WorldWideScience

Sample records for gross power potential

  1. Gross greenhouse gas fluxes from hydro-power reservoir compared to thermo-power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Marco Aurelio dos; Pinguelli Rosa, Luiz; Sikar, Bohdan; Sikar, Elizabeth; Santos, Ednaldo Oliveira dos

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of gross carbon dioxide and methane emissions measurements in several Brazilian hydro-reservoirs, compared to thermo power generation. The term 'gross emissions' means gas flux measurements from the reservoir surface without natural pre-impoundment emissions by natural bodies such as the river channel, seasonal flooding and terrestrial ecosystems. The net emissions result from deducting pre-existing emissions by the reservoir. A power dam emits biogenic gases such as CO 2 and CH 4 . However, studies comparing gas emissions (gross emissions) from the reservoir surface with emissions by thermo-power generation technologies show that the hydro-based option presents better results in most cases analyzed. In this study, measurements were carried in the Miranda, Barra Bonita, Segredo, Tres Marias, Xingo, and Samuel and Tucurui reservoirs, located in two different climatological regimes. Additional data were used here from measurements taken at the Itaipu and Serra da Mesa reservoirs. Comparisons were also made between emissions from hydro-power plants and their thermo-based equivalents. Bearing in mind that the estimated values for hydro-power plants include emissions that are not totally anthropogenic, the hydro-power plants studied generally posted lower emissions than their equivalent thermo-based counterparts. Hydro-power complexes with greater power densities (capacity/area flooded-W/m 2 ), such as Itaipu, Xingo, Segredo and Miranda, have the best performance, well above thermo-power plants using state-of-the-art technology: combined cycle fueled by natural gas, with 50% efficiency. On the other hand, some hydro-power complexes with low-power density perform only slightly better or even worse than their thermo-power counterparts

  2. Gender preference between traditional and PowerPoint methods of teaching gross anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuhu, Saleh; Adamu, Lawan Hassan; Buba, Mohammed Alhaji; Garba, Sani Hyedima; Dalori, Babagana Mohammed; Yusuf, Ashiru Hassan

    2018-01-01

    Teaching and learning process is increasingly metamorphosing from the traditional chalk and talk to the modern dynamism in the information and communication technology. Medical education is no exception to this dynamism more especially in the teaching of gross anatomy, which serves as one of the bases of understanding the human structure. This study was conducted to determine the gender preference of preclinical medical students on the use of traditional (chalk and talk) and PowerPoint presentation in the teaching of gross anatomy. This was cross-sectional and prospective study, which was conducted among preclinical medical students in the University of Maiduguri, Nigeria. Using simple random techniques, a questionnaire was circulated among 280 medical students, where 247 students filled the questionnaire appropriately. The data obtained was analyzed using SPSS version 20 (IBM Corporation, Armonk, NY, USA) to find the method preferred by the students among other things. Majority of the preclinical medical students in the University of Maiduguri preferred PowerPoint method in the teaching of gross anatomy over the conventional methods. The Cronbach alpha value of 0.76 was obtained which is an acceptable level of internal consistency. A statistically significant association was found between gender and preferred method of lecture delivery on the clarity of lecture content where females prefer the conventional method of lecture delivery whereas males prefer the PowerPoint method, On the reproducibility of text and diagram, females prefer PowerPoint method of teaching gross anatomy while males prefer the conventional method of teaching gross anatomy. There are gender preferences with regard to clarity of lecture contents and reproducibility of text and diagram. It was also revealed from this study that majority of the preclinical medical students in the University of Maiduguri prefer PowerPoint presentation over the traditional chalk and talk method in most of the

  3. Comparative gross domestic production and electricity consumption per capita in the context of nuclear power prospect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridzuan Abdul Mutalib; Maragatham Kumar; Nik Arlina Nik Ali; Abi Muttaqin Jalal Bayar; Aisya Raihan Abdul Kadir; Muhammed Zulfakar Zolkaffly; Azlinda Aziz; Jamal Khaer Ibrahim

    2008-08-01

    Malaysia, based on its economic and industrial growth level should be able to absorb nuclear technology and capacity in implementing a nuclear power programme. Malaysia Gross Domestic Production (GDP) and electricity consumption (kWh per capita is higher compared with other developing countries, which have already announced their plans to implement nuclear power programme. Furthermore, Asia reliance on nuclear power plants to meet growing energy needs in the near future is also significantly increasing. This paper presents the comparative GDP and kWh per capita in Asia and globally in the context of nuclear power prospect in Malaysia. (Author)

  4. ANALYSIS OF GROSS REGIONAL PRODUCT FLUCTUATIONS AND ELECTRIC POWER CONSUMPTION IN 2005- 2014. RESERVES FOR DECREASING ELECTRIC POWER PRICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suslov N. I.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work we considered the trajectories of change in indicators characterizing the status of economics and power industry: gross regional product, electric power consumption, industrial production, energy prices and costs of delivering electric power to consumers in Russian regions for the last 10 years. Low global commodity prices and sanctions led to a sharp decrease of equipment import, which resulted in an acute problem of import substitution. The level of tariffs of natural monopolies is of great importance for industrial development. The goal of this work was to analyze possibilities for reducing electric power prices by changing the institutional and economic conditions of management. We analyzed not only the official information from Rosstat, but also government regulations, figures given in the official government publication «The Rossiyskaya Gazeta» as well as articles and interviews on economic problems of the electric power industry over the recent years published in «The Kommersant» newspaper. High tariffs of network marketing companies for electric energy transmission, state regulation of heating prices, financing the construction of new capacities by charging the payment in power provision contracts, high price of electric power of nuclear power plants lead to an annual increase in electric power prices for end users. In this work we considered possible solutions to limit the growth of electric power prices.

  5. Analysis of gross error rates in operation of commercial nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joos, D.W.; Sabri, Z.A.; Husseiny, A.A.

    1979-01-01

    Experience in operation of US commercial nuclear power plants is reviewed over a 25-month period. The reports accumulated in that period on events of human error and component failure are examined to evaluate gross operator error rates. The impact of such errors on plant operation and safety is examined through the use of proper taxonomies of error, tasks and failures. Four categories of human errors are considered; namely, operator, maintenance, installation and administrative. The computed error rates are used to examine appropriate operator models for evaluation of operator reliability. Human error rates are found to be significant to a varying degree in both BWR and PWR. This emphasizes the import of considering human factors in safety and reliability analysis of nuclear systems. The results also indicate that human errors, and especially operator errors, do indeed follow the exponential reliability model. (Auth.)

  6. Gross anatomy and histology of the alimentary system of Characidae (Teleostei: Ostariophysi: Characiformes) and potential phylogenetic information

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso,Felipe; Mirande,Juan Marcos; Pandolfi,Matías

    2015-01-01

    A compared study of the morphology of the alimentary tract and liver of seven selected species corresponding to the main clades of the Characidae family is presented herein. Three new set of characters corresponding to 1) alimentary tract gross anatomy, 2) alimentary tract histology and 3) liver gross anatomy are evaluated as potential sources of data for future phylogenetic studies of the Characidae. Not considerable interspecific variation was observed at the histological level and therefor...

  7. Potentials of wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezrukikh, P.P.; Bezrukikh, P.P.

    2000-01-01

    The ecological advantages of the wind power facilities (WPF) are considered. The possibilities of small WPF, generating the capacity from 40 W up to 10 kW, are discussed. The basic technical data on the national and foreign small WPF are presented. The combined wind power systems are considered. Special attention is paid to the most perspective wind-diesel systems, which provide for all possible versions of the electro-power supply. Useful recommendations and information on the wind power engineering are given for those, who decided to build up a wind facility [ru

  8. Floating Offshore Wind in California: Gross Potential for Jobs and Economic Impacts from Two Future Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speer, Bethany [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Keyser, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tegen, Suzanne [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-04-18

    Construction of the first offshore wind farm in the United States began in 2015, using fixed platform structures that are appropriate for shallow seafloors, like those located off of the East Coast and mid-Atlantic. However, floating platforms, which have yet to be deployed commercially, will likely need to anchor to the deeper seafloor if deployed off of the West Coast. To analyze the employment and economic potential for floating offshore wind along the West Coast, the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) has commissioned the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to analyze two hypothetical, large-scale deployment scenarios for California: 16 GW of offshore wind by 2050 (Scenario A) and 10 GW of offshore wind by 2050 (Scenario B). The results of this analysis can be used to better understand the general scales of economic opportunities that could result from offshore wind development. Results show total state gross domestic product (GDP) impacts of $16.2 billion in Scenario B or $39.7 billion in Scenario A for construction; and $3.5 billion in Scenario B or $7.9 billion in Scenario A for the operations phases.

  9. Potentiality Prediction of Electric Power Replacement Based on Power Market Development Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Bo; Yang, Shuo; Liu, Qiang; Lin, Jingyi; Zhao, Le; Liu, Chang; Li, Bin

    2017-05-01

    The application of electric power replacement plays an important role in promoting the development of energy conservation and emission reduction in our country. To exploit the potentiality of regional electric power replacement, the regional GDP (gross domestic product) and energy consumption are taken as potentiality evaluation indicators. The principal component factors are extracted with PCA (principal component analysis), and the integral potentiality analysis is made to the potentiality of electric power replacement in the national various regions; a region is taken as a research object, and the potentiality of electric power replacement is defined and quantified. The analytical model for the potentiality of multi-scenario electric power replacement is developed, and prediction is made to the energy consumption with the grey prediction model. The relevant theoretical research is utilized to realize prediction analysis on the potentiality amount of multi-scenario electric power replacement.

  10. Monitoring of gross alpha in the air and exposure gamma radiation on and around the coal fire power at Paiton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutarman; Warsono, Asep

    1998-01-01

    Coal is burned in furnace operating at up to 1,700 o C in order to produce electrical energy and ash (bottom ash and fly-ash). The fly-ash is released to the atmosphere or environment around the coal fire power. Therefore, the environmental radioactivity monitoring should be carried out for gross alpha in the air and exposure gamma radiation. The measurement of gross alpha have been carried out using the alpha scintillation counter with the ZnS(Ag) detector, and measurement of gamma radiation using the high pressure ion chamber. The results obtained showed that the gross alpha in the air were the ranging from (7.1 ± 1,2) mBq m -3 to (12.2 ± 1.9) mBq m -3 and the exposure gamma radiation were (3.69 ± 0.11) μR/h to (9.55 ± 0.15) μR/h. The data were still lower than the limit of the maximum permissible concentration and annual intake for breathing but the gross alpha data were higher than in the nuclear installations. (authors)

  11. Hydro-electric power - potential and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amundsen, T.

    1995-01-01

    This paper focuses on efficiency improvement in electric power production by matching the different characteristics for thermal power and hydropower. The paper introduces secondary hydropower defined as available power stored as hydro-energy in water reservoirs as a key element to achieve this goal. The iron-locked connection between GDP (Gross Domestic Product) and power consumption is discussed. As it also is a general understanding that GDP has to increase to accommodate the world's growing population, the unavoidable conclusion is that more power is to be produced. 3 figs

  12. Hydro-electric power - potential and limitations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amundsen, T.

    1995-12-31

    This paper focuses on efficiency improvement in electric power production by matching the different characteristics for thermal power and hydropower. The paper introduces secondary hydropower defined as available power stored as hydro-energy in water reservoirs as a key element to achieve this goal. The iron-locked connection between GDP (Gross Domestic Product) and power consumption is discussed. As it also is a general understanding that GDP has to increase to accommodate the world`s growing population, the unavoidable conclusion is that more power is to be produced. 3 figs.

  13. Generation of matter-wave solitons of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation with a time-dependent complicated potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamadou, Alidou [Condensed Matter Laboratory, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Douala, P.O. Box 24157, Douala (Cameroon); Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, P.O. Box 538, Strada Costiera 11, I-34014 Trieste (Italy); Wamba, Etienne; Kofane, Timoleon C. [Laboratory of Mechanics, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Yaounde I, P.O. Box 812, Yaounde (Cameroon); Doka, Serge Y. [Higher Teacher Training College, University of Maroua, P.O. Box 55, Maroua (Cameroon); Ekogo, Thierry B. [Departement de Physique, Universite des Sciences et Techniques de Masuku, B.P. 943, Franceville (Gabonese Republic)

    2011-08-15

    We examine the generation of bright matter-wave solitons in the Gross-Pitaevskii equation describing Bose-Einstein condensates with a time-dependent complex potential, which is composed of a repulsive parabolic background potential and a gravitational field. By performing a modified lens-type transformation, an explicit expression for the growth rate of a purely growing modulational instability is presented and analyzed. We point out the effects of the gravitational field, as well as of the parameter related to the feeding or loss of atoms in the condensate, on the instability growth rate. It is evident from numerical simulations that the feeding with atoms and the magnetic trap have opposite effects on the dynamics of the system. It is shown that the feeding or loss parameter can be well used to control the instability domain. Our study shows that the gravitational field changes the condensate trail of the soliton trains during the propagation. We also perform a numerical analysis to solve the Gross-Pitaevskii equation with a time-dependent complicated potential. The numerical results on the effect of both the gravitational field and the parameter of feeding or loss of atoms in the condensate agree well with predictions of the linear stability analysis. Another result of the present work is the modification of the background wave function in the Thomas-Fermi approximation during the numerical simulations.

  14. Combination of bioleaching by gross bacterial biosurfactants and flocculation: A potential remediation for the heavy metal contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhihui; Shi, Wei; Yang, Weichun; Liang, Lifen; Yao, Wenbin; Chai, Liyuan; Gao, Shikang; Liao, Qi

    2018-09-01

    Combining bioleaching by the gross biosurfactants of Burkholderia sp. Z-90 and flocculation by poly aluminium chloride (PAC) was proposed to develop a potential environment-friendly and cost-effective technique to remediate the severely contaminated soils by heavy metals. The factors affecting soil bioleaching by the gross biosurfactants of Burkholderia sp. Z-90 were optimized. The results showed the optimal removing efficiencies of Zn, Pb, Mn, Cd, Cu, and As by the Burkholderia sp. Z-90 leachate were 44.0, 32.5, 52.2, 37.7, 24.1 and 31.6%, respectively at soil liquid ratio of 1:20 (w/v) for 5 d, which were more efficient than that by 0.1% of rhamnolipid. The amounts of the bioleached heavy metals by the Burkholderia sp. Z-90 leachate were higher than that by other biosurfactants in the previous studies, although the removal efficiencies of the metals by the leachate were relatively lower. It was suggested that more heavy metals caused more competitive to chelate with function groups of the gross biosurfactants and the metal removal efficiencies by biosurfactants in natural soils were lower than in the artificially contaminated soils. Moreover, the Burkholderia sp. Z-90 leachate facilitated the metals to be transformed to the easily migrating speciation fractions. Additional, the results showed that PAC was efficient in the following flocculation to remove heavy metals in the waste bio-leachates. Our study will provide support for developing a bioleaching technique model to remediate the soils extremely contaminated by heavy metals. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Quantification of the Potential Gross Economic Impacts of Five Methane Reduction Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keyser, David [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Warner, Ethan [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Curley, Christina [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    2015-04-23

    Methane (CH4) is a potent greenhouse gas that is released from the natural gas supply chain into the atmosphere as a result of fugitive emissions1 and venting2 . We assess five potential CH4 reduction scenarios from transmission, storage, and distribution (TS&D) using published literature on the costs and the estimated quantity of CH4 reduced. We utilize cost and methane inventory data from ICF (2014) and Warner et al. (forthcoming) as well as data from Barrett and McCulloch (2014) and the American Gas Association (AGA) (2013) to estimate that the implementation of these measures could support approximately 85,000 jobs annually from 2015 to 2019 and reduce CH4 emissions from natural gas TS&D by over 40%. Based on standard input/output analysis methodology, measures are estimated to support over $8 billion in GDP annually over the same time period and allow producers to recover approximately $912 million annually in captured gas.

  16. Gross-Pitaevskii equation for Bose particles in a double-well potential: Two-mode models and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ananikian, D.; Bergeman, T.

    2006-01-01

    In this work, our primary goal has been to explore the range of validity of two-mode models for Bose-Einstein condensates in double-well potentials. Our derivation, like others, uses symmetric and antisymmetric condensate basis functions for the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. In what we call an 'improved two-mode model' (I2M), the tunneling coupling energy explicitly includes a nonlinear interaction term, which has been given previously in the literature but not widely appreciated. We show that when the atom number (and hence the extent of the wave function) in each well vary appreciably with time, the nonlinear interaction term produces a temporal change in the tunneling energy or rate, which has not previously been considered to our knowledge. In addition, we obtain a parameter, labeled ''interaction tunneling,'' that produces a decrease of the tunneling energy when the wave functions in the two wells overlap to some extent. Especially for larger values of the nonlinear interaction term, results from this model produce better agreement with numerical solutions of the time-dependent Gross-Pitaevskii equation in one and three dimensions, as compared with models that have no interaction term in the tunneling energy. The usefulness of this model is demonstrated by good agreement with recent experimental results for the tunneling oscillation frequency [Albiez et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 010402 (2005)]. We also present equations and results for a multimode approach, and use the I2M model to obtain modified equations for the second-quantized version of the Bose-Einstein double-well problem

  17. Massive Gross-Neveu model in the leading order of the 1/N expansion. Allowance for the temperature and the chemical potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimenko, K.G.

    1988-01-01

    The massive Gross-Neveu model is treated self-consistently in the leading order of the 1/N expansion. The properties of the model when the temperature and the chemical potential are included are studied. It is shown that there exists a critical value of the chemical potential at which the effective mass of the fermion abruptly changes its value

  18. Non-coulombic effective power-law potential for the heavy quarkoniums

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barik, N; Jena, S N [Utkal Univ., Bhubaneswar (India). Dept. of Physics

    1980-12-01

    An effective power-law potential of the form V(r) = 6.08 r/sup 0/sup(.)/sup 106/ - 6.41 is found to describe satisfactorily the gross features of the mass spectra and the leptonic width ratios of the cc and bb systems in a flavour-independent manner.

  19. A non-coulombic effective power-law potential for the heavy quarkoniums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barik, N.; Jena, S.N.

    1980-01-01

    An effective power-law potential of the form V(r) = 6.08 r 0 sup(.) 106 - 6.41 is found to describe satisfactorily the gross features of the mass spectra and the leptonic width ratios of the cc and bb systems in a flavour-independent manner. (orig.)

  20. GEC Alsthom put their hopes on fuel cells: A large potential for PEM fuel cells; GEC Alsthom setzt auf Brennstoffzellen: Grosses Potential fuer PEMFC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon,

    1998-07-01

    Fuel cells are regarded as one of the high-tech products of great promise for future energy supplies. High hopes are pinned on the PEM technology: This low-temperature fuel cell is applicable to both mobile applications as well as stationary systems, i.e. from small-scale heating systems through to CHP systems of medium output. GEC Alsthom, who entered into a strategic alliance with Ballard, the market leader in fuel cell technology, are the first power plant manufacturers to commit themselves in the fuel cell market sector. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Brennstoffzellen gelten als einer der Hoffnungstraeger der zukuenftigen Energieversorgung. Grosse Erwartungen werden dabei in die PEM-Technologie gesetzt: Diese Niedertemperatur-Brennstoffzelle eignet sich sowohl fuer mobile Anwendungen als auch fuer den stationaeren Einsatz - von kleinen Hausheizungsanlagen bis hin zu BHKW mittlerer Leistungklasse. Mit GEC Alsthom und seinem Engagement beim Marktfuehrer Ballard steigt nun erstmals ein grosser Energieanlagenhersteller verstaerkt in dieses Marktsegment ein. (orig.)

  1. Wind Power Potential at Abandoned Mines in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    jang, M.; Choi, Y.; Park, H.; Go, W.

    2013-12-01

    This study performed an assessment of wind power potential at abandoned mines in the Kangwon province by analyzing gross energy production, greenhouse gas emission reduction and economic effects estimated from a 600 kW wind turbine. Wind resources maps collected from the renewable energy data center in Korea Institute of Energy Research(KIER) were used to determine the average wind speed, temperature and atmospheric pressure at hub height(50 m) for each abandoned mine. RETScreen software developed by Natural Resources Canada(NRC) was utilized for the energy, emission and financial analyses of wind power systems. Based on the results from 5 representative mining sites, we could know that the average wind speed at hub height is the most critical factor for assessing the wind power potential. Finally, 47 abandoned mines that have the average wind speed faster than 6.5 m/s were analyzed, and top 10 mines were suggested as relatively favorable sites with high wind power potential in the Kangwon province.

  2. The potential of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hore-Lacy, I.

    1989-01-01

    The main issues addressed include: the economics of nuclear power by comparison with coal-fired electricity generation, environmental considerations in relation with greenhouse gases and radiation increment, waste disposal and reprocessing of spent fuel. A number of ethical issues have also been briefly outlined and refer to alternative/highest use of earth resources, energy conservation, the safety of humanity, weapon proliferation, high level wastes and relationships to democratic institutions. 3 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig

  3. Translocation and gross deletion breakpoints in human inherited disease and cancer II: Potential involvement of repetitive sequence elements in secondary structure formation between DNA ends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuzhanova, Nadia; Abeysinghe, Shaun S; Krawczak, Michael; Cooper, David N

    2003-09-01

    Translocations and gross deletions are responsible for a significant proportion of both cancer and inherited disease. Although such gene rearrangements are nonuniformly distributed in the human genome, the underlying mutational mechanisms remain unclear. We have studied the potential involvement of various types of repetitive sequence elements in the formation of secondary structure intermediates between the single-stranded DNA ends that recombine during rearrangements. Complexity analysis was used to assess the potential of these ends to form secondary structures, the maximum decrease in complexity consequent to a gross rearrangement being used as an indicator of the type of repeat and the specific DNA ends involved. A total of 175 pairs of deletion/translocation breakpoint junction sequences available from the Gross Rearrangement Breakpoint Database [GRaBD; www.uwcm.ac.uk/uwcm/mg/grabd/grabd.html] were analyzed. Potential secondary structure was noted between the 5' flanking sequence of the first breakpoint and the 3' flanking sequence of the second breakpoint in 49% of rearrangements and between the 5' flanking sequence of the second breakpoint and the 3' flanking sequence of the first breakpoint in 36% of rearrangements. Inverted repeats, inversions of inverted repeats, and symmetric elements were found in association with gross rearrangements at approximately the same frequency. However, inverted repeats and inversions of inverted repeats accounted for the vast majority (83%) of deletions plus small insertions, symmetric elements for one-half of all antigen receptor-mediated translocations, while direct repeats appear only to be involved in mediating simple deletions. These findings extend our understanding of illegitimate recombination by highlighting the importance of secondary structure formation between single-stranded DNA ends at breakpoint junctions. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. [The "Baltic Frontier" revisited. Power structures and gross-cultural interactions in the Baltic region. Proceedings of the international symposium in Florence, February 29th and March Ist, 2008] / Karsten Brüggemann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Brüggemann, Karsten, 1965-

    2010-01-01

    Arvustus: The "Baltic Frontier" revisited. Power structures and gross-cultural interactions in the Baltic region. Proceedings of the international symposium in Florence, February 29th and March Ist, 2008. Vienna, 2009

  5. Wind power potential and integration in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agbetuyi, A.F.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Wind energy penetration into power networks is increasing very rapidly all over the world. The great concern about global warming and continued apprehensions about nuclear power around the world should drive most countries in Africa into strong demand for wind generation because of its advantages which include the absence of harmful emissions, very clean and almost infinite availability of wind that is converted into electricity. This paper shows the power available in the wind. It also gives an overview of the wind power potential and integration in some selected Africa countries like Egypt, Morocco, South Africa and Nigeria and the challenges of wind power integration in Africa’s continent are also discussed. The Northern part of Africa is known to be Africa’s Wind pioneers having installed and connected the Wind Energy Converters (WEC to the grid. About 97% of the continent’s total wind installations are located in Egypt, Morocco and Tunisia. Research work should commence on the identified sites with high wind speeds in those selected Africa countries, so that those potential sites can be connected to the grid. This is because the ability of a site to sufficiently accommodate wind generation not only depends on wind speeds but on its ability to interconnect to the existing grid. If these wind energy potentials are tapped and connected to the grid, the erratic and epileptic power supply facing most countries in Africa will be reduced; thereby reducing rural-urban migration and more jobs will be created.

  6. Sub-Saharan hydroelectric power development potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazenby, J.B.C.

    1991-01-01

    Though evidencing a power demand which is amongst the lowest in the world, the sub-Saharan regions of Africa are blessed with an enormous hydroelectric power resource potential, which, if suitably developed and tapped, may become a source of economic electric energy for Europe. With the aid of numerous statistical supply and demand data, this paper surveys the marketing potential of this energy source in Africa. The analysis of future development prospects is carried out with reference to the local socio-economic framework

  7. A great potential for market power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trong, Maj Dang

    2003-01-01

    In a report the competition authorities of Norway, Sweden and Denmark conclude that there is a great potential for exerting market power in the Nordic countries. Bottlenecks in the transmission grid divide the Nordic market in shifting constellations of geographic markets and the market concentration in each market may therefore become very high

  8. Wave power potential in Malaysian territorial waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmida Mohd Nasir, Nor; Maulud, Khairul Nizam Abdul

    2016-06-01

    Up until today, Malaysia has used renewable energy technology such as biomass, solar and hydro energy for power generation and co-generation in palm oil industries and also for the generation of electricity, yet, we are still far behind other countries which have started to optimize waves for similar production. Wave power is a renewable energy (RE) transported by ocean waves. It is very eco-friendly and is easily reachable. This paper presents an assessment of wave power potential in Malaysian territorial waters including waters of Sabah and Sarawak. In this research, data from Malaysia Meteorology Department (MetMalaysia) is used and is supported by a satellite imaginary obtained from National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Malaysia Remote Sensing Agency (ARSM) within the time range of the year 1992 until 2007. There were two types of analyses conducted which were mask analysis and comparative analysis. Mask analysis of a research area is the analysis conducted to filter restricted and sensitive areas. Meanwhile, comparative analysis is an analysis conducted to determine the most potential area for wave power generation. Four comparative analyses which have been carried out were wave power analysis, comparative analysis of wave energy power with the sea topography, hot-spot area analysis and comparative analysis of wave energy with the wind speed. These four analyses underwent clipping processes using Geographic Information System (GIS) to obtain the final result. At the end of this research, the most suitable area to develop a wave energy converter was found, which is in the waters of Terengganu and Sarawak. Besides that, it was concluded that the average potential energy that can be generated in Malaysian territorial waters is between 2.8kW/m to 8.6kW/m.

  9. Classical orbits in power-law potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, A.K.; Rosner, J.L.

    1994-01-01

    The motion of bodies in power-law potentials of the form V(r)=λr α has been of interest ever since the time of Newton and Hooke. Aspects of the relation between powers α and bar α, where (α+2)(bar α+2)=4, are derived for classical motion and the relation to the quantum-mechanical problem is given. An improvement on a previous expression for the WKB quantization condition for nonzero orbital angular momenta is obtained. Relations with previous treatments, such as those of Newton, Bertrand, Bohlin, Faure, and Arnold, are noted, and a brief survey of the literature on the problem over more than three centuries is given

  10. A simplified, coarse-mesh, three-dimensional diffusion scheme for calculating the gross power distribution in a boiling water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borresen, S.

    1995-01-01

    A simplified, finite-difference diffusion scheme for a three-dimensional calculation of the gross power distribution in the core of a boiling water reactor (BWR) is presented. Results obtained in a series of one- and two-dimensional test cases indicate that this method may be of sufficient accuracy and simplicity for implementation in BWR-simulator computer programs. Computer requirements are very modest; thus, only 3N memory locations are required for in-core treatment of the inner iteration in the solution of a problem with N mesh points. The mesh width may be chosen equal to the fuel assembly pitch. Input data are in the form of conventional 2-group diffusion parameters. It is concluded that the method presented has definite advantages in comparison with the nodal coupling method. (author)

  11. Screening action potentials: The power of light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars eKaestner

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Action potentials reflect the concerted activity of all electrogenic constituents in the plasma membrane during the excitation of a cell. Therefore, the action potential is an integrated readout and a promising parameter to detect electrophysiological failures or modifications thereof in diagnosis as well as in drug screens. Cellular action potentials can be recorded by optical approaches. To fulfill the pre-requirements to scale up for e.g. pharmacological screens the following preparatory work has to be provided: (i model cells under investigation need to represent target cells in the best possible manner; (ii optical sensors that can be either small molecule dyes or genetically encoded potential probes need to provide a reliable readout with minimal interaction with the naive behavior of the cells and (iii devices need to be capable to stimulate the cells, read out the signals with the appropriate speed as well as provide the capacity for a sufficient throughput. Here we discuss several scenarios for all three categories in the field of cardiac physiology and pharmacology and provide a perspective to use the power of light in screening cardiac action potentials.

  12. NM Gross Receipts Baseline

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  13. Gross National Happiness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giri, Krishna Prasad; Kjær-Rasmussen, Lone Krogh

    This paper investigates practices related to the ideology of infusing Gross National Happiness (GNH) into school curriculum, the effectiveness of the meditation and mind training and the implication of GNH for school environment. It also explores how GNH ambience has been managed and practiced...... of Gross National Happiness and Educating for Gross National happiness....

  14. Gross xenon stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewins, J.D.; Wilson, P.P.H.

    1997-01-01

    The effect of xenon in thermal reactors on steady operation is generally destabilizing. Illustrating this involves the study of appropriate transfer functions, which may be conveniently displayed in three ways: as Bode, Nyquist, and root-locus diagrams. The three forms allow different aspects to be highlighted. These are illustrated for the effect of xenon with allowance not only for the stabilizing effect of the direct yield in fission but also to show the consequences of neglecting the time dependence due to the thermal capacity of the reactor. With careful interpretation, all these forms give an interpretation of stability that is consistent with direct evaluation and promote the understanding of the onset of gross oscillations in power

  15. Renewable energy. The power and the potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    In late 1985, the Public Advisory Committees to the Environmental Council of Alberta began working toward a draft conservation strategy for Alberta. A prospectus was published and meetings and workshops held, the goal being a conservation strategy in place by 1992. This report is one of a series of discussion papers on relevant sectors such as agriculture, fish and wildlife, tourism, and energy production. This report focuses on the present and potential economic significance of renewable energy resources, excluding hydro power, and their capability to meet Alberta's demand. Renewable energy sources discussed include solar, wind, geothermal, biomass, and energy from waste, with economic significance and demand projections for each, as well as their interactions with conventional sources. Their use in low-temperature space heating, industrial process heat, liquid fuels, and electricity is also detailed. Current legislative and regulatory requirements for each of the renewables is given, as well as an attempt at policy formulation to deal with the use of renewables as a whole. 4 figs.

  16. Potential of hydroelectric power in the Alps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schleiss, A.

    2002-01-01

    This article presents in detail the current hydro power production, consumption and export in the six main countries using this alpine energy resource: France, Germany, Austria, Italy, Slovenia and Switzerland. For the time being, one quarter of the Alps' hydro energy resource is still unused. The article discusses the opportunity offered by the current European electricity market deregulation to extend alpine hydro power use. For each country, the expected increase in production capacity, including technical, geographical and economic aspects, is analysed and reported in several figures and tables

  17. Effects of Respiration-Averaged Computed Tomography on Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography Quantification and its Potential Impact on Gross Tumor Volume Delineation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chi, Pai-Chun Melinda; Mawlawi, Osama; Luo Dershan; Liao Zhongxing; Macapinlac, Homer A.; Pan Tinsu

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Patient respiratory motion can cause image artifacts in positron emission tomography (PET) from PET/computed tomography (CT) and change the quantification of PET for thoracic patients. In this study, respiration-averaged CT (ACT) was used to remove the artifacts, and the changes in standardized uptake value (SUV) and gross tumor volume (GTV) were quantified. Methods and Materials: We incorporated the ACT acquisition in a PET/CT session for 216 lung patients, generating two PET/CT data sets for each patient. The first data set (PET HCT /HCT) contained the clinical PET/CT in which PET was attenuation corrected with a helical CT (HCT). The second data set (PET ACT /ACT) contained the PET/CT in which PET was corrected with ACT. We quantified the differences between the two datasets in image alignment, maximum SUV (SUV max ), and GTV contours. Results: Of the patients, 68% demonstrated respiratory artifacts in the PET HCT , and for all patients the artifact was removed or reduced in the corresponding PET ACT . The impact of respiration artifact was the worst for lesions less than 50 cm 3 and located below the dome of the diaphragm. For lesions in this group, the mean SUV max difference, GTV volume change, shift in GTV centroid location, and concordance index were 21%, 154%, 2.4 mm, and 0.61, respectively. Conclusion: This study benchmarked the differences between the PET data with and without artifacts. It is important to pay attention to the potential existence of these artifacts during GTV contouring, as such artifacts may increase the uncertainties in the lesion volume and the centroid location

  18. Preinflationary dynamics in loop quantum cosmology: Power-law potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahalam, M.; Sharma, Manabendra; Wu, Qiang; Wang, Anzhong

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, we study the preinflationary dynamics for the power-law potential [V (ϕ )∝ϕn] with n consideration and compare our results with the ones obtained previously for different potentials.

  19. Corrosion potential monitoring in nuclear power environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molander, A.

    2004-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: corrosion monitoring. The corrosion potential is usually an important parameter or even the prime parameter for many types of corrosion processes. One typical example of the strong influence of the corrosion potential on corrosion performance is stress corrosion of sensitized stainless steel in pure high temperature water corresponding to boiling water conditions. The use of in-plant monitoring to follow the effect of hydrogen addition to mitigate stress corrosion in boiling water reactors is now a well-established technique. However, different relations between the corrosion potential of stainless steel and the oxidant concentration have been published and only recently an improved understanding of the electrochemical reactions and other conditions that determine the corrosion potential in BWR systems have been reached. This improved knowledge will be reviewed in this paper. Electrochemical measurements has also been performed in PWR systems and mainly the feedwater system on the secondary side of PWRs. The measurements performed so far have shown that electrochemical measurements are a very sensitive tool to detect and follow oxygen transients in the feedwater system. Also determinations of the minimum hydrazine dosage to the feedwater have been performed. However, PWR secondary side monitoring has not yet been utilized to the same level as BWR hydrogen water chemistry surveillance. The future potential of corrosion potential monitoring will be discussed. Electrochemical measurements are also performed in other reactor systems and in other types of reactors. Experiences will be briefly reviewed. In a BWR on hydrogen water chemistry and in the PWR secondary system the corrosion potentials show a large variation between different system parts. To postulate the material behavior at different locations the local chemical and electrochemical conditions must be known. Thus, modeling of chemical and electrochemical conditions along

  20. Estimation of salinity power potential in India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Das, V.K.; RamaRaju, D.V.

    Salinity gradient as a source of energy has much potential, but this has been recognized only recently. The energy density of this source is equivalent to about 250 m water head for a salinity difference of 35 ppt. This source exists...

  1. Gross Sales Tax Collections

    Data.gov (United States)

    City of Jackson, Mississippi — This data is captured directly from the MS Department of Revenue and specific to the City of Jackson. It is compiled from Gross Sales Tax reported by taxpayers each...

  2. Loovkirjutamist õpetab Philip Gross

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    T.S. Elioti luulepreemia laureaat Philip Gross on Tallinna Ülikooli talvekooli rahvusvahelise kursuse "Poetry: A Conversation between Words and Silence" läbiviija. Oma seminarides keskendub ta lisaks loovkirjutamisele ka loova lugemise vajadusele

  3. COMPARISON OF THE TRADITIONAL CHALK AND BOARD LECTURE SYSTEM VERSUS POWER POINT PRESENTATION AS A TEACHING TECHNIQUE FOR TEACHING GROSS ANATOMY TO THE FIRST PROFESSIONAL MEDICAL STUDENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Nusrat; Abdul

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally and conventionally, gross anatomy is taught by lectures and cadaveric dissection and the lectures are taken with chalk and board (C&B) or chalk and talk method in, India. But there is always a debate over the most effective method of lecture delivery. AIM : The aim of this study was to compare the role and effecti...

  4. Potential of wind power projects under the Clean Development Mechanism in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaelowa Axel

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background So far, the cumulative installed capacity of wind power projects in India is far below their gross potential (≤ 15% despite very high level of policy support, tax benefits, long term financing schemes etc., for more than 10 years etc. One of the major barriers is the high costs of investments in these systems. The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM of the Kyoto Protocol provides industrialized countries with an incentive to invest in emission reduction projects in developing countries to achieve a reduction in CO2 emissions at lowest cost that also promotes sustainable development in the host country. Wind power projects could be of interest under the CDM because they directly displace greenhouse gas emissions while contributing to sustainable rural development, if developed correctly. Results Our estimates indicate that there is a vast theoretical potential of CO2 mitigation by the use of wind energy in India. The annual potential Certified Emissions Reductions (CERs of wind power projects in India could theoretically reach 86 million. Under more realistic assumptions about diffusion of wind power projects based on past experiences with the government-run programmes, annual CER volumes by 2012 could reach 41 to 67 million and 78 to 83 million by 2020. Conclusion The projections based on the past diffusion trend indicate that in India, even with highly favorable assumptions, the dissemination of wind power projects is not likely to reach its maximum estimated potential in another 15 years. CDM could help to achieve the maximum utilization potential more rapidly as compared to the current diffusion trend if supportive policies are introduced.

  5. Global wind power potential: Physical and technological limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Carlos de; Mediavilla, Margarita; Miguel, Luis Javier; Frechoso, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    This paper is focused on a new methodology for the global assessment of wind power potential. Most of the previous works on the global assessment of the technological potential of wind power have used bottom-up methodologies (e.g. ). Economic, ecological and other assessments have been developed, based on these technological capacities. However, this paper tries to show that the reported regional and global technological potential are flawed because they do not conserve the energetic balance on Earth, violating the first principle of energy conservation (). We propose a top-down approach, such as that in , to evaluate the physical-geographical potential and, for the first time, to evaluate the global technological wind power potential, while acknowledging energy conservation. The results give roughly 1 TW for the top limit of the future electrical potential of wind energy. This value is much lower than previous estimates and even lower than economic and realizable potentials published for the mid-century (e.g. ). - Highlights: → Reported wind power potentials are flawed because they violate energy conservation. → For the first time, it is evaluated the technological wind power potential with a top-down approach. → Our results show 1 TWe for the limit of wind power energy, which is much lower than previous estimates.

  6. Requirement of radiochemical recovery determination for gross alpha and gross beta estimation in drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raveendran, Nanda; Rao, D.D.; Hegde, A.G.

    2010-01-01

    Presence of radionuclides in drinking water which emits Alpha and Beta particles are the potential sources of internal exposure in drinking water. Gross alpha and gross beta determination in drinking water and packaged drinking water (PDW) as per BIS (Bureau of Indian standards) standards is discussed here. The methods have been tested to account for losses in the radiochemical procedures using radionuclides such as 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 226 Ra, 239 Pu, 243 Am, 232 U. The methods have also been validated in an IAEA proficiency test conducted during 2009. Monitoring of gross alpha and gross beta activity observed in drinking water/packaged drinking water from various states of India were within the limits set by BIS. Average radiochemical recoveries of 84% and 63% were obtained for gross α and gross β respectively. (author)

  7. Cost reduction potentials in the German market for balancing power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flinkerbusch, Kai; Heuterkes, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This article examines potential cost reductions in the market for balancing power by pooling all four German control areas. In a united control area both the procurement and the production of balancing power may be more efficient than in four separated control areas. Our data contain bids on energy procurement as well as balancing power flows in the period from December 2007 to November 2008. A reference scenario simulates the market results for secondary and tertiary balancing power. Subsequently, we simulate a united control area. We show that in the period under review the total costs of balancing power are reduced by 17%. (author)

  8. Quantum Gross-Pitaevskii Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jutho Haegeman, Damian Draxler, Vid Stojevic, J. Ignacio Cirac, Tobias J. Osborne, Frank Verstraete

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a non-commutative generalization of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation for one-dimensional quantum gasses and quantum liquids. This generalization is obtained by applying the time-dependent variational principle to the variational manifold of continuous matrix product states. This allows for a full quantum description of many body system ---including entanglement and correlations--- and thus extends significantly beyond the usual mean-field description of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation, which is known to fail for (quasi one-dimensional systems. By linearizing around a stationary solution, we furthermore derive an associated generalization of the Bogoliubov -- de Gennes equations. This framework is applied to compute the steady state response amplitude to a periodic perturbation of the potential.

  9. Small-scale power plant potential in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helynen, S.

    1993-01-01

    The presentation discusses the small-scale power plant potential in Finland. The study of the potential is limited to W-scale power plants producing both electric power and heat using solid fuels. The basic power plant dimensioning and electric power load determination is based on traditional boiler and gas turbine technology. The possible sites for power plants are communities using district heating, and industrialized sites needing process steam or heat. In 1990 70 % (17 TWh) of district heat was produced by gas turbines. Ten communities have an own back-pressure power plant, and 40 communities buy heat from industrial plants, owing back-pressure power generation. Additionally about 40 communes buy district heat from companies, owned by power companies and industry. Estimates of small-scale power plant potential has been made plant wise on the basis of district heat loads and industrial heat needs. The scale of the plants has been limited to scale 3 MWe or more. The choosing of the fuel depends on the local conditions. The cheapest indigenous fuels in many communes are industrial wood wastes, and both milled and sod peat. The potential of steam technology based small-scale power plants has been estimated to be about 50 plants in 1992/1993, the total power of which is 220-260 MW. The largest estimate is base situation, in which there would be energy cooperation between the communes and industry. The fuel used by the power plants would be about 5.4-6.6 TWh/a corresponding to 270-330 million FIM/a. The total investment costs of the plants would be about 2.0 billion FIM. The plants would employ about 250 persons, and the fuel supply (wood or peat) about 100 persons

  10. A quantitative evaluation of gross versus histologic neuroma formation in a rabbit forelimb amputation model: potential implications for the operative treatment and study of neuromas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuiken Todd A

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Surgical treatment of neuromas involves excision of neuromas proximally to the level of grossly "normal" fascicles; however, proximal changes at the axonal level may have both functional and therapeutic implications with regard to amputated nerves. In order to better understand the retrograde "zone of injury" that occurs after nerve transection, we investigated the gross and histologic changes in transected nerves using a rabbit forelimb amputation model. Methods Four New Zealand White rabbits underwent a forelimb amputation with transection and preservation of the median, radial, and ulnar nerves. After 8 weeks, serial sections of the amputated nerves were then obtained in a distal-to-proximal direction toward the brachial plexus. Quantitative histomorphometric analysis was performed on all nerve specimens. Results All nerves demonstrated statistically significant increases in nerve cross-sectional area between treatment and control limbs at the distal nerve end, but these differences were not observed 10 mm more proximal to the neuroma bulb. At the axonal level, an increased number of myelinated fibers were seen at the distal end of all amputated nerves. The number of myelinated fibers progressively decreased in proximal sections, normalizing at 15 mm proximally, or the level of the brachial plexus. The cross-sectional area of myelinated fibers was significantly decreased in all sections of the treatment nerves, indicating that atrophic axonal changes proceed proximally at least to the level of the brachial plexus. Conclusions Morphologic changes at the axonal level extend beyond the region of gross neuroma formation in a distal-to-proximal fashion after nerve transection. This discrepancy between gross and histologic neuromas signifies the need for improved standardization among neuroma models, while also providing a fresh perspective on how we should view neuromas during peripheral nerve surgery.

  11. Alliance created to study wind-generated power potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Wind-generated power may get a boost from a new consortium of companies that have joined together to expand the potential across the country for this cheap, renewable energy source. Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation has announced that it will join with the Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG ampersand E), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and US Windpower, Inc., in developing an advanced, 33-meter, variable-speed wind turbine that reduced the cost and improves the power quality of wind energy. The majority of the estimated $20 million cost will be provided by US Windpower

  12. Bio-energy utilizes surplusses at the agricultural commodity markets. Large potentials of the biomass; Bioenergie verwertet Ueberschuesse an den Agrarmaerkten. Grosse Potenziale der Biomasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-03-19

    At the beginning of spring in the northern hemisphere, the situation in agricultural markets relaxes visibly. After the year 2012 was characterized by periods of drought in the United States and some Eastern European countries, in recent months good harvests in major producing countries in the southern hemisphere have provided that the stocks of major agricultural commodities are grown again. Thus, enough resources are still available for the supply of food and energy. There still exists land potential in Europe and on other continents for the use of bio-energy. In addition to new power plant crops, known arable crop cultures contribute to the exploration of such a potential: An example of this is the sugar beet. The view on the global supply balance in agricultural goods inter alia the major staple food rice shows that there exist large surpluses on the food markets. However, these surpluses do not benefit the hungry persons in the world. Hunger is a problem of distribution which is not associated with the growth of bio-energy.

  13. Combined Heat and Power Market Potential for Opportunity Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, David [Resource Dynamics Corporation, McLean, VA (United States); Lemar, Paul [Resource Dynamics Corporation, McLean, VA (United States

    2015-12-01

    This report estimates the potential for opportunity fuel combined heat and power (CHP) applications in the United States, and provides estimates for the technical and economic market potential compared to those included in an earlier report. An opportunity fuel is any type of fuel that is not widely used when compared to traditional fossil fuels. Opportunity fuels primarily consist of biomass fuels, industrial waste products and fossil fuel derivatives. These fuels have the potential to be an economically viable source of power generation in various CHP applications.

  14. Preliminary evaluation of wind power potential in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, M.M.; Azam, M.M.; Choudhury, M.G.M.

    1998-01-01

    Available wind speed data for six locations of Bangladesh have been analyzed with a view to assess the wind power potential of these locations. Regions having high wind potential are identified for the generation of electric energy by wind energy conversion systems (WECS). The wind power density varies from 12 to 650 W/m/sup 2/ in Bangladesh depending on the location and time of year. Among the six locations, Chittagang, a coastal station in the southeastern region of the country, possesses the maximum wind power density (1670650 W/m/sup 2/) and seems to be the most suitable location for establishing WECS. This study could be considered as the basis for further research and development effort on wind power application in Bangladesh. (authors)

  15. Potential role of power authorities in offshore wind power development in the US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhanju, Amardeep; Firestone, Jeremy; Kempton, Willett

    2011-01-01

    This article examines how power authorities could facilitate and manage offshore wind power development in US coastal waters. The power authority structure is an American 20th century institution for managing energy resources-a form of a public authority or public corporation dedicated to creating, operating and maintaining electric generation and transmission infrastructure. Offshore wind power is characterized by high capital costs but no fuel costs and thus low operating costs. Therefore a power authority, by virtue of its access to low-cost capital and managerial flexibility, could facilitate offshore wind power development by reducing financial risk of developing and lowering debt payments, thus improving the risk profile and lowering the cost of electricity production. Additionally, power authorities can be made up of multiple states, thus opening the possibility for joint action by neighboring coastal states. Using primary and secondary data, we undertake an in-depth analysis of the potential benefits and shortcomings of a power authority approach. - Highlights: → Proposes an institutional solution in the form of power authority for offshore wind power. → Power authority structure can significantly lower the cost of capital. → Tax-free bond financing available to power authority can significantly reduce the cost of energy. → It can enhance regional collaboration among coastal states to harness the offshore wind potential.

  16. Estimation of wind power potential of the Gulf of Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monzikova, Anna K.; Kudryavtsev, V.N.; Larsen, Søren Ejling

    2013-01-01

    boundary layer. Calculations of the wind power potential take into account effect of the atmospheric stratification over the water surface and peculiarities of the surface roughness in the presence of ice cover. Evaluations of the number of wind turbines needed to «replace» electricity production......An assessment of wind power potential of the eastern part of the Gulf of Finland and its seasonal variations are presented. Measurements taken from meteorological stations around the coastline are used as the input data. Calculations are based on the similarity theory for the atmospheric planetary...

  17. Investigation of wind power potential at Oran, northwest of Algeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boudia, Sidi Mohammed; Guerri, Ouahiba

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Wind resource assessment in the northwestern part of Algeria using WAsP Software. • Comparison between the performances of 6 WECs at 3 sites with great potential. • Assessment of the wind power cost per kW h of electricity produced. • Stall-regulated wind turbines are more appropriated for Site 1. • Pitch-regulated wind turbines are suggested for the windiest Site. - Abstract: In this work, ten years of wind data from Oran meteorological station have been used to evaluate the potential of wind power on the Oranie region, in the North-western part of Algeria, open on the Mediterranean Sea. The WAsP program was used to analyze the wind Atlas of the region to find the windiest areas. Three regions were chosen for their great wind potential. The study proposes to assess wind power cost per kW h of electricity produced using six types of WECs. The investigation at 10 m above ground at the location of the meteorological station shows that Oran has an average wind potential, with an annual mean wind speed equal to 4.2 m/s and an annual mean power density of 129 W/m 2 . The temporal study shows that spring period is the windiest with 4.9 m/s. In terms of energy production, the results show that the second site is the best location for harnessing the wind power to generate electricity. The minimum cost per kW h of electricity generated in that location is about 0.0181$/kW h with a capacity factor equal to 51.36% for an annual energy production equal to 11.14 GW h, given by the Power Wind 90 wind turbine of 2.5 MW power rated capacity.

  18. Market potential of IGCC for domestic power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, D.; Tomlinson, G.; Hawk, E.; Maskew, J.

    1999-01-01

    Mitretek Systems and CONSOL Inc. have completed the first phase of a market potential study for Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) domestic power production. The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) funded this study. The objective of this study is to provide DOE with data to estimate the future domestic market potential of IGCC for electricity generation. Major drivers in this study are the state of technology development, feedstock costs, environmental control costs, demand growth, and dispatchability. This study examines IGCC potential for baseload power production in the Northeast U. S., an important market area by virtue of existing coal infrastructure and proximity to coal producing regions. IGCC market potential was examined for two levels of technology development as a function of natural gas price and carbon tax. This paper discusses the results of this study, including the levels of performance and cost necessary to insure competitiveness with natural gas combined cycle plants

  19. Potential for sharing nuclear power infrastructure between countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-10-01

    The introduction or expansion of a nuclear power programme in a country and its successful execution is largely dependent on the network of national infrastructure, covering a wide range of activities and capabilities. The infrastructure areas include legal framework, safety and environmental regulatory bodies, international agreements, physical facilities, finance, education, training, human resources and public information and acceptance. The wide extent of infrastructure needs require an investment that can be too large or onerous for the national economy. The burden of infrastructure can be reduced significantly if a country forms a sharing partnership with other countries. The sharing can be at regional or at multinational level. It can include physical facilities, common programmes and knowledge, which will reflect in economic benefits. The sharing can also contribute in a significant manner to harmonization of codes and standards in general and regulatory framework in particular. The opportunities and potential of sharing nuclear power infrastructure is determined by the objectives, strategy and scenario of the national nuclear power programme. A review of individual infrastructure items shows that there are several opportunities for sharing of nuclear power infrastructure between countries if they cooperate with each other. International cooperation and sharing of nuclear power infrastructure are not new. This publication provides criteria and guidance for analyzing and identifying the potential for sharing of nuclear power infrastructure during the stages of nuclear power project life cycle. The target users are decision makers, advisers and senior managers in utilities, industrial organizations, regulatory bodies and governmental organizations in countries adopting or extending nuclear power programmes. This publication was produced within the IAEA programme directed to increase the capability of Member States to plan and implement nuclear power

  20. Expansion potential for existing nuclear power station sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cope, D. F.; Bauman, H. F.

    1977-09-26

    This report is a preliminary analysis of the expansion potential of the existing nuclear power sites, in particular their potential for development into nuclear energy centers (NECs) of 10 (GW(e) or greater. The analysis is based primarily on matching the most important physical characteristics of a site against the dominating site criteria. Sites reviewed consist mainly of those in the 1974 through 1976 ERDA Nuclear Power Stations listings without regard to the present status of reactor construction plans. Also a small number of potential NEC sites that are not associated with existing power stations were reviewed. Each site was categorized in terms of its potential as: a dispersed site of 5 GW(e) or less; a mini-NEC of 5 to 10 GW(e); NECs of 10 to 20 GW(e); and large NECs of more than 20 GW(e). The sites were categorized on their ultimate potential without regard to political considerations that might restrain their development. The analysis indicates that nearly 40 percent of existing sites have potential for expansion to nuclear energy centers.

  1. Expansion potential for existing nuclear power station sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cope, D.F.; Bauman, H.F.

    1977-01-01

    This report is a preliminary analysis of the expansion potential of the existing nuclear power sites, in particular their potential for development into nuclear energy centers (NECs) of 10 (GW(e) or greater. The analysis is based primarily on matching the most important physical characteristics of a site against the dominating site criteria. Sites reviewed consist mainly of those in the 1974 through 1976 ERDA Nuclear Power Stations listings without regard to the present status of reactor construction plans. Also a small number of potential NEC sites that are not associated with existing power stations were reviewed. Each site was categorized in terms of its potential as: a dispersed site of 5 GW(e) or less; a mini-NEC of 5 to 10 GW(e); NECs of 10 to 20 GW(e); and large NECs of more than 20 GW(e). The sites were categorized on their ultimate potential without regard to political considerations that might restrain their development. The analysis indicates that nearly 40 percent of existing sites have potential for expansion to nuclear energy centers

  2. Saturation wind power potential and its implications for wind energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Mark Z; Archer, Cristina L

    2012-09-25

    Wind turbines convert kinetic to electrical energy, which returns to the atmosphere as heat to regenerate some potential and kinetic energy. As the number of wind turbines increases over large geographic regions, power extraction first increases linearly, but then converges to a saturation potential not identified previously from physical principles or turbine properties. These saturation potentials are >250 terawatts (TW) at 100 m globally, approximately 80 TW at 100 m over land plus coastal ocean outside Antarctica, and approximately 380 TW at 10 km in the jet streams. Thus, there is no fundamental barrier to obtaining half (approximately 5.75 TW) or several times the world's all-purpose power from wind in a 2030 clean-energy economy.

  3. The Potential Wind Power Resource in Australia: A New Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallgren, Willow; Gunturu, Udaya Bhaskar; Schlosser, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Australia’s wind resource is considered to be very good, and the utilization of this renewable energy resource is increasing rapidly: wind power installed capacity increased by 35% from 2006 to 2011 and is predicted to account for over 12% of Australia’s electricity generation in 2030. Due to this growth in the utilization of the wind resource and the increasing importance of wind power in Australia’s energy mix, this study sets out to analyze and interpret the nature of Australia’s wind resources using robust metrics of the abundance, variability and intermittency of wind power density, and analyzes the variation of these characteristics with current and potential wind turbine hub heights. We also assess the extent to which wind intermittency, on hourly or greater timescales, can potentially be mitigated by the aggregation of geographically dispersed wind farms, and in so doing, lessen the severe impact on wind power economic viability of long lulls in wind and power generated. Our results suggest that over much of Australia, areas that have high wind intermittency coincide with large expanses in which the aggregation of turbine output does not mitigate variability. These areas are also geographically remote, some are disconnected from the east coast’s electricity grid and large population centers, which are factors that could decrease the potential economic viability of wind farms in these locations. However, on the eastern seaboard, even though the wind resource is weaker, it is less variable, much closer to large population centers, and there exists more potential to mitigate it’s intermittency through aggregation. This study forms a necessary precursor to the analysis of the impact of large-scale circulations and oscillations on the wind resource at the mesoscale. PMID:24988222

  4. The potential wind power resource in Australia: a new perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallgren, Willow; Gunturu, Udaya Bhaskar; Schlosser, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Australia's wind resource is considered to be very good, and the utilization of this renewable energy resource is increasing rapidly: wind power installed capacity increased by 35% from 2006 to 2011 and is predicted to account for over 12% of Australia's electricity generation in 2030. Due to this growth in the utilization of the wind resource and the increasing importance of wind power in Australia's energy mix, this study sets out to analyze and interpret the nature of Australia's wind resources using robust metrics of the abundance, variability and intermittency of wind power density, and analyzes the variation of these characteristics with current and potential wind turbine hub heights. We also assess the extent to which wind intermittency, on hourly or greater timescales, can potentially be mitigated by the aggregation of geographically dispersed wind farms, and in so doing, lessen the severe impact on wind power economic viability of long lulls in wind and power generated. Our results suggest that over much of Australia, areas that have high wind intermittency coincide with large expanses in which the aggregation of turbine output does not mitigate variability. These areas are also geographically remote, some are disconnected from the east coast's electricity grid and large population centers, which are factors that could decrease the potential economic viability of wind farms in these locations. However, on the eastern seaboard, even though the wind resource is weaker, it is less variable, much closer to large population centers, and there exists more potential to mitigate it's intermittency through aggregation. This study forms a necessary precursor to the analysis of the impact of large-scale circulations and oscillations on the wind resource at the mesoscale.

  5. The potential wind power resource in Australia: a new perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willow Hallgren

    Full Text Available Australia's wind resource is considered to be very good, and the utilization of this renewable energy resource is increasing rapidly: wind power installed capacity increased by 35% from 2006 to 2011 and is predicted to account for over 12% of Australia's electricity generation in 2030. Due to this growth in the utilization of the wind resource and the increasing importance of wind power in Australia's energy mix, this study sets out to analyze and interpret the nature of Australia's wind resources using robust metrics of the abundance, variability and intermittency of wind power density, and analyzes the variation of these characteristics with current and potential wind turbine hub heights. We also assess the extent to which wind intermittency, on hourly or greater timescales, can potentially be mitigated by the aggregation of geographically dispersed wind farms, and in so doing, lessen the severe impact on wind power economic viability of long lulls in wind and power generated. Our results suggest that over much of Australia, areas that have high wind intermittency coincide with large expanses in which the aggregation of turbine output does not mitigate variability. These areas are also geographically remote, some are disconnected from the east coast's electricity grid and large population centers, which are factors that could decrease the potential economic viability of wind farms in these locations. However, on the eastern seaboard, even though the wind resource is weaker, it is less variable, much closer to large population centers, and there exists more potential to mitigate it's intermittency through aggregation. This study forms a necessary precursor to the analysis of the impact of large-scale circulations and oscillations on the wind resource at the mesoscale.

  6. High-power CO laser and its potential applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Shunichi; Takahashi, Kunimitsu; Shimamoto, Kojiro; Takashima, Yoichi; Matsuda, Keiichi; Kuribayashi, Shizuma; Noda, Osamu; Imatake, Shigenori; Kondo, Motoe.

    1995-01-01

    The R and D program for the development of a high-power CO laser and its application technologies is described. Based on a self-sustained discharge excitation scheme, the available laser output has been successfully scaled to over 20 kW. The CO laser cutting experiments for thick metals have been performed in association with the decommissioning technologies development. Other potential applications, which include those based on photo chemical process, are reviewed. Recently demonstrated high-power tunable operation and room-temperature operation are also reported. (author)

  7. Gross decontamination experiment report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, R.; Kinney, K.; Dettorre, J.; Gilbert, V.

    1983-07-01

    A Gross Decontamination Experiment was conducted on various levels and surfaces of the TMI - Unit 2 reactor building in March 1982. The polar crane, D-rings, missile shields, refueling canals, refueling bridges, equipment, and elevations 305' and 347'-6'' were flushed with low pressure water. Additionally, floor surfaces on elevation 305' and floor surfaces and major pieces of equipment on elevation 347'-6'' were sprayed with high pressure water. Selective surfaces were decontaminated with a mechanical scrubber and chemicals. Strippable coating was tested and evaluated on equipment and floor surfaces. The effectiveness, efficiency, and safety of several decontamination techniques were established for the large, complex decontamination effort. Various decontamination equipment was evaluated and its effectiveness was documented. Decontamination training and procedures were documented and evaluated, as were the support system and organization for the experiment

  8. Gross decontamination experiment report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, R.; Kinney, K.; Dettorre, J.; Gilbert, V.

    1983-07-01

    A Gross Decontamination Experiment was conducted on various levels and surfaces of the TMI - Unit 2 reactor building in March 1982. The polar crane, D-rings, missile shields, refueling canals, refueling bridges, equipment, and elevations 305' and 347'-6'' were flushed with low pressure water. Additionally, floor surfaces on elevation 305' and floor surfaces and major pieces of equipment on elevation 347'-6'' were sprayed with high pressure water. Selective surfaces were decontaminated with a mechanical scrubber and chemicals. Strippable coating was tested and evaluated on equipment and floor surfaces. The effectiveness, efficiency, and safety of several decontamination techniques were established for the large, complex decontamination effort. Various decontamination equipment was evaluated and its effectiveness was documented. Decontamination training and procedures were documented and evaluated, as were the support system and organization for the experiment.

