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Sample records for gross motor skills

  1. The Gross Motor Skills of Children with Mild Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonis, Karen P.; Jernice, Tan Sing Yee

    2014-01-01

    Many international studies have examined the gross motor skills of children studying in special schools while local studies of such nature are limited. This study investigated the gross motor skills of children with Mild Learning Disabilities (MLD; n = 14, M age = 8.93 years, SD = 0.33) with the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (TGMD-2, Ulrich,…

  2. Gross Motor Profile and Its Association with Socialization Skills in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardiono D. Pusponegoro

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: Children with ASD had lower gross motor skills compared to typically developing children. Gross motor impairments were found in 20% of the ASD children, and these children also had lower socialization skills than those without gross motor impairments.

  3. Assessing Gross Motor Skills of Kosovar Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shala, Merita

    2009-01-01

    In the light of the new developments in preschool education in Kosovo, this study attempts to carry out an assessment of the development of gross motor skills of preschool children attending institutional education. The emphasis is on creating a set of tests to measure the motor attainments of these children by conducting assessments of the…

  4. The Effects of Basketball Basic Skills Training on Gross Motor Skills Development of Female Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayazit, Betul

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of basketball basic skills training on gross motor skills development of female children in Turkey. For that purpose, 40 female children took part in the study voluntarily. Basketball basic skills test was used to improve the gross motor skills of the female children in the study. Also,…

  5. The Effects of Basketball Basic Skills Training on Gross Motor Skills Development of Female Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayazit, Betul

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of basketball basic skills training on gross motor skills development of female children in Turkey. For that purpose, 40 female children took part in the study voluntarily. Basketball basic skills test was used to improve the gross motor skills of the female children in the study. Also,…

  6. Relationship Between Gross Motor Function and Daily Functional Skill in Children With Cerebral Palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Kwon, Tae Gun; Yi, Sook-Hee; Kim, Tae Won; Chang, Hyun Jung; Kwon, Jeong-Yi

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between gross motor function and daily functional skill in children with cerebral palsy (CP) and to explore how this relationship is moderated by the Gross Motor Function Classification System, Bimanual Fine Motor Function (BFMF), neuromotor types, and limb distribution of CP. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 112 children with CP (range, 4 years to 7 years and 7 months) was performed. Gross motor function was assessed with the Gross Motor Function ...

  7. The relationship between gross motor skills and academic achievement in children with learning disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westendorp, Marieke; Hartman, Esther; Houwen, Suzanne; Smith, Joanne; Visscher, Chris

    2011-01-01

    The present study compared the gross motor skills of 7- to 12-year-old children with learning disabilities (n = 104) with those of age-matched typically developing children (n = 104) using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2. Additionally, the specific relationships between subsets of gross motor

  8. The relationship between gross motor skills and academic achievement in children with learning disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westendorp, Marieke; Hartman, Esther; Houwen, Suzanne; Smith, Joanne; Visscher, Chris

    2011-01-01

    The present study compared the gross motor skills of 7- to 12-year-old children with learning disabilities (n = 104) with those of age-matched typically developing children (n = 104) using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2. Additionally, the specific relationships between subsets of gross motor

  9. Gross Motor Profile and Its Association with Socialization Skills in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusponegoro, Hardiono D; Efar, Pustika; Soedjatmiko; Soebadi, Amanda; Firmansyah, Agus; Chen, Hui-Ju; Hung, Kun-Long

    2016-12-01

    While social impairment is considered to be the core deficit in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a large proportion of these children have poor gross motor ability, and gross motor deficits may influence socialization skills in children with ASD. The objectives of this study were to compare gross motor skills in children with ASD to typically developing children, to describe gross motor problems in children with ASD, and to investigate associations between gross motor and socialization skills in children with ASD. This was a cross-sectional study including 40 ASD children aged from 18 months to 6 years and 40 age-matched typically developing controls. Gross motor and socialization skills were scored using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, 2(nd) edition (Vineland-II). Below average gross motor function was found in eight of 40 (20%) ASD children. The mean gross motor v-scale score in the ASD group was 15.1 [standard deviation (SD) 3.12], significantly lower than in the control group [18.7, SD 2.09, p = 0.0001; 95% confidence intervals (CI) from -4.725 to -2.525]. The differences were most prominent in ball throwing and catching, using stairs, jumping, and bicycling. The ASD children with gross motor impairments had a mean socialization domain score of 66.6 (SD 6.50) compared to 85.7 (SD 10.90) in those without gross motor impairments (p = 0.0001, 95% CI from -25.327 to -12.736). Children with ASD had lower gross motor skills compared to typically developing children. Gross motor impairments were found in 20% of the ASD children, and these children also had lower socialization skills than those without gross motor impairments. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Neonatal Stroke Causes Poor Midline Motor Behaviors and Poor Fine and Gross Motor Skills during Early Infancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao-Ying; Lo, Warren D.; Heathcock, Jill C.

    2013-01-01

    Upper extremity movements, midline behaviors, fine, and gross motor skills are frequently impaired in hemiparesis and cerebral palsy. We investigated midline toy exploration and fine and gross motor skills in infants at risk for hemiplegic cerebral palsy. Eight infants with neonatal stroke (NS) and thirteen infants with typical development (TD)…

  11. GENDER DIFFERENCES IN FINE AND GROSS MOTOR SKILLS OF NORMALLY DEVELOPING OVERWEIGHT AND OBESE ADOLESCENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şehmus ASLAN

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to compare girls’ and boys’ fine and gross motor skills in normally developing overweight and obese adolescents. 18 girls and 28 boys with 12-18 age range, in totally 46 overweight and obese adolecents participated in the study. Body mass index of participants were calculated. Fine and gross motor skills of adolescents were assessed by Short Form Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOT-2 SF. There was no differences between girls and boys for BOT-2 SF total scores (p>0.05, but it was found differences in several items of BOT-2 SF. Scores of test items for fine motor scores in the girls were higher than the boys (p0.05. Gross motor skill tests including jumping in place, dribling a ball, sit-ups, one- legged stationary hop test scores were higher in the boys, while tapping feet and fingers test score was higher in the girls (p<0.05. Our results suggested that there is differences between girls’ and boys’ fine and gross motor skills in normally developing overweight and obese adolescents. Girls have better fine motor skill performance while boys have better gross motor skill performance in overweight and obese adolescents.

  12. The Effects of Modified Games on the Development of Gross Motor Skill in Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestari, Indah; Ratnaningsih, Tri

    2016-01-01

    Gross motor skills on children must be optimized much earlier since it plays important role not only on their interaction process but also in supporting other multiple developments. One of the means in developing child's motor skill is by providing innovative games i.e. modified games including game format, game timing, and game sequence. The…

  13. Gross motor control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross motor control is the ability to make large, general movements (such as waving an arm or lifting a leg). ... Gross motor control is a milestone in the development of an infant. Infants develop gross motor control before they develop ...

  14. Effect of Spark Motor Program on the development of gross motor skills in intellectually disabled educable boys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashem Faal Moganloo

    2013-11-01

    Results: Spark Program caused significant changes in all the variables of the study, except speed and agility, in the experimental group after 24 sessions. The changes included: agility and speed (P=0.731, balance (P=0, strength (P=0.002, and bilateral coordination (P=0. Conclusion: Spark Motor Program can improve gross motor skills in intellectually disabled educable students.

  15. Gross motor skills and sports participation of children with visual impairments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwen, S; Visscher, C.; Hartman, E.; Lemmink, K.A.P.M.

    2007-01-01

    Gross motor skill performance of children with visual impairments and its association with the degree of visual impairment and sports participation was examined. Twenty children with visual impairments (M age = 9.2 years, SD =1.5) and 100 sighted children (M age = 9.1 years, SD = 1.5) from mainstrea

  16. Self-Pacing a Gross Motor Skills Course: Crawler Tractor Operator, MOS 62E20.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Mark F.; Taylor, John E.

    As part of the Army's emphasis on performance-oriented instruction in training centers, a study was conducted to determine the feasibility of using self-paced instruction in a gross motor skills course. The Crawler Tractor Operator Course, a seven-week heavy equipment course conducted at Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri was selected for the study…

  17. Gross motor skills and sports participation of children with visual impairments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwen, S; Visscher, C.; Hartman, E.; Lemmink, K.A.P.M.

    Gross motor skill performance of children with visual impairments and its association with the degree of visual impairment and sports participation was examined. Twenty children with visual impairments (M age = 9.2 years, SD =1.5) and 100 sighted children (M age = 9.1 years, SD = 1.5) from

  18. Effects of Aquatic Intervention on Gross Motor Skills in Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roostaei, Meysam; Baharlouei, Hamzeh; Azadi, Hamidreza; Fragala-Pinkham, Maria A

    2016-12-14

    To review the literature on the effects of aquatic intervention on gross motor skills for children with cerebral palsy (CP). Six databases were searched from inception to January 2016. Aquatic studies for children aged 1-21 years with any type or CP classification and at least one outcome measuring gross motor skills were included. Information was extracted on study design, outcomes, and aquatic program type, frequency, duration, and intensity. Quality was rated using the Centre of Evidence-Based Medicine: Levels of Evidence and the PEDro scale. Of the 11 studies which met inclusion criteria, only two used randomized control trial design, and the results were mixed. Quality of evidence was rated as moderate to high for only one study. Most studies used quasi-experimental designs and reported improvements in gross motor skills for within group analyses after aquatic programs were held for two to three times per week and lasting for 6-16 weeks. Participants were classified according to the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels I-V, and were aged 3-21 years. Mild to no adverse reactions were reported. Evidence on aquatic interventions for ambulatory children with CP is limited. Aquatic exercise is feasible and adverse effects are minimal; however, dosing parameters are unclear. Further research is needed to determine aquatic intervention effectiveness and exercise dosing across age categories and GMFCS levels.

  19. Gross motor skill performance in a sample of overweight and non-overweight preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morano, Milena; Colella, Dario; Caroli, Margherita

    2011-10-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the gross motor skill performance of overweight and non-overweight preschool children from South of Italy, and to investigate possible differences by gender. Participants were 38 boys and 42 girls (4.5 ± 0.5 yr) categorized as overweight (n = 38) and non-overweight (n = 42), according to the IOTF body mass index (BMI) cut-off points. The Test of Gross Motor Development was used to assess seven locomotor skills (run, gallop, hop, leap, horizontal jump, skip and slide) and five object-control skills (two-hand strike, stationary bounce, catch, kick and overhand throw). The raw, standard and percentile scores and the Gross Motor Development Quotient (GMDQ) were calculated for each participant. ANOVA 2 (gender) x 2 (group) was conducted on the subtest standard scores and the GMDQ. No differences in performance were found between boys and girls on the subscale standard scores and the GMDQ. Significant main effects (p overweight children reporting lower movement competence than their counterparts. Pearson's correlations revealed relationships (p Overweight participants showed poorer performance on locomotor and object-control tasks than their non-overweight peers. Interventions to promote physical activity in overweight children should be directed towards achieving a healthy weight and motor skill improvement.

  20. Effects of gross motor function and manual function levels on performance-based ADL motor skills of children with spastic cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Myoung-Ok

    2017-02-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine effects of Gross Motor Function Classification System and Manual Ability Classification System levels on performance-based motor skills of children with spastic cerebral palsy. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-three children with cerebral palsy were included. The Assessment of Motor and Process Skills was used to evaluate performance-based motor skills in daily life. Gross motor function was assessed using Gross Motor Function Classification Systems, and manual function was measured using the Manual Ability Classification System. [Results] Motor skills in daily activities were significantly different on Gross Motor Function Classification System level and Manual Ability Classification System level. According to the results of multiple regression analysis, children categorized as Gross Motor Function Classification System level III scored lower in terms of performance based motor skills than Gross Motor Function Classification System level I children. Also, when analyzed with respect to Manual Ability Classification System level, level II was lower than level I, and level III was lower than level II in terms of performance based motor skills. [Conclusion] The results of this study indicate that performance-based motor skills differ among children categorized based on Gross Motor Function Classification System and Manual Ability Classification System levels of cerebral palsy.

  1. Determinants of gross motor skill performance in children with visual impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haibach, Pamela S; Wagner, Matthias O; Lieberman, Lauren J

    2014-10-01

    Children with visual impairments (CWVI) generally perform poorer in gross motor skills when compared with their sighted peers. This study examined the influence of age, sex, and severity of visual impairment upon locomotor and object control skills in CWVI. Participants included 100 CWVI from across the United States who completed the Test of Gross Motor Development II (TGMD-II). The TGMD-II consists of 12 gross motor skills including 6 object control skills (catching, kicking, striking, dribbling, throwing, and rolling) and 6 locomotor skills (running, sliding, galloping, leaping, jumping, and hopping). The full range of visual impairments according to United States Association for Blind Athletes (USABA; B3=20/200-20/599, legally blind; B2=20/600 and up, travel vision; B1=totally blind) were assessed. The B1 group performed significantly worse than the B2 (0.000 ≤ p ≤ 0.049) or B3 groups (0.000 ≤ p ≤ 0.005); however, there were no significant differences between B2 and B3 except for the run (p=0.006), catch (p=0.000), and throw (p=0.012). Age and sex did not play an important role in most of the skills, with the exception of boys outperforming girls striking (p=0.009), dribbling (p=0.013), and throwing (p=0.000), and older children outperforming younger children in dribbling (p=0.002). The significant impact of the severity of visual impairment is likely due to decreased experiences and opportunities for children with more severe visual impairments. In addition, it is likely that these reduced experiences explain the lack of age-related differences in the CWVI. The large disparities in performance between children who are blind and their partially sighted peers give direction for instruction and future research. In addition, there is a critical need for intentional and specific instruction on motor skills at a younger age to enable CWVI to develop their gross motor skills.

  2. Impact of a Community-Based Programme for Motor Development on Gross Motor Skills and Cognitive Function in Preschool Children from Disadvantaged Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, Catherine E.; Achmat, Masturah; Forbes, Jared; Lambert, Estelle V.

    2012-01-01

    The aims of the studies were to assess the impact of the Little Champs programme for motor development on (1) the gross motor skills, and (2) cognitive function of children in the programme. In study 1, 118 children from one Early Childhood Development Centre (ECDC) were tested using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2, and in study 2, 83…

  3. Comparison the Impact of Spark Motor Program and Basketball Techniques on Improving Gross Motor Skills in Educable Intellectually Disabled Boys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashem Faal Moghanlo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives : Different types of practises are known for improving motor skills in intellectually disabled boys. The purpose of this study was to compar e the impact of spark motor program and basketball on improving of gross motor skills in this people.   Methods: In this semi-experimental study , from 98 educable intellectually disabled students who studied in special school in Urmia, 30 children ( age range of 9 to 13 years and IQ mean 64.4 were selected objectively and divided in three groups (2 experimental and 1 control based on pre - test. BOTMP was used as a measurement of motor ability. Selected motor program (Spark motor program including strengthening training, games, sports and basketball techniques was performed for 24 sessions. T-tests (dependent and co-variance were used to comparison of results.   Results: In Spark group after 24 sessions, there were significant effects on balance (p= 0.000, bilateral coordination (p=0.000 and strength (p=0.001. There was no significant effect in agility and speed (p= 0.343 in basketball techniques group after 24 sessions, there were significant effects in agility and speed (p= 0.001, balance (p= 0.000, bilateral coordination (p= 0.013 and strength (p= 0.007.   Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, it can be claimed that the Spark program and basketball techniques improve gross motor skills in educable intellectually disabled students. We also found a significant difference between the Spark program and basketball techniques efficacy on the improved skills. Furthermore, the efficacy of Spark program was significantly higher than basketball techniques (p<0.05.

  4. The effect of aquatic intervention on the gross motor function and aquatic skills in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrijević, Lidija; Aleksandrović, Marko; Madić, Dejan; Okičić, Tomislav; Radovanović, Dragan; Daly, Daniel

    2012-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of an aquatic intervention on the gross motor function and aquatic skills of children with cerebral palsy (CP). Twenty-nine children with CP, aged 5 to 14, were recruited. Fourteen children completed an aquatic intervention (EG), and 13 children served as controls (CG). Two participants dropped out due to events (illness) unrelated to the intervention. The aquatic intervention lasted 6 weeks (2 sessions per week at 55 minutes per session) with a follow-up period of 3 weeks. The outcome measures were the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) for motor function and the Water Orientation Test Alyn 2 (WOTA 2) for aquatic skills assessment. A significant improvement was observed in the secondary assessment of GMFM and WOTA 2. In contrast to the aquatic skills improvement, the GMFM change was not maintained at follow-up. Our results indicate that children with CP can improve gross motor function on dry land and aquatic skills with a 6-week water intervention. The intervention period was too short for sustainable improvement in dry-land motor skills after intervention (follow-up), but time was sufficient to achieve sustainable improvements in aquatic skills.

  5. Infants with Down Syndrome: Percentage and Age for Acquisition of Gross Motor Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Karina; Basso, Renata Pedrolongo; Lindquist, Ana Raquel Rodrigues; da Silva, Louise Gracelli Pereira; Tudella, Eloisa

    2013-01-01

    The literature is bereft of information about the age at which infants with Down syndrome (DS) acquire motor skills and the percentage of infants that do so by the age of 12 months. Therefore, it is necessary to identify the difference in age, in relation to typical infants, at which motor skills were acquired and the percentage of infants with DS…

  6. THE INFLUENCE OF THE EXERCISES OF GROSS AND FINE MOTOR SKILLS ON VISUO-MOTOR COORDINATION OF THE CEREBRAL PALSY CHILDREN

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    Almira Mujkić

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Visuomotor coordination is reffered to eye coordination and to various parts of the body in different activities and games. The aim of the research was to establish the influence of the exercises of gross and fine motor skills on visuomotor coordination of the cerebral palsy children. The sample was the case study where a male person of 3 and a half years old was an examinee. Measuring instrument used was the Test of visuomotor coordination of the gross motor skills of the dominant hand. Data were analyzed by t-test.

  7. Concurrent Validity of Preschooler Gross Motor Quality Scale with Test of Gross Motor Development-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shih-Heng; Sun, Hsiao-Ling; Zhu, Yi-Ching; Huang, Li-chi; Hsieh, Yueh-Ling

    2011-01-01

    Preschooler Gross Motor Quality Scale (PGMQ) was recently developed to evaluate motor skill quality of preschoolers. The purpose of this study was to establish the concurrent validity of PGMQ using Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (TGMD-2) as the gold standard. One hundred and thirty five preschool children aged from three to six years were…

  8. Effects of Motor Skill Intervention on Gross Motor Development, Creative Thinking and Academic Performance in Preschool Children

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    Judith Jiménez Díaz

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate how students (mean= 6.08±0.5 years benefit from a physical education program in motor performance, creative thinking and academic achievement. Students (n = 39 were randomly assigned to comparison group (6 boys and 7 girls who received the regular preschool program (which includes 1 session of 30 minutes per week; intervention group 1 (6 boys and 7 girls who received the regular preschool program plus 1 session of 30 minutes per week of the intervention program; or intervention group 2 (6 boys and 7 girls, who received the regular preschool program plus 1 session of 60 minutes per week of the intervention program; during 8 weeks. All participants performed the Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD-2 and the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking (TTCT before and after the study. The academic achievement score was given by the school. The ANOVA (Group x Gender x Time pre and post analysis revealed a significant triple interaction in the object control. Significant double interactions in the locomotor subscale and in the gross motor quotient were also found. After the post-hoc analysis, the results suggest that the physical education program benefits the gross motor performance and did not have an effect on the creative thinking or on the academic achievement.

  9. A Field-Based Testing Protocol for Assessing Gross Motor Skills in Preschool Children: The Children's Activity and Movement in Preschool Study Motor Skills Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Harriet G.; Pfeiffer, Karin A.; Dowda, Marsha; Jeter, Chevy; Jones, Shaverra; Pate, Russell R.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a valid and reliable tool for use in assessing motor skills in preschool children in field-based settings. The development of the Children's Activity and Movement in Preschool Study Motor Skills Protocol included evidence of its reliability and validity for use in field-based environments as part of large…

  10. Associations between fine and gross motor skills, aerobic fitness, cognition and academic performance in 7-8 years old Danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Rune Rasmussen; Beck, Mikkel Malling; Geertsen, Svend Sparre

    Purpose: The current literature is concentrated around the positive effects of aerobic fitness (AF) on performance in cognitive tests (CP) and academic performance (AP) (reviewed in Hillman 2008). However, motor skills (MS) are often overlooked in this equation, and studies evaluating both AF......, phonological working-memory capacity (PWM), spatial working-memory capacity (SWM), math performance (MP) and fine- and gross-motor skill (FMS & GMS) assessed. Results: Significant associations were found between FMS and MP (P

  11. Validating the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Jenny; Stahlhut, Michelle; Wong, Kingsley; Syhler, Birgit; Bisgaard, Anne-Marie; Jacoby, Peter; Leonard, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Rett syndrome is a pervasive neurodevelopmental disorder associated with a pathogenic mutation on the MECP2 gene. Impaired movement is a fundamental component and the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale was developed to measure gross motor abilities in this population. The current study investigated the validity and reliability of the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale. Video data showing gross motor abilities supplemented with parent report data was collected for 255 girls and women registered with the Australian Rett Syndrome Database, and the factor structure and relationships between motor scores, age and genotype were investigated. Clinical assessment scores for 38 girls and women with Rett syndrome who attended the Danish Center for Rett Syndrome were used to assess consistency of measurement. Principal components analysis enabled the calculation of three factor scores: Sitting, Standing and Walking, and Challenge. Motor scores were poorer with increasing age and those with the p.Arg133Cys, p.Arg294* or p.Arg306Cys mutation achieved higher scores than those with a large deletion. The repeatability of clinical assessment was excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient for total score 0.99, 95% CI 0.93-0.98). The standard error of measurement for the total score was 2 points and we would be 95% confident that a change 4 points in the 45-point scale would be greater than within-subject measurement error. The Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale could be an appropriate measure of gross motor skills in clinical practice and clinical trials.

  12. Gross motor function, functional skills and caregiver assistance in children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP) with and without cerebral visual impairment (CVI)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salavati, M.; Rameckers, E.A.A.; Steenbergen, B.; Schans, C.P. van der

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To determine whether the level of gross motor function and functional skills in children with cerebral palsy (CP) and cerebral visual impairment (CVI) as well as caregiver assistance are lower in comparison with the corresponding group of children experiencing CP without CVI. Method: Data aggre

  13. Gross motor function, functional skills and caregiver assistance in children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP) with and without cerebral visual impairment (CVI)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salavati, M.; Rameckers, E.A.A.; Steenbergen, B.; Schans, C.P. van der

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To determine whether the level of gross motor function and functional skills in children with cerebral palsy (CP) and cerebral visual impairment (CVI) as well as caregiver assistance are lower in comparison with the corresponding group of children experiencing CP without CVI. Method: Data

  14. Exploring the Relationship between Participation in a Structured Sports Program and Development of Gross Motor Skills in Children Ages 3 to 6 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahagirdar, Ishanee; Venditti, Laura Anne; Duncan, Andrea; Reed, Nick; Fleming, Sean

    2017-01-01

    This study looked at the relationship between participation in a structured sports program and gross-motor-skills development in children aged 3 to 6 years. Twenty-seven children participated in the study, with 16 children receiving an eight-week sports program intervention. Children were assessed at pre- and postintervention using a modified…

  15. The Effect of Resistance Training on Performance of Gross Motor Skills and Balance in Children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Zarrinkalam

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Cerebral palsy is the most common chronic motor disability in children and can have negative effect on motor functions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of eight weeks resistance training on gross motor ability, balance and walking speed in a group of such children. Methods: 21 cerebral palsy boys with spastic diplegia, aged between 12 and 16 years (mean, 13.66 years, participated in this study. A pre-test, involving walking, sitting, standing and walking up stairs. They were randomly divided into an experimental and control groups. Then, the experimental group participated in 8 weeks of resistance training.  The data was attained from a 10 meter walk test, Berg Balance Test, gross motor ability Section E, D and GMFCS tests.  Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, sample t-test were used for analyzing the data. Results: The results showed a significant improvement in the performance of experimental group in gross motor abilities section  E and D, balance and walking speed after 8 weeks of resistance training (P <0.05(. However, significant differences were not observed in the control group before and after the study (P <0.05.  Conclusion: The results showed that resistance training improves gross motor ability, balance and gait in children with cerebral palsy hence, it is recommended that resistance exercise be used as a therapeutic modality for children with cerebral palsy.

  16. Leveling the Playing Field: Assessment of Gross Motor Skills in Low Socioeconomic Children to their Higher Socioeconomic Counterparts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan M. Adkins

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fundamental movements (FM of children influence the willingness to engage in physical activity (PA. Thus, proper FM skills are the foundation for a lifespan of PA. Objective: This study examined what factors may affect children’s PA in relation to FM pattern capabilities. Methods: The study examined the influence of SES when three low-income schools were provided additional PA opportunities on days PE was not taught. FM patterns in relation to object control (OC and locomotor skill (LC development were evaluated on K (n = 871, 1st (n = 893, and 2nd graders (n = 829 using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (TGMD-2 instrument (Ulrich, 2000. Schools were dichotomized and categorized as being low SES (n = 2008 and high SES (n = 578 status. Results: A significant relationship was revealed with LC (r = 0.264; p = 0.001, OC (r = 0.171; p = 0.001, and total TGMD-2 (r = 0.264; p = 0.001. Low and high SES schools significantly improved overall TGMD-2 scores. High SES schools children were significantly higher in LC [F, (2, 1272 = 29.31, p = 0.001], OC [F, (2, 1272 = 23.14, p = 0.001], and total TGMD-2 [F, (1, 1272 = 38.11, p = 0.001]. Conclusion: Low SES schools need to concentrate on PA-based activities to engage students in FM patterns, to help narrow the gap in FM capabilities. In addition, the increase in PA opportunities for lower SES schools could positively impact brain function, cardiovascular fitness, and overall well-being.

