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Sample records for gross pathologic types

  1. Pathology Gross Photography: The Beginning of Digital Pathology.

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    Rampy, B Alan; Glassy, Eric F

    2015-06-01

    The underutilized practice of photographing anatomic pathology specimens from surgical pathology and autopsies is an invaluable benefit to patients, clinicians, pathologists, and students. Photographic documentation of clinical specimens is essential for the effective practice of pathology. When considering what specimens to photograph, all grossly evident pathology, absent yet expected pathologic features, and gross-only specimens should be thoroughly documented. Specimen preparation prior to photography includes proper lighting and background, wiping surfaces of blood, removing material such as tubes or bandages, orienting the specimen in a logical fashion, framing the specimen to fill the screen, positioning of probes, and using the right-sized scale.

  2. HOLISTIC APPROACH OF TEACHING OF GROSS PATHOLOGICAL SPECIMEN FOR 2ND PROFESSIONAL MBBS STUDENTS

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    Anupam

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Study of pathological specimen is necessary for the students towards their practical (including viva as well as theoretical examinations. Past experiences show that most of the students of 2nd Professional MBBS cannot answer properly the questions related to the pathological specimen, especially the histopathological portion when asked by the examiners. This is due to the conventional method of teaching where students are given only didactic lectures on histopathological features, which is not convenient for students to understand the histopathology and related questions. AIMS To assess the impact of new teaching method of gross pathological specimen using visual aids (PowerPoint to show histopathology. MATERIALS AND METHODS Total 41 students present in 2nd Prof. MBBS were divided into 4 groups under the leadership of class assistants or demonstrators. 20 practical classes were arranged for 4 months of study period. In the first one hour, each group was shown power-point presentation of histopathological features, related questions and answers of the gross specimen to be studied. All the aspects were discussed simultaneously. In the next one hour, there was a joint teaching session consisting of all four groups, moderated by the concerned professor with PowerPoint projection. Assessment was done by three mock tests comprising of Viva, Multiple Choice Questions and Short Assay type Questions and a routine internal assessment in the last week of the study period. Then a comparison was made with regards to presence of students and results of successive three mock tests. Result of internal assessment was compared with that of previous two batches in which students were taught with only routine lectures on the same gross pathological specimen. RESULTS The use of new method increased the average attendance of students significantly. The percentage of passing students in the mock tests was very good. There was notable increase of passing

  3. Duck plague: carrier state and gross pathology in black ducks

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    Ossa, Jorge E.

    1975-01-01

    Duck plague (UP) is a highly fatal disease of ducks, geese, and swans (family Anatidae), produced by a reticulo-endotheliotrophic virus classified as a member of the Herpesvirus group. The disease was recognized in Europe in 1949. On the American continent, the disease was first diagnosed in the United States in 1967. Very little is known of DP virus ecology, particularly of the mechanisms of interepizootic survival and movement. The tendency of the IIerpesviruses to enter into a quiescent state after an overt or inapparent infection is a proven characteristic for most of the members of this group. Herpes simplex, which is the model of the Herpesviruses, is said to be the classical example of a persistent recurrent viral infection. Burnet and Williams (4) were the first to recognize this kind of relationship between herpes simplex and its host in 1939. Later, it was found that the reactivation of the virus can be brought on by a variety of stimuli either physiological (menstruation), pathological (anaphylactic shock), chemical (pesticides) or physical (sunburn). This same latency property has been proved for every member of this group of viruses which has been studied adequately, DP is among the few Herpesviruses for which the carrier state has not been demonstrated, but there is circumstantial evidence suggesting it. The carrier state for DP seems to be a likely explanation for the persistence and the particular pattern of movement of this disease.

  4. How the Integration of Pathology in the Gross Anatomy Laboratory Affects Medical Students.

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    Rae, Guenevere; Cork, John R; Karpinski, Aryn C; McGoey, Robin; Swartz, William

    2017-01-01

    The main objective of this project was to integrate pathologists into the gross anatomy laboratory setting to increase the exposure that early medical students receive to pathologists as clinicians. Pathologists visited the gross anatomy laboratory 3 times throughout the 15-week course to assist medical students in determining the cause of death of the cadaver being dissected. This intervention was implemented with 1st-semester medical students for 2 consecutive years (a total of 100 dissection teams consisting of 4 students in each team). A quantitative content analysis was performed on the students' end of the course assignments to determine whether the students learned a greater percentage of pathologic information by having interactions with pathologists in the gross lab and to identify trends in the way medical students diagnosed their "first patient" (i.e., the cadaver). The students who had interactions with pathologists in the laboratory had significantly more pathology in their narrative than the students who did not receive pathologist interaction. They were also more likely to conclude that the cadaver they dissected actually died from a cause other than the one listed on the death certificate (18.3%; n = 15) compared to the students who had no pathologist interaction (1.8%; n = 2). A postintervention survey indicated that 65% of students felt that interaction with pathologists helped them understand the clinical application of gross anatomy, more than 40% become more interested in pathology, and 74% would have liked to have had more pathologist interaction. This intervention demonstrated a way to increase pathologist interaction within the undergraduate medical curriculum and enhance the educational environment of the gross anatomy laboratory.

  5. Hürthle cell neoplasm: correlation of gray-scale and power Doppler sonographic findings with gross pathology.

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    Lee, Sang Kwon; Rho, Byung Hak; Woo, Seong-Ku

    2010-05-01

    To describe gray-scale and power Doppler (PD) sonographic (US) findings of Hürthle cell neoplasms (HCNs) of the thyroid gland, and to determine if there is any correlation between US and gross pathologic features. This retrospective study included 30 pathologically proven HCNs in 30 subjects who underwent preoperative gray-scale and PD US examinations. The size, shape, margin, echogenicity, echotexture, presence or absence of cystic change, calcifications and halo sign, and vascularity at PD US were evaluated. The longest diameter of HCNs ranged from 12 mm to 63 mm. The shape and margins of the mass were ovoid and smooth, respectively, in all cases. The echogenicity was hypoechoic, isoechoic, hyperechoic, or mixed in 43.3%, 33.3%, 10.0%, and 13.3%, respectively. The echotexture was heterogeneous in 73.3% and homogeneous in 26.7%. Cystic change was present in 56.7% and involved less than 25% of the volume of the mass in 50.0% and 26-50% of the volume in 6.7%. Coarse calcifications were present in 20.0%. Halo sign was present in all cases. The vascularity was combined peri- and intranodular in all cases: predominantly intranodular in 50.0%, predominantly perinodular in 46.7%, and of the "inferno" type in 3.3%. All HCNs were encapsulated on gross pathologic examination. Although many of the US features we observed were nonspecific, HCNs tend to have a halo sign and combined peri- and intranodular vascularity on US, which raises the possibility of an association. The US halo sign corresponds to tumor capsule ongross pathologic examination.

  6. Integrating gross pathology into teaching of undergraduate medical science students using human cadavers.

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    Gopalan, Vinod; Dissabandara, Lakal; Nirthanan, Selvanayagam; Forwood, Mark R; Lam, Alfred King-Yin

    2016-09-01

    Human cadavers offer a great opportunity for histopathology students for the learning and teaching of tissue pathology. In this study, we aimed to implement an integrated learning approach by using cadavers to enhance students' knowledge and to develop their skills in gross tissue identification, handling and dissection techniques. A total of 35 students enrolled in the undergraduate medical science program participated in this study. A 3-hour laboratory session was conducted that included an active exploration of cadaveric specimens to identify normal and pathological tissues as well as tissue dissection. The majority of the students strongly agreed that the integration of normal and morbid anatomy improved their understanding of tissue pathology. All the students either agreed or strongly agreed that this laboratory session was useful to improve their tissue dissection and instrument handling skills. Furthermore, students from both cohorts rated the session as very relevant to their learning and recommended that this approach be added to the existing histopathology curriculum. To conclude, an integrated cadaver-based practical session can be used effectively to enhance the learning experience of histopathology science students, as well as improving their manual skills of tissue treatment, instrument handling and dissection.

  7. Gross and microscopic pathology of lesions in Pocillopora spp. from the subtropical eastern Pacific

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    Rodríguez-Villalobos, Jenny Carolina; Rocha-Olivares, Axayácatl; Work, Thierry Martin; Calderon-Aguilera, Luis Eduardo; Cáceres-Martínez, Jorge Abelardo

    2014-01-01

    Coral reefs are threatened by a variety of factors including diseases that have caused significant damage in some regions such as in the Caribbean. At present, no data are available on coral diseases in the Mexican Pacific where Pocillopora spp. is a dominant component of coral communities. Here, we describe gross and microscopic morphology of lesions found in pocilloporids at four sites in the Mexican Pacific. Corals were identified and their lesions photographed and quantified in the field. Tissue samples were collected from healthy and affected colonies for histopathology. We recorded seven species of pocilloporids at the study sites with Isla Isabel being the location with the highest coral diversity (H′ = 1.27). Lesions were present in 42% of the colonies and included discoloration (32%), predation-induced tissue loss (30%), unexplained tissue loss (3%) and overgrowth by sponges or algae (35%). The most affected species, P. damicornis (50%), was also one of the most common in the region. No species was more prone to a particular lesion, but there was a significant association between location and the presence of lesions. Northern Islas Marietas (61%) and Isla Isabel (41%) had the highest prevalence of lesions, followed by Manzanillo (37%) and Bahías de Huatulco (23%). Histological changes included atrophy of the surface body wall with depletion of zooxanthellae (91%) in corals with discoloration (bleaching). Ablation of tissue from mesoglea (18%) was also observed. Colonies with unexplained tissue loss showed atrophy and thinning of the epidermis (89%), characterized by cuboidal instead of pseudocolumnar cells normally found in healthy pseudocolumnar ciliated epithelium. Bacterial aggregates between the mesoglea and gastrodermis (11%) were very conspicuous in healthy and diseased corals. Lesions produced by fish bites and gastropods were associated with tissue atrophy (40%) and, in some cases, algal overgrowth near the lesion (20%). No infectious agents

  8. The effect of a Lean quality improvement implementation program on surgical pathology specimen accessioning and gross preparation error frequency.

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    Smith, Maxwell L; Wilkerson, Trent; Grzybicki, Dana M; Raab, Stephen S

    2012-09-01

    Few reports have documented the effectiveness of Lean quality improvement in changing anatomic pathology patient safety. We used Lean methods of education; hoshin kanri goal setting and culture change; kaizen events; observation of work activities, hand-offs, and pathways; A3-problem solving, metric development, and measurement; and frontline work redesign in the accessioning and gross examination areas of an anatomic pathology laboratory. We compared the pre- and post-Lean implementation proportion of near-miss events and changes made in specific work processes. In the implementation phase, we documented 29 individual A3-root cause analyses. The pre- and postimplementation proportions of process- and operator-dependent near-miss events were 5.5 and 1.8 (P < .002) and 0.6 and 0.6, respectively. We conclude that through culture change and implementation of specific work process changes, Lean implementation may improve pathology patient safety.

  9. Gross and microscopic pathology of hard and soft corals in New Caledonia

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    Work, Thierry M.; Aeby, Greta S.; Lasne, Gregory; Tribollet, Aline

    2014-01-01

    We surveyed the reefs of Grande Terre, New Caledonia, for coral diseases in 2010 and 2013. Lesions encountered in hard and soft corals were systematically described at the gross and microscopic level. We sampled paired and normal tissues from 101 and 65 colonies in 2010 and 2013, respectively, comprising 51 species of corals from 27 genera. Tissue loss was the most common gross lesion sampled (40%) followed by discoloration (28%), growth anomalies (13%), bleaching (10%), and flatworm infestation (1%). When grouped by gross lesions, the diversity of microscopic lesions as measured by Shannon–Wiener index was highest for tissue loss, followed by discoloration, bleaching, and growth anomaly. Our findings document an extension of the range of certain diseases such as Porites trematodiasis and endolithic hypermycosis (dark spots) to the Western Pacific as well as the presence of a putative cnidarian endosymbiont. We also expand the range of species infected by cell-associated microbial aggregates, and confirm the trend that these aggregates predominate in dominant genera of corals in the Indo-Pacific. This study highlights the importance of including histopathology as an integral component of baseline coral disease surveys, because a given gross lesion might be associated with multiple potential causative agents.

  10. Clinical management and gross pathological findings of a severe anaplamosis in a dairy cow

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    Yusuf Abba

    2016-06-01

    Results: The cow did not survive the infection as it eventually died of the disease. Post mortem examination showed gross evidence of splenomegaly, hepatomegaly, distended bile duct and generalized jaundice. Conclusion: Based on the consequence of this case report, preventive vector control, prompt and appropriate treatment and improved management practices are recommended in order to prevent clinical anaplasmosis cases among cattle. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2016; 3(2.000: 195-199

  11. Discrepancies between the ultrasonographic and gross pathological size of papillary thyroid carcinomas

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    Hahm, Soo Yeon; Shin, Jung Hee; Oh, Young Lyun; Son, Young Ik [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-15

    The goal of this study was to investigate the level of agreement between tumor sizes measured on ultrasonography (US) and in pathological specimens of papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs) and to identify the US characteristics contributing to discrepancies in these measurements. We retrospectively reviewed the US findings and pathological reports of 490 tumors in 431 patients who underwent surgery for PTC. Agreement was defined as a difference of <20% between the US and pathological tumor size measurements. Tumors were divided by size into groups of 0.5-1 cm, 1-2 cm, 2-3 cm, and ≥3 cm. We compared tumors in which the US and pathological tumor size measurements agreed and those in which they disagreed with regard to the following parameters: taller-than-wide shape, infiltrative margin, echogenicity, microcalcifications, cystic changes in tumors, and the US diagnosis. The rate of agreement between US and the pathological tumor size measurements was 64.1% (314/490). Statistical analysis indicated that the US and pathological measurements significantly differed in tumors <1.0 cm in size (P=0.033), with US significantly overestimating the tumor size by 0.2 cm in such tumors (P<0.001). Cystic changes were significantly more frequent in the tumors where US and pathological tumor size measurements disagreed (P<0.001). Thyroid US may overestimate the size of PTCs, particularly for tumors <1.0 cm in size. This information may be helpful in guiding decision making regarding surgical extent.

  12. Introducing Gross Pathology to Undergraduate Medical Students in the Dissecting Room

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    Wood, Andrew; Struthers, Kate; Whiten, Susan; Jackson, David; Herrington, C. Simon

    2010-01-01

    Pathology and anatomy are both sciences that contribute to the foundations of a successful medical career. In the past decade, medical education has undergone profound changes with the development of a core curriculum combined with student selected components. There has been a shift from discipline-based teaching towards problem-based learning.…

  13. Comparison of imaging-based gross tumor volume and pathological volume determined by whole-mount serial sections in primary cervical cancer

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    Zhang Y

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Ying Zhang,1,* Jing Hu,1,* Jianping Li,1 Ning Wang,1 Weiwei Li,1 Yongchun Zhou,1 Junyue Liu,1 Lichun Wei,1 Mei Shi,1 Shengjun Wang,2 Jing Wang,2 Xia Li,3 Wanling Ma4 1Department of Radiation Oncology, 2Department of Nuclear Medicine, 3Department of Pathology, 4Department of Radiology, Xijing Hospital, Xi'an, People's Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workObjective: To investigate the accuracy of imaging-based gross tumor volume (GTV compared with pathological volume in cervical cancer.Methods: Ten patients with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage I–II cervical cancer were eligible for investigation and underwent surgery in this study. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG PET/computed tomography (CT scans were taken the day before surgery. The GTVs under MRI and 18F-FDG PET/CT (GTV-MRI, GTV-PET, GTV-CT were calculated automatically by Eclipse treatment-planning systems. Specimens of excised uterine cervix and cervical cancer were consecutively sliced and divided into whole-mount serial sections. The tumor border of hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections was outlined under a microscope by an experienced pathologist. GTV through pathological image (GTV-path was calculated with Adobe Photoshop.Results: The GTVs (average ± standard deviation delineated and calculated under CT, MRI, PET, and histopathological sections were 19.41 ± 11.96 cm3, 12.66 ± 10.53 cm3, 11.07 ± 9.44 cm3, and 10.79 ± 8.71 cm3, respectively. The volume of GTV-CT or GTV-MR was bigger than GTV-path, and the difference was statistically significant (P 0.05. Spearman correlation analysis showed that GTV-CT, GTV-MRI, and GTV-PET were significantly correlated with GTV-path (P < 0.01. There was no significant difference in the lesion coverage factor among the three modalities.Conclusion: The present study showed that GTV defined under 40% of maximum standardized

  14. Abattoir-based study investigating the association between gross pathological lesions and serological tests for Salmonella infection in pigs.

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    Smith, R P; Sanchez-Vazquez, M J; Cook, A J C; Edwards, S A

    2011-03-05

    Abattoir data collected from three British pig health monitoring schemes were combined to investigate the associations between Salmonella infection and the presence of gross lesions detected in slaughtered pigs. Each set of results was linked back to the farm from which the pigs were submitted, and the Salmonella results and lesions reports were connected at farm level. Salmonella infection was determined through meat juice ELISA (MJE), and the health conditions were assessed by postmortem inspection. The final dataset contained 873 slapmarks, with an average of 215 samples tested by MJE, and 355 pigs that were assessed for health conditions, per slapmark. Each of the health assessment conditions was individually analysed by regression models to investigate associations with the MJE results, accounting for clustering at the slapmark level and also for seasonality. A multivariable model was also used to estimate the strength of association with MJE results when all the health conditions were entered into the model. The results showed positive associations between Salmonella and enzootic pneumonia-like lesions, milk spots, peritonitis and pericarditis.

  15. Congenital myotonic dystrophy can show congenital fiber type disproportion pathology.

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    Tominaga, Kayo; Hayashi, Yukiko K; Goto, Kanako; Minami, Narihiro; Noguchi, Satoru; Nonaka, Ikuya; Miki, Tetsuro; Nishino, Ichizo

    2010-04-01

    Congenital myotonic dystrophy (CDM) is associated with markedly expanded CTG repeats in DMPK. The presence of numerous immature fibers with peripheral halo is a characteristic feature of CDM muscles together with hypotrophy of type 1 fibers. Smaller type 1 fibers with no structural abnormality are a definitive criterion of congenital fiber type disproportion (CFTD). Nonetheless, we recently came across a patient who was genetically confirmed as CDM, but had been earlier diagnosed as CFTD when he was an infant. In this study, we performed clinical, pathological, and genetic analyses in infantile patients pathologically diagnosed as CFTD to evaluate CDM patients indistinguishable from CFTD. We examined CTG repeat expansion in DMPK in 28 infantile patients pathologically diagnosed as CFTD. Mutation screening of ACTA1 and TPM3 was performed, and we compared clinical and pathological findings of 20 CDM patients with those of the other cohorts. We identified four (14%) patients with CTG expansion in DMPK. ACTA1 mutation was identified in four (14%), and TPM3 mutation was found in two (7%) patients. Fiber size disproportion was more prominent in patients with ACTA1 or TPM3 mutations as compared to CFTD patients with CTG expansion. A further three patients among 20 CDM patients showed pathological findings similar to CFTD. From our results, CDM should be excluded in CFTD patients.

  16. Pulmonary Thermal Ablation: Comparison of Radiofrequency and Microwave Devices by Using Gross Pathologic and CT Findings in a Swine Model

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    Brace, Christopher L.; Hinshaw, J. Louis; Laeseke, Paul F.; Sampson, Lisa A.; Lee, Fred T.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the performance of equivalently sized radiofrequency and microwave ablation applicators in a normal porcine lung model. Materials and Methods: All experiments were approved by an institutional animal care and use committee. A total of 18 ablations were performed in vivo in normal porcine lungs. By using computed tomographic (CT) fluoroscopic guidance, a 17-gauge cooled triaxial microwave antenna (n = 9) and a 17-gauge cooled radiofrequency (RF) electrode (n = 9) were placed percutaneously. Ablations were performed for 10 minutes by using either 125 W of microwave power or 200 W of RF power delivered with an impedance-based pulsing algorithm. CT images were acquired every minute during ablation to monitor growth. Animals were sacrificed after the procedure. Ablation zones were then excised and sectioned transverse to the applicator in 5-mm increments. Minimum and maximum diameter, cross-sectional area, length, and circularity were measured from gross specimens and CT images. Comparisons of each measurement were performed by using a mixed-effects model; P ablation and mean cross-sectional area (8.25 cm2 ± 0.92 vs 5.45 cm2 ± 1.14, P ablation, compared with RF ablation. With microwave ablation, the zones of ablation were also significantly more circular in cross section (mean circularity, 0.90 ± 0.06 vs 0.82 ± 0.09; P ablation but stabilized without intervention. Conclusion: Microwave ablation with a 17-gauge high-power triaxial antenna creates larger and more circular zones of ablation than does a similarly sized RF applicator in a preclinical animal model. Microwave ablation may be a more effective treatment of lung tumors. © RSNA, 2009 PMID:19336667

  17. The pathology of enterotoxemia by Clostridium perfringens type C in calves.

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    Garcia, Jorge P; Anderson, Mark; Blanchard, Patricia; Mete, Asli; Uzal, Francisco A

    2013-05-01

    The pathology of Clostridium perfringens type C infection has been described with detail only in foals and piglets. The current report describes the diagnostic workup and detailed pathology of 3 cases of C. perfringens type C infection in calves. A 2-day-old Jersey calf and fresh and fixed tissues from a 4-week-old Angus calf and from a 1-week-old Jersey calf were received at the California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory System with a history of digestive disease and death. The gross changes in the gastrointestinal tract of 1 calf consisted of multifocal subserosal hemorrhages of the rumen, diffuse congestion and multifocal hemorrhages of the small intestinal mucosa, and dilated cecum with bloody liquid contents. In a second calf, a large segment of small intestine was hemorrhagic. The small intestine of the third calf was dilated and filled with abundant yellow fluid content. Microscopically, all 3 calves had diffuse coagulation necrosis of the intestinal mucosa. Clostridium perfringens type A was isolated from the intestinal content of 2 calves. In addition, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for Bovine rotavirus was positive on colonic content of 1 calf. Small numbers of cryptosporidia were seen in smears of colonic content of 2 calves, and Salmonella sp. group E was detected in the small intestinal content of another calf. Clostridium perfringens beta toxin was detected in the intestinal content of the 3 animals. A diagnosis of C. perfringens type C infection was confirmed based on pathological findings and detection of beta toxin in the intestinal content of the 3 animals.

  18. Hip pathology in Majewski osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II.

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    Karatas, Ali F; Bober, Michael B; Rogers, Kenneth; Duker, Angela L; Ditro, Colleen P; Mackenzie, William G

    2014-09-01

    Majewski osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II (MOPDII) is characterized by severe prenatal and postnatal growth failure with microcephaly, characteristic skeletal dysplasia, an increased risk for cerebrovascular disease, and insulin resistance. MOPDII is caused by mutations in the pericentrin (PCNT) gene and is inherited in an autosomal-recessive manner. This study aimed to determine the incidence of hip pathology in patients with molecularly confirmed MOPDII and to describe the functional outcomes of surgical treatment. Thirty-three enrolled patients had a clinical diagnosis of MOPDII. Biallelic PCNT mutations or absent pericentrin protein was confirmed in 25 of these patients. Twelve patients (7 female) had appropriate clinical and radiographic records at this institution and were included in this study. The data collected included age at presentation, age at surgery, sex, body weight and height, weight-bearing status at diagnosis, and the clinical examination. Four patients (31%) had coxa vara: 3 unilateral and 1 bilateral. Three unilateral patients had in situ pinning at a mean age 4 years. The patient with bilateral coxa vara had valgus osteotomy at the age of 5 years. Two children had bilateral hip dysplasia and subluxation with no surgery. One patient had bilateral developmental hip dislocations. The patient was treated by open reduction-spica cast and 2 years after surgery, coxa valga was noted. Another patient was diagnosed at an age of 12 years with bilateral avascular necrosis of the hips. Four patients did not have hip pathology. Hip pathology is common among children with MOPDII; coxa vara is the most frequent diagnosis. Routine clinical and radiographic hip evaluation is important. The capital femoral epiphysis appears to slip down along the shaft, giving the appearance of a proximal femoral epiphysiolysis. A hip diagnosed with slipped capital femoral epiphysis in early life may progress to severe coxa vara. Level IV.

  19. Peritendinous calcinosis of calcaneus tendon associated with dermatomyositis: correlation between conventional radiograph, ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging and gross surgical pathology; Calcinose peritendinea do tendao calcaneo associada a dermatomiosite: correlacao entre radiografia convencional, ultra-sonografia, ressonancia magnetica e macroscopia cirurgica

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    Rosa, Ana Claudia Ferreira; Gomide, Lidyane Marques de Paula; Lemes, Marcella Stival [Universidade Federal de Goias (UFG), Goiana, GO (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Hospital das Clinicas; Costa, Edegmar Nunes; Rocha, Valney Luiz da [Universidade Federal de Goias (UFG), Goiania, GO (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Ortopedia; Machado, Marcio Martins; Santos Junior, Rubens Carneiro dos; Barros, Nestor de; Cerri, Giovanni Guido [Universidade Federal de Goias (UFG), Goiania, GO (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Radiologia; Sernik, Renato Antonio [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Inst. de Radiologia; Nunes, Rodrigo Alvarenga [Universidade do Vale do Sapucai (UNIVAS), Pouso Alegre, MG (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas; Albieri, Alexandre Daher [Hospital de Acidentados de Goiania, GO (Brazil)

    2006-01-15

    Interstitial calcinosis is an uncommon condition in which there is either localized or widely disseminated deposition of calcium in the skin, subcutaneous tissues, muscles, and tendons. Calcinosis is often associated with collagen diseases, scleroderma and dermatomyositis. The authors report a case of interstitial calcinosis associated with dermatomyositis studied with conventional radiograph, ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging, and correlate the imaging findings with the results of surgical pathology gross examination. (author)

  20. Cushing-type ectopic pituitary adenoma with unusual pathologic features

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    Kristopher T. Kimmell, MD

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic pituitary adenomas comprise, by varying reports, approximately 1-2% of all pituitary adenomas. They are often located in the nasopharyngeal region associated with the pharyngeal pituitary. The location and pathologic features of these masses make them atypical when compared with intrasellar pituitary adenomas. A 54-year-old man presented with vertebral compression fracture and physical stigmata of Cushing’s disease. Biochemical testing confirmed hypercortisolemia responsive to high dose dexamethasone suppression. MRI of the head demonstrated an enhancing mass in the posterior aspect of the sphenoid sinus not involving the sella turcica. Endoscopic biopsy followed by resection confirmed this mass to be a pituitary adenoma with unusual pathologic features. Most notably, the tumor cells demonstrated large, eosinophilic, vacuolated cytoplasm. Immunohistochemical profile of the tumor was typical of an ACTH secreting tumor, notably with positivity for ACTH. The patient did well from his surgery. Post-operatively his serum cortisol level normalized and he remains in chemical remission one year after surgery. Ectopic pituitary adenomas are an unusual manifestation of hormonally active pituitary neoplastic disease. Their atypical clinical presentations, location, and pathologic features can make them a diagnostic challenge. Clinicians should be aware of these entities, especially when considering differential diagnosis for a mass in the sphenoid sinus and nasopharyngeal region.

  1. Reviewing Two Types of Addiction - Pathological Gambling and Substance Use

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    Seyed Amir Jazaeri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Gambling, including pathological gambling and problem gambling, has received increased attention from clinicians and researchers over the past three decades since gambling opportunities have expanded around the world. Gambling disorders affect 0.2-5.3% of adults worldwide, although measurement and prevalence varies according to the screening instruments and methods used, and availability and accessibility of gambling opportunities. Several distinct treatment approaches have been favorably evaluated, such as cognitive behavioral and brief treatment models and pharmacological interventions. Although promising, family therapy and support from Gamblers Anonymous are less well empirically supported. Gambling disorders are highly comorbid with other mental health and substance use disorders, and a further understanding is needed of both the causes and treatment implications of this disorder. This article reviews definition, causes and associated features with substance abuse, screening and diagnosis, and treatment approaches.

  2. Muscle pathology without severe nerve pathology in a new mouse model of Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease type 2E

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    Shen, Hailian; Barry, Devin M.; Dale, Jeffrey M.; Garcia, Virginia B.; Calcutt, Nigel A.; Garcia, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    Mutations in neurofilament light (NF-L) have been linked to Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease type 2E (CMT2E) in humans. To provide insight into disease pathogenesis, we developed a novel line of CMT2E mice that constitutively express human NF-L (hNF-L) with a glutamic acid to lysine mutation at position 397 (hNF-LE397K). This new line of mice developed signs consistent with CMT2E patients. Disease signs were first observed at 4 months in hNF-LE397K mice, and consisted of aberrant hind limb posture, digit deformities, reduced voluntary locomotor activity, reduced motor nerve conduction velocities (MNCVs) and muscle atrophy. Reduced voluntary locomotor activity and muscle pathology occurred without significant denervation, and hNF-LE397K mice showed relatively mild signs of nerve pathology. Nerve pathology in hNF-LE397K mice was characterized by ectopic accumulations of phosphorylated NFs in motor neuron cell bodies as early as 1 month. Moreover, NF organization was altered in motor and sensory roots, with small motor axons being most affected. Peak axonal diameter was reduced for small motor axons prior to and after the onset of overt phenotypes, whereas large motor axons were affected only after onset, which correlated with reduced MNCVs. Additionally, there was a small reduction in the number of sensory axons in symptomatic hNF-LE397K mice. hNF-LE397K mice are a novel line of CMT2E mice that recapitulate many of the overt phenotypes observed in CMT2E patients and hNF-LP22S mice. The cellular pathology observed in hNF-LE397K mice differed from that recently reported in hNF-LP22S mice, suggesting that overt CMT2E phenotypes may arise through different cellular mechanisms. PMID:21493625

  3. Muscle pathology without severe nerve pathology in a new mouse model of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2E.

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    Shen, Hailian; Barry, Devin M; Dale, Jeffrey M; Garcia, Virginia B; Calcutt, Nigel A; Garcia, Michael L

    2011-07-01

    Mutations in neurofilament light (NF-L) have been linked to Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2E (CMT2E) in humans. To provide insight into disease pathogenesis, we developed a novel line of CMT2E mice that constitutively express human NF-L (hNF-L) with a glutamic acid to lysine mutation at position 397 (hNF-L(E397K)). This new line of mice developed signs consistent with CMT2E patients. Disease signs were first observed at 4 months in hNF-L(E397K) mice, and consisted of aberrant hind limb posture, digit deformities, reduced voluntary locomotor activity, reduced motor nerve conduction velocities (MNCVs) and muscle atrophy. Reduced voluntary locomotor activity and muscle pathology occurred without significant denervation, and hNF-L(E397K) mice showed relatively mild signs of nerve pathology. Nerve pathology in hNF-L(E397K) mice was characterized by ectopic accumulations of phosphorylated NFs in motor neuron cell bodies as early as 1 month. Moreover, NF organization was altered in motor and sensory roots, with small motor axons being most affected. Peak axonal diameter was reduced for small motor axons prior to and after the onset of overt phenotypes, whereas large motor axons were affected only after onset, which correlated with reduced MNCVs. Additionally, there was a small reduction in the number of sensory axons in symptomatic hNF-L(E397K) mice. hNF-L(E397K) mice are a novel line of CMT2E mice that recapitulate many of the overt phenotypes observed in CMT2E patients and hNF-L(P22S) mice. The cellular pathology observed in hNF-L(E397K) mice differed from that recently reported in hNF-L(P22S) mice, suggesting that overt CMT2E phenotypes may arise through different cellular mechanisms.

  4. Glucocorticoids and Type 2 Diabetes: From Physiology to Pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Di Dalmazi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus is the result of interaction between genetic and environmental factors, leading to heterogeneous and progressive pancreatic β-cell dysfunction. Overweight and obesity are major contributors to the development of insulin resistance and impaired glucose tolerance. The inability of β cells to secrete enough insulin produces type 2 diabetes. Abnormalities in other hormones such as reduced secretion of the incretin glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1, hyperglucagonemia, and raised concentrations of other counterregulatory hormones also contribute to insulin resistance, reduced insulin secretion, and hyperglycaemia in type 2 diabetes. Clinical-overt and experimental cortisol excess is associated with profound metabolic disturbances of intermediate metabolism resulting in abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, and low HDL-cholesterol levels, which can lead to diabetes. It was therefore suggested that subtle abnormalities in cortisol secretion and action are one of the missing links between insulin resistance and other features of the metabolic syndrome. The aim of this paper is to address the role of glucocorticoids on glucose homeostasis and to explain the relationship between hypercortisolism and type 2 diabetes.

  5. Intramuscular capillary-type hemangioma: radiologic-pathologic correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yilmaz, Sabri; Alomari, Ahmad I.; Chaudry, Gulraiz [Boston Children' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Vascular Anomalies Center, Boston, MA (United States); Boston Children' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Division of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Kozakewich, Harry P. [Boston Children' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Vascular Anomalies Center, Boston, MA (United States); Boston Children' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Department of Pathology, Boston, MA (United States); Fishman, Steven J. [Boston Children' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Vascular Anomalies Center, Boston, MA (United States); Boston Children' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Department of Surgery, Boston, MA (United States); Mulliken, John B. [Boston Children' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Vascular Anomalies Center, Boston, MA (United States); Boston Children' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Department of Plastic and Oral Surgery, Boston, MA (United States)

    2014-05-15

    Infantile hemangiomas demonstrate a pattern of proliferative growth in infancy followed by a slow phase of involution. In contrast a rare type of vascular tumor, intramuscular capillary-type hemangioma, usually presents beyond the period of infancy with nonspecific symptoms and no evidence of involution. The purpose of this study was to characterize the clinical, imaging, histopathological characteristics and management of intramuscular capillary-type hemangioma. We performed a retrospective review of a 20-year period to identify children diagnosed with intramuscular capillary-type hemangioma. Patient demographics, imaging and histopathological findings were recorded. We included 18 children (10 boys, 8 girls) with histologically proven intramuscular capillary-type hemangioma - and adequate imaging. The mean age at presentation was 8.1 years (range 1 day to 19 years). Twelve lesions involved muscles of the extremities, 4 were located in the trunk and 2 were in the head and neck. MRI had been performed in all children and demonstrated a soft-tissue mass with flow voids, consistent with fast flow. The lesion was well-circumscribed in 16 children and intralesional fat was seen in 14. Doppler US demonstrated a heterogeneous lesion, predominantly isoechoic to surrounding muscle, with enlarged arterial feeders. Enlarged feeding arteries, inhomogeneous blush and lack of arteriovenous shunting were noted on angiography (n = 5). The most common histopathological findings were lobules of capillaries with plump endothelium and at least some adipose tissue. The lesions were excised in six children. Two children were lost to follow-up. In the remaining 10, follow-up MRI studies ranging from 3 months to 10 years showed that the lesion enlarged in proportion to the child (n = 7), demonstrated slow growth (n = 2) or remained stable (n = 1). There was no change in imaging characteristics on follow-up. Intramuscular capillary-type hemangioma is a rare benign vascular tumor of

  6. Gross motor control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross motor control is the ability to make large, general movements (such as waving an arm or lifting a leg). ... Gross motor control is a milestone in the development of an infant. Infants develop gross motor control before they develop ...

  7. Orthopedic Pathology in Children with Mucopolysaccharidosis Type I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. D. Vashakmadze

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mucopolysaccharidosis type I is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner and results from the defective activity of the enzyme alpha-L-iduronidase, which leads to the accumulation of glycosaminoglycans (mainly heparan and dermatan sulfate in the lysosomes and further multiple organ dysfunction. This severe genetic progressive disease can be detected at an early age by skeletal deformities and phenotypic data. Early enzyme replacement therapy and/or bone marrow transplantation can slow down irreversible damages to various organs and systems or reduce their severity and improve the quality of life for a child.

  8. TDP-43 stage, mixed pathologies, and clinical Alzheimer's-type dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Bryan D; Wilson, Robert S; Boyle, Patricia A; Trojanowski, John Q; Bennett, David A; Schneider, Julie A

    2016-09-30

    Hyperphosphorylated transactive response DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43, encoded by TARDBP) proteinopathy has recently been described in ageing and in association with cognitive impairment, especially in the context of Alzheimer's disease pathology. To explore the role of mixed Alzheimer's disease and TDP-43 pathologies in clinical Alzheimer's-type dementia, we performed a comprehensive investigation of TDP-43, mixed pathologies, and clinical Alzheimer's-type dementia in a large cohort of community-dwelling older subjects. We tested the hypotheses that TDP-43 with Alzheimer's disease pathology is a common mixed pathology; is related to increased likelihood of expressing clinical Alzheimer's-type dementia; and that TDP-43 pathologic stage is an important determinant of clinical Alzheimer's-type dementia. Data came from 946 older adults with (n = 398) and without dementia (n = 548) from the Rush Memory and Aging Project and Religious Orders Study. TDP-43 proteinopathy (cytoplasmic inclusions) was present in 496 (52%) subjects, and the pattern of deposition was classified as stage 0 (none; 48%), stage 1 (amygdala; 18%), stage 2 (extension to hippocampus/entorhinal; 21%), or stage 3 (extension to neocortex; 14%). TDP-43 pathology combined with a pathologic diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease was a common mixed pathology (37% of all participants), and the proportion of subjects with clinical Alzheimer's-type dementia formerly labelled 'pure pathologic diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease' was halved when TDP-43 was considered. In logistic regression models adjusted for age, sex, and education, TDP-43 pathology was associated with clinical Alzheimer's-type dementia (odds ratio = 1.51, 95% confidence interval = 1.11, 2.05) independent of pathological Alzheimer's disease (odds ratio = 4.30, 95% confidence interval = 3.08, 6.01) or other pathologies (infarcts, arteriolosclerosis, Lewy bodies, and hippocampal sclerosis). Mixed Alzheimer's disease and TDP-43 pathologies were

  9. Imbalance in the sensitivity to different types of rewards in pathological gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sescousse, Guillaume; Barbalat, Guillaume; Domenech, Philippe; Dreher, Jean-Claude

    2013-08-01

    Pathological gambling is an addictive disorder characterized by a persistent and compulsive desire to engage in gambling activities. This maladaptive behaviour has been suggested to result from a decreased sensitivity to experienced rewards, regardless of reward type. Alternatively, pathological gambling might reflect an imbalance in the sensitivity to monetary versus non-monetary incentives. To directly test these two hypotheses, we examined how the brain reward circuit of pathological gamblers responds to different types of rewards. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we compared the brain responses of 18 pathological gamblers and 20 healthy control subjects while they engaged in a simple incentive task manipulating both monetary and visual erotic rewards. During reward anticipation, the ventral striatum of pathological gamblers showed a differential response to monetary versus erotic cues, essentially driven by a blunted reactivity to cues predicting erotic stimuli. This differential response correlated with the severity of gambling symptoms and was paralleled by a reduced behavioural motivation for erotic rewards. During reward outcome, a posterior orbitofrontal cortex region, responding to erotic rewards in both groups, was further recruited by monetary gains in pathological gamblers but not in control subjects. Moreover, while ventral striatal activity correlated with subjective ratings assigned to monetary and erotic rewards in control subjects, it only correlated with erotic ratings in gamblers. Our results point to a differential sensitivity to monetary versus non-monetary rewards in pathological gambling, both at the motivational and hedonic levels. Such an imbalance might create a bias towards monetary rewards, potentially promoting addictive gambling behaviour.

  10. MR imaging findings of painful type II accessory navicular bone: correlation with surgical and pathologic studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yun Sun; Lee, Kyung Tai; Kim, Eun Kyung [Eulji Hospital, Eulji University School of Medicine, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Heung Sik [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-12-15

    To evaluate the MR imaging findings of painful type II accessory navicular bone and to correlate these with the surgical and pathologic findings. The MR images of 17 patients with medial foot pain and surgically proven type II accessory navicular abnormalities were reviewed. The changes of signal intensity in the accessory navicular, synchondrosis and adjacent soft tissue, the presence of synchondrosis widening, and posterior tibial tendon (PTT) pathology on the T1-weighted and fat-suppressed T2-weighted images were analyzed. The MR imaging findings were compared with the surgical and pathologic findings. The fat-suppressed T2-weighted images showed high signal intensity in the accessory navicular bones and synchondroses in all patients, and in the soft tissue in 11 (64.7%) of the 17 patients, as well as synchondrosis widening in 3 (17.6%) of the 17 patients. The MR images showed tendon pathology in 12 (75%) of the 16 patients with PTT dysfunction at surgery. The pathologic findings of 16 surgical specimens included areas of osteonecrosis with granulomatous inflammation, fibrosis and destruction of the cartilage cap. The MR imaging findings of painful type II accessory navicular bone are a persistent edema pattern in the accessory navicular bone and within the synchondrosis, indicating osteonecrosis, inflammation and destruction of the cartilage cap. Posterior tibial tendon dysfunction was clinically evident in most patients.

  11. Impact of Placement Type on the Development of Clinical Competency in Speech-Language Pathology Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheepway, Lyndal; Lincoln, Michelle; McAllister, Sue

    2014-01-01

    Background: Speech-language pathology students gain experience and clinical competency through clinical education placements. However, currently little empirical information exists regarding how competency develops. Existing research about the effectiveness of placement types and models in developing competency is generally descriptive and based…

  12. NM Gross Receipts Baseline

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  13. Gross National Happiness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giri, Krishna Prasad; Kjær-Rasmussen, Lone Krogh

    This paper investigates practices related to the ideology of infusing Gross National Happiness (GNH) into school curriculum, the effectiveness of the meditation and mind training and the implication of GNH for school environment. It also explores how GNH ambience has been managed and practiced...... of Gross National Happiness and Educating for Gross National happiness....

  14. Long -term outcomes of oesophageal atresia without or with proximal tracheooesophageal fistula - Gross types A and B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivusalo, A I; Sistonen, S J; Lindahl, H G; Rintala, R J; Pakarinen, M P

    2017-05-01

    Because of an extended gap between esophageal pouches a variety of methods are employed to treat oesophageal atresia (OA) without (type A) or with (type B) proximal tracheooesophageal fistula. This retrospective observational study describes their single centre long-term outcomes from 1947 to 2014. Of 693 patients treated for OA 68 (9.7%) had type A (n=58, 8.3%) or B (n=10, 1.4%). Hospital records were reviewed. Main outcome measures were survival and oral intake. Nine (13%) patients had early and 10 (15%) delayed primary anastomosis, 30 (44%) underwent reconstruction including colonic interposition (n=13), reversed gastric tube (n=11) and jejunum interposition (n=6), whereas19 (28%) had died without a definite repair. Median follow up was 35 (interquartile range, 7.4-40) years. Thirty-one (63%) of 49 patients with definitive repair survived long term. Survival was 22% for early and 80% for delayed primary anastomosis, 57% for colon interposition, 82% for gastric tube and 84% for jejunum interposition. Gastrooesophageal reflux was most common after gastric tube (80%), dysphagia after colon interposition (50%), and 3 (60%) of 5 survivors with jejunum interposition had permanent feeding ostomy because of neurological disorder. Endoscopic follow-up disclosed no oesophageal cancer or dysplasia. Repair in the most recent patients from 1985 to 2014 (n=14) included delayed primary anastomosis (n=7), jejunum interposition (n=6) and gastric tube (n=1) with 93% long-term survival. Morbidity among long-term survivors of type A or B OA is high. With modern management survival is, however, excellent and patients without neurological disorder achieve full oral intake either after primary anastomosis or reconstruction. IV. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Pathological features of glycogen storage disease type II highlighted in the knockout mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijvoet, A G; Van Hirtum, H; Vermey, M; Van Leenen, D; Van Der Ploeg, A T; Mooi, W J; Reuser, A J

    1999-11-01

    Glycogen storage disease type II (GSDII; Pompe's disease) is an autosomal recessive disease caused by lysosomal alpha-glucosidase deficiency. Skeletal muscle weakness is the most conspicuous clinical symptom of patients suffering from GSDII and skeletal muscle also is prominently involved in the knockout mouse model of this disease. Thus far, however, little detailed information has been published on the pathological changes in other mouse tissues. This paper aims to provide these data and gives a record of the clinical course of the mouse model over a 2-year period. Four-month-old affected mice perform worse in a running wheel than their unaffected littermates, but do not yet display other clear signs of disease. The lysosomal glycogen storage, already evident at birth, becomes more severe in time, leading to muscle wasting by 9-10 months of age and then limb girdle weakness and kyphosis. The disease does not markedly shorten the animal's life span despite the serious tissue pathology, which is not limited to heart and skeletal muscle, but is also seen in the smooth muscle of blood vessels and of the respiratory, digestive, and urogenital tracts. In addition, the mice have lysosomal glycogen storage in the liver, kidney, spleen, and salivary gland; in Schwann cells of the peripheral nerves, and in a subset of neurons in the central nervous system. By pathological criteria, the knockout mouse model parallels the human infantile form of GSDII and is attractive for studying the possible reversal of tissue pathology and symptomatology under different therapeutic regimes.

  16. Factors of Formation of Various Types of Left Ventricular Diastolic Filling in Adolescents with Myocardium Pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.F. Bogmat

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the main components of the formation of impaired left ventricular diastolic filling in adolescents with myocardial pathology. Materials and methods. The study involved 110 adolescents with myocardial pathology aged 13–18 years, of which 40 — with heart rhythm disorder, 40 — with dysplastic cardiomyopathy, 30 — with primary hypertension. Morphological and functional parameters of the heart were studied using ultrasound according to standard procedure. Left ventricular diastolic function has been studied in the pulsed wave Doppler mode with transmitral flow mapping from the apical access of four-chambered heart. For an adequate assessment of left ventricular diastolic function and detection of its earliest disorders, adolescents underwent tests with isometric exercise. Based on these results, adolescents were divided in terms of the E/A ratio. In order to identify common latent factors that explain the correlation between indicators, we have used the factor analysis, namely, the principal component analysis. All statistical procedures were performed using application packages Statgraphics Centurion. Results. On the initial stages of formation of diastolic dysfunction of the left ventricular myocardium in adolescents, a significant role is played by a number of factors, which can be conditionally defined as the geometric, functional and neurohumoral factors consistently included in the pathological process. Thus, during the formation of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction type 1, the number one is neurohumoral factor, namely, the activation of the sympathoadrenal system, then peripheral vascular tone is being involved in the pathological process, and, consequently, a geometric factor — changing the sizes of the left atrium. In the formation of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction type 2, the process consistently involves the renin-angiotensin system, namely, renin, a functional factor is presented by the indices

  17. Are there differential relationships between different types of childhood maltreatment and different types of adult personality pathology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Lisa Janet; Tanis, Thachell; Bhattacharjee, Reetuparna; Nesci, Christina; Halmi, Winter; Galynker, Igor

    2014-01-30

    While considerable data support the relationship between childhood trauma and adult personality pathology in general, there is little research investigating the specific relationships between different types of childhood maltreatment and adult personality disorders. The present study tested a model incorporating five a priori hypotheses regarding the association between distinct forms of childhood maltreatment and personality pathology in 231 psychiatric patients using multiple self-report measures (Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4th Edition, Child Trauma Questionnaire, Conflict in Tactics Scale Parent-Child Child-Adult, and Multidimensional Neglectful Behavior Scale). Step-wise linear regressions supported three out of five hypotheses, suggesting independent relationships between: physical abuse and antisocial personality disorder traits; emotional abuse and Cluster C personality disorder traits; and maternal neglect and Cluster A personality disorder traits after controlling for co-occurring maltreatment types and personality disorder traits. Results did not support an independent relationship between sexual abuse and borderline personality traits nor between emotional abuse and narcissistic personality disorder traits. Additionally, there were three unexpected findings: physical abuse was independently and positively associated with narcissistic and paranoid traits and negatively associated with Cluster C traits. These findings can help refine our understanding of adult personality pathology and support the future development of clinical tools for survivors of childhood maltreatment. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  18. Impact of clinical types and involved sites on the recovery of gross motor function after interventions in children with cerebral palsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongying Li; Huafeng Yu; Yan Huang; Lin Sang; Haixia Ha

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND:The recovery of gross motor function is the basis for the improvement of other abilities.It is helpful for judging the rehabilitative effect and prognosis of children with cerebral palsy to analyze the effect of different clinical types on the gross motor ability. OBJECTIVE:To investigate the influence of different clinical types and different involved sites of limbs of cerebral palsy on the effect of rehabilitative interventions on gross motor function.DESIGN:A controlled observation before and after treatment.SETTING:Rehabilitation Center of Qilu Children's Hospital,Shandong University.PARTICIPANTS:Totally 138 children with cerebral palsy having complete data,who were hospitalized for 12 months in the Rehabilitation Center of Qilu Children's Hospital,Shandong University,were selected from April 2004 to September 2006,including 97 males and 41 females;55 cases were younger than 2 years old.47 cases younger than 4 years and 36 cases younger than 6 years;76 cases of spasm type,30 cases of involuntary movement and 32 cases of mixed type(mixture of spasm and involuntary movement);64 cases of diplegia.46 cases of tetraplegia and 28 cases of hemiplegia.All the children and their relatives were informed and agreed to cooperate with the experiments.METHODS:All the 138 children with cerebral palsy were given comprehensive rehabilitative treatment:The assessment of comprehensive ability was conducted to all the children with cerebral palsy by the rehabilitative group before rehabilitation treatment,the rehabilitative objective was established according to the results of the assessment,then feasible rehabilitative training plan was made up.The comprehensive rehabilitative treatment was conducted as planned afterwards:①Physical therapy:The Bobath method was used.and motor development was promoted by proprioceptive hand technique.②Traditional Chinese medicine therapy:Massage:The children were massaged by using the maneuvers of push

  19. Some Pathological Knowledge Discovered in Large Database of Type 2 Diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Sen-lin; GAO Juan; JIA Hong-bo; WANG Heng; ZHANG Tie-mei; HAN Yi-wen

    2007-01-01

    Taking the advantage of the nearly 14000 items of multi-source, multi-dimension practical dataset of type 2 diabetes, and a series of data mining experiments are designed to seek for important type 2 diabetes risk factors and their relationships with blood glucose. The valuable pathological knowledge includes, the decision tree is almost identical with the list of clinical diabetic risk factors; 9 items important risk factors of type 2 diabetes were found, and the relationship between the main risk factors and the blood glucose, and the feature of critical value of the risk factors were given too in this paper. These valuable results are good to the cure and macro-control type 2 diabetes.

  20. Pathological Roles of Wild-Type Cu, Zn-Superoxide Dismutase in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiaki Furukawa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dominant mutations in a Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1 gene cause a familial form of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS. While it remains controversial how SOD1 mutations lead to onset and progression of the disease, many in vitro and in vivo studies have supported a gain-of-toxicity mechanism where pathogenic mutations contribute to destabilizing a native structure of SOD1 and thus facilitate misfolding and aggregation. Indeed, abnormal accumulation of SOD1-positive inclusions in spinal motor neurons is a pathological hallmark in SOD1-related familial ALS. Furthermore, similarities in clinical phenotypes and neuropathology of ALS cases with and without mutations in sod1 gene have implied a disease mechanism involving SOD1 common to all ALS cases. Although pathogenic roles of wild-type SOD1 in sporadic ALS remain controversial, recent developments of novel SOD1 antibodies have made it possible to characterize wild-type SOD1 under pathological conditions of ALS. Here, I have briefly reviewed recent progress on biochemical and immunohistochemical characterization of wild-type SOD1 in sporadic ALS cases and discussed possible involvement of wild-type SOD1 in a pathomechanism of ALS.

  1. Increased type 1 chemokine expression in experimental Chagas disease correlates with cardiac pathology in beagle dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, Paulo M M; Veloso, Vanja M; Talvani, André; Diniz, Livia F; Caldas, Ivo S; Do-Valle-Matta, Maria A; Santiago-Silva, Juliana; Chiari, Egler; Galvão, Lucia M C; Silva, João S; Bahia, Maria T

    2010-11-15

    Chemokines and chemokine receptors interaction have presented important role in leukocyte migration to specific immune reaction sites. Recently, it has been reported that chemokine receptors CXC (CXCR3) and CC (CCR5) were preferentially expressed on Th1 cells while CCR3 and CCR4 were preferentially expressed on Th2 cells. This study evaluated the mRNA expression of type 1 and type 2 chemokine and chemokine receptors in the cardiac tissue of Beagle dogs infected with distinct genetic groups of Trypanosoma cruzi (Y, Berenice-78 and ABC strains) during acute and chronic phases. To analyze the correlation between chemokine and chemokine receptors expression and the development of heart pathology, the chronic infected animals were divided into groups, according to the parasite strain and based on the degree of heart damage: cardiac and indeterminate form of Chagas disease. Our results indicated that cardiac type1/2 chemokines and their receptors were partially dependent on the genetic diversity of parasites as well as the polarization of clinical forms. Also, dogs presenting cardiac form showed lower heart tissue mRNA expression of CCL24 (type 2) and higher expression of CCL5, CCL4 and CXCR3 (type 1) when compared with those with indeterminate form of disease. Together, these data reinforce a close-relation between T. cruzi genetic population and the host specific type 1 immune response and, for the first time, we show the distribution of type 1/2 chemokines associated with the development of cardiac pathology using dogs, a well similar model to study human Chagas disease.

  2. Prevalence and types of misrepresentation of publication record by pathology residency applicants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaley, Jennifer Raible; Bornhorst, Joshua; Wiggins, Michael; Yared, Marwan

    2013-07-01

    Publication misrepresentation among residency applicants has been demonstrated in various specialties. This study examines the prevalence of publication misrepresentation among US-trained and non-US-trained pathology residency applicants. To determine the prevalence of publication misrepresentation in the pathology applicant pool at our institution, to compare the rates of misrepresentation among US-trained and non-US-trained applicants, and to compare results to published results from other medical specialties. All peer-reviewed journal articles reported on applications to our program in 2010 and 2011 were examined for veracity. Applications from current or past trainees and applications with unverifiable manuscripts were excluded. The type of misrepresentation and the country in which the applicant trained were recorded. Seven hundred applications were reviewed. Of 319 (46%) reported publications, 25 were from US graduates (8%) and 294 (92%) were from non-US graduates. Eighty-six applications were excluded owing to unverifiable manuscripts. Publication misrepresentations were found in 42 (18%) of the remaining 233 applications. The most common misrepresentations were omission of authors (69%), nonauthorship (14%), and self-promotion on the author list (12%). A significantly higher percentage of foreign medical graduates listed publications (P misrepresentation rate by foreign graduates (19%) did not differ significantly from that of US-trained graduates (13%) (P = .45). Publication misrepresentation was present among pathology residency applicants. Similar rates were seen among US and non-US applicants. Percentages of misrepresentation among applicants to our pathology program and applicants to other medical specialties (18% and 17%, respectively) were comparable.

  3. Heterogeneous pattern of bone disease in adult type 1 Gaucher disease: clinical and pathological correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dussen, L; Lips, P; van Essen, H W; Hollak, C E M; Bravenboer, N

    2014-09-01

    Gaucher disease (GD) is a lysosomal storage disorder characterized by accumulation of glucosylceramide in macrophages, so-called Gaucher cells, as a result of a deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme glucocerebrosidase. Bone complications are an important cause of morbidity of GD and are thought to result from imbalance in bone remodeling. Bone manifestations among GD patients demonstrate a large variation including increased osteoclastic bone resorption, low bone formation and osteonecrosis. The purpose of the current case series is to describe the histological features observed in undecalcified bone samples, obtained from three GD patients, and evaluate the relationship with clinical features in these patients. Bone fragments were obtained from three adult type 1 GD patients with variable degrees of bone disease during orthopedic surgery. Specimens were embedded without prior decalcification in methylmethacrylate and prepared for histology according to standardized laboratory procedures. Histology revealed a heterogeneous pattern of bone involvement. High cellularity of bone marrow, abundant presence of Gaucher cells (GCs) and high turnover were observed in a patient with a history of multiple bone complications, while minimal bone turnover and few GCs were detected in the mildest affected patient in this series. An intermediate picture with relatively low bone turnover and a substantial amount of Gaucher cells was demonstrated in the third, moderately affected patient. No gross abnormalities in three biochemical markers of bone turnover (osteocalcin, N-terminal propeptide of type 1 procollagen and type 1 collagen C-terminal telopeptide) were noted. Plastic embedding and subsequent Goldner and TRAP staining offered a unique possibility to study bone histological findings in GD. Our data show that bone manifestations in GD may vary both clinically as well as histologically and bone disease in GD will likely require a personalized approach.

  4. Macrophage involvement in mitral valve pathology in mucopolysaccharidosis type VI (Maroteaux-Lamy syndrome).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brands, Marion; Roelants, Jorine; de Krijger, Ronald; Bogers, Ad; Reuser, Arnold; van der Ploeg, Ans; Helbing, Wim

    2013-10-01

    Maroteaux-Lamy syndrome (mucopolysaccharidosis type VI) is a rare lysosomal storage disorder in which the pathologic storage of glycosaminoglycans in various tissues can lead to severe symptoms, including cardiomyopathy. We report on a child with Maroteaux-Lamy syndrome whose cardiac condition deteriorated and eventually led to cardiac failure at the age of 7 years due to severe mitral regurgitation. She received a mitral valve replacement and tricuspid repair with successful outcome. Histologic examination of the mitral valve showed abundant "clear" cells in both the leaflets and chordae tendineae. In Hurler disease (MPS I), similar cells have been identified as activated valvular interstitial cells (VICs, a myofibroblast like cell type). Here we report that the "clear" cells are CD68 positive, a frequently used marker of macrophage lineage. The "clear" cells remained unstained with the more specific macrophage marker CD14 while persistent staining of other cells demonstrated macrophage infiltration. From these observations, we infer that macrophages are involved in mitral valve pathology in MPS VI.

  5. Posterior AD-Type Pathology: Cognitive Subtypes Emerging from a Cluster Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Cappa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. “Posterior shift” of the neuropathological changes of Alzheimer's disease (AD produces a syndrome (posterior cortical atrophy (PCA dominated by high-level visual deficits. Objective. To explore in patients with AD-type pathology whether a data-driven analysis (cluster analysis based on neuropsychological findings resulted in the emergence of different subgroups of patients; in particular to find out whether it was possible to identify patients with visuospatial deficits consistent with the hypothesis that PCA is a “dorsal stream” syndrome or, rather, whether there were subgroups of patients with different types of impairment within the high-level visual domain. Methods. 23 PCA and 16 DAT patients were studied. By a principal component analysis performed on a wide range of neuropsychological tasks, 15 variables were obtained that loaded onto five main factors (memory, language, perceptual, visuospatial, and calculation which entered a hierarchical cluster analysis. Results. Four clusters of cognitive impairment emerged: visuospatial/perceptual, memory, perceptual/calculation, and language. Only in the first cluster a visuospatial deficit clearly emerged. Conclusions. AD pathology produces not only variants dominated by memory (DAT and, to a lesser extent, visuospatial deficit (PCA, but also other distinct syndromic subtypes with disorders in visual perception and language which reflect a different vulnerability of specific functional networks.

  6. New Tetrachromic VOF Stain (Type III-G.S for Normal and Pathological Fish Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Sarasquete

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available A new VOF Type III-G.S stain was applied to histological sections of different organs and tissues of healthy and pathological larvae, juvenile and adult fish species (Solea senegalensis; Sparus aurata; Diplodus sargo; Pagrus auriga; Argyrosomus regius and Halobatrachus didactylus. In comparison to the original Gutiérrez´VOF stain, more acid dyes of contrasting colours and polychromatic/metachromatic properties were incorporated as essential constituents of the tetrachromic VOF stain. This facilitates the selective staining of different basic tissues and improves the morphological analysis of histochemical approaches of the cell components. The VOF-Type III G.S stain is composed of a mixture of several dyes of varying size and molecular weight (Orange G< acid Fuchsin< Light green

  7. Loovkirjutamist õpetab Philip Gross

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    T.S. Elioti luulepreemia laureaat Philip Gross on Tallinna Ülikooli talvekooli rahvusvahelise kursuse "Poetry: A Conversation between Words and Silence" läbiviija. Oma seminarides keskendub ta lisaks loovkirjutamisele ka loova lugemise vajadusele

  8. Gross Sales Tax Collections

    Data.gov (United States)

    City of Jackson, Mississippi — This data is captured directly from the MS Department of Revenue and specific to the City of Jackson. It is compiled from Gross Sales Tax reported by taxpayers each...

  9. Types of Diastolic Dysfunction of the Left Ventricle in Adolescents with Myocardial Pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.F. Bogmat

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In adolescents with myocardial pathology during isometric tests we detected three types of diastolic dysfunction of the left ventricle (LV of the heart, depending on E/A ratio. The most pronounced signs of diastolic filling disorders were detected in the third group of patients, as evidenced: by a tendency to increase isovolumic relaxation time, a significant increase of slowing down time of the first phase of left ventricular filling, reduced LV filling rate both in the first phase of the passive filling and the second phase of active LV filling, increasing E/A ratio of more than 2, significant dilation of the left atrium, as well as positive increase in diastolic reserve that confirms deeper diastolic dysfunction in these adolescents compared with other subgroups.

  10. Ultrasound assessment of peripheral nerve pathology in neurofibromatosis type 1 and 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Natalie; Rattay, Tim W; Axer, Hubertus; Schäffer, Eva; Décard, Bernhard F; Gugel, Isabel; Schuhmann, Martin; Grimm, Alexander

    2017-05-01

    The neurofibromatoses (NF) type 1 and 2 are hereditary tumor predisposition syndromes caused by germline mutations in the NF1 and NF2 tumor suppressor genes. In NF1 and 2, peripheral nerve tumors occur regularly. For further characterizing nerve ultrasound was performed in patients with NF1 and 2. Patients with established diagnosis of NF1 (n=27) and NF2 (n=10) were included. Ultrasound of peripheral nerves and cervical roots was performed during routine follow-up visits. Healthy volunteers were studied for comparison. In patients with NF1, median cross-sectional area (CSA) of most nerves was significantly increased compared to controls and to NF2 due to generalized plexiform tumors, which arose out of multiple fascicles in 23 of 27 patients (85%). These were often accompanied by cutaneous or subcutaneous neurofibromas. In NF2, the overall aspect of peripheral nerves consisted of localized schwannomas (80%) and, apart from that, normal nerve segments. Nerve ultrasound is able to visualize different nerve pathologies in NF1 and NF2. It is a precise and inexpensive screening method for peripheral nerve manifestation in neurofibromatosis and should be considered as the first choice screening imaging modality for all peripheral nerves within reach of non-invasive ultrasound techniques. Ultrasound patterns of peripheral nerve pathologies are described for the first time in a large cohort of patients with NF1 and NF2. It is a suitable screening tool and enables targeted MRI analysis. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Correlation between clinico-pathological outcome and typing of Haemophilus parasuis field strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragon, Virginia; Cerdà-Cuéllar, Marta; Fraile, Lorenzo; Mombarg, Mark; Nofrarías, Miquel; Olvera, Alexandre; Sibila, Marina; Solanes, David; Segalés, Joaquim

    2010-05-19

    Haemophilus parasuis is the etiologic agent of Glässer's disease in pigs, which is pathologically characterized by serofibrinous polyserositis and arthritis. H. parasuis include virulent and non-virulent strains and confirmation of virulence in H. parasuis is still dependent on experimental reproduction of the disease. Since the variability in virulence is supported by serotyping and genotyping (particularly, multilocus sequence typing [MLST]), we examined the relationship between the classification of 8 field strains by these methods and their capacity to cause disease in snatch-farrowed, colostrum-deprived piglets. The severity of clinical signs and lesions produced by the different strains correlated with the quantity of H. parasuis recovered from the lesions. However, the virulence of the strains in the animal model did not show a total correlation with their serovar or their classification by MLST. More studies are needed to identify a virulence marker that could substitute animal experimentation in H. parasuis. In addition, we reproduced disease in domestic pigs with a strain isolated from the nasal cavity of wild boars. This result indicates the existence of virulent strains of H. parasuis in wild suids, which could produce disease under appropriate circumstances, and suggests a possible source of infection for domestic pigs. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Clinico-pathological characteristics of different types of immunodeficiency-associated smooth muscle tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Kais; Rath, Berenice; Ludewig, Britta; Kreipe, Hans; Jonigk, Danny

    2014-09-01

    Rare Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)+ smooth muscle tumours (SMT) manifest typically under immunosuppression. Three major subtypes are known: human immunodeficiency virus-associated (HIV-SMT), after transplantation (PTSMT) or associated with congenital immunodeficiency syndromes (CI-SMT). So far, there are no analyses which compare the clinico-pathological characteristics of all three subtypes. Case reports and case series on these three tumour types were collected (1990-2012). Meta-data analysis was performed for identification of similarities and differences. A total of 73 HIV-SMT, 66 PTSMT and 9 CI-SMT were evaluated. There was a slight female predominance (55-67%). Children were affected nearly equally in HIV-SMT (33%) and PTSMT (35%), while all CI-SMT occurred in children. HIV-SMT manifested preferentially in the central nervous system, gut/liver, skin, lungs/larynx/pharynx and adrenal glands. PTSMT were predominantly found in the liver, lungs/larynx/pharynx, gut/spleen and brain. CI-SMT were often found in lungs/larynx, brain, liver, adrenal glands and spleen. Antecedent EBV+ lymphoproliferations manifested more often in PTSMT. In all three tumour subtypes, survival analyses did not show any significant differences regarding surgical therapeutic approaches, the occurrence of multiple tumours, tumour size or sarcoma-like histological features. HIV-SMT had the poorest overall survival, which might be attributed to HIV-associated infectious complications.

  13. Pathological personality traits can capture DSM-IV personality disorder types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joshua D; Few, Lauren R; Lynam, Donald R; MacKillop, James

    2015-01-01

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) includes an alternative diagnostic approach to the assessment of personality disorders (PDs) in Section III with the aim of stimulating further research. Diagnosis of a PD using this approach is predicated on the presence of personality impairment and pathological personality traits. The types of traits present (e.g., callousness vs. emotional lability) are used to derive DSM-IV PD scores. Concerns have been raised, however, that such a trait-based approach will yield PD constructs that differ substantially from those generated using the approaches articulated in previous iterations of the DSM. We empirically examined this issue in a sample of 109 adults who were currently receiving mental health treatment. More specifically, we examined the correlations between interview-based PD scores derived from DSM-IV to DSM-5 PD trait counts, and tested them in relation to the 30 specific facets of the five-factor model, as well as internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Overall, the DSM-IV PD scores and DSM-5 PD trait counts correlated significantly with one another (Mr = .63), demonstrated similar patterns of interrelations among the PDs, and manifested highly similar patterns of correlations with general personality traits and symptoms of psychopathology. These results indicate that the DSM-5 PD trait counts specified in the alternative DSM-5 PD diagnostic approach capture the same constructs as those measured using the more traditional DSM-IV diagnostic system.

