WorldWideScience

Sample records for gross national income

  1. Global Dental Research Productivity and Its Association With Human Development, Gross National Income, and Political Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allareddy, Veerasathpurush; Allareddy, Veeratrishul; Rampa, Sankeerth; Nalliah, Romesh P; Elangovan, Satheesh

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the associations between country level factors (such as human development, economic productivity, and political stability) and their dental research productivity. This study is a cross-sectional analysis of bibliometric data from Scopus search engine. Human Development Index (HDI), Gross National Income per capita (GNI), and Failed State Index measures were the independent variables. Outcomes were "Total number of publications (articles or articles in press) in the field of dentistry" and "Total number of publications in the field of dentistry per million population." Non-parametric tests were used to examine the association between the independent and outcome variables. During the year 2013, a total of 11,952 dental research articles were published across the world. The top 5 publishing countries were United States, Brazil, India, Japan, and United Kingdom. "Very High" HDI countries had significantly higher number of total dental research articles and dental research articles per million population when compared to the "High HDI," "Medium HDI," and "Low HDI" countries (p human development and economic development of a country are linearly correlated with dental research productivity. Dental research productivity also increases with increasing political stability of a country. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Gross National Happiness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giri, Krishna Prasad; Kjær-Rasmussen, Lone Krogh

    This paper investigates practices related to the ideology of infusing Gross National Happiness (GNH) into school curriculum, the effectiveness of the meditation and mind training and the implication of GNH for school environment. It also explores how GNH ambience has been managed and practiced...... of Gross National Happiness and Educating for Gross National happiness....

  3. 7 CFR 1410.44 - Average adjusted gross income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Average adjusted gross income. 1410.44 Section 1410... Average adjusted gross income. (a) Benefits under this part will not be available to persons or legal entities whose average adjusted gross income exceeds $1,000,000 or as further specified in part...

  4. 7 CFR 701.17 - Average adjusted gross income limitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9003), each applicant must meet the provisions of the Adjusted Gross Income Limitations at 7 CFR part... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Average adjusted gross income limitation. 701.17... RELATED PROGRAMS PREVIOUSLY ADMINISTERED UNDER THIS PART § 701.17 Average adjusted gross income...

  5. 26 CFR 1.61-4 - Gross income of farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Gross income of farmers. (a) Farmers using the cash method of accounting. A farmer using the cash receipts and disbursements method of accounting shall include in his gross income for the taxable year— (1) The amount of cash and the value of merchandise or other property received during the taxable...

  6. Measures of Gross National Happiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruut Veenhoven

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Happiness is rising on the political agenda and this calls for measures of how well nations perform in creating great happiness for a great number, analogous to measures of success in creating wealth, such as GDP. Happiness is defined as subjective enjoyment of one’s life as-a-whole and this can be measured using self-reports. Question on happiness are currently used in large scale surveys of the general population in nations. As a result we have now comparable data on happiness in 144 contemporary nations and time-series of 25 years and longer on 11 developed nations. These data can be aggregated in different ways: If the aim is simply greater happiness for a greater number of citizens, Average happiness (AH is an appropriate measure. If the focus is on enduring happiness, it is better to combine average happiness with longevity in an index of Happy Life Years (HLY. If the aim is to reduce disparity among citizens a relevant indicator is the Inequality of Happiness (IH in the nations as measured with the standard deviation. Average and dispersion can also be combined in an index of Inequality-Adjusted Happiness (IAH. Comparison across nations shows sizable differences on all these measures of gross national happiness and these differences correspond with societal characteristics that can be influenced by policy makers, such as freedom and justice. Comparison over time shows major improvement during the last decade.

  7. 26 CFR 1.872-1 - Gross income of nonresident alien individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gross income of nonresident alien individuals. 1...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Nonresident Aliens and Foreign Corporations § 1.872-1 Gross income of nonresident alien individuals. (a) In general—(1) Inclusions. The gross income of a nonresident...

  8. 26 CFR 1.555-2 - Additions to gross income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Corporation sells 90percent of its stock in the Y Corporation and thus is a minority shareholder in the Y... on which the required United States group exists, and (2) Such foreign corporation is a shareholder... the gross income of its shareholders, whether United States shareholders or other foreign...

  9. 75 FR 15610 - Exclusions From Gross Income of Foreign Corporations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 Exclusions From Gross Income of Foreign Corporations CFR Correction In Title 26 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 1 (Sec. Sec. 1.851 to 1.907), revised as...

  10. Measures of Gross National Happiness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractHappiness is rising on the political agenda and this calls for measures of how well nations perform in creating great happiness for a great number, analogous to measures of success in creating wealth, such as GDP. Happiness is defined as subjective enjoyment of one’s life as-a-whole and

  11. 26 CFR 1.1332-1 - Inclusion in gross income of war loss recoveries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Inclusion in gross income of war loss recoveries. 1.1332-1 Section 1.1332-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES War Loss Recoveries § 1.1332-1 Inclusion in gross income of...

  12. 26 CFR 1.61-3 - Gross income derived from business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gross income derived from business. 1.61-3 Section 1.61-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME... Taxable Income § 1.61-3 Gross income derived from business. (a) In general. In a...

  13. Chinese National Income, ca. 1661–1933

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, Bas

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades, national income has become increasingly important as a measure of a nation’s economic health. In this study, we used a wide array of primary and secondary sources to arrive at values of the Chinese per capita gross domestic product (GDP) during the period of 1661–1933. We found a

  14. 20 CFR 418.1115 - What are the modified adjusted gross income ranges?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... gross income range amounts by any percentage increase in the Consumer Price Index rounded to the nearest...) of this section. We will use your modified adjusted gross income amount together with your tax filing... from his/her spouse for the entire tax year for the year we use to make our income-related...

  15. 26 CFR 1.804-3 - Gross investment income of a life insurance company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... law) shall be excluded from the gross investment income of a life insurance company. However, section... company. 1.804-3 Section 1.804-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... insurance company. (a) Gross investment income defined. For purposes of part I, subchapter L, chapter 1 of...

  16. 26 CFR 1.62-1T - Adjusted gross income (temporary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... section 165 for losses incurred in any transaction entered into for profit though not connected with a... determining adjusted gross income, expenses must be those directly, and not those merely remotely, connected... research scientist, is employed by Corporation X. B gives a speech before members of Association Y,...

  17. 7 CFR 1400.501 - Determination of average adjusted gross income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... renewable energy; (4) The sale, including the sale of easements and development rights, of farm, ranch... renewable energy; (7) The feeding, rearing, or finishing of livestock; (8) The sale of land that has been..., and farm operations. (c) Except as otherwise provided in this subpart, adjusted gross income means:...

  18. 26 CFR 1.951-1 - Amounts included in gross income of United States shareholders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... shareholders. Therefore, the redemption rights are not restrictions or other limitations within the meaning of... States shareholders. 1.951-1 Section 1.951-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... included in gross income of United States shareholders. (a) In general. If a foreign corporation is...

  19. 26 CFR 1.132-1T - Exclusion from gross income of certain fringe benefits-1985 through 1988 (temporary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exclusion from gross income of certain fringe benefits-1985 through 1988 (temporary). 1.132-1T Section 1.132-1T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... 1988 (temporary). (a) In general. Gross income does not include any fringe benefit which qualifies as...

  20. Happy Life Years: a measure of Gross National Happiness

    OpenAIRE

    Veenhoven, Ruut

    2004-01-01

    textabstractHappiness is defined as the degree to which a person enjoys his or her life-as-a-whole. Accordingly ‘Gross National Happiness’ is defined as the degree to which citizens in a country enjoy the life they live. Individual happiness can be measured by self-report on a single standard question. Hence Gross National Happiness can be measured by the average response to such questions in general populations surveys. Survey data on average self-report of happiness can be combined with est...

  1. Happy Life Years: a measure of Gross National Happiness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractHappiness is defined as the degree to which a person enjoys his or her life-as-a-whole. Accordingly ‘Gross National Happiness’ is defined as the degree to which citizens in a country enjoy the life they live. Individual happiness can be measured by self-report on a single standard

  2. National income and environmental concern: Observations from 35 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Alex Y

    2016-10-01

    National income produces mixed impacts on public environmental concern. In a cross-national survey, environmental concern was measured in terms of propensity to act and environmental risk perception. Results of a multilevel regression analysis show that these two measures respond to gross domestic product per capita in opposite ways. Citizens of advanced industrial countries are more likely than those of lower-income countries to contribute to environmental protection. However, they are less likely to see the harmful impacts on the environment as very dangerous. Using an indicator of national adaptive capacity, this article demonstrates that environmental risk perception is a function of a country's estimated capacity for coping with condition changes. The stronger sense of collective security among citizens of wealthier nations offers a possible explanation for the negative effects of national income. These results indicate the complex relationship between development and public environmental concern across countries.

  3. 26 CFR 1.101-1 - Exclusion from gross income of proceeds of life insurance contracts payable by reason of death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Specifically Excluded from Gross Income § 1.101-1 Exclusion from gross income of proceeds of life insurance... proceeds of life insurance policies, if paid by reason of the death of the insured, are excluded from the gross income of the recipient. Death benefit payments having the characteristics of life...

  4. Income inequality and happiness in 119 nations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.C. Berg (Maarten); R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractINCOME INEQUALITY AND HAPPINESS IN 119 NATIONS All modern nations reduce income differences to some extent, and as a result there is an ongoing discussion about what degree of income inequality is acceptable. In this discussion libertarians oppose egalitarians and a principled consensus

  5. Gross National Happiness: Ideology versus practices in Bhutanese Seconday Schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær-Rasmussen, Lone Krogh; Giri, Krishna Prasad

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates practices related to the ideology of infusing Gross National Happiness (GNH) into school curriculum, the effectiveness of the meditation and mind training and the implication of GNH for school environment. It also explores how GNH ambience has been managed and practiced......, the influence of the concept of GNH in school life generally and specifically and the effects on teachers and students of mindfull training in the class, how does it work? The investigation is based on empirical data from eight selected secondary schools spread all over Bhutan. Principals, teachers, students...... and parents were interviewed in 2012/2013 individually and in groups. Further more classroom observations took place. Finally the investigation is based on literature review and readings of documents, which describe and analyse policies, principles, strategies and philosophies related to the implementation...

  6. 26 CFR 1.662(a)-1 - Inclusion of amounts in gross income of beneficiaries of estates and complex trusts; general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inclusion of amounts in gross income of beneficiaries of estates and complex trusts; general. 1.662(a)-1 Section 1.662(a)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL... Trusts Which May Accumulate Income Or Which Distribute Corpus § 1.662(a)-1 Inclusion of amounts in gross...

  7. 26 CFR 1.527-6 - Inclusion of certain amounts in the gross income of an exempt organization which is not a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Inclusion of certain amounts in the gross income of an exempt organization which is not a political organization. 1.527-6 Section 1.527-6 Internal... TAXES (CONTINUED) Farmers' Cooperatives § 1.527-6 Inclusion of certain amounts in the gross income of an...

  8. National and International Income Dispersion and Aggregate Expenditures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Fillat; J.F. François (Joseph)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractWe examine linkages between aggregate household income, distribution of that income, and aggregate cross-country expenditure patterns. We are able to decompose income effects into international income dispersion effects (from variations in average income) and national income dispersion (

  9. How Uneven National Income Distribution Dampens Growth and Consumption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangChuanshi,; ZhaoBaohua; DavidKelly

    2004-01-01

    Comparing the distribution of rural and urban residents' incomes we find negative correlations between the Gini coefficient and national economic growth. Unevenly distributed individual incomes hamper a country's economic development. Great income disparities divert the populace's expenditure to dietary items,

  10. Contributions of medicinal plants to the Gross National Happiness and Biodiscovery in Bhutan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangchuk, Phurpa; Tobgay, Tashi

    2015-06-03

    The medicinal plants and the associated Bhutanese traditional medicine (BTM) are protected by the country's constitution and receive both government support and acceptance by the wider public. More than 1000 medicinal plants are described in the BTM but currently collects only 300 species for daily formulations of BTM. These medicinal plants have been one of the drivers of the 'Gross National Happiness (GNH)' and biodiscovery projects in Bhutan. However, no review covering the systematic evaluations of the contributions of medicinal plants and the BTM to the GNH and biodiscovery exist till date. This paper, therefore addresses this information gap. It is based on the review of the existing traditional and scientific literature, government websites and policy documents. The descriptions and discussions of the paper is straightened, authenticated and enhanced by the data collected through the informal discussions with the BTM practitioners and also through the authors' many years of practical observations of the impact of the medicinal plants programs and the BTM practices in Bhutan. This paper found the following: a) the medicinal plants generates income to the farmers elevating their living standard and the economic status, b) it serves as the bulk ingredients of the BTM facilitating the provision of free traditional health care services to the patients, c) helps the conservation of medicinal plants and their pristine environment through recognition of their spiritual, social and economic values, d) preserves the rich BTM cultural heritage, and e) guides the biodiscovery projects based on their ethnobotanical information. The paper also identified the challenges and research gaps, and recommends appropriate strategies that can help secure the sustainable future of the medicinal plants, the BTM and the biodiscovery projects. The medicinal plants play significant role in the country's biodiscovery projects and the internationally renowned development policy of 'Gross

  11. 26 CFR 1.543-2 - Limitation on gross income and personal holding company income in transactions involving stocks...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... company income in transactions involving stocks, securities, and commodities. 1.543-2 Section 1.543-2... holding company income in transactions involving stocks, securities, and commodities. (a) Under section... the net gains from the sale or exchange of stock or securities. If there is an excess of losses...

  12. 26 CFR 1.691(a)-2 - Inclusion in gross income by recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... income by use of the cash receipts and disbursements methods. (b) The application of paragraph (a) of... decedent kept his books by use of the cash receipts and disbursements method. Example 1. The decedent...

  13. Analysis of per capita income dynamics of the USA and Russia gross domestic product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor' Il'ich Pichurin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper represents a judgment that the relator of per capita income of the countries is a rough indicator of the ratio of labor productivity in these countries. Accordingly, the analysis of the dynamics of per capita income in the United States and Russia for the period from 1861 to present time is made. The described statistical data shows that the ratio of per capita income in the U. S. and Russia has not changed from 1861 to 1913. Consequently, the nowadays widespread claim that capitalist development in Russia led the country into the category of rapidly developing countries for 50 years after the abolition of serfdom is not true. The gap in labor productivity in Russia compared to the United States, Germany, Britain and other developed countries remained unchanged. The sharp decline in per capita income was based on the country's industrialization and appropriate agricultural sphere mechanization. As a result, the gap has narrowed to the mid-sixties of the XX century up to two times, despite the fact those ten years of this period fell out from the normal development in connection with the Second World War and post-war reconstruction of the nationaleconomy. After thecollapse of thesocialisteconomy, this gap increased up to fivetimes in 2000, and now after the first decade of the XXI century it is about threetimes. Thereasons for these changes in respect to per capita income are analyzed in this paper.

  14. Marginal Effects of a Gross Income Increase for a Single Parent Family in Six European Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willumsen, Marie

    High marginal tax rates constitute an issue in several countries because they are supposed to create barriers for increased labour supply. It is, however, often the case that relatively low income families with children face substantially higher combined marginal rates than even the highest...... the contributions to the combined marginal rate, the marginal effective tax rate, METR, using the OECD term, from taxation, payment for childcare, tapering of housing benefits and sometimes child benefits, when the income varies from a low level to a high level for a single parent family. Six countries are included...

  15. Shares of the rich and the rest in the world economy : Income divergence between nations, 1820-2030

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maddison, Angus

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses the forces determining per capita income levels of nations over the past millennium and the prospects to 2030. In the year 1000, Asian countries were in the lead. By 1820, per capita gross domestic product in Western Europe and the USA was twice the Asian average. The divergence

  16. Social comparisons of income in one's community: evidence from national surveys of income and happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagerty, M R

    2000-04-01

    Two studies provide evidence for social comparison effects of income on subjective well-being (SWB). The 1st study of 7,023 persons from nationally representative samples in the United States shows that the range and skew of the income distribution in a community affects a person's happiness, as predicted by range-frequency theory. The 2nd study of 8 nations over a period of 25 years shows that decreasing the skew (inequality) of the income distribution in a country increases average national SWB. Both studies strongly support social comparison effects of income within a community, and both results are predicted by range-frequency theory. These studies are the first to successfully extend earlier results of R. H. Smith, E. Diener, and D. H. Wedell (1989) from the laboratory into naturalistic situations. The magnitude of the social comparison effects is smaller than the main effect of income, which implies that nations can avoid creating a "hedonic treadmill."

  17. The evolution of China’s national income distribution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭爽; 叶晓东

    2008-01-01

    Since 1978,great transformation has taken place in China’s economy and in the distribution of its national income. Income distribution is pertinent to people’s immediate interests,to enterprises and to government agencies,and hinges upon development efficiency,social equality and the creation of a harmonious society. Considering this,this paper presents an analysis of the patterns of primary and secondary distribution of China’s national income and the evolution of the internal income distribution patterns of various economic entities since 1978,offering subsequent recommendations on policy adjustment.

  18. Health and Gross National Happiness: review of current status in Bhutan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torres CE

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Tashi Tobgay1, Ugen Dophu1, Cristina E Torres2, Kesara Na-Bangchang31Department of Public Health, Ministry of Health, Kawajangsa, Bhutan; 2Forum for Ethical Review Committees in Asian and Western Pacific Region, Clinical Coordination and Training Center, 3Thailand Center of Excellence on Drug Discovery and Development (TCEDDD, Thammasat University, Rangsit Campus, ThailandAbstract: Worldwide, contemporary measures of the success of health development programs have been mostly in terms of the reduction of mortality and morbidity as well as increasing longevity. While these goals have yielded much-needed health improvements, the subjective outcomes of these improvements, as experienced by individuals and the communities, have not been considered. Bhutan, under the overarching policy of Gross National Happiness, has provided due consideration to these subjective indicators. Here, we report on the current status of health and happiness in Bhutan as revealed by conventional objective indicators and subjective Gross National Happiness indicators. The current literature on health in Bhutan in relation to the Gross National Happiness Survey conducted by the Centre of Bhutan Studies has been reviewed. Bhutan has made great strides within a short period of modernization, as shown by both objective and subjective indicators. Tremendous challenges lie ahead to achieve the ultimate goal of health and happiness, and how Bhutan articulates its path to modernization may be a lesson for the rest of the world.Keywords: Bhutan, happiness, health, indicators

  19. Income inequality, poverty and crime across nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pare, Paul-Philippe; Felson, Richard

    2014-09-01

    We examine the relationship between income inequality, poverty, and different types of crime. Our results are consistent with recent research in showing that inequality is unrelated to homicide rates when poverty is controlled. In our multi-level analyses of the International Crime Victimization Survey we find that inequality is unrelated to assault, robbery, burglary, and theft when poverty is controlled. We argue that there are also theoretical reasons to doubt that the level of income inequality of a country affects the likelihood of criminal behaviour.

  20. Data on Income inequality in Germany, France, Italy, Spain, the UK, and other affluent nations, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Dorling

    2015-12-01

    Average income from the state is also calculated by these income categories and the number of people working in finance and receiving over €1,000,000 a year in income is reported from other sources (the European Banking Authority. Finally income distribution data is provided from the USA and the rest of Europe in order to allow comparisons to be made. The data revealed the gross household (simple unweighted median incomes in 2012 to have been (in order from best-off country by median to worse-off: France €39,000, Germany: €33,400, UK: €36,300, Italy €33,400 and Spain €27,000. However the medians, once households are weighted to reflect the nation populations do differ although they are in the same order: France €36,000, Germany: €33,400, UK: €31,300, Italy €31,000 and Spain €23,700. Thus weighting to increase representativeness of the medians reduces each by €3000, €0, €5000, €3300 and €3300 respectively. In short, the middle (weighted median French household is €4700 a year better off than the middle UK family, and that is before housing costs are considered. This Data in Brief article accompanies Dorling, D. (2015 Income Inequality in the UK: Comparisons with five large Western European countries and the USA [1].

  1. A General Approach to Welfare Measurement through National Income Accounting

    OpenAIRE

    Geir B. Asheim; Buchholz, Wolfgang

    2003-01-01

    We develop a framework for analyzing national income accounting using a revealed welfare approach that is sufficiently general to cover, e.g., both the standard discounted utilitarian and maximin criteria as special cases. We show that the basic welfare properties of comprehensive national income accounting, which were previously ascribed only to the discounted utilitarian case, in fact extend to this more general framework. In particular, it holds under a wide range of circumstances that rea...

  2. Income-Based Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Sai; Qu, Shen; Zhu, Zeqi; Guan, Dabo; Xu, Ming

    2017-01-03

    Accounting for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of nations is essential to understanding their importance to global climate change and help inform the policymaking on global GHG mitigation. Previous studies have made efforts to evaluate direct GHG emissions of nations (a.k.a. production-based accounting method) and GHG emissions caused by the final consumption of nations (a.k.a. consumption-based accounting method), but overlooked downstream GHG emissions enabled by primary inputs of individual nations and sectors (a.k.a. income-based accounting method). Here we show that the income-based accounting method reveals new GHG emission profiles for nations and sectors. The rapid development of mining industries drives income-based GHG emissions of resource-exporting nations (e.g., Australia, Canada, and Russia) during 1995-2009. Moreover, the rapid development of sectors producing basic materials and providing financial intermediation services drives income-based GHG emissions of developing nations (e.g., China, Indonesia, India, and Brazil) during this period. The income-based accounting can support supply side policy decisions and provide additional information for determining GHG emission quotas based on cumulative emissions of nations and designing policies for shared responsibilities.

  3. Income Mobility Breeds Tolerance for Income Inequality: Cross-National and Experimental Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariff, Azim F; Wiwad, Dylan; Aknin, Lara B

    2016-05-01

    American politicians often justify income inequality by referencing the opportunities people have to move between economic stations. Though past research has shown associations between income mobility and resistance to wealth redistribution policies, no experimental work has tested whether perceptions of mobility influence tolerance for inequality. In this article, we present a cross-national comparison showing that income mobility is associated with tolerance for inequality and experimental work demonstrating that perceptions of higher mobility directly affect attitudes toward inequality. We find support for both the prospect of upward mobility and the view that peoples' economic station is the product of their own efforts, as mediating mechanisms.

  4. National Differences in Intelligence, Crime, Income, and Skin Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushton, J. Philippe; Templer, Donald I.

    2009-01-01

    National differences in murder, rape, and serious assault were examined in 113 countries in relation to national IQ, income, skin color, birth rate, life expectancy, infant mortality, and HIV/AIDS. Data were collated from the 1993-1996 International Crime Statistics published by INTERPOL. Violent crime was found to be lower in countries with…

  5. National Income and Income Inequality, Family Affluence and Life Satisfaction Among 13 year Old Boys and Girls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levin, Kate Ann; Torsheim, Torbjorn; Vollebergh, Wilma

    2011-01-01

    . National income and income inequality were associated with aggregated life satisfaction score and prevalence of high life satisfaction. Within-country socioeconomic inequalities in life satisfaction existed even after adjustment for family structure. This relationship was curvilinear and varied cross...

  6. The national income of Bechuanaland Protectorate 1955*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. P. Erasmus

    1961-03-01

    Full Text Available The problems of economic development in Africa, south of the Sahara, excluding the Union of South Africa, may in general be regarded as homogeneous. Most of the inhabitants of this continent are Bantu, whose productivity and standard of living in terms of Western civilization are fairlyl ow. This low productivity may inter aliabe ascribed to the fact that the economicactivities in the relevant national economies are characterized by the desire to supply only the minimum requirements of existence.

  7. Income Optimization of Dairy Farm to Increase National Milk Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uka Kusnadi

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The program to improve national milk production over the past years has not been well targeted. This is indicated by the slow increase of dairy population and milk production that could not meet the increasing demand. It should be apparently focus on income generation of dairy farmers to increase their welfare so that they are willing to improve their dairy business that will affect national milk production. Implementation of economical dairy management and technology, could increase milk production, hence improve the farmer’s income. This could be done through several ways, i.e.: economical dairy composition, optimization of dry period and improvement milk hygiene. All these aspects including technical aspect are discussed in this paper. Apart from above, income optimalization could also be done by reducing the price of feed concentrate, raising only productive dairy cows and managing milk cooperative efficiently.

  8. Explaining Differences in Subjective Well-Being Across 33 Nations Using Multilevel Models: Universal Personality, Cultural Relativity, and National Income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Cecilia; Cheung, Mike W-L; Montasem, Alex

    2016-02-01

    This multinational study simultaneously tested three prominent hypotheses--universal disposition, cultural relativity, and livability--that explained differences in subjective well-being across nations. We performed multilevel structural equation modeling to examine the hypothesized relationships at both individual and cultural levels in 33 nations. Participants were 6,753 university students (2,215 men; 4,403 women; 135 did not specify), and the average age of the entire sample was 20.97 years (SD = 2.39). Both individual- and cultural-level analyses supported the universal disposition and cultural relativity hypotheses by revealing significant associations of subjective well-being with Extraversion, Neuroticism, and independent self-construal. In addition, interdependent self-construal was positively related to life satisfaction at the individual level only, whereas aggregated negative affect was positively linked with aggregate levels of Extraversion and interdependent self-construal at the cultural level only. Consistent with the livability hypothesis, gross national income (GNI) was related to aggregate levels of negative affect and life satisfaction. There was also a quadratic relationship between GNI and aggregated positive affect. Our findings reveal that universal disposition, cultural self-construal, and national income can elucidate differences in subjective well-being, but the multilevel analyses advance the literature by yielding new findings that cannot be identified in studies using individual-level analyses alone. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Gross domestic product, science interest, and science achievement: a person × nation interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker-Drob, Elliot M; Cheung, Amanda K; Briley, Daniel A

    2014-11-01

    Maximizing science achievement is a critical target of educational policy and has important implications for national and international economic and technological competitiveness. Previous research has identified both science interest and socioeconomic status (SES) as robust predictors of science achievement, but little research has examined their joint effects. In a data set drawn from approximately 400,000 high school students from 57 countries, we documented large Science Interest × SES and Science Interest × Per Capita Gross Domestic Product (GDP) interactions in the prediction of science achievement. Student interest in science is a substantially stronger predictor of science achievement in higher socioeconomic contexts and in higher-GDP nations. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that in higher-opportunity contexts, motivational factors play larger roles in learning and achievement. They add to the growing body of evidence indicating that substantial cross-national differences in psychological effect sizes are not simply a logical possibility but, in many cases, an empirical reality. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. The National Income Between Monetary and Fiscal Actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alin OPREANA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Andersen and Jordan (1968 and Andersen (1971 argued that fiscal actions have a negligible effect on nominal income and can not sustain a stable and balanced economic growth. Also, they argued, along with other researchers who have embraced monetarism ideas from the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, that the budget deficit presents negative effects in the economy that limit private investment. In this article, we analyzed the empirical relationship that is established between the tax actions and the long and short term national income in the U.S. economy and the economies of Eurozone.

  11. Avoiding the Limits to Growth: Gross National Happiness in Bhutan as a Model for Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy S. Brooks

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In their 30-year update to Limits to Growth, Meadows et al. call for a vision of sustainable development that includes systemic change brought on by new perspectives on the purpose of development, new ways of measuring progress, and changes in social norms. Here, I discuss Meadows et al.’s work in the context of the literature on sustainable development and well-being as well as the development trajectory of Bhutan. I suggest that Bhutan’s development approach mirrors Meadows et al.’s recommendations and provides one model for sustainable development. The ideal of maximizing Gross National Happiness (GNH exemplifies Bhutan’s commitment to holistic development and dovetails with arguments about the shortcomings of approaches that emphasize economic growth. I provide examples of how GNH has been put into practice, describe how happiness is being measured, and discuss the emergence of social norms and a shared Bhutanese identity that may contribute to sustainable development. Bhutan’s development success suggests that an alternative to growth-centric development is viable. However, while Bhutan’s standard of living has increased, the country faces challenges, the most important of which may be their ability to manage rising consumption levels. Importantly, other nations have begun measuring well-being and considering similar development approaches.

  12. A participatory framework to identify Gross National Happiness Issues for the development of smallholder mixed farming systems in Bhutan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samdup, T.; Udo, H.M.J.; Zijpp, van der A.J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a participatory methodological framework to identify Gross National Happiness (GNH) issues at the smallholder level in Bhutan. GNH is a development paradigm of Bhutan that has increasingly drawn international attention. Its four pillars are sustainable and equitable socioeconomic

  13. A participatory framework to identify Gross National Happiness Issues for the development of smallholder mixed farming systems in Bhutan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samdup, T.; Udo, H.M.J.; Zijpp, van der A.J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a participatory methodological framework to identify Gross National Happiness (GNH) issues at the smallholder level in Bhutan. GNH is a development paradigm of Bhutan that has increasingly drawn international attention. Its four pillars are sustainable and equitable socioeconomic

  14. Intangible assets and national income accounting: measuring a scientific revolution

    OpenAIRE

    Leonard I. Nakamura

    2009-01-01

    In this paper the author relates the measurement of intangibles to the project of measuring the sources of growth. He focuses on three related and difficult areas of the measurement of national income: the measurement of new goods, the deflation of intangible investment, and the divergence between the social and private valuations of intangible assets. The author argues that the economic theory and practice underlying measurement of these items is currently controversial and incomplete, and h...

  15. Identifying cost-minimizing strategies for guaranteeing target dairy income over feed cost via use of the Livestock Gross Margin dairy insurance program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valvekar, M; Cabrera, V E; Gould, B W

    2010-07-01

    Milk and feed price volatility are the major source of dairy farm risk. Since August 2008 a new federally reinsured insurance program has been available to many US dairy farmers to help minimize the negative effects of adverse price movements. This insurance program is referred to as Livestock Gross Margin Insurance for Dairy Cattle. Given the flexibility in contract design, the dairy farmer has to make 3 critical decisions when purchasing this insurance: 1) the percentage of monthly milk production to be covered, 3) declared feed equivalents used to produce this milk, and 3) the level of gross margin not covered by insurance (i.e., deductible). The objective of this analysis was to provide an optimal strategy of how a dairy farmer could incorporate this insurance program to help manage the variability in net farm income. In this analysis we assumed that a risk-neutral dairy farmer wants to design an insurance contract such that a target guaranteed income over feed cost is obtained at least cost. We undertook this analysis for a representative Wisconsin dairy farm (herd size: 120 cows) producing 8,873 kg (19,545 lb) of milk/cow per year. Wisconsin statistical data indicates that dairy farms of similar size must require an income over feed cost of at least $110/Mg ($5/cwt) of milk to be profitable during the coverage period. Therefore, using data for the July 2009 insurance contract to insure $110/Mg of milk, the least cost contract was found to have a premium of $1.22/Mg ($0.055/cwt) of milk produced insuring approximately 52% of the production with variable monthly production covered during the period of September 2009 to June 2010. This premium represented 1.10% of the desired IOFC. We compared the above optimal strategy with an alternative nonoptimal strategy, defined as a contract insuring the same proportion of milk as the optimal (52%) but with a constant amount insured across all contract months. The premium was found to be almost twice the level obtained

  16. Experiences on current national income measures with reference to environmental and natural resources; Esperienze e proposte relative alla correzione in senso ambientale delle misure del reddito nazionale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franzese, R.; Gaudioso, D. [ENEA, Casaccia (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1995-06-01

    The environment provides both a source of goods and services and a `sink` for residues of the production and consumption processes. This is not reflected into conventional estimate of GDP (gross domestic product), the most commonly used measure of aggregate income. The purpose of this paper is to explore whether environmentally-adjusted national income measure can be derived. In the first part, the authors discuss both the shortcomings of the current national income measures, with reference to environmental and natural resources, and the debate on this issues; then they analyse the existing experiences to provide environmentally-adjusted indicators of national accounts. In the second part, the authors present an evaluation of the costs of environmental degradation in Italy in the period 1988-1990, based on the methodologies adopted in a pilot study carried out by UNSO (United Nations Statistical Office) and the World Bank for Mexico.

  17. Low Income Consumer Utility Issues: A National Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenberg, J

    2001-03-26

    This report has been prepared to provide low-income advocates and other stakeholders information on the energy burden faced by low-income customers and programs designed to alleviate that burden in various states. The report describes programs designed to lower payments, manage arrearages, weatherize and provide other energy efficiency measures, educate consumers, increase outreach to the target It discusses the costs and benefits of the population, and evaluate the programs. various options--to the degree this information is available--and describes attempts to quantify benefits that have heretofore not been quantified. The purpose of this report is to enable the low-income advocates and others to assess the options and design program most suitable for the citizens of their states or jurisdictions. It is not the authors' intent to recommend a particular course of action but, based on our broad experience in the field, to provide the information necessary for others to do so. We would be happy to answer any questions or provide further documentation on any of the material presented herein. The original edition of this report was prepared for the Utah Committee on Consumer Services, pursuant to a contract with the National Consumer Law Center (NCLC), to provide information to the Utah Low-Income Task Force established by the Utah Public Service, Commission. Attachment 1 is drawn from NCLC's 1998 Supplement to its Access to Utility Services; NCLC plans to update this list in 2001, and it will be available then from NCLC. This report has been updated by the authors for this edition.

  18. A New Majority: Low Income Students Now a Majority in the Nation's Public Schools. Research Bulletin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Education Foundation, 2015

    2015-01-01

    For the first time in recent history, a majority of the schoolchildren attending the nation's public schools come from low income families. The latest data collected from the states by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), evidence that 51 percent of the students across the nation's public schools were low income in 2013. The…

  19. Is wealthier always healthier? The impact of national income level, inequality, and poverty on public health in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, Brian; King, Lawrence; Basu, Sanjay; Stuckler, David

    2010-07-01

    Despite findings indicating that both national income level and income inequality are each determinants of public health, few have studied how national income level, poverty and inequality interact with each other to influence public health outcomes. We analyzed the relationship between gross domestic product (GDP) per capita in purchasing power parity, extreme poverty rates, the gini coefficient for personal income and three common measures of public health: life expectancy, infant mortality rates, and tuberculosis (TB) mortality rates. Introducing poverty and inequality as modifying factors, we then assessed whether the relationship between GDP and health differed during times of increasing, decreasing, and decreasing or constant poverty and inequality. Data were taken from twenty-two Latin American countries from 1960 to 2007 from the December 2008 World Bank World Development Indicators, World Health Organization Global Tuberculosis Database 2008, and the Socio-Economic Database for Latin America and the Caribbean. Consistent with previous studies, we found increases in GDP have a sizable positive impact on population health. However, the strength of the relationship is powerfully influenced by changing levels of poverty and inequality. When poverty was increasing, greater GDP had no significant effect on life expectancy or TB mortality, and only led to a small reduction in infant mortality rates. When inequality was rising, greater GDP had only a modest effect on life expectancy and infant mortality rates, and no effect on TB mortality rates. In sharp contrast, during times of decreasing or constant poverty and inequality, there was a very strong relationship between increasing GDP and higher life expectancy and lower TB and infant mortality rates. Finally, inequality and poverty were found to exert independent, substantial effects on the relationship between national income level and health. Wealthier is indeed healthier, but how much healthier depends on how

  20. Metabolic rate and gross efficiency at high work rates in world class and national level sprint skiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandbakk, Øyvind; Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Leirdal, Stig; Ettema, Gertjan

    2010-06-01

    The present study investigated metabolic rate (MR) and gross efficiency (GE) at moderate and high work rates, and the relationships to gross kinematics and physical characteristics in elite cross-country skiers. Eight world class (WC) and eight national level (NL) male sprint cross-country skiers performed three 5-min stages using the skating G3 technique, whilst roller skiing on a treadmill. GE was calculated by dividing work rate by MR. Work rate was calculated as the sum of power against gravity and frictional rolling forces. MR was calculated using gas exchange and blood lactate values. Gross kinematics, i.e. cycle length (CL) and cycle rate (CR) were measured by video analysis. Furthermore, the skiers were tested for time to exhaustion (TTE), peak oxygen uptake (VO(2peak)), and maximal speed (V(max)) on the treadmill, and maximal strength in the laboratory. Individual performance level in sprint skating was determined by FIS points. WC skiers did not differ in aerobic MR, but showed lower anaerobic MR and higher GE than NL skiers at a given speed (all P < 0.05). Moreover, WC skiers skated with longer CL and had higher V(max) and TTE (all P < 0.05). In conclusion, the present study shows that WC skiers are more efficient than NL skiers, and it is proposed that this might be due to a better technique and to technique-specific power.

  1. Lower-income families pay a higher share of income toward national health care spending than higher-income families do.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketsche, Patricia; Adams, E Kathleen; Wallace, Sally; Kannan, Viji Diane; Kannan, Harini

    2011-09-01

    All health care spending from public and private sources, such as governments and businesses, is ultimately paid by individuals and families. We calculated the burden of US health care spending on families as a percentage of income and found that at the national level, lower-income families pay a larger share of their incomes toward health care than do higher-income families. Specifically, we found that payments made privately, such as those for health insurance or out-of-pocket spending for care, and publicly, through taxes and tax expenditures, consumed more than 20 percent of family income for families in the lowest-income quintile but no more than 16 percent for families in any other income quintile. Our analysis provides a framework for considering the equity of various initiatives under health reform. Although many effects remain to be seen, we find that, overall, the Affordable Care Act should reduce inequities in the burden of paying for national health care spending.

  2. Income Inequality and Child Mortality in Wealthy Nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collison, David

    2016-01-01

    This chapter presents evidence of a relationship between child mortality data and socio-economic factors in relatively wealthy nations. The original study on child mortality that is reported here, which first appeared in a UK medical journal, was undertaken in a school of business by academics with accounting and finance backgrounds. The rationale explaining why academics from such disciplines were drawn to investigate these issues is given in the first part of the chapter. The findings related to child mortality data were identified as a special case of a wide range of social and health indicators that are systematically related to the different organisational approaches of capitalist societies. In particular, the so-called Anglo-American countries show consistently poor outcomes over a number of indicators, including child mortality. Considerable evidence has been adduced in the literature to show the importance of income inequality as an explanation for such findings. An important part of the chapter is the overview of a relatively recent publication in the epidemiological literature entitled The Spirit Level: Why Equality Is Better for Everyone, which was written by Wilkinson and Pickett. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. THE INVERSE PROBLEM OF A REPRODUCTION MODEL OF NATIONAL INCOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laipanova Z. M.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In practice, there were developed and tested some mathematical models of balance relationships (balance model, economic growth, expanding economy, labour market, theories of consumption, production, competitive equilibrium models of the economy in conditions of imperfect competition and others. The basis of these models were based on linear algebra, mathematical analysis, mathematical programming, differential equations, optimization methods, optimal control theory, probability theory, stochastic processes, operations research, game theory, statistical analysis. The inverse problem in various models of mathematical Economics was considered quite rare. These tasks were sufficiently investigated in the study of physical processes. As shown by the analysis of the theoretical and applied studies of economic processes, they represent considerable interest for practice. Therefore, the considered in the study inverse problems of the mathematical model, as it is shown by the already introduced results of other mathematical models, are of considerable interest in applied and theoretical research. In this article, the authors have formulated and investigated an inverse problem for a model of economic growth. For its solution the authors propose to build a system of algebraic equations, using a reproduction model of national income; then, using methods of quadratic programming, to find the best average quadratic estimates of the model parameter

  4. National-scale estimation of gross forest aboveground carbon loss: a case study of the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyukavina, A.; Stehman, S. V.; Potapov, P. V.; Turubanova, S. A.; Baccini, A.; Goetz, S. J.; Laporte, N. T.; Houghton, R. A.; Hansen, M. C.

    2013-12-01

    Recent advances in remote sensing enable the mapping and monitoring of carbon stocks without relying on extensive in situ measurements. The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) is among the countries where national forest inventories (NFI) are either non-existent or out of date. Here we demonstrate a method for estimating national-scale gross forest aboveground carbon (AGC) loss and associated uncertainties using remotely sensed-derived forest cover loss and biomass carbon density data. Lidar data were used as a surrogate for NFI plot measurements to estimate carbon stocks and AGC loss based on forest type and activity data derived using time-series multispectral imagery. Specifically, DRC forest type and loss from the FACET (Forêts d’Afrique Centrale Evaluées par Télédétection) product, created using Landsat data, were related to carbon data derived from the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS). Validation data for FACET forest area loss were created at a 30-m spatial resolution and compared to the 60-m spatial resolution FACET map. We produced two gross AGC loss estimates for the DRC for the last decade (2000-2010): a map-scale estimate (53.3 ± 9.8 Tg C yr-1) accounting for whole-pixel classification errors in the 60-m resolution FACET forest cover change product, and a sub-grid estimate (72.1 ± 12.7 Tg C yr-1) that took into account 60-m cells that experienced partial forest loss. Our sub-grid forest cover and AGC loss estimates, which included smaller-scale forest disturbances, exceed published assessments. Results raise the issue of scale in forest cover change mapping and validation, and subsequent impacts on remotely sensed carbon stock change estimation, particularly for smallholder dominated systems such as the DRC.

  5. Analysis of El Niño-Southern Oscillation Phenomena's Effect on the Gross Domestic Product of Western Pacific Nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, M.; Lewis, A.; Mezzafonte, D.

    2014-12-01

    El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is a climatological phenomenon that occurs in the tropical Pacific Ocean which has a direct influence on the climate of western Pacific nations. This study evaluated the meteorological effects of ENSO on the economies of Indonesia and the Philippines. It was hypothesized that decreased precipitation in the western Tropical Pacific region during El Niño events causes decreases in agricultural production in the region resulting in a negative effect on a nation's Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Furthermore, during La Niña events, when precipitation increases, an increase in the nation's agricultural GDP and overall GDP is expected. Annual GDP data were obtained from the World Bank and the Bank of Indonesia for 1960-2012. Sea surface temperatures (SST) data, in the Niño 3.4 region, were obtained from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Climate Data Center. Data of the agricultural and total GDP of Indonesia and the Philippines had inconclusive correlations with ENSO signal data. By examining data between smaller time segments of the overall 1960-2012 timeframe, more conclusive results could not be discerned. Indonesia's quarterly non-oil GDP for 2000-2009 was independently correlated with ENSO providing better insight on the variables' relationship during discrete ENSO phenomena. The results provided strong correlation coefficients of 0.831 and 0.624 in support of the antithesis as well as -0.421 in support of the hypothesis. An economic anomaly known as the East Asian Financial Crisis may have been the cause of the unexpected correlations however more data is needed to be certain. Overall, the results demonstrated weak to moderate correlations between studied variables. However, more data is needed to reach substantial conclusions.

  6. The middle-income trap: Issues for members of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations

    OpenAIRE

    Tran Van Tho

    2013-01-01

    The problem faced by many of the economies making up the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) is whether they can avoid the middle-income trap and advance to the high-income level. What is needed for them to avoid the middle-income trap? This paper attempts to answer this question by building an analytical framework based on the factors that determine each development stage of an economy, and by comparing the current situation of four ASEAN middle-income countries with the experienc...

  7. Comparative Study on Property Income of Farmers in Shaanxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Hong

    2012-01-01

    According to statistic data of Shaanxi Province during 1997 to 2010,I conducted a comparative analysis on farmers’ property income from region,urban and rural factors and structure,established regression model,and studied the relationship between farmers’ property income and gross income.Results show that the growth of average property income of farmers in Shaanxi Province is clearly slow,and the gap is widening from the average national level;except 2001 and 2002,the average property income of urban and rural residents of Shaanxi Province kept a great difference;the proportion of rural residents’ property income is very small,basically not higher than 3%;there is a significant correlation between the property income and gross income of farmers in Shaanxi Province.Energetically developing rural economy and increasing farmers’ property are favorable to growth of farmers’ property income.

  8. National Income and Income Inequality, Family Affluence and Life Satisfaction among 13 Year Old Boys and Girls: A Multilevel Study in 35 Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Kate Ann; Torsheim, Torbjorn; Vollebergh, Wilma; Richter, Matthias; Davies, Carolyn A.; Schnohr, Christina W.; Due, Pernille; Currie, Candace

    2011-01-01

    Adolescence is a critical period where many patterns of health and health behaviour are formed. The objective of this study was to investigate cross-national variation in the relationship between family affluence and adolescent life satisfaction, and the impact of national income and income inequality on this relationship. Data from the 2006…

  9. Association between Sleep Duration and Self-Reported Health Status: Findings from the Bhutan's Gross National Happiness Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sithey, Gyambo; Wen, Li Ming; Kelly, Patrick; Li, Mu

    2017-01-15

    Short and long sleep durations have been found to be associated with chronic conditions like diabetes mellitus, hypertension and cardiovascular disease. However, most studies were conducted in developed countries and the results were inconsistent. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between sleep duration and self-reported health status in a developing country setting. We conducted secondary data analysis of the 2010 Gross National Happiness study of Bhutan, which was a nationwide cross sectional study with representative samples from rural and urban areas. The study included 6476 participants aged 15-98 y. The main outcome variable of interest was self-reported health status. Sleep duration was categorized as ≤ 6 h, 7 h, 8 h, 9 h, 10 h, and ≥ 11 h. Multiple logistic regressions were conducted to investigate the association between sleep duration and self-reported health status. The mean sleep duration was 8.5 (± 1.65) h. Only 9% of the respondents slept for 7 h; 6% were short sleepers (≤ 6 h) and 84% were long sleepers (21%, 8 h; 28%, 9 h; 22%, 10 h; 13%, ≥ 11 h). We found that both short (≤ 6 h) and long sleep duration (≥ 11 h) were independently associated with poor self-reported health status. This study found that people with shorter and longer sleep durations were more likely to report poorer health status.

  10. Income Inequality, Income, and Internet Searches for Status Goods: A Cross-National Study of the Association Between Inequality and Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walasek, Lukasz; Brown, Gordon D A

    2016-01-01

    Is there a positive association between a nation's income inequality and concerns with status competition within that nation? Here we use Google Correlate and Google Trends to examine frequency of internet search terms and find that people in countries in which income inequality is high search relatively more frequently for positional brand names such as Prada, Louis Vuitton, or Chanel. This tendency is stronger among well-developed countries. We find no evidence that income alone is associated with searches for positional goods. We also present evidence that the concern with positional goods does not reflect non-linear effects of income on consumer spending, either across nations or (extending previous findings that people who live in unequal US States search more for positional goods) within the USA. It is concluded that income inequality is associated with greater concerns with positional goods, and that this concern is reflected in internet searching behaviour.