  17. Early onset of forced impaired forelimb use causes recovery of forelimb skilled motor function but no effect on gross sensory-motor function after capsular hemorrhage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Akimasa; Tamakoshi, Keigo; Hamakawa, Michiru; Shimada, Haruka; Nakashima, Hiroki; Masuda, Tadashi; Hida, Hideki; Ishida, Kazuto

    2011-11-20

    Intensive use of the impaired forelimb promotes behavioral recovery and induces plastic changes of the central nervous system after stroke. However, the optimal onset of intensive use treatment after stroke is controversial. In this study, we investigated whether early forced impaired limb use (FLU) initiated 24h after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) of the internal capsule affected behavioral recovery and histological damage. Rats were subjected to ICH via low-dose collagenase infusion or sham stroke. One day after surgery, the ipsilateral forelimbs of half of the ICH and sham rats were casted for a week to induce the use of their contralateral forelimbs. Behavioral assessments were performed on days 10-12 and 26-28 after the surgery and followed by histological assessments. Improvements in skilled reaching and coordinated stepping function were found in the FLU-treated group in comparison with the untreated group after ICH. Additionally, FLU-treated ICH animals showed more normal and precise reaching and stepping movements as compared with ICH control animals. In contrast, FLU did not have a significant impact on gross sensory-motor functions such as the motor deficit score, contact placing response and spontaneous usage of the impaired paw. The volume of tissue lost and the number of spared corticospinal neurons in lesioned motor cortex were not affected by early FLU after ICH. These findings demonstrate the efficacy of early focused use of an impaired limb after internal capsule hemorrhage.

  18. Avaliação do desempenho motor global e em habilidades motoras axiais e apendiculares de lactentes frequentadores de creche Assessment of global motor performance and gross and fine motor skills of infants attending day care centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina T Souza

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar o desempenho motor global em habilidades motoras axiais e apendiculares de lactentes que frequentavam, em tempo integral, duas Escolas Municipais de Educação Infantil. MÉTODOS: Estudo longitudinal do qual participaram 30 lactentes avaliados aos 12 e 17 meses de vida com a escala motora das Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development-III, que possibilita a análise do desempenho motor global, apendicular e axial e a discrepância entre eles. Utilizaram-se o teste de Wilcoxon e o Coeficiente de Correlação de Spearman. RESULTADOS: A maioria dos participantes apresentou desempenho motor global dentro dos limites de normalidade, porém abaixo da média de referência aos 12 e 17 meses, com 30% classificados como suspeitos de atraso em pelo menos uma das avaliações. O desempenho motor axial foi inferior ao apendicular aos 12 e aos 17 meses, com grande discrepância entre eles especialmente na 2ª avaliação. Observou-se marcada variabilidade individual nas habilidades motoras apendiculares, com fraca correlação linear no desempenho entre a 1ª e a 2ª avaliações nesse domínio. Nas habilidades axiais e no desempenho motor global, encontrou-se menor variabilidade individual, com correlações moderadas e positivas entre a 1ª e a 2ª avaliações. Identificaram-se quatro lactentes com suspeita de atraso no desenvolvimento motor em ambas as avaliações. CONCLUSÕES: O estudo aponta necessidade de maior atenção ao desenvolvimento motor durante os primeiros 17 meses de crianças que frequentam creches, com especial vigilância à motricidade axial (considerando que ela é parte integrante do desenvolvimento global da criança e às crianças com desempenho suspeito de atraso em duas avaliações consecutivas.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the global motor performance and the gross and fine motor skills of infants attending two public child care centers full-time. METHODS: This was a longitudinal study that included 30 infants

  19. Assessment of Preschoolers' Gross Motor Proficiency: Revisiting Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Hazel Mei Yung

    2011-01-01

    Literature reveals that there are very few validated motor proficiency tests for young children. According to Gallahue and Ozmun, the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency is a valid test. However, manipulative skills, which are classified as gross motor skills by most motor development specialists, are only tested in the Upper Limb…

  20. Brief Assessment of Motor Function: Content Validity and Reliability of the Upper Extremity Gross Motor Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cintas, Holly Lea; Parks, Rebecca; Don, Sarah; Gerber, Lynn

    2011-01-01

    Content validity and reliability of the Brief Assessment of Motor Function (BAMF) Upper Extremity Gross Motor Scale (UEGMS) were evaluated in this prospective, descriptive study. The UEGMS is one of five BAMF ordinal scales designed for quick documentation of gross, fine, and oral motor skill levels. Designed to be independent of age and…

  1. Interlimb Coordination: An Important Facet of Gross-Motor Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobbio, Tatiana; Gabbard, Carl; Cacola, Priscila

    2009-01-01

    Motor development attains landmark significance during early childhood. Although early childhood educators may be familiar with the gross-motor skill category, the subcategory of interlimb coordination needs greater attention than it typically receives from teachers of young children. Interlimb coordination primarily involves movements requiring…

  2. Gross Motor Development of Malaysian Hearing Impaired Male Pre- and Early School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawi, Khairi; Lian, Denise Koh Choon; Abdullah, Rozlina Tan

    2014-01-01

    Acquisition of gross motor skill is a natural developmental process for children. This aspect of human development increases with one's chronological age, irrespective of any developmental conditions. The purpose of this study was to assess the level of gross motor skill development among pre- and early school-aged children with motor disability.…

  3. Validating the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Downs, Jenny; Stahlhut, Michelle; Wong, Kingsley;

    2016-01-01

    Rett syndrome is a pervasive neurodevelopmental disorder associated with a pathogenic mutation on the MECP2 gene. Impaired movement is a fundamental component and the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale was developed to measure gross motor abilities in this population. The current study investigated...... the validity and reliability of the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale. Video data showing gross motor abilities supplemented with parent report data was collected for 255 girls and women registered with the Australian Rett Syndrome Database, and the factor structure and relationships between motor scores, age...... and genotype were investigated. Clinical assessment scores for 38 girls and women with Rett syndrome who attended the Danish Center for Rett Syndrome were used to assess consistency of measurement. Principal components analysis enabled the calculation of three factor scores: Sitting, Standing and Walking...

  4. Influence of aquatic physical therapy on gross motor skills in children under 5 years of age with cerebral palsy: Systematic review.

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    Julio Latorre-García

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aquatic environment has been used and is used to perform physiotherapy treatments in different pathologies including cerebral palsy. No method has been proven more effective than the others. Aim: The objective of this article is to carry out a systematic review of the scientific literature on how physical exercise in water affects the gross motor skills and neurodevelopment of children with cerebral palsy. Methods: A systematic search was carried out using the PRISMA model. The search for articles in this review was done in the databases through Scopus and PubMed, as well as in the Web of Science (WOS platform and in official websites of international organizations, such as the World Health Organization (WHO. The review was carried out between the months of June and December of the year 2016. Results: Of the 8 studies that met the inclusion criteria, only two used randomized control trial design and the results were mixed. Most of the studies used quasi-experimental designs and reported improvements in gross motor skills, for group analyzes, after the aquatic programs were maintained from two to three sessions a week and lasted from 6 to 16 weeks. Participants were evaluated and classified according to the different development scales, and were less than 5 years old. Conclusions: Although the different studies have not demonstrated a greater efficacy of aquatic physiotherapy compared to other treatment concepts, neither has been less, so that the exercise in water increases the therapeutic possibilities to which the chronic nature of the Pathology must access the patient throughout his life. Aquatic exercise is feasible and adverse effects are minimal; but the dosage parameters are not clear. However, in order to promote the prescription by physicians of this type of therapy, it is necessary to carry out research studies that demonstrate in a quantitative way the efficacy of the method, with longer and longer samples.

  5. Development of fine motor skills in preterm infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Arend F.; Van Braeckel, Koenraad N. J. A.; Hitzert, Marrit M.; Tanis, Jozien C.; Roze, Elise

    2013-01-01

    Fine motor skills are related to functioning in daily life and at school. We reviewed the status of knowledge, in preterm children, on the development of fine motor skills, the relation with gross motor skills, and risk factors for impaired fine motor skills. We searched the past 15 years in PubMed,

  6. The relationship between spasticity and gross motor capability in nonambulatory children with spastic cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katusic, Ana; Alimovic, Sonja

    2013-09-01

    Spasticity has been considered as a major impairment in cerebral palsy (CP), but the relationship between this impairment and motor functions is still unclear, especially in the same group of patients with CP. The aim of this investigation is to determine the relationship between spasticity and gross motor capability in nonambulatory children with spastic CP. Seventy-one children (30 boys, 41 girls) with bilateral spastic cerebral palsy and with Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels IV (n=34) and V (n=37) were included in the study. The spasticity level in lower limbs was evaluated using the Modified Modified Ashworth Scale and the gross motor function with the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM-88). Spearman's correlation analysis was used to determine the nature and the strength of the relationship. The results showed a moderate correlation between spasticity and gross motor skills (ρ=0.52 for the GMFCS level; ρ=0.57 for the GMFM-88), accounting for less than 30% of the explained variance. It seems that spasticity is just one factor among many others that could interfere with gross motor skills, even in children with severe forms of spastic CP. Knowledge of the impact of spasticity on motor skills may be useful in the setting of adequate rehabilitation strategies for nonambulatory children with spastic CP.

  7. Psychiatric Symptoms in Children with Gross Motor Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emck, Claudia; Bosscher, Ruud J.; van Wieringen, Piet C. W.; Doreleijers, Theo; Beek, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Children with psychiatric disorders often demonstrate gross motor problems. This study investigates if the reverse also holds true by assessing psychiatric symptoms present in children with gross motor problems. Emotional, behavioral, and autism spectrum disorders (ASD), as well as psychosocial problems, were assessed in a sample of 40 children…

  8. Motor skills of toddlers with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Meghann; MacDonald, Megan; Lord, Catherine

    2013-03-01

    With increased interest in the early diagnosis and treatment of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), more attention has been called to the motor skills of very young children with ASD. This study describes the gross and fine motor skills of a cross-sectional group of 162 children with ASD between the ages of 12 and 36 months, as well as a subset of 58 children followed longitudinally. Gross motor and fine motor age equivalent scores were obtained for all children. A 'motor difference' variable was calculated for each child's gross and fine motor skills by taking the absolute difference of the children's age equivalent motor score and their respective chronological age. In Study 1 (the cross-sectional analysis), ANCOVA (co-varied for nonverbal problem solving) revealed significant group differences in the gross motor and fine motor age difference variables. Post-hoc analysis revealed that gross motor and fine motor differences became significantly greater with each 6-month period of chronological age. In Study 2, 58 children were measured twice, an average of 12 months apart. Results indicate that the gross motor and fine motor difference scores significantly increased between the first and second measurements. The importance of addressing motor development in early intervention treatments is discussed.

  9. Motor Skills of Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Meghann; MacDonald, Megan; Lord, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    With increased interest in the early diagnosis and treatment of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), more attention has been called to the motor skills of very young children with ASD. This study describes the gross and fine motor skills of a cross-sectional group of 162 children with ASD between the ages of 12 and 36 months, as well as…

  10. Gross Motor Performance and Physical Fitness in Children with Psychiatric Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emck, Claudia; Bosscher, Ruud J.; van Wieringen, Piet C. W.; Doreleijers, Theo; Beek, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: Gross motor performance appears to be impaired in children with psychiatric disorders but little is known about which skill domains are affected in each disorder, nor about possible accompanying deficits in physical fitness. The present study has sought to provide information about these issues in children with emotional, behavioural, and…

  11. A longitudinal study on gross motor development in children with learning disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westendorp, Marieke; Hartman, Esther; Houwen, Suzanne; Huijgen, Barbara C. H.; Smith, Joanne; Visscher, Chris

    This longitudinal study examined the development of gross motor skills, and sex-differences therein, in 7; to 11-years-old children with learning disorders (LD) and compared the results with typically developing children to determine the performance level of children with LD. In children with LD (n

  12. A longitudinal study on gross motor development in children with learning disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westendorp, Marieke; Hartman, Esther; Houwen, Suzanne; Huijgen, Barbara C. H.; Smith, Joanne; Visscher, Chris

    2014-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the development of gross motor skills, and sex-differences therein, in 7; to 11-years-old children with learning disorders (LD) and compared the results with typically developing children to determine the performance level of children with LD. In children with LD (n

  13. Gross Motor Performance and Physical Fitness in Children with Psychiatric Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emck, Claudia; Bosscher, Ruud J.; van Wieringen, Piet C. W.; Doreleijers, Theo; Beek, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: Gross motor performance appears to be impaired in children with psychiatric disorders but little is known about which skill domains are affected in each disorder, nor about possible accompanying deficits in physical fitness. The present study has sought to provide information about these issues in children with emotional, behavioural, and…

  14. Responsiveness of the Test of Basic Motor Skills of Children with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Heuvel, Marieke E.; de Jong, Inge; Lauteslager, Peter E. M.; Volman, M. J. M.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the responsiveness of the Test of Basic Motor Skills for Children with Down Syndrome (BMS). Forty-one children with Down Syndrome, 3 to 36 months of age, participated in the study. Gross motor skills were assessed three times using the BMS and the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) before and after a baseline…

  15. The clinimetric properties of performance-based gross motor tests used for children with developmental coordination disorder: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Leanne M; Hillier, Susan L; Civetta, Lauren R

    2010-01-01

    Performance-based measures of gross motor skills are required for children with developmental coordination disorder to quantify motor ability and objectify change. Information related to psychometrics, clinical utility, feasibility, and client appropriateness and acceptability is needed so that clinicians and researchers are assured that they have chosen the most appropriate and robust tool. This review identified performance-based measures of gross motor skills for this population, and the research evidence for their clinimetric properties through a systematic literature search. Seven measures met the inclusion criteria and were appraised for their clinimetric properties. The Movement Assessment Battery for Children and the Test for Gross Motor Development (second version) scored highest on appraisal. The 2 highest scoring measures are recommended in the first instance for clinicians wishing to evaluate gross motor performance in children with developmental coordination disorder. However, both measures require further testing to increase confidence in their validity for this population.

  16. Relations among motor, social, and cognitive skills in pre-kindergarten children with developmental disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Helyn; Carlson, Abby G; Curby, Timothy W; Winsler, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Despite the comorbidity between motor difficulties and certain disabilities, limited research has examined links between early motor, cognitive, and social skills in preschool-aged children with developmental disabilities. The present study examined the relative contributions of gross motor and fine motor skills to the prediction of improvements in children's cognitive and social skills among 2,027 pre-kindergarten children with developmental disabilities, including specific learning disorder, speech/language impairment, intellectual disability, and autism spectrum disorder. Results indicated that for pre-kindergarten children with developmental disabilities, fine motor skills, but not gross motor skills, were predictive of improvements in cognitive and social skills, even after controlling for demographic information and initial skill levels. Moreover, depending on the type of developmental disability, the pattern of prediction of gross motor and fine motor skills to improvements in children's cognitive and social skills differed. Implications are discussed.

  17. Effective Collaboration among the Gross Motor Assessment Team Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menear, Kristi S.; Davis, Timothy D.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the gross motor assessment team (GMAT) members' roles and collaborative approach to making appropriate decisions and modifications when addressing the needs of individuals with disabilities in physical education. Case studies of students are used to demonstrate effective uses of the GMAT. The primary outcome of the GMAT's…

  18. Rubriek 'Meten in de praktijk': Gross Motor Function Measure.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenhof, C.; Ketelaar, M.

    2004-01-01

    De Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) is een instrument dat de grof-motorische vaardigheden meet van kinderen met cerebrale parese. De GMFM is expliciet ontwikkeld als evaluatief meetinstrument, wat betekent dat het bedoeld is om veranderingen over de tijd of verandering en die optreden na behandel

  19. Development of the Gross Motor Function Classification System (1997)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    To address the need for a standardized system to classify the gross motor function of children with cerebral palsy, the authors developed a five-level classification system analogous to the staging and grading systems used in medicine. Nominal group process and Delphi survey consensus methods were used to examine content validity and revise the…

  20. Effective Collaboration among the Gross Motor Assessment Team Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menear, Kristi S.; Davis, Timothy D.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the gross motor assessment team (GMAT) members' roles and collaborative approach to making appropriate decisions and modifications when addressing the needs of individuals with disabilities in physical education. Case studies of students are used to demonstrate effective uses of the GMAT. The primary outcome of the GMAT's…

  1. Fine and Gross Motor Ability in Males with ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Both fine and gross motor abilities were evaluated in 10-year-old males with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and compared to a group of control children at the School of Psychology, Curtin University of Technology, Perth, Australia.

  2. Gross Motor Development, Movement Abnormalities, and Early Identification of Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozonoff, Sally; Young, Gregory S.; Goldring, Stacy; Greiss-Hess, Laura; Herrera, Adriana M.; Steele, Joel; Macari, Suzanne; Hepburn, Susan; Rogers, Sally J.

    2008-01-01

    Gross motor development (supine, prone, rolling, sitting, crawling, walking) and movement abnormalities were examined in the home videos of infants later diagnosed with autism (regression and no regression subgroups), developmental delays (DD), or typical development. Group differences in maturity were found for walking, prone, and supine, with…

  3. EFFECT OF SENSORY INTEGRATION THERAPY ON GROSS MOTOR FUNCTION IN CHILDREN WITH CEREBRAL PALSY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Shamsoddini

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveThe primary problem in children with cerebral palsy (CP, frequently referred for occupational therapy, is gross motor dysfunction. The current study was designed to investigate the effects of sensory integration therapy (SIT on gross motor skills in CP patients.Materials & MethodsTwenty-four children with diplegic spastic CP were randomly divided into two groups: First group (n=14,6 girls, 8 boys, age range 2 to 6 years, mean age 3.9 years; the second or control group (n=10, 5 girls, 5 boys, age range 2 to 6 years, mean age 3.4 years. SIT training was given to the first group and only the home program was given for the second group. All children were evaluated with gross motor function measurement (GMFM 88 for rolling, sitting, crawling, standing and walking position before and after intervention. Treatment duration for both groups was 1 hour, 5 days per week for a period of 12 weeks.ResultsGross motor function in children of the case group improved significantly better that in the control group, after intervention in sitting (P=0.02, crawling (P=0.001 and standing (P=0.03 positions; however no significant difference was seen in rolling (P=0.65 and walking (P=0.69 ability assessment.ConclusionThis study showed the beneficial effects of the SIT training program for children with CP; the SIT intervention had a significantly positive effect on gross motor function in the children with diplegic spastic CP. Moreover the results of the present study showed that sensory integration and vestibular stimulation were effective in children with cerebral palsy.Keywords:Cerebral palsy, Children, Gross motor, Occupational therapy, Sensory integration

  4. Motor skills in kindergarten: Internal structure, cognitive correlates and relationships to background variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberer, Nicole; Gashaj, Venera; Roebers, Claudia M

    2017-04-01

    The present study aimed to contribute to the discussion about the relation between motor coordination and executive functions in preschool children. Specifically, the relation between gross and fine motor skills and executive functions as well as the relation to possible background variables (SES, physical activity) were investigated. Based on the data of N=156 kindergarten children the internal structure of motor skills was investigated and confirmed the theoretically assumed subdivision of gross and fine motor skills. Both, gross and fine motor skills correlated significantly with executive functions, whereas the background variables seemed to have no significant impact on the executive functions and motor skills. Higher order control processes are discussed as an explanation of the relation between executive functions and motor skills. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Intensification of the Learning Process: Gross Motor Performance Scale. A Series of Reports Designed for Classroom Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucks County Public Schools, Doylestown, PA.

    The Gross Motor Performance Screening Test was designed to aid the classroom teacher in obtaining specific information about the child's physical abilities. The test includes items which have been found to measure the various factors of physical fitness. It also includes items to measure skills important to the child and adult. Included also are…

  6. Gross and fine motor function in fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasouli, Omid; Fors, Egil A; Borchgrevink, Petter Chr; Öhberg, Fredrik; Stensdotter, Ann-Katrin

    2017-01-01

    Purpose This paper aimed to investigate motor proficiency in fine and gross motor function, with a focus on reaction time (RT) and movement skill, in patients with fibromyalgia (FM) and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) compared to healthy controls (HC). Methods A total of 60 individuals (20 CFS, 20 FM, and 20 HC), age 19–49 years, participated in this study. Gross motor function in the lower extremity was assessed using a RT task during gait initiation in response to an auditory trigger. Fine motor function in the upper extremity was measured during a precision task (the Purdue Pegboard test) where the number of pins inserted within 30 s was counted. Results No significant differences were found between FM and CFS in any parameters. FM and CFS groups had significantly longer RT than HC in the gait initiation (p=0.001, and p=0.004 respectively). In the Purdue Pegboard test, 20% in the FM group, 15% in the CFS groups, and 0% of HC group, scored below the threshold of the accepted performance. However, there were no significant differences between FM, CFS, and HC in this task (p=0.12). Conclusion Compared to controls, both CFS and FM groups displayed significantly longer RT in the gait initiation task. Generally, FM patients showed the worst results in both tests, although no group differences were found in fine motor control, according to the Purdue Pegboard test. PMID:28223840

  7. Effect of physical therapy frequency on gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun-Young

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] This study attempted to investigate the effect of physical therapy frequency based on neurodevelopmental therapy on gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy. [Subjects and Methods] The study sample included 161 children with cerebral palsy who attended a convalescent or rehabilitation center for disabled individuals or a special school for children with physical disabilities in South Korea. Gross Motor Function Measure data were collected according to physical therapy frequency based on neurodevelopmental therapy for a period of 1 year. [Results] The correlation between physical therapy frequency and Gross Motor Function Measure scores for crawling and kneeling, standing, walking, running and jumping, and rolling, and the Gross Motor Function Measure total score was significant. The differences in gross motor function according to physical therapy frequency were significant for crawling, kneeling, standing, and Gross Motor Function Measure total score. The differences in gross motor function according to frequency of physical therapy were significant for standing in Gross Motor Function Classification System Level V. [Conclusion] Intensive physical therapy was more effective for improving gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy. In particular, crawling and kneeling, and standing ability showed greater increases with intensive physical therapy.

  8. Effect of physical therapy frequency on gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun-Young

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study attempted to investigate the effect of physical therapy frequency based on neurodevelopmental therapy on gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy. [Subjects and Methods] The study sample included 161 children with cerebral palsy who attended a convalescent or rehabilitation center for disabled individuals or a special school for children with physical disabilities in South Korea. Gross Motor Function Measure data were collected according to physical therapy frequency based on neurodevelopmental therapy for a period of 1 year. [Results] The correlation between physical therapy frequency and Gross Motor Function Measure scores for crawling and kneeling, standing, walking, running and jumping, and rolling, and the Gross Motor Function Measure total score was significant. The differences in gross motor function according to physical therapy frequency were significant for crawling, kneeling, standing, and Gross Motor Function Measure total score. The differences in gross motor function according to frequency of physical therapy were significant for standing in Gross Motor Function Classification System Level V. [Conclusion] Intensive physical therapy was more effective for improving gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy. In particular, crawling and kneeling, and standing ability showed greater increases with intensive physical therapy. PMID:27390440

  9. The Influence of Motor Skills on Measurement Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brychta, Petr; Sadílek, Marek; Brychta, Josef

    2016-10-01

    This innovative study trying to do interdisciplinary interface at first view different ways fields: kinantropology and mechanical engineering. A motor skill is described as an action which involves the movement of muscles in a body. Gross motor skills permit functions as a running, jumping, walking, punching, lifting and throwing a ball, maintaining a body balance, coordinating etc. Fine motor skills captures smaller neuromuscular actions, such as holding an object between the thumb and a finger. In mechanical inspection, the accuracy of measurement is most important aspect. The accuracy of measurement to some extent is also dependent upon the sense of sight or sense of touch associated with fine motor skills. It is therefore clear that the level of motor skills will affect the precision and accuracy of measurement in metrology. Aim of this study is literature review to find out fine motor skills level of individuals and determine the potential effect of different fine motor skill performance on precision and accuracy of mechanical engineering measuring.

  10. Can Clinical Assessment of Locomotive Body Function Explain Gross Motor Environmental Performance in Cerebral Palsy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz Mengibar, Jose Manuel; Santonja-Medina, Fernando; Sanchez-de-Muniain, Paloma; Canteras-Jordana, Manuel

    2016-03-01

    Gross Motor Function Classification System has discriminative purposes but does not assess short-term therapy goals. Locomotion Stages (LS) classify postural body functions and independent activity components. Assessing the relation between Gross Motor Function Classification System level and Locomotion Stages will make us understand if clinical assessment can explain and predict motor environmental performance in cerebral palsy. A total of 462 children were assessed with both scales. High reliability and strong negative correlation (-0.908) for Gross Motor Function Classification System and Locomotion Stages at any age was found. Sensitivity was 83%, and specificity and positive predictive value were 100% within the same age range. Regression analysis showed detailed probabilities for the realization of the Gross Motor Function Classification System depending on the Locomotion Stages and the age group. Postural body function measure with Locomotion Stages is reliable, sensitive, and specific for gross motor function and able to predict environmental performance.

