Monopol suretab kohaliku loomakasvataja / Oleg Gross ; interv . Illar Mõttus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Gross, Oleg, 1952-

    2005-01-01

    Väike-Maarja jäätmetehase monopoolse seisundi vastu sõna võtnud OG Elektra omanik Oleg Gross on kindel, et jäätmetehasega suretatakse kohalikud väiksemad lihatootjad välja. Kommenteerivad talupidaja Jüri Järvet ja Rakvere Lihakombinaadi direktor Olle Horm

  17. casual relationship between gross domestic saving and economic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TOSHIBA

    private saving has both direct and indirect effects on economic growth. ... sector have a bigger impact on GDP than gross domestic savings. ... Development economists have been concerned for decades about the crucial role of ..... higher investment and higher economic growth is not supported by East African countries.

  18. Placental mesenchymal dysplasia: case report with gross and histological findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toscano, Marcello Pecoraro; Schultz, Regina

    2014-01-01

    Placental mesenchymal dysplasia (PMD) is a rare placental disorder characterized by placental enlargement and areas of abnormal, enlarged, grape-like villi. This condition may resemble a partial hydatidiform mole and may occur associated with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) or in phenotypically normal fetuses. There were 110 cases reported so far. We describe one case with typical gross and microscopic placental lesions.

  19. Placental mesenchymal dysplasia: case report with gross and histological findings

    OpenAIRE

    Marcello Pecoraro Toscano; Regina Schultz

    2014-01-01

    Placental mesenchymal dysplasia (PMD) is a rare placental disorder characterized by placental enlargement and areas of abnormal, enlarged, grape-like villi. This condition may resemble a partial hydatidiform mole and may occur associated with Beckwith?Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) or in phenotypically normal fetuses. There were 110 cases reported so far. We describe one case with typical gross and microscopic placental lesions.

  20. Anomaly detection in real-time gross payment data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Triepels, Ron; Daniels, Hennie; Heijmans, R.; Camp, Olivier; Filipe, Joaquim

    2017-01-01

    We discuss how an autoencoder can detect system-level anomalies in a real-time gross settlement system by reconstructing a set of liquidity vectors. A liquidity vector is an aggregated representation of the underlying payment network of a settlement system for a particular time interval.

  1. Comments on the research article by Gross et al. (2012)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guntur, Srinivas; Sørensen, Niels N.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this Letter to the Editor is to present a discussion on the physics of rotational augmentation based on existing work. One of the latest works by Gross et al. (2012) is highlighted here, and its conclusions are discussed. Based on the existing understanding of rotational augmentati...

  2. Lattice simulation of 2d Gross-Neveu-type models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limmer, M.; Gattringer, C.; Hermann, V.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: We discuss a Monte Carlo simulation of 2d Gross-Neveu-type models on the lattice. The four-Fermi interaction is written as a Gaussian integral with an auxiliary field and the fermion determinant is included by reweighting. We present results for bulk quantities and correlators and compare them to a simulation using a fermion-loop representation. (author)

  3. Gross theory of nuclear β-decay with shell effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pabst, M.

    1979-01-01

    The present work tries to introduce shell effects selection rules into the gross theory systematically. Instead of an unbunched or bunched Fermigas spectrum a single-particle spectrum in the shell model with a Woods-Saxon potential is used. The knowledge of spin and parity of the levels allows us to introduce selection rules in an approximative way. (orig.)

  4. The effects of climatic factors on the occurrence and gross ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The bacterial agents of ovine and caprine pneumonia and associated gross pathological lesions were studied for a period of ten years (1985-1995). Bacteriological data were obtained from the necropsy report books of the Microbiology and Pathology Dagnostic units of the Department of Vetinary Pathology and ...

  5. Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma : gross appearance and corresponding pathologic and radiologic features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Kwon Ha; Kim, Chang Guhn; Lee, Moon Gyu; Ha, Hyun Kwon; Auh, Yong Ho; Lim, Jae Hoon

    1999-01-01

    To assess the clinical and pathologic features of each type of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, which is divided into three types according to gross appearance, and to determine the efficacy of CT in detecting this tumor. The pathologic and CT features of 53 surgically proven cases of intrahepatic cholangio-carcinoma were reviewed. On the basis of their gross appearance, the tumors were divided into three types, as follows : mass forming (n=33), periductal infiltrating (n=6), and intraductal growth type (n=14). CT scans were analyzed for sensitivity of detection and correlation between a tumors appearance and its histopathology. The most common histopathologic feature of mass forming and periductal infiltrating type was tubular adenocarcinoma, while in the intraductal growth type, papillary adenocarcinoma (100%) was common. With regard to pattern of tumor spread, intrahepatic and lymph node metastasis were more common in the mass forming and periductal infiltrating type than in the intraductal growth type. CT findings including intrahepatic mass, ductal wall thickening or intraductal mass associated with segmental dilatation of intrahepataic bile ducts, corresponded with these morphologic types. This classification according to gross appearance is of considerable value when interpreting the pathologic features of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. CT seems to be a useful modality for the detection of tumors and may be consistent with their gross morphologic findings

  6. Barn music at St Donat's castle / Philip Gross

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Gross, Philip, 1952-

    2011-01-01

    Muusikafestivalist "Vale of Glamorgan", mis oli 2010. a. pühendatud Arvo Pärdile. Eesti kammermuusikaansambli Resonabilis kavas oli ka festivali tellimusel valminud uelsi helilooja Gareth Peredur Churchilli "Vocable", mille teksti kirjutas Philip Gross. Festivalikontsertide muljeid leiab Grossi luuletsüklis "Barn music" (avaldatud samas ajakirjanumbris, lk. 42-43)

  7. Fine and Gross Motor Ability in Males with ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Both fine and gross motor abilities were evaluated in 10-year-old males with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and compared to a group of control children at the School of Psychology, Curtin University of Technology, Perth, Australia.

  8. Energy use and gross margin analysis for sesame production in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As the negative impacts of energy by-products affect the climate, the knowledge and efficient use of energy in crop production will minimise environmental problems and promote sustainable agriculture as an economic production system in Nigeria and else where. The aim of the study was to evaluate energy use and gross ...

  9. Gross and Histomorphological Assessment of the Oropharynx and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the morphology of the oropharynx and tongue of the guinea fowl using gross anatomical and histological techniques. The results showed that the mouth and pharynx of the guinea fowl lacked a definite line of demarcation, and so formed a common oropharyngeal cavity. The roof of the oropharynx ...

  10. School Physical Activity Programming and Gross Motor Skills in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Ryan D; Fu, You; Hannon, James C; Brusseau, Timothy A

    2017-09-01

    We examined the effect of a comprehensive school physical activity program (CSPAP) on gross motor skills in children. Participants were 959 children (1st-6th grade; Mean age = 9.1 ± 1.5 years; 406 girls, 553 boys) recruited from 5 low-income schools receiving a year-long CSPAP intervention. Data were collected at the beginning of the school year and at a 36-week follow-up. Gross motor skills were assessed using the Test for Gross Motor Development (3rd ed.) (TGMD-3) instrument. Multi-level mixed effects models were employed to examine the effect of CSPAP on TGMD-3 scores, testing age and sex as effect modifiers and adjusting for clustering of observations within the data structure. There were statistically significant coefficients for time (β = 8.1, 95% CI [3.9, 12.3], p skills and ball skills sub-test scores. Children showed improved gross motor skill scores at the end of the 36-week CSPAP that were modified by age, as younger children displayed greater improvements in TGMD-3 scores compared to older children.

  11. Assessing Gross Motor Skills of Kosovar Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shala, Merita

    2009-01-01

    In the light of the new developments in preschool education in Kosovo, this study attempts to carry out an assessment of the development of gross motor skills of preschool children attending institutional education. The emphasis is on creating a set of tests to measure the motor attainments of these children by conducting assessments of the…

  12. Gross Motor Skill Acquisition in Adolescents with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meegan, Sarah; Maraj, Brian K. V.; Weeks, Daniel; Chua, Romeo

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess whether verbal-motor performances deficits exhibited by individuals with Down syndrome limited their ability to acquire gross motor skills when given visual and verbal instruction together and then transferred to either a visual or verbal instructional mode to reproduce the movement. Nine individuals with…

  13. A Study on Gross Motor Skills of Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Joanne Hui-Tzu

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a creative movement program on gross motor skills of preschool children. Sixty children between the ages of 3 to 5 were drawn from the population of a preschool in Taichung, Taiwan. An experimental pretest-posttest control-group design was utilized. The children enrolled in the…

  14. Stability of the trapped nonconservative Gross-Pitaevskii equation with attractive two-body interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filho, Victo S.; Tomio, Lauro; Frederico, T.; Gammal, Arnaldo

    2002-01-01

    The dynamics of a nonconservative Gross-Pitaevskii equation for trapped atomic systems with attractive two-body interaction is numerically investigated, considering wide variations of the nonconservative parameters, related to atomic feeding and dissipation. We study the possible limitations of the mean-field description for an atomic condensate with attractive two-body interaction, by defining the parameter regions, where stable or unstable formation can be found. The present study is useful and timely considering the possibility of large variations of attractive two-body scattering lengths, which may be feasible in recent experiments

  15. Effect of Radiotherapy Dose and Volume on Relapse in Merkel Cell Cancer of the Skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foote, Matthew; Harvey, Jennifer; Porceddu, Sandro

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the effect of radiotherapy (RT) dose and volume on relapse patterns in patients with Stage I-III Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC). Patients and Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of 112 patients diagnosed with MCC between January 2000 and December 2005 and treated with curative-intent RT. Results: Of the 112 evaluable patients, 88% had RT to the site of primary disease for gross (11%) or subclinical (78%) disease. Eighty-nine percent of patients had RT to the regional lymph nodes; in most cases (71%) this was for subclinical disease in the adjuvant or elective setting, whereas 21 patients (19%) were treated with RT to gross nodal disease. With a median follow-up of 3.7 years, the 2-year and 5-year overall survival rates were 72% and 53%, respectively, and the 2-year locoregional control rate was 75%. The in-field relapse rate was 3% for primary disease, and relapse was significantly lower for patients receiving ≥50Gy (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.22; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.06-0.86). Surgical margins did not affect the local relapse rate. The in-field relapse rate was 11% for RT to the nodes, with dose being significant for nodal gross disease (HR = 0.24; 95% CI, 0.07-0.87). Patients who did not receive elective nodal RT had a much higher rate of nodal relapse compared with those who did (HR = 6.03; 95% CI, 1.34-27.10). Conclusion: This study indicates a dose-response for subclinical and gross MCC. Doses of ≥50Gy for subclinical disease and ≥55Gy for gross disease should be considered. The draining nodal basin should be treated in all patients.

  16. Assessing the quality of bottom water temperatures from the Finite-Volume Community Ocean Model (FVCOM) in the Northwest Atlantic Shelf region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bai; Tanaka, Kisei R.; Chen, Yong; Brady, Damian C.; Thomas, Andrew C.