  9. Quarkonium level fitting with two-power potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, G.C.; Wignall, J.W.G.

    1981-01-01

    An attempt has been made to fit psi and UPSILON energy levels and leptonic decay width ratios with a non-relativistic potential model using a potential of the form V(r) = Arsup(p) + Brsup(q) + C. It is found that reasonable fits to states below hadronic decay threshold can be obtained for values of the powers p and q anywhere along a family of curves in the (p,q) plane that smoothly join the Martin potential (p = 0, q = 0.1) to the potential forms with p approximately -1 suggested by QCD; for the latter case the best fit is obtained with q approximately 0.4 - 0.5

  10. Cost reduction potentials of offshore wind power in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobohm, Jens; Krampe, Leonard; Peter, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Offshore wind power is a major hope for the German energy turnaround. However, it will only be possible to tap its cost reduction potentials if industry, the political leadership and the administrative authorities join forces to create the necessary preconditions. An important requirement for this capital-intensive technology are stable legal and political framework conditions. A recent study on the future shows what needs to be done.

  11. Potential of light water reactors for future nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gueldner, R.

    2003-01-01

    Energy consumption worldwide is going to increase further in the next few decades. Reliable supplies of electricity can be achieved only by centralized power plant structures. In this scenario, nuclear power plants are going to play a leading role as reliable and competitive plants, also under deregulated market conditions. Today, light water reactors have achieved a leading position, both technically and economically, contributing 85% to worldwide electricity generation in nuclear plants. They will continue to be a proven technology in power generation. In many countries, activities therefore are concentrated on extending the service life of plants beyond a period of forty years. New nuclear generating capacities are expected to be created and added from the end of this decade onward. Most of this capacity will be in light water reactors. The concepts of third-generation reactors will meet all economic and technical safety requirements of the 21st century and will offer considerable potential for further development. Probably some thirty years from now, fourth-generation nuclear power plants will be ready for commercial application. These plants will penetrate especially new sectors of the energy markets. Public acceptance of new nuclear power plants is not a matter of reactor lines, provided that safety requirements are met. The important issue is the management of radioactive waste. The construction of new nuclear power plants in Western Europe and North America mainly hinges on the ability to explain to the public that there is a need for new plants and that nuclear power is fundamental to assuring sustainable development. (orig.)

  12. Potential environmental effects of fusion reactor power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, J.R.; Gore, B.F.; Coffman, F.E.

    1976-01-01

    Construction and operation of fusion power plants is expected to reduce the total environmental effects of 21st century power generation. Fusion power plant impacts due to noise, odors, vibrations, and sanitary wastes are expected to be insignificant. impacts due to land use, chemical releases, and aesthetics are expected to be reduced. Impacts due to heat releases, local socio-economic changes, and non-radioactive liquid and solid disposal are expected to be comparable to those for the alternative fission or coal-fired power systems. Radiation doses to the public due to radioactive wastes are expected to be comparable to, or less than, the trivial low doses due to fission power systems. Research and development will be required, however, to assure adequate containment of tritium, the primary radioisotope of concern. Prevention of accidental tritium releases is within the capability of current engineering practice. Current technology is capable of handling the solid radioactive waste which may be produced, with insignificant environmental impact. Major research efforts are necessary to determine if subtle long-term effects of magnetic fields exist and should be of concern. In view of the large quantities of construction materials required for fusion. Material availability may dictate 21st century power plant design and construction. The accident potential of fusion power plants should be lower than for fission systems. Accidental criticalities and plasma runaways are not considered to be possible. Loss of coolant accidents are not expected to result in damage to the containment. No fission products or actinides are present to be released in an accident, and most activation products are immobilized in structures. The biological hazard of tritium is orders of magnitude smaller than for fission products and actinides. Safeguards against diversion of fissile materials are not expected to be necessary

  13. Gross efficiency during rowing is not affected by stroke rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmijster, M.J.; van Soest, A.J.; de Koning, J.J.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: It has been suggested that the optimal stroke rate in rowing is partly determined by the stroke-rate dependence of internal power losses. This should be reflected in a stroke-rate dependency of gross efficiency (e

  14. Potential role of nuclear power in developing and transition economies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganiage, D.; Dierstein, P.

    1995-01-01

    The potential role of nuclear power is different in developing or in transition economies; in developing countries such as China, the growth of electricity consumption is high and the construction of several standardized plants is economically justified; in transitional economies, such as Ukraine, the needs are uncertain, old and unsafe plants have to be decommissioned and uncompleted nuclear plants (due to financial problems) should be completed. Nuclear power may provide the developing and transition economies with several advantages such as energy independence and fuel supply security, minimal environmental pollution, support to local industry and employment. It also means the support of national authorities and the development of a suitable infrastructure for plant safety and waste management, financial help and local population acceptance

  15. Assessment of Power Generation Potential from Municipal Solid Wastes: A Case Study of Hyderabad City, Sindh, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Safar Korai

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an attempt to estimate the power generation potential through utilization of municipal solid waste (MSW in order to overcome energy crisis, faced by country now a days. The waste-to-energy has proven itself to be an environment friendly solution for the disposal of municipal solid waste. Representative samples of the MSW were collected from the open dumping sites of solid wastes and analyzed for calorific value by using a Bomb Calorimeter in the laboratory. Net and gross calorific value of mixed MSW were obtained as 6519 & 6749 kcal/kg, respectively. Based upon its calorific value, net power generation was estimated as 1512 kWh per ton of MSW generated. This shows that MSW generated in the study area is more suitable for thermal treatment process. In this regard, different thermal treatment technologies have been compared with respect to various parameters and mass burn incinerator is found suitable for generation of power. This technology for conversion of MSW into power generation would not only be beneficial to meet the power demand but also reduce the environmental pollution to certain extent.

  16. Underground siting of nuclear power plants: potential benefits and penalties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allensworth, J.A.; Finger, J.T.; Milloy, J.A.; Murfin, W.B.; Rodeman, R.; Vandevender, S.G.

    1977-08-01

    The potential for improving nuclear power safety is analyzed by siting plants underground in mined cavities or by covering plants with fill earth after construction in an excavated cut. Potential benefits and penalties of underground plants are referenced to analogous plants located on the surface. Three representative regional sites having requisite underground geology were used to evaluate underground siting. The major factors which were evaluated for all three sites were: (1) containment of radioactive materials, (2) transport of groundwater contamination, and (3) seismic vulnerability. External protection, plant security, feasibility, operational considerations, and cost were evaluated on a generic basis. Additionally, the national availability of sites having the requisite geology for both underground siting concepts was determined

  17. Energy Perspectives In Switzerland: The Potential Of Nuclear Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foskolos, K.; Hardegger, P.

    2005-01-01

    In 2004, discussions were started in Switzerland concerning future of energy supply, including domestic electricity generation. On behalf of the Federal Office of Energy, PSI undertook a study to evaluate the potential of future nuclear technologies, covering electricity demand, with a time horizon up to 2050. It has been shown that nuclear power plants (NPPs) of the Third Generation, similar to the ones currently under construction in several other countries, built on the existing nuclear sites in Switzerland, have the potential to replace, at competitive costs, the existing nuclear plants, and even to cover (postulated) increases in electricity demand. Because of their late maturity (expected at the earliest around 2030), NPPs of the Fourth Generation, which are currently under development, cannot play a major role in Switzerland, since, with the exception of the Leibstadt NPP, all decisions regarding replacement of the current Swiss NPPs have to be taken before 2030. (author)

  18. Energy Perspectives In Switzerland: The Potential Of Nuclear Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foskolos, K.; Hardegger, P

    2005-03-01

    In 2004, discussions were started in Switzerland concerning future of energy supply, including domestic electricity generation. On behalf of the Federal Office of Energy, PSI undertook a study to evaluate the potential of future nuclear technologies, covering electricity demand, with a time horizon up to 2050. It has been shown that nuclear power plants (NPPs) of the Third Generation, similar to the ones currently under construction in several other countries, built on the existing nuclear sites in Switzerland, have the potential to replace, at competitive costs, the existing nuclear plants, and even to cover (postulated) increases in electricity demand. Because of their late maturity (expected at the earliest around 2030), NPPs of the Fourth Generation, which are currently under development, cannot play a major role in Switzerland, since, with the exception of the Leibstadt NPP, all decisions regarding replacement of the current Swiss NPPs have to be taken before 2030. (author)

  19. The Potential of Economic MPC for Power Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovgaard, Tobias Gybel; Edlund, Kristian; Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    2010-01-01

    such that the cost of producing the required power is minimized. The power generators are controllable power generators such as combined heat and power generators (CHP), coal and gas fired power generators, as well as a significant share of uncontrollable power generators such as parks of wind turbines. In addition...

  20. Status of helium-cooled nuclear power systems. [Development potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melese-d' Hospital, G.; Simnad, M

    1977-09-01

    Helium-cooled nuclear power systems offer a great potential for electricity generation when their long-term economic, environmental, conservation and energy self-sufficiency features are examined. The high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) has the unique capability of providing high-temperature steam for electric power and process heat uses and/or high-temperature heat for endothermic chemical reactions. A variation of the standard steam cycle HTGR is one in which the helium coolant flows directly from the core to one or more closed cycle gas turbines. The effective use of nuclear fuel resources for electric power and nuclear process heat will be greatly enhanced by the gas-cooled fast breeder reactor (GCFR) currently being developed. A GCFR using thorium in the radial blanket could generate sufficient U-233 to supply the fuel for three HTGRs, or enough plutonium from a depleted uranium blanket to fuel a breeder economy expanding at about 10% per year. The feasibility of utilizing helium to cool a fusion reactor is also discussed. The status of helium-cooled nuclear energy systems is summarized as a basis for assessing their prospects. 50 references.

  1. Potential information and stopping power from channeling in diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edge, R.D.; Derry, J.E.; Fearick, R.W.; Sellschop, J.P.F.

    1983-01-01

    When a carefully cleaned diamond crystal was bombarded with helium nuclei parallel to a low index plane, up to seven peaks in the energy spectrum of backscattered ions were seen. These arose from particles oscillating to and fro across the channel as they progressed along it. Spectra taken with ions incident in different directions in the same plane allowed both the wavelengths of the oscillations in the channel, lambda, and the stopping power within the channel to be obtained. The character of the oscillations changed as the beam deviated from exact alignment with the channel, giving the highest maximum at an angle /psi/ /SUB m/ to the channel. Calculations based on those of Barrett employing lambda, /psi/ /SUB m/, and the stopping power showed a smoother potential for the (111) planar channel, which has a larger spacing, than (100) and (110). The energy dependence of the stopping power and oscillation wavelength was also determined from 0.2 to 1.2 MeV for the (110) planar channel

  2. Potential for deserts to supply reliable renewable electric power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labordena, Mercè; Lilliestam, Johan

    2015-04-01

    To avoid dangerous climate change, the electricity systems must be decarbonized by mid-century. The world has sufficient renewable electricity resources for complete power sector decarbonization, but an expansion of renewables poses several challenges for the electricity systems. First, wind and solar PV power are intermittent and supply-controlled, making it difficult to securely integrate this fluctuating generation into the power systems. Consequently, power sources that are both renewable and dispatchable, such as biomass, hydro and concentrating solar power (CSP), are particularly important. Second, renewable power has a low power density and needs vast areas of land, which is problematic both due to cost reasons and due to land-use conflicts, in particular with agriculture. Renewable and dispatchable technologies that can be built in sparsely inhabited regions or on land with low competition with agriculture would therefore be especially valuable; this land-use competition greatly limits the potential for hydro and biomass electricity. Deserts, however, are precisely such low-competition land, and are at the same time the most suited places for CSP generation, but this option would necessitate long transmission lines from remote places in the deserts to the demand centers such as big cities. We therefore study the potential for fleets of CSP plants in the large deserts of the world to produce reliable and reasonable-cost renewable electricity for regions with high and/or rapidly increasing electricity demand and with a desert within or close to its borders. The regions in focus here are the European Union, North Africa and the Middle East, China and Australia. We conduct the analysis in three steps. First, we identify the best solar generation areas in the selected deserts using geographic information systems (GIS), and applying restrictions to minimize impact on biodiversity, soils, human heath, and land-use and land-cover change. Second, we identify

  3. The potential of concentrating solar power in South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fluri, Thomas P. [Department of Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Stellenbosch, Private Bag X1, Matieland 7602 (South Africa)

    2009-12-15

    In this paper all provinces of South Africa with a good potential for the implementation of large-scale concentrating solar power plants are identified using geographic information systems. The areas are assumed suitable if they get sufficient sunshine, are close enough to transmission lines, are flat enough, their respective vegetation is not under threat and they have a suitable land use profile. Various maps are created showing the solar resource, the slope, areas with 'least threatened' vegetation, proximity to transmission lines and areas suitable for the installation of large concentrating solar power plants. Assuming the installation of parabolic trough plants, it is found that the identified suitable areas could accommodate plants with a nominal capacity of 510.3 GW in the Northern Cape, 25.3 GW in the Free State, 10.5 GW in the Western Cape and 1.6 GW in the Eastern Cape, which gives a total potential nominal capacity of 547.6 GW for the whole country. (author)

  4. Effect of focused ultrasound stimulation at different ultrasonic power levels on the local field potential power spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Yi; Lu Cheng-Biao; Li Xiao-Li

    2015-01-01

    Local field potential (LFP) signals of the rat hippocampus were recorded under noninvasive focused ultrasound stimulation (FUS) with different ultrasonic powers. The LFP mean absolute power was calculated with the Welch algorithm at the delta, theta, alpha, beta, and gamma frequency bands. The experimental results demonstrate that the LFP mean absolute power at different frequency bands increases as the ultrasound power increases. (paper)

  5. Neural networks and their potential application in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhrig, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    A neural network is a data processing system consisting of a number of simple, highly interconnected processing elements in an architecture inspired by the structure of the cerebral cortex portion of the brain. Hence, neural networks are often capable of doing things which humans or animals do well but which conventional computers often do poorly. Neural networks have emerged in the past few years as an area of unusual opportunity for research, development and application to a variety of real world problems. Indeed, neural networks exhibit characteristics and capabilities not provided by any other technology. Examples include reading Japanese Kanji characters and human handwriting, reading a typewritten manuscript aloud, compensating for alignment errors in robots, interpreting very noise signals (e.g., electroencephalograms), modeling complex systems that cannot be modeled mathematically, and predicting whether proposed loans will be good or fail. This paper presents a brief tutorial on neural networks and describes research on the potential applications to nuclear power plants

  6. Solitons in Gross-Pitaevskii equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, E.

    1985-01-01

    It is observed that, when the potential is integrable and repulsive, the Gross-Pitaevskii Equation, with non-vanishing boundary conditions, describes a family of planar solitons. A method is presented which provides an exact soliton field to the Dirac Delta potential and an approximation solution to any other kind of potential. As an example the method is then applied to the case of a repulsive Yukawa potential. A brief discuss the relation between these solitons and Anderson's superfluidity mechanism, is also presented. (author) [pt

  7. Neural networks and their potential application to nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhrig, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    A network of artificial neurons, usually called an artificial neural network is a data processing system consisting of a number of highly interconnected processing elements in an architecture inspired by the structure of the cerebral cortex portion of the brain. Hence, neural networks are often capable of doing things which humans or animals do well but which conventional computers often do poorly. Neural networks exhibit characteristics and capabilities not provided by any other technology. Neural networks may be designed so as to classify an input pattern as one of several predefined types or to create, as needed, categories or classes of system states which can be interpreted by a human operator. Neural networks have the ability to recognize patterns, even when the information comprising these patterns is noisy, sparse, or incomplete. Thus, systems of artificial neural networks show great promise for use in environments in which robust, fault-tolerant pattern recognition is necessary in a real-time mode, and in which the incoming data may be distorted or noisy. The application of neural networks, a rapidly evolving technology used extensively in defense applications, alone or in conjunction with other advanced technologies, to some of the problems of operating nuclear power plants has the potential to enhance the safety, reliability and operability of nuclear power plants. The potential applications of neural networking include, but are not limited to diagnosing specific abnormal conditions, identification of nonlinear dynamics and transients, detection of the change of mode of operation, control of temperature and pressure during start-up, signal validation, plant-wide monitoring using autoassociative neural networks, monitoring of check valves, modeling of the plant thermodynamics, emulation of core reload calculations, analysis of temporal sequences in NRC's ''licensee event reports,'' and monitoring of plant parameters

  8. Pricing, renegotiation and gross inequities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkham, J.S. (Van Cott, Bagley, Cornwall McCarthy, Salt Lake City, UT (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Reviews pricing, renegotiation and gross inequity provisions of coal supply agreements in order to provide practical assistance to an attorney called upon to draft in written form the intent of buyer and seller. 26 refs.

  9. Study of hybrid power system potential to power agricultural water pump in mountain area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syuhada, Ahmad; Mubarak, Amir Zaki; Maulana, M. Ilham

    2016-01-01

    As industry and Indonesian economy grow fast, there are a lot of agricultural land has changed into housing and industrial land. This causes the agricultural land moves to mountain area. In mountainous agricultural area, farmers use the water resources of small rivers in the groove of the mountain to irrigate the farmland. Farmers use their power to lift up water from the river to their land which causes inefectivity in the work of the farmers. Farmers who have capital utilize pump to raise water to their land. The only way to use pump in mountain area is by using fuel energy as there is no electricity, and the fuel price in mountain area is very expensive. Based on those reasons it is wise to consider the exploration of renewable energy available in the area such as solar energy, wind energy and hybrid energy. This study analyses the potential of the application of hybrid power plant, which is the combination of solar and wind energy, to power agricultural pump. In this research, the data of wind speed and solar radiation are collected from the measurement of BMKG SMPK Plus Sare. Related to the solar energy, the photovoltaic output power calculation is 193 W with duration of irradiation of 5 hours/day. While for the wind energy, the output power of the wind turbine is 459.84 W with blade diameter of 3 m and blow duration of 7 hours/day. The power of the pump is 558 W with 8 hours of usage, and the water capacity is 2.520 liters/hour for farmland with the area of 15 ha. Based on the analysis result, the designed system will generate electricity of 3.210 kW/year with initial investment of US$ 14,938.

  10. Study of hybrid power system potential to power agricultural water pump in mountain area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syuhada, Ahmad, E-mail: syuhada-mech@yahoo.com; Mubarak, Amir Zaki, E-mail: amir-zaki-mubarak@yahoo.com; Maulana, M. Ilham, E-mail: mil2ana@yahoo.com [Mechanical Engineering Department, Engineering Faculty, Syiah Kuala University Jl. Syech Abdul Rauf No.7 Darussalam Banda Aceh 23111 (Indonesia)

    2016-03-29

    As industry and Indonesian economy grow fast, there are a lot of agricultural land has changed into housing and industrial land. This causes the agricultural land moves to mountain area. In mountainous agricultural area, farmers use the water resources of small rivers in the groove of the mountain to irrigate the farmland. Farmers use their power to lift up water from the river to their land which causes inefectivity in the work of the farmers. Farmers who have capital utilize pump to raise water to their land. The only way to use pump in mountain area is by using fuel energy as there is no electricity, and the fuel price in mountain area is very expensive. Based on those reasons it is wise to consider the exploration of renewable energy available in the area such as solar energy, wind energy and hybrid energy. This study analyses the potential of the application of hybrid power plant, which is the combination of solar and wind energy, to power agricultural pump. In this research, the data of wind speed and solar radiation are collected from the measurement of BMKG SMPK Plus Sare. Related to the solar energy, the photovoltaic output power calculation is 193 W with duration of irradiation of 5 hours/day. While for the wind energy, the output power of the wind turbine is 459.84 W with blade diameter of 3 m and blow duration of 7 hours/day. The power of the pump is 558 W with 8 hours of usage, and the water capacity is 2.520 liters/hour for farmland with the area of 15 ha. Based on the analysis result, the designed system will generate electricity of 3.210 kW/year with initial investment of US$ 14,938.

  11. Risks of potential accidents of nuclear power plants in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slaper H; Eggink GJ; Blaauboer RO

    1993-01-01

    Over 200 nuclear power plants for commercial electricity production are presently operational in Europe. The 1986 accident with the nuclear power plant in Chernobyl has shown that severe accidents with a nuclear power plant can lead to a large scale contamination of Europe. This report is focussed

  12. Mashreq Arab interconnected power system potential for economic energy trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Shehri, A.M.; El-Amin, I.M.; Opoku, G.; Al-Baiyat, S.A.; Zedan, F.M.

    1994-01-01

    The Mashreq Arab countries covered in this study are Bahrain, Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, the United Arab Emirates, and Yemen. A feasibility study for the interconnection of the electrical networks of the Mashreq Arab countries, sponsored by the Arab Fund, was completed in June 1992. Each country is served by one utility except Saudi Arabia, which is served by four major utilities and some smaller utilities serving remote towns and small load centers. The major utilities are the Saudi consolidated electric Company in the Eastern Province (SCECO East), SCECO Center, SCECO West, and SCECO South. These are the ones considered in this study. The Mashreq Arab region has a considerable mix of energy resources. Egypt and Syria have some limited amounts of hydropower resources, and the Arabian Gulf region is abundant in fossil fuel reserves. Owing to the differences in energy production costs, a potential exists for substantial energy trading between electric utilities in the region. The major objective of this project is to study the feasibility of electric energy trading between the Mashreq Arab countries. The basis, assumptions, and methodologies on which this energy trading study is based relate to the results and conclusions arising out of the previous study, power plant characteristics and costs, assumptions on economic parameters, rules for economy energy exchange, etc. This paper presents the basis, methodology, and major findings of the study

  13. Power-law modulation of the scalar power spectrum from a heavy field with a monomial potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qing-Guo; Pi, Shi

    2018-04-01

    The effects of heavy fields modulate the scalar power spectrum during inflation. We analytically calculate the modulations of the scalar power spectrum from a heavy field with a separable monomial potential, i.e. V(phi)~ phin. In general the modulation is characterized by a power-law oscillation which is reduced to the logarithmic oscillation in the case of n=2.

  14. Simple inflationary quintessential model. II. Power law potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haro, Jaume; Amorós, Jaume; Pan, Supriya

    2016-09-01

    The present work is a sequel of our previous work [Phys. Rev. D 93, 084018 (2016)] which depicted a simple version of an inflationary quintessential model whose inflationary stage was described by a Higgs-type potential and the quintessential phase was responsible due to an exponential potential. Additionally, the model predicted a nonsingular universe in past which was geodesically past incomplete. Further, it was also found that the model is in agreement with the Planck 2013 data when running is allowed. But, this model provides a theoretical value of the running which is far smaller than the central value of the best fit in ns , r , αs≡d ns/d l n k parameter space where ns, r , αs respectively denote the spectral index, tensor-to-scalar ratio and the running of the spectral index associated with any inflationary model, and consequently to analyze the viability of the model one has to focus in the two-dimensional marginalized confidence level in the allowed domain of the plane (ns,r ) without taking into account the running. Unfortunately, such analysis shows that this model does not pass this test. However, in this sequel we propose a family of models runs by a single parameter α ∈[0 ,1 ] which proposes another "inflationary quintessential model" where the inflation and the quintessence regimes are respectively described by a power law potential and a cosmological constant. The model is also nonsingular although geodesically past incomplete as in the cited model. Moreover, the present one is found to be more simple compared to the previous model and it is in excellent agreement with the observational data. In fact, we note that, unlike the previous model, a large number of the models of this family with α ∈[0 ,1/2 ) match with both Planck 2013 and Planck 2015 data without allowing the running. Thus, the properties in the current family of models compared to its past companion justify its need for a better cosmological model with the successive

  15. Power, leadership and transformation: the doctor's potential for influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabel, Stewart

    2012-12-01

    Power and leadership are concepts that are linked. Both are studied too infrequently in medical and health care settings, given the responsibilities and opportunities doctors and other health care personnel have to exert leadership and power appropriately to foster patient-centred and health care organisational goals. This paper reviews Raven's concept of power, clarifies the bases of power that are available to doctors in different roles and provides illustrations of the application of the bases of power in medical practice. The relationship between power and leadership is explored, with an emphasis on how power and leadership are linked through the personal characteristics and competencies of the leader.   Transformational leadership illustrates the incorporation and elaboration of power strategies into a principles-driven, relationship-oriented and empirically grounded form of leadership. Illustrations of the appropriate and inappropriate use of power and leadership in health care settings are provided. The study of power, the study of leadership and their linkage should be incorporated to a greater degree into medical education at all levels. Strategies to achieve this end are suggested. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2012.

  16. Towards a better estimation of water power potential in Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, Khalid Abd ELFattah M. and others

    1999-01-01

    This paper present the previous and recent studies for the estimation of hydropower potential of Sudan from Nilotic and non-Nilotic sources. The theoretical availability of the hydropower potential was elaborated. The paper also highlights on the technical feasibility of the potential. It is worth mentioning that, reasons of he differences between theoretical and feasible potential were discussed. A procedure for ranking the available potential is concisely presented. Furthermore, the paper presents and discusses widely the available hydropower potential for international interconnections

  17. The Potential for Low-Cost Concentrating Solar Power Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, Henry W.; Carpenter, Stephen

    1999-01-01

    Concern over the possibility of global climate change as a result of anthropogenic greenhouse gas buildup in the atmosphere is resulting in increased interest in renewable energy technologies. The World Bank recently sponsored a study to determine whether solar thermal power plants can achieve cost parity with conventional power plants. The paper reviews the conclusions of that study

  18. Estimation of inhalation doses from airborne releases using gross monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstein, N.P.

    1978-01-01

    Monitoring programs at most nuclear facilities involve continuous gross measurements supplemented by periodic isotopic analyses of release samples. The isotopic measurements are required to accurately assess the potential dose from the various effluent streams, but in between these measurements, one depends on the gross monitors to provide approximate indications of the dose. The effluent streams release a variety of nuclides, each with its own dose factor. This means that the relationship between the counting rate in a gross monitor and the potential dose of the effluent being monitored will depend on the isotopic composition of this release. If this composition changes, then the dose indicated by the gross monitor (calibrated for the original group of isotopes) may be significantly in error. The problem of indicating inhalation doses from gross monitoring of airborne releases is considered. In order for this type of monitor to accurately indicate dose, regardless of the isotopic makeup of a release, the analysis shows that its response to each isotope should be proportional to the dose factor of that isotope. These ideas are applied to the monitoring of air particulates using gross beta and gross gamma monitors. The study shows that the former more closely satisfies this condition and as a result, satisfactorily indicates the actual dose from reactor effluents, as determined from detailed isotopic data published in the literature. On the other hand, the gross gamma monitor, with its poorer fit to the condition, provided less than satisfactory accuracy in its dose estimates. In addition, a variety of other mathematical response functions were considered but their dose estimation capabilities were not much better than the straight beta response. The study shows that reasonably accurate dose estimates can be made using properly selected gross monitors, but that significant errors can result with improper ones. (author)

  19. Gas core reactor power plants designed for low proliferation potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowry, L.L.

    1977-09-01

    The feasibility of gas core nuclear power plants to provide adequate power while maintaining a low inventory and low divertability of fissile material is studied. Four concepts were examined. Two used a mixture of UF 6 and helium in the reactor cavities, and two used a uranium-argon plasma, held away from the walls by vortex buffer confinement. Power levels varied from 200 to 2500 MWth. Power plant subsystems were sized to determine their fissile material inventories. All reactors ran, with a breeding ratio of unity, on 233 U born from thorium. Fission product removal was continuous. Newly born 233 U was removed continuously from the breeding blanket and returned to the reactor cavities. The 2500-MWth power plant contained a total of 191 kg of 233 U. Less than 4 kg could be diverted before the reactor shut down. The plasma reactor power plants had smaller inventories. In general, inventories were about a factor of 10 less than those in current U.S. power reactors

  20. Measurement campaign for wind power potential in west Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rønnow Jakobsen, Kasper

    2013-04-01

    Experiences and results from a wind resource exploring campaign 2003- in west Greenland. Like many other countries, Greenland is trying to reduce its dependency of fossil fuel by implementing renewable energy. The main challenge is that the people live on the coast in scattered settlements, without power infrastructure. Based on this a wind power potential project was established in 2002, funded by the Greenlandic government and the Technical University of Denmark. We present results and experiences of the campaign. 1 Field campaign There were only a few climate stations in or close to settlements and due to their positioning and instrumentation, they were not usable for wind resource estimation. To establish met stations in Arctic areas with complex topography, there are some challenges to face; mast positioning in complex terrain, severe weather conditions, instrumentation, data handling, installation and maintenance budget. The terrain in the ice free and populated part, mainly consists of mountains of different heights and shapes, separated by deep fjords going from the ice cap to the sea. With a generally low wind resource the focus was on the most exposed positions close to the settlements. Data from the nearest existing climate stations was studied for background estimations of predominant wind directions and extreme wind speeds, and based on that the first 10m masts were erected in 2003. 2 Instruments The first installations used standard NRG systems with low cost NRG instruments. For most of the sites this low cost setup did a good job, but there were some problems with the first design, including instrument and boom strains. In subsequent years, the systems were updated several times to be able to operate in the extreme conditions. Different types of instruments, data logger and boom systems were tested to get better data quality and reliability. Today 11 stations with heights ranging from 10-50m are installed and equipped according to the IEC standard

  1. Prospect and potential of nuclear power plants in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subki, I.R.; Adiwardojo; Kasim, M.S.; Iskandar, A.; Mulyanto

    1997-01-01

    In line with the national energy policy of Indonesia in promoting the intensification, diversification and conversation of energy, some important steps need to be taken in order to establish alternative energy strategies which will be decisive in the formulation and development of the national energy plan in the future. At present, Indonesia does not have any nuclear power plants. The introduction of nuclear power In Indonesia is not only to reach an optimum energy mix based on costs and the environment, but also to relieve the pressure arising from increasing domestic demand for oil and gas. This paper addresses the present feasibility study being performed on the introduction of nuclear power plants in Indonesia. It is anticipated that nuclear power will contribute about 10% of Indonesia's electrical supply as of the year 2019. This represents approximately 12,600 MWe in capability. The paper describes the results, to date, of the Feasibility Study on nuclear power including the national energy market analysis, the electricity expansion plan and the associated role of nuclear power, the economics and financial plan, site studies on volcanology, seismology and the environment. (author). 3 refs, 1 fig., 4 tabs

  2. 2015 Plan. Project 4: electric power supply, hydro electrical potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    This project describes the Brazilian hydroelectric park citing the historical aspects, methodology of potential evaluation, forecasts of costs for hydroelectric use and the utilization of hydroelectric potential in small and reversible hydroelectric plants situated in all Brazilian regions. The utilization of hydroelectric potential in Amazon region is put in relief. 8 figs, 17 tabs

  3. High efficiency USC power plant - present status and future potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blum, R. [Faelleskemikerne I/S Fynsvaerket (Denmark); Hald, J. [Elsam/Elkraft/TU Denmark (Denmark)

    1998-12-31

    Increasing demand for energy production with low impact on the environment and minimised fuel consumption can be met with high efficient coal fired power plants with advanced steam parameters. An important key to this improvement is the development of high temperature materials with optimised mechanical strength. Based on the results of more than ten years of development a coal fired power plant with an efficiency above 50 % can now be realised. Future developments focus on materials which enable an efficiency of 52-55 %. (orig.) 25 refs.

  4. High efficiency USC power plant - present status and future potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blum, R [Faelleskemikerne I/S Fynsvaerket (Denmark); Hald, J [Elsam/Elkraft/TU Denmark (Denmark)

    1999-12-31

    Increasing demand for energy production with low impact on the environment and minimised fuel consumption can be met with high efficient coal fired power plants with advanced steam parameters. An important key to this improvement is the development of high temperature materials with optimised mechanical strength. Based on the results of more than ten years of development a coal fired power plant with an efficiency above 50 % can now be realised. Future developments focus on materials which enable an efficiency of 52-55 %. (orig.) 25 refs.

  5. Energy consumption and energy-saving potential analysis of pollutant abatement systems in a 1000MW coal-fired power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hang; Zhang, Yongxin; Zheng, Chenghang; Wu, Xuecheng; Chen, Linghong; Gao, Xiang; Fu, Joshua S

    2018-05-10

    The pollutant abatement systems are widely applied in the coal-fired power sector and the energy consumption was considered an important part of the auxiliary power. An energy consumption analysis and assessment model of pollutant abatement systems in a power unit was developed based on the dynamic parameters and technology. The energy consumption of pollutant abatement systems in a 1000 MW coal-fired power unit which meet the ultra-low emission limits and the factors of operating parameters including unit load and inlet concentration of pollutants on the operating power were analyzed. The results show that the total power consumption of the pollutant abatement systems accounted for 1.27% of the gross power generation during the monitoring period. The WFGD system consumed 67% of the rate while the SCR and ESP systems consumed 8.9% and 24.1%. The power consumption rate of pollutant abatement systems decreased with the increase of unit load and increased with the increase of the inlet concentration of pollutants. The operation adjustment was also an effective method to increase the energy efficiency. For example, the operation adjustment of slurry circulation pumps could promote the energy-saving operation of WFGD system. Implication Statement The application of pollutant abatement technologies increases the internal energy consumption of the power plant, which will lead to an increase of power generation costs. The real-time energy consumption of the different pollutant abatement systems in a typical power unit is analyzed based on the dynamic operating data. Further, the influence of different operating parameters on the operating power of the system and the possible energy-saving potential are analyzed.

  6. Potential of high-average-power solid state lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emmett, J.L.; Krupke, W.F.; Sooy, W.R.

    1984-01-01

    We discuss the possibility of extending solid state laser technology to high average power and of improving the efficiency of such lasers sufficiently to make them reasonable candidates for a number of demanding applications. A variety of new design concepts, materials, and techniques have emerged over the past decade that, collectively, suggest that the traditional technical limitations on power (a few hundred watts or less) and efficiency (less than 1%) can be removed. The core idea is configuring the laser medium in relatively thin, large-area plates, rather than using the traditional low-aspect-ratio rods or blocks. This presents a large surface area for cooling, and assures that deposited heat is relatively close to a cooled surface. It also minimizes the laser volume distorted by edge effects. The feasibility of such configurations is supported by recent developments in materials, fabrication processes, and optical pumps. Two types of lasers can, in principle, utilize this sheet-like gain configuration in such a way that phase and gain profiles are uniformly sampled and, to first order, yield high-quality (undistorted) beams. The zig-zag laser does this with a single plate, and should be capable of power levels up to several kilowatts. The disk laser is designed around a large number of plates, and should be capable of scaling to arbitrarily high power levels

  7. Potential sites for tidal power in New Jersey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    High-resolution simulation is made to model tidal energy along the coastlines of New Jersey (NJ) and its neighbor states with an : unprecedentedly fine grid. On the basis of the simulation, a thorough search is made for sites for tidal power generati...

  8. Assessment of power reliability and improvement potential by using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the use of smart reclosers for improving reliability of a distribution system of one of the major cities of Ethiopia. As frequent power interruptions are posing a huge problem to the life of the people and the economy, finding a solution to the problem is very essential. Electric reliability has affected social well ...

  9. Potential power-generating stations on the Atlantic Continental Shelf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mittl, R.L.

    1975-01-01

    Progress toward the installation of floating power plants, which represent a beneficial use of the continental shelf, is presented. The demonstration of the feasibility of such facilities with existing technology, and the thorough support by safety and environmental reviews, have been made possible by the efforts of engineers and scientists working toward supplying the nation's growing energy needs

  10. Power demand operation - environment and potential. Proposals for main project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wathne, M.

    1995-01-01

    This report discusses proposals for a main project on environmental and other problems arising when hydroelectric power stations supply energy at gigawatt levels. The project aims in particular to identify environmental problems where too little is known today for proper planning of this type of operation. The proposals emphasize the consequences which cannot be adequately analysed in terms of current techniques. These techniques presuppose steady state conditions. One proposal concerns market terms for power sales. Other proposals deal with hydrological data and uncertainty, capacity of watercourses, ice and temperature, aquatic eco-systems, erosion, supersaturation of water with air, flooding and dam breaks, impact on climate, inflow of fresh water in fjords and impact on algae. 33 refs., 4 tabs

  11. Market potential of small and medium power reactors in Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khamis, I.; Hainoun, A.

    1998-01-01

    Analysis of the Syrian energy demand and forecasting was briefly introduced. The need to install an average of 500 MW annually the year 2003 was established. Moreover, short introduction of the main energy resources in the country was made. A primitive criteria for the selection of SMPR was emphasized. An emphasis for the process of introducing the first nuclear power in the country was also recognized. (author)

  12. Assessing the economic wind power potential in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gass, Viktoria; Schmidt, Johannes; Strauss, Franziska; Schmid, Erwin

    2013-01-01

    In the European Union, electricity production from wind energy is projected to increase by approximately 16% until 2020. The Austrian energy plan aims at increasing the currently installed wind power capacity from approximately 1 GW to 3 GW until 2020 including an additional capacity of 700 MW until 2015. The aim of this analysis is to assess economically viable wind turbine sites under current feed-in tariffs considering constraints imposed by infrastructure, the natural environment and ecological preservation zones in Austria. We analyze whether the policy target of installing an additional wind power capacity of 700 MW until 2015 is attainable under current legislation and developed a GIS based decision system for wind turbine site selection.Results show that the current feed-in tariff of 9.7 ct kW h −1 may trigger an additional installation of 3544 MW. The current feed-in tariff can therefore be considered too high as wind power deployment would exceed the target by far. Our results indicate that the targets may be attained more cost-effectively by applying a lower feed-in tariff of 9.1 ct kW h −1 . Thus, windfall profits at favorable sites and deadweight losses of policy intervention can be minimized while still guaranteeing the deployment of additional wind power capacities. - Highlight: ► Wind supply curves with high spatial resolution for whole Austria are derived. ► Current feed-in tariff higher than necessary to attain targets. ► Previous feed-in tariffs were too low to achieve targets. ► Current support scheme leads to high social welfare losses. ► Policy makers face high information asymmetry when setting feed-in tariffs.

  13. Risks of potential accidents of nuclear power plants in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slaper, H.; Eggink, G.J.; Blaauboer, R.O.

    1993-12-01

    This report is focussed on an integrated assessment of probabilistic cancer mortality risks due to possible accidental releases from the European nuclear power plants. For each of the European nuclear power plants the probability of accidental releases per year of operation is combined with the consequences in terms of the excess doses received over a lifetime (70 years). Risk estimates are restricted to cancer mortality and do not include immediate or short term deaths in the direct vicinity ( -8 per year in Western Europe. Going East the risks increase gradually to over 1000 x 10 -8 per year in regions of the former Soviet Union, where reactors of the Chernobyl type are located. The nuclear power plants in the East European countries dominate the estimated risk pattern and contribute at least 40-50% to the average risk in the West European countries. Improving the reactor safety in eastern European countries could lead to considerable reductions in estimated excess mortality risks. In western Europe the mortality risk might be reduced by a factor of two, and in eastern Europe by a factor of 100 to 1000. (orig.)

  14. Free radical scavenging potential, reducing power, phenolic and biochemical constituents of Porphyra species from India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pise, N.M.; Jena, K.B.; Maharana, D.; Gaikwad, D.; Jagtap, T.G.

    . Antioxidant potentials of algae were assessed through phenolic content, 2, 2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) activity, hydrogen peroxide (H sub(2)O sub(2)), scavenging power and reducing potential. A dose-dependent free radical scavenging action against DPPH...

  15. NM Gross Receipts January - June 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  16. NM Gross Receipts July - December 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  17. NM Gross Receipts January - June 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  18. NM Gross Receipts July - December 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  19. NM Gross Receipts January - June 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  20. NM Gross Receipts January - June 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  1. Hydroelectric power in Switzerland: large growth potential by increasing the installed power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schleiss, A.

    2007-01-01

    Due to its important hydroelectric power generation facilities (about 525 plants with a total power of 13,314 MW producing about 35.3 TWh annually) Switzerland plays an important role in the interconnected European power system. Large artificial storage lakes in the Swiss Alps can generate peak power during hours of highest demand: 9700 MW are available from accumulated energy and the total power of pumped-storage facilities amounts to 1700 MW. The latter allow refilling the reservoirs at periods of low power demand and generating power at periods of peak demand. In the case of favorable conditions, the yearly average power production could be increased by 6% and the production during the winter period (October to March) by 20% by the year 2020. However, looking forward to the year 2050, the annual production is expected to decrease by 3% despite a possible extension of hydropower. This decrease is due to the enforcement of the minimum residual water flow rates required by a new legislation to protect the rivers. The enforcement is due at latest when the present licenses for water utilization expire. On the other hand, the installed (peak) power might be further increased by 50% by retrofitting the existing installations and constructing the pumped-storage plants currently at the planning stage

  2. Potential Impact of Submarine Power Cables on Crab Harvest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, A. S.; Nishimoto, M.

    2016-02-01

    Offshore renewable energy installations convert wave or wind energy to electricity and transfer the power to shore through transmission cables laid on or buried beneath the seafloor. West coast commercial fishermen, who harvest the highly prized Dungeness crab (Metacarcinus magister) and the rock crab (Cancer spp.), are concerned that the interface of crabs and electromagnetic fields (EMF) from these cables will present an electrified fence on the seafloor that their target resource will not cross. Combined with the assistance of professional fishermen, submarine transmission cables that electrify island communities and offshore oil platforms in the eastern Pacific provide an opportunity to test the harvest of crab species across power transmission cables. In situ field techniques give commercial crab species a choice to decide if they will cross fully energized, EMF emitting, power transmission cables, in response to baited traps. Each independent trial is either one of two possible responses: the crab crosses the cable to enter a trap (1) or the crab does not cross the cable to enter a trap (0). Conditions vary among sample units by the following categorical, fixed factors (i.e., covariates) of cable structure (buried or unburied); direction of cable from crab position (west or east, north or south); time and season. A generalized linear model is fit to the data to determine whether any of these factors affect the probability of crabs crossing an energized cable to enter baited traps. Additionally, the experimental design, aside from the number of runs (set of sample trials) and the dates of the runs, is the same in the Santa Barbara Channel for rock crab and Puget Sound for Dungeness crab, and allows us to compare the capture rates of the two species in the two areas. We present preliminary results from field testing in 2015.

  3. Factors affecting potential market penetration of laser fusion power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deonigi, D.E.; Fraley, D.W.

    1979-08-01

    A mini-model has been constructed to estimate the optimal size of laser fusion power plants and to estimate the allowable cost of the first such plant in relation to the next best alternative. In estimating the costs of laser fusion, the mini-model incorporates such factors as market penetration, learning, economies of scale, system size, transmission costs, reserve requirements, development and licensing costs and site costs. The results of the mini-model simulations indicate that the optimal laser fusion plant size is approximately 3 GWe; risk considerations unincorporated in the mini-model suggest an optimal size closer to 2.5 GWe

  4. The transport sectors potential contribution to the flexibility in the power sector required by large-scale wind power integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgård, Per Bromand; Lund, H.; Mathiesen, B.V.

    2007-01-01

    -scale integration of renewable energy in the power system – in specific wind power. In the plan, 20 % of the road transport is based on electricity and 20 % on bio- fuels. This, together with other initiatives allows for up to 55-60 % wind power penetration in the power system. A fleet of 0.5 mio electrical...... vehicles in Denmark in 2030 connected to the grid 50 % of the time represents an aggregated flexible power capacity of 1- 1.5 GW and an energy capacity of 10-150 GWh.......In 2006, the Danish Society of Engineers developed a visionary plan for the Danish energy system in 2030. The paper presents and qualifies selected part of the analyses, illustrating the transport sectors potential to contribute to the flexibility in the power sector, necessary for large...

  5. Transmutation potential of current and innovative nuclear power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slessarev, I.; Salvatores, M.; Uematsu, M.

    1993-01-01

    In the present paper we have investigated the transmutation potential of different nuclear systems from a physical point of view. Transuranium (TRU) elements have been considered, but also long lived fission products (LLFP). The potential for transmutation has to take into account not only the consumption of a specific nucleus (or of a specific 'family' of nuclei), but also the reproduction of other nuclei of higher masses. The present study allows an intercomparison taking into account both aspects. Technological, safety and design constraints were not considered at this stage. However strategic indications for future studies have been obtained. 3 refs., 3 tabs

  6. Offshore wind power experiences, potential and key issues for deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemming, J.; Morthorst, P.E.; Clausen, Niels-Erik

    2009-01-15

    Wind power has been growing at spectacular rates. Today it is the largest non-hydro renewable power technology. Worldwide there is 74 GW of installed capacity which is 1.7% of power generation capacity and in 2006 it accounted for 0.82% of electricity production. However, offshore wind still only counts for a very small amount and development has only taken place in North European counties round the North Sea and the Baltic Sea over the last 15 years. Offshore wind is still some 50% more expensive than onshore wind, but more wind resources and lesser visual impacts from larger turbines are expected to compensate for the higher installation costs in the long term. Most offshore wind farms are installed in British, Swedish and Danish waters, and present-day costs of installing wind energy in the UK are between 1,200 to 1,600 GBP/kW (1,781 to 2,375 Euro/kW) offshore, while in Sweden investment costs were 1,800 Euro/kW, and in Denmark 1,200 to 1,700 Euro/kW, though investment costs for a new wind farm are expected be in the range of 2.0 to 2.2 mill. Euro/MW for a near-shore shallow depth facility. Future developments in offshore wind technology concerning aerodynamics, structural dynamics, structural design, machine elements, electrical design and grid integration could drive investment costs from present-day range of 1.9 to 2.2 mill. Euro/MW down to 1.35 - 1.54 mill.Euro/MW in 2050, which accounts for a reduction of costs of approx. 35%. In order to sum up progress and identify future research needs, the International Energy Agency (IEA) Wind agreement Task 11 should arrange a new meeting concerning long term research needs for reviewing 'the long term strategy for 2000 to 2020' from 2001, to come up with suggestions / recommendations on how to define and proceed with, the necessary research activities of the IEA Wind Agreement and governments involved on key wind issues related to offshore technologies. (au)

  7. Potential applications of neural networks to nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhrig, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    Application of neural networks to the operation of nuclear power plants is being investigated under a US Department of Energy sponsored program at the University of Tennessee. Projects include the feasibility of using neural networks for the following tasks: diagnosing specific abnormal conditions, detection of the change of mode of operation, signal validation, monitoring of check valves, plant-wide monitoring using autoassociative neural networks, modeling of the plant thermodynamics, emulation of core reload calculations, monitoring of plant parameters, and analysis of plant vibrations. Each of these projects and its status are described briefly in this article. The objective of each of these projects is to enhance the safety and performance of nuclear plants through the use of neural networks

  8. MHD channel performance for potential early commercial MHD power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swallom, D.W.

    1981-01-01

    The commercial viability of full and part load early commercial MHD power plants is examined. The load conditions comprise a mass flow of 472 kg/sec in the channel, Rosebud coal, 34% by volume oxygen in the oxidizer preheated to 922 K, and a one percent by mass seeding with K. The full load condition is discussed in terms of a combined cycle plant with optimized electrical output by the MHD channel. Various electrical load parameters, pressure ratios, and magnetic field profiles are considered for a baseload MHD generator, with a finding that a decelerating flow rate yields slightly higher electrical output than a constant flow rate. Nominal and part load conditions are explored, with a reduced gas mass flow rate and an enriched oxygen content. An enthalpy extraction of 24.6% and an isentropic efficiency of 74.2% is predicted for nominal operation of a 526 MWe MHD generator, with higher efficiencies for part load operation

  9. Power from Perspective: Potential future United States energy portfolios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonn, Bruce; Healy, K.C.; Gibson, Amy; Ashish, Ashutosh; Cody, Preston; Beres, Drew; Lulla, Sam; Mazur, Jim; Ritter, A.J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents United States energy portfolios for the year 2030, developed from seven different Perspectives. The Perspectives are characterized by different weights placed on fourteen defining values (e.g., cost, social acceptance). The portfolios were constructed to achieve three primary goals, energy independence, energy security, and greenhouse gas reductions. The portfolios are also evaluated over a comprehensive set of secondary criteria (e.g., economic growth, technical feasibility). It is found that very different portfolios based on very different defining values can achieve the three primary goals. Commonalities among the portfolios include reliance upon cellulosic ethanol, nuclear power, and energy efficiency to meet year 2030 energy demands. It is concluded that the US energy portfolio must be diverse and to achieve national energy goals will require an explicit statement of goals, a strong role for government, and coordinated action across society

  10. Gross anatomy of network security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Thomas J.

    2002-01-01

    Information security involves many branches of effort, including information assurance, host level security, physical security, and network security. Computer network security methods and implementations are given a top-down description to permit a medically focused audience to anchor this information to their daily practice. The depth of detail of network functionality and security measures, like that of the study of human anatomy, can be highly involved. Presented at the level of major gross anatomical systems, this paper will focus on network backbone implementation and perimeter defenses, then diagnostic tools, and finally the user practices (the human element). Physical security measures, though significant, have been defined as beyond the scope of this presentation.

  11. The Future Potential of Waver Power in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirko Previsic; Jeff Epler; Maureen Hand; Donna Heimiller; Walter Short; Kelly Eurek

    2012-09-20

    The theoretical ocean wave energy resource potential exceeds 50% of the annual domestic energy demand of the United States, is located close to coastal population centers, and, although variable in nature, may be more consistent and predictable than some other renewable generation technologies. As a renewable electricity generation technology, ocean wave energy offers a low air pollutant option for diversifying the U.S. electricity generation portfolio. Furthermore, the output characteristics of these technologies may complement other renewable technologies. This study addresses the following: (1) The theoretical, technical and practical potential for electricity generation from wave energy (2) The present lifecycle cost profile (Capex, Opex, and Cost of Electricity) of wave energy conversion technology at a reference site in Northern California at different plant scales (3) Cost of electricity variations as a function of deployment site, considering technical, geo-spatial and and electric grid constraints (4) Technology cost reduction pathways (5) Cost reduction targets at which the technology will see significant deployment within US markets, explored through a series of deployment scenarios RE Vision Consulting, LLC (RE Vision), engaged in various analyses to establish current and future cost profiles for marine hydrokinetic (MHK) technologies, quantified the theoretical, technical and practical resource potential, performed electricity market assessments and developed deployment scenarios. RE Vision was supported in this effort by NREL analysts, who compiled resource information, performed analysis using the ReEDSa model to develop deployment scenarios, and developed a simplified assessment of the Alaska and Hawaii electricity markets.

  12. The potential for disruptive innovations in nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, F.P.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of 'disruptive innovation' is a management tool that provides a framework for understanding the structure and dynamics of technology markets, especially their sometimes acute response to innovation. The concept was used in a preliminary assessment of a number of energy technologies, including renewable energy technologies and energy storage, as well as nuclear technologies, as they interact in industry and the marketplace. The technologies were assessed and perspectives were provided on their current potential for innovation to disrupt the value networks behind electricity markets. The findings indicate that this concept may provide useful guidance for the planning of technology development. (author)

  13. Tritium breeding potential of the Princeton reference fusion power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenspan, E.; Price, W.G. Jr.

    1974-04-01

    A variational method is used to investigate the tritium breeding potential of the blanket of a fusion reactor. Effectiveness functions indicating the changes in the breeding ratio (BR) due to material density perturbations are calculated with the code SWAN. Results are presented analyzing the sensitivity of the BR both to cross section variations and to material density perturbations. For example, SWAN indicates a 0.176 increase in BR for the replacement of 10% of the flibe by beryllium. Implications of the sensitivity figures for design modification and optimization are discussed. 15 refs., 7 figs

  14. The potential for disruptive innovations in nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, F.P., E-mail: fred.adams@cnl.ca [Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2014-12-01

    The concept of 'disruptive innovation' is a management tool that provides a framework for understanding the structure and dynamics of technology markets, especially their sometimes acute response to innovation. The concept was used in a preliminary assessment of a number of energy technologies, including renewable energy technologies and energy storage, as well as nuclear technologies, as they interact in industry and the marketplace. The technologies were assessed and perspectives were provided on their current potential for innovation to disrupt the value networks behind electricity markets. The findings indicate that this concept may provide useful guidance for the planning of technology development. (author)

  15. Potential role of nuclear power in developing and transitional economies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganiage, D.; Dierstein, Ph.

    1996-01-01

    In some developing countries, such as Asia, the growth of electricity consumption is high, and a nuclear programme based on the construction of several standardised plants could be implemented and economically justified. In transitional economies, such as in Central and Eastern Europe countries, electricity authorities were forced to stop the construction of several nuclear plants, mainly because of financial problems. Nuclear power can provide the developing and transition economies with several advantages, such as energy independence and fuel supply security, minimal environmental pollution, support to local industry and employment. On the other hand, nuclear energy also means the support of national authorities and the development of a suitable infrastructure in order to check the enforcement of legal procedures, plants safety and waste management. Local population must understand and accept this commitment linked hand to hand with the choice of nuclear energy. Finally, nuclear industry is very capital-intensive. Therefore, financial resources are to be found by the local electricity authorities, along with the development of a suitable legal framework and the implementation of new tariff policies which must reflect the real costs of electricity. (R.P.)

  16. Potential use of power plant reject heat in commercial aquaculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olszewski, M.

    1977-01-01

    Current research and commercial activities in aquaculture operations have been reviewed. An aquaculture system using mostly herbivorous species in pond culture is proposed as a means of using waste heat to produce reasonably priced protein. The system uses waste water streams, such as secondary sewage effluent, animal wastes, or some industrial waste streams as a primary nutrient source to grow algae, which is fed to fish and clams. Crayfish feed on the clam wastes thereby providing a clean effluent from the aquaculture system. Alternate fish associations are presented and it appears that a carp or tilapia association is desirable. An aquaculture system capable of rejecting all the waste heat from a 1000-MW(e) power station in winter can accommodate about half the summer heat rejection load. The aquaculture facility would require approximately 133 ha and would produce 4.1 x 10/sup 5/ kg/year of fish, 1.5 x 10/sup 6/ kg/year of clam meat, and 1.5 x 10/sup 4/ kg/year of live crayfish. The estimated annual pretax profit from this operation is one million dollars. Several possible problem areas have been identified. However, technical solutions appear to be readily available to solve these problems. The proposed system shows considerable economic promise. Small scale experiments have demonstrated the technical feasibility of various components of the system. It therefore appears that a pilot scale experimental facility should be operated.

  17. Lunar dust transport and potential interactions with power system components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katzan, C.M.; Edwards, J.L.

    1991-11-01

    The lunar surface is covered by a thick blanket of fine dust. This dust may be readily suspended from the surface and transported by a variety of mechanisms. As a consequence, lunar dust can accumulate on sensitive power components, such as photovoltaic arrays and radiator surfaces, reducing their performance. In addition to natural mechanisms, human activities on the Moon will disturb significant amounts of lunar dust. Of all the mechanisms identified, the most serious is rocket launch and landing. The return of components from the Surveyor III provided a rare opportunity to observe the effects of the nearby landing of the Apollo 12 lunar module. The evidence proved that significant dust accumulation occurred on the Surveyor at a distance of 155 m. From available information on particle suspension and transport mechanisms, a series of models was developed to predict dust accumulation as a function of distance from the lunar module. The accumulation distribution was extrapolated to a future lunar lander scenario. These models indicate that accumulation is expected to be substantial even as far as 2 km from the landing site. Estimates of the performance penalties associated with lunar dust coverage on radiators and photovoltaic arrays are presented. Because of the lunar dust adhesive and cohesive properties, the most practical dust defensive strategy appears to be the protection of sensitive components from the arrival of lunar dust by location, orientation, or barriers

  18. Lunar dust transport and potential interactions with power system components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katzan, C.M.; Edwards, J.L.

    1991-11-01

    The lunar surface is covered by a thick blanket of fine dust. This dust may be readily suspended from the surface and transported by a variety of mechanisms. As a consequence, lunar dust can accumulate on sensitive power components, such as photovoltaic arrays and radiator surfaces, reducing their performance. In addition to natural mechanisms, human activities on the Moon will disturb significant amounts of lunar dust. Of all the mechanisms identified, the most serious is rocket launch and landing. The return of components from the Surveyor III provided a rare opportunity to observe the effects of the nearby landing of the Apollo 12 lunar module. The evidence proved that significant dust accumulation occurred on the Surveyor at a distance of 155 m. From available information on particle suspension and transport mechanisms, a series of models was developed to predict dust accumulation as a function of distance from the lunar module. The accumulation distribution was extrapolated to a future lunar lander scenario. These models indicate that accumulation is expected to be substantial even as far as 2 km from the landing site. Estimates of the performance penalties associated with lunar dust coverage on radiators and photovoltaic arrays are presented. Because of the lunar dust adhesive and cohesive properties, the most practical dust defensive strategy appears to be the protection of sensitive components from the arrival of lunar dust by location, orientation, or barriers.

  19. Potential use of power plant reject heat in commercial aquaculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olszewski, M.

    1977-01-01

    Current research and commercial activities in aquaculture operations have been reviewed. An aquaculture system using mostly herbivorous species in pond culture is proposed as a means of using waste heat to produce reasonably priced protein. The system uses waste water streams, such as secondary sewage effluent, animal wastes, or some industrial waste streams as a primary nutrient source to grow algae, which is fed to fish and clams. Crayfish feed on the clam wastes thereby providing a clean effluent from the aquaculture system. Alternate fish associations are presented and it appears that a carp or tilapia association is desirable. An aquaculture system capable of rejecting all the waste heat from a 1000-MW(e) power station in winter can accommodate about half the summer heat rejection load. The aquaculture facility would require approximately 133 ha and would produce 4.1 x 10 5 kg/year of fish, 1.5 x 10 6 kg/year of clam meat, and 1.5 x 10 4 kg/year of live crayfish. The estimated annual pretax profit from this operation is one million dollars. Several possible problem areas have been identified. However, technical solutions appear to be readily available to solve these problems. The proposed system shows considerable economic promise. Small scale experiments have demonstrated the technical feasibility of various components of the system. It therefore appears that a pilot scale experimental facility should be operated

  20. Beta Function Quintessence Cosmological Parameters and Fundamental Constants I: Power and Inverse Power Law Dark Energy Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Rodger I.

    2018-04-01

    This investigation explores using the beta function formalism to calculate analytic solutions for the observable parameters in rolling scalar field cosmologies. The beta function in this case is the derivative of the scalar ϕ with respect to the natural log of the scale factor a, β (φ )=d φ /d ln (a). Once the beta function is specified, modulo a boundary condition, the evolution of the scalar ϕ as a function of the scale factor is completely determined. A rolling scalar field cosmology is defined by its action which can contain a range of physically motivated dark energy potentials. The beta function is chosen so that the associated "beta potential" is an accurate, but not exact, representation of the appropriate dark energy model potential. The basic concept is that the action with the beta potential is so similar to the action with the model potential that solutions using the beta action are accurate representations of solutions using the model action. The beta function provides an extra equation to calculate analytic functions of the cosmologies parameters as a function of the scale factor that are that are not calculable using only the model action. As an example this investigation uses a quintessence cosmology to demonstrate the method for power and inverse power law dark energy potentials. An interesting result of the investigation is that the Hubble parameter H is almost completely insensitive to the power of the potentials and that ΛCDM is part of the family of quintessence cosmology power law potentials with a power of zero.

  1. Potentiality of wind power generation along the Bangladesh coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Md. Akramuzzaman; Chowdhury, K. M. Azam; Sen, Sukanta; Islam, Mohammad Masudul

    2017-12-01

    Nowadays Bangladesh is facing the problem with electricity as the production is less comparing to the demand. A significant amount of electricity is consumed in urban areas especially by industries whereas in rural or coastal areas most of the people are not having it. Around 40 millions of people living in the 724 km long coast in Bangladesh. Moreover, it is surprising that throughout the year there is sufficient wind blow in coastal areas by which we can produce a massive amount of electricity. However, day by day the utilization of wind energy is increasing in the world which reduces costs of renewable energy technology, improves efficiency. It would be a good alternative solution instead of dependency on natural gas. Wind energy is mainly potential in coastal and offshore areas with strong wind regimes. Wind energy is vital for ensuring a green energy for the future. The agricultural land of Bangladesh needs the supply of water at right time for better yielding. The installation of windmills will be very much convenient for operating the water supply pumps. This research highlights the possibility of wind energy and describes the necessary steps to implement and develop wind energy sector in Bangladesh by using other's successful ideas. Supportive policies, rules, and decree can be applied to make government, non-government organization, and donor organizations work together to develop wind energy sector in Bangladesh.