  11. Does a physiotherapy programme of gross motor training influence motor function and activities of daily living in children presenting with developmental coordination disorder?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonill S. Maharaj

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD lack motor coordination and have difficulty performing motor skills and activities of daily living. Research shows these children do not outgrow their motor difficulties and without intervention do not improve. Physiotherapy is relevant for these children, but due to limited clinical protocols for DCD the aim of this study was to determine the effect of a gross motor training programme for 6–12-year-old children with DCD.Methods: This randomised pre-test, post-test study recruited 64 children with scores of 15th percentile or below using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC. The children were divided equally into an intervention group receiving 8 weeks of gross motor training for core stability, strengthening exercises, balance and coordination with task-specific activities for 30 min per week, while the control group continued with general therapy and activities of daily living. The M-ABC and Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire (DCDQ were used to assess each child before and after 8 weeks.Results: Sixty children completed the study, with 43 males and 17 females (mean age 10.02 years, SD = 2.10. There were no adverse reactions to the programme and M-ABC scores for the intervention programme improved by 6.46%, ball skills (3.54% and balance (4.80% compared with the control (0.17% and (0.15%, respectively. There were significant (p < 0.05 improvements in DCDQ scores, but teachers allocated lower scores than parents.Conclusion: This study supports 8 weeks of gross motor training which can be a beneficial intervention for physiotherapists to improve gross motor function for DCD.Keywords: Developmental, co-ordination, skills, motor

  12. Fine Motor Skills and Executive Function Both Contribute to Kindergarten Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Claire E.; Brock, Laura L.; Murrah, William M.; Bell, Lindsay H.; Worzalla, Samantha L.; Grissmer, David; Morrison, Frederick J.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the contribution of executive function (EF) and multiple aspects of fine motor skills to achievement on 6 standardized assessments in a sample of middle-socioeconomic status kindergarteners. Three- and 4-year-olds' (n = 213) fine and gross motor skills were assessed in a home visit before kindergarten, EF was measured at fall…

  13. Motor Skill Development in Italian Pre-School Children Induced by Structured Activities in a Specific Playground.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Tortella

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects and specificity of structured and unstructured activities played at the playground Primo Sport 0246 in Northern Italy on motor skill competence in five years old children. The playground was specifically designed to promote gross motor skills in preschool children; in this study 71 children from local kindergartens came to the park once a week for ten consecutive weeks and were exposed to 30 minutes of free play and 30 minutes of structured activities. Before and after the ten visits, each child completed nine tests to assess levels of motor skills, three for fine-motor skills and six for gross-motor skills. As control, motor skills were also assessed on 39 children from different kindergartens who did not come to the park. The results show that the experimental group who practiced gross-motor activities in the playground for 1 hour a week for 10 weeks improved significantly in 4 out of the 6 gross motor tasks and in none of the fine motor tasks. The data indicate that limited transfer occurred between tasks referring to different domains of motor competences while suggesting cross feeding for improvement of gross-motor skills between different exercises when domains related to physical fitness and strength of specific muscle groups are involved. These results are relevant to the issue of condition(s appropriate for maintaining and developing motor skills in this age group as well as for the planning, organization and implementation of play and physical activities in kindergartens.

  14. Motor Skill Development in Italian Pre-School Children Induced by Structured Activities in a Specific Playground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortella, Patrizia; Haga, Monika; Loras, Håvard; Sigmundsson, Hermundur; Fumagalli, Guido

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects and specificity of structured and unstructured activities played at the playground Primo Sport 0246 in Northern Italy on motor skill competence in five years old children. The playground was specifically designed to promote gross motor skills in preschool children; in this study 71 children from local kindergartens came to the park once a week for ten consecutive weeks and were exposed to 30 minutes of free play and 30 minutes of structured activities. Before and after the ten visits, each child completed nine tests to assess levels of motor skills, three for fine-motor skills and six for gross-motor skills. As control, motor skills were also assessed on 39 children from different kindergartens who did not come to the park. The results show that the experimental group who practiced gross-motor activities in the playground for 1 hour a week for 10 weeks improved significantly in 4 out of the 6 gross motor tasks and in none of the fine motor tasks. The data indicate that limited transfer occurred between tasks referring to different domains of motor competences while suggesting cross feeding for improvement of gross-motor skills between different exercises when domains related to physical fitness and strength of specific muscle groups are involved. These results are relevant to the issue of condition(s) appropriate for maintaining and developing motor skills in this age group as well as for the planning, organization and implementation of play and physical activities in kindergartens.

  15. Relação entre índice de massa corporal e habilidade motora grossa em crianças de quatro a seis anos Relationship between body mass index and gross motor skill in four to six year-old children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Zandonadi Catenassi

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve por objetivo verificar a relação entre o desempenho em tarefas de habilidade motora grossa com o índice de massa corporal (IMC em meninos e meninas de quatro a seis anos de idade. Para tanto, foram analisadas 27 crianças, sendo 16 meninos e 11 meninas, com idade média de 5,64 ± 0,67 anos. As crianças foram submetidas ao Test of Gross Motor Development - Second Edition (TGMD-2, proposto por Ulrich (2000 e ao Körperkoordinations-test für Kinder (KTK, proposto por Kiphard e Schilling (1974. A pontuação obtida nos dois testes foi reduzida a uma escala comum a ambos. Foi verificada a correlação entre essa escala e o IMC das crianças por meio do teste de correlação de Spearman, com P This study had to aim to verify the relationship between performance in gross motor skill tasks and body mass index (BMI in four to six year-old boys and girls. 27 children were analyzed, 16 boys and 11 girls, mean age of 5.64 ± 0.67 years. The children were submitted to the Test of Gross Motor Development-Second Edition (TGMD-2, proposed by Ulrich (2000 and to the Körperkoordinations-test für Kinder (KTK, proposed by Kiphard and Schilling (1974. The punctuation obtained in the two tests was reduced to a scale common to both. The correlation between this scale and the BMI of the children was verified through the Spearman correlation test, with P < 0.05. No significant interaction was observed among variables when boys and girls were analyzed or when the analysis was conducted with gender distinction. Moreover, no interaction between the BMI and tasks which required higher demand of physical capacities was observed, which should be verified in further studies. It was possible to conclude from our results, that the performance of four to six year-old children in tasks which involved gross motor skill did not relate with BMI.

  16. Gross Motor Performance and Self-Perceived Motor Competence in Children with Emotional, Behavioural, and Pervasive Developmental Disorders: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emck, Claudia; Bosscher, Ruud; Beek, Peter; Doreleijers, Theo

    2009-01-01

    Aims: Motor performance and self-perceived motor competence have a great impact on the psychosocial development of children in general. In this review, empirical studies of gross motor performance and self-perception of motor competence in children with emotional (depression and anxiety), behavioural, and pervasive developmental disorders are…

  17. De Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM): een onderzoek naar de responsiviteit van de Nederlandse vertaling.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenhof, C.; Ketelaar, M.; Petegem-van Beek, E. van; Vermeer, A.

    2003-01-01

    This article is about the psychometric characteristics of the Dutch translation of the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM). It describes the responsiveness to change. The article "Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM): a reliability study of the Dutch translation" focuses on the reliability of the GMF

  18. De Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM): een onderzoek naar de betrouwbaarheid van de Nederlandse vertaling.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenhof, C.; Ketelaar, M.; Petegem-van Beek, E. van

    2003-01-01

    This article is about the psychometric characteristics of the Dutch translation of the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM). It describes the reliability of the instrument. The article "Gross Motor Function Measure" (GMFM): a validity study of the Dutch translation focusses on the responsiveness of t

  19. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Test of Gross Motor Development-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ka Yee Allison; Cheung, Siu Yin

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the underlying structure of the second edition of the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (Ulrich, 2000) as applied to Chinese children. The Test of Gross Motor Development-2 was administered to 626 Hong Kong Chinese children. The outlier test with standard scoring was utilized. After data screening, a total…

  20. Developmental and physical-fitness associations with gross motor coordination problems in Peruvian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Chaves, Raquel Nichele; Bustamante Valdívia, Alcibíades; Nevill, Alan; Freitas, Duarte; Tani, Go; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Maia, José António Ribeiro

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this cross-sectional study were to examine the developmental characteristics (biological maturation and body size) associated with gross motor coordination problems in 5193 Peruvian children (2787 girls) aged 6-14 years from different geographical locations, and to investigate how the probability that children suffer with gross motor coordination problems varies with physical fitness. Children with gross motor coordination problems were more likely to have lower flexibility and explosive strength levels, having adjusted for age, sex, maturation and study site. Older children were more likely to suffer from gross motor coordination problems, as were those with greater body mass index. However, more mature children were less likely to have gross motor coordination problems, although children who live at sea level or at high altitude were more likely to suffer from gross motor coordination problems than children living in the jungle. Our results provide evidence that children and adolescents with lower physical fitness are more likely to have gross motor coordination difficulties. The identification of youths with gross motor coordination problems and providing them with effective intervention programs is an important priority in order to overcome such developmental problems, and help to improve their general health status.

  1. Sport expert's motor imagery: functional imaging of professional motor skills and simple motor skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Gaoxia; Luo, Jing

    2010-06-23

    Numerous studies provide evidence that motor skill acquisition is associated with dynamic changes in cortical and subcortical regions. Athletes are a professional population who are engaged in extensive motor training for long periods. However, the neural substrates of extreme level motor performance have not been clarified. We used kinesthetic imagery task to induce the mental representation of sport expert's extraordinary performance in view of the shared substrates of executing movement and motor imagery. For the first time, we compared, through functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), the pattern of cerebral activations in 12 professional divers and 12 normal people without extensive training, during imagery of professional skills and imagery of simple motor skills. The sport experts showed significant activation in the parahippocampus during imagery of professional skills relative to the novices, which might reflect the representation adapted to experience-related motor tasks. No significant difference was found between experts and novices when they imagined simple motor skills. These results indicated the experts might utilize their kinesthetic imagery more efficiently than novices, but only for the activity in which they had expertise. The sport experts also demonstrated more focused activation patterns in prefrontal areas in both of imagery tasks, which may be relevant to higher order of motor control during motor imagery. Moreover, this study suggested that the brains of sport experts could be regarded as the ideal subjects to explore the relationship between cerebral plasticity and learning of complex motor skills.

  2. Mathematical Skills and Motor Life Skills in Toddlers: Do Differences in Mathematical Skills Reflect Differences in Motor Skills?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reikerås, Elin; Moser, Thomas; Tønnessen, Finn Egil

    2017-01-01

    This study examines possible relations between early mathematical skills and motor life skills in 450 toddlers aged two years and nine months. The study employs baseline data from the longitudinal Stavanger Project--The Learning Child. The children's mathematical skills and motor life skills were assessed by structured observation in the natural…

  3. Qigong massage for motor skills in young children with cerebral palsy and Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Louisa M T; Schalock, Mark; Garberg, Jodi; Smith, Cynthia Lammers

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we present a small randomized controlled study evaluating the effect of a dual parent- and trainer-delivered qigong massage methodology on motor skills and sensory responses in 28 children under age 4 with developmental delay and motor tone abnormalities. Fourteen children had high motor tone as a result of cerebral palsy (CP), and 14 children had low motor tone as a result of Down syndrome. Multivariate analysis and post hoc analysis of variance showed large effect-size improvements in Peabody Gross Motor Scale (PGMS) Object Manipulation scores (p qigong massage as a promising avenue for research to improve motor skills in young children with CP and Down syndrome.

  4. Longitudinal Association Between Gross Motor Capacity and Neuromusculoskeletal Function in Children and Youth With Cerebral Palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Rimke C.; Becher, Jules G.; Voorman, Jeanine M.; Gorter, Jan Willem; van Eck, Mirjam; van Meeteren, Jetty; Smits, Dirk Wouter; Twisk, Jos W.; Dallmeijer, Annet J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To examine associations over longitudinal measurements between neuromusculoskeletal function and gross motor capacity in children and youth with cerebral palsy (CP). Design: A prospective cohort study. Setting: Rehabilitation departments of university medical centers and rehabilitations c

  5. Longitudinal Association Between Gross Motor Capacity and Neuromusculoskeletal Function in Children and Youth With Cerebral Palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Rimke C.; Becher, Jules G.; Voorman, Jeanine M.; Gorter, Jan Willem; van Eck, Mirjam; van Meeteren, Jetty; Smits, Dirk Wouter; Twisk, Jos W.; Dallmeijer, Annet J.; van Schie, P. E M; Schuengel, C.; Ketelaar, M.; Lindeman, E.; Jongmans, M.; Roebroeck, M. E.; Tan, S. S.; Wiegerink, D. J H G; Reinders-Messelink, H. A.; Verheijden, J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine associations over longitudinal measurements between neuromusculoskeletal function and gross motor capacity in children and youth with cerebral palsy (CP). Design A prospective cohort study. Setting Rehabilitation departments of university medical centers and rehabilitations cent

  6. The central role of trunk control in the gross motor function of children with cerebral palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Curtis, Derek John; Butler, Penny; Saavedra, Sandy;

    2015-01-01

    Aim Improvement of gross motor function and mobility are primary goals of physical therapy in children with cerebral palsy (CP). The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between segmental control of the trunk and the corresponding gross motor function in children with CP....... Method This retrospective cross-sectional study was based on 92 consecutive referrals of children with CP in Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels I to V, 39 females, 53 males (median age 4y [range 1–14y]), and 77, 12, and 3 with spastic, dyskinetic, and ataxic CP respectively....... The participants were tested using the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM), the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI), and the Segmental Assessment of Trunk Control (SATCo). Results Linear regression analysis showed a positive relationship between the segmental level of trunk control and age...

  7. Longitudinal Association Between Gross Motor Capacity and Neuromusculoskeletal Function in Children and Youth With Cerebral Palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Rimke C.; Becher, Jules G.; Voorman, Jeanine M.; Gorter, Jan Willem; van Eck, Mirjam; van Meeteren, Jetty; Smits, Dirk Wouter; Twisk, Jos W.; Dallmeijer, Annet J.

    Objective: To examine associations over longitudinal measurements between neuromusculoskeletal function and gross motor capacity in children and youth with cerebral palsy (CP). Design: A prospective cohort study. Setting: Rehabilitation departments of university medical centers and rehabilitations

  8. Longitudinal Association Between Gross Motor Capacity and Neuromusculoskeletal Function in Children and Youth With Cerebral Palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Rimke C.; Becher, Jules G.; Voorman, Jeanine M.; Gorter, Jan Willem; van Eck, Mirjam; van Meeteren, Jetty; Smits, Dirk Wouter; Twisk, Jos W.; Dallmeijer, Annet J.; van Schie, P. E M; Schuengel, C.; Ketelaar, M.; Lindeman, E.; Jongmans, M.; Roebroeck, M. E.; Tan, S. S.; Wiegerink, D. J H G; Reinders-Messelink, H. A.; Verheijden, J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine associations over longitudinal measurements between neuromusculoskeletal function and gross motor capacity in children and youth with cerebral palsy (CP). Design A prospective cohort study. Setting Rehabilitation departments of university medical centers and rehabilitations

  9. Effect of physical therapy frequency on gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Eun-Young

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study attempted to investigate the effect of physical therapy frequency based on neurodevelopmental therapy on gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy. [Subjects and Methods] The study sample included 161 children with cerebral palsy who attended a convalescent or rehabilitation center for disabled individuals or a special school for children with physical disabilities in South Korea. Gross Motor Function Measure data were collected according to physical therapy fr...

  10. Relationship between Motor Skill and Body Mass Index in 5- to 10-Year-Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Hondt, Eva; Deforche, Benedicte; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Lenoir, Matthieu

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate gross and fine motor skill in overweight and obese children compared with normal-weight peers. According to international cut-off points for Body Mass Index (BMI) from Cole et al. (2000), all 117 participants (5-10 year) were classified as being normal-weight, overweight, or obese. Level of motor skill…

  11. On the Problem of Motor Skill Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Jane E.

    2007-01-01

    As a way to address the serious obesity epidemic in the United States, many physical education classes have become fitness centers designed to raise heart rates and burn calories. An unintended consequence of this emphasis on fitness, however, is the lack of attention to motor skill development. Motor skills do not develop miraculously from one…

  12. Motor skill learning: age and augmented feedback

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van Henk

    2006-01-01

    Learning motor skills is fundamental to human life. One of the most critical variables affecting motor learning, aside from practice itself, is augmented feedback (performance-related information). Although there is abundance of research on how young adults use augmented feedback to learn motor skil

  13. Motor skill depends on knowledge of facts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Jason; Krakauer, John W

    2013-01-01

    Those in 20th century philosophy, psychology, and neuroscience who have discussed the nature of skilled action have, for the most part, accepted the view that being skilled at an activity is independent of knowing facts about that activity, i.e., that skill is independent of knowledge of facts. In this paper we question this view of motor skill. We begin by situating the notion of skill in historical and philosophical context. We use the discussion to explain and motivate the view that motor skill depends upon knowledge of facts. This conclusion seemingly contradicts well-known results in cognitive science. It is natural, on the face of it, to take the case of H.M., the seminal case in cognitive neuroscience that led to the discovery of different memory systems, as providing powerful evidence for the independence of knowledge and skill acquisition. After all, H.M. seems to show that motor learning is retained even when previous knowledge about the activity has been lost. Improvements in skill generally require increased precision of selected actions, which we call motor acuity. Motor acuity may indeed not require propositional knowledge and has direct parallels with perceptual acuity. We argue, however, that reflection on the specifics of H.M.'s case, as well as other research on the nature of skill, indicates that learning to become skilled at a motor task, for example tennis, depends also on knowledge-based selection of the right actions. Thus skilled activity requires both acuity and knowledge, with both increasing with practice. The moral of our discussion ranges beyond debates about motor skill; we argue that it undermines any attempt to draw a distinction between practical and theoretical activities. While we will reject the independence of skill and knowledge, our discussion leaves open several different possible relations between knowledge and skill. Deciding between them is a task to be resolved by future research.

  14. Gross Motor Function Measure Evolution Ratio: Use as a Control for Natural Progression in Cerebral Palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marois, Pierre; Marois, Mikael; Pouliot-Laforte, Annie; Vanasse, Michel; Lambert, Jean; Ballaz, Laurent

    2016-05-01

    To develop a new way to interpret Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM-66) score improvement in studies conducted without control groups in children with cerebral palsy (CP). The curves, which describe the pattern of motor development according to the children's Gross Motor Function Classification System level, were used as historical control to define the GMFM-66 expected natural evolution in children with CP. These curves have been modeled and generalized to fit the curve to particular children characteristics. Research center. Not applicable. Not applicable. Not applicable. Assuming that the GMFM-66 score evolution followed the shape of the Rosenbaum curves, by taking into account the age and GMFM-66 score of children, the expected natural evolution of the GMFM-66 score was predicted for any group of children with CP who were Motor Function Measure Evolution Ratio, was defined as follows: Gross Motor Function Measure Evolution Ratio=measured GMFM-66 score change/expected natural evolution. For practical or ethical reasons, it is almost impossible to use control groups in studies evaluating effectiveness of many therapeutic modalities. The Gross Motor Function Measure Evolution Ratio gives the opportunity to take into account the expected natural evolution of the gross motor function of children with CP, which is essential to accurately interpret the therapy effect on the GMFM-66. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. 75 FR 73998 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; New Pneumatic Tires for Motor Vehicles With a Gross...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ... Vehicle Safety Standards; New Pneumatic Tires for Motor Vehicles With a Gross Vehicle Weight Rating (GVWR... Federal motor vehicle safety standard (FMVSS) that applies to new pneumatic tires for use on vehicles with... (NPRM) proposing to upgrade FMVSS No. 119 (49 CFR 571.119), which applies to new pneumatic tires...

  16. The impact of sensory integration therapy on gross motor function in children after prenatal exposure to alcohol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Wilczyński

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : In Poland there are 900 cases of full-blown foetal alcohol syndrome (FAS in neonates per year, and in 9000 children there are some symptoms of it. Aim of the research : To analyse the impact of sensory integration (SI therapy on gross motor skills function in children after prenatal exposure to alcohol. Material and methods: The study was conducted on a group of 20 children aged 4–5 years with information from an interview about prenatal exposure to alcohol. The diagnosis of sensory integration disorder consisted of two 60-minute diagnostics meetings. Twelve trials with clinical observations were performed by Ayres: finger to nose, cocontraction, prone extension posture, flexed position supine, asymmetrical tonic neck reflex (ATOS, symmetrical tonic neck reflex (STOS, muscle tension, Schilder test, dynamic balance, static balance, gravitational insecurity, and trunk stabilisation. The therapeutic program included: normalisation of the vestibular and proprioceptive system, normalisation of the touch system, strengthening muscle tension, development of motion planning, development of oculomotor performance, development of motor coordination, hand therapy, integration of ATOS, STOS, development of locomotion and balance functions, and improving efficiency of gross and small motor skills. Results and conclusions : High efficiency of SI therapy has been shown in children after prenatal exposure to alcohol on the example of gross motor skills. Positive effects of SI therapy have been shown for tests: finger to nose, in the erect position on the stomach, the flexural position on the back, ATOS, STOS, Schilder test, dynamic balance, static balance, and the uncertainty of gravity and trunk stabilisation. Only cocontraction and muscle tension tests showed no efficacy of SI therapy. The a-Cronbach position analysis showed high reliability of the performed tests both before and after the therapy. It is advisable to continue the study on a

  17. Children with low motor ability have lower visual-motor integration ability but unaffected perceptual skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifacci, Paola

    2004-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine perceptual, visual-motor abilities and intellectual skills in children with low, average and above average motor abilities. The participants were 144 children (aged 6-10 years) attending elementary school. Three groups of children were identified on the basis of their performance at the TGMD (Test of Gross Motor Development; [Ulrich, D.A. (1985). TGMD, Test of Gross Motor Development. Austin, Texas: PRO-ED. Edizione Italiana a cura di D. Ianes, TEST TGM. Test di valutazione delle abilita grosso-motorie. 1994, Trento: Edizioni Centro Studi Erickson]). Each child received an intelligence test (K-BIT; [Kaufman, A.S., & Kaufman, N.L. (1990). K-BIT. Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service]) and was evaluated for perceptual and visual-motor integration abilities (DTVP; [Hammill, D.D., Pearson, N.A., & Voress, J.K. (1993). Developmental Test of Visual Perception (2nd ed.). Austin, Texas: PRO-ED. Edizione Italiana a cura di D. Ianes, TEST TPV. Test di percezione visiva e integrazione visuo-motoria. Trento: Edizioni Centro Studi Erickson]). Results highlight a significant difference in visual-motor integration between children with high and low gross-motor abilities, in the absence of significant differences in perceptual skills or intellectual ability. The findings are discussed with reference to the concept of atypical brain development [Gilger, J.W., & Kaplan, B.J. (2001). Atypical brain development: A conceptual framework for understanding developmental learning disabilities. Developmental Neuropsychology, 20, 465].

  18. Association of therapeutic occasion, gross motor function grading and developmental level with gross motor functional recovery in children with cerebral palsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The abnormal posture and motor pattern have not stabilized in children with cerebral palsy at early period, thus timely treatment can establish normal postural reflex and motor pattern, and prevent complications of muscle contracture, ankylosis, skeletal deformity, etc. The clinical factors affecting the rehabilitative efficacy of gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy should be observed.OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of therapeutic occasion, grading of gross motor function and developmental level on the rehabilitative efficacy in children with cerebral palsy.DESIGN: A case-controlled analysis.SETTING: Qilu Children's Hospital of Shandong University.PARTICIPANTS: Totally 138 children with cerebral palsy, who were hospitalized for 12 months in the Rehabilitation Center of Qilu Children's Hospital, Shandong University, were selected from April 2004 to September 2006, and all the children were diagnosed to be accorded with the standard set by the national seminar on cerebral palsy in 2004. There were 97 males and 41 females, including 55 cases of 0 - 2 years old,47 cases of 2 - 4 years and 36 cases of 4 - 6 years. Informed contents were obtained from relatives of all the children.METHODS: ① Comprehensive rehabilitation treatment: Vojta method was to induce the children to turn over the body and crawl by stimulating reflective turn over and crawling on belly. Bobath method including trainings of head control, turning over body, keeping sitting position, keeping balance, crawling, keeping standing position, and walking, etc.; The children were massaged by using the maneuvers of push, press, rub,pull, wave, etc. according to the sites and types of palsy. Acupuncture was performed mainly at bilateral motor areas, the needle was retained for 1 hour per time, 6 days continuously every week, and followed by a 1-day interval. ② Prognosis assessment: The gross motor functional grading of the children with cerebral palsy at admission was

  19. Tracking of Gross Motor Coordination from Childhood into Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Rodrigo Antunes; Bugge, Anna; Pfeiffer, Karin Allor; Andersen, Lars Bo

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to analyze tracking and stability of motor coordination in children from age 6 years to ages 9 and 13 years. Method: Data were from the Copenhagen School Child Intervention Study. Motor coordination (MC) was measured using the körperkoordinationstest für Kinder (KTK) test. The crude performance score on every…

  20. The gross motor function measure is a valid and sensitive outcome measure for spinal muscular atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Leslie; Owens, Hollis; Hynan, Linda S; Iannaccone, Susan T

    2006-06-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy is a genetic disease of the anterior horn cell with high morbidity rate in childhood. Certain drugs may be of benefit and are in or under consideration for Phase II trials. Outcome measures that are age appropriate and representative of disease activity remain under study. Several have not yet been validated for spinal muscular atrophy. The Gross Motor Function Measure is a measure of motor function. We showed previously that the Gross Motor Function Measure is a reliable outcome measure to assess motor function in children with spinal muscular atrophy. By collating our data from 40 spinal muscular atrophy patients, ages 5 through 17 years, we now show the validity of the Gross Motor Function Measure when compared to Quantitative Muscle Testing and ambulatory status in children with spinal muscular atrophy. The median for Gross Motor Function Measure total scores for walkers was 237 (range: 197-261) and for non-walkers, 64 (range: 4-177; PGross Motor Function Measure is valid and sensitive as an outcome measure for clinical trials in pediatric spinal muscular atrophy.

  1. Associations between gross motor and communicative development in at-risk infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBarton, Eve Sauer; Iverson, Jana M

    2016-08-01

    Infants' advances in locomotion relate to advances in communicative development. However, little is known about these relations in infants at risk for delays in these domains and whether they may extend to earlier achievements in gross motor development in infancy. We examined whether advances in sitting and prone locomotion are related to communicative development in infants who have an older sibling with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and are at risk for motor and communication delays (heightened-risk; HR). We conducted a longitudinal study with 37 HR infants who did not receive an ASD diagnosis at 36 months. Infants were observed monthly between the ages of 5 and 14 months. We assessed gross motor development using the Alberta Infant Motor Scales (AIMS) and recorded ages of onset of verbal and nonverbal communicative behaviors. Results indicated increased presence of early gross motor delay from 5 to 10 months. In addition, there were positive relations between sitting and gesture and babble onset and between prone development and gesture onset. Thus, links between gross motor development and communication extend to at-risk development and provide a starting point for future research on potential cascading consequences of motor advances on communication development.