  14. PATHOGENETIC ROLE OF ABZYME-TYPE AUTOANTIBODIES IN THE ORGAN-SPECIFIC AUTOIMMUNE PATHOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. N. Luchverchyk

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The work deals with quantitative methods developed for estimation of nuclease and proteolytic activities  of  autoantibodies.  By  means  of  these  techniques,  appropriate  catalytic  activities  of  abzyme-type antibodies were studied in patients with diabetes mellitus type 1, and in subjects with autoimmune thyroiditis. Oppositely directed changes of the mentioned catalytic activities have been found for autoantibodies of different specificity.  Autoantibodies  occurring  in  autoimmune  thyroiditis  showed  an  increase  of  both  nuclease  and proteolytic activities. Meanwhile, the autoantibodies in diabetes mellitus had increased nuclease activity, along with decreased proteolytic activity. These findings are suggestive for existence of two pathogenetic mechanisms in organ-specific autoimmune pathology that are associated either with direct involvement of Fab fragments of auto-antibodies in autoimmune destruction, or with complement-dependent lysis mediated by Fc-fragments and  cytotoxic  destruction  of  target  cells  by  cytotoxic T-lymphocytes.  The  unique  site-specific  catalytic autoantibodies  were  established  to  exert  a  selective destructive effect upon target cells, thus making a major contribution to the antibody-dependent mechanisms of cytotoxicity in autoimmune diseases. (Med. Immunol., 2011, vol. 13, N 2-3, pp 145-150

  15. Neurological deterioration after foramen magnum decompression for Chiari malformation type I: old or new pathology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klekamp, Jörg

    2012-12-01

    Decompression of the foramen magnum is widely accepted as the procedure of choice for patients with Chiari malformation Type I (CM-I). This study was undertaken to determine the mechanisms responsible for neurological deterioration after foramen magnum decompression and the results of secondary interventions. Between 1987 and 2010, 559 patients with CM-I presented, 107 of whom had already undergone a foramen magnum decompression, which included a syrinx shunt in 27 patients. Forty patients who were neurologically stable did not undergo another operation. Sixty-seven patients with progressive symptoms received a recommendation for surgery, which was refused by 16 patients, while 51 patients underwent a total of 61 secondary operations. Hospital and outpatient records, radiographic studies, and intraoperative images were analyzed. Additional follow-up information was obtained by telephone calls and questionnaires. Short-term results were determined after 3 and 12 months, and long-term outcomes were evaluated using Kaplan-Meier statistics. Sixty-one secondary operations were performed after a foramen magnum decompression. Of these 61 operations, 15 involved spinal pathologies not related to the foramen magnum (spinal group), while 46 operations were required for a foramen magnum issue (foramen magnum group). Except for occipital pain and swallowing disturbances, the clinical course was comparable in both groups. In the spinal group, 5 syrinx shunt catheters were removed because of nerve root irritations or spinal cord tethering. Eight patients underwent a total of 10 operations on their cervical spine for radiculopathies or a myelopathy. No permanent surgical morbidity occurred in this group. In the foramen magnum group, 1 patient required a ventriculoperitoneal shunt for hydrocephalus 7 months after decompression. The remaining 45 secondary interventions were foramen magnum revisions, of which 10 were combined with craniocervical fusion. Intraoperatively, arachnoid

  16. Chitin recognition via chitotriosidase promotes pathologic type-2 helper T cell responses to cryptococcal infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darin L Wiesner

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary mycoses are often associated with type-2 helper T (Th2 cell responses. However, mechanisms of Th2 cell accumulation are multifactorial and incompletely known. To investigate Th2 cell responses to pulmonary fungal infection, we developed a peptide-MHCII tetramer to track antigen-specific CD4+ T cells produced in response to infection with the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans. We noted massive accruement of pathologic cryptococcal antigen-specific Th2 cells in the lungs following infection that was coordinated by lung-resident CD11b+ IRF4-dependent conventional dendritic cells. Other researchers have demonstrated that this dendritic cell subset is also capable of priming protective Th17 cell responses to another pulmonary fungal infection, Aspergillus fumigatus. Thus, higher order detection of specific features of fungal infection by these dendritic cells must direct Th2 cell lineage commitment. Since chitin-containing parasites commonly elicit Th2 responses, we hypothesized that recognition of fungal chitin is an important determinant of Th2 cell-mediated mycosis. Using C. neoformans mutants or purified chitin, we found that chitin abundance impacted Th2 cell accumulation and disease. Importantly, we determined Th2 cell induction depended on cleavage of chitin via the mammalian chitinase, chitotriosidase, an enzyme that was also prevalent in humans experiencing overt cryptococcosis. The data presented herein offers a new perspective on fungal disease susceptibility, whereby chitin recognition via chitotriosidase leads to the initiation of harmful Th2 cell differentiation by CD11b+ conventional dendritic cells in response to pulmonary fungal infection.

  17. Are extracellular microRNAs involved in type 2 diabetes and related pathologies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rome, Sophie

    2013-07-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of evolutionary conserved non-coding RNAs of 19-22 nucleotides that function as negative regulators of gene expression. Originally discovered in C. elegans, miRNAs regulate fundamental cellular processes in diverse organisms, including the control of metabolic pathways involved in fat metabolism, adipocyte differentiation, energy homeostasis, glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and inflammation. Several miRNAs have been identified as having a physiological role in tissues in which type 2 diabetes (T2DM) complications occur (liver, pancreas, adipose tissue and skeletal muscle). In addition, previous studies in animal models or in human tissues have demonstrated altered expression of microRNAs in insulin-sensitive tissues of T2DM patients suggesting a potential role for these small RNA molecules in the complications associated with the diabetic condition. However all these data assume that miRNAs reside and elicit their regulatory action within the producing cells. However, studies in the last 5years have demonstrated that miRNAs are not only found intracellularly, but are also detectable outside cells, including in various body fluids. This phenomenon raises questions about the biological functions of such extracellular miRNAs. The aim of the present review is to summarize the current knowledge of the impact of extracellular miRNAs on the development of obesity-associated T2DM, and its related complications including endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cell dysfunction. It also considers the possible use of blood miRNAs as biomarkers for the detection of T2DM, classification of the disease and detection of associated pathologies.

  18. Impact of smoking status and pathologic type on epidermal growth factor receptor mutations in lung cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Yi-sheng; WU Yi-long; YANG Jin-ji; ZHANG Xu-chao; YANG Xue-ning; HUANG Yu-juan; XU Chong-rui; ZHOU Qing; WANG Zhen; SU Jian

    2011-01-01

    Background Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations in lung carcinomas can make the disease more responsive to the treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitors. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of EGFR mutations in a large series of lung carcinomas.Methods We examined 1195 consecutive lung cancer patients for EGFR mutations in exons 18, 19, and 21 using direct sequencing of polymerase chain reaction products. A detailed smoking history was obtained. Patients were categorized as never smokers (<100 lifetime cigarettes), former smokers (quit >1 year ago), or current smokers (quit <1 year ago).Results There were EGFR mutations in 9 (4.5%) of 201 squamous carcinomas, in 1 (2%) of 50 large cell carcinomas,and in 1 (2.3%) of 44 small cell carcinomas that were investigated. Three hundred and twenty-seven mutations were found in the series of 858 adenocarcinomas (38.1%). Among 858 lung adenocarcinomas, we detected EGFR mutations in 250 (48.6%) of 514 never smokers, 39 (33.9%) of 115 former smokers, and 38 (16.6%) of 229 current smokers.Significantly fewer EGFR mutations were found in people who smoked for more than 15 pack-years (P=0.0002) or stopped smoking less than 15 years ago (P=0.033) compared with individuals who never smoked.Conclusions Adenocarcinoma is the most frequent EGFR mutation pathologic type in lung cancer. The likelihood of EGFR mutations in exons 18, 19 and 21 decreases as the number of pack-years increases. Mutations were less common in people who smoked for more than 15 pack-years or who stopped smoking cigarettes less than 15 years ago. These data can assist clinicians in assessing the likelihood of exons 18, 19, or 21 EGFR mutations in Chinese patients with lung cancer when mutational analysis is not feasible.

  19. The Pathological Features of Dissemination of Lymphoma in the Heart in 42 Autopsy Cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Siqing Feng; Wenchen Huang; Limei Liu; Yanqin Liu; Fan Zhou; Xuemei Zhang

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To study the pathological features of dissemination of lymphoma in the heart and understand its influence on cardiac function.METHODS Forty-two patients who died of lymphoma were autoposied and the gross and microscopic pathological changes of the heart observed.RESULTS Eight (19.05%) out of 42 cases had heart dissemination in the pericardium and heart wall. The dissemination features noted were of a nodular type, diffuse type and mixed type, leading to neoplastic myocarditis.CONCLUSION The pathological features of dissemination of lymphoma in the heart are varied, and the different types can produce dissimilar influences in heart function.

  20. New tetrachromic VOF stain (Type III-G.S) for normal and pathological fish tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarasquete, C; Gutiérrez, M

    2005-01-01

    A new VOF Type III-G.S stain was applied to histological sections of different organs and tissues of healthy and pathological larvae, juvenile and adult fish species (Solea senegalensis; Sparus aurata; Diplodus sargo; Pagrus auriga; Argyrosomus regius and Halobatrachus didactylus). In comparison to the original Gutiérrez VOF stain, more acid dyes of contrasting colours and polychromatic/metachromatic properties were incorporated as essential constituents of the tetrachromic VOF stain. This facilitates the selective staining of different basic tissues and improves the morphological analysis of histochemical approaches of the cell components. The VOF Type III -6.5 stain is composed of a mixture of several dyes of varying size and molecular weight (Orange G

  1. The Characteristics of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Infection in Rhesus Macaques and the Associated Pathological Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Shengtao; Cai, Hongzhi; Xu, Xingli; Feng, Min; Wang, Lichun; Liao, Yun; Zhang, Ying; He, Zhanlong; Yang, Fengmei; Yu, Wenhai; Wang, Jingjing; Zhou, Jumin; Li, Qihan

    2017-01-01

    As one of the major pathogens for human herpetic diseases, herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1) causes herpes labialis, genital herpes and herpetic encephalitis. Our aim here was to investigate the infectious process of HSV1 in rhesus macaques and the pathological features induced during this infection. Clinical symptoms that manifested in the rhesus macaque during HSV1 infection included vesicular lesions and their pathological features. Viral distribution in the nervous tissues and associated pathologic changes indicated the typical systematic pathological processes associated with viral distribution of HSV1. Interestingly, vesicular lesions recurred in oral skin or in mucosa associated with virus shedding in macaques within four to five months post-infection, and viral latency-associated transcript (LAT) mRNA was found in the trigeminal ganglia (TG) on day 365 post-infection. Neutralization testing and enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISpot) detection of specific T cell responses confirmed the specific immunity induced by HSV1 infection. Thus, rhesus macaques could serve as an infectious model for HSV1 due to their typical clinical symptoms and the pathological recurrence associated with viral latency in nervous tissues. PMID:28146109

  2. CO2 surgical laser in the treatment of some types of pathology of pets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, Christian; Pinna, Stefania; Venturini, Antonio; Rossi, Giacomo; Fortuna, Damiano

    2002-10-01

    We have treated with CO2 laser surgery 40 cases which contemplated: stomatitis and other oral pathologies, anorectal, cutaneous, subcutaneous lesions, and other ophthalmic ones. The parameters employed to evaluate surgical treatment success were: histological analyses, time of healing process and incidence (per cent) of relapses. During the T/3 period (45 days) all cases of feline stomatitis relapsed. The 83% of pets that suffered of anorectal pathologies healed up to 21 days and no relapse was observed in T/4 period (180 days). The cutaneous and subcutaneous nodules vaporization caused lesions that healed during 7 days (T/1) and no relapse was observed after laser treatment. In cutaneous chronic ulcers and in reptilian abscesses we had the lesions reparation by second intention healing in T/3. A case of feline oral squamocellular carcinoma relapsed in T/3 after laser treatment. The results showed three different level of utility: indispensable, useful but unnecessary, inefficacious. The CO2 laser application resulted the best treatment for anorectal pathologies, cutaneous ulcerations and reptilian abscesses. The laser surgery was only useful but unnecessary in treatment of cutaneous and subcutaneous neoformations and also in oral and peri-ophthalmic pathologies. Finally, the laser application appeared inefficacious in squamocellular carcinoma and in chronic phlogosis of feline oral cavity.

  3. Gross decontamination experiment report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, R.; Kinney, K.; Dettorre, J.; Gilbert, V.

    1983-07-01

    A Gross Decontamination Experiment was conducted on various levels and surfaces of the TMI - Unit 2 reactor building in March 1982. The polar crane, D-rings, missile shields, refueling canals, refueling bridges, equipment, and elevations 305' and 347'-6'' were flushed with low pressure water. Additionally, floor surfaces on elevation 305' and floor surfaces and major pieces of equipment on elevation 347'-6'' were sprayed with high pressure water. Selective surfaces were decontaminated with a mechanical scrubber and chemicals. Strippable coating was tested and evaluated on equipment and floor surfaces. The effectiveness, efficiency, and safety of several decontamination techniques were established for the large, complex decontamination effort. Various decontamination equipment was evaluated and its effectiveness was documented. Decontamination training and procedures were documented and evaluated, as were the support system and organization for the experiment.

  4. Natural killer T (NKT cells accelerate Shiga toxin type 2 (Stx2 pathology in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumiko eObata

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC is a leading cause of childhood renal disease He-molytic Uremic Syndrome (HUS. The involvement of renal cytokines and chemokines is sus-pected to play a critical role in disease progression. In current article, we tested the hypothesis that NKT cells are involved in Stx2-induced pathology in vivo. To address this hypothesis we compared Stx2 toxicity in WT and CD1 knockout (KO mice. In CD1KO mice, which lack nat-ural killer T (NKT cells, Stx2-induced pathologies such as weight loss, renal failure, and death were delayed. In WT mice, Stx2-specific selective increase in urinary albumin occurs in later time points, and this was also delayed in NKT cell deficient mice. NKT cell-associated cytokines such as IL-2, IL-4, IFN-γ and IL-17 were detected in kidney lysates of Stx2-injected WT mice with the peak around 36 h after Stx2 injection. In CD1KO, there was a delay in the kinetics, and increases in these cytokines were observed 60 h post Stx2 injection. These data suggest that NKT cells accelerate Stx2-induced pathology in mouse kidneys. To determine the mechanism by which NKT cells promote Stx2-associated disease, in vitro studies were performed using murine renal cells. We found that murine glomerular endothelial cells and podocytes express functional CD1d molecules and can present exogenous antigen to NKT cells. Moreover, we observed the direct interaction between Stx2 and the receptor Gb3 on the surface of mouse renal cells by 3D STORM-TIRF which provides single molecule imaging. Collectively, these data suggest that Stx2 binds to Gb3 on renal cells and leads to aberrant CD1d-mediated NKT cell activation. Therefore, strategies targeting NKT cells could have a significant impact on Stx2-associated renal pathology in STEC disease.

  5. Robust Principal Component Test in Gross Error Detection and Identification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Principle component analysis (PCA) based chi-square test is more sensitive to subtle gross errors and has greater power to correctly detect gross errors than classical chi-square test. However, classical principal component test (PCT) is non-robust and can be very sensitive to one or more outliers. In this paper, a Huber function liked robust weight factor was added in the collective chi-square test to eliminate the influence of gross errors on the PCT. Meanwhile, robust chi-square test was applied to modified simultaneous estimation of gross error (MSEGE) strategy to detect and identify multiple gross errors. Simulation results show that the proposed robust test can reduce the possibility of type Ⅱ errors effectively. Adding robust chi-square test into MSEGE does not obviously improve the power of multiple gross error identification, the proposed approach considers the influence of outliers on hypothesis statistic test and is more reasonable.

  6. Multiple system atrophy of the cerebellar type (MSA-C) with concomitant beta-amyloid and tau pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujan, Bartosz; Hofer, Markus J; Oertel, Wolfgang H; Pagenstecher, Axel; Bürk, Katrin

    2013-01-01

    Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a rapidly progressive sporadic α-synucleinopathy with adult onset characterized by progressive cerebellar ataxia, basal ganglia symptoms, autonomic dysfunction and pyramidal tract signs. While full-blown dementia is considered an exclusion criterion according to Consensus Guidelines, mild cognitive deficits such as fronto-executive dysfunction have been reported in some MSA individuals. However, the underlying anatomic correlate still has to be elucidated. We here report a 74-year-old patient with a clinical diagnosis of "probable MSA of the cerebellar type (MSA-C)" who developed pronounced clinical symptoms of fronto-executive dysfunction. Neuropathologic investigations revealed (1) numerous glial cytoplasmic inclusions (GCI) in the putamen, mesencephalon and cerebellum, (2) pronounced betaamyloid pathology in the frontal lobe and (3) mild hippocampal τ-pathology. In this patient, fronto-executive dysfunction can easily be explained by frontal degeneration typical for AD. These findings challenge the concept of cognitive dysfunction as a core feature of MSA as long as concomitant pathology other than MSA has not been reliably excluded by post mortem analysis.

  7. Age-associated and cell-type-specific neurofibrillary pathology in transgenic mice expressing the human midsized neurofilament subunit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, J C; Morrison, J H; Friedrich, V L; Elder, G A; Perl, D P; Katz, R N; Lazzarini, R A

    1994-09-01

    Alterations in neurofilaments are a common occurrence in neurons of the human nervous system during aging and diseases associated with aging. Such pathologic changes may be attributed to species-specific properties of human neurofilaments as well as cell-type-specific regulation of this element of the cytoskeleton. The development of transgenic animals containing human neurofilament subunits offers an opportunity to study the effects of aging and other experimental conditions on the human-specific form of these proteins in a rodent model. The present study shows that mice from the transgenic line NF(M)27, which express the human midsized neurofilament subunit at low levels (2-25% of the endogenous NF-M), develop neurofilamentous accumulations in specific subgroups of neurons that are age dependent, affecting 78% of transgenic mice over 12 months of age. Similar accumulations do not occur in age-matched, wild-type littermates or in 3-month-old transgenic mice. In 12-month-old transgenic mice, somatic neurofilament accumulations resembling neurofibrillary tangles were present predominantly in layers III and V of the neocortex, as well as in select subpopulations of subcortical neurons. Intraperikaryal, spherical neurofilamentous accumulations were particularly abundant in cell bodies in layer II of the neocortex, and neurofilament-containing distentions of Purkinje cell proximal axons occurred in the cerebellum. These pathological accumulations contained mouse as well as human NF subunits, but could be distinguished by their content of phosphorylation-dependent NF epitopes. These cytoskeletal alterations closely resemble the cell-type-specific alterations in neurofilaments that occur during normal human aging and in diseases associated with aging, indicating that these transgenic animals may serve as models of some aspects of the pathologic features of human neurodegenerative diseases.

  8. Pathologic Rupture of the Spleen in Mantle-Cell-Type Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher B. Tan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL accounts for less than 10 percent of all non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL. Pathologic or spontaneous rupture of the spleen has been reported in patients with lymphoma; however only 5 cases have been reported in patients with MCL. Although splenomegaly occurs frequently in patients with MCL, spontaneous splenic rupture is rare. We present a case of a 51-year-old female with MCL, who presented to the medical emergency room with splenic rupture. This case illustrates that clinicians should be aware of the incidence and presentation of patients with MCL and spontaneous splenic rupture, as early detection and heightened suspicion may prevent potentially fatal outcomes.

  9. Glutathionylation of the L-type Ca2+ Channel in Oxidative Stress-Induced Pathology of the Heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria P. A. Johnstone

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available There is mounting evidence to suggest that protein glutathionylation is a key process contributing to the development of pathology. Glutathionylation occurs as a result of posttranslational modification of a protein and involves the addition of a glutathione moiety at cysteine residues. Such modification can occur on a number of proteins, and exerts a variety of functional consequences. The L-type Ca2+ channel has been identified as a glutathionylation target that participates in the development of cardiac pathology. Ca2+ influx via the L-type Ca2+ channel increases production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS in cardiomyocytes during periods of oxidative stress. This induces a persistent increase in channel open probability, and the resulting constitutive increase in Ca2+ influx amplifies the cross-talk between the mitochondria and the channel. Novel strategies utilising targeted peptide delivery to uncouple mitochondrial ROS and Ca2+ flux via the L-type Ca2+ channel following ischemia-reperfusion have delivered promising results, and have proven capable of restoring appropriate mitochondrial function in myocytes and in vivo.

  10. Neuromyelitis optica-like pathology is dependent on type I interferon response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorooshi, Reza; Wlodarczyk, Agnieszka; Asgari, Nasrin; Owens, Trevor

    2013-09-01

    Neuromyelitis optica is an antibody-mediated autoimmune inflammatory disease of the central nervous system. Reports have suggested that interferon beta which is beneficial for multiple sclerosis, exacerbates neuromyelitis optica. Our aim was to determine whether type I interferon plays a role in the formation of neuromyelitis optica lesions. Immunoglobulin G from a neuromyelitis optica patient was injected intracerebrally with human complement to type I interferon receptor deficient and wildtype mice. Loss of aquaporin-4 and glial fibrillary acidic protein was reduced in type I interferon receptor deficient mice brain. Our findings suggest that type I interferon signaling contributes to neuromyelitis optica pathogenesis.

  11. Curriculum Guidelines for Pathology and Oral Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Dental Education, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Guidelines for dental school pathology courses describe the interrelationships of general, systemic, and oral pathology; primary educational goals; prerequisites; a core curriculum outline and behavioral objectives for each type of pathology. Notes on sequencing, faculty, facilities, and occupational hazards are included. (MSE)

  12. Study of 320-slice dynamic volume CT perfusion in different pathologic types of kidney tumor: preliminary results.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Chen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate microcirculatory differences between pathologic types of kidney tumor using 320-slice dynamic volume CT perfusion. METHODS: Perfusion imaging with 320-slice dynamic volume CT was prospectively performed in 85 patients with pathologically proven clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC (n = 66, papillary RCC (n = 7, chromophobe RCC (n = 5, angiomyolipoma (AML with minimal fat (n = 7, or RCC (n = 78. Equivalent blood volume (Equiv BV, permeability surface-area product (PS; clearance/unit volume = permeability, and blood flow (BF of tumor and normal renal cortex were measured and analyzed. Effective radiation dose was calculated. RESULTS: There was a significant difference in all three parameters between tumor and normal renal cortex (P<0.001. Equiv BV was significantly different between RCC and AML with minimal fat (P = 0.038 and between clear cell RCC and AML with minimal fat (P<0.001. Mean Equiv BV and BF were significantly higher in clear cell RCC than in papillary RCC (P<0.001 for both and mean Equiv BV was higher in clear cell RCC than in chromophobe RCC (P<0.001. The effective radiation dose of the CT perfusion protocol was 18.5 mSv. CONCLUSION: Perfusion imaging using 320-slice dynamic volume CT can be used to evaluate hemodynamic features of the whole kidney and kidney tumors, which may be useful in the differential diagnosis of these four pathologic types of kidney tumor.

  13. Immunocytochemical Traits of Type IV Fibrocytes and Their Possible Relations to Cochlear Function and Pathology

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, Joe C.

    2009-01-01

    One of the more consistent and least understood changes in the aging human cochlea is the progressive loss of fibrocytes within the spiral ligament. This report presents an animal model for type IV fibrocyte loss, along with immunocytochemical evidence that noise-induced loss of these cells may account for previously unexplained hearing losses. The remarkably low threshold for noise-induced loss of type IV fibrocytes, approximately 24 dB less than the threshold for adjacent hair cell destruct...

  14. Subaortic (Type 6 Muscular Band—Innocent Bystander or Pathologic Structure?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Ker

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Intraventricular tendons are structures that was identified more than a hundred years ago. It has been suggested that they represent intracavitary radiations of the bundle of His and that they may be an isolated finding or be associated with structural cardiac abnormalities. Loukas et al divided these structures into five categories and recently a sixth type have been added. Various physiological disturbances have been observed due to the sixth type of tendon, such as ST segment elevation and right bundle branch block. It has been noted that this peculiar structure appears too thick to be called a tendon, thus the term band. This retrospective analysis analyzed the incidence of the thick, subaortic (type 6 muscular band in a cardiovascular clinic.

  15. Brain pathology in Niemann Pick disease type A: insights from the acid sphingomyelinase knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledesma, Maria Dolores; Prinetti, Alessandro; Sonnino, Sandro; Schuchman, Edward H

    2011-03-01

    Severe neurological involvement characterizes Niemann Pick disease (NPD) type A, an inherited disorder caused by loss of function mutations in the gene encoding acid sphingomyelinase (ASM). Mice lacking ASM, which mimic NPD type A, have provided important insights into the aberrant brain phenotypes induced by ASM deficiency. For example, lipid alterations, including the accumulation of sphingolipids, affect the membranes of different subcellular compartments of neurons and glial cells, leading to anomalies in signalling pathways, neuronal polarization, calcium homeostasis, synaptic plasticity, myelin production or immune response. These findings contribute to our understanding of the overall role of sphingolipids and their metabolic enzymes in brain physiology, and pave the way to design and test new therapeutic strategies for type A NPD and other neurodegenerative disorders. Some of these have already been tested in mice lacking ASM with promising results. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Neurochemistry © 2011 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  16. Brain pathology in Niemann Pick disease type A: Insights from the acid sphingomyelinase knockout mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledesma, Maria Dolores; Prinetti, Alessandro; Sonnino, Sandro; Schuchman, Edward H.

    2010-01-01

    Severe neurological involvement characterizes Niemann Pick disease (NPD) type A, an inherited disorder caused by loss of function mutations in the gene encoding acid sphingomyelinase (ASM). Mice lacking ASM (ASMko), which mimic NPD type A, have provided important insights into the aberrant brain phenotypes induced by ASM deficiency. For example, lipid alterations, including the accumulation of sphingolipids, affect the membranes of different subcellular compartments of neurons and glial cells, leading to anomalies in signalling pathways, neuronal polarization, calcium homeostasis, synaptic plasticity, myelin production or immune response. These findings contribute to our understanding of the overall role of sphingolipids and their metabolic enzymes in brain physiology, and pave the way to design and test new therapeutic strategies for type A NPD and other neurodegenerative disorders. Some of these have already been tested in ASMko mice with promising results. PMID:21214563

  17. Peripheral nerve pathology in patients with severely affected complex regional pain syndrome type I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geertzen, Jan H. B.; Bodde, Marlies I.; van den Dungen, Johannes; Dijkstra, Pieter U.; den Dunnen, Wilfred F. A.

    2015-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS-I) is a chronic pain syndrome with no clinical evidence of nerve injury; however, recently, changes in muscle tissue have been found in case of CRPS-I. Our aim was to search for histological changes in peripheral nerves of amputated limbs from patients wit

  18. Neuromyelitis optica-like pathology is dependent on type I interferon response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khorooshi, Reza; Wlodarczyk, Agnieszka; Asgari, Nasrin;

    2013-01-01

    Neuromyelitis optica is an antibody-mediated autoimmune inflammatory disease of the central nervous system. Reports have suggested that interferon beta which is beneficial for multiple sclerosis, exacerbates neuromyelitis optica. Our aim was to determine whether type I interferon plays a role in ...

  19. Clinico-pathological signiifcance of extra-nodal spread in special types of breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ecmel Isik Kaygusuz; Handan Cetiner; Hulya Yavuz

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the signiifcance of extra-nodal spread in special histological sub-types of breast cancer and the relationship of such spread with prognostic parameters. Methods: A total of 303 breast cancer cases were classiifed according to tumor type, and each tumor group was subdivided according to age, tumor diameter, lymph node metastasis, extra-nodal spread, vein invasion in the adjacent soft tissue, distant metastasis, and immunohistochemical characteristics [estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) existence, p53, c-erbB-2, and proliferative rate (Ki-67)]. hTe 122 cases with extra-nodal spread were clinically followed up. Results: An extra-nodal spread was observed in 40% (122 cases) of the 303 breast cancer cases. hTe spread most frequently presented in micro papillary carcinoma histological sub-type (40 cases, 75%), but least frequently presents in mucinous carcinoma (2 cases, 8%). Patients with extra-nodal spread had a high average number of metastatic lymph nodes (8.3) and a high distant metastasis rate (38 cases, 31%) compared with patients without extra-nodal spread. Conclusion: hTe existence of extra-nodal spread in the examined breast cancer sub-types has predictive value in forecasting the number of metastatic lymph nodes and the disease prognosis.

  20. Immunocytochemical traits of type IV fibrocytes and their possible relations to cochlear function and pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Joe C

    2009-09-01

    One of the more consistent and least understood changes in the aging human cochlea is the progressive loss of fibrocytes within the spiral ligament. This report presents an animal model for type IV fibrocyte loss, along with immunocytochemical evidence that noise-induced loss of these cells may account for previously unexplained hearing losses. The remarkably low threshold for noise-induced loss of type IV fibrocytes, approximately 24 dB less than the threshold for adjacent hair cell destruction, may account for the prevalence of missing fibrocytes in humans. In mice, changes in the spectrum of traumatizing noise had little effect upon the site of loss of the fibrocytes, suggesting that the primary site of damage that induced the loss was the basal-most cochlear turn, a site expected to be damaged by all three noise bands. Type IV fibrocytes were found to immunostain for connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and for transforming growth factor beta receptor 3, a receptor that is known to activate CTGF expression. Type IV fibrocytes lack immunostaining for adenosine triphosphatase and connexins that are key players in potassium ion uptake and transmission, which suggests that they play little, if any, role in potassium recycling from perilymphatic space to the endolymphatic space. Consequently, their loss probably does not directly reduce this process. Immunostaining for a receptor for CTGF, low-density-lipoprotein-related protein 1, indicated that CTGF acts as an autocrine and a paracrine agent within the cochlea. The lack of CTGF paracrine effects following noise-induced loss of type IV fibrocytes may account for previously unexplained hearing losses.

  1. Pathogenic and pathological characteristic of new type gosling viral enteritis first observed in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    An-Chun Cheng; Ming-Sbu Wang; Xiao-Yue Chen; Yu-Fei Guo; Zhao-Yu Liu; Peng-Fei Fang

    2001-01-01

    underwent degeneration. In some cases, granular degeneration and fatty degeneration could be found in the liver and in some cases at a later stage of this disease the epithelial ceils of trachea and proventriculus might be found sioughed. In some cases at an early stage of this disease,cardiac hyperemia and hemorrhage could be observed.Esophaagus, pancreas and brain were found normal. Analysesand comparisons between the pathologic lesions of GVE and Gosling Plague (GP) were available in this paper as well.``characteristic could be as the data for NGVE diagnosis.``

  2. Gross job flows and firms

    OpenAIRE

    Scott Schuh; Robert K. Triest

    1999-01-01

    This paper extends the work of Dunne, Roberts, and Samuelson [3] and Davis, Haltiwanger, and Schuh [2] on gross job flows among manufacturing plants. Gross job creation, destruction, and reallocation have been shown to be important in understanding the birth, growth, and death of plants, and the relation of plant life cycles to the business cycle. However, little is known about job flows between firms or how job flows among plants occur within firms (corporate restructuring). We use informati...

  3. Role of Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor Type 1 in Pathologies of Female Reproductive Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Ye

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal pregnancy is a state of hypercoagulability with diminishing fibrinolytic activity, which is mainly caused by an increase of plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1. PAI-1 is the main inhibitor of plasminogen activators, including tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA and urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA. In human placentas, PAI-1 is expressed in extravillous interstitial trophoblasts and vascular trophoblasts. During implantation and placentation, PAI-1 is responsible for inhibiting extra cellular matrix (ECM degradation, thereby causing an inhibition of trophoblasts invasion. In the present study, we have reviewed the literature of various reproductive diseases where PAI-1 plays a role. PAI-1 levels are increased in patients with recurrent pregnancy losses (RPL, preeclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR, gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM in the previous pregnancy, endometriosis and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS. In general, an increased expression of PAI-1 in the blood is associated with an increased risk for infertility and a worse pregnancy outcome. GDM and PCOS are related to the genetic role of the 4G/5G polymorphism of PAI-1. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge of the role of PAI-1 in reproductive diseases. PAI-1 represents a promising monitoring biomarker for reproductive diseases and may be a treatment target in the near future.

  4. Role of Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor Type 1 in Pathologies of Female Reproductive Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yao; Vattai, Aurelia; Zhang, Xi; Zhu, Junyan; Thaler, Christian J; Mahner, Sven; Jeschke, Udo; von Schönfeldt, Viktoria

    2017-07-29

    Normal pregnancy is a state of hypercoagulability with diminishing fibrinolytic activity, which is mainly caused by an increase of plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1). PAI-1 is the main inhibitor of plasminogen activators, including tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) and urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA). In human placentas, PAI-1 is expressed in extravillous interstitial trophoblasts and vascular trophoblasts. During implantation and placentation, PAI-1 is responsible for inhibiting extra cellular matrix (ECM) degradation, thereby causing an inhibition of trophoblasts invasion. In the present study, we have reviewed the literature of various reproductive diseases where PAI-1 plays a role. PAI-1 levels are increased in patients with recurrent pregnancy losses (RPL), preeclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in the previous pregnancy, endometriosis and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). In general, an increased expression of PAI-1 in the blood is associated with an increased risk for infertility and a worse pregnancy outcome. GDM and PCOS are related to the genetic role of the 4G/5G polymorphism of PAI-1. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge of the role of PAI-1 in reproductive diseases. PAI-1 represents a promising monitoring biomarker for reproductive diseases and may be a treatment target in the near future.

  5. Nanowire array chips for molecular typing of rare trafficking leukocytes with application to neurodegenerative pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Minsuk; Kim, Dong-Joo; Lee, Mi-Ri; Wu, Yu; Han, Lin; Lee, Sang-Kwon; Fan, Rong

    2014-05-01

    Despite the presence of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) that restricts the entry of immune cells and mediators into the central nervous system (CNS), a small number of peripheral leukocytes can traverse the BBB and infiltrate into the CNS. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is one of the major routes through which trafficking leukocytes migrate into the CNS. Therefore, the number of leukocytes and their phenotypic compositions in the CSF may represent important sources to investigate immune-to-brain interactions or diagnose and monitor neurodegenerative diseases. Due to the paucity of trafficking leucocytes in the CSF, a technology capable of efficient isolation, enumeration, and molecular typing of these cells in the clinical settings has not been achieved. In this study, we report on a biofunctionalized silicon nanowire array chip for highly efficient capture and multiplexed phenotyping of rare trafficking leukocytes in small quantities (50 microliters) of clinical CSF specimens collected from neurodegenerative disease patients. The antibody coated 3D nanostructured materials exhibited vastly improved rare cell capture efficiency due to high-affinity binding and enhanced cell-substrate interactions. Moreover, our platform creates multiple cell capture interfaces, each of which can selectively isolate specific leukocyte phenotypes. A comparison with the traditional immunophenotyping using flow cytometry demonstrated that our novel silicon nanowire-based rare cell analysis platform can perform rapid detection and simultaneous molecular characterization of heterogeneous immune cells. Multiplexed molecular typing of rare leukocytes in CSF samples collected from Alzheimer's disease patients revealed the elevation of white blood cell counts and significant alterations in the distribution of major leukocyte phenotypes. Our technology represents a practical tool for potentially diagnosing and monitoring the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases by allowing an effective

  6. Relationship Between Gross Motor Function and Daily Functional Skill in Children With Cerebral Palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Kwon, Tae Gun; Yi, Sook-Hee; Kim, Tae Won; Chang, Hyun Jung; Kwon, Jeong-Yi

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between gross motor function and daily functional skill in children with cerebral palsy (CP) and to explore how this relationship is moderated by the Gross Motor Function Classification System, Bimanual Fine Motor Function (BFMF), neuromotor types, and limb distribution of CP. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 112 children with CP (range, 4 years to 7 years and 7 months) was performed. Gross motor function was assessed with the Gross Motor Function ...

  7. Neonatal bone marrow transplantation prevents bone pathology in a mouse model of mucopolysaccharidosis type I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pievani, Alice; Azario, Isabella; Antolini, Laura; Shimada, Tsutomu; Patel, Pravin; Remoli, Cristina; Rambaldi, Benedetta; Valsecchi, Maria Grazia; Riminucci, Mara; Biondi, Andrea; Tomatsu, Shunji; Serafini, Marta

    2015-03-05

    Neonatal bone marrow transplantation (BMT) could offer a novel therapeutic opportunity for genetic disorders by providing sustainable levels of the missing protein at birth, thus preventing tissue damage. We tested this concept in mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS IH; Hurler syndrome), a lysosomal storage disorder caused by deficiency of α-l-iduronidase. MPS IH is characterized by a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations, including severe progressive skeletal abnormalities. Although BMT increases the life span of patients with MPS IH, musculoskeletal manifestations are only minimally responsive if the timing of BMT delays, suggesting already irreversible bone damage. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that transplanting normal BM into newborn MPS I mice soon after birth can prevent skeletal dysplasia. We observed that neonatal BMT was effective at restoring α-l-iduronidase activity and clearing elevated glycosaminoglycans in blood and multiple organs. At 37 weeks of age, we observed an almost complete normalization of all bone tissue parameters, using radiographic, microcomputed tomography, biochemical, and histological analyses. Overall, the magnitude of improvements correlated with the extent of hematopoietic engraftment. We conclude that BMT at a very early stage in life markedly reduces signs and symptoms of MPS I before they appear.

  8. Gpnmb Is a Potential Marker for the Visceral Pathology in Niemann-Pick Type C Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André R A Marques

    Full Text Available Impaired function of NPC1 or NPC2 lysosomal proteins leads to the intracellular accumulation of unesterified cholesterol, the primary defect underlying Niemann-Pick type C (NPC disease. In addition, glycosphingolipids (GSLs accumulate in lysosomes as well. Intralysosomal lipid accumulation triggers the activation of a set of genes, including potential biomarkers. Transcript levels of Gpnmb have been shown to be elevated in various tissues of an NPC mouse model. We speculated that Gpnmb could serve as a marker for visceral lipid accumulation in NPC disease. We report that Gpnmb expression is increased at protein level in macrophages in the viscera of Npc1nih/nih mice. Interestingly, soluble Gpnmb was also found to be increased in murine and NPC patient plasma. Exposure of RAW264.7 macrophages to the NPC-phenotype-inducing drug U18666A also upregulated Gpnmb expression. Inhibition of GSL synthesis with the glucosylceramide synthase (GCS inhibitor N-butyl-1-deoxynojirimycin prevented U18666A-induced Gpnmb induction and secretion. In summary, we show that Gpnmb is upregulated in NPC mice and patients, most likely due to GSL accumulation.

  9. Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 infection: overview on relevant clinico-pathological features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arduino, Paolo G; Porter, Stephen R

    2008-02-01

    Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 (HSV-1) is a nuclear replicating enveloped virus, usually acquired through direct contact with infected lesions or body fluids (typically saliva). The prevalence of HSV-1 infection increases progressively from childhood, the seroprevalence being inversely related to socioeconomic background. Primary HSV-1 infections in children are either asymptomatic or following an incubation period of about 1 week gives rise to mucocutaneous vesicular eruptions. Herpetic gingivostomatitis typically affects the tongue, lips, gingival, buccal mucosa and the hard and soft palate. Most primary oro-facial HSV infection is caused by HSV-1, infection by HSV-2 is increasingly common. Recurrent infections, which occur at variable intervals, typically give rise to vesiculo-ulcerative lesions at mucocutaneous junctions particularly the lips (herpes labialis). Recurrent HSV-1 infection within the mouth is uncommon in otherwise healthy patients, although in immunocompromised patients, recurrent infection can be more extensive and/or aggressive. The diagnosis of common herpetic infection can usually be based upon the clinical history and presenting features. Confirmatory laboratory diagnosis is, however, required when patients are, or may be, immunocompromised.

  10. Molecular Pathways Regulating Macrovascular Pathology and Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells Phenotype in Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Casella

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is a disease reaching a pandemic proportion in developed countries and a major risk factor for almost all cardiovascular diseases and their adverse clinical manifestations. T2DM leads to several macrovascular and microvascular alterations that influence the progression of cardiovascular diseases. Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs are fundamental players in macrovascular alterations of T2DM patients. VSMCs display phenotypic and functional alterations that reflect an altered intracellular biomolecular scenario of great vessels of T2DM patients. Hyperglycemia itself and through intraparietal accumulation of advanced glycation-end products (AGEs activate different pathways, in particular nuclear factor-κB and MAPKs, while insulin and insulin growth-factor receptors (IGFR are implicated in the activation of Akt and extracellular-signal-regulated kinases (ERK 1/2. Nuclear factor-κB is also responsible of increased susceptibility of VSMCs to pro-apoptotic stimuli. Down-regulation of insulin growth-factor 1 receptors (IGFR-1R activity in diabetic vessels also influences negatively miR-133a levels, so increasing apoptotic susceptibility of VSMCs. Alterations of those bimolecular pathways and related genes associate to the prevalence of a synthetic phenotype of VSMCs induces extracellular matrix alterations of great vessels. A better knowledge of those biomolecular pathways and related genes in VSMCs will help to understand the mechanisms leading to macrovascular alterations in T2DM patients and to suggest new targeted therapies.

  11. Clearance of Heparan Sulfate and Attenuation of CNS Pathology by Intracerebroventricular BMN 250 in Sanfilippo Type B Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mika Aoyagi-Scharber

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Sanfilippo syndrome type B (mucopolysaccharidosis IIIB, caused by inherited deficiency of α-N-acetylglucosaminidase (NAGLU, required for lysosomal degradation of heparan sulfate (HS, is a pediatric neurodegenerative disorder with no approved treatment. Intracerebroventricular (ICV delivery of a modified recombinant NAGLU, consisting of human NAGLU fused with insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2 for enhanced lysosomal targeting, was previously shown to result in marked enzyme uptake and clearance of HS storage in the Naglu−/− mouse brain. To further evaluate regional, cell type-specific, and dose-dependent biodistribution of NAGLU-IGF2 (BMN 250 and its effects on biochemical and histological pathology, Naglu−/− mice were treated with 1–100 μg ICV doses (four times over 2 weeks. 1 day after the last dose, BMN 250 (100 μg doses resulted in above-normal NAGLU activity levels, broad biodistribution, and uptake in all cell types, with NAGLU predominantly localized to neurons in the Naglu−/− mouse brain. This led to complete clearance of disease-specific HS and reduction of secondary lysosomal defects and neuropathology across various brain regions lasting for at least 28 days after the last dose. The substantial brain uptake of NAGLU attainable by this highest ICV dosage was required for nearly complete attenuation of disease-driven storage accumulations and neuropathology throughout the Naglu−/− mouse brain.

  12. Clearance of Heparan Sulfate and Attenuation of CNS Pathology by Intracerebroventricular BMN 250 in Sanfilippo Type B Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyagi-Scharber, Mika; Crippen-Harmon, Danielle; Lawrence, Roger; Vincelette, Jon; Yogalingam, Gouri; Prill, Heather; Yip, Bryan K; Baridon, Brian; Vitelli, Catherine; Lee, Amanda; Gorostiza, Olivia; Adintori, Evan G; Minto, Wesley C; Van Vleet, Jeremy L; Yates, Bridget; Rigney, Sara; Christianson, Terri M; Tiger, Pascale M N; Lo, Melanie J; Holtzinger, John; Fitzpatrick, Paul A; LeBowitz, Jonathan H; Bullens, Sherry; Crawford, Brett E; Bunting, Stuart

    2017-09-15

    Sanfilippo syndrome type B (mucopolysaccharidosis IIIB), caused by inherited deficiency of α-N-acetylglucosaminidase (NAGLU), required for lysosomal degradation of heparan sulfate (HS), is a pediatric neurodegenerative disorder with no approved treatment. Intracerebroventricular (ICV) delivery of a modified recombinant NAGLU, consisting of human NAGLU fused with insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) for enhanced lysosomal targeting, was previously shown to result in marked enzyme uptake and clearance of HS storage in the Naglu(-/-) mouse brain. To further evaluate regional, cell type-specific, and dose-dependent biodistribution of NAGLU-IGF2 (BMN 250) and its effects on biochemical and histological pathology, Naglu(-/-) mice were treated with 1-100 μg ICV doses (four times over 2 weeks). 1 day after the last dose, BMN 250 (100 μg doses) resulted in above-normal NAGLU activity levels, broad biodistribution, and uptake in all cell types, with NAGLU predominantly localized to neurons in the Naglu(-/-) mouse brain. This led to complete clearance of disease-specific HS and reduction of secondary lysosomal defects and neuropathology across various brain regions lasting for at least 28 days after the last dose. The substantial brain uptake of NAGLU attainable by this highest ICV dosage was required for nearly complete attenuation of disease-driven storage accumulations and neuropathology throughout the Naglu(-/-) mouse brain.

  13. [Gross anatomy dissection and the legal control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashina, Shohei; Shibata, Yosaburo

    2010-12-01

    In Japan, dissection of human body is generally prohibited by the Penal Code, i.e. the criminal law. However, the Postmortem Examination and Corpse Preservation Act allows for the dissection of the body in very limited situations, that include gross anatomy dissection and pathological and forensic autopsy in medical and dental schools. Growing numbers of co-medical schools have been founded more recently in Japan, and not a small number of co-medical schools try to adopt human body dissection in the course of anatomy education. The present short communication reminds us of the ways of thinking of the Postmortem Examination and Corpse Preservation Act and the Act on Body Donation for Medical and Dental Education in order that anatomy education in medical as well as co-medical schools takes place under the regulation by these two laws.

  14. On a question of Gross

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Abhijit

    2007-03-01

    Using the notion of weighted sharing of sets we prove two uniqueness theorems which improve the results proved by Fang and Qiu [H. Qiu, M. Fang, A unicity theorem for meromorphic functions, Bull. Malaysian Math. Sci. Soc. 25 (2002) 31-38], Lahiri and Banerjee [I. Lahiri, A. Banerjee, Uniqueness of meromorphic functions with deficient poles, Kyungpook Math. J. 44 (2004) 575-584] and Yi and Lin [H.X. Yi, W.C. Lin, Uniqueness theorems concerning a question of Gross, Proc. Japan Acad. Ser. A 80 (2004) 136-140] and thus provide an answer to the question of Gross [F. Gross, Factorization of meromorphic functions and some open problems, in: Proc. Conf. Univ. Kentucky, Lexington, KY, 1976, in: Lecture Notes in Math., vol. 599, Springer, Berlin, 1977, pp. 51-69], under a weaker hypothesis.

  15. MM1-type sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease with 1-month total disease duration and early pathologic indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Yasushi; Kato, Hiroko; Ando, Tetsuo; Mimuro, Maya; Kitamoto, Tetsuyuki; Yoshida, Mari

    2017-10-01

    A 62-year-old man presented with abnormal behavior and cognitive impairment. Diffusion-weighted images (DWI) obtained on MRI showed extensive hyperintense regions in the cerebral cortex and striatum. Myoclonus was recognized, and the patient died 1 month after the onset; his condition did not reach the akinetic mutism state. The brain weighed 1300 g and showed no apparent atrophy. Extensive spongiform changes were observed in the cerebral neocortex, striatum, thalamus and cerebellar cortex, but gliosis was mild or absent. Neuropil rarefaction and neuron loss were not apparent. Mild proliferation of anti- GFAP-positive astrocytes was observed in the cerebral cortex, but unaffected regions were noted. Regions without spongiform changes and GFAP-positive astrocytes included the hippocampal formation and subiculum. PrP immunostaining showed extensive diffuse synaptic-type PrP deposition in the gray matter, including the hippocampal region, but it was also mild. PrP gene analysis revealed no mutation with methionine homozygosity at polymorphic codon 129. Western blot analysis of proteinase K-resistant PrP indicated type 1 PrP(Sc) . The clinicopathological findings of the present case confirm several hypotheses: (i) the earliest pathologic evidence observed by HE staining in CJD are spongiform changes; (ii) DWI hyperintense regions indicate these spongiform changes; and (iii) regions without spongiform changes, gliosis and proliferation of GFAP-positive astrocytes, but with PrP deposition, exist in the early disease stage. © 2017 Japanese Society of Neuropathology.

  16. Recommendations for gross examination and sampling of surgical specimens of the spleen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, Dennis P; Louissaint, Abner; Vasef, Mohammad A; Auerbach, Aaron; Miranda, Roberto; Brynes, Russell K; Fedoriw, Yuri; Hudnall, S David

    2015-10-01

    This review examines handling and processing of spleen biopsies and splenectomy specimens with the aim of providing the pathologist with guidance in optimizing examination and diagnosis of splenic disorders. It also offers recommendations as to relevant reporting factors in gross examination, which may guide diagnostic workup. The role of splenic needle biopsies is discussed. The International Spleen Consortium is a group dedicated to promoting education and research on the anatomy, physiology, and pathology of the spleen. In keeping with these goals, we have undertaken to provide guidelines for gross examination, sectioning, and sampling of spleen tissue to optimize diagnosis (Burke). The pathology of the spleen may be complicated in routine practice due to a number of factors. Among these are lack of familiarity with lesions, complex histopathology, mimicry within several types of lesions, and overall rarity. To optimize diagnosis, appropriate handling and processing of splenic tissue are crucial. The importance of complete and accurate clinical history cannot be overstated. In many cases, significant clinical history such as previous lymphoproliferative disorders, hematologic disorders, trauma, etc, can provide important information to guide the evaluation of spleen specimens. Clinical information helps plan for appropriate processing of the spleen specimen. The pathologist should encourage surgical colleagues, who typically provide the specimens, to include as much clinical information as possible.

  17. Baryons in Massive Gross-Neveu Models

    CERN Document Server

    Thies, M; Thies, Michael; Urlichs, Konrad

    2005-01-01

    Baryons in the large N limit of (1+1)-dimensional Gross-Neveu models with either discrete or continuous chiral symmetry have long been known. We generalize their construction to the case where the symmetry is explicitly broken by a bare mass term in the Lagrangian. In the discrete symmetry case, the exact solution is found for arbitrary bare fermion mass, using the Hartree-Fock approach. In the continuous symmetry case, a derivative expansion allows us to rederive a formerly proposed Skyrme-type model and to compute systematically corrections to the leading order description based on an effective sine-Gordon theory.

  18. NM Gross Receipts July - December 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  19. NM Gross Receipts January - June 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  20. NM Gross Receipts January - June 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  1. NM Gross Receipts January - June 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  2. NM Gross Receipts January - June 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  3. NM Gross Receipts July - December 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  4. Pathological validation of FLT PET-CT in delineating the biological target length of gross tumor in esophageal carcinoma%氟脱氧胸苷PET-CT勾划食管癌大体肿瘤生物靶区长度的病理对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩大力; 孙翔宇; 于甬华; 于金明; 钟小军; 付正; 穆殿斌; 张桂芳; 张百江; 李辉

    2010-01-01

    -orodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET-CT. Methods Twenty-four patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma treated with radical surgery were enrolled. Before surgery, all the patients underwent FLT PET-CT, esepha-goscopy and esophagography. Twenty-two patients also received FDG PET-CT scan. Gross tumor volumes (GTV) were delineated using seven different threshold of FLT PET-CT: visual interpretation, standardized uptake value (SUV) 1.3, SUV 1.4, SUV 1.5, 20% of maximum standard uptake value (SUV_(max)), 25% SUV_(max), and 30% SUV_(max). Three different thresholds of FDG PET-CT were used, including visual interpre-tation, SUV 2.5, and 40% SUV_(max). The length of tumors on FLT PET-CT scan were measured and recorded as L_(FLTvis), L_(FLT1.3), L_(FLT1.4), L_(FLT1.5), L_(FLT20%), L_(FLT25%), and L_(FLT30%), respectively. The length of tumors on FDG PET-CT scan were recorded as L_(FDGvis), L_(FDG2.5), and L_(FDG40%), respectively. The length of tumors on CT, esophagography and esophagoscopy were recorded as L_(CT), L_(X-ray) and L_(Scopy). All of these results were com-pared with the length of gross tumor in the reseeted specimen measured by pathological examination (L_(Path)), Results The L_(Path) was (4.90±2.14) cm. The Length of tumors delineated by different methods, being from short to long, were L_(FDG40%), L_(Scopy), L_(X-ray),L_(FLT1.5),L_(CT),L_(FLT30%),L_(FLTvis),L_(FLT1.4),L_(FLT25%), L_(FDG2.5),L_(FDGvis),L_(FLT1.3),L_(FLT20%). The mean values were (3.85±1.52), (4.46±2.23), (4.63± 2.37), (4.64±2.38),(4.69± 1.85),(4.75±2.19) ,(4.85±2.33),(4.87±2.35),(5.05±2.20), (5.08± 2.19) ,(5.10±2.22), (5.21±2.40) and (5.53±2.17) cm,respectively. The correlation coefficients were 0.91,0.93,0.88, 0.95, 0.90, 0.81,0.96, 0.96, 0.80, 0.99, 0.99, 0.95 and 0. 79 , respective-ly. All the P values were 0. 000. L_(FLT1.4) of FLT PET-CT and L_(FDG2.5) of FDG PET-CT were found more ap-proximate to L_(Path). There was no significant difference between L_(FLT1.4) and L_(FDG2.5) (1= 1.23, P = 0

  5. Correlation between the Gait Deviation Index and gross motor function (GMFCS level) in children with cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Malt, Merete A.; Aarli, Ånen; Bogen, Bård; Fevang, Jonas M

    2016-01-01

    Aim The Gait Deviation Index (GDI) is a score derived from three-dimensional gait analysis (3DGA). The GDI provides a numerical value that expresses overall gait pathology (ranging from 0 to 100, where 100 indicates the absence of gait pathology). The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the GDI and different levels of gross motor function [defined as the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS)] and to explore if age, height, weight, gender and cerebral pals...

  6. Samuel D. Gross: the nestor of American surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo-Pereyra, Luis H

    2006-01-01

    Samuel David Gross (1805-1884) represented the most notable surgeon of his generation and was honored with the title of "The Nestor of American Surgeon" by surgeon biographer Isaac Minis Hays. Of Pennsylvania Dutch stock, he was born on the family farm near Easton, Pennsylvania. He attended Wilkebarré Academy and Lawrenceville High School, noted private institutions of the day. He apprenticed under Doctor Joseph K. Swift of Easton and later with Professor George McClellan while in Philadelphia. In 1828, he graduated from Jefferson Medical College and remained for a short time in Philadelphia. Professor Gross focused his professional pursuits in the cities of Easton (1830-1833), Cincinnati (1833-1840), Louisville (1840-1856), and Philadelphia (1856-1882). He retired from Jefferson Medical College two years before his death in 1884. Samuel D. Gross' contributions to surgery were numerous and diverse. He was recognized as a prolific author of classic texts of pathology, surgery, and history, an educator, a leader, a surgical researcher, and a pioneer surgeon practitioner. His influence in national affairs was immense, and his recognition as a respected surgeon was unmatched. He remains the most distinguished surgeon of his times. History values him as a hard working, honest, highly competent, and committed individual. His capacity for work and his dedication to a single cause were unrivaled. Doctor Gross integrated the best that surgery could give to future generations of surgical professionals.

  7. A survey of gross alpha and gross beta activity in soil samples in Kinta District, Perak, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Siak Kuan; Wagiran, Husin; Ramli, Ahmad Termizi

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the gross alpha and gross beta activity concentrations from the different soil types found in the Kinta District, Perak, Malaysia. A total of 128 soil samples were collected and their dose rates were measured 1 m above the ground. Gross alpha and gross beta activity measurements were carried out using gas flow proportional counter, Tennelec Series 5 LB5500 Automatic Low Background Counting System. The alpha activity concentration ranged from 15 to 9634 Bq kg(-1) with a mean value of 1558±121 Bq kg(-1). The beta activity concentration ranged from 142 to 6173 Bq kg(-1) with a mean value of 1112±32 Bq kg(-1). High alpha and beta activity concentrations are from the same soil type. The results of the analysis show a strong correlation between the gross alpha activity concentration and dose rate (R = 0.92). The data obtained can be used as a database for each soil type.

  8. Gross anatomy of network security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Thomas J.

    2002-01-01

    Information security involves many branches of effort, including information assurance, host level security, physical security, and network security. Computer network security methods and implementations are given a top-down description to permit a medically focused audience to anchor this information to their daily practice. The depth of detail of network functionality and security measures, like that of the study of human anatomy, can be highly involved. Presented at the level of major gross anatomical systems, this paper will focus on network backbone implementation and perimeter defenses, then diagnostic tools, and finally the user practices (the human element). Physical security measures, though significant, have been defined as beyond the scope of this presentation.

  9. Clinico-pathology, hematology and biochemistry responses in buffaloes towards Pasteurella multocida type B: 2 immunogen lypopolysaccharide via oral and intravenous routes of infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Eric Lim Teik; Abdullah, Faez Firdaus Jesse; Ibrahim, Hayder Hamzah; Marza, Ali Dhiaa; Zamri-Saad, Mohd; Haron, Abdul Wahid; Lila, Mohd Azmi Mohd; Norsidin, Mohd Jefri

    2016-02-01

    Haemorrhagic septicaemia is a disease caused by Pasteurella multocida serotype B: 2 and E: 2. The organism causes acute, highly fatal septicaemic disease with high morbidity and mortality in cattle and more susceptible in buffaloes. Lipopolysaccharide can be found on the outer cell wall of the organism. Lipopolysaccharide is released during multiplication which leads to inflammatory reaction. It represents the endotoxin of P. multocida type B: 2 and responsible for toxicity in haemorrhagic septicaemia which plays an important role in the pathogenesis of the disease. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the clinical signs, blood parameters, gross post mortem lesions and histopathology changes caused by P. multocida type B:2 immunogen lipopolysaccharide infections initiated through intravenous and oral routes of infection. 9 buffalo heifers were divided equally into 3 treatment groups. Group 1 was inoculated orally with 10 ml of phosphate buffer saline (PBS); Group 2 and 3 were inoculated with 10 ml of lipopolysaccharide broth intravenously and orally respectively. For the clinical signs, there were significant differences (p 0.05) in the MCHC, leukocytes, band neutrophils, basophils, thrombocytes, plasma protein, icterus index, total protein, globulin and A:G ratio between intravenous and oral group. For Group 2 buffaloes, there were gross lesions in the lung, trachea, heart, liver, spleen, and kidney. In contrast, lesions were only observed in the lung, trachea and liver of Group 3 buffaloes. There were significant differences (p 0.05) in edema lesion between groups. In conclusion, this study is a proof that oral route infection of P. multocida type B:2 immunogen lipopolysaccharide can be used to stimulate host cell responses where oral vaccine through feed could be developed in the near future.

  10. Automated classification of brain tumor type in whole-slide digital pathology images using local representative tiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Jocelyn; Hoogi, Assaf; Depeursinge, Adrien; Rubin, Daniel L

    2016-05-01

    Computerized analysis of digital pathology images offers the potential of improving clinical care (e.g. automated diagnosis) and catalyzing research (e.g. discovering disease subtypes). There are two key challenges thwarting computerized analysis of digital pathology images: first, whole slide pathology images are massive, making computerized analysis inefficient, and second, diverse tissue regions in whole slide images that are not directly relevant to the disease may mislead computerized diagnosis algorithms. We propose a method to overcome both of these challenges that utilizes a coarse-to-fine analysis of the localized characteristics in pathology images. An initial surveying stage analyzes the diversity of coarse regions in the whole slide image. This includes extraction of spatially localized features of shape, color and texture from tiled regions covering the slide. Dimensionality reduction of the features assesses the image diversity in the tiled regions and clustering creates representative groups. A second stage provides a detailed analysis of a single representative tile from each group. An Elastic Net classifier produces a diagnostic decision value for each representative tile. A weighted voting scheme aggregates the decision values from these tiles to obtain a diagnosis at the whole slide level. We evaluated our method by automatically classifying 302 brain cancer cases into two possible diagnoses (glioblastoma multiforme (N = 182) versus lower grade glioma (N = 120)) with an accuracy of 93.1% (p Pathology Classification Challenge, in which our method, trained and tested using 5-fold cross validation, produced a classification accuracy of 100% (p < 0.001). Our method showed high stability and robustness to parameter variation, with accuracy varying between 95.5% and 100% when evaluated for a wide range of parameters. Our approach may be useful to automatically differentiate between the two cancer subtypes.

  11. Resident training in pathology: Results of questionnaires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İpek Işık GÖNÜL

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to discuss the training of pathology residents from the points of wave of themselves and their tutors and reveal the problems.For this purpose, representatives of 4 Universities, 5 State hospitals and Gülhane Military Medical Academy have prepared 2 types of questionnaires in order to the serving capacities of their institutions and the opinions of the tutors working in that departments on training of pathology residents.According to the results, the number of biopsy and cytological materials together with number of faculty is sufficient for all institutions. Both histochemistry and immunohistochemistry have been applied in all institutions. However, only one state hospital has been performing immunoflourescence technique. It is noticeable to see 2 state hospitals do not have any documents on written job description, which summarizes the authority and responsibility of the pathology residents. Another significant conclusion is that the answers of the tutors for the assistant's job description and their responsibility in the training process are very heterogeneous. Time spent for gross examination by tutors was found to be insufficient by 58% of themselves. Although “written feedbacks for residents and tutors” is only being applied in 2 Universities, the majority of the tutors who have participated in the questionnaire have agreed upon the necessity of them for all institutions (95.4% and 93.8%, respectively.

  12. Revised Phase Diagram of the Gross-Neveu Model

    CERN Document Server

    Thies, M; Thies, Michael; Urlichs, Konrad

    2003-01-01

    We confirm earlier hints that the conventional phase diagram of the discrete chiral Gross-Neveu model in the large N limit is deficient at non-zero chemical potential. We present the corrected phase diagram constructed in mean field theory. It has three different phases, including a kink-antikink crystal phase. All transitions are second order. The driving mechanism for the new structure of baryonic matter in the Gross-Neveu model is an Overhauser type instability with gap formation at the Fermi surface.

  13. Current usage and future trends in gross digital photography in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Christopher L; DeKoning, Lawrence; Klonowski, Paul; Naugler, Christopher

    2014-01-14

    The purpose of this study was to assess the current usage, utilization and future direction of digital photography of gross surgical specimens in pathology laboratories across Canada. An online survey consisting of 23 multiple choice and free-text questions regarding gross digital photography was sent out to via email to laboratory staff across Canada involved in gross dissection of surgical specimens. Sixty surveys were returned with representation from most of the provinces. Results showed that gross digital photography is utilized at most institutions (90.0%) and the primary users of the technology are Pathologists (88.0%), Pathologists' Assistants (54.0%) and Pathology residents (50.0%). Most respondents felt that there is a definite need for routine digital imaging of gross surgical specimens in their practice (80.0%). The top two applications for gross digital photography are for documentation of interesting/ complex cases (98.0%) and for teaching purposes (84.0%). The main limitations identified by the survey group are storage space (42.5%) and security issues (40.0%). Respondents indicated that future applications of gross digital photography mostly include teaching (96.6%), presentation at tumour boards/ clinical rounds (89.8%), medico-legal documentation (72.9%) and usage for consultation purposes (69.5%). The results of this survey indicate that pathology staff across Canada currently utilizes gross digital images for regular documentation and educational reasons. They also show that the technology will be needed for future applications in teaching, consultation and medico-legal purposes.

  14. Early Alzheimer's disease-type pathology in the frontal cortex of wild mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Sylvia E; Sherwood, Chet C; Cranfield, Michael R; Erwin, Joseph M; Mudakikwa, Antoine; Hof, Patrick R; Mufson, Elliott J

    2016-03-01

    Amyloid beta (Aβ) and tau pathology have been described in the brains of captive aged great apes, but the natural progression of these age-related pathologies from wild great apes, including the gorilla, is unknown. In our previous study of Western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) who were housed in American Zoos and Aquariums-accredited facilities, we found an age-related increase in Aβ-positive plaques and vasculature, tau-positive astrocytes, oligodendrocyte coiled bodies, and neuritic clusters in the neocortex as well as hippocampus in older animals. Here, we demonstrate that aged wild mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei), who spent their entire lives in their natural habitat, also display an age-related increase in amyloid precursor protein (APP) and/or Aβ-immunoreactive blood vessels and plaques, but very limited tau pathology, in the frontal cortex. These results indicate that Aβ and tau lesions are age-related events that occur in the brain of gorillas living in captivity and in the wild.

  15. Ludwik Gross, Sarah Stewart, and the 1950s discoveries of Gross murine leukemia virus and polyoma virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Gregory J

    2014-12-01

    The Polish-American scientist Ludwik Gross made two important discoveries in the early 1950s. He showed that two viruses - murine leukemia virus and parotid tumor virus - could cause cancer when they were injected into susceptible animals. At first, Gross's discoveries were greeted with skepticism: it seemed implausible that viruses could cause a disease as complex as cancer. Inspired by Gross's initial experiments, similar results were obtained by Sarah Stewart and Bernice Eddy who later renamed the parotid tumor virus SE polyoma virus after finding it could cause many different types of tumors in mice, hamsters, and rats. Eventually the "SE" was dropped and virologists adopted the name "polyoma virus." After Gross's work was published, additional viruses capable of causing solid tumors or blood-borne tumors in mice were described by Arnold Graffi, Charlotte Friend, John Moloney and others. By 1961, sufficient data had been accumulated for Gross to confidently publish an extensive monograph--Oncogenic Viruses--the first history of tumor virology, which became a standard reference work and marked the emergence of tumor virology as a distinct, legitimate field of study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of gross radioactivity in foodstuffs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zorer, Oezlem Selcuk; Oeter, Cigdem [Yuzuncu Yil Univ., Van (Turkey). Dept. of Chemistry

    2015-05-15

    The paper presents the results of radiological investigations of food products sampled in the summer and fall of 2011 and 2012 in different parts of Van, Turkey. Gross radioactivity measurements in food products were evaluated. Food items were divided into eight groups: (1) water, (2) fish, (3) cheese products, (4) fruits, (5) vegetables, (6) herbs, (7) walnut and (8) rock salt. The levels of the gross alpha and gross beta radioactivity in all food samples varied widely ranging from 0.070 to 10.885 Bq/g and from 0.132 to 48.285 Bq/g on dry mass basis, respectively. In one sample, gross alpha and gross beta activity concentrations were found to be relatively high according to the other samples and in all samples, the gross alpha radioactivity was measured lower than the gross beta radioactivity. The gross α and gross β activities were measured by using α/β counter of the multi-detector low background system (PIC MPC-9604).