  11. National incomes and health: implications of some recent additions to the data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumper, G E

    1981-04-01

    2 of the possible links between national income and national health status have attracted particular attention. A strong statistical association exists between national per capita income and such indicators of national health status as infant mortality rates and life expectancy, suggesting some broad causal nexus between high incomes and better health. 2nd, the national accounts provide a convenient framework for defining the share of a country's resources which is devoted to health services, either through the public or the private sector, how these resources are provided and financed, and who are the beneficiaries. Either of these types of relationships between income level and health may have much significance for the development of health on a global scale--the improvement of the health status of the populations of the developing countries. Data and discussion regarding the international distribution of income and its implications for health and direct national comparisons of purchasing power and their implications for health lead to the following conclusions about policy toward health development in the 3rd world: 1) using the presently available health care approaches, there is reason to expect substantial improvement in health status in the developing countries by the year 2000 based on the following factors--the growth of per capita incomes for reasons external to the health sector, any additional increases in the per capita resources devoted to health care, and improvements in the efficiency with which inputs are applied in the health sector so as to bring all countries up to the level of the currently most efficient; and 2) foreign assistance to the health sector will be most effective if it concerns current rather than capital inputs and it takes the form of money or scarce equipment rather than the services of health personnel. Given data limitations these conclusions are tentative and lead to further outlined recommendations.

  12. Patterns of Cross-National Variation in the Association Between Income and Academic Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna K. Chmielewski

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In a recent paper, Reardon found that the relationship between family income and children’s academic achievement grew substantially stronger in the 1980s and 1990s in the United States. We provide an international context for these results by examining the income–achievement association in 19 other Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development countries using data from the Progress in International Reading Literacy Study and the Programme for International Student Assessment. First, we calculate and compare the magnitude of “income achievement gaps” across this sample of countries. Second, we investigate the association between the size of a country’s income achievement gap, its income inequality, and a variety of other country characteristics. We find considerable variation across countries in income achievement gaps. Moreover, the U.S. income achievement gap is quite large in comparison to this sample of countries. Our multivariate analyses show that the income achievement gap is positively associated with educational differentiation, modestly negatively associated with curricular standardization, and positively associated with national levels of poverty and inequality.

  13. Nations' income inequality predicts ambivalence in stereotype content: how societies mind the gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durante, Federica; Fiske, Susan T; Kervyn, Nicolas; Cuddy, Amy J C; Akande, Adebowale Debo; Adetoun, Bolanle E; Adewuyi, Modupe F; Tserere, Magdeline M; Ramiah, Ananthi Al; Mastor, Khairul Anwar; Barlow, Fiona Kate; Bonn, Gregory; Tafarodi, Romin W; Bosak, Janine; Cairns, Ed; Doherty, Claire; Capozza, Dora; Chandran, Anjana; Chryssochoou, Xenia; Iatridis, Tilemachos; Contreras, Juan Manuel; Costa-Lopes, Rui; González, Roberto; Lewis, Janet I; Tushabe, Gerald; Leyens, Jacques-Philippe; Mayorga, Renée; Rouhana, Nadim N; Castro, Vanessa Smith; Perez, Rolando; Rodríguez-Bailón, Rosa; Moya, Miguel; Morales Marente, Elena; Palacios Gálvez, Marisol; Sibley, Chris G; Asbrock, Frank; Storari, Chiara C

    2013-12-01

    Income inequality undermines societies: The more inequality, the more health problems, social tensions, and the lower social mobility, trust, life expectancy. Given people's tendency to legitimate existing social arrangements, the stereotype content model (SCM) argues that ambivalence-perceiving many groups as either warm or competent, but not both-may help maintain socio-economic disparities. The association between stereotype ambivalence and income inequality in 37 cross-national samples from Europe, the Americas, Oceania, Asia, and Africa investigates how groups' overall warmth-competence, status-competence, and competition-warmth correlations vary across societies, and whether these variations associate with income inequality (Gini index). More unequal societies report more ambivalent stereotypes, whereas more equal ones dislike competitive groups and do not necessarily respect them as competent. Unequal societies may need ambivalence for system stability: Income inequality compensates groups with partially positive social images.

  14. Using a Policy of ‘Gross National Happiness’ to Guide the Development of Sustainable Early Learning Programs in the Kingdom of Bhutan: Aspirations and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Ball

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A national study on demand for early childhood care and development programs in Bhutan found strong support for development of a new early childhood care and development (ECCD sector. A wide range of stakeholders participating in the study, including ministries of education and health, post-secondary institutions, private preschool providers, community management committees, parents and children, emphasized the goal of preschool to promote success in English-medium formal education. Promoting cultural traditions was also a priority, while developing children’s proficiency in home languages was hardly mentioned. The study highlighted the changing needs of Bhutanese families in the current context of increasing urbanization, dual career parents, and a shift from extended to nuclear family homes. Recommendations derived from the study encouraged a made in Bhutan approach to ECCD policy, programs, and professional education. Subsequent to the study, the national education policy included plans for implementation of ECCD covering children from birth to 8 years old. To ensure the sustainability and cultural congruence of new programs and investments with the Kingdom’s Gross National Happiness Policy, a Gross National Happiness Commission screened and approved the new National Education Policy, which the Ministry of Education is charged with implementing. The emergence of an ECCD sector in Bhutan points to the role that national aspirations and value-driven policies and review processes could play in maintaining language diversity and transmitting culturally based knowledge.

  15. Income and vocational integration of Brazilian physicians since the establishment of the National Health System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luiz, Ronir Raggio; Bahia, Lígia

    2009-08-01

    To analyze trends relating to physicians' vocational integration and income composition from the Pesquisas Nacionais por Amostra de Domicílio (PNAD - National Household Sampling Surveys). PNAD microdata from 1988, 1993, 1998 and 2003 were analyzed in relation to demographic, social and occupational parameters. In the exploratory analysis, trends relating to physicians' employment and income were considered. Statistical associations were evaluated by means of the chi-square test. Regarding the demographic profile, a trend of increasing presence of women and of professionals over 55 years of age was observed, with a continuing high proportion of whites. Regarding occupation and income, there was an increase in entrepreneurialism among physicians and maintenance of high income, in relative terms, especially among those who combined the occupations of employee and employer. The possibility of examining individualized characteristics of occupation and income, along with physicians' many professional ties, which albeit in a limited manner can be done through PNAD, contributes towards deepening the comprehension of the patterns and changes in Brazilian physicians' integration in the labor market since the implementation of the Sistema Unico de Saúde (SUS - National Health System).

  16. 40 CFR 31.25 - Program income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... them. (b) Definition of program income. Program income means gross income received by the grantee or... copyrighted material, patents, and inventions developed by a grantee or subgrantee is program income only...

  17. 13 CFR 143.25 - Program income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Definition of program income. Program income means gross income received by the grantee or subgrantee... copyrighted material, patents, and inventions developed by a grantee or subgrantee is program income only...

  18. 15 CFR 24.25 - Program income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Definition of program income. Program income means gross income received by the grantee or subgrantee... copyrighted material, patents, and inventions developed by a grantee or subgrantee is program income only...

  19. 38 CFR 43.25 - Program income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... them. (b) Definition of program income. Program income means gross income received by the grantee or... copyrighted material, patents, and inventions developed by a grantee or subgrantee is program income only...

  20. 28 CFR 66.25 - Program income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Definition of program income. Program income means gross income received by the grantee or subgrantee... copyrighted material, patents, and inventions developed by a grantee or subgrantee is program income only...

  1. 45 CFR 2541.250 - Program income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... them. (b) Definition of program income. Program income means gross income received by the grantee or... copyrighted material, patents, and inventions developed by a grantee or subgrantee is program income only...

  2. 45 CFR 92.25 - Program income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Definition of program income. Program income means gross income received by the grantee or subgrantee... copyrighted material, patents, and inventions developed by a grantee or subgrantee is program income only...

  3. 14 CFR 1273.25 - Program income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Definition of program income. Program income means gross income received by the grantee or subgrantee... copyrighted material, patents, and inventions developed by a grantee or subgrantee is program income only...

  4. 29 CFR 1470.25 - Program income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... them. (b) Definition of program income. Program income means gross income received by the grantee or... copyrighted material, patents, and inventions developed by a grantee or subgrantee is program income only...

  5. Characterizing uncertainties of the national-scale forest gross aboveground biomass (AGB) loss estimate: a case study of the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyukavina, A.; Stehman, S.; Potapov, P.; Turubanova, S.; Baccini, A.; Goetz, S. J.; Laporte, N. T.; Houghton, R. A.; Hansen, M.

    2013-12-01

    Modern remote sensing techniques enable the mapping and monitoring of aboveground biomass (AGB) carbon stocks without relying on extensive in situ measurements. The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) is among the countries where a national forest inventory (NFI) has yet to be established due to a lack of infrastructure and political instability. We demonstrate a method for producing national-scale gross AGB loss estimates and quantifying uncertainty of the estimates using remotely sensed-derived forest cover loss and biomass carbon density data. Forest cover type and loss were characterized using published Landsat-based data sets and related to LIDAR-derived biomass data from the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS). We produced two gross AGB loss estimates for the DRC for the last decade (2000-2010): a conservative estimate accounting for classification errors in the 60-m resolution FACET forest cover change product, and a maximal estimate that also took into consideration omitted change at the 30m spatial resolution. Omitted disturbances were largely related to smallholder agriculture, the detection of which is scale-dependent. The use of LIDAR data as a substitute for NFI data to estimate AGB loss based on Landsat-derived activity data was demonstrated. Comparisons of our forest cover loss and AGB estimates with published studies raise the issue of scale in forest cover change mapping and its impact on carbon stock change estimation using remotely sensed data.

  6. Gross motor control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross motor control is the ability to make large, general movements (such as waving an arm or lifting a leg). ... Gross motor control is a milestone in the development of an infant. Infants develop gross motor control before they develop ...

  7. Low-income Children's participation in the National School Lunch Program and household food insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jin; Barnidge, Ellen

    2016-02-01

    Assessing the impact of the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) on household food insufficiency is critical to improve the implementation of public food assistance and to improve the nutrition intake of low-income children and their families. To examine the association of receiving free/reduced-price lunch from the NSLP with household food insufficiency among low-income children and their families in the United States, the study used data from four longitudinal panels of the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP; 1996, 2001, 2004, and 2008), which collected information on household food insufficiency covering both summer and non-summer months. The sample included 15, 241 households with at least one child (aged 5-18) receiving free/reduced-price lunch from the NSLP. A dichotomous measure describes whether households have sufficient food to eat in the observed months. Fixed-effects regression analysis suggests that the food insufficiency rate is .7 (95%CI: .1, 1.2) percentage points higher in summer months among NSLP recipients. Since low-income families cannot participate in the NSLP in summer when the school is not in session, the result indicates the NSLP participation is associated with a reduction of food insufficiency risk by nearly 14%. The NSLP plays a significant role to protect low-income children and their families from food insufficiency. It is important to increase access to school meal programs among children at risk of food insufficiency in order to ensure adequate nutrition and to mitigate the health problems associated with malnourishment among children.

  8. The costs of diabetes among Australians aged 45–64 years from 2015 to 2030: projections of lost productive life years (PLYs), lost personal income, lost taxation revenue, extra welfare payments and lost gross domestic product from Health&WealthMOD2030

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Deborah; Shrestha, Rupendra N; Cunich, Michelle M; Veerman, Lennert; Tanton, Robert; Kelly, Simon J

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To project the number of people aged 45–64 years with lost productive life years (PLYs) due to diabetes and related costs (lost income, extra welfare payments, lost taxation revenue); and lost gross domestic product (GDP) attributable to diabetes in Australia from 2015 to 2030. Design A simulation study of how the number of people aged 45–64 years with diabetes increases over time (based on population growth and disease trend data) and the economic losses incurred by individuals and the government. Cross-sectional outputs of a microsimulation model (Health&WealthMOD2030) which used the Australian Bureau of Statistics’ Survey of Disability, Ageing and Carers 2003 and 2009 as a base population and integrated outputs from two microsimulation models (Static Incomes Model and Australian Population and Policy Simulation Model), Treasury's population and labour force projections, and chronic disease trends data. Setting Australian population aged 45–64 years in 2015, 2020, 2025 and 2030. Outcome measures Lost PLYs, lost income, extra welfare payments, lost taxation revenue, lost GDP. Results 18 100 people are out of the labour force due to diabetes in 2015, increasing to 21 400 in 2030 (18% increase). National costs consisted of a loss of $A467 million in annual income in 2015, increasing to $A807 million in 2030 (73% increase). For the government, extra annual welfare payments increased from $A311 million in 2015 to $A350 million in 2030 (13% increase); and lost annual taxation revenue increased from $A102 million in 2015 to $A166 million in 2030 (63% increase). A loss of $A2.1 billion in GDP was projected for 2015, increasing to $A2.9 billion in 2030 attributable to diabetes through its impact on PLYs. Conclusions Individuals incur significant costs of diabetes through lost PLYs and lost income in addition to disease burden through human suffering and healthcare costs. The government incurs extra welfare payments, lost taxation revenue and

  9. The costs of diabetes among Australians aged 45-64 years from 2015 to 2030: projections of lost productive life years (PLYs), lost personal income, lost taxation revenue, extra welfare payments and lost gross domestic product from Health&WealthMOD2030.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Deborah; Shrestha, Rupendra N; Cunich, Michelle M; Passey, Megan E; Veerman, Lennert; Tanton, Robert; Kelly, Simon J

    2017-01-09

    To project the number of people aged 45-64 years with lost productive life years (PLYs) due to diabetes and related costs (lost income, extra welfare payments, lost taxation revenue); and lost gross domestic product (GDP) attributable to diabetes in Australia from 2015 to 2030. A simulation study of how the number of people aged 45-64 years with diabetes increases over time (based on population growth and disease trend data) and the economic losses incurred by individuals and the government. Cross-sectional outputs of a microsimulation model (Health&WealthMOD2030) which used the Australian Bureau of Statistics' Survey of Disability, Ageing and Carers 2003 and 2009 as a base population and integrated outputs from two microsimulation models (Static Incomes Model and Australian Population and Policy Simulation Model), Treasury's population and labour force projections, and chronic disease trends data. Australian population aged 45-64 years in 2015, 2020, 2025 and 2030. Lost PLYs, lost income, extra welfare payments, lost taxation revenue, lost GDP. 18 100 people are out of the labour force due to diabetes in 2015, increasing to 21 400 in 2030 (18% increase). National costs consisted of a loss of $A467 million in annual income in 2015, increasing to $A807 million in 2030 (73% increase). For the government, extra annual welfare payments increased from $A311 million in 2015 to $A350 million in 2030 (13% increase); and lost annual taxation revenue increased from $A102 million in 2015 to $A166 million in 2030 (63% increase). A loss of $A2.1 billion in GDP was projected for 2015, increasing to $A2.9 billion in 2030 attributable to diabetes through its impact on PLYs. Individuals incur significant costs of diabetes through lost PLYs and lost income in addition to disease burden through human suffering and healthcare costs. The government incurs extra welfare payments, lost taxation revenue and lost GDP, along with direct healthcare costs. Published by the BMJ

  10. Income inequality widens the existing income-related disparity in depression risk in post-apartheid South Africa: Evidence from a nationally representative panel study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Jonathan K; Tomita, Andrew; Lund, Crick

    2017-05-01

    Income inequality (II) and poverty are major challenges in South Africa (SA) yet little is known about their interaction on population mental health. We explored relationships between district II, household income (HHI) and depressive symptoms in national panel data. We used 3 waves (2008, 2010, 2012) of the SA National Income Dynamics Study (n=25936) in adjusted mixed effects logistic regression to assess if the relationship between HHI and depressive symptoms is dependent on level of II. Depressive symptoms were assessed with Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale, and District inequality ratios (P10P90) derived from HHI distributions in 53 districts. Lower HHI and increasing II were associated with depressive symptoms. The interaction term between HHI and II on depressive symptoms was significant (β=0.01, 95% CI: <0.01-0.01); with increasing II and decreasing HHI, depression risk increased. II widens income-related disparities in depression risk in SA, with policy implications for understanding socioeconomic determinants of mental health and informing global efforts to reduce disparities in high poverty and inequality contexts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. 32 CFR 33.25 - Program income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... earned on any of them. (b) Definition of program income. Program income means gross income received by... royalties and license fees for copyrighted material, patents, and inventions developed by a grantee...

  12. 36 CFR 1207.25 - Program income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... interest earned on any of them. (b) Definition of program income. Program income means gross income... royalties and license fees for copyrighted material, patents, and inventions developed by a grantee...

  13. 43 CFR 12.65 - Program income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... interest earned on any of them. (b) Definition of program income. Program income means gross income... royalties and license fees for copyrighted material, patents, and inventions developed by a grantee...

  14. Produção e renda bruta de rabanete e alface em cultivo solteiro e consorciado = Yield and gross income of radish and lettuce in monocrop and intercrop system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Dimas Graciano

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi verificar a produtividade e a renda bruta da alface e do rabanete em cultivo solteiro ou consorciado. Foram estudados a cultivar alface Crespa Grand Rapids Nacional e a de rabanete Crimson Vip, em cultivo solteiro com três ou quatro linhas, e os consórcios R4A3 e R3A4. O rabanete cultivado sob quatro fileiras de plantas no canteiro teve aumento significativo de 1,16 t ha-1 de massa fresca de plantas com raiz comercial em relação ao cultivado sob três fileiras. No cultivo solteiro, os maiores valores (16,36 cm de altura, 25,04 cm de diâmetro e 137.780 plantas ha-1 foram obtidoscom quatro fileiras e no consórcio, os maiores valores de altura (13,84 cm e diâmetro (21,86 cm foram com quatro fileiras e o maior número de plantas comerciais (133.220 plantas ha-1 foi com três. A razão de área equivalente (RAE, para o consórcio R4A3 foi de 1,69 e para o consórcio R3A4 foi de 2,05. Ao considerar a renda bruta, o consórcio R3A4 deve ser recomendado já que induziu aumentos monetários de R$ 24.748,00; R$ 1.224,00 e R$ 39.686,00 em relação ao consórcio R4A3 e aos cultivos solteiros com quatro fileiras deplantas de alface e rabanete, respectivamente.The objective of this paper was to verify yield and gross income oflettuce and radish in monocrop and intercrop systems. Crespa Grand Rapids Nacional lettuce and Crimson Vip radish varieties were studied in monocrop system with three and four rows, as well as the R4A3 and R3A4 intercroppings. Radish cultivated under four rows of plants in plot had significant increase of 1.16 t ha-1 of fresh mass in plants with commercial root in relation to those cultivated under three rows. In monocrop system, the highest values (16.36 cm height, 25.04 cm of diameter and 137,780 plants ha-1 were obtained from four rows and with intercrop, the highest values of height (13.84 cm anddiameter (21.86 cm were obtained from four rows, and the highest number of commercial plants (133

  15. National and International Inequalities in Income and Wealth in a Global Growth with Free Trade and National Inflation Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WEI-BIN ZHANG

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to study global monetary economic growth with heterogeneous households under free trade. The paper examines dynamics of global and national wealth and income distribution in association with monetary economic growth within an integrated framework. Money is introduced via the cash-in-advance (CIA approach. We show that the dynamics of the world economy (with any number of countries is described by a set of differential equations. We simulate equilibrium of the global economy with three countries and two types of households in each country. We also demonstrate effects of changes in technology and inflation policy. Our model demonstrates, as Grier and Grier (2007 empirically show, that the global economy exhibits absolute divergence in output levels if some determinants of steady state income are different. The study shows that as one country increases its inflation policy, the equilibrium values of the global output, consumption level and physical wealth are enhanced, and the rate of interest is lowered. The country which raises its inflation policy benefits in every aspect, but the other countries suffer in some aspects and benefit in others.

  16. The inequality footprints of nations: a novel approach to quantitative accounting of income inequality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Alsamawi

    Full Text Available In this study we use economic input-output analysis to calculate the inequality footprint of nations. An inequality footprint shows the link that each country's domestic economic activity has to income distribution elsewhere in the world. To this end we use employment and household income accounts for 187 countries and an historical time series dating back to 1990. Our results show that in 2010, most developed countries had an inequality footprint that was higher than their within-country inequality, meaning that in order to support domestic lifestyles, these countries source imports from more unequal economies. Amongst exceptions are the United States and United Kingdom, which placed them on a par with many developing countries. Russia has a high within-country inequality nevertheless it has the lowest inequality footprint in the world, which is because of its trade connections with the Commonwealth of Independent States and Europe. Our findings show that the commodities that are inequality-intensive, such as electronic components, chemicals, fertilizers, minerals, and agricultural products often originate in developing countries characterized by high levels of inequality. Consumption of these commodities may implicate within-country inequality in both developing and developed countries.

  17. NM Gross Receipts Baseline

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  18. Efficiency, Fairness, and Social Cohesion in Europe and the United States: Incomes, Hours of Work, and Equality with an Afterthought on Iceland

    OpenAIRE

    Gylfason, Thorvaldur

    2016-01-01

    The paper discusses the European Union as a union of primarily small European states, a union whose parallel emphasis on efficiency and fairness, including deep respect for human rights, holds the key to Europe’s economic and social advances over the years. The paper shows that adjusting conventional economic indicators of living standards such as gross domestic product or gross national income per capita to reflect also social factors (such as hours of work and equality of income) places Eur...

  19. Analysis of genuine saving and potential green net national income. Portugal, 1990-2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mota, Rui Pedro; Domingos, Tiago [Environment and Energy Section, DEM, Instituto Superior Tecnico (Portugal); Martins, Victor [Department of Economics, Instituto Superior de Economia e Gestao (Portugal)

    2010-08-15

    The context of this paper is the measurement of welfare and weak sustainability (defined as non-declining utility) in dynamic economies, i.e., comprehensive or green accounting. We estimate green net national income (GNNI) and genuine saving (GS) for Portugal, for the years 1990 to 2005, accounting for the disamenity of air pollution emissions, the depreciation of commercial forests and the value of time, discussing the implications of the assumptions underlying the inclusion of these terms in the green accounting model. The influence of short-run cycles is analyzed by estimating GNNI excluding business cycles. Our results suggest that business cycles affect the sustainability message of GNNI. We find that potential GNNI is growing and GS is positive in the analyzed period, thereby not indicating a weak sustainability problem in Portugal, although both depict a trend towards unsustainability. Excluding technological progress there is a contradiction in the sustainability message of GNNI and GS. (author)

  20. Public health strategies to ensure reduction in suicide incidence in middle and low income nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh RamBihariLal Shrivastava

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, the incidence of suicide has increased at an alarming rate and in the year 2012 close to 1 million people died because of suicide. Although, it is a well-acknowledged fact that suicides are completely preventable, the public health authorities have failed to halt the rising trend of the suicide because of the presence of various social and health related factors. As suicide is a complex issue, in the low and middle-income nations, the most cost-effective approach is to ensure the integration of suicide prevention program into the primary health care network. To conclude, suicide is an important public health concern which is definitively preventable. However, the need of the hour is that all the stakeholders should take collective responsibility, and work in collaboration to develop and implement a comprehensive multi-sectoral suicide prevention strategy.

  1. Progress and delivery of health care in Bhutan, the Land of the Thunder Dragon and Gross National Happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobgay, Tashi; Dorji, Tandin; Pelzom, Dorji; Gibbons, Robert V

    2011-06-01

    The Himalayan Kingdom of Bhutan is rapidly changing, but it remains relatively isolated, and it tenaciously embraces its rich cultural heritage. Despite very limited resources, Bhutan is making a concerted effort to update its health care and deliver it to all of its citizens. Healthcare services are delivered through 31 hospitals, 178 basic health unit clinics and 654 outreach clinics that provide maternal and child health services in remote communities in the mountains. Physical access to primary health care is now well sustained for more than 90% of the population. Bhutan has made progress in key health indicators. In the past 50 years, life expectancy increased by 18 years and infant mortality dropped from 102.8 to 49.3 per 1000 live births between 1984 and 2008. Bhutan has a rich medical history. One of the ancient names for Bhutan was 'Land of Medicinal Herbs' because of the diverse medicinal plants it exported to neighbouring countries. In 1967, traditional medicine was included in the National Health System, and in 1971, formal training for Drungtshos (traditional doctors) and sMenpas (traditional compounders) began. In 1982, Bhutan established the Pharmaceutical and Research Unit, which manufactures, develops and researches traditional herbal medicines. Despite commendable achievements, considerable challenges lie ahead, but the advances of the past few decades bode well for the future. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. The Resilience of Dependency Effects in Explaining Income Inequality in the Global Economy: A Cross National Analysis, 1975-1995

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Beer

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The contemporary era is one of both accelerated economic globalization and rising inequality. There is an increasing awareness among both academic scholars and development professionals that globalization puts certain populations at risk. However, there has been inadequate theoretical analysis and a lack of up to date empirical studies that explain just how contemporary globalization a?ects inequality and the well being of individuals. This study explores the conditions under which TNC penetration and other globalization processes in?uence change in domestic income distribution. Its aim is to investigate whether theoretical models that have proven successful in explaining di?erences in income inequality cross-sectionally also allow for an understanding of the dynamics of income distribution during the 1980s and early 1990s, an era characterized by a dramatic acceleration of globalization. We present an analysis of change in national income distribution using linear regression models with a panel design. This study suggests that dependence on foreign investment as a development strategy, especially compared to domestic and human capital investment, may be misguided for nations concerned with equality. Net of other factors, foreign investment dependence bene?ts the elite segments of the income-earning population over the poorer eighty percent. Our analysis provides evidence of a shift in capital/labor relations brought about by globalization that has signi? cantly contributed to the rise in income inequality seen throughout the world.

  3. National and regional estimates of term and preterm babies born small for gestational age in 138 low-income and middle-income countries in 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Anne C C; Katz, Joanne; Blencowe, Hannah

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: National estimates for the numbers of babies born small for gestational age and the comorbidity with preterm birth are unavailable. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of term and preterm babies born small for gestational age (term-SGA and preterm-SGA), and the relation to low......-income countries (27% of livebirths), of whom 10·6 million infants were born at term and low birthweight. The prevalence of term-SGA babies ranged from 5·3% of livebirths in east Asia to 41·5% in south Asia, and the prevalence of preterm-SGA infants ranged from 1·2% in north Africa to 3·0% in southeast Asia. Of 18...... million low-birthweight babies, 59% were term-SGA and 41% were preterm-SGA. Two-thirds of small-for-gestational-age infants were born in Asia (17·4 million in south Asia). Preterm-SGA babies totalled 2·8 million births in low-income and middle-income countries. Most small-for-gestational-age infants were...

  4. Financing universal health coverage—effects of alternative tax structures on public health systems: cross-national modelling in 89 low-income and middle-income countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Aaron; Gourtsoyannis, Yannis; Basu, Sanjay; McCoy, David; McKee, Martin; Stuckler, David

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background How to finance progress towards universal health coverage in low-income and middle-income countries is a subject of intense debate. We investigated how alternative tax systems affect the breadth, depth, and height of health system coverage. Methods We used cross-national longitudinal fixed effects models to assess the relationships between total and different types of tax revenue, health system coverage, and associated child and maternal health outcomes in 89 low-income and middle-income countries from 1995–2011. Findings Tax revenue was a major statistical determinant of progress towards universal health coverage. Each US$100 per capita per year of additional tax revenues corresponded to a yearly increase in government health spending of $9·86 (95% CI 3·92–15·8), adjusted for GDP per capita. This association was strong for taxes on capital gains, profits, and income ($16·7, 9·16 to 24·3), but not for consumption taxes on goods and services (−$4·37, −12·9 to 4·11). In countries with low tax revenues (tax revenue per year substantially increased the proportion of births with a skilled attendant present by 6·74 percentage points (95% CI 0·87–12·6) and the extent of financial coverage by 11·4 percentage points (5·51–17·2). Consumption taxes, a more regressive form of taxation that might reduce the ability of the poor to afford essential goods, were associated with increased rates of post-neonatal mortality, infant mortality, and under-5 mortality rates. We did not detect these adverse associations with taxes on capital gains, profits, and income, which tend to be more progressive. Interpretation Increasing domestic tax revenues is integral to achieving universal health coverage, particularly in countries with low tax bases. Pro-poor taxes on profits and capital gains seem to support expanding health coverage without the adverse associations with health outcomes observed for higher consumption taxes. Progressive tax

  5. Yield and gross income of two cultivars of taro in monocrop and intercrop systems with lettuce/ Produção e renda bruta de dois cultivares de taro, em cultivo solteiro e consorciado com alface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Alves de Lima

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to determine yield capacity and gross income of ‘Chinês’ and ‘Macaquinho’ taro cultivars under monocrop and intrercrop systems with ‘Grand Rapids Nacional’ lettuce in order to offer to producers a new alternative of production. Harvest of lettuce was done on 57 days after sowing and of taro on 285 days after planting. Fresh and dried masses of aerial parts of lettuce plants were not influenced significantly by the cultivation system. Fresh mass of aerial parts of ‘Chinês’ taro plants was significantly higher in 1.46 t ha-1 than ‘Macaquinho’ , but it was not affected by cultivation system. Fresh mass of ‘Macaquinho’ corms was superior in 5.83 t ha-1 compared with ‘Chinês’. Fresh mass of big commercial cormel of ‘Macaquinho’ (23.30 t ha-1 was significantly higher than “Chinês”, but with fresh mass of small commercial cormel occurred the inverse. Both two consortia were economic viable, but lettuce/’Macaquinho’ taro consortium was the best (R$ 83,664.00 ha-1, because it can induce a gain of R$ 50,664 ha-1 in relation to monocrop of lettuce, and a gain of R$ 21,768 ha-1 in relation to lettuce/’Chinês’ taro consortium.O objetivo do trabalho foi determinar a capacidade produtiva e a renda bruta dos cultivares de taro ‘Chinês’ e ‘Macaquinho’, sob cultivo solteiro e consorciado com a alface ‘Grand Rapids Nacional’, visando oferecer aos agricultores nova alternativa de produção. A colheita da alface realizou-se aos 57 dias após a semeadura e a dos taros, aos 285 dias após o plantio. As massas fresca e seca da parte aérea das plantas de alface não foram influenciadas significativamente pelo sistema de cultivo. A massa fresca da parte aérea das plantas do taro ‘Chinês’ (7,43 t ha-1 foi significativamente maior em 1,46 t ha-1 à do ‘Macaquinho’, mas não foi afetada pela forma de cultivo. A massa fresca de rizomas-mãe do ‘Macaquinho’ superou em

  6. Produção e renda bruta de mandioquinha-salsa, solteira e consorciada com cenoura e coentro = Yield and gross income of Peruvian carrot in monocrop system and intercropped with carrot and coriander

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Néstor Antonio Heredia Zárate

    2007-10-01

    had significant increasesof 4.4 cm, 2.34 and 1.73 t ha-1, respectively, in relation to those plants in monocrop system. Coriander height (24.0 cm and fresh mass of leaves (2.98 t ha-1 of plants from monocrop system were significantly higher than those intercropped. As for Peruvian carrot, there was significant influence on cultivation and the highest values of fresh mass, in t ha-1, of leaves (17.84, shoots (4.07, crows (3.99 and total (14.04, commercial (10.46 and noncommercial(3.58 roots were obtained with the monocrop system. The MCe intercrop was considered effective (LER= 1.47 and the MCo was ineffective (LER = 0.76. Gross income showed that both intercroppings are not recommended for the Peruvian carrotproducer since they induced losses of R$ 8,650.00 and R$ 7,011.25, respectively.

  7. Assisted Housing - Low Income Housing Tax Credit Properties - National Geospatial Data Asset (NGDA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The Low-Income Housing Tax Credit (LIHTC) is the primary Federal program for creating affordable housing in the United States. The LIHTC database, created by HUD and...

  8. IMPACT OF INFLATION ON PER CAPITA INCOME IN EMERGING ECONOMIES: EVIDENCE FROM BRICS NATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Ashraf CHISTI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an attempt has been made to analyse the impact of Inflation on per capita income of emerging economies. In order to achieve the objective of the study the researchers have taken five major emerging countries of the world which are the members of BRICS. For the purpose of analysis, the data of thirteen years has been taken from 1999 to 2011. After employing the regression model, the results confirm that independent variable (inflation does not statistically influence the dependent variable (Per Capita Income in three countries which are India, Brazil and South Africa. However, in the other two countries (China and Russia the findings affirm the independent variable (Inflation does statistically influence the dependent variable (Per Capita Income.Therefore, it can be concluded that a change in the inflation rate can not necessarily bring a change in the per capita income of a country.

  9. On the relationship between income, fertility rates and the state of democracy in society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutzler, S.; Sommer, C.; Richmond, P.

    2016-06-01

    Empirical data for 145 countries shows a strong correlation between the gross national income per capita and the political form of their governance, as specified by the so-called democracy index. We interpret this relationship in analogy to phase transitions between different states of matter, using concepts of statistical physics. Fertility rates play the role of binding energy in solid state physics.

  10. Loovkirjutamist õpetab Philip Gross

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    T.S. Elioti luulepreemia laureaat Philip Gross on Tallinna Ülikooli talvekooli rahvusvahelise kursuse "Poetry: A Conversation between Words and Silence" läbiviija. Oma seminarides keskendub ta lisaks loovkirjutamisele ka loova lugemise vajadusele

  11. Gross Sales Tax Collections

    Data.gov (United States)

    City of Jackson, Mississippi — This data is captured directly from the MS Department of Revenue and specific to the City of Jackson. It is compiled from Gross Sales Tax reported by taxpayers each...

  12. Yield and gross income of arracacha in monocrop and intercropping with the Japanese bunching onion and parsley Produção e renda bruta de mandioquinha-salsa em cultivo solteiro e consorciado com cebolinha e salsa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Néstor Antonio Heredia Zárate

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the yield performance and to determine the gross income of arracacha (Arracacia xanthorrhiza Bancroft, cultivar Amarela de Carandaí, grown in monoculture as well as in intercropping with the Japanese bunching onion (Allium fistulosum L., cultivar Todo Ano (A-JBO and parsley (Petroselinum crispum (Mill., cultivar Lisa Preferida (A-P. Arracacha and the Japanese bunching onion were vegetatively propagated, while parsley was propagated by seeds. The Japanese bunching onion was first harvested 87 days after the planting (DAP, with resprouts harvested 154 and 212 DAP. Parsley was first harvested 105 days after the sowing (DAS, and, resprouts, 171, 212, and 268 DAS. Arracacha was harvested 268 DAP. At the harvest carried out 212 DAP, the Japanese bunching onion plants in monocrop significantly exceeded those in intercropping in 1.73 cm height and 0.99 t ha-1 commercial fresh mass (CFM. In parsley, the CFM yield in monocrop significantly exceeded the intercropping figures in 0.63, 0.66, and 0.72 t ha-1 at harvests carried out respectively 171, 212, and 268 DAS. Plant height and CFM of the Japanese bunching onion and parsley increased after every new harvest, except in parsley, for plant height 171 DAS and CFM 268 DAS. No significant differences were found in any of the evaluated characteristics when arracacha as single crop was compared to the A-JBO intercropping arrangement. Nevertheless, the A-P intercropping arrangement significantly reduced all characteristics in relation to the other systems, except for yield of non-commercial arracacha roots. A-JBO intercropping arrangement was viable (LER = 1.49 and therefore may be employed by farmers. A-P intercropping, on its turn, was unfeasible (LER = 0.97.Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar o desempenho produtivo e determinar a renda bruta obtida a partir do cultivo da mandioquinha-salsa (Arracacia xanthorrhiza Bancroft, cultivar Amarela de Carandaí, em

  13. 26 CFR 301.6362-2 - Qualified resident tax based on taxable income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... result from the exclusion from, or inclusion in, gross income of the items which are the subject of the... adjusted to reflect the exclusion from gross income of interest on obligations of the United States,...

  14. Diagnosing Our National Disease: Trends in Income and Happiness, 1973 to 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnittker, Jason

    2008-01-01

    An important paradox of the happiness literature is the apparent disconnect between economic growth and happiness, referred to as the "Easterlin Paradox." Although real income has grown over the last thirty years, happiness has stagnated or perhaps even declined. There are a variety of explanations for this. Some emphasize psychological…

  15. Análise de sensibilidade da margem bruta da receita e dos custos do confinamento de diferentes grupos genéticos Gross margin sensitivity analyses of the income and costs of feedlot for different genetic groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.C. Ferreira

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Análises de sensibilidade da margem bruta foram realizadas com dados de desempenho e custos de 149 animais confinados por períodos variáveis de acordo com acabamento de carcaça dos grupos genéticos: Nelore sobreano, Nelore desmamado, ½ Valdostana ½ Nelore, ½ Simental ½ Nelore, ½ Braford ½ Brangus, ½ Braford ¼ Angus ¼ Nelore, Brangus, ½ Canchim ¼ Angus ¼ Nelore e ½ Canchim ¼ Simental ¼ Nelore. Sensibilidade da margem bruta foi realizada com variações nos preços de venda da carne e de compra do milho, soja, silagem de milho e boi magro, mantendo-se os demais preços fixos. Com o preço da carne a 0,99 US$/kg, o Nelore sobreano foi mais eficiente nas variações do milho, soja e silagem de milho; Brangus foi mais eficiente nas variações do preço de compra do boi. Com preço da carne a 1,27 US$/kg, a margem bruta foi positiva para todos grupos genéticos nas variações do milho, soja e silagem de milho, exceto Nelore desmamado. Na variação de preços de compra do boi, apenas Brangus apresentou margem bruta positiva. A margem bruta foi mais sensível às variações no preço de compra dos animais do que no preço de venda da carne.Gross margin sensitivity analyses based on costs and feedlot performances of 149 steers of different genetic groups were performed. The genetic groups consisted of yearling Nellore, weaned Nellore, ½ Valdostana ½ Nellore, ½ Simmental ½ Nellore, ½ Braford ½ Brangus,½ Braford ¼ Angus ¼ Nellore, Brangus, ½ Canchim ¼ Angus ¼ Nellore and ½ Canchim ¼ Simmental ¼ Nellore. The gross margin sensitivity analyses were performed considering fluctuation of beef selling price, and buying price fluctuations of corn, soybean, corn silage and steers, maintaining all the remained costs fixed. For beef selling price of .99 US$/kg yearling Nellore was more efficient for fluctuation prices of corn and soybean, corn silage and the genetic group Brangus was more efficient for fluctuation of beef buying

  16. [Mental income inequality: a "virus" which affects health and happiness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouffard, Léandre; Dubé, Micheline

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the impact of income inequality on various indexes of mental health and on happiness in wealthy nations. Initially, the unequal distribution of income is documented in wealthy nations, especially in the United States of America. After the World War II, income equality was at a level never reached before, but since the eighties, income inequality has raised dramatically in many industrialized countries. The 2008 crisis has worsened the situation in many of them, particularly in the United States. Furthermore, prejudices have increased against women, Blacks, Spanish-speakers and those who receive social welfare. A selective review of the literature is made in order to document the impact of income inequality on a few indicators of mental health (from WHO, UN, UNICEF, OCDE and World Bank) and on happiness, defined here as life satisfaction. Income inequality is positively related to the following indexes: Index of Mental Illness from the WHO (0.73), Index of the United Nations' Office on Drug Consumption (0.63) and a composite Index of ten psychosocial problems, constituted by Wilkinson and Pickett, 2013 (0.87). On the other hand, income inequality is negatively associated to the UNICEF Index of Child Well-Being (-0.71). Furthermore, the level of anxiety and of depression is higher in countries where income inequality is greater. The correlation between happiness and income inequality in the 23 wealthy nations is -0.48; this correlation becomes -0.41 after control of the effect of the GNP (Gross National Product). These results support the idea that it is relative income - not absolute income - which matters in the evaluation of our life and of our happiness. In underdeveloped nations, any increase in GNP promotes the well-being of the citizens; whereas in wealthy nations, it is the equality of the distribution that is more important. Many arguments supporting the causal relation from income inequality to psychosocial

  17. HUD Program Income Limits

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Income limits used to determine the income eligibility of applicants for assistance under three programs authorized by the National Housing Act. These programs are...

  18. The Changes of Fiscal Agriculture-Supporting Expenditure and Farmers’ Income Based on Grey Correlation Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    According to the relevant data of China Statistical Yearbook and Chinese Rural Statistical Yearbook in the year of 2009,the changes of grey correlation degree of farmers’ net income,various items of incomes,national gross agriculture-supporting expenditure and various items of expenditures,farmers’ net income and various items of fiscal agriculture-supporting expenditure in the Eighth Five-Year Plan,Ninth Five-Year Plan and Tenth Five-Year Plan by using grey correlation degree and the by choosing seven indicators covering income from wage and salary,income from household business,transfer income and property income,agricultural production-supporting expenditure,agricultural basic construction expenditure,expenses of three items of agricultural technology and the fee of rural relief.The results show that the grey correlation degree of each time period and household net income shows the downward trend;from overall perspective,the grey correlation degree of national gross agriculture-supporting expenditure,agricultural basic construction expenditure and agricultural production-supporting expenditure shows the descending trend;the grey correlation degree of fiscal agricultural supporting expenditure and the expenditure of three items of agricultural technology and fee of rural relief show the upward trend;the influence of agricultural production-supporting expenditure on farmers’ income shows downward trend;the influence of agricultural basic construction on farmers’ income shows upward trend;the fee of rural relief play an active role in the promoting the farmers’ income increase;the role played by fee of rural relief in promoting farmers’ income increase should be further increased;the increase of farmers’ income shows great reliance on agricultural science and technology.In the end,the relevant suggestions on establishing stable increase mechanism of fiscal agricultural support and insisting on the dynamic adjustment of the structure of fiscal

  19. Capital Income and Income Inequality: Evidence from Urban China

    OpenAIRE

    Chi, Wei

    2011-01-01

    Using urban household survey data collected by National Bureau of Statistics of China from 1988-2009, this study examines the distribution, composition, and changes of capital income and its contribution to income inequality. The data shows that capital income has increased considerably in past 20 years in urban China. Although the average value of capital income is still relatively low, the dispersion of capital income is significant, and for high-income earners capital income is substantial...

  20. 我国国民收入分配格局的实证研究%An Empirical Study of the Pattern of National Income Distribution in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁译丹

    2012-01-01

    国民收入分配格局,体现了政府、企业、居民三者之间收入分配的比例关系,是涉及民生、拉动消费、启动内需的一个根本性问题,是制定收入分配政策的基础和前提。当前,我国国民收入分配呈现居民收入在初次分配总份额中日趋减少,政府再分配乏力和第三次分配力量微弱的状况。%The pattern of income distribution reflects the proportion of the distribution of income between government, business, residents, which is a fundamental issue related to people's livelihood, stimulate consumption and expanding of domestic demand, which is also the basis and prerequisite for the development of the income distribution policy. Nowadays, our national income distribution shows the dwindling share of the residents' income in the initial distribution, feeble government redistribution and weak third allocation. This paper selects seven explanatory variables, including the residents' incomes, government revenue, income, labor compensation, personal income tax, social donations and government transfer spending, we conducted an empirical research on the factors that affect our distribution of national income, and results in the most important factors are the income and government transfer spending. So, the suggestion should be focused on standardizing initial distribution, redistribution, and the third distribution.

  1. Decision of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress on Amending the Law of the People's Republic of China on Individual Income Tax

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    @@ The Standing Committee of the 11th National Peoples Congress decided to revise the Law of the People's Republic of China on Individual Income Tax at its 21st meeting as follows: I.Item 1 of Article 3 shall be revised as: "For the income of wages and salaries, the progressive tax rate in excess of the specific amount is applicable and the rate ranges from 3 percent to 45 percent (the tax rate schedule is attached behind)."

  2. Architectural frameworks for developing national health information systems in low and middle income countries

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mudaly, T

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available be viewed as a system of heterogeneous (sub) systems, that encompasses different health information systems and applications, that span across public and private health care, different geographical levels (district, sub-national and country...), and different health delivery services (primary, district, national). A country’s NHIS must provide a basic technological platform to manage and enable sharing of data, information, and knowledge across domains [4, 5]. The connectivity and knowledge...

  3. Prevalence of Risk Factors for the Metabolic Syndrome in the Middle Income Caribbean Nation of St. Lucia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colleen O’Brien Cherry

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to measure the presence of metabolic syndrome risk factors in a sample population in the middle income Caribbean nation of St. Lucia and to identify the demographic and behavioral factors of metabolic syndrome among the study participants. Interviews and anthropometric measures were conducted with 499 St. Lucians of ages 18–99. Descriptive statistics were used for the analysis. Fifty-six percent of females and 18 percent of males had a waist size equal to or above the indicator for the metabolic syndrome. Behavioral risk factors such as sedentary lifestyle, smoking, and alcohol consumption varied by gender. Thirty-six percent of women and 22% of men reported a sedentary lifestyle and 43% of women and 65% of men reported any alcohol consumption. More research should be done to determine the cultural norms and gender differences associated with modifiable risk behaviors in St. Lucia.

  4. 24 CFR 203.33 - Relationship of income to mortgage payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Relationship of income to mortgage... Mortgagors § 203.33 Relationship of income to mortgage payments. (a) Adequacy of mortgagor's gross income. A mortgagor must establish, to the satisfaction of the Secretary, that his or her gross income is and will...

  5. Education modifies the association of wealth with obesity in women in middle-income but not low-income countries: an interaction study using seven national datasets, 2005-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amina Aitsi-Selmi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Education and wealth may have different associations with female obesity but this has not been investigated in detail outside high-income countries. This study examines the separate and inter-related associations of education and household wealth in relation to obesity in women in a representative sample of low- and middle-income countries (LMICs. METHODS: The seven largest national surveys were selected from a list of Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS ordered by decreasing sample size and resulted in a range of country income levels. These were nationally representative data of women aged 15-49 years collected in the period 2005-2010. The separate and joint effects, unadjusted and adjusted for age group, parity, and urban/rural residence using a multivariate logistic regression model are presented. RESULTS: In the four middle-income countries (Colombia, Peru, Jordan, and Egypt, an interaction was found between education and wealth on obesity (P-value for interaction <0.001. Among women with no/primary education the wealth effect was positive whereas in the group with higher education it was either absent or inverted (negative. In the poorer countries (India, Nigeria, Benin, there was no evidence of an interaction. Instead, the associations between each of education and wealth with obesity were independent and positive. There was a statistically significant difference between the average interaction estimates for the low-income and middle-income countries (P<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that education may protect against the obesogenic effects of increased household wealth as countries develop. Further research could examine the factors explaining the country differences in education effects.