  2. Test of gross motor development-2 for Filipino children with intellectual disability: validity and reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capio, Catherine M; Eguia, Kathlynne F; Simons, Johan

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to examine aspects of validity and reliability of the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (TGMD-2) in Filipino children with intellectual disability. Content and construct validity were verified, as well as inter-rater and intra-rater reliability. Two paediatric physiotherapists tested 81 children with intellectual disability (mean age = 9.29 ± 2.71 years) on locomotor and object control skills. Analysis of covariance, confirmatory factor analysis and analysis of variance were used to test validity, while Cronbach's alpha, intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) and Bland-Altman plots were used to examine reliability. Age was a significant predictor of locomotor and object control scores (P = 0.004). The data fit the hypothesised two-factor model with fit indices as follows: χ(2) = 33.525, DF = 34, P = 0.491, χ(2)/DF = 0.986. As hypothesised, gender was a significant predictor for object control skills (P = 0.038). Participants' mean scores were significantly below mastery (locomotor, P children with intellectual disability.

  3. Influence of motor skills training on children's development evaluated in the Motor skills in PreSchool (MiPS) study-DK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hestbaek, Lise; Andersen, Sarah Thurøe; Skovgaard, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    , a cohort will be established including all children attending preschools in the municipality with extensive baseline data collection: gross and fine motor skills; movement patterns; musculoskeletal complaints; physical activity; anthropometry; general wellbeing; cognitive abilities; language status......, ISRCTN23701994 . Registered on 13 October 2016....

  4. The Natural History of Gross Motor Development in Children with Cerebral Palsy Aged 1 to 15 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckung, E.; Carlsson, G.; Carlsdotter, S.; Uvebrant, P.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore motor development in children with cerebral palsy (CP) using developmental curves for CP, subtypes, and the five severity levels of the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS). The Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) and the GMFCS were applied to 317 children (145 females, 172 males) with CP, aged…

  5. To What Extent Can Motor Imagery Replace Motor Execution While Learning a Fine Motor Skill?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sobierajewicz, Jagna; Szarkiewicz, Sylwia; Prekoracka-Krawczyk, Anna; Jaskowski, Wojciech; van der Lubbe, Robert Henricus Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Motor imagery is generally thought to share common mechanisms with motor execution. In the present study, we examined to what extent learning a fine motor skill by motor imagery may substitute physical practice. Learning effects were assessed by manipulating the proportion of motor execution and

  6. Motor Skill Learning and Corticospinal Excitability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Lasse

    Background Motor skill learning (MSL) is the persistent increase in performance of a skill obtained through practice. This process is associated with changes throughout the central nervous system. One of these is a change in corticospinal excitability (CSE) assessable with Transcranial Magnetic...... Stimulation. Prior work has demonstrated such a change to very different extents with and without causally linking it to the improvements in motor performance. Objectives The aim of this PhD project has been to explore the relation between changes in CSE and motor performance over the time course of learning...... a novel visuomotor skill. I hypothesized that changes in CSE accompanying long-term motor practice relate to the process of learning rather than repetitive practice on an acquired skill and investigated this by incrementally increasing task difficulty and thus postponing saturation of learning...

  7. Motor Skill Learning and Corticospinal Excitability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Lasse

    Background Motor skill learning (MSL) is the persistent increase in performance of a skill obtained through practice. This process is associated with changes throughout the central nervous system. One of these is a change in corticospinal excitability (CSE) assessable with Transcranial Magnetic...... Stimulation. Prior work has demonstrated such a change to very different extents with and without causally linking it to the improvements in motor performance. Objectives The aim of this PhD project has been to explore the relation between changes in CSE and motor performance over the time course of learning...... a novel visuomotor skill. I hypothesized that changes in CSE accompanying long-term motor practice relate to the process of learning rather than repetitive practice on an acquired skill and investigated this by incrementally increasing task difficulty and thus postponing saturation of learning...

  8. Fine motor skill proficiency in typically developing children: On or off the maturation track?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaul, David; Issartel, Johann

    2016-04-01

    Fine motor skill proficiency is an essential component of numerous daily living activities such as dressing, feeding or playing. Poor fine motor skills can lead to difficulties in academic achievement, increased anxiety and poor self-esteem. Recent findings have shown that children's gross motor skill proficiency tends to fall below established developmental norms. A question remains: do fine motor skill proficiency levels also fall below developmental norms? The aim of this study was to examine the current level of fine motor skill in Irish children. Children (N=253) from 2nd, 4th and 6th grades (mean age=7.12, 9.11 and 11.02 respectively) completed the Fine Motor Composite of the Bruininks Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency 2nd Edition (BOT-2). Analysis revealed that only 2nd grade children met the expected level of fine motor skill proficiency. It was also found that despite children's raw scores improving with age, children's fine motor skill proficiency was not progressing at the expected rate given by normative data. This leads us to question the role and impact of modern society on fine motor skills development over the past number of decades. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of cerebrolysin on gross motor function of children with cerebral palsy: a clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasiri, Jafar; Safavifar, Faezeh

    2017-01-10

    Gross motor dysfunction is considered as the most challenging problem in cerebral palsy (CP). It is proven that improvement of gross motor function could reduce CP-related disabilities and provide better quality of life in this group of patients. Therefore, the aim of this trial is to evaluate the effectiveness of cerebrolysin (CBL) on gross motor function of children with CP who are undergoing treatment. In this clinical trial study, paediatric patients aged 18-75 months with spastic diplegic or quadriplegic cerebral palsy, who were under rehabilitation therapy, were selected and randomly allocated in control and CBL groups. Patients in CBL group underwent treatment with standard rehabilitation therapy plus CBL. The latter was administrated intramuscularly as a single daily dose of 0.1 cc/kg for 10 days and then continued weekly for 4 months. Gross motor function of participants in the two studied groups, before and after trial, was evaluated and compared using the validated Persian version of gross motor function classification system-expanded and revised (GMFCS-E&R). During this trial, 108 patients with CP were evaluated for eligibility. From these, 50 patients were enrolled and randomly allocated in the CBL and control groups. Four months after trial, the mean level of GMFCS decreased significantly in the two groups (P < 0.05). However, it was significantly lower in the CBL group than in the control group (2.1 vs. 3.16, P < 0.05). The results of this trial indicated that CBL could improve gross motor function in patients with CP. This finding is consistent with neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects of CBL, which have been reported in various clinical trials in other neurological disorders. Further studies are recommended to establish the value of continued neuroprotection and to determine the pharmacokinetics/dynamics of CBL in this group of patients.

  10. Motor skills and exercise capacity are associated with objective measures of cognitive functions and academic performance in preadolescent children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geertsen, Svend Sparre; Thomas, Richard; Larsen, Malte Nejst;

    2016-01-01

    these measures and the relationship with standard tests of academic performance in mathematics and reading comprehension. RESULTS: Both fine and gross motor skills were associated with better performance in all five tested cognitive domains (all P... comprehension. CONCLUSIONS: The data demonstrate that fine and gross motor skills are positively correlated with several aspects of cognitive functions and with academic performance in both mathematics and reading comprehension. Moreover, exercise capacity was associated with academic performance...... and performance in some cognitive domains. Future interventions should investigate associations between changes in motor skills, exercise capacity, cognitive functions, and academic performance to elucidate the causality of these associations....

  11. Improving gross motor function and postural control with hippotherapy in children with Down syndrome: case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champagne, Danielle; Dugas, Claude

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this case report is to describe the impact of an 11-week hippotherapy program on the gross motor functions of two children (respectively 28 and 37 months old) diagnosed with Down syndrome. Hippotherapy is a strategy that uses the horse's motion to stimulate and enhance muscle contraction and postural control. The children were assessed by the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) and accelerometry. The results indicate that both children improved on many dimensions of the GMFM. Power spectral analysis of the acceleration signals showed improvement in postural control of either the head or trunk, because the children adopted two different adaptative strategies to perturbation induced by the moving horse.

  12. Sleep quality influences subsequent motor skill acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleman, Erica R; Albouy, Genevieve; Doyon, Julien; Cronin-Golomb, Alice; King, Bradley R

    2016-06-01

    While the influence of sleep on motor memory consolidation has been extensively investigated, its relation to initial skill acquisition is less well understood. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the influence of sleep quality and quantity on subsequent motor skill acquisition in young adults without sleep disorders. Fifty-five healthy adults (mean age = 23.8 years; 34 women) wore actigraph wristbands for 4 nights, which provided data on sleep patterns before the experiment, and then returned to the laboratory to engage in a motor sequence learning task (explicit 5-item finger sequence tapping task). Indicators of sleep quality and quantity were then regressed on a measure of motor skill acquisition (Gains Within Training, GWT). Wake After Sleep Onset (WASO; i.e., the total amount of time the participants spent awake after falling asleep) was significantly and negatively related to GWT. This effect was not because of general arousal level, which was measured immediately before the motor task. Conversely, there was no relationship between GWT and sleep duration or self-reported sleep quality. These results indicate that sleep quality, as assessed by WASO and objectively measured with actigraphy before the motor task, significantly impacts motor skill acquisition in young healthy adults without sleep disorders. (PsycINFO Database Record

  13. Do active video games benefit the motor skill development of non-typically developing children and adolescents: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Zoey E; Barrington, Stephanie; Edwards, Jacqueline; Barnett, Lisa M

    2017-05-18

    The use of interactive video gaming, known as 'exergames' or 'active video games (AVG)' may provide an opportunity for motor skill development. Youth with non-typical patterns of development may have deficits in gross motor skill capacities and are therefore an intervention target. The aim was to determine the effectiveness of AVG use on motor skill development in non-typically developing children and adolescents. Review article. The PRISMA protocol was used to conduct a systematic review of EBSCOhost, Embase, Gale Cengage, Informit, Ovid, ProQuest, PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science databases. A total of 19 articles met inclusion criteria (non-typically developing participants such as those with a learning or developmental delay aged 3-18, use of an AVG console, assessed one or more gross motor skills). Studies were excluded if gross motor skill outcomes encompassed fine motor skills or reflected mobility related to daily living. Interventions included children and adolescents with eight different conditions. The Nintendo Wii was the most utilised gaming platform (14/19 studies). Studies examined a combination of skills, with most examining balance (15/19), five studies examining ball skills, and other gross motor skills such as coordination (3 studies), running (3 studies) and jumping (3 studies). There was strong evidence that AVG's improved balance. AVG's also appeared to benefit participants with Cerebral Palsy. AVG's could be a valuable tool to improve gross motor skills of non-typically developing children. There is scope for further exploration, particularly of ball, coordination and locomotor skills and varying platforms to draw more conclusive evaluations. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Gross motor ability predicts response to upper extremity rehabilitation in chronic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Sarah Hulbert; Rafiei, Mohammad Hossein; Borstad, Alexandra; Adeli, Hojjat; Gauthier, Lynne V

    2017-08-30

    The majority of rehabilitation research focuses on the comparative effectiveness of different interventions in groups of patients, while much less is currently known regarding individual factors that predict response to rehabilitation. In a recent article, the authors presented a prognostic model to identify the sensorimotor characteristics predictive of the extent of motor recovery after Constraint-Induced Movement (CI) therapy amongst individuals with chronic mild-to-moderate motor deficit using the enhanced probabilistic neural network (EPNN). This follow-up paper examines which participant characteristics are robust predictors of rehabilitation response irrespective of the training modality. To accomplish this, EPNN was first applied to predict treatment response amongst individuals who received a virtual-reality gaming intervention (utilizing the same enrollment criteria as the prior study). The combinations of predictors that yield high predictive validity for both therapies, using their respective datasets, were then identified. High predictive classification accuracy was achieved for both the gaming (94.7%) and combined datasets (94.5%). Though CI therapy employed primarily fine-motor training tasks and the gaming intervention emphasized gross-motor practice, larger improvements in gross motor function were observed within both datasets. Poorer gross motor ability at pre-treatment predicted better rehabilitation response in both the gaming and combined datasets. The conclusion of this research is that for individuals with chronic mild-to-moderate upper extremity hemiparesis, residual deficits in gross motor function are highly responsive to motor restorative interventions, irrespective of the modality of training. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Fine motor skills and expressive language: a study with children with congenital hypotyreoidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frezzato, Renata Camargo; Santos, Denise Castilho Cabrera; Goto, Maura Mikie Fukujima; Ouro, Michelle Prado Cabral do; Santos, Carolina Taddeo Mendes Dos; Dutra, Vivian; Lima, Maria Cecília Marconi Pinheiro

    2017-03-09

    To screen the global development of children with and without congenital hypothyroidism and to investigate the association between fine motor skills and expressive language development in both groups. This is a prospective study of a cohort of children diagnosed with Congenital Hypothyroidism and monitored in a reference service for congenital hypothyroidism of a public hospital and of children without this disorder. The screening was performed using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development III in the cognitive, gross and fine motor skills, and receptive and expressive language domains. The children's performance was expressed in three categories: competent, and non-competent. We screened 117 children with average age of 21 months diagnosed with Congenital Hypothyroidism at birth, with the Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) level normalized during screening, and 51 children without the condition. The children with Congenital Hypothyroidism presented lower performance in gross and fine motor skills upon comparison between the two groups, and no differences were found in the cognitive and receptive and expressive language domains. The association between fine motor skills and language persisted in the group with Hypothyroidism, demonstrating that the interrelationship of skills is present in all individuals, although this group is two times more likely to present expressive language impairment when fine motor skills are already compromised. In the development process, both skills - motor and expressive language - might be associated and/or dependent on each other in the sample assessed.

  16. Gross motor function in children with spastic cerebral palsy and cerebral visual impairment: A comparison between outcomes of the original and the Cerebral Visual Impairment adapted Gross Motor Function Measure-88 (GMFM-88-CVI)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salavati, M.; Rameckers, E.A.A.; Waninge, A.; Krijnen, W.P.; Steenbergen, B.; Schans, C.P. van der

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether the adapted version of the Gross Motor Function Measure-88 (GMFM-88) for children with Cerebral Palsy (CP) and Cerebral Visual Impairment (CVI) results in higher scores. This is most likely to be a reflection of their gross motor function, however it may be the result

  17. Gross motor function in children with spastic Cerebral Palsy and Cerebral Visual Impairment : A comparison between outcomes of the original and the Cerebral Visual Impairment adapted Gross Motor Function Measure-88 (GMFM-88-CVI)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salavati, M.; Rameckers, E. A. A.; Waninge, A.; Krijnen, W. P.; Steenbergen, B.; van der Schans, C. P.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether the adapted version of the Gross Motor Function Measure 88 (GMFM-88) for children with Cerebral Palsy (CP) and Cerebral Visual Impairment (CVI) results in higher scores. This is most likely to be a reflection of their gross motor function, however it may be the result

  18. Gross motor function in children with spastic cerebral palsy and cerebral visual impairment: A comparison between outcomes of the original and the Cerebral Visual Impairment adapted Gross Motor Function Measure-88 (GMFM-88-CVI)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salavati, M.; Rameckers, E.A.A.; Waninge, A.; Krijnen, W.P.; Steenbergen, B.; Schans, C.P. van der

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether the adapted version of the Gross Motor Function Measure-88 (GMFM-88) for children with Cerebral Palsy (CP) and Cerebral Visual Impairment (CVI) results in higher scores. This is most likely to be a reflection of their gross motor function, however it may be the result

  19. Development of the Gross Motor Function Classification System for Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Peter L.; Palisano, Robert J.; Bartlett, Doreen J.; Galuppi, Barbara E.; Russell, Dianne J.

    2008-01-01

    The Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) for cerebral palsy has been widely used internationally for clinical, research, and administrative purposes. This paper recounts the ideas and work behind the creation of the GMFCS, reports on the lessons learned, and identifies some philosophical challenges inherent in trying to develop an…

  20. Early motor skill competence as a mediator of child and adult physical activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loprinzi, Paul D.; Davis, Robert E.; Fu, Yang-Chieh

    2015-01-01

    Objective: In order to effectively promote physical activity (PA) during childhood, and across the lifespan, a better understanding of the role of early motor skill development on child and adult PA is needed. Methods: Here, we propose a conceptual model delineating the hypothesized influence of motor skill development on child and adult PA, while providing an overview of the current empirical research related to this model. Results: There is consistent and emerging evidence showing that adequate motor skill competence, particularly locomotor and gross motor skills, is associated with increased PA levels during the preschool, child, and adolescent years, with early motor skill development also influencing enjoyment of PA as well as long-term PA and motor skill performance. The physical education setting appears to be a well-suited environment for motor skill development. Conclusion: Employing appropriate strategies to target motor skill development across the childhood years is of paramount interest in helping shape children's PA behavior, their experiences related to PA, as well as maintain their PA. PMID:26844157

  1. Relation between hand function and gross motor function in full term infants aged 4 to 8 months

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Solange F.; Figueiredo, Elyonara M.; Gonçalves, Rejane V.; Mancini, Marisa C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: In children, reaching emerges around four months of age, which is followed by rapid changes in hand function and concomitant changes in gross motor function, including the acquisition of independent sitting. Although there is a close functional relationship between these domains, to date they have been investigated separately. Objective: To investigate the longitudinal profile of changes and the relationship between the development of hand function (i.e. reaching for and manipulating an object) and gross motor function in 13 normally developing children born at term who were evaluated every 15 days from 4 to 8 months of age. Method: The number of reaches and the period (i.e. time) of manipulation to an object were extracted from video synchronized with the Qualisys(r) movement analysis system. Gross motor function was measured using the Alberta Infant Motor Scale. ANOVA for repeated measures was used to test the effect of age on the number of reaches, the time of manipulation and gross motor function. Hierarchical regression models were used to test the associations of reaching and manipulation with gross motor function. Results: Results revealed a significant increase in the number of reaches (p<0.001), the time of manipulation (p<0.001) and gross motor function (p<0.001) over time, as well as associations between reaching and gross motor function (R2=0.84; p<0.001) and manipulation and gross motor function (R2=0.13; p=0.02) from 4 to 6 months of age. Associations from 6 to 8 months of age were not significant. Conclusion: The relationship between hand function and gross motor function was not constant, and the age span from 4 to 6 months was a critical period of interdependency of hand function and gross motor function development. PMID:25714437

  2. Development and Initial Validation of the Preschooler Gross Motor Quality Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shih-Heng; Zhu, Yi-Ching; Shih, Ching-Lin; Lin, Chien-Hui; Wu, Sheng K.

    2010-01-01

    Motor skills have great impact on children in adapting to an environment and developing interpersonal interaction, cognition, and social behavior. Understanding what children can do and how they perform it is essential. Most motor tests seldom contain quality evaluation in the items or criteria. The purpose of this study was to develop and…

  3. Longitudinal cohort protocol study of oropharyngeal dysphagia: relationships to gross motor attainment, growth and nutritional status in preschool children with cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Benfer, Katherine A; Weir, Kelly A; Bell, Kristie L.; Ware, Robert S; Davies, Peter S. W.; Boyd, Roslyn N.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The prevalence of oropharyngeal dysphagia (OPD) in children with cerebral palsy (CP) is estimated to be between 19% and 99%. OPD can impact on children's growth, nutrition and overall health. Despite the growing recognition of the extent and significance of health issues relating to OPD in children with CP, lack of knowledge of its profile in this subpopulation remains. This study aims to investigate the relationship between OPD, attainment of gross motor skills, growth and nutri...

  4. Physical fitness of primary school children in the reflection of different levels of gross motor coordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Ružbarská

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lower level of motor competences may result in unsuccessful engaging of children in physical activities as early as pre-school age and also prepubescent ages. This may subsequently lead to a spiral of forming negative attitudes towards an active lifestyle and may be accompanied by a negative trend in weight status and physical fitness outcomes. Objective: The aim of the study was to identify and analyze differences in physical fitness and somatic parameters of primary school-aged children according to level of their gross motor coordination. Methods:  A sample of 436 children aged 7 to 10 years, of which were 222 girls and 214 boys, performed physical fitness tests - Eurofit test battery. The level of motor coordination was assessed using the test battery Körperkoordination-Test-für-Kinder (KTK. The anthropometric data (body mass, body height, sum of five skinfolds were measured. The one-way ANOVA was used to assess differences in physical fitness test items and anthropometry parameters between children with normal motor quotient (MQ ≥ 86 and decreased levels of gross motor coordination (MQ ≤ 85. Results: Research findings indicate a strongly negative trend in physical development of children with motor deficits (MQ ≤ 85. The results of ANOVA revealed significantly less favourable level of most of the assessed physical fitness parameters in children with decreased level of motor coordination. Conclusions: The findings suggest that physical fitness outcomes of primary school-aged children are associated with a lower level of motor coordination. Motor coordination probably plays an important role in preventing, or moderating the so-called negative trajectory leading to childhood overweight or obesity.

  5. Sensory processing and motor skill performance in elementary school children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ting

    2013-02-01

    Research to examine both sensory processing and motor skill performance in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is limited. This study assessed whether children with ASD would show sensory and motor delays compared to typically developing children and examined the relationship between sensory processing and motor performance. 32 children diagnosed with ASD were assessed using the Short Sensory Profile (SSP) and the Movement ABC-2 (MABC-2). The SSP measures children's sensory processing in daily life and the MABC-2 measures children's fine and gross motor skill performance. Overall, the samples' scores on the SSP indicated atypical sensory processing and scores on the MABC-2 showed poorer fine and gross motor performance as compared to age-matched norms. Furthermore, the samples' scores for sensory processing were positively correlated with their motor performance. The results suggest that fine and gross motor difficulties of children with ASD may be related to their delayed sensory processing to visual, auditory, tactile, and movement stimuli, and that this hypothesis needs to be tested in future research.

  6. Longitudinal cohort protocol study of oropharyngeal dysphagia: relationships to gross motor attainment, growth and nutritional status in preschool children with cerebral palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benfer, Katherine A; Weir, Kelly A; Bell, Kristie L; Ware, Robert S; Davies, Peter S W; Boyd, Roslyn N

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The prevalence of oropharyngeal dysphagia (OPD) in children with cerebral palsy (CP) is estimated to be between 19% and 99%. OPD can impact on children's growth, nutrition and overall health. Despite the growing recognition of the extent and significance of health issues relating to OPD in children with CP, lack of knowledge of its profile in this subpopulation remains. This study aims to investigate the relationship between OPD, attainment of gross motor skills, growth and nutritional status in young children with CP at and between two crucial age points, 18–24 and 36 months, corrected age. Methods and analysis This prospective longitudinal population-based study aims to recruit a total of 200 children with CP born in Queensland, Australia between 1 September 2006 and 31 December 2009 (60 per birth-year). Outcomes include clinically assessed OPD (Schedule for Oral Motor Assessment, Dysphagia Disorders Survey, Pre-Speech Assessment Scale, signs suggestive of pharyngeal phase impairment, Thomas-Stonell and Greenberg Saliva Severity Scale), parent-reported OPD on a feeding questionnaire, gross motor skills (Gross Motor Function Measure, Gross Motor Function Classification System and motor type), growth and nutritional status (linear growth and body composition) and dietary intake (3 day food record). The strength of relationship between outcome and exposure variables will be analysed using regression modelling with ORs and relative risk ratios. Ethics and dissemination This protocol describes a study that provides the first large population-based study of OPD in a representative sample of preschool children with CP, using direct clinical assessment. Ethics has been obtained through the University of Queensland Medical Research Ethics Committee, the Children's Health Services District Ethics Committee, and at other regional and organisational ethics committees. Results are planned to be disseminated in six papers submitted to peer reviewed journals

  7. Reference Curves for the Gross Motor Function Measure: Percentiles for Clinical Description and Tracking Over Time Among Children With Cerebral Palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Hanna, Steven E.; Bartlett, Doreen J; Rivard, Lisa M; Russell, Dianne J

    2008-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Physical therapists frequently use the 66-item Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM-66) with the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) to examine gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Until now, reference percentiles for this measure were not available. The aim of this study was to improve the clinical utility of this gross motor measure by developing cross-sectional reference percentiles for the GMFM-66 within levels of the GMFCS.

  8. Hip displacement in relation to age and gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Larnert, Per; Risto, Olof; Hägglund, Gunnar; Wagner, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Hip dislocation in cerebral palsy (CP) is a serious complication. By radiographic screening and prophylactic surgery of children at risk most dislocations can be prevented. CPUP, the Swedish CP registry and follow-up program, includes annual radiographic examinations of children at Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels III–V. Data from CPUP were analysed to assess the risk of hip displacement in relation to GMFCS levels and age. Methods All children at GMFCS levels...

  9. The relationship between gross motor function and manual ability in cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oskoui, Maryam; Majnemer, Annette; Dagenais, Lynn; Shevell, Michael I

    2013-12-01

    A retrospective cohort study was conducted to describe the relationship between gross motor function and manual ability in children with cerebral palsy and explore differences between cerebral palsy subtypes and associated comorbidities. Children with cerebral palsy born between 1999 and 2008 were included from the Registre de la Paralyse Cérébrale de Québec identifying 332 children. The overall agreement between Gross Motor Function Classification System and Manual Ability Classification Scale Levels was moderate (kappa 0.457, standard error 0.034) with a strong positive correlation (Spearman rho of 0.820, standard error 0.023). This agreement was moderate among children with spastic quadriparesis and dysketic cerebral palsy, fair in children with spastic diplegia, and poor in children with spastic hemiplegia. Children with cognitive impairment showed a higher correlation than those without cognitive impairment. The correlation between gross motor function and manual ability in children with CP varies based on neurologic subtype and cognitive level.

  10. The clinical effect of hippotherapy on gross motor function of children with Cerebral Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Litlle

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cerebral palsy (CP is the most common cause of physical disability affecting gross motor function (GMF in early childhood. Hippotherapy is a treatment approach aimed at improving GMF in children with CP. Several systematic reviews have been published showing an improvement in Dimension E of the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM after hippotherapy. However, these reviews failed to evaluate the clinical effect of hippotherapy in improving GMF in children with CP.Objective: To critically appraise the evidence of hippotherapy to ascertain whether it is a clinically meaningful approach for children with CP.Methodology: Five computerised bibliographic databases were searched. Predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria were set. The PEDro scale was used to assess the quality of the studies. A revised JBI Data extraction tool was used to extract data from the selected articles. Revman© Review Manager Software was used to create forest plots for comparisons of results.Results: All studies used the GMFM as an outcome measure for gross motor function. The added benefit of hippotherapy is a minimum 1% and a maximum 7% increase on the GMFM scores. However, all 95% confidence intervals (CI around all the mean differences were insignificant.Conclusion: The clinical effect of hippotherapy on the GMF of children with CP is small. Larger studies are required to provide evidence of the effect of hippotherapy within this population.