  17. Osler's pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, S A

    2000-12-01

    Sir William Osler, one of the giants of clinical medicine, had his initial training as a pathologist. He was one of the physicians responsible for the impact that autopsies have had on medicine. He also contributed to the development of laboratory medicine. Osler made significant discoveries in anatomic pathology and hematology. His expertise was restricted not just to human pathology, but also to veterinary pathology. His mentors played a fundamental role in his achievements in academics.

  18. [Pathological jealousy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacher, A

    2004-10-28

    Pathological jealousy can make life unbearable for all concerned. The proximity of this condition to obsessive-compulsive phenomena has given rise to the notion that it might respond to substances of proven value in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorders. This case history exemplifies the successful treatment of pathological jealousy with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) fluoxetine. The substance not only proved to be a successful antidepressant, but also effectively mitigated the anguish of the patient's pathological jealousy. On the basis of these findings, fluoxetine--as also other SSRIs--should always be considered as a possible effective pharmacological strategy for the treatment of pathological jealousy.

  19. Fixed Point of Generalized Eventual Cyclic Gross in Fuzzy Norm Spaces for Contractive Mappings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. M. Mohsenialhosseini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We define generalized eventual cyclic gross contractive mapping in fuzzy norm spaces, which is a generalization of the eventual cyclic gross contractions. Also we prove the existence of a fixed point for this type of contractive mapping on fuzzy norm spaces.

  20. Measures of Gross National Happiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruut Veenhoven

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Happiness is rising on the political agenda and this calls for measures of how well nations perform in creating great happiness for a great number, analogous to measures of success in creating wealth, such as GDP. Happiness is defined as subjective enjoyment of one’s life as-a-whole and this can be measured using self-reports. Question on happiness are currently used in large scale surveys of the general population in nations. As a result we have now comparable data on happiness in 144 contemporary nations and time-series of 25 years and longer on 11 developed nations. These data can be aggregated in different ways: If the aim is simply greater happiness for a greater number of citizens, Average happiness (AH is an appropriate measure. If the focus is on enduring happiness, it is better to combine average happiness with longevity in an index of Happy Life Years (HLY. If the aim is to reduce disparity among citizens a relevant indicator is the Inequality of Happiness (IH in the nations as measured with the standard deviation. Average and dispersion can also be combined in an index of Inequality-Adjusted Happiness (IAH. Comparison across nations shows sizable differences on all these measures of gross national happiness and these differences correspond with societal characteristics that can be influenced by policy makers, such as freedom and justice. Comparison over time shows major improvement during the last decade.

  1. The Mechanics of Gross Moist Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeljka Fuchs

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The gross moist stability relates the net lateral outflow of moist entropy or moist static energy from an atmospheric convective region to some measure of the strength of the convection in that region. If the gross moist stability can be predicted as a function of the local environmental conditions, then it becomes the key element in understanding how convection is controlled by the large-scale flow. This paper provides a guide to the various ways in which the gross moist stability is defined and the subtleties of its calculation from observations and models. Various theories for the determination of the gross moist stability are presented and its roles in current conceptual models for the tropical atmospheric circulation are analyzed. The possible effect of negative gross moist stability on the development and dynamics of tropical disturbances is currently of great interest.

  2. Effects of land use change on soil gross nitrogen transformation rates in subtropical acid soils of Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yongbo; Xu, Zhihong

    2015-07-01

    Land use change affects soil gross nitrogen (N) transformations, but such information is particularly lacking under subtropical conditions. A study was carried out to investigate the potential gross N transformation rates in forest and agricultural (converted from the forest) soils in subtropical China. The simultaneously occurring gross N transformations in soil were quantified by a (15)N tracing study under aerobic conditions. The results showed that change of land use types substantially altered most gross N transformation rates. The gross ammonification and nitrification rates were significantly higher in the agricultural soils than in the forest soils, while the reverse was true for the gross N immobilization rates. The higher total carbon (C) concentrations and C / N ratio in the forest soils relative to the agricultural soils were related to the greater gross N immobilization rates in the forest soils. The lower gross ammonification combined with negligible gross nitrification rates, but much higher gross N immobilization rates in the forest soils than in the agricultural soils suggest that this may be a mechanism to effectively conserve available mineral N in the forest soils through increasing microbial biomass N, the relatively labile organic N. The greater gross nitrification rates and lower gross N immobilization rates in the agricultural soils suggest that conversion of forests to agricultural soils may exert more negative effects on the environment by N loss through NO3 (-) leaching or denitrification (when conditions for denitrification exist).

  3. Oral pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemiec, Brook A

    2008-05-01

    Oral disease is exceedingly common in small animal patients. In addition, there is a very wide variety of pathologies that are encountered within the oral cavity. These conditions often cause significant pain and/or localized and systemic infection; however, the majority of these conditions have little to no obvious clinical signs. Therefore, diagnosis is not typically made until late in the disease course. Knowledge of these diseases will better equip the practitioner to effectively treat them. This article covers the more common forms of oral pathology in the dog and cat, excluding periodontal disease, which is covered in its own chapter. The various pathologies are presented in graphic form, and the etiology, clinical signs, recommended diagnostic tests, and treatment options are discussed. Pathologies that are covered include: persistent deciduous teeth, fractured teeth, intrinsically stained teeth, feline tooth resorption, caries, oral neoplasia, eosinophilic granuloma complex, lymphoplasmacytic gingivostomatitis, enamel hypoplasia, and "missing" teeth.

  4. Pathology Milestones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Stacey Klutts MD, PhD

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available All Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education accredited pathology residency training programs are now required to evaluate residents using the new Pathology Milestones assessment tool. Similar to implementation of the 6 Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education competencies a decade ago, there have been challenges in implementation of the new milestones for many residency programs. The pathology department at the University of Iowa has implemented a process that divides the labor of the task in rating residents while also maintaining consistency in the process. The process is described in detail, and some initial trends in milestone evaluation are described and discussed. Our experience indicates that thoughtful implementation of the Pathology Milestones can provide programs with valuable information that can inform curricular changes.

  5. Characteristics of type IV collagen unfolding under various pH conditions as a model of pathological disorder in tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Akio; Kawai, Kenichi; Yanagino, Miki; Wakiyama, Toshiko; Machida, Minoru; Kameyama, Kohji; Naito, Zenya

    2007-07-01

    The overall structure of type IV collagen is the same at neutral and acidic pH, as determined by circular dichroism spectra. The heating rate dependence of denaturation midpoint temperature (T(m)) shows that type IV collagen is unstable at body temperature, similarly to type I collagen. The heating rate dependence of T(m) at neutral pH has two phases, but that at acidic pH apparently has a single phase. The T(m) of the first phase (lower T(m)) at neutral pH is consistent with that at acidic pH, and the activation energy of these phases is consistent, within experimental error. The triple helix region of type IV collagen corresponding to the second phase (higher T(m)) at neutral pH is thermally stable when compared to the triple helical structure at acidic pH. At acidic pH, as the loosely packed and unstable region has spread throughout the whole molecule, the thermal transition is thought to be cooperative and is observed as a single phase. Structural flexibility is related to protein function and assembly; therefore, the unstable structure and increased flexibility of type IV collagen induced at acidic pH may affect diseases accompanied by type IV collagen disorder.

  6. Ultrastructural characteristics of novel epithelial cell types identified in human pathologic liver specimens with chronic ductular reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vos, R; Desmet, V

    1992-06-01

    Previous immunohistochemical studies on human liver biopsies with chronic ductular reaction revealed the presence of "small cells" with bile-duct type cytokeratin profile in the periportal area. This study identified similar cells by electron microscopy. The authors studied 13 human liver specimens with various liver diseases, but all characterized by chronic ductular reaction. In all specimens, variable numbers of "small cells" with common epithelial characteristics were identified in the periportal area. They could be classified into three types. Type I cells showed an oval cell shape and oval nucleus, early or established formation of junctional complexes with adjacent cells, a full assortment of cytoplasmic organelles, and bundles of tonofilaments. Type II cells showed features of bile-duct cell differentiation, including lateral interdigitations, apical microvilli, basal pinocytotic vacuoles, and basement membrane formation. In contrast, type III cells displayed additional features indicating hepatocellular differentiation, such as a more prominent nucleus, formation of a hemicanaliculus, and glycogen rosettes. It is concluded that these small cells of epithelial nature display variable differentiation characteristics of either bile-duct type cells or hepatocytes. These findings support the existence of bipotential progenitor epithelial cells in human liver. They may have implications for liver regeneration and carcinogenesis.

  7. Neuronal ceroid-lipofuscinosis, a type of amaurotic family idiocy: clinical and pathological study of four cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano de Souza Queiroz

    1974-03-01

    Full Text Available Neuronal ceroid-lipofuscinosis (NCL is a recent term, proposed for acurate designation of the late-onset types of Amaurotic Family Idiocy (AFI. Histopathology shows ubiquitous intraneuronal accumulation of lipopigments, being the most important factor for characterization of the entity at present time. Biochemical changes and pathogenesis are obscure. NCL is in contrast to the infantile type of AFI (Tay-Sachs disease, in which intraneuronal accumulation of gangliosides (sphingolipids is due to the well known deficiency of a lysosomal enzyme. The authors report on four cases of NCL, two brothers of the late infantile (Jansky-Bielschowsky type and a brother and a sister of the juvenile (Spielmeyer-Sjögren type. One autopsy and three cortical biopsies revealed moderate to severe distention of the neurons by lipopigment, with nerve cell loss, gliosis and cerebral atrophy. Lipopigment was also increased in liver, heart and spleen. The patients were the first in Brazilian literature in whom the storage material was identified as lipopigment by histochemical methods. A brief summary of the clinical features of NCL is presented, and relevant problems are discussed, concerning interpretation of the nature of the storage material, and significance of the disease for gerontological research.

  8. Conservative treatment of a pathological fracture in a 3-year-old boy with primary hyperoxaluria type I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dierselhuis, Edwin F.; Maathuis, Patrick G. M.

    Primary hyperoxaluria type I is a rare inherited disease that presents a disturbed metabolism of glyoxylate. Consequently, patients suffer from hyperoxaluria, leading to renal failure and subsequent skeletal calcium oxalate deposition. Areas with high concentrations of calcium oxalate, so-called

  9. Detection of human papilomavirus types 16 and 18 in pathologic samples from patients with cervical cancer by PCR and RFLP methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parviz Maleknejad

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Infection with human papiloma virus (HPV is the most frequent sexually transmitted disease worldwide. HPV types 16, 18, 31 and 33 are considered as the most important types in the cervical cancer.This study was undertaken on 64 samples of archival cervical carcinoma pathologic to assess the rate of HPV infection (HPV16,18 in cervical carcinoma among Iranian patients. HPV DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR and typing by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP analysis.The total prevalence of HPV in this study (HPV16,18 for all cases was 59.4% (38/64. HPV type 16 was the most common one (22/64, 34% followed by HPV type 18 (16/64, 25%. On the basis of the rate of HPV (16,18 which were detected in squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma,only women with HPV18 infection showed a statistically significant risk for development of cervical cancer (P=0.019 while P value for HPV16 was 0.47 .

  10. TERATOGENIC EFFECTS OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES: GROSS ANOMALIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Prakash

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available BACK GROUND: Prenatal exposure of AgNPs can induces devastative and detrimental effect in the organogenesis period of the developing embryos and foetuses. Organogenesis period is highly condemnatory and persuadable. Any injury to embryo during this period leads to dysmorphogenesis or even death AIM: The present study means to evaluate the gross anomalies on developing f o etus subsequent to silver nanoparticle ingestion during the gestational period. MATERIAL & METHOD: Random selections of pregnant Swiss albino mice were selected. AgNPs, of 20 - 100 nm size ra nge, were administered to pregnant mice by repeated oral gavages at concentra tions of 0.5, 1, 5, 10, 15 & 20 mg/kg/day during 4 - 17 gestational day. All dams were subjected to exteriorization on GD 18. The fetuses were evaluated for body malformation effects . RESULTS: Repeated oral gavages treatment with AgNPs at a concentration of 0.5mg/kg/day caused resorption (4.61% and intra uterine growth retardation (7.69% with no gross morphology alteration. 1 mg/kg/day caused resorption (9.23% and intra uterine growth retardation (10.76% with a rare case of haemorrhagic conception (1.53%, 5mg/kg/day caused limb malformation (7.01% resorption (17.54% and intra uterine growth retardation (17.54%, closed type Neural tube deformity (5.26%, 10mg/kg/day caused 20 % of limb malformation including Amelia, foot and tail vein hemorrhages and simple tail vein haemorrhage (3.50% each, resorption (22.80%, intra uterine growth retardation (29.82%, 15mg/kg/day caused severe hemorrhage within the entire body (22.80%, lim b anomaly including syndactyly and oligodactyly (8.77%, resorption (42.10%, intra uterine growth retardation (45.61%, 20mg/kg/day caused Omphalocele (3.27%, Bidiscoidal placental anomaly (9.83%, resorption (29.50% and intra uterine growth retardation (62.29%. CONCLUSION: The results show that a repeated oral dose of AgNPs during pregnancy caused fetal body dysmorphogenesis which is dose

  11. The future of gross anatomy teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malamed, S; Seiden, D

    1995-01-01

    A survey of U.S. departments of anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry shows that 39% of the respondent anatomy departments reported declines in the numbers of graduate students taking the human gross anatomy course. Similarly, 42% of the departments reported decreases in the numbers of graduate students teaching human gross anatomy. These decreases were greater in anatomy than in physiology and in biochemistry. The percentages of departments reporting increases in students taking or teaching their courses was 6% for human gross anatomy and 0% to 19% for physiology and biochemistry courses. To reverse this trend the establishment of specific programs for the training of gross anatomy teachers is advocated. These new teachers will be available as the need for them is increasingly recognized in the future.

  12. FUZZY ECCENTRICITY AND GROSS ERROR IDENTIFICATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The dominant and recessive effect made by exceptional interferer is analyzed in measurement system based on responsive character, and the gross error model of fuzzy clustering based on fuzzy relation and fuzzy equipollence relation is built. The concept and calculate formula of fuzzy eccentricity are defined to deduce the evaluation rule and function of gross error, on the base of them, a fuzzy clustering method of separating and discriminating the gross error is found. Utilized in the dynamic circular division measurement system, the method can identify and eliminate gross error in measured data, and reduce measured data dispersity. Experimental results indicate that the use of the method and model enables repetitive precision of the system to improve 80% higher than the foregoing system, to reach 3.5 s, and angle measurement error is less than 7 s.

  13. Validating the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Downs, Jenny; Stahlhut, Michelle; Wong, Kingsley;

    2016-01-01

    Rett syndrome is a pervasive neurodevelopmental disorder associated with a pathogenic mutation on the MECP2 gene. Impaired movement is a fundamental component and the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale was developed to measure gross motor abilities in this population. The current study investigated...... the validity and reliability of the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale. Video data showing gross motor abilities supplemented with parent report data was collected for 255 girls and women registered with the Australian Rett Syndrome Database, and the factor structure and relationships between motor scores, age...... and genotype were investigated. Clinical assessment scores for 38 girls and women with Rett syndrome who attended the Danish Center for Rett Syndrome were used to assess consistency of measurement. Principal components analysis enabled the calculation of three factor scores: Sitting, Standing and Walking...

  14. The effects of training on gross efficiency in cycling: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopker, J; Passfield, L; Coleman, D; Jobson, S; Edwards, L; Carter, H

    2009-12-01

    There has been much debate in the recent scientific literature regarding the possible ability to increase gross efficiency in cycling via training. Using cross-sectional study designs, researchers have demonstrated no significant differences in gross efficiency between trained and untrained cyclists. Reviewing this literature provides evidence to suggest that methodological inadequacies may have played a crucial role in the conclusions drawn from the majority of these studies. We present an overview of these studies and their relative shortcomings and conclude that in well-controlled and rigorously designed studies, training has a positive influence upon gross efficiency. Putative mechanisms for the increase in gross efficiency as a result of training include, muscle fibre type transformation, changes to muscle fibre shortening velocities and changes within the mitochondria. However, the specific mechanisms by which training improves gross efficiency and their impact on cycling performance remain to be determined.

  15. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia presenting with gross hematuria

    OpenAIRE

    Kalbani, Naifain Al; Weitzman, Sheila; Abdelhaleem, Mohamed; Carcao, Manuel; Abla, Oussama

    2007-01-01

    A case of a six-year-old boy presenting with gross hematuria is reported. Investigations revealed the etiology of the hematuria to be thrombocytopenia in the setting of newly diagnosed acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The diagnosis of leukemia was confirmed by bone marrow examination. The patient’s hematuria completely resolved with platelet transfusions. Although thrombocytopenia is a very common presenting feature of acute lymphoblastic leukemia, gross hematuria is exceedingly rare. Thus, thro...

  16. Type 2 diabetes-induced neuronal pathology in the piriform cortex of the rat is reversed by the GLP-1 receptor agonist exendin-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lietzau, Grazyna; Nyström, Thomas; Östenson, Claes-Göran; Darsalia, Vladimer; Patrone, Cesare

    2016-02-02

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients often present olfactory dysfunction. However, the histopathological basis behind this has not been previously shown. Since the piriform cortex plays a crucial role in olfaction, we hypothesize that pathological changes in this brain area can occur in T2D patients along aging. Thus, we determined potential neuropathology in the piriform cortex of T2D rats, along aging. Furthermore, we determined the potential therapeutic role of the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP1-R) agonist exendin-4 to counteract the identified T2D-induced neuropathology. Young-adult and middle-aged T2D Goto-Kakizaki rats were compared to age-matched Wistars. Additional Goto-Kakizaki rats were treated for six weeks with exendin-4/vehicle before sacrifice. Potential T2D-induced neuropathology was assessed by quantifying NeuN-positive neurons and Calbindin-D28k-positive interneurons by immunohistochemistry and stereology methods. We also quantitatively measured Calbindin-D28k neuronal morphology and JNK phosphorylation-mediated cellular stress. PI3K/AKT signalling was assessed by immunohistochemistry, and potential apoptosis by TUNEL.We show T2D-induced neuronal pathology in the piriform cortex along aging, characterized by atypical nuclear NeuN staining and increased JNK phosphorylation, without apoptosis. We also demonstrate the specific vulnerability of Calbindin-D28k interneurons. Finally, chronic treatment with exendin-4 substantially reversed the identified neuronal pathology in correlation with decreased JNK and increased AKT phosphorylation.Our results reveal the histopathological basis to explain T2D olfactory dysfunction. We also show that the identified T2D-neuropathology can be counteracted by GLP-1R activation supporting recent research promoting the use of GLP-1R agonists against brain diseases. Whether the identified neuropathology could represent an early hallmark of cognitive decline in T2D remains to be determined.

  17. Validating the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Jenny; Stahlhut, Michelle; Wong, Kingsley; Syhler, Birgit; Bisgaard, Anne-Marie; Jacoby, Peter; Leonard, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Rett syndrome is a pervasive neurodevelopmental disorder associated with a pathogenic mutation on the MECP2 gene. Impaired movement is a fundamental component and the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale was developed to measure gross motor abilities in this population. The current study investigated the validity and reliability of the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale. Video data showing gross motor abilities supplemented with parent report data was collected for 255 girls and women registered with the Australian Rett Syndrome Database, and the factor structure and relationships between motor scores, age and genotype were investigated. Clinical assessment scores for 38 girls and women with Rett syndrome who attended the Danish Center for Rett Syndrome were used to assess consistency of measurement. Principal components analysis enabled the calculation of three factor scores: Sitting, Standing and Walking, and Challenge. Motor scores were poorer with increasing age and those with the p.Arg133Cys, p.Arg294* or p.Arg306Cys mutation achieved higher scores than those with a large deletion. The repeatability of clinical assessment was excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient for total score 0.99, 95% CI 0.93-0.98). The standard error of measurement for the total score was 2 points and we would be 95% confident that a change 4 points in the 45-point scale would be greater than within-subject measurement error. The Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale could be an appropriate measure of gross motor skills in clinical practice and clinical trials.

  18. Clinical and pathologic features of H-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy associated with E211K prion protein polymorphism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin J Greenlee

    Full Text Available The majority of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE cases have been ascribed to the classical form of the disease. H-type and L-type BSE cases have atypical molecular profiles compared to classical BSE and are thought to arise spontaneously. However, one case of H-type BSE was associated with a heritable E211K mutation in the prion protein gene. The purpose of this study was to describe transmission of this unique isolate of H-type BSE when inoculated into a calf of the same genotype by the intracranial route. Electroretinograms were used to demonstrate preclinical deficits in retinal function, and optical coherence tomography was used to demonstrate an antemortem decrease in retinal thickness. The calf rapidly progressed to clinical disease (9.4 months and was necropsied. Widespread distribution of abnormal prion protein was demonstrated within neural tissues by western blot and immunohistochemistry. While this isolate is categorized as BSE-H due to a higher molecular mass of the unglycosylated PrP(Sc isoform, a strong labeling of all 3 PrP(Sc bands with monoclonal antibodies 6H4 and P4, and a second unglycosylated band at approximately 14 kDa when developed with antibodies that bind in the C-terminal region, it is unique from other described cases of BSE-H because of an additional band 23 kDa demonstrated on western blots of the cerebellum. This work demonstrates that this isolate is transmissible, has a BSE-H phenotype when transmitted to cattle with the K211 polymorphism, and has molecular features that distinguish it from other cases of BSE-H described in the literature.

  19. Ultrastructural characteristics of novel epithelial cell types identified in human pathologic liver specimens with chronic ductular reaction.

    OpenAIRE

    De Vos, R; Desmet, V

    1992-01-01

    Previous immunohistochemical studies on human liver biopsies with chronic ductular reaction revealed the presence of "small cells" with bile-duct type cytokeratin profile in the periportal area. This study identified similar cells by electron microscopy. The authors studied 13 human liver specimens with various liver diseases, but all characterized by chronic ductular reaction. In all specimens, variable numbers of "small cells" with common epithelial characteristics were identified in the pe...

  20. Clinical and pathologic features of H-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy associated with E211K prion protein polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenlee, Justin J; Smith, Jodi D; West Greenlee, M Heather; Nicholson, Eric M

    2012-01-01

    The majority of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) cases have been ascribed to the classical form of the disease. H-type and L-type BSE cases have atypical molecular profiles compared to classical BSE and are thought to arise spontaneously. However, one case of H-type BSE was associated with a heritable E211K mutation in the prion protein gene. The purpose of this study was to describe transmission of this unique isolate of H-type BSE when inoculated into a calf of the same genotype by the intracranial route. Electroretinograms were used to demonstrate preclinical deficits in retinal function, and optical coherence tomography was used to demonstrate an antemortem decrease in retinal thickness. The calf rapidly progressed to clinical disease (9.4 months) and was necropsied. Widespread distribution of abnormal prion protein was demonstrated within neural tissues by western blot and immunohistochemistry. While this isolate is categorized as BSE-H due to a higher molecular mass of the unglycosylated PrP(Sc) isoform, a strong labeling of all 3 PrP(Sc) bands with monoclonal antibodies 6H4 and P4, and a second unglycosylated band at approximately 14 kDa when developed with antibodies that bind in the C-terminal region, it is unique from other described cases of BSE-H because of an additional band 23 kDa demonstrated on western blots of the cerebellum. This work demonstrates that this isolate is transmissible, has a BSE-H phenotype when transmitted to cattle with the K211 polymorphism, and has molecular features that distinguish it from other cases of BSE-H described in the literature.

  1. Oxidant Status and Lipid Composition of Erythrocyte Membranes in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes, Chronic Liver Damage, and a Combination of Both Pathologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolando Hernández-Muñoz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There is an important set of cirrhotic and diabetic patients that present both diseases. However, information about metabolic and cellular blood markers that are altered, in conjunction or distinctively, in the 3 pathological conditions is scarce. The aim of this project was to evaluate several indicators of prooxidant reactions and the membrane composition of blood samples (serum and red blood cells (RBCs from patients clinically classified as diabetic (n=60, cirrhotic (n=70, and diabetic with liver cirrhosis (n=25 as compared to samples from a similar population of healthy individuals (n=60. The results showed that levels of TBARS, nitrites, cysteine, and conjugated dienes in the RBC of cirrhotic patients were significantly increased. However, the coincidence of diabetes and cirrhosis partially reduced the alterations promoted by the cirrhotic condition. The amount of total phospholipids and cholesterol was greatly enhanced in the patients with both pathologies (between 60 and 200% according to the type of phospholipid but not in the patients with only one disease. Overall, the data indicate that the cooccurrence of diabetes and cirrhosis elicits a physiopathological equilibrium that is different from the alterations typical of each individual malady.

  2. Digital pathology

    CERN Document Server

    Sucaet, Yves

    2014-01-01

    Digital pathology has experienced exponential growth, in terms of its technology and applications, since its inception just over a decade ago. Though it has yet to be approved for primary diagnostics, its values as a teaching tool, facilitator of second opinions and quality assurance reviews and research are becoming, if not already, undeniable. It also offers the hope of providing pathology consultant and educational services to under-served areas, including regions of the world that could not possibly sustain this level of services otherwise. And this is just the beginning, as its adoption b

  3. Clinico-pathology, hematology, and biochemistry responses toward Pasteurella multocida Type B: 2 via oral and subcutaneous route of infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Lim Teik Chung

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pasteurella multocida a Gram-negative bacterium has been identified as the causative agent of many economically important diseases in a wide range of hosts. Hemorrhagic septicemia is a disease caused by P. multocida serotype B:2 and E:2. The organism causes acute, a highly fatal septicemic disease with high morbidity and mortality in cattle and more susceptible in buffaloes. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the clinical signs, blood parameters, post mortem and histopathology changes caused by P. multocida Type B:2 infections initiated through the oral and subcutaneous routes. Methods: Nine buffalo heifers were divided equally into 3 treatment groups. Group 1 was inoculated orally with 10 ml of phosphate buffer saline; Groups 2 and 3 were inoculated with 10 ml of 1012 colony forming unit of P. multocida Type B:2 subcutaneously and orally respectively. Results: There was a significant difference (p<0.05 in temperature between the subcutaneous and the control group. The results revealed significant differences (p<0.05 in erythrocytes, hemoglobin, packed cell volume, leukocytes, monocytes, and A: G ratio between the subcutaneous and the control group. Furthermore, there were significant differences (p<0.05 in leukocytes, band neutrophils, segmented neutrophils, lymphocytes, eosinophils, basophils, thrombocytes, plasma protein, icterus index, gamma glutamyl tranferase and A: G ratio between the oral and the control group. The post mortem lesions of the subcutaneous group buffaloes showed generalized hyperemia, congestion and hemorrhage of the immune organs, gastrointestinal tract organs and vital organs. The oral group buffaloes showed mild lesions in the lung and liver. Histologically, there were significant differences (p<0.05 in hemorrhage and congestion; necrosis and degeneration; inflammatory cells infiltration; and edema in between the groups. Conclusion: This study was a proof that oral route infection of P

  4. Comprehensive clinic-pathological characteristics of cervical cancer in southwestern China and the clinical significance of histological type and lymph node metastases in young patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LingYun Yang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the clinic-pathological characteristics of women with cervical cancers in southwestern China and discuss the features and prognosis of young patients. METHODS: A retrospective study was performed, which consisted of 1,543 patients diagnosed with cervical cancer and underwent treatment at West China Second University Hospital between November 2005 and December 2010. Among them, 154 young patients with surgical procedures between November 2005 and December 2008 were selected for a 5-year follow-up and prognostic analysis. RESULTS: The proportion of advanced FIGO stage in patients aged over 35 years was higher than in patients aged 35 years or younger (55.1% vs 38.8%, P<0.001, and strong correlation was found between FIGO stages and the postoperative pathological risk factors (P<0.05. 312 patients (20.2% were under 35 years old in the last 5 years. The proportion of cervical adenocarcinoma remained high in young patients (13.6%, and young women with adenocarcinoma had a higher rate of LN metastases, comparing with those with squamous cell carcinoma (42.9% vs 15.8%, P = 0.004. Young patients with adenocarcinoma had shorter progression-free survival than those who had squamous cell carcinoma (P = 0.024. Patients aged 35 years or younger with positive postoperative pathological risk factors had shorter progression-free survival, comparing with those with negative factors (P<0.01. CONCLUSION: Patients over 35 years were preliminarily diagnosed as advanced FIGO stage and they were more likely to have deep stromal invasion, LVSI, LN metastases, parametrial and surgical margin involvement. Regarding to young patients, cervical adenocarcinoma increased the risk of LN metastases and positive postoperative pathological risk factors could apparently worsen the prognosis. Histological type and LN metastases were independent prognostic factors for young patients in southwestern China. We re-emphasize the importance of health

  5. Glycosylation of type II collagen is of major importance for T cell tolerance and pathology in collagen-induced arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bäcklund, Johan; Treschow, Alexandra; Bockermann, Robert;

    2002-01-01

    Type II collagen (CII) is a candidate cartilage-specific autoantigen, which can become post-translationally modified by hydroxylation and glycosylation. T cell recognition of CII is essential for the development of murine collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) and also occurs in rheumatoid arthritis (RA......). The common denominator of murine CIA and human RA is the presentation of an immunodominant CII-derived glycosylated peptide on murine Aq and human DR4 molecules, respectively. To investigate the importance of T cell recognition of glycosylated CII in CIA development after immunization with heterologous CII......, we treated neonatal mice with different heterologous CII-peptides (non-modified, hydroxylated and galactosylated). Treatment with the galactosylated peptide (galactose at position 264) was superior in protecting mice from CIA. Protection was accompanied by a reduced antibody response to CII...

  6. Inguinoscrotal pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Luis; Leonard, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Infants, children, and adolescents with inguinoscrotal pathology comprise a significant proportion of emergency department and outpatient visits. Visits to the emergency department primarily comprise individuals presenting with scrotal pain due to testicular torsion or torsion of the testicular appendages. At such time, immediate urological consultation is sought. Outpatient visits comprise those individuals with undescended testes, hydroceles, and varicoceles. Rare, but important problems, such as pediatric testicular tumours, may also present in the office setting. Many of these outpatient visits are to primary care physicians, who should have an appreciation of the timing and need for referral. The purpose of this review is to familiarize the general urologist and primary care physician with these varied pathologies and give insight into their assessment and management. Some of these same conditions are seen in adult patients, but there are some significant differences in their management in the pediatric group. In addition, the utility of imaging studies, such as ultrasound, are discussed within each pathological entity. It is hoped that this overview will assist our general urology and primary care colleagues in patient management for diverse inguinoscrotal pathologies. PMID:28265317

  7. Experimental infection studies demonstrating Atlantic salmon as a host and reservoir of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus type IVa with insights into pathology and host immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovy, Jan; Piesik, P.; Hershberger, P.K.; Garver, K.A.

    2013-01-01

    In British Columbia, Canada (BC), aquaculture of finfish in ocean netpens has the potential for pathogen transmission between wild and farmed species due to the sharing of an aquatic environment. Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) is enzootic in BC and causes serious disease in wild Pacific herring, Clupea pallasii, which often enter and remain in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, netpens. Isolation of VHSV from farmed Atlantic salmon has been previously documented, but the effects on the health of farmed salmon and the wild fish sharing the environment are unknown. To determine their susceptibility, Atlantic salmon were exposed to a pool of 9 isolates of VHSV obtained from farmed Atlantic salmon in BC by IP-injection or by waterborne exposure and cohabitation with diseased Pacific herring. Disease intensity was quantified by recording mortality, clinical signs, histopathological changes, cellular sites of viral replication, expression of interferon-related genes, and viral tissue titers. Disease ensued in Atlantic salmon after both VHSV exposure methods. Fish demonstrated gross disease signs including darkening of the dorsal skin, bilateral exophthalmia, light cutaneous hemorrhage, and lethargy. The virus replicated within endothelial cells causing endothelial cell necrosis and extensive hemorrhage in anterior kidney. Infected fish demonstrated a type I interferon response as seen by up-regulation of genes for IFNα, Mx, and ISG15. In a separate trial infected salmon transmitted the virus to sympatric Pacific herring. The results demonstrate that farmed Atlantic salmon can develop clinical VHS and virus can persist in the tissues for at least 10 weeks. Avoiding VHS epizootics in Atlantic salmon farms would limit the potential of VHS in farmed Atlantic salmon, the possibility for further host adaptation in this species, and virus spillback to sympatric wild fishes.

  8. PREDICTION OF GROSS FEED EFFICIENCY IN ITALIAN HOLSTEIN FRIESIAN BULLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaella Finocchiaro

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to predict gross feed efficiency of Italian Holstein Friesian bulls selected for production, functional and type traits. A total of 12,238 bulls, from the April 2015 genetic evaluation, were used. Predicted daily gross feed efficiency (pFE was obtained as ratio between milk yield (MY and predicted dry matter intake (pDMI. Phenotypic trend for MY, predicted body weight (pBW and pFE were calculated by the bull birth year. The results suggest that pFE can be successfully selected to increase profitability of dairy cattle using the current milk recording system. Direct measurements on DMI should be considered to confirm results of pFE obtained in the present study.

  9. The overexpression and altered localization of the atypical protein kinase C lambda/iota in breast cancer correlates with the pathologic type of these tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Yasuyuki; Akimoto, Kazunori; Nagashima, Yoji; Ishiguro, Hitoshi; Shirai, Sumiko; Chishima, Takashi; Ichikawa, Yasushi; Ishikawa, Takashi; Sasaki, Takeshi; Kubota, Yoshinobu; Inayama, Yoshiaki; Aoki, Ichiro; Ohno, Shigeo; Shimada, Hiroshi

    2008-06-01

    Breast cancer is one of the common malignant diseases among women in Japan as well as in western countries, and its incidence continues to increase. Normal mammary duct epithelial cells exhibit a well-organized apicobasal polarity, which forms the basis for their specific structure and function. Although the loss of epithelial cell polarity is one of the major changes that occur during the progression of tumor cells, including breast cancer, the underlying molecular mechanisms for this, as well as their relationship to other changes such as increased proliferation and metastasis, remain to be elucidated. The atypical protein kinase C lambda/iota (aPKC lambda/iota) is involved in several signal transduction pathways, including the establishment of epithelial cell polarity. In this study we evaluated the expression and localization of aPKC lambda/iota in breast cancer by immunohistochemistry and compared our findings with the clinicopathologic factors associated with the tumor specimens. We detected aPK Clambda/iota protein overexpression in 88 of the 110 breast cancer cases (80.0%) under study, expect for decreased expression in a few cases. The immunoreactivity of aPK Clambda/iota was generally weak in ductal carcinoma in situ, but strong in invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC; P = .022). The correlation between apical or cytoplasmic aPKC lambda/iota localization and tumor pathologic type (ie, atypical ductal hyperplasia, ductal carcinoma in situ. or IDC) was also demonstrated (P < .001). These results thus indicate that the normal apicobasal polarity is lost upon the progression of a breast lesion to IDC. This is also the first evidence to show aPKC lambda/iota overexpression in breast cancer and demonstrates that its localization is associated with the trend of pathologic type of the tumor.

  10. A Design Study Investigating Augmented Reality and Photograph Annotation in a Digitalized Grossing Workstation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Joyce A; Törnros, Martin E; Waltersson, Marie; Richard, Helen; Kusoffsky, Madeleine; Lundström, Claes F; Kurti, Arianit

    2017-01-01

    Within digital pathology, digitalization of the grossing procedure has been relatively underexplored in comparison to digitalization of pathology slides. Our investigation focuses on the interaction design of an augmented reality gross pathology workstation and refining the interface so that information and visualizations are easily recorded and displayed in a thoughtful view. The work in this project occurred in two phases: the first phase focused on implementation of an augmented reality grossing workstation prototype while the second phase focused on the implementation of an incremental prototype in parallel with a deeper design study. Our research institute focused on an experimental and "designerly" approach to create a digital gross pathology prototype as opposed to focusing on developing a system for immediate clinical deployment. Evaluation has not been limited to user tests and interviews, but rather key insights were uncovered through design methods such as "rapid ethnography" and "conversation with materials". We developed an augmented reality enhanced digital grossing station prototype to assist pathology technicians in capturing data during examination. The prototype uses a magnetically tracked scalpel to annotate planned cuts and dimensions onto photographs taken of the work surface. This article focuses on the use of qualitative design methods to evaluate and refine the prototype. Our aims were to build on the strengths of the prototype's technology, improve the ergonomics of the digital/physical workstation by considering numerous alternative design directions, and to consider the effects of digitalization on personnel and the pathology diagnostics information flow from a wider perspective. A proposed interface design allows the pathology technician to place images in relation to its orientation, annotate directly on the image, and create linked information. The augmented reality magnetically tracked scalpel reduces tool switching though limitations

  11. The haploinsufficient hematopoietic microenvironment is critical to the pathological fracture repair in murine models of neurofibromatosis type 1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohua Wu

    Full Text Available Germline mutations in the NF1 tumor suppressor gene cause neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1, a complex genetic disorder with a high predisposition of numerous skeletal dysplasias including short stature, osteoporosis, kyphoscoliosis, and fracture non-union (pseudoarthrosis. We have developed murine models that phenocopy many of the skeletal dysplasias observed in NF1 patients, including reduced bone mass and fracture non-union. We also show that the development of these skeletal manifestations requires an Nf1 haploinsufficient background in addition to nullizygous loss of Nf1 in mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells (MSCs and/or their progenies. This is replicated in two animal models of NF1, PeriCre(+;Nf1(flox/- and Col2.3Cre(+;Nf1(flox/- mice. Adoptive transfer experiments demonstrate a critical role of the Nf1+/- marrow microenvironment in the impaired fracture healing in both models and adoptive transfer of WT bone marrow cells improves fracture healing in these mice. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of a non-cell autonomous mechanism in non-malignant NF1 manifestations. Collectively, these data provide evidence of a combinatory effect between nullizygous loss of Nf1 in osteoblast progenitors and haploinsufficiency in hematopoietic cells in the development of non-malignant NF1 manifestations.

  12. Expectations and essentials for the community practice of pathology

    OpenAIRE

    Horowitz, Richard E. MD

    2006-01-01

    In 3 surveys during the past 10 years, community hospital pathologists were asked what they want, need, or look for when employing a pathologist and, more specifically, what skills and knowledge a newly minted pathologist should have to be successful in the community practice of pathology. The most recent survey, done in spring of 2005, cited surgical pathology diagnosis, frozen section diagnosis, dissection, and fine-needle aspiration as essentials in anatomic pathology. For clinical gross, ...

  13. ["Die grosse Barb" in the museum of the University of Marburg. An early documentation of acromegaly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, W; Rassner, G; Happle, R

    2009-06-01

    The university museum for cultural history in the castle of Marburg has a portrait "Die grosse Barb", which represents a women suffering from acromegaly. She shows the typical pathologic alterations: thickening of the skin folds, thickening of the lips and the eyelids, growth of bones and cartilages, lengthening of the nose, enlargement of the ears, protrusion of the zygoma, mandible and the chin. Acromegaly is a consequence of enhanced secretion of growth hormone, which occurs also as a symptom of several syndromes, such as multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1, McCune-Albright-syndrome, and NAME syndrome (Carney complex type I). The most remarkable symptom of acromegaly is the gigantism. This occurs also in androgen-deficient states, such as the Klinefelter syndrome and some more genetic syndromes, of which the Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome, the Sotos syndrome, the Marfan syndrome, the homocystinuria, and the fragile X-syndrome may be mentioned. Nothing is known on the further fate of the patient shown in the portrait. It is also unknown, whether she owes her position as a chambermaid to her gigantism, for it was a common use in courts to have people with abnormal body shapes in attendance.

  14. Difference in severity of porcine circovirus type two-induced pathological lesions between Landrace and Pietrain pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opriessnig, T; Patterson, A R; Madson, D M; Pal, N; Rothschild, M; Kuhar, D; Lunney, J K; Juhan, N M; Meng, X J; Halbur, P G

    2009-05-01

    Anecdotal information from the field suggests that there are host genetic differences in susceptibility to porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) associated disease among Landrace and Pietrain breeds. The objective of this study was to determine if a difference exists in PCV2 susceptibility between Landrace and Pietrain pigs under experimental conditions. Thirty-nine Landrace pigs and 39 Pietrain pigs were blocked by breed, sire, dam, and litter and randomly divided into the following 4 groups: Landrace noninoculated negative control (Landrace-NEG; n = 13), Pietrain noninoculated negative control (Pietrain-NEG; n = 13), Landrace-PCV2 (n = 26; Landrace), and Pietrain-PCV2 (n = 26; Pietrain). After waning of passively acquired anti-PCV2 antibodies, Landrace-PCV2 and Pietrain-PCV2 groups were inoculated with PCV2 isolate ISU-40895. The Landrace-NEG and Pietrain-NEG groups were housed in a separate room, remained noninoculated, and served as negative controls. All pigs in all groups were necropsied at 21 d post PCV2-inoculation. Onset of seroconversion and concentrations of anti-PCV2-IgM, anti-PCV2-IgG, and anti-PCV2 neutralizing antibodies were similar in Landrace-PCV2 and Pietrain-PCV2 groups. Furthermore, the amount of PCV2 DNA and cytokine concentrations in serum and plasma samples were not different between the 2 PCV2-inoculated groups. The severity of PCV2-associated microscopic lesions was different between Landrace and Pietrain pigs; Landrace-PCV2 pigs had significantly (P Landrace pigs remained PCV2 seropositive until 18 wk of age and beyond. The results from this study indicate that a genetic difference exists between these 2 breeds of pigs in susceptibility to PCV2-associated lesions.

  15. Concurrent Validity of Preschooler Gross Motor Quality Scale with Test of Gross Motor Development-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shih-Heng; Sun, Hsiao-Ling; Zhu, Yi-Ching; Huang, Li-chi; Hsieh, Yueh-Ling

    2011-01-01

    Preschooler Gross Motor Quality Scale (PGMQ) was recently developed to evaluate motor skill quality of preschoolers. The purpose of this study was to establish the concurrent validity of PGMQ using Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (TGMD-2) as the gold standard. One hundred and thirty five preschool children aged from three to six years were…

  16. BOREAS HYD-8 Gross Precipitation Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Richard; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Knapp, David E. (Editor); Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Hydrology (HYD)-08 team made measurements of surface hydrological processes at the Southern Study Area-Old Black Spruce (SSA-OBS) Tower Flux site to support its research into point hydrological processes and the spatial variation of these processes. Data collected may be useful in characterizing canopy interception, drip, throughfall, moss interception, drainage, evaporation, and capacity during the growing season at daily temporal resolution. This particular data set contains the gross precipitation measurements for July to August 1996. Gross precipitation is the precipitation that falls that is not intercepted by tree canopies. These data are stored in ASCII text files. The HYD-08 gross precipitation data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  17. 7 CFR 1424.7 - Gross payable units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Biodiesel producers will be eligible for payments on gross payable units for all biodiesel production from... rates. Unless otherwise determined by CCC, gross payable units for biodiesel production from eligible... biodiesel production gross payable units. (3) Adding the APP and BPP to determine biodiesel gross...

  18. Multiregional estimation of gross internal migration flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot, D K; Milne, W J

    1989-01-01

    "A multiregional model of gross internal migration flows is presented in this article. The interdependence of economic factors across all regions is recognized by imposing a non-stochastic adding-up constraint that requires total inmigration to equal total outmigration in each time period. An iterated system estimation technique is used to obtain asymptotically consistent and efficient parameter estimates. The model is estimated for gross migration flows among the Canadian provinces over the period 1962-86 and then is used to examine the likelihood of a wash-out effect in net migration models. The results indicate that previous approaches that use net migration equations may not always be empirically justified."

  19. The Gross conjecture over rational function fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OUYANG; Yi

    2005-01-01

    We study the Gross conjecture for the cyclotomic function field extension k(∧f)/k where k = Fq(t) is the rational function field and f is a monic polynomial in Fq[t].We prove the conjecture in the Fermat curve case(i.e., when f = t(t - 1)) by a direct calculation. We also prove the case when f is irreducible, which is analogous to the Weil reciprocity law. In the general case, we manage to show the weak version of the Gross conjecture here.

  20. [Diagnostic significance of pathologic synkinesis for detection of pyramidal pathology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baliasnyĭ, M M

    1991-01-01

    Five types of pathological synkinesis (++blepharo-ocular, ++blepharo-facial, ++bucco-manual, ++digito-digital on the hands, ++pedo-digital) are described. They are of definite importance for revealing pyramidal pathology including its early stages as well as for objective evaluation and observation of the time-course of changes in the illness.

  1. Gross Revenue risk in Swiss dairy farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benni, El N.; Finger, R.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated how agricultural policy reforms, including market liberalization and market deregulation, have influenced gross revenue risk of Swiss dairy producers using farm-level panel data between 1990 and 2009. Based on detrended data, variance decomposition was applied to assess how o

  2. Gross Revenue risk in Swiss dairy farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benni, El N.; Finger, R.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated how agricultural policy reforms, including market liberalization and market deregulation, have influenced gross revenue risk of Swiss dairy producers using farm-level panel data between 1990 and 2009. Based on detrended data, variance decomposition was applied to assess how

  3. Optimizing the use of cadavers by integrating pathology during anatomy dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geldenhuys, Elsje-Márie; Burger, Elsie Helena; van Helden, Paul David; Mole, Calvin Gerald; Kotzé, Sanet Henriët

    2016-11-01

    An accurate knowledge of anatomy, especially natural variation within individuals, is of vital clinical importance. Cadaver dissection during anatomical training may be a valuable introduction to pathology for undergraduate students, which can contribute greatly to a successful medical career. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent and type of pathology lesions in a cadaver population (n = 127) used for medical dissection. This was done to gauge whether sufficient pathology lesions representative of all the organ systems were present in the cadaver population to warrant the use of cadavers as an additional pathology learning resource. This study demonstrated a wide variety of pathology lesions in different organ systems. The respiratory system was most affected with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) lesions being the most common finding (seen in 76% of cadavers) followed by bronchopneumonia and emphysema. Other common pathology findings included atherosclerosis, colonic diverticula, and chronic pyelonephritis. Skeletal fractures and degenerative joint disease were also noted. This study shows that cadaveric dissection offers a chance to alert and expose students to a wide variety of gross pathology and histopathology. It has been suggested that most medical students will practice in primary health care and as such more attention should be given to the pathology of commonly encountered diseases. This is particularly true for developing countries, where diseases such as TB are commonly encountered. The integration of pathology into the dissection hall may therefore be beneficial to student learning while simultaneously optimizing the use of cadaver material. Anat Sci Educ 9: 575-582. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.

  4. Characterizing the development of sectoral gross domestic product composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Raphael; Spies, Michael; Reusser, Dominik E; Kropp, Jürgen P; Rybski, Diego

    2013-07-01

    We consider the sectoral composition of a country's gross domestic product (GDP), i.e., the partitioning into agrarian, industrial, and service sectors. Exploring a simple system of differential equations, we characterize the transfer of GDP shares between the sectors in the course of economic development. The model fits for the majority of countries providing four country-specific parameters. Relating the agrarian with the industrial sector, a data collapse over all countries and all years supports the applicability of our approach. Depending on the parameter ranges, country development exhibits different transfer properties. Most countries follow three of eight characteristic paths. The types are not random but show distinct geographic and development patterns.

  5. Preventing effect of L-type calcium channel blockade on electrophysiological alterations in dentate gyrus granule cells induced by entorhinal amyloid pathology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Gholami Pourbadie

    Full Text Available The entorhinal cortex (EC is one of the earliest affected brain regions in Alzheimer's disease (AD. EC-amyloid pathology induces synaptic failure in the dentate gyrus (DG with resultant behavioral impairment, but there is little known about its impact on neuronal properties in the DG. It is believed that calcium dyshomeostasis plays a pivotal role in the etiology of AD. Here, the effect of the EC amyloid pathogenesis on cellular properties of DG granule cells and also possible neuroprotective role of L-type calcium channel blockers (CCBs, nimodipine and isradipine, were investigated. The amyloid beta (Aβ 1-42 was injected bilaterally into the EC of male rats and one week later, electrophysiological properties of DG granule cells were assessed. Voltage clamp recording revealed appearance of giant sIPSC in combination with a decrease in sEPSC frequency which was partially reversed by CCBs in granule cells from Aβ treated rats. EC amyloid pathogenesis induced a significant reduction of input resistance (Rin accompanied by a profound decreased excitability in the DG granule cells. However, daily administration of CCBs, isradipine or nimodipine (i.c.v. for 6 days, almost preserved the normal excitability against Aβ. In conclusion, lower tendency to fire AP along with reduced Rin suggest that DG granule cells might undergo an alteration in the membrane ion channel activities which finally lead to the behavioral deficits observed in animal models and patients with early-stage Alzheimer's disease.

  6. Cidofovir and brincidofovir reduce the pathology caused by systemic infection with human type 5 adenovirus in immunosuppressed Syrian hamsters, while ribavirin is largely ineffective in this model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tollefson, Ann E; Spencer, Jacqueline F; Ying, Baoling; Buller, R Mark L; Wold, William S M; Toth, Karoly

    2014-12-01

    There are no drugs approved specifically to treat disseminated adenovirus (Ad) infections in humans. Cidofovir is active against Ad in cell culture, and it is used frequently in the clinic with disseminated infection in pediatric transplant patients; however, controlled clinical studies have not been conducted to prove the anti-Ad efficacy of cidofovir. Brincidofovir, a lipid-linked derivative of cidofovir, which has strong activity against Ad in cell culture and in animal models, is a promising new drug currently in clinical trials. Ribavirin, which has modest activity against some Ad types in cell culture, has been used in the clinic against disseminated Ad, but the efficacy of ribavirin is unknown. In the current study, we have examined the activity of cidofovir, brincidofovir, and ribavirin against disseminated Ad5 infection in the immunosuppressed Syrian hamster model. Hamsters are immunosuppressed by treatment with cyclophosphamide, then infected intravenously with Ad5, leading to disseminated Ad5 infection, especially in the liver. We found that cidofovir and brincidofovir have excellent activity against Ad5 pathology and replication in the liver, even when administered therapeutically starting at 3 days post-challenge with Ad5. Ribavirin did not have anti-Ad5 activity in our model. Our data support the use of cidofovir and brincidofovir in humans for the treatment of disseminated Ad infections in humans.

  7. Clinical and pathological features of toxoplasmosis in free-ranging common wombats (Vombatus ursinus) with multilocus genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii type II-like strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahoe, Shannon L; Šlapeta, Jan; Knowles, Graeme; Obendorf, David; Peck, Sarah; Phalen, David N

    2015-04-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a cosmopolitan zoonotic protozoan parasite with the capacity to infect virtually any warm blooded vertebrate species. Australian native marsupials are thought to be highly susceptible to toxoplasmosis; however, most reports are in captive animals and little is known about T. gondii associated disease in free-ranging marsupials, including wombats (Vombatus ursinus). This study describes the clinical and pathological features of eight cases of toxoplasmosis in free-ranging common wombats in Tasmania and New South Wales (NSW) from 1992 to 2013, including a morbidity and mortality event investigated in the Southern Highlands NSW in the autumn of 2010. The diagnosis of T. gondii infection was confirmed using either immunohistochemistry, molecular diagnostics or both. Utilizing the combination of direct DNA sequencing of B1, SAG1, 5'- and 3'-SAG2, alt.SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1 and Apico DNA markers and virtual RFLP to genetically characterize two of the T. gondii strains, we found a nonarchetypal type II-like strain (ToxoDB PCR-RFLP genotype #1) and an atypical type II-like strain (ToxoDB PCR-RFLP genotype #3) to be the causal agents of toxoplasmosis in wombats from the 2010 morbidity and mortality event. This study suggests that T. gondii may act as a significant disease threat to free-ranging common wombats. Our findings indicate neurologic signs are a very common clinical presentation in common wombats with toxoplasmosis and T. gondii infection should be considered as a likely differential diagnosis for any common wombat exhibiting signs of blindness, head tilt, circling and changes in mentation.

  8. Phenolic composition and inhibitory activity of Mangifera indica and Mucuna urens seeds extracts against key enzymes linked to the pathology and complications of type 2 diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Emmanuel; Anyachukwu; Irondi; Ganiyu; Oboh; Afolabi; Akintunde; Akindahunsi; Aline; Augusti; Boligon; Margareth; Linde; Athayde

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the phenolic compounds composition and the inhibitory activity of Mangifera indica(M.indica) and Mucuna urens(M.urens) seeds extracts against some key enzymes(-amylase,-glucosidasc and aldose reductase) implicated in the pathology and complications of type 2 diabetes in vitro.Methods:Reverse phase chromatographic quantification of the major flavonoids and phenolic acids in the seeds extracts was carried out using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection.The inhibitory activities of the seeds extracts against-amylase and-glucosidase were estimated using soluble starch and p-nitrophenylglucopyranosidc as their respective substrates.Inhibition of aldose reductase activity by the extracts was assayed using partially purified lens homogenate of normal male rat as source of enzyme;inhibition of Fe2+-induced lipid peroxidation by extracts was tested in rat pancreas homogenate.Results:The chromatography result revealed that extracts of both seeds had appreciable levels of some major flavonoids and phenolic acids of pharmacological importance,including gallic acid,chlorogenic acid,caffeic acid,ellagic acid,catechin,rutin,quercitrin.quercetin and kaempferol.Extracts of both seeds effectively inhibited-amylase,-glucosidase and aldose reductase activities in a dose-dependent manner,having inhibitory preference for these enzymes in the order of aldose reductase>-glucosidase>-amylase.With lower half-maximal inhibitory concentrations(IC50)against-amylase,-glucosidase,and aldose reductase,M.indica had stronger inhibitory potency against these enzymes than M.urens.Extracts of both seeds also inhibited Fe2+-induced lipid peroxidation in a dose-dependent pattern,with M.indica being more potent than M.urens.Conclusions:The results obtained provide support for a possible use of M.indica and M.urens seeds in managing hyperglycemia and preventing the complications associated with it in type 2diabetes.

  9. Phenolic composition and inhibitory activity of Mangifera indica and Mucuna urens seeds extracts against key enzymes linked to the pathology and complications of type 2 diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Emmanuel Anyachukwu Irondi; Ganiyu Oboh; Afolabi Akintunde Akindahunsi; Aline Augusti Boligon; Margareth Linde Athayde

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the phenolic compounds composition and the inhibitory activity ofMangifera indica (M. indica) and Mucuna urens (M. urens) seeds extracts against some key enzymes (α-amylase, α-glucosidase and aldose reductase) implicated in the pathology and complications of type 2 diabetes in vitro. Methods: Reverse phase chromatographic quantification of the major flavonoids and phenolic acids in the seeds extracts was carried out using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection. The inhibitory activities of the seeds extracts against α-amylase andα-glucosidase were estimated using soluble starch and ρ-nitrophenylglucopyranoside as their respective substrates. Inhibition of aldose reductase activity by the extracts was assayed using partially purified lens homogenate of normal male rat as source of enzyme; inhibition of Fe2+-induced lipid peroxidation by extracts was tested in rat pancreas homogenate.Results:The chromatography result revealed that extracts of both seeds had appreciable levels of some major flavonoids and phenolic acids of pharmacological importance, including gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, ellagic acid, catechin, rutin, quercitrin, quercetin and kaempferol. Extracts of both seeds effectively inhibited α-amylase, α-glucosidase and aldose reductase activities in a dose-dependent manner, having inhibitory preference for these enzymes in the order of aldose reductase>α-glucosidase>α-amylase. With lower half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) against α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and aldose reductase, M. indica had stronger inhibitory potency against these enzymes than M. urens. Extracts of both seeds also inhibited Fe2+-induced lipid peroxidation in a dose-dependent pattern, with M. indica being more potent than M. urens.Conclusions:The results obtained provide support for a possible use of M. indica and M. urens seeds in managing hyperglycemia and preventing the complications

  10. Activity level of gross α and gross β in airborne aerosol samples around the Qinshan NPP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Bin; YE Jida; CHEN Qianyuan; WU Xiaofei; SONG Weili; WANG Hongfeng

    2007-01-01

    The monitoring results of gross α and gross β activity from 2001 to 2005 for environmental airborne aerosol samples around the Qinshan NPP base are presented in this paper. A total of 170 aerosol samples were collected from monitoring sites of Caichenmen village, Qinlian village, Xiajiawan village and Yangliucun village around the Qinshan NPP base. The measured specific activity of gross α and gross β are in the range of 0.02 ~ 0.38 mBq/m3 and 0.10 ~ 1.81 mBq/m3, respectively, with an average of 0.11 mBq/m3 and 0.45mBq/m3, respectively. They are lower than the average of 0.15 mBq/m3 and 0.52mBq/m3, of reference site at Hangzhou City. It is indicated that the specific activity of gross α and gross β for environmental aerosol samples around the Qinshan NPP base had not been increased in normal operating conditions of the NPP.

  11. Verbal priming and taste sensitivity make moral transgressions gross.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herz, Rachel S

    2014-02-01

    The aims of the present study were to assess whether: (a) visceral and moral disgust share a common oral origin (taste); (b) moral transgressions that are also viscerally involving are evaluated accordingly as a function of individual differences in taste sensitivity; (c) verbal priming interacts with taste sensitivity to alter how disgust is experienced in moral transgressions; and (d) whether gender moderates these effects. Standard tests of disgust sensitivity, a questionnaire developed for this research assessing different types of moral transgressions (nonvisceral, implied-visceral, visceral) with the terms "angry" and "grossed-out," and a taste sensitivity test of 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) were administered to 102 participants. Results confirmed past findings that the more sensitive to PROP a participant was the more disgusted they were by visceral, but not moral, disgust elicitors. Importantly, the findings newly revealed that taste sensitivity had no bearing on evaluations of moral transgressions, regardless of their visceral nature, when "angry" was the emotion primed. However, when "grossed-out" was primed for evaluating moral violations, the more intense PROP tasted to a participant the more "grossed-out" they were by all transgressions. Women were generally more disgust sensitive and morally condemning than men, but disgust test, transgression type, and priming scale modulated these effects. The present findings support the proposition that moral and visceral disgust do not share a common oral origin, but show that linguistic priming can transform a moral transgression into a viscerally repulsive event and that susceptibility to this priming varies as a function of an individual's sensitivity to the origins of visceral disgust-bitter taste.

  12. Noncommutative complex Grosse-Wulkenhaar model

    CERN Document Server

    Hounkonnou, Mahouton Norbert

    2012-01-01

    This paper stands for an application of the noncommutative (NC) Noether theorem, given in our previous work [AIP Proc 956 (2007) 55-60], for the NC complex Grosse-Wulkenhaar model. It provides with an extension of a recent work [Physics Letters B 653 (2007) 343-345]. The local conservation of energy-momentum tensors (EMTs) is recovered using improvement procedures based on Moyal algebraic techniques. Broken dilatation symmetry is discussed. NC gauge currents are also explicitly computed.

  13. Pathology of Hodgkin's disease: anything new?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, D H

    1989-01-01

    This presentation deals with the gross and microscopic pathology of HD. Recent advances in immunohistochemistry, gene rearrangement studies and cell culture are not discussed, except where they shed light on the pathology. Clinical and pathological experience, over the past 2 decades, suggests that HD should be divided into six subtypes, as originally proposed by Lukes et al. (1966b), rather than the four subtypes included in the Rye classification. Nodular lymphocyte/histiocyte predominant HD forms a clinicopathological entity separate from the other subtypes. It most frequently presents at a single nodal site and, even without therapy, progresses only slowly over a period of many years. A proportion of the patients (in the region of 10%) develop large cell NHL and a smaller number develop other types of Hodgkin's disease. This progression is not due to therapy since it most frequently occurs in untreated patients. Characteristic polylobated RS cell variants are seen in NLPHD. These differ from classic RS cells in that they have a B-cell phenotype, they do not show light chain restriction and, therefore, they do not appear to be a clonal proliferation. Although current dogma states that classic RS cells must be identified before a diagnosis of HD, including NLPHD, is made, it is the author's contention, supported by immunohistochemistry, that this type of RS cell does not occur in NLPHD. Polylobated RS cell variants in the appropriate cellular setting are, in themselves, diagnostic of NLPHD. They also serve to differentiate NLPHD from progressive transformation of germinal centres, an unusual proliferative expansion that may occur in association with HD but which, in itself, appears to be an entirely benign, reactive process. Diffuse lymphocyte/histiocyte predominant HD (DLPHD) differs from NLPHD in its diffuse growth pattern and the frequent presence of larger numbers of histiocytes. Polylobated RS cells are characteristic of both diseases. In some biopsies

  14. The Schroedinger functional for Gross-Neveu models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leder, B.

    2007-04-18

    Gross-Neveu type models with a finite number of fermion flavours are studied on a two-dimensional Euclidean space-time lattice. The models are asymptotically free and are invariant under a chiral symmetry. These similarities to QCD make them perfect benchmark systems for fermion actions used in large scale lattice QCD computations. The Schroedinger functional for the Gross-Neveu models is defined for both, Wilson and Ginsparg-Wilson fermions, and shown to be renormalisable in 1-loop lattice perturbation theory. In two dimensions four fermion interactions of the Gross-Neveu models have dimensionless coupling constants. The symmetry properties of the four fermion interaction terms and the relations among them are discussed. For Wilson fermions chiral symmetry is explicitly broken and additional terms must be included in the action. Chiral symmetry is restored up to cut-off effects by tuning the bare mass and one of the couplings. The critical mass and the symmetry restoring coupling are computed to second order in lattice perturbation theory. This result is used in the 1-loop computation of the renormalised couplings and the associated beta-functions. The renormalised couplings are defined in terms of suitable boundary-to-boundary correlation functions. In the computation the known first order coefficients of the beta-functions are reproduced. One of the couplings is found to have a vanishing betafunction. The calculation is repeated for the recently proposed Schroedinger functional with exact chiral symmetry, i.e. Ginsparg-Wilson fermions. The renormalisation pattern is found to be the same as in the Wilson case. Using the regularisation dependent finite part of the renormalised couplings, the ratio of the Lambda-parameters is computed. (orig.)

  15. The Gross Motor Skills of Children with Mild Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonis, Karen P.; Jernice, Tan Sing Yee

    2014-01-01

    Many international studies have examined the gross motor skills of children studying in special schools while local studies of such nature are limited. This study investigated the gross motor skills of children with Mild Learning Disabilities (MLD; n = 14, M age = 8.93 years, SD = 0.33) with the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (TGMD-2, Ulrich,…

  16. 7 CFR 1410.44 - Average adjusted gross income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Average adjusted gross income. 1410.44 Section 1410... Average adjusted gross income. (a) Benefits under this part will not be available to persons or legal entities whose average adjusted gross income exceeds $1,000,000 or as further specified in part...

  17. 7 CFR 701.17 - Average adjusted gross income limitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9003), each applicant must meet the provisions of the Adjusted Gross Income Limitations at 7 CFR part... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Average adjusted gross income limitation. 701.17... RELATED PROGRAMS PREVIOUSLY ADMINISTERED UNDER THIS PART § 701.17 Average adjusted gross income...

  18. Classification of cerebral palsy: association between gender, age, motor type, topography and Gross Motor Function Classificação da paralisia cerebral: associação entre gênero, idade, tipo motor, topografia e Função Motora Grossa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luzia Iara Pfeifer

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to assess the relation between gender, age, motor type, topography and gross motor function, based on the Gross Motor Function System of children with cerebral palsy. Trunk control, postural changes and gait of one hundred children between 5 months and 12 years old, were evaluated. There were no significant differences between gender and age groups (p=0.887 or between gender and motor type (p=0.731. In relation to body topography most children (88% were spastic quadriplegic. Most hemiplegics children were rated in motor level I, children with diplegia were rated in motor level III, and quadriplegic children were rated in motor level V. Functional classification is necessary to understand the differences in cerebral palsy and to have the best therapeutic planning since it is a complex disease which depends on several factors.Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a relação entre gênero, idade, tipo motor, topografia e Função Motora Grossa, baseado no Sistema de Função Motora Grossa em crianças com paralisia cerebral. Participaram desta pesquisa 100 crianças com idade entre 5 meses a 12 anos que foram observadas em relação ao controle de tronco, trocas posturais e marcha. Não houve diferenças significativas entre gêneros e grupos etários (p=0,887 e entre gênero e tipo motor (p=0,731. Em relação à topografia corporal, houve predomínio de crianças com quadriplegia, sendo que a maioria (88% era do tipo espástico. Quanto ao nível motor, as crianças hemiplégicas pertenciam em sua maioria ao nível I, as diplégicas ao nível III e as quadriplégicas ao nível V. Sendo a paralisia cerebral uma condição complexa que depende de diversos fatores, beneficia-se de classificações funcionais para compreensão da diversidade e melhor planejamento terapêutico.

  19. The Characteristics of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Infection in Rhesus Macaques and the Associated Pathological Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengtao Fan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As one of the major pathogens for human herpetic diseases, herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1 causes herpes labialis, genital herpes and herpetic encephalitis. Our aim here was to investigate the infectious process of HSV1 in rhesus macaques and the pathological features induced during this infection. Clinical symptoms that manifested in the rhesus macaque during HSV1 infection included vesicular lesions and their pathological features. Viral distribution in the nervous tissues and associated pathologic changes indicated the typical systematic pathological processes associated with viral distribution of HSV1.Interestingly, vesicular lesions recurred in oral skin or in mucosa associated with virus shedding in macaques within four to five months post‐infection,and viral latency‐associated transcript (LAT mRNA was found in the trigeminal ganglia (TGon day 365 post‐infection. Neutralization testing and enzyme‐linked immunospot (ELISpot detection of specific T cell responses confirmed the specific immunity induced by HSV1 infection. Thus, rhesus macaques could serve as an infectious model for HSV1 due to their typical clinical symptoms and the pathological recurrence associated with viral latency in nervous tissues.

  20. Optimal Bilinear Control of Gross--Pitaevskii Equations

    KAUST Repository

    Hintermüller, Michael

    2013-01-01

    A mathematical framework for optimal bilinear control of nonlinear Schrödinger equations of Gross--Pitaevskii type arising in the description of Bose--Einstein condensates is presented. The obtained results generalize earlier efforts found in the literature in several aspects. In particular, the cost induced by the physical workload over the control process is taken into account rather than the often used L^2- or H^1-norms for the cost of the control action. Well-posedness of the problem and existence of an optimal control are proved. In addition, the first order optimality system is rigorously derived. Also a numerical solution method is proposed, which is based on a Newton-type iteration, and used to solve several coherent quantum control problems.