    2017-09-01

    The Finite-Volume Community Ocean Model (FVCOM) is an advanced coastal circulation model widely utilized for its ability to simulate spatially and temporally evolving three-dimensional geophysical conditions of complex and dynamic coastal regions. While a body of literature evaluates model skill in surface fields, independent studies validating model skill in bottom fields over large spatial and temporal scales are scarce because these fields cannot be remotely sensed. In this study, an evaluation of FVCOM skill in modeling bottom water temperature was conducted by comparison to hourly in situ observed bottom temperatures recorded by the Environmental Monitors on Lobster Traps (eMOLT), a program that attached thermistors to commercial lobster traps from 2001 to 2013. Over 2 × 106 pairs of FVCOM-eMOLT records were evaluated by a series of statistical measures to quantify accuracy and precision of the modeled data across the Northwest Atlantic Shelf region. The overall comparison between modeled and observed data indicates reliable skill of FVCOM (r2 = 0.72; root mean squared error = 2.28 °C). Seasonally, the average absolute errors show higher model skill in spring, fall and winter than summer. We speculate that this is due to the increased difficulty of modeling high frequency variability in the exact position of the thermocline and frontal zones. The spatial patterns of the residuals suggest that there is improved similarity between modeled and observed data at higher latitudes. We speculate that this is due to increased tidal mixing at higher latitudes in our study area that reduces stratification in winter, allowing improved model accuracy. Modeled bottom water temperatures around Cape Cod, the continental shelf edges, and at one location at the entrance to Penobscot Bay were characterized by relatively high errors. Constraints for future uses of FVCOM bottom water temperature are provided based on the uncertainties in temporal-spatial patterns. This study is

  17. Tumor Volume-Adapted Dosing in Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy of Lung Tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trakul, Nicholas; Chang, Christine N.; Harris, Jeremy [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States); Chapman, Christopher [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States); University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Rao, Aarti [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States); University of California, Davis, School of Medicine, Davis, CA (United States); Shen, John [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States); University of California, Irvine, School of Medicine, Irvine, CA (United States); Quinlan-Davidson, Sean [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, McMaster University, Juravinski Cancer Centre, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Filion, Edith J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States); Departement de Medecine, Service de Radio-Oncologie, Centre Hospitalier de l' Universite de Montreal, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Wakelee, Heather A.; Colevas, A. Dimitrios [Department of Medicine, Division of Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States); Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States); Whyte, Richard I. [Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Division of General Thoracic Surgery, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States); Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States); and others

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: Current stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) protocols for lung tumors prescribe a uniform dose regimen irrespective of tumor size. We report the outcomes of a lung tumor volume-adapted SABR dosing strategy. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed the outcomes in 111 patients with a total of 138 primary or metastatic lung tumors treated by SABR, including local control, regional control, distant metastasis, overall survival, and treatment toxicity. We also performed subset analysis on 83 patients with 97 tumors treated with a volume-adapted dosing strategy in which small tumors (gross tumor volume <12 mL) received single-fraction regimens with biologically effective doses (BED) <100 Gy (total dose, 18-25 Gy) (Group 1), and larger tumors (gross tumor volume {>=}12 mL) received multifraction regimens with BED {>=}100 Gy (total dose, 50-60 Gy in three to four fractions) (Group 2). Results: The median follow-up time was 13.5 months. Local control for Groups 1 and 2 was 91.4% and 92.5%, respectively (p = 0.24) at 12 months. For primary lung tumors only (excluding metastases), local control was 92.6% and 91.7%, respectively (p = 0.58). Regional control, freedom from distant metastasis, and overall survival did not differ significantly between Groups 1 and 2. Rates of radiation pneumonitis, chest wall toxicity, and esophagitis were low in both groups, but all Grade 3 toxicities developed in Group 2 (p = 0.02). Conclusion: A volume-adapted dosing approach for SABR of lung tumors seems to provide excellent local control for both small- and large-volume tumors and may reduce toxicity.

  18. Tumor Volume-Adapted Dosing in Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy of Lung Tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trakul, Nicholas; Chang, Christine N.; Harris, Jeremy; Chapman, Christopher; Rao, Aarti; Shen, John; Quinlan-Davidson, Sean; Filion, Edith J.; Wakelee, Heather A.; Colevas, A. Dimitrios; Whyte, Richard I.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Current stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) protocols for lung tumors prescribe a uniform dose regimen irrespective of tumor size. We report the outcomes of a lung tumor volume-adapted SABR dosing strategy. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed the outcomes in 111 patients with a total of 138 primary or metastatic lung tumors treated by SABR, including local control, regional control, distant metastasis, overall survival, and treatment toxicity. We also performed subset analysis on 83 patients with 97 tumors treated with a volume-adapted dosing strategy in which small tumors (gross tumor volume <12 mL) received single-fraction regimens with biologically effective doses (BED) <100 Gy (total dose, 18–25 Gy) (Group 1), and larger tumors (gross tumor volume ≥12 mL) received multifraction regimens with BED ≥100 Gy (total dose, 50–60 Gy in three to four fractions) (Group 2). Results: The median follow-up time was 13.5 months. Local control for Groups 1 and 2 was 91.4% and 92.5%, respectively (p = 0.24) at 12 months. For primary lung tumors only (excluding metastases), local control was 92.6% and 91.7%, respectively (p = 0.58). Regional control, freedom from distant metastasis, and overall survival did not differ significantly between Groups 1 and 2. Rates of radiation pneumonitis, chest wall toxicity, and esophagitis were low in both groups, but all Grade 3 toxicities developed in Group 2 (p = 0.02). Conclusion: A volume-adapted dosing approach for SABR of lung tumors seems to provide excellent local control for both small- and large-volume tumors and may reduce toxicity.

  19. Effect of steroid on brain tumors and surround edemas : observation with regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV) maps of perfusion MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Ju Youl; Sun, Joo Sung; Kim, Sun Yong; Kim, Ji Hyung; Suh, Jung Ho; Cho, Kyung Gi; Kim, Jang Sung

    2000-01-01

    To observe the hemodynamic change in brain tumors and peritumoral edemas after steroid treatment, and then investigate the clinical usefulness of perfusion MRI. We acquired conventional and perfusion MR images in 15 patients with various intracranial tumors (4 glioblastoma multiformes, 4 meningiomas, 3 metastatic tumors, 1 anaplastic ependymoma, 1 anaplastic astrocytoma, 1 hemangioblastoma, and 1 pilocytic astrocytoma). For perfusion MR imaging, a 1.5T unit employing the gradient-echo EPI technique was used, and further perfusion MR images were obtained 2-10 days after intravenous steroid therapy. After processing of the raw data, regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV) maps were reconstructed. The maps were visually evaluated by comparing relative perfusion in brain tumors and peritumoral edemas with that in contralateral white matter. Objective evaluations were performed by comparing the perfusion ratios of brain tumors and peritumoral edemas. Visual evaluations of rCBV maps, showed that in most brain tumors (67%, 10/15), perfusion was high before steroid treatment and showed in (80%, 12/15) decreased afterwards. Objective evaluation, showed that in all brain tumors, perfusion decreased. Visual evaluation of perfusion change in peritumoral edemas revealed change in only one case, but objective evaluation indicated that perfusion decreased significantly in all seven cases. rCBV maps acquired by perfusion MR imaging can provide hemodynamic information about brain tumors and peritumoral edemas. Such maps could prove helpful in the preoperative planning of brain tumor surgery and the monitoring of steroid effects during conservative treatment. (author)

  20. Sustainable development of Russian regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D. Kuz’menkova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development of administrative-territorial units (ATU refers to the main directions of Russian Federation state policy to ensure the security of the national economy to meet the vital needs of people and the preservation of such a possibility for the future generations. The article describes and analyzes the factors that have the most significant impact on the level of ATE development. The dynamics of the gross output of agriculture in Russia and its critical evaluation are presents. It was revealed that the development of the region is the basis of the national economy security. At present, the concept of “sustainable development” in Russia is relevant and the role of regions in the sustainable development of the Russian Federation is constantly increasing. Stability of self-financing of the regional economy is achieved through conducting effective fiscal, financial, credit, tax and price policy, establishment of equal inter-budgetary relations with the federal center, the development of the securities market, increasing the volume of exports. Conducted research allowed: to identify the main factors influencing the sustainable development of Russia regions. The reasons for the backlog of economy of the Smolensk region of the nationwide growth rate and direction of their elimination are examined. Formation of the forecast of domestic agriculture development in the period up to 2020 should be based on the priority position of the industry in the agricultural sector, which is determined by its decisive role in meeting the population’s needs for basic food products. Prospective volumes of production of major agricultural products are based on the need to meet the challenges provided by the Russian Federation Government Decree.

  1. Treatment of Persistent Gross Hematuria with Tranexamic Acid in Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Yao

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: In this retrospective study we aimed to compare the effect of tranexamic acid (TXA vs etamsylate, two hemostatic agents, on hematuria duration in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD patients with persistent gross hematuria. Methods: This is a retrospective study of 40 patients with ADPKD and macroscopic hematuria. 20 patients receiving TXA and snake venom blood clotting enzyme injection were compared with 20 matched patients receiving etamsylate and snake venom blood clotting enzyme injection. The primary outcome was hematuria duration and the secondary outcomes were blood transfusion requirements and adverse events. Results: The hematuria duration was shorter in the TXA group compared with the etamsylate group (4[3-5] d vs 7[6-10] d, P<0.001. The volume of blood transfusion tended to be less in the TXA group than in the etamsylate group (300±115 ml vs 486±195 ml, P=0.12, and the number of patients needing a blood transfusion also tended to be lower [20% (4/20 vs 35% (7/20, P=0.29]. TXA and etamsylate were equally well tolerated and no serious adverse events were observed in both groups. Conclusions: Our study indicates that TXA treatment was more effective than etamsylate in stopping bleeding in ADPKD patients with persistent gross hematuria.

  2. Gross Domestic Savings and Gross Capital: what Matters to Their Formation in an Era of Economic Recession in Nigeria?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Success Abusomwan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to empirically investigate the long run and short run dynamic impact of interest rate and output on gross domestic savings and gross capital formation in Nigeria. Literatures, both theoretical and empirical, suggest that the rate of interest and output are the key factors influencing savings and investments. A review of factors influencing interest rates and output in Nigeria is necessitated by the recent economic downturns in Nigeria that has resulted in tight monetary policy which some commentators regard as inimical to growth. Employing Ordinary Least Squares, Co-integration, Error Correction Mechanism and Granger Causality econometric techniques on a data spanning 1981 to 2014 of the Nigerian economy sourced from the World Development Index, it was found that changes in output explains the long run and short run dynamic behaviour of gross domestic savings and gross capital formation which were used as proxies for savings and investment respectively. Whereas, a bi-causality was established between output and investment, causality flowed from output to savings in Nigeria. The research also found that interest rate is not a significant determinant of savings and investment in Nigeria in both long run and short run. It is therefore recommended that to enhance investment in a period of economic downturn in Nigeria, aggregate demand should be boosted to enhance output through vigorous pursuit of fiscal policy while implementing contractionary monetary policy to address inflationary pressures created by the increase in demand. Domestic savings will improve and gross capital formation will be sustained.

  3. The value of regional nodal radiotherapy (dose/volume) in the treatment of unresectable non-small cell lung cancer: an RTOG analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emami, Bahman; Scott, Charles; Byhardt, Roger; Graham, Mary V.; Andras, E. James; John, Madhu; Herskovic, Arnold; Urtasun, Raul C.; Asbell, Sucha O.; Perez, Carlos A.; Cox, James

    1996-01-01

    PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether or not the traditional practice of including all thoracic regional nodal areas in the radiotherapy volume in the treatment of unresectable lung cancer is of any therapeutic benefit. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 1,705 patients from four large RTOG trials (78-11, 79-17, 83-11, 84-07) were analyzed for this purpose. Each of these trials had data on dose delivered to the nodal regions and assessment of nodal borders. The nodes were separated into mediastinal, contralateral hilar, ipsilateral hilar, and supraclavicular. Each node site was assessed for progression, defined as in-field or out-of-field, at the node site. In patients with adequate nodal field borders, the results were also analyzed according to the dose delivered. RESULTS: The majority (74%) of patients were between the age of 55 to 75. Forty-six percent of patients had KPS of 60 to 80 and 52% KPS of 90 to 100. Sixty percent of patients had a weight loss of less than 5%, and 40% had a weight loss of over 5% six months prior to diagnosis. Major variations from protocol in defining field borders (unacceptable field borders) were lowest for ipsilateral hilum ((42(727))) and the highest for mediastinal borders ((158(743))). Three groups had statistically significant differences in outcome (progression) between the per protocol and the unacceptable per protocol: ipsilateral hilar nodes (field borders), 14% versus 26% (p = 0.03); dose to mediastinal nodes in CALGB eligible patients, 9% versus 19% (p = 0.02); and ipsilateral hilar nodes (field borders) for high-dose patients assigned to greater than or equal to 69.6 Gy, 14% versus 31% (p = 0.007). CONCLUSION: These data suggest that inclusion of the ipsilateral hilar and mediastinal nodes affect outcome in unresectable non-small cell lung cancer. Exclusion of the other thoracic lymph node regions did not affect outcome in this study. These findings have important implications for combined modality therapy and three

  4. Deterioration of abstract reasoning ability in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease: correlation with regional grey matter volume loss revealed by diffeomorphic anatomical registration through exponentiated lie algebra analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshiura, Takashi; Hiwatashi, Akio; Yamashita, Koji; Takayama, Yukihisa; Kamano, Norihiro; Honda, Hiroshi [Kyushu University, Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka (Japan); Ohyagi, Yasumasa; Kira, Jun-ichi [Kyushu University, Department of Neurology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka (Japan); Monji, Akira; Kawashima, Toshiro [Kyushu University, Department of Neuropsychiatry, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2011-02-15

    To determine which brain regions are relevant to deterioration in abstract reasoning as measured by Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices (CPM) in the context of dementia. MR images of 37 consecutive patients including 19 with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and 18 with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) were retrospectively analyzed. All patients were administered the CPM. Regional grey matter (GM) volume was evaluated according to the regimens of voxel-based morphometry, during which a non-linear registration algorithm called Diffeomorphic Anatomical Registration Through Exponentiated Lie algebra was employed. Multiple regression analyses were used to map the regions where GM volumes were correlated with CPM scores. The strongest correlation with CPM scores was seen in the left middle frontal gyrus while a region with the largest volume was identified in the left superior temporal gyrus. Significant correlations were seen in 14 additional regions in the bilateral cerebral hemispheres and right cerebellum. Deterioration of abstract reasoning ability in AD and aMCI measured by CPM is related to GM loss in multiple regions, which is in close agreement with the results of previous activation studies. (orig.)