  2. The Japanese power equipment market - potential for foreign companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, G.D.; Matsumoto, Satoru

    1993-01-01

    The potential for foreign companies for sales of heavy electrical equipment in Japan is assessed. The Japanese heavy electrical equipment industry (HEI) has very close links with the electricity supply industry. Traditionally a small circle of domestic manufacturers have supplied all the electric utilities. However, there is criticism in Japan of the inefficiencies which have arisen as a result of the close relationship and the cost competitiveness of domestic products has been eroded by the appreciation of the yen. The chief driving force in the opening of the market to foreign products is political, though. Friction between Japan and the USA and European Community on the subject of trade imbalance, has led the Ministry of Internal Trade and Industry to encourage major utilities to increase their imports from abroad. Consequently, opportunities now exist for foreign suppliers to gain access to the Japanese HEI market but only if they are willing to make a long term investment. Market entry is still likely to be very difficult, however, and unlikely to produce quick returns. In the longer term, though, access to the Japanese market could open up even wider opportunities. (UK)

  3. Nuclear industry powering up to tackle potential threats from cyberspace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepherd, John

    2015-01-01

    In June 2015, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), in cooperation with international agencies including the crime-fighting organisation Interpol, will host a major conference on the protection of computer systems and networks that support operations at the world's nuclear facilities. According to the IAEA, the use of computers and other digital electronic equipment in physical protection systems at nuclear facilities, as well as in facility safety systems, instrumentation, information processing and communication, ''continues to grow and presents an ever more likely target for cyber-attack''. The international nuclear industry is right to take heed of ever-evolving security threats, deal with them accordingly, and be as open and transparent as security allows about what is being done, which will reassure the general public. However, the potential menace of cyberspace should not be allowed to become such a distraction that it gives those who are ideologically opposed to nuclear another stick with which to beat the industry.

  4. Nuclear industry powering up to tackle potential threats from cyberspace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepherd, John [nuclear 24, Brighton (United Kingdom)

    2015-06-15

    In June 2015, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), in cooperation with international agencies including the crime-fighting organisation Interpol, will host a major conference on the protection of computer systems and networks that support operations at the world's nuclear facilities. According to the IAEA, the use of computers and other digital electronic equipment in physical protection systems at nuclear facilities, as well as in facility safety systems, instrumentation, information processing and communication, ''continues to grow and presents an ever more likely target for cyber-attack''. The international nuclear industry is right to take heed of ever-evolving security threats, deal with them accordingly, and be as open and transparent as security allows about what is being done, which will reassure the general public. However, the potential menace of cyberspace should not be allowed to become such a distraction that it gives those who are ideologically opposed to nuclear another stick with which to beat the industry.

  5. Technical Challenges and Potential Solutions for Cross-Country Multi-Terminal Superconducting DC Power Cables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Taie, A.; Graber, L.; Pamidi, S. V.

    2017-12-01

    Opportunities for applications of high temperature superconducting (HTS) DC power cables for long distance power transmission in increasing the reliability of the electric power grid and to enable easier integration of distributed renewable sources into the grid are discussed. The gaps in the technology developments both in the superconducting cable designs and cryogenic systems as well as power electronic devices are identified. Various technology components in multi-terminal high voltage DC power transmission networks and the available options are discussed. The potential of ongoing efforts in the development of superconducting DC transmission systems is discussed.

  6. Large-Scale Power Production Potential on U.S. Department of Energy Lands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandt, Alicen J. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Elgqvist, Emma M. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gagne, Douglas A. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hillesheim, Michael B. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Walker, H. A. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); King, Jeff [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Boak, Jeremy [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Washington, Jeremy [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Sharp, Cory [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-03

    This report summarizes the potential for independent power producers to generate large-scale power on U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) lands and export that power into a larger power market, rather than serving on-site DOE loads. The report focuses primarily on the analysis of renewable energy (RE) technologies that are commercially viable at utility scale, including photovoltaics (PV), concentrating solar power (CSP), wind, biomass, landfill gas (LFG), waste to energy (WTE), and geothermal technologies. The report also summarizes the availability of fossil fuel, uranium, or thorium resources at 55 DOE sites.

  7. Controlling the occurrence of power overshoot by adapting microbial fuel cells to high anode potentials

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Xiuping

    2013-04-01

    Power density curves for microbial fuel cells (MFCs) often show power overshoot, resulting in inaccurate estimation of MFC performance at high current densities. The reasons for power overshoot are not well understood, but biofilm acclimation and development are known factors. In order to better explore the reasons for power overshoot, exoelectrogenic biofilms were developed at four different anode potentials (-0.46 V, -0.24 V, 0 V, and 0.50 V vs. Ag/AgCl), and then the properties of the biofilms were examined using polarization tests and cyclic voltammetry (CV). The maximum power density of the MFCs was 1200±100 mW/m2. Power overshoot was observed in MFCs incubated at -0.46 V, but not those acclimated atmore positive potentials, indicating that bacterial activitywas significantly influenced by the anode acclimation potential. CV results further indicated that power overshoot of MFCs incubated at the lowest anode potential was associatedwith a decreasing electroactivity of the anodic biofilm in the high potential region,which resulted from a lack of sufficient electron transfer components to shuttle electrons at rates needed for these more positive potentials. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  8. The Analytic Solution of Schroedinger Equation with Potential Function Superposed by Six Terms with Positive-power and Inverse-power Potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Xianquan; Luo Guang; Cui Lipeng; Niu Lianbin; Li Fangyu

    2009-01-01

    The analytic solution of the radial Schroedinger equation is studied by using the tight coupling condition of several positive-power and inverse-power potential functions in this article. Furthermore, the precisely analytic solutions and the conditions that decide the existence of analytic solution have been searched when the potential of the radial Schroedinger equation is V(r) = α 1 r 8 + α 2 r 3 + α 3 r 2 + β 3 r -1 + β 2 r -3 + β 1 r -4 . Generally speaking, there is only an approximate solution, but not analytic solution for Schroedinger equation with several potentials' superposition. However, the conditions that decide the existence of analytic solution have been found and the analytic solution and its energy level structure are obtained for the Schroedinger equation with the potential which is motioned above in this paper. According to the single-value, finite and continuous standard of wave function in a quantum system, the authors firstly solve the asymptotic solution through the radial coordinate r → and r → 0; secondly, they make the asymptotic solutions combining with the series solutions nearby the neighborhood of irregular singularities; and then they compare the power series coefficients, deduce a series of analytic solutions of the stationary state wave function and corresponding energy level structure by tight coupling among the coefficients of potential functions for the radial Schroedinger equation; and lastly, they discuss the solutions and make conclusions. (general)

  9. Gross theory of nuclear β-decay with shell effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pabst, M.

    1979-01-01

    The present work tries to introduce shell effects selection rules into the gross theory systematically. Instead of an unbunched or bunched Fermigas spectrum a single-particle spectrum in the shell model with a Woods-Saxon potential is used. The knowledge of spin and parity of the levels allows us to introduce selection rules in an approximative way. (orig.)

  10. Validating the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Downs, Jenny; Stahlhut, Michelle; Wong, Kingsley

    2016-01-01

    .93-0.98). The standard error of measurement for the total score was 2 points and we would be 95% confident that a change 4 points in the 45-point scale would be greater than within-subject measurement error. The Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale could be an appropriate measure of gross motor skills in clinical practice......Rett syndrome is a pervasive neurodevelopmental disorder associated with a pathogenic mutation on the MECP2 gene. Impaired movement is a fundamental component and the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale was developed to measure gross motor abilities in this population. The current study investigated...... the validity and reliability of the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale. Video data showing gross motor abilities supplemented with parent report data was collected for 255 girls and women registered with the Australian Rett Syndrome Database, and the factor structure and relationships between motor scores, age...

  11. Evaluation of gross radioactivity in foodstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zorer, Oezlem Selcuk; Oeter, Cigdem

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents the results of radiological investigations of food products sampled in the summer and fall of 2011 and 2012 in different parts of Van, Turkey. Gross radioactivity measurements in food products were evaluated. Food items were divided into eight groups: (1) water, (2) fish, (3) cheese products, (4) fruits, (5) vegetables, (6) herbs, (7) walnut and (8) rock salt. The levels of the gross alpha and gross beta radioactivity in all food samples varied widely ranging from 0.070 to 10.885 Bq/g and from 0.132 to 48.285 Bq/g on dry mass basis, respectively. In one sample, gross alpha and gross beta activity concentrations were found to be relatively high according to the other samples and in all samples, the gross alpha radioactivity was measured lower than the gross beta radioactivity. The gross α and gross β activities were measured by using α/β counter of the multi-detector low background system (PIC MPC-9604).

  12. Evaluation of gross radioactivity in foodstuffs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zorer, Oezlem Selcuk; Oeter, Cigdem [Yuzuncu Yil Univ., Van (Turkey). Dept. of Chemistry

    2015-05-15

    The paper presents the results of radiological investigations of food products sampled in the summer and fall of 2011 and 2012 in different parts of Van, Turkey. Gross radioactivity measurements in food products were evaluated. Food items were divided into eight groups: (1) water, (2) fish, (3) cheese products, (4) fruits, (5) vegetables, (6) herbs, (7) walnut and (8) rock salt. The levels of the gross alpha and gross beta radioactivity in all food samples varied widely ranging from 0.070 to 10.885 Bq/g and from 0.132 to 48.285 Bq/g on dry mass basis, respectively. In one sample, gross alpha and gross beta activity concentrations were found to be relatively high according to the other samples and in all samples, the gross alpha radioactivity was measured lower than the gross beta radioactivity. The gross α and gross β activities were measured by using α/β counter of the multi-detector low background system (PIC MPC-9604).

  13. Gross efficiency and energy expenditure in kayak ergometer exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, B B; Mourão, L; Massart, A; Figueiredo, P; Vilas-Boas, J P; Santos, A M C; Fernandes, R J

    2012-08-01

    We purposed to study energy expenditure, power output and gross efficiency during kayak ergometer exercise in 12 elite sprint kayakers. 6 males (age 24.2±4.8 years, height 180.4±4.8 cm, body mass 79.7±8.5 kg) and 6 females (age 24.3±4.5 years, height 164.5±3.9 cm, body mass 65.4±3.5 kg), performed an incremental intermittent protocol on kayak ergometer with VO2 and blood lactate concentration assessment, a non-linear increase between power output and energy expenditure being observed. Paddling power output, energy expenditure and gross efficiency corresponding to VO2max averaged 199.92±50.41 W, 75.27±6.30 ml.kg - 1.min - 1, and 10.10±1.08%. Male kayakers presented higher VO2max, power output and gross efficiency at the VO2max, and lower heart rate and maximal lactate concentration than females, but no differences were found between genders regarding energy expenditure at VO2max. Aerobic and anaerobic components of energy expenditure evidenced a significant contribution of anaerobic energy sources in sprint kayak performance. Results also suggested the dependence of the gross efficiency on the changes in the amount of the aerobic and anaerobic contributions, at heavy and severe intensities. The inter-individual variance of the relationship between energy expenditure and the corresponding paddling power output revealed a relevant tracking for females (FDγ=0.73±0.06), conversely to the male group (FDγ=0.27±0.08), supporting that some male kayakers are more skilled in some paddling intensities than others. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. The potential estimation and factor analysis of China′s energy conservation on thermal power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Boqiang; Yang, Lisha

    2013-01-01

    At present, researches about energy conservation are focused on prediction. But there are few researches focused on the estimation of effective input and energy conservation potential, and there has been even no research on energy conservation of thermal power industry of China. This paper will try to fill in such a blank. Panel data on Chinese thermal power industry over 2005–2010 are established, and we adopt the stochastic frontier analysis approach to estimate the energy saving potential of thermal power industry. The results are as follows: (1) the average efficiency of energy inputs in China′s thermal power industry over 2005–2010 was about 0.85, and cumulative energy saving potential equals to 551.04 (Mtce); (2) by improving the non-efficiency factors, the relatively backward inland cities could achieve higher energy saving in thermal power industry; (3) the energy input efficiency of Eastern China Grid is shown to be the highest; (4) in order to realize the energy-saving goal of thermal power industry, one important policy method the government should adopt is to conduct a market-oriented reform in power industry and break the state-owned monopoly to provide incentives for private and foreign direct investment in thermal power sector. -- Highlights: •We adopt SFA model to estimate the coal input efficiency of power sector in China. •We calculate the cumulative energy saving potential equals to 551.04 Mtce. •East China power grid has the highest energy input efficiency. •Some backward inland cities may be the main force for future energy conservation. •Encourage private and foreign direct investment in power sector might be effective

  15. Free-piston Stirling component test power converter test results and potential Stirling applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dochat, G. R.

    1992-01-01

    As the principal contractor to NASA-Lewis Research Center, Mechanical Technology Incorporated is under contract to develop free-piston Stirling power converters in the context of the competitive multiyear Space Stirling Technology Program. The first generation Stirling power converter, the component test power converter (CTPC) initiated cold end testing in 1991, with hot testing scheduled for summer of 1992. This paper reviews the test progress of the CTPC and discusses the potential of Stirling technology for various potential missions at given point designs of 250 watts, 2500 watts, and 25,000 watts.

  16. Study on economic potential of nuclear-gas combined cycle power generation in Chinese market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Zhiwei; Bian Zhiqiang; Yang Mengjia

    2004-01-01

    Facing the challenges of separation of electric power plant and grid, and the deregulation of Chinese electricity supplying market in near future, nuclear power plants mainly operated as based load at the present regulated market should look for new operation mode. The economics of electric generation with nuclear-natural gas combined cycle is studied based on current conditions of natural gas and nuclear power plants in China. The results indicate that the technology development of nuclear-natural gas combined cycle for power generation is of potential prospects in Chinese electric market. (authors)

  17. On the dynamics of the power law inflation due to an exponential potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokohama, Jun'ichi; Maeda, Kei-ichi; Tokyo Univ.

    1988-01-01

    The power law inflationary universe model induced by a scalar field with an exponential potential is studied. A dissipation term due to particle creation is introduced in the inflation's classical equation of motion. It is shown that the power index of the inflation increases prominently with an adequate viscosity. Consequently, even in theories with a rather steep exponential such as some supergravity or superstring models, it turns out that a 'realistic' power law inflation (with a power index p> or approx.10) is possible. (orig.)

  18. Measures of Gross National Happiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruut Veenhoven

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Happiness is rising on the political agenda and this calls for measures of how well nations perform in creating great happiness for a great number, analogous to measures of success in creating wealth, such as GDP. Happiness is defined as subjective enjoyment of one’s life as-a-whole and this can be measured using self-reports. Question on happiness are currently used in large scale surveys of the general population in nations. As a result we have now comparable data on happiness in 144 contemporary nations and time-series of 25 years and longer on 11 developed nations. These data can be aggregated in different ways: If the aim is simply greater happiness for a greater number of citizens, Average happiness (AH is an appropriate measure. If the focus is on enduring happiness, it is better to combine average happiness with longevity in an index of Happy Life Years (HLY. If the aim is to reduce disparity among citizens a relevant indicator is the Inequality of Happiness (IH in the nations as measured with the standard deviation. Average and dispersion can also be combined in an index of Inequality-Adjusted Happiness (IAH. Comparison across nations shows sizable differences on all these measures of gross national happiness and these differences correspond with societal characteristics that can be influenced by policy makers, such as freedom and justice. Comparison over time shows major improvement during the last decade.

  19. Estimation of average annual streamflows and power potentials for Alaska and Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verdin, Kristine L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab. (INEEL)

    2004-05-01

    This paper describes the work done to develop average annual streamflow estimates and power potential for the states of Alaska and Hawaii. The Elevation Derivatives for National Applications (EDNA) database was used, along with climatic datasets, to develop flow and power estimates for every stream reach in the EDNA database. Estimates of average annual streamflows were derived using state-specific regression equations, which were functions of average annual precipitation, precipitation intensity, drainage area, and other elevation-derived parameters. Power potential was calculated through the use of the average annual streamflow and the hydraulic head of each reach, which is calculated from the EDNA digital elevation model. In all, estimates of streamflow and power potential were calculated for over 170,000 stream segments in the Alaskan and Hawaiian datasets.

  20. Analysis of output currents of self-powered detectors polarized by an external potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pytel, K; Glowacki, S

    1980-01-01

    During measurement of self-powered detector current the electrical potential is induced between the emitter and collector caused by the input resistivity of measuring device. The detector current dependence on the emitter potential has been analyzed. The experimental results confirm the theoretical model of electronic processes within the insulator and also give the requirements that measuring device should fulfil.

  1. Alternative Measure of Wellbeing: Bhutan's Gross National ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    There is growing demand for innovative yet rigorous measures of national wellbeing beyond gross domestic product. In 2008, the Centre for Bhutan Studies - Bhutan's main policy research centre - posted data from a preliminary survey of the country's Gross National Happiness (GNH). The Centre for Bhutan Studies ...

  2. Low-energy neutron-proton analyzing power and the new Bonn potential and Paris potential predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tornow, W.; Howell, C.R.; Roberts, M.L.; Felsher, P.D.; Chen, Z.M.; Walter, R.L.; Mertens, G.; Slaus, I.

    1988-01-01

    Instrumental asymmetries recently observed by Haeberli and co-workers, limit the accuracy of neutron-proton analyzing power A/sub y/(θ) data. These instrumental effects are discussed and calculated for previously published n-p A/sub y/(θ) data at 16.9 MeV. To enable these calculations, the analyzing power for the 2 H(d-arrow-right,n) 3 He reaction was measured at small angles. Additional n-p A/sub y/(θ) data at extreme backward angles, obtained via proton recoil detection, are also reported for this energy in this paper. The composite data set is compared to calculations based on the new Bonn NN potential, the Paris NN potential, and to the recent NN phase-shift solution of Arndt. In addition, a detailed comparison between A/sub y/(θ) calculated from the new Bonn and the Paris potentials between 10 and 50 MeV is shown to reveal unexpectedly large relative differences. The experimental data in this energy range are better described by the Paris potential than by the new Bonn potential

  3. Gross and microscopic lesions in corals from Micronesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, Thierry M.; Aeby, Greta S.; Hughen, Konrad A.

    2015-01-01

    The authors documented gross and microscopic morphology of lesions in corals on 7 islands spanning western, southern, and eastern Micronesia, sampling 76 colonies comprising 30 species of corals among 18 genera, with Acropora, Porites, and Montipora dominating. Tissue loss comprised the majority of gross lesions sampled (41%), followed by discoloration (30%) and growth anomaly (29%). Of 31 cases of tissue loss, most lesions were subacute (48%), followed by acute and chronic (26% each). Of 23 samples with discoloration, most were dark discoloration (40%), with bleaching and other discoloration each constituting 30%. Of 22 growth anomalies, umbonate growth anomalies composed half, with exophytic, nodular, and rugose growth anomalies composing the remainder. On histopathology, for 9 cases of dark discoloration, fungal infections predominated (77%); for 7 bleached corals, depletion of zooxanthellae from the gastrodermis made up a majority of microscopic diagnoses (57%); and for growth anomalies other than umbonate, hyperplasia of the basal body wall was the most common microscopic finding (63%). For the remainder of the gross lesions, no single microscopic finding constituted >50% of the total. Host response varied with the agent present on histology. Fragmentation of tissues was most often associated with algae (60%), whereas necrosis dominated (53%) for fungi. Two newly documented potentially symbiotic tissue-associated metazoans were seen in Porites and Montipora. Findings of multiple potential etiologies for a given gross lesion highlight the importance of incorporating histopathology in coral disease surveys. This study also expands the range of corals infected with cell-associated microbial aggregates.

  4. Grosse maschine sucht kleine teilchen

    CERN Multimedia

    Müller, Bernd

    2007-01-01

    It's the most powerful accelerator for elementary particles of all times: the Large Hadron Collider. The most expensive particle accelerator up to now must make possible to the physicists to have a glance on the beginning of times. (2 pages)

  5. Assessment of Power Potential of Tidal Currents and Impacts of Power Extraction on Flow Speeds in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orhan, K.; Mayerle, R.

    2016-12-01

    A methodology comprising of the estimates of power yield, evaluation of the effects of power extraction on flow conditions, and near-field investigations to deliver wake characteritics, recovery and interactions is described and applied to several straits in Indonesia. Site selection is done with high-resolution, three-dimensional flow models providing sufficient spatiotemporal coverage. Much attention has been given to the meteorological forcing, and conditions at the open sea boundaries to adequately capture the density gradients and flow fields. Model verification using tidal records shows excellent agreement. Sites with adequate depth for the energy conversion using horizontal axis tidal turbines, average kinetic power density greater than 0.5 kW/m2, and surface area larger than 0.5km2 are defined as energy hotspots. Spatial variation of the average extractable electric power is determined, and annual tidal energy resource is estimated for the straits in question. The results showed that the potential for tidal power generation in Indonesia is likely to exceed previous predictions reaching around 4,800MW. To assess the impact of the devices, flexible mesh models with higher resolutions have been developed. Effects on flow conditions, and near-field turbine wakes are resolved in greater detail with triangular horizontal grids. The energy is assumed to be removed uniformly by sub-grid scale arrays of turbines, and calculations are made based on velocities at the hub heights of the devices. An additional drag force resulting in dissipation of the pre-existing kinetic power from %10 to %60 within a flow cross-section is introduced to capture the impacts. It was found that the effect of power extraction on water levels and flow speeds in adjacent areas is not significant. Results show the effectivess of the method to capture wake characteritics and recovery reasonably well with low computational cost.

  6. Optimisation of the energy potential of low-CO2 gas turbines by using large monocrystal turbine blades. Final report; Optimierung des Energiepotentials fuer CO{sub 2}-arme Gasturbinen durch grosse Einkristall-Turbinenschaufeln. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grossmann, J.

    2002-07-01

    Apart from the experimental identification and assessment of process characteristics during industrial-scale application of the so-called liquid metal cooling (LPC) process, the project focused on the characterisation of monocrystalline, directionally solidified materials and components. This involved the construction and commissioning of appropriate production and test aggregates, i.e. the LMC casting system and a Laue orientation testing unit, as well as the modification of a vacuum heat treatment furnace to meet the specific requirement of glow annealing of monocrystalline, directionally solidified turbine blades. [German] Das Ziel des Forschungsvorhabens (Laufzeit: 01. Juli 1997 bis 31. Dezember 2001) 'Optimierung des Energiepotentials fuer CO{sub 2}-arme Gasturbinen durch grosse Einkristall-Turbinenschaufeln' lag neben der experimentellen Bestimmung und Bewertung von Verfahrens- und Prozesskennwerten bei der industriellen Umsetzung des sogenannten Liquid-Metal-Cooling-Verfahrens (LMC) in der Eigenschaftscharakterisierung von einkristallin-gerichtet erstarrten Proben und Bauteilen, die mittels dieser neuartigen Giesstechnologie dargestellt wurden. Grundvoraussetzung fuer die umfassende Bearbeitung der o.g. Arbeitsinhalte war die Konstruktion und Inbetriebnahme der notwendigen Fertigungs- und Pruefaggregate, d.h. der LMC-Giessanlage und einer Laue-Orientierungspruefeinrichtung bzw. der Abstimmung eines Vakuum-Waermebehandlungsofens auf die spezifischen Anforderungen der Loesungsgluehung einkristallin-gerichtet erstarrter Turbinenlaufschaufeln. (orig.)

  7. Effects of land use change on soil gross nitrogen transformation rates in subtropical acid soils of Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yongbo; Xu, Zhihong

    2015-07-01

    Land use change affects soil gross nitrogen (N) transformations, but such information is particularly lacking under subtropical conditions. A study was carried out to investigate the potential gross N transformation rates in forest and agricultural (converted from the forest) soils in subtropical China. The simultaneously occurring gross N transformations in soil were quantified by a (15)N tracing study under aerobic conditions. The results showed that change of land use types substantially altered most gross N transformation rates. The gross ammonification and nitrification rates were significantly higher in the agricultural soils than in the forest soils, while the reverse was true for the gross N immobilization rates. The higher total carbon (C) concentrations and C / N ratio in the forest soils relative to the agricultural soils were related to the greater gross N immobilization rates in the forest soils. The lower gross ammonification combined with negligible gross nitrification rates, but much higher gross N immobilization rates in the forest soils than in the agricultural soils suggest that this may be a mechanism to effectively conserve available mineral N in the forest soils through increasing microbial biomass N, the relatively labile organic N. The greater gross nitrification rates and lower gross N immobilization rates in the agricultural soils suggest that conversion of forests to agricultural soils may exert more negative effects on the environment by N loss through NO3 (-) leaching or denitrification (when conditions for denitrification exist).

  8. Conditions and requirements for a potential application of solar power satellites /SPS/ for Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westphal, W. (Berlin, Technische Universitaet, Berlin, West Germany); Ruth, J. (ESA, European Space Research and Technology Centre, Noordwijk, Netherlands)

    1980-12-01

    The potential problems of a future introduction of Solar Power Satellites (SPS) as baseload power plants for Western European countries are considered, emphasizing the differences of SPS utilization in Europe compared with that in the USA as a result of geographical, orbital organizational, and industrial conditions. If estimated SPS safety zone areas are required, then the SPS system incorporating the 2.45 GHz microwave power transmission appears crucial for utilization in Western Europe in order to eliminate the large rectenna area requirements of an SPS 5 GW power system. A frequency variation of up to 5 or 10 GHz, and the application of either laser power transmission or solid state devices which could alleviate rectenna siting problems and restrictions on the use of the geosynchronous orbit are discussed.

  9. Wave-power potential along the coast of the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanfredi, N.W. (Comision de Investigaciones Cientificas de la Provincia de Buenos Aires (CIC), La Plata (Argentina) Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Museo, UNLP, La Plata (Argentina)); Pousa, J.L. (Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, Buenos Aires (Argentina) Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Museo, UNLP, La Plata (Argentina)); Mazio, C.A.; Dragani, W.C. (Servicio de Hidrografia Naval, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Dept. Oceanografia)

    1992-11-01

    The coast of the Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina, has been studied to determine the wave-power potential. Using wave data (4 yr) from accelerometers, pressure sensors (1 yr) and a visual observation program (10 yr), the wave-power density was calculated at five locations. The annual average increases southwards, ranging between 2.3 kW/m at Mar de Ajo and 7.5 kW/m at Puerto Quequen. Annual averages of maximum wave power give 69 and 61.3 kW/m for Punta Medanos and Puerto Quequen, respectively. (Author).

  10. Nuclear power in Europe today and its potential competitive role for tomorrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmut, B.

    1996-01-01

    Nuclear power is nowadays one of the cornerstones of the occidental Europe electricity supply system. The electricity European market liberalization as well as the uncertainties resulting from acceptabilities problems (which are due to political risks) represent nevertheless a great challenge for the future use of nuclear power. Concerning the energy consumption, the financial advantage of new nuclear power plants compared with fossil-fired power plants seems to be still possible in the future, but all investment decision should however consider in addition to these less high costs the political financial costs which are difficult to appreciate in a lot of European countries. On account of the current conditions, it would be practically senseless to build new nuclear power plants in these countries. The investment safety required for the construction of new plants is only given unfortunately in a few countries, in France for instance. Without any political conditions modification, new nuclear power plants setting up in most of the occidental European countries will be in a near future probably exceptional and with risks division. However, we must not forget that the nuclear power disposes of the potential which allows to reach objectives of a capital importance on the social plan as for instance the CO 2 decrease, the resources economy, the electric power price stability and the employment protection. In the future, the electric power plants will not be in measure to reach the objectives which have been theirs until now as those will induce disadvantages for competitiveness. After the liberalization, it is then the duty of the political responsible persons to establish a sufficient legal protection for the future use of nuclear power and to create thus the ecological and economical potential bound to these ones. (O.M.)

  11. Assessment of Power Potential of Tidal Currents and Impacts of Power Extraction on Flow Conditions in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orhan, Kadir; Mayerle, Roberto

    2017-04-01

    Climate change is an urgent and potentially irreversible threat to human societies and the planet and thus requires an effective and appropriate response, with a view to accelerating the reduction of global greenhouse gas emissions. At this point, a worldwide shift to renewable energy is crucial. In this study, a methodology comprising of the estimates of power yield, evaluation of the effects of power extraction on flow conditions, and near-field investigations to deliver wake characteristics, recovery and interactions is described and applied to several straits in Indonesia. Site selection is done with high-resolution, three-dimensional flow models providing sufficient spatiotemporal coverage. Much attention has been given to the meteorological forcing, and conditions at the open sea boundaries to adequately capture the density gradients and flow fields. Model verifications using tidal records show excellent agreement. Sites with adequate depth for the energy conversion using horizontal axis tidal turbines, average kinetic power density greater than 0.5 kW/m2, and surface area larger than 0.5km2 are defined as energy hotspots. Spatial variation of the average extractable electric power is determined, and annual tidal energy resource is estimated for the straits in question. The results showed that the potential for tidal power generation in Indonesia is likely to exceed previous predictions reaching around 4,800MW. Models with higher resolutions have been developed to assess the impacts of devices on flow conditions and to resolve near-field turbine wakes in greater detail. The energy is assumed to be removed uniformly by sub-grid scale arrays of turbines. An additional drag force resulting in dissipation of the pre-existing kinetic power from 10% to 60% within a flow cross-section is introduced to capture the impacts. k-ɛ model, which is a second order turbulence closure model is selected to involve the effects of the turbulent kinetic energy and turbulent

  12. Wind power potential outside the Norwegian coast (offshore); Vindkraftpotensialet utenfor norskekysten (offshore)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofstad, Knut; Tallhaug, Lars

    2008-07-01

    Norway has a long coastline with good wind conditions, but is different from many other European countries because a big part of the maritime zone close to the coast is very deep (the Norwegian trench). Thus it is only possible to utilize a small part of the offshore field for wind power with today's technology. Developing wind power offshore is today only extended to the areas with shallow water with depth between 5 and 20 meters. The solution for the deeper areas is not commercially available as of yet, but more and more participants, a Norwegian firm (Owec) among others, are working on solutions that will make it possible to establish wind turbines with a solid base as deep as 100 meters (technology based on experiences from the oil industry). A considerable wind power potential in the shallow water areas outside the Norwegian coast has been proven. Meanwhile the potential is strongly dependent on the demand that the generating station must have a minimum distance from the shore. In areas with depths shallower than 20 meters, the potential is estimated from about 6000 to about 30 000 MW, dependent on if the minimum distance from shore is 10 to 1 km. If the maximum depth is extended to 50 m, the potential is about 13 000 to 55 000 MW. Also an approximation is made on how big the wind power potential can be if the maximum depth is extended to 100 m. The potential for wind power will then improve substantially and will be in the area from 40 000 to 140 000 MW. For depths that deep, it may also be pertinent to increase the demand for minimum distance from the shore to 20 km. The potential outside the 20 km limit will be about 12 000 MW. The investigation considers that the development shall not take place in the protected zones or too close to shore. Specific adverse effects of environmental and other specific effects will however not be evaluated. For instance it is not clear what significance the visual impacts and coast scenery will be and what restrictions

  13. Assessing the potential role of concentrated solar power (CSP) for the northeast power system of Brazil using a detailed power system model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fichter, Tobias; Soria, Rafael; Szklo, Alexandre; Schaeffer, Roberto; Lucena, Andre F.P.

    2017-01-01

    One of the technologies that stand out as an alternative to provide additional flexibility to power systems with large penetration of variable renewable energy (VRE), especially for regions with high direct normal irradiation (DNI), is concentrated solar power (CSP) plants coupled to thermal energy storage (TES) and back-up (BUS) systems. Brazil can develop this technology domestically, especially in its Northeast region, where most of VRE capacity is being deployed and where lies most of the CSP potential of the country. This work applies the Capacity Expansion Model REMix-CEM, which allows considering dispatch constraints of thermal power plants in long-term capacity expansion optimization. REMix-CEM calculates the optimal CSP plant configuration and its dispatch strategy from a central planning perspective. Results showed that the hybridization of CSP plants with jurema-preta biomass (CSP-BIO) becomes a least-cost option for Brazil by 2040. CSP-BIO contributes to the Northeast power system by regularizing the energy imbalance that results from the large-scale VRE expansion along with conventional inflexible power plants. CSP-BIO plants are able to increase frequency response and operational reserve services and can provide the required additional flexibility that the Northeast power system of Brazil will require into the future. - Highlights: • Concentrating solar power (CSP) plants provide flexibility to power systems. • CSP configuration is optimized endogenously during capacity expansion optimization. • CSP hybridized with biomass supports grid-integration of variable renewable energy. • CSP become the least-cost option for the Northeast power system of Brazil by 2040.

  14. Evaluation of the potential of ozone as a power plant biocide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattice, J.S.; Trabalka, J.R.; Adams, S.M.; Faust, R.A.; Jolley, R.L.

    1978-09-01

    A review of the literature on the chemistry and biological effects of ozone was conducted to evaluate the potential of ozone to function as a power plant biocide. Evaluation of this potential is dependent upon determining the ability of ozone to maintain the integrity of both the condenser cooling system and the associated ecosystem. The well-known bactericidal capacity of ozone and the limited biofouling control studies conducted thus far suggest that ozone can control both slime and macroinvertebrate fouling at power plants. However, full-scale demonstrations of the minimum levels of ozone required and of solution of the practical aspects of application have not been performed.

  15. Investigation of potential fire-related damage to safety-related equipment in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wanless, J.

    1985-11-01

    Based on a review of vendor information, fire damage reports, equipment qualification and hydrogen burn test results, and material properties, thirty-three types of equipment found in nuclear power plants were ranked in terms of their potential sensitivity to fire environments. The ranking considered both the functional requirements and damage proneness of each component. A further review of the seven top-ranked components was performed, considering the relative prevalence and potential safety significance of each. From this, relays and hand switches dominate as first choices for fire damage testing with logic equipment, power supplies, transmitters, and motor control centers as future candidates

  16. An Evaluation of the Cutting Potential of Different Types of High Power Lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Ove

    2006-01-01

    Laser cutting is a widespread industrial process. The boundaries for the performance of the lasers in terms of cutting capabilities is steadily moving towards higher cutting rates and thicker section cutting. In this paper the potential of different high power laser sources in cutting is evaluated...... based upon the historical development, the available cutting mechanisms understanding and the critical parameters involved in high power laser cutting. From the theoretical point of view, the new laser sources, the Disc-laser and the Fibre laser possess a potential of changing dramatically the limits...... for cutting performance. These theoretical considerations are evaluated against available cutting data....

  17. Report on power generation potential using manure gas from Ontario farms. Appendix B3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The potential for manure gas power generation in Ontario is assessed. Since biogas cannot be easily liquefied for reserve use applications, it must be consumed as it is produced, or stored as a gas under low or medium pressure. Simultaneous conversion of fuel into both thermal and electrical energy is known as cogeneration, and offers the potential of electrical power sales through utility interconnection. Typical electrical production results available on a per mature animal basis are: cow, 75 W; swine, 10 W; and poultry, 0.65 W. A supplementary benefit is that digestion greatly reduces manure odour. The potential number of manure biogas power plant units (MBU) by size can be determined from livestock data, farm size and animal type. There are ca 17,000 potential MBU (361 MW continuous power) related to cattle operations, 3,200 MBU (49 MW) associated with swine operations, and 14,000 MBU (42 MW) related to poultry, for a total technical potential of 452 MW. Based on available equipment packages and installation costs, it is estimated that 15 kW is the minimum capacity cogeneration unit worthy of consideration. Estimated cost of an on-farm biogas cogeneration plant ranges from $200,000 for a 15 kW installation to $500,000 for a 150 kW plant. Appendices present properties of manure gases, representative installations, involved groups, a literature search, selected equipment manufacturers, and case study data sheets. 27 refs., 4 figs., 10 tabs

  18. Distributed Power Allocation for Wireless Sensor Network Localization: A Potential Game Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Mingxing; Li, Ding; Tian, Shiwei; Zhang, Yuli; Tong, Kaixiang; Xu, Yuhua

    2018-05-08

    The problem of distributed power allocation in wireless sensor network (WSN) localization systems is investigated in this paper, using the game theoretic approach. Existing research focuses on the minimization of the localization errors of individual agent nodes over all anchor nodes subject to power budgets. When the service area and the distribution of target nodes are considered, finding the optimal trade-off between localization accuracy and power consumption is a new critical task. To cope with this issue, we propose a power allocation game where each anchor node minimizes the square position error bound (SPEB) of the service area penalized by its individual power. Meanwhile, it is proven that the power allocation game is an exact potential game which has one pure Nash equilibrium (NE) at least. In addition, we also prove the existence of an ϵ -equilibrium point, which is a refinement of NE and the better response dynamic approach can reach the end solution. Analytical and simulation results demonstrate that: (i) when prior distribution information is available, the proposed strategies have better localization accuracy than the uniform strategies; (ii) when prior distribution information is unknown, the performance of the proposed strategies outperforms power management strategies based on the second-order cone program (SOCP) for particular agent nodes after obtaining the estimated distribution of agent nodes. In addition, proposed strategies also provide an instructional trade-off between power consumption and localization accuracy.

  19. Remote sensing for wind power potential: a prospector's handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wade, J.E.; Maule, P.A.; Bodvarsson, G.; Rosenfeld, C.L.; Woolley, S.G.; McClenahan, M.R.

    1983-02-01

    Remote sensing can aid in identifying and locating indicators of wind power potential from the terrestrial, marine, and atmospheric environments (i.e.: wind-deformed trees, white caps, and areas of thermal flux). It is not considered as a tool for determining wind power potential. A wide variety of remotely sensed evidence is described in terms of the scale at which evidence of wind power can be identified, and the appropriate remote sensors for finding such evidence. Remote sensing can be used for regional area prospecting using small-scale imagery. The information from such small-scale imagery is most often qualitative, and if it is transitory, examination of a number of images to verify presistence of the feature may be required. However, this evidence will allow rapid screening of a large area. Medium-scale imagery provides a better picture of the evidence obtained from small-scale imagery. At this level it is best to use existing imagery. Criteria relating to land use, accessibility, and proximity of candidate sites to nearby transmission lines can also be effectively evaluated from medium-scale imagery. Large-scale imagery provides the most quantitative evidence of the strength of wind. Wind-deformed trees can be identified at a large number of sites using only a few hours in locally chartered aircraft. A handheld 35mm camera can adequately document any evidence of wind. Three case studies that employ remote sensing prospecting techniques are described. Based on remotely sensed evidence, the wind power potential in three geographically and climatically diverse areas of the United States is estimated, and the estimates are compared to actual wind data in those regions. In addition, the cost of each survey is discussed. The results indicate that remote sensing for wind power potential is a quick, cost effective, and fairly reliable method for screening large areas for wind power potential.

  20. Poloidally asymmetric potential increases in tokamak scrape-off layer plasmas by radiofrequency power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diebold, D.A.; Majeski, R.; Tanaka, T.

    1992-01-01

    Langmuir probe data are presented which show poloidally asymmetric increases in floating potential, electron temperature and, hence, plasma potential on magnetic field lines which map to the Faraday shield of an ICRF antenna in a medium size tokamak, Phaedrus-T, during radiofrequency power injection. These data are consistent with and suggestive of the existence of radiofrequency generated sheath voltages on those field lines. (author). Letter-to-the-editor. 20 refs, 3 figs

  1. Scattering at low energies by potentials containing power-law corrections to the Coulomb interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuitsinskii, A.A.

    1986-01-01

    The low-energy asymptotic behavior is found for the phase shifts and scattering amplitudes in the case of central potentials which decrease at infinity as n/r+ar /sup -a/,a 1. In problems of atomic and nuclear physics one is generally interested in collisions of clusters consisting of several charged particles. The effective interaction potential of such clusters contains long-range power law corrections to the Coulomb interaction that is presented

  2. Evaluating the CO 2 emissions reduction potential and cost of power sector re-dispatch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinberg, Daniel C.; Bielen, David A.; Townsend, Aaron

    2018-01-01

    Prior studies of the U.S. electricity sector have recognized the potential to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions by substituting generation from coal-fired units with generation from under-utilized and lower-emitting natural gas-fired units; in fact, this type of 're-dispatch' was invoked as one of the three building blocks used to set the emissions targets under the Environmental Protection Agency's Clean Power Plan. Despite the existence of surplus natural gas capacity in the U.S., power system operational constraints not often considered in power sector policy analyses, such as transmission congestion, generator ramping constraints, minimum generation constraints, planned and unplanned generator outages, and ancillary service requirements, could limit the potential and increase the cost of coal-to-gas re-dispatch. Using a highly detailed power system unit commitment and dispatch model, we estimate the maximum potential for re-dispatch in the Eastern Interconnection, which accounts for the majority of coal capacity and generation in the U.S. Under our reference assumptions, we find that maximizing coal-to-gas re-dispatch yields emissions reductions of 230 million metric tons (Mt), or 13% of power sector emissions in the Eastern Interconnection, with a corresponding average abatement cost of $15-$44 per metric ton of CO2, depending on the assumed supply elasticity of natural gas.

  3. Climate and water resource change impacts and adaptation potential for US power supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miara, Ariel; Macknick, Jordan E.; Vörösmarty, Charles J.; Tidwell, Vincent C.; Newmark, Robin; Fekete, Balazs

    2017-11-01

    Power plants that require cooling currently (2015) provide 85% of electricity generation in the United States. These facilities need large volumes of water and sufficiently cool temperatures for optimal operations, and projected climate conditions may lower their potential power output and affect reliability. We evaluate the performance of 1,080 thermoelectric plants across the contiguous US under future climates (2035-2064) and their collective performance at 19 North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) sub-regions. Joint consideration of engineering interactions with climate, hydrology and environmental regulations reveals the region-specific performance of energy systems and the need for regional energy security and climate-water adaptation strategies. Despite climate-water constraints on individual plants, the current power supply infrastructure shows potential for adaptation to future climates by capitalizing on the size of regional power systems, grid configuration and improvements in thermal efficiencies. Without placing climate-water impacts on individual plants in a broader power systems context, vulnerability assessments that aim to support adaptation and resilience strategies misgauge the extent to which regional energy systems are vulnerable. Climate-water impacts can lower thermoelectric reserve margins, a measure of systems-level reliability, highlighting the need to integrate climate-water constraints on thermoelectric power supply into energy planning, risk assessments, and system reliability management.

  4. The Gross-Llewellyn Smith sum rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, W.G.

    1981-01-01

    We present the most recent data on the Gross-Llewellyn Smith sum rule obtained from the combined BEBC Narrow Band Neon and GGM-PS Freon neutrino/antineutrino experiments. The data for the Gross-Llewellyn Smith sum rule as a function of q 2 suggest a smaller value for the QCD coupling constant parameter Λ than is obtained from the analysis of the higher moments. (author)

  5. Universal Critical Power for Nonlinear Schroedinger Equations with a Symmetric Double Well Potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sacchetti, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    Here we consider stationary states for nonlinear Schroedinger equations in any spatial dimension n with symmetric double well potentials. These states may bifurcate as the strength of the nonlinear term increases and we observe two different pictures depending on the value of the nonlinearity power: a supercritical pitchfork bifurcation, and a subcritical pitchfork bifurcation with two asymmetric branches occurring as the result of saddle-node bifurcations. We show that in the semiclassical limit, or for a large barrier between the two wells, the first kind of bifurcation always occurs when the nonlinearity power is less than a critical value; in contrast, when the nonlinearity power is larger than such a critical value then we always observe the second scenario. The remarkable fact is that such a critical value is a universal constant in the sense that it does not depend on the shape of the double well potential and on the dimension n.

  6. Evaluation of potential opportunities for electric power generation from landfill gas at “Tsalapitsa”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganev Ivaylo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Potential opportunities for electric power generation from landfill gas (LFG utilization were estimated for the second largest landfill site in Bulgaria, situated near the city of Plovdiv. The work performed was based on detailed analysis of experimentally obtained and model-predicted features of the “Tsalapitsa” landfill site. The study presents a short description of the site, the global characteristics of the disposed municipal solid waste, and the experimentally obtained methane composition of the LFG. Based on the above described observations, the potential for LFG recovery at “Tsalapitsa” was determined, together with that for electric power generation for the next 25 years. A set of recommendations was then developed regarding the parameters required for the installation of electric power generation from LFG in Plovdiv.

  7. Intelligent power wheelchair use in long-term care: potential users' experiences and perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushton, Paula W; Mortenson, Ben W; Viswanathan, Pooja; Wang, Rosalie H; Miller, William C; Hurd Clarke, Laura

    2017-10-01

    Long-term care (LTC) residents with cognitive impairments frequently experience limited mobility and participation in preferred activities. Although a power wheelchair could mitigate some of these mobility and participation challenges, this technology is often not prescribed for this population due to safety concerns. An intelligent power wheelchair (IPW) system represents a potential intervention that could help to overcome these concerns. The purpose of this study was to explore a) how residents experienced an IPW that used three different modes of control and b) what perceived effect the IPW would have on their daily lives. We interviewed 10 LTC residents with mild or moderate cognitive impairment twice, once before and once after testing the IPW. Interviews were conducted using a semi-structured interview guide, audio recorded and transcribed verbatim for thematic analyses. Our analyses identified three overarching themes: (1) the difference an IPW would make, (2) the potential impact of the IPW on others and (3) IPW-related concerns. Findings from this study confirm the need for and potential benefits of IPW use in LTC. Future studies will involve testing IPW improvements based on feedback and insights from this study. Implications for rehabilitation Intelligent power wheelchairs may enhance participation and improve safety and feelings of well-being for long-term care residents with cognitive impairments. Intelligent power wheelchairs could potentially have an equally positive impact on facility staff, other residents, and family and friends by decreasing workload and increasing safety.

  8. Analyzing power in pp scattering at low energies: the Paris potential predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cote, J.; Pires, P.; Tourreil, R. de; Lacombe, M.; Loiseau, B.; Vinh Mau, R.

    1979-12-01

    Predictions of the Paris potential for the analyzing power in pp scattering at low energies are compared with recent high precision measurements at 6.14MeV and earlier measurements at 10 and 16MeV. Phase shift values are also presented and discussed in view of previous analyses

  9. Geographical distributions of biomass and potential sites of rubber wood fired power plants in Southern Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krukanont, P.; Prasertsan, S.

    2004-01-01

    Biomass residues from rubber trees in rubber producing countries have immense potential for power production. This paper presents the case of the south peninsular of Thailand, where the rubber industry is intense. Mathematical models were developed to determine the maximum affordable fuel cost and optimum capacity of the power plant for a given location of known area-based fuel availability density. GIS data of rubber growing was used to locate the appropriate sites and sizes of the power plants. Along 700 km of the highway network in the region, it was found that 8 power plants are financially feasible. The total capacity is 186.5 MW e . The fuel procurement area is in the range of less than 35 km. (Author)

  10. Potential impact of thermal effluents from Chongqing Fuling nuclear power plant to the Three Gorges Reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Baohua; Li Jianguo; Ma Binghui; Zhang Yue; Sun Qunli; Hu Yuping

    2012-01-01

    This study is based on the hydrological data near Chongqing Fuling Nuclear Power Plant along the Yangtze River, the present situation of the ecological environment of the Three Gorges Reservoir and the predicted results of thermal effluents from Chongqing Fuling Nuclear Power Plant. The standards of cooling water and the thermal tolerances indexes of aquatic organisms were investigated. The effects of thermal effluents on aquatic organisms were analyzed. The potential impact of Chongqing Fuling nuclear power plant to the Three Gorges Reservoir was explained. The results show that in the most adverse working conditions, the surface temperature near the outfall area is not more than 1℃, the temperature of thermal effluents do not exceed the suitable thermal range of fish breeding, growth and other thermal tolerances indexes. Thermal effluents from nuclear power plant have no influence about fish, plankton and benthic organisms in the Three Gorges Reservoir. (authors)

  11. Validating the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Downs

    Full Text Available Rett syndrome is a pervasive neurodevelopmental disorder associated with a pathogenic mutation on the MECP2 gene. Impaired movement is a fundamental component and the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale was developed to measure gross motor abilities in this population. The current study investigated the validity and reliability of the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale. Video data showing gross motor abilities supplemented with parent report data was collected for 255 girls and women registered with the Australian Rett Syndrome Database, and the factor structure and relationships between motor scores, age and genotype were investigated. Clinical assessment scores for 38 girls and women with Rett syndrome who attended the Danish Center for Rett Syndrome were used to assess consistency of measurement. Principal components analysis enabled the calculation of three factor scores: Sitting, Standing and Walking, and Challenge. Motor scores were poorer with increasing age and those with the p.Arg133Cys, p.Arg294* or p.Arg306Cys mutation achieved higher scores than those with a large deletion. The repeatability of clinical assessment was excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient for total score 0.99, 95% CI 0.93-0.98. The standard error of measurement for the total score was 2 points and we would be 95% confident that a change 4 points in the 45-point scale would be greater than within-subject measurement error. The Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale could be an appropriate measure of gross motor skills in clinical practice and clinical trials.

  12. Validating the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Jenny; Stahlhut, Michelle; Wong, Kingsley; Syhler, Birgit; Bisgaard, Anne-Marie; Jacoby, Peter; Leonard, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Rett syndrome is a pervasive neurodevelopmental disorder associated with a pathogenic mutation on the MECP2 gene. Impaired movement is a fundamental component and the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale was developed to measure gross motor abilities in this population. The current study investigated the validity and reliability of the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale. Video data showing gross motor abilities supplemented with parent report data was collected for 255 girls and women registered with the Australian Rett Syndrome Database, and the factor structure and relationships between motor scores, age and genotype were investigated. Clinical assessment scores for 38 girls and women with Rett syndrome who attended the Danish Center for Rett Syndrome were used to assess consistency of measurement. Principal components analysis enabled the calculation of three factor scores: Sitting, Standing and Walking, and Challenge. Motor scores were poorer with increasing age and those with the p.Arg133Cys, p.Arg294* or p.Arg306Cys mutation achieved higher scores than those with a large deletion. The repeatability of clinical assessment was excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient for total score 0.99, 95% CI 0.93-0.98). The standard error of measurement for the total score was 2 points and we would be 95% confident that a change 4 points in the 45-point scale would be greater than within-subject measurement error. The Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale could be an appropriate measure of gross motor skills in clinical practice and clinical trials.

  13. Potentials for heat accumulators in thermal power plants; Potenziale fuer Waermespeicher in Heiz(kraft)werken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dengel, Andreas [STEAG New Energies GmbH, Saarbruecken (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    STEAG New Energies GmbH (Saarbruecken, Federal Republic of Germany) is contractor and operator of a variety of decentralized plants for heat production and power generation. The customers consist of communities, cooperation associations, business enterprises as well as industrial enterprises. Beside merely heat generators, so-called heat and power cogeneration plants often are used. The power generation is of minor importance due to the heat-controlled energy supply of the customers. Biomass power plants being operated in line with the Renewable Energy Law are an exemption. The demand for regulating energy increased clearly due to the enhanced volatile feeding of regenerative produced electric power. If the operation of heat and power cogeneration plants becomes more independent from the actual energy demand by using energy storages, then the energy transducer can be implemented in the lucrative market of regulation energy supply. Thus, the potential of such storages at the sites within a company shall be determined. Additionally, the development and testing of a latent heat accumulator for a thermal power plant of the company supplying process vapour with a temperature of 300 Celsius to a foil manufacturing facility is envisaged.

  14. Postactivation potentiation: effect of various recovery intervals on bench press power performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Sandra Lívia de Assis; Panissa, Valéria Leme Gonçalves; Miarka, Bianca; Franchini, Emerson

    2012-03-01

    Postactivation potentiation (PAP) is a strategy used to improve performance in power activities. The aim of this study was to determine if power during bench press exercise was increased when preceded by 1 repetition maximum (1RM) in the same exercise and to determine which time interval could optimize PAP response. For this, 11 healthy male subjects (age, 25 ± 4 years; height, 178 ± 6 cm; body mass, 74 ± 8 kg; bench press 1RM, 76 ± 19 kg) underwent 6 sessions. Two control sessions were conducted to determine both bench press 1RM and power (6 repetitions at 50% 1RM). The 4 experimental sessions were composed of a 1RM exercise followed by power sets with different recovery intervals (1, 3, 5, and 7 minutes), performed on different days, and determined randomly. Power values were measured via Peak Power equipment (Cefise, Nova Odessa, São Paulo, Brazil). The conditions were compared using an analysis of variance with repeated measures, followed by a Tukey test. The significance level was set at p bench press and that such a strategy could be applied as an interesting alternative to enhance the performance in tasks aimed at increasing upper-body power performance.

  15. GC Side Event: Africa's Energy Needs and the Potential Role of Nuclear Power. Presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    Energy is central to development, and energy availability, accessibility and affordability are central challenges for most African countries. Due to rapidly growing energy demand, the need for socioeconomic development, persistent concerns over climate change and environmental impacts and dependence on imported supplies of fossil fuels, African Member States are looking into possible options to secure sustainable energy supplies, including nuclear energy. The IAEA assists those countries in assessing the nuclear power option and building the necessary infrastructure for a safe, secure and sustainable nuclear power programme. This year, the IAEA is conducting Integrated Nuclear Infrastructure Review (INIR) missions to three African countries (Nigeria, Kenya and Morocco) considering introducing nuclear power. The side event presents recent updates from Africa on the potential role of nuclear power, including the IAEA Third Regional Conference on Energy and Nuclear Power in Africa, held in Mombasa, Kenya, in April 2015, an initiative to launch a new African network for enhancing nuclear power programme development, and others. The event reports on recent developments in several African Member States considering, embarking on, or expanding national nuclear power programmes.

  16. Development of a computing program for prediction of wind power for midsize and wide grid areas. Final report; Entwicklung eines Rechenmodells zur Vorhersage der Windleistung fuer mittlere und grosse Versorgungsgebiete. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reeder, L.; Rohrig, K.; Ernst, B.; Schorn, P.; Bettels, B.

    2002-06-30

    In co-operation with partners out of industry and research a machine program was developed predicting the output of wind power plants. Three attributes should be realised by this prediction tool: Short computing time, usable for various grid regions, high reliability. Therewith the transmission system operators get a tool for reducing the amount of control energy which is needed to ensure the balance between power generation and consumption in their networks. This prediction tool for up to two days was developed exemplary for the northern grid area of the transmission system operator 'E.ON Netz GmbH' (ENE). The wind power prediction is based on numerical weather forecast from the German weather service (Deutscher Wetterdienst). The weather forecast is given for 16 representative sites within the ENE-area. The meso-scale model KLIMM (Klima Model Mainz) was used to calculate the meteorological variables near to the wind farms, which are connected to the one transformer substation belonging to one representative place. Therefor KLIMM is fed with the weather forecast given for one limited location in the representative sites. The transformation of the meteorological variables to the output of wind power plants at the representative site is done by Neural Networks. These Neural Networks have been trained with corresponding measurements. Using an existing online-model the total wind power for the whole ENE-area will be calculated from the individual wind power of the representative sites. The Evaluation of the prediction- and measured data from 2001 shows comparing with reference-models, that the prediction-model evolved in the project lead to very good results. (orig.)

  17. Floquet states of a kicked particle in a singular potential: Exponential and power-law profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Sanku; Santhanam, M. S.

    2018-03-01

    It is well known that, in the chaotic regime, all the Floquet states of kicked rotor system display an exponential profile resulting from dynamical localization. If the kicked rotor is placed in an additional stationary infinite potential well, its Floquet states display power-law profile. It has also been suggested in general that the Floquet states of periodically kicked systems with singularities in the potential would have power-law profile. In this work, we study the Floquet states of a kicked particle in finite potential barrier. By varying the height of finite potential barrier, the nature of transition in the Floquet state from exponential to power-law decay profile is studied. We map this system to a tight-binding model and show that the nature of decay profile depends on energy band spanned by the Floquet states (in unperturbed basis) relative to the potential height. This property can also be inferred from the statistics of Floquet eigenvalues and eigenvectors. This leads to an unusual scenario in which the level spacing distribution, as a window in to the spectral correlations, is not a unique characteristic for the entire system.

  18. Nuclear power in developing countries: Its potential role and strategies for its deployment. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The demand for energy, especially electricity, in developing countries is expected to grow rapidly in the coming decades as these countries seek to improve the living standards of their growing populations. Substantial growth in developing country energy demand plus a continued heavy reliance of the power sector on fossil fuels is likely to result in an increased dependence of these countries on energy imports and thus to potential deterioration of their terms-of-trade, reduced energy security and, in the absence of costly mitigation measures, severe degradation of the environment and public health, and will also lead to increasing emissions of greenhouse gases. If supply security, health and environmental protection and climate change become pressing policy issues, nuclear power is, in the short to medium term, the only viable non-fossil base load electricity generating alternative (other than hydro where growth potential is limited) that is already meeting 17% of global electricity needs and contributing more than 30% of electricity supplies in 14 countries. It is in the above context that the International Atomic Energy Agency organized this seminar to explore the role of nuclear power in meeting the growing demand for electricity in the developing world, and to identify and discuss suitable ways and means for proper implementation of nuclear power programmes in these countries. Several issues were discussed, in particular, the need and role of nuclear power; economic and financial aspects; technology transfer and national participation; safety, regulation and safeguards; and public acceptance

  19. Nuclear power in developing countries: Its potential role and strategies for its deployment. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-08-01

    The demand for energy, especially electricity, in developing countries is expected to grow rapidly in the coming decades as these countries seek to improve the living standards of their growing populations. Substantial growth in developing country energy demand plus a continued heavy reliance of the power sector on fossil fuels is likely to result in an increased dependence of these countries on energy imports and thus to potential deterioration of their terms-of-trade, reduced energy security and, in the absence of costly mitigation measures, severe degradation of the environment and public health, and will also lead to increasing emissions of greenhouse gases. If supply security, health and environmental protection and climate change become pressing policy issues, nuclear power is, in the short to medium term, the only viable non-fossil base load electricity generating alternative (other than hydro where growth potential is limited) that is already meeting 17% of global electricity needs and contributing more than 30% of electricity supplies in 14 countries. It is in the above context that the International Atomic Energy Agency organized this seminar to explore the role of nuclear power in meeting the growing demand for electricity in the developing world, and to identify and discuss suitable ways and means for proper implementation of nuclear power programmes in these countries. Several issues were discussed, in particular, the need and role of nuclear power; economic and financial aspects; technology transfer and national participation; safety, regulation and safeguards; and public acceptance.

  20. On the Potential of Hydrogen-Powered Hydraulic Pumps for Soft Robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desbiens, Alexandre B; Bigué, Jean-Philippe Lucking; Véronneau, Catherine; Masson, Patrice; Iagnemma, Karl; Plante, Jean-Sébastien

    2017-12-01

    To perform untethered operations, soft robots require mesoscale power units (10-1000 W) with high energy densities. In this perspective, air-breathing combustion offers an interesting alternative to battery-powered systems, provided sufficient overall energy conversion efficiency can be reached. Implementing efficient air-breathing combustion in mesoscale soft robots is notoriously difficult, however, as it requires optimization of very small combustion actuators and simultaneous minimization of fluidic (e.g., hydraulic) losses, which are both inversely impacted by actuations speeds. To overcome such challenges, this article proposes and evaluates the potential of hydrogen-powered, hydraulic free-piston pump architecture. Experimental data, taken from two combustion-driven prototypes, reveal (1) the fundamental role of using hydrogen as the source of fuel to reduce heat losses, (2) the significant impact of compression ratio, equivalence ratio, and surface-to-volume ratio on energy conversion efficiency, and (3) the importance of load matching between combustion and fluidic transmission. In this work, a small-bore combustion actuator demonstrated a 20% efficiency and a net mean output power of 26 W, while a big-bore combustion actuator reached a substantially higher efficiency of 35% and a net mean output power of 197 W. Using the small-bore combustion actuator, the hydrogen-powered, hydraulic free-piston pump provided a 4.6% overall efficiency for a 2.34 W net mean output power, thus underlying the potential of the approach for mesoscale soft robotic applications.