  6. Receitas bruta e líquida parcial e custo de dietas contendo polpa cítrica para suínos abatidos com 130kg de peso Gross and partial net incomes and feeding cost of diets containing citrus pulp for pigs slaughtered with 130kg of weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. H. Watanabe

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o custo de inclusão da polpa cítrica em programa de restrição alimentar qualitativa, utilizando dados de desempenho de 36 suínos da linhagem Topigs, dos 83,7±5,1kg aos 129,8±1,9kg de peso, alimentados com dietas contendo porcentagens crescentes (0, 10, 20 e 30% de polpa cítrica. Os animais foram abatidos aos 130kg e dos valores (R$ da carcaça foram descontados o valor de compra dos animais e o custo com alimentação, de acordo com cada tratamento. Não houve efeito (P>0,05 da inclusão da polpa cítrica sobre o custo com ração e receita bruta, porém houve efeito linear negativo (PThe cost of inclusion of citrus pulp was evaluated in a qualitative feed restriction program using performance data of 36 pigs of Topigs lineage (from 83.7±5.1kg to 129.8±1.9kg fed with crescent levels of citrus pulp (0, 10, 20, and 30%. The animals were slaughtered when they reached 130kg. The value paid for animal and its feeding cost were discounted from the carcass value (R$, according to each treatment. No effect (P>0.05 of the inclusion of citrus pulp on ration cost and gross income was observed. A negative linear effect (<0.05 on partial net income with the increasing participation of the citrus pulp in diets was found. The decreasing trend in the partial net income was caused by the reduction on carcass weight of animals fed on crescent levels of citrus pulp. Considering the increase on corn, soybean, and swine prices from June 2005 to May 2006, 12 different sceneries were determined for partial net income analysis. In all situations, linear reductions on partial net income were observed as a function of citrus pulp inclusion, evidencing that the ingredient was not efficient in promoting profits for producers.

  7. BOREAS HYD-8 Gross Precipitation Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Richard; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Knapp, David E. (Editor); Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Hydrology (HYD)-08 team made measurements of surface hydrological processes at the Southern Study Area-Old Black Spruce (SSA-OBS) Tower Flux site to support its research into point hydrological processes and the spatial variation of these processes. Data collected may be useful in characterizing canopy interception, drip, throughfall, moss interception, drainage, evaporation, and capacity during the growing season at daily temporal resolution. This particular data set contains the gross precipitation measurements for July to August 1996. Gross precipitation is the precipitation that falls that is not intercepted by tree canopies. These data are stored in ASCII text files. The HYD-08 gross precipitation data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  8. The Estimation and Structural Analysis on the Gross National Wealth-Evidence from Anhui Province%国民总财富的估算与结构分析--以安徽省为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡本田; 徐兵华

    2014-01-01

    The gross national wealth represents the level of the sustainable development of economic entities with combining the development of economy, the progress of society and the change of resource and environment. According to the method pro-posed by the World Bank, the paper estimates all components of the gross national wealth and the per capita wealth of Anhui Province during the year of 1990 to 2011,The results show that:At present,the province still relies on a lot of natural capital to promote the growth of per capita GDP and per capita wealth. Moreover,the accumulation of wealth is mainly based on natu-ral capital,but its proportion is getting lower and lower,while the proportion of production capital to the gross national wealth is increasing slowly. The lowest proportion is human capital,it is not conducive to the sustainable economic development.%国民总财富把经济发展、社会进步和资源环境变化结合起来,更好地代表了经济主体可持续发展的程度。文章依据世界银行提出的方法估算出了1990-2011年安徽省人均财富以及总财富的各项构成部分,结果表明:现阶段安徽省仍然大量使用自然资本来推动人均GDP和人均财富的增长。且现阶段,安徽省财富的积累还是以自然资本为主,但是自然资本的比例越来越低,生产资本所占财富的比重正缓慢上升。人力资本比重最小,这不利于经济的可持续发展。

  9. Poverty, income and ill health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, T K

    1999-01-01

    The article presents an outline of the relationship between poverty, low income, and poor health conditions. A table shows the differences between central Asia and Western Europe in terms of maternal and child health indicators. Various studies also show that the more polarized the income, the worse the population's health status. Countries with higher per capita gross national product (GNP) tend to have lower infant and maternal mortality. Countries who have achieved low mortality rate despite their low levels of per capita GNP, attribute the result to non-health factors such as the spread of education and the drive to provide access to other basic needs, in addition to low cost health services. It is believed that people from deprived backgrounds are more susceptible to diseases, malnutrition, and despair. This may be due to cutbacks in expenditure on food and lower utilization of health services by the socially deprived. Furthermore, poverty is a major cause of death and misery of children and women both in developed and developing countries. It accounts for the social injustices done to women and undermines the physical, social, intellectual and emotional development of children. New patterns of health care service delivery are being developed by the WHO to improve the state of poverty-stricken countries. The article concludes with sound recommendations for both local and national levels.

  10. Gross decontamination experiment report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, R.; Kinney, K.; Dettorre, J.; Gilbert, V.

    1983-07-01

    A Gross Decontamination Experiment was conducted on various levels and surfaces of the TMI - Unit 2 reactor building in March 1982. The polar crane, D-rings, missile shields, refueling canals, refueling bridges, equipment, and elevations 305' and 347'-6'' were flushed with low pressure water. Additionally, floor surfaces on elevation 305' and floor surfaces and major pieces of equipment on elevation 347'-6'' were sprayed with high pressure water. Selective surfaces were decontaminated with a mechanical scrubber and chemicals. Strippable coating was tested and evaluated on equipment and floor surfaces. The effectiveness, efficiency, and safety of several decontamination techniques were established for the large, complex decontamination effort. Various decontamination equipment was evaluated and its effectiveness was documented. Decontamination training and procedures were documented and evaluated, as were the support system and organization for the experiment.

  11. Using a Policy of "Gross National Happiness" to Guide the Development of Sustainable Early Learning Programs in the Kingdom of Bhutan: Aspirations and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Jessica; Wangchuk, Karma Chimi

    2015-01-01

    A national study on demand for early childhood care and development programs in Bhutan found strong support for development of a new early childhood care and development (ECCD) sector. A wide range of stakeholders participating in the study, including ministries of education and health, post-secondary institutions, private preschool providers,…

  12. Yield and gross income of bunching onion and coriander in monocrop and intercrop systems/ Produção e renda bruta de cebolinha e de coentro, em cultivo solteiro e consorciado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleila Marcondes de Souza

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to determine yield and income of ‘Todo ano’ bunching onion and ‘Asteca’ coriander, which were carried out in monocrop and intercrop systems with three (Ce3 and Co3 and four rows planted per plot. The work was developed in Dourados-MS, Brazil, between July 13th, and September 15th, 2004. Average yield of fresh mass of bunching onion plants under monocrop system had significative increase of 0.64 t ha-1 (92.75% in relation to those under intercrop system (0.69 t ha-1. For coriander, yield of fresh mass of plants under monocrop system and with four rows per plot had significative increase of 1.43 t ha-1 (41.21% in relation to those under three rows (3.47 t ha-1. Land Equivalant Ratio (LER for bunching onion and coriander intercropped were superior in 21% (Ce3Co4 and 56% (Ce4Co3 in relation to monocrop system. For bunching onion producer, both intercrops were economic viable, but Ce4Co3 could have induced a higher gain per hectare (R$ 3,243.30. By the other side, for coriander producer, Ce3Co4 intercrop was the worst, because, although LER had been superior to 1.00, it could induce loss per hectare of R$ 99.42. Ce4Co3 intercrop was the best because it could induce a gain of R$ 777.77.O objetivo do trabalho foi determinar a produtividade e o retorno econômico da cebolinha ‘Todo Ano’ e do coentro ‘Asteca’, conduzidos em cultivo solteiro e consorciado, com três (Ce3 e Co3 e quatro (Ce4 e Co4 linhas de plantas por canteiro. O trabalho foi desenvolvido em Dourados-MS, entre 13 de julho e 15 de setembro de 2004. A produção média de massa fresca das plantas de cebolinha sob cultivo solteiro teve aumento significativo de 0,64 t ha-1 (92,75% em relação àquela sob consórcio (0,69 t ha-1. No coentro, a produção de massa fresca das plantas sob cultivo solteiro e com quatro linhas por canteiro teve aumento significativo de 1,43 t ha-1 (41,21% em relação à produção sob três linhas (3,47 t ha-1. As

  13. Concussion-Related Protocols and Preparticipation Assessments Used for Incoming Student-Athletes in National Collegiate Athletic Association Member Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Zachary Y.; Snook, Erin M.; Lynall, Robert C.; Dompier, Thomas P.; Sales, Latrice; Parsons, John T.; Hainline, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Context  National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) legislation requires that member institutions have policies to guide the recognition and management of sport-related concussions. Identifying the nature of these policies and the mechanisms of their implementation can help identify areas of needed improvement. Objective  To estimate the characteristics and prevalence of concussion-related protocols and preparticipation assessments used for incoming NCAA student-athletes. Design  Cross-sectional study. Setting  Web-based survey. Patients or Other Participants  Head athletic trainers from all 1113 NCAA member institutions were contacted; 327 (29.4%) completed the survey. Intervention(s)  Participants received an e-mail link to the Web-based survey. Weekly reminders were sent during the 4-week window. Main Outcome Measure(s)  Respondents described concussion-related protocols and preparticipation assessments (eg, concussion history, neurocognitive testing, balance testing, symptom checklists). Descriptive statistics were compared by division and football program status. Results  Most universities provided concussion education to student-athletes (95.4%), had return-to-play policies (96.6%), and obtained the number of previous concussions sustained by incoming student-athletes (97.9%). Fewer had return-to-learn policies (63.3%). Other concussion-history–related information (eg, symptoms, hospitalization) was more often collected by Division I universities. Common preparticipation neurocognitive and balance tests were the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT; 77.1%) and Balance Error Scoring System (46.5%). In total, 43.7% complied with recommendations for preparticipation assessments that included concussion history, neurocognitive testing, balance testing, and symptom checklists. This was due to moderate use of balance testing (56.6%); larger proportions used concussion history (99.7%), neurocognitive testing (83

  14. 26 CFR 1.1402(a)-8 - Community income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... gross income and deductions of the husband unless the wife exercises substantially all of the management... husband under the community property laws. For example, a wife who operates a beauty parlor without any... treated as the gross income and deductions of the wife. For the purpose of this special rule, the...

  15. The personal and national costs of mental health conditions: impacts on income, taxes, government support payments due to lost labour force participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Passey Megan E

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mental health conditions have the ability to interrupt an individual's ability to participate in the labour force, and this can have considerable follow on impacts to both the individual and the state. Method Cross-sectional analysis of the base population of Health&WealthMOD, a microsimulation model built on data from the Australian Bureau of Statistics' Survey of Disability, Ageing and Carers and STINMOD, an income and savings microsimulation model was used to quantify the personal cost of lost income and the cost to the state from lost income taxation, increased benefits payments and lost GDP as a result of early retirement due to mental health conditions in Australians aged 45-64 in 2009. Results Individuals aged 45 to 64 years who have retired early due to depression personally have 73% lower income then their full time employed counterparts and those retired early due to other mental health conditions have 78% lower incomes. The national aggregate cost to government due to early retirement from these conditions equated to $278 million (£152.9 million in lost income taxation revenue, $407 million (£223.9 million in additional transfer payments and around $1.7 billion in GDP in 2009 alone. Conclusions The costs of mental health conditions to the individuals and the state are considerable. While individuals has to bear the economic costs of lost income in addition to the burden of the conditions itself, the impact on the state is loss of productivity from reduced workforce participation, lost income taxation revenue, and increased government support payments - in addition to direct health care costs.

  16. The relationship between immigration and depression in South Africa: evidence from the first South African National Income Dynamics Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Andrew; Labys, Charlotte A; Burns, Jonathan K

    2014-12-01

    Few studies have examined depression among immigrants in post-apartheid South Africa, and factors that strengthen the relationship between immigration and depression. The first wave of the National Income Dynamics Study was used to investigate links between immigration and depression (n = 15,205). Depression symptoms were assessed using a 10-item version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) Scale. Immigrants in South Africa had fewer depressive symptoms (CES-D ≥ 10) than locally-born participants (17.1 vs. 32.4%, F = 13.5, p < 0.01). Multilevel mixed-effects logistic regression analyses found that among immigrant populations, younger age (adjusted OR 1.03, 95% CI 1.01-1.05) and black African ethnicity (adjusted OR 3.72, 95% CI 1.29-10.7) were associated with higher depression. Younger age was associated with lower depression among locally-born study participants (adjusted OR 0.98, 95% CI 0.97-0.98). The varying relationship between certain demographic factors, depression and the different mental health challenges among these groups requires closer attention.

  17. Associations between gross motor coordination and academic achievement in elementary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Luís; Santos, Rute; Pereira, Beatriz; Lopes, Vítor P

    2013-02-01

    We aimed to evaluate the relationship between gross motor coordination (MC) and academic achievement (AA) in a sample of Portuguese children aged 9-12 years. The study took place during the 2009/2010 school year and involved 596 urban children (281 girls) from the north of Portugal. AA was assessed using the Portuguese Language and Mathematics National Exams. Gross MC was evaluated with the Körperkoordination Test für Kinder. Cardiorespiratory fitness was predicted by a maximal multistage 20-m shuttle-run test of the Fitnessgram Test Battery. Body weight and height were measured following standard procedures. Socio-economic status was based on annual family income. Logistic Regression was used to analyze the association of gross MC with AA. 51.6% of the sample exhibited MC disorders or MC insufficiency and none of the participants showed very good MC. In both genders, children with insufficient MC or MC disorders exhibited a higher probability of having low AA, compared with those with normal or good MC (pbody mass index and socio-economic status.

  18. PVC Gross Profit Climbed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peter Zong

    2007-01-01

    @@ China has nearly 150 PVC (polyvinyl chloride) manufacturers operated in 2006. Here seventeen publicly listed companies are discussed, representing 25% of the national total output (8.23 million tons).

  19. Health and social outcomes among children in low-income families and families receiving social assistance--a Swedish national cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringbäck Weitoft, Gunilla; Hjern, Anders; Batljan, Ilija; Vinnerljung, Bo

    2008-01-01

    We examined health and social outcomes among children related to parental disposable income and receipt of social assistance. Swedish national registry data were used in a longitudinal design. We estimated relative risks and odds ratios for health and social outcomes in Poisson and logistic regressions among 1.2 million children between 1993 and 2002, and adjusted for factors that might affect the associations. Children in families receiving long-term social assistance showed considerably less satisfactory future prospects regarding health-related outcomes--all-cause mortality, suicide attempt, alcohol and drug misuse. Also, and to an even greater extent, the children experienced low educational attainment and social assistance in young adulthood compared with the rest of the population, and also in comparison with other low-income families. Low income was also associated with risk increases, but to a lesser extent. After taking into account the greater proportion of social-assistance recipients in low-income groups, attenuated risk increases remained only regarding future prospects of low education and social assistance. Regarding both low income and months receiving social assistance there was a gradient, at least in the age-adjusted analyses; there were greater risk increases among long-term recipients and among those with low incomes, and lower risk increases among short-term recipients and among those with high incomes. The results indicate that growing up in a family on long-term social assistance is a robust risk marker for compromised long-term development. A policy whereby children and parents receiving long-term assistance are offered access to evidence-based prevention programs in the areas of health, education and skills training appears to be important.

  20. From wealth to health: modelling the distribution of income per capita at the sub-national level using night-time light imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tandon Ajay

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sub-national figures providing information about the wealth of the population are useful in defining the spatial distribution of both economic activity and poverty within any given country. Furthermore, since several health indicators such as life expectancy are highly correlated with household welfare, sub-national figures allow for the estimation of the distribution of these health indicators within countries when direct measurement is difficult. We have developed methods that utilize spatially distributed information, including night-time light imagery and population to model the distribution of income per capita, as a proxy for wealth, at the country and sub-national level to support the estimation of the distribution of correlated health indicators. Results A first set of analysis are performed in order to propose a new global model for the prediction of income per capita at the country level. A second set of analysis is then confirming the possibility to transfer the country level approach to the sub-national level on a country by country basis before underlining the difficulties to create a global or regional models for the extrapolation of sub-national figures when no country data set exists. Conclusions The methods described provide promising results for the extrapolation of national and sub-national income per capita figures. These results are then discussed in order to evaluate if the proposed methods could not represent an alternative approach for the generation of consistent country specific and/or global poverty maps disaggregated to some sub-national level.

  1. Global variance in female population height: the influence of education, income, human development, life expectancy, mortality and gender inequality in 96 nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, Quentin J

    2014-01-01

    Human height is a heritable trait that is known to be influenced by environmental factors and general standard of living. Individual and population stature is correlated with health, education and economic achievement. Strong sexual selection pressures for stature have been observed in multiple diverse populations, however; there is significant global variance in gender equality and prohibitions on female mate selection. This paper explores the contribution of general standard of living and gender inequality to the variance in global female population heights. Female population heights of 96 nations were culled from previously published sources and public access databases. Factor analysis with United Nations international data on education rates, life expectancy, incomes, maternal and childhood mortality rates, ratios of gender participation in education and politics, the Human Development Index (HDI) and the Gender Inequality Index (GII) was run. Results indicate that population heights vary more closely with gender inequality than with population health, income or education.

  2. Does immigration have a Matthew Effect? A cross-national analysis of international migration and international income inequality, 1960-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Matthew R

    2013-05-01

    This paper empirically assesses how immigration affects international inequality by testing the relationship between immigration and national economic development across countries in different world income groups. A series of cross-national, longitudinal analyses demonstrate that, on average, immigration has a rather small, but positive long-term effect on development levels. However, the findings also indicate that immigration has a Matthew Effect (Merton, 1968) in the world-economy: immigration disproportionately benefits higher-income countries. Moreover, the wealthiest countries reap the largest gains from immigration. Thus, from the perspective of destination countries, immigration does not appear to be a panacea for international inequality. Instead, the results indicate that immigration actually reproduces, and even exacerbates, international inequality.

  3. 26 CFR 1.832-1 - Gross income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... increase due to adjustments in book value of capital assets. The underwriting and investment exhibit is... incurred” the determination of unpaid losses at the close of each year must represent actual unpaid losses... cash), real or personal, tangible or intangible, except that which may not be included by reason of...

  4. 75 FR 56858 - Exclusions From Gross Income of Foreign Corporations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ... Corporations AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Final regulations and removal of... foreign corporations from the international operation of ships or aircraft. The final regulations adopt...), 1.883-3(c) and (d), and 1.883-4(e). This information is required to enable a foreign corporation...

  5. 26 CFR 1.832-4 - Gross income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Amounts subtracted from a premium stabilization reserve to pay for insurance coverage; and (C...) related to an insurance contract is within the limitation of this paragraph (a)(5)(vii) if— (A) The ratio... attributable to the insurance contract; does not exceed (B) The ratio obtained by dividing the sum of...

  6. Experience developing national evidence-based clinical guidelines for childhood pneumonia in a low-income setting - making the GRADE?

    OpenAIRE

    Agweyu Ambrose; Opiyo Newton; English Mike

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The development of evidence-based clinical practice guidelines has gained wide acceptance in high-income countries and reputable international organizations. Whereas this approach may be a desirable standard, challenges remain in low-income settings with limited capacity and resources for evidence synthesis and guideline development. We present our experience using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach for the recent revisio...

  7. Age- and sex-specific relationships between household income, education, and diabetes mellitus in Korean adults: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2008-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So-Ra Kim

    Full Text Available To investigate the effects of age and sex on the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES and the prevalence and control status of diabetes mellitus (DM in Korean adults.Data came from 16,175 adults (6,951 men and 9,227 women over the age of 30 who participated in the 2008-2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. SES was measured by household income or education level. The adjusted odds ratios (ORs and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CI for the prevalence or control status of diabetes were calculated using multiple logistic regression analyses across household income quartiles and education levels.The household income-DM and education level-DM relationships were significant in younger age groups for both men and women. The adjusted ORs and 95% CI for diabetes were 1.51 (0.97, 2.34 and 2.28 (1.29, 4.02 for the lowest vs. highest quartiles of household income and education level, respectively, in women younger than 65 years of age (both P for linear trend < 0.05 with Bonferroni adjustment. The adjusted OR and 95% CI for diabetes was 2.28 (1.53, 3.39 for the lowest vs. highest quartile of household income in men younger than 65 (P for linear trend < 0.05 with Bonferroni adjustment. However, in men and women older than 65, no associations were found between SES and the prevalence of DM. No significant association between SES and the status of glycemic control was detected.We found age- and sex-specific differences in the relationship of household income and education with the prevalence of DM in Korea. DM preventive care is needed for groups with a low SES, particularly in young or middle-aged populations.

  8. Gross job flows and firms

    OpenAIRE

    Scott Schuh; Robert K. Triest

    1999-01-01

    This paper extends the work of Dunne, Roberts, and Samuelson [3] and Davis, Haltiwanger, and Schuh [2] on gross job flows among manufacturing plants. Gross job creation, destruction, and reallocation have been shown to be important in understanding the birth, growth, and death of plants, and the relation of plant life cycles to the business cycle. However, little is known about job flows between firms or how job flows among plants occur within firms (corporate restructuring). We use informati...

  9. Produção e renda bruta de rúcula (Eruca sativa Mill. 'Cultivada' e de almeirão (Cichorium intybus L. 'Amarelo' em cultivo solteiro e consorciado Yield and gross income of 'Cultivada' roquette (Eruca sativa Mill and 'Amarelo' chicory (Cichorium intybus L. in mono-cropping and intercropping system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilmara Corrêa Harder

    2005-08-01

    objective of evaluating yield and gross income in mono-cropping and inter-cropping system. Mono-croppings of 'Cultivada' roquette-R and 'Amarelo' chicory-A, in three rows (A3 and four (A4 rows and R3A4 and R4A3 intercropping systems were studied in randomized block design, with five replications. Harvests were done at 52 days after sowing and at 35 days after the first harvest. For roquette and chicory, respectively, plant heights (26.54 and 24.99 cm, number of leaves per plant (23.4 and 16.40, length (18.62 and 24.68 cm and area of one leaf (66.73 and 177.0 cm² were not influenced by number of rows, neither by intercropping system, but results were greater for the first harvest than the second. Length of chicory leaf was significantly influenced by intercropped system and number of rows interaction, which ranged from 22.74 (R4 up to 26.78 cm (R3A4. Yield of fresh (15.66 and 11.62 t ha-1 and dried (1.33 and 1.00 t ha-1 mass of roquette under four and three rows were significantly different, respectively. Fresh and dried matter of chicory treatments were, respectively, 12.55 and 0.85 t ha-1 for A3, 15.60 and 1.13 t ha-1 for A4, 17.44 and 1.26 t ha-1 under mono-cropping system and 10.72 and 0.72 t ha-1 under intercropping system. LER for the first and the second harvests were 1.87 and 1.76 for R3A4 and 1.56 and 1.58 for R4A3, respectively. R4A3 arrangement could have produced monetary increases of R$ 28,279.80 and R$ 20,065.60 for the second harvest, regarding to roquette and chicory. The best gross income for the second harvest was in R4A3 treatment, with corresponded to 87% of the best gross income of the first harvest for the same treatment, with a shorter 17-day vegetative cycle.

  10. Rendimento de grãos e margem bruta de cultivares de milho com variabilidade genética contrastante em diferentes sistemas de manejo Grain yield and gross income of maize cultivars with contrasting genetic variability at different management systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Sangoi

    2006-06-01

    investir em práticas culturais que otimizem a performance agronômica e o potencial produtivo da cultivar.The optimization of maize production systems in southern Brazil depends on the adequate combination between genotype traits and the type of management system. This work was carried out aiming at evaluating the grain yield and gross income of maize cultivars with contrasting genetic variability at different management levels. The experiment was conducted in Lages, SC, using randomized block design with split-plots. Four production systems, equivalent to low (S1, medium (S2, high (S3 and very high (S4 management levels were tested in the main plots. The single-cross hybrid Pioneer 32R21, the double cross hybrid Traktor, and the open-pollinated variety BRS Planalto were assessed in the split-plots. The management systems differed in relation to the quantity and timing of fertilizer application, plant density, row spacing, and water irrigation. The trials were sown in 11/20/2002 and 10/22/2003, under the no-till soil tillage system. Regardless cultivar, maize grain yield and gross income increased with the enhancement in management level, ranging from 1,781 (S1 to 13,848 (S4kg ha-1 and from 206,00 (S1 to 2,937,00 (S4R$ ha-1, depending on the cultivar and growing season. The larger genetic variability of the cultivar BRS Planalto did not improve its grain yield when compared to the hybrids in S1. The hybrids were more productive and profitable than the open pollinated variety in S2. The use of a single-cross hybrid promoted the greatest grain yield and gross income in S3 and S4, showing that it is possible to match maximum technical and economic efficiency with a high yield plateau, as long as there is financial condition to invest in cultural practices that optimize maize agronomic performance and genetic potential to explore them.

  11. Obesity Prevalence in Nepal: Public Health Challenges in a Low-Income Nation during an Alarming Worldwide Trend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhinav Vaidya

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The future toll of the obesity epidemic will likely hit hardest in low- and middle-income countries. Ongoing urbanization promotes risk factors including sedentary lifestyle and fat- and sugar-laden diets. Low-income countries like Nepal experience a double disease burden: infectious diseases as well as rising incidence of noncommunicable diseases (e.g., cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus frequently characterized by obesity. Nepal currently directs efforts towards curing disease but pays little attention to preventive actions. This article highlights obesity prevalence in Nepal, delineates the challenges identified by our pilot study (including low health literacy rates, and suggests strategies to overcome this trend.

  12. On a question of Gross

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Abhijit

    2007-03-01

    Using the notion of weighted sharing of sets we prove two uniqueness theorems which improve the results proved by Fang and Qiu [H. Qiu, M. Fang, A unicity theorem for meromorphic functions, Bull. Malaysian Math. Sci. Soc. 25 (2002) 31-38], Lahiri and Banerjee [I. Lahiri, A. Banerjee, Uniqueness of meromorphic functions with deficient poles, Kyungpook Math. J. 44 (2004) 575-584] and Yi and Lin [H.X. Yi, W.C. Lin, Uniqueness theorems concerning a question of Gross, Proc. Japan Acad. Ser. A 80 (2004) 136-140] and thus provide an answer to the question of Gross [F. Gross, Factorization of meromorphic functions and some open problems, in: Proc. Conf. Univ. Kentucky, Lexington, KY, 1976, in: Lecture Notes in Math., vol. 599, Springer, Berlin, 1977, pp. 51-69], under a weaker hypothesis.

  13. The most-favoured-nation clause in tax treaties: tool for potential reduction of withholding income tax applicable to Chile and Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renée Antonieta Villagra Cayamana

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Tax treaties to avoid the double taxation signed by a country have consequences for the future, but they can also modify the terms of treaties that are already in force, in case these contain most-favoured-nation clauses. In this line, taxpayers and companies, particularly, as well as the Tax Administration must be alert, regarding topotential modifications of the terms of the Peruvian tax treaties already in force; mainly about the withholding tax rate applied to royalties in the Convention subscribed with Chile and the withholding tax rates applied to dividends, interests and royalties in the Convention subscribed with Canada, taking into account that both of the mentioned tax treaties contain most-favoured-nation clauses for those kind of income. The Ministry of Economy, as the entity in charge of negotiations of the bilateral conventions, according to Law Decree 25883, has the responsibility of negotiating future treaties with full knowledge that the terms to be included could also cause the effect to decrease the withholding tax rates of the income tax in respect to conventions already in effect, as a consequence of the most-favoured-nation clause they contain.

  14. Recent internal migration and labour market outcomes: Exploring the 2008 and 2010 national income dynamics study (NIDS panel data in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nhlanhla Cyril Mbatha

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We began with the premise that South African recent migrants from rural to urban areas experience relatively lower rates of participation in formal labour markets compared to local residents in urban communities, and that these migrants are overrepresented in the informal labour market and in the unemployment sector. This means that rural to urban migrants are less likely than locals to be found in formal employment and more likely to be found in informal employment and among the unemployed. Using perspectives from Development Economics we explore the South African National Income Dynamics Study (NIDS panel datasets of 2008 and 2010, which only provide a perspective on what has happened between 2008 and 2010. We find that while migrants in general experience positive outcomes in informal labour markets, they also experience positive outcomes in formal markets, which is contrary to expectations. We also find that there are strong links between other indicators of performance in the labour market. Earned incomes are closely associated with migration decisions and educational qualifications (e.g. a matric certificate for respondents between the ages of 30 and 60 years. The youth (15 to 30 years old and senior respondents (over the age of 60 are the most disadvantaged in the labour market. The disadvantage is further reflected in lower earned incomes. This is the case even though the youth are most likely to migrate. We conclude that migration is motivated by both push (to seek employment and pull (existing networks or marriage at destination factors. For public policy, the emerging patterns – indicative and established – are important for informing strategies aimed at creating employment and developing skills for the unemployed, migrants and especially the youth. Similar policy strategies are embodied in the National Development Plan (NDP, the National Skills Development Strategy (NSDS, etc.

  15. Essential medicines for cancer: WHO recommendations and national priorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Jane; Barr, Ronald; Shulman, Lawrence N; Forte, Gilles B

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To examine, for essential anti-cancer medicines, the alignment of national lists of essential medicines and national reimbursable medicines lists with the World Health Organization’s (WHO’s) Model Lists. Methods National medicine lists for 135 countries with per-capita gross national incomes below 25 000 United States dollars in 2015 were compared with WHO’s 2013 and 2015 Model Lists of Essential Medicines. Correlations between numbers of anti-cancer medicines included in national lists and gross national income (GNI), government health expenditure and number of physicians per 1000 population were evaluated. Findings Of the 25 anti-cancer medicines on the 2013 Model List and the 16 added via the 2015 revision of the Model List, 0–25 (median: 17) and 0–15 (median: 3) appeared in national lists, respectively. There was considerable variability in these numbers within and between World Bank income groups. Of the 16 new medicines included in the 2015 Model List, for example, 0–10 (median: 1) and 2–15 (median: 10) were included in the national lists of low-income and high-income countries, respectively. The numbers of these new medicines included in national lists were significantly correlated (P ≤ 0.0001) with per-capita GNI (r = 0.45), per-capita annual government health expenditure (r = 0.33) and number of physicians per 1000 population (r = 0.48). Twenty-one countries (16%) included the targeted anti-cancer medicines imatinib, rituximab and trastuzumab in their national lists. Conclusion Substantial numbers of anti-cancer medicines are included in national lists of low- and middle-income countries but the availability, affordability, accessibility and administration feasibility of these medicines, at country-level, need assessment. PMID:27843163

  16. Breast Cancer Screening Programmes across the WHO European Region: Differences among Countries Based on National Income Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Altobelli

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer (BC is the most frequent tumour affecting women all over the world. In low- and middle-income countries, where its incidence is expected to rise further, BC seems set to become a public health emergency. The aim of the present study is to provide a systematic review of current BC screening programmes in WHO European Region to identify possible patterns. Multiple correspondence analysis was performed to evaluate the association among: measures of occurrence; GNI level; type of BC screening programme; organization of public information and awareness campaigns regarding primary prevention of modifiable risk factors; type of BC screening services; year of screening institution; screening coverage and data quality. A key difference between High Income (HI and Low and Middle Income (LMI States, emerging from the present data, is that in the former screening programmes are well organized, with approved screening centres, the presence of mobile units to increase coverage, the offer of screening tests free of charge; the fairly high quality of occurrence data based on high-quality sources, and the adoption of accurate methods to estimate incidence and mortality. In conclusion, the governments of LMI countries should allocate sufficient resources to increase screening participation and they should improve the accuracy of incidence and mortality rates.

  17. Income inequality and subjective well-being: : A cross-national study on the conditional effects of individual and national characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rözer, J.J.; Kraaykamp, G.

    2013-01-01

    In this study we raise the question how a nation’s income inequality affects subjective well-being. Using information on 195,091 individuals from 85 different countries from the World Value Surveys and the European Value Surveys, we established that in general, people living in more unequal countrie

  18. On Completing the Redistribution System of National Income%完善我国国民收入再分配制度的思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚庆秀

    2012-01-01

      At present, the income distribution gap is obvious in China, and the redistribution system of national income aim-ing at social equality is not perfect. In the paper, the author discusses the necessity and the significance as well as the thought to complete the redistribution system. And then, ways are put forward based on the following principles:the equal stress on efficiency and fairness, the equality of opportunity and social assistance, the justice upholding, the balance of the increasing income redistribution budget with the economic development and the responsibility between the government and individuals and the stress on the effect of basic economic system on income redistribution.%  目前我国收入分配差距较大,以社会公平为目标的国民收入再分配制度尚不完善。从完善我国国民收入再分配制度的必要性、意义及思路进行论述,提出效率与公平并重原则、把握好机会平等与社会救助原则、坚持正义原则、收入再分配支出随经济发展不断增长和政府与私人责任均衡原则、重视基本经济制度对收入再分配的影响等完善再分配的思路。

  19. Income inequality in Romania: The exponential-Pareto distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oancea, Bogdan; Andrei, Tudorel; Pirjol, Dan

    2017-03-01

    We present a study of the distribution of the gross personal income and income inequality in Romania, using individual tax income data, and both non-parametric and parametric methods. Comparing with official results based on household budget surveys (the Family Budgets Survey and the EU-SILC data), we find that the latter underestimate the income share of the high income region, and the overall income inequality. A parametric study shows that the income distribution is well described by an exponential distribution in the low and middle incomes region, and by a Pareto distribution in the high income region with Pareto coefficient α = 2.53. We note an anomaly in the distribution in the low incomes region (∼9,250 RON), and present a model which explains it in terms of partial income reporting.

  20. Policy and priorities for national cancer control planning in low- and middle-income countries: Lessons from the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Costs in Oncology prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Evidence to guide policymakers in developing affordable and equitable cancer control plans are scarce in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). The 2012-2014 ASEAN Costs in Oncology Study prospectively followed-up 9513 newly diagnosed cancer patients from eight LMIC in Southeast Asia for 12 months. Overall and country-specific incidence of financial catastrophe (out-of-pocket health costs ≥ 30% of annual household income), economic hardship (inability to make necessary household payments), poverty (living below national poverty line), and all-cause mortality were determined. Stepwise multinomial regression was used to estimate the extent to which health insurance, cancer stage and treatment explained these outcomes. The one-year incidence of mortality (12% in Malaysia to 45% in Myanmar) and financial catastrophe (24% in Thailand to 68% in Vietnam) were high. Economic hardship was reported by a third of families, including inability to pay for medicines (45%), mortgages (18%) and utilities (12%), with 28% taking personal loans, and 20% selling assets (not mutually exclusive). Out of households that initially reported incomes above the national poverty levels, 4·9% were pushed into poverty at one year. The adverse economic outcomes in this study were mainly attributed to medical costs for inpatient/outpatient care, and purchase of drugs and medical supplies. In all the countries, cancer stage largely explained the risk of adverse outcomes. Stage-stratified analysis however showed that low-income patients remained vulnerable to adverse outcomes even when diagnosed with earlier cancer stages. The LMIC need to realign their focus on early detection of cancer and provision of affordable cancer care, while ensuring adequate financial risk protection, particularly for the poor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. NM Gross Receipts July - December 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  2. NM Gross Receipts January - June 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  3. NM Gross Receipts January - June 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  4. NM Gross Receipts January - June 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  5. NM Gross Receipts January - June 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  6. NM Gross Receipts July - December 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  7. Income diversification and risk for fishermen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasperski, Stephen; Holland, Daniel S

    2013-02-05

    Catches and prices from many fisheries exhibit high interannual variability, leading to variability in the income derived by fishery participants. The economic risk posed by this may be mitigated in some cases if individuals participate in several different fisheries, particularly if revenues from those fisheries are uncorrelated or vary asynchronously. We construct indices of gross income diversification from fisheries at the level of individual vessels and find that the income of the current fleet of vessels on the US West Coast and in Alaska is less diverse than at any point in the past 30 y. We also find a dome-shaped relationship between the variability of individuals' income and income diversification, which implies that a small amount of diversification does not reduce income risk but that higher levels of diversification can substantially reduce the variability of income from fishing. Moving from a single fishery strategy to a 50-25-25 split in revenues reduces the expected coefficient of variation of gross revenues between 24% and 65% for the vessels included in this study. The increasing access restrictions in many marine fisheries through license reductions and moratoriums have the potential to limit fishermen's ability to diversify their income risk across multiple fisheries. Catch share programs often result in consolidation initially and may reduce diversification. However, catch share programs also make it feasible for fishermen to build a portfolio of harvest privileges and potentially reduce their income risk. Therefore, catch share programs create both threats and opportunities for fishermen wishing to maintain diversified fishing strategies.

  8. Produção e renda bruta da cultura do taro, em cultivo solteiro e consorciado com as culturas da salsa e do coentro = Yield and gross income of taro culture in monocrop system and intercropped with parsley and coriander cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lovaine Fiel de Quevedo

    2007-01-01

    and TC systems, respectively, could induced gains per hectare of R$ 17,994.75 or of R$ 7,153.50. Intercrop was also positive for coriander producer with increase of R$ 16,101.85 ha-1. But, for parsley producer, the best option was monocrop system, with gross income of R$ 38,681.65 ha-1.

  9. Early adolescent childbearing in low- and middle-income countries: associations with income inequity, human development and gender equality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Michele R; Kalamar, Amanda; Tunçalp, Özge; Hindin, Michelle J

    2017-03-01

    Reducing unwanted adolescent childbearing is a global priority. Little is known about how national-level economic and human development indicators relate to early adolescent childbearing. This ecological study evaluates associations of Gross Domestic Product (GDP), GINI index, Human Development Index (HDI) and Gender-related Development Index (GDI; i.e. the HDI adjusted for gender disparities) with early adolescent childbearing in 27 low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) across three time periods. Among women ages 18–24, prevalence estimates for early birth (human development adjusted for gender disparities in educational and economic prospects, was more consistently related to early adolescent childbearing than the absolute development prospects as given by the HDI. While creating gender equality is an important goal in and of itself, the findings emphasize the potential for improved national-level gender equitable development as a means to improve adolescents’ sexual and reproductive health.

  10. Gross anatomy of network security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Thomas J.

    2002-01-01

    Information security involves many branches of effort, including information assurance, host level security, physical security, and network security. Computer network security methods and implementations are given a top-down description to permit a medically focused audience to anchor this information to their daily practice. The depth of detail of network functionality and security measures, like that of the study of human anatomy, can be highly involved. Presented at the level of major gross anatomical systems, this paper will focus on network backbone implementation and perimeter defenses, then diagnostic tools, and finally the user practices (the human element). Physical security measures, though significant, have been defined as beyond the scope of this presentation.

  11. The end of decent social protection for the poor? The dynamics of low wages, minimum income packages and median household incomes

    OpenAIRE

    Bea Cantillon; Diego Collado; Natascha Van Mechelen

    2015-01-01

    Why is it that, in almost three decades and despite growth of income, employment and high levels of social spending, even the most developed welfare states in the world failed to improve minimum income protection for families with children? To what extent the erosion of minimum income protection for the working age population compared to median household incomes has been occasioned by exogenous changes either in median household incomes or in gross low wages? Or, has the erosion been associat...

  12. Fairness of Financial Contribution in Iranian Health System: Trend Analysis of National Household Income and Expenditure, 2003-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazaeli, Amir Abbas; Seyedin, Hesam; Vosoogh Moghaddam, Abbas; Delavari, Alireza; Salimzadeh, H; Varmazyar, Hasan; Fazaeli, Ali Akbar

    2015-03-18

    Social systems are dealing with the challenge of achieving fairness in the distribution of financial burden and protecting the risk of financial loss. The purpose of this paper is to present a trend analysis for the indicators related to fairness in healthcare's financial burden in rural and urban population of Iran during the eight years period of 2003 to 2010. We used the information gathered by statistical center of Iran through sampling processes for the household income and expenditures. The indicators of fairness in financial contribution of healthcare were calculated based on the WHO recommended methodology. The indices trend analysis of eight-year period for the rural, urban areas and the country level were computed. This study shows that in Iran the fairness of financial contribution index during the eight-year period has been decreased from 0.841 in 2003 to above 0.827 in 2010 and The percentage of people with catastrophic health expenditures has been increased from 2.3% to above 3.1%. The ratio of total treatment costs to the household overall capacity to pay has been increased from 0.055 to 0.068 and from 0.072 to 0.0818 in urban and rural areas respectively. There is a decline in fairness of financial contribution index during the study period. While, a trend stability of the proportion of households who suffered catastrophic health expenditures was found.

  13. Xpert® MTB/RIF for national tuberculosis programmes in low-income countries: when, where and how?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trébucq, A; Enarson, D A; Chiang, C Y; Van Deun, A; Harries, A D; Boillot, F; Detjen, A; Fujiwara, P I; Graham, S M; Monedero, I; Rusen, I D; Rieder, H L

    2011-12-01

    Xpert ® MTB/RIF offers new and important possibilities for the diagnosis of sputum smear-negative tuberculosis (TB) and/or rifampicin (RMP) resistance, and many are encouraging rapid and widespread implementation. This simple test can be implemented almost everywhere, and it provides results within a few hours. In low-income countries (LICs), however, its cost, environmental limitations (stable and regular electricity, adequate room temperature) and difficulties involved in supply and maintenance are major obstacles. While it may be suitable for major reference hospitals, operational research is needed to evaluate the test and its additional yield above high-quality smear microscopy and clinical algorithms before its use at the peripheral level. In the meantime, direct microscopy should remain the initial diagnostic test for TB suspects. In most LICs, the prevalence of RMP resistance among new TB patients is very low; an Xpert MTB/RIF result indicating RMP resistance will thus always need confirmation by another test. In a population at high risk of RMP resistance (> 15%), however, the positive predictive value for RMP resistance by Xpert MTB/RIF is high, and identification of RMP resistance is an excellent proxy for multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB). The assay should be widely used for this purpose if, and only if, excellent MDR-TB management is available, both for ethical reasons and to reduce the risk of extensively drug-resistant TB.

  14. The Accounting on"Moral GDP"and National Income%“道德 GDP”与国民收入核算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康江峰

    2014-01-01

    国民收入核算已经历了由“黑色 GDP”向“绿色 GDP”的演变。随着工业化程度的提升和经济形态的转换,国民收入核算还必将再次经历由“绿色 GDP”向“道德 GDP”的演变过程。“道德GDP”是指在考虑“道德成本”或经济增长不以破坏社会道德为代价的条件下所实现的 GDP。国家应该建立以“道德 GDP”为核心的指标体系来进行国民收入核算,打击非道德产业,实施道德差别税率和道德差别利率,以规范企业和地方政府的行为。%National income accounting has gone through the progression from "black GDP" to "green GDP".With the development of industrialization process and the economic form's transforming, it is necessary for it to transfer from"green GDP"to"moral GDP",which focuses on"moral cost",in other words,the increase of economy is definitely not at the cost of doing damage to social morality. The country should set up the target system of "moral GDP" to count the national income,mean-while,fighting against unmoral industries,carrying out different tax rate and interest rate on the ba-sis of moral practice,which serves to set the standard for enterprise business and local government's behaviors.

  15. TOWARDS NATURAL RESOURCE ACCOUNTING IN TANZANIA: A STUDY ON THE CONTRIBUTION OF NATUAL FORESTS TO NATIONAL INCOME

    OpenAIRE

    Mkanta, William N.; Chimtembo, Mathew M.B.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was twofold: valuation of non-marketed forest resources and proposing means for generation of modified national accounts that would cover the full value of forest resource production (and consumption). Land cover for the study area was studied for three points in time from 1975 to 1997.

  16. 26 CFR 1.879-1 - Treatment of community income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... section 6013 (g) or (h) is in effect. Community income for this purpose includes all gross income, whether... a distribution of the earnings and profits of the corporation rather than a reasonable allowance as... wife exercises substantially all of the management and control of the trade or business, all of...

  17. 34 CFR 682.215 - Income-based repayment plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Income-based repayment plan. (a) Definitions. As used in this section— (1) Adjusted gross income (AGI... poverty guideline for the borrower's family size; or (ii) For a married borrower who files a joint Federal... of the difference between the borrower's and spouse's AGI, and 150 percent of the poverty guideline...

  18. 34 CFR 685.221 - Income-based repayment plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Income-based repayment plan. (a) Definitions. As used in this section— (1) Adjusted gross income (AGI... poverty guideline for the borrower's family size; or (ii) For a married borrower who files a joint Federal... of the difference between the borrower's and spouse's AGI, and 150 percent of the poverty guideline...

  19. 不征税收入和免税收入若干问题辨析%Differentiating and Analyzing Some Problems of Tax-free Income and Tax-exempt Income

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈玉琢; 叶美萍

    2012-01-01

    企业所得税的收入总额按是否属于企业所得税征税范围应分为征税收入和不征税收入,对征税收入按是否享受企业所得税税收优惠再分为免税收入和应税收入。为取得不征税收入和免税收入发生的相关支出都应允许在税前扣除。符合条件的软件企业即征即退的增值税款作为不征税收入处理,会虚增企业的应纳税所得额,作为免税收入处理,才符合鼓励软件产业发展的国家产业政策。至于软件企业将即征即退的增值税款用于研究开发,对研究开发费用的加计扣除产生的影响,应通过规范实行加计扣除的研究开发费用的计算基数解决。%The gross income of enterprise income tax is divided into tax income and non-taxable income according to the tax levy scope of enterprise income tax. Then tax income is divided into tax-exempt income and taxable income according to preferential tax of enterprise income. All the expenditure should be allowed to deduct before taxation in order to obtain non-taxable income and tax-exempt income. The value-added tax income, which is levied and returned immediately, of qualified software enterprises, is considered as non-taxable income. This will result in the increase of enterprise tax income. Therefore, this value-added tax income should belong to tax- exempt income, which is consistent with the national industrial policy that encourages the development of soft- ware industry. If this income is used in research and development of software, it will have an impact on the addition and deduction of research and development expenses. In order to solve this problem, it is necessary to apply the calculation base into the implementation of addition and deduction of research and development expenses.

  20. Determinants of Soviet Household Income

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    by Kenneth Smith

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available World Values Survey data are used to examine household income in the Soviet Union. The data, gathered Summer/Fall 1990, provide a rare opportunity to empirically examine microeconomic factors influencing a Soviet household’s position in the regional/national income distribution. The survey contains data - collected regionally - from the three Baltic republics, Belarus, and the Moscow region. The data indicate certain patterns that existed and determined Soviet household income though there are often considerable regional variations. Further, there are marked differences between income distribution determinants in the Soviet Union and the U.S. and West Germany though similarities exist as well

  1. Early Childhood Developmental Status in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: National, Regional, and Global Prevalence Estimates Using Predictive Modeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Charles McCoy

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of cognitive and socioemotional skills early in life influences later health and well-being. Existing estimates of unmet developmental potential in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs are based on either measures of physical growth or proxy measures such as poverty. In this paper we aim to directly estimate the number of children in LMICs who would be reported by their caregivers to show low cognitive and/or socioemotional development.The present paper uses Early Childhood Development Index (ECDI data collected between 2005 and 2015 from 99,222 3- and 4-y-old children living in 35 LMICs as part of the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS and Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS programs. First, we estimate the prevalence of low cognitive and/or socioemotional ECDI scores within our MICS/DHS sample. Next, we test a series of ordinary least squares regression models predicting low ECDI scores across our MICS/DHS sample countries based on country-level data from the Human Development Index (HDI and the Nutrition Impact Model Study. We use cross-validation to select the model with the best predictive validity. We then apply this model to all LMICs to generate country-level estimates of the prevalence of low ECDI scores globally, as well as confidence intervals around these estimates. In the pooled MICS and DHS sample, 14.6% of children had low ECDI scores in the cognitive domain, 26.2% had low socioemotional scores, and 36.8% performed poorly in either or both domains. Country-level prevalence of low cognitive and/or socioemotional scores on the ECDI was best represented by a model using the HDI as a predictor. Applying this model to all LMICs, we estimate that 80.8 million children ages 3 and 4 y (95% CI 48.1 million, 113.6 million in LMICs experienced low cognitive and/or socioemotional development in 2010, with the largest number of affected children in sub-Saharan Africa (29.4.1 million; 43.8% of children ages 3 and 4 y

  2. Applications of statistical physics distributions to several types of income

    CERN Document Server

    Oltean, Elvis

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores several types of income which have not been explored so far by authors who tackled income and wealth distribution using Statistical Physics. The main types of income we plan to analyze are income before redistribution (or gross income), income of retired people (or pensions), and income of active people (mostly wages). The distributions used to analyze income distributions are Fermi-Dirac distribution and polynomial distribution (as this is present in describing the behavior of dynamic systems in certain aspects). The data we utilize for our analysis are from France and the UK. We find that both distributions are robust in describing these varieties of income. The main finding we consider to be the applicability of these distributions to pensions, which are not regulated entirely by market mechanisms.