  1. The implications of particle energy and acidic media on gross alpha and gross beta determination using liquid scintillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zapata-Garcia, D. [Laboratori de Radiologia Ambiental (LRA), Departament de Quimica Analitica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques, 1-11 Planta 3, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Llaurado, M., E-mail: montse.llaurado@ub.edu [Laboratori de Radiologia Ambiental (LRA), Departament de Quimica Analitica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques, 1-11 Planta 3, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Rauret, G. [Laboratori de Radiologia Ambiental (LRA), Departament de Quimica Analitica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques, 1-11 Planta 3, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2012-04-15

    The interaction of humans with radioactivity present in the environment from natural and artificial sources necessitates an evaluation of its risk on human health. Gross alpha and gross beta activities can provide a rapid evaluation of the radioactive content of a sample and can be simultaneously determined by using liquid scintillation counters. However, calibration of the liquid scintillation counter is required and is affected by many factors, such as particle energy and the acidity of the media. This study investigates what effect the particle energy used for calibration has on misclassification and how to account for this misclassification in routine measurements. The variability in measurement produced by the final pH, as well as any acids used in sample treatment, was also studied. These results showed that the most commonly used acid for these types of analyses, HNO{sub 3}, produced a high amount of misclassifications at very low pH. The results improved when HCl was used to adjust the sample to low pH. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We study the effect of alpha and beta energies on PSA optimisation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The optimum PSA shifts to higher values as the alpha energy increases. Beta energies do not affect it. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We study the effect of pH on the simultaneous determination of gross alpha/beta activities. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HNO{sub 3} produces a high amount of misclassification at very low pH. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The results improve when HCl is used to adjust the sample to low pH.

  2. Explicit chiral symmetry breaking in Gross-Neveu type models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehmer, Christian

    2011-07-25

    This thesis is devoted to the study of a 1+1-dimensional, fermionic quantum field theory with Lagrangian L= anti {psi}i{gamma}{sup {mu}}{partial_derivative}{sub {mu}}{psi}-m{sub 0} anti {psi}{psi}+(g{sup 2})/(2)(anti {psi}{psi}){sup 2}+(G{sup 2})/(2)(anti {psi}i{gamma}{sub 5}{psi}){sup 2} in the limit of an infinite number of flavors, using semiclassical methods. The main goal of the present work was to see what changes if we allow for explicit chiral symmetry breaking, either by a bare mass term, or a splitting of the scalar and pseudo-scalar coupling constants, or both. In the first case, this becomes the massive NJL{sub 2} model. In the 2nd and 3rd cases we are dealing with a model largely unexplored so far. The first half of this thesis deals with the massive NJL{sub 2} model. Before attacking the phase diagram, it was necessary to determine the baryons of the model. We have carried out full numerical Hartree-Fock calculations including the Dirac sea. The most important result is the first complete phase diagram of the massive NJL{sub 2} model in ({mu},T,{gamma}) space, where {gamma} arises from m{sub 0} through mass renormalization. In the 2nd half of the thesis we have studied a generalization of the massless NJL{sub 2} model with two different (scalar and pseudoscalar) coupling constants, first in the massless version. Renormalization of the 2 coupling constants leads to the usual dynamical mass by dynamical transmutation, but in addition to a novel {xi} parameter interpreted as chiral quenching parameter. As far as baryon structure is concerned, the most interesting result is the fact that the new baryons interpolate between the kink of the GN model and the massless baryon of the NJL{sub 2} model, always carrying fractional baryon number 1/2. The phase diagram of the massless model with 2 coupling constants has again been determined numerically. At zero temperature we have also investigated the massive, generalized GN model with 3 parameters. It is well-known that the massless NJL{sub 2} model can be solved analytically. The same is true for the GN model, be it massless or massive. Here, the fact that the mean field turns out to be reflectionless (for baryons) respectively finite band (for crystals) is instrumental. In the models considered in this thesis, this does not hold anymore and only very few observables can be calculated analytically. We followed two main lines of attack: Near the chiral limit, the derivative expansion is the instrument of choice. It gives a lot of analytical insight in a limited region of parameter space of cold as well as tricritical matter. If one is interested in the regime far away from the chiral limit, the only tool at our disposal is the numerical HF calculation. Exploiting both methods, we have demonstrated that one is now in a position to solve practically any four-fermion theory in 1+1 dimensions in the large N limit and map out the phase diagram to any desired accuracy. (orig.)

  3. Technology-Enhanced Pathology Education: Nigerian Medical Students Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vhriterhire, Raymond A.; Orkuma, Joseph A.; Jegede, Olushola O.; Omotosho, Ayodele J.; Adekwu, Amali

    2016-01-01

    The delivery of pathology education traditionally through instructor centred didactic lectures, small group tutorials, and practical demonstrations using microscope glass slides, gross pot specimens and autopsy sessions, is paving way for electronic learner-centred methods. Successful adoption and implementation of rapidly advancing educational…

  4. Use of Tissue-Specific MicroRNA to Control Pathology of Wild-Type Adenovirus without Attenuation of Its Ability to Kill Cancer Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cawood, R.; Chen, H.H.; Carroll, F.; Bazan-Peregrino, M.; Rooijen, van N.; Seymour, L.W.

    2009-01-01

    Replicating viruses have broad applications in biomedicine, notably in cancer virotherapy and in the design of attenuated vaccines; however, uncontrolled virus replication in vulnerable tissues can give pathology and often restricts the use of potent strains. Increased knowledge of tissue-selective

  5. Introducing a Virtual Reality Experience in Anatomic Pathology Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrigal, Emilio; Prajapati, Shyam; Hernandez-Prera, Juan C

    2016-10-01

    A proper examination of surgical specimens is fundamental in anatomic pathology (AP) education. However, the resources available to residents may not always be suitable for efficient skill acquisition. We propose a method to enhance AP education by introducing high-definition videos featuring methods for appropriate specimen handling, viewable on two-dimensional (2D) and stereoscopic three-dimensional (3D) platforms. A stereo camera system recorded the gross processing of commonly encountered specimens. Three edited videos, with instructional audio voiceovers, were experienced by nine junior residents in a crossover study to assess the effects of the exposure (2D vs 3D movie views) on self-reported physiologic symptoms. A questionnaire was used to analyze viewer acceptance. All surveyed residents found the videos beneficial in preparation to examine a new specimen type. Viewer data suggest an improvement in specimen handling confidence and knowledge and enthusiasm toward 3D technology. None of the participants encountered significant motion sickness. Our novel method provides the foundation to create a robust teaching library. AP is inherently a visual discipline, and by building on the strengths of traditional teaching methods, our dynamic approach allows viewers to appreciate the procedural actions involved in specimen processing. © American Society for Clinical Pathology, 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Expectations and essentials for the community practice of pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Richard E

    2006-08-01

    In 3 surveys during the past 10 years, community hospital pathologists were asked what they want, need, or look for when employing a pathologist and, more specifically, what skills and knowledge a newly minted pathologist should have to be successful in the community practice of pathology. The most recent survey, done in spring of 2005, cited surgical pathology diagnosis, frozen section diagnosis, gross dissection, cytology, and fine-needle aspiration as essentials in anatomic pathology. For clinical pathology, knowledge of clinical medicine and test strategies that use the laboratory for clinical problem solving was paramount. New expectations in the latest survey were knowledge of molecular pathology and experience in quality assurance procedures. New pathologists generally meet the expectations of the community hospital workplace; however, there were some deficiencies: they were not proficient in gross pathology or autopsy pathology, they were slow, and many lack the clinical knowledge and experience to be effective consultants. The principal attribute that determines success in the practice of pathology, however, is skill in communication and interpersonal relations, and this remains the major deficiency of the fledgling pathologist.

  7. Masochism and pathological gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Richard J

    2015-03-01

    That all pathological gamblers have an "unconscious wish to lose," an idea first expressed by Freud and Bergler, is neither true nor useful; wrong as well, however, are the reasons for neglecting masochism in relation to gambling. There is a small but clinically significant subgroup of pathological gamblers who are masochistic. I present clinical vignettes and a more extended treatment account to illustrate its importance. Masochism has been a confusing concept. As used here it refers to the deliberate seeking of pain, loss, suffering, or humiliation. There may be pleasure in pain, or an obligatory combining of pleasure and pain. A sense of power and control may be achieved through suffering. The case material illustrates clinically useful types (sexual masochism, masochistic personality disorder, moral masochism, relational masochism) as well as some common masochistic dynamics encountered in the treatment of pathological gamblers. These masochistic patterns are often identifiable during the initial evaluation. Distinguishing features may include a reversal of normal attitudes about winning and losing, the absence of an early winning phase, sometimes a memorable early loss. Gamblers may sabotage opportunities for success or create unnecessary obstacles for themselves. Losing may be more comfortable than winning or may be overtly sexualized.

  8. Gross Morphology and Localization of Adenohypophyseal Cells in Camel (Camelus dromedarius Using A New Combination of Stains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. S. Jaspal, Z. U. Rahman* and A. M. Cheema

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty normal camels (Camelus dromedarius were selected for gross morphological and modified staining of anterior pituitary. Camels were divided in three age groups viz 2-4, 5-10 and above 10 years. Pituitary weight, length, width and circumference were recorded before preservation and at midsegittal cutting. Pituitary weight increased significantly as these animals grew older. Male had heavier pituitary as compared to female. Higher pituitary weight was observed in old as compared to young camel. Sections (4m of camel pituitary gland were stained with “Phosphotungstic acid haematoxylin-Orange G-Acid fuchsin-Light green” combination of dyes. This combination of acidic and basic dyes showed affinity to their respective adenohypophyseal cells and proved a suitable combination for differentiation of adenohypophyseal cells and architectural pattern of pituitary gland. Use of Lugol’s Iodine and sodium thiosulphate solution caused mercury fixation which ultimately enhanced the staining of camel adenohypophysis. The whole pituitary presented a brilliant appearance of clarity, enabling cell counts to be performed easily, purely with reference to the colors of adenohypophyseal cell types. This method can be applied for differential staining of adenohypophysis and with good cytology results to the hypophysis of many mammals. The method also provides a sharp contrast between cellular and connective tissue components. With this staining technique, the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of different adenohypophyseal cell types at various functional and hormonal stages, under certain physiological and pathological conditions can also be studied.

  9. Integrable Gross-Neveu models with fermion-fermion and fermion-antifermion pairing

    CERN Document Server

    Thies, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The massless Gross-Neveu and chiral Gross-Neveu models are well known examples of integrable quantum field theories in 1+1 dimensions. We address the question whether integrability is preserved if one either replaces the four-fermion interaction in fermion-antifermion channels by a dual interaction in fermion-fermion channels, or if one adds such a dual interaction to an existing integrable model. The relativistic Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov approach is adequate to deal with the large N limit of such models. In this way, we construct and solve three integrable models with Cooper pairing. We also identify a candidate for a fourth integrable model with maximal kinematic symmetry, the "perfect" Gross-Neveu model. This type of field theories can serve as exactly solvable toy models for color superconductivity in quantum chromodynamics.

  10. Atlas of neuroanatomy with radiologic correlation and pathologic illustration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dublin, A.B.; Dublin, W.B.

    1982-01-01

    This atlas correlates gross neuroanatomic specimens with radiographs and computed tomographic scans. Pathologic specimens and radiographs are displayed in a similar manner. The first chapter, on embryology, shows the development of the telencephalon, diencephalon, mesencephalon, and metencephalon through a series of overlays. The anatomical section shows the surface of the brain, the ventricles and their adjacent structures, and the vascular system. CT anatomy is demonstrated by correlating CT scans with pathologic brain specimens cut in the axial plane. Pathologic changes associated with congenital malformations, injections, injuries, tumors, and other causes are demonstrated in the last six chapters.

  11. Carpal bone cysts: MRI, gross pathology, and histology correlation in cadavers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanal, Hatice Tuba; Chen, Lina; Haghighi, Parviz; Trudell, Debra J.; Resnick, Donald L.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE Intraosseous cysts of carpal bones are frequently observed on routine imaging examinations of the wrist. There is controversy regarding the underlying pathogenesis of these cysts. In this study, we aimed to investigate the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearance of intracarpal bone cysts in correlation with histologic analysis, using cadaveric wrists. METHODS Five freshly frozen cadaveric wrist specimens (from three women and two men; mean age at death, 80 years) were studied. Imaging was performed with T1-weighted fast spin-echo, and proton density-weighted fast spin-echo with and without fat-suppression. The existence of cysts was confirmed by comparing MRI and histology findings. Hematoxylin and eosin stain was performed on tissue slices of 3 mm thickness to analyze the structure of cysts and their communication with the joint cavity. RESULTS Ten cysts were observed. In all cases, cysts were eccentrically located either in the subchondral bone or beneath the cortex. On histologic examination, there were regions of fat necrosis without inflammation or increased vascularity, surrounded by fibrous walls. There were no giant cells, cholesterol granules, or a true synovial lining. Mucoid change was rare. Fibrous component of cysts varied from small fibrous septa to well-formed walls. Some cysts communicated with the joint cavity. Two cysts were adjacent to ligamentous attachments. Those cysts with fibrous tissue demonstrated variable hypointensity on T2. CONCLUSION In contrast to previous reports that described a mucoid composition of intracarpal bone cysts with occasional foamy macrophages, our observations support the concept that these lesions reflect a spectrum of fat necrosis and fibrous changes, without inflammation or hypervascularity. These cysts are typically surrounded by fibrous walls without a true synovial lining. PMID:25205027

  12. Clinical and gross pathological findings of Johne's disease in a calf: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faez Firdaus Abdullah Jesse

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This case report describes a clinical case of Johne's disease (JD in a Friesian calf aging one and half years. Materials and methods: Physical examination of the calf was carried out, history of the farm as well as samples for laboratory examinations were obtained. The laboratory examinations included hematological examinations by direct wet mount, hematocrit centrifugation technique and Giemsa stain, biochemical evaluation of serum, bacterial culture and isolation from feces and aspirate from the swollen jaw. Results: Clinical history showed that the farm had a history of JD, and routine health screening revealed that one of the calves had clinical signs suggestive of Johne's disease. Physical examination of the calf revealed a lumpy jaw, enlarged bilateral pre-scapular and pre-femoral lymph nodes, while hematological and biochemical findings showed a normocytic normochromic anemia, severe leukocytosis with neutropilic left shift and lymphocytosis with hyperproteinemia characterized by hyperglobulinemia. Fecal bacterial tests showed the presence of acid fast bacilli. Based on the history and laboratory findings, the cow was diagnosed with JD. In order to ensure effective control measures, the calf was culled from the heard. Postmortem examination revealed inflamed pre-scapular and pre-femoral lymph nodes with the presence of paramphistomes in the rumen mucosa. Conclusion: Since JD is a chronic disease that lingers in livestock farms, there is need for early identification and culling of infected animal in order to limit its devastation on the farm. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2016; 3(3.000: 292-296

  13. Hypertext atlas of fetal and neonatal pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jezová, Marta; Múcková, Katarína; Soucek, Ondrej; Feit, Josef; Vlasín, Pavel

    2008-07-15

    Hypertext atlas of fetal and neonatal pathology is a free resource for pregraduate students of medicine, pathologists and other health professionals dealing with prenatal medicine. The atlas can be found at http://www.muni.cz/atlases. The access is restricted to registered users. Concise texts summarize the gross and microscopic pathology, etiology, and clinical signs of both common and rare fetal and neonatal conditions. The texts are illustrated with over 300 images that are accompanied by short comments. The atlas offers histological pictures of high quality. Virtual microscope interface is used to access the high-resolution histological images. Fetal ultrasound video clips are included. Case studies integrate clinical history, prenatal ultrasonographic examination, gross pathology and histological features. The atlas is available in English (and Czech) and equipped with an active index. The atlas is suitable both for medical students and pathologists as a teaching and reference tool. The atlas is going to be further expanded while keeping the high quality of the images.

  14. Effect of temperate climate tree species on gross ammonification, gross nitrification and N2O formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüggemann, N.; Rosenkranz, P.; Papen, H.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.

    2003-04-01

    Microbial nitrogen turnover processes in the soil, like ammonification, nitrification and denitrification, play an important role in the formation of nitrous oxide (N2O): (i) ammonification, because it releases nitrogen from organic material in the form of ammonium (NH4+), which in turn can serve as substrate for nitrification; (ii) nitrification itself (i.e. the turnover of NH4+ to nitrate, NO3-), during which nitric oxide (NO) and N2O can be released as by-products at varying ratios; (iii) denitrification, in which NO3- serves as electron acceptor and is converted to molecular nitrogen (N2) via NO and N2O as intermediates, that can also be partially lost to the atmosphere. Temperate forest soils are a substantial source of atmospheric N2O contributing up to 10% to the total atmospheric N2O budget. However, this figure is afflicted with a huge uncertainty due to a number of factors governing the soil N2O formation, consumption, release and uptake, which are not fully understood at present. To one of these factors belongs the influence of the tree species on nitrogen turnover processes in the soil and the formation of N trace gases related with them. The aim of the present work was to analyse this tree species effect for the temperate climate region. For this purpose the effect of five different temperate tree species, having the same age and growing on the same soil in direct vicinity to each other, on gross ammonification and gross nitrification as well as on N2O formation was investigated. The trees (common beech, Fagus sylvatica; pedunculate oak, Quercus robur; Norway spruce, Picea abies; Japanese larch, Larix leptolepis; mountain pine, Pinus mugo) were part of a species trial in Western Jutland, Denmark, established in 1965 on a former sandy heathland. Samples from the soil under these five tree species were taken in spring and in summer 2002, respectively, differentiating between organic layer and mineral soil. The gross rates of ammonification as well of

  15. The Danish Pathology Register

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Beth; Larsen, Ole B

    2011-01-01

    The National Board of Health, Denmark in 1997 published guidelines for reporting of pathology data and the Danish Pathology Register (DPR) was established.......The National Board of Health, Denmark in 1997 published guidelines for reporting of pathology data and the Danish Pathology Register (DPR) was established....

  16. Influence of aquatic physical therapy on gross motor skills in children under 5 years of age with cerebral palsy: Systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Latorre-García

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aquatic environment has been used and is used to perform physiotherapy treatments in different pathologies including cerebral palsy. No method has been proven more effective than the others. Aim: The objective of this article is to carry out a systematic review of the scientific literature on how physical exercise in water affects the gross motor skills and neurodevelopment of children with cerebral palsy. Methods: A systematic search was carried out using the PRISMA model. The search for articles in this review was done in the databases through Scopus and PubMed, as well as in the Web of Science (WOS platform and in official websites of international organizations, such as the World Health Organization (WHO. The review was carried out between the months of June and December of the year 2016. Results: Of the 8 studies that met the inclusion criteria, only two used randomized control trial design and the results were mixed. Most of the studies used quasi-experimental designs and reported improvements in gross motor skills, for group analyzes, after the aquatic programs were maintained from two to three sessions a week and lasted from 6 to 16 weeks. Participants were evaluated and classified according to the different development scales, and were less than 5 years old. Conclusions: Although the different studies have not demonstrated a greater efficacy of aquatic physiotherapy compared to other treatment concepts, neither has been less, so that the exercise in water increases the therapeutic possibilities to which the chronic nature of the Pathology must access the patient throughout his life. Aquatic exercise is feasible and adverse effects are minimal; but the dosage parameters are not clear. However, in order to promote the prescription by physicians of this type of therapy, it is necessary to carry out research studies that demonstrate in a quantitative way the efficacy of the method, with longer and longer samples.

  17. Outbreak Control and Clinical, Pathological, and Epidemiological Aspects and Molecular Characterization of a Bovine Herpesvirus Type 5 on a Feedlot Farm in São Paulo State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira Vicente, Acácia; Appolinario, Camila Michele; Allendorf, Susan Dora; Gasparini Baraldi, Thaís; Cortez, Adriana; Bryan Heinemann, Marcos; Reinaldo Silva Fonseca, Clovis; Cristina Pelícia, Vanessa; Devidé Ribeiro, Bruna Leticia; Hiromi Okuda, Liria; Pituco, Edviges Maristela

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the control, epidemiological, pathological, and molecular aspects of an outbreak of meningoencephalitis in calves due to bovine herpesvirus 5 at a feedlot with 540 animals in São Paulo State, Brazil. The introduction of new animals and contact between the resident animals and the introduced ones were most likely responsible for virus transmission. Bovine herpesvirus 1 vaccine was used, resulting in the efficacy of the outbreak control, although two bovine herpesvirus 1 positive animals, vaccinated and revaccinated, presented meningoencephalitis, thereby characterizing vaccinal failure. PMID:26090469

  18. Forensic Pathology Education in Pathology Residency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Wayne K.; Domen, Ronald E.

    2017-01-01

    Forensic pathology is a fundamental part of anatomic pathology training during pathology residency. However, the lack of information on forensic teaching suggests the highly variable nature of forensic education. A survey of pathology residency program directors was performed to determine key aspects of their respective forensic rotations and curriculum. A total of 38.3% of programs from across the country responded, and the survey results show 5.6% don’t require a forensic pathology rotation. In those that do, most forensic pathology rotations are 4 weeks long, are done at a medical examiner’s office, and require set prerequisites. A total of 21.1% of responding programs have residents who are not receiving documented evaluations for this rotation. While 39.6% of programs have a defined forensics curriculum, as many as 15% do not. Furthermore, nearly 43% of programs place no limit on counting forensic autopsies when applying for pathology board examinations. Our survey confirmed the inconsistent nature of forensic pathology training in resident education. Additionally, our curriculum was reorganized to create a more robust educational experience. A pre- and post-forensic lecture quiz and Resident In-Service Examination scores were analyzed to determine our curriculum’s impact and effectiveness. Analysis of our pre- and post-lecture quiz showed an improved overall average as well as an increase in Resident In-Service Examination scores, indicating improved general forensic pathology knowledge. Using this knowledge, along with changes in our curriculum, we generated a number of recommendations for improving forensic pathology education in pathology residency. PMID:28913415

  19. Gross revenue risk in Swiss dairy farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Benni, N; Finger, R

    2013-02-01

    This study investigated how agricultural policy reforms, including market liberalization and market deregulation, have influenced gross revenue risk of Swiss dairy producers using farm-level panel data between 1990 and 2009. Based on detrended data, variance decomposition was applied to assess how output prices and yields contributed to revenue risk over 3 different periods: the whole period (1990-2009), the first decade (1990-1999), and the second decade (1999-2009). In addition, the effect of expected changes in animal-based support for roughage-consuming cattle and price volatility on revenue risk was evaluated using a simulation model. Prices were the main contributor to revenue risk, even if the importance of yield risk increased over time. Swiss dairy producers can profit from natural hedge but market deregulation and market liberalization have reduced the natural hedge at the farm level. An increase in price volatility would substantially increase revenue risk and would, together with the abandonment of direct payments, reduce the comparative advantage of dairy production for risk-averse decision makers. Depending on other available risk management strategies, price risk management instruments might be a valuable solution for Swiss dairy producers in the future.

  20. Effects of Aquatic Intervention on Gross Motor Skills in Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roostaei, Meysam; Baharlouei, Hamzeh; Azadi, Hamidreza; Fragala-Pinkham, Maria A

    2016-12-14

    To review the literature on the effects of aquatic intervention on gross motor skills for children with cerebral palsy (CP). Six databases were searched from inception to January 2016. Aquatic studies for children aged 1-21 years with any type or CP classification and at least one outcome measuring gross motor skills were included. Information was extracted on study design, outcomes, and aquatic program type, frequency, duration, and intensity. Quality was rated using the Centre of Evidence-Based Medicine: Levels of Evidence and the PEDro scale. Of the 11 studies which met inclusion criteria, only two used randomized control trial design, and the results were mixed. Quality of evidence was rated as moderate to high for only one study. Most studies used quasi-experimental designs and reported improvements in gross motor skills for within group analyses after aquatic programs were held for two to three times per week and lasting for 6-16 weeks. Participants were classified according to the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels I-V, and were aged 3-21 years. Mild to no adverse reactions were reported. Evidence on aquatic interventions for ambulatory children with CP is limited. Aquatic exercise is feasible and adverse effects are minimal; however, dosing parameters are unclear. Further research is needed to determine aquatic intervention effectiveness and exercise dosing across age categories and GMFCS levels.

  1. Guidelines for Standard Photography in Gross and Clinical Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barut, Cagatay; Ertilav, Hakan

    2011-01-01

    Photography has a widespread usage in medicine and anatomy. In this review, authors focused on the usage of photography in gross and clinical anatomy. Photography in gross and clinical anatomy is not only essential for accurate documentation of morphological findings but also important in sharing knowledge and experience. Photographs of cadavers…

  2. 26 CFR 1.61-4 - Gross income of farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Gross income of farmers. (a) Farmers using the cash method of accounting. A farmer using the cash receipts and disbursements method of accounting shall include in his gross income for the taxable year— (1) The amount of cash and the value of merchandise or other property received during the taxable...

  3. Guidelines for Standard Photography in Gross and Clinical Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barut, Cagatay; Ertilav, Hakan

    2011-01-01

    Photography has a widespread usage in medicine and anatomy. In this review, authors focused on the usage of photography in gross and clinical anatomy. Photography in gross and clinical anatomy is not only essential for accurate documentation of morphological findings but also important in sharing knowledge and experience. Photographs of cadavers…

  4. Psychiatric Symptoms in Children with Gross Motor Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emck, Claudia; Bosscher, Ruud J.; van Wieringen, Piet C. W.; Doreleijers, Theo; Beek, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Children with psychiatric disorders often demonstrate gross motor problems. This study investigates if the reverse also holds true by assessing psychiatric symptoms present in children with gross motor problems. Emotional, behavioral, and autism spectrum disorders (ASD), as well as psychosocial problems, were assessed in a sample of 40 children…

  5. The Gross Anatomy Course: An Analysis of Its Importance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockers, Anja; Jerg-Bretzke, Lucia; Lamp, Christoph; Brinkmann, Anke; Traue, Harald C.; Bockers, Tobias M.

    2010-01-01

    The gross anatomy dissection course is a cost-intensive piece of undergraduate medical education that students and professionals alike describe as very important within the overall medical curriculum. We sought to understand more explicitly students' valuation of gross anatomy as an "important" course and so developed a quantitative…

  6. Relations of nuclear factor-kappa B activity in the kidney of children with primary nephrotic syndrome to clinical manifestations, pathological types, and urinary protein excretion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Hong-yang; SUN Ruo-peng; DONG Jun-hua; ZHEN Jun-hui

    2005-01-01

    @@ The pathogenesis of childhood primary nephrotic syndrome (PNS) is unclear. However, an immune mechanism has generally been accepted as a cause. Imbalance of T lymphocyte and a variety of inflammatory cytokines, chemotactic and transcription factors are involved in the pathophysiology and manifestations of PNS,1,2 and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) transcriptionally regulates the expression of these factors.3 Research has been focused on NF-κB and inflammatory regulated mediators of renal diseases, but seldom on different clinical manifestations and histopathological changes. In order to explore a potential mechanism for the pathogenesis of PNS in children and a basis for preventing its advance, we determined NF-κB activity in the kidney of children with PNS in vitro using immunohistochemical staining and the multimedia coloured pathological image analysis system and its relations to clinical manifestations, histopathological changes and 24-hour urinary protein excretion.

  7. [(Impending) pathological fracture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, P M; Regazzoni, P

    2002-01-01

    Pathological fractures will be encountered in increasing frequency due to more patients with cancer, surviving a longer period. The skeleton is the third most frequent localization for metastases. Breast cancer is still the most common primary tumor, but bone metastases from lung cancer seem to be diagnosed more and more. Despite of finding metastases most often in the spinal column, fractures are seen mostly at the femoral site. A pathological fracture and, in almost all cases, an impending fracture are absolute indication for operation. An exact definition of an "impending fracture" is still lacking; it is widely accepted, that 50 per cent of bone mass must be destroyed before visualization in X-ray is possible, thus defining an impending fracture. The score system by Mirels estimates the fracture risk by means of four parameters (localization, per cent of destructed bone mass, type of metastasis, pain). Improving quality of life, relieving pain, preferably with a single operation and a short length of stay are the goals of (operative) treatment. For fractures of the proximal femur, prosthetic replacement, for fractures of the subtrochanteric region or the shaft, intramedullary nails are recommended. Postoperative radiation therapy possibly avoids tumor progression. In patient with a good long term prognosis, tumor should be removed locally aggressive.

  8. CT imaging characteristics of HAML in different pathological types: a pilot study%浅谈不同病理类型肝脏血管平滑肌脂肪瘤的CT影像学特点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘明; 马东玉; 吴芳

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the CT imaging characteristics of HAML, together with pathological controls in order to improve the diagnostic level of HAML with CT. Methods The CT imaging findings of 9 patients with HAML confirmed by operation and pathology, were retrospectively analyzed and compared with findings of in different pathological types. Results Of these 9 cases of HAML, 2 were lipoma, in which the fat was is major ingredient and CT showed high fat density, 1 was hemangioma, in which the blood essels were the major components and CT showed highly enhancement in arterial phase, 2 were fibroids, in which the smooth muscle was the major component and plain CT scan showed homogeneous density and enhanced CT scanning showed homogeneous enhancement, and 4 were mixed 4 types in which three components were comprised and the enhanced CT scanning showed inhomogeneous enhancement. Conclusion In different pathological types of HAML, CT shows different characteristics. The understanding of the relationship between different types helps improve the diagnostic accuracy of HAML by CT.%目的 探讨肝脏血管平滑肌脂肪瘤(HAML)的CT影像学特点与病理对照,提高对该肿瘤的CT影像诊断水平.方法 回顾性分析9例经手术病理证实的HAML的CT影像学表现,并按不同病理类型进行对照.结果 9例HAML中脂瘤型2例,以脂肪成分为主,CT显示大片脂肪密度;血管瘤型1例,以血管成分为主,CT增强动脉期明显强化;肌瘤型2例,主要是由平滑肌成分组成,平扫密度均匀,增强呈均一强化;混合型4例,三种成分含量相似,增强扫描呈不均匀强化.结论 不同病理类型的HAML,CT表现有所不同,了解它们之间的关系,有助于提高HAML的CT诊断准确率.

  9. Pathology of the region of the knee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aufdermaur, M.

    1981-09-01

    Radiological, clinical and pathologic-anatomical findings seen in four types of disorders of the region of the knee jointare described. An attempt is made to explain the clinical symptomatology on the basis of pathologic-anatomical findings. It is demonstrated that the histology of a giant cell neoplasm does not permit conclusions as to prognosis. Etiology and pathogenesis of villonodular synovitis and of chondrocalcinosis are unexplained. Pathologic-anatomical findings of chondromalacia patellae are those of early osteoarthrosis.

  10. Predicting pathology in impacted mandibular third molars

    OpenAIRE

    Aveek Mukherji; Mohit Pal Singh; Prashant Nahar; Bhuvaneshwari S Balaji; Hemant Mathur; Saurabh Goel

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The rising incidence of the impacted mandibular third molars and their association with pathologies is now considered a public health problem. Aims and Objectives: The objective of this study was to assess the position of impacted mandibular third molars that are prone to developing pathologies and to determine the frequency and type of pathological conditions associated with these impacted teeth to facilitate planning for their prophylactic removal. Materials and Methods: Conse...

  11. Pathological Gambling in Parkinson's Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callesen, Mette Buhl; Linnet, Jakob; Thomsen, Kristine Rømer

    Pathological Gambling in Parkinson’s Disease Mette Buhl Callesen, Jakob Linnet, Kristine Rømer Thomsen, Albert Gjedde, Arne Møller PET Center, Aarhus University Hospital and Center of Functionally Integrative Neuroscience, Aarhus University.   The neurotransmitter dopamine is central to many...... aspects of human functioning, e.g., reward, learning, and addiction, including Pathological Gambling (PG), and its loss is key to Parkinson’s Disease (PD). PD is a neurodegenrative disorder caused by progressive loss of dopamine-producing cells in the midbrain [1]. One type of treatment of PD symptoms...

  12. Fibroadenomas: Sonographic-pathologic correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Mi Sung; Choi, Hye Young; Kim, Eun Ah; Lee, Sun Wha; Sung, Soon Hee [Ewha Womans University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-09-15

    To correlate sonographic appearance and histopathologic findings of fibroadenomas. Forty-one biopsy-proven fibroadenomas were retrospectively evaluate for sonographic-pathologic correlation. The fibroadenomas were histologically classified into sclerotic, myxoid, glandular and mixed type. The stromal cellularity and fibrosis were also classified into mild and severe. The internal echotexture and posterior acoustic enhancement of mass in ultrasonogram were correlated with histopathologic findings. The pathologic types of fibroadenomas were sclerotic in sixteen, myxoid in thirteen, and glandular or mixed in each of six cases. Most of the sclerotic type showed hypoechoic internal echotexture (68.8%) and myxoid and glandular types showed isoechoic internal echotexture (84.6%, 83.3% respectively). The hypoechoic masses showed 12 cases of mild (75.0%) and 4 cases of severe (25.0%) in cellularity and 3 cases of mild (18.7%) and 13 cases (81.3%) of sever degree in fibrosis. Most of the myxoid type (77%) showed posterior enhancement, and most of the sclerotic type (87.5%) did not show posterior enhancement on ultrasonogram. Posterior enhancement was absent in 22 cases, in which 4 cases (18.2%) showed mild and 18 cases (81.2%) showed severe degree of fibrosis. Sclerotic type with mild cellularity and severe fibrosis on histopathology showed hypoechogenicity on ultrasonogram; whereas myxoid and glandular types were predominantly isoechoic. Most of the myxoid type showed posterior enhancement. Sclerotic type with mild cellularity and severe fibrosis did not show posterior enhancement.

  13. Estimating the gross moist stability in shallow and deep convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C. A.; Jong, B. T.; Chou, C.

    2015-12-01

    Gross moist stability has been used to study the link between tropical deep convection and large scale circulation in a moist static energy (MSE) budget. Here we aim to calculate the gross moist stability from more realistic profiles of vertical velocity and extend it beyond deep convection, adding shallow convection. Based on a principal component analysis, we were able to decompose the vertical velocity into two leading modes, which are dominated by deep and shallow convection, respectively. According to the deep and shallow modes, we calculate the gross moist stability for these two modes and discuss the roles of deep and shallow convection in the MSE budget. The gross moist stability of deep convection tends to be positive in the tropics, while that of shallow convection is negative over most areas of the tropics. This implies that deep convection exports MSE to stabilize the atmosphere and shallow convection imports MSE to enhance deep convection and destabilize the atmosphere. Based on the spatial distribution, moisture tends to reduce the gross moist stability of deep convection, while dry static energy has little impact. Deeper deep convection tends to have greater gross moist stability. For shallow convection, on the other hand, the gross moist stability is affected not only by low-level moisture but also mid-level moisture. Both moister low-level and drier mid-level moisture reduce the gross moist stability of shallow convection. Greater low-level dry static energy, which is associated with warmer sea surface temperature, also tends to reduce gross moist stability.

  14. The effect of color type on early wound healing in farmed mink (Neovison vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, A.; Jensen, H. E.; Agger, J. F.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Individual differences of mink, including color type, are speculated to affect the course of wound healing, thereby impacting wound assessment and management on the farms, as well as the assessment of wounds in forensic cases. In this study, we examined the effect of color type on early...... wound healing in farmed mink. Full thickness excisional wounds (2 x 2 cm) were made on the back in 18 mink of the color types Brown, Silverblue and Blue Iris. Gross and microscopic pathology of the wounds was evaluated 2 days post-wounding together with degree of wound size reduction, presence...

  15. Fellowship trends of pathology residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagwinski, Nikolaj; Hunt, Jennifer L

    2009-09-01

    Recent changes in pathology residency education have included a decrease in the program length (from 5 years to 4 years for combined anatomic and clinical pathology training) and a national mandate for programs to assess 6 general competencies of trainees. These have undoubtedly led to changes in program curricula and in residents' desires to seek fellowship training. This study was designed to gather information about what residents are seeking from fellowship training programs. This study used an online survey to assess attitudes of residents in training programs toward fellowship training. The survey instrument had 26 questions pertaining to fellowship choices, motivations for pursuing fellowships, expectations of the fellowships, and postresidency concerns. There were 213 respondents from a mix of program types and representing each postgraduate year. Most residents will seek at least 1 or 2 fellowships after residency training. The most popular first-choice fellowship was surgical pathology (26%), followed by cytopathology (16%), hematopathology (15%), gastrointestinal pathology (10%), dermatopathology (8%), and forensic pathology (5%). The most common reasons for pursuing fellowship training were to "increase marketability" (43%) or to "become an expert in a particular area" (33%). Most trainees got their information about fellowship training programs from Internet sources. Fellowship programs will benefit from an optimally designed Web site because residents seek information predominantly from the Internet. Residents seeking fellowships are particularly concerned with selecting programs that provide job connections, an increase in their marketability, and the opportunity to develop diagnostic expertise.

  16. Sectoral contributions to Nigerian gross domestic product using a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences ... This study analyzed sectoral contributions to Gross Domestic Product by Agriculture, Industry and services ... KEYWORDS: Granger causality, Unit root, VAR model and sectoral contribution ...

  17. Cellular function and pathological role of ATP13A2 and related P-type transport ATPases in Parkinson's disease and other neurological disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Veen, Sarah; Sørensen, Danny M; Holemans, Tine; Holen, Henrik W; Palmgren, Michael G; Vangheluwe, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in ATP13A2 lead to Kufor-Rakeb syndrome, a parkinsonism with dementia. ATP13A2 belongs to the P-type transport ATPases, a large family of primary active transporters that exert vital cellular functions. However, the cellular function and transported substrate of ATP13A2 remain unknown. To discuss the role of ATP13A2 in neurodegeneration, we first provide a short description of the architecture and transport mechanism of P-type transport ATPases. Then, we briefly highlight key P-type ATPases involved in neuronal disorders such as the copper transporters ATP7A (Menkes disease), ATP7B (Wilson disease), the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPases ATP1A2 (familial hemiplegic migraine) and ATP1A3 (rapid-onset dystonia parkinsonism). Finally, we review the recent literature of ATP13A2 and discuss ATP13A2's putative cellular function in the light of what is known concerning the functions of other, better-studied P-type ATPases. We critically review the available data concerning the role of ATP13A2 in heavy metal transport and propose a possible alternative hypothesis that ATP13A2 might be a flippase. As a flippase, ATP13A2 may transport an organic molecule, such as a lipid or a peptide, from one membrane leaflet to the other. A flippase might control local lipid dynamics during vesicle formation and membrane fusion events.

  18. Cellular function and pathological role of ATP13A2 and related P-type transport ATPases in Parkinson's disease and other neurological disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Veen, Sarah; Sørensen, Danny M.; Holemans, Tine

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in ATP13A2 lead to Kufor-Rakeb syndrome, a parkinsonism with dementia. ATP13A2 belongs to the P-type transport ATPases, a large family of primary active transporters that exert vital cellular functions. However, the cellular function and transported substrate of ATP13A2 remain unknown. ...

  19. Cellular function and pathological role of ATP13A2 and related P-type transport ATPases in Parkinson’s disease and other neurological disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah evan Veen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in ATP13A2 lead to Kufor-Rakeb syndrome, a parkinsonism with dementia. ATP13A2 belongs to the P-type transport ATPases, a large family of primary active transporters that exert vital cellular functions. However, the cellular function and transported substrate of ATP13A2 remain unknown. To discuss the role of ATP13A2 in neurodegeneration, we first provide a short description of the architecture and transport mechanism of P-type transport ATPases. Then, we briefly highlight key P-type ATPases involved in neuronal disorders such as the copper transporters ATP7A (Menkes disease, ATP7B (Wilson disease, the Na+/K+-ATPases ATP1A2 (familial hemiplegic migraine and ATP1A3 (rapid-onset dystonia parkinsonism. Finally, we review the recent literature of ATP13A2 and discuss ATP13A2’s putative cellular function in the light of what is known concerning the functions of other, better-studied P-type ATPases. We critically review the available data concerning the role of ATP13A2 in heavy metal transport and propose a possible alternative hypothesis that ATP13A2 might be a flippase. As a flippase, ATP13A2 may transport an organic molecule, such as a lipid or a peptide, from one membrane leaflet to the other. A flippase might control local lipid dynamics during vesicle formation and membrane fusion events.

  20. Assessing the influence of historic net and gross land changes on the carbon fluxes of Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Richard; Schulp, Catharina J E; Hengeveld, Geerten M; Verburg, Peter H; Clevers, Jan G P W; Schelhaas, Mart-Jan; Herold, Martin

    2016-07-01

    Legacy effects of land cover/use on carbon fluxes require considering both present and past land cover/use change dynamics. To assess past land use dynamics, model-based reconstructions of historic land cover/use are needed. Most historic reconstructions consider only the net area difference between two time steps (net changes) instead of accounting for all area gains and losses (gross changes). Studies about the impact of gross and net land change accounting methods on the carbon balance are still lacking. In this study, we assessed historic changes in carbon in soils for five land cover/use types and of carbon in above-ground biomass of forests. The assessment focused on Europe for the period 1950 to 2010 with decadal time steps at 1-km spatial resolution using a bookkeeping approach. To assess the implications of gross land change data, we also used net land changes for comparison. Main contributors to carbon sequestration between 1950 and 2010 were afforestation and cropland abandonment leading to 14.6 PgC sequestered carbon (of which 7.6 PgC was in forest biomass). Sequestration was highest for old-growth forest areas. A sequestration dip was reached during the 1970s due to changes in forest management practices. Main contributors to carbon emissions were deforestation (1.7 PgC) and stable cropland areas on peaty soils (0.8 PgC). In total, net fluxes summed up to 203 TgC yr(-1) (98 TgC yr(-1) in forest biomass and 105 TgC yr(-1) in soils). For areas that were subject to land changes in both reconstructions (35% of total area), the differences in carbon fluxes were about 68%. Overall for Europe the difference between accounting for either gross or net land changes led to 7% difference (up to 11% per decade) in carbon fluxes with systematically higher fluxes for gross land change data.

  1. Premedical anatomy experience and student performance in medical gross anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondrashov, Peter; McDaniel, Dalton J; Jordan, Rebecca M

    2017-04-01

    Gross anatomy is considered one of the most important basic science courses in medical education, yet few medical schools require its completion prior to matriculation. The effect of taking anatomy courses before entering medical school on performance in medical gross anatomy has been previously studied with inconsistent results. The effect of premedical anatomy coursework on performance in medical gross anatomy, overall medical school grade point average (GPA), and Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing Examination Level 1 (COMLEX 1) score was evaluated in 456 first-year osteopathic medical students along with a survey on its perceived benefits on success in medical gross anatomy course. No significant differences were found in gross anatomy grade, GPA, or COMLEX 1 score between students with premedical anatomy coursework and those without. However, significant differences and higher scores were observed in students who had taken three or more undergraduate anatomy courses including at least one with cadaveric laboratory. There was significantly lower perceived benefit for academic success in the medical gross anatomy course (P<.001) from those students who had taken premedical anatomy courses (5.9 of 10) compared with those who had not (8.2 of 10). Results suggest that requiring any anatomy course as a prerequisite for medical school would not have significant effect on student performance in the medical gross anatomy course. However, requiring more specific anatomy coursework including taking three or more undergraduate anatomy courses, one with cadaveric laboratory component, may result in higher medical gross anatomy grades, medical school GPA, and COMLEX 1 scores. Clin. Anat. 30:303-311, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Gross Motor Profile and Its Association with Socialization Skills in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardiono D. Pusponegoro

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: Children with ASD had lower gross motor skills compared to typically developing children. Gross motor impairments were found in 20% of the ASD children, and these children also had lower socialization skills than those without gross motor impairments.

  3. The potential of optical coherence tomography for diagnosing meniscal pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hang-Yin Ling, Carrie; Pozzi, Antonio; Thieman, Kelley M.; Tonks, Catherine A.; Guo, Shuguang; Xie, Huikai; Horodyski, MaryBeth

    2010-04-01

    Meniscal tears are often associated with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury and may lead to pain and discomfort in humans. Maximal preservation of meniscal tissue is highly desirable to mitigate the progression of osteoarthritis. Guidelines of which meniscal tears are amenable to repair and what part of damaged tissues should be removed are elusive and lacking consensus. Images of microstructural changes in meniscus would potentially guide the surgeons to manage the meniscal tears better, but the resolution of current diagnostic techniques is limited for this application. In this study, we demonstrated the feasibility of using optical coherence tomography (OCT) for the diagnosis of meniscal pathology. Torn medial menisci were collected from dogs with ACL insufficiency. The torn meniscus was divided into three tissue samples and scanned by OCT and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). OCT and SEM images of torn menisci were compared. Each sample was evaluated for gross and microstructural abnormalities and reduction or loss of birefringence from the OCT images. The abnormalities detected with OCT were described for each type of tear. OCT holds promise in non-destructive and fast assessment of microstructural changes and tissue birefringence of meniscal tears. Future development of intraoperative OCT may help surgeons in the decision making of meniscal treatment.

  4. Association of therapeutic occasion, gross motor function grading and developmental level with gross motor functional recovery in children with cerebral palsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The abnormal posture and motor pattern have not stabilized in children with cerebral palsy at early period, thus timely treatment can establish normal postural reflex and motor pattern, and prevent complications of muscle contracture, ankylosis, skeletal deformity, etc. The clinical factors affecting the rehabilitative efficacy of gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy should be observed.OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of therapeutic occasion, grading of gross motor function and developmental level on the rehabilitative efficacy in children with cerebral palsy.DESIGN: A case-controlled analysis.SETTING: Qilu Children's Hospital of Shandong University.PARTICIPANTS: Totally 138 children with cerebral palsy, who were hospitalized for 12 months in the Rehabilitation Center of Qilu Children's Hospital, Shandong University, were selected from April 2004 to September 2006, and all the children were diagnosed to be accorded with the standard set by the national seminar on cerebral palsy in 2004. There were 97 males and 41 females, including 55 cases of 0 - 2 years old,47 cases of 2 - 4 years and 36 cases of 4 - 6 years. Informed contents were obtained from relatives of all the children.METHODS: ① Comprehensive rehabilitation treatment: Vojta method was to induce the children to turn over the body and crawl by stimulating reflective turn over and crawling on belly. Bobath method including trainings of head control, turning over body, keeping sitting position, keeping balance, crawling, keeping standing position, and walking, etc.; The children were massaged by using the maneuvers of push, press, rub,pull, wave, etc. according to the sites and types of palsy. Acupuncture was performed mainly at bilateral motor areas, the needle was retained for 1 hour per time, 6 days continuously every week, and followed by a 1-day interval. ② Prognosis assessment: The gross motor functional grading of the children with cerebral palsy at admission was

  5. Application of Molecular Pathology in Endocrine Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linke, Ebru Serinsoz; Tezel, Gaye Güler

    2015-01-01

    Rapid growth in knowledge of cell and molecular biology led to the increased usage of molecular techniques in anatomical pathology. This is also due to the advances achieved in the techniques introduced in the last few years which are less laborious as compared to the techniques used at the beginning of the "molecular era". The initial assays were also very expensive and were not performed except for selected centers. Moreover, the clinicians were not sure how to make use of the accumulating molecular information. That situation has also changed and molecular techniques are being performed in a wide variety of medical settings which also has a reflection on the endocrine system pathology among other organ systems. This review will provide an update of genetic changes observed in different endocrine system pathologies and their diagnostic, therapeutic and prognostic values.

  6. Cellular function and pathological role of ATP13A2 and related P-type transport ATPases in Parkinson's disease and other neurological disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Veen, Sarah; Sørensen, Danny M.; Holemans, Tine;

    2014-01-01

    . To discuss the role of ATP13A2 in neurodegeneration, we first provide a short description of the architecture and transport mechanism of P-type transport ATPases. Then, we briefly highlight key P-type ATPases involved in neuronal disorders such as the copper transporters ATP7A (Menkes disease), ATP7B (Wilson...... disease), the Na+/K+-ATPases ATP1A2 (familial hemiplegic migraine) and ATP1A3 (rapid-onset dystonia parkinsonism). Finally, we review the recent literature of ATP13A2 and discuss ATP13A2's putative cellular function in the light of what is known concerning the functions of other, better-studied P...

  7. Immunogenetics and the Pathological Mechanisms of Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus Type 1- (HTLV-1-Associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis (HAM/TSP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mineki Saito

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1 is a replication-competent human retrovirus associated with two distinct types of disease only in a minority of infected individuals: the malignancy known as adult T-cell leukemia (ATL and a chronic inflammatory central nervous system disease HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP. Although the factors that cause these different manifestations of HTLV-1 infection are not fully understood, accumulating evidence suggests that complex virus-host interactions play an important role in determining the risk of HAM/TSP. This review focuses on the role of the immune response in controlling or limiting viral persistence in HAM/TSP patients, and the reason why some HTLV-1-infected people develop HAM/TSP whereas the majority remains asymptomatic carriers of the virus.

  8. Effect of mixing scanner types and reconstruction kernels on the characterization of lung parenchymal pathologies: emphysema, interstitial pulmonary fibrosis and normal non-smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ye; van Beek, Edwin J.; McLennan, Geoffrey; Guo, Junfeng; Sonka, Milan; Hoffman, Eric

    2006-03-01

    In this study we utilize our texture characterization software (3-D AMFM) to characterize interstitial lung diseases (including emphysema) based on MDCT generated volumetric data using 3-dimensional texture features. We have sought to test whether the scanner and reconstruction filter (kernel) type affect the classification of lung diseases using the 3-D AMFM. We collected MDCT images in three subject groups: emphysema (n=9), interstitial pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) (n=10), and normal non-smokers (n=9). In each group, images were scanned either on a Siemens Sensation 16 or 64-slice scanner, (B50f or B30 recon. kernel) or a Philips 4-slice scanner (B recon. kernel). A total of 1516 volumes of interest (VOIs; 21x21 pixels in plane) were marked by two chest imaging experts using the Iowa Pulmonary Analysis Software Suite (PASS). We calculated 24 volumetric features. Bayesian methods were used for classification. Images from different scanners/kernels were combined in all possible combinations to test how robust the tissue classification was relative to the differences in image characteristics. We used 10-fold cross validation for testing the result. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were calculated. One-way Analysis of Variances (ANOVA) was used to compare the classification result between the various combinations of scanner and reconstruction kernel types. This study yielded a sensitivity of 94%, 91%, 97%, and 93% for emphysema, ground-glass, honeycombing, and normal non-smoker patterns respectively using a mixture of all three subject groups. The specificity for these characterizations was 97%, 99%, 99%, and 98%, respectively. The F test result of ANOVA shows there is no significant difference (p <0.05) between different combinations of data with respect to scanner and convolution kernel type. Since different MDCT and reconstruction kernel types did not show significant differences in regards to the classification result, this study suggests that the 3-D AMFM can

  9. Handheld computing in pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Park

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Handheld computing has had many applications in medicine, but relatively few in pathology. Most reported uses of handhelds in pathology have been limited to experimental endeavors in telemedicine or education. With recent advances in handheld hardware and software, along with concurrent advances in whole-slide imaging (WSI, new opportunities and challenges have presented themselves. This review addresses the current state of handheld hardware and software, provides a history of handheld devices in medicine focusing on pathology, and presents future use cases for such handhelds in pathology.

  10. Handheld computing in pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seung; Parwani, Anil; Satyanarayanan, Mahadev; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2012-01-01

    Handheld computing has had many applications in medicine, but relatively few in pathology. Most reported uses of handhelds in pathology have been limited to experimental endeavors in telemedicine or education. With recent advances in handheld hardware and software, along with concurrent advances in whole-slide imaging (WSI), new opportunities and challenges have presented themselves. This review addresses the current state of handheld hardware and software, provides a history of handheld devices in medicine focusing on pathology, and presents future use cases for such handhelds in pathology. PMID:22616027

  11. Pathology in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakellariou, S; Patsouris, E

    2015-11-01

    Pathology is the field of medicine that studies diseases. Ancient Greece hosted some of the earliest societies that laid the structural foundations of pathology. Initially, knowledge was based on observations but later on the key elements of pathology were established based on the dissection of animals and the autopsy of human cadavers. Christianized Greece under Ottoman rule (1453-1821) was not conducive to the development of pathology. After liberation, however, a series of events took place that paved the way for the establishment and further development of the specialty. The appointment in 1849 of two Professors of Pathology at the Medical School of Athens for didactical purposes proved to be the most important step in fostering the field of pathology in modern Greece. Presently in Greece there are seven university departments and 74 pathology laboratories in public hospitals, employing 415 specialized pathologists and 90 residents. The First Department of Pathology at the Medical School of Athens University is the oldest (1849) and largest in Greece, encompassing most pathology subspecialties.

  12. Age and geader in pathological typing of 1116 children with nephrotic syndrome%儿童肾病综合征病理类型与年龄、性别的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任献国; 刘光陵; 夏正坤; 高远赋; 樊忠民; 何旭; 茅松

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨肾病综合征患儿的肾脏病理和性别、年龄分期的关系.方法 对1 116例经肾穿刺活检明确肾脏病理的原发性肾病综合征患儿临床资料进行回顾性分析.结果 1 116例患儿中男817例,女299例,男女比例2.73:1;平均年龄(7.3 ± 3.3)岁,其中婴幼儿期90例,学龄前期294例,学龄期409例,青春期323例.肾脏病理轻微病变(MCNS)222例,占19.9%;系膜增生性肾小球肾炎(MsPGN)726例,占65.1%;膜增生性肾小球肾炎(MPGN)55例,占4.9%;膜性肾小球肾炎(MN)27例,占2.4%;局灶节段硬化性肾小球肾炎(FSGS)86例,占7.7%.肾脏病理类型在4个年龄分期的分布差异有统计学意义,MCNS患儿以学龄前期最多,MsPGN患儿以学龄期最多,MPGN和MN患儿以青春期最多,FSGS的患儿以学龄期最多.MCNS患儿的男女比例为5.3:1,MsPGN为2.4:1,MPGN为0.96:1,MN为3.5:1,FSGS为2.7:1,肾脏病理类型在性别上的分布差异有统计学意义(P < 0.05).结论 对于无法开展肾活检的医院或有肾穿刺禁忌证的患儿,可根据年龄和性别结合临床检验初步推断肾脏病理变化的轻重,进一步指导治疗、判断预后.%Objective Renal pathological types of 1116 children suffering from primary nephrotic syndrome from March 1992 to March 2010 in Nanjing General Hospital of Nanjing Military Command were reviewed. Relationship between renal pathology and age or gender in these children was analyzed. Methods Renopuncture was performed to 1 116 children with primary nephrotic syndrome to identify pathological types. According to the age, those children were divided into four groups: infancy, pre-school age, school age and adolescence. Different distribution of renal pathological types among age stage and gender were analyzed. Results Of total 1 116 patients, 817 were boys and 299 were girls (M:F=2.73:1). The mean age was (7.3±3.3) yrs. Ninety cases were infants, 294 cases were pre-school age,409 cases were school age, 323 cases were

  13. Accuracy of preoperative tumor grade and intraoperative gross examination of myometrial invasion in patients with endometrial cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traen, Koen; Hølund, Berit; Mogensen, Ole

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Preoperative prediction of metastases to the regional lymph nodes in women with endometrioid endometrial cancer is a challenge. According to the Danish Gynaecological Cancer Society guidelines, a pelvic lymphadenectomy is warranted in all poorly differentiated tumors and all...... stage Ic disease. We have evaluated the accuracy of preoperative tumor grade and intraoperative gross examination of myometrial invasion, in predicting the need for a pelvic lymphadenectomy. METHODS: Preoperative tumor grade and intraoperative gross examination of myometrial invasion were prospectively...... registered in 72 women with stage I endometrioid endometrial cancer, operated between 1 September 2004 and 18 April 2006. The pre- and intraoperative findings were compared with the final pathology report. RESULTS: The preoperative prediction of grade (well, moderate or poorly differentiated) was correct...

  14. Infrequency of gross skin lesions among Panamanian forest mammals with cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrer, A; Christensen, H A

    1975-08-01

    Natural leishmanial infections among feral mammals in the Republic of Panama were studied in relation to gross skin alterations. Three dermatotropic species of Leishmania, L. braziliensis, L. mexicana and L. hertigi, isolated from 230 sylvatic animals of 5 mammalian orders were involved. In 205 (89%) of the cases there were no gross skin alterations. Cryptic infections of all three leishmanial species among wild animals were confirmed by culture and hamster inoculation. This type of infection was always present in the sloths, Choloepus hoffmanni and Bradypus infusatcus, infected with L. braziliensis and in the porcupine, Coendou rothschildi, infected with L. hertigi. Suggestive skin alterations were encountered in 10 (4%) of infected animals. Only 15 (7%) of infected animals exhibited typical leishmanial lesions. It was possible to correlate skin depigmentation with the course of leishmanial infection in one animal, a young kinkajou, Potos flavus.

  15. 不同病理类型乳腺分叶状肿瘤的X线片、MRI影像学特征分析%Analysis of X-ray, MRI images in different pathological types of breast phyllodes tumor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建军; 景朝朝; 刘亚运; 徐曼丽; 王鸿

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study and analyze the features of X-ray,MRI of different pathological types of breast phyllodes tumor imaging.Method From March 2012 to September 2014,retrospectively analyzed the breast the imaging of 54 cases of phyllodes tumor patients in Datong Coal Group Co General Hospital,reviewed their clinical presentation.Analyzed the pathological pressure type.Compared the benign,borderline and malignant tumor.Results There were no obvious differences in morphology,location and size of tumor.X-ray examination revealed masses as the density increased,the benign and borderline for round of malignant lobular morphology;magnetic resonance imaging (MRI),T2WI showed the tumor was high signal.Borderline and malignant phyllodes tumor on T2WI easily showed low signal separation.Conclusion There are certain characteristics of X-ray and MRI features of phyllodes tumor;MRI of phyllodes tumor pathological subtype diagnosis has a certain value.%目的:研究分析不同病理类型乳腺分叶状肿瘤的X线片、MRI影像学特征。方法回顾性分析2012年3月至2014年9月期间,经大同煤矿集团有限责任公司总医院确诊的54例乳腺分叶状肿瘤的女性患者,回顾其临床表现,分析其各病理类型的影像学表现。并对良性、交界性及恶性肿瘤进行比较。结果肿瘤形态、位置、大小无明显差异。X线片检查显现肿块多为密度增高,良性和交界性多为类圆形,恶性多为分叶状形态;MRI检查,T2WI显示肿瘤为高信号。交界性和恶性分叶状肿瘤在T2WI上易显示低信号分隔。结论分叶状肿瘤的X线片及MRI表现有一定特征,MRI对分叶状肿瘤的病理亚型诊断具有一定价值。

  16. CIRCLE OF WILLIS: VARIANT FORMS AND THEIR EMBRYOLOGY USING GROSS DISSECTION AND MAGNETIC RESONANCE ANGIOGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bishwajeet Saikia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The circle of Willis is a large arterial anastomotic ring present at the base of the brain uniting the internal carotid and the vertebrobasilar systems. Branches from the internal carotid and vertebral arteries anastomose to form an arterial circle in the basal cisterns and then distribute to supply the brain. The anatomy of the circle is known to vary significantly; the vessels may be absent or sufficiently narrowed altering the hemodynamics of the circle of Willis and affecting its role as a collateral route. These variant forms can be correlated to their phylogeny and embryology. Prior knowledge of these variant forms is important in pathologies and treatment (e.g. parent artery occlusion for carotid aneurysms resulting occlusion of carotid and vertebral arteries. Context and purpose: Our study was undertaken to observe and compare the morphology of circle of Willis using two entirely different methods; gross dissection (GD and Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA and to correlate the variant patterns encountered with the possible underlying developmental events. Gross dissection was carried out in 70 human cadavers and equal numbers of MRA’s of healthy individuals were studied retrospectively. Results: Only 31 cases (22.14% presented with a complete circle of Willis, out of which 14 (20% were cadaveric specimen and 17 (24.18% were in MRA group. Unilateral hypoplastic posterior communicating artery was the most common variation observed in our study (19.28%. Conclusions: The wide variation in completeness of the circle of Willis in general population is similar to earlier observations. Review of phylogeny and embryology makes us familiar with variant forms which would be otherwise difficult to recognize and may be misinterpreted. MRA and gross dissection findings despite certain variations are comparable.

  17. Hip joint pathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tijssen, M; van Cingel, R E H; de Visser, E

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this retrospective cohort study was to (a) describe the clinical presentation of femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) and hip labral pathology; (b) describe the accuracy of patient history and physical tests for FAI and labral pathology as confirmed by hip arthroscopy. Patients (18-6...

  18. Gross Pollutant Traps: Wet Load Assessment at Sungai Kerayong, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Shah, M. R.; Zahari, N. M.; Said, N. F. Md; Sidek, L. M.; Basri, H.; Noor, M. S. F. Md; Husni, M. M. Mohammad; Jajarmizadeh, Milad; Roseli, ZA; Mohd. Dom, N.

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this project is to carry out assessment on the effectiveness and performance of Gross Pollutant Traps (GPTs) stormwater quality control in the urban areas. The study aims to provide a management and planning tool for effective management of the gross pollutants in the urban areas specifically in River of Life (ROL) project. ROL project is a Malaysian Government initiative under the Economic Transformation Program. One of the program in the greater Klang Valley is to transform Klang River into a vibrant and livable waterfront by the year 2020. The main river in ROL catchment is Sungai Klang (upper catchment), with main tributaries Sungai Gombak, Sungai Batu, Sungai Jinjang, Sungai Keroh, Sungai Bunus, Sungai Ampang and Sungai Kerayong. This paper objective is to study the gross pollutant wet load at Sungai Kerayong 1 and Sungai Kerayong 2 which is located at the downstream location of the ROL project. The result shows that Sungai Kerayong 2 produced higher gross pollutant wet load (8025.33 kg/ha/yr) than Sungai Kerayong 1 (4695.12 kg/ha/yr). This could be due to high contributions amounts of gross pollutant traps from residential area, the degree of develop area, and also the location of the river itself related to climate and rainfall.

  19. Gross efficiency during rowing is not affected by stroke rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmijster, Mathijs J; Van Soest, Arthur J; De Koning, Jos J

    2009-05-01

    It has been suggested that the optimal stroke rate in rowing is partly determined by the stroke-rate dependence of internal power losses. This should be reflected in a stroke-rate dependency of gross efficiency (e(gross)). The purpose of this study was to investigate if e(gross) is affected by stroke rate. A second aim was to determine whether internal power losses can be estimated by the negative power output during the stroke cycle (P(negative)). Seventeen well-trained female rowers participated in this study. They rowed three trials on a modified rowing ergometer on slides at a submaximal intensity, with a respiratory exchange ratio of 1 or close to 1. Stroke rates were 28, 34, and 40 strokes per minute. The trials were fully randomized. Power transfer to the flywheel was kept constant whereas e(gross) was determined during each trial. No significant differences in e(gross) were found between conditions. This finding suggests that in rowing internal power losses are not influenced by stroke rate. Furthermore, although P(negative) increased at increasing stroke rate (P measure to estimate internal power losses. This study shows that within the range of stroke rates applied in competitive rowing, internal power losses are unrelated to rowing cycle frequency.

  20. Prevalence of the B Type Raf Kinase V600E Mutation in Cytologically Indeterminate Thyroid Nodules: Correlation with Ultrasonographic and Pathologic Features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chae Hyun; Choi, Yoon Jung; Choi, Seon Hyeong; Rho, Myong Ho Kook Shin Ho; Chung, Eun Chul [Dept. of Radiology, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chae, Seoung Wan; Kim, Dong Hoon; Sohn, Jin Hee [Dept. of Radiology, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Ji Sup [Dept. of Radiology, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-01-15

    To study the prevalence of B type Raf kinase (BRAF) mutations, and to evaluate the ultrasonographic and clinicopathological features associated with thyroid cytology of indeterminate nodules. We assessed the presence or absence of BRAF mutation in 44 specimens from patients with cytologically indeterminate thyroid nodules according to two consecutive preoperative fine needle aspiration cytology procedures. In 9 specimens, the test for BRAF mutation was not possible due to scant cellularity. DNA was extracted from the atypical cells and then analyzed for the BRAF V600E mutation by pyrosequencing. The ultrasonographic and clinicopathological features of the patients were characterized according to their mutation status. The BRAF V600E mutation was present in 17 (48.6%) of 35 patients with indeterminate cytology results and in 17 (54.8%) of the 31 patients with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). Twenty two of 35 cytologically indeterminate nodules had calcifications, and among them 14 cases were proven to be positive for BRAF V600E mutations. Extrathyroid extension was significantly more frequent in the presence of the BRAF V600E mutation (p = 0.027), while tumor size, lympho-vascular invasion, or lymph node metastasis were not associated with the mutation. Screening for BRAF V600E mutations in conjunction with cytology may increase the diagnostic accuracy for PTC with indeterminate cytology results.

  1. Updates in ophthalmic pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Pia R; Grossniklaus, Hans E

    2017-05-01

    Ophthalmic pathology has a long history and rich heritage in the field of ophthalmology. This review article highlights updates in ophthalmic pathology that have developed significantly through the years because of the efforts of committed individuals and the confluence of technology such as molecular biology and digital pathology. This is an exciting period in the history of ocular pathology, with cutting-edge techniques paving the way for new developments in diagnostics, therapeutics, and research. Collaborations between ocular oncologists and pathologists allow for improved and comprehensive patient care. Ophthalmic pathology continues to be a relevant specialty that is important in the understanding and clinical management of ocular disease, education of eye care providers, and overall advancement of the field.

  2. Morphological studies of Gross virus-induced lymphoblasts by scanning electron microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ichikawa,Hiroyuki

    1977-04-01

    Full Text Available The surface of Gross virus-induced murine lymphoblasts and C-type virus particles budding from these cells were investigated under the scanning electron microscope (SEM. The cells appeared spindle-shaped or roughly-rounded with extensive surface features consisting of microvilli, blebs and ruffled membranes. C-type virus particles were detected on the cell membrane as small spherical particles, distinguishable from the microvilli. Clustered virions were observed in some cases. However, the distribution of virions appeared to be random. The surface of the virion was smooth and had no globular units at high magnification. These morphological observations were confirmed in ultrathin sections.