  1. Regulatory, design and methodological impacts in determining tidal-in-stream power resource potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atwater, Joel F.; Lawrence, Gregory A.

    2011-01-01

    Tidal-in-Stream energy has been heralded by many as a significant potential source for clean power, a scheme where kinetic energy is extracted from tidal currents. A number of estimates have suggested that tidal power may become a sizeable fraction of overall electricity generation, however these estimates have been largely based on a resource assessment methodology that dramatically oversimplifies the physical phenomenon at play. This paper develops a model that considers the effect of energy extraction on the bulk flow, showing that tidal energy inventories that assess solely kinetic energy flux may represent both an order-of-magnitude overestimation of the resource and a significant oversimplification of regulatory impacts. The interplay between the characteristics of a flow and the regulatory and economic issues will likely limit tidal power generation to levels significantly below the physical maximums. Permitted flow reduction, turbine design and staging of development all have significant and predictable impacts on the extractible resource. Energy planners must therefore understand these relationships in order to appropriately assess the magnitude of generation that can be realistically be produced from tidal energy. - Research highlights: → Inventorying kinetic energy is not appropriate for assessing the tidal energy potential and may overestimate the resource by orders of magnitude. → The physical maximum for tidal power extraction is 38% of the total fluid power of a channel and causes a flow reduction of 42%. → Any amount of tidal power generation will reduce the flow rate in a channel. → Limiting the permitted reduction in flow significantly reduces the available resource. → Turbine efficiency is important as extraneous resistance depletes the resource without providing power generation.

  2. Energy Flexibility Potential of Industrial Processes in the Regulating Power Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Zheng; Aabjerg Friis, Henrik Tønder; Gravers Mostrup, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    , and electric heating in replacement of conventional technologies. To enable the use of demand response, the consumers must have economical and practical incentives without loss of convenience. This study aims to investigate the demand-response market potential of a flexible industrial process in the current...... electricity market structure. The Danish West regulating power market is selected in this study with an ideal process simulation of an industrial roller press. By analysing market data, the value of flexible electricity consumption by the roller press in the regulating power market is demonstrated by an ideal...

  3. Radiation Vulcanization of Natural Rubber Latex (RVNRL): A Potential Material for Nuclear Power Plant Gloves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pairu Ibrahim; Wan Manshol Wan Zain; Keong, C.C.; Mohd Noorwadi Mat Lazim

    2011-01-01

    Radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex has great potential for the production of nuclear power plant gloves due to its low ash and mineral content. And this is in-line with the role played by Malaysian Nuclear Agency as Technical Supporting Organization for Nuclear Power Program. This paper discussed the evaluation done to determine ash content in RVNRL and SVNRL films. Both samples were prepared using casting technique and the properties were compared. Films prepared from raw latex without any vulcanizing agent were regarded as a control. (author)

  4. Wind Power Potentials in Cameroon and Nigeria: Lessons from South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullahi Abubakar Mas’ud

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Wind energy has seen a tremendous growth for electricity generation worldwide and reached 456 GW by the end of June 2016. According to the World Wind Energy Association, global wind power will reach 500 GW by the end of 2016. Africa is a continent that possesses huge under-utilized wind potentials. Some African countries, e.g., Morocco, Egypt, Tunisia and South Africa, have already adopted wind as an alternative power generation source in their energy mix. Among these countries, South Africa has invested heavily in wind energy with operational wind farms supplying up to 26,000 GWh annually to the national grid. However, two African countries, i.e., Cameroon and Nigeria, have vast potentials, but currently are lagging behind in wind energy development. For Nigeria, there is slow implementation of renewable energy policy, with no visible operational wind farms; while Cameroon does not have any policy plan for wind power. These issues are severely hindering both direct foreign and local investments into the electricity sector. Cameroon and Nigeria have huge wind energy potentials with similar climatic conditions and can benefit greatly from the huge success recorded in South Africa in terms of policy implementation, research, development and technical considerations. Therefore, this paper reviews the wind energy potentials, policies and future renewable energy road-maps in Cameroon and Nigeria and identifies their strength and weakness, as well as providing necessary actions for future improvement that South Africa has already adopted.

  5. Tachyon with an inverse power-law potential in a braneworld cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilić, Neven; Domazet, Silvije; Djordjevic, Goran S.

    2017-08-01

    We study a tachyon cosmological model based on the dynamics of a 3-brane in the bulk of the second Randall-Sundrum model extended to more general warp functions. A well known prototype of such a generalization is the bulk with a selfinteracting scalar field. As a consequence of a generalized bulk geometry the cosmology on the observer brane is modified by the scale dependent four-dimensional gravitational constant. In particular, we study a power law warp factor which generates an inverse power-law potential V\\propto \\varphi-n of the tachyon field φ. We find a critical power n cr that divides two subclasses with distinct asymptotic behaviors: a dust universe for n>n_cr and a quasi de Sitter universe for 0.

  6. The potential for price co-operation in a hydroelectric power market with temporary bottlenecks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuhaug, Gro Merete

    2003-01-01

    The report discusses whether there is a larger potential for coordinated price stipulation in a hydropower market that periodically has limitations in the transmission capacity. Such limitations in the transmission capacities transform an integrated market into lesser market segments and this will be reflected in price differences between the segments. The total production in a power market with hydropower producers is dependent on the afflux. Hydropower producers with storage capacities have a large flexibility with respect to power production because the water in a water reservoir may be stored until the production period. Depending on the theoretical model in use the discount factor for coordinated price stipulation will be lower in a hydropower market with periodical limitations in the transmission capacities than in an integrated power market with optimal production adaptation

  7. An investigation into the potential of low head hydro power in Northern Ireland for the production of electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redpath, David; Ward, Michael J.

    2017-07-01

    The maximum exploitable potential for low head hydroelectric sites (gross head≤10 m) in Northern Ireland (NI) was determined as 12.07 MW using a simple payback analysis for 304 potential sites investigated to derive a classification scheme in terms of economic viability. A techno-economic analysis with validated numerical models from previous research estimated the capital investment required for the development of a hydroelectric plant, using the low head Michell-Banki cross flow turbine, for the 304 sites investigated. The number of potentially viable sites in NI for low head hydro ranged from 198 to 286 with an estimated installed capacity ranging from 11.95 to 12.05 MW. Sites with a limited installed capacity were not economically viable unless increased government support in the form of longer term (25-50 years) low interest loans as well as the current (Renewables Obligations Certificates) Renewables Obligation Certificates scheme is provided and sustained.

  8. Intrinsic dendritic filtering gives low-pass power spectra of local field potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindén, Henrik; Pettersen, Klas H; Einevoll, Gaute T

    2010-01-01

    of contributions to the LFP from a single layer-5 pyramidal neuron and a single layer-4 stellate neuron receiving synaptic input. An intrinsic dendritic low-pass filtering effect of the LFP signal, previously demonstrated for extracellular signatures of action potentials, is seen to strongly affect the LFP power...... spectra, even for frequencies as low as 10 Hz for the example pyramidal neuron. Further, the LFP signal is found to depend sensitively on both the recording position and the position of the synaptic input: the LFP power spectra recorded close to the active synapse are typically found to be less low......The local field potential (LFP) is among the most important experimental measures when probing neural population activity, but a proper understanding of the link between the underlying neural activity and the LFP signal is still missing. Here we investigate this link by mathematical modeling...

  9. Solar power potential of North-east India - A case study for Silchar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maisanam, Anil; Biswas, Agnimitra; Sharma, Kaushal Kumar

    2018-04-01

    High energy demand has necessitated search for all possible sources of energy. Conventional energy source is having negative impact on our environment, therefore our attention is focused on renewable energy sources, such as solar, wind, hydro, which are considered to be clean and sustainable energy sources. India has set an ambitious target of producing 175 GW of energy using solar energy. Therefore, it is necessary to estimate the solar potential to observe the feasibility of such project. North-east India is an underdeveloped region of India and due to its geographical location and difficult terrain, many regions are still not electrified. Such regions can be electrified by installing renewable energy based power plants, which can also generate number of jobs hence improving the quality of life and economic condition of the region. The objective of this paper is to estimate the solar power potential of Silchar (Assam, India) and perform a feasibility study for installation of solar-based power plant in the region. In this paper, solar radiation on tilted surface is estimated by using an anisotropic sky model. This radiation data has been used to estimate the PV power output. Finally, feasibility of the PV plant has been verified by mapping with a practical load demand.

  10. Hydro power potentials of water distribution networks in public universities: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olufemi Adebola KOYA

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Public Universities in Southwestern Nigeria are densely populated student-resident campuses, so that provision of regular potable water and electricity are important, but power supply is not optimally available for all the necessary activities. This study assesses the hydropower potential of the water distribution networks in the Universities, with the view to augmenting the inadequate power supplies. The institutions with water distribution configuration capable of accommodating in-pipe turbine are identified; the hydropower parameters, such as the flow characteristics and the pipe geometry are determined to estimate the water power. Global positioning device is used in estimating the elevations of the distribution reservoirs and the nodal points. The hydropower potential of each location is computed incorporating Lucid® Lift-based spherical turbine in the pipeline. From the analysis, the lean and the peak water power are between 1.92 – 3.30 kW and 3.95 – 7.24 kW, respectively, for reservoir-fed distribution networks; while, a minimum of 0.72 kW is got for pipelines associated with borehole-fed overhead tanks. Possible applications of electricity generation from the water distribution networks of the public universities are recommended.

  11. Gross alpha and gross beta determination in surface and groundwater water by liquid scintillation counting (LSC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faria, Ligia S.; Moreira, Rubens M.

    2013-01-01

    The present study has used 40 samples of groundwater and surface water collected at four different sites along the period of one year in Brumadinho and Nova Lima, two municipalities in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, as part of a more extensive study aiming at determination of the natural radioactivity in the water used for domestic use. These two sites are inside an Environmental Protection Area is located in a region of very intensive iron ore exploration. In addition of mineral resources, the region has a geological characteristic that includes quartzitic conglomerates associated with uranium. Radioactivity levels were determined via liquid scintillation counting (LSC), a fast and high counting efficiency method that can be advantageously employed to determine gross alpha and gross beta activity in liquid samples. Previously to gross alpha and gross beta counting the samples were acidified with concentrated HNO 3 in the field. The technique involved a pre-concentration of the sample to obtain a low detection limit. Specific details of the employed methodology are commented. The results showed that concentrations of gross alpha natural activity and gross beta values ranged from less than the detection limit of the equipment (0.03 Bq.L -1 ) to 0.275 ± 0.05 Bq.L -1 for gross alpha. As regards gross beta, all samples were below the limit of detection. (author)

  12. Small scale hydroelectric power potential in Nevada: a preliminary reconnaissance survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, G.F.; Fordham, J.W.; Richard, K.; Loux, R.

    1981-04-01

    This preliminary reconnaissance survey is intended to: develop a first estimate as to the potential number, location and characteristics of small-scale (50 kW to 15 MW) hydroelectric sites in Nevada; provide a compilation of various Federal and state laws and regulations, including tax and financing regulations, that affect small-scale hydroelectric development and provide information on sources of small-scale hydroelectric generation hardware and consultants/ contractors who do small scale hydroelectric work. The entire survey has been conducted in the office working with various available data bases. The site survey and site evaluation methods used are described, and data are tabulated on the flow, power potential, predicted capital expenditures required, etc. for 61 potential sites with measured flows and for 77 sites with derived flows. A map showing potential site locations is included. (LCL)

  13. Highly excited bound-state resonances of short-range inverse power-law potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hod, Shahar [The Ruppin Academic Center, Emeq Hefer (Israel); The Hadassah Academic College, Jerusalem (Israel)

    2017-11-15

    We study analytically the radial Schroedinger equation with long-range attractive potentials whose asymptotic behaviors are dominated by inverse power-law tails of the form V(r) = -β{sub n}r{sup -n} with n > 2. In particular, assuming that the effective radial potential is characterized by a short-range infinitely repulsive core of radius R, we derive a compact analytical formula for the threshold energy E{sub l}{sup max} = E{sub l}{sup max}(n, β{sub n}, R), which characterizes the most weakly bound-state resonance (the most excited energy level) of the quantum system. (orig.)

  14. Alternative fuel cycle options: performance characteristics and impact on nuclear power growth potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Y.I.; Till, C.E.; Rudolph, R.R.; Deen, J.R.; King, M.J.

    1977-09-01

    The fuel utilization characteristics for LWR, SSCR, CANDU and LMFBR reactor concepts are quantified for various fuel cycle options, including once-through cycles, thorium cycles, and denatured cycles. The implications of various alternative reactor deployment strategies on the long-term nuclear power growth potential are then quantified in terms of the maximum nuclear capacity that can be achieved and the growth pattern over time, subject to the constraint of a fixed uranium-resource base. The overall objective of this study is to shed light on any large differences in the long-term potential that exist between various alternative reactor/fuel cycle deployment strategies

  15. Fine-hyperfine splittings of quarkonium levels in an effective power-law potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barik, N; Jena, S N [Utkal Univ., Bhubaneswar (India). Dept. of Physics

    1980-12-01

    We have shown that an effective non-coulombic power-law potential generating spin dependence through scalar and vector exchanges in almost equal proportions along with a very small or zero quark anomalous moment can describe very satisfactorily the up-to-date data on the fine-hyperfine levels and the leptonic width ratios of the vector mesons in the cc and bb families in a flavour independent manner.

  16. Fine-hyperfine splittings of quarkonium levels in an effective power-law potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barik, N.; Jena, S.N.

    1980-01-01

    We have shown that an effective non-coulombic power-law potential generating spin dependence through scalar and vector exchanges in almost equal proportions along with a very small or zero quark anomalous moment can describe very satisfactorily the up-to-date data on the fine-hyperfine levels and the leptonic width ratios of the vector mesons in the cc and bb families in a flavour independent manner. (orig.)

  17. Potential of ricehull communal power generation in the Philippines - a preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardo, J.Y.; Navarro, L.B.; Abito, G.F.; Lim, B.P.

    1992-01-01

    The preliminary feasibility study of utilizing ricehulls as fuel for power generation in a communal set-up involving ricemills was completed by PNOC-ERDC for the EC-AIT COGEN Programme. The study assessed the market, evaluated the patterns and level of ricehull availability, and their implications on plant operation characteristics and financial viability. Ten potential areas were studied more closely for their suitability as pilot demonstration sites. (auth.). 8 tabs.; 4 figs.; 1 ref

  18. Potential utilities of optimal estimation and control in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tylee, J.L.; Purviance, J.E.

    1983-01-01

    Optimal estimation and control theories offer the potential for more precise control and diagnosis of nuclear power plants. The important element of these theories is that a mathematical plant model is used in conjunction with the actual plant data to optimize some performance criteria. These criteria involve important plant variables and incorporate a sense of the desired plant performance. Several applications of optimal estimation and control to nuclear systems are discussed

  19. Cost reduction potentials of offshore wind power in Germany; Kostensenkungspotenziale der Offshore-Windenergie in Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobohm, Jens; Krampe, Leonard; Peter, Frank [Prognos AG, Berlin (Germany). Bereich Energiewirtschaft

    2014-01-15

    Offshore wind power is a major hope for the German energy turnaround. However, it will only be possible to tap its cost reduction potentials if industry, the political leadership and the administrative authorities join forces to create the necessary preconditions. An important requirement for this capital-intensive technology are stable legal and political framework conditions. A recent study on the future shows what needs to be done.

  20. Gross beta activity of the Danube river samples in 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaskovic, I.; Pantelic, G.; Eremic-Savkovic, M.; Vuletic, V.; Javorina, Lj.; Tanaskovic, I.)

    2007-01-01

    Our paper presents the results of radioactivity control of the Danube samples on Serbian (Bezdan left coast) in 2006. The measurements were carried out by low-phone proportional gas alpha beta counter PIC-WPC-9550. Efficiency for activity was 47%. The results of measurements of gross beta activity (water, sediment, algae and fish) reveal that the values are at the same level as they were before the Paks Nuclear power plant started running. Our results of measurements correlate well with the results of Hungarian part. (author) [sr

  1. Evaluating the potential of concentrating solar power generation in Northwestern India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purohit, Ishan; Purohit, Pallav; Shekhar, Shashaank

    2013-01-01

    To accelerate the decarburization in the Indian power sector, concentrating solar power (CSP) needs to play an important role. CSP technologies have found significant space in the Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission (JNNSM) of the Indian government in which 20,000 MW grid connected solar power projects have been targeted by 2022 with 50% capacity for CSP. In this study a preliminary attempt has been made to assess the potential of CSP generation in the Northwestern (NW) regions of India; which seems a high potential area as it has the highest annual solar radiation in India, favorable meteorological conditions for CSP and large amount of waste land. The potential of CSP systems in NW India is estimated on the basis of a detailed solar radiation and land resource assessment. The energy yield exercise has been carried out for the representative locations using System Advisor Model for four commercially available CSP technologies namely Parabolic Trough Collector (PTC), Central receiver system (CRS), Linear Fresnel Reflector (LFR) and Parabolic Dish System (PDS). The financial viability of CSP systems at different locations in NW India is also analyzed in this study. On the basis of a detailed solar radiation and land resource assessment, the maximum theoretical potential of CSP in NW India is estimated over 2000 GW taking into accounts the viability of different CSP technologies and land suitability criteria. The technical potential is estimated over 1700 GW at an annual direct normal incidence (DNI) over 1800 kW h/m 2 and finally, the economic potential is estimated over 700 GW at an annual DNI over 2000 kW h/m 2 in NW India. It is expected that in near future locations with lower DNI values could also become financially feasible with the development of new technologies, advancement of materials, economy of scale, manufacturing capability along with the enhanced policy measures etc. With an annual DNI over 1600 kW h/m 2 it is possible to exploit over 2000 GW CSP

  2. Better use of the potential offered by large-scale heat-pumps - Planning, applications, client's opinion; Potenziale von Gross-Waermepumpen besser nutzen. Konzeption, Anwendungen, Kundensicht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehrbar, M.; Rognon, F. (eds.)

    2006-07-01

    These proceedings published by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) include the contributions presented at the 13{sup th} Conference of the Research Programme on Ambient Heat, Combined Heat and Power Systems and Cold-generation that was held at the University of Applied Sciences in Burgdorf, Switzerland in 2006. At the conference, ten papers were presented that covered technical and political aspects of the use of large-scale heat-pumps for heating and cooling applications. As an introduction, Fabrice Rognon, head of the SFOE programme, took a look at the relevance of large heat-pumps in Swiss energy policy. Peter Hubacher discussed the advantages and disadvantages offered by centralised and decentralised heat-pump systems from the energy and economics points of view. Bernhard Eggen took a look at heat-source concepts for large heat-pumps while Rolf Loehrer discussed meeting temperature requirements when extracting heat. Patrice Anstett presented a paper on the measurement of the parameters of an air/water heat pump with CO{sub 2} as a working fluid used for hot water preparation. A paper on a combined heating and cooling system for a food warehouse complex in southern Switzerland was presented by Vinicio Curti. Beat Wellig described ways to avoid excessive power consumption in building air-conditioning systems using exergy analysis. Jean-Philippe Borel took a further look at heat and cold generation using heat-pumps that use geothermal probes as a thermal source. The use of large-scale heat-pump systems in contracting installations was examined by Georg Dubacher. Finally, reinsurance expert Primo Bianchi discussed if ecology and economy are inconsistent with each other. Two of these contributions, those of Peter Hubacher, who discussed the energy and economics of centralised and decentralised heat-pump systems and Jean-Philippe Borel, who examined heat and cold generation using geothermal probes as a thermal source, are also covered in two separately

  3. Potential Applications for Radioisotope Power Systems in Support of Human Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldo, Robert L.; Colozza, Anthony J.; Schmitz, Paul C.

    2013-01-01

    Radioisotope power systems (RPS) for space applications have powered over 27 U.S. space systems, starting with Transit 4A and 4B in 1961, and more recently with the successful landing of the Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity in August 2012. RPS enable missions with destinations far from the Sun with faint solar flux, on planetary surfaces with dense or dusty atmospheres, and at places with long eclipse periods where solar array sizes and energy storage mass become impractical. RPS could also provide an enabling capability in support of human exploration activities. It is envisioned that with the higher power needs of most human mission concepts, a high efficiency thermal-to-electric technology would be required such as the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope generator (ASRG). The ASRG should be capable of a four-fold improvement in efficiency over traditional thermoelectric RPS. While it may be impractical to use RPS as a main power source, many other applications could be considered, such as crewed pressurized rovers, in-situ resource production of propellants, back-up habitat power, drilling, any mobile or remote activity from the main base habitat, etc. This paper will identify potential applications and provide concepts that could be a practical extension of the current ASRG design in providing for robust and flexible use of RPS on human exploration missions.

  4. Potential Occupational Exposures and Health Risks Associated with Biomass-Based Power Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohr, Annette C.; Campleman, Sharan L.; Long, Christopher M.; Peterson, Michael K.; Weatherstone, Susan; Quick, Will; Lewis, Ari

    2015-01-01

    Biomass is increasingly being used for power generation; however, assessment of potential occupational health and safety (OH&S) concerns related to usage of biomass fuels in combustion-based generation remains limited. We reviewed the available literature on known and potential OH&S issues associated with biomass-based fuel usage for electricity generation at the utility scale. We considered three potential exposure scenarios—pre-combustion exposure to material associated with the fuel, exposure to combustion products, and post-combustion exposure to ash and residues. Testing of dust, fungal and bacterial levels at two power stations was also undertaken. Results indicated that dust concentrations within biomass plants can be extremely variable, with peak levels in some areas exceeding occupational exposure limits for wood dust and general inhalable dust. Fungal spore types, identified as common environmental species, were higher than in outdoor air. Our review suggests that pre-combustion risks, including bioaerosols and biogenic organics, should be considered further. Combustion and post-combustion risks appear similar to current fossil-based combustion. In light of limited available information, additional studies at power plants utilizing a variety of technologies and biomass fuels are recommended. PMID:26206568

  5. Potential Occupational Exposures and Health Risks Associated with Biomass-Based Power Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette C. Rohr

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Biomass is increasingly being used for power generation; however, assessment of potential occupational health and safety (OH&S concerns related to usage of biomass fuels in combustion-based generation remains limited. We reviewed the available literature on known and potential OH&S issues associated with biomass-based fuel usage for electricity generation at the utility scale. We considered three potential exposure scenarios—pre-combustion exposure to material associated with the fuel, exposure to combustion products, and post-combustion exposure to ash and residues. Testing of dust, fungal and bacterial levels at two power stations was also undertaken. Results indicated that dust concentrations within biomass plants can be extremely variable, with peak levels in some areas exceeding occupational exposure limits for wood dust and general inhalable dust. Fungal spore types, identified as common environmental species, were higher than in outdoor air. Our review suggests that pre-combustion risks, including bioaerosols and biogenic organics, should be considered further. Combustion and post-combustion risks appear similar to current fossil-based combustion. In light of limited available information, additional studies at power plants utilizing a variety of technologies and biomass fuels are recommended.

  6. Measurement of gross alpha and gross beta activity concentrations in human tooth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soeguet, Omer; Aydin, Mehmet Fatih; Kuecuekoender, Erdal; Zorer, Ozlem Selcuk; Dogru, Mahmut

    2010-01-01

    The gross alpha and gross beta activity concentrations were measured in human tooth taken from 3 to 6 age-groups to 40 and over ones. Accumulated teeth samples are investigated in two groups as under and above 18 years. The gross alpha and beta radioactivity of human tooth samples was measured by using a gas-flow proportional counter (PIC-MPC 9604-α/β counter). In tooth samples, for female age-groups, the obtained results show that the mean gross alpha and gross beta activity concentrations varied between 0.534-0.203 and 0.010-0.453 Bq g -1 and the same concentrations for male age-groups varied between 0.009-1.168 and 0.071-0.204 Bq g -1 , respectively.

  7. Powering Africa's sustainable development: The potential role of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessides, Ioannis N.

    2014-01-01

    The electricity deficit is one of the most serious contemporary issues facing sub-Saharan Africa. Many countries in the region have insufficient generation capacity to meet rapidly rising demand. Electricity shortages have become a binding and powerful constraint on the continent's sustainable development. Their resolution will require coordinated effort to improve the effectiveness and governance of the region's utilities and to significantly scale-up generation capacity. A broad portfolio of low carbon (low-C) technologies needs to be deployed in order to address the electricity deficit in a cost-effective way and not be disruptive to economic growth. Since nuclear power can deliver low-C electricity in bulk, reliably and without intermittency, it could make a significant contribution towards resolving Africa's power crisis. However, the post-Fukushima safety concerns related to large nuclear plants with substantial radioactive inventories will be especially pronounced in Africa. Moreover, large scale reactors with huge upfront investment requirements are likely to be unsuitable for capital-constrained African countries with small electricity grids. One promising direction for nuclear development in Africa might be to downsize reactors from the gigawatt scale to less-complex smaller units (with substantially smaller radioactive inventory) that are more affordable. - Highlights: • We examine the potential role of nuclear power in Africa. • There is growing African interest in nuclear power. • Nuclear power in Africa will require grid strengthening. • Small modular reactors could enhance Africa's energy security. • There are concerns about Africa's safety culture for nuclear power

  8. Potential nanotechnology applications for reducing freshwater consumption at coal fired power plants : an early view.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elcock, D. (Environmental Science Division)

    2010-09-17

    This report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Existing Plants Research Program, which has an energy-water research effort that focuses on water use at power plants. This study complements the overall research effort of the Existing Plants Research Program by evaluating water issues that could impact power plants. A growing challenge to the economic production of electricity from coal-fired power plants is the demand for freshwater, particularly in light of the projected trends for increasing demands and decreasing supplies of freshwater. Nanotechnology uses the unique chemical, physical, and biological properties that are associated with materials at the nanoscale to create and use materials, devices, and systems with new functions and properties. It is possible that nanotechnology may open the door to a variety of potentially interesting ways to reduce freshwater consumption at power plants. This report provides an overview of how applications of nanotechnology could potentially help reduce freshwater use at coal-fired power plants. It was developed by (1) identifying areas within a coal-fired power plant's operations where freshwater use occurs and could possibly be reduced, (2) conducting a literature review to identify potential applications of nanotechnology for facilitating such reductions, and (3) collecting additional information on potential applications from researchers and companies to clarify or expand on information obtained from the literature. Opportunities, areas, and processes for reducing freshwater use in coal-fired power plants considered in this report include the use of nontraditional waters in process and cooling water systems, carbon capture alternatives, more efficient processes for removing sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides, coolants that have higher thermal conductivities than water alone, energy storage options, and a variety of plant inefficiencies, which

  9. 26 CFR 1.61-1 - Gross income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gross income. 1.61-1 Section 1.61-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Definition of Gross Income, Adjusted Gross Income, and Taxable Income § 1.61-1 Gross...

  10. Application of Solar Chimney Concept to Solve Potential Safety Issues of Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khasawneh, Khalid; PARK, Youn Won [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    In this paper two main events and their causes have been investigated and a potential alternative supporting system will be provided. The first event to be addressed is the Station Blackout (SBO) caused by the inherent unreliability of the Emergency Diesel Generators (EDGs) and Alternative AC (AAC) power sources. Different parameters affect The EDG unreliability; for instance, mechanical, operational, maintenance and surveillance. Those parameters will be analyzed and linked to plant safety and Core Damage Frequency (CDF). Also the AACs, the SBO diesel generators, will be studied and their operational requirements similarity with the EDGs will be discussed. The second event to be addressed is the Loss of Ultimate Heat Sink (LUHS) caused by the degradation of heat exchange effectiveness, that is, the poor heat transfer to the Ultimate Heat Sink (UHS). Different causes to such case were observed; intake lines blockages due to ice and foreign biological matters formation and oil spill near the heat sink causing the oil leakage to the heat exchangers tubes. The later cause, oil spill, has been given a special attention here due its potential effects for different nuclear power plants (NPPs) around the world; for example, Finland and the United Arab Emirates (UAE). For the Finnish case, the Finnish nuclear regulator (STUK) took already countermeasures for such scenario by introducing alternative heat sink, cooling towers, for the primary used heat sink, sea water, for one of its nuclear power plants. The abundance of the solar irradiation in the UAE region provides a perfect condition for the implementation of solar power applications. Utilizing this unique characteristic of that region may provide promising alternative and diverse options for solving potential safety related issues of their NPPs. The Solar Chimney Power Plant (SCPP) could be employed to serve as a supporting system to provide emergency power, in the case of SBO, and emergency cooling, in the case of

  11. Application of Solar Chimney Concept to Solve Potential Safety Issues of Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khasawneh, Khalid; PARK, Youn Won

    2014-01-01

    In this paper two main events and their causes have been investigated and a potential alternative supporting system will be provided. The first event to be addressed is the Station Blackout (SBO) caused by the inherent unreliability of the Emergency Diesel Generators (EDGs) and Alternative AC (AAC) power sources. Different parameters affect The EDG unreliability; for instance, mechanical, operational, maintenance and surveillance. Those parameters will be analyzed and linked to plant safety and Core Damage Frequency (CDF). Also the AACs, the SBO diesel generators, will be studied and their operational requirements similarity with the EDGs will be discussed. The second event to be addressed is the Loss of Ultimate Heat Sink (LUHS) caused by the degradation of heat exchange effectiveness, that is, the poor heat transfer to the Ultimate Heat Sink (UHS). Different causes to such case were observed; intake lines blockages due to ice and foreign biological matters formation and oil spill near the heat sink causing the oil leakage to the heat exchangers tubes. The later cause, oil spill, has been given a special attention here due its potential effects for different nuclear power plants (NPPs) around the world; for example, Finland and the United Arab Emirates (UAE). For the Finnish case, the Finnish nuclear regulator (STUK) took already countermeasures for such scenario by introducing alternative heat sink, cooling towers, for the primary used heat sink, sea water, for one of its nuclear power plants. The abundance of the solar irradiation in the UAE region provides a perfect condition for the implementation of solar power applications. Utilizing this unique characteristic of that region may provide promising alternative and diverse options for solving potential safety related issues of their NPPs. The Solar Chimney Power Plant (SCPP) could be employed to serve as a supporting system to provide emergency power, in the case of SBO, and emergency cooling, in the case of

  12. Photoionization of atoms encapsulated by cages using the power-exponential potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, C Y; Ho, Y K

    2012-01-01

    The systems of confined atoms in cages have received considerable attention for decades due to interesting phenomena arising from the effect of cage environment on the atom. For early theoretical work based on empirical model potentials, the Dirac δ-potential, i.e. the so-called bubble potential, and the attractive short-range spherical shell potential are conventionally used for the description of interaction between the valence electron of confined atom and the cage. In this work, the power-exponential potential with a flexible confining shape is proposed to model the cages. The methods of complex scaling in the finite-element discrete variable representation are implemented to investigate the hydrogen, hydrogen-like ions and alkali metals encapsulated by the cages. The energy spectrum varying with the confining well depth exhibits avoided crossings. The influence of cage on atomic photoionization leading to the oscillation behaviour or the so-called confinement resonances in cross sections is demonstrated in a variety of confined atomic systems. In comparisons with existing predictions using the Dirac δ-potential and the attractive short-range spherical shell potentials, our results show the significant influence of cage thickness and smooth shell boundary on the photoionization. The drastic changes of cross sections due to the character of cage are presented and discussed for the encaged lithium and sodium atoms. The present model is useful for clarifying the boundary effect of confining shell on the endohedral atoms. (paper)

  13. An assessment of the regional potential for solar power generation in EU-28

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perpiña Castillo, Carolina; Batista e Silva, Filipe; Lavalle, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    In this study we aim at assessing the potential of European regions to solar power generation and its comparison with recent European Union (EU) incentives for the development of this renewable energy source. In this study we use a multi-criteria assessment (MCA) supported by Geographical Information System (GIS) to combine already existing information on solar radiation with other geographical factors such as slope, land use, urban extent and population distribution, as well as proximity to the power grid to generate a suitability map for photovoltaic (PV) power plants across the EU at high spatial resolution. A validation exercise showed that the resulting suitability map is a good predictor of appropriate locations for the deployment of PV power plants. The suitability map was in addition compared to the regional distribution of European funds for development of solar energy from the EU Cohesion policy (2007–2013 programme). Regions were classified according their overall suitability for solar energy power systems and the allocated solar investments by the EU Cohesion policy. This analysis allowed to identify potential mismatches between fund allocations and actual regional suitability for solar energy. It is recommended that future fund allocations take into account suitability criteria for solar energy for optimised results of public policies. - Highlights: • A European suitability map for the solar energy (PV) systems deployment is created. • PV systems can contribute in a sustainable energy production in many regions in EU. • There is no correlation among the EU investment and the suitability in solar energy. • Using marginal lands to place PV systems might avoid the uptake of agricultural land. • Validation of the EU suitability map demonstrated a satisfactory degree of accuracy.

  14. The one-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation and its some excitation states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prayitno, T. B., E-mail: trunk-002@yahoo.com [Physics Department, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science, Universitas Negeri Jakarta, Jl. Pemuda Rawamangun no. 10, Jakarta, 13220 (Indonesia)

    2015-04-16

    We have derived some excitation states of the one-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation coupled by the gravitational potential. The methods that we have used here are taken by pursuing the recent work of Kivshar et. al. by considering the equation as a macroscopic quantum oscillator. To obtain the states, we have made the appropriate transformation to reduce the three-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation into the one-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation and applying the time-independent perturbation theory in the general solution of the one-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation as a linear superposition of the normalized eigenfunctions of the Schrödinger equation for the harmonic oscillator potential. Moreover, we also impose the condition by assuming that some terms in the equation should be so small in order to preserve the use of the perturbation method.

  15. Effective non-Coulombic power-law potential for the study of light and heavy mesons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barik, N.; Jena, S.N.

    1982-01-01

    From purely phenomenological considerations we have shown that it is possible to describe successfully the heavy meson spectra of cc-bar and bb-bar systems in the framework of an effective non-Coulombic power-law potential in the form V(r) = V 0 +ar/sup ν/ (with a,ν>0). The nonsingular short-distance behavior of this potential, which is in apparent contradiction with the predictions of quantum- chromodynamics, does not pose any problem in explaining the fine-hyperfine splitting, if we prescribe the spin dependence to be generated through this static confining potential in the form of an approximately equal admixture of scalar and vector parts with no contributions from the anomalous quark magnetic moments. This nonrelativistic formalsm, when extended to a unified study of the entire meson spectra including the ordinary light and the heavy mesons, gives a very good account of the meson masses, fine-hyperfine splittings, electromagnetic transition rates, and leptonic decay widths without reflecting any inadequacy in the short- and long-range behavior of this simple effective power-law potential

  16. The Environmental Mitigation Potential of Photovoltaic-Powered Irrigation in the Production of South African Maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Wettstein

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture is under pressure to reduce its environmental impact. The use of renewable energy sources has potential to decrease these impacts. Maize is one of the most significant crops in South Africa and approximately 241,000 hectares are irrigated. This irrigation is most commonly powered by grid electricity generated using coal. However, South Africa has high solar irradiation, which could be used to generate photovoltaic electricity. The aim of this study was to determine the environmental mitigation potential of replacing grid-powered irrigation in South African maize production with photovoltaic irrigation systems using Life Cycle Assessment. The study included the value chain of maize production from cultivation to storage. Replacing grid electricity with photovoltaic-generated electricity leads to a 34% reduction in the global warming potential of maize produced under irrigation, and—applied at a national level—could potentially reduce South Africa’s greenhouse gas emissions by 536,000 t CO2-eq. per year. Non-renewable energy demand, freshwater eutrophication, acidification, and particulate matter emissions are also significantly lowered. Replacing grid electricity with renewable energy in irrigation has been shown to be an effective means of reducing the environmental impacts associated with South African maize production.

  17. Potential human factors research relating to modern technology in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketchel, J.; Fink, R.; Hanes, L.; Williges, R.; Williges, B.

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses proposed human factors research to address advanced human-machine interface technology in nuclear power plants. It relates to a current EPRI project to identify a prioritized list of specific research issues that could be assessed to improve control room and other user interface areas. The project seeks to bridge the gap between the functional requirements of advanced design initiatives and the human factors research needed to support them. It seeks to identify potential benefits to be expected, as well as potential problems that might be introduced by advanced technology. It provides an organized approach to identifying human factors research needs, information already available, and measures of performance and effectiveness that might be used to assess the value of potential improvements. Those parts of the proposed plan that are subsequently approved by EPRI management and by the utility advisory committee will provide a basis for recommending research priorities

  18. Gross Revenue risk in Swiss dairy farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benni, El N.; Finger, R.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated how agricultural policy reforms, including market liberalization and market deregulation, have influenced gross revenue risk of Swiss dairy producers using farm-level panel data between 1990 and 2009. Based on detrended data, variance decomposition was applied to assess how

  19. Micro-hydrokinetic turbine potential for sustainable power generation in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salleh, M. B.; Kamaruddin, N. M.; Mohamed-Kassim, Z.

    2018-05-01

    Micro-hydrokinetic turbine (μ-HKT) technology is considered a viable option for sustainable, green and low cost power production. In recent years, there is growing number of research and development on this technology to replace conventional power production systems such as fossil fuel as well as to provide off-grid electrification to communities in remote areas. This paper provides an overview of μ-HKT system, the implementation of the technology and the potential of using μ-HKT in Malaysia. A review on the climate in Malaysia shows that its average annual rainfall is higher than the world’s average annual rainfall. It contributes to the total hydropower resource of about 29,000 MW which is available all year-round. Currently, hydropower resource contributes only 7.4% of the total electrical power production in Malaysia but is expected to increase with the main contribution coming from μ-HKT. However, the μ-HKT technology has not been adopted in Malaysia due to some challenges that hinder the development of the system. This paper reviews the μ-HKT technology and its potential for application in Malaysia, particularly in remote areas.

  20. Power systems balancing with high penetration renewables: The potential of demand response in Hawaii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Critz, D. Karl; Busche, Sarah; Connors, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Demand response for Oahu results in system cost savings. • Demand response improves thermal power plant operations. • Increased use of wind generation possible with demand response. • WILMAR model used to simulate various levels and prices of demand response. - Abstract: The State of Hawaii’s Clean Energy policies call for 40% of the state’s electricity to be supplied by renewable sources by 2030. A recent study focusing on the island of Oahu showed that meeting large amounts of the island’s electricity needs with wind and solar introduced significant operational challenges, especially when renewable generation varies from forecasts. This paper focuses on the potential of demand response in balancing supply and demand on an hourly basis. Using the WILMAR model, various levels and prices of demand response were simulated. Results indicate that demand response has the potential to smooth overall power system operation, with production cost savings arising from both improved thermal power plant operations and increased wind production. Demand response program design and cost structure is then discussed drawing from industry experience in direct load control programs

  1. Complexity and availability for fusion power plants: The potential advantages of inertial fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, L.J.

    1997-01-01

    Probably the single largest advantage of the inertial route to fusion energy (IFE) is the perception that its power plant embodiments could achieve acceptable capacity factors. This is a result of its relative simplicity, the decoupling of the driver and reactor chamber, and the potential to employ thick liquid walls. The author examines these issues in terms of the complexity, reliability, maintainability and, therefore, availability of both magnetic and inertial fusion power plants and compares these factors with corresponding scheduled and unscheduled outage data from present day fission experience. The author stresses that, given the simple nature of a fission core, the vast majority of unplanned outages in fission plants are due to failures outside the reactor vessel itself. Given one must be prepared for similar outages in the analogous plant external to a fusion power core, this puts severe demands on the reliability required of the fusion core itself. The author indicates that such requirements can probably be met for IFE plants. He recommends that this advantage be promoted by performing a quantitative reliability and availability study for a representative IFE power plant and suggests that databases are probably adequate for this task. 40 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  2. Power Transfer Potential to the Southeast in Response to a Renewable Portfolio Standard: Interim Report 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadley, Stanton W [ORNL; Key, Thomas S [Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI)

    2009-03-01

    The power transfer potential for bringing renewable energy into the Southeast in response to a renewable portfolio standard (RPS) will depend not only on available transmission capacity but also on electricity supply and demand factors. This interim report examines how the commonly used EIA NEMS and EPRI NESSIE energy equilibrium models are considering such power transfers. Using regional estimates of capacity expansion and demand, a base case for 2008, 2020 and 2030 are compared relative to generation mix, renewable deployments, planned power transfers, and meeting RPS goals. The needed amounts of regional renewable energy to comply with possible RPS levels are compared to inter-regional transmission capacities to establish a baseline available for import into the Southeast and other regions. Gaps in the renewable generation available to meet RPS requirements are calculated. The initial finding is that the physical capability for transferring renewable energy into the SE is only about 10% of what would be required to meet a 20% RPS. Issues that need to be addressed in future tasks with respect to modeling are the current limitations for expanding renewable capacity and generation in one region to meet the demand in another and the details on transmission corridors required to deliver the power.

  3. The potential environmental impacts and the siting of proposed nuclear power plants in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Zhongqi

    1986-01-01

    This paper reviews briefly the methodology of assessing environmental impacts from the nuclear power plants and analyses the potential radiological impacts on the environment from proposed nuclear power plants in China. Preliminary studies show that the environmental impacts of the effluents of routine release from PWRs to the proposed sites are extremely small, even if nuclear power plants are constructed either on the Bohai Sea shore with a narrow mouth or in the densely populated regions of Sunan. Thus, the suitability of sites depends mainly on the acceptability of possible exposure to the residents following postulated accidental release of radioactive materials. The paper also discusses relations between the nuclear plant siting and population distribution around the site and compares the distribution of the proposed sites in China with that of other countries sites in according to China actual situation, it is reasonable to adopt a prudent policy that the first series of nuclear power plants in China should be built in relatively low population areas

  4. Grid-connected photovoltaic power systems. Technical and potential problems. A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eltawil, Mohamed A.; Zhao, Zhengming

    2010-01-01

    Traditional electric power systems are designed in large part to utilize large baseload power plants, with limited ability to rapidly ramp output or reduce output below a certain level. The increase in demand variability created by intermittent sources such as photovoltaic (PV) presents new challenges to increase system flexibility. This paper aims to investigate and emphasize the importance of the grid-connected PV system regarding the intermittent nature of renewable generation, and the characterization of PV generation with regard to grid code compliance. The investigation was conducted to critically review the literature on expected potential problems associated with high penetration levels and islanding prevention methods of grid tied PV. According to the survey, PV grid connection inverters have fairly good performance. They have high conversion efficiency and power factor exceeding 90% for wide operating range, while maintaining current harmonics THD less than 5%. Numerous large-scale projects are currently being commissioned, with more planned for the near future. Prices of both PV and balance of system components (BOS) are decreasing which will lead to further increase in use. The technical requirements from the utility power system side need to be satisfied to ensure the safety of the PV installer and the reliability of the utility grid. Identifying the technical requirements for grid interconnection and solving the interconnect problems such as islanding detection, harmonic distortion requirements and electromagnetic interference are therefore very important issues for widespread application of PV systems. The control circuit also provides sufficient control and protection functions like maximum power tracking, inverter current control and power factor control. Reliability, life span and maintenance needs should be certified through the long-term operation of PV system. Further reduction of cost, size and weight is required for more utilization of PV

  5. Power consumption of lifts and potential for energy savings; Elektrizitaetsverbrauch und Einspar-Potenziale bei Aufzuegen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nipkow, J.

    2005-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reviews the results of a study made on the electricity consumption of lifts, which estimates that around 0.5% of Swiss power consumption is caused by lift installations. The results of measurements made on 33 various lift installations and their power consumption are presented. The SIA 380/4 model used to determine energy consumption on the basis of the number of movements is described. Stand-by and lighting consumption is examined, which, according to the authors' conclusions, offer considerable room for improvement, especially for lifts in residential buildings. A further significant potential for improvement is also noted which can be achieved when renewing older systems. The avoidance of inefficient concepts by the use of guidelines for architects, planners and customers is recommended.

  6. Estimation of Power Production Potential from Natural Gas Pressure Reduction Stations in Pakistan Using ASPEN HYSYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Nazir Unar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Pakistan is a gas rich but power poor country. It consumes approximately 1, 559 Billion cubic feet of natural gas annually. Gas is transported around the country in a system of pressurized transmission pipelines under a pressure range of 600-1000 psig exclusively operated by two state owned companies i.e. SNGPL (Sui Northern Gas Pipelines Limited and SSGCL (Sui Southern Gas Company Limited. The gas is distributed by reducing from the transmission pressure into distribution pressure up to maximum level of 150 psig at the city gate stations normally called SMS (Sales Metering Station. As a normal practice gas pressure reduction at those SMSs is accomplished in pressure regulators (PCVs or in throttle valves where isenthalpic expansion takes place without producing any energy. Pressure potential of natural gas is an untapped energy resource which is currently wasted by its throttling. This pressure reduction at SMS (pressure drop through SMS may also be achieved by expansion of natural gas in TE, which converts its pressure into the mechanical energy, which can be transmitted any loading device for example electric generator. The aim of present paper is to explore the expected power production potential of various Sales Metering Stations of SSGCL company in Pakistan. The model of sales metering station was developed in a standard flow sheeting software Aspen HYSYS®7.1 to calculate power and study other parameters when an expansion turbine is used instead of throttling valves. It was observed from the simulation results that a significant power (more than 140 KW can be produced at pressure reducing stations of SSGC network with gas flows more than 2.2 MMSCFD and pressure ration more than 1.3.

  7. Assessing current and future techno-economic potential of concentrated solar power and photovoltaic electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Köberle, Alexandre C.; Gernaat, David E.H.J.; Vuuren, Detlef P. van

    2015-01-01

    CSP and PV technologies represent energy sources with large potentials. We present cost-supply curves for both technologies using a consistent methodology for 26 regions, based on geoexplicit information on solar radiation, land cover type and slope, exploring individual potential and interdependencies. For present day, both CSP and PV supply curves start at $0.18/kWh, in North Africa, South America, and Australia. Applying accepted learning rates to official capacity targets, we project prices to drop to $0.11/kWh for both technologies by 2050. In an alternative “fast-learning” scenario, generation costs drop to $0.06–0.07/kWh for CSP, and $0.09/kWh for PV. Competition between them for best areas is explored along with sensitivities of their techno-economic potentials to land use restrictions and land cover type. CSP was found to be more competitive in desert sites with highest direct solar radiation. PV was a clear winner in humid tropical regions, and temperate northern hemisphere. Elsewhere, no clear winner emerged, highlighting the importance of competition in assessments of potentials. Our results show there is ample potential globally for both technologies even accounting for land use restrictions, but stronger support for RD&D and higher investments are needed to make CSP and PV cost-competitive with established power technologies by 2050. - Highlights: • A consistent assessment of global potential for CSP and PV, with cost-supply curves for 26 regions. • Combined global CSP and PV potential below US$0.35/kWh estimated at 135,128 TWh per year. • Competition for same land-based solar resource implies that potentials cannot be added. • Attractive areas are MENA, Northern Chile, Australia, China and Southwestern USA. • Costs are projected to go down over time, reaching US$0.06–0.11/KWh for attractive sites in 2050

  8. 46 CFR 169.679 - Wiring for power and lighting circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wiring for power and lighting circuits. 169.679 Section... SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Electrical Installations Operating at Potentials of 50 Volts Or More on Vessels of Less Than 100 Gross Tons § 169.679 Wiring for power and lighting circuits. Wiring...

  9. 46 CFR 169.680 - Installation of wiring for power and lighting circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Installation of wiring for power and lighting circuits... SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Electrical Installations Operating at Potentials of 50 Volts Or More on Vessels of Less Than 100 Gross Tons § 169.680 Installation of wiring for power...

  10. Potential hydroelectric power. Vertical turbine: spillway combine Broadwater Dam. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willer, D.C.

    1979-04-23

    A feasibility study was made of the hydroelectric power potential at Broadwater Dam in western Montana. Two alternative configurations for the potential project were evaluated and the economics of four possible sources of project funding were assessed. The configurations analyzed were an apron-mounted configuration, in which the turbine-generator units are located on the downstream apron of the existing dam, and a conventional configuration, in which the units are located in a new powerhouse adjacent to the existing dam. The funding sources considered were the Department of Energy loan program, the United States Bureau of Reclamation PL-984 loan program and conventional revenue bonds, both taxable and tax-exempt. The optimal project alternative was determined to be the apron-mounted configuration. The final choice of funding would be dependent on the power purchaser. It was shown that, regardless of the configuraton or funding source selected, the project would be feasible. The cost of the apron-mounted configuration, which would consist of four turbine-generator units for a total installed capacity of 9.76 MW, was estimated as $13,250,000 with financing provided by either a PL-984 loan or tax-exempt bonds. The cost per installed kilowatt was therefore $1,350, and the cost per kilowatt-hour was 19.6 mills. The average annual energy was estimated to be 56.44 million kWh, the equivalent of approximately 87,000 barrels of oil per y. It is therefore recommended that the Montana Department of Natural Resources and Conservation proceed with the project and that discussions be initiated with potential power purchasers as soon as possible.

  11. EPA RE-Powering Mapper: Alternative Energy Potential at Cleanup Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Land and Emergency Management??s (OLEM) Office of Communications, Partnerships and Analysis (OCPA) initiated the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative to demonstrate the enormous potential that contaminated lands, landfills, and mine sites provide for developing renewable energy in the United States. EPA developed national level site screening criteria in partnership with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) for wind, solar, biomass, and geothermal facilities. While the screening criteria demonstrate the potential to reuse contaminated land for renewable energy facilities, the criteria and data are neither designed to identify the best sites for developing renewable energy nor all-inclusive. Therefore, more detailed, site-specific analysis is necessary to identify or prioritize the best sites for developing renewable energy facilities based on the technical and economic potential. Please note that these sites were only pre-screened for renewable energy potential. The sites were not evaluated for land use constraints or current on the ground conditions. Additional research and site-specific analysis are needed to verify viability for renewable energy potential at a given site.

  12. Survey of networked control systems and their potential applications in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadri, A. [Univ. of Western Ontario, Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering, London, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail: akadri@uwo.ca

    2006-07-01

    This paper provides an overview of networked control systems (NCSs) and their industrial applications. Most widely used NCSs based on fieldbus technologies; namely, ControlNet, Profibus (DP/PA), and Foundation Fieldbus have been discussed. The objectives and benefits of using such networks are presented and factors influencing their design and implementation are examined. Then, some of the special requirements in controlling nuclear power plant (NPP) have been considered. The potential of applying networked control systems in such installations has been discussed. Finally, the concept of wireless networked control systems is also described. (author)

  13. Power Transfer Potential to the Southeast in Response to a Renewable Portfolio Standard: Interim Report 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadley, Stanton W [ORNL; Key, Thomas S [Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI); Deb, Rajat [LCG Consulting

    2009-05-01

    Electricity consumption in the Southeastern US, not including Florida, is approximately 24% of the total US. The availability of renewable resources for electricity production is relatively small compared to the high consumption. Therefore meeting a national renewable portfolio standard (RPS) is particularly challenging in this region. Neighboring regions, particularly to the west, have significant wind resources and given sufficient long distant transmission these resources could serve energy markets in the SE. This report looks at renewable resource supply relative to demands and the potential for power transfer into the SE. It shows that development of wind resources will depend not only on available transmission capacity but also on electricity supply and demand factors.

  14. Mathematical analysis of the dimensional scaling technique for the Schroedinger equation with power-law potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Zhonghai; Chen, Goong; Lin, Chang-Shou

    2010-01-01

    The dimensional scaling (D-scaling) technique is an innovative asymptotic expansion approach to study the multiparticle systems in molecular quantum mechanics. It enables the calculation of ground and excited state energies of quantum systems without having to solve the Schroedinger equation. In this paper, we present a mathematical analysis of the D-scaling technique for the Schroedinger equation with power-law potentials. By casting the D-scaling technique in an appropriate variational setting and studying the corresponding minimization problem, the D-scaling technique is justified rigorously. A new asymptotic dimensional expansion scheme is introduced to compute asymptotic expansions for ground state energies.

  15. Relaxation of the distribution function tails for gases with power-law interaction potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potapenko, I.F.; Bobylev, A.V.; de Azevedo, C.A.; de Assis, A.S.

    1997-01-01

    The relaxation of rarefied gases of particles with the power-law interaction potentials U=α/r s , where 1≤s<4, is considered. The formation and evolution of the distribution function tails are investigated on the basis of the one-dimensional kinetic Landau endash Fokker-Planck equation. For long times, the constructed asymptotic solutions have a propagating-wave appearance in the high velocity region. The analytical solutions are expressed explicitly in terms of the error function. The analytical consideration is accomplished by numerical calculations. The obtained analytical results are in a good agreement with the numerical simulation results. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  16. Survey of insulation used in nuclear power plants and the potential for debris generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolbe, R.; Gahan, E.

    1982-05-01

    In support of Unresolved Safety Issue, USI A-43, Containment emergency Sump Performance, 8 additional nuclear power plants (representative of different US reactor manufacturers and architect-engineers) were surveyed to identify and document the types and amounts of insulation used, location within containment, components insulated, material characteristics, and methods of installation and attachment. These plants were selected to obtain survey information on older plants and supplements information previously reported in NUREG/CR-2403. In addition, a preliminary assessment was made of the potential for migration to the emergency sump of the insulation debris which might be generated as a result of the postulated loss-of-coolant accident

  17. Proposed Nuclear Power Plants in the UK-Potential Radiological Implications for Ireland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMahon, C.; Kelleher, K.; McGinnity, P.; Organo, C.; Smith, K.; Currivan, L.; Ryan, T.

    2013-05-15

    The UK Government has identified up to eight locations for the construction of new nuclear power plants by 2025. Five of these locations are on the Irish Sea coast. The Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland, RPII was requested by the Minister for the Environment, Community and Local Government to undertake an assessment of the potential radiological impacts on Ireland from this New Build Programme. This report presents the findings of the potential impacts on Ireland of both the anticipated routine radioactive discharges and of a range of postulated nuclear accident scenarios. The following points are the principal findings of the report. Given the prevailing wind direction in Ireland, radioactive contamination in the air, either from routine operation of the proposed nuclear power plants or accidental releases, will most often be transported away from Ireland. The routine operation of the proposed nuclear power plants will have no measurable radiological impact on Ireland or the Irish marine environment. The severe accident scenarios assessed ranged in their estimated frequency of occurrance from 1 in 50,000 to 1 in 33 million per year. The assessment used a weather pattern that maximised the transfer of radioactivity to Ireland. For the severe accident scenarios assessed, food controls or agriculture protective measures would generally be required in Ireland to reduce exposure of the population so as to mitigate potential long-term health effects. In the accident scenario with an estimated 1 in 33 million chance of occurring, short-term measures such as staying indoors would also be advised as a precautionary measure. In general, the accidents with higher potential impact on Ireland are the ones least likely to occur. Regardless of the radiological impact, any accident at the proposed nuclear power plants leading to an increase of radioactivity levels in Ireland would have a socio-economic impact on Ireland. A major accidental release of radioactivity to

  18. Analysis of potential saltwater intrusion at NEP I and II power station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, D.W.

    1980-06-01

    The potential of adverse environmental impacts to groundwater availability and groundwater quality from construction dewatering of the coastal aquifer at a proposed New England Power site was examined with an analytical model. The drawdown zone and the extent of saltwater intrusion were predicted with and without the use of a slurry-wall barrier. The use of a slurry wall to mitigate any adverse impacts is feasible but the limited understanding of the coastal aquifer demands that monitoring requirements be included in the construction plan.

  19. Analysis of potential saltwater intrusion at NEP I and II power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.W.

    1980-06-01

    The potential of adverse environmental impacts to groundwater availability and groundwater quality from construction dewatering of the coastal aquifer at a proposed New England Power site was examined with an analytical model. The drawdown zone and the extent of saltwater intrusion were predicted with and without the use of a slurry-wall barrier. The use of a slurry wall to mitigate any adverse impacts is feasible but the limited understanding of the coastal aquifer demands that monitoring requirements be included in the construction plan

  20. Proposed Nuclear Power Plants in the UK-Potential Radiological Implications for Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMahon, C.; Kelleher, K.; McGinnity, P.; Organo, C.; Smith, K.; Currivan, L.; Ryan, T.

    2013-05-01

    The UK Government has identified up to eight locations for the construction of new nuclear power plants by 2025. Five of these locations are on the Irish Sea coast. The Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland, RPII was requested by the Minister for the Environment, Community and Local Government to undertake an assessment of the potential radiological impacts on Ireland from this New Build Programme. This report presents the findings of the potential impacts on Ireland of both the anticipated routine radioactive discharges and of a range of postulated nuclear accident scenarios. The following points are the principal findings of the report. Given the prevailing wind direction in Ireland, radioactive contamination in the air, either from routine operation of the proposed nuclear power plants or accidental releases, will most often be transported away from Ireland. The routine operation of the proposed nuclear power plants will have no measurable radiological impact on Ireland or the Irish marine environment. The severe accident scenarios assessed ranged in their estimated frequency of occurrance from 1 in 50,000 to 1 in 33 million per year. The assessment used a weather pattern that maximised the transfer of radioactivity to Ireland. For the severe accident scenarios assessed, food controls or agriculture protective measures would generally be required in Ireland to reduce exposure of the population so as to mitigate potential long-term health effects. In the accident scenario with an estimated 1 in 33 million chance of occurring, short-term measures such as staying indoors would also be advised as a precautionary measure. In general, the accidents with higher potential impact on Ireland are the ones least likely to occur. Regardless of the radiological impact, any accident at the proposed nuclear power plants leading to an increase of radioactivity levels in Ireland would have a socio-economic impact on Ireland. A major accidental release of radioactivity to

  1. Monitoring of gross alpha, gross beta and tritium activities in portuguese drinking waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, I.; Madruga, M.J.; Ferrador, G.O.; Sequeira, M.M.; Oliveira, E.J.; Gomes, A.R.; Rodrigues, F.D.; Carvalho, F.P.

    2006-01-01

    The gross beta and tritium activities in the forty Portuguese drinking waters analyzed using the ISO standard methods (Portuguese Guidelines) are below the guidance levels proposed in the Portuguese Drinking Water Quality Guidelines. In what concerns the gross alpha activity only 18% exceeded the recommended level. In general, it can be concluded that the ingestion of these drinking waters does not create a radiological hazard to the human consumption, however, more detailed analyses will be necessary mainly the determinations of the individual alpha emitters radionuclide concentrations. The minimum gross alpha and gross beta detectable activities by L.S.C. methodology are higher than for the proportional counting technique (ISO method). Higher concentration factors will be needed to reach lower required detection limits. (authors)

  2. Determination of gross gamma and gross beta activities in liquid effluent samples. Phase I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, K.E.; Sood, S.P.

    1985-08-01

    Several inadequacies in the presently used procedures for gross gamma and gross beta measurements in aqueous wastes have been identified. Both the presence of suspended particulate activity and the use of cesium-137 as a calibration standard can cause gross gamma measurements to overestimate the actual activity in the sample. At the same time, sample preparation for the determination of gross beta activities causes large losses of radioiodine before the measurement step and the presence of solid material can cause a serious decrease in the beta counting efficiency. A combination of these errors could result in large discrepancies between the results obtained by the two measurement methods. Improved procedures are required to overcome these problems

  3. Economically Feasible Potentials for Wind Power in China and the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, X.; McElroy, M. B.; Chris, N. P.; Tchou, J.

    2011-12-01

    The present study is intended to explore the economic feasible potentials for wind energy in China and the U.S. subject to their policy systems for renewable energy. These two countries were chosen as subject locales for three reasons: first, they are the two largest countries responsible for energy consumption and CO2 emissions; second, these two countries have the largest installed capacities and the fastest annual growth of wind power in the world; third, China and the U.S. have adopted two distinct but representative incentive policies to accelerate exploitation of the renewable energy source from wind. Investments in large-scale wind farms in China gain privileges from the concession policy established under China's Renewable Energy Law. The electricity generated from wind can be sold at a guaranteed price for a concession period (typically the first ten operational years of a wind farm) to ensure the profitability of the wind farm development. The effectiveness of this policy has been evidenced by the swift growth of total installed capacities for wind power over the past five years in China. A spatial financial model was developed to evaluate the bus-bar prices of wind-generated electricity in China following this wind concession policy. The results indicated that wind could accommodate all of the demand for electricity projected for 2030 assuming a guaranteed bus-bar price of 7.6 U.S. Cents per kWh over the concession period. It is noteworthy that the prices of wind-generated electricity could be as cheap as conventional power generation in the years following the concession period. The power market in the U.S. is more deregulated and electricity is normally traded in a bidding process an hour to a day ahead of real time. Accordingly, the market-oriented policy instrument of PTC subsidies was instituted in the U.S. to ensure the competitiveness of wind power compared to the conventional power generation in the regional power markets. The spatial financial

  4. Weak turbulence theory for the Gross-Pitaevskii equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazarenko, S.; West, R.; Lvov, Y.