  3. EFEITOS DA CAMA-DE-FRANGOS E DA ÉPOCA DE PRODUÇÃO E A RENDA BRUTA DA CEBOLINHA “TODO ANO” EFFECTS OF CHICKEN MANURE AND HARVESTING DATE ON "TODO ANO" GREEN ONION YIELD AND GROSS INCOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Carmo Vieira

    2007-09-01

    ômico.

    The study was carried out with ";Todo Ano"; green onions in Dourados-MS, between March 13 and June 16, 2000, in a soil classified as dystrorthox with a clayey texture. Semi-decomposed chicken manure, incorporated (0,7 and 14 t.ha-1 or as soil cover (0,7 and 14 t.ha-1, with harvests at 60 and 95 days after planting, was studied in a 3 x 3 x 2 factorial arrangement in a complete randomized block design with four replications. Statistical analysis was done with triple interaction confounding. Plant height, stem diameter at the soil surface, numbers of leaves and stems and fresh and dried mass of green onion without roots were measured for each period of harvest. Those onions picked at 60 days after planting were smaller in those picked at 95 days. The significant effect of interaction harvest day x semidecomposed chicken manure incorporated for fresh mass was detected on plants picked at 95 days after planting, in which the use of 14 t.ha-1 induced increases of 33.9% and 85.3%, respectively, in relation to those in which was used 7 t.ha-1 and 0 t.ha-1. There were significant increases of 21.4% and 79.8% of fresh mass and 18.2% and 54.8% of dried mass of plants cultivated in soil with 14 t.ha-1 of semi-decomposed chicken manure as soil cover, respectively, in relation to those cultivated with 7 t.ha-1 and 0 t.ha-1. Total gross income with harvest at 95 days after planting was the best, mainly when bunching onion was cultivated in soil with 14 t.ha-1 of semi-decomposed chicken manure incorporated (R$ 44,418.25.

    KEY-WORDS: Allium fistulosum; organic residue; harvest period; prod

  4. 国民收入分配对投资消费失衡的影响分析%Analysis of the Effect of National Income Distribution on Investment and Consumption Disequilibrium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐敏

    2012-01-01

    Disequilibrium of investment and consumption has seriously restricted the sustainable and healthy development of national economy. The unrational national income distribution in the corporate sector, government sector, the household sector is the prime cause of investment and consumption disequilibrium in China. Mathematical analysis and empirical analysis of the distribution of national income on investment and consumption imbalanee shows that, the business sector' s proportion in national income allocation is the most influential factor for investment ratio and consumption ratio. Followed by government departments' s share in the distribution of national income , and the proportion of households in the national income is the minimum effect on consumption and investment ratio.%投资消费失衡严重制约了我国国民经济持续健康发展,国民收入在企业部门、政府部门、住户部门之间的不合理分配是导致我国投资消费失衡的根本原因。国民收入分配对投资消费失衡影响的数理分析和实证分析表明,对投资率、消费率最有影响的是企业部门在国民收入分配中的比重,其次是政府部门在国民收入分配中的比重,影响最小的是住户部门在国民收入分配中的比重。

  5. How to Reduce the Incomes of the Two Labour Elites?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Tinbergen (Jan)

    1977-01-01

    textabstractIn Western countries the share of incomes form assets in national income has fallen considerably during the last century. Inequality in labour incomes is much more important. Two types of labour show relatively high incomes: the professions and managers. incomes of the former show along-

  6. Evaluation of gross radioactivity in foodstuffs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zorer, Oezlem Selcuk; Oeter, Cigdem [Yuzuncu Yil Univ., Van (Turkey). Dept. of Chemistry

    2015-05-15

    The paper presents the results of radiological investigations of food products sampled in the summer and fall of 2011 and 2012 in different parts of Van, Turkey. Gross radioactivity measurements in food products were evaluated. Food items were divided into eight groups: (1) water, (2) fish, (3) cheese products, (4) fruits, (5) vegetables, (6) herbs, (7) walnut and (8) rock salt. The levels of the gross alpha and gross beta radioactivity in all food samples varied widely ranging from 0.070 to 10.885 Bq/g and from 0.132 to 48.285 Bq/g on dry mass basis, respectively. In one sample, gross alpha and gross beta activity concentrations were found to be relatively high according to the other samples and in all samples, the gross alpha radioactivity was measured lower than the gross beta radioactivity. The gross α and gross β activities were measured by using α/β counter of the multi-detector low background system (PIC MPC-9604).

  7. Global income related health inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalil Safaei

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Income related health inequalities have been estimated for various groups of individuals at local, state, or national levels. Almost all of theses estimates are based on individual data from sample surveys. Lack of consistent individual data worldwide has prevented estimates of international income related health inequalities. This paper uses the (population weighted aggregate data available from many countries around the world to estimate worldwide income related health inequalities. Since the intra-country inequalities are subdued by the aggregate nature of the data, the estimates would be those of the inter-country or international health inequalities. As well, the study estimates the contribution of major socioeconomic variables to the overall health inequalities. The findings of the study strongly support the existence of worldwide income related health inequalities that favor the higher income countries. Decompositions of health inequalities identify inequalities in both the level and distribution of income as the main source of health inequality along with inequalities in education and degree of urbanization as other contributing determinants. Since income related health inequalities are preventable, policies to reduce the income gaps between the poor and rich nations could greatly improve the health of hundreds of millions of people and promote global justice. Keywords: global, income, health inequality, socioeconomic determinants of health

  8. High-income does not protect against hurricane losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, Tobias; Frieler, Katja; Levermann, Anders

    2016-08-01

    Damage due to tropical cyclones accounts for more than 50% of all meteorologically-induced economic losses worldwide. Their nominal impact is projected to increase substantially as the exposed population grows, per capita income increases, and anthropogenic climate change manifests. So far, historical losses due to tropical cyclones have been found to increase less than linearly with a nation’s affected gross domestic product (GDP). Here we show that for the United States this scaling is caused by a sub-linear increase with affected population while relative losses scale super-linearly with per capita income. The finding is robust across a multitude of empirically derived damage models that link the storm’s wind speed, exposed population, and per capita GDP to reported losses. The separation of both socio-economic predictors strongly affects the projection of potential future hurricane losses. Separating the effects of growth in population and per-capita income, per hurricane losses with respect to national GDP are projected to triple by the end of the century under unmitigated climate change, while they are estimated to decrease slightly without the separation.

  9. Samuel D. Gross: the nestor of American surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo-Pereyra, Luis H

    2006-01-01

    Samuel David Gross (1805-1884) represented the most notable surgeon of his generation and was honored with the title of "The Nestor of American Surgeon" by surgeon biographer Isaac Minis Hays. Of Pennsylvania Dutch stock, he was born on the family farm near Easton, Pennsylvania. He attended Wilkebarré Academy and Lawrenceville High School, noted private institutions of the day. He apprenticed under Doctor Joseph K. Swift of Easton and later with Professor George McClellan while in Philadelphia. In 1828, he graduated from Jefferson Medical College and remained for a short time in Philadelphia. Professor Gross focused his professional pursuits in the cities of Easton (1830-1833), Cincinnati (1833-1840), Louisville (1840-1856), and Philadelphia (1856-1882). He retired from Jefferson Medical College two years before his death in 1884. Samuel D. Gross' contributions to surgery were numerous and diverse. He was recognized as a prolific author of classic texts of pathology, surgery, and history, an educator, a leader, a surgical researcher, and a pioneer surgeon practitioner. His influence in national affairs was immense, and his recognition as a respected surgeon was unmatched. He remains the most distinguished surgeon of his times. History values him as a hard working, honest, highly competent, and committed individual. His capacity for work and his dedication to a single cause were unrivaled. Doctor Gross integrated the best that surgery could give to future generations of surgical professionals.

  10. The Mechanics of Gross Moist Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeljka Fuchs

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The gross moist stability relates the net lateral outflow of moist entropy or moist static energy from an atmospheric convective region to some measure of the strength of the convection in that region. If the gross moist stability can be predicted as a function of the local environmental conditions, then it becomes the key element in understanding how convection is controlled by the large-scale flow. This paper provides a guide to the various ways in which the gross moist stability is defined and the subtleties of its calculation from observations and models. Various theories for the determination of the gross moist stability are presented and its roles in current conceptual models for the tropical atmospheric circulation are analyzed. The possible effect of negative gross moist stability on the development and dynamics of tropical disturbances is currently of great interest.

  11. The Evolution of Income Concentration in Japan, 1886-2002: Evidence from Income Tax Statistics

    OpenAIRE

    Chiaki Moriguchi; Emmanuel Saez

    2006-01-01

    This paper studies the evolution of income concentration in Japan from 1886 to 2002 by constructing long-run series of top income shares and top wage income shares, using income tax statistics. We find that (1) income concentration was extremely high throughout the pre-WWII period during which the nation underwent rapid industrialization; (2) a drastic de-concentration of income at the top took place in 1938-1945; (3) income concentration has remained low throughout the post-WWII period despi...

  12. Agriculture for development in Iraq?: Estimating the impacts of achieving the agricultural targets of the national development plan 2013–2017 on economic growth, incomes, and gender equality:

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Haboby, Azhr; Breisinger, Clemens; Debowicz, Darío; El-Hakim, Abdul Hussein; Ferguson, Jenna; van Rheenen, Teunis; Telleria, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    This paper estimates the potential effects of achieving the agricultural goals set out in Iraq’s National Development Plan (NDP) 2013–2017 using a dynamic computable general equilibrium model. The findings suggest that raising agricultural productivity in accordance with the NDP may more than double average agricultural growth rates and add an average of 0.7 percent each year to economywide gross domestic product during the duration of the plan. As a consequence, the economy not only dive...

  13. Short-term and long-term effects of childhood cancer on income from employment and employment status: A national cohort study in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl Norberg, Annika; Montgomery, Scott M; Bottai, Matteo; Heyman, Mats; Hovén, Emma I

    2017-04-01

    There is insufficient knowledge regarding the economic impact of childhood cancer on parents. The objectives of the current study were to investigate the short-term and long-term effects of childhood cancer on mothers' and fathers' income from employment and employment status. The study sample consisted of the parents of children diagnosed with cancer from 2004 to 2009 in Sweden (3626 parents of 1899 children). Annual register data concerning income from employment and employment status (employed/not employed) were retrieved from the Longitudinal Integration Database for Health Insurance and Labor Market Studies. Using generalized linear models, the mean income from employment and employment status were compared with a matched control cohort of 34,874 parents sampled from the general population. Parents' income was found to decrease significantly after the child's cancer diagnosis. The effect was most pronounced for mothers, whose income was reduced for 6 years after diagnosis, whereas fathers' income was similar to that of control fathers 3 years after the diagnosis. Mothers were more likely to stop working after a child's cancer diagnosis compared with controls. No association was found for fathers' employment status. Younger age of parents; lower level of education; and, among mothers, being born outside of Sweden were found to be associated with more adverse effects on income. Parents' income from employment and employment status appear to be adversely affected by having a child with cancer. Socioeconomic consequences are not distributed equally: the income of fathers appears to catch up after a few years, whereas mothers tend to be disadvantaged in their professional life for several years after a child's cancer diagnosis. Cancer 2017;123:1238-1248. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  14. The geographic and demographic scope of shared sanitation: an analysis of national survey data from low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heijnen, Marieke; Rosa, Ghislaine; Fuller, James; Eisenberg, Joseph N S; Clasen, Thomas

    2014-11-01

    A large and growing proportion of the world's population rely on shared sanitation facilities that have historically been excluded from international targets due to concerns about acceptability, hygiene and access. In connection with a proposed change in such policy, we undertook this study to describe the prevalence and scope of households that report relying on shared sanitation and to characterise them in terms of selected socio-economic and demographic covariates. We extracted data from the most recent national household surveys of 84 low- and middle-income countries from Demographic and Health Surveys and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys. We describe the prevalence of shared sanitation and explore associations between specified covariates and reliance on shared sanitation using log-binomial regression. While household reliance on any type of shared sanitation is relatively rare in Europe (2.5%) and the Eastern Mediterranean (7.7%), it is not uncommon in the Americas (14.2%), Western Pacific (16.4%) and South-East Asia (31.3%), and it is most prevalent in Africa (44.6%) where many shared facilities do not meet the definition of 'improved' even if they were not shared (17.7%). Overall, shared sanitation is more common in urban (28.6%) than in rural settings (25.9%), even after adjusting for wealth. While results vary geographically, people who rely on shared sanitation tend to be poorer, reside in urban areas and live in households with more young children and headed by people with no formal education. Data from 21 countries suggest that most sharing is with neighbours and other acquaintances (82.0%) rather than the public. The determinants of shared sanitation identified from these data suggest potential confounders that may explain the apparent increased health risk from sharing and should be considered in any policy recommendation. Both geographic and demographic heterogeneity indicate the need for further research to support a change in policies. © 2014

  15. Is trade liberalisation a vector for the spread of sugar-sweetened beverages? A cross-national longitudinal analysis of 44 low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez Lopez, Ana; Loopstra, Rachel; McKee, Martin; Stuckler, David

    2017-01-01

    Does trade and investment liberalisation increase the growth in sales of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs)? Here, for the first time to our knowledge, we test this hypothesis using a unique data source on SSB-specific trade flows. We test whether lower tariffs effectively increase imports of SSBs, and whether a higher level of imports increase sales of SSBs. Cross-national fixed effects models were used to evaluate the association between SSBs sales and trade liberalisation. SSBs per capita sales data were taken from EuroMonitor, covering 44 low- and middle-income countries from 2001 to 2014, SSBs import data were from TradeMap, Foreign Direct Investment data were from EuroMonitor, and data on applied tariffs on SSB from the World Trade Organisation tariffs database, all 2015 editions. The results show that higher tariffs on SSBs significantly decreased per capita SSB imports. Each one percent increase in tariffs was associated with a 2.9% (95% CI: 0.9%-5%) decrease in imports of SSBs. In turn, increased imports of SSBs were significantly associated with greater sales of SSBs per capita, with each 10 percent increase in imports (in US$) associated with a rise in sales of 0.36 L per person (95% CI: 0.08-0.68). Between 2001 and 2014, this amounted to 9.1 L greater sales per capita, about 40% of the overall rise seen in this period in LMICs. We observed that tariffs were inversely but not significantly associated with sales of SSBs. In conclusion, lower tariffs substantially increased imports of SSBs in LMICs, which translated into greater sales. These findings suggest that trade policies which lower tariff barriers to SSB imports can be expected to lead to increased imports and then increased sales of SSBs in LMICs, with adverse consequences for obesity and the diseases that result from it.

  16. A review of selected research priority setting processes at national level in low and middle income countries: towards fair and legitimate priority setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoosain Naeema

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is estimated that more than $130 billion is invested globally into health research each year. Increasingly, there is a need to set priorities in health research investments in a fair and legitimate way, using a sound and transparent methodology. In this paper we review selected priority setting processes at national level in low and middle income countries. We outline a set of criteria to assess the process of research priority setting and use these to describe and evaluate priority setting exercises that have taken place at country level. Based on these insights, recommendations are made regarding the constituents of a good priority setting process. Methods Data were gathered from presentations at a meeting held at the World Health Organization (WHO in 2008 and a web-based search. Based on this literature review a number of criteria were developed to evaluate the priority setting processes. Results Across the countries surveyed there was a relative lack of genuine stakeholder engagement; countries varied markedly in the extent to which the priority setting processes were documented; none of the countries surveyed had a systematic or operational appeals process for outlined priorities; and in all countries (except South Africa the priorities that were outlined described broad disease categories rather than specific research questions. Conclusions Country level priority setting processes differed significantly in terms of the methods used. We argue that priority setting processes must have in-built mechanisms for publicizing results, effective procedures to enforce decisions as well as processes to ensure that the revision of priorities happens in practice.

  17. The future of gross anatomy teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malamed, S; Seiden, D

    1995-01-01

    A survey of U.S. departments of anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry shows that 39% of the respondent anatomy departments reported declines in the numbers of graduate students taking the human gross anatomy course. Similarly, 42% of the departments reported decreases in the numbers of graduate students teaching human gross anatomy. These decreases were greater in anatomy than in physiology and in biochemistry. The percentages of departments reporting increases in students taking or teaching their courses was 6% for human gross anatomy and 0% to 19% for physiology and biochemistry courses. To reverse this trend the establishment of specific programs for the training of gross anatomy teachers is advocated. These new teachers will be available as the need for them is increasingly recognized in the future.

  18. FUZZY ECCENTRICITY AND GROSS ERROR IDENTIFICATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The dominant and recessive effect made by exceptional interferer is analyzed in measurement system based on responsive character, and the gross error model of fuzzy clustering based on fuzzy relation and fuzzy equipollence relation is built. The concept and calculate formula of fuzzy eccentricity are defined to deduce the evaluation rule and function of gross error, on the base of them, a fuzzy clustering method of separating and discriminating the gross error is found. Utilized in the dynamic circular division measurement system, the method can identify and eliminate gross error in measured data, and reduce measured data dispersity. Experimental results indicate that the use of the method and model enables repetitive precision of the system to improve 80% higher than the foregoing system, to reach 3.5 s, and angle measurement error is less than 7 s.

  19. Validating the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Downs, Jenny; Stahlhut, Michelle; Wong, Kingsley;

    2016-01-01

    Rett syndrome is a pervasive neurodevelopmental disorder associated with a pathogenic mutation on the MECP2 gene. Impaired movement is a fundamental component and the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale was developed to measure gross motor abilities in this population. The current study investigated...... the validity and reliability of the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale. Video data showing gross motor abilities supplemented with parent report data was collected for 255 girls and women registered with the Australian Rett Syndrome Database, and the factor structure and relationships between motor scores, age...... and genotype were investigated. Clinical assessment scores for 38 girls and women with Rett syndrome who attended the Danish Center for Rett Syndrome were used to assess consistency of measurement. Principal components analysis enabled the calculation of three factor scores: Sitting, Standing and Walking...

  20. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia presenting with gross hematuria

    OpenAIRE

    Kalbani, Naifain Al; Weitzman, Sheila; Abdelhaleem, Mohamed; Carcao, Manuel; Abla, Oussama

    2007-01-01

    A case of a six-year-old boy presenting with gross hematuria is reported. Investigations revealed the etiology of the hematuria to be thrombocytopenia in the setting of newly diagnosed acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The diagnosis of leukemia was confirmed by bone marrow examination. The patient’s hematuria completely resolved with platelet transfusions. Although thrombocytopenia is a very common presenting feature of acute lymphoblastic leukemia, gross hematuria is exceedingly rare. Thus, thro...

  1. Validating the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Jenny; Stahlhut, Michelle; Wong, Kingsley; Syhler, Birgit; Bisgaard, Anne-Marie; Jacoby, Peter; Leonard, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Rett syndrome is a pervasive neurodevelopmental disorder associated with a pathogenic mutation on the MECP2 gene. Impaired movement is a fundamental component and the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale was developed to measure gross motor abilities in this population. The current study investigated the validity and reliability of the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale. Video data showing gross motor abilities supplemented with parent report data was collected for 255 girls and women registered with the Australian Rett Syndrome Database, and the factor structure and relationships between motor scores, age and genotype were investigated. Clinical assessment scores for 38 girls and women with Rett syndrome who attended the Danish Center for Rett Syndrome were used to assess consistency of measurement. Principal components analysis enabled the calculation of three factor scores: Sitting, Standing and Walking, and Challenge. Motor scores were poorer with increasing age and those with the p.Arg133Cys, p.Arg294* or p.Arg306Cys mutation achieved higher scores than those with a large deletion. The repeatability of clinical assessment was excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient for total score 0.99, 95% CI 0.93-0.98). The standard error of measurement for the total score was 2 points and we would be 95% confident that a change 4 points in the 45-point scale would be greater than within-subject measurement error. The Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale could be an appropriate measure of gross motor skills in clinical practice and clinical trials.

  2. 26 CFR 1.613-5 - Taxable income from the property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... according to the percentage of time which the depreciable asset is used with respect to the mines, acquired... crude oil, raw gas, coal, iron ore, or crushed dolomite shall be subtracted from gross income from...

  3. Income dynamics and the Affordable Care Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore-Sheppard, Lara D

    2014-12-01

    To examine the sources of family income dynamics leading to movement into and out of Medicaid expansion and subsidy eligibility under the Affordable Care Act. Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP): 1996, 2001, 2004, 2008 panels. Considering four broad subsidy eligibility categories for monthly Modified Adjusted Gross Income (MAGI) (400 percent FPL), I use duration analysis to examine determinants of movements between categories over the course of a year. Using detailed monthly data, I determine the members of tax-filing units and calculate an approximation of MAGI at the monthly level. The analysis sample is adults ages 22-64 years. Incomes are highly variable within a year, particularly at the lower end of the income distribution. Employment transitions, including transitions not involving a period of nonemployment, and family structure changes strongly predict sufficient income volatility to trigger a change in subsidy category. Income volatility arising from employment and family structure changes is likely to trigger changes in subsidy eligibility within the year, but the sources and effects of the volatility differ substantially depending on the individual's position in the income distribution. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  4. Widening Income Inequalities: Higher Education's Role in Serving Low Income Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Jon C.; Crosby, Pamela C.

    2015-01-01

    Many scholars argue that America is becoming a dangerously divided nation because of increasing inequality, especially in income distribution. This article examines the problem of widening income inequality with particular focus on the role that colleges and universities and their student affairs organizations play in serving low income students…

  5. National Academy of Neuropsychology/Division 40 of the American Psychological Association Practice Survey of Clinical Neuropsychology in the United States. Part II: Reimbursement experiences, practice economics, billing practices, and incomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Jerry J; Peck, Edward A; Abramowitz, Carolyn; Etzweiler, Sharon

    2003-08-01

    Leaders of the National Academy of Neuropsychology and Division 40 (Clinical Neuropsychology) of the American Psychological Association determined that current information on the professional practice of clinical neuropsychology within the United States was needed. These two organizations co-sponsored a national survey of U.S. clinical neuropsychologists that was conducted in September 2000. The primary goal of the survey was to gather information on such topics as: practitioner and practice characteristics, economic variables (e.g., experience with major third party payors, such as Medicare and managed care), practice expenses, billing methods, experiences with Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) codes, time spent on various clinical tasks, use of assistants, and income. In this second of two articles describing the survey results, reimbursement experiences, practice economics, billing practices, and incomes are highlighted. Survey results indicate that neuropsychologists frequently have difficulty gaining access to membership on managed care panels. For those who gain access, managed care companies often limit provision of services; this is quite often perceived as negatively affecting quality of patient care. It is very common for neuropsychologists to feel obligated to provide more services to managed care and Medicare patients than are allowed to be billed to the insurance carrier; these hours are typically "written off." Numerous CPT codes are used to bill the same clinical service. Awareness of Medicare practice and billing expectations is variable among practitioners, as is awareness of public aid/Medicaid billing status. Professional income is influenced by years of licensed practice, practice setting, gender, types and amounts of non-clinical professional activities, and types and amounts of reimbursement sources within one's clinical practice. Income of neuropsychologists has only a minimal relationship to percentage of clinical practice per week

  6. 75 FR 47171 - The Low-Income Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-05

    ... 701 RIN 3133-AD75 The Low-Income Definition AGENCY: National Credit Union Administration (NCUA...-income members'' to clarify that, in determining if a credit union qualifies for a low- income... text so it is consistent with the geo-coding software the agency uses to make the low-income...

  7. National Intelligence and National Prosperity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Earl; Wittmann, Werner

    2008-01-01

    What is the relation between the cognitive competence of a national population that nation's economic prosperity? Lynn and Vanhanen [Lynn, R. & Vanhanen, T. (2002). "IQ and the wealth of nations." Westport, CT: Praeger.] presented data pointing to an exceptionally strong relationship between IQ scores and Gross Domestic Product per capita (GDP/c).…

  8. The Brazil SimSmoke policy simulation model: the effect of strong tobacco control policies on smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable deaths in a middle income nation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Levy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Brazil has reduced its smoking rate by about 50% in the last 20 y. During that time period, strong tobacco control policies were implemented. This paper estimates the effect of these stricter policies on smoking prevalence and associated premature mortality, and the effect that additional policies may have. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The model was developed using the SimSmoke tobacco control policy model. Using policy, population, and smoking data for Brazil, the model assesses the effect on premature deaths of cigarette taxes, smoke-free air laws, mass media campaigns, marketing restrictions, packaging requirements, cessation treatment programs, and youth access restrictions. We estimate the effect of past policies relative to a counterfactual of policies kept to 1989 levels, and the effect of stricter future policies. Male and female smoking prevalence in Brazil have fallen by about half since 1989, which represents a 46% (lower and upper bounds: 28%-66% relative reduction compared to the 2010 prevalence under the counterfactual scenario of policies held to 1989 levels. Almost half of that 46% reduction is explained by price increases, 14% by smoke-free air laws, 14% by marketing restrictions, 8% by health warnings, 6% by mass media campaigns, and 10% by cessation treatment programs. As a result of the past policies, a total of almost 420,000 (260,000-715,000 deaths had been averted by 2010, increasing to almost 7 million (4.5 million-10.3 million deaths projected by 2050. Comparing future implementation of a set of stricter policies to a scenario with 2010 policies held constant, smoking prevalence by 2050 could be reduced by another 39% (29%-54%, and 1.3 million (0.9 million-2.0 million out of 9 million future premature deaths could be averted. CONCLUSIONS: Brazil provides one of the outstanding public health success stories in reducing deaths due to smoking, and serves as a model for other low and middle income nations. However, a

  9. Income distribution dynamics in the Netherlands in the 20th century: long-run developments and cyclical properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Afman

    2005-01-01

    This paper contributes to the evidence on the distribution of income in the Netherlands by constructing decile and quintile income shares for gross- and for disposable income covering almost the entire twentieth century. It suggests some interpretations of the general trends, while the cyclical prop

  10. Concurrent Validity of Preschooler Gross Motor Quality Scale with Test of Gross Motor Development-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shih-Heng; Sun, Hsiao-Ling; Zhu, Yi-Ching; Huang, Li-chi; Hsieh, Yueh-Ling

    2011-01-01

    Preschooler Gross Motor Quality Scale (PGMQ) was recently developed to evaluate motor skill quality of preschoolers. The purpose of this study was to establish the concurrent validity of PGMQ using Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (TGMD-2) as the gold standard. One hundred and thirty five preschool children aged from three to six years were…

  11. Aid and the growth of income in aid-favoured developing countries: policy issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewster, H; Yeboah, D

    1994-04-01

    This paper opens by expressing disappointment in the disparities between published estimations of the effectiveness of foreign aid to developing countries and effectiveness data which arise from the application of complex econometric methods. The new dilemmas for aid policy include the fact that aid increasingly devoted to human development at the expense of productive activity is unlikely to create the material development which will allow maintenance of human development targets. The second part of the paper presents comparative statistics on gross national product, official development assistance, and savings growth which paint a disturbing picture because the growth of domestic savings has been negative in the period 1967-87 in nine of the 11 less developed countries with data available. Section 3 covers the shortcomings of econometric experiments which neither confirm nor deny the findings of other studies on the effectiveness of aid. The fourth section describes constraints to the growth of income imposed by the foreign exchange, the rate of return on investment, and the growth of labor productivity and presents statistical evidence supporting aid policy which would 1) take advantage of opportunities to rehabilitate output growth in traditional industries without the addition of a great deal of capital, 2) direct attention to increasing the absolute gross national product (GNP) to raise the growth of per capital income, and 3) strategically reorient the structure of aid to increase the absolute GNP faster to accelerate reversal of the negative savings pattern and speed the reduction of fertility. Section 5 considers suggested shifts in aid policy orientation dealing with 1) population growth, income level, and food security; 2) reconstruction and structural adjustment; 3) rationalizing aid for social, institutional, and human development and technical assistance. The concluding section notes that the suggested strategic reorientation of the structure of aid

  12. 7 CFR 1424.7 - Gross payable units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Biodiesel producers will be eligible for payments on gross payable units for all biodiesel production from... rates. Unless otherwise determined by CCC, gross payable units for biodiesel production from eligible... biodiesel production gross payable units. (3) Adding the APP and BPP to determine biodiesel gross...

  13. Multiregional estimation of gross internal migration flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot, D K; Milne, W J

    1989-01-01

    "A multiregional model of gross internal migration flows is presented in this article. The interdependence of economic factors across all regions is recognized by imposing a non-stochastic adding-up constraint that requires total inmigration to equal total outmigration in each time period. An iterated system estimation technique is used to obtain asymptotically consistent and efficient parameter estimates. The model is estimated for gross migration flows among the Canadian provinces over the period 1962-86 and then is used to examine the likelihood of a wash-out effect in net migration models. The results indicate that previous approaches that use net migration equations may not always be empirically justified."

  14. The Gross conjecture over rational function fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OUYANG; Yi

    2005-01-01

    We study the Gross conjecture for the cyclotomic function field extension k(∧f)/k where k = Fq(t) is the rational function field and f is a monic polynomial in Fq[t].We prove the conjecture in the Fermat curve case(i.e., when f = t(t - 1)) by a direct calculation. We also prove the case when f is irreducible, which is analogous to the Weil reciprocity law. In the general case, we manage to show the weak version of the Gross conjecture here.

  15. A cross-national comparison of income gradients in oral health quality of life in four welfare states: application of the Korpi and Palme typology.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sanders, A E

    2009-07-01

    The extent to which welfare states may influence health outcomes has not been explored. It was hypothesised that policies which target the poor are associated with greater income inequality in oral health quality of life than those that provide earnings-related benefits to all citizens.

  16. Gross Revenue risk in Swiss dairy farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benni, El N.; Finger, R.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated how agricultural policy reforms, including market liberalization and market deregulation, have influenced gross revenue risk of Swiss dairy producers using farm-level panel data between 1990 and 2009. Based on detrended data, variance decomposition was applied to assess how o

  17. Gross Revenue risk in Swiss dairy farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benni, El N.; Finger, R.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated how agricultural policy reforms, including market liberalization and market deregulation, have influenced gross revenue risk of Swiss dairy producers using farm-level panel data between 1990 and 2009. Based on detrended data, variance decomposition was applied to assess how

  18. Student-Athletes as Employees: Income Tax Consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, William J.

    1986-01-01

    Courts have employed contract principles and workman's compensation theory in certain cases finding a student-athlete an employee of the institution. Should this impression be expanded and gain widespread judicial acceptance, the Internal Revenue Service could require the inclusion of scholarship amounts in the recipient's gross income.…

  19. Absolute Income, Relative Income, and Happiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Richard; Chernova, Kateryna

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses data from the World Values Survey to investigate how an individual's self-reported happiness is related to (i) the level of her income in absolute terms, and (ii) the level of her income relative to other people in her country. The main findings are that (i) both absolute and relative income are positively and significantly…

  20. Income and Trustworthiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Ermisch

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We employ a behavioral measure of trustworthiness obtained from a trust game carried out with a sample of the general British population, the individuals of which were extensively interviewed on earlier occasions. Our basic finding is that given past income, higher current income increases trustworthiness and, given current income, higher past income reduces trustworthiness. Past income determines the level of financial aspirations, and whether or not these aspirations are fulfilled by the level of current income affects trustworthiness.

  1. 提高劳动收入在国民收入中的比重%On Increasing Labor Share of National Income

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任路云; 赵国友

    2012-01-01

    劳动收入增长落后于经济增长,分配关系不合理。要解决劳动收入比重下降问题,就必须正确理解我国收入分配指导方针,深入探讨按劳分配的内在含义,建立以劳动工资为主体的收入分配机制,健全工会集体谈判制度,转变政府职能,建立健全社会保障机制。%Workers compensation growth lagged behind economic growth, distribution relationships is irrational, we need to understand China's income distribution guidelines correctly, Investigate about the principle of distribution in depth, establish the income building mechanism for the wage as the subject, perfect trade union collective bargaining system,transform government functions and build service-oriented government construction, get social protection mechanism more completely to solve the decline in labor income.

  2. The Determinants of Income in a Malthusian Equilibrium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharp, Paul Richard; Strulik, Holger; Weisdorf, Jacob Louis

    2012-01-01

    This study constructs a simple, two-sector Malthusian model with agriculture and industry, and uses it to identify the determinants of income in a Malthusian equilibrium. We make standard assumptions about preferences and technologies, but in contrast to existing studies we assume that children...... and other consumption goods are gross substitutes. Consistent with the conventional Malthusian model, the present theory shows that productivity growth in agriculture has no effect on equilibrium income. More importantly, we also show that equilibrium income varies, not just with the death rate as has...

  3. Energy consumption, income, and carbon emissions in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soytas, Ugur [Department of Business Administration, Middle East Technical University Ankara, Turkey 06531 (Turkey); Sari, Ramazan [Department of Economics, Abant Izzet Baysal University Bolu, Turkey 14280 (Turkey); Ewing, Bradley T. [Rawls College of Business Texas Tech University Lubbock, TX 79409-2101 (United States)

    2007-05-15

    This paper investigates the effect of energy consumption and output on carbon emissions in the United States. Earlier research focused on testing the existence and/or shape of an environmental Kuznets curve without taking energy consumption into account. We investigate the Granger causality relationship between income, energy consumption, and carbon emissions, including labor and gross fixed capital formation in the model. We find that income does not Granger cause carbon emissions in the US in the long run, but energy use does. Hence, income growth by itself may not become a solution to environmental problems. (author)

  4. An analysis of government immunization program expenditures in lower and lower middle income countries 2006-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nader, Alice Abou; de Quadros, Ciro; Politi, Claudio; McQuestion, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Financing is becoming increasingly important as the cost of immunizing the world's children continues to rise. By 2015, that cost will likely exceed US$60 per infant as new vaccines are introduced into national immunization programs. In 2006, 51 lower and lower middle income countries reported spending a mean US$12 per surviving infant on routine immunization. By 2012, the figure had risen to $20, a 67% increase. This study tests the hypothesis that lower and lower middle income countries will spend more on their routine immunization programs as their economies grow. A panel data regression approach is used. Expenditures reported by governments annually (2006-12) through the World Health Organization/UNICEF Joint Reporting Form are regressed on lagged annual per capita gross national income (GNI), controlling for prevailing mortality levels, immunization program performance, corruption control efforts, geographical region and correct reporting. Results show the expenditures increased with GNI. Expressed as an elasticity, the countries spent approximately $6.32 on immunization for every $100 in GNI increase from 2006 to 2012. Projecting forward and assuming continued annual GNI growth rates of 10.65%, countries could be spending $60 per infant by 2020 if national investment functions increase 4-fold. Given the political will, this result implies countries could fully finance their routine immunization programs without cutting funding for other programs.

  5. Prices of second-line antiretroviral treatment for middle-income countries inside versus outside sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryony Simmons

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Antiretrovirals are available at low prices in sub-Saharan Africa, but these prices may not be consistently available for middle-income countries in other regions with large HIV epidemics. Over 30% of HIV infected people live in countries outside sub-Saharan Africa. Several key antiretrovirals are still on patent, with generic production restricted. We assessed price variations for key antiretroviral drugs inside versus outside sub-Saharan Africa. Methods: HIV drug prices used in national programmes (2010–2014 were extracted from the WHO Global Price Reporting Mechanism database for all reporting middle-income countries as classified by the World Bank. Treatment costs (branded and generic were compared for countries inside sub-Saharan Africa versus those outside. Five key second-line antiretrovirals were analysed: abacavir, atazanavir, darunavir, lopinavir/ritonavir, raltegravir. Results: Prices of branded antiretrovirals were significantly higher outside sub-Saharan Africa (p<0.001, adjusted for year of purchase (see Table 1. For example, the median (interquartile range price of darunavir from Janssen was $732 (IQR $732-806 per person-year in sub-Saharan Africa versus $4689 (IQR $4075-5717 in non-African middle-income countries, an increase of 541%. However, when supplied by generic companies, most antiretrovirals were similarly priced between countries in sub-Saharan Africa and other regions. Conclusions: Pharmaceutical companies are selling antiretrovirals to non-African middle-income countries at prices 74–541% higher than African countries with similar gross national incomes. However, generic companies are selling most of these drugs at similar prices across regions. Mechanisms to ensure fair pricing for patented antiretrovirals across both African and non-African middle-income countries need to be improved, to ensure sustainable treatment access.

  6. Activity level of gross α and gross β in airborne aerosol samples around the Qinshan NPP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Bin; YE Jida; CHEN Qianyuan; WU Xiaofei; SONG Weili; WANG Hongfeng

    2007-01-01

    The monitoring results of gross α and gross β activity from 2001 to 2005 for environmental airborne aerosol samples around the Qinshan NPP base are presented in this paper. A total of 170 aerosol samples were collected from monitoring sites of Caichenmen village, Qinlian village, Xiajiawan village and Yangliucun village around the Qinshan NPP base. The measured specific activity of gross α and gross β are in the range of 0.02 ~ 0.38 mBq/m3 and 0.10 ~ 1.81 mBq/m3, respectively, with an average of 0.11 mBq/m3 and 0.45mBq/m3, respectively. They are lower than the average of 0.15 mBq/m3 and 0.52mBq/m3, of reference site at Hangzhou City. It is indicated that the specific activity of gross α and gross β for environmental aerosol samples around the Qinshan NPP base had not been increased in normal operating conditions of the NPP.

  7. The American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology, National Academy of Neuropsychology, and Society for Clinical Neuropsychology (APA Division 40) 2015 TCN Professional Practice and 'Salary Survey': Professional Practices, Beliefs, and Incomes of U.S. Neuropsychologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Jerry J; Benson, Laura M; Nelson, Nathaniel W; Moberg, Paul J

    2015-01-01

    The current survey updated professional practice and income information pertaining to clinical neuropsychology. Doctoral-level members of the American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology, Division 40 (Clinical Neuropsychology) of the American Psychological Association, and the National Academy of Neuropsychology and other neuropsychologists, as well as postdoctoral trainees in the Association of Postdoctoral Programs in Clinical Neuropsychology and at other training sites were invited to participate in a web-based survey in early 2015. The sample of 1777 respondents, of whom 1579 were doctoral-level practitioners and 198 were postdoctoral trainees, was larger than the prior 2010 income and practice survey. The substantial proportional change in gender has continued, with women now a clear majority in the postdoctoral trainee sample as well as in the practitioner sample. Dissimilar from the median age trajectory of American Psychological Association members, the median age of clinical neuropsychologists remains essentially unchanged since 1989, indicating a substantial annual influx of young neuropsychologists. The question of whether the Houston Conference training model has become an important influence in the specialty can now be considered settled in the affirmative among postdoctoral trainees and practitioners. Testing assistant usage remains commonplace, and continues to be more common in institutions. The vast majority of clinical neuropsychologists work full-time and very few are unemployed and seeking employment. The numbers of neuropsychologists planning to retire in the coming 5-10 years do not suggest a "baby boomer" effect or an unexpected bolus of planned retirements in the next 10 years that would be large enough to be worrisome. Average length of time reported for evaluations appears to be increasing across time. The most common factors affecting evaluation length were identified, with the top three being: (1) goal of evaluation, (2) stamina

  8. The new income inequality and well-being paradigm: Inequality has no effect on happiness in rich nations and normal times, varied effects in extraordinary circumstances, increases happiness in poor nations, and interacts with individuals' perceptions, attitudes, politics, and expectations for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Jonathan; Evans, M D R

    2017-02-01

    Based on earlier, mainly aggregate analyses, conventional wisdom previously held that income inequality reduces happiness. But aggregate models consistently yield misleading results in this domain, substantially because of intractable problems of sample size, confounding omitted variables, and conditional effects differing between poor developing nations, rich advanced nations, and nations in transition from Communism. Based on more recent evidence, scholarly views are beginning to merge on a consensus that national income inequality is irrelevant to individuals' subjective well-being in advanced nations and normal times, as shown by multi-level models with appropriate controls (including socioeconomic development, an engine of happiness and foe of inequality). For developing nations, consensus is not as strong, but the bulk of the evidence indicates a neutral to positive effect for inequality. Building on this foundation, this paper provides exploratory analyses to stimulate future research, extending our understanding of the social psychological and cultural forces that generate these results; dissects changes over time and expectations for the future; and addresses the possibility that inequality may reduce well-being in extraordinary circumstances and for particular groups - for example creating differences in formerly Communist nations between the political left and the right, and between older and younger cohorts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) began in 1968 with a nationally representative sample of over 18,000 individuals living in 5,000 families in the United...

  10. Noncommutative complex Grosse-Wulkenhaar model

    CERN Document Server

    Hounkonnou, Mahouton Norbert

    2012-01-01

    This paper stands for an application of the noncommutative (NC) Noether theorem, given in our previous work [AIP Proc 956 (2007) 55-60], for the NC complex Grosse-Wulkenhaar model. It provides with an extension of a recent work [Physics Letters B 653 (2007) 343-345]. The local conservation of energy-momentum tensors (EMTs) is recovered using improvement procedures based on Moyal algebraic techniques. Broken dilatation symmetry is discussed. NC gauge currents are also explicitly computed.

  11. Gross Square Feet Per Student. IssueTrak: A CEFPI Brief on Educational Facility Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlers, Art

    The Council of Educational Facility Planners International regularly provides the recommended number of gross square feet (gsf) per student figures. This report provides revised numbers based on responses from its Design Portfolio winners over the past 5 years. Average national averages of square footage space per student for Canada and the…

  12. Income and Trustworthiness

    OpenAIRE

    John Ermisch; Diego Gambetta

    2016-01-01

    We employ a behavioral measure of trustworthiness obtained from a trust game carried out with a sample of the general British population, the individuals of which were extensively interviewed on earlier occasions. Our basic finding is that given past income, higher current income increases trustworthiness and, given current income, higher past income reduces trustworthiness. Past income determines the level of financial aspirations, and whether or not these aspirations are fulfilled by the le...

  13. The Impacts of Income from Non-agricultural Industries Operated by Rural households on Farmers’ Income

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Income from non-agricultural industries operated by rural households is an important income source of farmers’ income. According to the Regional Rural Residents’ Net Income Per Capita in 2004 issued by the State Statistics Bureau and the relevant statistics of national comprehensive investigation(CGSS2005) in 2005, the impacts of farmers’ income gap and farmers’ individual features on their income and the impacts of income from non-agricultural industries operated by rural households on farmers’ individual income differences are analyzed by applying Hierarchical Linear Models (HLM) as an analysis tool to establish the null model of HLM, excluding the second level model of the second level prediction variables and including the second level model of the second layer prediction variables. The analysis assumes that farmers’ individual income varies hugely in different provinces; farmers’ individual income has close relation with farmers’ individual features; the improvement of income from non-agricultural industries operated by rural households has different impacts on farmers’ income.

  14. The Gross Motor Skills of Children with Mild Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonis, Karen P.; Jernice, Tan Sing Yee

    2014-01-01

    Many international studies have examined the gross motor skills of children studying in special schools while local studies of such nature are limited. This study investigated the gross motor skills of children with Mild Learning Disabilities (MLD; n = 14, M age = 8.93 years, SD = 0.33) with the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (TGMD-2, Ulrich,…

  15. 26 CFR 1.952-2 - Determination of gross income and taxable income of a foreign corporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... accounting principles generally accepted in the United States for purposes of reflecting in the financial... consistent with the manner of treating inventories, depreciation, and elections referred to in subdivisions... company shipping operations may be determined on the basis of the ratio which the foreign based...

  16. 75 FR 80677 - The Low-Income Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-23

    ... ADMINISTRATION 12 CFR Part 701 RIN 3133-AD75 The Low-Income Definition AGENCY: National Credit Union Administration (NCUA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: NCUA is amending the definition of ``low-income members'' to clarify that, in determining if a credit union qualifies for a low- income designation, the comparison...

  17. Economic Growth and Climate Change: A Cross-National Analysis of Territorial and Consumption-Based Carbon Emissions in High-Income Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle W. Knight

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available An important question in the literature on climate change and sustainability is the relation between economic growth and greenhouse gas emissions. While the “green growth” paradigm dominates in the policy arena, a growing number of scholars in wealthy countries are questioning the feasibility of achieving required emissions reductions with continued economic growth. This paper explores the relationship between economic growth and carbon dioxide emissions over the period 1991–2008 with a balanced data set of 29 high-income countries. We present a variety of models, with particular attention to the difference between territorial emissions and consumption-based (or carbon footprint emissions, which include the impact of international trade. The effect of economic growth is greater for consumption-based emissions than territorial emissions. We also find that over this period there is some evidence of decoupling between economic growth and territorial emissions, but no evidence of decoupling for consumption-based emissions.