  3. Investigation of Adaptive Optics Imaging Biomarkers for Detecting Pathological Changes of the Cone Mosaic in Patients with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Marco; Parravano, Mariacristina; Serrao, Sebastiano; Ziccardi, Lucia; Giannini, Daniela; Lombardo, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate a set of adaptive optics (AO) imaging biomarkers for the assessment of changes of the cone mosaic spatial arrangement in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1). Methods 16 patients with ≥20/20 visual acuity and a diagnosis of DM1 in the past 8 years to 37 years and 20 age-matched healthy volunteers were recruited in this study. Cone density, cone spacing and Voronoi diagrams were calculated on 160x160 μm images of the cone mosaic acquired with an AO flood illumination retinal camera at 1.5 degrees eccentricity from the fovea along all retinal meridians. From the cone spacing measures and Voronoi diagrams, the linear dispersion index (LDi) and the heterogeneity packing index (HPi) were computed respectively. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to discriminate DM1 patients without diabetic retinopathy from controls using the cone metrics as predictors. Results Of the 16 DM1 patients, eight had no signs of diabetic retinopathy (noDR) and eight had mild nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) on fundoscopy. On average, cone density, LDi and HPi values were significantly different (P<0.05) between noDR or NPDR eyes and controls, with these differences increasing with duration of diabetes. However, each cone metric alone was not sufficiently sensitive to discriminate entirely between membership of noDR cases and controls. The complementary use of all the three cone metrics in the logistic regression model gained 100% accuracy to identify noDR cases with respect to controls. Conclusion The present set of AO imaging biomarkers identified reliably abnormalities in the spatial arrangement of the parafoveal cones in DM1 patients, even when no signs of diabetic retinopathy were seen on fundoscopy. PMID:26963392

  4. H-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy associated with E211K prion protein polymorphism: clinical and pathologic features in wild-type and E211K cattle following intracranial inoculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2006 an H-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) case was reported in an animal with an unusual polymorphism (E211K) in the prion protein gene. Although the prevalence of this polymorphism is low, cattle carrying the K211 allele are predisposed to rapid onset of H-type BSE when exposed. The ...

  5. Clinico-pathologic presentation and management of neurofibromatosis type 1(Von Recklinghausen′s disease among north-eastern Nigerians: A six year review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y W Nyandaiti

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Neurofibromatosis type 1 is not an uncommon disorder, its prevalence is said to be around 1 in 2000-4000 live birth. It has diverse manifestations that may affect any part of the body and present to clinician of any specialty, however, little or no attention have been given to area of neurological, ophthalmological and auditory complications in these patients. This study is aimed at evaluating the clinical, histological presentation and to highlight the need of multi disciplinary approach in the management of this condition. Methodology: The case records of patients who presented with clinical signs and request form with histologically proven neurofibrom atosis were retrieved and reviewed from University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital and Federal Medical Center Azare from January 2000-December 2005. The clinical characteristics, histological reports and complications were evaluated. Information such as the age, sex, site and histological diagnosis were extracted from the patient′s case notes and histology request form. Results: Forty seven patients fulfill the diagnostics criteria of the national institute of health consensus development conference NIHCDC. The age range was 10-65yrs, with the mean of 27.85yrs. There were 23 males and 24 fern ales, sixteen patients had a positive family history of sim ilar condition in a first degree relative and three are from same parents. Forty one had cutaneous fibroma (87.2% while 6 (12.8% were plexiform. Twenty-nine patients had cafe a laic lesion (61.7%, while 30(63.8% presented with axillaiy and or inguinal freckling. One of the cases presented with osseous lesion and hypertension. The commonest site of neurofibroma was the trunk 16(34%, head and face 11(23%, then the lower limb 10(21.8%. Treatment modality was mainly excision of neurofibroma. Conclusion:This study have documented that NF1 is not an uncommon disorder in this region and has no sex predilection and present commonly within the

  6. Expression profile of mitrogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling genes in the skeletal muscle & liver of rat with type 2 diabetes: Role in disease pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli Tang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Type 2 diabetes (T2D is characterized as hyperglycaemia caused by defects in insulin secretion, and it affects target tissues, such as skeletal muscle, liver and adipose tissue. Therefore, analyzing the changes of gene expression profiles in these tissues is important to elucidate the pathogenesis of T2D. We, therefore, measured the gene transcript alterations in liver and skeletal muscle of rat with induced T2D, to detect differentially expressed genes in liver and skeletal muscle and perform gene-annotation enrichment analysis. Methods: In the present study, skeletal muscle and liver tissue from 10 streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and 10 control rats were analyzed using gene expression microarrays. KEGG pathways enriched by differentially expressed genes (DEGs were identified by WebGestalt Expander and GATHER software. DEGs were validated by the method of real-time PCR and western blot. Results: From the 9,929 expressed genes across the genome, 1,305 and 997 differentially expressed genes (DEGs, P<0.01 were identified in comparisons of skeletal muscle and liver, respectively. Large numbers of DEGs (200 were common in both comparisons, which was clearly more than the predicted number (131 genes, P<0.001. For further interpretation of the gene expression data, three over-representation analysis softwares (WebGestalt, Expander and GATHER were used. All the tools detected one KEGG pathway (MAPK signaling and two GO (gene ontology biological processes (response to stress and cell death, with enrichment of DEGs in both tissues. In addition, PPI (protein-protein interaction networks constructed using human homologues not only revealed the tendency of DEGs to form a highly connected module, but also suggested a "hub" role of p38-MAPK-related genes (such as MAPK14 in the pathogenesis of T2D. Interpretation & conclusions: Our results indicated the considerably aberrant MAPK signaling in both insulin-sensitive tissues of T2D

  7. Gross municipal product: the design procedure and application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Vasilevich Kolechkov

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the actual problem to find the adequate methods to assess the economic performance of municipalities conditioned by their growing independence and role in the development of regional economy. Nowadays many researchers are working on the practical application and testing of various approaches to assessing theterritory economicresults based on thecalculation of gross municipal product (GМP. However, the development of methodological reasonable calculation tools is still at an early stage. In this article presents a simplified method of calculating the gross municipal product, an analysis of the dynamics and territorialindustrial structure GМP, implemented in terms of grouping areas GМP methods hierarchical cluster analysis of the economic characteristics of the obtained clustersbased on systematic occurring in the economic literature, methodological developments in the calculation of gross municipal product, determination of strengths and weaknesses of different methodological approaches

  8. Anatomy of the Gross Intestine of the Capybara (Hydrochoerus Hydrochaeris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelia Vazquez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The anatomy of the gross intestine and its mesentery of the capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris have not been described completely. Approach: In the present study, eight adult capybaras were studied using gross dissection. Results: The cecum was the largest part of the intestine and was divided into base, body and apex. The cecocolic fold joined the cecum to the full extent of the proximal loop of ascending colon. The ascending colon was divided into two ansae, one proximal and one distal or spiral. The distal ansa had a spiral arrangement and was placed cranially to the right, covered ventrally by the apex of the cecum. This ansa had a centripetal gyrus to the left, a central flexure and a centrifugal gyrus turning to the right that was continuous with the transverse colon in the right colic flexure. Conclusion: The gross intestine of the capybara was different to other previously studied rodents.

  9. Potato production in Europe - a gross margin analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren Marcus; Bizik, Jan; Costa, Luisa Dalla;

    The purpose of this paper is to examine different cropping practices, cost structures and gross margins for producing conventional table potatoes in 6 different regions within the European Union: Czech Republic, Denmark, Italy, Poland, Portugal and Slovakia. Findings from this study show that pot......The purpose of this paper is to examine different cropping practices, cost structures and gross margins for producing conventional table potatoes in 6 different regions within the European Union: Czech Republic, Denmark, Italy, Poland, Portugal and Slovakia. Findings from this study show...... that potato cropping practices varies signifi-cantly between these countries with major differences in yields and costs. Italy and Denmark are the two regions with highest gross margins due to high yields and reve-nues. Poland is by far the largest potato producing country among the 6 countries ex...

  10. [Pathology- a new revival].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barshack, Iris

    2013-06-01

    The field of pathology has undergone considerable change in recent years. The editor and editorial board of this journal are to be commended for their decision to devote a special issue to the field of pathology. Pathology deals with the characterization, investigation, and diagnosis of disease and disease processes and as such, has Long been considered one of the foundations of medicine. It is a rich and multi-faceted field which has retained its breadth of scope in the face of ever-increasing specialization and sub-specialization in medicine. In addition to its classic roles in autopsy, case description, and the diagnosis of pathoLogic processes, new and innovative spheres of activity are becoming integral to the field, especially in the realm of molecular pathology. Pathology is a Leading player in the new age of "personalized cancer therapy", where pathologists are responsible not only for diagnosing disease in the tissue, but also for conducting additional tests which may predict its response to specific drug therapies. In this context, moLecular pathology has become essential to the field both in the provision of cLinical service and research. To fully implement this trend, we are witness to the rise of tissue collection and tissue banking initiatives for both diagnostic and research purposes. A national tissue banking project in Israel has recently received considerable attention.

  11. Numerical simulation for the Gross-Pitaevskii equation based on the lattice Boltzmann method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huimin

    2017-09-01

    A lattice Boltzmann model for the Gross-Pitaevskii equation is proposed in this paper. Some numerical tests for one- and two-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation have been conducted. The waves of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation are simulated. Numerical results show that the lattice Boltzmann method is an effective method for the wave of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation.

  12. 29 CFR 779.259 - What is included in annual gross volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is included in annual gross volume. 779.259 Section... Coverage Annual Gross Volume of Sales Made Or Business Done § 779.259 What is included in annual gross volume. (a) The annual gross volume of sales made or business done of an enterprise consists of its...

  13. 29 CFR 794.122 - Ascertainment of “annual” gross sales volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ascertainment of âannualâ gross sales volume. 794.122... Annual Gross Volume of Sales § 794.122 Ascertainment of “annual” gross sales volume. The annual gross volume of sales of an enterprise engaged in the wholesale or bulk distribution of petroleum...

  14. Happy Life Years: a measure of Gross National Happiness

    OpenAIRE

    Veenhoven, Ruut

    2004-01-01

    textabstractHappiness is defined as the degree to which a person enjoys his or her life-as-a-whole. Accordingly ‘Gross National Happiness’ is defined as the degree to which citizens in a country enjoy the life they live. Individual happiness can be measured by self-report on a single standard question. Hence Gross National Happiness can be measured by the average response to such questions in general populations surveys. Survey data on average self-report of happiness can be combined with est...

  15. The Impact of Investments and Gross Value Added upon Earnings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa APARASCHIVEI

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we tried to capture the impact of investments and gross value added, but also the impact of the employment on the average wage. The analysis refers to the period 1998- 2008 and we are using data on the activities of the Romanian economy. The results of this study confirm the negative influence of the employment, being consistent with the theory. Also, the impact of investments and that of gross value added came out to be positive and significant.

  16. 间质性肺疾病的临床特点影像学特征及病理类型分析%The clinical characteristics of interstitial lung disease,imaging characteristics and pathologic types of analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温杰冉; 唐雪玲; 谢永平; 黎国梅; 巫嘉雯

    2013-01-01

      目的了解间质性肺疾病的临床特点、影像学特征和病理类型。方法对18例间质性肺疾病患者的临床表现、胸CT或高分辨率CT(HRCT)、肺组织病理特点进行分析。结果18例患者均有咳嗽,其中12例伴有呼吸困难,4例肺内可闻及湿啰音,3例有杵状指趾。胸CT或HRCT示:15例以磨玻璃影为主,2例弥散性细小结节影,1例多发实变影。据病理改变,18例间质性肺炎包括非特异性6例,急性3例,淋巴细胞性1例,未分化型1例,隐源性机化性肺炎2例,呼吸性细支气管炎伴间质性肺炎1例,弥散性泛细支气管炎2例,肺泡微石症、类脂性肺炎各1例。结论间质性肺疾病是一组异质性疾病,临床表现以咳嗽、呼吸困难为主,胸部影像学以磨玻璃影为主,不同的间质性肺疾病病理表现各异。%Objective To understand the clinical characteristics of interstitial lung disease, imaging characteristics and pathologic types. Methods To diffuse pulmonary disease in 18 patients clinical manifestations, Chest CT and high resolution CT (HRCT) and lung tissue pathology characteristic carries on the analysis.Results Clinical manifestations:18 cases were cough, 12 cases with have difficulty breathing, audible and wet rale in the 4 cases of lungs, 3 cases with finger clubbing toe. Chest CT and HRCT shows:15 cases with ground glass shadow is given priority to,2 cases of diffuse small nodular shadows, 1 case of multiple consolidation shadows. According to the pathological changes, 18 cases of interstitial pneumonia included in 6 cases of nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) and acute interstitial pneumonia (AIP) in 3 patients, hidden source sex machine pneumonia in 2 cases, 1 lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia, respiratory bronchiolitis associated with interstitial pneumonia (RBILD) in 1 case, undifferentiated type, 1 case of interstitial pneumonia, 4 cases including diffuse extensive

  17. [Gunshot wounds: forensic pathology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorin de la Grandmaison, Geoffroy

    2012-02-01

    Gunshot wounds are among the most complex traumatic lesions encountered in forensic pathology. At the time of autopsy, careful scrutiny of the wounds is essential for correct interpretation of the lesions. Complementary pathological analysis has many interests: differentiation between entrance and exit wounds, estimation of firing distance, differentiation between vital and post mortem wounds and wounds dating. In case of multiple headshots, neuropathological examination can provide arguments for or against suicide. Sampling of gunshot wounds at autopsy must be systematic. Pathological data should be confronted respectively to autopsy and death scene investigation data and also ballistic studies. Forensic pathologist must be aware of the limits of optic microscopy.

  18. Pathological Gambling in Parkinson's Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callesen, Mette Buhl; Linnet, Jakob; Thomsen, Kristine Rømer

    Pathological Gambling in Parkinson’s Disease Mette Buhl Callesen, Jakob Linnet, Kristine Rømer Thomsen, Albert Gjedde, Arne Møller PET Center, Aarhus University Hospital and Center of Functionally Integrative Neuroscience, Aarhus University.   The neurotransmitter dopamine is central to many...... aspects of human functioning, e.g., reward, learning, and addiction, including Pathological Gambling (PG), and its loss is key to Parkinson’s Disease (PD). PD is a neurodegenrative disorder caused by progressive loss of dopamine-producing cells in the midbrain [1]. One type of treatment of PD symptoms...... is medication that binds to dopamine receptors in the brain, i.e., dopamine agonists [1]. Unfortunately, for some PD patients a very serious side effect to this specific kind of treatment is developing PG. PG is an Impulse Control Disorder characterized by recurrent maladaptive behavior associated with personal...

  19. Digital lectures for learning gross anatomy: a study of their efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anudeep; Min, Aung Ko Ko

    2017-03-01

    The current study investigates the level of students' learning and attitudes towards the teaching and learning process when using digital lectures to teach gross anatomy to year 1 medical students. The study sampled year 1 medical students of cohorts 2013 and 2014. The year 1 medical students in 2013 were taught gross anatomy of the heart by didactic classroom lectures while those in 2014 were taught with digital lectures using the same content. A review session was conducted for the 2014 cohort. A 19-item survey was distributed amongst students to investigate their attitudes and feedback. The data were analysed using SPSS software. The 2014 cohort had a mean score of 47.65 for short essay questions and 51.19 for multiple choice questions, while the 2013 cohort scored an average of 36.80 for short essay questions and 49.22 for multiple choice questions. The difference in scores for each type of question was found to be significant. Using a 5-point Likert scale, students gave an average of 4.11 when asked if they liked the teaching and learning process and would like it to be applied further. The results of the study provide strong evidence that the digital teaching and learning process was well received by students and could also lead to improved performance. Digital lectures can provide a satisfactory substitute for classroom lectures to teach gross anatomy, thus providing flexibility in learning and efficient learning, whilst also freeing lecture slots to promote mastery learning.

  20. Trends in pathology graduate medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, C B

    2001-07-01

    Comprehensive data show trends in graduate medical education in pathology with regard to the numbers of accredited programs, persons certified from those programs, and demographics of the population of first year-trainees in pathology. Experience with US seniors and foreign-trained physicians in the PGY match process for pathology from 1991 through 2000 is presented, along with data on the types of medical schools generating pathology trainees for the PGY-1 year and the top medical schools of origin of US medical graduates who completed the program and became certified in pathology between 1995 and 1999. The impact of reimbursement of the credentialing year is also addressed through data collected from the PRODS Survey 2000, and those results are reviewed. Finally, turnover rates among pathology program directors of combined AP/CP programs and subspecialty programs since 1994 are presented. An analysis of these trends is provided, along with suggestions to improve both the perception of careers in pathology and the actual choice of a career in pathology.

  1. Insulin dysfunction and Tau pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noura eEl Khoury

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD include senile plaques of β-amyloid (Aβ peptides (a cleavage product of the Amyloid Precursor Protein, or APP and neurofibrillary tangles (NFT of hyperphosphorylated Tau protein assembled in paired helical filaments (PHF. NFT pathology is important since it correlates with the degree of cognitive impairment in AD.Only a small proportion of AD is due to genetic variants, whereas the large majority of cases (~99% is late onset and sporadic in origin. The cause of sporadic AD is likely to be multifactorial, with external factors interacting with biological or genetic susceptibilities to accelerate the manifestation of the disease.Insulin dysfunction, manifested by diabetes mellitus (DM might be such factor, as there is extensive data from epidemiological studies suggesting that DM is associated with an increased relative risk for AD. Type 1 diabetes (T1DM and type 2 diabetes (T2DM are known to affect multiple cognitive functions in patients. In this context, understanding the effects of diabetes on Tau pathogenesis is important since tau pathology show a strong relationship to dementia in AD, and to memory loss in normal aging and mild cognitive impairment.Here, we reviewed preclinical studies that link insulin dysfunction to Tau protein pathogenesis, one of the major pathological hallmarks of AD. We found more than 30 studies reporting on Tau phosphorylation in a mouse or rat model of insulin dysfunction. We also payed attention to potential sources of artifacts, such as hypothermia and anesthesia, that were demonstrated to results in Tau hyperphosphorylation and could major confounding experimental factors. We found that very few studies reported the temperature of the animals, and only a handful did not use anesthesia. Overall, most published studies showed that insulin dysfunction can promote Tau hyperphosphorylation and pathology, both directly and indirectly, through hypothermia.

  2. The impact of gross anatomy laboratory on first year medical students' interest in a surgical career.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulcrano, Marisa E; Malekzadeh, Sonya; Kumar, Anagha

    2016-09-01

    This study sought to determine the impact of gross anatomy laboratory (GA) on first year medical students' (M1) interest in a surgical career. Secondary objectives included identifying other influences in M1s' career decision making. This prospective study included surveys before and after GA. All M1s enrolled in GA were invited to participate. Sixty students completed both the pre- and post-test surveys. A 5-point Likert-type scale surveyed participants' interests, specific personality traits, experience during the course of GA, and likelihood of pursuing a surgical career. Statistical analysis included Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test and (Polychotomous) Ordinal Logistic Regression Model. Students' desire to work with their hands increased (50 vs. 33.3%) and enjoyment working with instruments and tools similarly increased (50 vs. 41.7%). Likelihood of pursuing a surgical career after gross anatomy increased in 31.7% of students, decreased in 16.7%, and was unchanged in 51.7%. Over 75% of students with a prior interest in surgery and 21% of those who previously felt neutral agreed that they were likely to pursue a career in surgery at the conclusion of the laboratory. Students with a surgeon family member were 0.1976 times as likely to exhibit a positive change in interest (P values 0.024). Gross anatomy may influence up to a third of the class to consider a surgical career, especially those with a prior interest in surgery and those previously feeling ambivalent. Students with a surgeon family member became less likely to enter a surgical career after gross anatomy. Clin. Anat. 29:691-695, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. 乳腺纤维腺瘤的超声分型及病理对照研究%Correlation of ultrasonographic types of breast fibroadenomas with pathologic findings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严松莉; 涂剑宏

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the correlation of ultrasonographic,pathologic,and clinical findings of breast fibroadenomas.Methods 157 cases of breast fibroadenomas demonstrated by pathologic findings were examined with color Doppler ultrasound prior to biopsy.Images were classified according to ultrasound characteristics and analysed with latter pathologic findings.Results Ultrasound images of 157 cases could be divided into 6 types:uniformity( n =82),linage( n =37),bicolor( n =15),nodule-in-nodule (n =3),cyst-massity mixed ( n =9),calcify( n =11).5 cases were mistakenly judged to breast cancer on ultrasound images(1 ease in the linage,1 case in the cyst-mass mixed,3 cases in the calcify).Accurate ratio of ultrasound diagnosis was 96.82%.Pathologic finding:①Uniformity type,hyperplasia of both the gland and fibrous tissue of tumor in order.② Linage type,hyperplasia fibrous tissue in belt.③ Bicolor type,significant difference in the proportion and arrangement of the hyperplasia gland and fibrous tissue.④Nodule-in-nodule type,extensive hemorrhagic infarction in tumor.⑤Cyst-massity mixed type,hydatoncus,metaplasia in great sweat gland,hyperplasia conduit epithelial,conduit cystic-expansion.⑥ Calcify type,fibroadenomas on growth of static or regression transformation,and calcify of interstitial tissue.Conclusions Ultrasonic diagnosis and its simple typing is an accurate,simple and effective way for the diagnosis of breast fibroadenoma,which may improve the accuracy of diagnosis rate for breast fibroadenoma.It is helpful for choosing the surgical remedies.%目的 探讨乳腺纤维腺瘤的超声分型、图像特征、病理基础及临床意义.方法 分析经病理证实的157例乳腺纤维腺瘤的声像图特征并进行超声分型.将超声图片与病理图片进行对照分析.结果 157例乳腺纤维腺瘤中,均匀型82例,线条型37例,双色型15例,结中结型3例,囊实混合型9例,钙化型11例;其中1例线条型纤维腺瘤、1例

  4. Monitoring of gross alpha, gross beta and actinides activities in exhaust air released from the waste isolation pilot plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thakur, P., E-mail: pthakur@cemrc.org [Carlsbad Environmental Monitoring and Research Center, 1400 University Drive, Carlsbad, New Mexico 88220 (United States); Mulholland, G.P. [Carlsbad Environmental Monitoring and Research Center, 1400 University Drive, Carlsbad, New Mexico 88220 (United States)

    2011-09-15

    The simultaneous measurements of gross alpha and beta activities is one of the simplest radioanalytical technique used as a method for screening samples of both high and low activities of alpha and beta emitting radionuclides in environmental and bioassay samples. Such measurements are of great interest from both a radiological, waste disposal viewpoint, and to establish a trend of radioactivity based on long term monitoring. At the WIPP (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant) site, unfiltered exhaust air from the underground repository is the most important effluent. As part of its monitoring program, the particulates from WIPP exhaust air are collected everyday at a location typically called the Fixed Air Sampler (FAS) site or Station A, this site is located at the release point for aerosol effluents from the underground to the environment. The measurements of gross alpha and beta activity on air filter samples were performed using an ultra low level counter, PIC-MPC 9604-{alpha}/{beta}, from Protean Instrument Corporation. The high sensitivity of the gross alpha and beta instrument enables detection of low value activity from the air filters. In 2009, the values of gross alpha and beta activity concentrations ranged from Simultaneous measurements of gross alpha and gross beta activities in the particulates from WIPP exhaust air were performed. > Ultra low level counter, PIC-MPC 9604-{alpha}/{beta} counter was used for the measurements. > Values of gross alpha activity concentrations ranged from Values of gross beta activity concentrations ranged from

  5. Mast cells in pathological and surgical scars

    OpenAIRE

    Beer, T; Baldwin, H; West, L; Gallagher, P.; Wright, D.

    1998-01-01

    AIM—To investigate the role of mast cells in surgical and pathological scar reactions by their identification and quantification using immunohistochemistry.
METHODS—Surgical scars and pathological scar reactions were stained immunohistochemically for tryptase to identify mast cells. These were quantified in the scar tissue and surrounding dermis. Statistical analyses were performed to test the hypothesis that mast cell numbers were different in the varying types of scar reaction.
RESULTS—A si...

  6. Podocyte Pathology and Nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra eMerscher

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Sphingolipids are components of the lipid rafts in plasma membranes, which are important for proper function of podocytes, a key element of the glomerular filtration barrier. Research revealed an essential role of sphingolipids and sphingolipid metabolites in glomerular disorders of genetic and non-genetic origin. The discovery that glucocerebrosides accumulate in Gaucher disease in glomerular cells and are associated with clinical proteinuria initiated intensive research into the function of other sphingolipids in glomerular disorders. The accumulation of sphingolipids in other genetic diseases including Tay-Sachs, Sandhoff, Fabry, hereditary inclusion body myopathy 2, Niemann-Pick and nephrotic syndrome of the Finnish type and its implications with respect to glomerular pathology will be discussed. Similarily, sphingolipid accumulation occurs in glomerular diseases of non-genetic origin including diabetic kidney disease (DKD, HIV-associated nephropathy, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS and lupus nephritis. Sphingomyelin metabolites, such as ceramide, sphingosine and sphingosine-1-phosphate have also gained tremendous interest. We recently described that sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase acid-like 3b (SMPDL3b is expressed in podocytes where it modulates acid sphingomyelinase (ASMase activity and acts as a master modulator of danger signaling. Decreased SMPDL3b expression in post-reperfusion kidney biopsies from transplant recipients with idiopathic FSGS correlates with the recurrence of proteinuria in patients and in experimental models of xenotransplantation. Increased SMPDL3b expression is associated with DKD. The consequences of differential SMPDL3b expression in podocytes in these diseases with respect to their pathogenesis will be discussed. Finally, the role of sphingolipids in the formation of lipid rafts in podocytes and their contribution to the maintenance of a functional slit diaphragm in the glomerulus will be discussed.

  7. Determinants of pathologic mineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Thorsten

    2008-01-01

    Physiologic mineralization is necessary for the formation of skeletal tissues and for their appropriate functions during adulthood. Mineralization has to be controlled and restricted to specific regions. If the mineralization process occurs in regions that normally do not mineralize, there can be severe consequences (pathologic or ectopic mineralization). Recent findings have indicated that physiologic and pathologic mineralization events are initiated by matrix vesicles, membrane-enclosed particles released from the plasma membranes of mineralization-competent cells. The understanding of how these vesicles are released from the plasma membrane and initiate the mineralization process may provide novel therapeutic strategies to prevent pathologic mineralization. In addition, other regulators (activators and inhibitors) of physiologic mineralization have been identified and characterized, and there is evidence that the same factors also contribute to the regulation of pathologic mineralization. Finally, programmed cell death (apoptosis) may be a contributor to physiologic mineralization and if occurring after tissue injury may induce pathologic mineralization and mineralization-related differentiation events in the injured and surrounding areas. This review describes how the understanding of mechanisms and factors regulating physiologic mineralization can be used to develop new therapeutic strategies to prevent pathologic or ectopic mineralization events.

  8. Analysis of pathological types and features of glomerular diseases in adults in Mianyang area%绵阳地区成人肾小球疾病127例临床病理分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    简讯; 李斌; 张华; 马懿; 曾蜀春; 陈福琼

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the pathological types and features of glomerular diseases in adults in Mianyang are-a. Methods The data on 127 patients with glomerular diseases confirmed by renal biopsies with definite pathologic diagnosis in our hospital between Jan. 2008 and Aug. 2011 were reviewed retrospectively. Distribution of age and sex, glomerular pathological types and relationship with clinical features were analyzed. Results 127 cases of adult glomerular diseases, 95 case was primary glomerular diseases, accounting for 74. 80%. The ratio of male to female was 1/1. 88. 32 cases was secondary glomerular diseases, accounting for 25. 20% . The ratio of male to female was 1/1.13. IgA nephropathy(IgAN)was the most common primary glomerular diseases, followed by minimal change disease, membrane nephropathy, and mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis, ea al. Lupus nephritis (LN)was the most common secondary glomerular diseases, followed by Henoch-Schonlein purpura nephritis, nephritis associated with hepatitis B, systemic vasculins and renal amyloidosis, ea al. Clinical features included proteinuria and/ or hematuria 30.71% , nephrotic syndrome 50. 39% , acute nephritic syndrome 7.87% and acute renal failure 7. 87%. Conclusion The most common renal disease occurred in adults in Mianyang area is primary glomerular disease. IgAN is predominant and the adolescent are in high risk for primary glomerular disease. LN is the most common in secondary glomerular diseases. Each pathological type of glomerular disease may present a variety of clinical manifestations, and each manifestation has different pathological types .%目的 了解绵阳地区成人肾小球疾病的病理类型及其特点.方法 回顾我院2008年1月~2011年8月经肾活检确诊的127例成人肾小球疾病患者的临床资料,分析其年龄性别分布、肾病理类型及其与临床表现的关系.结果 127例成人肾小球疾病患者,原发性肾小球疾病95例(74.80%),男∶女=1

  9. Correlative factors and pathological types of fungal rhino-sinusitis%真菌性鼻鼻窦炎发病相关因素及病理分型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卿丽华

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the correlative factors and pathological types of fungal rhinosinusitis(FRS). Methods:Clinical data of 163 patients with FRS enrolled between June 2005 and March 2010 in our hospital were retrospectively analyzed. Correlative factors and clinical features of FRS were investigated by using the multiple factor Logistic regression analysis. Pathological types of 163 cases of FRS were classified by using Gomori methenamine silvers taining, which was special for fungi. Results: Main risk factors for FRS were;over 50-year-old,female,hemato nasal discharge,headache,calcified plaque in CT scan,diabetes respectively. Amongl63 cases of FRS,61 cases were chronic invasive and 102 cases were non-invasive. Positive rate of fungal culture in patients with FRS was 93.86% and in normal controls was 22.38%,with statistical differences between them(P<0.05). Conclusions:FRS has lots of correlative factors. We should take different treatment schemes for different patients based on their pathological types and correlative factors of FRS in order to improve the therapeutic effects for FRS.%目的:探讨真菌性鼻鼻窦炎(fungal rhinosinusitis,FRS)的发病相关因素和病理分型.方法:对163例FRS患者的临床资料进行回顾性对照研究,采用非条件Logistic逐步回归分析方法,回顾性分析FRS发病的危险因素,筛查分析其发生的危险因素.对所有FRS患者,窦腔取材后采用真菌特异性六胺银染色方法进行了病理分型.结果:FRS发病的危险因素主要有年龄较大(≥50岁)、女性、涕血、头痛、有钙化斑,并发糖尿病等.163例FRS患者中,61例为侵袭性、102例为非侵袭性.FRS的真菌培养阳性率为:93.86%,正常对照组真菌培养阳性为22.38%,两组之间的差别有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:FRS的发病有诸多相关因素,结合FRS的相关因素和不同病理分型,采取有效的治疗措施,可以提高FRS的治疗效果.

  10. Magnitude and severity of anemia, its clinico-pathological types and the burden of iron deficiency in adolescent boys: Is weekly iron supplementation a step in the right direction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monalisha Sahu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Iron-deficiency anaemia is a major global public health problem affecting all stages of life cycle. Adolescent boys are also vulnerable to it owing to their growth spurt and inadequate dietary intakes. Assessment of anaemia and quantification of the burden of iron-deficiency anemia in them has been less studied. Knowledge of these aspects at the local level may help public health functionaries take appropriate decisions. Objectives: i To assess the magnitude and severity of anaemia in adolescent boys residing in a peri-urban community of Delhi, ii To identify the clinico-pathological type of anemia and among adolescent boys residing in a South Delhi locality iii To estimate the burden of iron deficiency in them. Materials and Methods: A Community-based cross sectional study was conducted in 250 adolescent boys at Mehrauli in South Delhi in 2012. Hemoglobin estimation was done by Hemocue method, severity of anaemia assessed as per WHO criteria. To assess the clinico-pathological type of anaemia peripheral smears were prepared and stained with Wright Giemsa stain for assessing red-cell morphology. Serum ferritin estimation by MAb ELISA was done to confirm Iron deficiency. Statistical analysis: SPSS ver 12 and Epi Info ver 7 softwares were used for data entry and analysis. Mean and SD was calculated for quantitative variables while qualitative variables were compared by percentages. Chi-square test and ANOVA was used for checking statistical significance in observed differences. Results: Pallor was seen in 14.6%. Prevalence of anaemia was 16.4% with proportion of mild, moderate and severe anemia being 66.7%, 31.2% and 2.1% respectively. Mean haemoglobin concentration was 13.03 ±1.18 gm% (min 7.6, max 15.0. Anemia prevalence increased with increase in age (9.6%, 18.4% and 26.0% in early, middle and late adolescence, respectively. Clinico-pathological type of anaemia was microcytic-hypochromic in 50.0%, normocytic-normochromic in 17

  11. 26 CFR 1.555-2 - Additions to gross income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Corporation sells 90percent of its stock in the Y Corporation and thus is a minority shareholder in the Y... on which the required United States group exists, and (2) Such foreign corporation is a shareholder... the gross income of its shareholders, whether United States shareholders or other foreign...

  12. Comments on the research article by Gross et al. (2012)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guntur, Srinivas; Sørensen, Niels N.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this Letter to the Editor is to present a discussion on the physics of rotational augmentation based on existing work. One of the latest works by Gross et al. (2012) is highlighted here, and its conclusions are discussed. Based on the existing understanding of rotational augmentati...

  13. Effective Collaboration among the Gross Motor Assessment Team Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menear, Kristi S.; Davis, Timothy D.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the gross motor assessment team (GMAT) members' roles and collaborative approach to making appropriate decisions and modifications when addressing the needs of individuals with disabilities in physical education. Case studies of students are used to demonstrate effective uses of the GMAT. The primary outcome of the GMAT's…

  14. 40 CFR 403.15 - Net/Gross calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... STANDARDS GENERAL PRE-TREAT-MENT REGULATIONS FOR EXIST-ING AND NEW SOURCES OF POLLUTION § 403.15 Net/Gross... pollutants in the Industrial User's intake water in accordance with this section. Any Industrial User wishing... of the Industrial User, the applicable Standard will be calculated on a “net” basis (i.e., adjusted...

  15. Rubriek 'Meten in de praktijk': Gross Motor Function Measure.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenhof, C.; Ketelaar, M.

    2004-01-01

    De Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) is een instrument dat de grof-motorische vaardigheden meet van kinderen met cerebrale parese. De GMFM is expliciet ontwikkeld als evaluatief meetinstrument, wat betekent dat het bedoeld is om veranderingen over de tijd of verandering en die optreden na behandel

  16. Development of the Gross Motor Function Classification System (1997)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    To address the need for a standardized system to classify the gross motor function of children with cerebral palsy, the authors developed a five-level classification system analogous to the staging and grading systems used in medicine. Nominal group process and Delphi survey consensus methods were used to examine content validity and revise the…

  17. Effective Collaboration among the Gross Motor Assessment Team Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menear, Kristi S.; Davis, Timothy D.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the gross motor assessment team (GMAT) members' roles and collaborative approach to making appropriate decisions and modifications when addressing the needs of individuals with disabilities in physical education. Case studies of students are used to demonstrate effective uses of the GMAT. The primary outcome of the GMAT's…

  18. Assessing Gross Motor Skills of Kosovar Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shala, Merita

    2009-01-01

    In the light of the new developments in preschool education in Kosovo, this study attempts to carry out an assessment of the development of gross motor skills of preschool children attending institutional education. The emphasis is on creating a set of tests to measure the motor attainments of these children by conducting assessments of the…

  19. 78 FR 26575 - Gross Combination Weight Rating; Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-07

    ... Weight Rating; Definition AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION... definition of ``gross combination weight rating'' (or GCWR) to clarify that a GCWR is the greater of: the....regulations.gov . Fax: 1-202-493-2251. Mail: Docket Management Facility (M-30), U.S. Department of...

  20. Gross and Microscopic Lesions in Corals from Micronesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, T M; Aeby, G S; Hughen, K A

    2016-01-01

    The authors documented gross and microscopic morphology of lesions in corals on 7 islands spanning western, southern, and eastern Micronesia, sampling 76 colonies comprising 30 species of corals among 18 genera, with Acropora, Porites, and Montipora dominating. Tissue loss comprised the majority of gross lesions sampled (41%), followed by discoloration (30%) and growth anomaly (29%). Of 31 cases of tissue loss, most lesions were subacute (48%), followed by acute and chronic (26% each). Of 23 samples with discoloration, most were dark discoloration (40%), with bleaching and other discoloration each constituting 30%. Of 22 growth anomalies, umbonate growth anomalies composed half, with exophytic, nodular, and rugose growth anomalies composing the remainder. On histopathology, for 9 cases of dark discoloration, fungal infections predominated (77%); for 7 bleached corals, depletion of zooxanthellae from the gastrodermis made up a majority of microscopic diagnoses (57%); and for growth anomalies other than umbonate, hyperplasia of the basal body wall was the most common microscopic finding (63%). For the remainder of the gross lesions, no single microscopic finding constituted >50% of the total. Host response varied with the agent present on histology. Fragmentation of tissues was most often associated with algae (60%), whereas necrosis dominated (53%) for fungi. Two newly documented potentially symbiotic tissue-associated metazoans were seen in Porites and Montipora. Findings of multiple potential etiologies for a given gross lesion highlight the importance of incorporating histopathology in coral disease surveys. This study also expands the range of corals infected with cell-associated microbial aggregates.

  1. Gross and microscopic lesions in corals from Micronesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, Thierry M.; Aeby, Greta S.; Hughen, Konrad A.

    2015-01-01

    The authors documented gross and microscopic morphology of lesions in corals on 7 islands spanning western, southern, and eastern Micronesia, sampling 76 colonies comprising 30 species of corals among 18 genera, with Acropora, Porites, and Montipora dominating. Tissue loss comprised the majority of gross lesions sampled (41%), followed by discoloration (30%) and growth anomaly (29%). Of 31 cases of tissue loss, most lesions were subacute (48%), followed by acute and chronic (26% each). Of 23 samples with discoloration, most were dark discoloration (40%), with bleaching and other discoloration each constituting 30%. Of 22 growth anomalies, umbonate growth anomalies composed half, with exophytic, nodular, and rugose growth anomalies composing the remainder. On histopathology, for 9 cases of dark discoloration, fungal infections predominated (77%); for 7 bleached corals, depletion of zooxanthellae from the gastrodermis made up a majority of microscopic diagnoses (57%); and for growth anomalies other than umbonate, hyperplasia of the basal body wall was the most common microscopic finding (63%). For the remainder of the gross lesions, no single microscopic finding constituted >50% of the total. Host response varied with the agent present on histology. Fragmentation of tissues was most often associated with algae (60%), whereas necrosis dominated (53%) for fungi. Two newly documented potentially symbiotic tissue-associated metazoans were seen in Porites and Montipora. Findings of multiple potential etiologies for a given gross lesion highlight the importance of incorporating histopathology in coral disease surveys. This study also expands the range of corals infected with cell-associated microbial aggregates.

  2. Happy Life Years: a measure of Gross National Happiness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractHappiness is defined as the degree to which a person enjoys his or her life-as-a-whole. Accordingly ‘Gross National Happiness’ is defined as the degree to which citizens in a country enjoy the life they live. Individual happiness can be measured by self-report on a single standard

  3. 77 FR 51706 - Gross Combination Weight Rating (GCWR); Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration 49 CFR Parts 383 and 390 RIN 2126-AB53 Gross Combination Weight Rating (GCWR); Definition AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Direct final rule; request for comments. SUMMARY: The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration...

  4. Strategic improvements for gross anatomy web-based teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marker, David R; Juluru, Krishna; Long, Chris; Magid, Donna

    2012-01-01

    Current generations of graduate students have been immersed in technology from their early school years and have high expectations regarding digital resources. To better meet the expectations of Gross Anatomy students at our institution, electronic radiology teaching files for first-year coursework were organized into a web site. The web site was custom designed to provide material that directly correlated to the Gross Anatomy dissection and lectures. Quick links provided sets of images grouped by anatomic location. Additionally, Lab and Study Companions provided specific material for the students to review prior to and after lectures and gross dissections. Student opinions of this education resource were compared to student opinions of the prior year's digital teaching files. The new content was ranked as more user friendly (3.1 points versus 2.3 points) and more useful for learning anatomy (3.3 points versus 2.6 points). Many students reported that using the web portal was critical in helping them to better understand relationships of anatomical structures. These findings suggest that a well-organized web portal can provide a user-friendly, valuable educational resource for medical students who are studying Gross Anatomy.

  5. Fine and Gross Motor Ability in Males with ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Both fine and gross motor abilities were evaluated in 10-year-old males with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and compared to a group of control children at the School of Psychology, Curtin University of Technology, Perth, Australia.

  6. Construction of 2-dimensional Grosse-Wulkenhaar Model

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Zhituo

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we construct the noncommutative Grosse-Wulkenhaar model on 2-dimensional Moyal plane with the method of loop vertex expansion. We treat renormalization with this new tool, adapt Nelson's argument and prove Borel summability of the perturbation series. This is the first non-commutative quantum field theory model to be built in a non-perturbative sense.

  7. Monopol suretab kohaliku loomakasvataja / Oleg Gross ; interv . Illar Mõttus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Gross, Oleg, 1952-

    2005-01-01

    Väike-Maarja jäätmetehase monopoolse seisundi vastu sõna võtnud OG Elektra omanik Oleg Gross on kindel, et jäätmetehasega suretatakse kohalikud väiksemad lihatootjad välja. Kommenteerivad talupidaja Jüri Järvet ja Rakvere Lihakombinaadi direktor Olle Horm

  8. ɛ-expansion in the Gross-Neveu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, Avinash

    2016-10-01

    We use the recently developed CFT techniques of Rychkov and Tan to compute anomalous dimensions in the O( N ) Gross-Neveu model in d = 2 + ɛ dimensions. To do this, we extend the "cowpie contraction" algorithm of arXiv:1506.06616 to theories with fermions. Our results match perfectly with Feynman diagram computations.

  9. Barn music at St Donat's castle / Philip Gross

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Gross, Philip, 1952-

    2011-01-01

    Muusikafestivalist "Vale of Glamorgan", mis oli 2010. a. pühendatud Arvo Pärdile. Eesti kammermuusikaansambli Resonabilis kavas oli ka festivali tellimusel valminud uelsi helilooja Gareth Peredur Churchilli "Vocable", mille teksti kirjutas Philip Gross. Festivalikontsertide muljeid leiab Grossi luuletsüklis "Barn music" (avaldatud samas ajakirjanumbris, lk. 42-43)

  10. Attitudes of Healthcare Students on Gross Anatomy Laboratory Sessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashiro, Yukiko; Anahara, Reiko; Kohno, Toshihiko; Mori, Chisato; Matsuno, Yoshiharu

    2009-01-01

    At Chiba University, gross anatomy laboratory sessions ("laboratories") are required for physical therapy students. Though most physical therapy schools require their students to participate in laboratories so that they will better understand the structure of the human body, few data exist on the value of these laboratories specifically…

  11. Uniqueness of Meromorphic Functions and Question of Gross

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仪洪勋

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, we deal with the problem of uniqueness of meromorphic functions. It is shown that there exist two finite sets Sj (j=1, 2) such that any two nonconstant meromorphic functions f and g satisfying Ef(Sj)=Eg(Sj) for j = 1,2 must be identical, which answers a question posed by Gross.

  12. Interlimb Coordination: An Important Facet of Gross-Motor Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobbio, Tatiana; Gabbard, Carl; Cacola, Priscila

    2009-01-01

    Motor development attains landmark significance during early childhood. Although early childhood educators may be familiar with the gross-motor skill category, the subcategory of interlimb coordination needs greater attention than it typically receives from teachers of young children. Interlimb coordination primarily involves movements requiring…

  13. Barn music at St Donat's castle / Philip Gross

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Gross, Philip, 1952-

    2011-01-01

    Muusikafestivalist "Vale of Glamorgan", mis oli 2010. a. pühendatud Arvo Pärdile. Eesti kammermuusikaansambli Resonabilis kavas oli ka festivali tellimusel valminud uelsi helilooja Gareth Peredur Churchilli "Vocable", mille teksti kirjutas Philip Gross. Festivalikontsertide muljeid leiab Grossi luuletsüklis "Barn music" (avaldatud samas ajakirjanumbris, lk. 42-43)

  14. 75 FR 15610 - Exclusions From Gross Income of Foreign Corporations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 Exclusions From Gross Income of Foreign Corporations CFR Correction In Title 26 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 1 (Sec. Sec. 1.851 to 1.907), revised as...

  15. Gross Motor Development, Movement Abnormalities, and Early Identification of Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozonoff, Sally; Young, Gregory S.; Goldring, Stacy; Greiss-Hess, Laura; Herrera, Adriana M.; Steele, Joel; Macari, Suzanne; Hepburn, Susan; Rogers, Sally J.

    2008-01-01

    Gross motor development (supine, prone, rolling, sitting, crawling, walking) and movement abnormalities were examined in the home videos of infants later diagnosed with autism (regression and no regression subgroups), developmental delays (DD), or typical development. Group differences in maturity were found for walking, prone, and supine, with…

  16. Outcomes of a Rotational Dissection System in Gross Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshak, David W.; Oakes, Joanne; Hsieh, Pei-Hsuan; Chuang, Alice Z.; Cleary, Leonard J.

    2015-01-01

    At the University of Texas Houston Medical School, a rotational dissection system was introduced to improve coordination between the Gross Anatomy and the Introduction to Clinical Medicine (ICM) courses. Six students were assigned to each cadaver and divided into two teams. For each laboratory, one team was assigned to dissect and the other to…

  17. Strategic Improvements for Gross Anatomy Web-Based Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Marker

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Current generations of graduate students have been immersed in technology from their early school years and have high expectations regarding digital resources. To better meet the expectations of Gross Anatomy students at our institution, electronic radiology teaching files for first-year coursework were organized into a web site. The web site was custom designed to provide material that directly correlated to the Gross Anatomy dissection and lectures. Quick links provided sets of images grouped by anatomic location. Additionally, Lab and Study Companions provided specific material for the students to review prior to and after lectures and gross dissections. Student opinions of this education resource were compared to student opinions of the prior year’s digital teaching files. The new content was ranked as more user friendly (3.1 points versus 2.3 points and more useful for learning anatomy (3.3 points versus 2.6 points. Many students reported that using the web portal was critical in helping them to better understand relationships of anatomical structures. These findings suggest that a well-organized web portal can provide a user-friendly, valuable educational resource for medical students who are studying Gross Anatomy.

  18. Correlation of the clinical features and the Oxford pathological type of primary IgA nephropathy%原发性IgA肾病临床与IgA肾病牛津分类的相关性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周宏伟; 苏震; 朱慧萍; 林海霞; 许菲菲; 吕吟秋; 陈波

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨IgA肾病牛津分类与临床指标之间的相关性,为进一步指导治疗、判断预后提供依据.方法:选取2010年7月至2012年6月在温州医科大学附属第一医院经肾活检确诊的原发性IgA肾病患者205例,结合其临床和病理资料,按不同条件分组,进行临床病理分析.结果:按IgA肾病牛津分类对患者的病理资料进行评价,病理损伤以局灶节段性肾小球硬化(S1)多见,病理类型以系膜细胞增多(M0型)节段性肾小球硬化(S1型)毛细血管内细胞增多(E0型)肾小管萎缩/间质纤维化(T0型)即M0S1E0T0多见.患者临床表现与病理之间的相关性分析:①系膜细胞增多(M)、毛细血管内细胞增多(E)、肾小管萎缩/间质纤维化(T)与肾活检时蛋白尿高度相关(P<0.05);②毛细血管内细胞增多(E)、肾小管萎缩/间质纤维化(T)、肾微小动脉病变与肾活检时平均动脉压(MAP)升高相关(P< 0.05);③系膜细胞增多(M)、肾小管萎缩/间质纤维化(T)与肾活检时血肌酐升高相关(P< 0.01).结论:原发性IgA肾病临床表现多样,病理类型以M0S1E0T0多见.原发性IgA肾病临床表现与IgA肾病牛津分类之间具有相关性,IgA肾病牛津分类与临床特点有关,可以有效地指导临床.%Objective:To study the correlation between clinical features and the Oxford pathological classification in IgA nephropathy (IgAN).Methods:Two hundred and five IgAN patients from the First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical College which had been diagnosed by renal biopsy from July 2010 to June 2012 were reviewed.All of the pathological and clinical data were analyzed with SPSS 16.0.Results:Segmental glomerulosclerosis was the main pathological damage and M0S1E0T0 was the major type in renal histology.During the patient biopsy,the correlation was presence as follows:(① The proteinuria was related to renal pathological findings (including the mesangial proliferation,endocapillary proliferation

  19. [Fiber-type indication among different pathologies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Almaraz, Rosalía; Martín Fuentes, María; Palma Milla, Samara; López Plaza, Bricia; Bermejo López, Laura M; Gómez Candela, Carmen

    2015-06-01

    Introducción: la fibra engloba los carbohidratos no digeridos ni absorbidos en el tubo digestivo, llegando intactos al colon. Se clasifica en soluble e insoluble, con propiedades fisiológicas distintas. La fibra se ha empleado frecuentemente para tratar y prevenir diversas patologías gastrointestinales. También se ha estudiado su papel en la fisiopatología de enfermedades como la diabetes, la dislipemia, la hipertensión arterial y la obesidad. Además se ha relacionado su consumo con la prevención de ciertos tumores, en especial del cáncer colorrectal, así como con el aumento de la excreción de nitrógeno en heces. Objetivos: analizar la evidencia del papel que la fibra puede tener en el tratamiento y prevención de distintas enfermedades, así como el tipo de fibra más adecuado en cada una. Métodos: revisión no sistemática en Medline y Pubmed, y posterior aplicación de los criterios de inclusión y exclusión. Resultados: diferentes tipos de fibra pueden ser útiles en el tratamiento de enfermedades gastrointestinales, como el estreñimiento, la diarrea, el síndrome de intestino irritable, la colitis ulcerosa en remisión o el síndrome de intestino corto. Los pacientes con diabetes, obesidad, hiperlipidemia, hipertensión y enfermedad cardiovascular también pueden beneficiarse del consumo principalmente de fibra soluble. La fibra alimentaria ha demostrado prevenir el cáncer de colon y otros tumores. En pacientes con encefalopatía hepática o insuficiencia renal, la fibra fermentable ha demostrado beneficios. Conclusiones: la fibra tiene un papel importante en la prevención y tratamiento de múltiples enfermedades; sin embargo, son necesarios más estudios de calidad para poder realizar recomendaciones más específicas.

  20. ANALYSIS OF CT FEATURES OF NON SMALL CELL LUNG CANCER OF DIFFERENT PATHOLOGICAL TYPES%不同病理类型非小细胞肺癌CT征象分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辛玉静; 王胜林; 李桂萍

    2015-01-01

    目的::分析不同病理类型非小细胞肺癌的CT征象。方法:回顾分析117例(鳞癌60例、腺癌57例)非小细胞肺癌的CT征象。结果:腺癌磨玻璃密度影、毛刺征、胸膜凹陷征、血管集束征、支气管气象出现率明显高于鳞癌(P<0.05);鳞癌空洞、坏死、支气管截断以及远端阻塞性炎症、不张的出现率明显高于腺癌(P<0.05)。腺癌、鳞癌患者年龄、平扫CT值、强化增值,分叶征、小泡征、棘突征、钙化出现率比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。结论:不同病理类型非小细胞肺癌的CT征象存在差异,可作为临床初步诊断的客观依据之一,但在临床工作中需仔细加以鉴别诊断。%[ABSTRACT]Objective: To analyze the CT features of non small cell lung cancer of different pathological types. Methods: The CT features of 117 cases non small cell lung cancer patients (squamous carcinoma 60 cases, adenocarcinoma 57 cases) were retrospectively analyzed.Results: In adenocarcinoma, the occurrence rate of ground glass opacity, speculation, pleural indentation, vascular convergence sign, air-bronchogram were obviously higher than squamous carcinoma (P0.05).Conclusions: The CT features of non small cell lung cancer of different pathological types are different, which can be used as one of the objective evidence of clinical preliminary diagnosis, but still need carefully differential diagnosis.

  1. Associations between intestinal lesions and detection of Clostridium perfringens type A or beta-2 toxin in neonatal piglets with diarrhoea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsted, Hanne; Jonach, Beata Renata; Kokotovic, Branko

    Objective: To evaluate associations between gross and histopathological lesions and the presence of Clostridium perfringens type A (CpA) and beta-2 toxin in piglets from 4 herds with outbreaks of diarrhoea. Methods: Pathological examinations on 51 diarrhoeic piglets aged 3-7 days were carried out....... CpA was cultured and typed by PCR. A Clostridium perfringens spp targeted probe was used for flourescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and detection of beta-2 toxin in intestinal contents was performed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: Piglets without intestinal lesions had...

  2. 垂体微腺瘤的临床内分泌与病理免疫组化类型相关性研究%Micro pituitary adenomas clinical endocrine correlation with pathologic types of immunohistochemical study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    禹亚丽

    2014-01-01

    目的:对垂体微腺瘤的临床症状体征、内分泌与病理免疫组化类型相关性进行探讨。方法选取2010年1月至2012年12月在本院确诊的垂体微腺瘤患者84例,对其进行内分泌、影像学和病理检查,分析检查结果之间的关系。结果患者出现内分泌症状76例(90.47%),免疫组化阳性组内分泌症状发生率[92.59%(75/81)]较免疫组化阴性组[33.33%(1/3)]高,差异具有显著性(χ2=5.92,P<0.05),表明内分泌症状与免疫组化结果相符。血清泌乳素(PRL)阳性组血清PRL增高及闭经、溢乳或月经失调发生率高于PRL阴性组;生长激素(GH)阳性组血清GH增高及巨人症或肢端肥大发生率高于GH阴性组。结论垂体微腺瘤患者的临床表现、内分泌结果与病理免疫组化类型相关,可用来提高垂体微腺瘤的诊断率与治疗率。%Objective To explore the relationship between the clinical symptoms and endocrine of micro pituitary adenomas and pathological immunohistochemical type. Method We had Choosed 84 patients with micro pituitary adenomas from January 2010 to December 2012 in our hospital, then checked the endocrine, imaging and pathological of them, and analysis the relationship between the test results. Result There were 76 cases (90.47%) had endocrine symptoms in all patients, the immunohistochemical positive endocrine symptoms rate was 92.59%(75/81) , this rate was higher than the immunohistochemical negative group which rate was 33.33%(1/3), the difference was statistically signiifcant (χ2=5.92, P<0.05), this indicated that the endocrine symptoms consistent with immunohistochemical results. The increased serum PRL and amenorrhea, spilled milk or incidence of menstrual disorder rate of serum prolactin (PRL) positive group were higher than that of PRL negative groups; increased serum GH and gigantism or acromegaly fertilizer rates of growth hormone (GH) positive group were higher than GH

  3. 浅表脂肪瘤的超声分型及与病理对照的研究%Study of ultrasonic typing and pathological comparison in superficial lipoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊华花; 李泉水; 许晓华; 陈胜华; 孙燕花

    2009-01-01

    Objective To analyze the sonogram features of superficial lipoma, and to explore the diagnostic value by ultrasound. Methods Six hundred and twenty patients with superficial lipoma were examined by ultrasonography. Their quantity, position, shape, size, border, internal echo, adjacent relations, depth from the skin and whether in fat layer were observed. And the condition of masses interior and blood flow distribution were observed at the same time. The correlation of ultrasonic appearance and pathologic histology typing of the masses were analyzed. Results Three hundred and eighty cases of typical lipoma were confirmed by ultrasonography, their appearance was clear boundary with peplos high level echo, low level echo in masses similar to the surrounding fat echo, and slender barred high level separated light pattern.The appearance of pathologic histology was abundant ripe fat cells. There were 175 cases of high level echo lipoma, the ultrasonic appearance was high level echo masses which was significant higher than surrounding fat echo, clear boundary without peplos. Internal echo was uniform. Pathologic histology showed fat cells, capillaries and fibrous tissue,the rest were atypical lipoma. Conclusion The ultrasonic appearance of superficial lipoma has some characteristics. Ultrasonic typing of lipoma has important value in imaging basis and diagnosis of superficial lipoma.%目的 分析浅表部位脂肪瘤的声像图特点,探讨超声对其诊断价值.方法 超声检查620例浅表部位脂肪瘤患者,观察肿块数量、部位、形态、大小、边界、内部回声、毗邻关系、距皮肤深度、是否在脂肪层内等,同时观察包块内部及周边的血流分布,分析肿块的超声表现与病理组织学分型的相关性.结果 典型的脂肪瘤380例,超声表现为边界清楚,包膜高回声,肿块内部呈低回声,与周围脂肪回声相似,间有纤细的条纹状高回声分隔;病理组织学表现为大量成熟的

  4. Riccati generalization of self-similar solutions of nonautonomous Gross-Pitaevskii equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panigrahi, P. K.; Gupta, Rama; Goyal, Amit; Kumar, C. N.

    2013-07-01

    We present a systematic analytical approach to construct a family of self-similar waves, related through a free parameter, in quasi one-dimension Gross-Pitaevskii equation with time-varying parameters. This approach enables us to control the dynamics of dark and bright similaritons, and first- and second- order self-similar rogue waves in Bose-Einstein condensate through the modulation of time dependent trapping potential. The analysis is done for the sech2- type time-varying quadratic trapping potential for two different choices of linear potential.

  5. EuroMInd-D: A Density Estimate of Monthly Gross Domestic Product for the Euro Area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Proietti, Tommaso; Marczak, Martyna; Mazzi, Gianluigi

    EuroMInd-D is a density estimate of monthly gross domestic product (GDP) constructed according to a bottom–up approach, pooling the density estimates of eleven GDP components, by output and expenditure type. The components density estimates are obtained from a medium-size dynamic factor model...... parameters, and conditional simulation filters for simulating from the predictive distribution of GDP. Both algorithms process sequentially the data as they become available in real time. The GDP density estimates for the output and expenditure approach are combined using alternative weighting schemes...

  6. Eponyms in forensic pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nečas, Pavel; Hejna, Petr

    2012-12-01

    The phenomenon of eponymous terms in forensic pathology is described in this paper. The authors analyzed representative textbooks (monographs) dealing with forensic pathology in both English and German and identified several eponymous terms. The paper aims to present to the reader the most important eponymous terms in forensic pathology. Included in the paper are the following terms: Beckwith's Sign, Casper's Rule, Krönlein's Shot, Lichtenberg's Figures, Nysten's Law, Paltauf's Spots, Puppe's Rule, Sehrt's Sign, Simon's Sign, Sveshnikov's Sign, Tardieu's Spots, Wischnewski Spots, Wydler's Sign. The spread of eponymous terms throughout various languages is mentioned. The linguistic basis of such terms as well as their advantages and disadvantages in specialist fields, and indeed in even wider circles, is discussed. The authors state that the main function of these terms is to facilitate the open flow of unambiguous information among scholars. Eponymous terms in forensic pathology are characteristic for the German speaking countries and for all countries influenced by the German school of forensic pathology. Their usage in the Anglo-Saxon world is much less widespread, meaning they do not occur very often in English monographs and textbooks.

  7. Endovascular treatment of hemoptysis: influence of the type of pathology on the post embolization prognosis; Tratamiento endovascular de la hemoptisis: influencia del tipo de patologia en el pronostico postembolizacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, J.; Fernandez, M.; Fernandez, A.; Duran, D.; Dominguez, L.; Boullosa, E. [Hospital Xeral de Vigo (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    To describe the course of patients with hemoptysis following embolization of the arteries involved, assessing the incidence of re bleeding in patients grouped according to type of pathology. Over the past five years, we have carried out 77 embolization in bronchial and other systemic arteries in 64 patients (46 men and 18 women) ranging in age from 18 to 83 years (mean: 54{+-}15 years). The underlying diseases were active tuberculosis (n=11), latent tuberculosis (n=15), bronchiectasis (n=14), aspergilloma (n=3), pulmonary neoplasm (n=10), lung abscess (n=10) and miscellaneous conditions (n=10). Rebleeding occurred in 25 patients (32%). Of these, 13 had to undergo repeat embolization, 7 were treated surgically and 3 died during the recurrence of hemoptysis. In two cases, no diseased arteries could be found and embolization was not performed. The overall hemostatic efficacy was 86% after 7 days, 78% after one month and 61% after one year. In the patients with tuberculosis, the rates were 96% at one week and 91% at one month and one year, while among the remaining groups (with neoplasm, abscess, etc.), the incidences were 80% at day 7,70% at one month and 42% at one year. According to our experience, rebleeding occurs most frequently among patients with diseases other than tuberculosis. In these cases, follow-up should be closer and other therapeutic alternatives (surgery, radiotherapy, endobronchial laser) should be considered as a complement to percutaneous endovascular treatment. (Author) 22 refs.

  8. Clinical and pathological analysis of HER-2 negative breast cancer with different molecular typing%不同分子分型的HER-2阴性乳腺癌临床病理特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭伟宣

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨不同分子分型的HER-2阴性乳腺癌的临床病理特征。方法根据ER、PR、HER2、Ki16的表达情况将乳腺癌分为luminal A、luminal B、Her2过度表达型、三阴型及未知类型五种类型,其中HER-2阴性者为luminal A及三阴型乳腺癌。在2003年3月至2008年3月间于我院就诊的325例乳腺癌患者中筛选出HER-2表达阴性的luminal A型及三阴型乳腺癌患者共80例,观察这两种类型的病理特征,并探讨其预后情况。结果58例luminal A乳腺癌患者在组织学分级中,Ⅲ级46例(79.3%),Ⅱ级12例(20.7%),早期淋巴转移21例(36.2%);三阴型乳腺癌22例,组织学分级以Ⅱ级为主,16例(72.7%),Ⅲ级4例(18.2%),Ⅰ2例(9.1%),早期淋巴转移15例(68.2%)。结论 luminal A型乳腺癌的组织分化低,恶性程度较低,侵袭性低,预后较为良好;三阴型乳腺癌分化程度高,容易发生早期转移,预后差。%ObJective To investigate the clinical and pathological features of different molecular subtypes of HER-2 negative breast cancer. Methods according to the expression of ER, PR, HER2, Ki16 in breast cancer were divided into luminal A, luminal B, overexpression of Her2 type, three yin and unknown type ifve types, the HER-2 negative for luminal A and three negative breast cancer. In 2003 March to 2008 March 325 cases of breast cancer in our hospital were screened in patients with A negative expression of HER-2 luminal and three negative breast cancer 80 cases, observe the pathological characteristics of the two types, and to discuss the prognosis. Results 58 patients luminal A breast cancer in histological grade, gradeⅢ46 cases (79.3%), 12 cases of grade II (20.7%), lymph node metastasis in 21 cases of early (36.2%);22 cases of three negative breast cancer, histological grade to grade II, 16 cases (72.7%), 4 cases of grade III (18.2%), 2 cases ofⅡ(9.1%), lymph node metastasis in 15 cases of

  9. The Histological-pathological Types and Epidemec Features of Gastric Cancer in Old Patients%老年人群胃癌的组织病理学类型及流行特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈会波; 郭文君; 周兰英

    2001-01-01

    目的:探讨60岁以上老年人群胃癌的组织病理学类型构成及其流行特征。方法:收集1990~1999年60岁以上胃癌病人性别、年龄、发病时间、发病部位、病理分期、组织学类型等资料,进行描述性分析及单因素分析。结果:60~70岁占83.2%;71 岁以上占16.8%。男、女性比例为2.49:1。按发病部位:幽门部最多,占57.9%,向后依次为贲门和胃底部(18.9%)、胃体部(18.2%)、弥漫性(5.0%);按病理分期,早期胃癌占3.2%;进展期(中、晚期)胃癌占96.8%。按组织学类型:中、高分化腺癌最为常见,占45.0%;低分化腺癌居第2位,占33.7%,向后依次为粘液腺癌、胃癌其他类型;老年人不同年龄组间,男、女性病人间,不同发病时间,胃癌的组织学类型与发病部位构成无显著差异(P>0.05)。结论:加强对胃癌预防、控制的力度,力争通过筛查、普查、在老年人群中普及胃癌防治知识等措施,做到早发现、早诊断、早治疗。%Objective:to explore the constitutional ratio of the histological-pathological types and the epidemic teatures of gastric cancer in old patients. Methods:to collect the data of the old patients' s gender, age, incidence time, the location of the cancer, pathological stages, histological types,the descriptive analysis and single-factor analysis was undertaken. Results:the patients whose age was 60 ~ 70 account for 83.2%; > 71 account for 16.8% .the gender ratio(males to females)is 2.49: 1. According to the location,the pyloric part is the most frecquent(57.9% ).In sequence, the backwards are the cardiac part and the fundus of stomach( 18.9% ), the body of stomach( 18.2 % ), all the stomach(5.0% );according to the pathological stage,the early gastric cancer account for 3.2% of all patients,the advanced cancer accounts for 97.8% ;according to the histological types, the higher and middle differentiational adenocarcinoma is the most

  10. Pathological narcissism and narcissistic personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pincus, Aaron L; Lukowitsky, Mark R

    2010-01-01

    We review the literature on pathological narcissism and narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) and describe a significant criterion problem related to four inconsistencies in phenotypic descriptions and taxonomic models across clinical theory, research, and practice; psychiatric diagnosis; and social/personality psychology. This impedes scientific synthesis, weakens narcissism's nomological net, and contributes to a discrepancy between low prevalence rates of NPD and higher rates of practitioner-diagnosed pathological narcissism, along with an enormous clinical literature on narcissistic disturbances. Criterion issues must be resolved, including clarification of the nature of normal and pathological narcissism, incorporation of the two broad phenotypic themes of narcissistic grandiosity and narcissistic vulnerability into revised diagnostic criteria and assessment instruments, elimination of references to overt and covert narcissism that reify these modes of expression as distinct narcissistic types, and determination of the appropriate structure for pathological narcissism. Implications for the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders and the science of personality disorders are presented.

  11. Resolution of pathological identification between mother and son following rhinoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, M F; Gomersall, J D

    1976-10-01

    The case here described shows that severe psychological disturbance can be caused by identification between mother and son, resulting in preoccupation with a part of the body, which in the opinion of those outside the relationship, shows no gross abnormality. Similar delusional beliefs to those held by the mother were induced in the son, when he reached the age at which these beliefs occurred in the mother, in whom they were incompletely resolved. Plastic surgery, in the absence of gross deformity, brought relief of the distress caused by this type of psychopathology. Relief occurred in the conflicts of both mother and son, even though operation was on the latter, only.