  11. Effects of an aquatic program on gross motor function of children with spastic cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NIKOLAOS CHRYSAGIS; ANGELIKI DOUKA; MICHAIL NIKOPOULOS; FOTEINI APOSTOLOPOULOU; DIMITRA KOUTSOUKI

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of a 10-week aquatic program on the gross motor function, on the range of motion and on spasticity of childrenwith cerebral palsy (CP. Six students served as subjects for the experimental group and another 6 were assigned to the control group. The aquatic program was taking place twice a week and consisted of a warm up, the main training session and a cool down phase. Measuring instruments were the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM (dimensions D and E, a goniometer and the modified Ashworth Scale. Pre-test and Post-test were executed before and after the intervention program. Significant interaction effect was found with respect to: the active shoulder flexion (p=.052, the active shoulder abduction (p=.052, the passive hip abduction (p=.001 and the passive knee extension (p=.045. Interaction effect was found for spasticity of the hip adductors (p=.002 and knee flexors (p=.049. Results of the present study indicated that an aquatic program might have a positive effect in gross motor function as well as in range of motion and spasticity in students with spastic cerebral palsy.

  12. Effects of Neurodevelopmental Therapy on Gross Motor Function in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina LABAF

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA How to Cite This Article: labaf S, Shamsoddini A, Hollisaz MT, Sobhani V, Shakibaee A . Effects of Neurodevelopmental Therapy on Gross Motor Function in Children with Cerebral Palsy. Iran J Child Neurol. Spring 2015;9(1:37-42.AbstractObjectiveNeurodevelopmental treatments are an advanced therapeutic approach practiced by experienced occupational therapists for the rehabilitation of children with cerebral palsy. The primary challenge in children with cerebral palsy is gross motor dysfunction. We studied the effects of neurodevelopmental therapy on gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy.Materials & MethodsIn a quasi-experimental design, 28 children with cerebral palsy were randomly divided into two groups. Neurodevelopmental therapy was given to a first group (n=15 with a mean age of 4.9 years; and a second group with a mean age 4.4 years (n=13 who were the control group. All children were evaluated with the Gross Motor Function Measure. Treatments were scheduled for three - one-hour sessions per week for 3 months.ResultsWe obtained statistically significant differences in the values between the baseline and post treatment in two groups. The groups were significantly different in laying and rolling (P=0.000, sitting (0.002, crawling and kneeling (0.004, and standing abilities (P=0.005. However, there were no significantdifferences in walking, running, and jumping abilities between the two groups (0.090.ConclusionWe concluded that the neurodevelopmental treatment improved gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy in four dimensions (laying and rolling, sitting, crawling and kneeling, and standing. However, walking, running, and jumping did not improve significantly. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso

  13. Motor Skill Development in Italian Pre-School Children Induced by Structured Activities in a Specific Playground

    OpenAIRE

    Patrizia Tortella; Monika Haga; Håvard Loras; Hermundur Sigmundsson; Guido Fumagalli

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects and specificity of structured and unstructured activities played at the playground Primo Sport 0246 in Northern Italy on motor skill competence in five years old children. The playground was specifically designed to promote gross motor skills in preschool children; in this study 71 children from local kindergartens came to the park once a week for ten consecutive weeks and were exposed to 30 minutes of free play and 30 minutes of structured activities. Before a...

  14. Influence of the environment on performance of gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatudimu, Margaret Bukola

    2012-01-01

    Assessment and physiotherapy intervention for children with cerebral palsy (CP) are conventionally carried out in the hospital or clinic setting. However, the daily lives of these children include a variety of environmental settings in addition to the clinical setting. The objective of this study was therefore to explore the possible influence of the environment on motor function in children with CP. Purposively selected children with CP (n=107), ages 1 and 6 years with mean age of 2.1 years (SD 1.10 yrs), were involved in this study. The motor function of each child was assessed in the hospital and at their homes within a one-week interval, using the gross motor function measure (GMFM); this was done at the baseline and on a monthly basis for eight consecutive months. The paired t-test rank was computed to compare the overall GMFM score and each of the sub-domain scores measured in the clinic and at home. GMFM scores measured at home were significantly higher than those measured in the clinic and this pattern was also obtained for the sub-domains throughout the study period, suggesting that children performed gross motor functions better at their homes than in the clinic.

  15. Improvement of gross motor and cognitive abilities by an exercise training program: three case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alesi M

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Marianna Alesi,1 Giuseppe Battaglia,2 Michele Roccella,1 Davide Testa,1 Antonio Palma,2 Annamaria Pepi1 1Department of Psychology, 2Department of Law, Social and Sport Science, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy Background: This work examined the efficacy of an integrated exercise training program (coach and family in three children with Down syndrome to improve their motor and cognitive abilities, in particular reaction time and working memory. Methods: The integrated exercise training program was used in three children with Down syndrome, comprising two boys (M1, with a chronological age of 10.3 years and a mental age of 4.7 years; M2, with a chronological age of 14.6 years and a mental age of less than 4 years and one girl (F1, chronological age 14.0 years and a mental age of less than 4 years. Results: Improvements in gross motor ability scores were seen after the training period. Greater improvements in task reaction time were noted for both evaluation parameters, ie, time and omissions. Conclusion: There is a close interrelationship between motor and cognitive domains in individuals with atypical development. There is a need to plan intervention programs based on the simultaneous involvement of child and parents and aimed at promoting an active lifestyle in individuals with Down syndrome. Keywords: disability, Down syndrome, gross motor abilities, cognitive abilities, physical activity

  16. Gross Motor Coincidence Timing by Children with Learning Difficulties and Children Matched on Mean Chronological and Mental Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacklin, Susan M.

    1987-01-01

    This study examines the learning of a gross motor coincidence timing task by children with learning difficulties, compared with that by children of average intelligence of an equivalent chronological age and mental age. Results are discussed. (Author/MT)

  17. Gross Motor Function Classification System used in adults with cerebral palsy: agreement of self-reported versus professional rating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahnsen, Reidun; Aamodt, Geir; Rosenbaum, Peter

    2006-09-01

    The present study investigated the reliability of self-reported rating of Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels compared with professional rating, and changes in gross motor function over time, in adults with cerebral palsy. Twenty-nine females and 33 males aged between 18 years 5 months and 62 years 11 months (mean age 34y 7mo [SD 10y 6mo]) participated in the study. Participants rated their current gross motor function using the GMFCS and reported their judgement of their gross motor function at age 10 to 12 years. The project leader, a physical therapist, also classified participants' current GMFCS levels and conducted a chart review on all accessible medical records of participants' gross motor function when they were 10 to 12 years old, rating the GMFCS level accordingly. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) between self-reported and professional ratings showed excellent agreement (ICC=0.93-0.95, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.89-0.97). More than half the participants experienced a stable gross motor function from the age of 10 to 12 years to the present. Those at GMFCS Levels II and III at the age of 10 to 12 years (according to the professional rating) had significant change for the worse in gross motor function over time, with odds ratios of 9.30 (95% CI 1.2-73.0, p=0.03) and 7.00 (95% CI 1.1-43.0, p=0.04) respectively. Interview data on circumstances regarding changes in gross motor function since childhood are also reported. Changes in GMFCS level were mostly associated with physical or social environmental factors.

  18. Correlation between the Gait Deviation Index and gross motor function (GMFCS level) in children with cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Malt, Merete A.; Aarli, Ånen; Bogen, Bård; Fevang, Jonas M

    2016-01-01

    Aim The Gait Deviation Index (GDI) is a score derived from three-dimensional gait analysis (3DGA). The GDI provides a numerical value that expresses overall gait pathology (ranging from 0 to 100, where 100 indicates the absence of gait pathology). The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the GDI and different levels of gross motor function [defined as the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS)] and to explore if age, height, weight, gender and cerebral pals...

  19. Gross Motor Function Classification System Expanded & Revised (GMFCS E & R): reliability between therapists and parents in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela B. R. Silva; Luzia I. Pfeifer; Carolina A. R. Funayama

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several studies have demonstrated the importance of using the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) to classify gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy, but the reliability of the expanded and revised version has not been examined in Brazil (GMFCS E & R). OBJECTIVE:: To determine the intra- and inter-rater reliability of the Portuguese-Brazil version of the GMFCS E & R applied by therapists and compare to classification provided by parents of children...

  20. Obesity and motor skills among 4 to 6-year-old children in the United States: nationally-representative surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castetbon, Katia; Andreyeva, Tatiana

    2012-03-15

    Few population-based studies have assessed relationships between body weight and motor skills in young children. Our objective was to estimate the association between obesity and motor skills at 4 years and 5-6 years of age in the United States. We used repeated cross-sectional assessments of the national sample from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey-Birth Cohort (ECLS-B) of preschool 4-year-old children (2005-2006; n = 5 100) and 5-6-year-old kindergarteners (2006-2007; n = 4 700). Height, weight, and fine and gross motor skills were assessed objectively via direct standardized procedures. We used categorical and continuous measures of body weight status, including obesity (Body Mass Index (BMI) ≥ 95th percentile) and BMI z-scores. Multivariate logistic and linear models estimated the association between obesity and gross and fine motor skills in very young children adjusting for individual, social, and economic characteristics and parental involvement. The prevalence of obesity was about 15%. The relationship between motor skills and obesity varied across types of skills. For hopping, obese boys and girls had significantly lower scores, 20% lower in obese preschoolers and 10% lower in obese kindergarteners than normal weight counterparts, p skills and fine motor skills of young children were not consistently related to BMI z-scores and obesity. Based on objective assessment of children's motor skills and body weight and a full adjustment for confounding covariates, we find no reduction in overall coordination and fine motor skills in obese young children. Motor skills are adversely associated with childhood obesity only for skills most directly related to body weight.

  1. A window of opportunity? Motor skills and perceptions of competence of children in Kindergarten

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    LeGear Mark

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our aim was to examine the relationship between motor skill proficiency and perceptions of competence of children in their first year of school. We also explored gender-based differences. Findings Participants were 260 kindergarten children (mean age = 5y 9 m; boys = 52% from eight schools; representing 78% of eligible children in those schools. Motor skills were measured using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 and perceptions of physical competence were assessed using the Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Social Acceptance for Young Children. Motor skill scores were generally low (percentile ranks ranged from 16 - 24 but perceptions of physical competence were positive (boys = 18.1/24.0, girls = 19.5/24.0. A MANOVA showed a significant overall effect for gender (Wilk's lambda = .84 with F (3, 254 = 15.84, p Conclusions Although motor skill levels were quite low, the children generally held positive perceptions of their physical competence. These positive perceptions provide a window of opportunity for fostering skillfulness. The modest relationships between perceptions of competence and motor skill proficiency suggest that the children are beginning to make self-judgments at a young age. Accordingly, opportunities for children to become and feel physically competent need to occur early in their school or preschool life.

  2. Using Achievement Goal Theory in Motor Skill Instruction: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Kara K; Chinn, Katherine M; Robinson, Leah E

    2017-08-04

    Over the past two decades, achievement goal theory (AGT) has been used as a theoretical framework to design and implement motor skill programming in young children. The purpose of this systematic review was to examine the effects of AGT in motor skill interventions and programming in children aged 0-12 years. This systematic literature search was conducted using three databases: Google Scholar, PubMed, and EBSCOhost. Studies were included if they met the following four inclusion criteria: (1) had an intervention with a gross motor outcome, (2) used an intervention grounded in AGT, (3) included young children (aged 0-12 years), and (4) were written in English. Studies were rated according to methodological reporting quality. All literature searches and reporting were consistent with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) protocol. A total of 12 studies met all inclusion criteria and were included in the sample. All studies reported that AGT motor skill interventions were effective for improving motor skills in young children. Studies varied in regard to intervention groups, duration, dosage, and the personnel responsible for implementing the intervention. None of the included studies met the requirements to be considered as having high methodological quality. Based on these findings, AGT is an effective theoretical approach for designing and implementing motor skill interventions for young children.

  3. Relationship of ocular accommodation and motor skills performance in developmental coordination disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafique, Sara A; Northway, Nadia

    2015-08-01

    Ocular accommodation provides a well-focussed image, feedback for accurate eye movement control, and cues for depth perception. To accurately perform visually guided motor tasks, integration of ocular motor systems is essential. Children with motor coordination impairment are established to be at higher risk of accommodation anomalies. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between ocular accommodation and motor tasks, which are often overlooked, in order to better understand the problems experienced by children with motor coordination impairment. Visual function, gross and fine motor skills were assessed in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and typically developing control children. Children with DCD had significantly poorer accommodation facility and amplitude dynamics compared to controls. Results indicate a relationship between impaired accommodation and motor skills. Specifically, accommodation anomalies correlated with visual motor, upper limb and fine dexterity task performance. Consequently, we argue accommodation anomalies influence the ineffective coordination of action and perception in DCD. Furthermore, reading disabilities were related to poorer motor performance. We postulate the role of the fastigial nucleus as a common pathway for accommodation and motor deficits. Implications of the findings and recommended visual screening protocols are discussed.

  4. Associations between gross motor coordination and academic achievement in elementary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Luís; Santos, Rute; Pereira, Beatriz; Lopes, Vítor P

    2013-02-01

    We aimed to evaluate the relationship between gross motor coordination (MC) and academic achievement (AA) in a sample of Portuguese children aged 9-12 years. The study took place during the 2009/2010 school year and involved 596 urban children (281 girls) from the north of Portugal. AA was assessed using the Portuguese Language and Mathematics National Exams. Gross MC was evaluated with the Körperkoordination Test für Kinder. Cardiorespiratory fitness was predicted by a maximal multistage 20-m shuttle-run test of the Fitnessgram Test Battery. Body weight and height were measured following standard procedures. Socio-economic status was based on annual family income. Logistic Regression was used to analyze the association of gross MC with AA. 51.6% of the sample exhibited MC disorders or MC insufficiency and none of the participants showed very good MC. In both genders, children with insufficient MC or MC disorders exhibited a higher probability of having low AA, compared with those with normal or good MC (pbody mass index and socio-economic status.

  5. Associations between Manual Abilities, Gross Motor Function, Epilepsy, and Mental Capacity in Children with Cerebral Palsy

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    Ewa GAJEWSKA*

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: Gajewska E, Sobieska M, Samborski W. Associations between Manual Abilities, Gross Motor Function, Epilepsy, and Mental Capacity in Children with Cerebral Palsy. Iran J Child Neurol. 2014 Spring 8(2:45-52.ObjectiveThis study aimed to evaluate gross motor function and hand function in children with cerebral palsy to explore their association with epilepsy and mental capacity. Material & MethodsThe research investigating the association between gross and fine motor function and the presence of epilepsy and/or mental impairment was conducted on a group of 83 children (45 girls, 38 boys. Among them, 41 were diagnosedwith quadriplegia, 14 hemiplegia, 18 diplegia, 7 mixed form, and 3 athetosis.A neurologist assessed each child in terms of possible epilepsy and confirmed diagnosis in 35 children. A psychologist assessed the mental level (according toWechsler and found 13 children within intellectual norm, 3 children with mild mental impairment, 18 with moderate, 27 with severe, and 22 with profound.Children were then classified based on Gross Motor Function Classification System and Manual Ability Classification Scale.ResultsThe gross motor function and manual performance were analysed in relation to mental impairment and the presence of epilepsy. Epilepsy was found to disturb conscious motor functions, but also higher degree of mental impairment wasobserved in children with epilepsy.ConclusionThe occurrence of epilepsy in children with cerebral palsy is associated with worse manual function. The occurrence of epilepsy is associated with limitations in conscious motor functions. There is an association between epilepsy in children with cerebral palsy and the degree of mental impairment.The occurrence of epilepsy, mainly in children with hemiplegia and diplegia is associated with worse mental capacities.ReferencesRichards CL, Malouin F. Cerebral palsy: definition, assessment and rehabilitation. Handb Clin Neurol

  6. Sleep-related offline improvements in gross motor task performance occur under free recall requirements

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    Andreas eMalangre

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Nocturnal sleep effects on memory consolidation following gross motor sequence learning were examined using a complex arm movement task. This task required participants to produce non-regular spatial patterns in the horizontal plane by successively fitting a small peg into different target-holes on an electronic pegboard. The respective reaching movements typically differed in amplitude and direction. Targets were visualized prior to each transport movement on a computer screen. With this task we tested 18 subjects (22.6 +/- 1.9 years; 8 female using a between-subjects design. Participants initially learned a 10-element arm movement sequence either in the morning or in the evening. Performance was retested under free recall requirements 15 minutes post training, as well as 12 hrs and 24 hrs later. Thus each group was provided with one sleep-filled and one wake retention interval. Dependent variables were error rate (number of erroneous sequences and average sequence execution time (correct sequences only. Performance improved during acquisition. Error rate remained stable across retention. Sequence execution time (inverse to execution speed significantly decreased again during the sleep-filled retention intervals, but remained stable during the respective wake intervals. These results corroborate recent findings on sleep-related enhancement consolidation in ecological valid, complex gross motor tasks. At the same time they suggest this effect to be truly memory-based and independent from repeated access to extrinsic sequence information during retests.

  7. Relationships between Gross Motor Abilities and Problematic Behaviors of Handicapped Children in Different Age Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uesugi, Masayuki; Araki, Tomoko; Fujii, Shun; Itotani, Keisuke; Otani, Yoshitaka; Seiichi, Takemasa

    2014-12-01

    [Purpose] In this study, we examined problematic behaviors of independent-walking and non-independent-walking handicapped children in the infant, school child and adolescent development phases, using the Japanese version of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC-J) to determine if such behaviors relate to their gross motor abilities. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 86 handicapped children who were receiving physical therapy. The subjects were classified into three groups by age. Using the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS), each group was further divided into an independent-walking group and non-independent-walking group. Thirteen physical therapists and 8 occupational therapists, who were treating the subject children, rated the subjects using the ABC-J. [Results] Significant differences were observed between the independent-walking and the non-independent-walking groups in the stereotypy and lethargy scores of infants. [Conclusion] For schoolchildren and adolescents, no significant differences were observed between the independent-walking and the non-independent-walking groups in their problematic behavior scores.

  8. Comparing children with and without dyslexia on the Movement Assessment Battery for Children and the Test of Gross Motor Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getchell, Nancy; Pabreja, Priya; Neeld, Kevin; Carrio, Victor

    2007-08-01

    Dyslexia is the most commonly occurring learning disability in the United States, characterized by difficulties with word recognition, spelling, and decoding. A growing body of literature suggests that deficits in motor skill performance exist in the dyslexic population. This study compared the performance of children with and without dyslexia on different subtests of the Test of Gross Motor Development and Movement Assessment Battery for Children and assessed whether there were developmental changes in the scores of the dyslexic group. Participants included 26 dyslexic children (19 boys and 7 girls; 9.5 yr. old, SD = 1.7) and 23 age- and sex-matched typically developing (17 boys and 6 girls; 9.9 yr. old, SD = 1.3) children as a control group. Mann-Whitney U tests indicated that the dyslexic group performed significantly lower than the control group only on the Total Balance subtest of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children. Additionally, the young dyslexic group performed significantly better on the Total Balance subtest, compared to the older dyslexic group. These results suggest that cerebellar dysfunction may account for differences in performance.

  9. An Empirical Study on Promoting Gross Motor Skill of Preschoolers Aged 5 to 6 Through Functional Training%功能性训练促进5-6岁幼儿粗大动作发展的实证研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周喆啸; 孟欢欢; 赵焕彬; 白锐; 雷园园

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To discuss the influence of functional training on gross motor ability development of preschoolers aged 5 - 6. Methods:143 Preschoolers aged 5 - 6 who are chosen from government - funded kindergartens in Shijiazhuang,Capital of Hebei Province were divided into the experimental group (70 children)and control group (73 children). The experimental group received a functional training intervention program for 12 weeks, while the control group maintained the routine kindergarten by with the United States Test of Gross Motor Devel-opment - 2 physical activities. Before and after the intervention,preschoolers'gross motor ability was tested TG-MD - 2. Results:(1)the control group's total score of gross motor was 74. 65,among which the locomotor score was 39. 82 and the object - controlscore 34. 83. Compared with their pre - experiment scores in the three abili-ties,which were 74. 61,38. 86 and 35. 75 respectively,there was no significant increase (P > 0. 05). (2) The experimental group's total score of gross motor was 85. 74,among which the locomotor score was 44. 60, and the object - control score 41. 14. As compared with their pre - experiment scores in the three abilities, which was 74. 22,39. 62 and 34. 60 respectively,there was a significant increase (P < 0. 01). (3)The exper-imental group's post - experimentscores in gross motor,Locomotor and object - control were significantly higher than that of the control the group (P < 0. 01). Conclusion:The functional training designed specially for pre-schoolers can significantly increase the gross motor ability for children aged 5 to 6.%目的:探讨功能性训练对5-6岁幼儿粗大动作能力发展的影响。方法:随机抽取石家庄某公立幼儿园5-6岁幼儿143名为研究对象,将其分为实验组与对照组,实验组70人,对照组73人。实验组进行12周的功能性训练干预,对照组保持幼儿园原有体育活动内容,干预前后,通过美国大肌肉动作技能

  10. Obesity and motor skills among 4 to 6-year-old children in the united states: nationally-representative surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castetbon Katia

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few population-based studies have assessed relationships between body weight and motor skills in young children. Our objective was to estimate the association between obesity and motor skills at 4 years and 5-6 years of age in the United States. We used repeated cross-sectional assessments of the national sample from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey-Birth Cohort (ECLS-B of preschool 4-year-old children (2005-2006; n = 5 100 and 5-6-year-old kindergarteners (2006-2007; n = 4 700. Height, weight, and fine and gross motor skills were assessed objectively via direct standardized procedures. We used categorical and continuous measures of body weight status, including obesity (Body Mass Index (BMI ≥ 95th percentile and BMI z-scores. Multivariate logistic and linear models estimated the association between obesity and gross and fine motor skills in very young children adjusting for individual, social, and economic characteristics and parental involvement. Results The prevalence of obesity was about 15%. The relationship between motor skills and obesity varied across types of skills. For hopping, obese boys and girls had significantly lower scores, 20% lower in obese preschoolers and 10% lower in obese kindergarteners than normal weight counterparts, p p Conclusions Based on objective assessment of children's motor skills and body weight and a full adjustment for confounding covariates, we find no reduction in overall coordination and fine motor skills in obese young children. Motor skills are adversely associated with childhood obesity only for skills most directly related to body weight.

  11. Comparing the Effects of Drug Therapy, Perceptual Motor Training, and Both Combined on the Motor Skills of School-Aged Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taft Yazd, Susan Nasiri; Ayatizadeh, Farahnaz; Dehghan, Faezeh; Machado, Sergio; Wegner, Mirko

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to compare the effects of drug therapy, perceptual motor training and a combination of drug therapy and perceptual motor training on gross and fine motor skills of 6 to 12 year-old Iranian attention deficit hyperactivity disorder children. Thirty-six attention deficit hyperactivity disorder children currently under treatment in three Iranian psychological-neurological clinics participated in this research study. Participants were sampled from the accessible population and randomly assigned to three experimental groups (n = 12 each). The Conners Parent Rating Scale was used to classify the children and the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency was administered before and after a three month treatment/ training session. Participants in the first experimental group received drug therapy (including methylphenidate). In the second group participants took part in 18 sessions of perceptual-motor skill training for six consecutive weeks, and in the third group children received both interventions. The results indicated that interventions using perceptual-motor training alone or in combination with a drug therapy significantly improved both gross and fine motor skills over a period of six weeks. Participants in the drug-only group showed no improvement in motor performance.

  12. The relationship between spasticity in young children (18 months of age with cerebral palsy and their gross motor function development

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    Verschuren Olaf

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is thought that spasticity has an influence on the development of functional motor abilities among children with cerebral palsy (CP. The extent to which spasticity is associated with the change in motor abilities in young children with CP has not been established. The objective of this study is to evaluate the relationship of initial spasticity in young children with CP and their gross motor function development over one year. Methods Fifty children with CP aged 18 months, GMFCS-levels I-V participated in a longitudinal observational study. Change in gross motor functioning (GMFM-66 was measured over one year. The level of spasticity measured at the first assessment was determined with the Modified Tardieu Scale in three muscle groups of the lower extremity (adductor muscles, the hamstrings and the m. gastrocnemius. The Spasticity Total Score per child was calculated with a maximum score of 12 points. Results Spearman's Rho Correlation (-0.28 revealed a statistically significant relationship (p Conclusion Our findings indicate that when measured over one year, spasticity is marginally related to gross motor function development in infants with CP. The initial level of spasticity is only one of the many child, environmental and family factors that determines gross motor development of a young child with CP.