  5. Deterioration of abstract reasoning ability in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease: correlation with regional grey matter volume loss revealed by diffeomorphic anatomical registration through exponentiated lie algebra analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshiura, Takashi; Hiwatashi, Akio; Yamashita, Koji; Takayama, Yukihisa; Kamano, Norihiro; Honda, Hiroshi; Ohyagi, Yasumasa; Kira, Jun-ichi; Monji, Akira; Kawashima, Toshiro

    2011-01-01

    To determine which brain regions are relevant to deterioration in abstract reasoning as measured by Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices (CPM) in the context of dementia. MR images of 37 consecutive patients including 19 with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and 18 with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) were retrospectively analyzed. All patients were administered the CPM. Regional grey matter (GM) volume was evaluated according to the regimens of voxel-based morphometry, during which a non-linear registration algorithm called Diffeomorphic Anatomical Registration Through Exponentiated Lie algebra was employed. Multiple regression analyses were used to map the regions where GM volumes were correlated with CPM scores. The strongest correlation with CPM scores was seen in the left middle frontal gyrus while a region with the largest volume was identified in the left superior temporal gyrus. Significant correlations were seen in 14 additional regions in the bilateral cerebral hemispheres and right cerebellum. Deterioration of abstract reasoning ability in AD and aMCI measured by CPM is related to GM loss in multiple regions, which is in close agreement with the results of previous activation studies. (orig.)

  6. Forecast Model of Russia’s Gross Domestic Product Depending on Financial Instruments of Trade in Energy and Commodities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samkov T.L.

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Methodology of forecasting the gross domestic product (GDP growth for complex socio-economic systems is projected on economic conditions of the Russian Federation. The most important factors affecting GDP change, development of a GDP forecast econometric model for the Russian economy and the methodology of the model use are identified. The model is used as a source of information necessary for the analysis of territorial multi-sectoral objects (ATMO model which we developed. ATMO model is the model of planning regional sectoral production systems of independent corporate participants and can predict their behavior utilizing game approach. Non-systemic "signal" information (GDP growth rate is necessary to change the strategies. The factors for predicting are the primary and secondary financial instruments of trade in energy and raw commodities. The principle of behavioral imitation is introduced for the first time in relation to a class of such tasks. Technology of decisions making corresponds to the knowledge of managers and officials rather than to that of analysts. The forecast model reflects the "ordinary" view of mentioned decision makers on the nature of GDP dependence on trade in specific goods (oil, gas, grain, gold, silver, copper, etc.. Almost any company leader will be able to use this set to forecast GDP as guidelines for further development of the enterprise. The ATMO model makes it possible to influence the economy to achieve macroeconomic goals and gives the opportunity to increase the available volumes of energy resources for export, e.g., for functioning of the emerging gas hub in EU.

  7. Estimating the Effect of Urban Growth on Annual Runoff Volume Using GIS in the Erbil Sub-Basin of the Kurdistan Region of Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Mohammed Hameed

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The growth and spread of impervious surfaces within urbanizing catchment areas pose signiificant threats to the quality of natural and built-up environments. Impervious surfaces prevent water infiltration into the soil, resulting in increased runoff generation. The Erbil Sub-basin was selected because the impervious cover is increasing rapidly and is affecting the hydrological condition of the watershed. The overall aim of this study is to examine the impact of urban growth and other changes in land use on runoff response during the study period of 1984 to 2014. The study describes long-term hydrologic responses within the rapidly developing catchment area of Erbil city, in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq. Data from six rainfall stations in and around the Erbil Sub-basin were used. A Digital Elevation Model (DEM was also used to extract the distribution of the drainage network. Historical levels of urban growth and the corresponding impervious areas, as well as land use/land cover changes were mapped from 1984 to 2014 using a temporal satellite image (Landsat to determine land use/land cover changes. Land use/land cover was combined with a hydrological model (SCS-CN to estimate the volume of runoff from the watershed. The study indicates that the urbanization of the watershed has increased the impervious land cover by 71% for the period from 1984 to 2004 and by 51% from 2004 to 2014. The volume of runoff was 85% higher in 2014 as compared to 1984 due to the increase in the impervious surface area; this is attributed to urban growth. The study also points out that the slope of the watershed in the Erbil sub-basin should be taken into account in surface runoff estimation as the upstream part of the watershed has a high gradient and the land is almost barren with very little vegetation cover; this causes an increase in the velocity of the flow and increases the risk of flooding in Erbil city.

  8. Analysis of the structural parameters that influence gas production from the Devonian shale. Annual progress report, 1979-1980. Volume II. Data repository and reports published during fiscal year 1979-1980: regional structure, surface structure, surface fractures, hydrology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negus-De Wys, J.; Dixon, J. M.; Evans, M. A.; Lee, K. D.; Ruotsala, J. E.; Wilson, T. H.; Williams, R. T.

    1980-10-01

    This volume comprises appendices giving regional structure data, surface structure data, surface fracture data, and hydrology data. The fracture data covers oriented Devonian shale cores from West Virginia, Ohio, Virginia, Pennsylvania, and Kentucky. The subsurface structure of the Eastern Kentucky gas field is also covered. (DLC)

  9. Design of New Complex Detector Used for Gross Beta Measuring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Junmin

    2010-01-01

    The level of gross β for radioactive aerosol in the containment of nuclear plants can indicate how serious the radioactive pollution is in the shell, and it can provide evidence which shows whether there is the phenomenon of leak in the boundaries of confined aquifer of the primary coolant circuit equipment.In the process of measuring, the counting of gross β is influenced by γ. In order to avoid the influence of γ, a new method was introduced and a new detector was designed using plastic scintillator as the major detecting component and BGO as the sub-component. Based on distinctive difference of light attenuation time, signal induced in them can be discriminated. γ background in plastic scintillator was subtracted according to the counting of γ in BGO. The functions of absolute detection efficiency were obtained. The simulation for Monte-Carlo method shows that the influence of γ background is decreased about one order of magnitude. (authors)

  10. Gross-Pitaevski map as a chaotic dynamical system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarneri, Italo

    2017-03-01

    The Gross-Pitaevski map is a discrete time, split-operator version of the Gross-Pitaevski dynamics in the circle, for which exponential instability has been recently reported. Here it is studied as a classical dynamical system in its own right. A systematic analysis of Lyapunov exponents exposes strongly chaotic behavior. Exponential growth of energy is then shown to be a direct consequence of rotational invariance and for stationary solutions the full spectrum of Lyapunov exponents is analytically computed. The present analysis includes the "resonant" case, when the free rotation period is commensurate to 2π, and the map has countably many constants of the motion. Except for lowest-order resonances, this case exhibits an integrable-chaotic transition.

  11. Vast Portfolio Selection with Gross-exposure Constraints().

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jianqing; Zhang, Jingjin; Yu, Ke

    2012-01-01

    We introduce the large portfolio selection using gross-exposure constraints. We show that with gross-exposure constraint the empirically selected optimal portfolios based on estimated covariance matrices have similar performance to the theoretical optimal ones and there is no error accumulation effect from estimation of vast covariance matrices. This gives theoretical justification to the empirical results in Jagannathan and Ma (2003). We also show that the no-short-sale portfolio can be improved by allowing some short positions. The applications to portfolio selection, tracking, and improvements are also addressed. The utility of our new approach is illustrated by simulation and empirical studies on the 100 Fama-French industrial portfolios and the 600 stocks randomly selected from Russell 3000.

  12. Gross alpha and beta activities in Tunisian mineral water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamrouni Benbelgacem, Samar

    2011-01-01

    The quality of natural mineral water is a universal health problem seeing its vital importance. This problem is related to the presence of the radionuclides since this water is coming from underground, during their circulation it dissolves and conveys the radionuclides which are present in the earth's crust. This problem which leads to the contamination of the mineral water urged the World Health Organization to set standards and to recommend the respect of the median values of the activities alpha and beta within the framework of the man protection against this internal exhibition. Concerning the radiological quality of Tunisian mineral water studied in this project, we showed, by using the gross alpha and beta activities counting, that this water is specific to human consumption since their gross alpha and beta activities do not forward any risk on health.

  13. Vast Portfolio Selection with Gross-exposure Constraints*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jianqing; Zhang, Jingjin; Yu, Ke

    2012-01-01

    We introduce the large portfolio selection using gross-exposure constraints. We show that with gross-exposure constraint the empirically selected optimal portfolios based on estimated covariance matrices have similar performance to the theoretical optimal ones and there is no error accumulation effect from estimation of vast covariance matrices. This gives theoretical justification to the empirical results in Jagannathan and Ma (2003). We also show that the no-short-sale portfolio can be improved by allowing some short positions. The applications to portfolio selection, tracking, and improvements are also addressed. The utility of our new approach is illustrated by simulation and empirical studies on the 100 Fama-French industrial portfolios and the 600 stocks randomly selected from Russell 3000. PMID:23293404

  14. GLOBALIZATION AND GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT CONSTRUCTION IN ASEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Sri Wahyudi Suliswanto

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available There is no more doubt about the importance of economic growth, which can be calculated fromGross Domestic Product (GDP. This research analyzes the role of globalization on GDP inASEAN-5 by estimating panel data. It uses a fixed effect approach to accommodate various characteristicsin the countries. To accommodate such variation, it assumes that the intercepts variesacross these countries, while the slopes remain similar. Based on the estimation result, it suggeststhat net export and foreign direct investment represent the globalization process. Both have positiveand significant influences on GDP in the corresponding countries.Keywords: Globalization, international trade, foreign direct investment, gross domestic productJEL classification numbers: E01, F51, F43

  15. Jatropha curcas – Analysis of Gross Calorific Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juraj Ružbarský

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years biofuels have obtained a considerable interest, due to the implementation of ruling and gradual replacement of fossil fuels. One of production steps at gaining the oil is a pressing process. Wastes come into being from this process. These wastes are used as feed, fertilizer prospectively as fuel. A contemporary scientific literature pays attention namely to one of prospective produces which is a produce of the tropical and subtropical zones Jatropa curcas. Tests were performed at Jatropha Curcas seeds of a brown colour (that means gnaw. The aim of a research is an analysis of Jatropa curcas seed from the utilization point of view of the gross calorific value. The basic instrument to evaluate the gross calorific value of each variant of the experiment was a calorimeter PARR 6200 and digital scales for accurate laboratory weighing.