  12. Methodology for full comparative assessment of direct gross glycerin combustion in a flame tube furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maturana, Aymer Yeferson; Pagliuso, Josmar D. [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering. Sao Carlos School of Engineering. University of Sao Paulo, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)], e-mails: aymermat@sc.usp.br, josmar@sc.usp.br

    2010-07-01

    This study is to develop a methodology to identify and evaluate the emissions and heat transfer associated to combustion of gross glycerin a by-product of the Brazilian biodiesel manufacture process as alternative energy source. It aims to increase the present knowledge on the matter and to contribute to the improvement of the economic and environmental perspective of biodiesel industry. This methodology was considered to be used for assessment of gross glycerin combustion from three different types of biodiesel (bovine tallow, palm and soy). The procedures for evaluation and quantification of emissions of sulphur and nitrogen oxides, total hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and acrolein were analyzed, described and standardized. Experimental techniques for mutagenic and toxic effects assessment of gases similarly were analyzed and standardized, as well as the calorific power, the associate heat transfer and fundamentals operational parameters. The methodology was developed, using a full-instrumented flame tube furnace, continuous gas analyzers, a chromatograph, automatic data acquisition systems and other auxiliary equipment. The mutagenic and toxic effects of the study was based on Tradescantia clone KU-20, using chambers of intoxication and biological analytical techniques previously developed and others were specially adapted. The benchmark for the initial set up was based on the performance evaluation of the previous equipment tested with diesel considering its behavior during direct combustion. Finally, the following factors were defined for the combustion of crude glycerin, configurations of equipment types, operational parameters such as air fuel ratio adiabatic temperature and other necessary aspect for successful application of the methodology. The developed and integrated methodology was made available to the concern industry, environmental authorities and researchers as procedures to access the viability of gross glycerin or similar fuels as

  13. 不同病理类型的乳腺分叶状肿瘤影像特征分析%Imaging Analysis of Different Pathological Types of Breast Phyllodes Tumor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦明珠; 顾雅佳; 肖勤; 彭卫军; 张胜箭; 王伯胤; 赵振华

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨不同病理类型乳腺分叶状肿瘤的X线、MRI影像学特征.方法:回顾性分析25例26个经手术、病理证实的乳腺分叶状肿瘤患者的临床表现,分析各病理亚型的影像学表现的差异.结果:26个分叶状肿瘤中良性7个,交界性11个,恶性8个.肿瘤形态、大小、位置在各病理亚型间分布无差异.X线检查显示肿块多为密度增高(22/26),良性和交界性多为类圆形,恶性多呈分叶状形态(P=0.033);交界性与恶性分叶状肿瘤边界不清晰,良性边界清晰(P=0.012).17个肿瘤行MRI检查,T2WI上肿瘤为高信号(12/17),并能见其中更高亮的囊变裂隙区(8/12).交界性和恶性分叶状肿瘤在T2WI上易出现低信号分隔(P=0.021),增强扫描后也显示低信号分隔(P=0.028).结论:分叶状肿瘤的X线及MRI表现有一定特征,MR-T2WI及增强扫描对判断分叶状肿瘤的病理亚型有一定的价值.%Purpose:To study the MRI and X-ray mammography features of different pathological types of phyllodes tumors of breast.Methods:The clinical manifestations and imaging findings of 25 patients with 26 different subtype phyllodes tumors confirmed by pathology were analyzed retrospectively.Results:Twenty six phyllodes tumors included 7 benign,11 borderline and 8 malignant ones.Shape,size and location of the tumors were with no statistical difference between the various histological subtypes.On mammography,most of the tumors were shown as high density lesions (22/26).The Shape of benign and borderline tumors were round,and malignant tumors were lobular (P=0.033).The margin of borderline and malignant subtypes were not sharp and smooth,but benign ones were smooth (P=0.012).Seventeen tumors had MR images,12 lesions were shown with high signal intensity on T2WI,and 8 of them were with higher bright cystic area.Borderline and malignant lesions were shown with low signal internal septations on T2WI (P=0.021),and the same appearance on enhanced imaging (P=0

  14. 垂体微腺瘤的临床内分泌与病理免疫组化类型相关性分析%The relative analysis of clinical endocrine features and pathological types of pituitary microadenomas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜青; 张华楸; 王和平; 郭东生; 雷霆; 李龄

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨垂体微腺瘤临床症状、内分泌检查和病理类型之间的关系,以期更好地指导临床诊断和选择治疗方法.方法 收集2007年1月至2009年6月经手术切除的94例垂体微腺瘤患者的临床资料、内分泌检查结果及病理诊断.按病理免疫组化结果分为免疫组化阳性组和阴性组.运用χ2检验进行数据分析.结果 本组病例中出现内分泌症状86例(91.5%),免疫组化阳性组发生率(85/92,92.4%)较免疫组化阴性组发生率(1/2,50.0%)增高(P<0.05),内分泌症状与免疫组化结果相符合.激素过多症状与免疫组化结果相一致的占71.7%,其中泌乳素(PRL)阳性出现闭经、溢乳或性功能低下占8 8.9%,生长激素(GH)阳性出现巨人症或肢端肥大症的占28.1%.内分泌检查激素增高与免疫组化结果相一致的占69.0%,其中PRL阳性出现血清PRL增高的占87.7%,GH阳性出现血清GH增高的占21.9%.结论 垂体微腺瘤患者的临床表现及内分泌检查能很好地与病理类型相联系,可以作为功能性垂体微腺瘤临床诊断的主要手段.%Objectives To study the relationship between the clinical presentation, endocrinal findings and pathological types in patients with pituitary microadenomas, so as to improve the accuracy of clinical diagnosis and choose the best therapy strategy before the operation. Methods From January 2007 to June 2009, the clinical data of 94 patients who were surgerically removed pituitary microadenomas were obtained, including the clinical presentation, endocrinal findings and pathological diagnosis. The analysis was accomplished with Chi-square test. Results Hormonal symptoms were found in 86 patients (91.5%) ,it occurred more frequently in immunopositive patients(85/92,92. 4% ) than in immunonegative patients( 1/2,50. 0% ) ( P < 0. 05 ). The coincidence of hormonal symptoms and immunohistochemistry diagnosis was 71.7% ;88.9% patients had the symptoms of amenorrhea, galactorrhea and

  15. Vast Portfolio Selection with Gross-exposure Constraints*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jianqing; Zhang, Jingjin; Yu, Ke

    2012-01-01

    We introduce the large portfolio selection using gross-exposure constraints. We show that with gross-exposure constraint the empirically selected optimal portfolios based on estimated covariance matrices have similar performance to the theoretical optimal ones and there is no error accumulation effect from estimation of vast covariance matrices. This gives theoretical justification to the empirical results in Jagannathan and Ma (2003). We also show that the no-short-sale portfolio can be improved by allowing some short positions. The applications to portfolio selection, tracking, and improvements are also addressed. The utility of our new approach is illustrated by simulation and empirical studies on the 100 Fama-French industrial portfolios and the 600 stocks randomly selected from Russell 3000. PMID:23293404

  16. Vast Portfolio Selection with Gross-exposure Constraints().

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jianqing; Zhang, Jingjin; Yu, Ke

    2012-01-01

    We introduce the large portfolio selection using gross-exposure constraints. We show that with gross-exposure constraint the empirically selected optimal portfolios based on estimated covariance matrices have similar performance to the theoretical optimal ones and there is no error accumulation effect from estimation of vast covariance matrices. This gives theoretical justification to the empirical results in Jagannathan and Ma (2003). We also show that the no-short-sale portfolio can be improved by allowing some short positions. The applications to portfolio selection, tracking, and improvements are also addressed. The utility of our new approach is illustrated by simulation and empirical studies on the 100 Fama-French industrial portfolios and the 600 stocks randomly selected from Russell 3000.

  17. Gross-Pitaevski map as a chaotic dynamical system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarneri, Italo

    2017-03-01

    The Gross-Pitaevski map is a discrete time, split-operator version of the Gross-Pitaevski dynamics in the circle, for which exponential instability has been recently reported. Here it is studied as a classical dynamical system in its own right. A systematic analysis of Lyapunov exponents exposes strongly chaotic behavior. Exponential growth of energy is then shown to be a direct consequence of rotational invariance and for stationary solutions the full spectrum of Lyapunov exponents is analytically computed. The present analysis includes the "resonant" case, when the free rotation period is commensurate to 2 π , and the map has countably many constants of the motion. Except for lowest-order resonances, this case exhibits an integrable-chaotic transition.

  18. The San Andreas fault experiment. [gross tectonic plates relative velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D. E.; Vonbun, F. O.

    1973-01-01

    A plan was developed during 1971 to determine gross tectonic plate motions along the San Andreas Fault System in California. Knowledge of the gross motion along the total fault system is an essential component in the construction of realistic deformation models of fault regions. Such mathematical models will be used in the future for studies which will eventually lead to prediction of major earthquakes. The main purpose of the experiment described is the determination of the relative velocity of the North American and the Pacific Plates. This motion being so extremely small, cannot be measured directly but can be deduced from distance measurements between points on opposite sites of the plate boundary taken over a number of years.

  19. GLOBALIZATION AND GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT CONSTRUCTION IN ASEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Sri Wahyudi Suliswanto

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available There is no more doubt about the importance of economic growth, which can be calculated fromGross Domestic Product (GDP. This research analyzes the role of globalization on GDP inASEAN-5 by estimating panel data. It uses a fixed effect approach to accommodate various characteristicsin the countries. To accommodate such variation, it assumes that the intercepts variesacross these countries, while the slopes remain similar. Based on the estimation result, it suggeststhat net export and foreign direct investment represent the globalization process. Both have positiveand significant influences on GDP in the corresponding countries.Keywords: Globalization, international trade, foreign direct investment, gross domestic productJEL classification numbers: E01, F51, F43

  20. MRI manifestation and correlation with pathologic findings in the diagnosis of desmoid-type fibromatosis%韧带样纤维瘤病MRI特征表现及其病理基础

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈德周; 俞顺; 包强; 苏家威; 杜瑞宾

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨韧带样纤维瘤病(DF)的MRI特点,重点分析MRI特征影像及其病理基础,评价MRI在DF诊断中的价值。方法回顾性分析经手术病理证实14例韧带样纤维瘤病的M RI表现(14个病灶均行M RI增强及延迟扫描),与术后病理结果进行比较,并探讨M RI特征影像的病理基础。结果14例均为单发病灶(腹外型7例、腹壁型4例、腹内型3例),其中有2例为术后复发,肿瘤沿着肌肉长轴生长。T1 WI呈等或稍低于肌肉的信号,T2 WI呈高于肌肉信号,增强扫描病灶均呈不均匀强化,以延迟强化为明显,病灶内可见条状或带状 T1 WI及 T2 WI低信号,增强后未见强化。14例病灶内均未见坏死、囊变及瘤周水肿。病理组织学上肿瘤由不同比例的成纤维细胞、纤维组织和胶原纤维束组成,纤维细胞及成纤维细胞密集区域T2 WI信号增高,而肿瘤内胶原纤维区域在 T1 WI、T2 WI均为低信号。肿瘤内见较多血管壁完整的毛细血管,这是病灶延迟强化的病理基础。结论病灶内可见T1 WI、T2 WI均呈带状低信号且增强扫描不强化以及病灶延迟强化是DF的特征性M RI表现。M RI可以很好评估肿瘤侵犯范围及其与周围结构的关系,有助于DF的诊断和鉴别诊断。%Objective To explore the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of desmoid-type fibromatosis (DF) ,to analyze emphatically the correction of M RI characteristic features and pathological basis of DF ,and to evaluate the value of MRI in the diagnosis of DF .Methods The MRI imaging characteristics of 14 patients with DF confirmed pathologically were retrospectively analyzed (all the patients were scaned with contrast enhance ) and compared with findings of patholo-gy .Results 14 cases were single lesion (7 lesions were extre-abdominal ,4 lesions were located in the abdominal wall ,oth-ers were intra-abdominal) ,two of which were postoperative

  1. Gross efficiency and energy expenditure in kayak ergometer exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, B B; Mourão, L; Massart, A; Figueiredo, P; Vilas-Boas, J P; Santos, A M C; Fernandes, R J

    2012-08-01

    We purposed to study energy expenditure, power output and gross efficiency during kayak ergometer exercise in 12 elite sprint kayakers. 6 males (age 24.2±4.8 years, height 180.4±4.8 cm, body mass 79.7±8.5 kg) and 6 females (age 24.3±4.5 years, height 164.5±3.9 cm, body mass 65.4±3.5 kg), performed an incremental intermittent protocol on kayak ergometer with VO2 and blood lactate concentration assessment, a non-linear increase between power output and energy expenditure being observed. Paddling power output, energy expenditure and gross efficiency corresponding to VO2max averaged 199.92±50.41 W, 75.27±6.30 ml.kg - 1.min - 1, and 10.10±1.08%. Male kayakers presented higher VO2max, power output and gross efficiency at the VO2max, and lower heart rate and maximal lactate concentration than females, but no differences were found between genders regarding energy expenditure at VO2max. Aerobic and anaerobic components of energy expenditure evidenced a significant contribution of anaerobic energy sources in sprint kayak performance. Results also suggested the dependence of the gross efficiency on the changes in the amount of the aerobic and anaerobic contributions, at heavy and severe intensities. The inter-individual variance of the relationship between energy expenditure and the corresponding paddling power output revealed a relevant tracking for females (FDγ=0.73±0.06), conversely to the male group (FDγ=0.27±0.08), supporting that some male kayakers are more skilled in some paddling intensities than others.

  2. Constructive Renormalization of 2-dimensional Grosse-Wulkenhaar Model

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Zhituo

    2012-01-01

    In this talk we briefly report the recent work on the construction of the 2-dimensional Grosse-Wulkenhaar model with the method of loop vertex expansion. We treat renormalization with this new tool, adapt Nelson's argument and prove Borel summability of the perturbation series. This is the first non-commutative quantum field theory model to be built in a non-perturbative sense.

  3. Pathological Gambling Subtypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachon, David D.; Bagby, R. Michael

    2009-01-01

    Although pathological gambling (PG) is regarded in the 4th edition of the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (American Psychiatric Association, 1994) as a unitary diagnostic construct, it is likely composed of distinct subtypes. In the current report, the authors used cluster analyses of personality traits with a…

  4. Next-Generation Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caie, Peter D; Harrison, David J

    2016-01-01

    The field of pathology is rapidly transforming from a semiquantitative and empirical science toward a big data discipline. Large data sets from across multiple omics fields may now be extracted from a patient's tissue sample. Tissue is, however, complex, heterogeneous, and prone to artifact. A reductionist view of tissue and disease progression, which does not take this complexity into account, may lead to single biomarkers failing in clinical trials. The integration of standardized multi-omics big data and the retention of valuable information on spatial heterogeneity are imperative to model complex disease mechanisms. Mathematical modeling through systems pathology approaches is the ideal medium to distill the significant information from these large, multi-parametric, and hierarchical data sets. Systems pathology may also predict the dynamical response of disease progression or response to therapy regimens from a static tissue sample. Next-generation pathology will incorporate big data with systems medicine in order to personalize clinical practice for both prognostic and predictive patient care.

  5. Pathological Gambling: Psychiatric Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westphal, James R.

    2008-01-01

    Three psychiatric conceptual models: addictive, obsessive-compulsive spectrum and mood spectrum disorder have been proposed for pathological gambling. The objectives of this paper are to (1) evaluate the evidence base from the most recent reviews of each model, (2) update the evidence through 2007 and (3) summarize the status of the evidence for…

  6. Geometric triangular chiral hexagon crystal-like complexes organization in pathological tissues biological collision order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Jairo A; Jaramillo, Natalia A; Murillo, Mauricio F

    2007-12-12

    The present study describes and documents self-assembly of geometric triangular chiral hexagon crystal like complex organizations (GTCHC) in human pathological tissues. The authors have found this architectural geometric expression at macroscopic and microscopic levels mainly in cancer processes. This study is based essentially on macroscopic and histopathologic analyses of 3000 surgical specimens: 2600 inflammatory lesions and 400 malignant tumours. Geometric complexes identified photographically at macroscopic level were located in the gross surgical specimen, and these areas were carefully dissected. Samples were taken to carry out histologic analysis. Based on the hypothesis of a collision genesis mechanism and because it is difficult to carry out an appropriate methodological observation in biological systems, the authors designed a model base on other dynamic systems to obtain indirect information in which a strong white flash wave light discharge, generated by an electronic device, hits over the lines of electrical conductance structured in helicoidal pattern. In their experimental model, the authors were able to reproduce and to predict polarity, chirality, helicoid geometry, triangular and hexagonal clusters through electromagnetic sequential collisions. They determined that similar events among constituents of extracelular matrix which drive and produce piezoelectric activity are responsible for the genesis of GTCHC complexes in pathological tissues. This research suggests that molecular crystals represented by triangular chiral hexagons derived from a collision-attraction event against collagen type I fibrils emerge at microscopic and macroscopic scales presenting a lateral assembly of each side of hypertrophy helicoid fibers, that represent energy flow in cooperative hierarchically chiral electromagnetic interaction in pathological tissues and arises as a geometry of the equilibrium in perturbed biological systems. Further interdisciplinary studies must

  7. Geometric triangular chiral hexagon crystal-like complexes organization in pathological tissues biological collision order.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo A Díaz

    Full Text Available The present study describes and documents self-assembly of geometric triangular chiral hexagon crystal like complex organizations (GTCHC in human pathological tissues. The authors have found this architectural geometric expression at macroscopic and microscopic levels mainly in cancer processes. This study is based essentially on macroscopic and histopathologic analyses of 3000 surgical specimens: 2600 inflammatory lesions and 400 malignant tumours. Geometric complexes identified photographically at macroscopic level were located in the gross surgical specimen, and these areas were carefully dissected. Samples were taken to carry out histologic analysis. Based on the hypothesis of a collision genesis mechanism and because it is difficult to carry out an appropriate methodological observation in biological systems, the authors designed a model base on other dynamic systems to obtain indirect information in which a strong white flash wave light discharge, generated by an electronic device, hits over the lines of electrical conductance structured in helicoidal pattern. In their experimental model, the authors were able to reproduce and to predict polarity, chirality, helicoid geometry, triangular and hexagonal clusters through electromagnetic sequential collisions. They determined that similar events among constituents of extracelular matrix which drive and produce piezoelectric activity are responsible for the genesis of GTCHC complexes in pathological tissues. This research suggests that molecular crystals represented by triangular chiral hexagons derived from a collision-attraction event against collagen type I fibrils emerge at microscopic and macroscopic scales presenting a lateral assembly of each side of hypertrophy helicoid fibers, that represent energy flow in cooperative hierarchically chiral electromagnetic interaction in pathological tissues and arises as a geometry of the equilibrium in perturbed biological systems. Further

  8. Landscape History of Grosses Moos, NW Swiss Alpine Foreland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joanna Heer, Aleksandra; Adamiec, Grzegorz; Veit, Heinz; May, Jan-Hendrik; Novenko, Elena; Hajdas, Irka

    2017-04-01

    The western Swiss Plateau with Lake Neuchâtel is part of the alpine foreland and among the key areas for the reconstruction of environmental changes since the last postglacial. This study was carried out in a landscape located NE of the lake and called Grosses Moos (The Large Fen) - currently designated the Swiss largest, continuous farming area, after the fen was drained in course of landscape engineering projects performed in Switzerland at the end of the 19th century. The study contributes new results from nine excavations of littoral ridges identified in Grosses Moos, and integrates sedimentology, paleo-environmental analysis and three independent chronological methods. Radiocarbon dating, pollen analysis and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) were applied to the sediments. While pollen and radiocarbon follow the standard procedures, the evaluation of the luminescence age estimates demanded adjustment according to the physical and microdosimetric properties of the alpine quartz, and consideration of the peculiarities of the changing littoral environments of Grosses Moos. The Grosses Moos landscape developed on the temporary surface of the post-Last Glacial sedimentary infill of the over-deepened glacial Aare valley. In this study the landscape history has been fitted into the existing supraregional time scales of NGRIP, the Swiss bio-zones system and the human history based on archaeological and historic records and covers a time span of up to 15'000 yr b2k. The wide-ranging suite of geomorphic features and sedimentary sequences, including littoral lake sediments, beach ridges, dunes, palaeo-channels, peat and colluvial deposits, enable the extensive reconstruction of spatially and temporally variable natural shaping processes. In addition, our results indicate remobilization of soil, colluvium, and sediment due to human settlement activities since the Neolithic - with an important increase in sediment load and spatial variability since the Bronze Age

  9. Meningioangiomatosis: advanced imaging and pathological study of two cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Anson, B. [Hospital Universitario ``Doce de Octubre``, Madrid (Spain). Servicio de Radiodiagnostica (Neurorradiologia Infantil); Munoz, A. [Hospital Universitario ``Doce de Octubre``, Madrid (Spain). Servicio de Radiodiagnostica (Neurorradiologia Infantil); Blasco, A. [Hospital Universitario ``Doce de Octubre``, Madrid (Spain). Seccion de Neuropatologia; Madero, S. [Hospital Universitario ``Doce de Octubre``, Madrid (Spain). Seccion de Neuropatologia; Esparza, J. [Hospital Universitario ``Doce de Octubre``, Madrid (Spain). Servicio de Neurocirugia Pediatrica; Cordobes, F. [Hospital Universitario ``Doce de Octubre``, Madrid (Spain). Servicio de Neurocirugia Pediatrica; Orejon, G. [Hospital Universitario ``Doce de Octubre``, Madrid (Spain). Servicio de Neurologia; Mateos, F. [Hospital Universitario ``Doce de Octubre``, Madrid (Spain). Servicio de Neurologia

    1995-02-01

    Meningioangiomatosis (MA) is a rare benign intracranial tumour of uncertain pathogenesis, with only 33 cases reported in the literature. Imaging features have been described in 21 cases, only 3 with contrast-enhanced MRI. We present two cases of MA with MRI and/or CT findings and gross, ultra-structural, and immunohistochemical characteristics. MRI is particularly helpful for establishing the origin of the lesion and its anatomical location, while CT shows calcification, if present. The pathological characteristics establish the diagnosis and underline the differences from other entities such as malignant meningioma, one of the most important differential diagnostic considerations. (orig.)

  10. 糖尿病肾病合并非糖尿病肾病患者的病理分析%Pathological Analysis of Diabetic Nephropathy and Non-diabetic Renal Disease in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭丽; 王艳

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the type 2 diabetic patients with clinical manifestation and pathological results,and to investigate the importance of renal biopsy on the diagnosis of diabetic nephropathy(DN).Method:Renal biopsy specimens were obtained from 61 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with albuminuria ,analyze their clinical markers and pathological results.Result:Among 61 cases,32 patients(52.5%) were DN,29 cases(47.5%) were (NDRD).The diabetic course,hematuria from glomerulus of kidney,diabetic retinopathy were significantly different(P<0.05),other markers had no significantly differences. IgA nephropathy was the most common,accounting for 31.0 % of group NDRD,membranous nephropathy ranked second accounting for 17.2 %,followed by mesangial proliferative nephritis 13.8%,hypertensive nephrosclerosis 13.8%,FSGS 10.3%,minimal change disease 6.9%,crescentic GN 3.5%,renal amyloidosis 3.5%.Conclusion:The present study showed that IgA nephropathy is the commonest NDRD among diabetics.Diabetic retinopathy and hematuria from glomerulus of kidney are important factors for diagnosing diabetic nepropathy.When we have no enough evidence to prove DN in clinical,renal biopsy is an important tool to distinguish and diagnosis NDRD and DN.%目的:分析2型糖尿病合并肾脏损害的临床资料及病理结果,探讨肾活检诊断糖尿病肾病的意义。方法:对61例伴有蛋白尿的2型糖尿病患者进行肾活检,分析其临床指标及病理结果。结果:61例患者中糖尿病肾病32例(52.5%),非糖尿病肾病29例(47.5%)。两组患者糖尿病病程、肾小球源性血尿以及糖尿病视网膜病变比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),其余指标无明显差异。所有合并的非糖尿病肾病中,以IgA肾病比例最高为31.0%,其他依次为膜性肾病17.2%,系膜增生性肾小球肾炎13.8%,高血压肾小球硬化13.8%,FSGS 10.3%,微小病变型肾小球肾炎6.9%,新月体性肾小球肾炎3.5%

  11. Degeneration of the long biceps tendon: comparison of MRI with gross anatomy and histology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Florian M; Grehn, Holger; Hilbe, Monika; Pfirrmann, Christian W A; Manzanell, Silvana; Hodler, Jürg

    2009-11-01

    The objective of our study was to relate alterations in biceps tendon diameter and signal on MR images to gross anatomy and histology. T1-weighted, T2-weighted fat-saturated, and proton density-weighted fat-saturated spin-echo sequences were acquired in 15 cadaveric shoulders. Biceps tendon diameter (normal, flattened, thickened, and partially or completely torn) and signal intensity (compared with bone, fat, muscle, and joint fluid) were graded by two readers independently and in a blinded fashion. The distance of tendon abnormalities from the attachment at the glenoid were noted in millimeters. MRI findings were related to gross anatomic and histologic findings. On the basis of gross anatomy, there were six normal, five flattened, two thickened, and two partially torn tendons. Reader 1 graded nine diameter changes correctly, missed two, and incorrectly graded four. The corresponding values for reader 2 were seven, one, and five, respectively, with kappa = 0.75. Histology showed mucoid degeneration (n = 13), lipoid degeneration (n = 7), and fatty infiltration (n = 6). At least one type of abnormality was found in each single tendon. Mucoid degeneration was hyperintense compared with fatty infiltration on T2-weighted fat-saturated images and hyperintense compared with magic-angle artifacts on proton density-weighted fat-saturated images. MRI-based localization of degeneration agreed well with histologic findings. Diameter changes are specific but not sensitive in diagnosing tendinopathy of the biceps tendon. Increased tendon signal is most typical for mucoid degeneration but should be used with care as a sign of tendon degeneration.

  12. Digital lectures for learning gross anatomy: a study of their efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anudeep Singh

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose The current study investigates the level of students’ learning and attitudes towards the teaching and learning process when using digital lectures to teach gross anatomy to year 1 medical students. Methods The study sampled year 1 medical students of cohorts 2013 and 2014. The year 1 medical students in 2013 were taught gross anatomy of the heart by didactic classroom lectures while those in 2014 were taught with digital lectures using the same content. A review session was conducted for the 2014 cohort. A 19-item survey was distributed amongst students to investigate their attitudes and feedback. The data were analysed using SPSS software. Results The 2014 cohort had a mean score of 47.65 for short essay questions and 51.19 for multiple choice questions, while the 2013 cohort scored an average of 36.80 for short essay questions and 49.22 for multiple choice questions. The difference in scores for each type of question was found to be significant. Using a 5-point Likert scale, students gave an average of 4.11 when asked if they liked the teaching and learning process and would like it to be applied further. Conclusion The results of the study provide strong evidence that the digital teaching and learning process was well received by students and could also lead to improved performance. Digital lectures can provide a satisfactory substitute for classroom lectures to teach gross anatomy, thus providing flexibility in learning and efficient learning, whilst also freeing lecture slots to promote mastery learning.

  13. Digital lectures for learning gross anatomy: a study of their efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The current study investigates the level of students’ learning and attitudes towards the teaching and learning process when using digital lectures to teach gross anatomy to year 1 medical students. Methods The study sampled year 1 medical students of cohorts 2013 and 2014. The year 1 medical students in 2013 were taught gross anatomy of the heart by didactic classroom lectures while those in 2014 were taught with digital lectures using the same content. A review session was conducted for the 2014 cohort. A 19-item survey was distributed amongst students to investigate their attitudes and feedback. The data were analysed using SPSS software. Results The 2014 cohort had a mean score of 47.65 for short essay questions and 51.19 for multiple choice questions, while the 2013 cohort scored an average of 36.80 for short essay questions and 49.22 for multiple choice questions. The difference in scores for each type of question was found to be significant. Using a 5-point Likert scale, students gave an average of 4.11 when asked if they liked the teaching and learning process and would like it to be applied further. Conclusion The results of the study provide strong evidence that the digital teaching and learning process was well received by students and could also lead to improved performance. Digital lectures can provide a satisfactory substitute for classroom lectures to teach gross anatomy, thus providing flexibility in learning and efficient learning, whilst also freeing lecture slots to promote mastery learning. PMID:28264551

  14. Gastric schwannomas: radiological features with endoscopic and pathological correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, H.S. [Department of Radiology, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seodaemoon-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ha, H.K. [Department of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Songpa-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: hkha@amc.seoul.kr; Won, H.J.; Byun, J.H.; Shin, Y.M.; Kim, A.Y.; Kim, P.N.; Lee, M.-G. [Department of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Songpa-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, G.H. [Internal Medicine, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Songpa-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, M.J. [Pathology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Songpa-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-05-15

    Aim: To describe the radiological, endoscopic, and pathological findings of gastric schwannomas in 16 patients. Materials and methods: The radiological, endoscopic, and pathological findings of 16 surgically proven cases of gastric schwannoma were retrospectively reviewed. All patients underwent computed tomography (CT) and four patients were evaluated with upper gastrointestinal series. Two radiologists reviewed the CT and upper gastrointestinal series images by consensus with regard to tumour size, contour, margin, and growth pattern, the presence or absence of ulcer, cystic change, and the CT enhancement pattern. Endoscopy was performed in eight of these 16 patients. Six patients underwent endoscopic ultrasonography. Pathological specimens were obtained from and reviewed in all 16 patients. Immunohistochemistry was performed for c-kit, CD34, smooth muscle actin, and S-100 protein. Results: On radiographic examination, gastric schwannomas appeared as submucosal tumours with the CT features of well-demarcated, homogeneous, and uncommonly ulcerated masses. Endoscopy with endoscopic ultrasonography demonstrated homogeneous, submucosal masses contiguous with the muscularis propria in all six examined cases. On pathological examination, gastric schwannomas appeared as well-circumscribed and homogeneous tumours in the muscularis propria and consisted microscopically of interlacing bundles of spindle cells. Strong positivity for S-100 protein was demonstrated in all 16 cases on immunohistochemistry. Conclusion: Gastric schwannomas appear as submucosal tumours of the stomach and have well-demarcated and homogeneous features on CT, endoscopic ultrasonography, and gross pathology. Immunohistochemistry consistently reveals positivity for S-100 protein in the tumours.

  15. Pathology informatics fellowship training: Focus on molecular pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Mandelker

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pathology informatics is both emerging as a distinct subspecialty and simultaneously becoming deeply integrated within the breadth of pathology practice. As specialists, pathology informaticians need a broad skill set, including aptitude with information fundamentals, information systems, workflow and process, and governance and management. Currently, many of those seeking training in pathology informatics additionally choose training in a second subspecialty. Combining pathology informatics training with molecular pathology is a natural extension, as molecular pathology is a subspecialty with high potential for application of modern biomedical informatics techniques. Methods and Results: Pathology informatics and molecular pathology fellows and faculty evaluated the current fellowship program′s core curriculum topics and subtopics for relevance to molecular pathology. By focusing on the overlap between the two disciplines, a structured curriculum consisting of didactics, operational rotations, and research projects was developed for those fellows interested in both pathology informatics and molecular pathology. Conclusions: The scope of molecular diagnostics is expanding dramatically as technology advances and our understanding of disease extends to the genetic level. Here, we highlight many of the informatics challenges facing molecular pathology today, and outline specific informatics principles necessary for the training of future molecular pathologists.

  16. 26 CFR 1.927(b)-1T - Temporary regulations; Definition of gross receipts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Temporary regulations; Definition of gross...(b)-1T Temporary regulations; Definition of gross receipts. (a) General rule. Under section 927(b.... The FSC's gross receipts for purposes of computing its profit under the administrative pricing...

  17. The relationship between gross motor skills and academic achievement in children with learning disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westendorp, Marieke; Hartman, Esther; Houwen, Suzanne; Smith, Joanne; Visscher, Chris

    2011-01-01

    The present study compared the gross motor skills of 7- to 12-year-old children with learning disabilities (n = 104) with those of age-matched typically developing children (n = 104) using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2. Additionally, the specific relationships between subsets of gross motor

  18. 46 CFR 130.110 - Internal communications on OSVs of less than 100 gross tons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Internal communications on OSVs of less than 100 gross... Internal communications on OSVs of less than 100 gross tons. Each vessel of less than 100 gross tons... have a fixed means of communication between the pilothouse and the place where the auxiliary means...

  19. The relationship between gross motor skills and academic achievement in children with learning disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westendorp, Marieke; Hartman, Esther; Houwen, Suzanne; Smith, Joanne; Visscher, Chris

    2011-01-01

    The present study compared the gross motor skills of 7- to 12-year-old children with learning disabilities (n = 104) with those of age-matched typically developing children (n = 104) using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2. Additionally, the specific relationships between subsets of gross motor

  20. 26 CFR 1.872-1 - Gross income of nonresident alien individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gross income of nonresident alien individuals. 1...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Nonresident Aliens and Foreign Corporations § 1.872-1 Gross income of nonresident alien individuals. (a) In general—(1) Inclusions. The gross income of a nonresident...

  1. 26 CFR 20.2031-1 - Definition of gross estate; valuation of property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., except that if the executor elects the alternate valuation method under section 2032, it is the fair... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definition of gross estate; valuation of... § 20.2031-1 Definition of gross estate; valuation of property. (a) Definition of gross estate. Except...

  2. 26 CFR 1.924(a)-1T - Temporary regulations; definition of foreign trading gross receipts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... trading gross receipts. 1.924(a)-1T Section 1.924(a)-1T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... United States § 1.924(a)-1T Temporary regulations; definition of foreign trading gross receipts. (a) In general. The term “foreign trading gross receipts” means any of the five amounts described in...

  3. A STUDY ON GROSS FEATURES AND DIFFERENT POSITIONS OF ADULTS VERMIFORM APPENDIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasukurthy Ashalatha

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Appendix is derived from a Latin word (Pendere meaning at the end. It is a narrow worm-like tubular diverticulum, which arises from the posteromedial wall of caecum about 2 cms below the ileocaecal junction and is suspended by a peritoneal fold known as mesoappendix. The body of appendix is kinked on itself where the free border of mesoappendix ends. Hence, it is coiled like a worm and so is named the ‘Vermiform Appendix’. The appendix is taken up for study in view of its different positions, varying anatomical relations, and the clinical complications when pathologically affected. The relations, measurements, positions, and arterial supply were studied by gross dissection in 61 specimens (Adults – 33 and foetuses – 28 from the population of Krishna and Warangal districts of Andhra Pradesh. MATERIALS AND METHODS The present study was done on 31 adult specimens, out the length of the appendix, the diameter of the appendix at base, length of the caecum, length of ascending colon were measured. The position of the appendix was classified as per Datta’s classification. Mesenteric attachment to the vermiform appendix were noted. Even arterial supply of the appendix was studied. RESULTS Length of the appendix in adults varied from 2.00 to 25.00 cm as described by different authors, the average being 3.00 to 12.50 cm. The length of the caecum in adults were ranging from 5 to 8 cm. In the present study, the length of appendix was 14.4 cm The origin of the appendicular artery was from inferior division of ileocolic artery. A single appendicular artery is observed in all the specimens almost coinciding with studies of Michels et al. In the present study, in adults, the mesoappendix was extending to the tip in 19 specimens and extending to a variable extent in 14 specimens. Regarding the positions, in adults, they were retrocaecal, retrocolic, and subcaecal positions were 21.21% and splenic, promontory, and pelvic positions were 78

  4. Predicting pathology in impacted mandibular third molars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aveek Mukherji

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The rising incidence of the impacted mandibular third molars and their association with pathologies is now considered a public health problem. Aims and Objectives: The objective of this study was to assess the position of impacted mandibular third molars that are prone to developing pathologies and to determine the frequency and type of pathological conditions associated with these impacted teeth to facilitate planning for their prophylactic removal. Materials and Methods: Consecutive panoramic radiographs and clinical examination of 300 patients with impacted mandibular third molars were collected. They were segregated according to Pell and Gregory’s classification, Winter’s classification, and according to their state of eruption. These were correlated with associated pathologies based on clinical and radiological criteria. Statistical Analysis Used: Descriptive statistics included computation of percentages, mean, and standard deviations. The statistical test applied for the analysis was Pearson’s Chi-square test (χ2. For this test, confidence interval and P value were set at 93% and ≤0.03, respectively. Results: The pathology most commonly associated with impacted third molars was pericoronitis, which had the highest frequency of occurrence in partially erupted, distoangular, and IA positioned (as per Pell and Gregory classification impacted teeth. Impacted mandibular third molars, which were in IA position, placed mesially, and partially erupted, were prone to develop pathologies such as dental caries and periodontitis. Conclusion: The clinical and radiographical features of impacted third molar may be correlated to the development of their pathological complications. The partially impacted mandibular third molars with mesioangularly aligned in IA position have the highest potential to cause pathological complications.

  5. Feline oral pathology

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, S.; Pais, B.; Almeida, D.; Simões, J.; Mega, A. C.; Vala, Helena

    2013-01-01

    The main pathologies of the oral cavity are of utmost importance, not only by the number of exposed individuals, but also by the consequences which stems. With the development of this work, we intend to conduct a brief approach to the same, since, specifically affecting domestic felines. Feline Lymphoplasmatic Gingivostomatitis (GELF), the Feline Odontoclastic Reabsorption Lesions (LROF) Complex and gingivitis-stomatitis-pharyngitis, have been studied, some of which are considered an enigma i...

  6. Envy's pathology: Historical contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minou, Lina

    2017-01-01

    This article is concerned with the physicality of envy primarily in early -modern, but also in eighteenth-century health contexts. The discussion brings together descriptions of the effects of envy on the body of the envier, mainly from works of physiology and health preservation, but also from literary and spiritual writings. These depictions of envy are studied beyond their symbolism and with a view to establish whether they are meaningful according to the medical theories of the time in which they occur. The discussion begins by acknowledging the status of envy as a 'disease' and looks to the specific ways in which the discourse of envy conveys this sense. I find that in the early modern discourse envy is always pathological, that is, it is experienced as disease and signifies disease in general and several diseases in particular. Moreover, envy is uniquely placed to convey pathology on account of its being connected to inherently pathogenic elements of the humoural theory. Specifically, envy is physiologically connected to melancholy, and the way it is presented comes close to attributes assigned to black bile. In addition, envy realizes pathology, the occurrence of disease in the body, by impairing the vital process of digestion and thus depriving the person from proper nourishment and sustenance. The analysis further considers how this impairment of the body fits with the physiological manifestation of envy as 'corrosion' and 'consumption'. Finding commonalities with other maladies mediated by these physiological signs the article concludes by considering the function of pathology in the conception of early modern envy.

  7. The effect of color type on early wound healing in farmed mink (Neovison vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, A.; Jensen, H. E.; Agger, J. F.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Individual differences of mink, including color type, are speculated to affect the course of wound healing, thereby impacting wound assessment and management on the farms, as well as the assessment of wounds in forensic cases. In this study, we examined the effect of color type on early...... wound healing in farmed mink. Full thickness excisional wounds (2 x 2 cm) were made on the back in 18 mink of the color types Brown, Silverblue and Blue Iris. Gross and microscopic pathology of the wounds was evaluated 2 days post-wounding together with degree of wound size reduction, presence...... amyloid A from day 0 to day 2 in all color types. Conclusions: We have described differences in early wound healing between mink of the color types Brown, Silverblue and Blue Iris by use of an experimental wound model in farmed mink. The most pronounced difference pertained to the degree of wound size...

  8. Global gross primary productivity and water use efficiency changes under drought stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhen; Wang, Jingxin; Liu, Shirong; Rentch, James S.; Sun, Pengsen; Lu, Chaoqun

    2017-01-01

    Drought can affect the structure, composition and function of terrestrial ecosystems, yet drought impacts and post-drought recovery potentials of different land cover types have not been extensively studied at a global scale. We evaluated drought impacts on gross primary productivity (GPP), evapotranspiration (ET), and water use efficiency (WUE) of different global terrestrial ecosystems, as well as the drought-resilience of each ecosystem type during the period of 2000 to 2011. Using GPP as biome vitality indicator against drought stress, we developed a model to examine ecosystem resilience represented by the length of recovery days (LRD). LRD presented an evident gradient of high (>60 days) in mid-latitude region and low (stress induced responses or data uncertainties, which require further investigation.

  9. The response of gross nitrogen mineralization to labile carbon inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtson, Per

    2014-05-01

    Input of labile carbon sources to forest soils commonly result in priming, i.e. an increase in the microbial decomposition of soil organic matter. Efforts aimed at quantifying the extent of priming have, to date, largely focused on soil organic matter decomposition manifested as soil respiration. Less is known about how gross nitrogen mineralization responds to input of labile carbon. It is often assumed that increased priming results in decreased soil carbon stocks. However, microbial mineralization of organic nitrogen into plant available forms is a major factor limiting primary production in forests. If increased decomposition of soil organic matter in response to labile carbon is accompanied by a concurrent increased nitrogen mineralization, this could result in elevated primary production and higher rates of plant derived organic matter input to soils. Therefore, in order to fully understand the effect of priming on net ecosystem exchange and soil carbon stocks, it is vital to consider if increased decomposition of soil organic matter caused by priming also results in increased nitrogen mineralization. Here I present the results from a series of experiments aimed at determining if, and to which extent, gross nitrogen mineralization is stimulated by input of labile carbon. The results suggest that it is by no means uncommon to find an increase in gross N mineralization rates in response to labile carbon inputs. The magnitude of the increase seems dependent on the nitrogen status of the soil, as well as the concentration and rate of labile carbon inputs. However, continuous input of labile carbon sources that also contains nitrogen, e.g. amino acids, seems to inhibit rather than increase the mineralization of organic nitrogen. These findings suggest that there is a potential for a positive feedback between priming and primary production that needs to be considered in order to fully understand the influence of priming on net ecosystem exchange and soil carbon

  10. Complex saddles in the Gross-Witten-Wadia matrix model

    CERN Document Server

    Álvarez, Gabriel; Medina, Elena

    2016-01-01

    We give an exhaustive characterization of the complex saddle point configurations of the Gross-Witten-Wadia matrix model in the large-N limit. In particular, we characterize the cases in which the saddles accumulate in one, two, or three arcs, in terms of the values of the coupling constant and of the fraction of the total unit density that is supported in one of the arcs, and derive an explicit condition for gap closing associated to nonvacuum saddles. By applying the idea of large-N instanton we also give direct analytic derivations of the weak-coupling and strong-coupling instanton actions.

  11. Four loop renormalization of the Gross-Neveu model

    CERN Document Server

    Gracey, J A; Schroder, Y

    2016-01-01

    We renormalize the SU(N) Gross-Neveu model in the modified minimal subtraction (MSbar) scheme at four loops and determine the beta-function at this order. The theory ceases to be multiplicatively renormalizable when dimensionally regularized due to the generation of evanescent 4-fermi operators. The first of these appears at three loops and we correctly take their effect into account in deriving the renormalization group functions. We use the results to provide estimates of critical exponents relevant to phase transitions in graphene.

  12. Gross shell structure at high spin in heavy nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Deleplanque, M A; Pashkevich, V V; Chu, S Y; Unzhakova, A

    2004-01-01

    Experimental nuclear moments of inertia at high spins along the yrast line have been determined systematically and found to differ from the rigid-body values. The difference is attributed to shell effects and these have been calculated microscopically. The data and quantal calculations are interpreted by means of the semiclassical Periodic Orbit Theory. From this new perspective, features in the moments of inertia as a function of neutron number and spin, as well as their relation to the shell energies can be understood. Gross shell effects persist up to the highest angular momenta observed.

  13. Labor Absorption and Its Impact on Gross Regional Domestic Product

    OpenAIRE

    Made Ika Prastyadewi; Agus Suman; Devanto Shasta Pratomo

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the determinants of labor absorption in the trade, hotel and restaurant sector and its impact on Gross Regional Domestic Product/GRDP at Bali Province. This study is important due to the fact that the GRDP in this sector is the highest compared to other sector but the labor absorption is lower than the agriculture sector. This study used panel data comprising 9 regencies/cities at Bali Province in the period 2003-2009 including fixed effect model and ...

  14. Gross shell structure at high spin in heavy nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deleplanque, Marie-Agnes; Frauendorf, Stefan; Pashkevich, Vitaly V.; Chu, S.Y.; Unzhakova, Anja

    2003-10-07

    Experimental nuclear moments of inertia at high spins along the yrast line have been determined systematically and found to differ from the rigid-body values. The difference is attributed to shell effect and these have been calculated microscopically. The data and quantal calculations are interpreted by means of the semiclassical Periodic Orbit Theory. From this new perspective, features in the moments of inertia as a function of neutron number and spin, as well as their relation to the shell energies can be understood. Gross shell effects persist up to the highest angular momenta observed.

  15. Cortical myoclonus and cerebellar pathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijssen, MAJ; Thom, M; Ellison, DW; Wilkins, P; Barnes, D; Thompson, PD; Brown, P

    2000-01-01

    Objective To study the electrophysiologic and pathologic findings in three patients with cortical myoclonus. In two patients the myoclonic ataxic syndrome was associated with proven celiac disease. Background: The pathologic findings in conditions associated with cortical myoclonus commonly involve

  16. Rapid determination of gross alpha/beta activity in milk using liquid scintilation counter technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sas Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid determination of gross alpha and beta emitters in milk by liquid scintillation counter is discussed. This method is based on direct addition of different types of milk into scintillation cocktail and therefore it is very promising for fast determination of alpha/beta activity due to direct alpha and beta separation, measurement in close 4p geometry and without sample treatment. The selected group of radionuclides was chosen with the respect to military significance, radio-toxicity, and possibility of potential misuse. As model radionuclides 241Am, 239Pu, and 90Sr were selected. The Liquid Scintilation Counter Hidex 300 SL equipped with triple-double-coincidence-ratio technique was used for sample measurement. The aim of the work was focused on comparison of different cocktails produced by Hidex and Perkin Elmer, choosing the best cocktail based on our measurement results and adjustment of its appropriate volume. Furthermore, the optimization of ratio between the volume of scintillation cocktail and the volume of urine was investigated with the respect to the model radionuclides. According to the obtained results, the efficiency for alpha emitters was greater than 85% and for beta, greater than 95%. The obtained results allowed this method to be used for rapid determination of gross alpha/beta activity in cases where time is an essence, such as first responders or mass-scale samples, where ordinary means suffer from lack of capacity or simply collapse under the onslaught.

  17. The gross anatomy laboratory: a novel venue for critical thinking and interdisciplinary teaching in dental education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Kevin C; Joy, Anita

    2015-03-01

    Reports on the status of dental education have concluded that there is a need for various types of curricular reform, making recommendations that include better integration of basic, behavioral, and clinical sciences, increased case-based teaching, emphasis on student-driven learning, and creation of lifelong learners. Dental schools faced with decreasing contact hours, increasing teaching material, and technological advancements have experimented with alternate curricular strategies. At Southern Illinois University School of Dental Medicine, curricular changes have begun with a series of integrated biomedical sciences courses. During the process of planning and implementing the integrated courses, a novel venue-the gross anatomy laboratory-was used to introduce all Year 1 students to critical thinking, self-directed learning, and the scientific method. The venture included student-driven documentation of anatomical variations encountered in the laboratory using robust scientific methods, thorough literature review, and subsequent presentation of findings in peer review settings. Students responded positively, with over 75% agreeing the experience intellectually challenged them. This article describes the process of re-envisioning the gross anatomy laboratory as an effective venue for small group-based, student-driven projects that focus on key pedagogical concepts to encourage the development of lifelong learners.

  18. An unusual cause of gross hematuria and renal dysfunction in a young male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Rathi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Monoclonal immunoglobulin deposition disease (MIDD is an uncommon disease with a peak incidence between the 5 th and 6 th decades of life. It is characterized by non-fibrillar, Congo red negative deposition of monoclonal immunoglobulins in various organs, including in the kidneys. MIDD can be of three types depending on the composition of the deposits, and includes light chain deposition disease (LCDD, heavy chain deposition disease and light and heavy chain deposition disease, of which LCDD is the most common. Renal involvement is a universal finding in MIDD, and is in the form of renal insufficiency, microscopic hematuria and nephrotic range proteinuria. Gross hematuria is a rare occurrence. Renal biopsy usually shows nodular sclerosing glomerulopathy on light microscopy and diffuse linear staining of glomerular and tubular basement membrane on immunofluorescence microscopy. We report a young male who presented with rapidly progressive renal failure and gross hematuria and was diagnosed as LCDD with nodular glomerulopathy and crescents on renal biopsy.

  19. Pathology of hepatic iron overload

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yves Deugnier; Bruno Turlin

    2007-01-01

    Although progress in imaging and genetics allow for a noninvasive diagnosis of most cases of genetic iron overload, liver pathology remains often useful (1) to assess prognosis by grading fibrosis and seeking for associated lesions and (2) to guide the etiological diagnosis, especially when no molecular marker is available.Then, the type of liver siderosis (parenchymal, mesenchymal or mixed) and its distribution throughout the lobule and the liver are useful means for suggesting its etiology: HLA-linked hemochromatosis gene (HFE) hemochromatosis or other rare genetic hemochromatosis,nonhemochromatotic genetic iron overload (ferroportin disease, aceruloplasminemia), or iron overload secondary to excessive iron supply, inflammatory syndrome,noncirrhotic chronic liver diseases including dysmetabolic iron overload syndrome, cirrhosis, and blood disorders.

  20. Placental pathology in pregnancy complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huppertz, Berthold

    2011-02-01

    Among pregnancy pathologies preeclampsia and fetal growth restriction are among the leading causes of maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity. For both syndromes, the etiologies are still unclear in many facets. For the development of preeclampsia the presence of the placenta is a prerequisite, while for FGR a variety of other factors may be decisive. Cases with a combination of FGR and preeclampsia are the most severe cases and need clinical intervention. Studies on such cases have misled scientists and clinicians to hypothesize that a failure of trophoblast invasion is a specific feature of the early onset type of preeclampsia. Recent development in preeclampsia specific biomarkers and the intense use of Doppler ultrasound measurements already in the first trimester of pregnancy has resulted in a new understanding of the pathways leading to preeclampsia or FGR.

  1. 韧带样型纤维瘤病的X线平片、CT、MR表现及病理对照分析%Comparative analysis of X-ray, CT, MR diagnosis and pathology in desmoid-type fibromatoses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王成华; 周祖平

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the imaging manifestations and diagnostic value of imageology of the effect of desmoid fibromatosis (desmoid-type fibromatoses,DF).Methods 16 patients with DF confirmed by operation and pathology,which included,7 males and 9 females,were examined by CT and MRI.12 cases underwent CT examination (9 cases with enhanced),4 cases MRI examination (1 case with enhanced),and 4 cases X-ray examination.Retrospective analysis of CT and MRI of desmoid fibromatosis was analyzed and compared with pathology.Results 16 patients with 16 lesions were detected and divided into three types,extra-abodmen in 11 cases,abdominal wall in 3 cases and intra-abdomen in 2 cases.CT scans showed that the lesions presented homogeneous low density as soft tissue and boundary is not clear.X-ray plain film and CT showed that the skeletal lesions hadexpansile,osteolytic change,trabecular formation within lesions,soap bubble,oppressed absorption of bone and irregular bone ridge.Most lesions had not calcification andossification.Compared with the muscle signal,the lesions showed slightly low signal on T1 WI and showed highand low mixed signal on T2 WI.After contrast enhancement,the lesions showed moderate enhancement.The stripe and patchy non-enhanced structures with low signal intensity on both T1 WI and T2WI were seen.Conclusion Desmoid fibromatosis is a kind of aggressive benign tumor.X-ray can observe the integrity of bone lesions,CT examination can help understand the features of destruction of bone; stripe structure in the lesions on T1 WI,T2 WI and no enhancement of the lesions were a feature of this disease; Therefore,multiple imaging modalities can make a correct diagnosis of desmoids fibromatosis in most cases.%目的 探讨韧带样型纤维瘤病(desmoid-type fibromatoses,DF)的影像学表现及其影像学诊断价值.方法 搜集经手术病理证实的DF患者16例,男7例,女9例.12例行CT检查(增强9例),4例行MRI检查(增强1例,4例均同时行X线平

  2. Gumboro Disease: Etiology, Epidemiology, Pathology, Diagnosis And Disease Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutiastuti Wahyuwardani

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Infectious bursal disease (IBD or known as Gumboro, is a disease that attacks chicken older than 3 weeks, caused by famili Birnaviridae virus. Gumboro in Indonesia was firstly reported in 1983 and until now is commonly found. Very virulent IBD virus causes high morbidity and mortality that can even reach 100%. Clinical symptoms are exhibited as sluggish chicken, dropped wings and cloacal pasting. At gross examination, the bursa was found swollen, with yellowish fluid or hemorrhagic 3 days after infection. The bursa will get atrophy from 7 days post-infection. Meanwhile, the non virulent IBD virus causes subclinical symptoms. Chicken that survived, became stunted or dwarfed. On gross and histopathological findings, the bursa Fabricius has mild lesion and will recover at 14 days post-infection. Diagnosis of IBD can be determined based on pathological observation, supported by immunohistochemical examination and laboratory confirmation of disease by agar gel immunodiffusion, polymerase chain reaction techniques, antigen capture enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and isolation. Detection of antibodies can be made by serum neutralization technique or enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Prevention can be done by routine vaccination in the field when the maternal antibodies have declined. The review describes the etiology, epidemiology, pathogenesis clinical symptoms, pathological discription and control of the disease to improve the knowledge of poultry farmer or people who are interested in poultry health.

  3. Integrated Case-Based Applied Pathology (ICAP): a diagnostic-approach model for the learning and teaching of veterinary pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krockenberger, Mark B; Bosward, Katrina L; Canfield, Paul J

    2007-01-01

    Integrative Case-Based Applied Pathology (ICAP) cases form one component of learning and understanding the role of pathology in the veterinary diagnostic process at the Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Sydney. It is a strategy that focuses on student-centered learning in a problem-solving context in the year 3 curriculum. Learning exercises use real case material and are primarily delivered online, providing flexibility for students with differing learning needs, who are supported by online, peer, and tutor support. The strategy relies heavily on the integration of pre-clinical and para-clinical information with the introduction of clinical material for the purposes of a logical three-level, problem-oriented approach to the diagnosis of disease. The focus is on logical diagnostic problem solving, primarily using gross pathology and histopathological material, with the inclusion of microbiological, parasitological, and clinical pathological data. The ICAP approach is linked to and congruent with the problem-oriented approach adopted in veterinary medicine and the case-based format used by one of the authors (PJC) for the teaching and learning of veterinary clinical pathology in year 4. Additionally, final-year students have the opportunity, during a diagnostic pathology rotation, to assist in the development and refinement of further ICAPs, which reinforces the importance of pathology in the veterinary diagnostic process. Evidence of the impact of the ICAP approach, based primarily on student surveys and staff peer feedback collected over five years, shows that discipline-specific learning, vertical and horizontal integration, alignment of learning outcomes and assessment, and both veterinary and generic graduate attributes were enhanced. Areas for improvement were identified in the approach, most specifically related to assistance in the development of generic teamwork skills.

  4. Pathology of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijgen, Sandrine; Terris, Benoit

    2017-01-01

    Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (iCC) is a primary carcinoma of the liver with increasing significance and major pathogenic, clinical and therapeutic challenges. Classically, it arises from malignant transformation of cholangiocytes bordering small portal bile duct (BD) to second-order segmental large BDs. It has three major macroscopic growth pattern [mass-forming (MF), periductal infiltrative (PI), and intraductal growth (IG)] and histologically is a desmoplastic stroma-rich adenocarcinoma with cholangiocyte differentiation. Recent data pointed out noteworthy degree of heterogeneity in regards of their epidemiology and risk factors, pathological and molecular features, pathogenesis, clinical behaviors and treatment. Notably, several histological variants are described and can coexist within the same tumor. Several different cells of origin have also been depicted in a fraction of iCCs, amongst which malignant transformation of ductules, of hepatic stem/progenitor cells, of periductal glands or through oncogenic reprogramming of adult hepatocytes. A degree of pathological overlap with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) may be observed in a portion of iCC. A series of precursor lesions are today characterized and emphasize the existence of a multistep carcinogenesis process. Overall, these new data have brought up in proposal of new histological or molecular classifications, which could soon replace current anatomic-based classification and could have major impact on establishment of prognosis and on development of novel target treatment approaches. PMID:28261592

  5. Pathology of the vestibulocochlear nerve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Foer, Bert [Department of Radiology, Sint-Augustinus Hospital, Oosterveldlaan 24, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)], E-mail: bert.defoer@GZA.be; Kenis, Christoph [Department of Radiology, Sint-Augustinus Hospital, Oosterveldlaan 24, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)], E-mail: christophkenis@hotmail.com; Van Melkebeke, Deborah [Department of Neurology, Sint-Augustinus Hospital, Oosterveldlaan 24, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)], E-mail: Deborah.vanmelkebeke@Ugent.be; Vercruysse, Jean-Philippe [University Department of ENT, Sint-Augustinus Hospital, Oosterveldlaan 24, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)], E-mail: jphver@yahoo.com; Somers, Thomas [University Department of ENT, Sint-Augustinus Hospital, Oosterveldlaan 24, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)], E-mail: Thomas.somers@GZA.be; Pouillon, Marc [Department of Radiology, Sint-Augustinus Hospital, Oosterveldlaan 24, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)], E-mail: marc.pouillon@GZA.be; Offeciers, Erwin [University Department of ENT, Sint-Augustinus Hospital, Oosterveldlaan 24, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)], E-mail: Erwin.offeciers@GZA.be; Casselman, Jan W. [Department of Radiology, AZ Sint-Jan AV Hospital, Ruddershove 10, Bruges (Belgium); Consultant Radiologist, Sint-Augustinus Hospital, Oosterveldlaan 24, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Academic Consultent, University of Ghent (Belgium)], E-mail: jan.casselman@azbrugge.be

    2010-05-15

    There is a large scala of pathology affecting the vestibulocochlear nerve. Magnetic resonance imaging is the method of choice for the investigation of pathology of the vestibulocochlear nerve. Congenital pathology mainly consists of agenesis or hypoplasia of the vestibulocochlear nerve. Tumoral pathology affecting the vestibulocochlear nerve is most frequently located in the internal auditory canal or cerebellopontine angle. Schwannoma of the vestibulocochlear nerve is the most frequently found tumoral lesion followed by meningeoma, arachnoid cyst and epidermoid cyst. The most frequently encountered pathologies as well as some more rare entities are discussed in this chapter.

  6. Pathological α-synuclein distribution in subjects with coincident Alzheimer's and Lewy body pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo, Jon B; Gopal, Pallavi; Raible, Kevin; Irwin, David J; Brettschneider, Johannes; Sedor, Samantha; Waits, Kayla; Boluda, Susana; Grossman, Murray; Van Deerlin, Vivianna M; Lee, Edward B; Arnold, Steven E; Duda, John E; Hurtig, Howard; Lee, Virginia M-Y; Adler, Charles H; Beach, Thomas G; Trojanowski, John Q

    2016-03-01

    We investigated the distribution patterns of Lewy body-related pathology (LRP) and the effect of coincident Alzheimer disease (AD) pathology using a data-driven clustering approach that identified groups with different LRP pathology distributions without any diagnostic or researcher's input in two cohorts including: Parkinson disease patients without (PD, n = 141) and with AD (PD-AD, n = 80), dementia with Lewy bodies subjects without AD (DLB, n = 13) and demented subjects with AD and LRP pathology (Dem-AD-LB, n = 308). The Dem-AD-LB group presented two LRP patterns, olfactory-amygdala and limbic LRP with negligible brainstem pathology, that were absent in the PD groups, which are not currently included in the DLB staging system and lacked extracranial LRP as opposed to the PD group. The Dem-AD-LB individuals showed relative preservation of substantia nigra cells and dopamine active transporter in putamen. PD cases with AD pathology showed increased LRP. The cluster with occipital LRP was associated with non-AD type dementia clinical diagnosis in the Dem-AD-LB group and a faster progression to dementia in the PD groups. We found that (1) LRP pathology in Dem-AD-LB shows a distribution that differs from PD, without significant brainstem or extracranial LRP in initial phases; (2) coincident AD pathology is associated with increased LRP in PD indicating an interaction; (3) LRP and coincident AD pathology independently predict progression to dementia in PD, and (4) evaluation of LRP needs to acknowledge different LRP spreading patterns and evaluate substantia nigra integrity in the neuropathological assessment and consider the implications of neuropathological heterogeneity for clinical and biomarker characterization.

  7. Loosely-guided, self-directed learning versus strictly-guided, station-based learning in gross anatomy laboratory sessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooloos, Jan G M; de Waal Malefijt, Maarten C; Ruiter, Dirk J; Vorstenbosch, Marc A T M

    2012-01-01

    Anatomy students studying dissected anatomical specimens were subjected to either a loosely-guided, self-directed learning environment or a strictly-guided, preformatted gross anatomy laboratory session. The current study's guiding questions were: (1) do strictly-guided gross anatomy laboratory sessions lead to higher learning gains than loosely-guided experiences? and (2) are there differences in the recall of anatomical knowledge between students who undergo the two types of laboratory sessions after weeks and months? The design was a randomized controlled trial. The participants were 360 second-year medical students attending a gross anatomy laboratory course on the anatomy of the hand. Half of the students, the experimental group, were subjected without prior warning to station-based laboratory sessions; the other half, the control group, to loosely-guided laboratory sessions, which was the course's prevailing educational method at the time. The recall of anatomical knowledge was measured by written reproduction of 12 anatomical names at four points in time: immediately after the laboratory experience, then one week, five weeks, and eight months later. The strictly-guided group scored higher than the loosely-guided group at all time-points. Repeated ANOVA showed no interaction between the results of the two types of laboratory sessions (P = 0.121) and a significant between-subject effect (P ≤ 0.001). Therefore, levels of anatomical knowledge retrieved were significantly higher for the strictly-guided group than for the loosely-guided group at all times. It was concluded that gross anatomy laboratory sessions with strict instructions resulted in the recall of a larger amount of anatomical knowledge, even after eight months. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Anatomists.

  8. Gross Motor Profile and Its Association with Socialization Skills in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusponegoro, Hardiono D; Efar, Pustika; Soedjatmiko; Soebadi, Amanda; Firmansyah, Agus; Chen, Hui-Ju; Hung, Kun-Long

    2016-12-01

    While social impairment is considered to be the core deficit in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a large proportion of these children have poor gross motor ability, and gross motor deficits may influence socialization skills in children with ASD. The objectives of this study were to compare gross motor skills in children with ASD to typically developing children, to describe gross motor problems in children with ASD, and to investigate associations between gross motor and socialization skills in children with ASD. This was a cross-sectional study including 40 ASD children aged from 18 months to 6 years and 40 age-matched typically developing controls. Gross motor and socialization skills were scored using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, 2(nd) edition (Vineland-II). Below average gross motor function was found in eight of 40 (20%) ASD children. The mean gross motor v-scale score in the ASD group was 15.1 [standard deviation (SD) 3.12], significantly lower than in the control group [18.7, SD 2.09, p = 0.0001; 95% confidence intervals (CI) from -4.725 to -2.525]. The differences were most prominent in ball throwing and catching, using stairs, jumping, and bicycling. The ASD children with gross motor impairments had a mean socialization domain score of 66.6 (SD 6.50) compared to 85.7 (SD 10.90) in those without gross motor impairments (p = 0.0001, 95% CI from -25.327 to -12.736). Children with ASD had lower gross motor skills compared to typically developing children. Gross motor impairments were found in 20% of the ASD children, and these children also had lower socialization skills than those without gross motor impairments. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Study on Correlation between TCM Syndrome Type and Pathological Changes of Liver Tissue in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis B%慢性乙型肝炎患者中医证型与肝组织病理改变的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    艾香英; 符林春; 谭行华; 范慧敏; 张爱民

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To explore the correlation between traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) syndrome type and liver tissue pathological changes in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) in order to provide a more objective evidence in modernization research of TCM Syndrome. Methods:80 cases of CHB patients were collected and carried out liver tissue pathological biopsy and TCM syndrome types respectively. Liver tissue inflammation grading and fibrosis staging criteria with reference to Prevention and Treatment Plan of Viral Hepatitis and the relationship between TCM syndrome types and liver tissue pathological changes were investigated. Results: All patients were divided into three TCM syndrome types;liver stagnation with spleen deficiency syndrome (type 1,28 cases,accouting for 35% ) , liver-gallbladder dampness-heat syndrome( type 2,32 cases,accouting for 40% ) and liver-kidney yin deficiency syndrome (type 3 ,20 cases, accouting for 25% ). The inflammation grading of the liver tissue in the three types of patients was G1 in type 1, G2 in type 2, and G3 in type 3. The main stage of liver fibrosis was S1 or S2 in type 1 ,S2 in type 2,and S2 or S3 in type 3. The inflammation grading of the liver tissue and stage of liver fibrosis in each syndrome type were distinctly different from other two types( P < 0. 01). Conclusion: Liver tissue pathological change of CHB patients is highly correlated to distribution of the TCM syndrome type in this study. With the development of TCM syndrome from liver stagnation with spleen deficiency syndrome to liver-gallbladder dampness-heat syndrome, and lastly to liver-kidney yin deficiency syndrome, the liver pathological lesion has the tendency to become more severe.%目的:对慢性乙型肝炎患者常见的中医证型与肝组织病理改变进行相关性研究,以期为中医证型现代化研究提供客观依据.方法:收集80例慢性乙型肝炎患者,分别进行肝组织病理活检及中医辨证分型,肝组织的炎症分级

  10. Propagating and annihilating vortex dipoles in the Gross-Pitaevskii equation

    CERN Document Server

    Rorai, Cecilia; Fisher, Michael E

    2013-01-01

    Quantum vortex dynamics in Bose-Einstein condensates or superfluid helium can be informatively described by the Gross-Pitaevskii (GP) equation. Various approximate analytical formulae for a single stationary vortex are recalled and their shortcomings demonstrated. Significantly more accurate two-point [2/2] and [3/3] Pade' approximants for stationary vortex profiles are presented. Two straight, singly quantized, antiparallel vortices, located at a distance d apart, form a vortex dipole, which, in the GP model, can either annihilate or propagate indefinitely as a `solitary wave'. We show, through calculations performed in a periodic domain, that the details and types of behavior displayed by vortex dipoles depend strongly on the initial conditions rather than only on the separation distance (as has been previously claimed). It is found, indeed, that the choice of the initial two-vortex profile (i.e., the modulus of the `effective wave function'), strongly affects the vortex trajectories and the time scale of t...

  11. An Ad-Hoc Adaptive Pilot Model for Pitch Axis Gross Acquisition Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Curtis E.

    2012-01-01

    An ad-hoc algorithm is presented for real-time adaptation of the well-known crossover pilot model and applied to pitch axis gross acquisition tasks in a generic fighter aircraft. Off-line tuning of the crossover model to human pilot data gathered in a fixed-based high fidelity simulation is first accomplished for a series of changes in aircraft dynamics to provide expected values for model parameters. It is shown that in most cases, for this application, the traditional crossover model can be reduced to a gain and a time delay. The ad-hoc adaptive pilot gain algorithm is shown to have desirable convergence properties for most types of changes in aircraft dynamics.

  12. No pain, no pathology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Devesh; Govind, Abha

    2012-10-26

    A 22-year-old girl who had a background of reflux nephropathy and urinary tact infection presented during the night with renal angle pain and vomiting. She was treated on the emergency department (ED) pyelonephritis protocol and admitted to the short stay ward. When reviewed the next morning she was aymptomatic and feeling better. It seemed likely that she would be discharged but an ED ultrasound showed right-sided hydronephrosis and some fluid between the liver and the right kidney. CT examination confirmed the suspicion of renal tract obstruction and ruptured calyx. An 8 mm calculus was found to be the cause of the pathology. Urgent urological review was organised and the system formally decompressed with a J-J stent inserted cystoscopically later that day.