  13. Relationship between time use in physical activity and gross motor performance of preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ling-Yi; Cherng, Rong-Ju; Chen, Yung-Jung

    2017-02-01

    Participation in physical activity is an important health concern for children in most Western communities, but little is known about Asian children's participation. The purpose of this study was to extend the current knowledge on how much time preschool children in Taiwan spend on physical activity, to examine its relationship with gross motor performance and to provide information on the establishment of physical activity guidelines for preschool children in Taiwan. Two hundred and sixty-four children between 36 and 71 months old were recruited from a university medical centre and from preschools in Taiwan. The primary outcomes were measured using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-Second Edition and the modified Preschool-aged Children's Physical Activity Questionnaire. 89.8% of our participants did not meet the recommendations from the National Association for Sport and Physical Education for time spent in physical activities. Participants spent an average of 155 minutes/week in low intensity physical activity. Children with motor difficulties tended to spend less time on physical activity than did typically developing children. The mother's level of education and whether the child was overweight or obese correlated with how much time the children spent on physical activity. We conclude that paediatric occupational therapists should explain to parents the relationship between physical activity and motor development and advocate for developmentally positive physical activities for preschool children. Physical activity guidelines for Taiwanese preschoolers should be established immediately. © 2016 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  14. Motor Skills and Exercise Capacity Are Associated with Objective Measures of Cognitive Functions and Academic Performance in Preadolescent Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Richard; Larsen, Malte Nejst; Dahn, Ida Marie; Andersen, Josefine Needham; Krause-Jensen, Matilde; Korup, Vibeke; Nielsen, Claus Malta; Wienecke, Jacob; Ritz, Christian; Krustrup, Peter; Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate associations between motor skills, exercise capacity and cognitive functions, and evaluate how they correlate to academic performance in mathematics and reading comprehension using standardised, objective tests. Methods This cross-sectional study included 423 Danish children (age: 9.29±0.35 years, 209 girls). Fine and gross motor skills were evaluated in a visuomotor accuracy-tracking task, and a whole-body coordination task, respectively. Exercise capacity was estimated from the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 1 children's test (YYIR1C). Selected tests from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) were used to assess different domains of cognitive functions, including sustained attention, spatial working memory, episodic and semantic memory, and processing speed. Linear mixed-effects models were used to investigate associations between these measures and the relationship with standard tests of academic performance in mathematics and reading comprehension. Results Both fine and gross motor skills were associated with better performance in all five tested cognitive domains (all P<0.001), whereas exercise capacity was only associated with better sustained attention (P<0.046) and spatial working memory (P<0.038). Fine and gross motor skills (all P<0.001), exercise capacity and cognitive functions such as working memory, episodic memory, sustained attention and processing speed were all associated with better performance in mathematics and reading comprehension. Conclusions The data demonstrate that fine and gross motor skills are positively correlated with several aspects of cognitive functions and with academic performance in both mathematics and reading comprehension. Moreover, exercise capacity was associated with academic performance and performance in some cognitive domains. Future interventions should investigate associations between changes in motor skills, exercise capacity, cognitive functions, and academic

  15. Myofascial Structural Integration Therapy on Gross Motor Function and Gait of Young Children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loi, Elizabeth C; Buysse, Christina A; Price, Karen S; Jaramillo, Theresa M; Pico, Elaine L; Hansen, Alexis B; Feldman, Heidi M

    2015-01-01

    Though the cause of motor abnormalities in cerebral palsy is injury to the brain, structural changes in muscle and fascia may add to stiffness and reduced function. This study examined whether myofascial structural integration therapy, a complementary treatment that manipulates muscle and fascia, would improve gross motor function and gait in children Gross Motor Function Measure-66 assessed at 3-month intervals. Gait (n = 8) was assessed using the GAITRite(®) electronic walkway. Parents completed a survey at study conclusion. Comparing Treatment (n = 15) and Waitlist-Control groups (n = 9), we found a significant main effect of time but no effect of group or time × group interaction. The pooled sample (n = 27) showed a main effect of time, but no significantly greater change after treatment than between other assessments. Foot length on the affected side increased significantly after treatment, likely indicating improvement in the children's ability to approach a heel strike. Parent surveys indicated satisfaction and improvements in the children's quality of movement. MSI did not increase the rate of motor skill development, but was associated with improvement in gait quality.

  16. Myofascial structural integration therapy on gross motor function and gait of young children with spastic cerebral palsy: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth C Loi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Though the cause of motor abnormalities in cerebral palsy is injury to the brain, structural changes in muscle and fascia may add to stiffness and reduced function. This study examined whether Myofascial Structural Integration therapy (MSI, a complementary treatment that manipulates muscle and fascia, would improve gross motor function and gait in children < 4 years with cerebral palsy. Participants (N=29 were enrolled in a randomized controlled trial (RCT: NCT01815814, https://goo.gl/TGxvwd or Open Label Extension. The main outcome was the Gross Motor Function Measure-66 assessed at 3-month intervals. Gait (n=8 was assessed using the GAITRite® electronic walkway. Parents completed a survey at study conclusion.Comparing Treatment (n=15 and Waitlist-Control Groups (n=9, we found a significant main effect of time but no effect of group or timeXgroup interaction. The pooled sample (n=27 showed a main effect of time, but no significantly greater change after treatment than between other assessments. Foot length on the affected side increased significantly after treatment, likely indicating improvement in the children’s ability to approach a heel strike. Parent surveys indicated satisfaction and improvements in the children's quality of movement. MSI did not increase the rate of motor skill development, but was associated with improvement in gait quality.

  17. Young Athletes: A Special Olympics Motor Skill Development Program

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    Favazza, Paddy C.; Siperstein, Gary N.

    2013-01-01

    While motor skills develop naturally among most typically developing preschoolers, young children with disabilities often experience deficits in this area. Therefore, it is important that children with disabilities are provided with "direct and intentional instruction" for motor skill development during the preschool years. One program…

  18. Helping Preschoolers Prepare for Writing: Developing Fine Motor Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, J. Michelle; Fortenberry, Callie

    2011-01-01

    Early childhood is the most intensive period for the development of physical skills. Writing progress depends largely on the development of fine motor skills involving small muscle movements of the hand. Young children need to participate in a variety of developmentally appropriate activities intentionally designed to promote fine motor control.…

  19. Visual-Motor Skills as a Predictor of Written Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiello-Cloutier, Mary

    This study investigated the relationship between the Developmental Test of Visual Motor Integration-Revised (VMI-R) and written expression skills of 54 students (grades 2 to 7) with learning disabilities. Data analysis compared cognitive ability; visual motor skills; achievement in reading, math, and written language; teacher rating of written…

  20. Young Athletes: A Special Olympics Motor Skill Development Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favazza, Paddy C.; Siperstein, Gary N.

    2013-01-01

    While motor skills develop naturally among most typically developing preschoolers, young children with disabilities often experience deficits in this area. Therefore, it is important that children with disabilities are provided with "direct and intentional instruction" for motor skill development during the preschool years. One program…

  1. The effectiveness of a fundamental motor skill intervention in pre-schoolers with motor problems depends on gender but not environmental context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardid, Farid; Deconinck, Frederik J A; Descamps, Sofie; Verhoeven, Liesbeth; De Pooter, Greet; Lenoir, Matthieu; D'Hondt, Eva

    2013-12-01

    This study evaluated the effect of a 10-week fundamental motor skill programme in pre-schoolers with motor problems. Alongside the general effect of the intervention, we also explored possible gender differences and the role of the environmental context (living community, socio-economic status, and recreational space inside/outside the house). The intervention group (n=47; 20 ♂ and 27 ♀) received twenty 60-min motor skill sessions (2 per week) in addition to the regular physical education curriculum for pre-schoolers; the control group (n=46; 21 ♂ and 25 ♀) did not receive additional practice. General motor competence, and locomotor and object control subscales, were assessed before and after the intervention using the Test of Gross Motor Development 2nd edition (TGMD-2). Data regarding environmental factors were gathered through a questionnaire. A Group×Gender×Time ANOVA revealed that the intervention group benefited significantly from the intervention and scored better than the control group at the post-test for general motor competence and both sub-categories (locomotor and object control skill). Moreover, the intervention programme was found to be effective in helping 49% of the intervention group to achieve an average motor skill level, according to the TGMD-2 norms, while a further decline in motor competence was observed in the control group. Interestingly, the effect appeared to be gender-specific, since object control skill improved only in girls of the intervention group. Considering the environmental context, none of the above-mentioned factors was found to have an influence on the effectiveness of the intervention. The present study highlights the need for an early motor skill programme with a gender-specific approach in order to help low skilled boys and girls master a diverse set of motor skills.

  2. Effect of Upper Limb Deformities on Gross Motor and Upper Limb Functions in Children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun Sook; Sim, Eun Geol; Rha, Dong-wook

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the nature and extent of upper limb deformities via the use of various classifications, and to analyze the relationship between upper limb deformities and gross motor or upper limb functionality levels. Upper extremity data were collected from 234 children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP) who were…

  3. Stability and Decline in Gross Motor Function among Children and Youth with Cerebral Palsy Aged 2 to 21 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Steven E.; Rosenbaum, Peter L.; Bartlett, Doreen J.; Palisano, Robert J.; Walter, Stephen D.; Avery, Lisa; Russell, Dianne J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports the construction of gross motor development curves for children and youth with cerebral palsy (CP) in order to assess whether function is lost during adolescence. We followed children previously enrolled in a prospective longitudinal cohort study for an additional 4 years, as they entered adolescence and young adulthood. The…

  4. Early neuromotor development of high risk infants - Gross motor function in preterm and full-term born infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Haastert, I.C.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis is the result of 20 years follow-up of preterm and full-term born ‘graduates’ of the neonatal intensive care unit of the Wilhelmina Children’s Hospital, Utrecht. The aim was to answer questions that arose during admission and follow-up assessments. Typical gross motor development of pret

  5. Knee Muscle Strength at Varying Angular Velocities and Associations with Gross Motor Function in Ambulatory Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Wei-Hsien; Chen, Hseih-Ching; Shen, I-Hsuan; Chen, Chung-Yao; Chen, Chia-Ling; Chung, Chia-Ying

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationships of muscle strength at different angular velocities and gross motor functions in ambulatory children with cerebral palsy (CP). This study included 33 ambulatory children with spastic CP aged 6-15 years and 15 children with normal development. Children with CP were categorized into level I (n =…

  6. Effects of static bicycle training on gross motor function, muscle strength and spasticity of adolescents with spastic cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHRISTOS TSIGKANOS

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of an 8- week lower limb strengthening program on gross motor function, muscle strength and spasticity levels of both the quadriceps and hip adductors of adolescents 14 to 19 years of age with spastic cerebral palsy using a specific static bicycle (Thera-Vital exerciser. Eight students were assigned to the experimental group and another 8 to the control group. The strengthening program took place 3 times a week (6 sets of 10 to 15 full cycling circles. The Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM (dimensions D and E, an isometric hand-held dynamometer and Asworth scale were the measurement instruments used in the study. A multivariance analysis of variance (MANOVA was applied for identifying the statistical importance of the results of the intervention protocol. A statistically significant improvement in both gross motor function (p = 0.016 and muscle strength (p = 0.039 was found without a statistically significant alteration of the muscle tone of the quadriceps and hip adductors of the participants (p = 0.13 and p = 0.33. The results of the present study indicate that static bicycle is a safe and effective means of exercise since it improves the gross motor function of adolescents with cerebral palsy without increasing the muscle tone of the lower limb.

  7. Effects of age and timing of augmented feedback on learning muscle relaxation while performing a gross motor task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, H; Hermens, Hermanus J.

    Objective: To examine the combined effect of age and timing of augmented feedback on learning muscle relaxation. Performing a gross motor task, subjects had to lower their trapezius muscle activity using the electromyographic signal as visual myofeedback. Design: Healthy subjects (16 young adults:

  8. Knee Muscle Strength at Varying Angular Velocities and Associations with Gross Motor Function in Ambulatory Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Wei-Hsien; Chen, Hseih-Ching; Shen, I-Hsuan; Chen, Chung-Yao; Chen, Chia-Ling; Chung, Chia-Ying

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationships of muscle strength at different angular velocities and gross motor functions in ambulatory children with cerebral palsy (CP). This study included 33 ambulatory children with spastic CP aged 6-15 years and 15 children with normal development. Children with CP were categorized into level I (n =…

  9. Interobserver Agreement of the Gross Motor Function Classification System in an Ambulant Population of Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Brona C.; Kerr, Claire; Parkes, Jackie

    2007-01-01

    Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) level was reported by three independent assessors in a population of children with cerebral palsy (CP) aged between 4 and 18 years (n=184; 112 males, 72 females; mean age 10y 10mo [SD 3y 7mo]). A software algorithm also provided a computed GMFCS level from a regional CP registry. Participants had…

  10. Using musical instruments to improve motor skill recovery following a stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, S; Schönle, P W; Altenmüller, E; Münte, T F

    2007-10-01

    In previous studies, it was shown that there is a need for efficient motor rehabilitation approaches. For this purpose, we evaluated a music-supported training program designed to induce an auditory-sensorimotor co-representation of movements in 20 stroke patients (10 affected in the left and 10 in the right upper extremity). Patients without any previous musical experience participated in an intensive step by step training, first of the paretic extremity, followed by training of both extremities. Training was applied 15 times over 3 weeks in addition to conventional treatment. Fine as well as gross motor skills were addressed by using either a MIDI-piano or electronic drum pads. As a control, 20 stroke patients (10 affected left and 10 right) undergoing exclusively conventional therapies were recruited. Assignment to the training and control groups was done pseudo-randomly to achieve an equal number of left- and right-affected patients in each group. Pre- and post-treatment motor functions were monitored using a computerized movement analysis system (Zebris) and an established array of motor tests (e. g., Action Research Arm Test, Box & Block Test). Patients showed significant improvement after treatment with respect to speed, precision and smoothness of movements as shown by 3D movement analysis and clinical motor tests. Furthermore, compared to the control subjects, motor control in everyday activities improved significantly. In conclusion, this innovative therapeutic strategy is an effective approach for the motor skill neurorehabilitation of stroke patients.

  11. Association between gross motor function and postural control in sitting in children with Cerebral Palsy: a correlational study in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero Mendoza, Sergio; Gómez-Conesa, Antonia; Hidalgo Montesinos, María Dolores

    2015-09-16

    Cerebral palsy (CP) is one of the causes of physical disability in children. Sitting abilities can be described using the Level of Sitting Scale (LSS) and the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS). There is growing interest in the sitting posture of children with CP owing to a stable sitting position allows for the development of eye-hand coordination, functions of the upper extremities and functional skills. Besides, in recent years researchers have tried to develop a new terminology to classify the CP as performed by the Surveillance of Cerebral Palsy in Europe (SCPE), in order to improve the monitoring of the frequency of the PC, providing a framework for research and service planning. The aim of this study was to analyse the relationship between GMFCS and LSS. The second purpose was to describe how the SCPE relates to sitting abilities with the GMFCS and LSS. The study involved 139 children with CP (range 3-18 years) from 24 educational centres. Age, gender, CP classification according to SCPE, GMFCS and LSS levels were recorded by an experienced physiotherapist. A significant inverse relationship between GMFCS and LSS score levels was found (rs = -0.86, p = 0.00). 45.3% of the children capable of leaning in any direction and of re-erecting the trunk (level VIII on the LSS) could walk without limitation (level I on the GMFCS). There were differences in the distribution of the GMFCS (χ(2)(4):50.78) and LSS (χ(2)(7): 37.15) levels and CP according to the distribution of the spasticity (p correlation between both scales and a relation between sitting ability and the capacity to walk with or without technical devices. GMFCS and the LSS are useful tools for describing the functional abilities and limitations of children with CP, specially sitting and mobility. Classification based on the distribution of spasticity and the gross motor function provides clinical information on the prognosis and development of children with CP.

  12. Effect of the Children’s Health Activity Motor Program on Motor Skills and Self-Regulation in Head Start Preschoolers: An Efficacy Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leah Elizabeth Robinson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Self-regulatory skills are broadly defined as the ability to manage emotions, focus attention, and inhibit some behaviors while activating others in accordance with social expectations and are an established indicator of academic success. Growing evidence links motor skills and physical activity to self-regulation. This study examined the efficacy of a motor skills intervention (i.e., the Children’s Health Activity Motor Program, CHAMP that is theoretically grounded in Achievement Goal Theory on motor skill performance and self-regulation in Head Start preschoolers. A sample of 113 Head Start preschoolers (Mage = 51.91 + 6.5 months; 49.5% males were randomly assigned to a treatment (n = 68 or control (n = 45 program. CHAMP participants engaged in 15, 40-minute sessions of a mastery climate intervention that focused on the development of motor skills over 5 weeks while control participants engaged in their normal outdoor recess period. The Delay of Gratification Snack Task was used to measure self-regulation and the Test of Gross Motor Development - 2nd Edition was used to assess motor skills. All measures were assessed prior to and following the intervention. Linear mixed models were fit for both self-regulation and motor skills. Results revealed a significant time*treatment interaction (p < .001. In regards to motor skills, post hoc comparisons found that all children improved their motor skills (p < .05, but the CHAMP group improved significantly more than the control group (p < .001. Children in CHAMP maintained their self-regulation scores across time while children in the control group scored significantly lower than the CHAMP group at the posttest (p < .05. CHAMP is a mastery climate movement program that may be an approach to enhance skills associated with healthy development in children (i.e., motor skills and self-regulation. This efficacy trial provided evidence that CHAMP helped maintain delay of gratification in preschool age

  13. Effect of the Children's Health Activity Motor Program on Motor Skills and Self-Regulation in Head Start Preschoolers: An Efficacy Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Leah E; Palmer, Kara K; Bub, Kristen L

    2016-01-01

    Self-regulatory skills are broadly defined as the ability to manage emotions, focus attention, and inhibit some behaviors while activating others in accordance with social expectations and are an established indicator of academic success. Growing evidence links motor skills and physical activity to self-regulation. This study examined the efficacy of a motor skills intervention (i.e., the Children's Health Activity Motor Program, CHAMP) that is theoretically grounded in Achievement Goal Theory on motor skill performance and self-regulation in Head Start preschoolers. A sample of 113 Head Start preschoolers (Mage = 51.91 ± 6.5 months; 49.5% males) were randomly assigned to a treatment (n = 68) or control (n = 45) program. CHAMP participants engaged in 15, 40-min sessions of a mastery climate intervention that focused on the development of motor skills over 5 weeks while control participants engaged in their normal outdoor recess period. The Delay of Gratification Snack Task was used to measure self-regulation and the Test of Gross Motor Development-2nd Edition was used to assess motor skills. All measures were assessed prior to and following the intervention. Linear mixed models were fit for both self-regulation and motor skills. Results revealed a significant time × treatment interaction (p < 0.001). In regard to motor skills, post hoc comparisons found that all children improved their motor skills (p < 0.05), but the CHAMP group improved significantly more than the control group (p < 0.001). Children in CHAMP maintained their self-regulation scores across time, while children in the control group scored significantly lower than the CHAMP group at the posttest (p < 0.05). CHAMP is a mastery climate movement program that enhance skills associated with healthy development in children (i.e., motor skills and self-regulation). This efficacy trial provided evidence that CHAMP helped maintain delay of gratification in preschool

  14. Humor Style and Motor Skills: Understanding Vulnerability to Bullying

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    Stephanie Plenty

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the role of humor style and motor skills in vulnerability to bullying. 729 adults responded to the Humor Style Questionnaire (HSQ and items retrospectively addressing their motor skills and bullying experiences during childhood. Consistent with recent research, poorer motor skills were associated with a greater extent of having been bullied. An association between stronger motor skills and affiliative humor was found, lending support to a shared biological basis theory underlying social and motor competency processes. Most importantly, being bullied was associated with higher self-defeating humor and lower affiliative humor. This supports earlier theoretical work by Klein and Kuiper (2006 and highlights the role that humor styles play in social interactions that can promote positive peer acceptance and wellbeing.

  15. A physiological signal that prevents motor skill improvements during consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunovic, Sanjin; Press, Daniel Z; Robertson, Edwin M

    2014-04-01

    Different memories follow different processing pathways. For example, some motor skill memories are enhanced over wakefulness, whereas others are instead enhanced over sleep. The processing pathway that a motor skill memory follows may be determined by functional changes within motor circuits. We tested this idea using transcranial magnetic stimulation to measure corticospinal excitability at 6, 21, 36, 96, and 126 min after participants learnt tasks that either were or were not enhanced over wakefulness. There was no change in corticospinal excitability after learning a motor skill that was subsequently enhanced; whereas, there was a substantial transient decrease in corticospinal excitability after learning a motor skill that was not enhanced. In subsequent experiments, we abolished the decrease in corticospinal excitability by applying theta burst stimulation to either the dorsolateral prefrontal or primary motor cortex, and induced motor skill improvements during consolidation. The motor skill improvements in each experiment were correlated with the corticospinal excitability after learning. Together, these experiments suggest that corticospinal excitability changes act as a physiological signal, which prevents improvements from developing over wakefulness, and so when this signal is abolished improvements are induced. Our observations show that the human brain can actively prevent the processing of memories, and provides insights into the mechanisms that control the fate of memories.

  16. Developing an eBook-Integrated High-Fidelity Mobile App Prototype for Promoting Child Motor Skills and Taxonomically Assessing Children's Emotional Responses Using Face and Sound Topology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, William; Liu, Connie; John, Rita Marie; Ford, Phoebe

    2014-01-01

    Developing gross and fine motor skills and expressing complex emotion is critical for child development. We introduce "StorySense", an eBook-integrated mobile app prototype that can sense face and sound topologies and identify movement and expression to promote children's motor skills and emotional developmental. Currently, most interactive eBooks on mobile devices only leverage "low-motor" interaction (i.e. tapping or swiping). Our app senses a greater breath of motion (e.g. clapping, snapping, and face tracking), and dynamically alters the storyline according to physical responses in ways that encourage the performance of predetermined motor skills ideal for a child's gross and fine motor development. In addition, our app can capture changes in facial topology, which can later be mapped using the Facial Action Coding System (FACS) for later interpretation of emotion. StorySense expands the human computer interaction vocabulary for mobile devices. Potential clinical applications include child development, physical therapy, and autism.

  17. Potential Predictors of Changes in Gross Motor Function during Various Tasks for Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Follow-Up Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chia-ling; Chen, Chung-yao; Chen, Hsieh-ching; Liu, Wen-yu; Shen, I-hsuan; Lin, Keh-chung

    2013-01-01

    Very few studies have investigated predictors of change in various gross motor outcomes in ambulatory children with cerebral palsy (CP). The aim of this study was to identify potential predictors for change in gross motor outcomes measured during various tasks in children with CP. A group of 45 children (age, 6-15 years) with CP and 7 potential…

  18. The Dutch motor skills assessment as tool for talent development in table tennis: a reproducibility and validity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, Irene R; Nijhuis-Van Der Sanden, Maria W G; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T; Oosterveld, Frits G J

    2015-01-01

    A motor skills assessment could be helpful in talent development by estimating essential perceptuo-motor skills of young players, which are considered requisite to develop excellent technical and tactical qualities. The Netherlands Table Tennis Association uses a motor skills assessment in their talent development programme consisting of eight items measuring perceptuo-motor skills specific to table tennis under varying conditions. This study aimed to investigate this assessment regarding its reproducibility, internal consistency, underlying dimensions and concurrent validity in 113 young table tennis players (6-10 years). Intraclass correlation coefficients of six test items met the criteria of 0.7 with coefficients of variation between 3% and 8%. Cronbach's alpha valued 0.853 for internal consistency. The principal components analysis distinguished two conceptually meaningful factors: "ball control" and "gross motor function." Concurrent validity analyses demonstrated moderate associations between the motor skills assessment's results and national ranking; boys r = -0.53 (P < 0.001) and girls r = -0.45 (P = 0.015). In conclusion, this evaluation demonstrated six test items with acceptable reproducibility, good internal consistency and good prospects for validity. Two test items need revision to upgrade reproducibility. Since the motor skills assessment seems to be a reproducible, objective part of a talent development programme, more longitudinal studies are required to investigate its predictive validity.

  19. The influence of motor imagery on the learning of a fine hand motor skill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobierajewicz, Jagna; Przekoracka-Krawczyk, Anna; Jaśkowski, Wojciech; Verwey, Willem B; van der Lubbe, Rob

    2017-01-01

    Motor imagery has been argued to affect the acquisition of motor skills. The present study examined the specificity of motor imagery on the learning of a fine hand motor skill by employing a modified discrete sequence production task: the Go/NoGo DSP task. After an informative cue, a response sequence had either to be executed, imagined, or withheld. To establish learning effects, the experiment was divided into a practice phase and a test phase. In the latter phase, we compared mean response times and accuracy during the execution of unfamiliar sequences, familiar imagined sequences, and familiar executed sequences. The electroencephalogram was measured in the practice phase to compare activity between motor imagery, motor execution, and a control condition in which responses should be withheld. Event-related potentials (ERPs) and event-related lateralizations (ERLs) showed strong similarities above cortical motor areas on trials requiring motor imagery and motor execution, while a major difference was found with trials on which the response sequence should be withheld. Behavioral results from the test phase showed that response times and accuracy improved after physical and mental practice relative to unfamiliar sequences (so-called sequence-specific learning effects), although the effect of motor learning by motor imagery was smaller than the effect of physical practice. These findings confirm that motor imagery also resembles motor execution in the case of a fine hand motor skill.

  20. Mothers' questionnaire of preschoolers' language and motor skills: a validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudmundsson, E; Gretarsson, S J

    2013-03-01

    Parent questionnaires of child motor and language skills are useful in many contexts. This study validates one such measure, the Preschool Child Development Inventory (PCDI), a mother-answered standardized measure of motor (fine and gross) and language (expression and comprehension) skills of 3-6-year-old children. Eighty-one mothers answered the inventory and their children were concurrently tested on six verbal subtests of WPPSI-R(IS). The six language and motor subtests of the PCDI revealed the predicted convergent and divergent correlations with the verbal subtests of the WPPSI-R(IS). As predicted, the motor subtests diverged and the language subtests converged with the expected WPPSI-R(IS) subtests. Principal components analysis of all the measures (the PCDI and the WPPSI-R(IS) subtests) revealed two components, verbal and motor in content. The findings support the validity of a mother-answered inventory to assess language and motor development. It is pointed out that such inventories are a viable brief and cost effective alternative to individual testing, both to supplement such measures in clinical practice and as main information in research, for example on determinants of development. Some suggestions are made for future research and applications. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Content validity and reliability of test of gross motor development in Chilean children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Cano-Cappellacci

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To validate a Spanish version of the Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD-2 for the Chilean population. METHODS Descriptive, transversal, non-experimental validity and reliability study. Four translators, three experts and 92 Chilean children, from five to 10 years, students from a primary school in Santiago, Chile, have participated. The Committee of Experts has carried out translation, back-translation and revision processes to determine the translinguistic equivalence and content validity of the test, using the content validity index in 2013. In addition, a pilot implementation was achieved to determine test reliability in Spanish, by using the intraclass correlation coefficient and Bland-Altman method. We evaluated whether the results presented significant differences by replacing the bat with a racket, using T-test. RESULTS We obtained a content validity index higher than 0.80 for language clarity and relevance of the TGMD-2 for children. There were significant differences in the object control subtest when comparing the results with bat and racket. The intraclass correlation coefficient for reliability inter-rater, intra-rater and test-retest reliability was greater than 0.80 in all cases. CONCLUSIONS The TGMD-2 has appropriate content validity to be applied in the Chilean population. The reliability of this test is within the appropriate parameters and its use could be recommended in this population after the establishment of normative data, setting a further precedent for the validation in other Latin American countries.