  18. After Mexico Implemented a Tax, Purchases of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages Decreased and Water Increased: Difference by Place of Residence, Household Composition, and Income Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colchero, M Arantxa; Molina, Mariana; Guerrero-López, Carlos M

    2017-08-01

    Background: In January 2014, Mexico implemented a tax on sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) purchases of 1 peso/L.Objective: We examined the heterogeneity of changes in nonalcoholic beverage (SSB and bottled water) purchases after the tax was implemented by household income, urban and rural strata, and household composition.Methods: We used 4 rounds of the National Income and Expenditure Surveys: 2008, 2010, 2012, and 2014. Changes in purchases in per capita liters per week were estimated with the use of 2-part models to adjust for nonpurchases. We compared absolute and relative differences between adjusted changes in observed purchases in 2014 with expected purchases in 2014 based on prior trends (2008-2012). The models were adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics of the households, place of residence, and lagged gross domestic product per capita.Results: We found a 6.3% reduction in the observed purchases of SSBs in 2014 compared with the expected purchases in that same year based on trends from 2008 to 2012. These reductions were higher among lower-income households, residents living in urban areas, and households with children. We also found a 16.2% increase in water purchases that was higher in low- and middle-income households, in urban areas, and among households with adults only.Conclusions: SSB purchases decreased and water purchases increased after an SSB tax was imposed in Mexico. The magnitude of these changes was greater in lower-income and urban households. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  19. Height of nations: a socioeconomic analysis of cohort differences and patterns among women in 54 low- to middle-income countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S V Subramanian

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adult height is a useful biological measure of long term population health and well being. We examined the cohort differences and socioeconomic patterning in adult height in low- to middle-income countries. METHODS/FINDINGS: We analyzed cross-sectional, representative samples of 364,538 women aged 25-49 years drawn from 54 Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS conducted between 1994 and 2008. Linear multilevel regression models included year of birth, household wealth, education, and area of residence, and accounted for clustering by primary sampling units and countries. Attained height was measured using an adjustable measuring board. A yearly change in birth cohorts starting with those born in 1945 was associated with a 0.0138 cm (95% CI 0.0107, 0.0169 increase in height. Increases in heights in more recent birth year cohorts were largely concentrated in women from the richer wealth quintiles. 35 of the 54 countries experienced a decline (14 or stagnation (21 in height. The decline in heights was largely concentrated among the poorest wealth quintiles. There was a strong positive association between height and household wealth; those in two richest quintiles of household wealth were 1.988 cm (95% CI 1.886, 2.090 and 1.018 cm (95% CI 0.916, 1.120 taller, compared to those in the poorest wealth quintile. The strength of the association between wealth and height was positive (0.05 to 1.16 in 96% (52/54 countries. CONCLUSIONS: Socioeconomic inequalities in height remain persistent. Height has stagnated or declined over the last decades in low- to middle-income countries, particularly in Africa, suggesting worsening nutritional and environmental circumstances during childhood.

  20. Baryons in Massive Gross-Neveu Models

    CERN Document Server

    Thies, M; Thies, Michael; Urlichs, Konrad

    2005-01-01

    Baryons in the large N limit of (1+1)-dimensional Gross-Neveu models with either discrete or continuous chiral symmetry have long been known. We generalize their construction to the case where the symmetry is explicitly broken by a bare mass term in the Lagrangian. In the discrete symmetry case, the exact solution is found for arbitrary bare fermion mass, using the Hartree-Fock approach. In the continuous symmetry case, a derivative expansion allows us to rederive a formerly proposed Skyrme-type model and to compute systematically corrections to the leading order description based on an effective sine-Gordon theory.

  1. Financial Variables Effect on the U.S. Gross Private Domestic Investment (GPDI) 1959-2001

    CERN Document Server

    Bell, Byron E

    2007-01-01

    I studied what role the US stock markets and money markets have possibly played in the Gross Private Domestic Investment (GPDI) of the United States from the year 1959 to the year 2001, Gross Private Domestic Investment refers to the total amount of investment spending by businesses and firms located within the borders of a nation. It includes both the values of the purchases of non-residential fixed investment, which include capital goods used for production, and the values of the purchases of residential fixed investment, which include construction spending for factories or offices. And I created a Multiple Linear Regression Model of the GDPI. To see if companies and private citizens use the stock market and money markets as a way of financing capital projects (business ventures, buying commercial and noncommercial property, etc). Keywords: Gross Private Domestic Investment, Pearson Correlation, SP 500, TB3

  2. Impact of Socio-Health Factors on Life Expectancy in the Low and Lower Middle Income Countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Nazrul Islam Mondal

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is concerned with understanding the impact of demographic changes, socioeconomic inequalities, and the availability of health factors on life expectancy (LE in the low and lower middle income countries.The cross-country data were collected from 91 countries from the United Nations agencies in 2012. LE is the response variable with demographics (total fertility rate, and adolescent fertility rate, socioeconomic status (mean year of schooling, and gross national income per capita, and health factors (physician density, and HIV prevalence rate are as the three main predictors. Stepwise multiple regression analysis is used to extract the main factors.The necessity of more healthcare resources and higher levels of socioeconomic advantages are more likely to increase LE. On the other hand, demographic changes and health factors are more likely to increase LE by way of de-cease fertility rates and disease prevalence.These findings suggest that international efforts should aim at increasing LE, especially in the low income countries through the elimination of HIV prevalence, adolescent fertility, and illiteracy.

  3. 78 FR 4030 - Designation of Low-Income Status; Acceptance of Secondary Capital Accounts by Low-Income...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-18

    ... ADMINISTRATION 12 CFR Parts 701 and 741 RIN 3133-AE09 Designation of Low-Income Status; Acceptance of Secondary Capital Accounts by Low-Income Designated Credit Unions AGENCY: National Credit Union Administration (NCUA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The NCUA Board (Board) is amending its low-income credit unions...

  4. 77 FR 65139 - Designation of Low-Income Status; Acceptance of Secondary Capital Accounts by Low-Income...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-25

    ... ADMINISTRATION 12 CFR Parts 701 and 741 RIN 3133-AE09 Designation of Low-Income Status; Acceptance of Secondary Capital Accounts by Low-Income Designated Credit Unions AGENCY: National Credit Union Administration (NCUA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The NCUA Board proposes to amend its low-income credit unions...

  5. Breast Cancer Screening in a Low Income Managed Care Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-10-01

    the morbidity and mortality of breast cancer among the population of low income women who have incomes less than 200% of the national poverty level...34Journal for Health Care for the Poor and Underserved" (see appendix). Entitled "Difficulty in Reaching Low Income Women for Screening Mammography...useful insights for future program planning and research design. Keywords: screening mammography, low income , managed care and barriers Poverty is

  6. HOME Income Limits

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — HOME Income Limits are calculated using the same methodology that HUD uses for calculating the income limits for the Section 8 program. These limits are based on HUD...

  7. Limited Income and Resources

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Information for those with limited income and resources (those who may qualify for or already have the Low Income Subsidy to lower their prescription drug coverage...

  8. Income and Consumption Smoothing among US States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent; Yosha, Oved

    states. The fraction of a shock to gross state products smoothed by the federal tax-transfer system is the same for various regions and other clubs of states. We calculate the scope for consumption smoothing within various regions and clubs, finding that most gains from risk sharing can be achieved......We quantify the amount of cross-sectional income and consumption smoothing achieved within subgroups of states, such as regions or clubs, e.g. the club of rich states. We find that there is much income smoothing between as well as within regions. By contrast, consumption smoothing occurs mainly...... within regions but not between regions. This suggests that capital markets transcend regional barriers while credit markets are regional in their nature. Smoothing within the club of rich states is accomplished mainly via capital markets whereas consumption smoothing is dominant within the club of poor...

  9. Intergenerational Top Income Persistence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Martin D.; Bonke, Jens; Hussain, M. Azhar

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate intergenerational top earnings and top income mobility in Denmark. Access to administrative registers allowed us to look at very small fractions of the population. We find that intergenerational mobility is lower in the top when including capital income in the income...... measure— for the rich top 0.1% fathers and sons the elasticity is 0.466. Compared with Sweden, however, the intergenerational top income persistence is about half the size in Denmark....

  10. Rational Solution To Income Gap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    While enjoying an economic boom, China has seen a widening income gap that has appeared like a chasm between its urban and rural citizens. What are the deep roots of this situation and what is the best way to deal with it? Ding Yuanzhu, researcher at the Macro-Economic Research Institute of the National Development and Reform Commission, shares his views on this issue in an article published in Wen Hui Bao. Excerpts follow:

  11. The National Institutes of Health Affordable Cancer Technologies Program: Improving Access to Resource-Appropriate Technologies for Cancer Detection, Diagnosis, Monitoring, and Treatment in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divi, Rao; Gwede, Michael; Tandon, Pushpa; Sorg, Brian S.; Ossandon, Miguel R.; Agrawal, Lokesh; Pai, Vinay; Baker, Houston; Lash, Tiffani Bailey

    2016-01-01

    Point-of-care (POC) technologies have proved valuable in cancer detection, diagnosis, monitoring, and treatment in the developed world, and have shown promise in low-and-middle-income countries (LMIC) as well. Despite this promise, the unique design constraints presented in low-resource settings, coupled with the variety of country-specific regulatory and institutional dynamics, have made it difficult for investigators to translate successful POC cancer interventions to the LMIC markets. In response to this need, the National Cancer Institute has partnered with the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering to create the National Institutes of Health Affordable Cancer Technologies (ACTs) program. This program seeks to simplify the pathway to market by funding multidisciplinary investigative teams to adapt and validate the existing technologies for cancer detection, diagnosis, and treatment in LMIC settings. The various projects under ACTs range from microfluidic cancer diagnostic tools to novel treatment devices, each geared for successful clinical adaptation to LMIC settings. Via progression through this program, each POC innovation will be uniquely leveraged for successful clinical translation to LMICs in a way not before seen in this arena. PMID:27730015

  12. Non-FDI Capital Inflows in Low-Income Developing Countries; Catching the Wave?

    OpenAIRE

    Juliana Dutra Araujo; Antonio David; Carlos van Hombeeck; Chris Papageorgiou

    2015-01-01

    Low-income countries (LIDCs) are typically characterized by intermittent and very modest access to private external funding sources. Motivated by recent developments in private flows to LIDCs this paper makes two contributions: First, it constructs a new comprehensive dataset on gross private capital flows with special focus on non-FDI flows in LIDCs. Concentrating on LIDCs and more specifically on gross non-FDI private flows is intentionally aimed at closing a gap in existing datasets where ...

  13. 18 CFR Appendix C to Part 2 - Nationwide Proceeding Computation of Federal Income Tax Allowance Independent Producers, Pipeline...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nationwide Proceeding Computation of Federal Income Tax Allowance Independent Producers, Pipeline Affiliates and Pipeline Producers... Total computed revenue 9,465,231,966 8,985,807,669 2,336,439,376 16(gross income) 17 18...

  14. 26 CFR 1.1385-1 - Amounts includible in patron's gross income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... straight-line method at the rate of $900 per year. On July 1, 1965, the cooperative association pays a... allowance for depreciation provided in section 167; and (ii) Any amount (to the extent treated as ordinary... the trade or business of a character which is subject to the allowance for depreciation provided...

  15. ECONOMETRICAL INTERPRETATION OF THE INTERDEPENDECE BETWEEN FISCALITY RATE- FISCAL INCOMES- GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CODREANU DIANA

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Econometrics has come into being and grown as a result of the need to set up instruments of investigation and increase of the methods to organize, conduct and manage the economy, and on the other hand, due to the successful statistical and mathematical me

  16. 26 CFR 1.955-6 - Gross income from sources within less developed countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... sources within less developed countries. (a) General. For purposes of paragraph (a)(1)(ii) of § 1.955.5... from sources within less developed countries for any taxable year shall be made by the application of... the name of a less developed country shall be substituted for “the United States”, except that...

  17. Dual Income Taxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Peter Birch

    This paper discusses the principles and practices of dual income taxation in the Nordic countries. The first part of the paper explains the rationale and the historical background for the introduction of the dual income tax and describes the current Nordic tax practices. The second part...... of the paper focuses on the problems of taxing income from small businesses and the issue of corporate-personal tax integration under the dual income tax, considering alternative ways of dealing with these challenges. In the third and final part of the paper, I briefly discuss whether introducing a dual income...... tax could be relevant for New Zealand....

  18. Dual Income Taxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Peter Birch

    This paper discusses the principles and practices of dual income taxation in the Nordic countries. The first part of the paper explains the rationale and the historical background for the introduction of the dual income tax and describes the current Nordic tax practices. The second part...... of the paper focuses on the problems of taxing income from small businesses and the issue of corporate-personal tax integration under the dual income tax, considering alternative ways of dealing with these challenges. In the third and final part of the paper, I briefly discuss whether introducing a dual income...... tax could be relevant for New Zealand....

  19. Digitalization of incoming mail and incoming bills

    OpenAIRE

    Huč, Andrej

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to provide an overview of the processes involved in the digitalization of materials and having consideration of legal regulations, restrictions and recommendations, make the digitalization process of incoming mail and incoming bills as a cloud-based service. Having an efficient document management system has a significantly positive effect on an organization. In order for documents to be managed more easily and efficiently, they must be converted into an electron...

  20. [Gross anatomy dissection and the legal control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashina, Shohei; Shibata, Yosaburo

    2010-12-01

    In Japan, dissection of human body is generally prohibited by the Penal Code, i.e. the criminal law. However, the Postmortem Examination and Corpse Preservation Act allows for the dissection of the body in very limited situations, that include gross anatomy dissection and pathological and forensic autopsy in medical and dental schools. Growing numbers of co-medical schools have been founded more recently in Japan, and not a small number of co-medical schools try to adopt human body dissection in the course of anatomy education. The present short communication reminds us of the ways of thinking of the Postmortem Examination and Corpse Preservation Act and the Act on Body Donation for Medical and Dental Education in order that anatomy education in medical as well as co-medical schools takes place under the regulation by these two laws.

  1. Most Low-Income Dads Stay Involved with Their Kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 7, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Contradicting a widely held stereotype, most low-income fathers are at least somewhat ... not reflect the views of MedlinePlus, the National Library of Medicine, the National Institutes of Health, the ...

  2. Trabalho e rendimentos na nova série do sistema de contas nacionais Labor and incomes on new series of Brazilian national account

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Hallak Neto

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como objetivo comparar os resultados do fator trabalho e dos rendimentos a ele associados entre as séries antiga e nova do SCN do Brasil. Assim, foram apresentados os principais aspectos conceituais e metodológicos e as diferenças existentes na construção e nos resultados obtidos pelas duas séries do SCN. Para avaliar os novos resultados, eles foram comparados com os dados de outras bases estatísticas freqüentemente utilizadas nos estudos relativos ao mercado de trabalho: PNAD, POF e Rais. O confronto dos resultados do SCN com os das bases selecionadas ratificaram a conclusão de que essas variáveis estão mais bem mensuradas na nova série do SCN, e que se encontravam subestimadas nos anos finais da série antiga.The objective of this article is to compare the results of labour factor and its associated income between the previous and the new series of the Brazilian SCN. Therefore, the main conceptual and methodological aspects and the existing differences in development and in the results of the two SCN series were presented. To evaluate the new results, they were compared to other statistical databases usually referred to in most labour market studies. The SCN results compared to PNAD, POF and Rais proved that these variables are more reliable in the new SCN series and that they were subestimated in the last years of the previous series.

  3. Distinct Classes of Negative Alcohol-Related Consequences in a National Sample of Incoming First-Year College Students: A Latent Class Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinker, Dipali Venkataraman; Diamond, Pamela M; Walters, Scott T; Wyatt, Todd M; DeJong, William

    2016-09-01

    : First-year college students are at particular risk for experiencing negative alcohol-related consequences that may set the stage for experiencing such consequences in later life. Latent class analysis is a person-centered approach that, based on observable indicator variables, divides a population into mutually exclusive and exhaustive groups ('classes'). To date, no studies have examined the latent class structure of negative alcohol-related consequences experienced by first-year college students just before entering college. The aims of this study were to (a) identify classes of first-year college students based on the patterns of negative alcohol-related consequences they experienced just before entering college, and (b) determine whether specific covariates were associated with class membership. Incoming freshmen from 148 colleges and universities (N = 54,435) completed a baseline questionnaire as part of an alcohol education program they completed just prior to their first year of college. Participants answered questions regarding demographics and other personal characteristics, their alcohol use in the past 2 weeks, and the negative alcohol-related consequences they had experienced during that time. Four distinct classes of students emerged: (a) No Problems, (b) Academic Problems, (c) Injured Self and (d) Severe Problems. Average number of drinks per drinking day, total number of drinking days, age of drinking initiation, intention to join a fraternity or sorority and family history of alcohol problems were associated with membership in all of the problem classes relative to the No Problems class. These results can inform future campus-based prevention efforts. © The Author 2016. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  4. The most-favoured-nation clause in tax treaties: tool for potential reduction of withholding income tax applicable to Chile and Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Renée Antonieta Villagra Cayamana; Jorge Antonio Villagra Cayamana

    2013-01-01

    Tax treaties to avoid the double taxation signed by a country have consequences for the future, but they can also modify the terms of treaties that are already in force, in case these contain most-favoured-nation clauses. In this line, taxpayers and companies, particularly, as well as the Tax Administration must be alert, regarding topotential modifications of the terms of the Peruvian tax treaties already in force; mainly about the withholding tax rate applied to royalties in the Convention ...

  5. The sensitivity of income polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, Azhar

    2009-01-01

    This study looks at polarization and its components' sensitivity to assumptions about equivalence scales, income definition, ethical income distribution parameters, and the income accounting period. A representative sample of Danish individual incomes from 1984 to 2002 is utilised. Results show...

  6. Education, Income Distribution and Intergenerational Mobility: Findings from Field Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Alekha Chandra

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of widespread poverty and the increasing inequality in income distribution across nations point to the failure of the trickle-down theory. The long-held faith in the growth of income as the sole policy instrument to achieve the national objective of growth with equity has been put to the test. The increasing numbers of the poor,…

  7. Income Distribution and Health Status: Econometric Evidence from OECD Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasudeva N.R. Murthy

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This research note, using a cross-sectional sample consisting of 27 Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development countries (OECD for the reference year 2002, empirically examines the relationship between health status as measured by infant mortality and the degree of income inequality, given the effect of certain controlled variables. The empirical findings based on the estimation by robust econometric methods, show that in these countries, per capita real gross domestic product, the number of doctors, the level of education, percentage of female smokers in the adult population and income inequality, as reflected by the percentage of the income received by the lowest tenth of the population do impact the level of health status. The results clearly indicate that income inequality affects the level of health status adversely. Policy implications of the research findings are discussed in the research.

  8. Robust Principal Component Test in Gross Error Detection and Identification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Principle component analysis (PCA) based chi-square test is more sensitive to subtle gross errors and has greater power to correctly detect gross errors than classical chi-square test. However, classical principal component test (PCT) is non-robust and can be very sensitive to one or more outliers. In this paper, a Huber function liked robust weight factor was added in the collective chi-square test to eliminate the influence of gross errors on the PCT. Meanwhile, robust chi-square test was applied to modified simultaneous estimation of gross error (MSEGE) strategy to detect and identify multiple gross errors. Simulation results show that the proposed robust test can reduce the possibility of type Ⅱ errors effectively. Adding robust chi-square test into MSEGE does not obviously improve the power of multiple gross error identification, the proposed approach considers the influence of outliers on hypothesis statistic test and is more reasonable.

  9. External Performance in Low-Income Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandro Prati; Luca A Ricci; Lone Engbo Christiansen; Stephen Tokarick; Thierry Tressel

    2011-01-01

    Assessments of exchange rate misalignments and external imbalances for low-income countries are challenging because methodologies developed for advanced and emerging economies cannot be automatically applied to poorer nations. This paper uses a large database, unique in the set of indicators and number of countries it covers, to estimate the relationship in low-income countries between a set of fundamentals in the medium to long term and the real effective exchange rate, the current account, ...

  10. Income contingent loans in higher education financing

    OpenAIRE

    Chapman, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Around nine countries currently use a national income contingent loan (ICL) scheme for higher education tuition using the income tax system. Increased international interest in ICL validates an examination of its costs and benefits relative to the traditional financing system, government-guaranteed bank loans (GGBLs). Bank-type loans exhibit poor economic characteristics: namely, repayment hardships for the disadvantaged, and default. This damages credit reputations and can be associated with...

  11. FDI, Human Capital and Income Convergence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Völlmecke, Dominik; Jindra, Björn; Marek, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    This study examines income convergence in regional GDP per capita for a sample of 269 regions within the European Union (EU) between 2003 and 2010. We use an endogenous broad capital model based on foreign direct investment (FDI) induced agglomeration economies and human capital. By applying...... a Markov chain approach to a new dataset that exploits micro-aggregated sub-national FDI statistics, the analysis provides insights into regional income growth dynamics within the EU. Our results indicate a weak process of overall income convergence across EU regions. This does not apply to the dynamics...

  12. Effect of temperate climate tree species on gross ammonification, gross nitrification and N2O formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüggemann, N.; Rosenkranz, P.; Papen, H.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.

    2003-04-01

    Microbial nitrogen turnover processes in the soil, like ammonification, nitrification and denitrification, play an important role in the formation of nitrous oxide (N2O): (i) ammonification, because it releases nitrogen from organic material in the form of ammonium (NH4+), which in turn can serve as substrate for nitrification; (ii) nitrification itself (i.e. the turnover of NH4+ to nitrate, NO3-), during which nitric oxide (NO) and N2O can be released as by-products at varying ratios; (iii) denitrification, in which NO3- serves as electron acceptor and is converted to molecular nitrogen (N2) via NO and N2O as intermediates, that can also be partially lost to the atmosphere. Temperate forest soils are a substantial source of atmospheric N2O contributing up to 10% to the total atmospheric N2O budget. However, this figure is afflicted with a huge uncertainty due to a number of factors governing the soil N2O formation, consumption, release and uptake, which are not fully understood at present. To one of these factors belongs the influence of the tree species on nitrogen turnover processes in the soil and the formation of N trace gases related with them. The aim of the present work was to analyse this tree species effect for the temperate climate region. For this purpose the effect of five different temperate tree species, having the same age and growing on the same soil in direct vicinity to each other, on gross ammonification and gross nitrification as well as on N2O formation was investigated. The trees (common beech, Fagus sylvatica; pedunculate oak, Quercus robur; Norway spruce, Picea abies; Japanese larch, Larix leptolepis; mountain pine, Pinus mugo) were part of a species trial in Western Jutland, Denmark, established in 1965 on a former sandy heathland. Samples from the soil under these five tree species were taken in spring and in summer 2002, respectively, differentiating between organic layer and mineral soil. The gross rates of ammonification as well of

  13. TERATOGENIC EFFECTS OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES: GROSS ANOMALIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Prakash

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available BACK GROUND: Prenatal exposure of AgNPs can induces devastative and detrimental effect in the organogenesis period of the developing embryos and foetuses. Organogenesis period is highly condemnatory and persuadable. Any injury to embryo during this period leads to dysmorphogenesis or even death AIM: The present study means to evaluate the gross anomalies on developing f o etus subsequent to silver nanoparticle ingestion during the gestational period. MATERIAL & METHOD: Random selections of pregnant Swiss albino mice were selected. AgNPs, of 20 - 100 nm size ra nge, were administered to pregnant mice by repeated oral gavages at concentra tions of 0.5, 1, 5, 10, 15 & 20 mg/kg/day during 4 - 17 gestational day. All dams were subjected to exteriorization on GD 18. The fetuses were evaluated for body malformation effects . RESULTS: Repeated oral gavages treatment with AgNPs at a concentration of 0.5mg/kg/day caused resorption (4.61% and intra uterine growth retardation (7.69% with no gross morphology alteration. 1 mg/kg/day caused resorption (9.23% and intra uterine growth retardation (10.76% with a rare case of haemorrhagic conception (1.53%, 5mg/kg/day caused limb malformation (7.01% resorption (17.54% and intra uterine growth retardation (17.54%, closed type Neural tube deformity (5.26%, 10mg/kg/day caused 20 % of limb malformation including Amelia, foot and tail vein hemorrhages and simple tail vein haemorrhage (3.50% each, resorption (22.80%, intra uterine growth retardation (29.82%, 15mg/kg/day caused severe hemorrhage within the entire body (22.80%, lim b anomaly including syndactyly and oligodactyly (8.77%, resorption (42.10%, intra uterine growth retardation (45.61%, 20mg/kg/day caused Omphalocele (3.27%, Bidiscoidal placental anomaly (9.83%, resorption (29.50% and intra uterine growth retardation (62.29%. CONCLUSION: The results show that a repeated oral dose of AgNPs during pregnancy caused fetal body dysmorphogenesis which is dose

  14. Nation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Uffe

    2014-01-01

    Nation er et gammelt begreb, som kommer af det latinske ord for fødsel, natio. Nationalisme bygger på forestillingen om, at mennesker har én og kun én national identitet og har ret til deres egen nationalstat. Ordet og forestillingen er kun godt 200 år gammel, og i 1900-tallet har ideologien bredt...... sig over hele verden. Nationalisme er blevet global....

  15. Volunteering, income and health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detollenaere, Jens; Willems, Sara

    2017-01-01

    Separate literatures have related volunteering to health gains and income gains. We study the association between volunteering, income and health within one statistical framework. A state-of-the-art mediation analysis is conducted on data concerning the health, volunteering and sociodemographic characteristics of 42926 individuals within 29 European countries. We find that volunteering is positively associated to self-rated health. This association is partially mediated by household income. PMID:28273163

  16. Gross revenue risk in Swiss dairy farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Benni, N; Finger, R

    2013-02-01

    This study investigated how agricultural policy reforms, including market liberalization and market deregulation, have influenced gross revenue risk of Swiss dairy producers using farm-level panel data between 1990 and 2009. Based on detrended data, variance decomposition was applied to assess how output prices and yields contributed to revenue risk over 3 different periods: the whole period (1990-2009), the first decade (1990-1999), and the second decade (1999-2009). In addition, the effect of expected changes in animal-based support for roughage-consuming cattle and price volatility on revenue risk was evaluated using a simulation model. Prices were the main contributor to revenue risk, even if the importance of yield risk increased over time. Swiss dairy producers can profit from natural hedge but market deregulation and market liberalization have reduced the natural hedge at the farm level. An increase in price volatility would substantially increase revenue risk and would, together with the abandonment of direct payments, reduce the comparative advantage of dairy production for risk-averse decision makers. Depending on other available risk management strategies, price risk management instruments might be a valuable solution for Swiss dairy producers in the future.

  17. 提高劳动报酬比重 缩小收入分配差距 构建有中国特色的收入分配体系%Raise labor reward ratio to reduce income gap and construct income distribution system with Chinese characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林金淑

    2011-01-01

    Rational income distribution system is an important way to improve economic efficiency,safeguard social fairness and push forward scientific development and social harmony.Since the opening up,national inhabitants' income level and consuming level has greatly improved,however,income occupying a minor ratio with increasing income gap becoming a focus.Currently,it is necessary to shift the main focus from creating fortune to distributing fortune and raise the ratio of labor reward to Gross national product to reduce the income gap and construct china's own income distribution system.%合理的收入分配制度有利于提高经济效率、维护社会公平,是推动科学发展、促进社会和谐的重要保障。改革开放以来,我国居民收入水平明显提高、消费结构显著提升,但是收入占比较低,分配差距较大的现象已经成为人们关注的焦点。当前,必须将主要精力从创造财富转移到分配财富中去,逐步提高劳动报酬占国民生产总值的比重,缩小收入分配差距,构建有中国特色的收入分配体系。

  18. Guidelines for Standard Photography in Gross and Clinical Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barut, Cagatay; Ertilav, Hakan

    2011-01-01

    Photography has a widespread usage in medicine and anatomy. In this review, authors focused on the usage of photography in gross and clinical anatomy. Photography in gross and clinical anatomy is not only essential for accurate documentation of morphological findings but also important in sharing knowledge and experience. Photographs of cadavers…

  19. Guidelines for Standard Photography in Gross and Clinical Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barut, Cagatay; Ertilav, Hakan

    2011-01-01

    Photography has a widespread usage in medicine and anatomy. In this review, authors focused on the usage of photography in gross and clinical anatomy. Photography in gross and clinical anatomy is not only essential for accurate documentation of morphological findings but also important in sharing knowledge and experience. Photographs of cadavers…

  20. Psychiatric Symptoms in Children with Gross Motor Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emck, Claudia; Bosscher, Ruud J.; van Wieringen, Piet C. W.; Doreleijers, Theo; Beek, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Children with psychiatric disorders often demonstrate gross motor problems. This study investigates if the reverse also holds true by assessing psychiatric symptoms present in children with gross motor problems. Emotional, behavioral, and autism spectrum disorders (ASD), as well as psychosocial problems, were assessed in a sample of 40 children…

  1. The Gross Anatomy Course: An Analysis of Its Importance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockers, Anja; Jerg-Bretzke, Lucia; Lamp, Christoph; Brinkmann, Anke; Traue, Harald C.; Bockers, Tobias M.

    2010-01-01

    The gross anatomy dissection course is a cost-intensive piece of undergraduate medical education that students and professionals alike describe as very important within the overall medical curriculum. We sought to understand more explicitly students' valuation of gross anatomy as an "important" course and so developed a quantitative…

  2. A simple view of the heavy-tailed sales distributions and application to the box-office grosses of U.S. movies

    CERN Document Server

    Yamamoto, Ken

    2014-01-01

    This letter treats of the power-law distribution of the sales of items. We propose a simple stochastic model which expresses a selling process of an item. This model produces a stationary power-law distribution, whose power-law exponent is analytically derived. Next we compare the model with an actual data set of movie income. We focus on the return on investment (ROI), defined as the gross income divided by the production budget. We confirm that the power-law exponent of ROI distribution can be estimated from the ratios of income between two adjoining weeks, as predicted by the model analysis. Moreover, exponential decay of weekly income is observed both in the model and actual income. Therefore, the proposed model is simple enough, but it can quantitatively describe the power-law sales distribution.

  3. Socio-ecological perspective of older age life expectancy: income, gender inequality, and financial crisis in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong In; Kim, Gukbin

    2017-08-18

    Population is aging rapidly in Europe. Older age life expectancy (OLE) can be influenced by country-level depth of credit information (DCI) as an indicator of financial crisis, gross national income (GNI) per capita, and gender inequality index (GII). These factors are key indicators of socio-ecological inequality. They can be used to develop strategies to reduce country-level health disparity. The objective of this study was to confirm the relationship between socio-ecological factors and OLE in Europe. Data were obtained from World Bank, WHO, and UN database for 34 Europe countries. Associations between socio-ecological factors and OLE were assessed with Pearson correlation coefficients and three regression models. These models assumed that appropriate changes in country-level strategies of healthy aging would produce changes in GNI per capital as personal perspective, GII in social environment perspective, and DCI in public policy perspective to implement socio-ecological changes. Hierarchal linear regression was used for final analysis. Although OLE (women and men) had significant negative correlation with GII (gender inequality index, r = - 0.798, p = 0.001), it had positive correlations with GNI (gross national income per capita, r = 0.834, p = 0.001) and DCI (depth of credit information index, r = 0.704, p = 0.001) levels caused by financial crisis. Higher levels GNI and DCI but lower GII were found to be predictors of OLE (women and men) (R(2) = 0.804, p Europe were identified from socio-ecological perspective. Socio-ecological indicators (GII, GNI, and DCI) in Europe appear to have a latent effect on OLE levels. Thus, country-level strategies of successful aging in Europe should target socio-ecological factors such as GII, GNI, and DCI value.

  4. Prevalence of Thinness in Adolescent Girls in Low- and Middle-Income Countries and Associations With Wealth, Food Security, and Inequality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candler, Toby; Costa, Silvia; Heys, Michelle; Costello, Anthony; Viner, Russell M

    2017-04-01

    Adequate nutrition during adolescence is important for optimal physical and cognitive development and for pregnancy either during adolescence or later life. Thinness among adolescent girls in low- and middle-income countries has been little studied. We used body mass index data from 40 countries from the Global School Health Survey to estimate the prevalence of moderate and severe thinness in 12- to 18-year-olds using the World Health Organization 2007 growth reference. Self-report data on going to bed hungry were used as a proxy for household food insecurity. We used multilevel models to assess whether national wealth (gross domestic product), income inequality (Gini index), national gender inequality (Gender Inequality Index), and food security (Global Food Security Index) were associated with undernutrition. Prevalence rates of moderate and severe thinness across 61,603 girls from 40 countries were 6.30% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.71-6.95) and 1.34% (1.12-1.59), respectively, with higher rates in Asia. Combined moderate/severe thinness was more common among early (12-14 years) than later adolescents (15-18 years). Going to bed hungry sometimes was associated with increased risk of moderate/severe thinness (odds ratio [OR]: 1.102; 95% CI: 1.007-1.206). A significant inverse relationship was found between thinness and gross domestic product (OR: .94; 95% CI: .88-.99) and Global Food Security Index (OR: .96; 95% CI: .93-.99) but not Gini or Gender Inequality Index. Thinness remains prevalent in adolescent schoolgirls in low- and middle-income countries and poses a significant threat to their health and that of the next generation. Further research is needed to assess potential interventions for this group. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Geographical Income Polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azhar, Hussain; Jonassen, Anders Bruun

    In this paper we estimate the degree, composition and development of geographical income polarization based on data at the individual and municipal level in Denmark from 1984 to 2002. Rising income polarization is reconfirmed when applying new polarization measures, the driving force being greater...

  6. Speed and income

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens

    2005-01-01

    between speed and income is found again in the empirical analysis of a cross-sectional dataset comprising 60,000 observations of car trips. This is used to perform regressions of speed on income, distance travelled, and a number of controls. The results are clearly statistically significant and indicate...

  7. Income, leisure, and happiness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorn, A.A.J. van

    2008-01-01

    The income-leisure trade-off, whilst prominent in textbooks, is largely absent in the incomehappiness debate. Multilevel or hierarchical linear modeling is introduced and used to investigate the income-leisure-happiness nexus. Leisure has a positive effect on happiness, but lowers the effect of

  8. Income Elasticity Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Following advice from the SAB Council, when estimating the economic value of reductions in air pollution-related mortality and morbidity risk, EPA accounts for the effect of personal income on the willingness to pay to reduce the risk of adverse health outcomes. These income grow...

  9. Aid and Income

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lof, Matthijs; Mekasha, Tseday Jemaneh; Tarp, Finn

    2015-01-01

    to nonrandom omission of a large proportion of observations. Furthermore, we show that NDHKM’s use of co-integrated regressions is not a suitable empirical strategy for estimating the causal effect of aid on income. Evidence from a Panel VAR model estimated on the dataset of NDHKM, suggests a positive...... and statistically significant long-run effect of aid on income....

  10. Factor Determining Income Distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Tinbergen (Jan)

    1972-01-01

    textabstractSince the phrase income distribution covers a large number of different concepts, it is necessary to define these and to indicate the choice made in this article. Income for a given recipient may cover lists of items which are not always the same. Apart from popular misunderstandings abo

  11. Immigration and income inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deding, Mette; Jakobsen, Vibeke; Azhar, Hussain

    Four income inequality measures (Gini-coefficient, 90/10-decile ratio, and two generalized entropy indices) are applied to analyse immigrants’ income position relative to natives in a comparative perspective. Administrative data is used for Denmark, while survey data is used for Germany. We find...

  12. Income pooling within families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonke, Jens; Uldall-Poulsen, Hans

    This paper analyses the phenomenon of income-pooling by applying the Danish household expenditure survey, merged with authoritative register information. Responses to additional questions on income sharing among 1696 couples also allows us to analyses whether the intra-household distribution of r...

  13. Income distribution: Second thoughts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Tinbergen (Jan)

    1977-01-01

    textabstractAs a follow-up of his book on income distribution the author reformulates his version on the scarcity theory of income from productive contributions. The need to introduce into an earnings theory several job characteristics, non-cognitive as well as cognitive, and the corresponding perso

  14. Immigration and income inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deding, Mette; Jakobsen, Vibeke; Azhar, Hussain

    Four income inequality measures (Gini-coefficient, 90/10-decile ratio, and two generalized entropy indices) are applied to analyse immigrants’ income position relative to natives in a comparative perspective. Administrative data is used for Denmark, while survey data is used for Germany. We find...

  15. Forests beyond income

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walelign, Solomon Zena

    2013-01-01

    , depth and severity on the one hand, and the dependency of rural poor and non-poor households on forest and environmental resources on the other. The three variants of the FGT poverty index, with and without forest and environmental income, and the relative shares of each livelihood activities...... to the total income accounting of the poor and the non-poor were estimated. The results indicate that forest and environmental income was the second important livelihood activity to both poor and non-poor households next to crop production - contributing about 22.46 and 24.14 percent to the poor and non......-poor sample households respectively. With regard to the contribution of forest and environmental resources to rural poverty, dramatic increase in the incidence, depth and severity of poverty were observed when forest and environmental income was excluded from sample households' total income accounting...

  16. Tenure and forest income

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagger, Pamela; Luckert, Martin K.; Duchelle, Amy E.

    2014-01-01

    We explore the relationship between tenure and forest income in 271 villages throughout the tropics. We find that state-owned forests generate more forest income than private and community-owned forests both per household and per hectare. We explore whether forest income varies according...... to the extent of rule enforcement, and congruence (i.e., overlap of user rights between owners and users). We find negative associations between enforcement and smallholder forest income for state-owned and community forests, and positive associations for privately owned forests. Where user rights are limited...... to formal owners we find negative associations for state-owned forests. Overlapping user rights are positively associated with forest income for community forests. Our findings suggest that policy reforms emphasizing enforcement and reducing overlapping claims to forest resources should consider possible...

  17. [Fluctuations in relative income and the baby boom in the United States].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourcier De Carbon, P

    1997-01-01

    This work argues that fluctuations in relative income of young adults in the US after World War II coincided with the dramatically increased fertility of the baby boom and were probably a significant determining factor in its occurrence and eventual interruption. The US total fertility rate declined rapidly in the early 20th century, from 3.8 in 1900 to 2.44 in 1929 and 2.24 in 1935-36. Fertility was below replacement level in 1932-39. Its spectacular recovery from the early 1940s culminated in the year 1957, with a total fertility rate of 3.77. Fertility declined rapidly again in the late 1960s and attained its low point in 1976, with a total fertility rate of 1.74. It has slowly increased since then, especially with the arrival of increasing numbers of high-fertility immigrants from Latin America beginning in the late 1980s. Although per capita gross national product in the US rose dramatically between 1929 and 1994, income distribution also changed, as did the relative income from wages and salaries of workers under 40 years old. From the end of World War II until the late 1950s, the wage and salary income of young workers increased more rapidly than did that of older workers, so that younger workers were at an advantage during the years of the baby boom. Young workers also benefited from federal programs such as Fulbright scholarships, home loan programs, and veterans benefits. Transfer payments for pensions and higher interest rates progressively improved the position of older workers, and younger workers faced a loss of relative income in the 1960s and 1970s that coincided with the end of the baby boom and that quite likely was a causative factor. With the progressive aging of the US population, the relative loss of income of younger workers will probably intensify and be joined by a relative loss of political power, as the proportion of the electorate in the prime childbearing years shrinks further.

  18. Declaration of income for 2005

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2006-01-01

    Information from the Legal Service and the HR Department Information for members of the personnel residing in France Following the introduction of the internal taxation of salaries and emoluments of members of the CERN personnel on 1st January 2005 (cf. Bulletin No. 48-49/2005), the French Finance Ministry has communicated the following information on the procedure for completing the 2005 declaration of income form, which must be returned by 31 May 2006 at the latest. All members of the personnel*) residing in France, whether or not they are of French nationality, are required to complete a declaration of income for 2005 according to the following instructions and to return a signed copy to their local tax office by 31 May 2006 at the latest. Members of the personnel should receive an income declaration form for 2005 at the beginning of May. Those who do not receive a form directly should obtain one from their local 'Centre des Impôts', Trésorerie' or 'Mairie', or download one from the Finance Ministry...

  19. The validity of the SF-36 in an Australian National Household Survey: demonstrating the applicability of the Household Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA Survey to examination of health inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crosier Timothy

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The SF-36 is one of the most widely used self-completion measures of health status. The inclusion of the SF-36 in the first Australian national household panel survey, the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA Survey, provides an opportunity to investigate health inequalities. In this analysis we establish the psychometric properties and criterion validity of the SF-36 HILDA Survey data and examine scale profiles across a range of measures of socio-economic circumstance. Methods Data from 13,055 respondents who completed the first wave of the HILDA Survey were analysed to determine the psychometric properties of the SF-36 and the relationship of the SF-36 scales to other measures of health, disability, social functioning and demographic characteristics. Results Results of principle components analysis were similar to previous Australian and international reports. Survey scales demonstrated convergent and divergent validity, and different markers of social status demonstrated unique patterns of outcomes across the scales. Conclusion Results demonstrated the validity of the SF-36 data collected during the first wave of the HILDA Survey and support its use in research examining health inequalities and population health characteristics in Australia.

  20. Estimating the gross moist stability in shallow and deep convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C. A.; Jong, B. T.; Chou, C.

    2015-12-01

    Gross moist stability has been used to study the link between tropical deep convection and large scale circulation in a moist static energy (MSE) budget. Here we aim to calculate the gross moist stability from more realistic profiles of vertical velocity and extend it beyond deep convection, adding shallow convection. Based on a principal component analysis, we were able to decompose the vertical velocity into two leading modes, which are dominated by deep and shallow convection, respectively. According to the deep and shallow modes, we calculate the gross moist stability for these two modes and discuss the roles of deep and shallow convection in the MSE budget. The gross moist stability of deep convection tends to be positive in the tropics, while that of shallow convection is negative over most areas of the tropics. This implies that deep convection exports MSE to stabilize the atmosphere and shallow convection imports MSE to enhance deep convection and destabilize the atmosphere. Based on the spatial distribution, moisture tends to reduce the gross moist stability of deep convection, while dry static energy has little impact. Deeper deep convection tends to have greater gross moist stability. For shallow convection, on the other hand, the gross moist stability is affected not only by low-level moisture but also mid-level moisture. Both moister low-level and drier mid-level moisture reduce the gross moist stability of shallow convection. Greater low-level dry static energy, which is associated with warmer sea surface temperature, also tends to reduce gross moist stability.

  1. TAXATION OF PERSONAL INCOMES IN ROMANIA: PRESENT AND PERSPECTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela PIRVU

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The personal income tax is not only as an important revenue instrument but also as an instrument of national policy. Taxation of personal income in European Union countries is regulated usually by a progressive rate structure. This article aims to highlight the differences between Romania and other EU member states in the field of personal income tax and to raise the issue of reforming the tax system by introducing the tax household.

  2. Geographical Income Polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azhar, Hussain; Jonassen, Anders Bruun

    In this paper we estimate the degree, composition and development of geographical income polarization based on data at the individual and municipal level in Denmark from 1984 to 2002. Rising income polarization is reconfirmed when applying new polarization measures, the driving force being greater...... inter municipal income inequality. Counter factual simulations show that rising property prices to a large part explain the rise in polarization. One side-effect of polarization is tendencies towards a parallel polarization of residence location patterns, where low skilled individuals tend to live...

  3. INCOMING TOURISM IN TRANSNISTRIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delia BAR-KOŁELIS

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Incoming tourism is a valuable source of revenues, creating jobs and bringing wealth, whilst contributing to a sustainable development in a widely range of areas. It is a perfect choice for developing Transnistria, with great benefits for local economy and minimum negative impact on the environment, unfortunately unexplored by population and ignored by the government. The following paper makes a short radiography of incoming tourism in Transnistria, also mentions the two main trends of incoming tourism development in Transnistria, one based on Soviet heritance and second on historical artifacts, landscape and folklore.

  4. Global support for new vaccine implementation in middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaddar, Miloud; Schmitt, Sarah; Makinen, Marty; Milstien, Julie

    2013-04-18

    Middle-income countries (MICs) as a group are not only characterized by a wide range of gross national income (GNI) per capita (US $1026 to $12,475), but also by diversity in size, geography, governance, and infrastructure. They include the largest and smallest countries of the world-including 16 landlocked developing countries, 27 small island developing states, and 17 least developed countries-and have a significant diversity in burden of vaccine-preventable diseases. Given the growth in the number of MICs and their considerable domestic income disparities, they are now home to the greatest proportion of the world's poor, having more inhabitants below the poverty line than low-income countries (LICs). However, they have little or no access to external funding for the implementation of new vaccines, nor are they benefiting from an enabling global environment. The MICs are thus not sustainably introducing new life-saving vaccines at the same rate as donor-funded LICs or wealthier countries. The global community, through World Health Assembly resolutions and the inclusion of MIC issues in several recent studies and important documents-including the Global Vaccine Action Plan (GVAP) for the Decade of Vaccines-has acknowledged the sub-optimal situations in some MICs and is actively seeking to enhance the situation by expanding support to these countries. This report documents some of the activities already going on in a subset of MICs, including strengthening of national regulatory authorities and national immunization technical advisory groups, and development of comprehensive multi-year plans. However, some additional tools developed for LICs could prove useful to MICs and thus should be adapted for use by them. In addition, new approaches need to be developed to support MIC-specific needs. It is clear that no one solution will address the needs of this diverse group. We suggest tailored interventions in the four categories of evidence and capacity-building, policy

  5. 26 CFR 1.863-3 - Allocation and apportionment of income from certain sales of inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... source of gross income from business activity: Example 1. (i) U.S. Co. purchases in a possession product... respect to that sale is significant in relation to all of the activities with respect to that product. (ii... similar in physical characteristics and function, and are sold at a similar level of distribution as...

  6. 26 CFR 1.923-1T - Temporary regulations; exempt foreign trade income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... principal on the sale of export property which it purchased from a related supplier, the FSC's gross income... allocable to the marketing of agricultural or horticultural products, or the providing of related services... rule of section 923(a)(4) shall apply only if the distribution is made before the due date...