  13. Gross National Happiness: Ideology versus practices in Bhutanese Seconday Schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær-Rasmussen, Lone Krogh; Giri, Krishna Prasad

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates practices related to the ideology of infusing Gross National Happiness (GNH) into school curriculum, the effectiveness of the meditation and mind training and the implication of GNH for school environment. It also explores how GNH ambience has been managed and practiced......, the influence of the concept of GNH in school life generally and specifically and the effects on teachers and students of mindfull training in the class, how does it work? The investigation is based on empirical data from eight selected secondary schools spread all over Bhutan. Principals, teachers, students...... and parents were interviewed in 2012/2013 individually and in groups. Further more classroom observations took place. Finally the investigation is based on literature review and readings of documents, which describe and analyse policies, principles, strategies and philosophies related to the implementation...

  14. Measurement and Quantification of Gross Human Shoulder Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy T. Newkirk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The shoulder girdle plays an important role in the large pointing workspace that humans enjoy. The goal of this work was to characterize the human shoulder girdle motion in relation to the arm. The overall motion of the human shoulder girdle was characterized based on motion studies completed on test subjects during voluntary (natural/unforced motion. The collected data from the experiments were used to develop surface fit equations that represent the position and orientation of the glenohumeral joint for a given humeral pointing direction. These equations completely quantify gross human shoulder girdle motion relative to the humerus. The equations are presented along with goodness-of-fit results that indicate the equations well approximate the motion of the human glenohumeral joint. This is the first time the motion has been quantified for the entire workspace, and the equations provide a reference against which to compare future work.

  15. Labor Absorption and Its Impact on Gross Regional Domestic Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Made Ika Prastyadewi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to examine the determinants of labor absorption in the trade, hotel and restaurant sector and its impact on Gross Regional Domestic Product/GRDP at Bali Province. This study is important due to the fact that the GRDP in this sector is the highest compared to other sector but the labor absorption is lower than the agriculture sector. This study used panel data comprising 9 regencies/cities at Bali Province in the period 2003-2009 including fixed effect model and simultaneous equation model of Two-Stage Least Square. The results showed that GRDP, working age population, and the minimum wage have positive effect on employment, while the educated unemployment has no significant effect on the employment in the trade, hotel and restaurant sector. In addition, increases in employment and workers productivity have positive and significant effects the GRDP in the trade, hotel and restaurant sector at Bali Province.

  16. Specific features of measuring the ecologically adjusted gross regional product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douginets Ganna V.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article formulates a necessity of deepening and improvement of ecological and economic indicators and considers the existing indices and indicators of sustainable development. It conducts a comparative analysis of existing norms of calculation of the ecological tax and fees for environmental pollution. It marks main problems of nature management in Ukraine and their consequences, namely, negative impact on health of the population. It offers methods of measurement of the ecologically adjusted gross regional product (EGRP on the basis of improvement of the cost method. It analyses dependence of the regional welfare on the state of environment with the help of measuring the EGRP of Ukrainian regions. It studies the pressure on Ukrainian regions by components: pollution of aquatic environment, atmospheric air, land resources and rates of waste formation. It conducts grouping of regions by EGRP per capita with specification of positive and negative dynamics of the indicator.

  17. Stimulation of gross dimethylsulfide (DMS) production by solar radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galí, Martí; Saló, Violeta; Almeda, Rodrigo; Calbet, Albert; Simó, Rafel

    2011-08-01

    Oceanic gross DMS production (GP) exerts a fundamental control on the concentration and the sea-air flux of this climatically-active trace gas. However, it is a poorly constrained process, owing to the complexity of the microbial food web processes involved and their interplay with physical forcing, particularly with solar radiation. The “inhibitor method”, using dimethyldisulfide (DMDS) or other compounds to inhibit bacterial DMS consumption, has been frequently used to determine GP in dark incubations. In the work presented here, DMDS addition was optimized for its use in light incubations. By comparing simultaneous dark and light measurements of GP in meso- to ultraoligotrophic waters, we found a significant enhancement of GP in natural sunlight in 7 out of 10 experiments. Such stimulation, which was generally between 30 and 80% on a daily basis, occurred throughout contrasting microbial communities and oceanographic settings.

  18. Full Phase Diagram of the Massive Gross-Neveu Model

    CERN Document Server

    Schnetz, O; Urlichs, K; Schnetz, Oliver; Thies, Michael; Urlichs, Konrad

    2006-01-01

    The massive Gross-Neveu model is solved in the large N limit at finite temperature and chemical potential. The scalar potential is given in terms of Jacobi elliptic functions. It contains three parameters which are determined by transcendental equations. Self-consistency of the scalar potential is proved. The phase diagram for non-zero bare quark mass is found to contain a kink-antikink crystal phase as well as a massive fermion gas phase featuring a cross-over from light to heavy effective fermion mass. For zero bare quark mass we recover the three known phases kink-antikink crystal, massless fermion gas, and massive fermion gas. All phase transitions are shown to be of second order. Equations for the phase boundaries are given and solved numerically. Implications on condensed matter physics are indicated where our results generalize the bipolaron lattice in non-degenerate conducting polymers to finite temperature.

  19. Digital pathology: Attitudes and practices in the Canadian pathology community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdaleni Bellis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Digital pathology is a rapidly evolving niche in the world of pathology and is likely to increase in popularity as technology improves. We performed a questionnaire for pathologists and pathology residents across Canada, in order to determine their current experiences and attitudes towards digital pathology; which modalities digital pathology is best suited for; and to assess the need for training in digital pathology amongst pathology residents and staff. An online survey consisting of 24 yes/no, multiple choice and free text questions regarding digital pathology was sent out via E-mail to all members of the Canadian Association of Pathologists and pathology residents across Canada. Survey results showed that telepathology (TP is used in approximately 43% of institutions, primarily for teaching purposes (65%, followed by operating room consults (46%. Seventy-one percent of respondents believe there is a need for TP in their practice; 85% use digital images in their practice. The top two favored applications for digital pathology are teaching and consultation services, with the main advantage being easier access to cases. The main limitations of using digital pathology are cost and image/diagnostic quality. Sixty-two percent of respondents would attend training courses in pathology informatics and 91% think informatics should be part of residency training. The results of the survey indicate that Pathologists and residents across Canada do see a need for TP and the use of digital images in their daily practice. Integration of an informatics component into resident training programs and courses for staff Pathologists would be welcomed.

  20. 韧带样纤维瘤病的CT及MRI特征及病理对照%CT and MRI appearance of desmoid-type fibromatosis with pathologic correlation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁焕初; 郑晓林; 肖利华; 王刚; 黎群弟

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the CT and MRI appearance and pathologic features of desmoid type fibromatosis(DF). Methods 27 patients with pathologically confirmed DF underwent contrast-enhanced CT(12)and MRI(14)with 1 patient having both CT and MRI examinations.Results Of 30 soft tissue DF,14 were located in extra-abdominal and 16 in abdominal wall muscles. All tumors presented as solid masses growing along the long axis of muscles.20 tumors were fusiform or round and 10 were irregular in shape.The margins were well-defined(7)or ill-defined(23).On unenhanced CT,3 tumors were isodense and 10 hypodense relative to the muscle.After intravenous contrast injection,9 tumors showed moderate progressive enhancement and 4 tumors enhanced heterogeneously.On MRI,the lesions were homogeneously T1 isointense(9)or slightly hypointense(9),slightly T2 hyperintense (15)or heterogeneous on T2-weighted images(3).All lesions were hyperintense on STIR-weighted images with bands of low signal intensities in 15.Heterogeneous moderate progressive contrast enhancement was observed in all tumors with non-enhancing T1-and T2-hypointense bands in 12 tumors.Histopathology showed infiltration of fibroblasts and myofibroblasts with compact fibrous and collagen tissues as well as mucus sedimentation.Conclusion DF has CT and MRI features of ill-defined margin,low CT density or MR signal intensity without necrosis and progressive contrast enhancement.%目的:回顾性分析韧带样纤维瘤的CT及MRI特征表现及病理基础。方法收集经手术病理证实的韧带样纤维瘤共27例影像学及病理资料,CT检查12例,MRI检查14例,另1例行CT及MRI检查;全部病例均行增强扫描。结果27例共30个病灶,16个病灶发生于腹壁,14个病灶发生于腹壁外。形态:全部病灶均沿肌纤维长轴生长,20个呈梭形或类圆形,10个不规则形;7个边界较清,23个边界不清。与肌肉密度、信号相比:CT上10个病灶呈稍低密度,3

  1. The relationship of pathological types of benign prostatic hyperplasia to serum TPSA, FPSA and the ratio of FPSA to TPSA%良性前列腺增生病理类型与血清FPSA和TPSA及其比值的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈日敢; 赖国修; 吕腾荣

    2011-01-01

    目的 观察总前列腺特异抗原(TPSA)、游离前列腺特异抗原(FPSA)、FPSA与TPSA 比值(F/T) 在良性前列腺增生(BPH)病理类型诊断中的作用.方法 检测98例BPH(腺瘤样型39例,纤维肌型35例,纤维肌腺瘤样型24例)、30例健康患者(对照组)的TPSA、FPSA,并计算出相应的F/T值.结果 BPH组FPSA、TPSA均显著高于对照组,F/T低于对照组,差异具有显著性(P0.05).结论 腺瘤样型BPH患者血清FPSA、TPSA高于纤维肌型和纤维肌腺瘤样型,对诊断BPH病理类型有一定程度上诊断价值,从而为临床指导用药提供参考.%Objective To observe the serum total prostate specific antigen ( TPSA ), free prostate specific antigen ( FPSA ), and the ratio of FPSA to TPSA ratio ( F/T ) in the diagnosis of pathological types of benign prostatic hyperplasia ( BPH ).Methods Ninety - eight cases of BPH ( adenomatoid type 39 cases, muscle fiber type 35 cases, fibromuscular adenomatoid type 24 cases ) and 30 healthy subjects ( control group ) were included in this study.Serum TPSA and FPSA were detected and the corresponding F/T value was calculated.Results FPSA and TPSA were significantly higher, F/T was lower in BPH group than the control group ( P < 0.05 ).Comparison of serum levels of FPSA and TPSA in different pathological types of BPH showed that serum FPSA and TPSA were higher in adenomatoid type than those in muscle fiber type group and fibromuscular adenomatoid type group( P < 0.05 ), however, there were no differences in the levels of FPSA and TPSA between muscle fiber group and fibromuscular adenomatoid group( P > 0.05 ).In addition, there was no significant difference in F/T among each type of BPH ( P > 0.05 ).Conclusion The finding that serum FPSA and TPSA levels were higher in patients with adenomatoid type BPH than those in patients with muscle fiber type and fibromuscular adenomatoid type BPH may provide help for the diagnosis of pathological types of BPH and for the treatment in

  2. Comparison of occurrence probability of lower extremity thrombosis risk in different pathological types of lung cancer%不同病理类型肺恶性肿瘤发生下肢血栓的风险比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田雨

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare the different pathological types of lung cancer occurrence probability of lower ex-tremity thrombosis risk. Methods The incidence of lower extremity thrombosis between 300 cases non-small cell lung cancer (150 cases of adenocarcinoma,150 cases of squalors cell carcinoma)and 300 cases of small cell lung cancer patients,who were selected from February 2010 to April 2015 in our hospital,was compared. Results The occurrence of lower extremity thrombosis in non-small cell lung cancer was 10. 0% higher than 3. 3% in small cell lung cancer,the lung adenocarcinoma pa-tients with deep vein thrombosis rate of 15. 3% was much higher than 4. 7% of lung squamous cell carcinoma,the adenocarci-noma of lower extremity thrombosis incidence of 15. 3% was significantly higher than 3. 3% in small cell lung cancer,the differences were statistically significant(P ﹤ 0. 05). The incidence of lung squamous cell carcinoma of the lower extremity thrombosis was 4. 7% slightly higher than 3. 3% of non-small cell lung cancer,but the difference was not statistically signifi-cant(P ﹥ 0. 05). Conclusion The non-small cell lung cancer risk of lower extremity thrombos is higher than small cell lung cancer,among non-small cell lung cancer the risk of lower limb thrombosis of lung adenocarcinoma is higher than the lung squalors cell carcinoma.%目的:比较不同病理类型肺恶性肿瘤发生下肢血栓风险的几率。方法对2010年2月-2015年4月在我院住院的非小细胞肺癌300例(腺癌150例、鳞癌150例)及300例小细胞肺癌患者发生下肢静脉血栓的几率进行比较。结果非小细胞肺癌患者静脉血栓的发生率为10.0%高于小细胞肺癌的3.3%,肺腺癌患者下肢静脉血栓的发生率为15.3%远高于肺鳞癌的4.7%,肺腺癌下肢血栓的发生率为15.3%明显高于小细胞肺癌的3.3%,差异均有统计学意义(P ﹤0.05)。肺鳞癌下肢血栓的发生率4.7%略高于非小细胞肺癌的3.3%,但

  3. HISTOPATHOLOGICAL AND GROSS ANATOMICAL STUDY OF HUMAN PLACENTA IN PATIENTS WITH PREECLAMPSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vimla Kumari

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The beginning reason for preeclampsia is the placenta. Preeclampsia starts to lessen with the conveyance of the placenta and can happen without a baby, however, with the nearness of trophoblast tissue with hydatidiform moles. In perspective of this, investigation of the placenta ought to give knowledge into the pathophysiology of preeclampsia. In this presentation, we look at placental pathological and anatomical changes with preeclampsia and Foetal Development Limitation (FGR. No doubt, this examination ought to enlighten as both conditions are associated with comparably unusual placentation yet just in preeclampsia is there a maternal pathophysiological disorder. Comparative bits of knowledge about ahead of schedule and late onset preeclampsia ought to likewise be given by such information. METHODS A prospective study was led in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Government Medical College, Bettiah. 250 instances of pregnancy actuated hypertension were concentrated on. The cases with systolic circulatory strain more prominent than 130 mmHg, diastolic pulse more noteworthy than 90 mmHg on two estimations dismantled 6 hours in relationship with histological finding were incorporated into the study. These cases were further separated as mild preeclampsia if the diastolic circulatory strain was ≤100 mmHg and as moderate preeclampsia if the diastolic pulse was 110 mmHg. Extreme cases were characterised if the systolic pulse - ≥160 mmHg, diastolic circulatory strain ≥110 mmHg. Maternal and foetal result was considered and post conveyance placenta was sent for histopathologic examination. Gross anatomical and microscopic examination was done and discoveries were connected with the seriousness of PIH. RESULTS Out of 250 cases, there were 156 instances of mild PIH, 53 moderate and 41 were of severe PIH. On gross examination (Table 1, the mean weight of placenta was 429.9 gm in gentle instances of PIH, 364 gm in moderate

  4. Assessment of the use of gross lesions at post-mortem to detect outbreaks of classical swine fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbers, Armin R W; Vos, Jan H; Bouma, Annemarie; van Exsel, Ad C A; Stegeman, Arjan

    2003-11-07

    significantly (P<0.0001) larger than the area under the random ROC curve. It was concluded that, although gross pathology is a legitimate test, its quantitative contribution to the detection of CSF is limited.

  5. Single Epoch GPS Deformation Signals Extraction and Gross Error Detection Technique Based on Wavelet Transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jian; GAO Jingxiang; XU Changhui

    2006-01-01

    Wavelet theory is efficient as an adequate tool for analyzing single epoch GPS deformation signal. Wavelet analysis technique on gross error detection and recovery is advanced. Criteria of wavelet function choosing and Mallat decomposition levels decision are discussed. An effective deformation signal extracting method is proposed, that is wavelet noise reduction technique considering gross error recovery, which combines wavelet multi-resolution gross error detection results. Time position recognizing of gross errors and their repairing performance are realized. In the experiment, compactly supported orthogonal wavelet with short support block is more efficient than the longer one when discerning gross errors, which can obtain more finely analyses. And the shape of discerned gross error of short support wavelet is simpler than that of the longer one. Meanwhile, the time scale is easier to identify.

  6. Nontraditional applications in clinical pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Holly L; Register, Thomas C; Tripathi, Niraj K; Bolliger, Anne Provencher; Everds, Nancy; Zelmanovic, David; Poitout, Florence; Bounous, Denise I; Wescott, Debra; Ramaiah, Shashi K

    2014-10-01

    Most published reviews of preclinical toxicological clinical pathology focus on the fundamental aspects of hematology, clinical chemistry, coagulation, and urinalysis in routine toxicology animal species, for example, rats, mice, dogs, and nonhuman primates. The objective of this continuing education course was to present and discuss contemporary examples of nonroutine applications of clinical pathology endpoints used in the drug development setting. Area experts discussed bone turnover markers of laboratory animal species, clinical pathology of pregnant and growing laboratory animals, clinical pathology of nonroutine laboratory animal species, and unique applications of the Siemens Advia(®) hematology analyzer. This article is a summary based on a presentation given at the 31st Annual Symposium of the Society of Toxicologic Pathology, during the Continuing Education Course titled "Nontraditional Applications of Clinical Pathology in Drug Discovery and Preclinical Toxicology."

  7. Sleep Pathology in Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Peter; de Bruin, Gabriela S.; Wang, Leo H.; Ward, Beth A.; Ances, Beau M.; Lim, Miranda M.; Bucelli, Robert C.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Associations between sleep and neurodegenerative diseases have become increasingly evident. This study aims to characterize the prevalence and type of sleep pathology in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), a rapidly progressive, fatal neurodegenerative disease. Methods: In this observational cross-sectional cohort study, we performed a retrospective analysis of sleep signs and symptoms in a consecutive group of patients with definite CJD at a tertiary care medical center (n = 28). Polysomnography was performed in 14 patients. Results: Although only 5 of 28 patients carried a premorbid sleep diagnosis, signs/symptoms of sleep pathology were present in 25 patients. Eleven reported hypersomnia whereas 13 reported insomnia. Seven had restless legs symptoms and/or periodic limb movements of sleep, and nine reported parasomnias. Of the 14 patients who underwent polysomnography, 1 did not show sleep, 9 (69%) had poorly formed or absent sleep spindles and/or K-complexes, and 10 (77%) had sleep-disordered breathing. Of the 8 patients who experienced rapid eye movement (REM) sleep during the polysomnography, 3 (38%) showed REM sleep without atonia, and 2 patients met criteria for REM sleep behavior disorder. Median total sleep time was 226 (interquartile range [IQR] = 195–282) min. Median sleep efficiency was 58.5% (IQR = 41–65.5 %). Median REM time was 0.35% (IQR = 0–7.125%). Five patients (38%) demonstrated periodic limb movements during polysomnography. One case is presented. Conclusions: Sleep pathology is common in CJD, and screening for sleep pathology is indicated in the evaluation of patients with rapidly progressive dementias. Early identification and treatment of sleep pathology may provide an intervenable target for CJD. Citation: Kang P, de Bruin GS, Wang LH, Ward BA, Ances BM, Lim MM, Bucelli RC. Sleep pathology in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. J Clin Sleep Med 2016;12(7):1033–1039. PMID:27250807

  8. [Psychiatric comorbidity in pathological gambling].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skokauskas, Norbertas; Satkeviciūte, Regina; Burba, Benjaminas

    2003-01-01

    In this article the peculiarities of psychiatric comorbidity in pathological gambling were investigated. The authors were based both on the data of many foreign scientists and on their own one. Our data on 77 cases of pathological gambling were collected based on interviews of Lithuanian psychiatrists and psychotherapists about their patients with gambling addiction in period from 1991 to 2001. The data that we publish and analyze allows us to make conclusions that pathological gambling can reveal together with very wide spectrum of psychiatric disorders, but more often with alcoholism and depression. The mechanism of psychiatric comorbidity in pathological gambling is very complex.

  9. Recommendations for pathology peer review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Daniel; Sellers, Rani S; Barale-Thomas, Erio; Bolon, Brad; George, Catherine; Hardisty, Jerry F; Irizarry, Armando; McKay, Jennifer S; Odin, Marielle; Teranishi, Munehiro

    2010-12-01

    Pathology peer review verifies and improves the accuracy and quality of pathology diagnoses and interpretations. Pathology peer review is recommended when important risk assessment or business decisions are based on nonclinical studies. For pathology peer review conducted before study completion, the peer-review pathologist reviews sufficient slides and pathology data to assist the study pathologist in refining pathology diagnoses and interpretations. Materials to be reviewed are selected by the peer-review pathologist. Consultations with additional experts or a formal (documented) pathology working group may be used to resolve discrepancies. The study pathologist is solely responsible for the content of the final pathology data and report, makes changes resulting from peer-review discussions, initiates the audit trail for microscopic observations after all changes resulting from peer-review have been made, and signs the final pathologist's report. The peer-review pathologist creates a signed peer-review memo describing the peer-review process and confirming that the study pathologist's report accurately and appropriately reflects the pathology data. The study pathologist also may sign a statement of consensus. It is not necessary to archive working notes created during the peer-review process.

  10. Effect of physical therapy frequency on gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun-Young

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] This study attempted to investigate the effect of physical therapy frequency based on neurodevelopmental therapy on gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy. [Subjects and Methods] The study sample included 161 children with cerebral palsy who attended a convalescent or rehabilitation center for disabled individuals or a special school for children with physical disabilities in South Korea. Gross Motor Function Measure data were collected according to physical therapy frequency based on neurodevelopmental therapy for a period of 1 year. [Results] The correlation between physical therapy frequency and Gross Motor Function Measure scores for crawling and kneeling, standing, walking, running and jumping, and rolling, and the Gross Motor Function Measure total score was significant. The differences in gross motor function according to physical therapy frequency were significant for crawling, kneeling, standing, and Gross Motor Function Measure total score. The differences in gross motor function according to frequency of physical therapy were significant for standing in Gross Motor Function Classification System Level V. [Conclusion] Intensive physical therapy was more effective for improving gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy. In particular, crawling and kneeling, and standing ability showed greater increases with intensive physical therapy.

  11. Effect of physical therapy frequency on gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun-Young

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study attempted to investigate the effect of physical therapy frequency based on neurodevelopmental therapy on gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy. [Subjects and Methods] The study sample included 161 children with cerebral palsy who attended a convalescent or rehabilitation center for disabled individuals or a special school for children with physical disabilities in South Korea. Gross Motor Function Measure data were collected according to physical therapy frequency based on neurodevelopmental therapy for a period of 1 year. [Results] The correlation between physical therapy frequency and Gross Motor Function Measure scores for crawling and kneeling, standing, walking, running and jumping, and rolling, and the Gross Motor Function Measure total score was significant. The differences in gross motor function according to physical therapy frequency were significant for crawling, kneeling, standing, and Gross Motor Function Measure total score. The differences in gross motor function according to frequency of physical therapy were significant for standing in Gross Motor Function Classification System Level V. [Conclusion] Intensive physical therapy was more effective for improving gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy. In particular, crawling and kneeling, and standing ability showed greater increases with intensive physical therapy. PMID:27390440

  12. Clinicopathologic features of experimental Clostridium perfringens type D enterotoxemia in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filho, E J F; Carvalho, A U; Assis, R A; Lobato, F F; Rachid, M A; Carvalho, A A; Ferreira, P M; Nascimento, R A; Fernandes, A A; Vidal, J E; Uzal, F A

    2009-11-01

    This study was designed to experimentally reproduce enterotoxemia by Clostridium perfringens type D in cattle and to characterize the clinicopathologic findings of this disease. Fourteen 9-month-old calves were inoculated intraduodenally according to the following schedule: group 1 (n = 4), C. perfringens type D whole culture; group 2 (n = 3), C. perfringens type D washed cells; group 3 (n = 5), C. perfringens type D filtered and concentrated supernatant; group 4 (n = 2), sterile, nontoxic culture medium. In addition, all animals received a 20% starch solution in the abomasum. Ten animals from groups 1 (4/4), 2 (3/3), and 3 (3/5) showed severe respiratory and neurologic signs. Gross findings were observed in these 10 animals and consisted of acute pulmonary edema, excessive protein-rich pericardial fluid, watery contents in the small intestine, and multifocal petechial hemorrhages on the jejunal mucosa. The brain of one animal of group 2 that survived for 8 days showed multifocal, bilateral, and symmetric encephalomalacia in the corpus striatum. The most striking histologic changes consisted of perivascular high protein edema in the brain, and alveolar and interstitial proteinaceous pulmonary edema. The animal that survived for 8 days and that had gross lesions in the corpus striatum showed histologically severe, focal necrosis of this area, cerebellar peduncles, and thalamus. Koch's postulates have been met and these results show that experimental enterotoxemia by C. perfringens type D in cattle has similar clinical and pathologic characteristics to the natural and experimental disease in sheep.

  13. Gynecological pelvic pain as emergency pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera Domínguez, A; Mora Jurado, A; García de la Oliva, A; de Araujo Martins-Romeo, D; Cueto Álvarez, L

    Acute pelvic pain is a common condition in emergency. The sources of acute pelvic pain are multifactorial, so it is important to be familiar with this type of pathologies. The purpose of this article is review the main causes of gynecological acute pelvic pain and their radiologic appearances to be able to make an accurate diagnosis and provide objective criteria for patient management. Copyright © 2016 SERAM. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. CT in vascular pathologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartolozzi, C.; Neri, E.; Caramella, D. [Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology Department of Oncology, University of Pisa, Via Roma 67, I-56100 Pisa (Italy)

    1998-06-02

    Since the introduction of helical scanners, CT angiography (CTA) has achieved an essential role in many vascular applications that were previously managed with conventional angiography. The performance of CTA is based on the accurate selection of collimation width, pitch, reconstruction spacing and scan delay, which must be modulated on the basis of the clinical issue. However, the major improvement of CT has been provided by the recent implementation of many post-processing techniques, such as multiplanar reformatting, shaded surface display, maximum intensity projections, 3D perspectives of surface and volume rendering, which simulate virtual intravascular endoscopy. The integration of the potentialities of the scanner and of the image processing techniques permitted improvement of: (a) the evaluation of aneurysms, dissection and vascular anomalies involving the thoracic aorta; (b) carotid artery stenosis; (c) aneurysms of abdominal aorta; (d) renal artery stenosis; (e) follow-up of renal artery stenting; and (f) acute or chronic pulmonary embolism. Our experience has shown that the assessment of arterial pathologies with CTA requires the integration of 3D post-processing techniques in most applications. (orig.) With 4 figs., 34 refs.

  15. Unexpected cellular players in Rett syndrome pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronk, James C; Derecki, Noel C; Litvak, Vladimir; Kipnis, Jonathan

    2016-08-01

    Rett syndrome is a devastating neurodevelopmental disorder, primarily caused by mutations of methyl CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2). Although the genetic cause of disease was identified over a decade ago, a significant gap still remains in both our clinical and scientific understanding of its pathogenesis. Neurons are known to be primary players in pathology, with their dysfunction being the key in Rett syndrome. While studies in mice have demonstrated a clear causative - and potential therapeutic - role for neurons in Rett syndrome, recent work has suggested that other tissues also contribute significantly to progression of the disease. Indeed, Rett syndrome is known to present with several common peripheral pathologies, such as osteopenia, scoliosis, gastrointestinal problems including nutritional defects, and general growth deficit. Mouse models assessing the potential role of non-neuronal cell types have confirmed both roles in disease and potential therapeutic targets. A new picture is emerging in which neurons both initiate and drive pathology, while dysfunction of other cell types and peripheral tissues exacerbate disease, possibly amplifying further neurologic problems, and ultimately result in a positive feedback loop of progressively worsening symptoms. Here, we review what is known about neuronal and non-neuronal cell types, and discuss how this new, integrative understanding of the disease may allow for additional clinical and scientific pathways for treating and understanding Rett syndrome.

  16. Internet images of the speech pathology profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Nicole

    2017-06-05

    Objective The Internet provides the general public with information about speech pathology services, including client groups and service delivery models, as well as the professionals providing the services. Although this information assists the general public and other professionals to both access and understand speech pathology services, it also potentially provides information about speech pathology as a prospective career, including the types of people who are speech pathologists (i.e. demographics). The aim of the present study was to collect baseline data on how the speech pathology profession was presented via images on the Internet.Methods A pilot prospective observational study using content analysis methodology was conducted to analyse publicly available Internet images related to the speech pathology profession. The terms 'Speech Pathology' and 'speech pathologist' to represent both the profession and the professional were used, resulting in the identification of 200 images. These images were considered across a range of areas, including who was in the image (e.g. professional, client, significant other), the technology used and the types of intervention.Results The majority of images showed both a client and a professional (i.e. speech pathologist). While the professional was predominantly presented as female, the gender of the client was more evenly distributed. The clients were more likely to be preschool or school aged, however male speech pathologists were presented as providing therapy to selected age groups (i.e. school aged and younger adults). Images were predominantly of individual therapy and the few group images that were presented were all paediatric.Conclusion Current images of speech pathology continue to portray narrow professional demographics and client groups (e.g. paediatrics). Promoting images of wider scope to fully represent the depth and breadth of speech pathology professional practice may assist in attracting a more diverse group

  17. [To an integrative management of pathological gamblers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnaire, C

    2011-12-01

    Recent researches on pathological gambling indicate that the various gambling activities are heterogeneous by nature. Indeed, some findings support the view that gambling cannot be seen as a homogeneous activity. Therefore, pathological gamblers do not represent a homogeneous population. However, treatment does not appear to take into account this heterogeneity and studies in the field have assessed the efficacy of the various types of treatment. Furthermore, recent empirical data emphasize the need for delineating distinct subtypes of pathological gambling presenting similar symptoms but which, at the same time, differ on certain variables. These subtypes will be essential in the management, treatment, and prognosis of pathological gambling. Blaszczynski and Nower (2002) identified three subtypes of gamblers. The first subtype, referred to as the "emotionally vulnerable problem gamblers", includes gamblers who mainly gamble to escape painful emotional experiences. The second includes "antisocial impulsivist problem gamblers" who are mainly driven by impulsivity and sensation seeking. The last one, referred to as the "behaviourally conditioned problem gamblers", includes gamblers who gamble because of behavioural contingencies offered by the game, rather than psychological difficulties. Each group is characterized by specific psychological variables, and each may require a different treatment approach. Hence, these subgroups should be used and taken into account in the choice of the treatment. The purpose of this article is to provide an integrative model of treatment of this disorder based on the typology of pathological gamblers. Many studies have tried to understand this pathological behaviour by exploring motivational, psychological, biological and ecological correlates of gambling to explain the aetiology. An approach integrating various orientations, at the same time cognitive-behavioural, motivational, psychoanalytical and bodily-centred is the most relevant

  18. Assessment outcomes: computerized instruction in a human gross anatomy course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowski, Elaine L

    2002-01-01

    New and traditional educational media were used to study alternative methods of instruction in a human gross anatomy course. Three consecutive entry-level physical therapy (PT) classes (55 students total) participated in this study. No other anatomy course was available to these students during this time. During the first year, all entering PT students (n = 18) completed a traditional cadaver anatomy course. This traditional group attended weekly lectures and dissection laboratories for 15 weeks. During the second year, the next entering class of PT students (n = 17) completed a self-study, computerized noncadaver anatomy course. This self-study group attended an introductory session to receive course objectives and instruction in using the computer package chosen for the study. After the introductory session, this group worked independently for the remainder of their 15-week course. During the third year, the entering class of PT students (n = 20) attended weekly lectures and completed a self-study, computerized non-cadaver laboratory course. This lecture and self-study group attended an introductory session to review course objectives and receive instruction in using the computer package. For the remainder of their 15-week course, this group attended a weekly lecture and worked independently on the computer for the laboratory portion of their course. All groups kept time logs, recording class and study time for each day of the course. The time logs were collected on the last day of each course. Each group's performance in anatomy-based system courses was followed through the remainder of the PT curricula, including clinical rotations, and through the completion of the state board licensure examination. Data were analyzed using a multivariate analysis of variance and a Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance. There was no significant difference in anatomy course class means, class study times, performance throughout the remainder of the PT curricula, and performance

  19. PLACENTAL PATHOLOGY IN INTRA UTERINE GROWTH RETARDATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijaya Sheela

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The placental development is an essential step in developing effective strategies or the prediction of various maternal and fetal medical and developmental problems . Oxygen transfer and nutrients to the fetus will be actively regulated by the placenta . AIM AND OBJECTIVE: To study morphological changes of placenta in Intrauterine growth Retardation and to correlate morphological changes of placenta with fetal outcome . MATERIALS AND METHODS: Placental tissue samples were obtained from 50 pregnancies complicated by IUGR and 50 normal uncomplicated pregnancies with gestational age between 28 to 42 weeks attending King George hospital Visakhapatnam . INCLUSIVE CRITERIA : An IUGR fetuses whose estimated fetal weight less than those in 10 th percentile are included in the study . Birth weight percentiles were determined by previously published normal curves . EXCLUSIVE CRITERIA: fetuses with known syndromes , chromosomal anomalies and twins . For all patients included in the data set gestational age was estimated from the last menstrual period or early ultra - sonogram before the 12 th week of gestation . The final data set was composed of 50pregnancies complicated by IUGR and APGAR scores . Because preeclampsia is an important maternal factor associated with IUGR , these cases were further divided into t wo subgroups according to presence of hypertension . Samples were taken both from vaginal deliveries and caesarean sections . All the placentas were examined by pathologists . The placentas were weighed . For each case one or two samples from the umbilical cor ds , extra placental membrane , and parenchyma were taken . Gross pathological findings were confirmed by histology . Histological data included are ischemic necrosis , decidual vascularity , acute chorioamni oni tis , fibrinoid necrosis and choriangiosis . Appropriate statistical parameters were used . Chi - square test was conducted to compare placental pathological changes

  20. World distribution of gross domestic product per-capita

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustos-Guajardo, R.; Moukarzel, Cristian F.

    2015-05-01

    It is shown that the world distribution of gross domestic products per capita (GDPpc) is well described by a trade-investment model that combines yard-sale (YS) exchange and random multiplicative noise (RMN). We first derive analytically the typical value w(r, t) of the ranked wealths for a system evolving under YS exchange and RMN. The resulting analytical expressions are fitted to data for the GDPpc of up to 200 countries, in the period 1960-2013. Our model fits the data significantly better than previously proposed approaches that consider either Noise or Trade alone. Analysis of the resulting values for the fitting parameters, and of their time dependence, suggests that: (a) International trade conditions have (from 1960 to 2008) a statistical bias towards favoring richer countries. (b) Biased international commerce is the main cause for the observed divergence of GDPpc values from 1960 to 2008. (c) After 2008, the distribution of GDPpc starts to converge, and the world product per capita stops growing.

  1. Gross congenital malformation at birth in a government hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Sachdeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A hospital-based cross-sectional study was undertaken to determine proportion of gross congenital malformation (GCMF occurring at intramural births. Rate of GCMF was found to be 16.4/1000 consecutive singleton births (>28 weeks with three leading malformation as anencephaly (44.68%, talipes equinovarus (17.02% and meningomyelocele (10.63%. Higher risk of malformed births were noticed amongst un-booked (2.07% in-comparison to booked (1.01% mothers; women with low level of education (up to 8 years [2.14%] vs. at least 9 years of schooling [0.82%]; gravida status of at least 3 (2.69% followed by 1 (1.43% and 2 (1.0% respectively; pre-term (5.13% vs. term (0.66%; cesarean section (4.36% versus vaginal delivery (0.62%. Mortality was significantly higher among congenitally malformed (17.35% than normal (0.34% newborns. With-in study limitation, emergence of neural tube defect as the single largest category of congenital malformation indicates maternal malnutrition (especially folic acid that needs appropriate attention and management.

  2. Progestogen-related gross and microscopic changes in female Beagles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, L W; Kelly, W A

    1976-01-01

    Long-term studies of megestrol acetate and chlormadinone acetate in 100 female dogs are in progress. Doses of zero, one, 10 and 25 times the expected human dose of megestrol acetate and 25 times the expected human dose of chlormadinone acetate (on a milligram per kilogram body weight basis) are being given daily. During the first 4 years, eight dogs from each of the five groups were killed. The principal gross findings included enlarged uteri with mucoid material in the lumina, mammary development in dogs given middle and high doses of megestrol acetate and chlormadinone acetate, and thickened gallbladder walls in dogs given high doses of each. Histologic evaluation showed inhibition of ovulation for progestogen-treated dogs and suppression of ovarian follicular development with the high doses. Cystic endometrial hyperplasia was slight in the low-dose dogs and moderate to severe in most of the high-dose dogs; a few also had ulcerative endometritis and pyometra. The mammary glands of dogs given the middle and high doses produced lobules, acini, and secretion exceeding natural metestrus. Slight to marked cystic mucinous hyperplasia occurred in the gallbladders of most dogs given the high doses. Tow high-dose megestrol dogs had clinical signs and microscopic pancreatic, renal, and ocular changes indicative of diabetes mellitus.

  3. Stratospheric sulfate geoengineering enhances terrestrial gross primary productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, L.; Robock, A.; Tilmes, S.; Neely, R. R., III

    2015-09-01

    Stratospheric sulfate geoengineering could impact the terrestrial carbon cycle by enhancing the carbon sink. With an 8 Tg yr-1 injection of SO2 to balance a Representative Concentration Pathway 6.0 (RCP6.0) scenario, we conducted climate model simulations with the Community Earth System Model, with the Community Atmospheric Model 4 fully coupled to tropospheric and stratospheric chemistry (CAM4-chem). During the geoengineering period, as compared to RCP6.0, land-averaged downward visible diffuse radiation increased 3.2 W m-2 (11 %). The enhanced diffuse radiation combined with the cooling increased plant photosynthesis by 2.4 %, which could contribute to an additional 3.8 ± 1.1 Gt C yr-1 global gross primary productivity without nutrient limitation. This increase could potentially increase the land carbon sink. Suppressed plant and soil respiration due to the cooling would reduce natural land carbon emission and therefore further enhance the terrestrial carbon sink during the geoengineering period. This beneficial impact of stratospheric sulfate geoengineering would need to be balanced by a large number of potential risks in any future decisions about implementation of geoengineering.

  4. Stratospheric sulfate geoengineering enhances terrestrial gross primary productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Xia

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Stratospheric sulfate geoengineering could impact the terrestrial carbon cycle by enhancing the carbon sink. With an 8 Tg yr−1 injection of SO2 to balance a Representative Concentration Pathway 6.0 (RCP6.0 scenario, we conducted climate model simulations with the Community Earth System Model, with the Community Atmospheric Model 4 fully coupled to tropospheric and stratospheric chemistry (CAM4-chem. During the geoengineering period, as compared to RCP6.0, land-averaged downward visible diffuse radiation increased 3.2 W m−2 (11 %. The enhanced diffuse radiation combined with the cooling increased plant photosynthesis by 2.4 %, which could contribute to an additional 3.8 ± 1.1 Gt C yr−1 global gross primary productivity without nutrient limitation. This increase could potentially increase the land carbon sink. Suppressed plant and soil respiration due to the cooling would reduce natural land carbon emission and therefore further enhance the terrestrial carbon sink during the geoengineering period. This beneficial impact of stratospheric sulfate geoengineering would need to be balanced by a large number of potential risks in any future decisions about implementation of geoengineering.

  5. Horava-Lifshitz-like Gross-Neveu model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, A. M.; Mariz, T.; Martinez, R.; Nascimento, J. R.; Petrov, A. Yu.; Ribeiro, R. F.

    2017-03-01

    We describe a Horava-Lifshitz-like reformulated four-fermion Gross-Neveu model describing the dynamics of two-component spinors in (2 +1 )-dimensional space-time. Within our study, we introduce the Lagrange multiplier, study the gap equation (including the finite temperature case) which turns out to display essentially distinct behaviors for even and odd values of the critical exponent z , and show that the dynamical parity breaking occurs only for the odd z . We demonstrate that for any odd z , there exists a critical temperature at which the dynamical parity breaking disappears. Besides of this, we obtain the effective propagator and show that the resulting effective theory is renormalizable within the framework of the 1/N expansion for all values of z . As one more application of the dynamical parity breaking, we consider coupling of the vector field to the fermions in the case of a simplified spinor-vector coupling and discuss the generation of the Chern-Simons term.

  6. Large historical growth in global terrestrial gross primary production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, J. E.; Berry, J. A.; Seibt, U.; Smith, S. J.; Montzka, S. A.; Launois, T.; Belviso, S.; Bopp, L.; Laine, M.

    2017-04-01

    Growth in terrestrial gross primary production (GPP)—the amount of carbon dioxide that is ‘fixed’ into organic material through the photosynthesis of land plants—may provide a negative feedback for climate change. It remains uncertain, however, to what extent biogeochemical processes can suppress global GPP growth. As a consequence, modelling estimates of terrestrial carbon storage, and of feedbacks between the carbon cycle and climate, remain poorly constrained. Here we present a global, measurement-based estimate of GPP growth during the twentieth century that is based on long-term atmospheric carbonyl sulfide (COS) records, derived from ice-core, firn and ambient air samples. We interpret these records using a model that simulates changes in COS concentration according to changes in its sources and sinks—including a large sink that is related to GPP. We find that the observation-based COS record is most consistent with simulations of climate and the carbon cycle that assume large GPP growth during the twentieth century (31% ± 5% growth; mean ± 95% confidence interval). Although this COS analysis does not directly constrain models of future GPP growth, it does provide a global-scale benchmark for historical carbon-cycle simulations.

  7. Large historical growth in global terrestrial gross primary production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, J. E.; Berry, J. A.; Seibt, U.; Smith, S. J.; Montzka, S. A.; Launois, T.; Belviso, S.; Bopp, L.; Laine, M.

    2017-04-05

    Growth in terrestrial gross primary production (GPP) may provide a feedback for climate change, but there is still strong disagreement on the extent to which biogeochemical processes may suppress this GPP growth at the ecosystem to continental scales. The consequent uncertainty in modeling of future carbon storage by the terrestrial biosphere constitutes one of the largest unknowns in global climate projections for the next century. Here we provide a global, measurement-based estimate of historical GPP growth using long-term atmospheric carbonyl sulfide (COS) records derived from ice core, firn, and ambient air samples. We interpret these records using a model that relates changes in the COS concentration to changes in its sources and sinks, the largest of which is proportional to GPP. The COS history was most consistent with simulations that assume a large historical GPP growth. Carbon-climate models that assume little to no GPP growth predicted trajectories of COS concentration over the anthropogenic era that differ from those observed. Continued COS monitoring may be useful for detecting ongoing changes in GPP while extending the ice core record to glacial cycles could provide further opportunities to evaluate earth system models.

  8. A boy with fever, cough and gross haematuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzi, Giorgio; Maschio, Massimo; Poillucci, Gabriele; Pennesi, Marco; Barbi, Egidio

    2017-08-28

    A 5 year-old boy presented with 2-days of fever and cough. On examination, he had mild dyspnoea and chest pain, with crackles and hypoventilation at the right lung base. Blood tests showed: WBC 39.1×10(9)/L; N 28.9×10(9)/L; Hb 11.3gr/dL; PLT 375×10(9)/L; CRP 28.7mg/dL; ESR 41mm/h. Chest x-ray confirmed a pulmonary consolidation in the right lower lobe (figure 1), with an associated pleural effusion. Bacterial pneumonia was diagnosed and intravenous ceftriaxone 100mg/kg/die was started. The following day, he developed palpebral oedema and his urine became tea coloured. His blood pressure was 126/82mmHg (>99th percentile).(1) Serum creatinine rose from 0.45mg/dl to 1.09mg/dl (39.8µmol/L - 93.4µmol/L) and C3 was 9mg/dl (n.r. 90-180mg/dl). Urinalysis revealed gross hematuria and 3+ proteinuria, with microscopicy showing dysmorphic red blood cells with casts. Ultrasounds showed enlarged kidneys with increased echogenicity. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. Peer-Assisted Learning in a Gross Anatomy Dissection Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Eui-Ryoung; Chung, Eun-Kyung; Nam, Kwang-Il

    2015-01-01

    Peer-assisted learning encourages students to participate more actively in the dissection process and promotes thoughtful dissection. We implemented peer-assisted dissection in 2012 and compared its effects on students' self-assessments of learning and their academic achievement with those of faculty-led dissection. All subjects performed dissections after a lecture about upper-limb gross anatomy. Experimental group (n = 134) dissected a cadaver while guided by peer tutors who had prepared for the dissection in advance, and control group (n = 71) dissected a cadaver after the introduction by a faculty via prosection. Self-assessment scores regarding the learning objectives related to upper limbs were significantly higher in experimental group than in control group. Additionally, experimental group received significantly higher academic scores than did control group. The students in peer-assisted learning perceived themselves as having a better understanding of course content and achieved better academic results compared with those who participated in faculty-led dissection. Peer-assisted dissection contributed to self-perception and to the ability to retain and explain anatomical knowledge.

  10. GROSS MORPHOLOGY OF THE HIP ARTICULATION OF BUFFALO CALVES (BUBALUS BUBALIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriya. B

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Back ground: The vulnerability of the buffalo to the luxation of the hip articulation previous to and during parturition encouraged the investigation in this species. The literature reviewed did not reveal complete anatomical descriptions of the coxofemoral articulation of buffalo. Hence the study was undertaken. Purpose: to study the different anatomical aspects of the hip joint which are specific to buffaloes. Methods and Results: A total number of fifteen hip joints of buffalo calves procured from the local slaughter house and department of Veterinary Anatomy were studied in the Department of Veterinary Anatomy, College of Veterinary Science, Tirupati irrespective of breed, sex and nutritional status. The gross morphology of joints and relations were studied. The round ligament of buffalo was stronger compared to cattle. A thick fibrous stratum of articular capsule was present. A few arched and semi-circular fibers were seen in the articular capsule but zona orbicularis was absent. The best developed periarticular ligament in the buffalo hip was the iliofemoral ligament. It was a thick cord of connective tissue extending from a nodule below and behind the ischiatic spine and spreaded over the capsula articularis and finally attached to the trochanter major and trochanteric ridge. The pubocapsular ligament was located on the ventral surface of the joint capsule and blended with it. Compared to the most of other quadripeds the periarticular ligaments were well developed in buffalo. The iliofemoral ligament was mostly helpful in preventing the hip from excessive extension and adduction. The relative development of the periarticular ligaments in the biped and quadrupeds were probably in accordance with comparative weight that this articulation must support. Potential implications: An understanding of the basic anatomy of the hip helps in understanding pathology and can greatly assist the surgeon in appropriately diagnosing and treating the

  11. Comparing Gross Tumor Volume of Delineation between CT and MRI for Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANGXi; HUGuoqing; QIUHong; CUIWei

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the accuracy between CT and MRI in delineating gross tumor volume (GTV) of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) in making radiotherapy plan. Methods: The clinical data of 39 cases pathologically proven as nasopharyngeal carcinoma selected from April 2003 to September 2004 were retrospectively analyzed. All were subjected to CT and MR examination one week before treatment.CT scanning was performed with GE Light speed 16, and axial scan was parallel to the OM line routinely from soft palate to the suprasellar cistern. MR scanning was performed by GE Signa super-conducting magnetic resonance imaging system (1.5 Tesla). The standard quadrature head coil was used. Routine axial, sagittal and coronal image with SE sequence were obtained, and FLAIR was used in 10 of 21 cases.Scanned field ranged from the soft palate to the suprasellar cistern. Part of all cases underwent enhanced scanned with Ultravist in CT group or/and GD-DTPA in MR group. All data were analyzed by using the paired-samples t test. Results: The media primary tumor volume (cm3) in CT group and MR group was 32.49±19.91, 29.06±18.75, respectively, and the difference between the two groups were significant (t=5.268, P=0.000). There was significant difference between the two groups in early stage (T1+T2) and advanced stage (T3+T4) by Fuzhou Staging System (t=5.677, P=0.000; t=3.310, P=0.005, respectively).There was significant difference in stage T1, T2, T3 (P=0.005, P=0.001, P=0.004, respectively), and not in stage T4 (P=0.146) between the two groups. Conclusion: MR was more accurate than CT in delineating GTV of NPC, so, is more valuable in making radiotherapy plan.

  12. Imaging of intracellular spherical lamellar structures and tissue gross morphology by a focused ion beam/scanning electron microscope (FIB/SEM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drobne, Damjana [Department of Biology, University of Ljubljana, Vecna pot 111, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)], E-mail: damjana.drobne@bf.uni-lj.si; Milani, Marziale [Materials Science Department, University of Milano-Bicocca, Via Cozzi 53, I-20125 Milano (Italy); Leser, Vladka [Department of Biology, University of Ljubljana, Vecna pot 111, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Tatti, Francesco [FEI Italia, Via Cervi 40, I-00139 Roma (Italy); Zrimec, Alexis [Institute of Physical Biology, Velika Loka 90, SI-1290 Grosuplje (Slovenia); Znidarsic, Nada; Kostanjsek, Rok; Strus, Jasna [Department of Biology, University of Ljubljana, Vecna pot 111, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2008-06-15

    We report the use of a focused ion beam/scanning electron microscope (FIB/SEM) for simultaneous investigation of digestive gland epithelium gross morphology and ultrastructure of multilamellar intracellular structures. Digestive glands of a terrestrial isopod (Porcellio scaber, Isopoda, Crustacea) were examined by FIB/SEM and by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results obtained by FIB/SEM and by TEM are comparable and complementary. The FIB/SEM shows the same ultrastructural complexity of multilamellar intracellular structures as indicated by TEM. The term lamellar bodies was used for the multillamellar structures in the digestive glands of P. scaber due to their structural similarity to the lamellar bodies found in vertebrate lungs. Lamellar bodies in digestive glands of different animals vary in their abundance, and number as well as the thickness of concentric lamellae per lamellar body. FIB/SEM revealed a connection between digestive gland gross morphological features and the structure of lamellar bodies. Serial slicing and imaging of cells enables easy identification of the contact between a lamellar body and a lipid droplet. There are frequent reports of multilamellar intracellular structures in different vertebrate as well as invertebrate cells, but laminated cellular structures are still poorly known. The FIB/SEM can significantly contribute to the structural knowledge and is always recommended when a link between gross morphology and ultrastrucutre is investigated, especially when cells or cellular inclusions have a dynamic nature due to normal, stressed or pathological conditions.

  13. 20 CFR 418.1115 - What are the modified adjusted gross income ranges?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... gross income range amounts by any percentage increase in the Consumer Price Index rounded to the nearest...) of this section. We will use your modified adjusted gross income amount together with your tax filing... from his/her spouse for the entire tax year for the year we use to make our income-related...

  14. Balloon-occluded percutaneous transheptic obliteration of isolated vesical varices causing gross hematuria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Dong Hoon; Kim, Dong Hyun; Kim, Min Seok; Kim, Chul Sung [Department of Urology, College of Medicine, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-01-15

    Gross hematuria secondary to vesical varices is an unusual presentation. We report such a case recurrent gross hematuria in a male patient who had a history of bladder substitution with ileal segments that had been treated by balloon-occluded percutaneous transhepatic obliteration of vesical varices.

  15. De Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM): een onderzoek naar de responsiviteit van de Nederlandse vertaling.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenhof, C.; Ketelaar, M.; Petegem-van Beek, E. van; Vermeer, A.

    2003-01-01

    This article is about the psychometric characteristics of the Dutch translation of the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM). It describes the responsiveness to change. The article "Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM): a reliability study of the Dutch translation" focuses on the reliability of the GMF

  16. De Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM): een onderzoek naar de betrouwbaarheid van de Nederlandse vertaling.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenhof, C.; Ketelaar, M.; Petegem-van Beek, E. van

    2003-01-01

    This article is about the psychometric characteristics of the Dutch translation of the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM). It describes the reliability of the instrument. The article "Gross Motor Function Measure" (GMFM): a validity study of the Dutch translation focusses on the responsiveness of t

  17. Brief Assessment of Motor Function: Content Validity and Reliability of the Upper Extremity Gross Motor Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cintas, Holly Lea; Parks, Rebecca; Don, Sarah; Gerber, Lynn

    2011-01-01

    Content validity and reliability of the Brief Assessment of Motor Function (BAMF) Upper Extremity Gross Motor Scale (UEGMS) were evaluated in this prospective, descriptive study. The UEGMS is one of five BAMF ordinal scales designed for quick documentation of gross, fine, and oral motor skill levels. Designed to be independent of age and…

  18. 46 CFR 129.315 - Power sources for OSVs of 100 or more gross tons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Power sources for OSVs of 100 or more gross tons. 129.315 Section 129.315 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 129.315 Power sources for OSVs of 100 or more gross tons. (a) The...

  19. Combined climate factors alleviate changes in gross soil nitrogen dynamics in heathlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjorsne, Anna-Karin; Rutting, Tobias; Ambus, Per

    2014-01-01

    of exposure to three climate change factors, i.e. warming, elevated CO2 (eCO(2)) and summer drought, applied both in isolation and in combination. By conducting laboratory N-15 tracing experiments we show that warming increased both gross N mineralization and nitrification rates. In contrast, gross...

  20. 26 CFR 1.1332-1 - Inclusion in gross income of war loss recoveries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Inclusion in gross income of war loss recoveries. 1.1332-1 Section 1.1332-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES War Loss Recoveries § 1.1332-1 Inclusion in gross income of...

  1. Comparison of Gross Anatomy Test Scores Using Traditional Specimens vs. Quicktime Virtual Reality Animated Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maza, Paul Sadiri

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, technological advances such as computers have been employed in teaching gross anatomy at all levels of education, even in professional schools such as medical and veterinary medical colleges. Benefits of computer based instructional tools for gross anatomy include the convenience of not having to physically view or dissect a…

  2. The Effects of Basketball Basic Skills Training on Gross Motor Skills Development of Female Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayazit, Betul

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of basketball basic skills training on gross motor skills development of female children in Turkey. For that purpose, 40 female children took part in the study voluntarily. Basketball basic skills test was used to improve the gross motor skills of the female children in the study. Also,…

  3. The Effects of Basketball Basic Skills Training on Gross Motor Skills Development of Female Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayazit, Betul

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of basketball basic skills training on gross motor skills development of female children in Turkey. For that purpose, 40 female children took part in the study voluntarily. Basketball basic skills test was used to improve the gross motor skills of the female children in the study. Also,…

  4. 25 CFR 215.21 - Payment of gross production tax on lead and zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Payment of gross production tax on lead and zinc. 215.21... ZINC MINING OPERATIONS AND LEASES, QUAPAW AGENCY § 215.21 Payment of gross production tax on lead and zinc. The superintendent of the Quapaw Indian Agency is hereby authorized and directed to pay at...

  5. 26 CFR 1.61-3 - Gross income derived from business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gross income derived from business. 1.61-3 Section 1.61-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME... Taxable Income § 1.61-3 Gross income derived from business. (a) In general. In a...

  6. 26 CFR 1.804-3 - Gross investment income of a life insurance company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... law) shall be excluded from the gross investment income of a life insurance company. However, section... company. 1.804-3 Section 1.804-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... insurance company. (a) Gross investment income defined. For purposes of part I, subchapter L, chapter 1 of...

  7. 17 CFR 1.58 - Gross collection of exchange-set margins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gross collection of exchange-set margins. 1.58 Section 1.58 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION GENERAL REGULATIONS UNDER THE COMMODITY EXCHANGE ACT Miscellaneous § 1.58 Gross collection of exchange-set...

  8. Comparison of Gross Anatomy Test Scores Using Traditional Specimens vs. Quicktime Virtual Reality Animated Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maza, Paul Sadiri

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, technological advances such as computers have been employed in teaching gross anatomy at all levels of education, even in professional schools such as medical and veterinary medical colleges. Benefits of computer based instructional tools for gross anatomy include the convenience of not having to physically view or dissect a…

  9. Gross Motor Development of Malaysian Hearing Impaired Male Pre- and Early School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawi, Khairi; Lian, Denise Koh Choon; Abdullah, Rozlina Tan

    2014-01-01

    Acquisition of gross motor skill is a natural developmental process for children. This aspect of human development increases with one's chronological age, irrespective of any developmental conditions. The purpose of this study was to assess the level of gross motor skill development among pre- and early school-aged children with motor disability.…

  10. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Test of Gross Motor Development-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ka Yee Allison; Cheung, Siu Yin

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the underlying structure of the second edition of the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (Ulrich, 2000) as applied to Chinese children. The Test of Gross Motor Development-2 was administered to 626 Hong Kong Chinese children. The outlier test with standard scoring was utilized. After data screening, a total…

  11. Developmental and physical-fitness associations with gross motor coordination problems in Peruvian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Chaves, Raquel Nichele; Bustamante Valdívia, Alcibíades; Nevill, Alan; Freitas, Duarte; Tani, Go; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Maia, José António Ribeiro

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this cross-sectional study were to examine the developmental characteristics (biological maturation and body size) associated with gross motor coordination problems in 5193 Peruvian children (2787 girls) aged 6-14 years from different geographical locations, and to investigate how the probability that children suffer with gross motor coordination problems varies with physical fitness. Children with gross motor coordination problems were more likely to have lower flexibility and explosive strength levels, having adjusted for age, sex, maturation and study site. Older children were more likely to suffer from gross motor coordination problems, as were those with greater body mass index. However, more mature children were less likely to have gross motor coordination problems, although children who live at sea level or at high altitude were more likely to suffer from gross motor coordination problems than children living in the jungle. Our results provide evidence that children and adolescents with lower physical fitness are more likely to have gross motor coordination difficulties. The identification of youths with gross motor coordination problems and providing them with effective intervention programs is an important priority in order to overcome such developmental problems, and help to improve their general health status.

  12. Can Clinical Assessment of Locomotive Body Function Explain Gross Motor Environmental Performance in Cerebral Palsy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz Mengibar, Jose Manuel; Santonja-Medina, Fernando; Sanchez-de-Muniain, Paloma; Canteras-Jordana, Manuel

    2016-03-01

    Gross Motor Function Classification System has discriminative purposes but does not assess short-term therapy goals. Locomotion Stages (LS) classify postural body functions and independent activity components. Assessing the relation between Gross Motor Function Classification System level and Locomotion Stages will make us understand if clinical assessment can explain and predict motor environmental performance in cerebral palsy. A total of 462 children were assessed with both scales. High reliability and strong negative correlation (-0.908) for Gross Motor Function Classification System and Locomotion Stages at any age was found. Sensitivity was 83%, and specificity and positive predictive value were 100% within the same age range. Regression analysis showed detailed probabilities for the realization of the Gross Motor Function Classification System depending on the Locomotion Stages and the age group. Postural body function measure with Locomotion Stages is reliable, sensitive, and specific for gross motor function and able to predict environmental performance.

  13. Utilization management in anatomic pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandrowski, Kent; Black-Schaffer, Steven

    2014-01-01

    There is relatively little published literature concerning utilization management in anatomic pathology. Nonetheless there are many utilization management opportunities that currently exist and are well recognized. Some of these impact only the cost structure within the pathology department itself whereas others reduce charges for third party payers. Utilization management may result in medical legal liabilities for breaching the standard of care. For this reason it will be important for pathology professional societies to develop national utilization guidelines to assist individual practices in implementing a medically sound approach to utilization management.

  14. Multispectral image segmentation of breast pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornak, Joseph P.; Blaakman, Andre; Rubens, Deborah; Totterman, Saara

    1991-06-01

    The signal intensity in a magnetic resonance image is not only a function of imaging parameters but also of several intrinsic tissue properties. Therefore, unlike other medical imaging modalities, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allows the imaging scientist to locate pathology using multispectral image segmentation. Multispectral image segmentation works best when orthogonal spectral regions are employed. In MRI, possible spectral regions are spin density (rho) , spin-lattice relaxation time T1, spin-spin relaxation time T2, and texture for each nucleus type and chemical shift. This study examines the ability of multispectral image segmentation to locate breast pathology using the total hydrogen T1, T2, and (rho) . The preliminary results indicate that our technique can locate cysts and fibroadenoma breast lesions with a minimum number of false-positives and false-negatives. Results, T1, T2, and (rho) algorithms, and segmentation techniques are presented.

  15. Gross Nitrogen Mineralization in Surface Sediments of the Yangtze Estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xianbiao; Hou, Lijun; Liu, Min; Li, Xiaofei; Yin, Guoyu; Zheng, Yanling; Deng, Fengyu

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen mineralization is a key biogeochemical process transforming organic nitrogen to inorganic nitrogen in estuarine and coastal sediments. Although sedimentary nitrogen mineralization is an important internal driver for aquatic eutrophication, few studies have investigated sedimentary nitrogen mineralization in these environments. Sediment-slurry incubation experiments combined with 15N isotope dilution technique were conducted to quantify the potential rates of nitrogen mineralization in surface sediments of the Yangtze Estuary. The gross nitrogen mineralization (GNM) rates ranged from 0.02 to 5.13 mg N kg(-1) d(-1) in surface sediments of the study area. The GNM rates were generally higher in summer than in winter, and the relative high rates were detected mainly at sites near the north branch and frontal edge of this estuary. The spatial and temporal distributions of GNM rates were observed to depend largely on temperature, salinity, sedimentary organic carbon and nitrogen contents, and extracellular enzyme (urease and L-glutaminase) activities. The total mineralized nitrogen in the sediments of the Yangtze Estuary was estimated to be about 6.17 × 10(5) t N yr(-1), and approximately 37% of it was retained in the estuary. Assuming the retained mineralized nitrogen is totally released from the sediments into the water column, which contributed 12-15% of total dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) sources in this study area. This result indicated that the mineralization process is a significant internal nitrogen source for the overlying water of the Yangtze Estuary, and thus may contribute to the estuarine and coastal eutrophication.

  16. Gross Nitrogen Mineralization in Surface Sediments of the Yangtze Estuary.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianbiao Lin

    Full Text Available Nitrogen mineralization is a key biogeochemical process transforming organic nitrogen to inorganic nitrogen in estuarine and coastal sediments. Although sedimentary nitrogen mineralization is an important internal driver for aquatic eutrophication, few studies have investigated sedimentary nitrogen mineralization in these environments. Sediment-slurry incubation experiments combined with 15N isotope dilution technique were conducted to quantify the potential rates of nitrogen mineralization in surface sediments of the Yangtze Estuary. The gross nitrogen mineralization (GNM rates ranged from 0.02 to 5.13 mg N kg(-1 d(-1 in surface sediments of the study area. The GNM rates were generally higher in summer than in winter, and the relative high rates were detected mainly at sites near the north branch and frontal edge of this estuary. The spatial and temporal distributions of GNM rates were observed to depend largely on temperature, salinity, sedimentary organic carbon and nitrogen contents, and extracellular enzyme (urease and L-glutaminase activities. The total mineralized nitrogen in the sediments of the Yangtze Estuary was estimated to be about 6.17 × 10(5 t N yr(-1, and approximately 37% of it was retained in the estuary. Assuming the retained mineralized nitrogen is totally released from the sediments into the water column, which contributed 12-15% of total dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN sources in this study area. This result indicated that the mineralization process is a significant internal nitrogen source for the overlying water of the Yangtze Estuary, and thus may contribute to the estuarine and coastal eutrophication.

  17. GROSS ANATOMY AND BLOOD SUPPLY OF SMALL INTESTINE IN FOETUSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwer Unisa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM OF STUDY: To develop charts of length and width of small intestine, origin, length and branching pattern of celiac trunk and Superior mesenteric artery. This will help us to know any congenital anomaly in the small intestine, and abnormal origin, length, variation i n the branching pattern. MATERIALS AND METHOD S: The material used for the present study of 100 foetuses of different stages of gestation collected from Government maternity Hospital, Hanamkonda, ChandaKantha Memorial Hospital Warangal and private nursing h omes of Warangal D istrict of Andhra Pradesh within 10 hours of death. The dead foetuses were preserved in the hospital in 10% formalin. The foetuses were embalmed by injecting with 20 cc to 100 cc 10% formalin in to the cranial cavity and trunk depending o n the stage of gestation. Foetuses were dissected to expose small intestine and the blood vessels which supply it systematically in the following manner. OBSERVATIONS: The present study conducted has shown that length, width of small intestine was found to be increasing with foetal age. The length of celiac trunk, the length of superior mesenteric artery was found to increase proportionality with the foetal age. The causes of death in foetuses related to small intestine are intussusceptions intestional malr otation such as ladd’s bands, volvulus, cystic fibrosis, intestional infections and necrotizing enterocolitis. Knowledge related to gross anatomy and blood supply of small intestine is important because of these causes which may lead to death in foetus e s. In the present study no anomalies related to small intestine are found.

  18. Extreme events in gross primary production: a characterization across continents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Zscheischler

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate extremes can affect the functioning of terrestrial ecosystems, for instance via a reduction of the photosynthetic capacity or alterations of respiratory processes. Yet the dominant regional and seasonal effects of hydrometeorological extremes are still not well documented. Here we quantify and characterize the role of large spatiotemporal extreme events in gross primary production (GPP as triggers of continental anomalies. We also investigate seasonal dynamics of extreme impacts on continental GPP anomalies. We find that the 50 largest positive (increase in uptake and negative extremes (decrease in uptake on each continent can explain most of the continental variation in GPP, which is in line with previous results obtained at the global scale. We show that negative extremes are larger than positive ones and demonstrate that this asymmetry is particularly strong in South America and Europe. Most extremes in GPP start in early summer. Our analysis indicates that the overall impacts and the spatial extents of GPP extremes are power law distributed with exponents that vary little across continents. Moreover, we show that on all continents and for all data sets the spatial extents play a more important role than durations or maximal GPP anomaly when it comes to the overall impact of GPP extremes. An analysis of possible causes implies that across continents most extremes in GPP can best be explained by water scarcity rather than by extreme temperatures. However, for Europe, South America and Oceania we identify also fire as an important driver. Our findings are consistent with remote sensing products. An independent validation against a literature survey on specific extreme events supports our results to a large extent.

  19. Gross and Histomorphological Studies of Femoral Head Resurfacing in Dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Sharifi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The foetal skull bone as a biological graft was investigated. This study was conducted on Fifteen adult mixed - breed normal dogs 12 to 24 months with weighing 21.4=3.6 Kg .Dogs were randomly divided into 3 groups of 5 animals each. The foetal skull bone of 45 days old was collected from one pregnant bitch via cesarean method. The right femoral head cartilage was removed completely in all dogs of 3 groups.. Group I acted as control one, whereas in II group, resurfacing was done by using foetal skull bone which was fixed by using 0.8 mm cerclage wire in criss-cross fashion, but in III group, it was done similar to II group and the hip joint additionally was fixed by using 2 mm steinmenn pin.The clinical observations was made accordingly for 60 days in all groups. The gross changes of femoral head in group I & II were quite smooth and slippy, but in III group were uneven and rough due to secondary changes and ankylosis, but on micropscopic interpertation there was a remarkable compatibility of the graft with femoral head.The reconstruction of articular cartilage was faster in group II and even group III animals than group I animals. There was single row of chondrocyte in scatter area of samples in group . The complete and uniform hyaline cartilage in group II and fibro - cartilage and mixture of connective tissues in group III animals were observed. The results indicated that the foetal skull bone due to its pleuripotent calvarium easily can orient itself into the chondrocytes and cartilagenous tissues in articular surface of the hip joint, if there is suitable enviroment before complete ossification,so that normal joint motion could expect.