  2. Retrospectively Assessed Early Motor and Current Pragmatic Language Skills in Autistic and Neurotypical Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Jennifer L; Lindley, Caitlin E; Murlo, Nicole

    2017-08-01

    Autistic individuals often struggle developmentally, even in areas that are not explicit diagnostic criteria, such as motor skills. This study explored the relation between early motor skills, assessed retrospectively, and current pragmatic language skills. Caregivers of neurotypical and autistic children, matched on gender and age, completed assessments of their child's early motor development and current language abilities. Early motor skills were correlated with later pragmatic language skills, and autistic children exhibited fewer motor skills than neurotypical children. In fact, motor skills were a better predictor of an autism spectrum diagnosis than were scores on a measure of current pragmatic language. These results highlight the important role of motor skills in autism spectrum disorders.

  3. Motor Skill Competence and Physical Activity in Preschoolers: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Roger; An, Ruopeng

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Preschoolers 3-5 years of age are in a crucial stage of motor skill competence. While preschoolers develop their motor skill competence through engagement in physical activity, a majority of them fail to meet guideline-recommended physical activity level. This study reviews scientific evidence on the relationship between motor skill competence and physical activity among preschoolers. Methods This systematic review followed the PRISMA framework. Keyword and reference search were conducted in PubMed, Cochrane Library, PsycINFO, Web of Science, and Google Scholar. Inclusion criteria included-age: 3-5 years of age; setting: preschool environment (e.g., preschool, childcare, head start); main outcomes: motor skill competence and physical activity; study design: cross-sectional study, case-control study, retrospective cohort study, prospective cohort study, or randomized controlled trial; language: English; and article type: peer-reviewed publication. Results Eleven studies met the inclusion criteria, including 6 randomized controlled trials and 5 cross-sectional studies. Studies were conducted in 5 countries: United States (5), United Kingdom (2), Australia (2), Switzerland (1), and Finland (1). Eight out of the 11 studies included in the review reported a significant relationship between motor skill competence and physical activity. The specific pattern and strength of the relationship tend to differ by gender, physical activity intensity, motor skill type, and day of the week (weekdays versus weekends). Conclusions An association has been consistently documented between motor skill competence and physical activity. Future research is warranted to elucidate the underlining causal link, examine potential heterogeneity, and determine the role of environment in the relationship between motor skill competence and physical activity among preschoolers.

  4. LOADED AND UNLOADED SIT-TO-STAND STRENGTHENING EXERCISES EFFECT TO GROSS MOTOR FUNCTION MEASURE IN SPASTIC DIPLEGIA CEREBRAL PALSY PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Safei

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine sit-to-stand and loaded sit-to-stand exercises effect in standing, walking, and running dimensions of gross motor function measure (GMFM in spastic diplegia cerebral palsy (SDCP patients. Methods: This study was conducted in the period of May to October 2014 and included 24 children with SDCP as the subjects. The methods used in the study were interventional study with randomized controlled trial, and investigation of CP before and after the exercise intervention. The subjects were divided into two groups, sit-to-stand exercise group and loaded sit-to-stand exercise group. Results: The results showed that the increase of standing, walking, and running dimension scores of GMFM in the loaded group were higher (standing dimension score 12.00 vs 11.08 and walking and running dimensions 13.58 vs 13.42 compared to the unloaded group. Conclusions: Both sit-to-stand and loaded sit-to-stand exercise groups do not show significant differences in improving motor skills in standing, walking, and running dimensions of GMFM. Children with SDCP may receive the exercise to improve their motor skills in mobility aspects, such as standing, walking, and running.

  5. Transfer of motor and perceptual skills from basketball to darts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rienhoff, Rebecca; Hopwood, Melissa J; Fischer, Lennart; Strauss, Bernd; Baker, Joseph; Schorer, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    The quiet eye is a perceptual skill associated with expertise and superior performance; however, little is known about the transfer of quiet eye across domains. We attempted to replicate previous skill-based differences in quiet eye and investigated whether transfer of motor and perceptual skills occurs between similar tasks. Throwing accuracy and quiet eye duration for skilled and less-skilled basketball players were examined in basketball free throw shooting and the transfer task of dart throwing. Skilled basketball players showed significantly higher throwing accuracy and longer quiet eye duration in the basketball free throw task compared to their less-skilled counterparts. Further, skilled basketball players showed positive transfer from basketball to dart throwing in accuracy but not in quiet eye duration. Our results raise interesting questions regarding the measurement of transfer between skills.

  6. Gross motor function in children with spastic Cerebral Palsy and Cerebral Visual Impairment: A comparison between outcomes of the original and the Cerebral Visual Impairment adapted Gross Motor Function Measure-88 (GMFM-88-CVI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salavati, M; Rameckers, E A A; Waninge, A; Krijnen, W P; Steenbergen, B; van der Schans, C P

    2017-01-01

    To investigate whether the adapted version of the Gross Motor Function Measure-88 (GMFM-88) for children with Cerebral Palsy (CP) and Cerebral Visual Impairment (CVI) results in higher scores. This is most likely to be a reflection of their gross motor function, however it may be the result of a better comprehension of the instruction of the adapted version. The scores of the original and adapted GMFM-88 were compared in the same group of children (n=21 boys and n=16 girls), mean (SD) age 113 (30) months with CP and CVI, within a time span of two weeks. A paediatric physical therapist familiar with the child assessed both tests in random order. The GMFCS level, mental development and age at testing were also collected. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to compare two different measurements (the original and adapted GMFM-88) on a single sample, (the same child with CP and CVI; pvisual problems. On the basis of these findings, we recommend using the adapted GMFM-88 to measure gross motor functioning in children with CP and CVI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Relation between hand function and gross motor function in full term infants aged 4 to 8 months

    OpenAIRE

    Nogueira, Solange F.; Figueiredo,Elyonara M.; Rejane V. Gonçalves; Marisa C. Mancini

    2015-01-01

    Background: In children, reaching emerges around four months of age, which is followed by rapid changes in hand function and concomitant changes in gross motor function, including the acquisition of independent sitting. Although there is a close functional relationship between these domains, to date they have been investigated separately. Objective: To investigate the longitudinal profile of changes and the relationship between the development of hand function (i.e. reaching for and manipulat...

  8. Differences of Respiratory Function According to Level of the Gross Motor Function Classification System in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Kwon, Yong Hyun; Lee, Hye Young

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The current study was designed to investigate the difference in lung capacity and muscle strengthening related to respiration depending on the level of the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) in children with cerebral palsy (CP) through tests of respiratory function and respiratory pressure. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 49 children with CP who were classified as below level III of the GMFCS were recruited for this study. They were divided into three groups (i.e.,...

  9. Effects of recombinant growth hormone replacement and physical rehabilitation in recovery of gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimunde, Pedro; Rodicio, Cristina; López, Natalia; Alonso, Alba; Devesa, Pablo; Devesa, Jesús

    2010-11-30

    Cerebral palsy is an important health issue that has a strong socioeconomic impact. There is no cure for cerebral palsy, and therapeutic approaches only report small benefits for affected people. In this study we assessed the effects of growth hormone treatment (0.3 μg/kg/day) combined with physical rehabilitation in the recovery of gross motor function in children with growth hormone deficiency and cerebral palsy (four males and six females, mean age 5.63 ± 2.32 years) as compared with that observed in a similar population of cerebral palsy children (five males, five females, mean age 5.9 ± 2.18 years) without growth hormone deficiency treated only with physical rehabilitation for two months. The Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM-88) and Modified Ashworth Scale were performed before commencing the treatment and after completion thereof. In children with cerebral palsy and growth hormone deficiency, Dimension A (P gross motor function in children with growth hormone deficiency and cerebral palsy.

  10. The influence of a real job on upper limb performance in motor skill tests: Which abilities are transferred?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giangiardi, Vivian Farahte; Alouche, Sandra Regina; Freitas, Sandra Maria Sbeghen Ferreira de; Pires, Raquel Simoni; Padula, Rosimeire Simprini

    2016-12-20

    To investigate whether the specificities of real jobs create distinctions in the performance of workers in different motor tests for the upper limbs, twenty-four participants were divided into two groups according to their specific job: fine and repetitive tasks and general tasks. Both groups reproduced tasks related to aiming movements, handling, and the strength of the upper limbs. There were no significant differences between groups in the dexterity and performance of aiming movements. However, the general tasks group had higher grip strength than the repetitive tasks group, demonstrating differences according to job specificity. The results suggest that a particular motor skill in a specific job cannot improve performance in others tasks with the same motor requirements. The transfer of the fine and gross motor skills from previous experience in a job specific task is the basis for allocating training and guidance to workers.

  11. Dopamine Promotes Motor Cortex Plasticity and Motor Skill Learning via PLC Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rioult-Pedotti, Mengia-Seraina; Pekanovic, Ana; Atiemo, Clement Osei; Marshall, John; Luft, Andreas Rüdiger

    2015-01-01

    Dopaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area, the major midbrain nucleus projecting to the motor cortex, play a key role in motor skill learning and motor cortex synaptic plasticity. Dopamine D1 and D2 receptor antagonists exert parallel effects in the motor system: they impair motor skill learning and reduce long-term potentiation. Traditionally, D1 and D2 receptor modulate adenylyl cyclase activity and cyclic adenosine monophosphate accumulation in opposite directions via different G-proteins and bidirectionally modulate protein kinase A (PKA), leading to distinct physiological and behavioral effects. Here we show that D1 and D2 receptor activity influences motor skill acquisition and long term synaptic potentiation via phospholipase C (PLC) activation in rat primary motor cortex. Learning a new forelimb reaching task is severely impaired in the presence of PLC, but not PKA-inhibitor. Similarly, long term potentiation in motor cortex, a mechanism involved in motor skill learning, is reduced when PLC is inhibited but remains unaffected by the PKA inhibitor. Skill learning deficits and reduced synaptic plasticity caused by dopamine antagonists are prevented by co-administration of a PLC agonist. These results provide evidence for a role of intracellular PLC signaling in motor skill learning and associated cortical synaptic plasticity, challenging the traditional view of bidirectional modulation of PKA by D1 and D2 receptors. These findings reveal a novel and important action of dopamine in motor cortex that might be a future target for selective therapeutic interventions to support learning and recovery of movement resulting from injury and disease.

  12. Dopamine Promotes Motor Cortex Plasticity and Motor Skill Learning via PLC Activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengia-Seraina Rioult-Pedotti

    Full Text Available Dopaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area, the major midbrain nucleus projecting to the motor cortex, play a key role in motor skill learning and motor cortex synaptic plasticity. Dopamine D1 and D2 receptor antagonists exert parallel effects in the motor system: they impair motor skill learning and reduce long-term potentiation. Traditionally, D1 and D2 receptor modulate adenylyl cyclase activity and cyclic adenosine monophosphate accumulation in opposite directions via different G-proteins and bidirectionally modulate protein kinase A (PKA, leading to distinct physiological and behavioral effects. Here we show that D1 and D2 receptor activity influences motor skill acquisition and long term synaptic potentiation via phospholipase C (PLC activation in rat primary motor cortex. Learning a new forelimb reaching task is severely impaired in the presence of PLC, but not PKA-inhibitor. Similarly, long term potentiation in motor cortex, a mechanism involved in motor skill learning, is reduced when PLC is inhibited but remains unaffected by the PKA inhibitor. Skill learning deficits and reduced synaptic plasticity caused by dopamine antagonists are prevented by co-administration of a PLC agonist. These results provide evidence for a role of intracellular PLC signaling in motor skill learning and associated cortical synaptic plasticity, challenging the traditional view of bidirectional modulation of PKA by D1 and D2 receptors. These findings reveal a novel and important action of dopamine in motor cortex that might be a future target for selective therapeutic interventions to support learning and recovery of movement resulting from injury and disease.

  13. Teaching Phonetic Skills through Body Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Osdol, Bob M.; Geiger, Leonard J.

    A perceptual motor approach to learning phonics is presented in this teaching guide which includes a screening test and 50 learning games encompassing a wide array of phonics skills. Directionality, gross-motor skills, sensory-motor skills, and auditory and visual perceptual skills may be introduced to the children and taught during the games…

  14. An adaptive process model of motor learning: insights for the teaching of motor skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani, Go; Corrêa, Umberto Cesar; Basso, Luciano; Benda, Rodolfo Novellino; Ugrinowitsch, Herbert; Choshi, Koji

    2014-01-01

    This article presents an outline of a non-equilibrium model, in which motor learning is explained as a continuous process of stabilization and adaptation. The article also shows how propositions derived from this model have been tested, and discusses possible practical implications of some supporting evidence to the teaching of motor skills. The stabilization refers to a process of functional stabilization that is achieved through negative feedback mechanisms. Initially, inconsistent and incorrect responses are gradually reduced, leading to a spatial-temporal patterning of the action. The adaptation is one in which new skills are formed from the reorganization of those already acquired through the flexibility of the system, reorganization of the skill structure, or self-organization. In order to provide learners with competency for adaptation, teachers should (a) guide students to learn motor skills taking into account that the stabilization of performance is just a transitory state that must be dismantled to achieve higher levels of complexity; (b) be clear which parts (micro) compose the skills and how they interact in order to form the whole (macro); (c) manipulate the skills in terms of their temporal, spatial, and/or spatiotemporal dimensions; (d) organize practice initially in a constant way, and then in a varied regimen (random) when the motor skills involve requirements of time and force; and, inversely for motor skills with spatial demands; and (e), provide a moderate frequency of feedback.

  15. Fundamental motor skill proficiency is necessary for children's motor activity inclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Angelo Barela

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Motor development is influenced by many factors such as practice and appropriate instruction, provided by teachers, even in preschool and elementary school. The goal of this paper was to discuss the misconception that maturation underlies children's motor skill development and to show that physical education, even in early years of our school system, is critical to promote proficiency and enrolment of children's in later motor activities. Motor skill development, as a curricular focus, has been marginalized in many of our physical education proposal and in doing so, we have not promote motor competence in our children who lack proficiency to engage and to participate in later motor activities such as sport-related or recreational.

  16. Effect of task-oriented training and high-variability practice on gross motor performance and activities of daily living in children with spastic diplegia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kwon, Hae-Yeon; Ahn, So-Yoon

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigates how a task-oriented training and high-variability practice program can affect the gross motor performance and activities of daily living for children with spastic diplegia...

  17. MPORTANCE OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY IN OBESE CHILDREN IN RELATION TO MOTOR SKILLS A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesh Sundaram Subramanian

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions worldwide and is associated with increased cardio vascular mortality and morbidity in adult life. In children, obesity correlates strongly with a progressive reduction in the level of physical activity and changes in food habits. Methods: This study is a qualitative research study. A secondary data collection technique was utilized and conducted through a search of articles published between 2005 and 2014 in PubMed and Google scholar databases. The objective of the present study is to provide a systemic review of the available literature and outline the factors in early life that are associated with an increased risk of obesity in children there by leading to poor gross motor skill performance with the help of Anthropometric assessment, Body composition and Motor skills proficiency. Results: Importantly recent studies have demonstrated that exercise training improves vascular endothelial function and stimulation of pressure receptors leading to increased vagal activity in obese children. The current literature highlights the importance of adding exercise programs to clinics, schools and families for the physical and psychological wellbeing of children. Conclusion: Overall findings from the present review showed that normal children with physical exercise are more superior in motor skills compared to other peers. Results of the previous studies indicated that normal children’s are more efficient in bilateral coordination in greater balancing, efficient upper limb coordination and greater strength

  18. Gross Motor Function Classification System Expanded & Revised (GMFCS E & R: reliability between therapists and parents in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela B. R. Silva

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several studies have demonstrated the importance of using the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS to classify gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy, but the reliability of the expanded and revised version has not been examined in Brazil (GMFCS E & R. OBJECTIVE:: To determine the intra- and inter-rater reliability of the Portuguese-Brazil version of the GMFCS E & R applied by therapists and compare to classification provided by parents of children with cerebral palsy. METHOD: Data were obtained from 90 children with cerebral palsy, aged 4 to 18 years old, attending the neurology or rehabilitation service of a Brazilian hospital. Therapists classified the children's motor function using the GMFCS E & R and parents used the Brazilian Portuguese version of the GMFCS Family Report Questionnaire. Intra- and inter-rater reliability was obtained through percentage agreement and Cohen's unweighted Kappa statistics (k. The Chi-square test was used to identify significant differences in the classification of parents and therapists. RESULTS: Almost perfect agreement was reached between the therapists [K=0.90 (95% confidence interval 0.83-0.97] and intra-raters (therapists with K=1.00 [95% confidence interval (1.00-1.00], p<0.001. Agreement between therapists and parents was substantial (k=0.716, confidence interval 0.596-0.836, though parents classify gross motor impairment more severely than therapists (p=0.04. CONCLUSIONS: The Portuguese version of the GMFCS E & R is reliable for use by parents and therapists. Parents tend to classify their children's limitations more severely, because they know their performance in different environments.

  19. Motor Skills and Free-Living Physical Activity Showed No Association Among Preschoolers in 2012 U.S. National Youth Fitness Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loprinzi, Paul D; Frith, Emily

    2017-04-01

    Albeit limited, some emerging work, using convenience-based samples, has demonstrated that greater motor skill development is associated with higher physical activity among preschool-aged children. The purpose of this study was to evaluate this topic using data from the 2012 National Youth Fitness Survey that included 329 preschool-aged children (3-5 years). Parents proxy-reported their child's physical activity, with motor skill level assessed from the Test of Gross Motor Development-Second Edition (TGMD2). Motor skill levels (Gross Motor Quotient, locomotor or object control) were not associated with preschool free-living physical activity in any analytic model. Thus, in this large sample of preschoolers, contrary to research with older children, motor skill level was not associated with physical activity. Findings are discussed in terms of study limitations of (a) a reliance on parent report of children's physical activity levels and (b) the possibility that physical activity data within the national survey were too limited in range to show possible associations to motor skill development with higher levels of free-living physical activity in preschoolers.

  20. INFLUENCE OF MOTOR MANIFESTATIONS FROM THE EUROFIT PROGRAM FOR CHILDREN ON MOTOR SKILLS AND HABITS AT HIGH SCHOOL FEMALE STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Mitrevski

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The survey was conducted among 183 regular female students in the secondary education. The objective of the research was to see what was the correlation, i.e. the influence of a system of motor tests EUROFIT program for children on motor test - polygon to assess motor skills and habits of pupils who regularly attended the course sport and sport activities. The sample of indicators included one criteria variable for the assessment of motor skills and habits and eight motor variables for the assessment of motor skills. With regression analysis was determined the impact of the system of motor variables on the criterion.

  1. Individual Differences in Language Development: Relationship with Motor Skill at 21 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcock, Katherine J.; Krawczyk, Kirsty

    2010-01-01

    Language development has long been associated with motor development, particularly manual gesture. We examined a variety of motor abilities--manual gesture including symbolic, meaningless and sequential memory, oral motor control, gross and fine motor control--in 129 children aged 21 months. Language abilities were assessed and cognitive and…

  2. A multivariable approach toward predicting dental motor skill performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, S G; Husak, W S

    1988-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the potential of a multivariable approach in predicting dental motor skill performance. Variables measuring cognitive knowledge, motor abilities, educational background, and family demographics were examined. Data were obtained from 33 first-year dental students. Scaling and root planing tests were administered to each student at the beginning and end of a 14-week preclinical periodontal course. Correlations were low and no variable significantly predicted pre- or posttest scaling and root planing performance. Results are discussed in terms of the problems associated with predicting motor performance.

  3. The relationship of motor skills and social communicative skills in school-aged children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Megan; Lord, Catherine; Ulrich, Dale A

    2013-07-01

    Motor skill deficits are present and persist in school-aged children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD; Staples & Reid, 2010). Yet the focus of intervention is on core impairments, which are part of the diagnostic criteria for ASD, deficits in social communication skills. The purpose of this study is to determine whether the functional motor skills, of 6- to 15-year-old children with high-functioning ASD, predict success in standardized social communicative skills. It is hypothesized that children with better motor skills will have better social communicative skills. A total of 35 children with ASD between the ages of 6-15 years participated in this study. The univariate GLM (general linear model) tested the relationship of motor skills on social communicative skills holding constant age, IQ, ethnicity, gender, and clinical ASD diagnosis. Object-control motor skills significantly predicted calibrated ASD severity (p communicative skill deficits. How this relationship exists behaviorally, needs to be explored further.

  4. RELATIONS BETWEEN MOTORIC ABILITIES AND SPECIFIC MOTORIC BASKETBALL SKILLS IN PHYSICAL EDUCATION CLASSES

    OpenAIRE

    Dejan Milenković; Igor Stanojević

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relation between motoric and specific motoric basketball skills in physical education classes for elementary school students. The sample was taken from a population of boys and girls in four elementary schools in Niš. Boys (66) and girls (58), have been students of elementary school, 10 years old and all of them have been attending regular physical education classes three times a week. For the assessment of motoric abilities, a set of 12 motoric test...

  5. Early Boost and Slow Consolidation in Motor Skill Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotermans, Christophe; Peigneux, Philippe; de Noordhout, Alain Maertens; Moonen, Gustave; Maquet, Pierre

    2006-01-01

    Motor skill learning is a dynamic process that continues covertly after training has ended and eventually leads to delayed increments in performance. Current theories suggest that this off-line improvement takes time and appears only after several hours. Here we show an early transient and short-lived boost in performance, emerging as early as…

  6. Interference effects between manual and oral motor skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagné, Marie-Hélène; Cohen, Henri

    2016-03-01

    Consolidation of a motor skill is characterized by spontaneous improvement in performance between practice sessions. These offline gains can be eliminated if another skill is introduced soon afterward-a phenomenon called retroactive interference. Interference effects have been found in studies using two similar tasks involving the same motor effectors in a manual mode. The present study aimed to determine the extent to which differences in motor production mode modulate interference in skill learning. Healthy participants were assigned to one of three conditions and trained on a finger opposition sequence (FOS) learning task. All subjects were tested 24 h later on the original FOS learning task. Control subjects who were not exposed to a secondary learning task exhibited the expected offline gains after 24 h. Subjects who immediately learned a secondary task after the FOS training, either in the same manual mode (French Sign Language) or in an oral mode (CVC syllables), did not show any offline gains. Interestingly, the amount of interference was equivalent in the manual and oral learning conditions. The results reveal that interference effects in motor skill learning can occur when different effectors are involved in the primary and secondary tasks. The sequence processing abilities of the basal ganglia appear to play a major role in these interference effects.

  7. Recreational Activities and Motor Skills of Children in Kindergarten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Viviene A.; Crane, Jeff R.; Brown, Amy; Williams, Buffy-Lynne; Bell, Rick I.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Developmental theorists suggest that physical activity during early childhood promotes fundamental motor skill (FMS) proficiency; and that differences in FMS proficiency are largely related to children's experiences. Aim: To examine associations between participation in different types of recreation/leisure and FMS proficiency of boys…

  8. The Dynamic Association between Motor Skill Development and Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stodden, David F.; Goodway, Jacqueline D.

    2007-01-01

    Although significant attention has been given to promoting physical activity among children, little attention has been given to the developmental process of how children learn to move or to the changing role that motor skill development plays in children's physical activity levels as they grow. In order to successfully address the obesity…

  9. Protein Synthesis Inhibition Blocks Consolidation of an Acrobatic Motor Skill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaelin-Lang, Alain; Dichgans, Johannes; Schulz, Jorg B.; Luft, Andreas R.; Buitrago, Manuel M.

    2004-01-01

    To investigate whether motor skill learning depends on de novo protein synthesis, adult rats were trained in an acrobatic locomotor task (accelerating rotarod) for 7 d. Animals were systemically injected with cycloheximide (CHX, 0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) 1 h before sessions 1 and 2 or sessions 2 and 3. Control rats received vehicle injections before…

  10. Transfer of Movement Control in Motor Skill Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-04-01

    early features of the motor pattern in common, but with some critical difference later or (e g, a tennis vs badminton stroke), provides a sufflcijent...Experimental Psychology Human Perception and Performance.,- I Q. 812-832. K~err, R., & Booth, B. ( 1977). Skill1 accuisition in elementary school children

  11. Laterality and Motor Skills in Four-Year-Olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Lesley E.

    1985-01-01

    Compared four-year-old left-handed children and children lacking definite hand preference with right-handers on motor skills. Found no differences between left-handers and right-handers of either sex, but the children lacking hand preference had lower scores. Possible sex differences and implications for the education of children lacking…

  12. Fine-motor skills testing and prediction of endovascular performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Bo; Lönn, Lars; Schroeder, Torben V;

    2013-01-01

    Performing endovascular procedures requires good control of fine-motor digital movements and hand-eye coordination. Objective assessment of such skills is difficult. Trainees acquire control of catheter/wire movements at various paces. However, little is known to what extent talent plays for novice...