  7. Association of therapeutic occasion, gross motor function grading and developmental level with gross motor functional recovery in children with cerebral palsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The abnormal posture and motor pattern have not stabilized in children with cerebral palsy at early period, thus timely treatment can establish normal postural reflex and motor pattern, and prevent complications of muscle contracture, ankylosis, skeletal deformity, etc. The clinical factors affecting the rehabilitative efficacy of gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy should be observed.OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of therapeutic occasion, grading of gross motor function and developmental level on the rehabilitative efficacy in children with cerebral palsy.DESIGN: A case-controlled analysis.SETTING: Qilu Children's Hospital of Shandong University.PARTICIPANTS: Totally 138 children with cerebral palsy, who were hospitalized for 12 months in the Rehabilitation Center of Qilu Children's Hospital, Shandong University, were selected from April 2004 to September 2006, and all the children were diagnosed to be accorded with the standard set by the national seminar on cerebral palsy in 2004. There were 97 males and 41 females, including 55 cases of 0 - 2 years old,47 cases of 2 - 4 years and 36 cases of 4 - 6 years. Informed contents were obtained from relatives of all the children.METHODS: ① Comprehensive rehabilitation treatment: Vojta method was to induce the children to turn over the body and crawl by stimulating reflective turn over and crawling on belly. Bobath method including trainings of head control, turning over body, keeping sitting position, keeping balance, crawling, keeping standing position, and walking, etc.; The children were massaged by using the maneuvers of push, press, rub,pull, wave, etc. according to the sites and types of palsy. Acupuncture was performed mainly at bilateral motor areas, the needle was retained for 1 hour per time, 6 days continuously every week, and followed by a 1-day interval. ② Prognosis assessment: The gross motor functional grading of the children with cerebral palsy at admission was

  8. Early-life mental disorders and adult household income in the World Mental Health Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Norito; Abdulghani, Emad Abdulrazaq; Alonso, Jordi; Bromet, Evelyn; Bruffaerts, Ronny; de Almeida, Jose Miguel Caldas; Chiu, Wai Tat; de Girolamo, Giovanni; de Graaf, Ron; Fayyad, John; Ferry, Finola; Florescu, Silvia; Gureje, Oye; Hu, Chiyi; Lakoma, Matthew D.; LeBlanc, William; Lee, Sing; Levinson, Daphna; Malhotra, Savita; Matschinger, Herbert; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Nakamura, Yosikazu; Browne, Mark A. Oakley; Okoliyski, Michail; Posada-Villa, Jose; Sampson, Nancy A.; Viana, Maria Carmen; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Better information on the human capital costs of early-onset mental disorders could increase sensitivity of policy-makers to the value of expanding initiatives for early detection-treatment. Data are presented on one important aspect of these costs: the associations of early-onset mental disorders with adult household income. Methods Data come from the WHO World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys in eleven high income, five upper-middle income, and six low/lower-middle income countries. Information about 15 lifetime DSM-IV mental disorders as of age of completing education, retrospectively assessed with the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview, was used to predict current household income among respondents ages 18-64 (n = 37,741) controlling for level of education. Gross associations were decomposed to evaluate mediating effects through major components of household income. Results Early-onset mental disorders are associated with significantly reduced household income in high and upper-middle income countries but not low/lower-middle income countries, with associations consistently stronger among women than men. Total associations are largely due to low personal earnings (increased unemployment, decreased earnings among the employed) and spouse earnings (decreased probabilities of marriage and, if married, spouse employment and low earnings of employed spouses). Individual-level effect sizes are equivalent to 16-33% of median within-country household income, while population-level effect sizes are in the range 1.0-1.4% of Gross Household Income. Conclusions Early mental disorders are associated with substantial decrements in income net of education at both individual and societal levels. Policy-makers should take these associations into consideration in making healthcare research and treatment resource allocation decisions. PMID:22521149

  9. Eye care utilization by older adults in low, middle, and high income countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vela Claudia

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The risk of visual impairment increases dramatically with age and therefore older adults should have their eyes examined at least every 1 to 2 years. Using a world-wide, population-based dataset, we sought to determine the frequency that older people had their eyes examined. We also examined factors associated with having a recent eye exam. Methods The World Health Surveys were conducted in 70 countries throughout the world in 2002-2003 using a random, multi-stage, stratified, cluster sampling design. Participants 60 years and older from 52 countries (n = 35,839 were asked "When was the last time you had your eyes examined by a medical professional?". The income status of countries was estimated using gross national income per capita data from 2003 from the World Bank website. Prevalence estimates were adjusted to account for the complex sample design. Results Overall, only 18% (95% CI 17, 19 of older adults had an eye exam in the last year. The rate of an eye exam in the last year in low, lower middle, upper middle, and high income countries was 10%, 24%, 22%, and 37% respectively. Factors associated with having an eye exam in the last year included older age, female gender, more education, urban residence, greater wealth, worse self-reported health, having diabetes, and wearing glasses or contact lenses (p Conclusions Given that older adults often suffer from age-related but treatable conditions, they should be seen on a regular basis to prevent visual impairment and its disabling consequences.

  10. 45 CFR 2543.24 - Program income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Program income. 2543.24 Section 2543.24 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT...

  11. Meeting the Educational Challenges of Income Inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Greg J.; Murnane, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Can the nation's schools meet today's challenge of providing all students with the skills they will need to thrive in the rapidly changing economy and society of the 21st century? The authors point out in this article that a large percentage of children, overwhelmingly from low-income families, end their formal schooling without the…

  12. 26 CFR 1.861-8 - Computation of taxable income from sources within the United States and from other sources and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... allocated consists of gross income (such as royalties) attributable to an intangible asset used both within... income. . For guidance, see § 1.861-8T(c)(1). (2) Apportionment based on assets. . For guidance, see § 1... legal and accounting fees and expenses. (5) Legal and accounting fees and expenses. Fees and other...

  13. Income and Ideology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morton, Rebecca; Tyran, Jean-Robert; Wengström, Erik Roland

    We find that cognitive abilities, educational attainment, and some personality traits indirectly affect ideological preferences through changes in income. The effects of changes in personality traits on ideology directly and indirectly through income are in the same direction. However, the indirect...... effects of cognitive abilities and education often offset the direct effects of these variables on ideological preferences. That is, increases in cognitive abilities and education significantly increase income, which reduces the tendency of individuals to express leftist preferences. These indirect...... effects are in some cases sizeable relative to direct effects. The indirect effects of cognitive abilities through income overwhelm the direct effects such that increasing IQ increases rightwing preferences. For ideological preferences over economic policy the indirect effects of advanced education also...

  14. Increasing income inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Anders; Poulsen, Odile

    In recent decades most developed countries have experienced an increase in income inequality. In this paper, we use an equilibrium search framework to shed additional light on what is causing an income distribution to change. The major benefit of the model is that it can accommodate shocks...... to the skill composition in the market, employee bargaining power and productivity. Further, when our model is subjected to skill-upgrading and changes in employee bargaining power, it is capable of predicting the recent changes observed in the Danish income distribution. In addition, the model emphasizes...... that shocks to the employees' relative productivity, i.e., skill-biased technological change, are unlikely to have caused the increase in income inequality....

  15. Filling the Income Gap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Income distribution has become one of the people’s main concerns in China where more than 30 years of reform and opening up have also resulted in an ever-expanding wealth gap. But narrowing down the

  16. Increase of Income of Farmers and Herdsmen in Tibet in the New Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuelin; YAO; Gonggajiabu; Xinjian; ZHANG; Lianjiu; SONG; Qianlu; SUN

    2015-01-01

    The disposable income per capita of rural residents in Tibet was 7471 yuan in 2014. There is a high gap with the national average disposable income per capita of rural residents( 10489 yuan). Thus,it is urgent to increase income of farmers and herdsmen in Tibet. On the basis of literature in recent years,this paper analyzed methods for increasing income of farmers and herdsmen in Tibet,major factors restricting increase of their income,and approaches for increasing their income. It is expected to provide certain reference for further expanding ideas of increase of their income in the new period.

  17. Sectoral contributions to Nigerian gross domestic product using a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences ... This study analyzed sectoral contributions to Gross Domestic Product by Agriculture, Industry and services ... KEYWORDS: Granger causality, Unit root, VAR model and sectoral contribution ...

  18. Parental Income and College Opportunity. DSC Report Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manski, Charles F.

    This paper describes recent patterns of income stratification in American colleges. Data from the Current Population Survey provide estimates of college enrollment stratification by income during the period 1970-1988. The National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972 and the High School and Beyond survey provide data for two cohorts…

  19. Economic Disparities in Middle Childhood Development: Does Income Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    A large literature has documented the influence of family economic resources on child development, yet income's effects in middle childhood have been understudied. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N = 3,551), the author examined the influence of family income in early and middle childhood on academic skills and…

  20. Premedical anatomy experience and student performance in medical gross anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondrashov, Peter; McDaniel, Dalton J; Jordan, Rebecca M

    2017-04-01

    Gross anatomy is considered one of the most important basic science courses in medical education, yet few medical schools require its completion prior to matriculation. The effect of taking anatomy courses before entering medical school on performance in medical gross anatomy has been previously studied with inconsistent results. The effect of premedical anatomy coursework on performance in medical gross anatomy, overall medical school grade point average (GPA), and Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing Examination Level 1 (COMLEX 1) score was evaluated in 456 first-year osteopathic medical students along with a survey on its perceived benefits on success in medical gross anatomy course. No significant differences were found in gross anatomy grade, GPA, or COMLEX 1 score between students with premedical anatomy coursework and those without. However, significant differences and higher scores were observed in students who had taken three or more undergraduate anatomy courses including at least one with cadaveric laboratory. There was significantly lower perceived benefit for academic success in the medical gross anatomy course (P<.001) from those students who had taken premedical anatomy courses (5.9 of 10) compared with those who had not (8.2 of 10). Results suggest that requiring any anatomy course as a prerequisite for medical school would not have significant effect on student performance in the medical gross anatomy course. However, requiring more specific anatomy coursework including taking three or more undergraduate anatomy courses, one with cadaveric laboratory component, may result in higher medical gross anatomy grades, medical school GPA, and COMLEX 1 scores. Clin. Anat. 30:303-311, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Gross Motor Profile and Its Association with Socialization Skills in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardiono D. Pusponegoro

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: Children with ASD had lower gross motor skills compared to typically developing children. Gross motor impairments were found in 20% of the ASD children, and these children also had lower socialization skills than those without gross motor impairments.

  2. Income inequality, individual income, and mortality in Danish adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, Merete; Prescott, Eva; Grønbaek, Morten

    2002-01-01

    To analyse the association between area income inequality and mortality after adjustment for individual income and other established risk factors.......To analyse the association between area income inequality and mortality after adjustment for individual income and other established risk factors....

  3. Proximate analysis, backwards stepwise regression between gross calorific value, ultimate and chemical analysis of wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telmo, C; Lousada, J; Moreira, N

    2010-06-01

    The gross calorific value (GCV), proximate, ultimate and chemical analysis of debark wood in Portugal were studied, for future utilization in wood pellets industry and the results compared with CEN/TS 14961. The relationship between GCV, ultimate and chemical analysis were determined by multiple regression stepwise backward. The treatment between hardwoods-softwoods did not result in significant statistical differences for proximate, ultimate and chemical analysis. Significant statistical differences were found in carbon for National (hardwoods-softwoods) and (National-tropical) hardwoods in volatile matter, fixed carbon, carbon and oxygen and also for chemical analysis in National (hardwoods-softwoods) for F and (National-tropical) hardwoods for Br. GCV was highly positively related to C (0.79 * * *) and negatively to O (-0.71 * * *). The final independent variables of the model were (C, O, S, Zn, Ni, Br) with R(2)=0.86; F=27.68 * * *. The hydrogen did not contribute statistically to the energy content.

  4. Night lights and regional income inequality in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mveyange, Anthony Francis

    Estimating regional income inequality in Africa has been challenging due to the lack of reliable and consistent sub-national income data. I employ night lights data to circumvent this limitation. I find significant and positive associations between regional inequality visible through night lights...... and income in Africa. Thus, in the absence of income data, we can construct regional inequality proxies using night lights data. Further investigation on the night lights-based regional inequality trends reveals two main findings: first, increasing regional inequality trends between 1992 and 2003; and second......, declining regional inequality trends between 2004 and 2012....

  5. Earnings, employment and income inequality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salverda, W.; Haas, C.; Salverda, W.; Nolan, B.; Checchi, D.; Marx, I.; McKnight, A.; Tóth, I.G.; van de Werfhorst, H.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter demonstrates the importance of labour earnings for income and income inequality -also among top incomes. With a focus on employees and Europe, the chapter elaborates on the relationship between the household income distribution and the individual earnings distribution. On the one hand,

  6. Income and health inequality across Canadian provinces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaei, Jalil

    2007-09-01

    This paper uses the aggregate data from the Public Use Microdata Files (PUMF) of Canadian National Population Health Survey to estimate income related health inequalities across the ten Canadian provinces. The unique features of the PUMF allow for a meaningful cross-provincial comparison of health indices and their measured inequalities. It concludes that health inequalities favouring the higher income people do exist in all provinces when health status is either self assessed or measured by the health utility index. Moreover, it finds considerable variations in measured health inequalities across the provinces with consistent rankings for certain provinces.

  7. Income inequality, status seeking, and savings rates in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Bilson Darku

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses Canadian provincial-level data and a variant of James uesenberry’s relative income hypothesis proposed by Frank et al. (2010 to examine the relationship between income inequality and savings rates. The theory predicts that increased expenditure of top income earners leads those just below them in the income scale to spend more as well, then the next group also spends more, and so on. This phenomenon is due to people’s status seeking behaviour. Hence, increased income inequality will trigger increases in consumption by individuals in all income groups, which in turn leads to declining personal savings rates. The empirical analysis based on this theory led to some interesting findings. First, at the national level, increased income inequality has a significant negative effect on personal savings rates. At the provincial level, the relationship also emerges in eight of ten provinces. Second, both the national and provincial results imply that growth in per capita income that worsens income inequality impacts negatively on personal savings rates. I interpret the results as evidence that social factors such as status-seeking generate consumption interdependence and are significant determinants of consumption and savings decisions of Canadians.

  8. Environmental income and rural livelihoods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelsen, Arild; Jagger, Pamela; Babigumira, Ronnie

    2014-01-01

    comes from natural forests. Environmental income shares are higher for low-income households, but differences across income quintiles are less pronounced than previously thought. The poor rely more heavily on subsistence products such as wood fuels and wild foods, and on products harvested from natural...... areas other than forests. In absolute terms environmental income is approximately five times higher in the highest income quintile, compared to the two lowest quintiles....

  9. Subjective well-being and national satisfaction: findings from a worldwide survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Mike; Tay, Louis; Diener, Ed

    2011-02-01

    We examined the relationship between satisfaction with one's country (national satisfaction) and subjective well-being utilizing data from a representative worldwide poll. National satisfaction was a strong positive predictor of individual-level life satisfaction, and this relationship was moderated by household income, household conveniences, residential mobility, country gross domestic product per capita, and region (Western vs. non-Western country). When individuals are impoverished or more bound to their culture and surroundings, national satisfaction more strongly predicts life satisfaction. In contrast, reverse trends were found in analyses predicting life satisfaction from satisfaction in other domains (health, standard of living, and job). These patterns suggest that people are more likely to use proximate factors to judge life satisfaction where conditions are salutary, or individualism is salient, but are more likely to use perceived societal success to judge life satisfaction where life conditions are difficult, or collectivism predominates. Our findings invite new research directions and can inform quality-of-life therapies.

  10. The Nature of Land Transfer Revenue and Its Related Policy Multipliers: A Perspective of National Income Circulation%国民收入循环视角的土地出让金性质及相关政策乘数

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁静

    2011-01-01

    研究目的:从土地出让金来源、财政收支管理等角度定性分析国民收入循环中土地出让金的性质,利用时间序列数据定量分析土地出让金对均衡国民收入决定的影响。研究方法:凯恩斯国民收入循环模型及其实证分析。研究结果:(1)在农地非农化背景下的土地出让金从其来源看,是“先征后让”的结果,是国家通过规划权、征收权等公权力汲取的农地非农化开发增值收益;(2)从资金流动路径角度分析,土地出让金收入同税收收入一并支出,对国民收入的作用机理近似,即土地出让金收入相当于国民收入的漏出量,对国民收入具有紧缩效应;其支出相当于国民收入的注入量,对国民收入具有扩张效应;(3)提出并实证估计了引入土地出让金的均衡国民收入决定模型及此模型下的宏观经济政策乘数。研究结论:引人土地出让金的均衡国民收入决定模型对宏观经济政策的制定具有重要的指导意义。%The purposes of this paper are ( 1 ) to analyze the nature of land transfer revenue within the national income circulation from the perspective of revenue source and its revenue-expenditure management; (2) to explore the impact of land transfer revenue on the decision of balancing national income. Methods employed include the model of Keynesian national income circulation and an empirical study. The results indicated that (l) land transfer revenue was actually a value-added income that local government got during farmland conversion and development process in terms of the power of planning and acquisition; (2) land transferring revenue was mixed with fiscal revenue and had similar impacts on national income, i.e., revenue of land transfer equaled to the reduction of national income, and vise versa; (3) this paper proposed a balanced national income model and valuated the macro-economic policy

  11. Filling the Income Gap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Income distribution has become one of the people's main concerns in China where more than 30years of reform and opening up have also resulted in an ever-expanding wealth gap.But narrowing down the rich-poor disparity will prove to be no easy task.Wei Zhong,a researcher with the Institute of Economics under the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences,elaborated on the origins and trends of China's widening income gap,and discussed solutions to curb the gap,in a recent article.Edited excerpts follow:

  12. Gross Pollutant Traps: Wet Load Assessment at Sungai Kerayong, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Shah, M. R.; Zahari, N. M.; Said, N. F. Md; Sidek, L. M.; Basri, H.; Noor, M. S. F. Md; Husni, M. M. Mohammad; Jajarmizadeh, Milad; Roseli, ZA; Mohd. Dom, N.

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this project is to carry out assessment on the effectiveness and performance of Gross Pollutant Traps (GPTs) stormwater quality control in the urban areas. The study aims to provide a management and planning tool for effective management of the gross pollutants in the urban areas specifically in River of Life (ROL) project. ROL project is a Malaysian Government initiative under the Economic Transformation Program. One of the program in the greater Klang Valley is to transform Klang River into a vibrant and livable waterfront by the year 2020. The main river in ROL catchment is Sungai Klang (upper catchment), with main tributaries Sungai Gombak, Sungai Batu, Sungai Jinjang, Sungai Keroh, Sungai Bunus, Sungai Ampang and Sungai Kerayong. This paper objective is to study the gross pollutant wet load at Sungai Kerayong 1 and Sungai Kerayong 2 which is located at the downstream location of the ROL project. The result shows that Sungai Kerayong 2 produced higher gross pollutant wet load (8025.33 kg/ha/yr) than Sungai Kerayong 1 (4695.12 kg/ha/yr). This could be due to high contributions amounts of gross pollutant traps from residential area, the degree of develop area, and also the location of the river itself related to climate and rainfall.

  13. Gross efficiency during rowing is not affected by stroke rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmijster, Mathijs J; Van Soest, Arthur J; De Koning, Jos J

    2009-05-01

    It has been suggested that the optimal stroke rate in rowing is partly determined by the stroke-rate dependence of internal power losses. This should be reflected in a stroke-rate dependency of gross efficiency (e(gross)). The purpose of this study was to investigate if e(gross) is affected by stroke rate. A second aim was to determine whether internal power losses can be estimated by the negative power output during the stroke cycle (P(negative)). Seventeen well-trained female rowers participated in this study. They rowed three trials on a modified rowing ergometer on slides at a submaximal intensity, with a respiratory exchange ratio of 1 or close to 1. Stroke rates were 28, 34, and 40 strokes per minute. The trials were fully randomized. Power transfer to the flywheel was kept constant whereas e(gross) was determined during each trial. No significant differences in e(gross) were found between conditions. This finding suggests that in rowing internal power losses are not influenced by stroke rate. Furthermore, although P(negative) increased at increasing stroke rate (P measure to estimate internal power losses. This study shows that within the range of stroke rates applied in competitive rowing, internal power losses are unrelated to rowing cycle frequency.

  14. Developments of regional gross domestic product and the unemployment rate in Romania during 2000 - 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schonauer (Sacală Corina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Economic development of territorial units can be characterized by measuring the ability of producing goods and services and by measuring labor force in the area. The capacity of producing goods and services is measured by calculating the gross domestic product indicator. This article presents a comparative analysis of the evolution of regional GDP and the ILO unemployment rate at the level of the eight regions in Romania for a period of 13 years. The presented data come from the National Institute of Statistics of Romania.

  15. Down With Income Taxes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    China increases its income tax exemption threshold to reduce tax burdens on low-wage earners As a company clerk, 32-year-old Ren Jun doesn’t make a lot of money.Of his meager paycheck, he needs to pay about 250 yuan ($39) in taxes each month. From September,

  16. Income pooling within families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonke, Jens; Uldall-Poulsen, Hans

    , past partners, upbringing) and household characteristics (household income, duration of marriage, location of residence and the existence of public goods, including children). However, when all variables are evaluated in a common model, only the duration of marriage and the existence of children...

  17. Gross municipal product: the design procedure and application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Vasilevich Kolechkov

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the actual problem to find the adequate methods to assess the economic performance of municipalities conditioned by their growing independence and role in the development of regional economy. Nowadays many researchers are working on the practical application and testing of various approaches to assessing theterritory economicresults based on thecalculation of gross municipal product (GМP. However, the development of methodological reasonable calculation tools is still at an early stage. In this article presents a simplified method of calculating the gross municipal product, an analysis of the dynamics and territorialindustrial structure GМP, implemented in terms of grouping areas GМP methods hierarchical cluster analysis of the economic characteristics of the obtained clustersbased on systematic occurring in the economic literature, methodological developments in the calculation of gross municipal product, determination of strengths and weaknesses of different methodological approaches

  18. Anatomy of the Gross Intestine of the Capybara (Hydrochoerus Hydrochaeris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelia Vazquez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The anatomy of the gross intestine and its mesentery of the capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris have not been described completely. Approach: In the present study, eight adult capybaras were studied using gross dissection. Results: The cecum was the largest part of the intestine and was divided into base, body and apex. The cecocolic fold joined the cecum to the full extent of the proximal loop of ascending colon. The ascending colon was divided into two ansae, one proximal and one distal or spiral. The distal ansa had a spiral arrangement and was placed cranially to the right, covered ventrally by the apex of the cecum. This ansa had a centripetal gyrus to the left, a central flexure and a centrifugal gyrus turning to the right that was continuous with the transverse colon in the right colic flexure. Conclusion: The gross intestine of the capybara was different to other previously studied rodents.

  19. Potato production in Europe - a gross margin analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren Marcus; Bizik, Jan; Costa, Luisa Dalla;

    The purpose of this paper is to examine different cropping practices, cost structures and gross margins for producing conventional table potatoes in 6 different regions within the European Union: Czech Republic, Denmark, Italy, Poland, Portugal and Slovakia. Findings from this study show that pot......The purpose of this paper is to examine different cropping practices, cost structures and gross margins for producing conventional table potatoes in 6 different regions within the European Union: Czech Republic, Denmark, Italy, Poland, Portugal and Slovakia. Findings from this study show...... that potato cropping practices varies signifi-cantly between these countries with major differences in yields and costs. Italy and Denmark are the two regions with highest gross margins due to high yields and reve-nues. Poland is by far the largest potato producing country among the 6 countries ex...

  20. 12 CFR 741.204 - Maximum public unit and nonmember accounts, and low-income designation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... low-income designation. 741.204 Section 741.204 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION... Unions § 741.204 Maximum public unit and nonmember accounts, and low-income designation. Any credit union...) Obtain a low-income designation in order to accept nonmember accounts, other than from public units...

  1. A survey of gross alpha and gross beta activity in soil samples in Kinta District, Perak, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Siak Kuan; Wagiran, Husin; Ramli, Ahmad Termizi

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the gross alpha and gross beta activity concentrations from the different soil types found in the Kinta District, Perak, Malaysia. A total of 128 soil samples were collected and their dose rates were measured 1 m above the ground. Gross alpha and gross beta activity measurements were carried out using gas flow proportional counter, Tennelec Series 5 LB5500 Automatic Low Background Counting System. The alpha activity concentration ranged from 15 to 9634 Bq kg(-1) with a mean value of 1558±121 Bq kg(-1). The beta activity concentration ranged from 142 to 6173 Bq kg(-1) with a mean value of 1112±32 Bq kg(-1). High alpha and beta activity concentrations are from the same soil type. The results of the analysis show a strong correlation between the gross alpha activity concentration and dose rate (R = 0.92). The data obtained can be used as a database for each soil type.

  2. Ludwik Gross, Sarah Stewart, and the 1950s discoveries of Gross murine leukemia virus and polyoma virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Gregory J

    2014-12-01

    The Polish-American scientist Ludwik Gross made two important discoveries in the early 1950s. He showed that two viruses - murine leukemia virus and parotid tumor virus - could cause cancer when they were injected into susceptible animals. At first, Gross's discoveries were greeted with skepticism: it seemed implausible that viruses could cause a disease as complex as cancer. Inspired by Gross's initial experiments, similar results were obtained by Sarah Stewart and Bernice Eddy who later renamed the parotid tumor virus SE polyoma virus after finding it could cause many different types of tumors in mice, hamsters, and rats. Eventually the "SE" was dropped and virologists adopted the name "polyoma virus." After Gross's work was published, additional viruses capable of causing solid tumors or blood-borne tumors in mice were described by Arnold Graffi, Charlotte Friend, John Moloney and others. By 1961, sufficient data had been accumulated for Gross to confidently publish an extensive monograph--Oncogenic Viruses--the first history of tumor virology, which became a standard reference work and marked the emergence of tumor virology as a distinct, legitimate field of study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A Study on the Government Revenues and Expenditures to Adjust and Improve the Distribution of National Income%基于调整和改善国民收入分配格局的政府收支研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丛树海

    2012-01-01

    China's GDP had increased by 9.2% in 2011, while government revenues had grown by 24.8% during the same period. The size of government revenue shows not only the government fiscal capacity but also the structure of national income distribution as well as the position of the government. It's necessary to appropriately control the size of government revenue for the target that the laborer shares the achievements of the economic growth. The structure of the government expenditures reflects the scope and direction of government 's activity. During the transformation of government functions, i expenditures on economic constructions should be reduced , while the market will play a more important role in the resource allocation. Government administrative expenses should be continuously controlled and cut down in order to construct a more economical and efficient government organization. The expenditure on people's livelihood should be enhanced to improve the people's welfare.%政府收入规模不仅体现了政府的财政能力,而且反映着国民收入分配基本格局及政府在其中的地位。纵观我国20世纪90年代以来,政府财政收入持续快速增长的同时,劳动者收入在国民收入中占比持续下降的事实,要实现“让劳动者分享经济发展成果”的目标,有必要适度控制政府收入规模。政府支出结构反映着政府活动的范围和方向。我国政府职能向公共服务型转变,必然要求政府支出内容上逐步减少经济建设支出,让市场在资源配置方面更好发挥作用;逐步控制和适度削减政府行政性开支,建设一个节俭高效的政府组织;逐步增加民生开支和社会福利开支,不断提高民生福祉。

  4. Numerical simulation for the Gross-Pitaevskii equation based on the lattice Boltzmann method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huimin

    2017-09-01

    A lattice Boltzmann model for the Gross-Pitaevskii equation is proposed in this paper. Some numerical tests for one- and two-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation have been conducted. The waves of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation are simulated. Numerical results show that the lattice Boltzmann method is an effective method for the wave of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation.

  5. 29 CFR 779.259 - What is included in annual gross volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is included in annual gross volume. 779.259 Section... Coverage Annual Gross Volume of Sales Made Or Business Done § 779.259 What is included in annual gross volume. (a) The annual gross volume of sales made or business done of an enterprise consists of its...

  6. 29 CFR 794.122 - Ascertainment of “annual” gross sales volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ascertainment of âannualâ gross sales volume. 794.122... Annual Gross Volume of Sales § 794.122 Ascertainment of “annual” gross sales volume. The annual gross volume of sales of an enterprise engaged in the wholesale or bulk distribution of petroleum...

  7. The Impact of Investments and Gross Value Added upon Earnings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa APARASCHIVEI

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we tried to capture the impact of investments and gross value added, but also the impact of the employment on the average wage. The analysis refers to the period 1998- 2008 and we are using data on the activities of the Romanian economy. The results of this study confirm the negative influence of the employment, being consistent with the theory. Also, the impact of investments and that of gross value added came out to be positive and significant.

  8. Revised Phase Diagram of the Gross-Neveu Model

    CERN Document Server

    Thies, M; Thies, Michael; Urlichs, Konrad

    2003-01-01

    We confirm earlier hints that the conventional phase diagram of the discrete chiral Gross-Neveu model in the large N limit is deficient at non-zero chemical potential. We present the corrected phase diagram constructed in mean field theory. It has three different phases, including a kink-antikink crystal phase. All transitions are second order. The driving mechanism for the new structure of baryonic matter in the Gross-Neveu model is an Overhauser type instability with gap formation at the Fermi surface.

  9. Estimation of household income diversification in South Africa: A case study of three provinces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jabulani Mathebula

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We estimated household income diversification in settlement types of the poorest provinces in South Africa the Eastern Cape, Limpopo and KwaZulu-Natal. We obtained data from the 2010/2011 Income and Expenditure Survey from Statistics South Africa and Wave 3 data from the National Income Dynamics Study. We used the number of income sources, the number of income earners and the Shannon Diversity Index to estimate income diversification in the study provinces. The results show that households in the traditional and urban formal areas diversified income sources to a greater extent than households in urban informal and rural formal settlements. The varied degrees of income diversification in the three provinces suggest that targeted policy initiatives aimed at enhancing household income are important in these provinces.

  10. Monitoring of gross alpha, gross beta and actinides activities in exhaust air released from the waste isolation pilot plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thakur, P., E-mail: pthakur@cemrc.org [Carlsbad Environmental Monitoring and Research Center, 1400 University Drive, Carlsbad, New Mexico 88220 (United States); Mulholland, G.P. [Carlsbad Environmental Monitoring and Research Center, 1400 University Drive, Carlsbad, New Mexico 88220 (United States)

    2011-09-15

    The simultaneous measurements of gross alpha and beta activities is one of the simplest radioanalytical technique used as a method for screening samples of both high and low activities of alpha and beta emitting radionuclides in environmental and bioassay samples. Such measurements are of great interest from both a radiological, waste disposal viewpoint, and to establish a trend of radioactivity based on long term monitoring. At the WIPP (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant) site, unfiltered exhaust air from the underground repository is the most important effluent. As part of its monitoring program, the particulates from WIPP exhaust air are collected everyday at a location typically called the Fixed Air Sampler (FAS) site or Station A, this site is located at the release point for aerosol effluents from the underground to the environment. The measurements of gross alpha and beta activity on air filter samples were performed using an ultra low level counter, PIC-MPC 9604-{alpha}/{beta}, from Protean Instrument Corporation. The high sensitivity of the gross alpha and beta instrument enables detection of low value activity from the air filters. In 2009, the values of gross alpha and beta activity concentrations ranged from Simultaneous measurements of gross alpha and gross beta activities in the particulates from WIPP exhaust air were performed. > Ultra low level counter, PIC-MPC 9604-{alpha}/{beta} counter was used for the measurements. > Values of gross alpha activity concentrations ranged from Values of gross beta activity concentrations ranged from

  11. Income inequality and population health: an analysis of panel data for 21 developed countries, 1975-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torre, Roberta; Myrskylä, Mikko

    2014-03-01

    The relative income-health hypothesis postulates that income distribution is an important determinant of population health, but the age and sex patterns of this association are not well known. We tested the relative income-health hypothesis using panel data collected for 21 developed countries over 30 years. Net of trends in gross domestic product per head and unobserved period and country factors, income inequality measured by the Gini index is positively associated with the mortality of males and females at ages 1-14 and 15-49, and with the mortality of females at ages 65-89 albeit less strongly than for the younger age groups. These findings suggest that policies to decrease income inequality may improve health, especially that of children and young-to-middle-aged men and women. The mechanisms behind the income inequality-mortality association remain unknown and should be the focus of future research.

  12. Labor Income Dynamics in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Cristóbal Huneeus L.; Andrea Repetto L.

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides an empirical analysis of individual earnings using data from the personal income survey Encuesta Suplementaria de Ingresos. We find that the predictable component of income is humpshaped over the life-cycle, and that there are strong effects from education. The unpredictable component of income can be described by a very persistent permanent shock and a transitory shock. Our estimates are built from a panel of cohorts, so we use US data from the Panel Study of Income Dynam...

  13. Income, Ideology, and Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Tausanovitch

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Do legislators represent the rich better than they represent the poor? Recent work provides mixed support for this proposition. I test the hypothesis of differential representation using a data set on the political preferences of 318,537 individuals. Evidence of differential representation in the House of Representatives is weak. Support for differential representation is stronger in the Senate. In recent years, representation has occurred primarily through the selection of a legislator from the appropriate party. Although the preferences of higher-income constituents account for more of the variation in legislator voting behavior, higher-income constituents also account for much more of the variation in district preferences. In light of the low level of overall responsiveness, differential responsiveness appears small.

  14. Immigration and income inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deding, Mette; Hussain, Azhar; Jakobsen, Vibeke

    2010-01-01

    During the last two decades most Western countries have experienced increased net immigration as well as increased income inequality. This article analyzes the effects on income inequality of an increased number of immigrants in Denmark and Germany for the 20- year period 1984-2003 and how...... the impact of the increased number of immigrants differs between the two countries. We find higher inequality for immigrants than natives in Denmark but vice versa for Germany. Over the period 1984-2003, this particular inequality gap has narrowed in both countries. At the same time, the contribution...... of immigrants to overall inequality has increased, primarily caused by increased between-group inequality. The share of immigrants in the population is more important for the change in overall inequality in Denmark than in Germany, while the opposite is the case for inequality among immigrants....

  15. Consumption, Income, and International Capital Market Integration

    OpenAIRE

    Ronald MacDonald; Tamim Bayoumi

    1995-01-01

    This paper uses consumption patterns across countries to measure capital market integration. It argues that earlier empirical tests of this type were potentially misspecified and proposes a more robust specification. The results indicate that Japan was the only industrialized country for which national consumption was fully integrated with the rest of the world over the period 1973-92. The main source of failure is excess sensitivity of consumption to home income. Particularly within the Euro...

  16. Comments on the research article by Gross et al. (2012)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guntur, Srinivas; Sørensen, Niels N.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this Letter to the Editor is to present a discussion on the physics of rotational augmentation based on existing work. One of the latest works by Gross et al. (2012) is highlighted here, and its conclusions are discussed. Based on the existing understanding of rotational augmentati...

  17. Effective Collaboration among the Gross Motor Assessment Team Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menear, Kristi S.; Davis, Timothy D.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the gross motor assessment team (GMAT) members' roles and collaborative approach to making appropriate decisions and modifications when addressing the needs of individuals with disabilities in physical education. Case studies of students are used to demonstrate effective uses of the GMAT. The primary outcome of the GMAT's…

  18. 40 CFR 403.15 - Net/Gross calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... STANDARDS GENERAL PRE-TREAT-MENT REGULATIONS FOR EXIST-ING AND NEW SOURCES OF POLLUTION § 403.15 Net/Gross... pollutants in the Industrial User's intake water in accordance with this section. Any Industrial User wishing... of the Industrial User, the applicable Standard will be calculated on a “net” basis (i.e., adjusted...

  19. Rubriek 'Meten in de praktijk': Gross Motor Function Measure.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenhof, C.; Ketelaar, M.

    2004-01-01

    De Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) is een instrument dat de grof-motorische vaardigheden meet van kinderen met cerebrale parese. De GMFM is expliciet ontwikkeld als evaluatief meetinstrument, wat betekent dat het bedoeld is om veranderingen over de tijd of verandering en die optreden na behandel

  20. Development of the Gross Motor Function Classification System (1997)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    To address the need for a standardized system to classify the gross motor function of children with cerebral palsy, the authors developed a five-level classification system analogous to the staging and grading systems used in medicine. Nominal group process and Delphi survey consensus methods were used to examine content validity and revise the…

  1. Effective Collaboration among the Gross Motor Assessment Team Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menear, Kristi S.; Davis, Timothy D.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the gross motor assessment team (GMAT) members' roles and collaborative approach to making appropriate decisions and modifications when addressing the needs of individuals with disabilities in physical education. Case studies of students are used to demonstrate effective uses of the GMAT. The primary outcome of the GMAT's…

  2. Assessing Gross Motor Skills of Kosovar Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shala, Merita

    2009-01-01

    In the light of the new developments in preschool education in Kosovo, this study attempts to carry out an assessment of the development of gross motor skills of preschool children attending institutional education. The emphasis is on creating a set of tests to measure the motor attainments of these children by conducting assessments of the…

  3. 78 FR 26575 - Gross Combination Weight Rating; Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-07

    ... Weight Rating; Definition AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION... definition of ``gross combination weight rating'' (or GCWR) to clarify that a GCWR is the greater of: the....regulations.gov . Fax: 1-202-493-2251. Mail: Docket Management Facility (M-30), U.S. Department of...

  4. Gross and Microscopic Lesions in Corals from Micronesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, T M; Aeby, G S; Hughen, K A

    2016-01-01

    The authors documented gross and microscopic morphology of lesions in corals on 7 islands spanning western, southern, and eastern Micronesia, sampling 76 colonies comprising 30 species of corals among 18 genera, with Acropora, Porites, and Montipora dominating. Tissue loss comprised the majority of gross lesions sampled (41%), followed by discoloration (30%) and growth anomaly (29%). Of 31 cases of tissue loss, most lesions were subacute (48%), followed by acute and chronic (26% each). Of 23 samples with discoloration, most were dark discoloration (40%), with bleaching and other discoloration each constituting 30%. Of 22 growth anomalies, umbonate growth anomalies composed half, with exophytic, nodular, and rugose growth anomalies composing the remainder. On histopathology, for 9 cases of dark discoloration, fungal infections predominated (77%); for 7 bleached corals, depletion of zooxanthellae from the gastrodermis made up a majority of microscopic diagnoses (57%); and for growth anomalies other than umbonate, hyperplasia of the basal body wall was the most common microscopic finding (63%). For the remainder of the gross lesions, no single microscopic finding constituted >50% of the total. Host response varied with the agent present on histology. Fragmentation of tissues was most often associated with algae (60%), whereas necrosis dominated (53%) for fungi. Two newly documented potentially symbiotic tissue-associated metazoans were seen in Porites and Montipora. Findings of multiple potential etiologies for a given gross lesion highlight the importance of incorporating histopathology in coral disease surveys. This study also expands the range of corals infected with cell-associated microbial aggregates.

  5. Gross and microscopic lesions in corals from Micronesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, Thierry M.; Aeby, Greta S.; Hughen, Konrad A.

    2015-01-01

    The authors documented gross and microscopic morphology of lesions in corals on 7 islands spanning western, southern, and eastern Micronesia, sampling 76 colonies comprising 30 species of corals among 18 genera, with Acropora, Porites, and Montipora dominating. Tissue loss comprised the majority of gross lesions sampled (41%), followed by discoloration (30%) and growth anomaly (29%). Of 31 cases of tissue loss, most lesions were subacute (48%), followed by acute and chronic (26% each). Of 23 samples with discoloration, most were dark discoloration (40%), with bleaching and other discoloration each constituting 30%. Of 22 growth anomalies, umbonate growth anomalies composed half, with exophytic, nodular, and rugose growth anomalies composing the remainder. On histopathology, for 9 cases of dark discoloration, fungal infections predominated (77%); for 7 bleached corals, depletion of zooxanthellae from the gastrodermis made up a majority of microscopic diagnoses (57%); and for growth anomalies other than umbonate, hyperplasia of the basal body wall was the most common microscopic finding (63%). For the remainder of the gross lesions, no single microscopic finding constituted >50% of the total. Host response varied with the agent present on histology. Fragmentation of tissues was most often associated with algae (60%), whereas necrosis dominated (53%) for fungi. Two newly documented potentially symbiotic tissue-associated metazoans were seen in Porites and Montipora. Findings of multiple potential etiologies for a given gross lesion highlight the importance of incorporating histopathology in coral disease surveys. This study also expands the range of corals infected with cell-associated microbial aggregates.

  6. 77 FR 51706 - Gross Combination Weight Rating (GCWR); Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration 49 CFR Parts 383 and 390 RIN 2126-AB53 Gross Combination Weight Rating (GCWR); Definition AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Direct final rule; request for comments. SUMMARY: The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration...

  7. Strategic improvements for gross anatomy web-based teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marker, David R; Juluru, Krishna; Long, Chris; Magid, Donna

    2012-01-01

    Current generations of graduate students have been immersed in technology from their early school years and have high expectations regarding digital resources. To better meet the expectations of Gross Anatomy students at our institution, electronic radiology teaching files for first-year coursework were organized into a web site. The web site was custom designed to provide material that directly correlated to the Gross Anatomy dissection and lectures. Quick links provided sets of images grouped by anatomic location. Additionally, Lab and Study Companions provided specific material for the students to review prior to and after lectures and gross dissections. Student opinions of this education resource were compared to student opinions of the prior year's digital teaching files. The new content was ranked as more user friendly (3.1 points versus 2.3 points) and more useful for learning anatomy (3.3 points versus 2.6 points). Many students reported that using the web portal was critical in helping them to better understand relationships of anatomical structures. These findings suggest that a well-organized web portal can provide a user-friendly, valuable educational resource for medical students who are studying Gross Anatomy.

  8. Fine and Gross Motor Ability in Males with ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Both fine and gross motor abilities were evaluated in 10-year-old males with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and compared to a group of control children at the School of Psychology, Curtin University of Technology, Perth, Australia.

  9. Construction of 2-dimensional Grosse-Wulkenhaar Model

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Zhituo

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we construct the noncommutative Grosse-Wulkenhaar model on 2-dimensional Moyal plane with the method of loop vertex expansion. We treat renormalization with this new tool, adapt Nelson's argument and prove Borel summability of the perturbation series. This is the first non-commutative quantum field theory model to be built in a non-perturbative sense.

  10. Monopol suretab kohaliku loomakasvataja / Oleg Gross ; interv . Illar Mõttus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Gross, Oleg, 1952-

    2005-01-01

    Väike-Maarja jäätmetehase monopoolse seisundi vastu sõna võtnud OG Elektra omanik Oleg Gross on kindel, et jäätmetehasega suretatakse kohalikud väiksemad lihatootjad välja. Kommenteerivad talupidaja Jüri Järvet ja Rakvere Lihakombinaadi direktor Olle Horm

  11. ɛ-expansion in the Gross-Neveu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, Avinash

    2016-10-01

    We use the recently developed CFT techniques of Rychkov and Tan to compute anomalous dimensions in the O( N ) Gross-Neveu model in d = 2 + ɛ dimensions. To do this, we extend the "cowpie contraction" algorithm of arXiv:1506.06616 to theories with fermions. Our results match perfectly with Feynman diagram computations.

  12. Barn music at St Donat's castle / Philip Gross

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Gross, Philip, 1952-

    2011-01-01

    Muusikafestivalist "Vale of Glamorgan", mis oli 2010. a. pühendatud Arvo Pärdile. Eesti kammermuusikaansambli Resonabilis kavas oli ka festivali tellimusel valminud uelsi helilooja Gareth Peredur Churchilli "Vocable", mille teksti kirjutas Philip Gross. Festivalikontsertide muljeid leiab Grossi luuletsüklis "Barn music" (avaldatud samas ajakirjanumbris, lk. 42-43)

  13. Attitudes of Healthcare Students on Gross Anatomy Laboratory Sessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashiro, Yukiko; Anahara, Reiko; Kohno, Toshihiko; Mori, Chisato; Matsuno, Yoshiharu

    2009-01-01

    At Chiba University, gross anatomy laboratory sessions ("laboratories") are required for physical therapy students. Though most physical therapy schools require their students to participate in laboratories so that they will better understand the structure of the human body, few data exist on the value of these laboratories specifically…

  14. Uniqueness of Meromorphic Functions and Question of Gross

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仪洪勋

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, we deal with the problem of uniqueness of meromorphic functions. It is shown that there exist two finite sets Sj (j=1, 2) such that any two nonconstant meromorphic functions f and g satisfying Ef(Sj)=Eg(Sj) for j = 1,2 must be identical, which answers a question posed by Gross.

  15. Interlimb Coordination: An Important Facet of Gross-Motor Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobbio, Tatiana; Gabbard, Carl; Cacola, Priscila

    2009-01-01

    Motor development attains landmark significance during early childhood. Although early childhood educators may be familiar with the gross-motor skill category, the subcategory of interlimb coordination needs greater attention than it typically receives from teachers of young children. Interlimb coordination primarily involves movements requiring…

  16. Barn music at St Donat's castle / Philip Gross

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Gross, Philip, 1952-

    2011-01-01

    Muusikafestivalist "Vale of Glamorgan", mis oli 2010. a. pühendatud Arvo Pärdile. Eesti kammermuusikaansambli Resonabilis kavas oli ka festivali tellimusel valminud uelsi helilooja Gareth Peredur Churchilli "Vocable", mille teksti kirjutas Philip Gross. Festivalikontsertide muljeid leiab Grossi luuletsüklis "Barn music" (avaldatud samas ajakirjanumbris, lk. 42-43)

  17. Gross Motor Development, Movement Abnormalities, and Early Identification of Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozonoff, Sally; Young, Gregory S.; Goldring, Stacy; Greiss-Hess, Laura; Herrera, Adriana M.; Steele, Joel; Macari, Suzanne; Hepburn, Susan; Rogers, Sally J.

    2008-01-01

    Gross motor development (supine, prone, rolling, sitting, crawling, walking) and movement abnormalities were examined in the home videos of infants later diagnosed with autism (regression and no regression subgroups), developmental delays (DD), or typical development. Group differences in maturity were found for walking, prone, and supine, with…

  18. Outcomes of a Rotational Dissection System in Gross Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshak, David W.; Oakes, Joanne; Hsieh, Pei-Hsuan; Chuang, Alice Z.; Cleary, Leonard J.

    2015-01-01

    At the University of Texas Houston Medical School, a rotational dissection system was introduced to improve coordination between the Gross Anatomy and the Introduction to Clinical Medicine (ICM) courses. Six students were assigned to each cadaver and divided into two teams. For each laboratory, one team was assigned to dissect and the other to…

  19. Strategic Improvements for Gross Anatomy Web-Based Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Marker

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Current generations of graduate students have been immersed in technology from their early school years and have high expectations regarding digital resources. To better meet the expectations of Gross Anatomy students at our institution, electronic radiology teaching files for first-year coursework were organized into a web site. The web site was custom designed to provide material that directly correlated to the Gross Anatomy dissection and lectures. Quick links provided sets of images grouped by anatomic location. Additionally, Lab and Study Companions provided specific material for the students to review prior to and after lectures and gross dissections. Student opinions of this education resource were compared to student opinions of the prior year’s digital teaching files. The new content was ranked as more user friendly (3.1 points versus 2.3 points and more useful for learning anatomy (3.3 points versus 2.6 points. Many students reported that using the web portal was critical in helping them to better understand relationships of anatomical structures. These findings suggest that a well-organized web portal can provide a user-friendly, valuable educational resource for medical students who are studying Gross Anatomy.

  20. Australian news media framing of medical tourism in low- and middle-income countries: a content review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Imison, Michelle; Schweinsberg, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Medical tourism - travel across international borders for health care - appears to be growing globally, with patients from high-income nations increasingly visiting low- and middle-income countries...

  1. 20 CFR 627.450 - Program income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Definition of program income. (1) Program income means income received by the recipient or subrecipient that... for copyrighted material, patents, patent applications, trademarks, and inventions developed by...

  2. Launching Low-Income Entrepreneurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laney, Kahliah

    2013-01-01

    With middle-income jobs in decline, entrepreneurship offers an increasingly promising pathway out of poverty; but few low-income New Yorkers are currently taking this route to economic self-sufficiency. This report provides the most comprehensive examination of low-income entrepreneurship in New York. The report documents current self-employment…

  3. The Widening Income Achievement Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, Sean F.

    2013-01-01

    Has the academic achievement gap between high-income and low-income students changed over the last few decades? If so, why? And what can schools do about it? Researcher Sean F. Reardon conducted a comprehensive analysis of research to answer these questions and came up with some striking findings. In this article, he shows that income-related…

  4. Income Tax in France

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    Memorandum from the HR and FP Departments and the Legal Service concerning the annual internal taxation certificate and the declaration of income for 2008 You are reminded that each year the Organization levies an internal tax on the financial and family benefits it pays to the members of the personnel (see Chapter V, Section 2 of the Staff Rules and Regulations) and that members of the personnel are thus exempt from external taxation on salaries and emoluments paid by CERN. This memorandum is intended to provide members of the personnel residing in France with information on how salaries and emoluments paid by CERN should be indicated in the 2008 income declaration form. For any other income, they are invited to comply with the instructions attached to the form. I - Annual internal taxation certificate for 2008 The annual certificate of internal taxation for 2008, issued by the FP Department, has been available since 1st March 2009 (see Bulletin No. 11-12/2009). It is int...