    2001-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to use the ideas developed for the NLSE to derive a weak turbulence theory for a large set of random waves described by the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. An interesting picture emerges even from a naive application of the results already obtained for the NLSE case. Imagine an arbitrary initial excitation; a superposition of modes with energies somewhere in the middle of the potential well. Because of the nonlinear interaction (''collisions'') there is a redistribution of energy E and particles N among the modes. (orig.)

  5. A two-parameter family of double-power-law biorthonormal potential-density expansions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilley, Edward J.; Sanders, Jason L.; Evans, N. Wyn

    2018-05-01

    We present a two-parameter family of biorthonormal double-power-law potential-density expansions. Both the potential and density are given in closed analytic form and may be rapidly computed via recurrence relations. We show that this family encompasses all the known analytic biorthonormal expansions: the Zhao expansions (themselves generalizations of ones found earlier by Hernquist & Ostriker and by Clutton-Brock) and the recently discovered Lilley et al. (2017a) expansion. Our new two-parameter family includes expansions based around many familiar spherical density profiles as zeroth-order models, including the γ models and the Jaffe model. It also contains a basis expansion that reproduces the famous Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) profile at zeroth order. The new basis expansions have been found via a systematic methodology which has wide applications in finding other new expansions. In the process, we also uncovered a novel integral transform solution to Poisson's equation.

  6. Bethe-Salpeter equation for non-self conjugate mesons in a power-law potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikhdair, S.M.

    1992-07-01

    We develop an approach to the solution of the spinless Bethe-Salpeter equation for the different-mass case. Although the calculations are developed for spin-zero particles in any arbitrary spherically symmetric potential, the non-Coulombic effective power-law potential is used as a kernel to produce the spin-averaged bound states of the non-self-conjugate mesons. The analytical formulae are also applicable to the self-conjugate mesons in the equal-mass case. The flavor-independent case is investigated in this work. The calculations are carried out to the third-order correction of the energy series. Results are consistent with those obtained before. (author). 14 refs, 1 tab

  7. Worldwide wind/diesel hybrid power system study: Potential applications and technical issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, W.R.; Johnson, B.L. III (Science Applications International Corp., McLean, VA (USA))

    1991-04-01

    The world market potential for wind/diesel hybrid technology is a function of the need for electric power, the availability of sufficient wind resource to support wind/diesel power, and the existence of buyers with the financial means to invest in the technology. This study includes data related to each of these three factors. This study does not address market penetration, which would require analysis of application specific wind/diesel economics. Buyer purchase criteria, which are vital to assessing market penetration, are discussed only generally. Countries were screened for a country-specific market analysis based on indicators of need and wind resource. Both developed countries and less developed countries'' (LDCs) were screened for wind/diesel market potential. Based on the results of the screening, ten countries showing high market potential were selected for more extensive market analyses. These analyses provide country-specific market data to guide wind/diesel technology developers in making design decisions that will lead to a competitive product. Section 4 presents the country-specific data developed for these analyses, including more extensive wind resource characterization, application-specific market opportunities, business conditions, and energy market characterizations. An attempt was made to identify the potential buyers with ability to pay for wind/diesel technology required to meet the application-specific market opportunities identified for each country. Additionally, the country-specific data are extended to corollary opportunities in countries not covered by the study. Section 2 gives recommendations for wind/diesel research based on the findings of the study. 86 refs.

  8. Why is China’s wind power generation not living up to its potential?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huenteler, Joern; Tang, Tian; Chan, Gabriel; Diaz Anadon, Laura

    2018-04-01

    Following a decade of unprecedented investment, China now has the world’s largest installed base of wind power capacity. Yet, despite siting most wind farms in the wind-rich Northern and Western provinces, electricity generation from Chinese wind farms has not reached the performance benchmarks of the United States and many other advanced economies. This has resulted in lower environmental, economic, and health benefits than anticipated. We develop a framework to explain the performance of the Chinese and US wind sectors, accounting for a comprehensive set of driving factors. We apply this framework to a novel dataset of virtually all wind farms installed in China and the United States through the end of 2013. We first estimate the wind sector’s technical potential using a methodology that produces consistent estimates for both countries. We compare this potential to actual performance and find that Chinese wind farms generated electricity at 37%–45% of their annual technical potential during 2006–2013 compared to 54%–61% in the United States. Our findings underscore that the larger gap between actual performance and technical potential in China compared to the United States is significantly driven by delays in grid connection (14% of the gap) and curtailment due to constraints in grid management (10% of the gap), two challenges of China’s wind power expansion covered extensively in the literature. However, our findings show that China’s underperformance is also driven by suboptimal turbine model selection (31% of the gap), wind farm siting (23% of the gap), and turbine hub heights (6% of the gap)—factors that have received less attention in the literature and, crucially, are locked-in for the lifetime of wind farms. This suggests that besides addressing grid connection delays and curtailment, China will also need policy measures to address turbine siting and technology choices to achieve its national goals and increase utilization up to US levels.

  9. Worldwide wind/diesel hybrid power system study: Potential applications and technical issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, W. R.; Johnson, B. L., III

    1991-04-01

    The world market potential for wind/diesel hybrid technology is a function of the need for electric power, the availability of sufficient wind resource to support wind/diesel power, and the existence of buyers with the financial means to invest in the technology. This study includes data related to each of these three factors. This study does not address market penetration, which would require analysis of application specific wind/diesel economics. Buyer purchase criteria, which are vital to assessing market penetration, are discussed only generally. Countries were screened for a country-specific market analysis based on indicators of need and wind resource. Both developed countries and less developed countries (LDCs) were screened for wind/diesel market potential. Based on the results of the screening, ten countries showing high market potential were selected for more extensive market analyses. These analyses provide country-specific market data to guide wind/diesel technology developers in making design decisions that will lead to a competitive product. Section 4 presents the country-specific data developed for these analyses, including more extensive wind resource characterization, application-specific market opportunities, business conditions, and energy market characterizations. An attempt was made to identify the potential buyers with ability to pay for wind/diesel technology required to meet the application-specific market opportunities identified for each country. Additionally, the country-specific data are extended to corollary opportunities in countries not covered by the study. Section 2 gives recommendations for wind/diesel research based on the findings of the study.

  10. Activity level of gross α and gross β in airborne aerosol samples around the Qinshan NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Bin; Ye Jida; Chen Qianyuan; Wu Xiaofei; Song Weili; Wang Hongfeng

    2007-01-01

    The monitoring results of gross α and gross 13 activity from 2001 to 2005 for environmental airborne aerosol samples around the Qinshan NPP base are presented in this paper. A total of 170 aerosol samples were collected from monitoring sites of Caichenmen village, Qinlian village, Xiajiawan village and Yangliucun village around the Qinshan NPP base. The measured specific activity of gross α and gross β are in the range of 0.02-0.38 mBq/m 3 and 0.10-1.81 mBq/m 3 , respectively, with an average of 0.11 mBq/m 3 and 0.45mBq/m 3 , respectively. They are lower than the average of 0.15 mBq/m 3 and 0.52 mBq/m 3 , of reference site at Hangzhou City. It is indicated that the specific activity of gross α and gross β for environmental aerosol samples around the Qinshan NPP base had not been increased in normal operating conditions of the NPP. (authors)

  11. Energy values and estimation of power generation potentials of some non-woody biomass species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, M; Patel, S K [National Institute of Technology, Rourkela (India)

    2008-07-01

    In view of high energy potentials in non-woody biomass species and an increasing interest in their utilization for power generation, an attempt has been made in this study to assess the proximate analysis and energy content of different components of Ocimum canum and Tridax procumbens biomass species (both non-woody), and their impact on power generation and land requirement for energy plantations. The net energy content in Ocimum canum was found to be slightly higher than that in Tridax procumbens. In spite of having higher ash contents, the barks from both the plant species exhibited higher calorific values. The results have shown that approximately 650 and 1,270 hectares of land are required to generate 20,000 kWh/day electricity from Ocimum canum and Tridax procumbens biomass species. Coal samples, obtained from six different local mines, were also examined for their qualities, and the results were compared with those of studied biomass materials. This comparison reveals much higher power output with negligible emission of suspended particulate matters (SPM) from biomass materials.

  12. A comprehensive measure of the energy resource: Wind power potential (WPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jie; Chowdhury, Souma; Messac, Achille

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A more comprehensive metric is developed to accurately assess the quality of wind resources at a site. • WPP exploits the joint distribution of wind speed and direction, and yields more credible estimates. • WPP investigates the effect of wind distribution on the optimal net power generation of a farm. • The results show that WPD and WPP follow different trends. - Abstract: Currently, the quality of available wind energy at a site is assessed using wind power density (WPD). This paper proposes to use a more comprehensive metric: the wind power potential (WPP). While the former accounts for only wind speed information, the latter exploits the joint distribution of wind speed and wind direction and yields more credible estimates. The WPP investigates the effect of wind velocity distribution on the optimal net power generation of a farm. A joint distribution of wind speed and direction is used to characterize the stochastic variation of wind conditions. Two joint distribution methods are adopted in this paper: bivariate normal distribution and anisotropic lognormal method. The net power generation for a particular farmland size and installed capacity is maximized for different distributions of wind speed and wind direction, using the Unrestricted Wind Farm Layout Optimization (UWFLO) framework. A response surface is constructed to represent the computed maximum wind farm capacity factor as a function of the parameters of the wind distribution. Two different response surface methods are adopted in this paper: (i) the adaptive hybrid functions (AHF), and (ii) the quadratic response surface method (QRSM). Toward this end, for any farm site, we can (i) estimate the parameters of the joint distribution using recorded wind data (for bivariate normal or anisotropic lognormal distributions) and (ii) predict the maximum capacity factor for a specified farm size and capacity using this response surface. The WPP metric is illustrated using recorded wind

  13. Four essays on offshore wind power potential, development, regulatory framework, and integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanju, Amardeep

    Offshore wind power is an energy resource whose potential in the US has been recognized only recently. There is now growing interest among the coastal states to harness the resource, particularly in states adjacent to the Mid-Atlantic Bight where the shallow continental shelf allows installation of wind turbines using the existing foundation technology. But the promise of bountiful clean energy from offshore wind could be delayed or forestalled due to policy and regulatory challenges. This dissertation is an effort to identify and address some of the important challenges. Focusing on Delaware as a case study it calculates the extent of the wind resource; considers one means to facilitate resource development---the establishment of statewide and regional public power authorities; analyzes possible regulatory frameworks to manage the resource in state-controlled waters; and assesses the use of distributed storage to manage intermittent output from wind turbines. In order to cover a diversity of topics, this research uses a multi-paper format with four essays forming the body of work. The first essay lays out an accessible methodology to calculate offshore wind resource potential using publicly available data, and uses this methodology to access wind resources off Delaware. The assessment suggests a wind resource approximately four times the average electrical load in Delaware. The second essay examines the potential role of a power authority, a quasi-public institution, in lowering the cost of capital, reducing financial risk of developing and operating a wind farm, and enhancing regional collaboration on resource development and management issues. The analysis suggests that a power authority can lower the cost of offshore wind power by as much as 1/3, thereby preserving the ability to pursue cost-competitive development even if the current federal incentives are removed. The third essay addresses the existing regulatory void in state-controlled waters of Delaware

  14. The Potential of Concentrated Solar Power for Remote Mine Sites in the Northern Territory, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Baig

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Northern Territory (NT is among the regions in Australia and the world with the highest solar radiation intensities. The NT has many mine sites which consume significant amount of fossil fuel with consequent greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. The environmental concern related to the fossil fuel consumption and availability of immense solar energy resource in the NT open the possibilities for considering the provision of power to the mining sites using proven solar technologies. Concentrating solar power (CSP systems are deemed as the potential alternatives to current fossil fuel based generating systems in mining industry in the NT. The finding is based on consideration of the major factors in determining the feasibility of CSP system installation, with particular reference to the NT mine sites. These are plant design requirements, climatic, environmental, and other requirements, and capital and operating costs. Based on these factors, four mine sites have been identified as having the potential for CSP plants installation. These are McArthur River Mine, Ranger Mine, Northern Territory Gold Mines, and Tanami Operations. Each site could be served by one CSP plant to cater for the needs of mining operation and the local communities.

  15. Theoretical and experimental investigations of the potential of osmotic energy for power production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, Adel O; Merdaw, Ali A; Aryafar, Maryam; Nicoll, Peter

    2014-08-08

    This paper presents a study on the potential of osmotic energy for power production. The study includes both pilot plant testing and theoretical modelling as well as cost estimation. A projected cost of £30/MWh of clean electricity could be achieved by using a Hydro-Osmotic Power (HOP) plant if a suitable membrane is used and the osmotic potential difference between the two solutions is greater than 25 bar; a condition that can be readily found in many sites around the world. Results have shown that the membrane system accounts for 50%-80% of the HOP plant cost depending on the salinity difference level. Thus, further development in membrane technology and identifying suitable membranes would have a significant impact on the feasibility of the process and the route to market. As the membrane permeability determines the HOP process feasibility, this paper also describes the effect of the interaction between the fluid and the membrane on the system permeability. It has been shown that both the fluid physical properties as well as the membrane micro-structural parameters need to be considered if further development of the HOP process is to be achieved.

  16. Theoretical and Experimental Investigations of the Potential of Osmotic Energy for Power Production †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, Adel O.; Merdaw, Ali A.; Aryafar, Maryam; Nicoll, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a study on the potential of osmotic energy for power production. The study includes both pilot plant testing and theoretical modelling as well as cost estimation. A projected cost of £30/MWh of clean electricity could be achieved by using a Hydro-Osmotic Power (HOP) plant if a suitable membrane is used and the osmotic potential difference between the two solutions is greater than 25 bar; a condition that can be readily found in many sites around the world. Results have shown that the membrane system accounts for 50%–80% of the HOP plant cost depending on the salinity difference level. Thus, further development in membrane technology and identifying suitable membranes would have a significant impact on the feasibility of the process and the route to market. As the membrane permeability determines the HOP process feasibility, this paper also describes the effect of the interaction between the fluid and the membrane on the system permeability. It has been shown that both the fluid physical properties as well as the membrane micro-structural parameters need to be considered if further development of the HOP process is to be achieved. PMID:25110959

  17. Theoretical and Experimental Investigations of the Potential of Osmotic Energy for Power Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel O. Sharif

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study on the potential of osmotic energy for power production. The study includes both pilot plant testing and theoretical modelling as well as cost estimation. A projected cost of £30/MWh of clean electricity could be achieved by using a Hydro-Osmotic Power (HOP plant if a suitable membrane is used and the osmotic potential difference between the two solutions is greater than 25 bar; a condition that can be readily found in many sites around the world. Results have shown that the membrane system accounts for 50%–80% of the HOP plant cost depending on the salinity difference level. Thus, further development in membrane technology and identifying suitable membranes would have a significant impact on the feasibility of the process and the route to market. As the membrane permeability determines the HOP process feasibility, this paper also describes the effect of the interaction between the fluid and the membrane on the system permeability. It has been shown that both the fluid physical properties as well as the membrane micro-structural parameters need to be considered if further development of the HOP process is to be achieved.

  18. Intellectual decision-making system in the context of potentially dangerous nuclear power facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilov Alexander

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with intelligent operation decision support system under condition of potentially hazardous nuclear facilities. The proposed system is referred to the class of advising systems and does not make final decisions in case of deviations of parameters to be analyzed, but generates general ways to solve an encountered problem and issues a set of recommendations for the plant personnel. In the article a fuzzy logic tool is used as mathematic tool. Lessons learnt from operation of nuclear facilities demonstrate that existing critical components (parts, areas, welding joints are subject to increased failure under conditions of high operational loads, including beyond design loads and negative environmental impact. Usually in that situation there is probability of equipment integrity failure, when the unit is at power, with severe defect downing. For instance, the coolant leak and potential development of initial penetration defect to critical dimensions. In other words, in fact, the final observable result is always one – formation and development of operational crack which jeopardizes design integrity of the component and, accordingly, seriously compromises the nuclear power unit operation. The proposed situational model is linked with real knowledge data base where generated situational pairs are stored. The expert system is used for knowledge data base formation. Actually the proposed system consists of two independent fuzzy systems. From mathematical tool point of view, the advantage of such systems combination is lack of defuzzification unit in the first system and fuzzification unit in the second one.

  19. Power generation potential using landfill gas from Ontario municipal solid waste landfills. Appendix B2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Twenty-six landfill sites have been identified in Ontario with potential gas production rates suitable for recovery and use in power plant applications. If 70% of the gas naturally generated from these sites was collected and utilized, ca 88 MW could be produced in 1991 (declining to 74 MW by 2001) from the gas generated. Assuming the current average generation rate of one tonne per capita, an estimated nine million tonnes of municipal refuse is produced annually in Ontario, and landfilling is expected to continue to play a major role. It is suggested that the level of gas generation identified for the year 1991 will be sustainable given that as old landfills are spent, new ones are built. The accuracy of the prediction depends largely on future government policies regarding incineration, the effects of present waste reduction programs, and approval of new landfill sites. Due to the combined costs of the gas collection system, auxiliary equipment, and gas processing system, installed cost of a landfill-gas fired power plant is high relative to that of conventional natural gas-fired plants. For landfills presently without a gas collection system, the high initial capital investment for gas field test programs and for the installation of a collection system is a barrier that deters municipalities from tapping this energy potential. 2 figs., 3 tabs

  20. TERATOGENIC EFFECTS OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES: GROSS ANOMALIES

    OpenAIRE

    Jyoti Prakash; Rajniti; Deepika; Royana

    2015-01-01

    BACK GROUND: Prenatal exposure of AgNPs can induces devastative and detrimental effect in the organogenesis period of the developing embryos and foetuses. Organogenesis period is highly condemnatory and persuadable. Any injury to embryo during this period leads to dysmorphogenesis or even death AIM: The present study means to evaluate the gross anomalies on developing f o etus subsequent to silver nanoparticle ingestion during the gestational period. ...

  1. Assessing potential impacts of energized submarine power cables on crab harvests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Milton S.; Nishimoto, Mary M.; Clark, Scott; McCrea, Merit; Bull, Ann Scarborough

    2017-12-01

    Offshore renewable energy facilities transmit electricity to shore through submarine power cables. Electromagnetic field emissions (EMFs) are generated from the transmission of electricity through these cables, such as the AC inter-array (between unit) and AC export (to shore) cables often used in offshore energy production. The EMF has both an electric component and a magnetic component. While sheathing can block the direct electric field, the magnetic field is not blocked. A concern raised by fishermen on the Pacific Coast of North America is that commercially important Dungeness crab (Metacarcinus magister Dana, 1852)) might not cross over an energized submarine power cable to enter a baited crab trap, thus potentially reducing their catch. The presence of operating energized cables off southern California and in Puget Sound (cables that are comparable to those within the arrays of existing offshore wind energy devices) allowed us to conduct experiments on how energized power cables might affect the harvesting of both M. magister and another commercially important crab species, Cancer productus Randall, 1839. In this study we tested the questions: 1) Is the catchability of crabs reduced if these animals must traverse an energized power cable to enter a trap and 2) if crabs preferentially do not cross an energized cable, is it the cable structure or the EMF emitted from that cable that deters crabs from crossing? In field experiments off southern California and in Puget Sound, crabs were given a choice of walking over an energized power cable to a baited trap or walking directly away from that cable to a second baited trap. Based on our research we found no evidence that the EMF emitted by energized submarine power cables influenced the catchability of these two species of commercially important crabs. In addition, there was no difference in the crabs' responses to lightly buried versus unburied cables. We did observe that, regardless of the position of the cable

  2. Estimation of power production potential from natural gas pressure reduction stations in pakistan using aspen hysys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unar, I.N.; Aftab, A.

    2015-01-01

    Pakistan is a gas rich but power poor country. It consumes approximately 1, 559 Billion cubic feet of natural gas annually. Gas is transported around the country in a system of pressurized transmission pipelines under a pressure-range of 600-1 000 psig exclusively operated by two state owned companies i.e. SNGPL (Sui Northern Gas Pipelines Limited) and SSGCL (Sui Southern Gas Company Limited). The gas is distributed by reducing from the transmission pressure into distribution pressure up to maximum level of 150 psig at the city gate stations normally called SMS (Sales Metering Station). As a normal practice gas pressure reduction at those SMSs is accomplished in pressure regulators (PCVs or in of natural gas is an untapped energy resource which is currently wasted by its throttling. This pressure reduction at SMS (pressure drop through SMS) may also be achieved by expansion of natural gas in TE, which converts its pressure into the mechanical energy, which can be transmitted any loading device for example electric generator. The aim of present paper is to explore the expected power production potential of various Sales Metering Stations of SSGCL company in Pakistan. The model of sales metering station was developed in a standard flow sheeting software Aspen HYSYS at the rate 7.1 to calculate power and study other parameters when an expansion turbine is used instead of throttling valves. It was observed from the simulation results that a significant power (more than 140 KW) can be produced at pressure reducing stations of SSGC network with gas flows more than 2.2 MMSCFD and pressure ration more than 1.3. (author)

  3. Evaluation of a seafloor nuclear power supply and its potential applications. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The seafloor nuclear power supply (SNPS) concept has been proposed by Atomics International (AI) and Lockheed Petroleum Services, Ltd. (LPS) as a source of electrical energy for subsea pumping of petroleum products. It consists of a small nuclear reactor, moderated by zirconium hydride (ZrH) and cooled by liquid metal (NaK), which drives a 3-MW turbine/generator system using toluene as the working fluid. Arthur D. Little, Inc., was selected to assess the technical and economic feasibility of a SNPS, and to determine if potential applications for a SNPS might exist in offshore-oil-field development schemes where conventional power supplies could not be used. It was determined that the concept is technically feasible, with regard to the nuclear, marine, electrical, and petroleum engineering aspects. However, its initial cost of $14 million and operating expenses of $900,000 per year are considerably more in each case than the costs of conventional alternative power supplies. For the type of field development proposed as an example by LPS, a combination of gas turbines and dc cables would cost about $8 million. Fuel in the form of gas from the wells would be available at near-zero cost in almost all cases of field development, so that operating expenses would be minimal. Other power supply and cable systems were investigated, up to lengths of 200 miles. Alternating-current systems are preferred at distances less than 20 miles; direct current is more economical at greater distances. No set of circumstances was found in which oil field development is likely to occur and for which the SNPS offers uniquely attractive capabilities

  4. Wind Energy Potential and Power Law Indexes Assessment for Selected Near-Coastal Sites in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliashim Albani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigated the wind energy potential by analysing a certain amount of gathered 10-min measured data at four stations located at coastal sites in Malaysia, i.e., Kudat, Mersing, Kijal, and Langkawi. The wind data are collected from a total of four new wind measurement masts with sensors mounted at various heights on the tower. The measured data have enabled the establishment of wind resource maps and the power law indexes (PLIs analysis. In addition, the dependence of PLI upon surface temperature and terrain types is studied, as they are associated to the form of exponential fits. Moreover, the accuracy of exponential fits is assessed by comparing the results with the 1/7 law via the capacity factor (CF discrepancies. In order to do so, the wind turbine with a hub-height similar to the maximum height of the measured data at each site is selected to simulate energy production. Accordingly, the discrepancy of CF based on the extrapolated data by employing 1/7 laws and exponential fits, in spite of being computed using measured data, is determined as well. Furthermore, the large discrepancy of the wind data and the CF, which has been determined with the application of 1/7, is compared to the exponential fits. This is because; discrepancy in estimation of vertical wind speed could lead to inaccurate CF computation. Meanwhile, from the energy potential analysis based on the computed CF, only Kudat and Mersing display a promising potential to develop a medium capacity of wind turbine power, while the other sites may be suitable for wind turbines at a small scale.

  5. Improvement potential of a real geothermal power plant using advanced exergy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gökgedik, Harun; Yürüsoy, Muhammet; Keçebaş, Ali

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to quantitatively evaluate thermodynamic performance of a geothermal power plant (GPP) from potential for improvement point of view. Thus, sources of inefficiency and irreversibilities can be determined through exergy analysis. The advanced exergy analysis is more appropriate to determine real potential for thermodynamic improvements of the system by splitting exergy destruction into unavoidable and avoidable portions. The performance critical components and the potential for exergy efficiency improvement of a GPP were determined by means of the advanced exergy analysis. This plant is the Bereket GPP in Denizli/Turkey as a current operating system. The results show that the avoidable portion of exergy destruction in all components except for the turbines is higher than the unavoidable value. Therefore, much can be made to lessen the irreversibilities for components of the Bereket GPP. The total exergy efficiency of the system is found to be 9.60%. Its efficiency can be increased up to 15.40% by making improvements in the overall components. Although the heat exchangers had lower exergy and modified exergy efficiencies, their exergy improvement potentials were high. Finally, in the plant, the old technology is believed to be one of the main reasons for low efficiencies. - Highlights: • Evaluation of potential for improvement of a GPP using advanced exergy analysis. • Efficiency can be increased up to 15.40% by making improvements in the components. • Heat exchangers are the highest avoidable values, making them the least efficient components in plant. • The main reasons for low efficiencies are believed to be the old technology.

  6. Concentrating solar power. Its potential contribution to a sustainable energy future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-11-15

    This report summarises the findings and recommendations of a study of concentrating solar power (CSP). The study has examined the potential contribution of CSP in Europe, the Middle East and North Africa (the MENA region) over the period to 2050, and the scientific and technical developments that will be required to realise that potential. This study critically reviews existing work and describes the scientific consensus on the status and prospects of this technology. It also identifies key outstanding issues and where knowledge gaps need to be filled for CSP to fulfil its potential contribution in Europe and the MENA region. Based on these findings, the study makes recommendations on how to improve national and European support programmes for CSP development and deployment. Specific aims of the study have been the following: (1) to review the current status of CSP technologies and identify the technological developments and research and development (R and D) needed to achieve reliable operation and cost competitiveness with fossil fuelled electricity generation; (2) to consider how issues associated with the intermittent nature of CSP for electricity generation due to the daily pattern of insolation and the potential for cloudy days can best be addressed; (3) to identify the environmental impacts and infrastructure requirements of CSP, and comment on the significance of these in relation to other options for electricity supply; and, consequently, (4) to develop a view of the potential contribution that CSP located in Europe, the Middle East and North Africa could make to the energy mix in those regions by 2020 and 2050. This report focuses primarily on the generation of electricity from CSP, but it is recognised that there are other potentially significant 'products' from CSP such as process steam for industry, water desalination, alternative energy carriers such as hydrogen and syngas, and decontamination of water supplies. Although not discussed in

  7. A Method Validation for Determination of Gross Alpha and Gross Beta in Water Sample Using Low Background Gross Alpha/ Beta Counting System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zal Uyun Wan Mahmood; Norfaizal Mohamed; Nita Salina Abu Bakar

    2016-01-01

    Method validation (MV) for the measurement of gross alpha and gross beta activity in water (drinking, mineral and environmental) samples using Low Background Gross Alpha/ Beta Counting System was performed to characterize precision, accuracy and reliable results. The main objective of this assignment is to ensure that both the instrument and method always good performed and resulting accuracy and reliable results. Generally, almost the results of estimated RSD, z-score and U_s_c_o_r_e were reliable which are recorded as ≤30 %, less than 2 and less than 1.5, respectively. Minimum Detected Activity (MDA) was estimated based on the counting time of 100 minutes and present background counting value of gross alpha (0.01 - 0.35 cpm) and gross beta (0.50 - 2.18 cpm). Estimated Detection Limit (DL) was 0.1 Bq/ L for gross alpha and 0.2 Bq/ L for gross beta and expended uncertainty was relatively small of 9.77 % for gross alpha and 10.57 % for gross beta. Align with that, background counting for gross alpha and gross beta was ranged of 0.01 - 0.35 cpm and 0.50 - 2.18 cpm, respectively. While, sample volume was set at minimum of 500 mL and maximum of 2000 mL. These proven the accuracy and precision result that are generated from developed method/ technique is satisfactory and method is recommended to be used. Therefore, it can be concluded that the MV found no doubtful on the ability of the developed method. The test result showed the method is suitable for all types of water samples which are contained several radionuclides and elements as well as any impurities that interfere the measurement analysis of gross alpha and gross beta. (author)

  8. Single heavy flavour baryons using Coulomb plus a power law interquark potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majethiya, A.; Patel, B.; Vinodkumar, P.C.

    2008-01-01

    Properties of single heavy flavor baryons in a non-relativistic potential model with colour Coulomb plus a power law confinement potential have been studied using a simple variational method. The ground-state masses of single heavy baryons and the mass difference between the J P =3/2 + and J P =1/2 + states are computed using a spin-dependent two-body potential. Using the spin-flavour structure of the constituting quarks and by defining an effective confined mass of the constituent quarks within the baryons, the magnetic moments are computed. The masses and magnetic moments of the single heavy baryons are found to be in accordance with the existing experimental values and with other theoretical predictions. It is found that an additional attractive interaction of the order of -200 MeV is required for the antisymmetric states of Λ Q (Q element of c,b). It is also found that the spin-hyperfine interaction parameters play a decisive role in hadron spectroscopy. (orig.)

  9. The Belem Framework for Action: Harnessing the Power and Potential of Adult Learning and Education for a Viable Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adult Learning, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the Belem Framework for Action. This framework focuses on harnessing the power and potential of adult learning and education for a viable future. This framework begins with a preamble on adult education and towards lifelong learning.

  10. Controlling the occurrence of power overshoot by adapting microbial fuel cells to high anode potentials

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Xiuping; Tokash, Justin C.; Hong, Yiying; Logan, Bruce E.

    2013-01-01

    Power density curves for microbial fuel cells (MFCs) often show power overshoot, resulting in inaccurate estimation of MFC performance at high current densities. The reasons for power overshoot are not well understood, but biofilm acclimation

  11. Rational power utilization and generation without nuclear energy: Potentials and assessment of effects on the power industry, ecology, and economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuhr, K.P.; Eckerle, K.; Hofer, P.; Meckel, H.; Wolff, H.; Frey, B.; Schilling, K.; Brand, M.; Jochem, E.

    1987-10-01

    The unabridged version of the investigation gives the reader interested in details the relevant information on the individual analyses. The development of the investigation describes the analysis of the demographical and economical framework data, the long-term development of the energy price and the long-term energy demand development in a reference scenario. As most important status-quo condition it is defined that the development lines to be expected of the expected fuel and power demand and the supply of the power demand are indicated under the condition of further development of the nuclear power generation being borne by a political consensus. A contrast scenario examines if replacement of the nuclear energy would be possible by power cuts, development of the local heat supply and long-distance heat supply by cogeneration systems and development of the industrial cogeneration systems. (DG) [de

  12. Associations between gross motor skills and physical activity in Australian toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldman, Sanne L C; Jones, Rachel A; Santos, Rute; Sousa-Sá, Eduarda; Pereira, João R; Zhang, Zhiguang; Okely, Anthony D

    2018-08-01

    Physical activity can be promoted by high levels of gross motor skills. A systematic review found a positive relationship in children (3-18 years) but only few studies examined this in younger children. The aim of this study was to examine the association between gross motor skills and physical activity in children aged 11-29 months. Cross-sectional study. This study involved 284 children from 30 childcare services in NSW, Australia (Mean age=19.77±4.18months, 53.2% boys). Physical activity was measured using accelerometers (Actigraph GT3X+). Gross motor skills were assessed using the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales Second Edition (PDMS-2). Multilevel linear regression analyses were computed to assess associations between gross motor skills and physical activity, adjusting for sex, age and BMI. Children spent 53.08% of their time in physical activity and 10.39% in moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Boys had higher total physical activity (pskills score was 96.16. Boys scored higher than girls in object manipulation (pskills and total physical activity or MVPA. Although gross motor skills were not associated with physical activity in this sample, stronger associations are apparent in older children. This study therefore highlights a potential important age to promote gross motor skills. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Thorium fuel for light water reactors - reducing proliferation potential of nuclear power fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galperin, A; Radkowski, A [Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Beersheba (Israel)

    1996-12-01

    The proliferation potential of the light water reactor fuel cycle may be significantly reduced by utilization of thorium as a fertile component of the nuclear fuel. The main challenge of Th utilization is to design a core and a fuel cycle, which would be proliferation-resistant and economically feasible. This challenge is met by the Radkowsky Thorium Reactor (RTR) concept. So far the concept has been applied to a Russian design of a 1,000 MWe pressurized water reactor, known as a WWER-1000, and designated as VVERT. The following are the main results of the preliminary reference design: * The amount of Pu contained in the RTR spent fuel stockpile is reduced by 80% in comparison with a VVER of a current design. * The isotopic composition of the RTR-Pu greatly increases the probability of pre-initiation and yield degradation of a nuclear explosion. An extremely large Pu-238 content causes correspondingly large heat emission, which would complicate the design of an explosive device based on RTR-Pu. The economic incentive to reprocess and reuse the fissile component of the RTR spent fuel is decreased. The once-through cycle is economically optimal for the RTR core and cycle. To summarize all the items above: the replacement of a standard (U-based) fuel for nuclear reactors of current generation by the RTR fuel will provide an inherent barrier for nuclear weapon proliferation. This inherent barrier, in combination with existing safeguard measures and procedures is adequate to unambiguously disassociate civilian nuclear power from military nuclear power. * The RTR concept is applied to existing power plants to assure its economic feasibility. Reductions in waste disposal requirements, as well as in natural U and fabrication expenses, as compared to a standard WWER fuel, provide approximately 20% reduction in fuel cycle (authors).

  14. Power Transfer Potential to the Southeast in Response to a Renewable Portfolio Standard: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Key, Thomas S [Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI); Hadley, Stanton W [ORNL; Deb, Rajat [LCG Consulting

    2010-02-01

    Electricity consumption in the Southeastern US, including Florida, is approximately 32% of the total US. The availability of renewable resources for electricity production is relatively small compared to the high consumption. Therefore meeting a national renewable portfolio standard (RPS) is particularly challenging in this region. Neighboring regions, particularly to the west, have significant wind resources and given sufficient transmission these resources could serve energy markets in the SE. This report looks at renewable resource supply relative to demands and the potential for power transfer into the SE. We found that significant wind energy transfers, at the level of 30-60 GW, are expected to be economic in case of federal RPC or CO2 policy. Development of wind resources will depend not only on the available transmission capacity and required balancing resources, but also on electricity supply and demand factors.

  15. Potential impacts of crud deposits on fuel rod behaviour on high powered PWR fuel rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, W.; Comstock, R.J.

    1999-01-01

    Fuel assemblies operating with significant sub-cooled boiling are subject to deposition of surface deposits commonly referred to as crud. This crud can potentially cause concentration of chemical species within the deposits which can be detrimental to cladding performance in PWRs. In addition, these deposits on the surface of the cladding can result in power anomalies and erroneous reporting of fuel rod oxide thickness which can substantially hamper corrosion and core performance modeling efforts. Data is presented which illustrates the importance of accounting for the presence of crud on fuel cladding surfaces. Several methods used to correct for this phenomenon when collecting and analyzing zirconium alloy field oxide thickness measurements are described. Various observations related to crud characteristics and its impact on fuel rod performance are also addressed. (author)

  16. Generalized Bloch Theorem for Complex Periodic Potentials - A Powerful Application to Quantum Transport Calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xiaoguang; Varga, Kalman; Pantelides, Sokrates T

    2007-01-01

    Band-theoretic methods with periodically repeated supercells have been a powerful approach for ground-state electronic structure calculations, but have not so far been adapted for quantum transport problems with open boundary conditions. Here we introduce a generalized Bloch theorem for complex periodic potentials and use a transfer-matrix formulation to cast the transmission probability in a scattering problem with open boundary conditions in terms of the complex wave vectors of a periodic system with absorbing layers, allowing a band technique for quantum transport calculations. The accuracy and utility of the method is demonstrated by the model problems of the transmission of an electron over a square barrier and the scattering of a phonon in an inhomogeneous nanowire. Application to the resistance of a twin boundary in nanocrystalline copper yields excellent agreement with recent experimental data

  17. Atmospheric Dispersion Assessment for Potential Accidental Releases at Yonggwang Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na, Man Gyun; Sim, Young Rok; Jung, Chul Kee; Lee, Goung Jin; Kim, Soong Pyung; Chung, Sung Tai

    2000-01-01

    XOQ DW code is currently used to assess the atmospheric dispersion for the routine releases of radioactive gaseous effluents at Yonggwang nuclear power plants. This code was developed based on XOQDOQ code and an additional code is required to assess the atmospheric dispersion for potential accidental releases. In order to assess the atmospheric dispersion for the accidental releases, XOQAR code has been developed by using PAVAN code that is based on Reg. Guide 1.145. The terrain data of XOQ DW code inputs and the relative concentrations (X/Q) of XOQ DW code outputs are used as the inputs of the XOQAR code through the interface with XOQ DW code. By using this code, the maximum values of X/Q at exclusion area and low population zone boundaries except for sea areas were assessed as 1.33 x 10 -4 and 7.66 x 10 -6 sec/m 3 , respectively. Through the development of this code, a code system is prepared for assessing the atmospheric dispersion for the accidental releases as well as the routine releases. This developed code can be used for other domestic nuclear power plants by modifying the terrain input data

  18. Automated Data Collection for Determining Statistical Distributions of Module Power Undergoing Potential-Induced Degradation: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hacke, P.; Spataru, S.

    2014-08-01

    We propose a method for increasing the frequency of data collection and reducing the time and cost of accelerated lifetime testing of photovoltaic modules undergoing potential-induced degradation (PID). This consists of in-situ measurements of dark current-voltage curves of the modules at elevated stress temperature, their use to determine the maximum power at 25 degrees C standard test conditions (STC), and distribution statistics for determining degradation rates as a function of stress level. The semi-continuous data obtained by this method clearly show degradation curves of the maximum power, including an incubation phase, rates and extent of degradation, precise time to failure, and partial recovery. Stress tests were performed on crystalline silicon modules at 85% relative humidity and 60 degrees C, 72 degrees C, and 85 degrees C. Activation energy for the mean time to failure (1% relative) of 0.85 eV was determined and a mean time to failure of 8,000 h at 25 degrees C and 85% relative humidity is predicted. No clear trend in maximum degradation as a function of stress temperature was observed.

  19. Potential minimum cost of electricity of superconducting coil tokamak power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, R.L.; Peng, Y-K. M.

    1989-01-01

    The potential minimum cost of electricity (COE) for superconducting tokamak power reactors is estimated by increasing the physics (confinement, beta limit, bootstrap current fraction) and technology [neutral beam energy, toroidal field (TF) coil allowable stresses, divertor heat flux, superconducting coil critical field, critical temperature, and quench temperature rise] constraints far beyond those assumed for ITER until the point of diminishing returns is reached. A version of the TETRA systems code, calibrated with the ITER design and modified for power reactors, is used for this analysis, limiting this study to reactors with the same basic device configuration and costing algorithms as ITER. A minimum COE is reduced from >200 to about 80 mill/kWh when the allowable design constraints are raised to 2 times those of ITER. At 4 times the ITER allowables, a minimum COE of about 60 mill/kWh is obtained. The corresponding tokamak has a major radius of approximately 4 m, a plasma current close to 10 MA, an aspect ratio of 4, a confinement H- factor ≤3, a beta limit of approximately 2 times the first stability regime, a divertor heat flux of about 20 MW/m 2 , a Β max ≤ 18 T, and a TF coil average current density about 3 times that of ITER. The design constraints that bound the minimum COE are the allowable stresses in the TF coil, the neutral beam energy, and the 99% bootstrap current (essentially free current drive). 14 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  20. Investigation of greenhouse gas reduction potential and change in technological selection in Indian power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathur, Jyotirmay; Bansal, Narendra Kumar; Wagner, H.-J.

    2003-01-01

    Due to the growing energy needs along with increasing concerns towards control of greenhouse gas emissions, most developing countries are under pressure to find alternative methods for energy conversion and policies to make these technologies economically viable. One of the instruments that have been adopted by many industrial countries is that of the carbon tax. The rate of introducing carbon taxes however, depends upon the local economic conditions and market forces. The case of Indian power sector has been examined by using MARKAL model for introduction of carbon taxes at four different trajectories. Their implications on the power generation choices have been investigated for a time span of 25 years from the year 2000. In general large hydropower plants have emerged as the first choice followed by wind energy systems. However, cheaper availability of coal in India keeps scope of use of coal based technologies for which pressurised fluidised bed combustion technology has been found to be the balanced choice among fossil technologies. There exists a potential of reduction of greenhouse gas emissions by about 25% as compared to the 'business-as-usual' case in presence of high carbon tax rates

  1. The Gross Motor Skills of Children with Mild Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonis, Karen P.; Jernice, Tan Sing Yee

    2014-01-01

    Many international studies have examined the gross motor skills of children studying in special schools while local studies of such nature are limited. This study investigated the gross motor skills of children with Mild Learning Disabilities (MLD; n = 14, M age = 8.93 years, SD = 0.33) with the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (TGMD-2, Ulrich,…

  2. 75 FR 78897 - Definition of Omission From Gross Income

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-17

    ... Definition of Omission From Gross Income AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Final regulations. SUMMARY: This document contains final regulations defining an omission from gross income for... overstatement of basis in a sold asset results in an omission from gross income. The regulations will affect any...

  3. Integrated low noise low power interface for neural bio-potentials recording and conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottino, Emanuele; Martinoia, Sergio; Valle, Maurizio

    2005-06-01

    The recent progress in both neurobiology and microelectronics suggests the creation of new, powerful tools to investigate the basic mechanisms of brain functionality. In particular, a lot of efforts are spent by scientific community to define new frameworks devoted to the analysis of in-vitro cultured neurons. One possible approach is recording their spiking activity to monitor the coordinated cellular behaviour and get insights about neural plasticity. Due to the nature of neurons action-potentials, when considering the design of an integrated microelectronic-based recording system, a number of problems arise. First, one would desire to have a high number of recording sites (i.e. several hundreds): this poses constraints on silicon area and power consumption. In this regard, our aim is to integrate-through on-chip post-processing techniques-hundreds of bio-compatible microsensors together with CMOS standard-process low-power (i.e. some tenths of uW per channel) conditioning electronics. Each recording channel is provided with sampling electronics to insure synchronous recording so that, for example, cross-correlation between signals coming from different sites can be performed. Extra-cellular potentials are in the range of [50-150] uV, so a comparison in terms of noise-efficiency was carried out among different architectures and very low-noise pre-amplification electronics (i.e. less than 5 uVrms) was designed. As spikes measurements are made with respect to the voltage of a reference electrode, we opted for an AC-coupled differential-input preamplifier provided with band-pass filtering capability. To achieve this, we implemented large time-constant (up to seconds) integrated components in the preamp feedback path. Thus, we got rid also of random slow-drifting DC-offsets and common mode signals. The paper will present our achievements in the design and implementation of a fully integrated bio-abio interface to record neural spiking activity. In particular

  4. Innovative procedure for the determination of gross-alpha/gross-beta activities in drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wisser, S.; Frenzel, E.; Dittmer, M.

    2006-01-01

    An alternative sample preparation method for the determination of gross-alpha/beta activity concentrations in drinking water is introduced in this paper. After the freeze-drying of tap water samples, determination by liquid scintillation counting can be applied utilizing alpha/beta separation. It has been shown that there is no adsorption or loss of solid radionuclides during the freeze-drying procedure. However, the samples have to be measured quickly after the preparation since the ingrowth of daughter isotopes negatively effects the measurement. The limits of detection for gross-alpha and gross-beta activity are in the range 25-210 mBq/l, respectively, for a measurement time of only 8-9 h

  5. Operation time extension for power units of the first generation NPP and the liability for potential damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalevich, O.M.

    2000-01-01

    The problem on the operation time extension for the six operating NPP first generation power units is discussed. However it is not advisable to improve the safety of these power units up to the acceptable level, therefore there arises the contradiction between the operation time extension of these power units and potential damage for the population. The possibility of having the increased civilian-legal responsibility for potential harm and losses in case of an accident is proposed to be considered as a compensating measure. The measures for realization of this civilian-legal responsibility are described [ru

  6. Improving gross motor function and postural control with hippotherapy in children with Down syndrome: case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champagne, Danielle; Dugas, Claude

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this case report is to describe the impact of an 11-week hippotherapy program on the gross motor functions of two children (respectively 28 and 37 months old) diagnosed with Down syndrome. Hippotherapy is a strategy that uses the horse's motion to stimulate and enhance muscle contraction and postural control. The children were assessed by the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) and accelerometry. The results indicate that both children improved on many dimensions of the GMFM. Power spectral analysis of the acceleration signals showed improvement in postural control of either the head or trunk, because the children adopted two different adaptative strategies to perturbation induced by the moving horse.

  7. Determination of 90Sr, 129I and gross beta radioactivity concentration in some teas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sultan Sahin; Mahmut Dogru

    2011-01-01

    In this study, 90 Sr (540 keVβ - ), 129 I (150 keVβ - ) and the gross beta radioactivity concentrations were determined for the samples of tea as the most leading consumed hot drink in the markets (processed and packaged for sale) in our country. Furthermore, the obtained data were statistically analyzed. For determination of 129 I (150 keVβ - ), 90 Sr (540 keVβ - ) and gross radioactivity concentrations in tea samples, a sensor system consisting of scintillation detector with BP4 probe sensitive to beta radiation and a radiation meter (ST7) configurable for windows at desired power was used. (author)

  8. Gross shell structure of moments of inertia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deleplanque, M.A.; Frauendorf, S.; Pashkevich, V.V.; Chu, S.Y.; Unzhakova, A.

    2002-01-01

    Average yrast moments of inertia at high spins, where the pairing correlations are expected to be largely absent, were found to deviate from the rigid-body values. This indicates that shell effects contribute to the moment of inertia. We discuss the gross dependence of moments of inertia and shell energies on the neutron number in terms of the semiclassical periodic orbit theory. We show that the ground-state shell energies, nuclear deformations and deviations from rigid-body moments of inertia are all due to the same periodic orbits

  9. Estimation of energy potential and power generation from tidal basin in coastal area of malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazri Nazani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the potential of tidal energy in Malaysia. Malaysia is heavily depending on the fossil fuel to satisfy the energy demand. However, this reserve energy is reported will be depleted. The population growth also caused the demand on energy increase over the year. This situation can lead to the global warming and climate change that be a major concern around the world. As an alternative, renewable energy become a solution in order to reduce the usage of conventional energy such as fossil fuel, coal and gas. One of the renewable energy that can be used is from ocean energy. Since the tidal energy is not study thoroughly in Malaysia and Malaysia has a potential sites that can implement this tidal energy for electricity generation to meet the local demand. This tidal energy can be harnessed in several approach such as by using tidal barrage single basin with single mode generation consist ebb-mode and flood-mode of generation and the other approach of single mode is double-mode of generation. In order to meet the local demand, single-mode generation and double-mode generation was studied by getting the number of population at that area, the electricity demand then from that data the basin area is estimated for power generation. The result shows that double-mode generation is one of the approaches that meet the local demand for electricity.

  10. The potential of nuclear energy to generate clean electric power in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stecher, Luiza C.; Sabundjian, Gaiane; Menzel, Francine; Giarola, Rodrigo S.; Coelho, Talita S.

    2013-01-01

    The generation of electricity in Brazil is concentrated in hydroelectric generation, renewable and clean source, but that does not satisfy all the demand and leads to necessity of a supplementary thermal sources portion. Considering the predictions of increase in demand for electricity in the next years, it becomes necessary to insert new sources to complement the production taking into account both the volume being produced and the needs of environmental preservation. Thus, nuclear power can be considered a potential supplementary source for electricity generation in Brazil as well as the country has large reserves of fissile material, the generation emits no greenhouse gases, the country has technological mastery of the fuel cycle and it enables the production of large volumes of clean energy. The objective of this study is to demonstrate the potential of nuclear energy in electricity production in Brazil cleanly and safely, ensuring the supplies necessary to maintain the country's economic growth and the increased demand sustainable. For this, will be made an analysis of economic and social indicators of the characteristics of our energy matrix and the availability of our sources, as well as a description of the nuclear source and arguments that justify a higher share of nuclear energy in the matrix of the country. Then, after these analysis, will notice that the generation of electricity from nuclear source has all the conditions to supplement safely and clean supply of electricity in Brazil. (author)

  11. Potential of osmosis for power generation and storage of electricity; Potentiale der Osmose zur Erzeugung und Speicherung von Elektrizitaet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenzel, Peter

    2012-07-01

    Salinity gradient energy is released during the mixing process of two solutions with different solute concentrations. With osmotic power plants it is possible to convert salinity gradient energy into electrical energy. Considering the mixing of river and ocean water, this form of energy belongs to the renewable energy sources and is to far unexploited to a large extend. This thesis presents a detailed assessment of possible fields of applications for osmotic power plants under system-analytical considerations. Beside the classical operation with river and ocean water, alternative applications and different power plant configurations are analysed. Focus of this thesis is the description of technical fundamentals, the assessment of the potential and the economics of this technology. As a result of the potential analysis for osmotic power plants in operation with river and ocean water the ecological potential on a worldwide basis sums up to 65 GW{sub el} resp. 518 TWh{sub el}/a. According to the worldwide use of electrical energy the maximum contribution of osmotic power plants would be approx. 3,1% of the worldwide electrical energy consumption. The ecological potential for Germany is calculated to 42 MW{sub el} resp. 333 GWh{sub el}/a. The costs for generating electricity of osmotic power plants operating with river (fresh) and ocean (salt) water are very site specific. Assuming suitable site conditions, the costs for generating electricity for an osmotic power plant with an installed capacity of 4 MW{sub el} are calculated to approx. 28 ct/kWh. The specific investment costs are in the range of 22.000 Euro/kW{sub el}. Potential alternative applications of osmotic power plants are present at high concentration waste streams (e.g. direct discharge of industrial waste water, mining solutions) or at salt lakes. At these sites, costs for generating elastricity in the range of approx. 5 to 10 ct/kWh are possible for large scale osmotic power plants. Overall, the amount of

  12. Analysis of the potential of small hydro-power installations - Preliminary study on hydro-power schemes on rivers; Programm Kleinwasserkraftwerke. Potenzialanalyse Kleinwasserkraftwerke - Vorstudie zu Kraftwerken an Fliessgewaessern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baur, M.; Dettli, R. [econcept AG, Zuerich (Switzerland); Weingartner, R.; Viviroli, D.; Imhof, P.; Faessler, M.; Gerhardinger, H. [University of Berne, Geographisches Institut, Gruppe fuer Hydrologie (GIUB), Berne (Switzerland)

    2006-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results obtained from an analysis of the potential of small hydro-power installations in Switzerland. The current situation is reviewed and a 'bottom-up' analysis of the potential available is made. Data is presented on the potential of installations with power-ratings above and below 300 kW. Cantonal case-studies are examined. In a further 'top-down' examination, flow-rates and height-differences are looked at. The development of a 'potential-map' for Switzerland is described. The report is completed with the presentation of the conclusions made from the work. Suggestions for further work that could be done on the subject are made.

  13. Booster main magnet power supply, present operation and potential future upgrades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajon, E.; Bannon, M.; Marneris, I.; Danowski, G.; Sandberg, J.; Savatteri, S.

    2011-03-28

    The Brookhaven Booster Main Magnet Power Supply (MMPS) is a 24 pulse thyristor control supply, rated at 5500 Amps, +/-2000 Volts, or 3000 Amps, +/-6000 Volts. The power supply is fed directly from the power utility and the peak magnet power is 18 MWatts. This peak power is seen directly at the incoming ac line. This power supply has been in operation for the last 18 years. This paper will describe the present topology and operation of the power supply, the feedback control system and the different modes of operation of the power supply. Since the power supply has been in operation for the last 18 years, upgrading this power supply is essential. A new power supply topology has been studied where energy is stored in capacitor banks. DC to DC converters are used to convert the dc voltage stored in the capacitor banks to pulsed DC voltage into the magnet load. This enables the average incoming power from the ac line to be constant while the peak magnet power is pulsed to +/- 18 MWatts. Simulations and waveforms of this power supply will be presented.

  14. The Salem Smart Power Center: An Assessment of Battery Performance and Economic Potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balducci, Patrick J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Alam, M. J.E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Viswanathan, Vilayanur [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wu, Di [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Crawford, Aladsair J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mongird, Kendall [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Weimar, Mark R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Somani, Abhishek [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Whitener, Kevin [Portland General Electric, OR (United States)

    2017-09-21

    This paper presents an assessment of the economic potential of a 5 MW/1.25 MWh Energy Storage System (ESS) installed at the Salem Smart Power Center (SSPC), a smart grid technology demonstration facility owned and operated by Portland General Electric (PGE) in Salem, Oregon. The ESS and the grid conditions in which it operates were modeled using Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s Battery Storage Evaluation Tool (BSET) to explore tradeoffs between services, and to develop optimal control strategies. This assessment monetized the value derived from nine services the SSPC could provide to PGE and the customers it serves. The ESS and the grid conditions in which it operates were modeled using PNNL’s in-house optimization tool BSET to explore tradeoffs between services, and to develop optimal control strategies. The analysis resulted in a number of lessons that provide crucial insights into the practical application of ESS, including; The SSPC, which was originally conceived as a research and test facility and built with the prevailing maturity technology level, was built at a cost ($20.4 million) that exceeds current day prices ($5.4 million) for a similarly designed and built 5 MW/1.25 MWh system; In terms of economic operation, the SSPC is currently underutilized, deployed only for primary frequency response. PNNL modeling indicates that optimal operation of the ESS could generate an additional value of $2.3 million over 20 years. It should also be noted that primary frequency response is the highest benefit application but requires a response from the SSPC only 17 hours each year. While optimally engaged, the ESS would provide arbitrage and ancillary services 78 percent of the time, but those services generate only 27 percent of the total value; Participation in Western EIM represents an interesting opportunity for PGE with a potential to generate $2.1 million value in PV terms over 20 years in the 5-min real-time market; With an energy to power ratio of

  15. Appraisal of Technical and Economic Potential Micro Hydro Power in Bali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Made Suarda

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Energy consumption particularly on electrical energy is continuously rising as a result of economical rising and community development. Therefore it needs to be responded about this condition by developing renewable energy utilization which is available. Renewable energy resources are possibly developed in Bali such as solar energy, wind energy, hydropower, sea energy, and biomass. However, one of renewable energy resources that is mostly possible to be developed in Bali is hydropower in micro scale wich is named microhydro. The microhydro works by using water flow which has debit and head. However, it needs an analysis both on technical and financial analysis. Technical analysis is carried out by checking debit and head of the water flow, and then calculates power would be generated, as well as the microhydro equipments such as a suitable choosen of turbine, generator, and control system. In other hand, financial analisis is carried out by estimating cost for construction the microhydro system, then by using Net Present Value (NPV analysis to check that the system is profitable to be constructed. The result noted that Bali has some potential microhydros or pycohydros that are profitable to be developed both on rivers and irrigations system. Financial analyses show that microhydro systems are profitable to be constructed (NPV is positive as long as their heads are at least 10 meters, in other side, debit are more affected their generated powers. However, in their implementations, there are some barriers in utilize those water flow resources as microhydro systems, such as those sites were used for other objects for instant as tourism destinations, or for cultures conservation, and the communities have not knew the advantages of microhydro yet therefore it needs socialization to the communities.

  16. Knowledge brokerage - potential for increased capacities and shared power in impact assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosario Partidario, Maria, E-mail: mrp@civil.ist.utl.pt [Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisbon, Portugal, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 LISBOA (Portugal); Sheate, William R., E-mail: w.sheate@imperial.ac.uk [Centre for Environmental Policy, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Collingwood Environmental Planning Ltd, London, 1E, The Chandlery, 50 Westminster Bridge Road, London SE1 7QY (United Kingdom)

    2013-02-15

    Constructive and collaborative planning theory has exposed the perceived limitations of public participation in impact assessment. At strategic levels of assessment the established norm can be misleading and practice is illusive. For example, debates on SEA effectiveness recognize insufficiencies, but are often based on questionable premises. The authors of this paper argue that public participation in strategic assessment requires new forms of information and engagement, consistent with the complexity of the issues at these levels and that strategic assessments can act as knowledge brokerage instruments with the potential to generate more participative environments and attitudes. The paper explores barriers and limitations, as well as the role of knowledge brokerage in stimulating the engagement of the public, through learning-oriented processes and responsibility sharing in more participative models of governance. The paper concludes with a discussion on building and inter-change of knowledge, towards creative solutions to identified problems, stimulating learning processes, largely beyond simple information transfer mechanisms through consultative processes. The paper argues fundamentally for the need to conceive strategic assessments as learning platforms and design knowledge brokerage opportunities explicitly as a means to enhance learning processes and power sharing in IA. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Debates on SEA recognize insufficiencies on public participation Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We propose new forms of engagement consistent with complex situations at strategic levels of decision-making Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Constructive and collaborative planning theories help explain how different actors acquire knowledge and the value of knowledge exchange Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Strategic assessments can act as knowledge brokerage instruments Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The paper argues for strategic assessments as learning

  17. The potential impacts of climate-change policy on freshwater use in thermoelectric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandel, Munish K.; Pratson, Lincoln F.; Jackson, Robert B.

    2011-01-01

    Climate change policy involving a price on carbon would change the mix of power plants and the amount of water they withdraw and consume to generate electricity. We analyze what these changes could entail for electricity generation in the United States under four climate policy scenarios that involve different costs for emitting CO 2 and different technology options for reducing emissions out to the year 2030. The potential impacts of the scenarios on the U.S. electric system are modeled using a modified version of the U.S. National Energy Modeling System and water-use factors for thermoelectric power plants derived from electric utility data compiled by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Under all the climate-policy scenarios, freshwater withdrawals decline 2-14% relative to a business-as-usual (BAU) scenario of no U.S. climate policy. Furthermore, water use decreases as the price on CO 2 under the climate policies increases. At relatively high carbon prices (>$50/tonne CO 2 ), however, retrofitting coal plants to capture CO 2 increases freshwater consumption compared to BAU in 2030. Our analysis suggests that climate policies and a carbon price will reduce both electricity generation and freshwater withdrawals compared to BAU unless a substantial number of coal plants are retrofitted to capture CO 2 . - Highlights: → We analyze the impact of climate change policy on water use for electricity generation. → Water use decreases with an increase in CO 2 allowance price. → Retrofitting of coal plants with CCS could increase water use considerably.

  18. Knowledge brokerage - potential for increased capacities and shared power in impact assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosario Partidario, Maria; Sheate, William R.

    2013-01-01

    Constructive and collaborative planning theory has exposed the perceived limitations of public participation in impact assessment. At strategic levels of assessment the established norm can be misleading and practice is illusive. For example, debates on SEA effectiveness recognize insufficiencies, but are often based on questionable premises. The authors of this paper argue that public participation in strategic assessment requires new forms of information and engagement, consistent with the complexity of the issues at these levels and that strategic assessments can act as knowledge brokerage instruments with the potential to generate more participative environments and attitudes. The paper explores barriers and limitations, as well as the role of knowledge brokerage in stimulating the engagement of the public, through learning-oriented processes and responsibility sharing in more participative models of governance. The paper concludes with a discussion on building and inter-change of knowledge, towards creative solutions to identified problems, stimulating learning processes, largely beyond simple information transfer mechanisms through consultative processes. The paper argues fundamentally for the need to conceive strategic assessments as learning platforms and design knowledge brokerage opportunities explicitly as a means to enhance learning processes and power sharing in IA. - Highlights: ► Debates on SEA recognize insufficiencies on public participation ► We propose new forms of engagement consistent with complex situations at strategic levels of decision-making ► Constructive and collaborative planning theories help explain how different actors acquire knowledge and the value of knowledge exchange ► Strategic assessments can act as knowledge brokerage instruments ► The paper argues for strategic assessments as learning platforms as a means to enhance learning processes and power sharing in IA.