  16. Unitarity violation in noninteger dimensional Gross-Neveu-Yukawa model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yao; Kelly, Michael

    2018-05-01

    We construct an explicit example of unitarity violation in fermionic quantum field theories in noninteger dimensions. We study the two-point correlation function of four-fermion operators. We compute the one-loop anomalous dimensions of these operators in the Gross-Neveu-Yukawa model. We find that at one-loop order, the four-fermion operators split into three classes with one class having negative norms. This implies that the theory violates unitarity, following the definition in Ref. [1].

  17. Gross efficiency and energy expenditure in kayak ergometer exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, B B; Mourão, L; Massart, A; Figueiredo, P; Vilas-Boas, J P; Santos, A M C; Fernandes, R J

    2012-08-01

    We purposed to study energy expenditure, power output and gross efficiency during kayak ergometer exercise in 12 elite sprint kayakers. 6 males (age 24.2±4.8 years, height 180.4±4.8 cm, body mass 79.7±8.5 kg) and 6 females (age 24.3±4.5 years, height 164.5±3.9 cm, body mass 65.4±3.5 kg), performed an incremental intermittent protocol on kayak ergometer with VO2 and blood lactate concentration assessment, a non-linear increase between power output and energy expenditure being observed. Paddling power output, energy expenditure and gross efficiency corresponding to VO2max averaged 199.92±50.41 W, 75.27±6.30 ml.kg - 1.min - 1, and 10.10±1.08%. Male kayakers presented higher VO2max, power output and gross efficiency at the VO2max, and lower heart rate and maximal lactate concentration than females, but no differences were found between genders regarding energy expenditure at VO2max. Aerobic and anaerobic components of energy expenditure evidenced a significant contribution of anaerobic energy sources in sprint kayak performance. Results also suggested the dependence of the gross efficiency on the changes in the amount of the aerobic and anaerobic contributions, at heavy and severe intensities. The inter-individual variance of the relationship between energy expenditure and the corresponding paddling power output revealed a relevant tracking for females (FDγ=0.73±0.06), conversely to the male group (FDγ=0.27±0.08), supporting that some male kayakers are more skilled in some paddling intensities than others. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Gross alfa activity measurement in water from the Agueda river

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, F.; Figueroa, C.F.; Gomez, J.M.G.; Lozano, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    Gross α activity has been measured in water from the Agueda river, in the province of Salamanca (Spain), covering about 45 km around the uranium mine Fe. The activity has been found to be negligeable above the mine, and average values range from 0.13Bq/λ just after the mine to 0,05 Bq/λ 22 km below. (author) 9 refs

  19. Determination of gross plasma equilibrium from magnetic multipoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kessel, C.E.

    1986-05-01

    A new approximate technique to determine the gross plasma equilibrium parameters, major radius, minor radius, elongation and triangularity for an up-down symmetric plasma is developed. It is based on a multipole representation of the externally applied poloidal magnetic field, relating specific terms to the equilibrium parameters. The technique shows reasonable agreement with free boundary MHD equilibrium results. The method is useful in dynamic simulation and control studies.

  20. Determination of gross plasma equilibrium from magnetic multipoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessel, C.E.

    1986-05-01

    A new approximate technique to determine the gross plasma equilibrium parameters, major radius, minor radius, elongation and triangularity for an up-down symmetric plasma is developed. It is based on a multipole representation of the externally applied poloidal magnetic field, relating specific terms to the equilibrium parameters. The technique shows reasonable agreement with free boundary MHD equilibrium results. The method is useful in dynamic simulation and control studies

  1. Placental mesenchymal dysplasia: case report with gross and histological findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Pecoraro Toscano

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Placental mesenchymal dysplasia (PMD is a rare placental disorder characterized by placental enlargement and areas of abnormal, enlarged, grape-like villi. This condition may resemble a partial hydatidiform mole and may occur associated with Beckwith–Wiedemann syndrome (BWS or in phenotypically normal fetuses. There were 110 cases reported so far. We describe one case with typical gross and microscopic placental lesions.

  2. Improvements of mass formula and β-decay gross theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachibana, Takahiro

    1987-01-01

    The nuclear mass greatly decreases when the number of protons Z and neutrons N is simultaneously equal to a magic number (mutual support of magicities). The mass also tends to decrease due to deformation as both N and Z are away from the magic numbers (mutual support of deformations). These two effects are introduced to a nuclear mass formula containing a constant-type shell term to derive a new formula. The mass excess is expressed by a sum of three parts, i.e. gross part, even-odd part and shell part. The gross part, which represents the general nature, consists of two rest mass terms and a coulomb term. The even-odd part is of a typical form with a correction term. The shell part consists of a proton shell term, neutron shell term, third term expressing the two mutual support effects, and fourth term representing a decrease in coulomb energy due to deformation of the nucleus. The improvements made in the β-decay gross theory are associated with the single particle intensity function D 0 GT (E,ε). They are intended for: (1) reproducing the peak that accounts for about a half of the Gamow-Teller intensity, which has recently been found in (p,n) reactions at energies above the isobaric analogue state and (2) explaining the other half by an exponential-type D 0 GT (E,ε). (Nogami, K.)

  3. Regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV) in the cerebral and cerebellar hemispheres in nomal 52 healthy adults. Measurement with contrast-enhanced dynamic echo-planar imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muroi, Kenzo; Kurihara, Hiroaki; Amauchi, Hiroshi; Nozawa, Takeo; Matsubara, Sho; Yamamoto, Isao [Yokohama City Univ. (Japan). Hospital; Iwasawa, Tae

    2001-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of absolute quantification of mean transit time (MTT) and rCBV in normal 52 healthy adults using contrast-enhanced dynamic echo-planar imaging, changes in signals in the middle cerebral arteries (MCAs) in the Sylvian fissures as AIF. MR was performed with a 1.5 T magnet (Horizon, GE Medical System, Milwaukee, WI). Dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced imaging was obtained every 1.8 second using echo-planar imaging (EPI) sequence (TE=42 msec, matrices=128 x 128) in six slices (6 mm slice thickness with 10 mm gap) including the cerebellar hemisphere at the level of middle cerebellar peduncles. The regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV) was calculated based on dilution theory. We calculated rCBV of the cerebral white matter (WM), cortical gray matter (GM), and cerebellar hemispheres (CH), and the effect of age on MTT and rCBV were evaluated linear regression analyses. The MTT of MCAs did not change with age, and the area under the curve of MCAs declined slightly with age. The mean rCBV of cortical GM, cerebral WM and cerebellar hemispheres were 8.2{+-}2.8, 2.0{+-}0.8 and 8.8{+-}2.1 respectively. The rCBV of cortical GM and the CH decreased slightly with age, however, that of WM remained to be a greater extent than those in GM. From these results, the method using AIF determined in bilateral MCAs was considered as an practical approach for the quantification of rCBV. Further clinical and/or comparative studies with other modalities will be necessary for the application of this method for patients with atherosclerosis and/or major vessel occlusion. (author)

  4. Resuscitation of a Polytraumatized Patient with Large Volume Crystalloid-Colloid Infusions – Correlation Between Global and Regional Hemodynamics: Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Lončarić-Katušin, Mirjana; Belavić, Matija; Žunić, Josip; Gučanin, Snježana; Žilić, Antonio; Korać, Želimir

    2010-01-01

    Aggressive large volume resuscitation is obligatory to achieve necessary tissue oxygenation. An adequate venous preload normalizes global hemodynamics and avoids multiorgan failure (MOF) and death in patients with multiple injuries. Large volume resuscitation is associated with complications in minimally monitored patients. A properly guided resuscitation procedure will finally prevent MOF and patient death. Transpulmonary thermodilution technique and gastric tonometry are used in venous prel...

  5. Use of Lagrangian transport models and Sterilized High Volume Sampling to pinpoint the source region of Kawasaki disease and determine the etiologic agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curcoll Masanes, Roger; Rodó, Xavier; Anton, Jordi; Ballester, Joan; Jornet, Albert; Nofuentes, Manel; Sanchez-Manubens, Judith; Morguí, Josep-Anton

    2015-04-01

    Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute, coronary artery vasculitis of young children, and still a medical mystery after more than 40 years. A former study [Rodó et al. 2011] demonstrated that certain patterns of winds in the troposphere above the earth's surface flowing from Asia were associated with the times of the annual peak in KD cases and with days having anomalously high numbers of KD patients. In a later study [Rodó et al. 2014], we used residence times from an Air Transport Model to pinpoint the source region for KD. Simulations were generated from locations spanning Japan from days with either high or low KD incidence. In order to cope with stationarity of synoptic situations, only trajectories for the winter months, when there is the maximum in KD cases, were considered. Trajectories traced back in time 10 days for each dataset and location were generated using the flexible particle Lagrangian dispersion model (FLEXPART Version 8.23 [Stohl et al. 2005]) run in backward mode. The particles modeled were air tracers, with 10,000 particles used on each model run. The model output used was residence time, with an output grid of 0.5° latitude × longitude and a time resolution of 3 h. The data input used for the FLEXPART model was gridded atmospheric wind velocity from the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts Re-Analysis (ERA-Interim at 1°). Aggregates of winter period back-trajectories were calculated for three different regions of Japan. A common source of wind air masses was located for periods with High Kawasaki disease. Knowing the trajectories of winds from the air transport models, a sampling methodology was developed in order to capture the possible etiological agent or other tracers that could have been released together. This methodology is based on the sterilized filtering of high volumes of the transported air at medium tropospheric levels by aircraft sampling and a later analyze these filters with adequate techniques. High purity

  6. Landscape History of Grosses Moos, NW Swiss Alpine Foreland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joanna Heer, Aleksandra; Adamiec, Grzegorz; Veit, Heinz; May, Jan-Hendrik; Novenko, Elena; Hajdas, Irka

    2017-04-01

    The western Swiss Plateau with Lake Neuchâtel is part of the alpine foreland and among the key areas for the reconstruction of environmental changes since the last postglacial. This study was carried out in a landscape located NE of the lake and called Grosses Moos (The Large Fen) - currently designated the Swiss largest, continuous farming area, after the fen was drained in course of landscape engineering projects performed in Switzerland at the end of the 19th century. The study contributes new results from nine excavations of littoral ridges identified in Grosses Moos, and integrates sedimentology, paleo-environmental analysis and three independent chronological methods. Radiocarbon dating, pollen analysis and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) were applied to the sediments. While pollen and radiocarbon follow the standard procedures, the evaluation of the luminescence age estimates demanded adjustment according to the physical and microdosimetric properties of the alpine quartz, and consideration of the peculiarities of the changing littoral environments of Grosses Moos. The Grosses Moos landscape developed on the temporary surface of the post-Last Glacial sedimentary infill of the over-deepened glacial Aare valley. In this study the landscape history has been fitted into the existing supraregional time scales of NGRIP, the Swiss bio-zones system and the human history based on archaeological and historic records and covers a time span of up to 15'000 yr b2k. The wide-ranging suite of geomorphic features and sedimentary sequences, including littoral lake sediments, beach ridges, dunes, palaeo-channels, peat and colluvial deposits, enable the extensive reconstruction of spatially and temporally variable natural shaping processes. In addition, our results indicate remobilization of soil, colluvium, and sediment due to human settlement activities since the Neolithic - with an important increase in sediment load and spatial variability since the Bronze Age

  7. 29 CFR 779.259 - What is included in annual gross volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for exemption from the pay provisions of the Act under section 13(a)(2), does not exclude the... establishment is a part. (c) Likewise, where franchise or other arrangements result in the creation of a larger... integral part of the related activities of the enterprise which grants the franchise, right, or concession...

  8. Determination of radon daughter activities of different aerosol fractions by gross-α and gross-β measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katona, T.; Kanyar, B.; Jobbagy, V.; Kavasi, N.; Molnar, A.; Imre, K.