  5. Income tax in France

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    Memorandum from the HR and FP Departments and the Legal Service concerning the annual internal taxation certificate and the declaration of income for 2008 You are reminded that each year the Organization levies an internal tax on the financial and family benefits it pays to the members of the personnel (see Chapter V, Section 2 of the Staff Rules and Regulations) and that members of the personnel are thus exempt from external taxation on salaries and emoluments paid by CERN. This memorandum is intended to provide members of the personnel residing in France with information on how salaries and emoluments paid by CERN should be indicated in the 2008 income declaration form. For any other income, they are invited to comply with the instructions attached to the form. I - Annual internal taxation certificate for 2008 The annual certificate of internal taxation for 2008, issued by the FP Department, has been available since 1st March 2009 (see Bulletin No. 11-12/2009). It is int...

  6. Higher Education R&D and Productivity Growth: An Empirical Study on High-Income OECD Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eid, Ashraf

    2012-01-01

    This paper is a macro study on higher education R&D and its impact on productivity growth. I measure the social rate of return on higher education R&D in 17 high-income OECD countries using country level data on the percentage of gross expenditure on R&D performed by higher education, business, and government sectors over the period…

  7. Capital Income Tax Coordination and the Income Tax Mix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huizinga, Harry; Nielsen, Søren Bo

    2005-01-01

    Europe has seen several proposals for tax coordination only in the area of capital income taxation, leaving countries free to adjust their labor taxes. The expectation is that highercapital income tax revenues would cause countries to reduce their labor taxes. This paper shows that such changes...... in the mix of capital and labor taxes brought on by capital income tax coordination can potentially be welfare reducing. This reflects that in a non-cooperative equilibrium capital income taxes may be more distorting from an international perspective than are labor income taxes. Simulations with a simple...... model calibrated to EU public finance data suggest that countries indeed lower their labor taxes in response to higher coordinated capital income taxes. The overall welfare effects of capital income tax coordination, however, are estimated to remain positive.JEL Classification: F20, H87...

  8. INCOME INCONGRUITY, RACE AND PRETERM BIRTH (PTB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous research using birth records has found income incongruity associated with adverse birth outcomes. The effects of negative income incongruity (reporting lower household income than the census tract median household income) on PTB (<37 weeks completed gestation) are examin...

  9. INCOME INCONGRUITY, RACE AND PRETERM BIRTH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous research with vital records finds income incongruity associated with adverse birth outcomes. We examined the effects of negative income incongruity (reporting lower household income than the census tract median household income) on preterm birth (PTB <37 weeks completed ...

  10. INCOME INCONGRUITY, RACE AND PRETERM BIRTH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous research with vital records finds income incongruity associated with adverse birth outcomes. We examined the effects of negative income incongruity (reporting lower household income than the census tract median household income) on preterm birth (PTB <37 weeks completed ...

  11. Income Inequality and Economic Growth : What relation does regional income inequality have with local economic growth in US Metropolitan Areas?

    OpenAIRE

    Kandek, Barbara; Kajling, Veronika

    2017-01-01

    Income inequality has been widely debated since the beginning of economic development. This topic is especially present in today’s economic world as the gap between the poor and rich only seem to widen, even in developed nations. Surprisingly, this is especially true for the United States where the top 1 percent own almost 50 percent of the nation’s income shares. Several studies have spoken on the impact inequality has on a nation, but few have commented on the effect it may have on a nation...

  12. Surplus Value & Income Distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshizawa,Masayasu

    1993-01-01

    Introduction 1. Marx's Theory of Surplus-Value 1.1. Use-Value and Exchange-Value 1.2. Surplus-Value 1.3. Variable Capital and Constant Capital 2. Implications of Marx's Theory of Surplus-Value 2.1. First Implication-Exploitation 2.2. Second Implication-Deviation of Price from Value 2.3. Third Implication-Capitalist Corporation 3. Capital Accumulation and Income Distribution 3.1. The Effect of Capital Accumulation 3.2. Fall in the Rate of Profit 4. Conclusion 

  13. The consequences of high cigarette excise taxes for low-income smokers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew C Farrelly

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To illustrate the burden of high cigarette excise taxes on low-income smokers. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using data from the New York and national Adult Tobacco Surveys from 2010-2011, we estimated how smoking prevalence, daily cigarette consumption, and share of annual income spent on cigarettes vary by annual income (less than $30,000; $30,000-$59,999; and more than $60,000. The 2010-2011 sample includes 7,536 adults and 1,294 smokers from New York and 3,777 adults and 748 smokers nationally. Overall, smoking prevalence is lower in New York (16.1% than nationally (22.2% and is strongly associated with income in New York and nationally (P<.001. Smoking prevalence ranges from 12.2% to 33.7% nationally and from 10.1% to 24.3% from the highest to lowest income group. In 2010-2011, the lowest income group spent 23.6% of annual household income on cigarettes in New York (up from 11.6% in 2003-2004 and 14.2% nationally. Daily cigarette consumption is not related to income. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Although high cigarette taxes are an effective method for reducing cigarette smoking, they can impose a significant financial burden on low-income smokers.

  14. Industry Efficiency and Industry Income Gap——SFA Analysis Based on the Panel Data of National and Typical Provinces%行业效率与行业收入差距——基于全国及典型省市面板数据SFA模型的经验分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨秀云; 朱贻宁; 张敏

    2012-01-01

    highest of the 10 industries efficiency ,in the contrary ,the income of the manufacturing industry is the lowest, In another word, the most serious industry of the inversion phe-nomenon between industrial efficiency and income is manufacturing industry. Also, the consistent corresponding rela- tionship between the industrial income and efficiency, such as financial industry, transportation, storage and postal services industries and electricity, gas and water industries, shows obvious geographical characteristics. Due to local differences in resource endowments, location and industrial structure, the numbers and types of the industry as thesame ranks of the industrial income and efficiency are different. Therefore, the government should establish the in- come distribution system based on the industry efficiency and inhibit the industry income gap generated by the non- efficiency factors. Government should take measures as follows. Firstly, improve the of marketization of enterprises, promote technological innovation, motivate the development of diverse forms of ownership, narrow the industrial in-come gap and make the Kuznets curve of the income gap between central and western regions reach the inflection point. Secondly, publish policies of income distribution, support industries with high efficiency and increase their in- come. Meanwhile, direct human resources and capital towards substantial economy and adjust industrial and econom- ic structure to improve economic quality and get ready to response to the financial crisis. Thirdly, deepen the reform of monopoly industries, encourage the development of diverse forms of ownership, promote the competition in the in-dustry and eliminate the monopoly profits finally. With regard to state-owned monopoly industries which are related to national economic strategies, the government should increase the rate of bonus to support social welfare system and other fields of public service. Last but not least, eliminate the abnorma

  15. EU Integration and Harmonisation of Personal Income Taxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Wołowiec

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In the process of furthering EU integration little attention was given to the role of income taxes. Multiple income tax systems exist across the Union and their differentiation negatively impacts the European labour market, investments and savings, inhibiting economic growth. Individual nations have little motivation to harmonise as they can engage in tax rate competition and income taxes are interwoven with social security systems that make any attempts at reform extremely complex and politically unpopular. Much of current harmonisation is “silent”, paralegal, and occurs in response to market forces rather than following a formal plan and through intergovernmental cooperation.

  16. Relationship between income and repeat criminal victimization in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Justus

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the effect of income on repeat criminal victimization in Brazil using data from the 2009 National Household Sample Survey and its special supplement on victimization and access to justice. Two count-data models were estimated for four types of crime: theft, robbery, attempted theft/robbery, and physical assault. A positive nonlinear effect of income on repeat victimization for the three types of property crimes and a negative nonlinear effect of income on physical assault were observed.

  17. Empirical Research on the Relations between Farmers’ Income Increase and Economic Development in Henan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    According to data of per capita net income of rural households and the per capita regional gross output from 1978 to 2008 provided by the Henan Statistical Yearbook, we know that both of the time series obey the unit root process, so they belong to non-stationary time series. The results of the Engle-Granger two-stage estimation method show that the two terms have long-term stable integration equilibrium relations. The results of Granger Causality Test show that there is only the one way Granger Causality relation from farmers’ income increase to economic growth. Connecting with the reality of Henan Province, the possible reasons are analyzed. The population of rural residents is huge and the income level of the rural residents are low, and the marginal consumption tendency is bigger than urban and township residents, so the increase of farmers’ income will promote economic growth. Notably, the income increase of farmers is even more helpful to expand domestic demand. Since 1978, the consumption level and structure of farmers in Henan Province is increasing gradually and the role played by of farmers’ income increase in stimulating economic growth is increasing. Besides, the urban-rural double system which serves for economic development strategy is the historic root for the expanding gap of urban and rural income. In addition, the economic policy which gives priority to cities is the system root for the expanding gap of rural and urban income.

  18. The Impact of Changes of the Internal Agricultural Structure in Sichuan Province on Farmers’ Income

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    After introducing the status quo of farmers’ net income and gross output value of agriculture of Sichuan Province,and the changes of agricultural output structure,the regression analysis was conducted on the impact of the changes in agricultural structure on the farmers’ net income per capita on the strengthen of the data from Sichuan statistical yearbook and by the way of econometrics.The multiple linear regression analysis was conducted on the impact the changes in crop farming on farmers’ net income by using logarithmic demand model.The results show that the agricultural structure has transformed from the dominant crop farming to the all-around developmental trend covering the dominant industry,animal husbandry and forestry,fishery and the other industries;the animal husbandry has greatest impact on famers’ income per capita and the impact of crop farming is slightly weaker than animal husbandry;the crop farming and animal husbandry develop fairly rapid simultaneously and the two all have great impact in farmers’ income;among animal husbandry,the meat and eggs have relatively great impact on farmers’ income,while in crop farming,grain plays the dominant role in affecting farmers’ income,followed by cash crop.Hence,the relevant countermeasures applied to increase farmers’ income are put forward in terms of optimizing the internal structure of agriculture,adjusting the internal structure of crop farming,adjusting the internal structure of animal husbandry and strengthening the support of farmers.

  19. Evaluating dissection in the gross anatomy course: Correlation between quality of laboratory dissection and students outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwachukwu, Chika; Lachman, Nirusha; Pawlina, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    Anatomy learned by active exploration through dissection has many proven benefits including improvement of anatomic knowledge. Decreased laboratory time may affect the quality of dissection and ultimately lower student performance in anatomy translating to lower knowledge acquisition. The aim of this study was to determine whether the quality of students' dissection in teams correlates with their performance in the gross anatomy course. Quality of dissections for each team enrolled in a gross anatomy course at Mayo Medical School was evaluated biweekly using a five-point rubric based on course learning objectives. Assessment of anatomic knowledge was based on sequential laboratory practice practical examination scores, achievements on daily audience response system (ARS) quizzes, and final practical, written, and National Board of Medical Examiners(®) (NBME(®) ) Gross Anatomy and Embryology Subject Examinations. Twelve teams comprising 48 students were included in the study. There was a positive correlation between dissection quality and practice practical examination score (R = 0.83) and a negative correlation between dissection quality and ARS quizzes (R = -0.985). Dissection teams with a passing score on their dissection evaluations (>70%) performed better on their final examinations. Based on an end of course survey, students agreed that dissection evaluations should continue to be a part of the course. This study showed that better quality of dissection was associated with higher scores on practice practical examinations, final practical, written, and NBME examinations. The study demonstrated a positive correlation between dissection evaluations, accompanied by formative feedback during the course, and higher scores on final course assessments.

  20. Prediction on China’s Economic Gross and People’s Living Standard in the Realization Process of“Chinese Dream”%“中国梦”实现过程的中国经济总量和人民生活水平预测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴庆军

    2015-01-01

    文章分析了“中国梦”实现的三个阶段中,中国经济总量和人民生活水平将会发生的变化。文章预测:按实际汇率换算,2021年中国经济总量将超越美国成为世界第一经济大国,此时中国的人民生活水平将达到当时的世界平均水平;2049年中国的人民生活水平将达到世界高收入国家90%的生活水平;2065年中国的人民生活水平将达到最发达国家的生活水平,进而全面实现几代中国人梦寐以求的中华民族的伟大复兴。%This paper analyzes what changes of China’s economic gross and people’s living standard will occour during the three stages to realize the“Chinese Dream”. The paper,according to the actual exchange rate,forecasts that China’s eco⁃nomic gross will overtake the economic gross of the United States and become the world’s largest economy by the year of 2021, the living standard will also reach the world average by then. Chinese living standard will reach 90 percent of that of the world’s high-income countries in 2049 and that of the most developed countries in 2065. And then the dream of the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation for several generations will be realized.

  1. Income situation of households as a social status indicator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Stávková

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The net financial income of households plays a crucial role in assessing their living standard. It determines of which social class they are members and, thus, their social status as well. In order to monitor their income situation, this paper uses survey data of the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU SILC. An abundance of identification data, such as economic activity, industrial classification or sector of economic activity, level of education, age, number of household members, place of residence, household type and others, makes it possible to identify factors that demonstrably influence the household income level. On this basis, it is possible not only to determine the commonly available social class definitions using income intervals, but also to identify specific causes affecting household income and, thus, link a particular household to a given social class. The goal of this article is to establish which factors influence the income level of households. The authors of this paper focused on four factors: social group membership, occupation classified according to the national economy sectors, the highest level of education attained by the household leader and their age. To analyse the influence of selected factors including their interaction and impact on the income situation of households, the authors applied the method of analysing variance between groups (ANOVA using STATA statistical software. The Scheffe’s method of contrasts was used to determine specific differences between factor levels.

  2. Vast Portfolio Selection with Gross-exposure Constraints*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jianqing; Zhang, Jingjin; Yu, Ke

    2012-01-01

    We introduce the large portfolio selection using gross-exposure constraints. We show that with gross-exposure constraint the empirically selected optimal portfolios based on estimated covariance matrices have similar performance to the theoretical optimal ones and there is no error accumulation effect from estimation of vast covariance matrices. This gives theoretical justification to the empirical results in Jagannathan and Ma (2003). We also show that the no-short-sale portfolio can be improved by allowing some short positions. The applications to portfolio selection, tracking, and improvements are also addressed. The utility of our new approach is illustrated by simulation and empirical studies on the 100 Fama-French industrial portfolios and the 600 stocks randomly selected from Russell 3000. PMID:23293404

  3. Vast Portfolio Selection with Gross-exposure Constraints().

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jianqing; Zhang, Jingjin; Yu, Ke

    2012-01-01

    We introduce the large portfolio selection using gross-exposure constraints. We show that with gross-exposure constraint the empirically selected optimal portfolios based on estimated covariance matrices have similar performance to the theoretical optimal ones and there is no error accumulation effect from estimation of vast covariance matrices. This gives theoretical justification to the empirical results in Jagannathan and Ma (2003). We also show that the no-short-sale portfolio can be improved by allowing some short positions. The applications to portfolio selection, tracking, and improvements are also addressed. The utility of our new approach is illustrated by simulation and empirical studies on the 100 Fama-French industrial portfolios and the 600 stocks randomly selected from Russell 3000.

  4. Gross-Pitaevski map as a chaotic dynamical system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarneri, Italo

    2017-03-01

    The Gross-Pitaevski map is a discrete time, split-operator version of the Gross-Pitaevski dynamics in the circle, for which exponential instability has been recently reported. Here it is studied as a classical dynamical system in its own right. A systematic analysis of Lyapunov exponents exposes strongly chaotic behavior. Exponential growth of energy is then shown to be a direct consequence of rotational invariance and for stationary solutions the full spectrum of Lyapunov exponents is analytically computed. The present analysis includes the "resonant" case, when the free rotation period is commensurate to 2 π , and the map has countably many constants of the motion. Except for lowest-order resonances, this case exhibits an integrable-chaotic transition.

  5. The San Andreas fault experiment. [gross tectonic plates relative velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D. E.; Vonbun, F. O.

    1973-01-01

    A plan was developed during 1971 to determine gross tectonic plate motions along the San Andreas Fault System in California. Knowledge of the gross motion along the total fault system is an essential component in the construction of realistic deformation models of fault regions. Such mathematical models will be used in the future for studies which will eventually lead to prediction of major earthquakes. The main purpose of the experiment described is the determination of the relative velocity of the North American and the Pacific Plates. This motion being so extremely small, cannot be measured directly but can be deduced from distance measurements between points on opposite sites of the plate boundary taken over a number of years.

  6. GLOBALIZATION AND GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT CONSTRUCTION IN ASEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Sri Wahyudi Suliswanto

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available There is no more doubt about the importance of economic growth, which can be calculated fromGross Domestic Product (GDP. This research analyzes the role of globalization on GDP inASEAN-5 by estimating panel data. It uses a fixed effect approach to accommodate various characteristicsin the countries. To accommodate such variation, it assumes that the intercepts variesacross these countries, while the slopes remain similar. Based on the estimation result, it suggeststhat net export and foreign direct investment represent the globalization process. Both have positiveand significant influences on GDP in the corresponding countries.Keywords: Globalization, international trade, foreign direct investment, gross domestic productJEL classification numbers: E01, F51, F43

  7. PREDICTION OF GROSS FEED EFFICIENCY IN ITALIAN HOLSTEIN FRIESIAN BULLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaella Finocchiaro

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to predict gross feed efficiency of Italian Holstein Friesian bulls selected for production, functional and type traits. A total of 12,238 bulls, from the April 2015 genetic evaluation, were used. Predicted daily gross feed efficiency (pFE was obtained as ratio between milk yield (MY and predicted dry matter intake (pDMI. Phenotypic trend for MY, predicted body weight (pBW and pFE were calculated by the bull birth year. The results suggest that pFE can be successfully selected to increase profitability of dairy cattle using the current milk recording system. Direct measurements on DMI should be considered to confirm results of pFE obtained in the present study.

  8. Farmer Income Differential in Regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Qian; MIAO Shanshan

    2006-01-01

    China's success in reform and opening up policy for twenty years is regarded as China's miracles in the world,whereas the income differential widening phenomenon has been the focus of the policymakers and researchers. This article researches 1994-2003 China's rural regions income differential and its decomposition. The method this paper used to measure the disparity is Gini Index. There are many ways to compute it, so the easiest way to decompose Gini Index-Matrix method is adopted. And based on it, farmer's income could be divided into wage income, farming income,transfer income and property income according to its composition. The conclusion is that all of the indexes are between 0.2 and 0.3, at the comparatively average level. From the fluctuation trend, it increased from 1994 to 1995, while reduced from 1995 to 1996, fluctuated in 1997, and then diminished again. In general, farmer's regions income differential stays at comparatively average level, but it has the widening trend with time. Through decomposing Gini Index, wage income is the most important increasing factor, while farming income is the reducing factor.

  9. Gross efficiency and energy expenditure in kayak ergometer exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, B B; Mourão, L; Massart, A; Figueiredo, P; Vilas-Boas, J P; Santos, A M C; Fernandes, R J

    2012-08-01

    We purposed to study energy expenditure, power output and gross efficiency during kayak ergometer exercise in 12 elite sprint kayakers. 6 males (age 24.2±4.8 years, height 180.4±4.8 cm, body mass 79.7±8.5 kg) and 6 females (age 24.3±4.5 years, height 164.5±3.9 cm, body mass 65.4±3.5 kg), performed an incremental intermittent protocol on kayak ergometer with VO2 and blood lactate concentration assessment, a non-linear increase between power output and energy expenditure being observed. Paddling power output, energy expenditure and gross efficiency corresponding to VO2max averaged 199.92±50.41 W, 75.27±6.30 ml.kg - 1.min - 1, and 10.10±1.08%. Male kayakers presented higher VO2max, power output and gross efficiency at the VO2max, and lower heart rate and maximal lactate concentration than females, but no differences were found between genders regarding energy expenditure at VO2max. Aerobic and anaerobic components of energy expenditure evidenced a significant contribution of anaerobic energy sources in sprint kayak performance. Results also suggested the dependence of the gross efficiency on the changes in the amount of the aerobic and anaerobic contributions, at heavy and severe intensities. The inter-individual variance of the relationship between energy expenditure and the corresponding paddling power output revealed a relevant tracking for females (FDγ=0.73±0.06), conversely to the male group (FDγ=0.27±0.08), supporting that some male kayakers are more skilled in some paddling intensities than others.

  10. Constructive Renormalization of 2-dimensional Grosse-Wulkenhaar Model

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Zhituo

    2012-01-01

    In this talk we briefly report the recent work on the construction of the 2-dimensional Grosse-Wulkenhaar model with the method of loop vertex expansion. We treat renormalization with this new tool, adapt Nelson's argument and prove Borel summability of the perturbation series. This is the first non-commutative quantum field theory model to be built in a non-perturbative sense.

  11. Prediction of National Wealth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whetzel, Deborah L.; McDaniel, Michael A.

    2006-01-01

    In their book, IQ and the Wealth of Nations, Lynn and Vanhanen ([Lynn, R. and Vanhanen, T. (2002). IQ and the wealth of nations. Westport, CT: Praeger.]) proposed the hypothesis that "the intelligence of the populations has been a major factor responsible for the national differences in economic growth and for the gap in per capita income between…

  12. The indicators of the national strategy for sustainable development 2010-2013 - 2012 issue; Les indicateurs de la strategie nationale de developpement durable 2010-2013 - edition 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-02-15

    The French national strategy for sustainable development has been adopted within the context of the Grenelle de l'Environnement. Fifteen key indicators (raw materials, early exits from the education system, research and development, women participation to governance bodies, aggregated emissions of six greenhouse gases, carbon print, renewable energies, energy consumption in transports and GDP, abundance index of common bird populations, soil artificialization, life expectancy and healthy life expectancy, monetary poverty rate after social transfers, senior employment rate, share of young people out of work and out of education, public aid to development) and four indicators of economic and social context (gross domestic income and GDP per inhabitant, unemployment and under-employment rates, income distribution, total fertility rate) have been defined. These indicators are presented and discussed with respect with nine different challenges

  13. Are State-Sponsored New Radiation Therapy Facilities Economically Viable in Low- and Middle-Income Countries?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Datta, Niloy R., E-mail: nrdatta@yahoo.com [Centre for Radiation Oncology, KSA-KSB, Kantonsspital Aarau, Aarau (Switzerland); Samiei, Massoud [Consultant, International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna (Austria); Bodis, Stephan [Centre for Radiation Oncology, KSA-KSB, Kantonsspital Aarau, Aarau, Switzerland and Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Zurich (Switzerland)

    2015-10-01

    Purpose: The economic viability of establishing a state-funded radiation therapy (RT) infrastructure in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) in accordance with the World Bank definition has been assessed through computation of a return on investment (ROI). Methods and Materials: Of the 139 LMICs, 100 were evaluated according to their RT facilities, gross national income (GNI) per capita, and employment/population ratio. The assumption was an investment of US$5 million for a basic RT center able to treat 1000 patients annually. The national breakeven points and percentage of ROI (%ROI) were calculated according to the GNI per capita and patient survival rates of 10% to 50% at 2 years. It was assumed that 50% of these patients would be of working age and that, if employed and able to work after treatment, they would contribute to the country's GNI for at least 2 years. The cumulative GNI after attaining the breakeven point until the end of the 15-year lifespan of the teletherapy unit was calculated to estimate the %ROI. The recurring and overhead costs were assumed to vary from 5.5% to 15% of the capital investment. Results: The %ROI was dependent on the GNI per capita, employment/population ratio and 2-year patient survival (all P<.001). Accordingly, none of the low-income countries would attain an ROI. If 50% of the patients survived for 2 years, the %ROI in the lower-middle and upper-middle income countries could range from 0% to 159.9% and 11.2% to 844.7%, respectively. Patient user fees to offset recurring and overhead costs could vary from “nil” to US$750, depending on state subsidies. Conclusions: Countries with a greater GNI per capita, higher employment/population ratio, and better survival could achieve a faster breakeven point, resulting in a higher %ROI. Additional factors such as user fees have also been considered. These can be tailored to the patient's ability to pay to cover the recurring costs. Certain pragmatic steps that could

  14. Hierarchical cluster analysis of labour market regulations and population health: a taxonomy of low- and middle-income countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muntaner Carles

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An important contribution of the social determinants of health perspective has been to inquire about non-medical determinants of population health. Among these, labour market regulations are of vital significance. In this study, we investigate the labour market regulations among low- and middle-income countries (LMICs and propose a labour market taxonomy to further understand population health in a global context. Methods Using Gross National Product per capita, we classify 113 countries into either low-income (n = 71 or middle-income (n = 42 strata. Principal component analysis of three standardized indicators of labour market inequality and poverty is used to construct 2 factor scores. Factor score reliability is evaluated with Cronbach's alpha. Using these scores, we conduct a hierarchical cluster analysis to produce a labour market taxonomy, conduct zero-order correlations, and create box plots to test their associations with adult mortality, healthy life expectancy, infant mortality, maternal mortality, neonatal mortality, under-5 mortality, and years of life lost to communicable and non-communicable diseases. Labour market and health data are retrieved from the International Labour Organization's Key Indicators of Labour Markets and World Health Organization's Statistical Information System. Results Six labour market clusters emerged: Residual (n = 16, Emerging (n = 16, Informal (n = 10, Post-Communist (n = 18, Less Successful Informal (n = 22, and Insecure (n = 31. Primary findings indicate: (i labour market poverty and population health is correlated in both LMICs; (ii association between labour market inequality and health indicators is significant only in low-income countries; (iii Emerging (e.g., East Asian and Eastern European countries and Insecure (e.g., sub-Saharan African nations clusters are the most advantaged and disadvantaged, respectively, with the remaining clusters experiencing levels of population

  15. Impact of Anatomy Boot Camp on Students in a Medical Gross Anatomy Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herling, Patrick J; Mohseni, B Tanya; Hill, Derek C; Chelf, Stacy; Rickert, Jeffrey A; Leo, Jonathan T; Langley, Natalie R

    2016-09-23

    Lincoln Memorial University-DeBusk College of Osteopathic Medicine (LMU-DCOM) offers an optional three-week summer Anatomy Boot Camp course (ABC) to facilitate students' transition into medical school and promote retention of anatomy subject matter. The pre-matriculation program is a supplemental instruction course that utilizes a small group learning format. Boot camp instruction is led by teaching assistants and two anatomy professors. Enrollees gain early exposure to Medical Gross Anatomy (MGA) course subject matter, which is taught in the fall semester, and learn study skills necessary to excel in medical school. No grade is assigned for the course, therefore participants can study without the fear of potentially affecting grades. This study evaluates the effectiveness of the LMU-DCOM ABC course using data from four consecutive summers. Independent two-sample t-tests were used to compare ABC to non-ABC students for the following variables: incoming grade point average (GPA) and Medical College Admission Test® (MCAT®) scores, MGA written and laboratory practical examination grades, and final MGA course grade. Additionally, a 26-question survey was administered to 2012-2014 boot camp participants. There were no significant differences in incoming GPA and MCAT scores. However, boot campers scored significantly higher on the first two lecture and laboratory examinations (P < 0.05) for each year of the study. Thereafter scores varied less, suggesting a faster head start for boot camp participants. Mean MGA final grade was on average 3% higher for the boot camp cohort. The survey feedback supports that the ABC course assists with the academic and social transition into medical school. Anat Sci Educ. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.

  16. Landscape History of Grosses Moos, NW Swiss Alpine Foreland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joanna Heer, Aleksandra; Adamiec, Grzegorz; Veit, Heinz; May, Jan-Hendrik; Novenko, Elena; Hajdas, Irka

    2017-04-01

    The western Swiss Plateau with Lake Neuchâtel is part of the alpine foreland and among the key areas for the reconstruction of environmental changes since the last postglacial. This study was carried out in a landscape located NE of the lake and called Grosses Moos (The Large Fen) - currently designated the Swiss largest, continuous farming area, after the fen was drained in course of landscape engineering projects performed in Switzerland at the end of the 19th century. The study contributes new results from nine excavations of littoral ridges identified in Grosses Moos, and integrates sedimentology, paleo-environmental analysis and three independent chronological methods. Radiocarbon dating, pollen analysis and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) were applied to the sediments. While pollen and radiocarbon follow the standard procedures, the evaluation of the luminescence age estimates demanded adjustment according to the physical and microdosimetric properties of the alpine quartz, and consideration of the peculiarities of the changing littoral environments of Grosses Moos. The Grosses Moos landscape developed on the temporary surface of the post-Last Glacial sedimentary infill of the over-deepened glacial Aare valley. In this study the landscape history has been fitted into the existing supraregional time scales of NGRIP, the Swiss bio-zones system and the human history based on archaeological and historic records and covers a time span of up to 15'000 yr b2k. The wide-ranging suite of geomorphic features and sedimentary sequences, including littoral lake sediments, beach ridges, dunes, palaeo-channels, peat and colluvial deposits, enable the extensive reconstruction of spatially and temporally variable natural shaping processes. In addition, our results indicate remobilization of soil, colluvium, and sediment due to human settlement activities since the Neolithic - with an important increase in sediment load and spatial variability since the Bronze Age

  17. Relationship Between Gross Motor Function and Daily Functional Skill in Children With Cerebral Palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Kwon, Tae Gun; Yi, Sook-Hee; Kim, Tae Won; Chang, Hyun Jung; Kwon, Jeong-Yi

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between gross motor function and daily functional skill in children with cerebral palsy (CP) and to explore how this relationship is moderated by the Gross Motor Function Classification System, Bimanual Fine Motor Function (BFMF), neuromotor types, and limb distribution of CP. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 112 children with CP (range, 4 years to 7 years and 7 months) was performed. Gross motor function was assessed with the Gross Motor Function ...

  18. Low income product innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cecília Sobral

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available At affluent markets, the literature on product development management tells us to aggregate value and technology, to differentiate products and to launch fast. And at the low-income markets? This exploratory research defines a popular product, characterizes and measures their markets in Brazil, and identifies innovation strategies for them. The results suggest that the effective strategic orientation differs from affluent markets. It includes: to enhance the auto service component; to identify and service the key functionalities to the targeted public; to standardize products and increase the production scale; to extend the product life cycle; to use convenient distribution and marketing channels; to build product images that have appeal in the popular market; to offer longer financing horizons with befittingly lower installments. Data came from market researches and general demographic census. General media published stories were used to identify companies and their strategies. And a few case studies allowed the authors a deeper exploration of the relevant themes.

  19. Investigating the Effect of Variations in Irrigation Water Price on Cropping Pattern and Gross Margin under Uncertainty (Case Study: Khorasan Razavi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Mardani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Water shortage crisis is an issue that has led to drastic changes in different agricultural policies, especially in arid and semi-arid areas. Uncertainty in the amount of resources, e.g. water, used for agricultural production entails risk for farmers' income and cropping pattern changes. In the present study, the robust optimization model was used for optimal allocation of arable lands of Khorasan Razavi Province under uncertainty. During the allocation, the effect of water input price variations on total gross margin and cropping pattern was considered. It was found that under certain data, both parameters of total gross margin and total acreage are more than uncertain data. Given that water price variations resulted in tangible changes in wheat acreage, it is recommended to adopt appropriate policies to reduce its production risk.

  20. Capital Income Tax Coordination and the Income Tax Mix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huizinga, Harry; Nielsen, Søren Bo

    2005-01-01

    Europe has seen several proposals for tax coordination only in the area of capital income taxation, leaving countries free to adjust their labor taxes. The expectation is that highercapital income tax revenues would cause countries to reduce their labor taxes. This paper shows that such changes i...

  1. 宏观经济学系统教学法探讨——以国民收入核算为例%A Study on the Systemic Approach in Teaching and Learning Macroeconomics: Based on the Theory of National Income Accounting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘传玉

    2012-01-01

    系统教学法强调对课程知识体系进行系统化处理,凭借学科概念或问题之间的内在逻辑关系帮助学生创建动态的封闭集群概念图。基于系统化思路,可以把宏观经济抽象为一个由四个部门与四个市场构成的简单系统,通过追踪国民收入在宏观经济系统的循环流动,复杂的国民收入核算问题得以生动形象地说明。这有利于学生更深刻地理解和更系统地掌握相关知识。%Systemic approach to teaching and learning means an arrangement of concepts or issues through interacting systems,and it will help students create a dynamic closed-cluster concept maps.Based on the systemic approach,we can regard macro economy as a simple system.By tracing the circulation of the national income in the macroeconomic system,we can explain the abstract and complex theory of the national income accounting vividly, and students also can understand it more deeply and master it more systematically.

  2. 26 CFR 1.959-2 - Exclusion from gross income of controlled foreign corporations of previously taxed earnings and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... acquiring shareholder establishes to the satisfaction of the district director his right to such exclusion... of a United States shareholder under section 951(a) shall not, when distributed through a chain of... corporation with respect to such United States shareholder. See section 959(b). The exclusion from the...

  3. 26 CFR 1.927(b)-1T - Temporary regulations; Definition of gross receipts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Temporary regulations; Definition of gross...(b)-1T Temporary regulations; Definition of gross receipts. (a) General rule. Under section 927(b.... The FSC's gross receipts for purposes of computing its profit under the administrative pricing...

  4. The relationship between gross motor skills and academic achievement in children with learning disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westendorp, Marieke; Hartman, Esther; Houwen, Suzanne; Smith, Joanne; Visscher, Chris

    2011-01-01

    The present study compared the gross motor skills of 7- to 12-year-old children with learning disabilities (n = 104) with those of age-matched typically developing children (n = 104) using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2. Additionally, the specific relationships between subsets of gross motor

  5. 46 CFR 130.110 - Internal communications on OSVs of less than 100 gross tons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Internal communications on OSVs of less than 100 gross... Internal communications on OSVs of less than 100 gross tons. Each vessel of less than 100 gross tons... have a fixed means of communication between the pilothouse and the place where the auxiliary means...

  6. The relationship between gross motor skills and academic achievement in children with learning disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westendorp, Marieke; Hartman, Esther; Houwen, Suzanne; Smith, Joanne; Visscher, Chris

    2011-01-01

    The present study compared the gross motor skills of 7- to 12-year-old children with learning disabilities (n = 104) with those of age-matched typically developing children (n = 104) using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2. Additionally, the specific relationships between subsets of gross motor

  7. 26 CFR 20.2031-1 - Definition of gross estate; valuation of property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., except that if the executor elects the alternate valuation method under section 2032, it is the fair... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definition of gross estate; valuation of... § 20.2031-1 Definition of gross estate; valuation of property. (a) Definition of gross estate. Except...

  8. 26 CFR 1.924(a)-1T - Temporary regulations; definition of foreign trading gross receipts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... trading gross receipts. 1.924(a)-1T Section 1.924(a)-1T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... United States § 1.924(a)-1T Temporary regulations; definition of foreign trading gross receipts. (a) In general. The term “foreign trading gross receipts” means any of the five amounts described in...

  9. Income Inequality in Rural India: Decomposing the Gini by Income Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Mehtabul Azam; Abusaleh Shariff

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines income inequality in rural India in 1993 and 2005. It attempts to ascertain the contribution of different income sources to overall income inequality, and change in their relative importance between 1993 and 2005 through decomposition of Gini coefficient. The paper finds that income inequality has increased between 1993 and 2005. Agriculture income continues to contribute majorly in total income and income inequality; however its share in total income and total income ineq...

  10. Happiness and age in European adults: The moderating role of gross domestic product per capita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Jessica; Robinson, Oliver; Thompson, Trevor

    2015-09-01

    Studies of happiness levels across the life span have found support for two rival hypotheses. The positivity effect states that as people get older, they increasingly attend to positive information, which implies that happiness remains stable or increases with age, whereas the U-shaped hypothesis posits a curvilinear shape resulting from a dip during midlife. Both have been presented as potentially universal hypotheses that relate to cognitive and/or biological causes. The current study examined the happiness-age relationship across 29 European nations (N = 46,301) to explore whether it is moderated by national wealth, as indexed by Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita. It was found that eudaimonic and hedonic happiness remained relatively stable across the life span only in the most affluent nations; in poorer nations, there was either a fluctuating or steady age-associated decline. These findings challenge the cultural universality of the happiness-age relationship and suggest that models of how age relates to happiness should include the socioeconomic level of analysis. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. National Economic Development and Disparities in Body Mass Index: A Cross-Sectional Study of Data from 38 Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuman, Melissa; Kawachi, Ichiro; Gortmaker, Steven; Subramanian, SV.

    2014-01-01

    Background Increases in body mass index (BMI) and the prevalence of overweight in low- and middle income countries (LMICs) are often ascribed to changes in global trade patterns or increases in national income. These changes are likely to affect populations within LMICs differently based on their place of residence or socioeconomic status (SES). Objective Using nationally representative survey data from 38 countries and national economic indicators from the World Bank and other international organizations, we estimated ecological and multilevel models to assess the association between national levels of gross domestic product (GDP), foreign direct investment (FDI), and mean tariffs and BMI. Design We used linear regression to estimate the ecological association between average annual change in economic indicators and BMI, and multilevel linear or ordered multinomial models to estimate associations between national economic indicators and individual BMI or over- and underweight. We also included cross-level interaction terms to highlight differences in the association of BMI with national economic indicators by type of residence or socioeconomic status (SES). Results There was a positive but non-significant association of GDP and mean BMI. This positive association of GDP and BMI was greater among rural residents and the poor. There were no significant ecological associations between measures of trade openness and mean BMI, but FDI was positively associated with BMI among the poorest respondents and in rural areas and tariff levels were negatively associated with BMI among poor and rural respondents. Conclusion Measures of national income and trade openness have different associations with the BMI across populations within developing countries. These divergent findings underscore the complexity of the effects of development on health and the importance of considering how the health effects of “globalizing” economic and cultural trends are modified by individual

  12. National economic development and disparities in body mass index: a cross-sectional study of data from 38 countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Neuman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Increases in body mass index (BMI and the prevalence of overweight in low- and middle income countries (LMICs are often ascribed to changes in global trade patterns or increases in national income. These changes are likely to affect populations within LMICs differently based on their place of residence or socioeconomic status (SES. OBJECTIVE: Using nationally representative survey data from 38 countries and national economic indicators from the World Bank and other international organizations, we estimated ecological and multilevel models to assess the association between national levels of gross domestic product (GDP, foreign direct investment (FDI, and mean tariffs and BMI. DESIGN: We used linear regression to estimate the ecological association between average annual change in economic indicators and BMI, and multilevel linear or ordered multinomial models to estimate associations between national economic indicators and individual BMI or over- and underweight. We also included cross-level interaction terms to highlight differences in the association of BMI with national economic indicators by type of residence or socioeconomic status (SES. RESULTS: There was a positive but non-significant association of GDP and mean BMI. This positive association of GDP and BMI was greater among rural residents and the poor. There were no significant ecological associations between measures of trade openness and mean BMI, but FDI was positively associated with BMI among the poorest respondents and in rural areas and tariff levels were negatively associated with BMI among poor and rural respondents. CONCLUSION: Measures of national income and trade openness have different associations with the BMI across populations within developing countries. These divergent findings underscore the complexity of the effects of development on health and the importance of considering how the health effects of "globalizing" economic and cultural trends are modified

  13. A new system to reduce formaldehyde levels improves safety conditions during gross veterinary anatomy learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nacher, Víctor; Llombart, Cristina; Carretero, Ana; Navarro, Marc; Ysern, Pere; Calero, Sebastián; Fígols, Enric; Ruberte, Jesús

    2007-01-01

    Dissection is a very useful method of learning veterinary anatomy. However, formaldehyde, which is widely used to preserve cadavers, is an irritant, and it has recently been classified as a carcinogen. In 1997, the Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo [National Institute of Workplace Security and Hygiene] found that the levels of formaldehyde in our dissection room were above the threshold limit values. Unfortunately, no optimal substitute for formaldehyde is currently available. Therefore, we designed a new ventilation system that combines slow propulsion of fresh air from above the dissection table and rapid aspiration of polluted air from the perimeter. Formaldehyde measurements performed in 2004, after the introduction of this new system into our dissection laboratory, showed a dramatic reduction (about tenfold, or 0.03 ppm). A suitable propelling/aspirating air system successfully reduces the concentration of formaldehyde in the dissection room, significantly improving safety conditions for students, instructors, and technical staff during gross anatomy learning.

  14. The response of gross nitrogen mineralization to labile carbon inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtson, Per

    2014-05-01

    Input of labile carbon sources to forest soils commonly result in priming, i.e. an increase in the microbial decomposition of soil organic matter. Efforts aimed at quantifying the extent of priming have, to date, largely focused on soil organic matter decomposition manifested as soil respiration. Less is known about how gross nitrogen mineralization responds to input of labile carbon. It is often assumed that increased priming results in decreased soil carbon stocks. However, microbial mineralization of organic nitrogen into plant available forms is a major factor limiting primary production in forests. If increased decomposition of soil organic matter in response to labile carbon is accompanied by a concurrent increased nitrogen mineralization, this could result in elevated primary production and higher rates of plant derived organic matter input to soils. Therefore, in order to fully understand the effect of priming on net ecosystem exchange and soil carbon stocks, it is vital to consider if increased decomposition of soil organic matter caused by priming also results in increased nitrogen mineralization. Here I present the results from a series of experiments aimed at determining if, and to which extent, gross nitrogen mineralization is stimulated by input of labile carbon. The results suggest that it is by no means uncommon to find an increase in gross N mineralization rates in response to labile carbon inputs. The magnitude of the increase seems dependent on the nitrogen status of the soil, as well as the concentration and rate of labile carbon inputs. However, continuous input of labile carbon sources that also contains nitrogen, e.g. amino acids, seems to inhibit rather than increase the mineralization of organic nitrogen. These findings suggest that there is a potential for a positive feedback between priming and primary production that needs to be considered in order to fully understand the influence of priming on net ecosystem exchange and soil carbon

  15. The Schroedinger functional for Gross-Neveu models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leder, B.

    2007-04-18

    Gross-Neveu type models with a finite number of fermion flavours are studied on a two-dimensional Euclidean space-time lattice. The models are asymptotically free and are invariant under a chiral symmetry. These similarities to QCD make them perfect benchmark systems for fermion actions used in large scale lattice QCD computations. The Schroedinger functional for the Gross-Neveu models is defined for both, Wilson and Ginsparg-Wilson fermions, and shown to be renormalisable in 1-loop lattice perturbation theory. In two dimensions four fermion interactions of the Gross-Neveu models have dimensionless coupling constants. The symmetry properties of the four fermion interaction terms and the relations among them are discussed. For Wilson fermions chiral symmetry is explicitly broken and additional terms must be included in the action. Chiral symmetry is restored up to cut-off effects by tuning the bare mass and one of the couplings. The critical mass and the symmetry restoring coupling are computed to second order in lattice perturbation theory. This result is used in the 1-loop computation of the renormalised couplings and the associated beta-functions. The renormalised couplings are defined in terms of suitable boundary-to-boundary correlation functions. In the computation the known first order coefficients of the beta-functions are reproduced. One of the couplings is found to have a vanishing betafunction. The calculation is repeated for the recently proposed Schroedinger functional with exact chiral symmetry, i.e. Ginsparg-Wilson fermions. The renormalisation pattern is found to be the same as in the Wilson case. Using the regularisation dependent finite part of the renormalised couplings, the ratio of the Lambda-parameters is computed. (orig.)

  16. Verbal priming and taste sensitivity make moral transgressions gross.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herz, Rachel S

    2014-02-01

    The aims of the present study were to assess whether: (a) visceral and moral disgust share a common oral origin (taste); (b) moral transgressions that are also viscerally involving are evaluated accordingly as a function of individual differences in taste sensitivity; (c) verbal priming interacts with taste sensitivity to alter how disgust is experienced in moral transgressions; and (d) whether gender moderates these effects. Standard tests of disgust sensitivity, a questionnaire developed for this research assessing different types of moral transgressions (nonvisceral, implied-visceral, visceral) with the terms "angry" and "grossed-out," and a taste sensitivity test of 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) were administered to 102 participants. Results confirmed past findings that the more sensitive to PROP a participant was the more disgusted they were by visceral, but not moral, disgust elicitors. Importantly, the findings newly revealed that taste sensitivity had no bearing on evaluations of moral transgressions, regardless of their visceral nature, when "angry" was the emotion primed. However, when "grossed-out" was primed for evaluating moral violations, the more intense PROP tasted to a participant the more "grossed-out" they were by all transgressions. Women were generally more disgust sensitive and morally condemning than men, but disgust test, transgression type, and priming scale modulated these effects. The present findings support the proposition that moral and visceral disgust do not share a common oral origin, but show that linguistic priming can transform a moral transgression into a viscerally repulsive event and that susceptibility to this priming varies as a function of an individual's sensitivity to the origins of visceral disgust-bitter taste.

  17. Does Microfinance Reduce Income Inequality?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermes, Niels

    2014-01-01

    This study addresses the question whether participation of the poor in microfinance contributes to reducing a country’s level of income inequality. Using data from 70 developing countries, we show that higher levels of microfinance participation are indeed associated with a reduction of the income g

  18. Does Microfinance Reduce Income Inequality?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermes, Niels

    2014-01-01

    This study addresses the question whether participation of the poor in microfinance contributes to reducing a country’s level of income inequality. Using data from 70 developing countries, we show that higher levels of microfinance participation are indeed associated with a reduction of the income

  19. Income Gap Widens in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The income gap between the highest-and lowestincome groups in Beijing, China's capital city, grew to 4:1 in 2004, up from 3:1 in 2003, according to a sampling survey of 2,000 urban households conducted by the Beijing Municipal Statistics Bureau.Among the most important factors affecting income levels were education and profession, the survey indicated.

  20. Investigating the usefulness of satellite derived fluorescence data in inferring gross primary productivity within the carbon cycle data assimilation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Koffi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the utility of satellite measurements of chlorophyll fluorescence (Fs in constraining gross primary productivity (GPP. We ingest Fs measurements into the Carbon-Cycle Data Assimilation System (CCDAS which has been augmented by the fluorescence component of the Soil Canopy Observation, Photochemistry and Energy fluxes (SCOPE model. CCDAS simulates well the patterns of Fs suggesting the combined model is capable of ingesting these measurements. However simulated Fs is insensitive to the key parameter controlling GPP, the carboxylation capacity (Vcmax. Simulated Fs is sensitive to both the incoming absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (aPAR and leaf chlorophyll concentration both of which are treated as perfectly known in previous CCDAS versions. Proper use of Fs measurements therefore requires enhancement of CCDAS to include and expose these variables.