  19. Energy-saving and emission-abatement potential of Chinese coal-fired power enterprise: A non-parametric analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Chu; Löschel, Andreas; Liu, Bing

    2015-01-01

    In the context of soaring demand for electricity, mitigating and controlling greenhouse gas emissions is a great challenge for China's power sector. Increasing attention has been placed on the evaluation of energy efficiency and CO 2 abatement potential in the power sector. However, studies at the micro-level are relatively rare due to serious data limitations. This study uses the 2004 and 2008 Census data of Zhejiang province to construct a non-parametric frontier in order to assess the abatement space of energy and associated CO 2 emission from China's coal-fired power enterprises. A Weighted Russell Directional Distance Function (WRDDF) is applied to construct an energy-saving potential index and a CO 2 emission-abatement potential index. Both indicators depict the inefficiency level in terms of energy utilization and CO 2 emissions of electric power plants. Our results show a substantial variation of energy-saving potential and CO 2 abatement potential among enterprises. We find that large power enterprises are less efficient in 2004, but become more efficient than smaller enterprises in 2008. State-owned enterprises (SOE) are not significantly different in 2008 from 2004, but perform better than their non-SOE counterparts in 2008. This change in performance for large enterprises and SOE might be driven by the “top-1000 Enterprise Energy Conservation Action” that was implemented in 2006. - Highlights: • Energy-saving potential and CO 2 abatement-potential for Chinese power enterprise are evaluated. • The potential to curb energy and emission shows great variation and dynamic changes. • Large enterprise is less efficient than small enterprise in 2004, but more efficient in 2008. • The state-owned enterprise performs better than non-state-owned enterprise in 2008

  20. Prediction of power fluctuation classes for photovoltaic installations and potential benefits of dynamic reserve allocation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhuis, M.; Rawn, B.G.; Gibescu, M.

    2014-01-01

    During partly cloudy conditions, the power delivered by a photovoltaic array can easily fluctuate by three quarters of its rated power in 10 s. Fluctuations from photovoltaics of this size and on this time scale may necessitate adding an additional component to power system secondary and primary

  1. Temperature measurement by thermal strain imaging with diagnostic power ultrasound, with potential for thermal index determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Hai-Dong; Zhou, Li-Xia; Wells, Peter N T; Halliwell, Michael

    2009-05-01

    Over the years, there has been a substantial increase in acoustic exposure in diagnostic ultrasound as new imaging modalities with higher intensities and frame rates have been introduced; and more electronic components have been packed into the probe head, so that there is a tendency for it to become hotter. With respect to potential thermal effects, including those which may be hazardous occurring during ultrasound scanning, there is a correspondingly growing need for in vivo techniques to guide the operator as to the actual temperature rise occurring in the examined tissues. Therefore, an in vivo temperature estimator would be of considerable practical value. The commonly-used method of tissue thermal index (TI) measurement with a hydrophone in water could underestimate the actual value of TI (in one report by as much as 2.9 times). To obtain meaningful results, it is necessary to map the temperature elevation in 2-D (or 3-D) space. We present methodology, results and validation of a 2-D spatial and temporal thermal strain ultrasound temperature estimation technique in phantoms, and its apparently novel application in tracking the evolution of heat deposition at diagnostic exposure levels. The same ultrasound probe is used for both transmission and reception. The displacement and thermal strain estimation methods are similar to those used in high-intensity focused ultrasound thermal monitoring. The use of radiofrequency signals permits the application of cross correlation as a similarity measurement for tracking feature displacement. The displacement is used to calculate the thermal strain directly related to the temperature rise. Good agreement was observed between the temperature rise and the ultrasound power and scan duration. Thermal strain up to 1.4% was observed during 4000-s scan. Based on the results obtained for the temperature range studied in this work, the technique demonstrates potential for applicability in phantom (and possibly in vivo tissue

  2. Potential flue gas impurities in carbon dioxide streams separated from coal-fired power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joo-Youp; Keener, Tim C; Yang, Y Jeffery

    2009-06-01

    For geological sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO2) separated from pulverized coal combustion flue gas, it is necessary to adequately evaluate the potential impacts of flue gas impurities on groundwater aquifers in the case of the CO2 leakage from its storage sites. This study estimated the flue gas impurities to be included in the CO2 stream separated from a CO2 control unit for a different combination of air pollution control devices and different flue gas compositions. Specifically, the levels of acid gases and mercury vapor were estimated for the monoethanolamine (MEA)-based absorption process on the basis of published performance parameters of existing systems. Among the flue gas constituents considered, sulfur dioxide (SO2) is known to have the most adverse impact on MEA absorption. When a flue gas contains 3000 parts per million by volume (ppmv) SO2 and a wet flue gas desulfurization system achieves its 95% removal, approximately 2400 parts per million by weight (ppmw) SO2 could be included in the separated CO2 stream. In addition, the estimated concentration level was reduced to as low as 135 ppmw for the SO2 of less than 10 ppmv in the flue gas entering the MEA unit. Furthermore, heat-stable salt formation could further reduce the SO2 concentration below 40 ppmw in the separated CO2 stream. In this study, it is realized that the formation rates of heat-stable salts in MEA solution are not readily available in the literature and are critical to estimating the levels and compositions of flue gas impurities in sequestered CO2 streams. In addition to SO2, mercury, and other impurities in separated CO2 streams could vary depending on pollutant removal at the power plants and impose potential impacts on groundwater. Such a variation and related process control in the upstream management of carbon separation have implications for groundwater protection at carbon sequestration sites and warrant necessary considerations in overall sequestration planning

  3. GROSS- GAMMA RAY OBSERVATORY ATTITUDE DYNAMICS SIMULATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrick, J.

    1994-01-01

    The Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) spacecraft will constitute a major advance in gamma ray astronomy by offering the first opportunity for comprehensive observations in the range of 0.1 to 30,000 megaelectronvolts (MeV). The Gamma Ray Observatory Attitude Dynamics Simulator, GROSS, is designed to simulate this mission. The GRO Dynamics Simulator consists of three separate programs: the Standalone Profile Program; the Simulator Program, which contains the Simulation Control Input/Output (SCIO) Subsystem, the Truth Model (TM) Subsystem, and the Onboard Computer (OBC) Subsystem; and the Postprocessor Program. The Standalone Profile Program models the environment of the spacecraft and generates a profile data set for use by the simulator. This data set contains items such as individual external torques; GRO spacecraft, Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS), and solar and lunar ephemerides; and star data. The Standalone Profile Program is run before a simulation. The SCIO subsystem is the executive driver for the simulator. It accepts user input, initializes parameters, controls simulation, and generates output data files and simulation status display. The TM subsystem models the spacecraft dynamics, sensors, and actuators. It accepts ephemerides, star data, and environmental torques from the Standalone Profile Program. With these and actuator commands from the OBC subsystem, the TM subsystem propagates the current state of the spacecraft and generates sensor data for use by the OBC and SCIO subsystems. The OBC subsystem uses sensor data from the TM subsystem, a Kalman filter (for attitude determination), and control laws to compute actuator commands to the TM subsystem. The OBC subsystem also provides output data to the SCIO subsystem for output to the analysts. The Postprocessor Program is run after simulation is completed. It generates printer and CRT plots and tabular reports of the simulated data at the direction of the user. GROSS is written in FORTRAN 77 and

  4. Study of atmospheric stagnation, recirculation, and ventilation potential at Narora Atomic Power Station site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Deepak; Kumar, Avinash; Kumar, Vimal; Rao, K.S.; Kumar, Jaivender; Ravi, P.M.

    2011-01-01

    Atmosphere is an important pathway to be considered in assessment of the environmental impact of radioactivity releases from nuclear facilities. Estimation of concentration of released effluents in air and possible ground contamination needs an understanding of relevant atmospheric dispersion. This article describes the meteorological characteristics of Narora Atomic Power Station (NAPS) site by using the integral parameters developed by Allwine and Whiteman. Meteorological data measured during the period 2006-2010 were analyzed. The integral quantities related to the occurrence of stagnation, recirculation, and ventilation characteristics were studied for NAPS site to assess the dilution potential of the atmosphere. Wind run and recirculation factors were calculated for a 24-h transport time using 5 years of hourly surface measurements of wind speed and direction. The occurrence of stagnation, recirculation, and ventilation characteristics during 2006-2010 at NAPS site is observed to be 33.8% of the time, 19.5% of the time, and 34.7% of the time, respectively. The presence of strong winds with predominant wind direction NW and WNW during winter and summer seasons leads to higher ventilation (48.1% and 44.3%) and recirculation (32.6% of the summer season). The presence of light winds and more dispersed winds during prewinter season with predominant wind directions W and WNW results in more stagnation (59.7% of the prewinter season). Thus, this study will serve as an essential meteorological tool to understand the transport mechanism of atmospheric radioactive effluent releases from any nuclear industry. (author)

  5. Criteria for seismic evaluation and potential design fixes for WWER type nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, J.D.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose for this document is to provide a criteria for the seismic evaluation and development of potential design fixes for structures, systems and components for the WWER type Nuclear power plants. The design fixes are divided into two categories, detailed and easy fixes. Detailed fixes are typically applicable to building structures, components for which there is little or no seismic capacity information, large tanks and vital systems and components which make up the reactor cooling system and components which perform support or auxiliary functions. In case of the design of 'easy fixes', the criteria presented may be used for both the seismic design as well as for the evaluation of structures, systems and components to which easy fix design applies. Easy fixes are situations where seismic capacities of structures, systems and components can be significantly increased with relatively minor, inexpensive fixes usually associated with anchorage modification of safety related structures, systems and components or those that could interact with safety related structures, systems and components. Often these fixes can be accomplished while the plant is in operation

  6. Characterization of bottom ashes from coal pulverized power plants to determine their potential use feasibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menendez, E.; Alvaro, A. M.; Argiz, C.; Parra, J. L.; Moragues, A.

    2013-01-01

    The disposal of coal by products represents environmental and economical problems around the world. Therefore, the reuse and valorisation of this waste has become an important issue in the last decades. While high-value construction products containing fly ash were developed and its use is actually totally accepted as an addition to cement, the use of the bottom ash as supplementary cementitious material has not been allow. This paper examines the chemical and physical properties of fly ashes and bottom ashes from two different coal power plants in order to compare them and analyse the potential feasibility of bottom ash as cement replacement. The mechanical properties of cement mortars made with different percentages of both ashes were also study. The results obtained showed similar chemical composition of both kinds of ashes. The compressive strength values of mortars with 10 % and 25 % of cement replacement (at 28 days) were above the limits established in European standards and there were not significant differences between fly ash and bottom ash from both origins. (Author)

  7. GIS-based approach for the evaluation of offshore wind power potential for Gujarat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Dhrumin; Nagababu, Garlapati; Radadia, Nishil; Parsana, Sohil; Sheth, Mohak; Sheth, Nisarg

    2018-05-01

    In the current global scenario, India is increasing its focus towards the methods to enrich the benefits of non-renewable energy sources as much as possible due to their key advantage of having low carbon footprint. India has already emerged as a key global player in on-shore wind energy and to achieve its annual wind energy production demand of 50 GWh, avenues other than current options have been researched on. Offshore wind energy has experienced remarkable growth worldwide but has not yet been harnessed sufficiently in India, despite addressing many of environmental and economic concerns. The present study focuses on offshore wind resource assessment on Indian exclusive economic zone (EEZ) around Gujarat region. The geographical information system (GIS) methodology has been used to develop maps of wind speed, power density and capacity factor maps. Further, careful consideration has been accorded for expulsion of marine protected areas, shipping transportation lines, fishing zones, and migratory bird movements. The resultant available area has been considered for annual energy production considering data from Siemens Wind Turbine 3.6. The results obtained shows that offshore wind energy can offset twice the annual energy demand of entire country with a potential energy production of more than 2580 TWh.

  8. Quantum corrections to the inflaton potential and the power spectra from superhorizon modes and trace anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyanovsky, D.; Vega, H.J. de; Sanchez, N.G.

    2005-01-01

    We obtain the effective inflaton potential during slow-roll inflation by including the one-loop quantum corrections to the energy momentum tensor from scalar curvature and tensor perturbations as well as from light scalars and Dirac fermions coupled to the inflaton. During slow-roll inflation there is an unambiguous separation between super- and subhorizon contributions to the energy momentum tensor. The superhorizon part is determined by the curvature perturbations and scalar field fluctuations: both feature infrared enhancements as the inverse of a combination of slow-roll parameters which measure the departure from scale invariance in each case. Fermions and gravitons do not exhibit infrared divergences. The subhorizon part is completely specified by the trace anomaly of the fields with different spins and is solely determined by the space-time geometry. The one-loop corrections to the amplitude of curvature and tensor perturbations are obtained to leading order in slow roll and in the (H/M Pl ) 2 expansion. A complete assessment of the backreaction problem up to one loop including bosons and fermions is provided. The result validates the effective field theory description of inflation and confirms the robustness of the inflationary paradigm to quantum fluctuations. Quantum corrections to the power spectra are expressed in terms of the CMB observables: n s , r and dn s /dlnk. Trace anomalies (especially the graviton part) dominate these quantum corrections in a definite direction: they enhance the scalar curvature fluctuations and reduce the tensor fluctuations

  9. Criteria for seismic evaluation and potential design fixes for WWER type nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevenson, J D [Stevenson and Associates, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    1995-07-01

    The purpose for this document is to provide a criteria for the seismic evaluation and development of potential design fixes for structures, systems and components for the WWER type Nuclear power plants. The design fixes are divided into two categories, detailed and easy fixes. Detailed fixes are typically applicable to building structures, componentsfor which there is little or no seismic capacity information, large tanks and vital systems and components which make up the reactor cooling system and components which perform support or auxiliary functions. In case of the design of 'easy fixes', the criteria presented may be used for both the seismic design as well as for the evaluation of structures, systems and components to which easy fix design applies. Easy fixes are situations where seismic capacities of structures, systems and components can be significantly increased with relatively minor, inexpensive fixes usually associated with anchorage modification of safety related structures, systems and components or those that could interact with safety related structures, systems and components. Often these fixes can be accomplished while the plant is in operation.

  10. The Power and Potential of Genomics in Weed Biology and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravet, Karl; Patterson, Eric L; Krähmer, Hansjörg; Hamouzová, Kateřina; Fan, Longjiang; Jasieniuk, Marie; Lawton-Rauh, Amy; Malone, Jenna M; Scott McElroy, J; Merotto, Aldo; Westra, Philip; Preston, Christopher; Vila-Aiub, Martin M; Busi, Roberto; Tranel, Patrick J; Reinhardt, Carl; Saski, Christopher; Beffa, Roland; Neve, Paul; Gaines, Todd A

    2018-04-24

    There have been previous calls for, and efforts focused on, realizing the power and potential of weed genomics for better understanding of weeds. Sustained advances in genome sequencing and assembly technologies now make it possible for individual research groups to generate reference genomes for multiple weed species at reasonable costs. Here, we present the outcomes from several meetings, discussions, and workshops focused on establishing an International Weed Genomics Consortium (IWGC) for a coordinated international effort in weed genomics. We review the 'state of the art' in genomics and weed genomics, including technologies, applications, and on-going weed genome projects. We also report the outcomes from a workshop and a global survey of the weed science community to identify priority species, key biological questions, and weed management applications that can be addressed through greater availability of, and access to, genomic resources. Major focus areas include the evolution of herbicide resistance and weedy traits, the development of molecular diagnostics, and the identification of novel targets and approaches for weed management. There is increasing interest in, and need for, weed genomics, and the establishment of the IWGC will provide the necessary global platform for communication and coordination of weed genomics research. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  11. Plant life extensions for German nuclear power plants? Controversial discussion on potential electricity price effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthes, Felix C.; Hermann, Hauke

    2009-06-01

    The discussions on electricity price effects in case of the plant life extension of German nuclear power plants covers the following topics: (1) Introduction and methodology. (2) Electricity generation in nuclear power plants and electricity price based on an empirical view: electricity generation in nuclear power plants and final consumption price for households and industry in the European Union; electricity generation in nuclear power plants and electricity wholesale price in case of low availability of nuclear power plants in Germany; comparison of electricity wholesale prices in Germany and France. (3) Model considerations in relation to electricity prices and nuclear phase-out. (4) Concluding considerations.

  12. Gender Power Control, Sexual Experiences, Safer Sex Practices, and Potential HIV Risk Behaviors Among Young Asian-American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jieha; Rough, Kathryn; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the prevalence of three domains of sexual behaviors among young Asian-American women: sexual experiences, safer sex practices, and potential HIV risk behaviors. We also investigated the impact of gender power control on these domains. Among sexually experienced women, 51% reported using condoms during their most recent sex act, 63% reported inconsistent condom use, and 18% reported ever having forced sex. Multiple logistic regression analyses revealed that women’s perceived lower relationship power control was not associated with vaginal sex or safer sex practices, but it was powerfully associated with forced sex and all three potential HIV risk behaviors. This study demonstrates that control within young Asian-American women’s intimate relationships exerts different associations depending on the type of sexual behavior. The application of the Theory of Gender and Power should be employed with prudence when designing HIV interventions for this population. PMID:21259042

  13. Gender power control, sexual experiences, safer sex practices, and potential HIV risk behaviors among young Asian-American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahm, Hyeouk Chris; Lee, Jieha; Rough, Kathryn; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2012-01-01

    We examined the prevalence of three domains of sexual behaviors among young Asian-American women: sexual experiences, safer sex practices, and potential HIV risk behaviors. We also investigated the impact of gender power control on these domains. Among sexually experienced women, 51% reported using condoms during their most recent sex act, 63% reported inconsistent condom use, and 18% reported ever having forced sex. Multiple logistic regression analyses revealed that women's perceived lower relationship power control was not associated with vaginal sex or safer sex practices, but it was powerfully associated with forced sex and all three potential HIV risk behaviors. This study demonstrates that control within young Asian-American women's intimate relationships exerts different associations depending on the type of sexual behavior. The application of the Theory of Gender and Power should be employed with prudence when designing HIV interventions for this population.

  14. Fractional Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook kinetic equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goychuk, Igor

    2017-11-01

    The linear Boltzmann equation (LBE) approach is generalized to describe fractional superdiffusive transport of the Lévy walk type in external force fields. The time distribution between scattering events is assumed to have a finite mean value and infinite variance. It is completely characterized by the two scattering rates, one fractional and a normal one, which defines also the mean scattering rate. We formulate a general fractional LBE approach and exemplify it with a particularly simple case of the Bohm and Gross scattering integral leading to a fractional generalization of the Bhatnagar, Gross and Krook (BGK) kinetic equation. Here, at each scattering event the particle velocity is completely randomized and takes a value from equilibrium Maxwell distribution at a given fixed temperature. We show that the retardation effects are indispensable even in the limit of infinite mean scattering rate and argue that this novel fractional kinetic equation provides a viable alternative to the fractional Kramers-Fokker-Planck (KFP) equation by Barkai and Silbey and its generalization by Friedrich et al. based on the picture of divergent mean time between scattering events. The case of divergent mean time is also discussed at length and compared with the earlier results obtained within the fractional KFP. Also a phenomenological fractional BGK equation without retardation effects is proposed in the limit of infinite scattering rates. It cannot be, however, rigorously derived from a scattering model, being rather clever postulated. It this respect, this retardationless equation is similar to the fractional KFP by Barkai and Silbey. However, it corresponds to the opposite, much more physical limit and, therefore, also presents a viable alternative.

  15. To Problem Pertaining to Provision of Electric Power Load Schedules of Power Sys- tems while Involving Potential of Power Technological Sources of Industrial Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. M. Khroustalev

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a possibility to use co-generated complexes having heat technological industrial load for operation in accordance with the requirements of irregularity of electric power generation schedule.

  16. The modernization potential of gas turbines in the coal-fired power industry thermal and economic effectiveness

    CERN Document Server

    Bartnik, Ryszard

    2013-01-01

    The opportunity of repowering the existing condensing power stations by means of  gas turbogenerators offers an important opportunity to considerably improvement of their energy efficiency. The Modernization Potential of Gas turbines in the Coal-Fired Power Industry presents the methodology, calculation procedures and tools used to support enterprise planning for adapting power stations to dual-fuel gas-steam combined-cycle technologies. Both the conceptual and practical aspects of the conversion of existing coal-fired power plants is covered. Discussions of the feasibility, advantages and disadvantages and possible methods are supported by chapters presenting equations of energy efficiency for the conditions of repowering a power unit by installing a gas turbogenerator in a parallel system and the results of technical calculations involving the selection heating structures of heat recovery steam generators. A methodology for analyzing thermodynamic and economic effectiveness for the selection of a structure...

  17. Utilization of controllable load for system operations services - Potential in the power system; Utnyttjande av styrbara laster foer systemdrifttjaenster - Potential i kraftsystemet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bojrup, Martin; Petersson, Andreas; Agneholm, Evert

    2013-04-15

    The frequency quality in the synchronized Nordic power system has decreased significantly during the last years. At the same time the procurement costs for frequency control services from the producers has increased dramatically. The decreased frequency quality has also resulted in an increased wear on production units taking part in frequency control. The large scale integration of renewable s, such as wind power, will probably result in a need for more frequency control resources. In order to increase the frequency control resources in the power system and find more cost efficient solutions this project suggests a development of a method for load control based on grid frequency. The suggested load control is applicable on loads fed by a variable-speed drive (VSD) and the purpose is to use energy loads, i.e. loads that not necessary need a constant power. By using the control capacity in these loads the power consumption from these loads can be controlled without causing any notable inconveniences for the customers. In the report the future potential is estimated for different ancillary services. As the installation of new VSDs and exchange of existing VSDs are performed to a large extent every year it is possible, already some years after implementation, to see an impact in the power system.

  18. Status and potential of geothermal power in East Africa; Status quo und Entwicklungspotential der Geothermie in Ostafrika

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraml, M.; Kessels, K.; Kalberkamp, U.; Kehrer, P.; Ochmann, N.; Reitmayr, G.; Stadtler, C. [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe, Hannover (Germany); Delvaux, D. [Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren (Belgium)

    2006-10-15

    Each country of the East African rift has potential sites for geothermal power generation. The biggest resources are expected in Kenya and Ethiopia, where conventional steam power plants can be constructed. In 2003, the six states of the region, i.e. Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda come together and decided, together with the UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme), to work on the systematic development of geothermal power in the region. Together with several investors, the ''African Rift Geothermal Development Facility'' (ARGeo) was founded with total funds of nearly 24 million US dollars. (orig.)

  19. Gross national happiness as a framework for health impact assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pennock, Michael; Ura, Karma

    2011-01-01

    The incorporation of population health concepts and health determinants into Health Impact Assessments has created a number of challenges. The need for intersectoral collaboration has increased; the meaning of 'health' has become less clear; and the distinctions between health impacts, environmental impacts, social impacts and economic impacts have become increasingly blurred. The Bhutanese concept of Gross National Happiness may address these issues by providing an over-arching evidence-based framework which incorporates health, social, environmental and economic contributors as well as a number of other key contributors to wellbeing such as culture and governance. It has the potential to foster intersectoral collaboration by incorporating a more limited definition of health which places the health sector as one of a number of contributors to wellbeing. It also allows for the examination of the opportunity costs of health investments on wellbeing, is consistent with whole-of-government approaches to public policy and emerging models of social progress.

  20. The potential impact of intelligent power wheelchair use on social participation: perspectives of users, caregivers and clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushton, Paula W; Kairy, Dahlia; Archambault, Philippe; Pituch, Evelina; Torkia, Caryne; El Fathi, Anas; Stone, Paula; Routhier, François; Forget, Robert; Pineau, Joelle; Gourdeau, Richard; Demers, Louise

    2015-05-01

    To explore power wheelchair users', caregivers' and clinicians' perspectives regarding the potential impact of intelligent power wheelchair use on social participation. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with power wheelchair users (n = 12), caregivers (n = 4) and clinicians (n = 12). An illustrative video was used to facilitate discussion. The transcribed interviews were analyzed using thematic analysis. Three main themes were identified based on the experiences of the power wheelchair users, caregivers and clinicians: (1) increased social participation opportunities, (2) changing how social participation is experienced and (3) decreased risk of accidents during social participation. Findings from this study suggest that an intelligent power wheelchair would enhance social participation in a variety of important ways, thereby providing support for continued design and development of this assistive technology. An intelligent power wheelchair has the potential to: Increase social participation opportunities by overcoming challenges associated with navigating through crowds and small spaces. Change how social participation is experienced through "normalizing" social interactions and decreasing the effort required to drive a power wheelchair. Decrease the risk of accidents during social participation by reducing the need for dangerous compensatory strategies and minimizing the impact of the physical environment.

  1. Evaluating potentials for future generation off-shore wind-power outside Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benestad, R. E.; Haugen, J.; Haakenstad, H.

    2012-12-01

    With todays critical need of renewable energy sources, it is naturally to look towards wind power. With the long coast of Norway, there is a large potential for wind farms offshore Norway. Although there are more challenges with offshore wind energy installations compared to wind farms on land, the offshore wind is generally higher, and there is also higher persistence of wind speed values in the power generating classes. I planning offshore wind farms, there is a need of evaluation of the wind resources, the wind climatology and possible future changes. In this aspect, we use data from regional climate model runs performed in the European ENSEMBLE-project (van der Linden and J.F.B. Mitchell, 2009). In spite of increased reliability in RCMs in the recent years, the simulations still suffer from systematic model errors, therefore the data has to be corrected before using them in wind resource analyses. In correcting the wind speeds from the RCMs, we will use wind speeds from a Norwegian high resolution wind- and wave- archive, NORA10 (Reistad et al 2010), to do quantile mapping (Themeβl et. al. 2012). The quantile mapping is performed individually for each regional simulation driven by ERA40-reanalysis from the ENSEMBLE-project corrected against NORA10. The same calibration is then used to the belonging regional climate scenario. The calibration is done for each grid cell in the domain and for each day of the year centered in a +/-15 day window to make an empirical cumulative density function for each day of the year. The quantile mapping of the scenarios provide us with a new wind speed data set for the future, more correct compared to the raw ENSEMBLE scenarios. References: Reistad M., Ø. Breivik, H. Haakenstad, O. J. Aarnes, B. R. Furevik and J-R Bidlo, 2010, A high-resolution hindcast of wind and waves for The North Sea, The Norwegian Sea and The Barents Sea. J. Geophys. Res., 116. doi:10.1029/2010JC006402. Themessl M. J., A. Gobiet and A. Leuprecht, 2012

  2. Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmholdt, Claus Westergård; Fogsgaard, Morten

    2016-01-01

    and creativity suggests that when managers give people the opportunity to gain power and explicate that there is reason to be more creative, people will show a boost in creative behaviour. Moreover, this process works best in unstable power hierarchies, which implies that power is treated as a negotiable....... It is thus a central point that power is not necessarily something that breaks down and represses. On the contrary, an explicit focus on the dynamics of power in relation to creativity can be productive for the organisation. Our main focus is to elaborate the implications of this for practice and theory...

  3. Enhancement of the REMix energy system model. Global renewable energy potentials, optimized power plant siting and scenario validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stetter, Daniel

    2014-04-10

    As electricity generation based on volatile renewable resources is subject to fluctuations, data with high temporal and spatial resolution on their availability is indispensable for integrating large shares of renewable capacities into energy infrastructures. The scope of the present doctoral thesis is to enhance the existing energy modelling environment REMix in terms of (i.) extending the geographic coverage of the potential assessment tool REMix-EnDaT from a European to a global scale, (ii.) adding a new plant siting optimization module REMix-PlaSMo, capable of assessing siting effects of renewable power plants on the portfolio output and (iii.) adding a new alternating current power transmission model between 30 European countries and CSP electricity imports from power plants located in North Africa and the Middle East via high voltage direct current links into the module REMix-OptiMo. With respect to the global potential assessment tool, a thorough investigation is carried out creating an hourly global inventory of the theoretical potentials of the major renewable resources solar irradiance, wind speed and river discharge at a spatial resolution of 0.45°x0.45°. A detailed global land use analysis determines eligible sites for the installation of renewable power plants. Detailed power plant models for PV, CSP, wind and hydro power allow for the assessment of power output, cost per kWh and respective full load hours taking into account the theoretical potentials, technological as well as economic data. The so-obtined tool REMix-EnDaT can be used as follows: First, as an assessment tool for arbitrary geographic locations, countries or world regions, deriving either site-specific or aggregated installable capacities, cost as well as full load hour potentials. Second, as a tool providing input data such as installable capacities and hourly renewable electricity generation for further assessments using the modules REMix-PlasMo and OptiMo. The plant siting tool

  4. Enhancement of the REMix energy system model. Global renewable energy potentials, optimized power plant siting and scenario validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stetter, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    As electricity generation based on volatile renewable resources is subject to fluctuations, data with high temporal and spatial resolution on their availability is indispensable for integrating large shares of renewable capacities into energy infrastructures. The scope of the present doctoral thesis is to enhance the existing energy modelling environment REMix in terms of (i.) extending the geographic coverage of the potential assessment tool REMix-EnDaT from a European to a global scale, (ii.) adding a new plant siting optimization module REMix-PlaSMo, capable of assessing siting effects of renewable power plants on the portfolio output and (iii.) adding a new alternating current power transmission model between 30 European countries and CSP electricity imports from power plants located in North Africa and the Middle East via high voltage direct current links into the module REMix-OptiMo. With respect to the global potential assessment tool, a thorough investigation is carried out creating an hourly global inventory of the theoretical potentials of the major renewable resources solar irradiance, wind speed and river discharge at a spatial resolution of 0.45°x0.45°. A detailed global land use analysis determines eligible sites for the installation of renewable power plants. Detailed power plant models for PV, CSP, wind and hydro power allow for the assessment of power output, cost per kWh and respective full load hours taking into account the theoretical potentials, technological as well as economic data. The so-obtined tool REMix-EnDaT can be used as follows: First, as an assessment tool for arbitrary geographic locations, countries or world regions, deriving either site-specific or aggregated installable capacities, cost as well as full load hour potentials. Second, as a tool providing input data such as installable capacities and hourly renewable electricity generation for further assessments using the modules REMix-PlasMo and OptiMo. The plant siting tool

  5. Middle East and North Africa Region Assessment of the Local Manufacturing Potential for Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gazzo, A.; Gousseland, P.; Verdier, J. [Ernst and Young et Associes, Neuilly-Sur-Seine (France); Kost, C.; Morin, G.; Engelken, M.; Schrof, J.; Nitz, P.; Selt, J.; Platzer, W. [Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Freiburg (Germany); Ragwitz, M.; Boie, I.; Hauptstock, D.; Eichhammer, W. [Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research ISI, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2011-01-15

    The MENA CSP (Middle East and North Africa - Concentrated Solar Power) plan is an ambitious scheme with an appeal to anyone concerned about climate change and convinced by the need for clean, renewable power. But what does it really mean for the average citizen of say Morocco or Tunisia? The World Bank sees potential for significant job and wealth creation in solar energy producing countries. If the CSP market grows rapidly over the next few years, equipment manufacturing will be essential to supply this new sector. This study proposes roadmaps and an action plan to help develop the potential of locally manufactured CSP components in the existing industry and for new market entrants.

  6. Linking climate, gross primary productivity, and site index across forests of the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron R. Weiskittel; Nicholas L. Crookston; Philip J. Radtke

    2011-01-01

    Assessing forest productivity is important for developing effective management regimes and predicting future growth. Despite some important limitations, the most common means for quantifying forest stand-level potential productivity is site index (SI). Another measure of productivity is gross primary production (GPP). In this paper, SI is compared with GPP estimates...

  7. The effect of ambient temperature on gross-efficiency in cycling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hettinga, F.J.; Koning, J.J. de; Vrijer, A. de; Wüst, R.C.I.; Daanen, H.A.M.; Foster, C.

    2007-01-01

    Time-trial performance deteriorates in the heat. This might potentially be the result of a temperature-induced decrease in gross-efficiency (GE). The effect of high ambient temperature on GE during cycling will be studied, with the intent of determining if a heat-induced change in GE could account

  8. Load management potentials for the railway power system; Potenziale fuer das Lastmanagement im Bahnenergiesystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosch, Julius; Aniceto, Josep M. [SBB AG Infrastruktur Energie, Zollikofen (Switzerland)

    2013-02-15

    The railway power supply system of the Schweizerische Bundesbahnen (SBB) is characterised by major load fluctuations that are expected to increase in the future. The available power that is generated must be kept at absolute load peak level which causes high costs. Simulations show that a load management is a practicable way of noticeably reducing load peaks in the SBB railway power supply system without having an adverse effect on railway operations or the energy demand.

  9. What is the microscopic tumor extent beyond clinically delineated gross tumor boundary in nonmelanoma skin cancers?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choo, Richard; Woo, Tony; Assaad, Dalal; Antonyshyn, Oleh; Barnes, Elizabeth A.; McKenzie, David; Fialkov, Jeffrey; Breen, Dale; Mamedov, Alexander

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify the microscopic tumor extension beyond clinically delineated gross tumor boundary in nonmelanoma skin cancers. Methods and Materials: A prospective, single arm, study. Preoperatively, a radiation oncologist outlined the boundary of a gross lesion, and drew 5-mm incremental marks in four directions from the delineated border. Under local anesthesia, the lesion was excised, and resection margins were assessed microscopically by frozen section. Once resection margins were clear, the microscopic tumor extent was calculated using the presurgical incremental markings as references. A potential relationship between the distance of microscopic tumor extension and other variables was analyzed. Results: A total of 71 lesions in 64 consecutive patients, selected for surgical excision with frozen-section-assisted assessment of resection margins, were accrued. The distance of microscopic tumor extension beyond a gross lesion varied from 1 mm to 15 mm, with a mean of 5.2 mm. A margin of 10 mm was required to provide a 95% chance of obtaining clear resection margins. The microscopic tumor extent was positively correlated with the size of gross lesion, but not with other variables. Conclusions: The distance of microscopic tumor extension beyond a gross nonmelanoma skin cancer was variable, with a mean of 5.2 mm. Such information is critical for the proper radiation planning of skin cancer therapy

  10. What is the microscopic tumor extent beyond clinically delineated gross tumor boundary in nonmelanoma skin cancers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Richard; Woo, Tony; Assaad, Dalal; Antonyshyn, Oleh; Barnes, Elizabeth A; McKenzie, David; Fialkov, Jeffrey; Breen, Dale; Mamedov, Alexander

    2005-07-15

    To quantify the microscopic tumor extension beyond clinically delineated gross tumor boundary in nonmelanoma skin cancers. A prospective, single arm, study. Preoperatively, a radiation oncologist outlined the boundary of a gross lesion, and drew 5-mm incremental marks in four directions from the delineated border. Under local anesthesia, the lesion was excised, and resection margins were assessed microscopically by frozen section. Once resection margins were clear, the microscopic tumor extent was calculated using the presurgical incremental markings as references. A potential relationship between the distance of microscopic tumor extension and other variables was analyzed. A total of 71 lesions in 64 consecutive patients, selected for surgical excision with frozen-section-assisted assessment of resection margins, were accrued. The distance of microscopic tumor extension beyond a gross lesion varied from 1 mm to 15 mm, with a mean of 5.2 mm. A margin of 10 mm was required to provide a 95% chance of obtaining clear resection margins. The microscopic tumor extent was positively correlated with the size of gross lesion, but not with other variables. The distance of microscopic tumor extension beyond a gross nonmelanoma skin cancer was variable, with a mean of 5.2 mm. Such information is critical for the proper radiation planning of skin cancer therapy.

  11. The role of governments in promoting a realistic public understanding of the potentialities of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapar, H.K.

    1983-01-01

    Adverse public attitudes towards nuclear power have been and continue to be a significant obstacle in the way of nuclear power growth. The three main ways in which governments could help to promote public understanding of nuclear power are 1) by carrying out effectively their traditional tasks of deciding priorities, funding research, encouraging information exchange with other countries and regulating nuclear activities; 2) by providing basic information about the need for nuclear power and its economic importance and providing appropriate opportunities for changes in policies and 3) by showing leadership particularly when no clear course is apparent. (U.K.)

  12. Domestic use of overseas renewable energy -Potential as power generating fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Tomofumi; Murata, Kenji; Kamiya, Shoji; Ota, Ken-ichiro; Sakata, Ko; Fukuda, Kenzo; Ishimoto, Yuki

    2010-09-15

    For Japan, it will be very important in the future to establish a social system that can consistently import or produce a set amount of resource supplies without green house gas emissions. In this study, we developed a concept for a global hydrogen energy system using wind power generation as a hydrogen source, investigated its economic efficiency, compared it with power generating fuels used at existing thermal power plants, and examined the feasibility of the global hydrogen energy system. As a result, it would be more effective to decommission existing oil-fired thermal power plants and construct new hydrogen turbine plants.

  13. Climate and land-use change impacts on potential solar photovoltaic power generation in the Black Sea region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunderson, I.; Goyette, S.; Gago-Silva, A.; Quiquerez, L.; Lehmann, A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The solar resource is sufficient to provide PV power at suitable locations within the Black Sea catchment. • Climate change will not significantly impact the solar resource, although uncertainty exists. • Land-use change will significantly impact potential PV power, although socio-economic factors will have more importance. • It is important to strengthen regional cooperation for the integration of renewable energy resources. - Abstract: Climate change is a naturally occurring phenomenon that has recently been greatly impacted by anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. One of the main contributing sectors to GHG emissions is the energy sector, due to its high dependency on fossil fuels. Renewable energy systems, notably solar energy, can be an effective climate change mitigation alternative. Photovoltaic (PV) technology provides an interesting method to produce electricity through a virtually infinite renewable resource at the human time scale: solar radiation. This study evaluates the current and future solar energy potential through the use of grid-connected PV power plants at the scale of countries within the Black Sea catchment. Simulated data are used to determine potential change in climate and land-use according to two different development scenarios. Incident solar radiation flux from re-analyses, spatial interpolation, and the application of the Delta change method are used to assess the current and future solar resource potential within this catchment. Potential sites suitable for PV power plants are selected following a Fuzzy logic approach, and thus the total potential solar energy through PV power generation can be determined. Results show that climate change will have little impact on the solar radiation resource, while land-use change induces more variability. However, regardless of the scenario followed, the solar energy potential is sufficient to provide an interesting contribution to the electricity generation mix of

  14. A low-power bio-potential acquisition system with flexible PDMS dry electrodes for portable ubiquitous healthcare applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Yuan; Chang, Chia-Lin; Chang, Chih-Wei; Lai, Shin-Chi; Chien, Tsung-Fu; Huang, Hong-Yi; Chiou, Jin-Chern; Luo, Ching-Hsing

    2013-03-04

    This work describes a bio-potential acquisition system for portable ubiquitous healthcare applications using flexible polydimethylsiloxane dry electrodes (FPDEs) and a low-power recording circuit. This novel FPDE used Au as the skin contact layer, which was made using a CO2 laser and replica method technology. The FPDE was revised from a commercial bio-potential electrode with a conductive snap using dry electrodes rather than wet electrodes that proposed reliable and robust attachment for the purpose of measurement, and attaching velcro made it wearable on the forearm for bio-potential applications. Furthermore, this study proposes a recording device to store bio-potential signal data and provides portability and low-power consumption for the proposed acquisition system. To acquire differential bio-potentials, such as electrocardiogram (ECG) signals, the proposed recording device includes a low-power front-end acquisition chip fabricated using a complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) process, a commercial microcontroller (MSP430F149), and a secure digital (SD) card for portable healthcare applications. The proposed system can obtain ECG signals efficiently and are comfortable to the skin. The power consumption of the system is about 85 mW for continuous working over a 3 day period with two AA batteries. It can also be used as a compact Holter ECG system.

  15. Improvement to the gross theory of β decay by inclusion of change in parity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koura, Hiroyuki; Chiba, Satoshi

    2017-06-01

    An improvement to the single-particle structure is made to the gross theory, which is a global β -decay model. The gross theory is based on the sum rule of the intensity of the β -decay transition and a strength function. This model provides reasonable results for β -decay rates and delayed neutrons for the entire nuclear mass region. An attempt is made to improve the gross theory of nuclear β decay by considering the change in parity at the single-particle level of ground-state nuclei. In this treatment, the nuclear matrix elements are suppressed when the parity of the single neutron and proton levels is different for the allowed transition. The assignment of parity is performed using the Woods-Saxon-type single-particle potential. The discrepancies from experimental half-lives, which appeared in the vicinity of the magic numbers of neutrons and protons, are systematically improved in the nuclear mass region.

  16. Wind-Electric Power Potential Assessment for Three Locations in East Java-Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Musyafa

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports our effort to asses wind energy potentials for three locations in East Java. We used wind speed data over a period of almost 3 years, i.e. in period of June 2006 – August 2008. Data were taken from direct measurement in locations in East Java Province, i.e. Sampang (Madura, Juanda (Surabaya, and Sawahan (Nganjuk. The short-term of wind speed mean in monthly signifies to wind-speed value ”which parallels to the wind turbine power curve value” were used to estimate the annual energy output for a 1 MW installed capacity wind farm on the each site 100 of 10kW rated wind turbines were used in the analysis. The short term of wind speed mean at Surabaya and Nganjuk were 2.34, 3.03 and 1.97 m/s at 2 m Above Ground Level (AGL, respectively. In both locations, wind speeds were observed during the day time between 04.00 and 18.00 and relatively smaller ones between 19.00 and 03.00 period. Meanwhile, in Sampang (Madura the higher wind speeds were observed between 20.00 and 06.00, and relatively smaller between 07.00 and 19.00 period. The 1 MW windfarm at Sampang, Surabaya and Nganjuk can produce 1.284; 1.199 and 1.008 MWh of electricity yearly, taking into consideration of the temperature adjustment coefficien of about 6 %. The plant capacity factor at Sampang, Surabaya and Nganjuk were found to be 30.02 %, 30.00 % and 30.01 % respectively. Additionally, it is noticed that these site can contribute to the avoidance of 0.904; 0.846 and 0.709 tons/year of CO2 equivalent Green House Gases (GHG from entering into the local atmosphere, thus creating a clean and healthy athmosphere for local inhabitants.

  17. Turbulence at Hydroelectric Power Plants and its Potential Effects on Fish.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cada, Glenn F.; Odeh, Mufeed

    2001-01-01

    The fundamental influence of fluid dynamics on aquatic organisms is receiving increasing attention among aquatic ecologists. For example, the importance of turbulence to ocean plankton has long been a subject of investigation (Peters and Redondo 1997). More recently, studies have begun to emerge that explicitly consider the effects of shear and turbulence on freshwater invertebrates (Statzner et al. 1988; Hart et al. 1996) and fishes (Pavlov et al. 1994, 1995). Hydraulic shear stress and turbulence are interdependent natural fluid phenomena that are important to fish, and consequently it is important to develop an understanding of how fish sense, react to, and perhaps utilize these phenomena under normal river flows. The appropriate reaction to turbulence may promote movement of migratory fish or prevent displacement of resident fish. It has been suggested that one of the adverse effects of flow regulation by hydroelectric projects is the reduction of normal turbulence, particularly in the headwaters of reservoirs, which can lead to disorientation and slowing of migration (Williams et al. 1996; Coutant et al. 1997; Coutant 1998). On the other hand, greatly elevated levels of shear and turbulence may be injurious to fish; injuries can range from removal of the mucous layer on the body surface to descaling to torn opercula, popped eyes, and decapitation (Neitzel et al. 2000a,b). Damaging levels of fluid stress can occur in a variety of circumstances in both natural and man-made environments. This paper discusses the effects of shear stress and turbulence on fish, with an emphasis on potentially damaging levels in man-made environments. It defines these phenomena, describes studies that have been conducted to understand their effects, and identifies gaps in our knowledge. In particular, this report reviews the available information on the levels of turbulence that can occur within hydroelectric power plants, and the associated biological effects. The final section

  18. Networked Water Citizen Organisations in Spain: Potential for Transformation of Existing Power Structures in Water Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria Hernández-Mora

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The shift from hierarchical-administrative water management toward more transparent, multi-level and participated governance approaches has brought about a shifting geography of players, scales of action, and means of influencing decisions and outcomes. In Spain, where the hydraulic paradigm has dominated since the early 1920s, participation in decisions over water has traditionally been limited to a closed water policy community, made up of economic water users, primarily irrigator associations and hydropower generators, civil engineering corps and large public works companies. The river basin planning process under the Water Framework Directive of the European Union presented a promise of transformation, giving access to non-economic water users, environmental concerns and the wider public to water-related information on planning and decision-making. This process coincided with the consolidation of the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs by the water administration, with the associated potential for information and data generation and dissemination. ICTs are also increasingly used by citizen groups and other interested parties as a way to communicate, network and challenge existing paradigms and official discourses over water, in the broader context of the emergence of 'technopolitics'. This paper investigates if and in what way ICTs may be providing new avenues for participated water resources management and contributing to alter the dominating power balance. We critically analyse several examples where networking possibilities provided by ICTs have enabled the articulation of interest groups and social agents that have, with different degrees of success, questioned the existing hegemonic view over water. The critical review of these cases sheds light on the opportunities and limitations of ICTs, and their relation with traditional modes of social mobilisation in creating new means of societal involvement in water

  19. A study on the power generation potential of mini wind turbine in east coast of Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basrawi, Firdaus; Ismail, Izwan; Ibrahim, Thamir Khalil; Idris, Daing Mohamad Nafiz Daing; Anuar, Shahrani

    2017-03-01

    A small-scale wind turbine is an attractive renewable energy source, but its economic viability depends on wind speed. The aim of this study is to determine economic viability of small-scale wind turbine in East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia. The potential energy generated has been determined by wind speed data and power curved of. Hourly wind speed data of Kuantan throughout 2015 was collected as the input. Then, a model of wind turbine was developed based on a commercial a 300W mini wind turbine. It was found that power generation is 3 times higher during northeast monsoon season at 15 m elevation. This proved that the northeast monsoon season has higher potential in generating power by wind turbine in East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia. However, only a total of 153.4 kWh/year of power can be generated at this condition. The power generator utilization factor PGUI or capacity ratio was merely 0.06 and it is not technically viable. By increasing the height of wind turbine to 60 m elevation, power generation amount drastically increased to 344 kWh/year, with PGUI of 0.13. This is about two-thirds of PGUI for photovoltaic technology which is 0.21 at this site. If offshore condition was considered, power generation amount further increased to 1,328 kWh/year with PGUI of 0.51. Thus, for a common use of mini wind turbine that is usually installed on-site at low elevation, it has low power generation potential. But, if high elevation as what large wind turbine needed is implemented, it is technically viable option in East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia.

  20. Effect of temperate climate tree species on gross ammonification, gross nitrification and N2O formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüggemann, N.; Rosenkranz, P.; Papen, H.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.

    2003-04-01

    Microbial nitrogen turnover processes in the soil, like ammonification, nitrification and denitrification, play an important role in the formation of nitrous oxide (N2O): (i) ammonification, because it releases nitrogen from organic material in the form of ammonium (NH4+), which in turn can serve as substrate for nitrification; (ii) nitrification itself (i.e. the turnover of NH4+ to nitrate, NO3-), during which nitric oxide (NO) and N2O can be released as by-products at varying ratios; (iii) denitrification, in which NO3- serves as electron acceptor and is converted to molecular nitrogen (N2) via NO and N2O as intermediates, that can also be partially lost to the atmosphere. Temperate forest soils are a substantial source of atmospheric N2O contributing up to 10% to the total atmospheric N2O budget. However, this figure is afflicted with a huge uncertainty due to a number of factors governing the soil N2O formation, consumption, release and uptake, which are not fully understood at present. To one of these factors belongs the influence of the tree species on nitrogen turnover processes in the soil and the formation of N trace gases related with them. The aim of the present work was to analyse this tree species effect for the temperate climate region. For this purpose the effect of five different temperate tree species, having the same age and growing on the same soil in direct vicinity to each other, on gross ammonification and gross nitrification as well as on N2O formation was investigated. The trees (common beech, Fagus sylvatica; pedunculate oak, Quercus robur; Norway spruce, Picea abies; Japanese larch, Larix leptolepis; mountain pine, Pinus mugo) were part of a species trial in Western Jutland, Denmark, established in 1965 on a former sandy heathland. Samples from the soil under these five tree species were taken in spring and in summer 2002, respectively, differentiating between organic layer and mineral soil. The gross rates of ammonification as well of

  1. Integration of hydrogen energy technologies in stand-alone power systems analysis of the current potential for applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoulias, E.I.; Lymberopoulos, N.; Tsoutsos, T.; Glockner, R.; Mydske, H.J.; Vosseler, I.; Gavalda, O.; Taylor, P.

    2006-01-01

    The European study entitled: 'Market Potential Analysis for Introduction of Hydrogen Energy Technology in Stand-Alone Power Systems (H-SAPS)' aimed to establish a broad understanding of the market potential for H-SAPS and provide a basis for promoting in wide scale new technological applications. The scope of the study was limited to small and medium installations, up to a few hundred kW power rating and based on RE as the primary energy source. The potential for hydrogen technology in SAPS was investigated through an assessment of the technical potential for hydrogen, the market analysis and the evaluation of external factors. The results are mostly directed towards action by governments and the research community but also industry involvement is identified. The results include targeted market research, establishment of individual cost targets, regulatory changes to facilitate alternative grid solutions, information and capacity building, focused technology research and bridging the technology gaps. (author)

  2. A study of gross morphological and histological syringeal features of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study of gross morphological and histological syringeal features of true francolins (Galliformes: Francolinus, Scleroptila, Peliperdix and Dendroperdix spp.) and spurfowls ( Pternistis spp.) in a phylogenetic context.

  3. Wave power potential at a few shallow-water locations around Indian coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SanilKumar, V.; Dubhashi, K.K.; Nair, T.M.B.; Singh, J.

    less with maximum value of 31.8 kW m sup(-1). The average wave power during the summer monsoon is high (15.5-19.3 kW m sup(-1)) along the west coast of India. The study shows that the annual average wave power (1.8-7.6 kW m sup(-1)) along the locations...

  4. Promoting gross motor skills and physical activity in childcare: A translational randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Rachel A; Okely, Anthony D; Hinkley, Trina; Batterham, Marijka; Burke, Claire

    2016-09-01

    Educator-led programs for physical activity and motor skill development show potential but few have been implemented and evaluated using a randomized controlled design. Furthermore, few educator-led programs have evaluated both gross motor skills and physical activity. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate a gross motor skill and physical activity program for preschool children which was facilitated solely by childcare educators. A six-month 2-arm randomized controlled trial was implemented between April and September 2012 in four early childhood centers in Tasmania, Australia. Educators participated in ongoing professional development sessions and children participated in structured physical activity lessons and unstructured physical activity sessions. In total, 150 children were recruited from four centers which were randomized to intervention or wait-list control group. Six early childhood educators from the intervention centers were trained to deliver the intervention. Gross motor skills were assessed using the Test of Gross Motor Development (2nd edition) and physical activity was measured objectively using GT3X+ Actigraph accelerometers. No statistically significant differences were identified. However, small to medium effect sizes, in favor of the intervention group, were evident for four of the five gross motor skills and the total gross motor skill score and small to medium effect sizes were reported for all physical activity outcomes. This study highlights the potential of educator-led physical activity interventions and supports the need for further translational trials within the early childhood sector. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The atomic power state and national security - the hazardous nuclear potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damm, W.; Daniels, W.

    1989-01-01

    The authors have chosen the uranium/plutonium cycle, the problems involved in safety engineering of power plant, and the power industry's structural pattern in order to show and to prove the doubtfulness of safety philosophies developed for nuclear energy which in fact is not mastered by the country's technological, social, or economic capabilities. The party 'The Greens' considers nuclear energy to be a hazard to national security and therefore demands prompt abandonment of nuclear power in order to save man and the natural environment. Surplus power supply is to be replaced by the concept of demand-tailored power generation, which is to be placed on the following footing: (1) purposeful and intelligent utilisation of energy allowing dramatic reduction of energy consumption; (2) Use and promotion of renewable energy sources; (3) Abandonment of monopolistic and undemocratic structures in the energy sector of the economy. (orig./HSCH) [de

  6. Potential for efficient frequency conversion at high average power using solid state nonlinear optical materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eimerl, D.

    1985-01-01

    High-average-power frequency conversion using solid state nonlinear materials is discussed. Recent laboratory experience and new developments in design concepts show that current technology, a few tens of watts, may be extended by several orders of magnitude. For example, using KD*P, efficient doubling (>70%) of Nd:YAG at average powers approaching 100 KW is possible; and for doubling to the blue or ultraviolet regions, the average power may approach 1 MW. Configurations using segmented apertures permit essentially unlimited scaling of average power. High average power is achieved by configuring the nonlinear material as a set of thin plates with a large ratio of surface area to volume and by cooling the exposed surfaces with a flowing gas. The design and material fabrication of such a harmonic generator are well within current technology

  7. The Gross Morphology and Histochemistry of Respiratory Muscles in Bottlenose Dolphins, Tursiops truncatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotten, Pamela B.; Piscitelli, Marina A.; McLellan, William A.; Rommel, Sentiel A.; Dearolf, Jennifer L.; Pabst, D. Ann

    2011-01-01

    Most mammals possess stamina because their locomotor and respiratory (i.e., ventilatory) systems are mechanically coupled. These systems are decoupled, however, in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) as they swim on a breath-hold. Locomotion and ventilation are coupled only during their brief surfacing event, when they respire explosively (up to 90% of total lung volume in approximately 0.3s) (Ridgway et al., 1969). The predominantly slow-twitch fiber profile of their diaphragm (Dearolf, 2003) suggests that this muscle does not likely power their rapid ventilatory event. Based upon Bramble's (1989) biomechanical model of locomotor-respiratory coupling in galloping mammals, it was hypothesized that locomotor muscles function to power ventilation in bottlenose dolphins. It was further hypothesized that these muscles would be composed predominantly of fast-twitch fibers to facilitate the bottlenose dolphin's rapid ventilation. The gross morphology of cranio-cervical (scalenus, sternocephalicus, sternohyoid), thoracic (intercostals, transverse thoracis), and lumbo-pelvic (hypaxialis, rectus abdominis, abdominal obliques) muscles (n=7) and the fiber-type profiles (n=6) of selected muscles (scalenus, sternocephalicus, sternohyoid, rectus abdominis) of bottlenose dolphins were investigated. Physical manipulations of excised thoracic units were carried out to investigate potential actions of these muscles. Results suggest that the cranio-cervical muscles act to draw the sternum and associated ribs cranio-dorsally, which flares the ribs laterally, and increases the thoracic cavity volume required for inspiration. The lumbo-pelvic muscles act to draw the sternum and caudal ribs caudally, which decreases the volumes of the thoracic and abdominal cavities required for expiration. All muscles investigated were composed predominantly of fast-twitch fibers (range 61-88% by area) and appear histochemically poised for rapid contraction. These combined results suggest that

  8. 77 FR 47877 - Potential Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Offshore Maine...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-10

    ... Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Offshore Maine; Request for Interest... Request for a Commercial OCS Wind Lease, Request for Interest, and Request for Public Comment SUMMARY: The... (Statoil NA) to acquire an OCS wind lease; (2) solicit public input regarding the proposal, its potential...

  9. 1?10 kW Stationary Combined Heat and Power Systems Status and Technical Potential: Independent Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maru, H. C.; Singhal, S. C.; Stone, C.; Wheeler, D.

    2010-11-01

    This independent review examines the status and technical potential of 1-10 kW stationary combined heat and power fuel cell systems and analyzes the achievability of the DOE cost, efficiency, and durability targets for 2012, 2015, and 2020.

  10. Impact of financial environmental incentives in the potential of electric power generation on the sugar cane plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, Claudio Plaza; Walter, Arnaldo

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the work is to present the electric power generation from biomass and the economic potential from sugar cane plants in Brazil. Computerized electricity costs simulation are presented and several financial incentives and external market effects are considered. The results are also presented and criticized

  11. Pump power in Norway: the costs and a potential prospect; Pumpekraft i Noreg: kostnadar og utsikter til potensial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamnaberg, Haavard

    2011-07-01

    Pumped storage power plants have long been used to regulate the production relative variations in consumption, but there is no preliminary pumping power plant in Norway built to regulate on short terms. To increase the knowledge about the possibilities to establish a pumping power plant in Norway, NVE has therefore been made a study of how pumping power can be drawn up and what it costs to build pumped storage plant between already existing magazine. One can not just based on cost and design conclude anything about the potential for pumped storage plant in Norway, but it is a start of a work that might make it easier to assess to what extent this may be possible. (eb)

  12. 46 CFR 169.673 - Installation of wiring for power and lighting circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Installation of wiring for power and lighting circuits... SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Electrical Installations Operating at Potentials of Less Than 50 Volts on Vessels of Less Than 100 Gross Tons § 169.673 Installation of wiring for...

  13. POTENTIAL CONSEQUENCES OF THE DEREGULATION POLICY FOR THE ISRAELI POWER INDUSTRY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deich, I.; Elmakais, D.; Frant, S.

    2007-07-01

    This paper describes the outcomes of a study prepared by the system planners of the Israel Electric Corp. It is intended to reveal general trends expected from opening of the Israeli power generation market to competition and to analyze possible implications of the different behavior of competitive markets compared to a regulated monopoly on electricity prices, system reliability, market stability and medium- and long-term development of the Israeli power system. It is the first work analyzing this issue in Israel, which was based on simulations of the Israeli power system functioning under competition for a comprehensive set of scenarios regarding possible future. (auth)

  14. The power of PV: one US company shows the potential of solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, L.

    2005-01-01

    A California-based company, PowerLight, has grown from a one-man shop in 1991 to a company with 100 employees, an annual turnover of $100 million and an impressive client list. The company is one of the USA's fastest growing companies and a leader in large-scale, grid-connected solar systems. Its patented PowerGuard offers a lightweight solar rooftop assembly, while its PowerTracker product is a ground-mounted PV system. Details of some of the company's large projects are given and its plans for new markets highlighted

  15. Results from study of potential early commercial MHD power plants and from recent ETF design work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hals, F.; Kessler, R.; Swallom, D.; Westra, L.; Zar, J.; Morgan, W.; Bozzuto, C.

    1980-06-01

    The study deals with different 'moderate technology' entry-level commercial MHD power plants. Two of the reference plants are based on combustion of coal with air preheated in a high-temperature regenerative air heater separately fired with a low-BTU gas produced in a gasifier integrated with the power plant. The third reference plant design is based on the use of oxygen enriched combustion air. Performance calculations show that an overall power plant efficiency of the order of 44% can be reached with the use of oxygen enrichment.

  16. CO2 reduction potential of future coal gasification based power generation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, D.; Oudhuis, A.B.J.; Van Veen, H.M.

    1992-03-01

    Assessment studies are carried out on coal gasification power plants integrated with gas turbines (IGCC) or molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) without and with CO 2 -removal. System elements include coal gasification, high-temperature gas-cleaning, molten carbonate fuel cells or gas turbines, CO shift, membrane separation, CO 2 recovery and a bottoming cycle. Various system configurations are evaluated on the basis of thermodynamic computations. The energy balances of the various system configurations clearly indicate that integrated coal gasification MCFC power plants (IGMCFC) with CO 2 removal have high efficiencies (42-47% LHV) compared to IGCC power plants with CO 2 -removal (33-38% LHV) and that the CO 2 -removal is simplified due to the specific properties of the molten carbonate fuel cells. IGMCFC is therefore an option with future prospective in the light of clean coal technologies for power generation with high energy efficiencies and low emissions. 2 figs., 3 tabs., 10 refs

  17. Civil society involvement in informing population on potential risks of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgescu, C.; Andrei, L.