    2004-01-01

    The aim was to determine the radioactivities of the radon progenies ( 218 Po, 214 Pb, 214 Bi and 214 Po) attached to the carrier aerosol particles with respect to the size distribution in order to improve the assessment of the inhalation dose. We derived the radionuclide-specific activity concentrations from gross alpha and gross beta measurements provided during 2 hours after sampling and model calculations including parameter estimation. For the aerosol sampling we used an electrical low pressure impactor, which is able to collect aerosol particles in 12 different diameter ranges. In our test investigations the aerosol particles were collected from a closed chamber in a common laboratory building. The chamber contained a relatively high radon concentration (60-90 kBq/m 3 ) in equilibrium with the short lived daughters generated previously without any additional aerosol sources. For the nuclear measurements of the aerosol samples ZnS/plastic sandwich detectors have been used. The time series data of gross alpha and gross beta activities were fitted simultaneously and the initial activities of the daughters were estimated. According to the results from two different fractions (0.06 and 0.7 μm) just followed the end of sampling they contain a higher 218 Po activity than the 214 Pb and 214 Bi ones. The preliminary assessments for the special air conditions show that the 214 Pb-to- 218 Po activity ratios are higher for the small aerosol particles than for the larger ones. The estimated errors of the initial activities were near to 50% in a large part of cases. (author)

  9. Forecasting the development of regional economy on the basis of input — output tables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yury Konstantinovich Mashunin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a practical technology of forecasting the development of the regional economy, including the statement of the problem, the construction of a mathematical model, and its implementation. At the constructing of a model, the standard statistical data for the previous period (2011, built on the basis of the table “input — output” are used. A unit of output of final demand, resulting from investments is added. As a result, a model of the regional economy made in the form of a vector mathematical programming problem that takes into account the investment processes in a region is obtained. Its purpose is to maximize the production of final demand in a region (all industries in a region within the constraints of the input-output balance, investments, resource costs and capacities. For solving linear programming problems of vector, methods, based on the principle of normalization criteria and guaranteed result are used. Vector dynamics problem is solved in a specified number of years. The factors taking into account the rate of growth: gross volumes (resources, final demand, investment in every sector of the region are introduced. Numerical implementation of the prediction is shown in the test case economic modeling of Primorsky Krai, including fifteen branches of a three-year period in accordance with the requirements of the Budget Code. Results of the solution include the major economic indicators for a region: gross, gross regional product (GRP, investments (including broken by industry, as well as payroll taxes and other. All these economic indicators are the basis for the formation of budget revenues in a region.

  10. 26 CFR 1.61-14 - Miscellaneous items of gross income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... as treble damages under the antitrust laws and exemplary damages for fraud are gross income. Another... by law. Illegal gains constitute gross income. Treasure trove, to the extent of its value in United...

  11. Study on delineation of tumor volume of primary locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma after induction chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long Jinhua; Dong Shi; Jin Feng; Wu Weili; Gan Jiaying; Chen Haixia; Li Yuanyuan; Gong Xiuyun

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the delineation of gross tumor volume (GTV) in locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (LANC) according to imageological changes before and after induction chemotherapy (IC) in order to decrease high dose area and protect normal tissue better. Methods: Between Mar 2010 to Jan 2011, 11 patients with LANC were enrolled and treated with TPF regimen followed by intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) with concurrent chemotherapy, target volumes were delineated based on fused CT imaging before and after IC following project determination. Tumor target volumes after and before IC were respectively delineated according to imaging tumor residues and were overlaid by CTV nx in order to ensure radical doses for the imaging tumor volume before IC, the resulting differences of tumor target volumes of IC before and after were measured and analyzed by paired t-test. Results: Before and after IC, the average volumes of GTV nx were respectively 44.72 cm 3 and 28.87 (t=3.89, P=0.003), the average volumes of GTV nd were respectively 32.76 cm 3 and 19.82 cm 3 (t=2.47, P=0.033), the volumes of maximum dose area in brainstem and spinal cord as well as eyeball decreased (t=2.93-4.59, all P<0.05). Conclusions: LANC treated by 3 cycle TPF regimen followed by IMRT with concurrent chemotherapy shows significant shrinkage of tumor volume. The volume of high dose region which caused by normally recovered tissues were decreased by re-delineation of target volume in brainstem and spinal cord as well as eyeball of CT images after IC. (authors)

  12. The relationship between gross motor skills and visual perception of preschoolers

    OpenAIRE

    TEPELI, Kezban

    2014-01-01

    Answers were searched for these questions; “Is there a relationship between visual perceptions and gross motor skills of preschool children?”, “Are preschool children's visual perceptions predictors of their gross motor skills?”, “Is there any difference between visual perceptions of the children having low, average and high level of gross motor skills?” within this study where the relationship between preschool children's visual perceptions and their gross motor skills were compara...

  13. Thalamic Volume Is Reduced in Cervical and Laryngeal Dystonias

    OpenAIRE

    Waugh, Jeff L.; Kuster, John K.; Levenstein, Jacob M.; Makris, Nikos; Multhaupt-Buell, Trisha J.; Sudarsky, Lewis R.; Breiter, Hans C.; Sharma, Nutan; Blood, Anne J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Dystonia, a debilitating movement disorder characterized by abnormal fixed positions and/or twisting postures, is associated with dysfunction of motor control networks. While gross brain lesions can produce secondary dystonias, advanced neuroimaging techniques have been required to identify network abnormalities in primary dystonias. Prior neuroimaging studies have provided valuable insights into the pathophysiology of dystonia, but few directly assessed the gross volume of motor ...

  14. Monitoring of gross beta radioactivities on water sample environment in the surrounding of kartini reactor at 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siswanti; Munandar, A. Aris

    2013-01-01

    Measurement of gross beta radioactivities on water environment were done in the PTAPB BATAN has a goal for routine monitoring, with the result that fill RPL has been made and the result equivalented with quality standard were decided by BAPETEN. The water sample taken as much as 2 liter at 18 area were definited on radius 100 m to 5000 m in the surrounding of kartini reactor, vaporin on electric stove till the volume been ± 10 ml, and than pick out to the aluminium planset and drying on hot plate. Sample in the plancet were counted with a Low Background Counter (LBC) for 30 minutes and accounted of gross beta radioactivity water system. The result of gross beta radioactivity water environment at 2011 has a lowest 009, ± 0,06 Bq/I on Tambak Bayan area at june and in the Janti area highest 0,39 ± 0,08 Bq/ at December. The result still under of quality standard were decided by SK BAPETEN. No. 02/Ka- BAPETEN/V-99 is 0,4 Bq/I. (author)

  15. 26 CFR 1.924(a)-1T - Temporary regulations; definition of foreign trading gross receipts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... trading gross receipts. 1.924(a)-1T Section 1.924(a)-1T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... United States § 1.924(a)-1T Temporary regulations; definition of foreign trading gross receipts. (a) In general. The term “foreign trading gross receipts” means any of the five amounts described in paragraphs...

  16. 26 CFR 1.61-3 - Gross income derived from business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Section 1.61-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Definition of Gross Income, Adjusted Gross Income, and..., merchandising, or mining business, “gross income” means the total sales, less the cost of goods sold, plus any...

  17. 46 CFR 167.01-8 - Inspection of school ships using gross tonnage criterion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inspection of school ships using gross tonnage criterion... SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS General Provisions § 167.01-8 Inspection of school ships using gross... school ships by relative sizes in gross tonnages. When it is determined in accordance with § 70.05-20 of...

  18. The Relationship between Gross Motor Skills and Academic Achievement in Children with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westendorp, Marieke; Hartman, Esther; Houwen, Suzanne; Smith, Joanne; Visscher, Chris

    2011-01-01

    The present study compared the gross motor skills of 7- to 12-year-old children with learning disabilities (n = 104) with those of age-matched typically developing children (n = 104) using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2. Additionally, the specific relationships between subsets of gross motor skills and academic performance in reading,…

  19. 26 CFR 1.872-1 - Gross income of nonresident alien individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gross income of nonresident alien individuals. 1...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Nonresident Aliens and Foreign Corporations § 1.872-1 Gross income of nonresident alien individuals. (a) In general—(1) Inclusions. The gross income of a nonresident alien...

  20. The relationship between gross motor skills and academic achievement in children with learning disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westendorp, Marieke; Hartman, Esther; Houwen, Suzanne; Smith, Joanne; Visscher, Chris

    2011-01-01

    The present study compared the gross motor skills of 7- to 12-year-old children with learning disabilities (n = 104) with those of age-matched typically developing children (n = 104) using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2. Additionally, the specific relationships between subsets of gross motor

  1. Microstructure of gross chill-mark defect in a glass-ceramic preform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spears, R.K.

    1980-01-01

    The microstructure of a vacuum tube glass-ceramic preform containing gross chill-marks on the top and bottom surfaces as well as on the sides was analyzed. The preform was ceramed in a graphite mold and examined using SEM. The glass-ceramic had an extremely dense and fine crystalline structure except where the chill-marks were located. In those areas of matrix glass following the chill-mark plane were evident. It is concluded that gross chill-marks will affect the microstructure by disrupting the chemistry or nucleating characteristics in such a way that a chill-mark regon would appear to be depleted of crystallites. Although the crystallites in this region are larger, the quantity is lower than in the base glass-ceramic. The affected area caused by the chill-mark left a band of matrix glass approximately 100 μ wide. It is believed that planar defects of this size will degrade the mechanical and permeation properties of the glass-ceramic

  2. Dengue endemic and its impact on the gross national product of BRAZILIAN'S economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montibeler, Everlam Elias; Oliveira, Daniel Ribeiro de

    2018-02-01

    In history disease has caused social and economic damage. Dengue is an illness typically found in the tropics that has affected more and more people. In Brazil, according to the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE), in 2013 at least 12.9% of the population (25.8 million) reported already having had dengue in their life. So, how wide are the economic impacts that dengue's contagion has on the gross national product? Using Leontief's method, it became possible to estimate the direct and indirect impact on the workforce and output by one country. Workforce absenteeism reduced the national productiveness and welfare state where we found maximum inoperability of 0.027% and a minimum of 0.002%. This paper develops a methodology for estimation of the impact dengue has incurred in each sector of an economy; designing a ranking with sectors that have been more affected and forecasting the propagation of the endemic throughout a region. This research measures the impact of dengue on economy, the result was that the total loss of the Brazilian economy in 2013 was around BRL 1,023,174,876.83; the importance of 0.02% of the Gross Domestic Product. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. An improvement of satellite-based algorithm for gross primary production estimation optimized over Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pi, Kyoung-Jin; Han, Kyung-Soo; Kim, In-Hwan; Kim, Sang-Il; Lee, Min-Ji

    2011-11-01

    Monitoring the global gross primary production (GPP) is relevant to understanding the global carbon cycle and evaluating the effects of interannual climate variation on food and fiber production. GPP, the flux of carbon into ecosystems via photosynthetic assimilation, is an important variable in the global carbon cycle and a key process in land surface-atmosphere interactions. The Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) is one of the primary global monitoring sensors. MODIS GPP has some of the problems that have been proven in several studies. Therefore this study was to solve the regional mismatch that occurs when using the MODIS GPP global product over Korea. To solve this problem, we estimated each of the GPP component variables separately to improve the GPP estimates. We compared our GPP estimates with validation GPP data to assess their accuracy. For all sites, the correlation was close with high significance (R2 = 0.8164, RMSE = 0.6126 g.C.m-2.d-1, bias = -0.0271 g.C.m-2.d-1). We also compared our results to those of other models. The component variables tended to be either over- or under-estimated when compared to those in other studies over the Korean peninsula, although the estimated GPP was better. The results of this study will likely improve carbon cycle modeling by capturing finer patterns with an integrated method of remote sensing. Keywords: VEGETATION, Gross Primary Production, MODIS.