  1. Income differential of female labor in Southern Brazil: dual approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cassia Garcia Margonato

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the formation and income differential of female labor in Southern Brazil in 2002 and 2009 based on microdata from the National Sample Survey (PNAD.The methodology is to estimate the selection and wages equations using the Heckman's Sample Selection Model (1979. For the measurement of the female income differential in commerce, industry and domestic service, compared to income of women in the service sector it is applied an adaptation of the Oaxaca-Blinder Decomposition (1973 adapted by Jann (2008. It was confirmed the hypothesis that segmentation occurs in the female labor market in Southern Brazil because the income differential cannot be explained only by personal attributes (productive or not and by formal work. There are specificities in the sectors (sector effect determining the income differential of women´s income in the labor market, moreover the sector effect explained 33% of the wage differential observed in industry, also explained 29% in the commerce and 35% of the female income gaps when compared to the service sector, which is considered as in advantage.

  2. Complex saddles in the Gross-Witten-Wadia matrix model

    CERN Document Server

    Álvarez, Gabriel; Medina, Elena

    2016-01-01

    We give an exhaustive characterization of the complex saddle point configurations of the Gross-Witten-Wadia matrix model in the large-N limit. In particular, we characterize the cases in which the saddles accumulate in one, two, or three arcs, in terms of the values of the coupling constant and of the fraction of the total unit density that is supported in one of the arcs, and derive an explicit condition for gap closing associated to nonvacuum saddles. By applying the idea of large-N instanton we also give direct analytic derivations of the weak-coupling and strong-coupling instanton actions.

  3. Pathology Gross Photography: The Beginning of Digital Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampy, B Alan; Glassy, Eric F

    2015-06-01

    The underutilized practice of photographing anatomic pathology specimens from surgical pathology and autopsies is an invaluable benefit to patients, clinicians, pathologists, and students. Photographic documentation of clinical specimens is essential for the effective practice of pathology. When considering what specimens to photograph, all grossly evident pathology, absent yet expected pathologic features, and gross-only specimens should be thoroughly documented. Specimen preparation prior to photography includes proper lighting and background, wiping surfaces of blood, removing material such as tubes or bandages, orienting the specimen in a logical fashion, framing the specimen to fill the screen, positioning of probes, and using the right-sized scale.

  4. Four loop renormalization of the Gross-Neveu model

    CERN Document Server

    Gracey, J A; Schroder, Y

    2016-01-01

    We renormalize the SU(N) Gross-Neveu model in the modified minimal subtraction (MSbar) scheme at four loops and determine the beta-function at this order. The theory ceases to be multiplicatively renormalizable when dimensionally regularized due to the generation of evanescent 4-fermi operators. The first of these appears at three loops and we correctly take their effect into account in deriving the renormalization group functions. We use the results to provide estimates of critical exponents relevant to phase transitions in graphene.

  5. Gross shell structure at high spin in heavy nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Deleplanque, M A; Pashkevich, V V; Chu, S Y; Unzhakova, A

    2004-01-01

    Experimental nuclear moments of inertia at high spins along the yrast line have been determined systematically and found to differ from the rigid-body values. The difference is attributed to shell effects and these have been calculated microscopically. The data and quantal calculations are interpreted by means of the semiclassical Periodic Orbit Theory. From this new perspective, features in the moments of inertia as a function of neutron number and spin, as well as their relation to the shell energies can be understood. Gross shell effects persist up to the highest angular momenta observed.

  6. Labor Absorption and Its Impact on Gross Regional Domestic Product

    OpenAIRE

    Made Ika Prastyadewi; Agus Suman; Devanto Shasta Pratomo

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the determinants of labor absorption in the trade, hotel and restaurant sector and its impact on Gross Regional Domestic Product/GRDP at Bali Province. This study is important due to the fact that the GRDP in this sector is the highest compared to other sector but the labor absorption is lower than the agriculture sector. This study used panel data comprising 9 regencies/cities at Bali Province in the period 2003-2009 including fixed effect model and ...

  7. Characterizing the development of sectoral gross domestic product composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Raphael; Spies, Michael; Reusser, Dominik E; Kropp, Jürgen P; Rybski, Diego

    2013-07-01

    We consider the sectoral composition of a country's gross domestic product (GDP), i.e., the partitioning into agrarian, industrial, and service sectors. Exploring a simple system of differential equations, we characterize the transfer of GDP shares between the sectors in the course of economic development. The model fits for the majority of countries providing four country-specific parameters. Relating the agrarian with the industrial sector, a data collapse over all countries and all years supports the applicability of our approach. Depending on the parameter ranges, country development exhibits different transfer properties. Most countries follow three of eight characteristic paths. The types are not random but show distinct geographic and development patterns.

  8. Gross shell structure at high spin in heavy nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deleplanque, Marie-Agnes; Frauendorf, Stefan; Pashkevich, Vitaly V.; Chu, S.Y.; Unzhakova, Anja

    2003-10-07

    Experimental nuclear moments of inertia at high spins along the yrast line have been determined systematically and found to differ from the rigid-body values. The difference is attributed to shell effect and these have been calculated microscopically. The data and quantal calculations are interpreted by means of the semiclassical Periodic Orbit Theory. From this new perspective, features in the moments of inertia as a function of neutron number and spin, as well as their relation to the shell energies can be understood. Gross shell effects persist up to the highest angular momenta observed.

  9. Decomposing Income Inequality and Policy Implications in Rural China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lerong Yu; Renfu Luo; Linxiu Zhang

    2007-01-01

    Using village data from samples covering 6 provinces, 36 counties and 216 townships, the income inequalities within and between townships in rural China are assessed. The Theil index and the mean logarithmic deviation methods enable us to test income inequality at the township level, and to decompose it into intra-regional and inter-regional at county and provincial levels. In the present paper, we also decompose income inequalities between and within the nationally designated poor counties (NDPC). The results show that approximately two-thirds of the income inequality in rural China would be eliminated if measures and policies were targeted at the county level. This study also confirms the rationale that China's poverty alleviation strategy of focusing on poor counties based on the inequalities between NDPC and non-NDPC accounts for the most inter-province inequality.

  10. The utility of Pro Forma Income Statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiboldt, Max; Reiboldt, John

    2002-01-01

    Recent headlines surrounding the financial demise of the nation's seventh largest company, Enron, and its subsequent entanglements with its accounting and consulting firm, Arthur Andersen, have placed a cloud of suspicion upon many reasonable business practices that otherwise are considered standard procedure. The proforma income statement is one of those practices. An oft-used tool in financial management, pro formas play a useful role for projecting financial performance based on predictable forecasts or assumptions. Regardless of the current scrutiny, there is still a valid use for accurately prepared statements.

  11. 20 CFR 404.1086 - Community income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Community income. 404.1086 Section 404.1086...- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Self-Employment Income § 404.1086 Community income. If community property laws apply to income that an individual derives from a trade or...

  12. 24 CFR 92.203 - Income determinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... low-income families for the family size of the tenant and state that the tenant's annual income does... Security Income, Aid to Families with Dependent Children, or other public assistance or public welfare... for very low-income families established under § 92.252(b)(2) are based on adjusted income....

  13. Lifetime income patterns and alcohol consumption: investigating the association between long- and short-term income trajectories and drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdá, Magdalena; Johnson-Lawrence, Vicki D; Galea, Sandro

    2011-10-01

    Lifetime patterns of income may be an important driver of alcohol use. In this study, we evaluated the relationship between long-term and short-term measures of income and the relative odds of abstaining, drinking lightly-moderately and drinking heavily. We used data from the US Panel Study on Income Dynamics (PSID), a national population-based cohort that has been followed annually or biannually since 1968. We examined 3111 adult respondents aged 30-44 in 1997. Latent class growth mixture models with a censored normal distribution were used to estimate income trajectories followed by the respondent families from 1968 to 1997, while repeated measures multinomial generalized logit models estimated the odds of abstinence (no drinks per day) or heavy drinking (at least 3 drinks a day), relative to light/moderate drinking (lifetime income patterns and alcohol use decreased in magnitude and became non-significant once we controlled for past-year income, education and occupation. Lifetime income patterns may have an indirect association with alcohol use, mediated through current socioeconomic conditions.

  14. Income Tax in France

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    Memorandum from the HR and FI Departments and the Legal Service concerning the new internal taxation provisions of the Staff Rules and Regulations, the annual internal taxation certificate for 2007 and the declaration of income for 2007. I - New provisions of the Staff Rules and Regulations concerning internal taxation Following the revision of the Staff Rules and Regulations (see CERN Bulletin Nos. 16 and 17 of 16 and 23 April 2007), the provisions relating to internal taxation are now set out in Articles S V 2.01 of the Staff Rules and in Articles R V 2.01 to R V 2.05 of the Staff Regulations, in force since 1st January 2007 (11th edition). Pursuant to Article S V 2.01 of the Staff Rules, each year the Organization levies an internal tax on the financial and family benefits it pays to the members of the personnel. The Finance Committee has laid down the provisions governing the application of internal taxation in the Staff Regulations (see Articles R V 2.01 to R V 2.05). ...

  15. The implications of particle energy and acidic media on gross alpha and gross beta determination using liquid scintillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zapata-Garcia, D. [Laboratori de Radiologia Ambiental (LRA), Departament de Quimica Analitica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques, 1-11 Planta 3, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Llaurado, M., E-mail: montse.llaurado@ub.edu [Laboratori de Radiologia Ambiental (LRA), Departament de Quimica Analitica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques, 1-11 Planta 3, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Rauret, G. [Laboratori de Radiologia Ambiental (LRA), Departament de Quimica Analitica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques, 1-11 Planta 3, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2012-04-15

    The interaction of humans with radioactivity present in the environment from natural and artificial sources necessitates an evaluation of its risk on human health. Gross alpha and gross beta activities can provide a rapid evaluation of the radioactive content of a sample and can be simultaneously determined by using liquid scintillation counters. However, calibration of the liquid scintillation counter is required and is affected by many factors, such as particle energy and the acidity of the media. This study investigates what effect the particle energy used for calibration has on misclassification and how to account for this misclassification in routine measurements. The variability in measurement produced by the final pH, as well as any acids used in sample treatment, was also studied. These results showed that the most commonly used acid for these types of analyses, HNO{sub 3}, produced a high amount of misclassifications at very low pH. The results improved when HCl was used to adjust the sample to low pH. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We study the effect of alpha and beta energies on PSA optimisation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The optimum PSA shifts to higher values as the alpha energy increases. Beta energies do not affect it. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We study the effect of pH on the simultaneous determination of gross alpha/beta activities. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HNO{sub 3} produces a high amount of misclassification at very low pH. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The results improve when HCl is used to adjust the sample to low pH.

  16. Transitioning from low-income growth to high-income growth : is there a middle income trap ?

    OpenAIRE

    Bulman, David; Eden, Maya; Nguyen, Ha

    2014-01-01

    Is there a "middle income trap"? Theory suggests that the determinants of growth at low and high income levels may be different. If countries struggle to transition from growth strategies that are effective at low income levels to growth strategies that are effective at high income levels, they may stagnate at some middle income level; this phenomenon can be thought of as a "middle income ...

  17. On the economics of happiness: the influence of income and non-income factors on happiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darma Mahadea

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The quest for individual happiness and a better life for all is an important economic objective in countries as different as South Africa and France or Zimbabwe and Bhutan. Economists have focused attention on the effects of consumption, income and economic growth or development on well-being and whether economic growth can be the sole basis for delivering prosperity (Dutt & Radcliff , 2009; Jackson, 2010.  The search for happiness is an important individual and national economic goal.  In the Benthamite utilitarian tradition, happiness is the sum of all pleasures and pains. People often obtain or perceive their happiness from what they have in comparison with others.  At the macroeconomic level, more happiness may come from a sustained growth in GDP that enables households to enjoy an improved quality of life, with rising income, consumption and employment opportunities.  At the microeconomic or individual level, more income may also enable people to live happier and fuller lives relative to those who are poor.  But this accounts for only a small contribution to happiness. Life circumstances, such as marital status, health, having children and the nature of the working environment statistically make a greater contribution to happiness than income.

  18. Multidimensional Poverty and Health Status as a Predictor of Chronic Income Poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callander, Emily J; Schofield, Deborah J

    2015-12-01

    Longitudinal analysis of Wave 5 to 10 of the nationally representative Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia dataset was undertaken to assess whether multidimensional poverty status can predict chronic income poverty. Of those who were multidimensionally poor (low income plus poor health or poor health and insufficient education attainment) in 2007, and those who were in income poverty only (no other forms of disadvantage) in 2007, a greater proportion of those in multidimensional poverty continued to be in income poverty for the subsequent 5 years through to 2012. People who were multidimensionally poor in 2007 had 2.17 times the odds of being in income poverty each year through to 2012 than those who were in income poverty only in 2005 (95% CI: 1.23-3.83). Multidimensional poverty measures are a useful tool for policymakers to identify target populations for policies aiming to improve equity and reduce chronic disadvantage.

  19. Oil-exporting status, quality of life, and fertility: a cross national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, S R; Stokes, C S; Warland, R H

    1982-01-01

    It has been suggested that unless the rapid increase in income in the oil-exporting countries is accompanied by more equitable distribution of modern goods and services, the impact on health, literacy, and fertility is likely to be negligible. This study represents an initial attempt to examine the possible effects of the oil-exporting status of nations on their income, quality of life, and fertility. Data from 150 countries were used, and the Physical Quality of Life Index (PQLI) was utilized instead of traditional measures of development. Some findings are: 1) the variable showing the strongest direct relationship to fertility was physical quality of life (p=-.756) which is consistent with the distributional hypothesis; 2) per capita gross national product (GNP) and oil-exporting status showed weaker paths to fertility and their signs were in opposite directions; 3) per capita GNP showed a moderate negative relationship to fertility (p=-.171) while oil-exporting status had a positive path of about the same size (p= .155), thus per capita income and oil-exporting status had only about 1/5 the net relationship to fertility as did physical quality of life; 4) the indirect relationship of income as channeled through PQLI was over twice as large as the measured direct relationship, so that the importance of per capita GNP for lower fertility is primarily through its influence on the physical quality of life within a nation; 5) oil-exporting status was associated with lower physical quality of life and the latter was strongly related to higher fertility; and 6) in the long run, the relationship between oil-exporting status and quality of life should be positive. If separate analyses are conducted, the division should be made along an oil-exporter/non-exporter dichotomy, rather than a more developed/less developed country categorization. It is concluded that nations with relatively high life expectancies high levels of literacy, and low levels of infant mortality

  20. Gross alpha and beta activity analyses in urine-a routine laboratory method for internal human radioactivity detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaowen; Zhao, Luqian; Qin, Hongran; Zhao, Meijia; Zhou, Yirui; Yang, Shuqiang; Su, Xu; Xu, Xiaohua

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this work was to develop a method to provide rapid results for humans with internal radioactive contamination. The authors hypothesized that valuable information could be obtained from gas proportional counter techniques by screening urine samples from potentially exposed individuals rapidly. Recommended gross alpha and beta activity screening methods generally employ gas proportional counting techniques. Based on International Standards Organization (ISO) methods, improvements were made in the evaporation process to develop a method to provide rapid results, adequate sensitivity, and minimum sample preparation and operator intervention for humans with internal radioactive contamination. The method described by an American National Standards Institute publication was used to calibrate the gas proportional counter, and urine samples from patients with or without radionuclide treatment were measured to validate the method. By improving the evaporation process, the time required to perform the assay was reduced dramatically. Compared with the reference data, the results of the validation samples were very satisfactory with respect to gross-alpha and gross-beta activities. The gas flow proportional counting method described here has the potential for radioactivity monitoring in the body. This method was easy, efficient, and fast, and its application is of great utility in determining whether a sample should be analyzed by a more complicated method, for example radiochemical and/or γ-spectroscopy. In the future, it may be used commonly in medical examination and nuclear emergency treatment.Health Phys. 106(5):000-000; 2014.

  1. O direito de participar da riqueza da nação: do Programa Bolsa Família à Renda Básica de Cidadania The right to share in the nation's wealth: from the Family Allowance Program to Basic Citizenship Income

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Matarazzo Suplicy

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho apresenta os resultados positivos do Programa Bolsa Família no combate à fome e a erradicação da pobreza, ressaltando que o Bolsa Família constituí-se na primeira etapa para a implantação da Renda Básica de Cidadania - RBC, no Brasil, conforme previsto pela Lei 10.835 de 2004. A RBC será instituída por etapas, a critério do Poder Executivo, começando pelos mais necessitados. Será o direito de todas as pessoas, incondicionalmente, receberem uma renda que, na medida do possível, será suficiente para atender as suas necessidades vitais. Não se trata de uma caridade ou uma assistência, mas de um direito de todos participarem da riqueza da nação. A racionalidade deste instrumento para garantir real liberdade e dignidade a todos é também aqui analisada.This paper presents the positive outcomes of Brazil's Family Allowance Program, in terms of combating hunger and eradicating poverty, stressing that this is the first step towards introducing a Basic Income for Citizenship (RBC - Renda Básica de Cidadania in Brazil, as established in 2004 through Law N° 10,835. This Basic Income for Citizenship will be phased in by stages at the discretion of the Executive Branch, starting with the neediest segments of the population. Everyone will be endowed with the unconditional right to receive an income that will be sufficient - as far as possible - to cover vital requirements. This is not a matter of charity or welfare, but rather an across-the-board right to share in the wealth of the nation. The rationality of this tool for ensuring real freedom and dignity for all is also examined here.

  2. Austrian parliament adopts legislation on income tax reform, ESPN Flash Report

    OpenAIRE

    Fink, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    On 7 July 2015, the National Assembly of the Austrian parliament adopted the Tax Reform Act 2015/2016. This encompassing reform comprises no less than 43 different measures, of which major changes to income tax is one of the most important. Income tax will be reduced for most taxpayers from 2016. However, the positive impact for low-income households will be rather limited.

  3. Income, Amenities and Negative Attitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waisman, Gisela; Larsen, Birthe

    2016-01-01

    ’ quality of life, they also affect their income. We estimate the utility effects of negative attitudes for refugees with different levels of education and gender. We also analyse how the size of the refugees’ networks relate to their quality of life and income as well as how negative attitudes towards......We exploit the regional variation in negative attitudes towards immigrants to Sweden in order to analyse the consequences of negative attitudes on refugees’ utility from labour income and amenities. We find that attitudes towards immigrants are important: while they affect mainly the refugees...

  4. The Income Gap GROWS Large

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The income gap between regions, urban and rural areas, industries and various social groups is widening in China. The gap, as indicated by the Gini Coefficient, extended beyond an alarming level. A World Bank report said the Gini Coefficient for China surged to 0.47 in 2009, exceeding the "red line" of 0.4. The problems caused by the rising income disparity have been the focus of public attention. Some experts believe that it is high time for China to shrink this income gap. A Xinhua News Agency research team recently analyzed this trend, and published an article in the Economic Information Daily. Edited excerpts follow:

  5. The Income Gap Grows Large

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ The income gap between regions,urban and rural areas,industries and various social groups is widening in China.The gap,as indicated by the Gini Coefficient,extended beyond an alarming level.A World Bank report said the Gini Coefficient for China surged to 0A7 in 2009,exceeding the "red line"of 0.4.The problems caused by the rising income disparity have been the focus of public attention.Some experts believe that it is high time for China to shrink this income gap.

  6. Income Share Agreements on Campus: A Practice Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Institutes for Research, 2015

    2015-01-01

    Next fall, students at Purdue University may have a new way to pay their tuition: income share agreements (ISAs). ISAs are an alternative form of higher education financing in which students pledge a fixed percentage of future earnings in exchange for money to pay for college. ISAs present a new challenge to the nation's colleges and universities,…

  7. Gross Motor Profile and Its Association with Socialization Skills in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusponegoro, Hardiono D; Efar, Pustika; Soedjatmiko; Soebadi, Amanda; Firmansyah, Agus; Chen, Hui-Ju; Hung, Kun-Long

    2016-12-01

    While social impairment is considered to be the core deficit in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a large proportion of these children have poor gross motor ability, and gross motor deficits may influence socialization skills in children with ASD. The objectives of this study were to compare gross motor skills in children with ASD to typically developing children, to describe gross motor problems in children with ASD, and to investigate associations between gross motor and socialization skills in children with ASD. This was a cross-sectional study including 40 ASD children aged from 18 months to 6 years and 40 age-matched typically developing controls. Gross motor and socialization skills were scored using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, 2(nd) edition (Vineland-II). Below average gross motor function was found in eight of 40 (20%) ASD children. The mean gross motor v-scale score in the ASD group was 15.1 [standard deviation (SD) 3.12], significantly lower than in the control group [18.7, SD 2.09, p = 0.0001; 95% confidence intervals (CI) from -4.725 to -2.525]. The differences were most prominent in ball throwing and catching, using stairs, jumping, and bicycling. The ASD children with gross motor impairments had a mean socialization domain score of 66.6 (SD 6.50) compared to 85.7 (SD 10.90) in those without gross motor impairments (p = 0.0001, 95% CI from -25.327 to -12.736). Children with ASD had lower gross motor skills compared to typically developing children. Gross motor impairments were found in 20% of the ASD children, and these children also had lower socialization skills than those without gross motor impairments. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Multifamily Tax Subsidy Income Limits

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Multifamily Tax Subsidy Projects (MTSP) Income Limits were developed to meet the requirements established by the Housing and Economic Recovery Act of 2008 (Public...

  9. Reducing income disparity for stability and development Malaysia's experience

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad, Kamaruddin bin

    2002-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Malaysia, a plural nation comprising of the indigenous Malays (Bumiputeras), and the immigrant Chinese and Indians has embarked on a unique program called the "New Economic Policy" (NEP) to ensure a fairer share of wealth, income, prosperity and opportunities between the ethnic groups. The NEP aimed to promote national unity by pursuing the twin objectives of the eradication of poverty and the restructuring of society to eliminate iden...

  10. Reducing income disparity for stability and development Malaysia's experience

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad, Kamaruddin bin

    2002-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Malaysia, a plural nation comprising of the indigenous Malays (Bumiputeras), and the immigrant Chinese and Indians has embarked on a unique program called the "New Economic Policy" (NEP) to ensure a fairer share of wealth, income, prosperity and opportunities between the ethnic groups. The NEP aimed to promote national unity by pursuing the twin objectives of the eradication of poverty and the restructuring of society to eliminate iden...

  11. Optimal Bilinear Control of Gross--Pitaevskii Equations

    KAUST Repository

    Hintermüller, Michael

    2013-01-01

    A mathematical framework for optimal bilinear control of nonlinear Schrödinger equations of Gross--Pitaevskii type arising in the description of Bose--Einstein condensates is presented. The obtained results generalize earlier efforts found in the literature in several aspects. In particular, the cost induced by the physical workload over the control process is taken into account rather than the often used L^2- or H^1-norms for the cost of the control action. Well-posedness of the problem and existence of an optimal control are proved. In addition, the first order optimality system is rigorously derived. Also a numerical solution method is proposed, which is based on a Newton-type iteration, and used to solve several coherent quantum control problems.

  12. Measurement and Quantification of Gross Human Shoulder Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy T. Newkirk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The shoulder girdle plays an important role in the large pointing workspace that humans enjoy. The goal of this work was to characterize the human shoulder girdle motion in relation to the arm. The overall motion of the human shoulder girdle was characterized based on motion studies completed on test subjects during voluntary (natural/unforced motion. The collected data from the experiments were used to develop surface fit equations that represent the position and orientation of the glenohumeral joint for a given humeral pointing direction. These equations completely quantify gross human shoulder girdle motion relative to the humerus. The equations are presented along with goodness-of-fit results that indicate the equations well approximate the motion of the human glenohumeral joint. This is the first time the motion has been quantified for the entire workspace, and the equations provide a reference against which to compare future work.

  13. Labor Absorption and Its Impact on Gross Regional Domestic Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Made Ika Prastyadewi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to examine the determinants of labor absorption in the trade, hotel and restaurant sector and its impact on Gross Regional Domestic Product/GRDP at Bali Province. This study is important due to the fact that the GRDP in this sector is the highest compared to other sector but the labor absorption is lower than the agriculture sector. This study used panel data comprising 9 regencies/cities at Bali Province in the period 2003-2009 including fixed effect model and simultaneous equation model of Two-Stage Least Square. The results showed that GRDP, working age population, and the minimum wage have positive effect on employment, while the educated unemployment has no significant effect on the employment in the trade, hotel and restaurant sector. In addition, increases in employment and workers productivity have positive and significant effects the GRDP in the trade, hotel and restaurant sector at Bali Province.

  14. Specific features of measuring the ecologically adjusted gross regional product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douginets Ganna V.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article formulates a necessity of deepening and improvement of ecological and economic indicators and considers the existing indices and indicators of sustainable development. It conducts a comparative analysis of existing norms of calculation of the ecological tax and fees for environmental pollution. It marks main problems of nature management in Ukraine and their consequences, namely, negative impact on health of the population. It offers methods of measurement of the ecologically adjusted gross regional product (EGRP on the basis of improvement of the cost method. It analyses dependence of the regional welfare on the state of environment with the help of measuring the EGRP of Ukrainian regions. It studies the pressure on Ukrainian regions by components: pollution of aquatic environment, atmospheric air, land resources and rates of waste formation. It conducts grouping of regions by EGRP per capita with specification of positive and negative dynamics of the indicator.

  15. Stimulation of gross dimethylsulfide (DMS) production by solar radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galí, Martí; Saló, Violeta; Almeda, Rodrigo; Calbet, Albert; Simó, Rafel

    2011-08-01

    Oceanic gross DMS production (GP) exerts a fundamental control on the concentration and the sea-air flux of this climatically-active trace gas. However, it is a poorly constrained process, owing to the complexity of the microbial food web processes involved and their interplay with physical forcing, particularly with solar radiation. The “inhibitor method”, using dimethyldisulfide (DMDS) or other compounds to inhibit bacterial DMS consumption, has been frequently used to determine GP in dark incubations. In the work presented here, DMDS addition was optimized for its use in light incubations. By comparing simultaneous dark and light measurements of GP in meso- to ultraoligotrophic waters, we found a significant enhancement of GP in natural sunlight in 7 out of 10 experiments. Such stimulation, which was generally between 30 and 80% on a daily basis, occurred throughout contrasting microbial communities and oceanographic settings.

  16. Full Phase Diagram of the Massive Gross-Neveu Model

    CERN Document Server

    Schnetz, O; Urlichs, K; Schnetz, Oliver; Thies, Michael; Urlichs, Konrad

    2006-01-01

    The massive Gross-Neveu model is solved in the large N limit at finite temperature and chemical potential. The scalar potential is given in terms of Jacobi elliptic functions. It contains three parameters which are determined by transcendental equations. Self-consistency of the scalar potential is proved. The phase diagram for non-zero bare quark mass is found to contain a kink-antikink crystal phase as well as a massive fermion gas phase featuring a cross-over from light to heavy effective fermion mass. For zero bare quark mass we recover the three known phases kink-antikink crystal, massless fermion gas, and massive fermion gas. All phase transitions are shown to be of second order. Equations for the phase boundaries are given and solved numerically. Implications on condensed matter physics are indicated where our results generalize the bipolaron lattice in non-degenerate conducting polymers to finite temperature.

  17. Medicare Part B income-related monthly adjustment amount. Final rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-27

    We are adding to our regulations a new subpart, Medicare Part B Income-Related Monthly Adjustment Amount, to contain the rules we will follow for Medicare Part B income-related monthly adjustment amount determinations. The monthly adjustment amount represents the amount of decrease in the Medicare Part B premium subsidy, i.e. the amount of the Federal Government's contribution to the Federal Supplementary Medical Insurance (SMI) Trust Fund. This new subpart implements section 811 of the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003 (the Medicare Modernization Act or MMA) and contains the rules for determining when, based on income, a monthly adjustment amount will be added to a Medicare Part B beneficiary's standard monthly premium. These final rules describe: What the new subpart is about; what information we will use to determine whether you will pay an income-related monthly adjustment amount and the amount of the adjustment when applicable; when we will consider a major life-changing event that results in a significant reduction in your modified adjusted gross income; and how you can appeal our determination about your income-related monthly adjustment amount.

  18. 12 CFR 2.3 - Distribution of credit life insurance income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Distribution of credit life insurance income. 2... CREDIT LIFE INSURANCE § 2.3 Distribution of credit life insurance income. (a) Distribution of credit life... percent), who is involved in the sale of credit life insurance to loan customers of the national bank,...

  19. Poverty Is Low Consumption and Low Wealth, Not Just Low Income

    Science.gov (United States)

    Headey, Bruce

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to suggest an improved measure of financial poverty, based on household consumption and wealth as well as income. Data come from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics Australia (HILDA) Survey, which appears to be the first national socio-economic panel survey to provide longitudinal data on all three measures of…

  20. The Role of Family Income Dynamics in Predicting Trajectories of Internalizing and Externalizing Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Portia; Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth

    2017-04-01

    Economic disparities in children's behavioral functioning have been observed in prior research. Yet, studies have ignored important perspectives from developmental psychopathology and have not delineated how aspects of income dynamics (i.e., cumulative family income versus income volatility) differentially relate to behavior problems. To address these limitations, the current study examined how both cumulative income and income volatility predict trajectories of children's internalizing and externalizing problems from kindergarten through fifth grade in a nationally representative sample of 10,900 children (51.4 % male). Results showed four distinct trajectories of internalizing problems and five distinct externalizing trajectories. Family income dynamics were related to trajectory group membership. Specifically, increased cumulative income decreased risk of membership in mid-increasing and mid-stable internalizing groups, and children whose families experienced multiple waves of income loss were 2.4 times as likely to be in the mid-increasing group instead of the low-stable group. With respect to externalizing, higher cumulative income increased the likelihood of belonging in the group exhibiting stably low externalizing problems. Experiencing income loss increased the risk of belonging in the trajectory group exhibiting chronically high externalizing behaviors. These results enhance our knowledge of the role of family income in the development of behavior problems.

  1. Income inequality and the developing child: Is it all relative?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odgers, Candice L

    2015-11-01

    Children from low-income families are at heightened risk for a number of poor outcomes, including depression, antisocial behavior, poor physical health, and educational failure. Growing up in poverty is generally seen as toxic for children. However, less is known about how the "economic distance" between children and their peers influences behavior and health. This article examines how both poverty and the growing divide between low-income children and their peers may be influencing low-income children's life chances. Among wealthy nations, children in countries with higher levels of income inequality consistently fare worse on multiple indices of health, educational attainment, and well-being. New research also suggests that low-income children may be experiencing worse outcomes, and a form of "double disadvantage," when they live and attend school alongside more affluent versus similarly positioned peers. The role of subjective social status in explaining why some low-income children appear to suffer when growing up alongside more affluent peers is explored, alongside a call for additional research focused on how children come to understand, and respond to, their perceived social status. (PsycINFO Database Record

  2. Cost-based response to low-income energy problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colton, R. (National Consumer Law Center, Boston, MA (United States))

    1991-03-01

    The goal of a public utility commission concerning low-income energy rates is to have a utility collect the greatest proportion of a current bill that it can from low-income households while minimizing the costs of collection. Stating the issue in this fashion recognizes the warning of the Vermont Department of Public Service, which said last year that there are two harsh realities for the utility industry. First, charging a rate and collecting a rate are two separate actions. Simply because a utility charges a particular rate does not mean that it will ever collect that money from a low-income household. Second, even when a utility does collect the total bill from a low-income household, the utility often spends considerable sums in the very act of collection. The National Consumer Law Center has developed the energy assurance program (EAP) to address these dual problems. The EAP recognizes that some households simply do not have sufficient income to pay for the basic necessities of life, including energy. The EAP is offered to utilities as a mechanism to maximize the collection of revenue while minimizing collection expenses. Through an EAP, utilities will pursue the least-cost provision of service in the credit and collection arena. The EAP addresses a utility's business problem posed by low-income and inability to pay, in a manner that no other program can. The EAP represents good regulation, good business, and good social policy.

  3. Effect of childhood victimization on occupational prestige and income trajectories.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina A Fernandez

    Full Text Available Violence toward children (childhood victimization is a major public health problem, with long-term consequences on economic well-being. The purpose of this study was to determine whether childhood victimization affects occupational prestige and income in young adulthood. We hypothesized that young adults who experienced more childhood victimizations would have less prestigious jobs and lower incomes relative to those with no victimization history. We also explored the pathways in which childhood victimization mediates the relationships between background variables, such as parent's educational impact on the socioeconomic transition into adulthood.A nationally representative sample of 8,901 young adults aged 18-28 surveyed between 1999-2009 from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY were analyzed. Covariate-adjusted multivariate linear regression and path models were used to estimate the effects of victimization and covariates on income and prestige levels and on income and prestige trajectories. After each participant turned 18, their annual 2002 Census job code was assigned a yearly prestige score based on the 1989 General Social Survey, and their annual income was calculated via self-reports. Occupational prestige and annual income are time-varying variables measured from 1999-2009. Victimization effects were tested for moderation by sex, race, and ethnicity in the multivariate models.Approximately half of our sample reported at least one instance of childhood victimization before the age of 18. Major findings include 1 childhood victimization resulted in slower income and prestige growth over time, and 2 mediation analyses suggested that this slower prestige and earnings arose because victims did not get the same amount of education as non-victims.Results indicated that the consequences of victimization negatively affected economic success throughout young adulthood, primarily by slowing the growth in prosperity due to lower

  4. Single Epoch GPS Deformation Signals Extraction and Gross Error Detection Technique Based on Wavelet Transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jian; GAO Jingxiang; XU Changhui

    2006-01-01

    Wavelet theory is efficient as an adequate tool for analyzing single epoch GPS deformation signal. Wavelet analysis technique on gross error detection and recovery is advanced. Criteria of wavelet function choosing and Mallat decomposition levels decision are discussed. An effective deformation signal extracting method is proposed, that is wavelet noise reduction technique considering gross error recovery, which combines wavelet multi-resolution gross error detection results. Time position recognizing of gross errors and their repairing performance are realized. In the experiment, compactly supported orthogonal wavelet with short support block is more efficient than the longer one when discerning gross errors, which can obtain more finely analyses. And the shape of discerned gross error of short support wavelet is simpler than that of the longer one. Meanwhile, the time scale is easier to identify.

  5. Does Income Inequality Reduce Growth? Does Income Inequality Reduce Growth?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Serra

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the effects of inequality on the rate of growth of an economy. We assume that it is easier for an individual to achieve a given level of human capiral the higher society's average level of human capiral. Agents with above average human capital find it relatively more costly to acquire additional human capital, while agents with below average human capital find it relatively cheaper to acquire additional human capital. The existence of such an externality implies that even when where is no income inequality agents will behave inefficiently. In order to achieve the optimal growth rate, a lump sum tax must be combined with a subsidy to investment in education. When incomes are heterogenous, we show that income convergence is attained in the long run. We also show that the effect of inequality on the growth rate of an economy depends on the functional form of the externality. When the externality junction is concave, income dispersion reduces the rate of growth. On the other hand, when the externality function is convex, the effect is ambiguous. Does Income Inequality Reduce Growth?

  6. Impact of disaster-related mortality on gross domestic product in the WHO African Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldis William

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disaster-related mortality is a growing public health concern in the African Region. These deaths are hypothesized to have a significantly negative effect on per capita gross domestic product (GDP. The objective of this study was to estimate the loss in GDP attributable to natural and technological disaster-related mortality in the WHO African Region. Methods The impact of disaster-related mortality on GDP was estimated using double-log econometric model and cross-sectional data on various Member States in the WHO African Region. The analysis was based on 45 of the 46 countries in the Region. The data was obtained from various UNDP and World Bank publications. Results The coefficients for capital (K, educational enrolment (EN, life expectancy (LE and exports (X had a positive sign; while imports (M and disaster mortality (DS were found to impact negatively on GDP. The above-mentioned explanatory variables were found to have a statistically significant effect on GDP at 5% level in a t-distribution test. Disaster mortality of a single person was found to reduce GDP by US$0.01828. Conclusions We have demonstrated that disaster-related mortality has a significant negative effect on GDP. Thus, as policy-makers strive to increase GDP through capital investment, export promotion and increased educational enrolment, they should always keep in mind that investments made in the strengthening of national capacity to mitigate the effects of national disasters expeditiously and effectively will yield significant economic returns.

  7. Effect of physical therapy frequency on gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun-Young

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] This study attempted to investigate the effect of physical therapy frequency based on neurodevelopmental therapy on gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy. [Subjects and Methods] The study sample included 161 children with cerebral palsy who attended a convalescent or rehabilitation center for disabled individuals or a special school for children with physical disabilities in South Korea. Gross Motor Function Measure data were collected according to physical therapy frequency based on neurodevelopmental therapy for a period of 1 year. [Results] The correlation between physical therapy frequency and Gross Motor Function Measure scores for crawling and kneeling, standing, walking, running and jumping, and rolling, and the Gross Motor Function Measure total score was significant. The differences in gross motor function according to physical therapy frequency were significant for crawling, kneeling, standing, and Gross Motor Function Measure total score. The differences in gross motor function according to frequency of physical therapy were significant for standing in Gross Motor Function Classification System Level V. [Conclusion] Intensive physical therapy was more effective for improving gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy. In particular, crawling and kneeling, and standing ability showed greater increases with intensive physical therapy.

  8. Effect of physical therapy frequency on gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun-Young

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study attempted to investigate the effect of physical therapy frequency based on neurodevelopmental therapy on gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy. [Subjects and Methods] The study sample included 161 children with cerebral palsy who attended a convalescent or rehabilitation center for disabled individuals or a special school for children with physical disabilities in South Korea. Gross Motor Function Measure data were collected according to physical therapy frequency based on neurodevelopmental therapy for a period of 1 year. [Results] The correlation between physical therapy frequency and Gross Motor Function Measure scores for crawling and kneeling, standing, walking, running and jumping, and rolling, and the Gross Motor Function Measure total score was significant. The differences in gross motor function according to physical therapy frequency were significant for crawling, kneeling, standing, and Gross Motor Function Measure total score. The differences in gross motor function according to frequency of physical therapy were significant for standing in Gross Motor Function Classification System Level V. [Conclusion] Intensive physical therapy was more effective for improving gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy. In particular, crawling and kneeling, and standing ability showed greater increases with intensive physical therapy. PMID:27390440

  9. The Human Capital Roots of the Middle Income Trap: The Case of China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Linxiu; Yi, Hongmei; Luo, Renfu; Liu, Changfang; Rozelle, Scott

    2012-01-01

    China, like other middle income countries, is facing the challenges of the next stage of development as its leaders seek to guide the nation into becoming a high income country. At this same point of development, however, other countries have faltered, raising the possibility of stagnation or collapse. The stagnation of growth after reaching a level of income high enough to be call “middle income” is a phenomenon which some observers call the Middle Income Trap. In this paper we explore one o...

  10. Etnic discrimination and income in San Andrés Island, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Yabrudy

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This document examines, bases on the analysis of observable characteristics, if an income gapexists between the raizal population and non raizal population of San Andres Island. For thispurpose, the information of the SISBEN II survey for the year 2004, compelled by the NationalPlanning Department (DNP, Spanish acronym is used. The methodological strategy uses quantileregressions to determine the existence of pay gaps throughout the distribution of income. Theresults suggest that being raizal has a negative impact on income for the lower quantiles. However,this difference vanishes as income increases, becoming positive at higher levels.

  11. 45 CFR 96.85 - Income eligibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION BLOCK GRANTS Low-income Home Energy Assistance Program § 96.85 Income eligibility. (a) Application of poverty income guidelines and State median...-35 (42 U.S.C. 8624(b)(2)), grantees using the Federal government's official poverty income...

  12. 20 CFR 322.8 - Miscellaneous income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... REMUNERATION § 322.8 Miscellaneous income. (a) Income from self-employment. In determining whether income from self-employment is remuneration with respect to a particular day or particular days, consideration... mercantile establishment, ordinarily is not remuneration with respect to any day. (b) Income from...

  13. 78 FR 72393 - Net Investment Income Tax

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ... Investment Income Tax; Final and Proposed Rules #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78, No. 231 / Monday, December... Parts 1 and 602 RIN 1545-BK44 Net Investment Income Tax AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury... Investment Income Tax and the computation of Net Investment Income. The regulations affect...

  14. Higher Education R&D and Productivity Growth: An Empirical Study on High-Income OECD Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eid, Ashraf

    2012-01-01

    This paper is a macro study on higher education R&D and its impact on productivity growth. I measure the social rate of return on higher education R&D in 17 high-income OECD countries using country level data on the percentage of gross expenditure on R&D performed by higher education, business, and government sectors over the period 1981-2006.…

  15. Race, color, and income inequality across the Americas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanley Bailey

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Racial inequality in the U.S. is typically described in terms of stark categorical difference, as compared to the more gradational stratification based on skin color often said to prevail in parts of Latin America. However, nationally representative data with both types of measures have not been available to explicitly test this contrast. Objective: We use novel, recently released data from the U.S. and 18 Latin American countries to describe household income inequality across the region by perceived skin color and racial self-identification, and examine which measure better captures racial disparities in each national context. Results: We document color and racial hierarchies across the Americas, revealing some unexpected patterns. White advantage and indigenous disadvantage are fairly consistent features, whereas blacks at times have higher mean incomes than other racial populations. Income inequality can best be understood in some countries using racial categories alone, in others using skin color; in a few countries, including the U.S., a combination of skin color and self-identified race best explains income variation. Conclusions: These results complicate theoretical debates about U.S. racial exceptionalism and methodological debates about how best to measure race. Rather than supporting one measure over another, our cross-national analysis underscores race‟s multidimensionality. The variation in patterns of inequality also defies common comparisons between the U.S. on the one hand and a singular Latin America on the other.

  16. Predicting gross wages of non-employed persons in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Bezeredi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We present the findings of a study aimed at building a model for predicting wages of non-employed persons in Croatia. The predictions will be used in the calculation of marginal effective tax rate at the extensive margin and in labour supply modelling. The database used is 2012 “EU statistics on income and living conditions”. The paper comprehensively explains the data source, variables, subgroups of employed and non-employed, and the results of the linear regression model, the Heckman selection model and the quantile regression model. The quality of predictions obtained by different models is compared and discussed.

  17. A minimum income for healthy living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, J N; Donkin, A J; Wonderling, D; Wilkinson, P; Dowler, E A

    2000-12-01

    Half a century of research has provided consensual evidence of major personal requisites of adult health in nutrition, physical activity and psychosocial relations. Their minimal money costs, together with those of a home and other basic necessities, indicate disposable income that is now essential for health. In a first application we identified such representative minimal costs for healthy, single, working men aged 18-30, in the UK. Costs were derived from ad hoc survey, relevant figures in the national Family Expenditure Survey, and by pragmatic decision for the few minor items where survey data were not available. Minimum costs were assessed at 131.86 pound sterling per week (UK April 1999 prices). Component costs, especially those of housing (which represents around 40% of this total), depend on region and on several assumptions. By varying these a range of totals from 106.47 pound sterling to 163.86 pound sterling per week was detailed. These figures compare, 1999, with the new UK national minimum wage, after statutory deductions, of pound 105.84 at 18-21 years and 121.12 pound sterling at 22+ years for a 38 hour working week. Corresponding basic social security rates are 40.70 pound sterling to 51.40 pound sterling per week. Accumulating science means that absolute standards of living, "poverty", minimal official incomes and the like, can now be assessed by objective measurement of the personal capacity to meet the costs of major requisites of healthy living. A realistic assessment of these costs is presented as an impetus to public discussion. It is a historical role of public health as social medicine to lead in public advocacy of such a national agenda.

  18. Relationships Between Problem-Gambling Severity and Psychopathology as Moderated by Income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanacora, Rachel L; Whiting, Seth W; Pilver, Corey E; Hoff, Rani A; Potenza, Marc N

    2016-09-01

    Background and aims Problem and pathological gambling have been associated with elevated rates of both Axis-I and Axis-II psychiatric disorders. Although both problem gambling and psychiatric disorders have been reported as being more prevalent among lower income vs. middle/higher income groups, how income might moderate the relationship between problem-gambling severity and psychopathology is incompletely understood. To examine the associations between problem-gambling severity and psychopathology in lower income and middle/higher income groups. Methods Data from the first wave of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) (n = 43,093) were analyzed in adjusted logistic regression models to investigate the relationships between problem-gambling severity and psychiatric disorders within and across income groups. Results Greater problem-gambling severity was associated with increased odds of multiple psychiatric disorders for both lower income and middle/higher income groups. Income moderated the association between problem/pathological gambling and alcohol abuse/dependence, with a stronger association seen among middle/higher income respondents than among lower income respondents. Discussion and conclusions The findings that problem-gambling severity is related to psychopathology across income groups suggest a need for public health initiatives across social strata to reduce the impact that problem/pathological gambling may have in relation to psychopathology. Middle/higher income populations, perhaps owing to the availability of more "disposable income," may be at greater risk for co-occurring gambling and alcohol-use psychopathology and may benefit preferentially from interventions targeting both gambling and alcohol use.

  19. Assessment outcomes: computerized instruction in a human gross anatomy course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowski, Elaine L

    2002-01-01

    New and traditional educational media were used to study alternative methods of instruction in a human gross anatomy course. Three consecutive entry-level physical therapy (PT) classes (55 students total) participated in this study. No other anatomy course was available to these students during this time. During the first year, all entering PT students (n = 18) completed a traditional cadaver anatomy course. This traditional group attended weekly lectures and dissection laboratories for 15 weeks. During the second year, the next entering class of PT students (n = 17) completed a self-study, computerized noncadaver anatomy course. This self-study group attended an introductory session to receive course objectives and instruction in using the computer package chosen for the study. After the introductory session, this group worked independently for the remainder of their 15-week course. During the third year, the entering class of PT students (n = 20) attended weekly lectures and completed a self-study, computerized non-cadaver laboratory course. This lecture and self-study group attended an introductory session to review course objectives and receive instruction in using the computer package. For the remainder of their 15-week course, this group attended a weekly lecture and worked independently on the computer for the laboratory portion of their course. All groups kept time logs, recording class and study time for each day of the course. The time logs were collected on the last day of each course. Each group's performance in anatomy-based system courses was followed through the remainder of the PT curricula, including clinical rotations, and through the completion of the state board licensure examination. Data were analyzed using a multivariate analysis of variance and a Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance. There was no significant difference in anatomy course class means, class study times, performance throughout the remainder of the PT curricula, and performance

  20. The value relevance of comprehensive income

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we look at the effects of the adoption of the revised IAS 1 rules, which has been in effect since January 1, 2009. The revised IAS 1 requires that all changes in equity, excluding changes in equity arising from transactions with owners, should be recognized in comprehensive income statement. Revised IAS 1 requires companies to report total comprehensive income that is a sum of net income and other comprehensive income. Total comprehensive income includes all unrealized gains an...