    1996-01-01

    In 1977 the town Cernavoda, Romania has been selected for the construction of the first Romanian Nuclear Power Plant provided with five CANDU type reactors, planned, at that time, to cover one third of the country power demand. The first Cernavoda Unit has been commissioned on December 2, 1996. The paper presents the preoccupation of different non-governmental organizations with respect to the impact of the nuclear plant operation on the environment and public health and, more generally, of the Uranium mining, heavy water production plants and radioactive waste disposal problems. Such issues, concerning the the energy efficiency and the nuclear power problems in Romania were not exposed so far to the public debate and little, if any, reliable information was provided to the population. The paper stresses the role of civil society in informing population on the risks implied by the nuclear power projects. 2 refs

  18. Nuclear power supplies: their potential and the practical problems to their achievement for space missions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colston, B.W.; Brehm, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    The anticipated growth of the space station power requirement provides a good example of the problem the space nuclear power supply developers have to contend with: should a reactor power supply be developed that attempts to be all things to all missions, i.e., is highly flexible in its ability to meet a wide variety of missions, or should the development of a reactor system await a specific mission definition and be customized to this mission. This leads, of course, to a chicken-and-egg situation. For power requirements of several hundreds of kilowatts or more, no nuclear power source exists or is even far enough along in the definition stage (much less the development stage) for NASA to reasonably assume probable availability within the next 10 years. The real problem of space nuclear power is this ''chicken-and-egg'' syndrome: DOE will not develop a space reactor system for NASA without a firm mission, and NASA will not specify a firm mission requiring a space reactor because such a system doesn't exist and is perceived not to be developable within the time frame of the mission. The problem is how to break this cycle. The SP-100 program has taken an important first step to breaking this cycle, but this program is much more design-specific than what is required to achieve a broad technology base and latitude in achievable power level. In contrast to the SP-100 approach, a wider perspective is required: the development of the appropriate technologies for power levels can be broken into ranges, say, from 100 kWe to 1000 kWe, and from 1000 kWe to 10,000 kWe

  19. The account of sagging of wires at definition of specific potential factors of air High-Voltage Power Transmission Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suslov V.M.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The opportunity approached is shown, but more exact as it is usually accepted, the account of sagging of wires at definition of specific potential factors air High-Voltage Power Transmission Lines. The technique of reception of analytical expressions is resulted. For an opportunity of comparison traditional expressions for specific potential factors are resulted also. Communication of the offered and traditional analytical expressions is shown. Offered analytical expressions are not difficult for programming on a personal computer of any class and besides they allow to make an estimation of an error of traditional expressions by means of parallel definition of specific potential factors by both ways.

  20. Compressed-air power tools in orthopaedic surgery: exhaust air is a potential source of contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagi, H C; DiPasquale, Thomas; Sanders, Roy; Herscovici, Dolfi

    2002-01-01

    To determine if the exhaust from surgical compressed-air power tools contains bacteria and if the exhaust leads to contamination of sterile surfaces. Bacteriologic study of orthopaedic power tools. Level I trauma center operative theater. None. Part I. Exhaust from two sterile compact air drills was sampled directly at the exhaust port. Part II. Exhaust from the drills was directed at sterile agar plates from varying distances. The agar plates represented sterile surfaces within the operative field. Part III. Control cultures. A battery-powered drill was operated over open agar plates in similar fashion as the compressed-air drills. Agar plates left open in the operative theater served as controls to rule out atmospheric contamination. Random cultures were taken from agar plates, gloves, drills, and hoses. Incidence of positive cultures. In Part I, all filters from both compressed-air drill exhausts were culture negative ( = 0.008). In Part II, the incidence of positive cultures for air drills number one and number two was 73% and 82%, respectively. The most commonly encountered organisms were, coagulase-negative Staphylococcus, and Micrococcus species. All control cultures from agar plates, battery-powered drill, gloves, and hoses were negative ( compressed-air power tools in orthopaedic surgery may contribute to the dissemination of bacteria onto the surgical field. We do not recommend the use of compressed-air power tools that do not have a contained exhaust.

  1. Geologic CO2 Sequestration Potential of 42 California Power Plant Sites: A Status Report to WESTCARB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, Katherine B.L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wagoner, J. L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2011-06-15

    Forty-two California natural gas combined-cycle (NGCC) power plant sites were evaluated for geologic carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration potential. The following data were collected in order to gauge the sequestration potential of each power plant site: nearest potential CO2 sink, proximity to oil or gas fi elds, subsurface geology, surface expression of nearby faults, and subsurface water. The data for each site were compiled into a one-page, standalone profi le to serve as a quick reference for future decision-makers. A subset of these data was compiled into a summary table for easy comparison of all 42 sites. Decision-makers will consider the geologic CO2 sequestration potential of each power plant in concert with its CO2 capture potential and will select the most suitable sites for a future carbon capture and storage project. Once the most promising sites are selected, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) will conduct additional geologic research in order to construct a detailed 3D geologic model for those sites.

  2. 26 CFR 1.832-1 - Gross income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., except that in the case of a mutual fire insurance company described in § 1.831-1 the amount of single... TAXES Other Insurance Companies § 1.832-1 Gross income. (a) Gross income as defined in section 832(b)(1... approved by the National Convention of Insurance Commissioners, as well as the gain derived from the sale...

  3. 26 CFR 1.993-6 - Definition of gross receipts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definition of gross receipts. 1.993-6 Section 1.993-6 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Domestic International Sales Corporations § 1.993-6 Definition of gross receipts. (a...

  4. 7 CFR 1424.7 - Gross payable units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... payments (APP), and base production payments (BPP). Repayment rates shall be based on previous payment... 50 gallons of net production increase. (2) For BPP, which will be made on production not eligible for... biodiesel production gross payable units. (3) Adding the APP and BPP to determine biodiesel gross payable...

  5. Guidelines for Standard Photography in Gross and Clinical Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barut, Cagatay; Ertilav, Hakan

    2011-01-01

    Photography has a widespread usage in medicine and anatomy. In this review, authors focused on the usage of photography in gross and clinical anatomy. Photography in gross and clinical anatomy is not only essential for accurate documentation of morphological findings but also important in sharing knowledge and experience. Photographs of cadavers…

  6. Psychiatric Symptoms in Children with Gross Motor Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emck, Claudia; Bosscher, Ruud J.; van Wieringen, Piet C. W.; Doreleijers, Theo; Beek, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Children with psychiatric disorders often demonstrate gross motor problems. This study investigates if the reverse also holds true by assessing psychiatric symptoms present in children with gross motor problems. Emotional, behavioral, and autism spectrum disorders (ASD), as well as psychosocial problems, were assessed in a sample of 40 children…

  7. Power potential and the energy in the Spiš region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Major Michal

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The contribution is a short review of the energy power information about three districts: Spišská Nová Ves, Gelnica and Levoèa. These districts are parts of the county of Košice and Prešov. The contribution contains a summary of basic illustration information about the sources of energy and about a consumption of electric and heat energy in the area. In the area of the region, there is no standard thermal power station and no nuclear power station. From own sources of the region, there is especially a water energy. The majority of heat and electric energy, which is necessary in the region, comes from outside sources. The sources of power are situated in Spišská Nová Ves and Gelnica districts. The Levoèa district has no own source of energy.In the Spišská Nová Ves district, there is one industrial establishment, which produces the heat and electric energy for the own use and also for the export. With the exception of this one establishment, in Spišská district, there are 3 little hydro - electric power plants with the total installed power capacity 138 kW. And there is also one energy unit for the output of electricity and heat with the installed power capacity 400 kW. In the area of Gelnica, there is one hydro – electric power plant, in the water reservoir named Ružín. It has installed the power capacity 2x30 MW. There are also 7 little hydro - electric power plants with the total installed power capacity 528 kW and one energy unit for the output of electricity and heat with installed power capacity 1100 kW.The future development of own energy sources in the region is oriented to the exploitation of natural energy sources, especially to the water energy and energy from biological gas. There is project of using the biological gas for the power purpose from one dump in the Spišská Nová Ves district. It will be realised in the time period of 10 years. In all listed above districts measurements are realized, which will show if

  8. Potential impact of (CET) carbon emissions trading on China's power sector: A perspective from different allowance allocation options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cong, Rong-Gang; Wei, Yi-Ming

    2010-01-01

    In Copenhagen climate conference China government promised that China would cut down carbon intensity 40-45% from 2005 by 2020. CET (carbon emissions trading) is an effective tool to reduce emissions. But because CET is not fully implemented in China up to now, how to design it and its potential impact are unknown to us. This paper studies the potential impact of introduction of CET on China's power sector and discusses the impact of different allocation options of allowances. Agent-based modeling is one appealing new methodology that has the potential to overcome some shortcomings of traditional methods. We establish an agent-based model, CETICEM (CET Introduced China Electricity Market), of introduction of CET to China. In CETICEM, six types of agents and two markets are modeled. We find that: (1) CET internalizes environment cost; increases the average electricity price by 12%; and transfers carbon price volatility to the electricity market, increasing electricity price volatility by 4%. (2) CET influences the relative cost of different power generation technologies through the carbon price, significantly increasing the proportion of environmentally friendly technologies; expensive solar power generation in particular develops significantly, with final proportion increasing by 14%. (3) Emission-based allocation brings about both higher electricity and carbon prices than by output-based allocation which encourages producers to be environmentally friendly. Therefore, output-based allocation would be more conducive to reducing emissions in the Chinese power sector. (author)

  9. Comparing carbon capture and storage (CCS) with concentrating solar power (CSP): Potentials, costs, risks, and barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lilliestam, Johan; Bielicki, Jeffrey M.; Patt, Anthony G.

    2012-01-01

    Coal power coupled with Carbon [Dioxide] Capture and Storage (CCS), and Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) technologies are often included in the portfolio of climate change mitigation options intended to decarbonize electricity systems. Both of these technologies can provide baseload electricity, are in early stages of maturity, and have benefits, costs, and obstacles. We compare and contrast CCS applied to coal-fired power plants with CSP. At present, both technologies are more expensive than existing electricity-generating options, but costs should decrease with large-scale deployment, especially in the case of CSP. For CCS, technological challenges still remain, storage risks must be clarified, and regulatory and legal uncertainties remain. For CSP, current challenges include electricity transmission and business models for a rapid and extensive expansion of high-voltage transmission lines. The need for international cooperation may impede CSP expansion in Europe. Highlights: ► Both technologies could provide low-carbon base load power. ► Both technologies require new networks, for either CO 2 or power transmission. ► CSP is closer to being a viable technology ready for pervasive diffusion. ► The costs associated with market saturation would be lower for CSP. ► The regulatory changes required for CSP diffusion are somewhat greater than for CCS.

  10. Assessment of offshore wind power potential in the Aegean and Ionian Seas based on high-resolution hindcast model results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takvor Soukissian

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study long-term wind data obtained from high-resolution hindcast simulations is used to analytically assess offshore wind power potential in the Aegean and Ionian Seas and provide wind climate and wind power potential characteristics at selected locations, where offshore wind farms are at the concept/planning phase. After ensuring the good model performance through detailed validation against buoy measurements, offshore wind speed and wind direction at 10 m above sea level are statistically analyzed on the annual and seasonal time scale. The spatial distribution of the mean wind speed and wind direction are provided in the appropriate time scales, along with the mean annual and the inter-annual variability; these statistical quantities are useful in the offshore wind energy sector as regards the preliminary identification of favorable sites for exploitation of offshore wind energy. Moreover, the offshore wind power potential and its variability are also estimated at 80 m height above sea level. The obtained results reveal that there are specific areas in the central and the eastern Aegean Sea that combine intense annual winds with low variability; the annual offshore wind power potential in these areas reach values close to 900 W/m2, suggesting that a detailed assessment of offshore wind energy would be worth noticing and could lead in attractive investments. Furthermore, as a rough estimate of the availability factor, the equiprobable contours of the event [4 m/s ≤ wind speed ≤ 25 m/s] are also estimated and presented. The selected lower and upper bounds of wind speed correspond to typical cut-in and cut-out wind speed thresholds, respectively, for commercial offshore wind turbines. Finally, for seven offshore wind farms that are at the concept/planning phase the main wind climate and wind power density characteristics are also provided.

  11. An electronic instructor for gross anatomy dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josephson, Eleanor M; Moore, Larry J

    2006-01-01

    Gross anatomy is time consuming to teach and to learn. Because the process of dissection takes up so much student time, assistance in the form of an in-lab instructional DVD program might improve student performance. The DVD could be viewed with a portable device by individual dissection groups at their tables. Groups could dissect at their own pace, with access to step-by-step demonstrations and answers to frequently asked anatomical questions. We created an instructional DVD program demonstrating dissection of the canine ventral neck and thoracic limb. The effect on student exam scores of using the DVD versus not using it was measured in a controlled, two-sample study using incoming first-year veterinary students as volunteers. Volunteers were told the study was of two different dissection methods; the DVD was not specifically mentioned until after the students were separated into two groups (Blue/DVD group and Orange/No DVD group), and then only to volunteers in the Blue group. Except for the DVD, the two groups had the same resources. The difference in scores on an exam given after a single dissection period did not differ sufficiently to conclude that DVD use raised the mean score; however, 73% of the DVD group scored 60% or higher, while only 38% of the No DVD group scored 60% or higher. The difference in mean scores overall was 2.3 points out of a possible 49, suggesting that the DVD helped students, especially those with lower scores, to earn two to three more points than they would have otherwise.

  12. A Time-Varying Potential-Based Demand Response Method for Mitigating the Impacts of Wind Power Forecasting Errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Ning

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The uncertainty of wind power results in wind power forecasting errors (WPFE which lead to difficulties in formulating dispatching strategies to maintain the power balance. Demand response (DR is a promising tool to balance power by alleviating the impact of WPFE. This paper offers a control method of combining DR and automatic generation control (AGC units to smooth the system’s imbalance, considering the real-time DR potential (DRP and security constraints. A schematic diagram is proposed from the perspective of a dispatching center that manages smart appliances including air conditioner (AC, water heater (WH, electric vehicle (EV loads, and AGC units to maximize the wind accommodation. The presented model schedules the AC, WH, and EV loads without compromising the consumers’ comfort preferences. Meanwhile, the ramp constraint of generators and power flow transmission constraint are considered to guarantee the safety and stability of the power system. To demonstrate the performance of the proposed approach, simulations are performed in an IEEE 24-node system. The results indicate that considerable benefits can be realized by coordinating the DR and AGC units to mitigate the WPFE impacts.

  13. Status and potential of small and medium power reactors in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butt, P.; Ahmad, M.

    1998-01-01

    Pakistan's interest in nuclear technology dates back to the late 1950s, when Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) was established with the responsibility of promoting peaceful uses of nuclear technology for the development of national economy. A beginning was made in the field of nuclear power generation by commissioning the 137 MW Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (KANUPP) in 1971. In addition to KANUPP, the other activities during this period included studies for nuclear power and sea water desalination in the coastal areas. This was followed by a series of feasibility and long term planning studies (1969-1981) to study and firm up the prospects of nuclear power in the country, using the ever-improving analytical tools and data base. An Energy and Nuclear Power Planning Study for Pakistan has just been completed as a technical cooperation project of the IAEA to provide a sound basis for the formulation of the strategy for future development of nuclear power. The successful functioning of KANUPP and the 300 MW NPP (CHASNUPP) presently being built by China have given the country great confidence and a sense of direction to plan more nuclear units in future, in the S and MR range, in a manner that would progressively lead to a high degree of self-reliance. A large number of studies have been carried out in the past all over the world to investigate the possibility of using nuclear generated heat for the purpose of desalting seawater. It is now proposed that IAEA may initiate a programme to install an International Demonstration Nuclear Desalination Plant (IDNDP) in some developing country to provide hands on experience in this field. (author)

  14. Fuel from the Sky: Solar Power's Potential for Western Energy Supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitner, A.

    2002-07-01

    A reliable and affordable supply of electricity is essential to protect public health and safety and to sustain a vigorous economy in the West. Renewable energy in the form of wind or solar provides one of the means of meeting the demand for power while minimizing adverse impacts on the environment, increasing fuel diversity, and hedging against fuel price volatility. Concentrating solar power (CSP) is the most efficient and cost-effective way to generate electricity from the sun. Hundreds of megawatts of CSP solar-generating capacity could be brought on-line within a few years and make a meaningful contribution to the energy needs of the West.

  15. Analyzing Potential Grid Impacts from Future In-Motion Roadway Wireless Power Transfer Scenarios: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meintz, Andrew; Gonder, Jeffrey; Jorgenson, Jennie; Brooker, Aaron

    2016-08-01

    This work examines the grid impact of in-motion roadway wireless power transfer through the examination of the electrification of high-capacity roadways inside a metropolitan area. The work uses data from a regional travel study and the Federal Highway Administration's Highway Performance Monitoring System to estimate the electrified roadway's hourly power use throughout a week. The data are then combined with hourly grid load estimates for the same metropolitan area to determine the overlay of traditional grid load with additional load from a future electrified roadway.

  16. Contribution of clinical trials to gross domestic product in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaló, Zoltán; Antal, János; Pénzes, Miklós; Pozsgay, Csilla; Szepezdi, Zsuzsanna; Nagyjánosi, László

    2014-10-01

    To determine the contribution of clinical trials to the gross domestic product (GDP) in Hungary. An anonymous survey of pharmaceutical companies and clinical research organizations (CROs) was conducted to estimate their clinical trial-related employment and revenues. Clinical trial documents at the National Institute of Pharmacy (NIP) were analyzed to estimate trial-related revenues at health care institutions and the value of investigational medical products (IMPs) based on avoided drug costs. Financial benefits were calculated as 2010 US $ purchasing power parity (PPP) values. Clinical trials increased the revenue of Hungarian health care providers by 1 US $65.6 million. The value of IMPs was US $67.0 million. Clinical trial operation and management activities generated 900 jobs and US $166.9 million in revenue among CROs and pharmaceutical companies. The contribution of clinical trials to the Hungarian GDP in 2010 amounted to 0.2%. Participation in international clinical trials may result in health, financial, and intangible benefits that contribute to the sustainability of health care systems, especially in countries with severe resource constraints. Although a conservative approach was employed to estimate the economic benefits of clinical trials, further research is necessary to improve the generalizability of our findings.

  17. Solar resources and power potential mapping in Vietnam using satellite-derived and GIS-based information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polo, J.; Bernardos, A.; Navarro, A.A.; Fernandez-Peruchena, C.M.; Ramírez, L.; Guisado, María V.; Martínez, S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Satellite-based, reanalysis data and measurements are combined for solar mapping. • Plant output modeling for PV and CSP results in simple expressions of solar potential. • Solar resource, solar potential are used in a GIS for determine technical solar potential. • Solar resource and potential maps of Vietnam are presented. - Abstract: The present paper presents maps of the solar resources in Vietnam and of the solar potential for concentrating solar power (CSP) and for grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) technology. The mapping of solar radiation components has been calculated from satellite-derived data combined with solar radiation derived from sunshine duration and other additional sources of information based on reanalysis for several atmospheric and meteorological parameters involved. Two scenarios have been selected for the study of the solar potential: CSP Parabolic Trough of 50 MWe and grid-connected Flat Plate PV plant of around 1 MWe. For each selected scenario plant performance simulations have been computed for developing simple expressions that allow the estimation of the solar potential from the annual solar irradiation and the latitude of every site in Vietnam. Finally, Geographic Information Systems (GIS) have been used for combining the solar potential with the land availability according each scenario to deliver the technical solar potential maps of Vietnam

  18. Mismatch of wind power capacity and generation: causing factors, GHG emissions and potential policy responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Subtil Lacerda, J.; van den Bergh, J.C.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Policies to assure combatting climate change and realising energy security have stimulated a rapid growth in global installed capacity of renewable energy generation. The expansion of power generation from renewables, though, has so far lagged behind the growth in generation capacity. This indicates

  19. The market potential of modular HTRs as heat and power sources in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albisu, F.

    1991-01-01

    The state of energy in Spain in mid-1990 is analysed, first in overall fashion and then with more specific attention to the areas in which HTR systems might be deployed: (i) generation of electricity for the peninsula and for the archipelagos; (ii) cogeneration (or combined heat and power production) in industry; (iii) district heating; (iv) desalination of sea water

  20. Potential Environmental Impacts of Hydrogen-based Transportation and Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grieb, Thomas M; Mills, W B; Jacobson, Mark Z; Summers, Karen V; Crossan, A Brook

    2010-12-31

    Hydrogen (H2) offers advantages as an energy carrier: minimal discharge of pollutants, production from multiple sources, increased thermodynamic efficiencies compared to fossil fuels, and reduced dependence on foreign oil. However, potential impacts from the H2 generation processes, transport and distribution of H2, and releases of H2 into the atmosphere have been proposed. The goal of this project was to analyze the effects of emissions of hydrogen, the six criteria pollutants and greenhouse gases on climate, human health, materials and structures. This project was part of a larger effort by DOE to assess the life-cycle costs and benefits and environmental impacts to inform decisions regarding future hydrogen research. Technical Approach: A modeling approach was developed and used to evaluate the potential environmental effects associated with the conversion of the on-road vehicle fleet from fossil-fuel vehicles to hydrogen fuel cell vehicles. GATOR-GCMOM was the primary tool used to predict atmospheric concentrations of gases and aerosols for selected scenarios. This model accounts for all feedbacks among major atmospheric processes based on first principles. The future scenarios and the emission rates selected for this analysis of hydrogen environmental effects are based on the scenarios developed by IPCC. The scenarios selected for the model simulations are a 2000 and 2050 A1B base cases, and a 2050 A1B case with hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (HFCVs). The hydrogen fuel cell scenario assumed conversion of 90% of fossil-fuel on-road vehicles (FFOV) in developed countries and 45% of FFOVs vehicles in other countries to HFCVs, with the H2 produced by steam-reforming of natural gas (SHFCVs). Simulations were conducted to examine the effect of converting the world's FFOVs to HFCVs, where the H2 is produced by wind-powered electrolysis (WHFCVs). In all scenarios a 3% leakage of H2 consumed was assumed. Two new models were developed that provide the ability to

  1. Economic potential of nuclear-powered ice-breaking container ship via the northern sea route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takamasa, Tomoji; Kondo, Koichi

    2000-01-01

    An improved cassette-type marine reactor MRX (Marine Reactor X) which is currently researched and developed by the JAERI is designed to be easily removed and transferred to another ship. If the reactor in a nuclear-powered ship, which is the reason for its higher cost, were replaced by the cassette-type-MRX, the reusability of the MRX would reduce the cost difference between nuclear-powered and diesel ships. As an investigation of one aspect of a cassette-type MRX, we attempted in this study to do an economic review of an MRX-installed nuclear-powered ice-breaking container ship sailing via the Arctic Ocean. The transportation cost between the Far East and Europe to carry one TEU (twenty-foot-equivalent container unit) over the entire life of the ship for an MRX (which is used for a 20-year period)-installed container ship sailing via the Arctic Ocean is about 70% higher than the Suez Canal diesel ship, carrying 8,000 TEU and sailing at 25 knots, and about 10% higher than the Suez Canal diesel ship carrying 4,000 TEU and sailing at 34 knots. The cost for a cassette-type-MRX (which is used for a 40-year period, removed and transferred to a second ship after being used for 20 years in the first ship)-installed nuclear-powered container ship is about 7% lower than that for the one operated for 20 years. Considering any loss or reduction in sales opportunities through the extension of the transportation period, the nuclear-powered container ship via the Arctic Sea is a more suitable means of transportation than a diesel ship sailing at 25 knots via the Suez Canal when the value of the commodities carried exceeds 2,800 dollars per freight ton. (author)

  2. Assessing current and future techno-economic potential of concentrated solar power and photovoltaic electricity generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Köberle, Alexandre C.; Gernaat, David E H J; van Vuuren, Detlef P.

    2015-01-01

    CSP and PV technologies represent energy sources with large potentials. We present cost-supply curves for both technologies using a consistent methodology for 26 regions, based on geoexplicit information on solar radiation, land cover type and slope, exploring individual potential and

  3. Potential contribution of hydro power plants to the energy consumption of East Asian islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoes, O.A.C.; Meijer, L.J.J.; Sarfianto, D.R.; Van der Ent, R.J.

    2014-01-01

    Population growth, increasing energy demand and depleting fossil fuel resei-ves put a pressure on conventional methods of electricity generation. Hydropower is an alternative energy source that is known to have a large capacity potential. However, previous estimations of the potential capacity have

  4. Summarized report of geothermal well Gross Buchholz Gt1; Kurzprofil der Geothermiebohrung Gross Buchholz Gt1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, Frauke; Hesshaus, Annalena; Jatho, Reiner; Luppold, Friedrich-Wilhelm; Pletsch, Thomas; Tischner, Torsten [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BGR), Hannover (Germany); Hunze, Sabine; Orilski, Judith; Wonik, Thomas [Leibniz-Institut fuer Angewandte Geophysik (LIAG), Hannover (Germany); Roehling, Heinz-Gerd [Landesamt fuer Bergbau, Energie und Geologie (LBEG), Hannover (Germany)

    2012-01-15

    The well Gross Buchholz Gt1 is a deep geothermal well intended to demonstrate the feasibility of deep geothermal energy mining from tight sedimentary rocks. It is the core part of the GeneSys (Generated Geothermal Energy Systems) project, aiming at developing single well concepts for direct use of geothermal energy. During the course of the project, three different single well concepts have been developed and tested at the research well Horstberg Z1 which is geologically comparable to the Gross Buchholzwell. The latter is intended to supply the heating energy for the premises of Geozentrum Hannover, an office and lab complex of some 35.000 m{sup 2} housing about 1000 employees. The geothermal target are the sandstones of the Lower Triassic Middle Buntsandstein Formation, which have a temperature of about 165 C at 3700 depth. The well has reached a final depth of 3901 m below ground level, penetrating a nearly complete succession from the Lower Cretaceous (Albian) to the Lower Triassic (Lower Buntsandstein), while Tertiary and Upper Cretaceous sediments are missing. This article summarizes technical and geographic data, stratigraphic classification, geophysical logging, cores, and sidewall cores of the well. (orig.)

  5. Measurement of Gross Alpha and Gross Beta Radioactivity of River Yobe, North Eastern Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abba, H. T.; Sadiq, U.; Adeyemo, D. J.

    2013-01-01

    Measurement of the gross alpha and gross beta radioactivity of River Yobe has been carried out. Fifteen samples of the river water were collected from the farming, fishing, domestic/livestock and control areas along the river and were analyzed using desktop alpha/beta (MPC 2000- DP) counting system. The count results show the average alpha activities in farming, fishing, domestic/livestock and control areas are 0.207±0.082, 0.257±0.13, 0.437±0.315 and 0.237±0.10 Bq L -1 , respectively. The average beta activities in the four areas are 0.813±0.122, 0.308±0.0145, 0.563±0.230 and 0.225±0.0096 Bq L -1 , respectively. The overall results show that the alpha and beta activities in the four areas are far below the practical screening level of radioactivity in drinking water of 0.5 Bq L -1 for alpha and 1 Bq L -1 for beta recommended by CEC-FAO and WHO and therefore may not pose any serious detrimental health side-effects to the public users of the river.

  6. Gross motor skill development of kindergarten children in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aye, Thanda; Kuramoto-Ahuja, Tsugumi; Sato, Tamae; Sadakiyo, Kaori; Watanabe, Miyoko; Maruyama, Hitoshi

    2018-05-01

    [Purpose] The purposes of this study were to assess and explore the gender-based differences in gross motor skill development of 5-year-old Japanese children. [Subjects and Methods] This cross-sectional study recruited 60 healthy 5-year-old (third-year kindergarten, i.e., nencho ) children (34 boys, 26 girls) from one local private kindergarten school in Otawara city, Tochigi Prefecture, Japan. Gross motor skills, including six locomotor and six object control skills, were assessed using the test of gross motor development, second edition (TGMD-2). All subjects performed two trials of each gross motor skill, and the performances were video-recorded and scored. Assessment procedures were performed according to the standardized guidelines of the TGMD-2. [Results] The majority of subjects had an average level of overall gross motor skills. Girls had significantly better locomotor skills. Boys had significantly better object control skills. [Conclusion] The gross motor skill development of 5-year-old Japanese children involves gender-based differences in locomotor and object control skills. This study provided valuable information that can be used to establish normative references for the gross motor skills of 5-year-old Japanese children.

  7. Potential impact of (CET) carbon emissions trading on China’s power sector: A perspective from different allowance allocation options

    OpenAIRE

    Cong, Rong-Gang; Wei, Yi-Ming

    2010-01-01

    In Copenhagen climate conference China government promised that China would cut down carbon intensity 40e45% from 2005 by 2020. CET (carbon emissions trading) is an effective tool to reduce emissions. But because CET is not fully implemented in China up to now, how to design it and its potential impact are unknown to us. This paper studies the potential impact of introduction of CET on China’s power sector and discusses the impact of different allocation options of allowances. Agent-based mod...

  8. The Potential Pathways of Radionuclide Transformations On The Location Candidate of Nuclear Power Plants in Muria Peninsula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simandjuntak, A.G.; Syahrir

    1998-01-01

    The potential pathways of radionuclide transformations on the location candidate of nuclear power plants in Muria peninsula proposed to explain the potential of radionuclide pathways in the ecosystem to human based on annual effective dose calculations with elimination factor ≥ 1 of dose limit 50 mSv per year. The effective dose equivalent calculations used the program package Genll. The datum found from Bureau of Statistic Centre and NEWJEC was taken into calculations. The result of this study is very useful for radiological impact and environmental impact analysis. (author)

  9. Algal biodiesel production from power plant exhaust and its potential to replace petrodiesel and reduce greenhouse gas emissions

    OpenAIRE

    K. Hundt; B.V. Reddy

    2011-01-01

    The production of biofuels and other products from algae is a technology that is rapidly developing. This paper presents an overview of algae, its benefits over other biofuel sources and the technology involved in producing algal biofuel. The case study in this report looks at the potential of algal biodiesel, produced using power plant exhaust, to replace our current petrodiesel supply and consequently reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The results suggest that using 60% of all coal and gas po...

  10. Study on the Potential of Rice Straws as a Supplementary Fuel in Very Small Power Plants in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Penwadee Cheewaphongphan; Agapol Junpen; Orachorn Kamnoet; Savitri Garivait

    2018-01-01

    Agricultural residue is a major raw material for renewable energy production, particularly heat production, in Thailand. Meanwhile, the process-based residue, such as bagasse, rice husk, wood residue, palm fiber, palm shell, and saw dust, is used as a fuel for energy production in the agro-industry. Hence, this study is intended to assess the net potential and capacity of alternative agricultural residues, specifically rice straws, to serve as the supplementary fuel for very small power plant...

  11. Perspectives and potential of an integrated power supply system in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lichtenberg, H.

    1992-01-01

    A description of the initial situation and a few facts on the European network (UCPTE, NORDEL, COMECON) should serve as a basis for a look at future developments. The network developed from the consumer-oriented system of energy production. The sources of energy, which are spread over a large geographic area, have access to transportation routes and comply with the needs of the consumer were connected to form a regional, then a national network. Thus it was possible to balance the various types of power supply plants - base load, medium load and peak load - and adapt them to the needs of the consumer. A modest attempt to obtain such a balance beyond national boundaries has been made as well, especially between countries which both employ hydroelectric or therm power generation systems. The profitibality of such networks was the precondition for maintaining them. (DG) [de

  12. Assessment of Hydrogen Generation Potential from Biomass and its Application for Power Generation in Andaman and Nicobar Islands: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinaya C. Mathad

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Andaman and Nicobar Islands located southeast of Bay of Bengal in the Indian Ocean comprises of several small islands separated by sea over large distances which makes it impractical for electrifying all the islands by a single grid. A population of 380,581 (Census, 2011 living in these group of islands get their electricity demand catered through Diesel Generator Sets from 34 power houses with an aggregate capacity of 67.8 MW. Unavailability of any form of conventional fossil fuel reserves in the islands makes the diesel supplied in barges from southeastern coast of India as a sole lifeline for its power generation. Hence there is an urgent need for the development of a self sustainable model from non conventional energy resources to not only cater for the power demands but also to reduce the GHG emissions related with diesel powered generator sets. This paper discusses a self sustainable model for Andaman and Nicobar Islands that would cater the electrical demand through hydrogen produced from waste biomass resource which has a potential of replacing 86.65% of the diesel utilized in the diesel generator sets. The reduction in both the GHG emission and the cost of power generation would be evaluated to understand the impact of the self sustainable model on the environment and the livelihood of the local population of Andaman and Nicobar Islands

  13. Overview of current development in electrical energy storage technologies and the application potential in power system operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Xing; Wang, Jihong; Dooner, Mark; Clarke, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • An overview of the state-of-the-art in Electrical Energy Storage (EES) is provided. • A comprehensive analysis of various EES technologies is carried out. • An application potential analysis of the reviewed EES technologies is presented. • The presented synthesis to EES technologies can be used to support future R and D and deployment. - Abstract: Electrical power generation is changing dramatically across the world because of the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to introduce mixed energy sources. The power network faces great challenges in transmission and distribution to meet demand with unpredictable daily and seasonal variations. Electrical Energy Storage (EES) is recognized as underpinning technologies to have great potential in meeting these challenges, whereby energy is stored in a certain state, according to the technology used, and is converted to electrical energy when needed. However, the wide variety of options and complex characteristic matrices make it difficult to appraise a specific EES technology for a particular application. This paper intends to mitigate this problem by providing a comprehensive and clear picture of the state-of-the-art technologies available, and where they would be suited for integration into a power generation and distribution system. The paper starts with an overview of the operation principles, technical and economic performance features and the current research and development of important EES technologies, sorted into six main categories based on the types of energy stored. Following this, a comprehensive comparison and an application potential analysis of the reviewed technologies are presented

  14. Strange, charmed and b-flavoured mesons in an effective power-law potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barik, N.; Jena, S.N.

    1981-01-01

    We have shown that an effective non-coulombic power-law potenial, generating spin-dependence through scaler and vector exchanges in almost equal proportions along with zero quark-anomalous moment, which was found successful in earlier works for the fine-hyperfine splittings of heavy mesons like psi and T, can also describe very satisfactorily the S-wave hyperfine levels, M1-transition rates and electromagnetic mass difference of the strange, charmed and b-flavoured mesons. (orig.)

  15. Strange, charmed and b-flavoured mesons in an effective power-law potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barik, N; Jena, S N [Utkal Univ., Bhubaneswar (India). Dept. of Physics

    1981-05-14

    We have shown that an effective non-coulombic power-law potenial, generating spin-dependence through scaler and vector exchanges in almost equal proportions along with zero quark-anomalous moment, which was found successful in earlier works for the fine-hyperfine splittings of heavy mesons like psi and T, can also describe very satisfactorily the S-wave hyperfine levels, M1-transition rates and electromagnetic mass difference of the strange, charmed and b-flavoured mesons.

  16. Analyzing power measurements for neutron-nucleus scattering and the spin-orbit potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    Analyzing power A/sub y/(theta) and cross section measurements have been obtained from 10 to 17 MeV for 20 isotopes ranging from 6 Li to 208 Pb. These combined data sets provide a unique data base for nuclear model development. The experimental method for the A/sub y/(theta) measurements and comparisons to coupled-channels and spherical optical model calculations are given

  17. Citizens' views about the proposed Hartsville Nuclear Power Plant: a preliminary report of potential social impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuller, C.R.; Fowler, J.R.; Mattingly, T.J. Jr.; Sundstrom, E.; Lounsbury, J.; Passino, E.M.; Dowell, D.A.; Hutton, B.J.

    1975-05-01

    Preliminary results of a survey of public attitudes toward a proposed nuclear power plant facility at Hartsville, Tennessee are summarized. The purpose of the study was to aid in developing better methods for understanding the social consequences of energy facility development. The report is based on data obtained in interviews with 350 randomly selected respondents administered in Trousdale County, Tennessee during February 1975. (U.S.)

  18. The potential for increased power from combining P-values testing the same hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganju, Jitendra; Julie Ma, Guoguang

    2017-02-01

    The conventional approach to hypothesis testing for formal inference is to prespecify a single test statistic thought to be optimal. However, we usually have more than one test statistic in mind for testing the null hypothesis of no treatment effect but we do not know which one is the most powerful. Rather than relying on a single p-value, combining p-values from prespecified multiple test statistics can be used for inference. Combining functions include Fisher's combination test and the minimum p-value. Using randomization-based tests, the increase in power can be remarkable when compared with a single test and Simes's method. The versatility of the method is that it also applies when the number of covariates exceeds the number of observations. The increase in power is large enough to prefer combined p-values over a single p-value. The limitation is that the method does not provide an unbiased estimator of the treatment effect and does not apply to situations when the model includes treatment by covariate interaction.

  19. Radiation exposure potential from coal-fired power plants in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botezatu, E.; Grecea, C.; Botezatu, G.; Capitanu, O.; Peic, T.; Sandor, G.

    1996-01-01

    In the investigated power plants they burn brown coal, lignite and/or mixture of different kinds of coal: brown coal, lignite, pit coal, pitch coal, bituminous coal. The activity concentrations measured in the coal samples varied over two orders of magnitude. The natural radionuclide concentrations in fly ash are significantly higher than the corresponding Concentrations in the coal. The normalized discharged activities for the investigated power plants are much higher than those estimated in the UNSCEAR 1988 Report for typical old and modern plants. Firstly, accounting for this is the low ash retention efficiency of the particulate control devices of power stations, especially for the older ones, and secondly, the high ash content of the coal: 26-60%. The low quality of coal leads to the higher coal consumption; thus the combustion of up to 20.109 Kg of coal is required to produce 1 Gwa of electrical energy. As a result, the activities of radon-222 and of radon-220 released per Gwa have been assessed at 25 to 770 GBq. (author)

  20. Studies of potential severe accidents in Finnish nuclear power plants. Quarterly report 3. quarter 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aro, Ilari.

    1989-07-01

    This thesis is based on six publications dealing with severe accident studies in Finnish nuclear power plants. Main emphasis has been put on general technical bases and methodologies applied in severe accident evaluation in Finland. As an example of the use of the analysis and evaluation methods, the analysis of one representative accident sequence, t otal loss of AC power , has been presented for both Finnish power plant types. This accident sequence is required to be analyzed in the Finnish safety guide YVL 2.2 which deals with transient and accident analyses as a basis of technical solutions at nuclear powr plants. Two different analysis methods, MAAP 3.0 and MARCH 3/STCP have been used for receiving as complete a picture as possible of the flow of events and for verifying the models to some extent. Besides the use of the two different models, the method of sensitivity analysis has been used for evaluating the effects of some important technical parameters on the accident flow. Finally, conclusions of the applicability of the two methods for analyzing severe accident sequences in Finnish plants have been discussed

  1. Paperless activation. Optimization potentials in power plants; Papierlose Freischaltung. Optimierungspotenziale im Kraftwerk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goestenkors, Robert [Gemeinschaftskraftwerk Bergkamen der Evonik Steag GmbH und RWE Power AG, Bergkamen (Germany); Wieder, Ralf [Arbeitssicherheit fuer die Kraftwerke der Evonik Steag GmbH, Essen (Germany)

    2011-03-15

    Activation of plants or components is a very important task in any power plant. Evonik Steag started to use computer-assisted activation procedures many years ago. The operation management system SI {sup registered} was developed by the Evonik Steag subsidiary Evonik Energy Services; it comprises and activation module that manages the planning and execution of activation and connection processes for all aggregates of a power plant. The module was now extended to support also local activation operators. Instead of documents on paper, the activation operator receives a PDA description of the steps to be taken. The correct following of the procedure is ensured by a RFID chip connected at the activation site. Documentation of the activation is still carried out by signing a paper document. Further developments are still required to make the whole activation process at Bergkamen power plant paperless. The contribution describes the current status and the first step that was taken and then proceeds to describe the implemented paperless activation procedure.

  2. Physics and potentials of fissioning plasmas for space power and propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thom, K.; Schwenk, F. C.; Schneider, R. T.

    1976-01-01

    Fissioning uranium plasmas are the nuclear fuel in conceptual high-temperature gaseous-core reactors for advanced rocket propulsion in space. A gaseous-core nuclear rocket would be a thermal reactor in which an enriched uranium plasma at about 10,000 K is confined in a reflector-moderator cavity where it is nuclear critical and transfers its fission power to a confining propellant flow for the production of thrust at a specific impulse up to 5000 sec. With a thrust-to-engine weight ratio approaching unity, the gaseous-core nuclear rocket could provide for propulsion capabilities needed for manned missions to the nearby planets and for economical cislunar ferry services. Fueled with enriched uranium hexafluoride and operated at temperatures lower than needed for propulsion, the gaseous-core reactor scheme also offers significant benefits in applications for space and terrestrial power. They include high-efficiency power generation at low specific mass, the burnup of certain fission products and actinides, the breeding of U-233 from thorium with short doubling times, and improved convenience of fuel handling and processing in the gaseous phase.

  3. "Helios Dynamics" A Potential Future Power Source for the Greek Islands

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Deligiannidis, Ioannis; Angelis, Ioannis

    2007-01-01

    .... Environmental concerns, economic benefits but most of all the potential exhaustion of the current sources of energy, such as fossil fuels, have alarmed the international community and gave incentives...

  4. Integrability of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation with Feshbach resonance management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Dun; Luo Honggang; Chai Huayue

    2008-01-01

    In this Letter we study the integrability of a class of Gross-Pitaevskii equations managed by Feshbach resonance in an expulsive parabolic external potential. By using WTC test, we find a condition under which the Gross-Pitaevskii equation is completely integrable. Under the present model, this integrability condition is completely consistent with that proposed by Serkin, Hasegawa, and Belyaeva [V.N. Serkin, A. Hasegawa, T.L. Belyaeva, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98 (2007) 074102]. Furthermore, this integrability can also be explicitly shown by a transformation, which can convert the Gross-Pitaevskii equation into the well-known standard nonlinear Schroedinger equation. By this transformation, each exact solution of the standard nonlinear Schroedinger equation can be converted into that of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation, which builds a systematical connection between the canonical solitons and the so-called nonautonomous ones. The finding of this transformation has a significant contribution to understanding the essential properties of the nonautonomous solitons and the dynamics of the Bose-Einstein condensates by using the Feshbach resonance technique

  5. Data Reconciliation and Gross Error Detection for Troubleshooting of Ammonia Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adhi Tri Partono

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Data reconciliation (DR and gross error detection are two common tools used in industry to provide accurate and reliable data, which is useful to analyse plant performance and basis for troubleshooting. DR techniques improve the accuracy of measurements by using redundancies in material and energy balances. This provides reliable information that could help decision making regarding plant operation, which potentially leads to financial benefit. This paper presents the utilization of plant data to perform troubleshooting of ammonia reactor, in particular the profile of catalyst activity. Bad plant data are collected and then analysed using DR to produces reconciled data, which could be used to detect and identify the gross error measurements. The input data for DR and gross error detection were gathered from Aspen HYSYS V8.8 simulations by modelling the single-bed ammonia reactor. The result presents that bad plant data could define actual system condition such as gross error measurements in normal condition or catalyst activity problem. Both conditions are modelled by DR to indicate actual system condition using statistical analysis and to perform troubleshooting. Appropriate troubleshooting could save time and provide financial benefits by avoiding wrong accusation of system problem, specifically in ammonia reactor evaluated in this paper.

  6. Gross and microscopic pathology of hard and soft corals in New Caledonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, Thierry M.; Aeby, Greta S.; Lasne, Gregory; Tribollet, Aline

    2014-01-01

    We surveyed the reefs of Grande Terre, New Caledonia, for coral diseases in 2010 and 2013. Lesions encountered in hard and soft corals were systematically described at the gross and microscopic level. We sampled paired and normal tissues from 101 and 65 colonies in 2010 and 2013, respectively, comprising 51 species of corals from 27 genera. Tissue loss was the most common gross lesion sampled (40%) followed by discoloration (28%), growth anomalies (13%), bleaching (10%), and flatworm infestation (1%). When grouped by gross lesions, the diversity of microscopic lesions as measured by Shannon–Wiener index was highest for tissue loss, followed by discoloration, bleaching, and growth anomaly. Our findings document an extension of the range of certain diseases such as Porites trematodiasis and endolithic hypermycosis (dark spots) to the Western Pacific as well as the presence of a putative cnidarian endosymbiont. We also expand the range of species infected by cell-associated microbial aggregates, and confirm the trend that these aggregates predominate in dominant genera of corals in the Indo-Pacific. This study highlights the importance of including histopathology as an integral component of baseline coral disease surveys, because a given gross lesion might be associated with multiple potential causative agents.

  7. High-potential Working Fluids for Next Generation Binary Cycle Geothermal Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zia, Jalal [GE Global Research; Sevincer, Edip; Chen, Huijuan; Hardy, Ajilli; Wickersham, Paul; Kalra, Chiranjeev; Laursen, Anna Lis; Vandeputte, Thomas

    2013-06-29

    A thermo-economic model has been built and validated for prediction of project economics of Enhanced Geothermal Projects. The thermo-economic model calculates and iteratively optimizes the LCOE (levelized cost of electricity) for a prospective EGS (Enhanced Geothermal) site. It takes into account the local subsurface temperature gradient, the cost of drilling and reservoir creation, stimulation and power plant configuration. It calculates and optimizes the power plant configuration vs. well depth. Thus outputs from the model include optimal well depth and power plant configuration for the lowest LCOE. The main focus of this final report was to experimentally validate the thermodynamic properties that formed the basis of the thermo-economic model built in Phase 2, and thus build confidence that the predictions of the model could be used reliably for process downselection and preliminary design at a given set of geothermal (and/or waste heat) boundary conditions. The fluid and cycle downselected was based on a new proprietary fluid from a vendor in a supercritical ORC cycle at a resource condition of 200°C inlet temperature. The team devised and executed a series of experiments to prove the suitability of the new fluid in realistic ORC cycle conditions. Furthermore, the team performed a preliminary design study for a MW-scale turbo expander that would be used for a supercritical ORC cycle with this new fluid. The following summarizes the main findings in the investigative campaign that was undertaken: 1. Chemical compatibility of the new fluid with common seal/gasket/Oring materials was found to be problematic. Neoprene, Viton, and silicone materials were found to be incompatible, suffering chemical decomposition, swelling and/or compression set issues. Of the materials tested, only TEFLON was found to be compatible under actual ORC temperature and pressure conditions. 2. Thermal stability of the new fluid at 200°C and 40 bar was found to be acceptable after 399

  8. Big like a gym. New business models for public utilities; Gross wie eine Turnhalle. Neue Geschaeftsmodelle fuer Stadtwerke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarzburger, Heiko

    2013-10-01

    Electricity storage is no longer a vision, also in the case of greater power ratings too. The breakthrough is done: ready-to-connect systems are available as complete packages or containers. [German] Stromspeicher sind keine Vision mehr. Auch nicht fuer grosse Leistungen. Der Durchbruch ist geschafft: Anschlussfertige Systeme sind als Container oder Gesamtpakete verfuegbar.

  9. Syntrophic interactions improve power production in formic acid fed MFCs operated with set anode potentials or fixed resistances

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Dan; Call, Douglas F.; Kiely, Patrick D.; Wang, Aijie; Logan, Bruce E.

    2011-01-01

    Formic acid is a highly energetic electron donor but it has previously resulted in low power densities in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). Three different set anode potentials (-0.30, -0.15, and +0.15V; vs. a standard hydrogen electrode, SHE) were used to evaluate syntrophic interactions in bacterial communities for formic acid degradation relative to a non-controlled, high resistance system (1,000Ω external resistance). No current was generated at -0.30V, suggesting a lack of direct formic acid oxidation (standard reduction potential: -0.40V). More positive potentials that allowed for acetic acid utilization all produced current, with the best performance at -0.15V. The anode community in the -0.15V reactor, based on 16S rDNA clone libraries, was 58% Geobacter sulfurreducens and 17% Acetobacterium, with lower proportions of these genera found in the other two MFCs. Acetic acid was detected in all MFCs suggesting that current generation by G. sulfurreducens was dependent on acetic acid production by Acetobacterium. When all MFCs were subsequently operated at an external resistance for maximum power production (100Ω for MFCs originally set at -0.15 and +0.15V; 150Ω for the control), they produced similar power densities and exhibited the same midpoint potential of -0.15V in first derivative cyclic voltammetry scans. All of the mixed communities converged to similar proportions of the two predominant genera (ca. 52% G. sulfurreducens and 22% Acetobacterium). These results show that syntrophic interactions can be enhanced through setting certain anode potentials, and that long-term performance produces stable and convergent communities. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Syntrophic interactions improve power production in formic acid fed MFCs operated with set anode potentials or fixed resistances

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Dan

    2011-10-24

    Formic acid is a highly energetic electron donor but it has previously resulted in low power densities in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). Three different set anode potentials (-0.30, -0.15, and +0.15V; vs. a standard hydrogen electrode, SHE) were used to evaluate syntrophic interactions in bacterial communities for formic acid degradation relative to a non-controlled, high resistance system (1,000Ω external resistance). No current was generated at -0.30V, suggesting a lack of direct formic acid oxidation (standard reduction potential: -0.40V). More positive potentials that allowed for acetic acid utilization all produced current, with the best performance at -0.15V. The anode community in the -0.15V reactor, based on 16S rDNA clone libraries, was 58% Geobacter sulfurreducens and 17% Acetobacterium, with lower proportions of these genera found in the other two MFCs. Acetic acid was detected in all MFCs suggesting that current generation by G. sulfurreducens was dependent on acetic acid production by Acetobacterium. When all MFCs were subsequently operated at an external resistance for maximum power production (100Ω for MFCs originally set at -0.15 and +0.15V; 150Ω for the control), they produced similar power densities and exhibited the same midpoint potential of -0.15V in first derivative cyclic voltammetry scans. All of the mixed communities converged to similar proportions of the two predominant genera (ca. 52% G. sulfurreducens and 22% Acetobacterium). These results show that syntrophic interactions can be enhanced through setting certain anode potentials, and that long-term performance produces stable and convergent communities. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. A Langmuir probe system for high power RF-driven negative ion sources on high potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeely, P; Christ-Koch, S; Fantz, U; Dudin, S V

    2009-01-01

    A fully automated Langmuir probe system capable of operating simultaneously with beam extraction has been developed and commissioned for the negative hydrogen ion source testbeds at IPP Garching. It allows the measurement of temporal and spatial distributions of the plasma parameters within a single plasma pulse ( 10 18 m -3 ) and hot (T e > 10 eV) plasma with bi-Maxwellian electron energy distribution at low pressures. The plasma found near the plasma grid is very different being of low density (≤10 17 m -3 ) and very cold (T e < 2 eV). This plasma is also strongly influenced by the presence of caesium, the potential of the plasma grid, and if an ion beam is extracted from the source. Caesium strongly reduces the plasma potential of the source and enhances the negative ion density near the plasma grid. Extracting an ion beam is observed to reduce the electron density and increase the potential near the plasma grid. Applying a potential greater than the plasma potential to the plasma grid is found to significantly decrease the electron density near the plasma grid.

  12. The potential impact of externalities considerations on the market for biomass power technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swezey, B.G.; Porter, K.L.; Feher, J.S.

    1995-01-01

    Of all the renewable energy sources used for power generation, biomass energy has experienced the greatest growth over the last decade. Spurred by requirements established in the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 (PURPA), as well as various tax incentives, biomass-based power generation now provides more than 50 billion kWh of electric energy from 10,000 MW of installed capacity. The overwhelming majority of this capacity, primarily wood-based, has been developed by the nonutility sector. However, the biomass industry is currently facing more difficult market conditions due to a reduction in federal incentives and changes in the generation market, such as lower utility avoided costs, slower demand growth, and greater competition among both generators and fuel sources. States are increasingly contemplating the inclusion of market externalities costs and benefits associated with different generation options in electricity resource planning and procurement decisions. Market externalities, as they relate to generation resources and technologies, represent impacts that are not wholly reflected in the market price of electricity derived from these sources. These impacts, which can be either positive or negative, can encompass environmental, economic and other social factors, but state considerations have focused predominantly on environmental externalities costs, especially air emissions. The explicit quantification of externalities could measurably affect the competitive standing of various energy resources and technologies in future generation resource acquisitions. This paper summarizes work undertaken to assess the status the externalities considerations in state and utility electricity resource planning processes and to determine how externalities considerations might help or hinder future development of biomass power plants. (author)

  13. The potential role of nuclear power in controlling CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fulkerson, W.; Jones, J.E.; Delene, J.G.; Perry, A.M.; Cantor, R.A.

    1990-01-01

    Nuclear power currently reduces CO 2 emissions from fossil fuel burning worldwide by about 8% (0.4 Gt(C)/yr). It can continue to play an important role only if it can grow substantially in the next 50 years. For such growth to occur public confidence will need to improve throughout the world. That might happen if (a) other non-fossil alternatives are inadequate to meet electricity demand growth, (b) the risks to society from global warming are perceived to be very high, (c) nuclear technology improves substantially, and (d) an international institutional setting is devised to manage the nuclear enterprise so that the technology is available to all nations while catastrophic accidents and proliferation of nuclear weapon capabilities are avoided. It seems feasible that the necessary technological and institutional advances can be devised and tested over the next 20 years. It is also plausible that the direct costs of electricity produced by the system would be in the range of 50-100 mills/kWhr (1990 dollars) delivered to the grid. In other words, the direct costs of nuclear power should not be greater than they are today. Achieving such an outcome will require aggressive technical and institutional RD ampersand D performed in a cooperative international setting. If rapid growth of nuclear power can begin again in 15-20 years it could supply 30-50% of world electricity in 50 years and cut CO 2 emission rates by up to 2.5 Gt(C)/yr. This would be a substantial contribution to controlling greenhouse gases, but it is not sufficient. Improved efficiency and various renewable energy sources must also grow rapidly if CO 2 emission rates from electricity generation are to be reduced from the current value of about 2 Gt(C)/yr. 41 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  14. The potential role of nuclear power in controlling CO sub 2 emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fulkerson, W.; Jones, J.E.; Delene, J.G.; Perry, A.M.; Cantor, R.A.

    1990-01-01

    Nuclear power currently reduces CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil fuel burning worldwide by about 8% (0.4 Gt(C)/yr). It can continue to play an important role only if it can grow substantially in the next 50 years. For such growth to occur public confidence will need to improve throughout the world. That might happen if (a) other non-fossil alternatives are inadequate to meet electricity demand growth, (b) the risks to society from global warming are perceived to be very high, (c) nuclear technology improves substantially, and (d) an international institutional setting is devised to manage the nuclear enterprise so that the technology is available to all nations while catastrophic accidents and proliferation of nuclear weapon capabilities are avoided. It seems feasible that the necessary technological and institutional advances can be devised and tested over the next 20 years. It is also plausible that the direct costs of electricity produced by the system would be in the range of 50-100 mills/kWhr (1990 dollars) delivered to the grid. In other words, the direct costs of nuclear power should not be greater than they are today. Achieving such an outcome will require aggressive technical and institutional RD D performed in a cooperative international setting. If rapid growth of nuclear power can begin again in 15-20 years it could supply 30-50% of world electricity in 50 years and cut CO{sub 2} emission rates by up to 2.5 Gt(C)/yr. This would be a substantial contribution to controlling greenhouse gases, but it is not sufficient. Improved efficiency and various renewable energy sources must also grow rapidly if CO{sub 2} emission rates from electricity generation are to be reduced from the current value of about 2 Gt(C)/yr. 41 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. A study on utilization improvement of cogeneration potential in a complex industrial steam and power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mierka, O.; Variny, M.

    2012-01-01

    Efficient cogeneration is widely acknowledged as one of measures reducing primary energy use and emissions of greenhouse gases and other pollutants. This contribution bears on analyses of complex industrial power plants, incorporating the concept of exergetic and exergoecomic balances-a concept that has been rarely utilized in Slovakia up to day. Emphasis is laid on synergic use of marginal and exergoecomic analysis, thus assessing the economics of various complex cogeneration units' operational modes. The whole study, together with resulting recommendations for cogeneration efficiency improvement of the given unit is an excerpt of corresponding author's doctoral thesis. (Authors)

  16. A study on utilization improvement of cogeneration potential in a complex industrial steam and power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mierka, O.; Variny, M.

    2012-01-01

    Efficient cogeneration is widely acknowledged as one of measures reducing primary energy use and emissions of greenhouse gases and other pollutants. This contribution bears on analyses of complex industrial power plants, incorporating the concept of exergetic and exergoeconomic balances-a concept that has been rarely utilized in Slovakia up to day. Emphasis is laid on synergic use of marginal and exergoeconomic analysis, thus assessing the economics of various complex cogeneration units' operational modes. The whole study, together with resulting recommendations for cogeneration efficiency improvement of the given unit is an excerpt of corresponding author's doctoral thesis. (Authors)

  17. Electric power plants in cogeneration: a promising potential even in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    Implantation of cogeneration power plants has increased in France since two years but stays below other countries such as northern Europe. Technical, economical, legal and financial aspects of cogeneration have been debated during the ''Euroforum'' seminar (June 14-16, 1995). The european association Cogen Europe, created in 1993 with the financial support of the SAVE european program, has analysed the barriers that restrain cogeneration development and their solutions. Advantages of cogeneration are undeniable at any scale (from small engines to huge industrial systems) if efficiency of energy used reaches 85%. Opinions of representatives from different industries implied in cogeneration technology are reported. (J.S.). 1 photo

  18. A potential of boiling water power reactors with a natural circulation of a coolant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmachkin, V.S.; Sokolov, I.N.

    1998-01-01

    The use of the natural circulation of coolant in the boiling water reactors simplifies a reactor control and facilities the service of the equipment components. The moderated core power loads allows the long fuel burnup, good control ability and large water stock set up the enhancement of safety level. That is considered to be very important for isolated regions or small countries. In the paper a high safety level and effectiveness of BWRs with natural circulation are reviewed. The limitations of flow stability and protection measures are being discussed. Some recent efforts in designing of such reactors are described.(author)

  19. 26 CFR 1.61-4 - Gross income of farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... exchange is to be included in gross income. Proceeds of insurance, such as hail or fire insurance on... include crop insurance proceeds in income for taxable year following taxable year of destruction. For...

  20. A variational approach to the Gross-Neveu model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, H.; Misra, P.; Mishra, A.

    1988-01-01

    The authors solve the instability of perturbative vacuum of Gross-Neveu model. They use a variational method. The analysis is nonperturbative as it uses only equal time commmutator/anticommutator algebra

  1. Making full use of wind power potential in North America -- possibilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillaud, Christian

    2010-09-15

    The anticipated increase in electrical load in North America up to the year 2050 will be at least 50%. Wind potential in North America is enormous, well in excess of the expected requirements. However, the amount of wind capacity, which can be directly connected to a grid is limited to 20% of the installed capacity because of technical constraints. Technologies to enable full wind potential to be harnessed still need to be developed; they will consist in storing wind energy in hydroelectric reservoirs or generating hydrogen. However, the resulting cost of electricity will be somewhat higher than present.

  2. Fusion power: massive research program aims at formidable problems, almost limitless potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dingee, D.A.

    1979-01-01

    This article surveys extensively fusion development under the following topics: US research directions; inertial confinement fusion; foreign fusion efforts; fusion issues; fusion applications; and arguments for fusion development. Dr. Dingee points out that, despite persuasive arguments for development, fusion has as yet attracted no substantial constituency; and that winning greater support for fusion may thus require a considerable technical breakthrough (namely, proof of scientific feasibility or achievement of energy breakeven) - or a new focus on an energy source such as hybrids, which offer a nearer-term payoff than pure fusion. Dr. Dingee says the next major facility for magnetic confinement research (to be built in late 1980s) has not yet been selected, but will probably be an engineering test facility; there are similar plans for inertial confinement. Whichever type is chosen, the first experimental power reactor is scheduled for the first few years of the 2000's, this to be followed by commercial demonstration of fusion power in the 2010 to 2020 time frame. He points out, finally, that the complex technical and institutional issues are being considered in a climate in which the benefits of nuclear energy itself are being questioned; and that there is little doubt that future development is tied to overall decisions the nation will make regarding the value of nuclear energy

  3. Potential alternatives of heat and power technology application using rice straw in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suramaythangkoor, Tritib; Gheewala, Shabbir H.

    2010-01-01

    Rice straw could be used for heat and power with the current technologies available in Thailand. The cost of rice straw for power generation at 0.38-0.61 Baht/MJ e (at rice straw price 930-1500 Baht/t) is not competitive with coal at 0.30 Baht/MJ e but comparable with other biomass at 0.35-0.53 Baht/MJ e . However, utilization of rice straw in industrial boilers is a more competitive and flexible option with two alternatives; (1) installing rice straw fired boilers instead of heavy oil fired or natural gas ones when selecting new boilers; and (2) fuel switching from coal to rice straw for existing boilers with cost saving of feedstock supply by 0.01 Baht/MJ h . Based on its properties (Slagging index, R s = 0.04; fouling index, R f 0.24), rice straw is not expected to have significant operating problems or different emissions compared with wheat straw and rice husk under similar operating conditions. (author)

  4. Potentials for development of hydro-powered water desalination in Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akash, B.A.; Mohsen, M.S.