  4. A method to combine target volume data from 3D and 4D planned thoracic radiotherapy patient cohorts for machine learning applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johnson, Corinne; Price, Gareth; Khalifa, Jonathan; Faivre-Finn, Corinne; Dekker, Andre; Moore, Christopher; van Herk, Marcel

    2017-01-01

    The gross tumour volume (GTV) is predictive of clinical outcome and consequently features in many machine-learned models. 4D-planning, however, has prompted substitution of the GTV with the internal gross target volume (iGTV). We present and validate a method to synthesise GTV data from the iGTV,

  5. Gross rainfall amount and maximum rainfall intensity in 60-minute influence on interception loss of shrubs: a 10-year observation in the Tengger Desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-Shan; Zhao, Yang; Li, Xin-Rong; Huang, Lei; Tan, Hui-Juan

    2016-05-17

    In water-limited regions, rainfall interception is influenced by rainfall properties and crown characteristics. Rainfall properties, aside from gross rainfall amount and duration (GR and RD), maximum rainfall intensity and rainless gap (RG), within rain events may heavily affect throughfall and interception by plants. From 2004 to 2014 (except for 2007), individual shrubs of Caragana korshinskii and Artemisia ordosica were selected to measure throughfall during 210 rain events. Various rainfall properties were auto-measured and crown characteristics, i.e., height, branch and leaf area index, crown area and volume of two shrubs were also measured. The relative interceptions of C. korshinskii and A. ordosica were 29.1% and 17.1%, respectively. Rainfall properties have more contributions than crown characteristics to throughfall and interception of shrubs. Throughfall and interception of shrubs can be explained by GR, RI60 (maximum rainfall intensities during 60 min), RD and RG in deceasing importance. However, relative throughfall and interception of two shrubs have different responses to rainfall properties and crown characteristics, those of C. korshinskii were closely related to rainfall properties, while those of A. ordosica were more dependent on crown characteristics. We highlight long-term monitoring is very necessary to determine the relationships between throughfall and interception with crown characteristics.

  6. Draft Environmental Impact Statement. MX Deployment Area Selection and Land Withdrawal/Acquisition DEIS. Volume IV. Part II. Environmental Consequences to the Study Regions and Operating Base Vicinities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    Subtitle) 5. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED Draft Environmental Impact Statement-MX Draft-December 80 Deployment Alea Selection-Environmental...recreation, a weekend at the lake, the opportunity to be alone with yourself and your family, the clean air to see the next mountain and the freedom to...traffic volumes and projected traffic volumes during the peak construction year. In mountain passes, where capacity is severely reduced by steep grades

  7. Gross anatomy education for South African undergraduate physiotherapy students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shead, Dorothy A; Roos, Ronel; Olivier, Benita; Ihunwo, Amadi O

    2018-01-16

    Eight faculties in South Africa offer undergraduate physiotherapy training with gross anatomy included as a basis for clinical practice. Little information exists about anatomy education for this student body. A 42-question peer-reviewed survey was distributed to physiotherapy gross anatomy course coordinators in all the eight faculties. Seven coordinators from six (75%) of the universities responded. Two respondents' data from the same university were pooled. Collected data show that staff qualifications and experience varied widely and high to average staff to student ratios exist between faculties. Direct anatomy teaching duration was 12.3 (SD ±5.2) weeks per semester. Total number of weeks in courses per faculty was 27.6 (SD ±5.7) varying widely between institutions. Calculable direct contact anatomy hours ranged between 100 and 308 with a mean of 207.6 (SD ±78.1). Direct contact hours in lectures averaged 3.9 (SD ±1.6) per week and the average direct contact hours in practical sessions were 3.5 (SD ±1.8) per week. Dissection, prosection, plastinated models, surface anatomy, and e-learning were available across faculties. Ancillary modalities such as vertical integration and inter-professional learning were in use. All faculties had multiple-choice questions, spot tests, and short examination questions. Half had viva-voce examinations and one had additional long questions assessment. Students evaluated teaching performance in five faculties. Four faculties were reviewing anatomy programs to consider implementing changes to anatomy curriculum or pedagogy. The findings highlighted disparity between programs and also identified the need for specific guidelines to develop a unified South African gross anatomy course for physiotherapy students. Anat Sci Educ. © 2018 American Association of Anatomists. © 2018 American Association of Anatomists.

  8. Verbal priming and taste sensitivity make moral transgressions gross.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herz, Rachel S

    2014-02-01

    The aims of the present study were to assess whether: (a) visceral and moral disgust share a common oral origin (taste); (b) moral transgressions that are also viscerally involving are evaluated accordingly as a function of individual differences in taste sensitivity; (c) verbal priming interacts with taste sensitivity to alter how disgust is experienced in moral transgressions; and (d) whether gender moderates these effects. Standard tests of disgust sensitivity, a questionnaire developed for this research assessing different types of moral transgressions (nonvisceral, implied-visceral, visceral) with the terms "angry" and "grossed-out," and a taste sensitivity test of 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) were administered to 102 participants. Results confirmed past findings that the more sensitive to PROP a participant was the more disgusted they were by visceral, but not moral, disgust elicitors. Importantly, the findings newly revealed that taste sensitivity had no bearing on evaluations of moral transgressions, regardless of their visceral nature, when "angry" was the emotion primed. However, when "grossed-out" was primed for evaluating moral violations, the more intense PROP tasted to a participant the more "grossed-out" they were by all transgressions. Women were generally more disgust sensitive and morally condemning than men, but disgust test, transgression type, and priming scale modulated these effects. The present findings support the proposition that moral and visceral disgust do not share a common oral origin, but show that linguistic priming can transform a moral transgression into a viscerally repulsive event and that susceptibility to this priming varies as a function of an individual's sensitivity to the origins of visceral disgust-bitter taste.

  9. The Schroedinger functional for Gross-Neveu models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leder, B.

    2007-01-01

    Gross-Neveu type models with a finite number of fermion flavours are studied on a two-dimensional Euclidean space-time lattice. The models are asymptotically free and are invariant under a chiral symmetry. These similarities to QCD make them perfect benchmark systems for fermion actions used in large scale lattice QCD computations. The Schroedinger functional for the Gross-Neveu models is defined for both, Wilson and Ginsparg-Wilson fermions, and shown to be renormalisable in 1-loop lattice perturbation theory. In two dimensions four fermion interactions of the Gross-Neveu models have dimensionless coupling constants. The symmetry properties of the four fermion interaction terms and the relations among them are discussed. For Wilson fermions chiral symmetry is explicitly broken and additional terms must be included in the action. Chiral symmetry is restored up to cut-off effects by tuning the bare mass and one of the couplings. The critical mass and the symmetry restoring coupling are computed to second order in lattice perturbation theory. This result is used in the 1-loop computation of the renormalised couplings and the associated beta-functions. The renormalised couplings are defined in terms of suitable boundary-to-boundary correlation functions. In the computation the known first order coefficients of the beta-functions are reproduced. One of the couplings is found to have a vanishing betafunction. The calculation is repeated for the recently proposed Schroedinger functional with exact chiral symmetry, i.e. Ginsparg-Wilson fermions. The renormalisation pattern is found to be the same as in the Wilson case. Using the regularisation dependent finite part of the renormalised couplings, the ratio of the Lambda-parameters is computed. (orig.)

  10. Nr 257 - Opinion presented on the behalf of the Commission of sustainable development and land planning on the finance bill for 2013 (nr 235), Volumes 1-10, ecology, sustainable development and planning, regional policies, research and higher education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krabal, Jacques; Sermier, Jean-Marie; Gaillard, Genevieve; Baupin, Denis; Pauvros, Remi; Benisti, Jacques Alain; Fromantin, Jean-Christophe; Calmette, Alain; Plisson, Philippe; Ginesy, Charles-Ange

    2012-01-01

    This huge document comprises ten volumes which present and discuss public programs (objectives, strategies, plans, and actions), public finances, economic activity data and evolutions, debates by commissions, and amendments on different issues. A first set of issues deals with ecology, sustainable development and planning: protection of the environment and risk prevention (volume 1), and then with sustainable development policies (vol. 2), landscapes, water, biodiversity, and geographic and cartographic information (vol. 3), ecological transition (vol. 4), road, railway and water transports (vol. 5), air transports (vol. 6), maritime affairs (vol. 7). The next volume addresses regional policies (vol. 8). The last parts concern research and higher education: research in the field of sustainable development (vol. 9) and in the fields of environments and resources (vol. 10)

  11. Fusion of LiDAR and aerial imagery for the estimation of downed tree volume using Support Vector Machines classification and region based object fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvarajan, Sowmya

    downed tree classification with fused LiDAR and aerial image. The classified tree pixels are utilized in the object based region fitting technique to compute the diameter and height of the downed trees and the volume of the trees are estimated. (Full text of this dissertation may be available via the University of Florida Libraries web site. Please check http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/etd.html)

  12. Gross beta activity of the Danube river samples in 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaskovic, I.; Pantelic, G.; Eremic-Savkovic, M.; Vuletic, V.; Javorina, Lj.; Tanaskovic, I.)

    2007-01-01

    Our paper presents the results of radioactivity control of the Danube samples on Serbian (Bezdan left coast) in 2006. The measurements were carried out by low-phone proportional gas alpha beta counter PIC-WPC-9550. Efficiency for activity was 47%. The results of measurements of gross beta activity (water, sediment, algae and fish) reveal that the values are at the same level as they were before the Paks Nuclear power plant started running. Our results of measurements correlate well with the results of Hungarian part. (author) [sr

  13. Gross shell structure at high spin in heavy nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deleplanque, Marie-Agnes; Frauendorf, Stefan; Pashkevich, Vitaly V.; Chu, S.Y.; Unzhakova, Anja

    2003-01-01

    Experimental nuclear moments of inertia at high spins along the yrast line have been determined systematically and found to differ from the rigid-body values. The difference is attributed to shell effect and these have been calculated microscopically. The data and quantal calculations are interpreted by means of the semiclassical Periodic Orbit Theory. From this new perspective, features in the moments of inertia as a function of neutron number and spin, as well as their relation to the shell energies can be understood. Gross shell effects persist up to the highest angular momenta observed

  14. Characterizing the development of sectoral gross domestic product composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Raphael; Spies, Michael; Reusser, Dominik E.; Kropp, Jürgen P.; Rybski, Diego

    2013-07-01

    We consider the sectoral composition of a country's gross domestic product (GDP), i.e., the partitioning into agrarian, industrial, and service sectors. Exploring a simple system of differential equations, we characterize the transfer of GDP shares between the sectors in the course of economic development. The model fits for the majority of countries providing four country-specific parameters. Relating the agrarian with the industrial sector, a data collapse over all countries and all years supports the applicability of our approach. Depending on the parameter ranges, country development exhibits different transfer properties. Most countries follow three of eight characteristic paths. The types are not random but show distinct geographic and development patterns.

  15. Electron scattering from the deuteron using the Gross equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.W. Van Orden; N. Devine; F. Gross

    1996-01-01

    The elastic electromagnetic form factors for the deuteron are calculated in the context of a one-boson-exchange model using the Gross or Spectator equation [1]. The formalism is manifestly covariant and gauge invariant. Results are shown for the impulse approximation and for pxy exchange currents. The impulse approximation results are quite close to the available data which suggests that only a relatively small exchange current contribution is required. It is shown that by using a soft form factor for the exchange current, the model provides a very good representation of the data.

  16. Pathology Gross Photography: The Beginning of Digital Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampy, B Alan; Glassy, Eric F

    2015-06-01

    The underutilized practice of photographing anatomic pathology specimens from surgical pathology and autopsies is an invaluable benefit to patients, clinicians, pathologists, and students. Photographic documentation of clinical specimens is essential for the effective practice of pathology. When considering what specimens to photograph, all grossly evident pathology, absent yet expected pathologic features, and gross-only specimens should be thoroughly documented. Specimen preparation prior to photography includes proper lighting and background, wiping surfaces of blood, removing material such as tubes or bandages, orienting the specimen in a logical fashion, framing the specimen to fill the screen, positioning of probes, and using the right-sized scale. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Weak turbulence theory for the Gross-Pitaevskii equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazarenko, S.; West, R.; Lvov, Y.