  20. Kidney pathology in non-obstructive urolithiasis in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozmen, O

    2004-12-01

    The objectives of the present study were to investigate the gross and histopathological findings in non-obstructive urolithiasis. Pathological examinations were carried out on 102 cattle kidneys with non-obstructive urolithiasis. The common gross lesions were cyst formations in the kidney lobes, hyperaemia and haemorrhage. The weight of the stones differed from 0.02 to 237.44 g and the colour changed brown to white. The calculi had different shapes. At histopathological examination of the kidneys slight to severe mononuclear cell infiltrations were commonly observed. Haemorrhage and connective tissue proliferations were also seen. Neutrophil leucocyte infiltrations caused by pyelonephritis were observed in some cases and multiple stone formations were found in these cases. Widening of the Bowman's space was a common histopathological finding especially when the stones were big or the inflammatory reaction was severe. Calcium deposits and eosinophylic material were found in the medullary tubules and pelvis renalis lumens in some kidneys. Giant cell formations around the stone reactions were rarely observed. Hyperplasia of the pelvis renalis and tubulus epithelium was another finding which occurred seldom. Whereas sand-like material accumulation seen in urinary bladders in some cases, no obstruction was observed in the urinary canal in this study.

  1. Pathology of BHA- and BHT-induced lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moch, R W

    1986-01-01

    The pathology lesions from three studies, two with butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and one with butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), are reviewed. When BHA was fed at 0.5 and 2.0% of the diet to F344 rats for two years, there was an increase in epithelial hyperplasia of the forestomach at both treatment levels. Papilloma and squamous-cell carcinoma of the forestomach were increased at the 2.0% level. When BHA was fed to beagle dogs at 1.0 and 1.3% of the diet for 180 days, no lesions/tumours of the distal oesophagus or stomach could be identified either at gross necropsy or by light or electron microscopy. The BHT was fed to Wistar rats at 0, 25, 100 and 250 mg/kg body weight. At the highest dose there was an increase in the number of rats with hepatocellular adenoma and with hepatocellular carcinoma.

  2. MLE's bias pathology motivates MCMLE

    OpenAIRE

    Yatracos, Yannis G.

    2013-01-01

    Maximum likelihood estimates are often biased. It is shown that this pathology is inherent to the traditional ML estimation method for two or more parameters, thus motivating from a different angle the use of MCMLE.

  3. Systemic disorders affecting dental pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knežević Milan R

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective overview of systemic disorders which might be associated with dental pathology is made. They are grouped as follows: (a congenital dental developmental disorders, (b chromosomal anomalies, (c radiations, (d immune disorders, (e intoxications, (f neurological alterations, (g gastrointestinal diseases, (h osteodystrophy and associated conditions, (i skin diseases, (j metabolic and endocrine disorders, (k craniofacial malformation syndromes and other congenital general malformations. The associated dental pathology is described in each case.

  4. [Methods and methodology of pathology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lushnikov, E F

    2016-01-01

    The lecture gives the state-of-the-art of the methodology of human pathology that is an area of the scientific and practice activity of specialists to produce and systematize objective knowledge of pathology and to use the knowledge in clinical medicine. It considers the objects and subjects of an investigation, materials and methods of a pathologist, and the results of his/her work.

  5. Development of pathology in Turkey

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    Gökhan GEDİKOĞLU

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Autospy is an important tool for the development of pathology as a science. In western civilisation dissection of human body became widespread with Renaissance, in contrast in the Ottoman Empire first dissection was not performed until the 19th century. Mustafa Behçet Efendi, head physician of the Empire, was one of the Ottoman physician who suggested the importance of dissection in the medical education. The first dissection was however performed by Charles Ambroise Bernard, a foreign physician who had been invited to help establishing a new medical school; “Mekteb-i Tıbbiye-i Adliye-i Şâhâne”, in 1843. The first modern medical schools called “Tıphane” and “Cerrahhane-i Amire” which were founded in 1827, did not have pathology courses. Pathology courses began in “Mekteb-i Tıbbiye-i Adliyei Şâhâne”. Dr. Hamdi Suat (Aknar, educated in anatomic pathology in Germany, was the first pathologist who established the modern pathology in Turkey in “İstanbul Darülfünun” medical school. In 1933 “Darülfünün” was closed and İstanbul University was built and the “University Reform Commission” invited many scientists escaping from Nazi government to study in İstanbul University. Dr. Philipp Schwartz had an important role both in the invitation of these scientists and establishment of the pathology department in İstanbul University. Practical courses were increased, clinicopathologic courses were organized for the first time and a lot of autopsies were performed, as high as 1000 autopsy per year, by Dr. Philipp Schwartz. More progress has takes place in Turkey over the years since pathology was first established. Today Turkey has many pathology departments which keep up with the worldwide advances in the field.

  6. Improvements in breast cancer pathology practices among medicare patients undergoing unilateral extended simple mastectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imperato, Pascal James; Waisman, Jerry; Wallen, Marcia D; Llewellyn, Christine C; Pryor, Veronica

    2003-01-01

    The information contained in pathology reports of breast cancer specimens is of critical importance to treating physicians for selection of local regional treatment, adjuvant therapy, evaluation of therapy, estimation of prognosis, and analysis of outcomes. This information is also of great importance to patients and their families. In 2000, a Breast Cancer Pathology Advisory Group was formed to advise on the design of a project to assess the quality of pathology reports on unilateral extended simple mastectomy (ICD-9-CM procedure code 85.43) specimens from Medicare patients in New York State. This group comprised clinical pathologists, breast surgeons, medical oncologists, clinical breast cancer specialists, and a radiation oncologist. The group suggested that the reports be examined for several elements (quality indicators) that are relevant to patient care and prognosis. Baseline random sample data assessing these elements were established from a random sample of all cases for the calendar year 1999. A random sample of 748 cases (43.5%) of unilateral extended simple mastectomy was chosen from among 1718 cases for the calendar year 1999. Of these, 555 (74.2%) were suitable for review. The remaining 193 (25.8%) cases did not satisfy the inclusion criteria. Aggregate performance on 7 quality indicators (presence of carcinoma, laterality of specimen, number of lymph nodes present, number of positive nodes, documentation of lymph nodes, histologic type, and largest dimension of the tumor) was 83.7% or better, whereas performance was 69.4% or less on 10 others (resection margin status, verification of tumor size, gross observation of the lesion, histologic grade, angiolymphatic invasion, nuclear grade, location of the tumor, mitotic rate, extent of tubule formation, and perineural invasion). The last, perineural invasion, was used as a control element and was not considered an evaluative quality indicator. Performance levels for New York State were significantly lower

  7. P-T path fluid evolution in the Gross Spitzkoppe granite stock, Namibia

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    Stephen Frindt

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The Gross Spitzkoppe granite stock (GSS is a zoned 30 km^2 epizonal intrusion that consists of three main granites: 1 medium-grained biotite granite (marginal, 2 a coarse-grained biotite granite, and 3 a central, porphyritic granite. The stock contains pegmatites as banded marginal stockscheiders and isolated pockets composed of large alkali feldspar and quartz, dark mica, interstitial fluorite, and euhedral topaz and beryl crystals. In the porphyritic granite there are local wolframite-bearing greisens and hydrothermal fluorite and topaz-rich veins.Fluid inclusion studies were conducted on: 1 topaz and quartz crystals from the marginal stockscheider; 2 quartz, topaz, fluorite and beryl crystals from isolated pegmatites; 3 topaz from a miarolitic pegmatite; 4 beryl and quartz veins from greisenized porphyritic granite; and 5 fluorite from a late fluorite vein inthe coarse-grained biotite granite. Preliminary data indicate the presence of three compositionally distinct primary and pseudosecondary inclusion types that are of late magmatic-hydrothermal origin.Type 1. Low salinity (0–10 eq. wt% NaCl H2O (± CO2 inclusions that homogenize to the liquid phase in the temperature range of 300 to 550˚C. These inclusions are from quartz, topaz and beryl. Inclusions in fluorite from the fluorite vein homogenize at ~170˚C and have a salinity of ca. 1–2 eq. wt% NaCl.Type 2. Saline (25–30 eq. wt% NaCl halite-bearing H2O (± CO2 inclusions that homogenize to the liquid phase in the temperature range of 300 to 400˚C. These inclusions are from quartz.Type 3. Low salinity (0–3 eq. wt% NaCl H2O-CO2 inclusions that homogenize to vapor phase in the temperature range of 330 to 550˚C. These inclusions are from quartz and topaz.Hydrothermal fluids from greisen minerals are represented by type 1 and type 2 H2O inclusions. They are predominantly of low salinity (~8 eq. wt% NaCl and homogenize to the liquid phase in the temperature range of 300 to 500

  8. [Comparative pathology of the microcirculatory bed].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strukov, A I; Vorob'eva, A A

    1976-11-01

    This paper presents an analysis of publications, mostly by Soviet authores, on clinical studies and morphological examinations of the microcirculatory bed in different pathology. It is concluded that the microcirculatory bed should be regarded as an integral system responding to the pathological effects by a local and general reaction of its structural components and by changing the rheological properties of blood. Two types of changes develop in the microcirculatory system -- sterotyped ones, typical for extreme states (various kinds of shock, hypertensive crisis, stress situations), and those specific for certain diseases (diabetes melitus, essential hypertension, athersclerosis, collagenoses, etc.). In all the above diseases the pathological process affects the functional structures of microcirculation that undergo a rearrangement in accordance with the requirements of the body. In the initial period of the disease this re-arrangement is of a compensatory nature and passes ahead of the clinical manifestations. A comparison of the pictutrs obtained by biomicroscopy of the bulbconjunctiva of the eye and of other mucosae with film preparations of the serosae demonstrates their complete similarity. Therefore, the method of biomicroscopy of the eyeball and of the mucosae as a method reflecting the state of microcirculation in the body as a whole should become an integral part of the clinical examination of patients.

  9. Bone pathology inpsoriatic arthritis

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    V. V. Badokin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To study different variants of osteolysis in pts with psoriatic arthritis (PA and to reveal their relationship with other clinico-radiological features of joint damage. Material and methods. 370 pts with definite PA having different variants of joint damage were included. Radiological examination of bones and joints (in some cases large picture frame was performed. Morphological evaluation of synovial biopsies was done in 34 pts with PA and 10 pts with rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Results. Different types of osteolysis were revealed in 80 (21,6% pts. Osteolytic variant of joint damage was present in 29 pts. 33 pts had acral, 48 — intra-articular osteolysis and 16 - true bone atrophy. Frequency and intensity of bone resorption were associated with severity of PA. Acral osteolysis correlated with arthritis of distal interphalangeal joints and onychodystrophy. Intra-articular osteolysis was most often present in distal interphalangeal joints of hands and metacarpophalangeal joints (39,6% and 41,7% respectively. Characteristic feature of PA was combination of prominent resorption with formation of bone ankylosis and periosteal reaction. Ankylosis was present in 33,3% of pts with intra-articular osteolysis and in 60% of pts with combination of different osteolysis variants. Systemic reaction of microcirculation in synovial biopsies was most prominent in osteolytic variant: marked thickening of capillary and venule basal membrane with high level of acid phosphatase, increased capillary and precapillary blood flow with stasis features, vascular lymphocyte and macrophage infiltration, productive vasculitis with annular wall thickening, thrombovasculitis and villi deep layer sclerosis. Conclusion. Different variants of osteolysis show bone involvement in PA. Acral and intra- articular osteolysis association with bone ankylosis and periostitis proves their common pathogenetic entity.

  10. Normal and pathological altruism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seelig, B J; Rosof, L S

    2001-01-01

    The psychoanalytic literature on altruism is sparse, although much has been written on this topic from a sociobiological perspective. Freud (1917) first described the concept in "Libido Theory and Narcissism." In 1946 Anna Freud coined the term "altruistic surrender" to describe the psychodynamics of altruistic behavior in a group of inhibited individuals who were neurotically driven to do good for others. The usefulness and clinical applicability of this formulation, in conjunction with the frequent coexistence of masochism and altruism, encouraged psychoanalysts to regard all forms of altruism as having masochistic underpinnings. Since then, there has been a conflation of the two concepts in much of the analytic literature. This paper reexamines the psychoanalytic understanding of altruism and proposes an expansion of the concept to include a normal form. Five types of altruism are described: protoaltruism, generative altruism, conflicted altruism, pseudoaltruism, and psychotic altruism. Protoaltruism has biological roots and can be observed in animals. In humans, protoaltruism includes maternal and paternal nurturing and protectiveness. Generative altruism is the nonconflictual pleasure in fostering the success and/or welfare of another. Conflicted altruism is generative altruism that is drawn into conflict, but in which the pleasure and satisfaction of another (a proxy) is actually enjoyed. Pseudoaltruism originates in conflict and serves as a defensive cloak for underlying sadomasochism. Psychotic altruism is defined as the sometimes bizarre forms of caretaking behavior and associated self-denial seen in psychotic individuals, and often based on delusion. We consider Anna Freud's altruistic surrender to combine features of both conflict-laden altruism and pseudoaltruism. Two clinical illustrations are discussed.

  11. Clinical Pathological Analysis of Synovial Sarcoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the clinical diagnosis and differential diagnosis of synovial sarcoma (SS).METHODS A total of 41 paraffin-embedded synovial sarcoma samples were examined by H&E staining, immunohistochemistry staining and the reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), in order to provide a scientific bases for diagnosis and differential diagnosis.RESULTS Twelve cases were a biphasic type, 22 cases were a monophasic fibrous type, and 7 cases were a poorly differentiated type. Thirty-six cases were both CK (and/or EMA) and Vim positive. Five cases were only Vim positive. A SYT-SSX fusion gene was detected in 18 cases by RT-PCR.CONCLUSION By observation of the histomorphology, immunohistochemistry markers and detection of a SYT-SSX fusion gene, we can make a clinical pathological diagnosis of synovial sarcoma.

  12. Clinical cohort study on renal pathological features and prognosis of type 2 diabetic kidney disease patients%2型糖尿病肾病患者肾脏病理改变与预后的临床队列研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴雪怡; 李航; 文煜冰; 黄庆元; 段琳; 李艳; 毕增祺

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyze the relationship between renal pathological characteristics and clinical prognosis in type 2 diabetic kidney disease patients,and discuss predictive value of pathological type and indexes for renal function declining rate and related outcome events.Methods Ninety-two type 2 diabetes patients from PUMC Hospital (with macroalbuminuria and followed up no less than 6 months,excluding patients with non-diabetic renal disease) were divided into typical diabetic glomerulopathy group (DG,n=51) and atypical diabetes-related renal disease group(ADRD,n=41) according to renal pathological findings.A retrospective cohort study was performed to investigate renal pathological features and prognosis.Results Total of 29 renal outcome events and 12 death events occurred in DG group and none in ADRD group; the survival rate and kidney survival rate are different between two groups (P < 0.05); DG group,thick GBM,severe vascular and tubular lesion are predicative indicators for renal outcome event; mesangial volume fraction is predicative indicator for renal outcome events independent of age and serum creatinine.Conclusions DG and ADRD patients have different prognosis and might undergo different pathophysiological mechanisms; renal pathological type and mesangial volume fraction could help predicting outcomes of type 2 diabetic nephropathy patients.%目的 分析2型糖尿病肾病患者肾脏病理改变与临床预后的相关性,探讨肾脏病理分型及病理指标对肾功能下降速率及相关结局事件的预测价值.方法 92例2型糖尿病肾病病例来自北京协和医院.根据患者肾脏病理改变特点分为糖尿病肾小球病(DG)和不典型糖尿病相关肾病(ADRD)2组.所有患者伴显性白蛋白尿,排除非糖尿病肾病,随访期≥6个月.回顾性队列分析2型糖尿病患者的肾脏病理改变及预后情况.结果 随访期间DG组发生肾脏结局事件29例、死亡12例,ADRD组无终点事件发生;DG组

  13. Dopamine agonist: pathological gambling and hypersexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    (1) Pathological gambling and increased sexual activity can occur in patients taking dopaminergic drugs. Detailed case reports and small case series mention serious familial and social consequences. The frequency is poorly documented; (2) Most affected patients are being treated for Parkinson's disease, but cases have been reported among patients prescribed a dopamine agonist for restless legs syndrome or pituitary adenoma; (3) Patients treated with this type of drug, and their relatives, should be informed of these risks so that they can watch for changes in behaviour. If such disorders occur, it may be necessary to reduce the dose or to withdraw the drug or replace it with another medication.

  14. 5 CFR 890.1112 - Denial of continuation of coverage due to involuntary separation for gross misconduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... involuntary separation for gross misconduct. 890.1112 Section 890.1112 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF... involuntary separation for gross misconduct. (a) Notice of denial. (1) When an employing office determines that the offense for which an employee is being removed constitutes gross misconduct for the purpose...

  15. IMAGING OF HIP JOINT PATHOLOGIES

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    Parul Dutta

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The hip joint is a large and complex articulation and can be involved by numerous pathologic conditions like congenital and developmental, infective, arthritic, and neoplastic. Early diagnosis and characterisation of pathology has vital role in proper management and follow up of the disease for the clinicians. Present study was conducted in 45 patients who underwent clinical, radiological, and pathological examination in GMCH. Maximum no of patient between age group of 10-30 yrs. male-female ratio was 1.8:1 and 30% cases are unilateral. FSE STAIR images were most useful in delineating pathologies. Gadolinium-enhanced scan were used to evaluate the extent of the disease and the pattern of involvement. AVN was the most common pathology detected comprising 29%. The next common abnormality detected was infective arthritis found in 26% of cases. In case of Legg-Calve-Perthes disease, there was abnormal linear increase in the signal intensity at junction of the epiphyseal cartilage. Ultrasonography is useful for the screening of paediatric hip cases and also for guided aspiration for histopathology. CT scan shows better resolution of soft tissue then the radiograph. The importance of early diagnosis can be gauzed from the fact that early initiation of treatment creates the difference between a responsible, worthwhile life, and a cripple handicapped life. The role of imaging can never be undermined considering the fact that early suspicion and detection is within the realms of imaging.

  16. Communication skills in diagnostic pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehr, Hans-Anton; Bosman, Fred T

    2016-01-01

    Communication is an essential element of good medical practice also in pathology. In contrast to technical or diagnostic skills, communication skills are not easy to define, teach, or assess. Rules almost do not exist. In this paper, which has a rather personal character and cannot be taken as a set of guidelines, important aspects of communication in pathology are explored. This includes what should be communicated to the pathologist on the pathology request form, communication between pathologists during internal (interpathologist) consultation, communication around frozen section diagnoses, modalities of communication of a final diagnosis, with whom and how critical and unexpected findings should be communicated, (in-)adequate routes of communication for pathology diagnoses, who will (or might) receive pathology reports, and what should be communicated and how in case of an error or a technical problem. An earlier more formal description of what the responsibilities are of a pathologist as communicator and as collaborator in a medical team is added in separate tables. The intention of the paper is to stimulate reflection and discussion rather than to formulate strict rules.

  17. {sup 11}C-Choline PET/pathology image coregistration in primary localized prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosu, Anca-Ligia; Prokic, Vesna [University of Freiburg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Freiburg (Germany); Technical University of Munich, Department of Radiation Oncology, Munich (Germany); Weirich, Gregor [Technical University of Munich, Institute of Pathology, Munich (Germany); Wendl, Christina; Geinitz, Hans; Molls, Michael [Technical University of Munich, Department of Radiation Oncology, Munich (Germany); Kirste, Simon [University of Freiburg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Freiburg (Germany); Souvatzoglou, Michael; Schwaiger, Markus [Technical University of Munich, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); Gschwend, Juergen E.; Treiber, Uwe [Technical University of Munich, Department of Urology, Munich (Germany); Weber, Wolfgang A. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Molecular Imaging and Therapy Service, New York (United States); Krause, Bernd Joachim [Technical University of Munich, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); University of Rostock, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Rostock (Germany)

    2014-12-15

    The aim of this study was to develop a methodology for the comparison of pathology specimens after prostatectomy (post-S) with PET images obtained before surgery (pre-S). This method was used to evaluate the merit of {sup 11}C-choline PET/CT for delineation of gross tumour volume (GTV) in prostate cancer (PC). In 28 PC patients, {sup 11}C-choline PET/CT was performed before surgery. PET/CT data were coregistered with the pathology specimens. GTV on PET images (GTV-PET) was outlined automatically and corrected manually. Tumour volume in the prostate (TVP) was delineated manually on the pathology specimens. Based on the coregistered PET/pathology images, the following parameters were assessed: SUVmax and SUVmean in the tumoral and nontumoral prostate (NP), GTV-PET (millilitres) and TVP (millilitres). PET/pathology image coregistration was satisfactory. Mean SUVmax in the TVP was lower than in the NP: 5.0 and 5.5, respectively (p = 0.093). Considering the entire prostate, SUVmax was located in the TVP in two patients, in the TVP and NP in 12 patients and exclusively in NP in 14 patients. Partial overlap the TVP and GTV-PET was seen in 71 % of patients, and complete overlap in 4 %. PET/pathology image coregistration can be used for evaluation of different imaging modalities. {sup 11}C-Choline PET failed to distinguish tumour from nontumour tissue. (orig.)

  18. Botulinum toxin type A chemodenervation treatment in spastic forms of cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Kurenkov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral palsy (CP is one of the most serious outcomes of the perinatal lesion of central nervous system and the most common reason for neurological disability in children. Being the key cause of pathological dynamic stereotypes that frequently result in pathological posture and contractures, spasticity is critically important for CP. The use of botulinum toxin type A (BTA in complex treatment 2-6 years old CP patients allows significantly to improve motor abilities, help to change the surgical procedure, delay or even avoid some types of surgery. For elder children the use of BTA allows to improve local motor impairment. The treatment of spasticity in CP with BTA is safe (evidence level A and highly effective (evidence level A. It leads to the positive change of pathological dynamic stereotype, significantly improves gait, decreases muscle tone with Ashworth and Tardeu scales and rises the gross motor function score. Our own experience of onabotulinumtoxinA treatment as a part of complex therapy in 68 patients with spastic forms of CP demonstrates the significant improvement of motor function, most noticeable in younger patients(early pre-school age with GMFS I-III.

  19. Estimation of gross primary production of the Amazon-Cerrado transitional forest by remote sensing techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maísa Caldas Souza

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The gross primary production (GPP of ecosystems is an important variable in the study of global climate change. Generally, the GPP has been estimated by micrometeorological techniques. However, these techniques have a high cost of implantation and maintenance, making the use of orbital sensor data an option to be evaluated. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer MOD17A2 product and the vegetation photosynthesis model (VPM to predict the GPP of the Amazon-Cerrado transitional forest. The GPP predicted by MOD17A2 (GPP MODIS and VPM (GPP VPM were validated with the GPP estimated by eddy covariance (GPP EC. The GPP MODIS, GPP VPM and GPP EC have similar seasonality, with higher values in the wet season and lower in the dry season. However, the VPM performed was better than the MOD17A2 to estimate the GPP, due to use local climatic data for predict the light use efficiency, while the MOD17A2 use a global circulation model and the lookup table of each vegetation type to estimate the light use efficiency.

  20. Gross Anatomical Study of the Nerve Supply of Genitourinary Structures in Female Mongrel Hound Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Amaya, S. M.; Ruggieri, M. R.; Arias Serrato, S. A.; Massicotte, V. S.; Barbe, M. F.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Anatomical variations in lumbosacral plexus or nerves to genitourinary structures in dogs are under described, despite their importance during surgery and potential contributions to neuromuscular syndromes. Gross dissection of 16 female mongrel hound dogs showed frequent variations in lumbosacral plexus classification, sympathetic ganglia, ventral rami input to nerves innervating genitourinary structures and pudendal nerve (PdN) branching. Lumbosacral plexus classification types were mixed, rather than pure, in 13 (82%) of dogs. The genitofemoral nerve (GFN) originated from ventral ramus of L4 in 67% of nerves, differing from the expected L3. Considerable variability was seen in ventral rami origins of pelvic (PN) and Pd nerves, with new findings of L7 contributions to PN, joining S1 and S2 input (23% of sides in 11 dogs) or S1–S3 input (5%), and to PdN, joining S1–S2, unilaterally, in one dog. L7 input was confirmed using retrograde dye tracing methods. The PN also received CG1 contributions, bilaterally, in one dog. The PdN branched unusually in two dogs. Lumbosacral sympathetic ganglia had variant intra-, inter- and multisegmental connectivity in 6 (38%). Thus, the anatomy of mongrel dogs had higher variability than previously described for purebred dogs. Knowledge of this variant innervation during surgery could aid in the preservation of nerves and reduce risk of urinary and sexual dysfunctions. PMID:24730986

  1. Tenosynovial Giant Cell Tumor, Diffuse Type/Pigmented Villonodular Synovitis in a Pars Defect: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Tetsuya; Nishisho, Toshihiko; Sakai, Toshinori; Miyagi, Ryo; Takao, Shoichiro; Iwamoto, Seiji; Higashino, Kosaku; Takata, Yoichiro; Goda, Yuichiro; Toki, Shunichi; Sairyo, Koichi

    2015-06-15

    Case report. To describe a rare case of tenosynovial giant cell tumor, diffuse type/pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) in a pars defect in a patient with lumbar spondylolysis. PVNS rarely occurred in lumbar spine, and no studies in the English literature have reported PVNS in a pars defect in lumbar spondylolysis. The patient was a 14-year-old female presented with a 5-month history of low back pain. Plain radiography showed spondylolysis at L5 and computed tomography revealed a 1 × 2-cm slightly eroding tumorous mass at the left L5 pars. On magnetic resonance imaging, the mass showed intermediate intensity and gadolinium enhancement on T1-weighted images (WI) and high intensity on T2-WI and T2 STAR-WI. After undergoing computed tomography-guided needle biopsy, a pathological diagnosis of PVNS was made and total gross resection was performed. The gross appearance and the postoperative pathological diagnosis were consistent with PVNS. The postoperative clinical course was uneventful and postoperative computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed no residual lesion. This is the first report of PVNS occurring in spondylolysis. N/A.

  2. The Early Devonian eurypterid Grossopterus overathi (Gross, 1933 from Overath, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Dunlop

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The holotype and only known specimen of the eurypterid (Chelicerata: Eurypterida Grossopterus overathi (Gross, 1933 from the Early Devonian (Siegennian of Overath, north-west Germany is redescribed. Based on comparisons with other eurypterid taxa we interpret G. overathi as having a well-preserved type B genital appendage, which exhibits two apomorphic character states: (1 a furca fused into a single, spatulate plate and (2 marginal serrations near the distal end of the appendage. Grossopterus is assigned to the family Hughmilleriidae, but its carapace resembles that of the larger Slimonia acuminata (Salter, 1856 (Slimoniidae. A provisional phylogenetic analysis resolves Grossopterus as the sister group of (Slimonia + Pterygotoidea. The large pterygotids, in particular, have been suggested as significant predators on early vertebrates and hypotheses about eurypterid-fish co-evolution are reviewed, in particular Romer's proposal that dermal armour in fish evolved in response to eurypterid predation. Der Holotyp – das einzig bekannte Exemplar – des Eurypteriden (Chelicerata: Eurypterida Grossopterus overathi (Gross, 1933 aus dem frühen Devon (Siegennian von Overath im nordwestlichen Deutschland wird wieder beschrieben. Basierend auf Vergleichen mit anderen Eurypteriden-Taxa interpretieren wir G. overathi als Träger eines Typ B-Anhanges, wobei zwei apomorphe Merkmalszustände vorliegen: (1 die Furca ist zu einer einzigen, spatelförmigen Platte verschmolzen, und (2 der Seitenrand nahe des distalen Endes des Genitalanhanges ist gezähnt. Grossopterus wird zur Familie der Hughmilleriidae gestellt, aber der prosomale Dorsalschild ähnelt der größeren Slimonia acuminata (Salter, 1856 (Slimoniidae. Eine vorläufige phylogenetische Analyse zeigt Grossopterus als Schwesteruppe von (Slimonia + Pterygotoidea auf. Besonders die großen Pterygotiden wurden als signifikante Prädatoren von frühen Vertebraten gehandelt, und Hypothesen zur Eurypteriden

  3. The effect of urea fertiliser formulations on gross nitrogen transformations in a permanent grassland soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harty, Mary; Mueller, Christoph; Laughlin, Ronnie; Watson, Catherine; Richards, Karl; Lanigan, Gary; Forrestal, Patrick; McGeough, Karen

    2015-04-01

    Introduction By 2050, the current food production rate will need to increase by 70 % in order to meet the needs of the projected world population (FAO, 2014). Under the climate change response bill, Ireland has a target to reduce GHG emissions by 20% by 2020. Agriculture was responsible for almost one third of Ireland's overall Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions in 2012, with 39% of these emissions arising from chemical/organic fertilisers in the form of nitrous oxide (N2O). N2O losses represent environmental damage through ozone depletion and global warming as well as acidification, eutrophication, surface and groundwater contamination and it also represents financial loss to the farmer (Cameron 2013). The contradictory aims of increasing food production while reducing GHG emissions will require an adjustment to the current system of agricultural production. As part of a larger study evaluating the switching of nitrogen (N) fertiliser formulation to minimise N2O emissions, (from calcium ammonium nitrate (CAN) to urea based formulations), this experiment examined the effect of urea based fertiliser formulations on gross N transformations in a permanent pasture soil at Hillsborough, Co. Down, Northern Ireland. Study Design/Methodology A laboratory incubation study was undertaken, to examine the effect of urea in various combinations with two types of inhibitors on soil N dynamics and N2O and N2 emissions. The inhibitors examined were the urease inhibitor N-(butyl) thiophosphoric triamide (nBTPT) and the nitrification inhibitor dicyandiamide (DCD). The fertiliser products were labelled with 15N and the soil was incubated at 15 ° C at a water filled pore space of 65%. Soil mineral N (urea, NH4+, NO2- and NO3-) concentrations, gaseous losses (N2O and N2) and the 15N enrichments of NH4+, NO2-, NO3-, N2O and N2were analysed on 8 separate occasions over 25 days. An adapted numerical 15N tracing model (Müller et al., 2007) was used to quantify the effect of the inhibitors on

  4. Longitudinal Association Between Gross Motor Capacity and Neuromusculoskeletal Function in Children and Youth With Cerebral Palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Rimke C.; Becher, Jules G.; Voorman, Jeanine M.; Gorter, Jan Willem; van Eck, Mirjam; van Meeteren, Jetty; Smits, Dirk Wouter; Twisk, Jos W.; Dallmeijer, Annet J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To examine associations over longitudinal measurements between neuromusculoskeletal function and gross motor capacity in children and youth with cerebral palsy (CP). Design: A prospective cohort study. Setting: Rehabilitation departments of university medical centers and rehabilitations c

  5. Longitudinal Association Between Gross Motor Capacity and Neuromusculoskeletal Function in Children and Youth With Cerebral Palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Rimke C.; Becher, Jules G.; Voorman, Jeanine M.; Gorter, Jan Willem; van Eck, Mirjam; van Meeteren, Jetty; Smits, Dirk Wouter; Twisk, Jos W.; Dallmeijer, Annet J.; van Schie, P. E M; Schuengel, C.; Ketelaar, M.; Lindeman, E.; Jongmans, M.; Roebroeck, M. E.; Tan, S. S.; Wiegerink, D. J H G; Reinders-Messelink, H. A.; Verheijden, J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine associations over longitudinal measurements between neuromusculoskeletal function and gross motor capacity in children and youth with cerebral palsy (CP). Design A prospective cohort study. Setting Rehabilitation departments of university medical centers and rehabilitations cent

  6. The central role of trunk control in the gross motor function of children with cerebral palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Curtis, Derek John; Butler, Penny; Saavedra, Sandy;

    2015-01-01

    Aim Improvement of gross motor function and mobility are primary goals of physical therapy in children with cerebral palsy (CP). The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between segmental control of the trunk and the corresponding gross motor function in children with CP....... Method This retrospective cross-sectional study was based on 92 consecutive referrals of children with CP in Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels I to V, 39 females, 53 males (median age 4y [range 1–14y]), and 77, 12, and 3 with spastic, dyskinetic, and ataxic CP respectively....... The participants were tested using the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM), the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI), and the Segmental Assessment of Trunk Control (SATCo). Results Linear regression analysis showed a positive relationship between the segmental level of trunk control and age...

  7. Longitudinal Association Between Gross Motor Capacity and Neuromusculoskeletal Function in Children and Youth With Cerebral Palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Rimke C.; Becher, Jules G.; Voorman, Jeanine M.; Gorter, Jan Willem; van Eck, Mirjam; van Meeteren, Jetty; Smits, Dirk Wouter; Twisk, Jos W.; Dallmeijer, Annet J.

    Objective: To examine associations over longitudinal measurements between neuromusculoskeletal function and gross motor capacity in children and youth with cerebral palsy (CP). Design: A prospective cohort study. Setting: Rehabilitation departments of university medical centers and rehabilitations

  8. Longitudinal Association Between Gross Motor Capacity and Neuromusculoskeletal Function in Children and Youth With Cerebral Palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Rimke C.; Becher, Jules G.; Voorman, Jeanine M.; Gorter, Jan Willem; van Eck, Mirjam; van Meeteren, Jetty; Smits, Dirk Wouter; Twisk, Jos W.; Dallmeijer, Annet J.; van Schie, P. E M; Schuengel, C.; Ketelaar, M.; Lindeman, E.; Jongmans, M.; Roebroeck, M. E.; Tan, S. S.; Wiegerink, D. J H G; Reinders-Messelink, H. A.; Verheijden, J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine associations over longitudinal measurements between neuromusculoskeletal function and gross motor capacity in children and youth with cerebral palsy (CP). Design A prospective cohort study. Setting Rehabilitation departments of university medical centers and rehabilitations

  9. Envelope Periodic Solutions to One-Dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii Equation in Bose-Einstein Condensation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Shi-Kuo; GAO Bin; FU Zun-Tao; LIU Shi-Da

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, applying the dependent and independent variables transformations as well as the Jacobi elliptic function expansion method, the envelope periodic solutions to one-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation in Bose-Einstein condensates are obtained.

  10. Bulls and bears: the stock market and clinical pathology research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khong, T Y

    2009-09-01

    To analyse the level of funded research in clinical pathology in a recent bear and bull market to act as a predictor for future funding during the current global financial crisis. The level of funding for research published in three clinical pathology journals in 2005 and 2008 to coincide with the bear market of March 2000 to October 2002 and with the subsequent bull market to October 2007 was determined using a Medline query. Other parameters examined were the type of article, affiliation of the first author and the pathology subspecialty. Approximately 30% of publications were funded and did not differ between the 2 years studied. Original research papers were more likely to be funded than case reports or reviews. Research from university departments of pathology was more likely to be funded than from hospital pathology departments but there were more publications from hospital pathology departments. The proportion of research in the different subspecialties that was funded did not differ significantly between each other and between 2005 and 2008. Based on data from the previous bear market, which was the longest and deepest of the post 1950 era, and the subsequent bull market, which led to the all-time high in the Dow Jones Industrial Index, funding for clinical pathology research does not seem to be affected by bull or bear markets.

  11. Ultrasonographic and pathologic correlation in cases of gynecomastia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kook, Shin Ho; Lee, Seung Hee; Kim, Myung Sook; Pae, Won Kil [Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-07-01

    To define and correlate characteristic sonographic and pathologic findings in men with gynecomastia. We reviewed medical records and sonographic findings of 26 patients with pathologically proven gynecomastia. All of the chief symptoms, physical findings and causes were categorized. Characteristic sonographic patterns of gynecomastia were analyzed and compared with pathologic findings. Gynecomastia was most common in the 20- to 40-year-old age group (50%)6; palpable mass was found in 62% of all those cases. Gynecomastia was unilateral or asymmetrical in 22 men (85%), and was caused idiopathically in 21 (81%). The characteristic sonographic patterns correlated with pathologic findings were as follows:(1) focal subareolar smooth oval (or triangular) indistinct margined homogeneous hypoechoic (or isoechoic) patterns were found in 14 cases (54%). Eight of these (57%) were of the florid type of gynecomastia (67%);(2) diffuse homogeneous hyperechoic (or isoechoic) patterns were found in five cases (19%);four of these (80%) were of the intermediate or fibrotic type:(3) involuting female breast parenchymal patterns were found in seven cases (27%), of which six (86%) were of the intermediate or fibrotic type. The characteristic sonographic patterns of gynecomastia correlate closely with pathologic types related to the duration of the condition. Ultrasonography is a useful primary diagnostic modality for the evaluation of gynecomastia.

  12. Integration of MODIS land and atmosphere products with a coupled-process model to estimate gross primary productivity and evapotranspiration from 1 km to global scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Youngryel; Baldocchi, Dennis D.; Kobayashi, Hideki; van Ingen, Catharine; Li, Jie; Black, T. Andy; Beringer, Jason; van Gorsel, Eva; Knohl, Alexander; Law, Beverly E.; Roupsard, Olivier

    2011-12-01

    We propose the Breathing Earth System Simulator (BESS), an upscaling approach to quantify global gross primary productivity and evapotranspiration using MODIS with a spatial resolution of 1-5 km and a temporal resolution of 8 days. This effort is novel because it is the first system that harmonizes and utilizes MODIS Atmosphere and Land products on the same projection and spatial resolution over the global land. This enabled us to use the MODIS Atmosphere products to calculate atmospheric radiative transfer for visual and near infrared radiation wave bands. Then we coupled atmospheric and canopy radiative transfer processes, with models that computed leaf photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and transpiration on the sunlit and shaded portions of the vegetation and soil. At the annual time step, the mass and energy fluxes derived from BESS showed strong linear relations with measurements of solar irradiance (r2 = 0.95, relative bias: 8%), gross primary productivity (r2 = 0.86, relative bias: 5%) and evapotranspiration (r2 = 0.86, relative bias: 15%) in data from 33 flux towers that cover seven plant functional types across arctic to tropical climatic zones. A sensitivity analysis revealed that the gross primary productivity and evapotranspiration computed in BESS were most sensitive to leaf area index and solar irradiance, respectively. We quantified the mean global terrestrial estimates of gross primary productivity and evapotranpiration between 2001 and 2003 as 118 ± 26 PgC yr-1 and 500 ± 104 mm yr-1 (equivalent to 63,000 ± 13,100 km3 yr-1), respectively. BESS-derived gross primary productivity and evapotranspiration estimates were consistent with the estimates from independent machine-learning, data-driven products, but the process-oriented structure has the advantage of diagnosing sensitivity of mechanisms. The process-based BESS is able to offer gridded biophysical variables everywhere from local to the total global land scales with an 8-day interval over

  13. Less toxic method for producing giant paper organ sections for pathology and anatomy education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DeMartinis NC

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Nicole C DeMartinis, Walter E Finkbeiner Department of Pathology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA Purpose: Traditionally, medical school pathology educators have used formalin-fixed specimens to demonstrate effects of diseases on target organs, despite the handling of these "wet" tissues having distinct disadvantages, such as the need for gloves, protective clothing, and appropriate facilities to limit potential fixative moisture and fumes. Paper-mounted sections of solid organs have significant potential as an aid for teaching gross pathology and eliminate the disadvantages of handling formalin-fixed specimens. However, published techniques for preparing giant organ sections include the use of the highly toxic ethylene glycol monoethyl ether (EGEE; 2-ethoxyethanol. We investigated whether replacing EGEE with a less toxic dehydrating and clearing agent, Histo-Clear™, would allow production of high-quality sections.Materials and methods: Whimster's procedure for preparing rapid paper sections of lungs and other organs was modified to incorporate the xylene substitute Histo-Clear in place of EGEE.Results: Giant paper sections of various organs were prepared. In addition to lungs, excellent pathology teaching specimens were prepared from other organs, including the brain, heart, kidney, liver, and colon. Side-by-side comparisons of paper-mounted organ sections prepared using EGEE and Histo-Clear were indistinguishable. The sections prepared using Histo-Clear showed fine anatomical and pathological details.Conclusion: The Gough–Wentworth technique of preparing rapid giant paper sections of organs was made less toxic without sacrificing quality by using Histo-Clear as an alternative to EGEE. Paper-mounted sections offer a safe and portable way for studying macroscopic pathology, and have great potential for use in the anatomy and pathology classroom, as well as in postgraduate pathology training.Keywords: organ

  14. [Pathological buying -- a literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Astrid; Reinecker, Hans; Jacobi, Corinna; Reisch, Lucia; de Zwaan, Martina

    2005-01-01

    This review summarizes the literature on pathological buying published during the past 15 years. Pathological or compulsive buying is defined as frequent preoccupation with buying or impulses to buy that are experienced as irresistible, intrusive, and/or senseless. The buying behavior causes marked distress, interferes with social functioning, and often results in financial problems. Studies on the phenomenology, diagnosis, classification, comorbidity, epidemiology, and treatment are presented. Pathological buying should be diagnosed as impulse control disorder not otherwise specified (ICD-10 F63.9). Psychiatric comorbidity is frequent, particulary mood, anxiety, substance use, eating, impulse control and obsessive-compulsive disorders. The positive results of pharmacological treatment with antidepressants (usually SSRI) and opioid antagonists could not be confirmed in controlled trials. A disorder specific cognitive-behavioral group treatment manual was published in USA. A controlled study is currently conducted in USA and since 2003 at the Department of Psychosomatics and Psychotherapy at the University Hospital Erlangen.

  15. [Pathology of the vitreomacular interface].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop, Monica; Gheorghe, Alina

    2014-01-01

    Vitreous role in the pathophysiology of retinal diseases has increased importantly over the recent years. This was possible using Optical Coherence Tomography which reviewed the way the vitreoretinal interface should be looked at and defined and classified new pathologies such as Vitreoretinal Traction Syndrome. Vitreous is not an empty space but an important anatomical structure with role in ocular physiology. With age biochemical changes occur so that vitreous starts to liquefy. Once the vitreous is liquefied (sinchisis) it collapses and passes in the retrohialoid space (sineresis). In complete PVD besides sinchisis there is a weakness of the adherence between the posterior cortex and ILM with total detachment of posterior cortex. Abnormal adhesions are associated with incomplete PVD. The definition and understanting of vitreoretinal pathology is an active and continuous process, PVD being the trigger of a lot of retinal pathologies: epiretinal membrane, macular hole, tractional macular oedema, VMTS, myopic traction maculopathy, exacerbations of exudative ARMD.

  16. Effect of physical therapy frequency on gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Eun-Young

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study attempted to investigate the effect of physical therapy frequency based on neurodevelopmental therapy on gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy. [Subjects and Methods] The study sample included 161 children with cerebral palsy who attended a convalescent or rehabilitation center for disabled individuals or a special school for children with physical disabilities in South Korea. Gross Motor Function Measure data were collected according to physical therapy fr...

  17. Analysis of historical gross gamma logging data from BY tank farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MYERS, D.A.

    1999-10-13

    Gross gamma ray logs, recorded from January 1975 through mid-year 1994 as part of the Single-Shell Tank Farm Dry Well Surveillance Program, have been reanalyzed for the BY tank farm to locate the presence of mobile radionuclides in the subsurface. This report presents the BY tank farm gross gamma ray data in such a way as to assist others in their study of vadose zone mechanisms.

  18. Class numbers of cyclic 2-extensions and Gross conjecture over Q

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The Gross conjecture over Q was first claimed by Aoki in 1991.However,the original proof contains too many mistakes and false claims to be considered as a serious proof.This paper is an attempt to find a sound proof of the Gross conjecture under the outline of Aoki.We reduce the conjecture to an elementary conjecture concerning the class numbers of cyclic 2-extensions of Q.

  19. Gross changes in reconstructions of historic land cover/use for Europe between 1900 and 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Richard; Herold, Martin; Verburg, Peter H; Clevers, Jan G P W; Eberle, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    Historic land-cover/use change is important for studies on climate change, soil carbon, and biodiversity assessments. Available reconstructions focus on the net area difference between two time steps (net changes) instead of accounting for all area gains and losses (gross changes). This leads to a serious underestimation of land-cover/use dynamics with impacts on the biogeochemical and environmental assessments based on these reconstructions. In this study, we quantified to what extent land-cover/use reconstructions underestimate land-cover/use changes in Europe for the 1900-2010 period by accounting for net changes only. We empirically analyzed available historic land-change data, quantified their uncertainty, corrected for spatial-temporal effects and identified underlying processes causing differences between gross and net changes. Gross changes varied for different land classes (largest for forest and grassland) and led to two to four times the amount of net changes. We applied the empirical results of gross change quantities in a spatially explicit reconstruction of historic land change to reconstruct gross changes for the EU27 plus Switzerland at 1 km spatial resolution between 1950 and 2010. In addition, the reconstruction was extended back to 1900 to explore the effects of accounting for gross changes on longer time scales. We created a land-change reconstruction that only accounted for net changes for comparison. Our two model outputs were compared with five commonly used global reconstructions for the same period and area. In our reconstruction, gross changes led in total to a 56% area change (ca. 0.5% yr(-1)) between 1900 and 2010 and cover twice the area of net changes. All global reconstructions used for comparison estimated fewer changes than our gross change reconstruction. Main land-change processes were cropland/grassland dynamics and afforestation, and also deforestation and urbanization. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Restoration of high-density lipoprotein levels by cholesteryl ester transfer protein expression in scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) knockout mice does not normalize pathologies associated with SR-BI deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hildebrand, Reeni B; Lammers, Bart; Meurs, Illiana; Korporaal, Suzanne J A; De Haan, Willeke; Zhao, Ying; Kruijt, J Kar; Praticò, Domenico; Schimmel, Alinda W M; Holleboom, Adriaan G; Hoekstra, Menno; Kuivenhoven, Jan Albert; Van Berkel, Theo J C; Rensen, Patrick C N; Van Eck, Miranda

    OBJECTIVE: Disruption of scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) in mice impairs high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol (HDL-C) delivery to the liver and induces susceptibility to atherosclerosis. In this study, it was investigated whether introduction of cholesteryl ester transfer protein

  1. Pathology Imagebase - A Reference Image Database for Standardization of Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egevad, Lars; Cheville, John; Evans, Andrew J; Hörnblad, Jonas; Kench, James G; Kristiansen, Glen; Leite, Katia R M; Magi-Galluzzi, Cristina; Pan, Chin-Chen; Samaratunga, Hemamali; Srigley, John R; True, Lawrence; Zhou, Ming; Clements, Mark; Delahunt, Brett

    2017-07-19

    Despite efforts to standardize histopathology practice through the development of guidelines, the interpretation of morphology is still hampered by subjectivity. We here describe Pathology Imagebase, a novel mechanism for establishing an international standard for the interpretation of pathology specimens. The International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) established a reference image database through the input of experts in the field. Three panels were formed, one each for prostate, urinary bladder and renal pathology, consisting of 24 international experts. Each of the panel members uploaded microphotographs of cases into a non-public database. The remaining 23 experts were asked to vote from a multiple-choice menu. Prior to and while voting panel members were unable to access the results of voting by the other experts. When a consensus level of at least 2/3 or 16 votes was reached, cases were automatically transferred to the main database. Consensus was reached in a total of 287 cases across five projects on the grading of prostate, bladder and renal cancer and classification of renal tumours and flat lesions of the bladder. The full database is available to all ISUP members at www.isupweb.org. Non-members may access a selected number of cases. It is anticipated that the database will assist pathologists in calibrating their grading and will also promote consistency in the diagnosis of difficult cases. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. Optimal breast cancer pathology manifesto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tot, T; Viale, G; Rutgers, E; Bergsten-Nordström, E; Costa, A

    2015-11-01

    This manifesto was prepared by a European Breast Cancer (EBC) Council working group and launched at the European Breast Cancer Conference in Glasgow on 20 March 2014. It sets out optimal technical and organisational requirements for a breast cancer pathology service, in the light of concerns about variability and lack of patient-centred focus. It is not a guideline about how pathology services should be performed. It is a call for all in the cancer community--pathologists, oncologists, patient advocates, health administrators and policymakers--to check that services are available that serve the needs of patients in a high quality, timely way.

  3. Pathologies sociales de la communication

    OpenAIRE

    Durand, Pascal

    2009-01-01

    La communication, dans sa généralité et dans la perspective des travaux récents de l'Ecole de Francfort, est généralement pensée comme solution à diverses pathologies sociales (isolement, malentendus réciproques, aliénation, etc.). Le présent article l'envisage comme un vecteur de pathologies spécifiques : anomie, censure, propagande, production d'idéologèmes divers. Peer reviewed

  4. The relationship between spasticity and gross motor capability in nonambulatory children with spastic cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katusic, Ana; Alimovic, Sonja

    2013-09-01

    Spasticity has been considered as a major impairment in cerebral palsy (CP), but the relationship between this impairment and motor functions is still unclear, especially in the same group of patients with CP. The aim of this investigation is to determine the relationship between spasticity and gross motor capability in nonambulatory children with spastic CP. Seventy-one children (30 boys, 41 girls) with bilateral spastic cerebral palsy and with Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels IV (n=34) and V (n=37) were included in the study. The spasticity level in lower limbs was evaluated using the Modified Modified Ashworth Scale and the gross motor function with the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM-88). Spearman's correlation analysis was used to determine the nature and the strength of the relationship. The results showed a moderate correlation between spasticity and gross motor skills (ρ=0.52 for the GMFCS level; ρ=0.57 for the GMFM-88), accounting for less than 30% of the explained variance. It seems that spasticity is just one factor among many others that could interfere with gross motor skills, even in children with severe forms of spastic CP. Knowledge of the impact of spasticity on motor skills may be useful in the setting of adequate rehabilitation strategies for nonambulatory children with spastic CP.

  5. Determination of respiration, gross nitrification and denitrification in soil profile using BaPS system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Shu-tao; HUANG Yao

    2006-01-01

    A facility of BaPS (Barometric Process Separation) was used to determine soil respiration, gross nitrification and denitrification in a winter wheat field with depths of 0-7, 7-14 and 14-21 cm. N2O production was determined by a gas chromatograph. Crop root mass and relevant soil parameters were measured. Results showed that soil respiration and gross nitrification decreased with the increase of soil depth, while denitrification did not change significantly. In comparison with no-plowing plot, soil respiration increased significantly in plowing plot, especially in the surface soil of 0-7 cm, while gross nitrification and denitrification rates were not affected by plowing. Cropping practice in previous season was found to affect soil gross nitrification in the following wheat-growing season. Higher gross nitrification rate occurred in the filed plot with preceding crop of rice compared with that of maize for all the three depths of 0-7, 7-14 and 14-21 cm. A further investigation indicated that the nitrification for all the cases accounted for about 76% of the total nitrogen transformation processes of nitrification and denitrification and the N2O production correlated with nitrification significantly, suggesting that nitrification is a key process of soil N2O production in the wheat field. In addition, the variations of soil respiration and gross nitrification were exponentially dependent on root mass (P<0.001).

  6. Dental pathology in conventionally fed and pasture managed dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadden, A N; Poulsen, K P; Vanegas, J; Mecham, J; Bildfell, R; Stieger-Vanegas, S M

    2016-01-02

    Healthy teeth are important in the first stages of digestion for dairy cattle, yet little is known about bovine dental disease. This study aimed to investigate dental pathology of dairy cattle in two parts. First dairy cattle cadaver heads (n=11) were examined at the time of culling. Second, the authors performed oral exams in cattle fed a total mixed ration (TMR) (n=200) and pasture-based (n=71) grazing cattle. Cadaver heads were imaged using radiography and computed tomography before gross dissection to study dental anatomy and pathology. The most prevalent dental abnormalities were excessive transverse ridging of the occlusal surface, the presence of diastemas and third molar dental overgrowths (M3DO) in cadaver heads. Average thickness of subocclusal dentine ranged from 3.5 mm to 5.8 mm in cheek teeth but was >10 mm in maxillary teeth with M3DO. Radiographic findings were compared with oral examinations in live cattle. Prevalence of M3DO upon oral examination was 19 per cent and 28 per cent in herds of cattle fed a TMR diet and 0 per cent in a herd of grazing cattle. Dental abnormalities are prevalent in dairy cattle but due to thin subocclusal dentine in the cheek teeth, established equine dental treatment methodology is not appropriate for bovine cheek teeth with the exception of those that have developed M3DO.

  7. Lesions in Meckel's cave: variable presentation and pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, D W; Menezes, A H

    1987-11-01

    A series of 12 patients with mass lesions arising from Meckel's cave is presented. Patients' age on presentation ranged from 13 months to 71 years. Nine of the 12 patients had symptoms referable to the fifth cranial nerve, but only three complained of facial pain. The 12 patients presented eight different pathological entities, including meningioma, lipoma, schwannoma, malignant melanotic schwannoma, arachnoid cyst, neurofibroma, epidermoid tumor, and chordoma. Computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging were most useful in localizing the lesion to Meckel's cave. All 12 patients underwent a subtemporal approach to the lesion, and gross total removal was achieved in 11. Postoperative results were excellent with no increased neurological deficits seen 3 months postoperatively. Most patients had resolution of the cranial nerve deficits except for fifth nerve function, which was impaired in nine patients postoperatively. This series demonstrates that lesions in Meckel's cave can have a varied and unusual presentation, as well as an assortment of pathology. Total removal of lesions in this area resulted in relief of symptoms in most patients, with minimum morbidity.

  8. Gross-beta activity in ground water: natural sources and artifacts of sampling and laboratory analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Alan H.

    1995-01-01

    Gross-beta activity has been used as an indicator of beta-emitting isotopes in water since at least the early 1950s. Originally designed for detection of radioactive releases from nuclear facilities and weapons tests, analysis of gross-beta activity is widely used in studies of naturally occurring radioactivity in ground water. Analyses of about 800 samples from 5 ground-water regions of the United States provide a basis for evaluating the utility of this measurement. The data suggest that measured gross-beta activities are due to (1) long-lived radionuclides in ground water, and (2) ingrowth of beta-emitting radionuclides during holding times between collection of samples and laboratory measurements.Although40K and228Ra appear to be the primary sources of beta activity in ground water, the sum of40K plus228Ra appears to be less than the measured gross-beta activity in most ground-water samples. The difference between the contribution from these radionuclides and gross-beta activity is most pronounced in ground water with gross-beta activities > 10 pCi/L, where these 2 radionuclides account for less than one-half the measured ross-beta activity. One exception is groundwater from the Coastal Plain of New Jersey, where40K plus228Ra generally contribute most of the gross-beta activity. In contrast,40K and228Ra generally contribute most of beta activity in ground water with gross-beta activities measure all beta activity in ground water. Although3H contributes beta activity to some ground water, it is driven from the sample before counting and therefore is not detected by gross-beta measurements. Beta-emitting radionuclides with half-lives shorter than a few days can decay to low values between sampling and counting. Although little is known about concentrations of most short-lived beta-emitting radionuclides in environmental ground water (water unaffected by direct releases from nuclear facilities and weapons tests), their activities are expected to be low.Ingrowth of

  9. Ablation of Prion Protein in Wild Type Human Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP Transgenic Mice Does Not Alter The Proteolysis of APP, Levels of Amyloid-β or Pathologic Phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isobel J Whitehouse

    Full Text Available The cellular prion protein (PrPC has been proposed to play an important role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. In cellular models PrPC inhibited the action of the β-secretase BACE1 on wild type amyloid precursor protein resulting in a reduction in amyloid-β (Aβ peptides. Here we have assessed the effect of genetic ablation of PrPC in transgenic mice expressing human wild type amyloid precursor protein (line I5. Deletion of PrPC had no effect on the α- and β-secretase proteolysis of the amyloid precursor protein (APP nor on the amount of Aβ38, Aβ40 or Aβ42 in the brains of the mice. In addition, ablation of PrPC did not alter Aβ deposition or histopathology phenotype in this transgenic model. Thus using this transgenic model we could not provide evidence to support the hypothesis that PrPC regulates Aβ production.

  10. Mathematical Pathologies as Pathways into Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriraman, Bharath; Dickman, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the role of mathematical pathologies as a means of fostering creativity in the classroom is discussed. In particular, it delves into what constitutes a mathematical pathology, examines historical mathematical pathologies as well as pathologies in contemporary classrooms, and indicates how the Lakatosian heuristic can be used to…

  11. Evaluation of the Expression of Amyloid Precursor Protein and the Ratio of Secreted Amyloid Beta 42 to Amyloid Beta 40 in SH-SY5Y Cells Stably Transfected with Wild-Type, Single-Mutant and Double-Mutant Forms of the APP Gene for the Study of Alzheimer's Disease Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahrudin Arrozi, Aslina; Shukri, Siti Nur Syazwani; Wan Ngah, Wan Zurinah; Mohd Yusof, Yasmin Anum; Ahmad Damanhuri, Mohd Hanafi; Makpol, Suzana

    2017-04-17

    Neuroblastoma cell lines such as SH-SY5Y are the most frequently utilized models in neurodegenerative research, and their use has advanced the understanding of the pathology of neurodegeneration over the past few decades. In Alzheimer's disease (AD), several pathogenic mutations have been described, all of which cause elevated levels of pathological hallmarks such as amyloid-beta (Aβ). Although the genetics of Alzheimer's disease is well known, familial AD only accounts for a small number of cases in the population, with the rest being sporadic AD, which contains no known mutations. Currently, most of the in vitro models used to study AD pathogenesis only examine the level of Aβ42 as a confirmation of successful model generation and only perform comparisons between wild-type APP and single mutants of the APP gene. Recent findings have shown that the Aβ42/40 ratio in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a better diagnostic indicator for AD patients than is Aβ42 alone and that more extensive Aβ formation, such as accumulation of intraneuronal Aβ, Aβ plaques, soluble oligomeric Aβ (oAβ), and insoluble fibrillar Aβ (fAβ) occurs in TgCRND8 mice expressing a double-mutant form (Swedish and Indiana) of APP, later leading to greater progressive impairment of the brain. In this study, we generated SH-SY5Y cells stably transfected separately with wild-type APP, the Swedish mutation of APP, and the Swedish and Indiana mutations of APP and evaluated the APP expression as well as the Aβ42/40 ratio in those cells. The double-mutant form of APP (Swedish/Indiana) expressed markedly high levels of APP protein and showed a high Aβ2/40 ratio compared to wild-type and single-mutant cells.

  12. Analysis of the Largest Normalized Residual Test Robustness for Measurements Gross Errors Processing in the WLS State Estimator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breno Carvalho

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper purpose is to implement a computational program to estimate the states (complex nodal voltages of a power system and showing that the largest normalized residual (LNR test fails many times. The chosen solution method was the Weighted Least Squares (WLS. Once the states are estimated a gross error analysis is made with the purpose to detect and identify the measurements that may contain gross errors (GEs, which can interfere in the estimated states, leading the process to an erroneous state estimation. If a measure is identified as having error, it is discarded of the measurement set and the whole process is remade until all measures are within an acceptable error threshold. To validate the implemented software there have been done several computer simulations in the IEEE´s systems of 6 and 14 buses, where satisfactory results were obtained. Another purpose is to show that even a widespread method as the LNR test is subjected to serious conceptual flaws, probably due to a lack of mathematical foundation attendance in the methodology. The paper highlights the need for continuous improvement of the employed techniques and a critical view, on the part of the researchers, to see those types of failures.

  13. Pathology of tissue loss (white syndrome) in Acropora sp. corals from the Central Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, Thierry M.; Aeby, Greta S.

    2011-01-01

    We performed histological examination of 69 samples of Acropora sp. manifesting different types of tissue loss (Acropora White Syndrome-AWS) from Hawaii, Johnston Atoll and American Samoa between 2002 and 2006. Gross lesions of tissue loss were observed and classified as diffuse acute, diffuse subacute, and focal to multifocal acute to subacute. Corals with acute tissue loss manifested microscopic evidence of necrosis sometimes associated with ciliates, helminths, fungi, algae, sponges, or cyanobacteria whereas those with subacute tissue loss manifested mainly wound repair. Gross lesions of AWS have multiple different changes at the microscopic level some of which involve various microorganisms and metazoa. Elucidating this disease will require, among other things, monitoring lesions over time to determine the pathogenesis of AWS and the potential role of tissue-associated microorganisms in the genesis of tissue loss. Attempts to experimentally induce AWS should include microscopic examination of tissues to ensure that potentially causative microorganisms associated with gross lesion are not overlooked.

  14. Genetics and underlying pathology of dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferencz, Beata; Gerritsen, Lotte

    2015-03-01

    As the population steadily ages, dementia, in all its forms, remains a great societal challenge. Yet, our knowledge of their etiology remains rather limited. To this end, genetic studies can give us insight into the underlying mechanisms that lead to the development of dementia, potentially facilitating treatments in the future. In this review we cover the most recent genetic risk factors associated with the onset of the four most common dementia types today, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), Vascular Dementia (VaD), Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration (FTLD) and Lewy Body Dementia (LBD). Moreover, we discuss the overlap in major underlying pathologies of dementia derived from their genetic associations. While all four dementia types appear to involve genes associated with tau-pathology and neuroinflammation only LBD, AD and VaD appear to involve amyloid genes while LBD and FTLD share alpha synuclein genes. Together these findings suggest that some of the dementias may exist along a spectrum and demonstrates the necessity to conduct large-scale studies pinpointing the etiology of the dementias and potential gene and environment interactions that may influence their development.

  15. energy use and gross margin analysis for sesame production in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    As the negative impacts of energy by-products affect the climate, the knowledge and efficient use of ... Diesel and labour energy inputs dominated the total energy inputs for the two systems. .... such as output of sesame, quantity and type of.

  16. What are the pathology education requirements for all nonpathology ACGME-accredited programs in an academic center?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Sarah M; Nagler, Alisa; Buckley, Patrick J

    2012-09-01

    This study aimed to determine institution-wide graduate medical education (GME) requirements in pathology (exclusive of pathology residency and fellowships) at an academic center. All documents related to residency review committee (RRC) program requirements were searched for the key words "pathology," "laboratory," "autopsy," and "morbidity." For each occurrence, it was determined whether a pathology education requirement had been identified. Requirements were categorized and tabulated. The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) lists 135 nonpathology programs; 66 programs exist at Duke University Medical Center, of which 54 (82%) had pathology education requirement(s). Twelve education categories were identified. Teaching/conferences were the most common (52%). Thirty-nine percent required consultation/support. Sixteen programs were required to perform gross/microscopic examination. Trainees in medical genetics are required to have a pathology rotation. Elective rotations should be available for trainees in 6 programs. Pathology departments at academic centers face significant institution-wide pathology education requirements for clinical ACGME programs. Didactic teaching/conferences and consultation/support are common requirements. Opportunities exist for innovative teaching strategies.

  17. SYSTEMIC DISORDERS AFFECTING DENTAL PATHOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Knezevic R. Milan; Andjelic S. Gordana; Knezevic M. Milena

    2014-01-01

    A retrospective overview of systemic disorders which might be associated with dental pathology is made. They are grouped as follows: (a) congenital dental developmental disorders, (b) chromosomal anomalies, (c) radiations, (d) immune disorders, (e) intoxications, (f) neurological alterations, (g) gastrointestinal diseases, (h) osteodystrophy and associated conditions, (i) skin diseases, (j) metabolic and endocrine disorders, (k) craniofacial malformation syndromes and other congenital g...

  18. Giving your heart to pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaassen, Jim

    2015-10-17

    Jim KIaassen recently joined Axiom Veterinary Laboratories as a clinical pathologist. During his career, Dr Klaassen has worked in small animal practice, lectured in clinical pathology, undertaken preclinical research and held senior roles in commercial veterinary laboratories in the USA, including as chief medical officer of Antech Diagnostics.

  19. Physiological and pathological cardiac hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Ippei; Minamino, Tohru

    2016-08-01

    The heart must continuously pump blood to supply the body with oxygen and nutrients. To maintain the high energy consumption required by this role, the heart is equipped with multiple complex biological systems that allow adaptation to changes of systemic demand. The processes of growth (hypertrophy), angiogenesis, and metabolic plasticity are critically involved in maintenance of cardiac homeostasis. Cardiac hypertrophy is classified as physiological when it is associated with normal cardiac function or as pathological when associated with cardiac dysfunction. Physiological hypertrophy of the heart occurs in response to normal growth of children or during pregnancy, as well as in athletes. In contrast, pathological hypertrophy is induced by factors such as prolonged and abnormal hemodynamic stress, due to hypertension, myocardial infarction etc. Pathological hypertrophy is associated with fibrosis, capillary rarefaction, increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and cellular dysfunction (impairment of signaling, suppression of autophagy, and abnormal cardiomyocyte/non-cardiomyocyte interactions), as well as undesirable epigenetic changes, with these complex responses leading to maladaptive cardiac remodeling and heart failure. This review describes the key molecules and cellular responses involved in physiological/pathological cardiac hypertrophy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Caracterização das publicações periódicas em fonoaudiologia e neurociências: estudo sobre os tipos e temas de artigos e visibilidade na área de linguagem Periodicals' profile in speech-language and hearing pathology and neurosciences: study on types and headers of the language area articles, and their visibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandrelli Virginio de Vasconcelos

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available TEMA: caracterização das publicações periódicas em Fonoaudiologia e Neurociências: estudo sobre os tipos e temas de artigos e visibilidade na área de linguagem. OBJETIVO: caracterizar as publicações periódicas em Fonoaudiologia estudando os artigos da área de Linguagem relacionados às Neurociências no período de 2002 a 2006. CONCLUSÃO: ficou evidente um aumento crescente de publicações em Linguagem e em Neurociências nos últimos cinco anos. Contudo, o número de publicações em determinados temas como a Dislexia, a Doença de Alzheimer e o Transtorno do Déficit de Atenção / Hiperatividade ainda mostra-se resumido.BACKGROUND: periodicals' profile in speechlanguage and hearing pathology and neurosciences: study on types and headers of the language articles, and their visibility. PURPOSE: to characterize periodicals in SpeechLanguage Pathology and Hearing, studying the articles of the Language's area related to Neurosciences in the period from 2002 to 2006. CONCLUSION: increasing publication in Language and Neurosciences in the last five years has been evident. However, number of publications in certain headers, such as dyslexia, Alzheimer's disease and AttentionDeficit/Hyperactivity Disorder are still abridged.