    1998-01-01

    Due to the increase in population and development in agriculture, Jordan will deplete all of its renewable sources of fresh water in the next few years. On the other hand, the level of the Dead Sea has been falling at a high rate for the past three decades, due to the diversion of water from the Jordan River for irrigation. The solution to these issues could be in finding other alternatives such as the development of hydro-powered water desalination plant. Desalted water would be produced in order to make up for the shortage of fresh water using membrane technology, and thus reserve fresh ground water for future generations. This paper finds, on an annual basis, that about 2133 million cubic meters (MCM) of water can be drawn from the Red Sea. The power generated due to difference in elevation is used to desalinate Red Sea water. About 533 MCM of fresh water is produced in such a process. The brine, which is about 1600 MCM, is discharged into the Dead Sea. (author)

  5. PROMOTING GROSS MOTOR SKILLS IN TODDLERS: THE ACTIVE BEGINNINGS PILOT CLUSTER RANDOMIZED TRIAL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldman, Sanne L C; Okely, Anthony D; Jones, Rachel A

    2015-12-01

    This study examined the feasibility, acceptability, and potential efficacy of a gross motor skill program for toddlers. An 8-wk. skills program in which children practiced three skills was implemented for 10 min. daily in two randomly designated childcare centers. Two other centers served as the control group. Recruitment and retention rates were collected for feasibility. Data on professional development, children's participation, program duration, and appropriateness of the lessons were collected for acceptability, and the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 and Get Skilled, Get Active (total of 28 points) were used to look at the potential efficacy. The participants were 60 toddlers (M age=2.5 yr., SD=0.4; n=29 boys), and the retention rate was 95%. Overall participation was 76%, and educators rated 98% of the lessons as appropriate. Compared with the control group, the intervention group showed significantly greater improvements in motor skills (pmotor skills among toddlers.

  6. On the classical theory of ordinary linear differential equations of the second order and the Schroedinger equation for power law potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, M.L.; Mignaco, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    The power law potentials in the Schroedinger equation solved recently are shown to come from the classical treatment of the singularities of a linear, second order differential equation. This allows to enlarge the class of solvable power law potentials. (Author) [pt

  7. Automated Data Collection for Determining Statistical Distributions of Module Power Undergoing Potential-Induced Degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hacke, Peter; Spataru, Sergiu

    We propose a method for increasing the frequency of data collection and reducing the time and cost of accelerated lifetime testing of photovoltaic modules undergoing potential-induced degradation (PID). This consists of in-situ measurements of dark current-voltage curves of the modules at elevate...

  8. Potential occupational risk of amines in carbon capture for power generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentry, P Robinan; House-Knight, Tamara; Harris, Angela; Greene, Tracy; Campleman, Sharan

    2014-08-01

    While CO2 capture and storage (CCS) technology has been well studied in terms of its efficacy and cost of implementation, there is limited available data concerning the potential for occupational exposure to amines, mixtures of amines, or degradation of by-products from the CCS process. This paper is a critical review of the available data concerning the potential effects of amines and CCS-degradation by-products. A comprehensive review of the occupational health and safety issues associated with exposure to amines and amine by-products at CCS facilities was performed, along with a review of the regulatory status and guidelines of amines, by-products, and CCS process vapor mixtures. There are no specific guidelines or regulations regarding permissible levels of exposure via air for amines and degradation products that could form atmospheric oxidation of amines released from post-combustion CO2 capture plants. While there has been a worldwide effort to develop legal and regulatory frameworks for CCS, none are directly related to occupational exposures. By-products of alkanolamine degradation may pose the most significant health hazard to workers in CCS facilities, with several aldehydes, amides, nitramines, and nitrosamines classified as either known or potential/possible human carcinogens. The absence of large-scale CCS facilities; absence and unreliability of reported data in the literature from pilot facilities; and proprietary amine blends make it difficult to estimate potential amine exposures and predict formation and exposure to degradation products.

  9. Survey of wind power potential for wind-based electricity at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The potential for wind-generated electricity is examined using 22 months wind data collected from a prospective site located in the southern highlands of Tanzania. While the data for the year 2001 was from March to December that of 2002 was for all the twelve months of the year. Characteristics of monthly and annual wind ...

  10. Gauge equivalence of the Gross Pitaevskii equation and the equivalent Heisenberg spin chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radha, R.; Kumar, V. Ramesh

    2007-11-01

    In this paper, we construct an equivalent spin chain for the Gross-Pitaevskii equation with quadratic potential and exponentially varying scattering lengths using gauge equivalence. We have then generated the soliton solutions for the spin components S3 and S-. We find that the spin solitons for S3 and S- can be compressed for exponentially growing eigenvalues while they broaden out for decaying eigenvalues.

  11. Early gross motor skills predict the subsequent development of language in children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedford, Rachael; Pickles, Andrew; Lord, Catherine

    2016-09-01

    Motor milestones such as the onset of walking are important developmental markers, not only for later motor skills but also for more widespread social-cognitive development. The aim of the current study was to test whether gross motor abilities, specifically the onset of walking, predicted the subsequent rate of language development in a large cohort of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We ran growth curve models for expressive and receptive language measured at 2, 3, 5 and 9 years in 209 autistic children. Measures of gross motor, visual reception and autism symptoms were collected at the 2 year visit. In Model 1, walking onset was included as a predictor of the slope of language development. Model 2 included a measure of non-verbal IQ and autism symptom severity as covariates. The final model, Model 3, additionally covaried for gross motor ability. In the first model, parent-reported age of walking onset significantly predicted the subsequent rate of language development although the relationship became non-significant when gross motor skill, non-verbal ability and autism severity scores were included (Models 2 & 3). Gross motor score, however, did remain a significant predictor of both expressive and receptive language development. Taken together, the model results provide some evidence that early motor abilities in young children with ASD can have longitudinal cross-domain influences, potentially contributing, in part, to the linguistic difficulties that characterise ASD. Autism Res 2016, 9: 993-1001. © 2015 The Authors Autism Research published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Autism Research. © 2015 The Authors Autism Research published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Autism Research.

  12. Assessing the effects of land-use changes on annual average gross erosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Brath

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of land-use changes on potential annual gross erosion in the uplands of the Emilia-Romagna administrative region, a broad geographical area of some 22 000 km2 in northern-central Italy, have been analysed by application of the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE. The presence of an extended mountain chain, particularly subject to soil erosion, makes the estimation of annual gross erosion relevant in defining regional soil-conservation strategies. The USLE, derived empirically for plots, is usually applied at the basin scale. In the present study, the method is implemented in a distributed framework for the hilly and mountainous portion of Emilia-Romagna through a discretisation of the region into elementary square cells. The annual gross erosion is evaluated by combining morphological, pedological and climatic information. The stream network and the tributary area drained by each elementary cell, which are needed for the local application of the USLE, are derived automatically from a Digital Elevation Model (DEM of grid size 250 x 250 m. The rainfall erosivity factor is evaluated from local estimates of rainfall of six-hour storm duration and two-year return period. The soil erodibility and slope length-steepness factors are derived from digital maps of land use, pedology and geomorphology. Furthermore, historical land-use maps of the district of Bologna (a large portion — 3720 km2 — of the area under study, allow the effect of actual land use changes on the soil erosion process to be assessed. The analysis shows the influence of land-use changes on annual gross erosion as well as the increasing vulnerability of upland areas to soil erosion processes during recent decades. Keywords: USLE, gross erosion, distributed modelling, land use changes, northern-central Italy

  13. Realising the potential for the protection of the environment by developing small hydro power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevenson, R.; Heal, A.

    2000-07-01

    The RAPPIDS project was set up to tackle the conflicts arising from the development of Small Hydro Power (SHP) in sensitive and fragile environments. The project was focused on Snowdonia National Park, which was identified as a conflict area in the UK. The aim was to develop a strategy to overcome these conflicts locally through: improving the understanding of market actors, of the effects of SHP on the environment; improving dialogue between market actors; initiating collaboration to analyse the environmental impacts and test innovative technological measures for sensitive SHP development; Identifying successful environmental measures and assessing their suitability for transfer to other regions; raising the awareness of market actors, of the environmental benefits of SHP. The project in the UK was mirrored in 2 regions of Europe, under the EU Altener programme, and lessons learnt were shared between regions. (author)

  14. Miners recognise solar power's potential : Oil's on the way out for the most remote generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, D.

    2001-01-01

    It is perhaps historically appropriate that Australia's largest and most innovative solar power farm is to be established on a 20ha site near Broken Hill, because of the BHP connection and because of major financial benefits for the mining community particularly at remote sites. Although the $8m project, in conjunction with the Broken Hill based Australian Inland Energy Corporation was subject to an environmental impact assessment statement when Australian Mining went to press, Melbourne based Solar Systems, developer of the project, was confident it would go ahead soon. The 42 high tech solar dishes at the site will produce 1MW of electricity and eliminate 1,800t of carbon dioxide emissions to the atmosphere each year. Currently the photovoltaic cells are about 22% efficient although the company is working on ones that are about 30% efficient. This could mean an installation producing 5MW could be upgraded to produce 6.5MW

  15. The Autonomous Stress Indicator for Remotely Monitoring Power System State and Watching for Potential Instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geza Joos

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The proposed Autonomous Stress Indicator (ASI is a device that monitors the contents of the protection relays on a suspect weak power system bus and generates a performance level related to the degree of system performance degradation or instability. This gives the system operators some time (minutes to take corrective action. In a given operating area there would not likely be a need for an ASI on every bus. Note that the ASI does not trip any breakers; it is an INFORMATION ONLY device. An important feature is that the system operator can subsequently interrogate the ASI to determine the factor(s that led to the performance level that has been initially annunciated, thereby leading to a course of action. This paper traces the development of the ASI which is an ongoing project. The ASI could be also described as a stress-alert device whose function is to alert the System Operator of a stressful condition at its location. The characteristics (or essential qualities of this device are autonomy, selectivity, accuracy and intelligence. These will fulfill the requirements of the recommendation of the Canada –US Task Force in the August 2003 system collapse. Preliminary tests on the IEEE 39-bus model indicate that the concept has merit and development work is in progress. While the ASI can be applied to all power system operating conditions, its principal application is to the degraded state of the system where the System Operator must act to restore the system to the secure state before it migrates to a stage of collapse. The work of ASI actually begins with the Areas of Vulnerability and ends with the Predictive Module as described in detail in this paper. An application example of a degraded system using the IEEE 39-bus system is included.

  16. The potential diagnostic power of circulating tumor cell analysis for non-small-cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Kirsty; Pailler, Emma; Faugeroux, Vincent; Taylor, Melissa; Oulhen, Marianne; Auger, Nathalie; Planchard, David; Soria, Jean-Charles; Lindsay, Colin R; Besse, Benjamin; Vielh, Philippe; Farace, Françoise

    2015-01-01

    In non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), genotyping tumor biopsies for targetable somatic alterations has become routine practice. However, serial biopsies have limitations: they may be technically difficult or impossible and could incur serious risks to patients. Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) offer an alternative source for tumor analysis that is easily accessible and presents the potential to identify predictive biomarkers to tailor therapies on a personalized basis. Examined here is our current knowledge of CTC detection and characterization in NSCLC and their potential role in EGFR-mutant, ALK-rearranged and ROS1-rearranged patients. This is followed by discussion of the ongoing issues such as the question of CTC partnership as diagnostic tools in NSCLC.

  17. Mode-locked thin-disk lasers and their potential application for high-power terahertz generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraceno, Clara J.

    2018-04-01

    The progress achieved in the last few decades in the performance of ultrafast laser systems with high average power has been tremendous, and continues to provide momentum to new exciting applications, both in scientific research and technology. Among the various technological advances that have shaped this progress, mode-locked thin-disk oscillators have attracted significant attention as a unique technology capable of providing ultrashort pulses with high energy (tens to hundreds of microjoules) and at very high repetition rates (in the megahertz regime) from a single table-top oscillator. This technology opens the door to compact high repetition rate ultrafast sources spanning the entire electromagnetic spectrum from the XUV to the terahertz regime, opening various new application fields. In this article, we focus on their unexplored potential as compact driving sources for high average power terahertz generation.

  18. Evaluation and communication of potential risk of radionuclide contamination of foods after Fukushima nuclear power plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekizawa, Jun; Nakamura, Yumiko

    2011-01-01

    A large scale nuclear power plant accident happened after the great earthquake with a huge tsunami in the Eastern part of Japan in March 2011. Potential risk from radionuclide contamination in foods after the nuclear power plant accident was estimated using data of radiological food contamination from the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. Data analyzed by combining nuclide, food, level of radiation detection, period, age-classified population, were compared to provisional index levels of radionuclides, and existing contamination levels in food by natural radioactive potassium. Health risk was shown to be very low or negligible considering presence of background radiological exposure from foods and the environment. Appropriate explanation of risk to various stakeholders of the society is imperative and results of trials were reported. (author)

  19. Life cycle analysis of distributed concentrating solar combined heat and power: economics, global warming potential and water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norwood, Zack; Kammen, Daniel

    2012-12-01

    We report on life cycle assessment (LCA) of the economics, global warming potential and water (both for desalination and water use in operation) for a distributed concentrating solar combined heat and power (DCS-CHP) system. Detailed simulation of system performance across 1020 sites in the US combined with a sensible cost allocation scheme informs this LCA. We forecast a levelized cost of 0.25 kWh-1 electricity and 0.03 kWh-1 thermal, for a system with a life cycle global warming potential of ˜80 gCO2eq kWh-1 of electricity and ˜10 gCO2eq kWh-1 thermal, sited in Oakland, California. On the basis of the economics shown for air cooling, and the fact that any combined heat and power system reduces the need for cooling while at the same time boosting the overall solar efficiency of the system, DCS-CHP compares favorably to other electric power generation systems in terms of minimization of water use in the maintenance and operation of the plant. The outlook for water desalination coupled with distributed concentrating solar combined heat and power is less favorable. At a projected cost of 1.40 m-3, water desalination with DCS-CHP would be economical and practical only in areas where water is very scarce or moderately expensive, primarily available through the informal sector, and where contaminated or salt water is easily available as feed-water. It is also interesting to note that 0.40-1.90 m-3 is the range of water prices in the developed world, so DCS-CHP desalination systems could also be an economical solution there under some conditions.

  20. Life cycle analysis of distributed concentrating solar combined heat and power: economics, global warming potential and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norwood, Zack; Kammen, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    We report on life cycle assessment (LCA) of the economics, global warming potential and water (both for desalination and water use in operation) for a distributed concentrating solar combined heat and power (DCS-CHP) system. Detailed simulation of system performance across 1020 sites in the US combined with a sensible cost allocation scheme informs this LCA. We forecast a levelized cost of $0.25 kWh −1 electricity and $0.03 kWh −1 thermal, for a system with a life cycle global warming potential of ∼80 gCO 2 eq kWh −1 of electricity and ∼10 gCO 2 eq kWh −1 thermal, sited in Oakland, California. On the basis of the economics shown for air cooling, and the fact that any combined heat and power system reduces the need for cooling while at the same time boosting the overall solar efficiency of the system, DCS-CHP compares favorably to other electric power generation systems in terms of minimization of water use in the maintenance and operation of the plant. The outlook for water desalination coupled with distributed concentrating solar combined heat and power is less favorable. At a projected cost of $1.40 m −3 , water desalination with DCS-CHP would be economical and practical only in areas where water is very scarce or moderately expensive, primarily available through the informal sector, and where contaminated or salt water is easily available as feed-water. It is also interesting to note that $0.40–$1.90 m −3 is the range of water prices in the developed world, so DCS-CHP desalination systems could also be an economical solution there under some conditions. (letter)

  1. Study of the mutagenic potential of low power microwaves by direct DNA analyzis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, S.; Ali, S.; Thelma, B.K.; Behari, J.

    1996-01-01

    Man is constantly exposed to electromagnetic radiation which is a constituent part of the biosphere. Due to the technological progress and numerous man-made sources such as those used in industry, traffic, medicine, defence, communication network as well as some home appliances, the character of the natural electromagnetic field has altered significantly. These sources of nonionizing radiation cause atmospheric pollution similar to the pollution from various industrial sources. Unambiguous detection of the mutagenic potential of these radiations is necessary for genetic well being of future generations. (author)

  2. Potential of Power Generation from Biogas. Part II: Municipal Solid Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera-Romero Iván

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to estimate the amount of biogas that could be obtained from the anaerobic decomposition of the organic fraction of the municipal solid waste (MSW disposed in a sanitary landfill, by capturing and taking advantage of it to generate electricity which can be consumed by Ciénega Region of Chapala in the state of Michoacán, México. To estimate the biogas captured, the Mexican Model of Biogas version 2.0 was used; capturing MSW for 11 years with a project life of 21 years. For the analysis of power generation an average cost for schedule rate 5-A from the CFE for public service was used. Four possible scenarios were evaluated: optimal, intermediate optimal, intermediate pessimistic and pessimistic; varying characteristics such as adequate handling site, fire presence, coverage, leachate, among others. Each of the scenarios, economically justify the construction of an inter-municipal landfill obtaining substantial long-term economic benefits. (26.5×106 USD, 22.8×106 , 17.9×106 and 11.7×106 respectively, while contributing to climate change mitigation and prevention of diseases.

  3. The TC-PSI indicator for forecasting the potential for market power in wholesale electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hesamzadeh, Mohammad R.; Biggar, Darryl R.; Hosseinzadeh, Nasser

    2011-01-01

    Wholesale electricity market regulators have long sought a simple, reliable, transparent indicator of the likely impact of wholesale market developments on the exercise of market power. Conventional indicators, such as the Pivotal Supplier Indicator (PSI) and the Residual Supply Index (RSI) cannot be extended to apply to meshed transmission networks, especially when generating companies hold a portfolio of generating units at different locations on the network. This paper proposes a generalisation of these standard measures termed the 'Transmission-Constrained Pivotal Supplier Indicator (TC-PSI)'. The TC-PSI of a generating company is defined as the maximum must-run generation for any subset of generating plant while allowing for strategic operation of other plant in the portfolio. We illustrate the use of the TC-PSI using a five-node model of the Australian NEM. - Highlights: → An indicator for assessing the pivotality of generating portfolios is proposed. → Transmission constraints are modelled explicitly in the proposed indicator. → Strategic behaviours of a generating portfolio in using its units are modelled. → This approach was illustrated using a 5-node model of the Australian NEM.

  4. The hydrogen economy for a sustainable future and the potential contribution of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, C.

    2003-01-01

    The Hydrogen Economy encompasses the production of hydrogen using a wide range of energy sources, its storage and distribution as an economic and universal energy carrier, and its end use by industry and individuals with negligible emission of pollutants and greenhouse gases. Hydrogen is an energy carrier not a primary energy source, just like electricity is an energy carrier. The advantages of hydrogen as a means of storage and distribution of energy, and the methods of production of hydrogen, are reviewed. Energy sources for hydrogen production include fossil fuels, renewables, hydropower and nuclear power. Hydrogen has many applications in industry, for residential use and for transport by air, land and sea. Fuel cells are showing great promise for conversion of hydrogen into electricity and their development and current status are discussed. Non-energy uses of hydrogen and the safety aspects of hydrogen are also considered. It is concluded that the Hydrogen Economy, especially if coupled to renewable and nuclear energy sources, is a technically viable and economic way of achieving greater energy diversity and security and a sustainable future in this century

  5. Nonlinear Schrödinger equations with single power nonlinearity and harmonic potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipolatti, R.; de Macedo Lira, Y.; Trallero-Giner, C.

    2018-03-01

    We consider a generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation (GNLS) with a single power nonlinearity of the form λ ≤ft\\vert \\varphi \\right\\vert p , with p  >  0 and λ\\in{R} , in the presence of a harmonic confinement. We report the conditions that p and λ must fulfill for the existence and uniqueness of ground states of the GNLS. We discuss the Cauchy problem and summarize which conditions are required for the nonlinear term λ ≤ft\\vert \\varphi \\right\\vert p to render the ground state solutions orbitally stable. Based on a new variational method we provide exact formulæ for the minimum energy for each index p and the changing range of values of the nonlinear parameter λ. Also, we report an approximate close analytical expression for the ground state energy, performing a comparative analysis of the present variational calculations with those obtained by a generalized Thomas-Fermi approach, and soliton solutions for the respective ranges of p and λ where these solutions can be implemented to describe the minimum energy.

  6. Earth power spectrum and its potential as a usable energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richards, E.E.

    1984-01-01

    The aurora is a natural, visible manifestation of a large electrical-current system that is continually pumping millions of megawatts of electromagnetic power into the upper polar atmospheres, exceeding the total electrical generating capacity of the United States. Auroras begin on the sun, where the energy spirals away into interplanetary space at hundreds of miles per second; four days after it leaves the sun, this high speed stream of solar wind reaches the vicinity of the earth where the plasma collides with and moves around the planet's magnetic field. The high-speed solar wind reshapes the field into a comet-shaped cavity called the magnetosphere. The sunward shock front extends some 10-15 earth radii into space, while the night-side magnetotail stretches out beyond 60 earth radii (Re), reaching beyond the Moon's orbit. As the solar wind blows downstream along the edges of this magnetic cavity, the energies leak in and become part of an immense reservoir called the plasmasheet, which runs down the length of the magnetotail. The plasma that leaks in is carried back toward the Earth by the flow of the plasmasheet and down the funnels over the two polar regions, causing a constant ring-shaped glow. The path of the auroral energy streaming in along the Earth's magnetic field lines appears as a thin, glowing curtain hanging from 60 to hundreds of miles above the Earth. The magnetosphere is a big container of energy storage

  7. Environmental analysis of a potential district heating network powered by a large-scale cogeneration plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravina, Marco; Panepinto, Deborah; Zanetti, Maria Chiara; Genon, Giuseppe

    2017-05-01

    Among the solutions for the achievement of environmental sustainability in the energy sector, district heating (DH) with combined heat and power (CHP) systems is increasingly being used. The Italian city of Turin is in a leading position in this field, having one of the largest DH networks in Europe. The aim of this work is the analysis of a further development of the network, addressed to reduce the presence of pollutants in a city that has long been subject to high concentration levels. The environmental compatibility of this intervention, especially in terms of nitrogen oxides (NO x ) and particulate matter (PM) emissions, is evaluated. The pollutants dispersion is estimated using the CALPUFF model. The forecasting scenario is created firstly by simulating the energy production of the main generation plants in response to the estimated heat demand, and secondly by investigating the amount and the dispersion of pollutants removed due to the elimination of the centralized residential heaters. The results show a future reduction in ground level average NO x concentration ranging between 0.2 and 4 μg/m 3 . The concentration of PM remains almost unchanged. Measures are then taken to lower the uncertainty in the simulation scenarios. This study provides important information on the effects of a change of the energy configuration on air quality in an urban area. The proposed methodological approach is comprehensive and repeatable.

  8. Cement Based Batteries and their Potential for Use in Low Power Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, A.; Holmes, N.; Norton, B.

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents the development of an innovative cement-electrolyte battery for low power operations such as cathodic protection of reinforced concrete. A battery design was refined by altering different constituents and examining the open circuit voltage, resistor loaded current and lifespan. The final design consisted of a copper plate cathode, aluminium plate anode, and a cement electrolyte which included additives of carbon black, plasticiser, Alum salt and Epsom salt. A relationship between age, temperature and hydration of the cell and the current it produced was determined. It was found that sealing the battery using varnish increased the moisture retention and current output. Current was also found to increase with internal temperature of the electrolyte and connecting two cells in parallel further doubled or even tripled the current. Parallel-connected cells could sustain an average current of 0.35mA through a 10Ω resistor over two weeks of recording. The preliminary findings demonstrate that cement-based batteries can produce sufficient sustainable electrical outputs with the correct materials and arrangement of components. Work is ongoing to determine how these batteries can be recharged using photovoltaics which will further enhance their sustainability properties.

  9. Octet baryons in the independent-quark-model approach based on the Dirac equation with a power-law potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barik, N; Das, M [Utkal Univ., Bhubaneswar (India). Dept. of Physics

    1983-01-13

    Several properties of octet baryons such as (i) the magnetic moment, (ii) (Gsub(A)/Gsub(v))sub(n) for neutron ..beta..-decay and (iii) the charge radius of the proton have been calculated in a simple independent-quark model under the assumption that the individual constituent quarks are confined, in first approximation, by a relativistic power-law potential Vsub(q)(r)=(1+..beta..) (asup(..nu..+1)rsup(..nu..)+V/sub 0/) with a, ..nu..>0. In view of the simplicity of the model, the results obtained are quite encouraging.

  10. Octet baryons in the independent-quark-model approach based on the Dirac equation with a power-law potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barik, N.; Das, M.

    1983-01-01

    Several properties of octet baryons such as (i) the magnetic moment, (ii) (Gsub(A)/Gsub(v))sub(n) for neutron #betta#-decay and (iii) the charge radius of the proton have been calculated in a simple independent-quark model under the assumption that the individual constituent quarks are confined, in first approximation, by a relativistic power-law potential Vsub(q)(r)=(1+#betta#) (asup(#betta#+1)rsup(#betta#)+V 0 ) with a, #betta#>0. In view of the simplicity of the model, the results obtained are quite encouraging. (orig.)

  11. Investigation of Bose Condensation in Ideal Bose Gas Trapped under Generic Power Law Potential in d Dimension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehedi Faruk, Mir; Sazzad Hossain, Md.; Muktadir Rahman, Md.

    2016-02-01

    The changes in characteristics of Bose condensation of ideal Bose gas due to an external generic power law potential U=\\sumi=1dci\\vert xi/ai\\vertni are studied carefully. Detailed calculation of Kim et al. (J. Phys. Condens. Matter 11 (1999) 10269) yielded the hierarchy of condensation transitions with changing fractional dimensionality. In this manuscript, some theorems regarding specific heat at constant volume CV are presented. Careful examination of these theorems reveal the existence of hidden hierarchy of the condensation transition in trapped systems as well.

  12. Thermostatistical properties of q-deformed bosons trapped in a D-dimensional power-law potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Guozhen; Chen Jincan; Chen Lixuan

    2003-01-01

    The thermostatistical properties of an ideal gas of q-deformed bosons trapped in a D-dimensional power-law potential are studied, based on the q-deformed Bose-Einstein distribution. The effects of q-deformation on the properties of the system are discussed. It is shown that q-deformed bosons (q ≠ 1) possess many different characteristics from those of ordinary bosons, which include the condition that Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) occurs, the critical temperature and the continuity of heat capacity

  13. CO2 emission reduction potential of large-scale energy efficiency measures in power generation from fossil fuels in China, India, Brazil, Indonesia and South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Boehme, Benn J.; Krey, Matthias

    2005-01-01

    We quantify the theoretical potential for energy-efficiency CDM projects using best available technology in coal, natural gas or oil fuelled power generation in China, India, Brazil, Indonesia and South Africa, looking at new power plants or retrofit measures. We then discuss the likelihood of the potential emission reductions materialising under CDM. Our results are very sensitive to choices of baseline and project efficiencies and the level of electricity generation from potential emission ...

  14. POTENTIAL HEALTH RISK REDUCTION ARISING FROM REDUCED MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL FIRED POWER PLANTS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, T. M.; Lipfert, F. W.; Morris, S. C.; Moskowitz, P. D.

    2001-09-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has announced plans to regulate mercury (Hg) emissions from coal-fired power plants. EPA has not prepared a quantitative assessment of the reduction in risk that could be achieved through reduction in coal plant emissions of Hg. To address this issue, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) with support from the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Fossil Energy (DOE FE) prepared a quantitative assessment of the reduction in human health risk that could be achieved through reduction in coal plant emissions of Hg. The primary pathway for Hg exposure is through consumption of fish. The most susceptible population to Hg exposure is the fetus. Therefore the risk assessment focused on consumption of fish by women of child-bearing age. Dose response factors were generated from studies on loss of cognitive abilities (language skills, motor skills, etc.) by young children whose mothers consumed large amounts of fish with high Hg levels. Population risks were estimated for the general population in three regions of the country, (the Midwest, Northeast, and Southeast) that were identified by EPA as being heavily impacted by coal emissions. Three scenarios for reducing Hg emissions from coal plants were considered: (1) A base case using current conditions; (2) A 50% reduction; and, (3) A 90% reduction. These reductions in emissions were assumed to translate linearly into a reduction in fish Hg levels of 8.6% and 15.5%, respectively. Population risk estimates were also calculated for two subsistence fisher populations. These groups of people consume substantially more fish than the general public and, depending on location, the fish may contain higher Hg levels than average. Risk estimates for these groups were calculated for the three Hg levels used for the general population analyses. Analysis shows that the general population risks for exposure of the fetus to Hg are small. Estimated risks under current conditions (i.e., no

  15. Potential for greenhouse gas reduction in industry through increased heat recovery and/or integration of combined heat and power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axelsson, H.; Harvey, S.; Aasblad, A.; Berntsson, T.

    2003-01-01

    The potential for greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction in industry through process integration measures depends to a great extent on prevailing technical and economic conditions. A step-wise methodology developed at the author's department based on pinch technology was used to analyse how various parameters influence the cost-optimal configuration for the plant's energy system, and the opportunities for cost-effective GHG emissions reduction compared to this solution. The potential for reduction of GHG emissions from a given plant depends primarily on the design of the industrial process and its energy system (internal factors) and on the electricity-to-fuel price ratio and the specific GHG emissions from the national power generation system (external factors)

  16. Plant operator selection system for evaluating employment candidates' potential for success in electric power plant operations positions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunnette, M.D.

    1982-01-01

    The Plant Operator Selection System is a battery of tests and questionnaires that can be administered to job candidates in less than three hours. Various components of the battery measure what a job candidate has accomplished in previous educational and work situations, how well a candidate compares with others on a number of important aptitudes or abilities, and whether or not a candidate possesses the kind of personal stability required in power plant operations positions. A job candidate's answers to the tests and questionnaires of the Plant Operator Selection System are scored and converted to an OVERALL POTENTIAL INDEX. Values of the OVERALL POTENTIAL INDEX [OPI] range between 0 and 15. Candidates with high OPI values are much more likely to become effective and successful plant operators than candidates with low OPI values. It is possible to estimate the financial advantages to a company of using the Plant Operator Selection System in evaluating candidates for plant operations jobs

  17. Hinkley Point 'C' power station public inquiry: proof of evidence on potential off-site effects of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Western, D.J.

    1988-09-01

    A public inquiry has been set up to examine the planning application made by the Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) for the construction of a 1200 MW Pressurized Water Reactor power station at Hinkley Point (Hinkley Point ''C'') in the United Kingdom. This evidence to the Inquiry is concerned with the potential of the proposed Hinkely Point ''C'' PWR to increase the exposure of members of the public offsite to radiation. The policy is to replicate the design of the Sizewell ''B'' reactor. The evidence examined in great detail at the Sizewell ''B'' Public Inquiry where the Inspector concluded that the risk would be very small. The purpose of this evidence is to provide an explicit account of the potential off-site effects of radiation at the Hinkley Point site, so that it can be seen that there is nothing specific to this location that could lead to a different conclusion. (author)

  18. The power sector in China and India: greenhouse gas emissions reduction potential and scenarios for 1990-2020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroeze, Carolien; Vlasblom, Jaklien; Gupta, Joyeeta; Boudri, Christiaan; Blok, Kornelis

    2004-01-01

    Emissions of greenhouse gases from China and India are expected to increase in the coming two decades. The objectives of this study are two-fold: (1) to quantify the technical potential of various options to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases from the electricity sector in China and India in the year 2020, and (2) to evaluate a business-as-usual (BAU) scenario plus a number of best practice technology (BPT) scenarios for emission reduction of greenhouse gases from electricity production in China and India up to the year 2020. Options to reduce emissions include end use efficiency improvement, fuel switches, and efficiency improvement of existing and new power plants. For China, we calculated that the individual options analysed have technical potentials to reduce 2020 emissions ranging from 1% to 43% (relative to 2020 unabated emissions) and for India from 4% to 45%. Relatively large reduction potentials are calculated for end use efficiency improvement (43% for China and 45% for India), replacement of coal by renewable energy (23% for China and 14% for India) and natural gas (11% for China and 14% for India). Reducing electricity losses during transmission and distribution would reduce emissions by 7% (China) and 6% (India) and electrical efficiency improvement of power plants by 9% in both countries. The reduction options differ with respect to their feasibility. In the BAU scenario, emissions increase considerably between 1990 and 2020. Next, we present results for three BPT scenarios, which reflect the combined technical potential of selected options to reduce emissions. Our calculations indicate that all three scenarios have a potential to reduce emissions to about half the 2020 BAU level. The three scenarios are very different in their assumptions on reduction options, indicating that there are different strategies possible for realising relatively large emission reductions in China and India. We conclude that end use efficiency improvement may be one of

  19. Turkey's short-term gross annual electricity demand forecast by fuzzy logic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucukali, Serhat; Baris, Kemal

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to forecast Turkey's short-term gross annual electricity demand by applying fuzzy logic methodology while general information on economical, political and electricity market conditions of the country is also given. Unlike most of the other forecast models about Turkey's electricity demand, which usually uses more than one parameter, gross domestic product (GDP) based on purchasing power parity was the only parameter used in the model. Proposed model made good predictions and captured the system dynamic behavior covering the years of 1970-2014. The model yielded average absolute relative errors of 3.9%. Furthermore, the model estimates a 4.5% decrease in electricity demand of Turkey in 2009 and the electricity demand growth rates are projected to be about 4% between 2010 and 2014. It is concluded that forecasting the Turkey's short-term gross electricity demand with the country's economic performance will provide more reliable projections. Forecasting the annual electricity consumption of a country could be made by any designer with the help of the fuzzy logic procedure described in this paper. The advantage of this model lies on the ability to mimic the human thinking and reasoning.

  20. Turkey's short-term gross annual electricity demand forecast by fuzzy logic approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kucukali, Serhat [Civil Engineering Department, Zonguldak Karaelmas University, Incivez 67100, Zonguldak (Turkey); Baris, Kemal [Mining Engineering Department, Zonguldak Karaelmas University, Incivez 67100, Zonguldak (Turkey)

    2010-05-15

    This paper aims to forecast Turkey's short-term gross annual electricity demand by applying fuzzy logic methodology while general information on economical, political and electricity market conditions of the country is also given. Unlike most of the other forecast models about Turkey's electricity demand, which usually uses more than one parameter, gross domestic product (GDP) based on purchasing power parity was the only parameter used in the model. Proposed model made good predictions and captured the system dynamic behavior covering the years of 1970-2014. The model yielded average absolute relative errors of 3.9%. Furthermore, the model estimates a 4.5% decrease in electricity demand of Turkey in 2009 and the electricity demand growth rates are projected to be about 4% between 2010 and 2014. It is concluded that forecasting the Turkey's short-term gross electricity demand with the country's economic performance will provide more reliable projections. Forecasting the annual electricity consumption of a country could be made by any designer with the help of the fuzzy logic procedure described in this paper. The advantage of this model lies on the ability to mimic the human thinking and reasoning. (author)

  1. Climate change impacts on the power generation potential of a European mid-century wind farms scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobin, Isabelle; Vautard, Robert; Noël, Thomas; Jerez, Sonia; Thais, Françoise; Van Meijgaard, Erik; Prein, Andreas; Déqué, Michel; Kotlarski, Sven; Maule, Cathrine Fox; Nikulin, Grigory; Teichmann, Claas

    2016-01-01

    Wind energy resource is subject to changes in climate. To investigate the impacts of climate change on future European wind power generation potential, we analyze a multi-model ensemble of the most recent EURO-CORDEX regional climate simulations at the 12 km grid resolution. We developed a mid-century wind power plant scenario to focus the impact assessment on relevant locations for future wind power industry. We found that, under two greenhouse gas concentration scenarios, changes in the annual energy yield of the future European wind farms fleet as a whole will remain within ±5% across the 21st century. At country to local scales, wind farm yields will undergo changes up to 15% in magnitude, according to the large majority of models, but smaller than 5% in magnitude for most regions and models. The southern fleets such as the Iberian and Italian fleets are likely to be the most affected. With regard to variability, changes are essentially small or poorly significant from subdaily to interannual time scales. (letter)

  2. Predicting the ultimate potential of natural gas SOFC power cycles with CO2 capture - Part A: Methodology and reference cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanari, Stefano; Mastropasqua, Luca; Gazzani, Matteo; Chiesa, Paolo; Romano, Matteo C.

    2016-08-01

    Driven by the search for the highest theoretical efficiency, in the latest years several studies investigated the integration of high temperature fuel cells in natural gas fired power plants, where fuel cells are integrated with simple or modified Brayton cycles and/or with additional bottoming cycles, and CO2 can be separated via chemical or physical separation, oxy-combustion and cryogenic methods. Focusing on Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) and following a comprehensive review and analysis of possible plant configurations, this work investigates their theoretical potential efficiency and proposes two ultra-high efficiency plant configurations based on advanced intermediate-temperature SOFCs integrated with a steam turbine or gas turbine cycle. The SOFC works at atmospheric or pressurized conditions and the resulting power plant exceeds 78% LHV efficiency without CO2 capture (as discussed in part A of the work) and 70% LHV efficiency with substantial CO2 capture (part B). The power plants are simulated at the 100 MW scale with a complete set of realistic assumptions about fuel cell (FC) performance, plant components and auxiliaries, presenting detailed energy and material balances together with a second law analysis.

  3. Investigations on the potential of a low power diode pumped Er:YAG laser system for oral surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Karl; Wurm, Holger; Hausladen, Florian; Wagner, Sophia; Hibst, Raimund

    2015-02-01

    Flash lamp pumped Er:YAG-lasers are used in clinical practice for dental applications successfully. As an alternative, several diode pumped Er:YAG laser systems (Pantec Engineering AG) become available, with mean laser power of 2W, 15W, and 30W. The aim of the presented study is to investigate the potential of the 2W Er:YAG laser system for oral surgery. At first an appropriate experimental set-up was realized with a beam delivery and both, a focusing unit for non-contact tissue cutting and a fiber tip for tissue cutting in contact mode. In order to produce reproducible cuts, the samples (porcine gingiva) were moved by a computer controlled translation stage. On the fresh samples cutting depth and quality were determined by light microscopy. Afterwards histological sections were prepared and microscopically analyzed regarding cutting depth and thermal damage zone. The experiments show that low laser power ≤ 2W is sufficient to perform efficient oral soft tissue cutting with cut depth up to 2mm (sample movement 2mm/s). The width of the thermal damage zone can be controlled by the irradiation parameters within a range of about 50μm to 110μm. In general, thermal injury is more pronounced using fiber tips in contact mode compared to the focused laser beam. In conclusion the results reveal that even the low power diode pumped Er:YAG laser is an appropriate tool for oral surgery.

  4. Assessment of the natural gas potential for heat and power generation in the County of Oestergoetland in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amiri, Shahnaz; Moshfegh, Bahram; Trygg, Louise

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the potential use of natural gas for heat and power production for the municipality of Linkoeping, Norrkoeping and FinspAng in the County of Oestergoetland, Sweden. The results of the study revealed that these three municipalities with the present heating demand can convert 2030 GWh/year of the present fuel mixed to natural gas. The expansion of natural gas provides the possibility to increase the electricity generation with approximately 800 GWh annually in the County of Oestergoetland. The global emissions of CO 2 reduce also by approximately 490 ktonne/year by assuming the coal condensing power plant as the marginal power plant. The total system cost decreases by 76 Mkr/year with the present electricity price which varies between 432 and 173 SEK/MWh and with 248 Mkr/year if the present electricity price increases to 37% which is approximately corresponding to European electricity prices. Sensitivity analysis is done with respect to the different factors such as price of electricity, natural gas, etc. The findings show that increased price of electricity and increased district heating demand increases the profitability to convert to natural gas using CHP plant. (author)

  5. The Influence of Diesel Fuel Subsidies and Taxes on the Potential for Solar-Powered Hybrid Systems in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Bertheau

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Many people in African countries lack access to sufficient electricity supply due to missing infrastructure of the centralized conventional power generation system. In order to provide electricity to a wider part of the population, it is necessary to exploit the vast renewable resources in African countries. Therefore, this paper scrutinizes the economic advantages of photovoltaic-based hybrid systems over fossil fuel-based power generation. A simulation model is applied in order to calculate the cost advantage of hybrid systems compared to diesel-only systems for the entire continent on a long term basis by applying two scenarios: one based on world market diesel prices and the other one based on national diesel prices. The results indicate that average power generation costs per country can be reduced by up to 0.11 €/kWh considering world market diesel prices and by up to 0.48 €/kWh considering national diesel prices. Furthermore, the effect of diesel fuel subsidies and taxes on the renewable energy potential and the respective savings are examined. These findings may ameliorate the policy development according to fossil fuel subsidies and taxes and demonstrate the advantages of decentralized renewable hybrid systems especially in rural areas of Africa.

  6. Design considerations and analysis of potential applications of a high power ultraviolet FEL at the TESLA test facility at DESY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagani, C.; Saldin, E.L.; Schneidmiller, E.A.; Yurkov, M.V.

    1999-01-01

    A possibility of constructing a high power ultraviolet free electron laser at the TESLA test facility at DESY is discussed. The proposed facility consists of a tunable master oscillator (P av ∼10 mW, P peak ∼10 kW, λ≅200-350 nm) and an FEL amplifier with a tapered undulator. The average and peak radiation power at the exit of the FEL amplifier is about 7 kW and 220 GW, respectively. Installation of such a facility can significantly extend scientific potential of the TESLA test facility. The UV free electron laser can be used to construct a polarized, monochromatic gamma-source with the ultimate yield up to 10 12 gamma-quanta per second and the maximal energy of about 100 MeV. An intensive gamma-source can also form the base for constructing the test facility for the TESLA positron generation system. Another accelerator application of the proposed facility is verification of the main technical solutions for the laser and the optical system to be used in the gamma-gamma option of the TESLA collider. A high average power UV laser is also promising for industrial applications

  7. Greenhouse gas and air pollutant emission reduction potentials of renewable energy--case studies on photovoltaic and wind power introduction considering interactions among technologies in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Yu-Ming; Fukushima, Yasuhiro

    2009-03-01

    To achieve higher energy security and lower emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and pollutants, the development of renewable energy has attracted much attention in Taiwan. In addition to its contribution to the enhancement of reliable indigenous resources, the introduction of renewable energy such as photovoltaic (PV) and wind power systems reduces the emission of GHGs and air pollutants by substituting a part of the carbon- and pollutant-intensive power with power generated by methods that are cleaner and less carbon-intensive. To evaluate the reduction potentials, consequential changes in the operation of different types of existing power plants have to be taken into account. In this study, a linear mathematical programming model is constructed to simulate a power mix for a given power demand in a power market sharing a cost-minimization objective. By applying the model, the emission reduction potentials of capacity extension case studies, including the enhancement of PV and wind power introduction at different scales, were assessed. In particular, the consequences of power mix changes in carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, and particulates were discussed. Seasonally varying power demand levels, solar irradiation, and wind strength were taken into account. In this study, we have found that the synergetic reduction of carbon dioxide emission induced by PV and wind power introduction occurs under a certain level of additional installed capacity. Investigation of a greater variety of case studies on scenario development with emerging power sources becomes possible by applying the model developed in this study.

  8. On the Renormalization of the One–Pion Exchange Potential and the Consistency of Weinberg’s Power Counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epelbaum, E.; Meißner, Ulf-G.

    2013-01-01

    Nogga, Timmermans and van Kolck recently argued that Weinberg’s power counting in the few–nucleon sector is inconsistent and requires modifications. Their argument is based on the observed cutoff dependence of the nucleon–nucleon scattering amplitude calculated by solving the Lippmann–Schwinger equation with the regularized one–pion exchange potential and the cutoff Λ varied in the range Λ = 2 . . . 20 fm −1 . In this paper we discuss the role the cutoff plays in the application of chiral effective field theory to the two–nucleon system and study carefully the cutoff–dependence of phase shifts and observables based on the one–pion exchange potential. We show that (i) there is no need to use the momentum–space cutoff larger than Λ ∼ 3 fm −1 ; (ii) the neutron–proton low–energy data show no evidence for an inconsistency of Weinberg’s power counting if one uses Λ ∼ 3 fm - 1. (author)

  9. The Potential Power of Bar-HRM Technology in Herbal Medicine Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Li, Jing-Jian; Xiong, Chao; Zhao, Bo; Chen, Shi-Lin

    2016-01-01

    The substitution of low-cost or adulterated herbal products for high-priced herbs makes it important to be able to identify and trace herbal plant species and their processed products in the drug supply chain. PCR-based methods play an increasing role in monitoring the safety of herbal medicines by detecting adulteration. Recent studies have shown the potential of DNA barcoding combined with high resolution melting (Bar-HRM) analysis in herbal medicine identification. This method involves precisely monitoring the change in fluorescence caused by the release of an intercalating DNA dye from a DNA duplex as it is denatured by a gradual increase in temperature. Since the melting profile depends on the GC content, length, and strand complementarity of the amplification product, Bar-HRM analysis opens up the possibility of detecting single-base variants or species-specific differences in a short region of DNA. This review summarizes key factors affecting Bar-HRM analysis and describes how Bar-HRM is performed. We then discuss advances in Bar-HRM analysis of medicinal plant ingredients (herbal materia medica) as a contribution toward safe and effective herbal medicines.

  10. Market potential of small and medium-size nuclear reactors as combined heat and power plants in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoen, R.; Hansen, U.; Candeli, R.; Leuchs, D.; Garribba, S.F.; Lefevre, J.C.; Vivante, C.

    1987-01-01

    A Study has been launched and supported by the Commission of the European Communities to assess the potential market of small and medium size nuclear reactors through EC Countries and to identify those factors which may play a dominant role in this respect. In its first phase, the Study addresses to modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactors that would be installed to produce low-temperature heat and power. Federal Republic of Germany, Italy and France are the countries for which the investigation has been either completed or is under way. The time span of interest is up to the year 2020. Referring to this horizon an appraisal has been made of the number of nuclear units which could come on line to cope with energy demand and their timing. Through the Study a distinction is made between technical potential, economic potential, and effective market potential. It is understood indeed that both economic competitiveness towards other energy sources and institutional or organizational factors may restrict the market which could be covered by this class of nuclear reactors. (author)

  11. Market potential of small and medium-size nuclear reactors as combined heat and power plants in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Candeli, R.; Leuchs, D.; Garribba, S.F.; Hansen, U.; Lefevre, J.C.; Schoen, R.; Vivante, C.

    1988-01-01

    The preliminary results are presented concerning a study launched by the Commission of the European Communities to assess the potential market of small and medium-size nuclear reactors through EC member countries. The study was aimed at identifying those factors that may have a role in shaping the eventual deployment and diffusion of this class of nuclear reactors. In a first phase, attention focused on modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactors that would be installed to produce low-temperature heat and power. Federal Republic of Germany, Italy and France are the countries for which the investigation has been completed. The time span of interest is up to the year 2020. Referring to this horizon, an appraisal has been made of the number of nuclear units which could come on line to cope with energy demand and their timing. Through the study a distinction is made between technical potential, economic potential, and effective market potential. It is understood indeed that both economic competitiveness towards other energy sources and also institutional or organizational factors may restrict the market which could become accessible and would be covered by the new nuclear plants. (orig.)

  12. Measurement of gross alpha, gross beta, radon and radium activity concentrations in aqueous samples using liquid scintillation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaini Hamzah; Ahmad Saat; Masitah Alias; Siti Afiqah Abdul Rahman; Mohamed Kasim; Abdul Kadir Ishak

    2011-01-01

    Recently, Malaysia has taken a positive step toward providing a better water quality by introducing more water quality parameters into its Water Quality Standard. With regard to the natural radionuclides that may present in the water, 3 parameters were introduced that is gross alpha, gross beta and radium which need to be measured and cannot exceed 0.1, 1.0 and 1.0 Bq/ L respectively. This study was conducted to develop a more practical method in measuring these parameters in aqueous environmental samples. Besides having a lot of former tin mining areas, some part of Malaysia is located on the granitic rock which also contributes to a certain extent the amount of natural radionuclides such as uranium and thorium. For all we know these two radionuclides are the origin of other radionuclides being produced from their decay series. The State of Kelantan was chosen as the study area, where the water samples were collected from various part of the Kelantan River. 25 liters of samples were collected, acidify to pH 2 and filtered before the analysis. Measurement of these parameters was done using liquid scintillation counter (LSC). The LSC was set up to the optimum discriminator level and counting was done using alpha-beta mode. The results show that gross alpha and beta can be measured using scintillation cocktail and radium and radon using extraction method. The results for gross alpha, gross beta, 222 Ra and 226 Ra are 0.39-6.42, 0.66-16.18, 0.40-4.65 and 0.05-0.56 Bq/ L. MDA for gross alpha, gross beta and radium is 0.03, 0.08 and 0.00035 Bq/ L respectively. (Author)

  13. The potential of decentralized power-to-heat as a flexibility option for the german electricity system: A microeconomic perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrlich, Lars G.; Klamka, Jonas; Wolf, André

    2015-01-01

    One fundamental challenge of the German energy transition for the electricity market is the growing imbalance between inflexible generation and generally inelastic load. Against this background, we investigate the future potential of decentralized Power-to-Heat (P2H) as an additional demand-side flexibility option for the German electricity system. Precisely, we analyze the case of hybrid systems, where conventional gas and oil condensing boiler systems are equipped with an electric heating rod. In contrast to previous approaches, we set our focus on the economic incentives at household level: only if the switch to a P2H-hybrid system can reduce individual heating expenses significantly, a considerable number of these systems will be installed. For this purpose, we implemented an integrated approach combining three distinct simulation modules. First, a stochastic simulation of the electricity spot market prices in 2020 was conducted. Second, average heat load profiles were generated based on a standard bottom-up analysis. Both results were then fed into an optimization model calculating the cost-minimizing paths of heat generation at household level during the year 2020. The simulated annual savings prove modest as long as household electricity prices are not heavily reduced through political influence. - Highlights: • We investigate the future potential of decentralized Power-to-Heat. • Focus lies on hybrid Power-to-Heat systems with condensing gas or oil boiler. • We analyze the economic incentives at household level. • Simulation of heat load profiles and spot prices in 2020. • Savings prove modest as long as household electricity prices are not heavily reduced.

  14. Wind speed reductions by large-scale wind turbine deployments lower turbine efficiencies and set low wind power potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Lee; Kleidon, Axel

    2017-04-01

    Wind turbines generate electricity by removing kinetic energy from the atmosphere. Large numbers of wind turbines are likely to reduce wind speeds, which lowers estimates of electricity generation from what would be presumed from unaffected conditions. Here, we test how well wind power potentials that account for this effect can be estimated without explicitly simulating atmospheric dynamics. We first use simulations with an atmospheric general circulation model (GCM) that explicitly simulates the effects of wind turbines to derive wind power limits (GCM estimate), and compare them to a simple approach derived from the climatological conditions without turbines [vertical kinetic energy (VKE) estimate]. On land, we find strong agreement between the VKE and GCM estimates with respect to electricity generation rates (0.32 and 0.37 We m-2) and wind speed reductions by 42 and 44%. Over ocean, the GCM estimate is about twice the VKE estimate (0.59 and 0.29 We m-2) and yet with comparable wind speed reductions (50 and 42%). We then show that this bias can be corrected by modifying the downward momentum flux to the surface. Thus, large-scale limits to wind power can be derived from climatological conditions without explicitly simulating atmospheric dynamics. Consistent with the GCM simulations, the approach estimates that only comparatively few land areas are suitable to generate more than 1 We m-2 of electricity and that larger deployment scales are likely to reduce the expected electricity generation rate of each turbine. We conclude that these atmospheric effects are relevant for planning the future expansion of wind power.

  15. Reducing automotive emissions—The potentials of combustion engine technologies and the power of policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berggren, Christian; Magnusson, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Reducing transport emissions, in particular vehicular emissions, is a key element for mitigating the risks of climate change. In much of the academic and public discourse the focus has been on alternative vehicle technologies and fuels (e.g. electric cars, fuel cells and hydrogen), whereas vehicles based on internal combustion engines have been perceived as close to their development limits. This paper offers a different perspective by demonstrating the accelerated improvement processes taking place in established combustion technologies as a result of a new competition between manufacturers and technologies, encouraged both by more stringent EU legislation and new CAFE levels in the US. The short-term perspective is complemented by an analysis of future improvement potentials in internal combustion technologies, which may be realized if efficient regulation is in place. Based on a comparison of four different regulatory approaches, the paper identifies the need for a long-term technology-neutral framework with stepwise increasing stringencies, arguing that this will encourage continual innovation and diffusion in the most effective way. - Highlights: ► From 1990 to 2008, CO 2 emissions from road transportation in the EU increased by 21%. ► Alternative vehicles are important, but internal combustion engines (ICE) will remain dominant. ► The paper shows how competition and new regulation accelerate the improvement of ICE-vehicles. ► The key factor for long-term emissions reduction is appropriate regulation, not technology. ► Most effective is a technology-neutral framework with stepwise increasing stringencies.

  16. Soil gross nitrogen transformations in responses to land use conversion in a subtropical karst region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dejun; Liu, Jing; Chen, Hao; Zheng, Liang; Wang, Kelin

    2018-04-15

    Gross nitrogen (N) transformations can provide important information for assessing indigenous soil N supply capacity and soil nitrate leaching potential. The current study aimed to assess the variation of gross N transformations in response to conversion of maize-soybean fields to sugarcane, mulberry, and forage grass fields in a subtropical karst region of southwest China. Mature forests were included for comparison. Gross rates of N mineralization (GNM) were highest in the forests, intermediate in the maize-soybean and forage grass fields, and lowest in the sugarcane and mulberry fields, suggesting capacity of indigenous soil N supply derived from organic N mineralization was lowered after conversion to sugarcane and mulberry fields. The relative high indigenous soil N supply capacity in the maize-soybean fields was obtained at the cost of soil organic N depletion. Gross nitrification (GN) rates were highest in the forests, intermediate in the forage grass fields and lowest in the other three agricultural land use types. The nitrate retention capacity (24.1 ± 2.0% on average) was similar among the five land use types, implying that nitrate leaching potential was not changed after land use conversion. Microbial biomass N exerted significant direct effects on the rates of N mineralization, nitrification, ammonium immobilization and nitrate immobilization. Soil organic carbon, total N and exchangeable magnesium had significant indirect effects on these N transformation rates. Our findings suggest that forage grass cultivation instead of other agricultural land uses should be recommended from the perspective of increasing indigenous soil N supply while not depleting soil organic N pool. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Gross domestic product and health expenditure associated with incidence, 30-day fatality, and age at stroke onset: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sposato, Luciano A; Saposnik, Gustavo

    2012-01-01

    Differences in definitions of socioeconomic status and between study designs hinder their comparability across countries. We aimed to analyze the correlation between 3 widely used macrosocioeconomic status indicators and clinical outcomes. We selected population-based studies reporting incident stroke risk and/or 30-day case-fatality according to prespecified criteria. We used 3 macrosocioeconomic status indicators that are consistently defined by international agencies: per capita gross domestic product adjusted for purchasing power parity, total health expenditures per capita at purchasing power parity, and unemployment rate. We examined the correlation of each macrosocioeconomic status indicator with incident risk of stroke, 30-day case-fatality, proportion of hemorrhagic strokes, and age at stroke onset. Twenty-three articles comprising 30 population-based studies fulfilled the eligibility criteria. Age-adjusted incident risk of stroke using the standardized World Health Organization World population was associated to lower per capita gross domestic product adjusted for purchasing power parity (ρ=-0.661, P=0.027, R(2)=0.32) and total health expenditures per capita at purchasing power parity (ρ=-0.623, P=0.040, R(2)=0.26). Thirty-day case-fatality rates and proportion of hemorrhagic strokes were also related to lower per capita gross domestic product adjusted for purchasing power parity and total health expenditures per capita at purchasing power parity. Moreover, stroke occurred at a younger age in populations with low per capita gross domestic product adjusted for purchasing power parity and total health expenditures per capita at purchasing power parity. There was no correlation between unemployment rates and outcome measures. Lower per capita gross domestic product adjusted for purchasing power parity and total health expenditures per capita at purchasing power parity were associated with higher incident risk of stroke, higher case-fatality, a greater

  18. Gross Nitrogen Mineralization in Surface Sediments of the Yangtze Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Min; Li, Xiaofei; Yin, Guoyu; Zheng, Yanling; Deng, Fengyu

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen mineralization is a key biogeochemical process transforming organic nitrogen to inorganic nitrogen in estuarine and coastal sediments. Although sedimentary nitrogen mineralization is an important internal driver for aquatic eutrophication, few studies have investigated sedimentary nitrogen mineralization in these environments. Sediment-slurry incubation experiments combined with 15N isotope dilution technique were conducted to quantify the potential rates of nitrogen mineralization in surface sediments of the Yangtze Estuary. The gross nitrogen mineralization (GNM) rates ranged from 0.02 to 5.13 mg N kg-1 d-1 in surface sediments of the study area. The GNM rates were generally higher in summer than in winter, and the relative high rates were detected mainly at sites near the north branch and frontal edge of this estuary. The spatial and temporal distributions of GNM rates were observed to depend largely on temperature, salinity, sedimentary organic carbon and nitrogen contents, and extracellular enzyme (urease and L-glutaminase) activities. The total mineralized nitrogen in the sediments of the Yangtze Estuary was estimated to be about 6.17 × 105 t N yr-1, and approximately 37% of it was retained in the estuary. Assuming the retained mineralized nitrogen is totally released from the sediments into the water column, which contributed 12–15% of total dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) sources in this study area. This result indicated that the mineralization process is a significant internal nitrogen source for the overlying water of the Yangtze Estuary, and thus may contribute to the estuarine and coastal eutrophication. PMID:26991904

  19. Effect of water content nitrogen gross mineralization and immobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Videla C, Ximena; Parada, Ana Maria; Nario M, Adriana; Pino N, Ines; Hood, Rebeca

    2005-01-01

    The decomposition of organic matter in soil, and the accompanying mineralization and immobilization of inorganic N, are key processes in the soil plant cycle. It is hypothesized that moisture regime may also play an important role on these processes. Two laboratory studies were carried out to investigate the effect of moisture regime on gross mineralization and immobilization of N, in and Ultisol soil, which was incubated at 25 o C, under two moisture regimes, field capacity (CC) (40% w/w) and 85% of field capacity (34% w/w): Using mirror image 15 N isotope dilution techniques, it was possible to determine gross nitrification and mineralization rates. The rates of gross mineralization and nitrification rate in this soil was extremely rapid and efficient, specially with 85% CC. The N transformations varied with moisture regime (author)

  20. High-performance HVDC transmission over long distances; Hochleistungsuebertragung ueber grosse Entfernungen mit hochgespanntem Gleichstrom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radtke, U. [PreussenElektra AG, Hannover (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    High-voltage DC transmission is a world-wide established technology for low-cost transmission of large amounts of electricity over long distances. Thanks to HVDC transmission, large amounts of electricity can now for the first time also be transmitted over long distances via ocean cable, something that cannot be done with AC power cables. HVDC transmission is independent of grid frequencies and can link grids of different frequency and different quality of frequency. Interconnected grids coupled via DC circuits can exploit additional technical and economic advantages such as mutual supply of power reserves, balancing of peak load, and modulation of active and reactive power. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Hochspannungs-Gleichstromuebertragung (HGUe) ist eine weltweit etablierte Technik zur kostenguenstigen Uebertragung grosser elektrischer Leistungen ueber grosse Entfernungen. Sie schafft erstmals die Moeglichkeit, auch mittels Seekabel grosse Leistungen ueber Entfernungen zu uebertragen, die mit der Drehstromtechnik nicht moeglich sind. HGUeist unabhaengig von den Netzfrequenzen und kann Netze unterschiedlicher Frequenz und Frequenzguete miteinander verbinden. Ueber Gleichstromkreise gekuppelte Verbundnetze koennen zusaetzliche technische und wirtschaftliche Vorteile wie gegenseitige Bereitstellung von Kraftwerksreserven, Spitzenlastausgleich sowie Wirk- und Blindleistungsmodulation nutzt. (orig.)