    2001-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to use the ideas developed for the NLSE to derive a weak turbulence theory for a large set of random waves described by the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. An interesting picture emerges even from a naive application of the results already obtained for the NLSE case. Imagine an arbitrary initial excitation; a superposition of modes with energies somewhere in the middle of the potential well. Because of the nonlinear interaction (''collisions'') there is a redistribution of energy E and particles N among the modes. (orig.)

  18. VT Biodiversity Project - Biophysical Regions boundary lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) This dataset divides Vermont into eight sub-regions on the basis of bedrock geology, gross physiography, climate, and broad-scale patterns of...

  19. Phase I Trial of Gross Total Resection, Permanent Iodine-125 Brachytherapy, and Hyperfractionated Radiotherapy for Newly Diagnosed Glioblastoma Multiforme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Allen M.; Chang, Susan; Pouliot, Jean; Sneed, Penny K.; Prados, Michael D.; Lamborn, Kathleen R.; Malec, Mary K.; McDermott, Michael W.; Berger, Mitchell S.; Larson, David A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of gross total resection and permanent I-125 brachytherapy followed by hyperfractionated radiotherapy for patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma. Methods and Materials: From April 1999 to May 2002, 21 patients with glioblastoma multiforme were enrolled on a Phase I protocol investigating planned gross total resection and immediate placement of permanent I-125 seeds, followed by postoperative hyperfractionated radiotherapy to a dose of 60 Gy at 100 cGy b.i.d., 5 days per week. Median age and Karnofsky performance status were 50 years (range, 32-65 years) and 90 (range, 70-100), respectively. Toxicity was assessed according to Radiation Therapy Oncology Group criteria. Results: Eighteen patients completed treatment according to protocol. The median preoperative tumor volume on magnetic resonance imaging was 18.6 cm 3 (range, 4.4-41.2 cm 3 ). The median brachytherapy dose measured 5 mm radially outward from the resection cavity was 400 Gy (range, 200-600 Gy). Ten patients underwent 12 reoperations, with 11 of 12 reoperations demonstrating necrosis without evidence of tumor. Because of high toxicity, the study was terminated early. Median progression-free survival and overall survival were 57 and 114 weeks, respectively, but not significantly improved compared with historical patients treated at University of California, San Francisco, with gross total resection and radiotherapy without brachytherapy. Conclusions: Treatment with gross total resection and permanent I-125 brachytherapy followed by hyperfractionated radiotherapy as performed in this study results in high toxicity and reoperation rates, without demonstrated improvement in survival

  20. Removal of Gross Air Embolization from Cardiopulmonary Bypass Circuits with Integrated Arterial Line Filters: A Comparison of Circuit Designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reagor, James A; Holt, David W

    2016-03-01

    Advances in technology, the desire to minimize blood product transfusions, and concerns relating to inflammatory mediators have lead many practitioners and manufacturers to minimize cardiopulmonary bypass (CBP) circuit designs. The oxygenator and arterial line filter (ALF) have been integrated into one device as a method of attaining a reduction in prime volume and surface area. The instructions for use of a currently available oxygenator with integrated ALF recommends incorporating a recirculation line distal to the oxygenator. However, according to an unscientific survey, 70% of respondents utilize CPB circuits incorporating integrated ALFs without a path of recirculation distal to the oxygenator outlet. Considering this circuit design, the ability to quickly remove a gross air bolus in the blood path distal to the oxygenator may be compromised. This in vitro study was designed to determine if the time required to remove a gross air bolus from a CPB circuit without a path of recirculation distal to the oxygenator will be significantly longer than that of a circuit with a path of recirculation distal to the oxygenator. A significant difference was found in the mean time required to remove a gross air bolus between the circuit designs (p = .0003). Additionally, There was found to be a statistically significant difference in the mean time required to remove a gross air bolus between Trial 1 and Trials 4 (p = .015) and 5 (p =.014) irrespective of the circuit design. Under the parameters of this study, a recirculation line distal to an oxygenator with an integrated ALF significantly decreases the time it takes to remove an air bolus from the CPB circuit and may be safer for clinical use than the same circuit without a recirculation line.

  1. The implications of particle energy and acidic media on gross alpha and gross beta determination using liquid scintillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zapata-Garcia, D. [Laboratori de Radiologia Ambiental (LRA), Departament de Quimica Analitica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques, 1-11 Planta 3, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Llaurado, M., E-mail: montse.llaurado@ub.edu [Laboratori de Radiologia Ambiental (LRA), Departament de Quimica Analitica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques, 1-11 Planta 3, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Rauret, G. [Laboratori de Radiologia Ambiental (LRA), Departament de Quimica Analitica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques, 1-11 Planta 3, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2012-04-15

    The interaction of humans with radioactivity present in the environment from natural and artificial sources necessitates an evaluation of its risk on human health. Gross alpha and gross beta activities can provide a rapid evaluation of the radioactive content of a sample and can be simultaneously determined by using liquid scintillation counters. However, calibration of the liquid scintillation counter is required and is affected by many factors, such as particle energy and the acidity of the media. This study investigates what effect the particle energy used for calibration has on misclassification and how to account for this misclassification in routine measurements. The variability in measurement produced by the final pH, as well as any acids used in sample treatment, was also studied. These results showed that the most commonly used acid for these types of analyses, HNO{sub 3}, produced a high amount of misclassifications at very low pH. The results improved when HCl was used to adjust the sample to low pH. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We study the effect of alpha and beta energies on PSA optimisation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The optimum PSA shifts to higher values as the alpha energy increases. Beta energies do not affect it. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We study the effect of pH on the simultaneous determination of gross alpha/beta activities. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HNO{sub 3} produces a high amount of misclassification at very low pH. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The results improve when HCl is used to adjust the sample to low pH.

  2. The implications of particle energy and acidic media on gross alpha and gross beta determination using liquid scintillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapata-García, D.; Llauradó, M.; Rauret, G.

    2012-01-01

    The interaction of humans with radioactivity present in the environment from natural and artificial sources necessitates an evaluation of its risk on human health. Gross alpha and gross beta activities can provide a rapid evaluation of the radioactive content of a sample and can be simultaneously determined by using liquid scintillation counters. However, calibration of the liquid scintillation counter is required and is affected by many factors, such as particle energy and the acidity of the media. This study investigates what effect the particle energy used for calibration has on misclassification and how to account for this misclassification in routine measurements. The variability in measurement produced by the final pH, as well as any acids used in sample treatment, was also studied. These results showed that the most commonly used acid for these types of analyses, HNO 3 , produced a high amount of misclassifications at very low pH. The results improved when HCl was used to adjust the sample to low pH. - Highlights: ► We study the effect of alpha and beta energies on PSA optimisation. ► The optimum PSA shifts to higher values as the alpha energy increases. Beta energies do not affect it. ► We study the effect of pH on the simultaneous determination of gross alpha/beta activities. ► HNO 3 produces a high amount of misclassification at very low pH. ► The results improve when HCl is used to adjust the sample to low pH.

  3. Gross morphological changes in premature and post mature human plancentae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherin, F.; Afzal, E.; Seema, N.

    2015-01-01

    Placenta is a valuable tool for maternal and foetal diseases. Gross pathological changes are seen in the placenta of many disorders of pregnancy, which are associated with high perinatal morbidity and mortality. This study was conducted with the aim to compare the morphological features of preterm, term and post term placentae in our setup. Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted on 150 placentae: 50 were from normal (term) pregnancies considered as control (delivered between 37 to 42 weeks of gestation.), 50 from premature pregnancies (gestational age between 35-37 weeks) from mothers having hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, and 50 from post mature pregnancies (gestational age more than 42 weeks). The placentae were collected from Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Khyber Teaching Hospital, Peshawar, through purposive sampling. Placentae were examined in the department of Anatomy, Khyber Medical College Peshawar. Results: In gross morphological features of placentae (weight and diameter) showed significant (p<0.001) among the groups Conclusion: In was concluded that the hypertensive disorders of the pregnancy adversely influence the morphology of placenta, which leads to the premature delivery. (author)

  4. Exploring the changing learning environment of the gross anatomy lab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Robin; Regehr, Glenn; Wilson, Timothy D

    2011-07-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the impact of virtual models and prosected specimens in the context of the gross anatomy lab. In 2009, student volunteers from an undergraduate anatomy class were randomly assigned to study groups in one of three learning conditions. All groups studied the muscles of mastication and completed identical learning objectives during a 45-minute lab. All groups were provided with two reference atlases. Groups were distinguished by the type of primary tools they were provided: gross prosections, three-dimensional stereoscopic computer model, or both resources. The facilitator kept observational field notes. A prepost multiple-choice knowledge test was administered to evaluate students' learning. No significant effect of the laboratory models was demonstrated between groups on the prepost assessment of knowledge. Recurring observations included students' tendency to revert to individual memorization prior to the posttest, rotation of models to match views in the provided atlas, and dissemination of groups into smaller working units. The use of virtual lab resources seemed to influence the social context and learning environment of the anatomy lab. As computer-based learning methods are implemented and studied, they must be evaluated beyond their impact on knowledge gain to consider the effect technology has on students' social development.

  5. Leadership and professionalism curriculum in the Gross Anatomy course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlina, Wojciech; Hromanik, Michael J; Milanese, Tia R; Dierkhising, Ross; Viggiano, Thomas R; Carmichael, Stephen W

    2006-09-01

    Today's physicians must demonstrate both professionalism and leadership skills in order to succeed in largely team-based healthcare environments. The purpose of this study was to determine if professionalism attributes, leadership style, and leadership style adaptability are associated with academic performance among first-year students early in their medical curriculum. Students were divided into 4-member dissection groups for the duration of the Gross and Developmental Anatomy course. Leadership responsibility was randomly assigned to a team member on a rotating basis every 5 weeks. After each 5-week block, student performance was measured by written and practical examinations, and each student assessed their leader's or their own professionalism attributes and leadership style using validated survey instruments. Most students demonstrated either a "selling" only (57%) or "participating" only (30%) leadership style with low to moderate leadership adaptability. "Participating" and "delegating" leadership styles have the highest average group written exam scores (89.4%, P leadership styles and aspects of professionalism are associated with written and practical examination scores in the Gross and Developmental Anatomy course. Furthermore, it demonstrates that first-year medical students are in need of leadership skill development.

  6. Electricity prices and generator behaviour in gross pool electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Mahoney, Amy; Denny, Eleanor

    2013-01-01

    Electricity market liberalisation has become common practice internationally. The justification for this process has been to enhance competition in a market traditionally characterised by statutory monopolies in an attempt to reduce costs to end-users. This paper endeavours to see whether a pool market achieves this goal of increasing competition and reducing electricity prices. Here the electricity market is set up as a sealed bid second price auction. Theory predicts that such markets should result with firms bidding their marginal cost, thereby resulting in an efficient outcome and lower costs to consumers. The Irish electricity system with a gross pool market experiences among the highest electricity prices in Europe. Thus, we analyse the Irish pool system econometrically in order to test if the high electricity prices seen there are due to participants bidding outside of market rules or out of line with theory. Overall we do not find any evidence that the interaction between generator and the pool in the Irish electricity market is not efficient. Thus, the pool element of the market structure does not explain the high electricity prices experienced in Ireland. - Highlights: • We consider whether a gross pool achieves competitive behaviour. • We analyse the Irish pool system econometrically. • Results indicate the Irish pool system appears to work efficiently. • Generators appear to be bidding appropriately

  7. Design of a Quality Control Program for the Measurement of Gross Alpha and Gross Beta Activities (LMPR-CIEMAT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, A.; Yague, L.; Gasco, C.; Navarro, N.; Higueras, E.; Noguerales, C.

    2010-01-01

    In accordance with international standards, general requirements for testing laboratories have to include a quality system for planning, implementing, and assessing the work performed by the organization and for carrying out required quality assurance and quality control. The purpose of internal laboratory quality control is to monitor performance, identify problems, and initiate corrective actions. This report describes the internal quality control to monitor the gross alpha and beta activities determination. Identification of specific performance indicators, the principles that govern their use and statistical means of evaluation are explained. Finally, calculation of alpha and beta specific activities, uncertainties and detection limits are performed. (Author) 10 refs.

  8. An intercomparison between gross α counting and gross β counting for grab-sampling determination of airborne radon progeny and thoron progeny

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papp, Z.

    2006-01-01

    The instantaneous values of the airborne activity concentrations of radon progeny and thoron progeny have been determined 34 times in a closed and windowless room in a cellar using two independent grab-sampling methods in order to compare the performance of the methods. The activity concentration of radon ( 222 Rn) was also measured and it varied between 200 and 650 Bq m -3 . Two samples of radon and thoron progeny were collected simultaneously from roughly the same air volume by filtering. For the first method, the isotopes were collected on membrane filter and gross α counting was applied over several successive time intervals. This method was a slightly improved version of the methods that are applied generally for this reason for decades. For the second method, the isotopes were collected on glass-fibre filter and gross β counts were registered over several time intervals. This other method was developed a few years ago and the above series of measurements was the first opportunity to make an intercomparison between it and another similar method based on α counting. Individual radon progeny and thoron progeny activity concentrations (for the isotopes 218 Po, 214 Pb, 214 Bi and 212 Pb) were evaluated by both methods. The detailed investigation of the results showed that the systematic deviation of the methods is small but significant and isotope-dependent. The weighted averages of the β/α activity concentration ratios for 218 Po, 214 Pb, 214 Bi, EEDC 222 (Equilibrium-Equivalent Decay-product Concentration of radon progeny) and 212 Pb were 0.99±0.03, 0.90±0.02, 1.03±0.02, 0.96±0.02 and 0.80±0.03, respectively. The source of the systematic deviation is probably the inaccurate knowledge of the counting efficiencies mainly in the case of the α-counting method. A significant random-type difference between the results obtained with the two methods has also been revealed. For example, the β/α ratio for EEDC 222 varied between 0.81±0.01 and 1.22±0

  9. 29 CFR 794.119 - Dependence of exemption on sales volume of the enterprise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dependence of exemption on sales volume of the enterprise. 794.119 Section 794.119 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION... Act Annual Gross Volume of Sales § 794.119 Dependence of exemption on sales volume of the enterprise...

  10. The determination of the national background radioactivity of gross alpha and gross beta in water samples at the PUSPATI site and its neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, M.T.A.

    1983-01-01

    The determination of the natural background radioactivity in water samples has been made at the PUSPATI site and its environs. The study was performed in January 1981 until June 1981. Samples of river, rain and tap water are periodically collected and analyzed in order to determine gross alpha and gross beta activity. In general, the total radioactivity of water is considerably low. The mean concentration of gross alpha in river water and tap water samples are 1.2 +- 0.1 and 0.2 +- 0.1 pCi/ respectively. The level of gross alpha in rain water is however, below the background rate of the detector. The mean concentration of gross beta in river water, tap water and rain water samples are 4.2 +- 0.6, 1.6 +- 0.3, and 1.9 +- 0.3 pCi/ respectively. (author)

  11. Do Red Edge and Texture Attributes from High-Resolution Satellite Data Improve Wood Volume Estimation in a Semi-Arid Mountainous Region?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schumacher, Paul; Mislimshoeva, Bunafsha; Brenning, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    to overcome this issue. However, clear recommendations on the suitability of specific proxies to provide accurate biomass information in semi-arid to arid environments are still lacking. This study contributes to the understanding of using multispectral high-resolution satellite data (RapidEye), specifically...... red edge and texture attributes, to estimate wood volume in semi-arid ecosystems characterized by scarce vegetation. LASSO (Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator) and random forest were used as predictive models relating in situ-measured aboveground standing wood volume to satellite data...

  12. The gross theory model for neutrino-nucleus cross-section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samana, A R; Barbero, C A; Krmpotic, F; Duarte, S B; Dimarco, A J

    2008-01-01

    The nuclear gross theory, originally formulated by Takahashi and Yamada (1969 Prog. Theor. Phys. 41 1470) for the β-decay, is applied to the electronic-neutrino nucleus reactions, employing a more realistic description of the energetics of the Gamow-Teller resonances. The model parameters are gauged from the most recent experimental data, both for β - -decay and electron capture, separately for even-even, even-odd, odd-odd and odd-even nuclei. The numerical estimates for neutrino-nucleus cross-sections agree fairly well with previous evaluations done within the framework of microscopic models. The formalism presented here can be extended to the heavy nuclei mass region, where weak processes are quite relevant, which is of astrophysical interest because of its applications in supernova explosive nucleosynthesis

  13. A multi-sites analysis on the ozone effects on Gross Primary Production of European forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proietti, C. [Department of Environmental Biology, Sapienza University of Rome, Piazzale Aldo Moro, 5, 00185 Rome (Italy); Anav, A. [Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment (ENEA), C.R. Casaccia, Via Anguillarese 301, 00123 S. Maria di Galeria, Rome (Italy); University of Exeter, College of Engineering, Mathematics and Physical Sciences, Exeter (United Kingdom); De Marco, A. [Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment (ENEA), C.R. Casaccia, Via Anguillarese 301, 00123 S. Maria di Galeria, Rome (Italy); Sicard, P. [ACRI-HE, 260 route du Pin Montard BP234, 06904 Sophia Antipolis-cedex (France); Vitale, M., E-mail: marcello.vitale@uniroma1.it [Department of Environmental Biology, Sapienza University of Rome, Piazzale Aldo Moro, 5, 00185 Rome (Italy)

    2016-06-15

    Ozone (O{sub 3}) is both a greenhouse gas and a secondary air pollutant causing adverse impacts on forests ecosystems at different scales, from cellular to ecosystem level. Specifically, the phytotoxic nature of O{sub 3} can impair CO{sub 2} assimilation that, in turn affects forest productivity. This study aims to evaluate the effects of tropospheric O{sub 3} on Gross Primary Production (GPP) at 37 European forest sites during the time period 2000–2010. Due to the lack of carbon assimilation data at O{sub 3} monitoring stations (and vice-versa) this study makes a first attempt to combine high resolution MODIS Gross Primary Production (GPP) estimates and O{sub 3} measurement data. Partial Correlations, Anomalies Analysis and the Random Forests Analysis (RFA) were used to quantify the effects of tropospheric O{sub 3} concentration and its uptake on GPP and to evaluate the most important factors affecting inter-annual GPP changes. Our results showed, along a North-West/South-East European transect, a negative impact of O{sub 3} on GPP ranging from 0.4% to 30%, although a key role of meteorological parameters respect to pollutant variables in affecting GPP was found. In particular, meteorological parameters, namely air temperature (T), soil water content (SWC) and relative humidity (RH) are the most important predictors at 81% of test sites. Moreover, it is interesting to highlight a key role of SWC in the Mediterranean areas (Spanish, Italian and French test sites) confirming that, soil moisture and soil water availability affect vegetation growth and photosynthesis especially in arid or semi-arid ecosystems such as the Mediterranean climate regions. Considering the pivotal role of GPP in the global carbon balance and the O{sub 3} ability to reduce primary productivity of the forests, this study can help in assessing the O{sub 3} impacts on ecosystem services, including wood production and carbon sequestration. - Highlights: • Assessment of the surface O{sub 3

  14. Reduced central blood volume in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, F; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Sørensen, T I

    1989-01-01

    than 0.0001). The lowest values (18 ml/kg) were found in patients with gross ascites and a reduced systemic vascular resistance. In patients with cirrhosis central blood volume was inversely correlated to the hepatic venous pressure gradient (r = -0.41, p less than 0.01), and the total blood volume...... was inversely correlated to the systemic vascular resistance (r = -0.49, p less than 0.001), the latter being significantly reduced in the patient group. Patients with cirrhosis apparently are unable to maintain a normal central blood volume. This may be due to arteriolar vasodilation, portosystemic collateral...

  15. Criteria for requesting specific radionuclide analysis through gross α and gross β concentration measurements in environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, E.G.

    1988-01-01

    This paper suggests some criteria for the decision to proceed with the analysis of specific radionuclides based on results of the determination of gross α and β concentrations in environmental samples of aerosols, water, dairy and agricultural products, soil and sediments. The samples considered are provenient from the environmental surveillance of uranium mining and milling facilities as well as the mining and processing plants of monazite sands. The radionuclides to be analysed are those considered to be the most critical to human health, that is: U-nat; Th-nat; Th-230; Ra-228; Ra-226; Po-210; Pb-210. The measured gross α and β concentrations will be compared with the Maximum Allowable Concentrations for some defined radionuclides. Radiochemical analysis of specific radionuclides may then become necessary, depending upon the results of this comparison. The main goal of the proposed guide is to simplify and to discipline the execution of environmental surveillance programs in a safe and economical way, avoiding unnecessary analysis. (author) [pt

  16. Analysis of regional cerebral blood flow and distribution volume in Machado-Joseph disease by iodine-{sup 123}I IMP single photon emission computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Tsunemi; Nakajima, Takashi; Fukuhara, Nobuyoshi [National Saigata Hospital, Ohagata, Niigata (Japan)

    2001-09-01

    Machado-Joseph disease (MJD) is an autosomal dominant spinocerebellar ataxia. Its clinical features vary greatly in different generations of the same family. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and distribution volume (V{sub d}) in the pons, cerebellum, and cerebral cortex were measured in 12 patients with MJD by autoradiography (ARG) and the table look-up (TLU) method of iodine-123 IMP ({sup 123}I-IMP) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Representative cases were as follows: A 46-year-old woman first experienced gait ataxia at age 38. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed no atrophy in the pons or cerebellum, but rCBF measured by the {sup 123}I-IMP SPECT ARG method detected hypoperfusion in the pons, and cerebellar vermis and hemisphere. A 76-year-old woman first experienced gait ataxia at age 69. CT and MRI findings showed severe atrophy in the pons, and cerebellar vermis and hemisphere. Moreover, rCBF was decreased in the pons, whereas it was not decreased in the cerebellar vermis and hemisphere. In the pons of patients with MJD, rCBF was markedly decreased regardless of disease severity. Because this SPECT finding for the pons looked like a 'dot', we have called it the 'pontine dot sign'. In the MJD group, rCBF was significantly decreased in the pons (Student's t test, p<0.01) and cerebellar vermis (p<0.05). The V{sub d} was also significantly decreased in the pons (p<0.005) in comparison with that for normal subjects. Pearson's correlation analysis yielded a significant relationship between the rCBF in the pons and age at onset (r=0.578, p<0.05). There was a strong correlation between the V{sub d} for the pons and age at onset (r=0.59, p<0.05). Person's correlation analysis also showed a significant relationship between the V{sub d} in the cerebellar hemispheres and International Cooperative Ataxia Rating Scale (r=0.644, p<0.05). The pontine rCBFs in patients with early onset MJD

  17. 11. Regional congress of IRPA. Austrian - Hungarian - Yugoslavian radiation protection meeting. Recent developments and new trends in radiation protection. Proceedings. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tschirf, E.; Hefner, A.

    1984-01-01

    50 contributions are presented, the three papers of session II on non ionizing radiations being outside of the scope of INIS. The session headings are: I. General aspects of radiation protection. II. Non ionizing radiation. III. Measurement and techniques. IV. Biology and medicine. Further papers are presented in Volume 2 of the proceedings, which is treated separately. (A.N.)

  18. The Gross Morphology and Histochemistry of Respiratory Muscles in Bottlenose Dolphins, Tursiops truncatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotten, Pamela B.; Piscitelli, Marina A.; McLellan, William A.; Rommel, Sentiel A.; Dearolf, Jennifer L.; Pabst, D. Ann

    2011-01-01

    Most mammals possess stamina because their locomotor and respiratory (i.e., ventilatory) systems are mechanically coupled. These systems are decoupled, however, in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) as they swim on a breath-hold. Locomotion and ventilation are coupled only during their brief surfacing event, when they respire explosively (up to 90% of total lung volume