  13. Motor skill experience modulates executive control for task switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qiuhua; Chan, Chetwyn C H; Chau, Bolton; Fu, Amy S N

    2017-09-15

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of types of motor skills, including open and closed skills on enhancing proactive and reactive controls for task switching. Thirty-six athletes in open (n=18) or closed (n=18) sports and a control group (n=18) completed the task-switching paradigm and the simple reaction task. The task-switching paradigm drew on the proactive and reactive control of executive functions, whereas the simple reaction task assessed the processing speed. Significant Validity×Group effect revealed that the participants with open skills had a lower switch cost of response time compared to the other two groups when the task cue was 100% valid; whereas the participants regardless of motor skills had a lower switch cost of response time compared to the control group when the task cue was 50% valid. Hierarchical stepwise regression analysis further confirmed these findings. For the simple reaction task, there were no differences found among the three groups. These findings suggest that experience in open skills has benefits of promoting both proactive and reactive controls for task switching, which corresponds to the activity context exposed by the participants. In contrast, experience in closed skills appears to only benefit development of reactive control for task switching. The neural mechanisms for the proactive and reactive controls of executive functions between experts with open and closed skills call for future study. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Skill acquisition of manual wheelchair propulsion: initial motor learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HEJ VEEGER Dirkjan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Changes in propulsion technique due to motor learning might account for a higher mechanical efficiency (ME, the ratio of internal power over external power. The changes in ME and propulsion technique were studied in a learning experiment, three times a week for eight minutes, with nine able-bodied subjects, simulating early rehabilitation. Instrumented wheels measured three-dimensional forces and torques on the handrim. During practice peak torques were reduced, work per cycle increased, while push frequency decreased, at a stable power output and speed of the treadmill. Over the three weeks of practice propulsion technique kept changing in combination with an increase of ME. Results suggest skill acquisition because of motor learning. The rise in ME seems logically related to propulsion technique, but is not yet fully understood. More insight in motor learning and skill acquisition will contribute to understanding and optimizing rehabilitation strategies in the light of wheelchair provision in early rehabilitation.

  15. Development and Pilot Testing of the Challenge Module: A Proposed Adjunct to the Gross Motor Function Measure for High-Functioning Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Ashlea; Kavanaugh, Abi; Moher, Rosemarie; McInroy, Megan; Gupta, Neena; Salbach, Nancy M.; Wright, F. Virginia

    2011-01-01

    The aim was to develop a Challenge Module (CM) as a proposed adjunct to the Gross Motor Function Measure for children with cerebral palsy who have high-level motor function. Items were generated in a physiotherapist (PT) focus group. Item reduction was based on PTs' ratings of item importance and safety via online surveys. The proposed CM items…

  16. Language and motor skills in siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder: A meta-analytic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, Dunia; Petrova, Dafina; Watson, Linda R; Garcia-Retamero, Rocio; Carballo, Gloria

    2017-07-07

    Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show significant linguistic and motor impairments compared to children with typical development (TD). Findings from studies of siblings of children with ASD show similarities to conclusions from studies of children with ASD. The current meta-analysis reviewed studies reporting linguistic and/or motor skills in siblings of children with ASD compared to siblings of children with TD. Thirty-four studies published between 1994 and 2016 met all inclusion criteria. We compared three different age groups (12 months or younger, 13 to 24 months, and 25 to 36 months). At 12 months, compared to siblings of children with TD, siblings of children with ASD had worse receptive language (d = -.43, 95% CI [-.53, -.33]) and expressive language skills (d = -.40, 95% CI [-.57, -.23]), and these effects were sustained at 24 and 36 months. Similar, albeit smaller differences in fine motor skills were detected at 12 months (d = -.22, 95% CI [-.39, -.04]), and these differences were larger at 36 months (d = -.36, 95% CI [-.54, -.17]). There were differences in gross motor skills at 12 months (d = -.22, 95% CI [-.40, -.04]), but only a few studies were available at later ages. Compared to siblings of children with TD, infants who have siblings with ASD have worse linguistic and motor skills. These differences are detectable as early as when infants are 12 months old and seem to be sustained until they are 3 years old. Differences in language skills are larger than those in motor skills, especially during the first year. Autism Res 2017. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Motor skill learning, retention, and control deficits in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendt, Lisa Katharina; Reuter, Iris; Müller, Hermann

    2011-01-01

    Parkinson's disease, which affects the basal ganglia, is known to lead to various impairments of motor control. Since the basal ganglia have also been shown to be involved in learning processes, motor learning has frequently been investigated in this group of patients. However, results are still inconsistent, mainly due to skill levels and time scales of testing. To bridge across the time scale problem, the present study examined de novo skill learning over a long series of practice sessions that comprised early and late learning stages as well as retention. 19 non-demented, medicated, mild to moderate patients with Parkinson's disease and 19 healthy age and gender matched participants practiced a novel throwing task over five days in a virtual environment where timing of release was a critical element. Six patients and seven control participants came to an additional long-term retention testing after seven to nine months. Changes in task performance were analyzed by a method that differentiates between three components of motor learning prominent in different stages of learning: Tolerance, Noise and Covariation. In addition, kinematic analysis related the influence of skill levels as affected by the specific motor control deficits in Parkinson patients to the process of learning. As a result, patients showed similar learning in early and late stages compared to the control subjects. Differences occurred in short-term retention tests; patients' performance constantly decreased after breaks arising from poorer release timing. However, patients were able to overcome the initial timing problems within the course of each practice session and could further improve their throwing performance. Thus, results demonstrate the intact ability to learn a novel motor skill in non-demented, medicated patients with Parkinson's disease and indicate confounding effects of motor control deficits on retention performance.

  18. Motor skill learning, retention, and control deficits in Parkinson's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Katharina Pendt

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease, which affects the basal ganglia, is known to lead to various impairments of motor control. Since the basal ganglia have also been shown to be involved in learning processes, motor learning has frequently been investigated in this group of patients. However, results are still inconsistent, mainly due to skill levels and time scales of testing. To bridge across the time scale problem, the present study examined de novo skill learning over a long series of practice sessions that comprised early and late learning stages as well as retention. 19 non-demented, medicated, mild to moderate patients with Parkinson's disease and 19 healthy age and gender matched participants practiced a novel throwing task over five days in a virtual environment where timing of release was a critical element. Six patients and seven control participants came to an additional long-term retention testing after seven to nine months. Changes in task performance were analyzed by a method that differentiates between three components of motor learning prominent in different stages of learning: Tolerance, Noise and Covariation. In addition, kinematic analysis related the influence of skill levels as affected by the specific motor control deficits in Parkinson patients to the process of learning. As a result, patients showed similar learning in early and late stages compared to the control subjects. Differences occurred in short-term retention tests; patients' performance constantly decreased after breaks arising from poorer release timing. However, patients were able to overcome the initial timing problems within the course of each practice session and could further improve their throwing performance. Thus, results demonstrate the intact ability to learn a novel motor skill in non-demented, medicated patients with Parkinson's disease and indicate confounding effects of motor control deficits on retention performance.

  19. Effect of strength training of ankle plantarflexors on selective voluntary motor control, gait parameters, and gross motor function of children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jee Woon; Her, Jin Gang; Ko, Jooyeon

    2013-10-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of ankle plantarflexor strength training on selective voluntary motor control, gait parameters, and gross motor function of children with cerebral palsy (CP), focusing on changes in the strength and muscle activity of the ankle plantarflexors. [Methods] Six children aged between 4 and 10 years with CP participated in a 6 week strengthening program. The subjects were evaluated before and after the intervention in terms of ankle plantarflexor strength, muscle activity, gait velocity, cadence, step length, and D (standing) and E (walking, running, and jumping) dimensions of the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM). The data were analyzed using the non-parametric Wilcoxon signed-rank test. [Results] The strength of the plantarflexors increased in the majority of subjects. Significant and clinically meaningful post-intervention improvements in subject's gait velocity, cadence, and step length were found. [Conclusion] The controlled ankle plantarflexor strengthening program may lead to improvements in strength and spatiotemporal gait parameters of children with CP.

  20. Development of the Correspondence between Real and Imagined Fine and Gross Motor Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachet, Alison B.; Frey, Scott H.; Jacobs, Stéphane; Taylor, Marjorie

    2016-01-01

    The development of the correspondence between real and imagined motor actions was investigated in 2 experiments. Experiment 1 evaluated whether children imagine body position judgments of fine motor actions in the same way as they perform them. Thirty-two 8-year-old children completed a task in which an object was presented in different…

  1. Influence of motor skills training on children's development evaluated in the Motor skills in PreSchool (MiPS) study-DK: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial, nested in a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hestbaek, Lise; Andersen, Sarah Thurøe; Skovgaard, Thomas; Olesen, Line Groenholt; Elmose, Mette; Bleses, Dorthe; Andersen, Simon Calmar; Lauridsen, Henrik Hein

    2017-08-29

    Good motor skills are considered important for children's physical, social, and psychological development, but the relationship is still poorly understood. Preschool age seems to be decisive for the development of motor skills and probably the most promising time-window in relation to preventive strategies based on improved motor skills. This research program has four overall aims: (1) investigation of the effect of a structured program aimed at improving motor skills in 3-6-year-old children on current and future motor skills, health, cognition, and wellbeing; (2) establish reference data on motor skills in 3-6-year-olds; (3) description of early development of musculoskeletal problems; and (4) establishment of a population-based cohort of 3-6-year-olds. Over a four-year period, all preschools in a Danish municipality, Svendborg, will implement a new program aimed at optimizing children's motor skills. By introducing the program into a subset of the preschools at onset and comparing these children to another subset (control) that will not receive the intervention the first three years, it is possible to document a potential effect of the intervention. At the same time, a cohort will be established including all children attending preschools in the municipality with extensive baseline data collection: gross and fine motor skills; movement patterns; musculoskeletal complaints; physical activity; anthropometry; general wellbeing; cognitive abilities; language status; medical history; demographic background; and more. The children are aged 3-6 years at baseline. A total of 1461 children have been invited into the cohort, 368 to the intervention arm and 359 to the control arm. Follow-up time for the trial is 2.5 years. The cohort is planned to run at least until the children leave school at age 15-16 years. Longer follow-up will depend on future funding. If the results of the trial are positive, the intervention can be implemented in other similar settings with

  2. Visuospatial attention and motor skills in kung fu athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muiños, Mónica; Ballesteros, Soledad

    2013-01-01

    The present study compared the performance of a group of sixteen kung fu athletes with that of a control group of fourteen nonathletes on a speeded visuospatial task and a hand-tapping motor task. In the visuospatial task the results showed that athletes were faster than the control participants when stimuli were presented at the periphery of the visual field at a middle and high presentation speed with short interstimulus intervals. Athletes were also significantly faster than nonathlete participants when performing motor actions such as hand-tapping with their dominant hand but groups did not differ with the nondominant hand. These results support the view that athletes perform some speeded visuospatial and motor tasks faster than nonathletes under certain conditions. The findings suggest that, after several years of practice, kung fu athletes develop certain skills that allow them to perform motor speed maneuvers under time pressure conditions.

  3. Finger-Based Numerical Skills Link Fine Motor Skills to Numerical Development in Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suggate, Sebastian; Stoeger, Heidrun; Fischer, Ursula

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies investigating the association between fine-motor skills (FMS) and mathematical skills have lacked specificity. In this study, we test whether an FMS link to numerical skills is due to the involvement of finger representations in early mathematics. We gave 81 pre-schoolers (mean age of 4 years, 9 months) a set of FMS measures and numerical tasks with and without a specific finger focus. Additionally, we used receptive vocabulary and chronological age as control measures. FMS linked more closely to finger-based than to nonfinger-based numerical skills even after accounting for the control variables. Moreover, the relationship between FMS and numerical skill was entirely mediated by finger-based numerical skills. We concluded that FMS are closely related to early numerical skill development through finger-based numerical counting that aids the acquisition of mathematical mental representations.

  4. COMPARISON BETWEEN THE EFFECT OF NEURODEVELOPMENTAL TREATMENT AND SENSORY INTEGRATION THERAPY ON GROSS MOTOR FUNCTION IN CHILDREN WITH CEREBRAL PALSY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza SHAMSODDINI

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveThis study was planned to compare the effects of neurodevelopmental treatment and sensory integration therapy on gross motor function in children with cerebral palsyMaterials & MethodsTwenty two children with spastic CP were randomly divided into two groups. Sensory integrative therapy was given to the first group (n=11, and neurodevelopmental treatment was given to the second group (n=11. All children were evaluated with GMFM-88. Treatment was scheduled for three - one hour sessions per week for 3 months.ResultsTwenty two children with spastic CP (11 diplegia and 11 quadriplegia participated in this study. When two groups were compared, a significant difference was found in lying and rolling (P=0.003, sitting (0.009, crawling and kneeling (0.02 and standing ability (P=0.04. But there was no significant difference in walking, running, and jumping abilities between the two groups (0.417. Paired t-tests revealed a significant difference between pre and post test results, with increases in scores of lying and rolling, sitting, crawling and kneeling, standing in sensory integration therapy (SIT and neurodevelopmental treatment (NDT approaches.Conclusion Neurodevelopmental treatment and sensory integration therapy improved gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy in four dimensions (lying and rolling, sitting, crawling and kneeling, standing. However, walking, running and jumping did not significantly improve.

  5. Facilitating appreciation of anatomical variation and development of teamwork skills in the gross anatomy laboratory using a cadaver reassignment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprunger, Leslie K

    2008-01-01

    Developing a mental map of the body in three dimensions incorporating normal anatomical variations is a challenge for students of gross anatomy. Acquisition of this ability is facilitated by frequently reassigning students to work on different specimens in gross anatomy laboratories, a significant departure from traditional teaching strategies. This article analyzes student and faculty experiences with a reassignment system over a six-year period, including effects on early professional development and students' attitudes toward the cadavers. Students were strongly supportive of the method, noting that specimen reassignments facilitated learning, encouraged dissection skill building, and fostered collaborative interactions. Students' perception of the value of the contribution of each cadaver to their education was preserved and, for many, enhanced. Frequent specimen reassignments offer an opportunity to model public accountability for work and some aspects of the relationships between multiple health care teams caring for a patient.

  6. Motor skill performance of school-age children with visual impairments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwen, Suzanne

    2008-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the motor skill performance of school-age children with visual impairments (VI). Children with VI are at risk of poor motor skill performance, as vision guides and controls the acquisition, differentiation, and automatization of motor skills. Yet though the presence or absence

  7. Key Principles of Open Motor-Skill Training for Peak Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Motor-skill training is an imperative element contributing to overall sport performance. In order to help coaches, athletes and practitioners to capture the characteristics of motor skills, sport scientists have divided motor skills into different categories, such as open versus closed, serial or discrete, outcome- or process-oriented, and…

  8. Practice Schedule and the Learning of Motor Skills in Children and Adults: Teaching Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipp, Genevieve Pinto; Gentile, A. M.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding how motor skills are learned influences how one teaches effective motor skill attainment. Educators must ask, "Does repetitive practice of the same task make for better performance or does contextual variability (random practice) offer some benefit when learning motor skills?" Studies on the effects of Contextual Interference may…

  9. Motor skill performance of school-age children with visual impairments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwen, Suzanne

    2008-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the motor skill performance of school-age children with visual impairments (VI). Children with VI are at risk of poor motor skill performance, as vision guides and controls the acquisition, differentiation, and automatization of motor skills. Yet though the presence or absence

  10. Motor Skill Acquisition Promotes Human Brain Myelin Plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bimal Lakhani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Experience-dependent structural changes are widely evident in gray matter. Using diffusion weighted imaging (DWI, the neuroplastic effect of motor training on white matter in the brain has been demonstrated. However, in humans it is not known whether specific features of white matter relate to motor skill acquisition or if these structural changes are associated to functional network connectivity. Myelin can be objectively quantified in vivo and used to index specific experience-dependent change. In the current study, seventeen healthy young adults completed ten sessions of visuomotor skill training (10,000 total movements using the right arm. Multicomponent relaxation imaging was performed before and after training. Significant increases in myelin water fraction, a quantitative measure of myelin, were observed in task dependent brain regions (left intraparietal sulcus [IPS] and left parieto-occipital sulcus. In addition, the rate of motor skill acquisition and overall change in myelin water fraction in the left IPS were negatively related, suggesting that a slower rate of learning resulted in greater neuroplastic change. This study provides the first evidence for experience-dependent changes in myelin that are associated with changes in skilled movements in healthy young adults.

  11. Influence of motor skills training on children's development evaluated in the Motor skills in PreSchool (MiPS) study-DK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hestbaek, Lise; Andersen, Sarah Thurøe; Skovgaard, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Good motor skills are considered important for children's physical, social, and psychological development, but the relationship is still poorly understood. Preschool age seems to be decisive for the development of motor skills and probably the most promising time-window in relation...... to preventive strategies based on improved motor skills. This research program has four overall aims: (1) investigation of the effect of a structured program aimed at improving motor skills in 3-6-year-old children on current and future motor skills, health, cognition, and wellbeing; (2) establish reference...... data on motor skills in 3-6-year-olds; (3) description of early development of musculoskeletal problems; and (4) establishment of a population-based cohort of 3-6-year-olds. METHODS: Over a four-year period, all preschools in a Danish municipality, Svendborg, will implement a new program aimed...

  12. Visual-motor integration skills: accuracy of predicting reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santi, Kristi L; Francis, David J; Currie, Debra; Wang, Qianqian

    2015-02-01

    This article investigated the contribution of visual-motor integration (VMI) to reading ability when known predictors of later reading outcomes were also present in the data analysis. Participants included 778 first and second grade students from a large diverse urban district in Texas. The data were analyzed using multiple regression models with a forced entry of predictors for each regression model, and each model was run separately for each outcome. The results indicate that VMI drops out of the prediction models once more reading- and language-specific skills are introduced. Although VMI skills make a statistically significant contribution in some aspects of the regression model, the reduction in contribution reduces the predictive validity of VMI skills. Therefore, a VMI skill measure will not sufficiently determine if a child has a reading disability.

  13. RELATIONS BETWEEN MOTORIC ABILITIES AND SPECIFIC MOTORIC BASKETBALL SKILLS IN PHYSICAL EDUCATION CLASSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Milenković

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the relation between motoric and specific motoric basketball skills in physical education classes for elementary school students. The sample was taken from a population of boys and girls in four elementary schools in Niš. Boys (66 and girls (58, have been students of elementary school, 10 years old and all of them have been attending regular physical education classes three times a week. For the assessment of motoric abilities, a set of 12 motoric tests was applied: Explosive strength: squat jump, squat jump arms swing and drop jump; Speed: 20m running from a low start, orbiting hand and orbiting leg; Coordination: jumping over the horizontal rope, envelope test and figure „8“ with bending; Accuracy: darts, shooting with the ball at horizontal target and stiletto. For the assessment of specific motoric basketball skills a set of six tests was applied: elevations precision of ball passing with two hands, horizontal precision of  ball passing with two hands, orbiting ball around the body, orbiting ball through the legs (figure „8“, dribble around a central circle of the basketball court and dribble two "small eights" around two adjacent circles of basketball court. In data processing canonical correlation and regression analysis were used. The results showed that motoric abilities significantly contributed to success of specific motoric tests performance both with boys and also with girls.

  14. Association between gross motor function (GMFCS and manual ability (MACS in children with cerebral palsy. A population-based study of 359 children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arner Marianne

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS has become an important tool to describe motor function in children with Cerebral Palsy (CP. The Manual Ability Classification System (MACS was developed recently as a corresponding classification of manual ability. The aim of this study was to describe the association between gross motor function and manual ability in a total population of children with cerebral palsy. Methods 365 children, born 1992 to 2001, who were registered in a population-based health care programme (CPUP for children with CP living in the south of Sweden were included in the study. GMFCS was evaluated by the child's physiotherapist and MACS by the occupational therapist. CP diagnosis and subtype were determined by the neuropaediatrician at or after the age of four. Results GMFCS levels were available in all 365 children, MACS levels in 359 (98%. There was a poor overall correlation between gross motor function and manual ability. However, different associations between gross motor function and manual ability were found in the different diagnostic subtypes. Children with spastic hemiplegia generally had a lower level of manual ability than gross motor function (p Conclusion Gross motor function and manual ability are often discrepant in children with CP, and the patterns seem to vary across the different subgroups based on the predominant neurological findings. To give a complete clinical picture when evaluating these children, both aspects have to be described. The GMFCS and the MACS seem to work well in this context and seem very useful in population-based studies, in health care registers for children with CP, and in clinical practice.

  15. Improving human plateaued motor skill with somatic stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shintaro Uehara

    Full Text Available Procedural motor learning includes a period when no substantial gain in performance improvement is obtained even with repeated, daily practice. Prompted by the potential benefit of high-frequency transcutaneous electrical stimulation, we examined if the stimulation to the hand reduces redundant motor activity that likely exists in an acquired hand motor skill, so as to further upgrade stable motor performance. Healthy participants were trained until their motor performance of continuously rotating two balls in the palm of their right hand became stable. In the series of experiments, they repeated a trial performing this cyclic rotation as many times as possible in 15 s. In trials where we applied the stimulation to the relaxed thumb before they initiated the task, most reported that their movements became smoother and they could perform the movements at a higher cycle compared to the control trials. This was not possible when the dorsal side of the wrist was stimulated. The performance improvement was associated with reduction of amplitude of finger displacement, which was consistently observed irrespective of the task demands. Importantly, this kinematic change occurred without being noticed by the participants, and their intentional changes of motor strategies (reducing amplitude of finger displacement never improved the performance. Moreover, the performance never spontaneously improved during one-week training without stimulation, whereas the improvement in association with stimulation was consistently observed across days during training on another week combined with the stimulation. The improved effect obtained in stimulation trials on one day partially carried over to the next day, thereby promoting daily improvement of plateaued performance, which could not be unlocked by the first-week intensive training. This study demonstrated the possibility of effectively improving a plateaued motor skill, and pre-movement somatic stimulation

  16. Reinforcement learning of motor skills with policy gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Jan; Schaal, Stefan

    2008-05-01

    Autonomous learning is one of the hallmarks of human and animal behavior, and understanding the principles of learning will be crucial in order to achieve true autonomy in advanced machines like humanoid robots. In this paper, we examine learning of complex motor skills with human-like limbs. While supervised learning can offer useful tools for bootstrapping behavior, e.g., by learning from demonstration, it is only reinforcement learning that offers a general approach to the final trial-and-error improvement that is needed by each individual acquiring a skill. Neither neurobiological nor machine learning studies have, so far, offered compelling results on how reinforcement learning can be scaled to the high-dimensional continuous state and action spaces of humans or humanoids. Here, we combine two recent research developments on learning motor control in order to achieve this scaling. First, we interpret the idea of modular motor control by means of motor primitives as a suitable way to generate parameterized control policies for reinforcement learning. Second, we combine motor primitives with the theory of stochastic policy gradient learning, which currently seems to be the only feasible framework for reinforcement learning for humanoids. We evaluate different policy gradient methods with a focus on their applicability to parameterized motor primitives. We compare these algorithms in the context of motor primitive learning, and show that our most modern algorithm, the Episodic Natural Actor-Critic outperforms previous algorithms by at least an order of magnitude. We demonstrate the efficiency of this reinforcement learning method in the application of learning to hit a baseball with an anthropomorphic robot arm.

  17. Perspectives on learning styles in motor and sport skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuelscher, Ian Tobias; Ball, Kevin; Macmahon, Clare

    2012-01-01

    We present the perspective that while coaches and instructors commonly adapt learning styles to maximize training outcomes, there has been little to no empirical support for the efficacy of this practice. Learning styles is a learner's preferred mode (e.g., visual, verbal) of taking in and processing new information. Although it is a relevant topic for the learning of motor and sport skills, few studies have used an appropriate methodology to test the effectiveness of learning style-based instruction. We highlight the need for a learning style assessment tool specific to motor skills and call for a test of the learning style hypothesis, the claim that learners will benefit from instruction that is tailored to their individual learning style. To this end, we suggest methodological guidelines.

  18. The Relationship Between Perceptual Motor Skills and Attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa de Sousa

    Full Text Available Abstract: Although the relationship between perceptual motor skills and attention is reported in the literature, few studies have empirically explored this association. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between these constructs, using the Bender-Gestalt Test: Gradual Scoring System (B-SPG and the Psychological Battery for Attention Assessment (BPA. The participants were 320 children from four public schools in a city located in the South of the state of Minas Gerais, with ages ranging from seven to 10 years (M = 8.39, SD = 1.10 and 196 (55.9 % female. The results showed negative, moderate and significant correlations between the total scores of the instruments, indicating the relationship between the constructs. Although the data has confirmed the existence of a relationship between perceptual motor skills and attention, further studies with samples from other regions are necessary.

  19. Structural Equation Modeling of Motor Impairment, Gross Motor Function, and the Functional Outcome in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun-Young; Kim, Won-Ho

    2013-01-01

    Physical therapy intervention for children with cerebral palsy (CP) is focused on reducing neurological impairments, improving strength, and preventing the development of secondary impairments in order to improve functional outcomes. However, relationship between motor impairments and functional outcome has not been proved definitely. This study…

  20. Reliability and validity of the test of gross motor development-II in Korean preschool children: applying AHP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chung-Il; Han, Dong-Wook; Park, Il-Hyeok

    2014-04-01

    The Test of Gross Motor Development-II (TGMD-II) is a frequently used assessment tool for measuring motor ability. The purpose of this study is to investigate the reliability and validity of TGMD-II's weighting scores (by comparing pre-weighted TGMD-II scores with post ones) as well as examine applicability of the TGMD-II on Korean preschool children. A total of 121 Korean children (three kindergartens) participated in this study. There were 65 preschoolers who were 5-years-old (37 boys and 28 girls) and 56 preschoolers who were 6-years-old (34 boys and 22 girls). For internal consistency, reliability, and construct validity, only one researcher evaluated all of the children using the TGMD-II in the following areas: running; galloping; sliding; hopping; leaping; horizontal jumping; overhand throwing; underhand rolling; striking a stationary ball; stationary dribbling; kicking; and catching. For concurrent validity, the evaluator measured physical fitness (strength, flexibility, power, agility, endurance, and balance). The key findings were as follows: first, the reliability coefficient and the validity coefficient between pre-weighted and post-weighted TGMD-II scores were quite similar. Second, the research showed adequate reliability and validity of the TGMD-II for Korean preschool children. The TGMD-II is a proper instrument to test Korean children's motor development. Yet, applying relative weighting on the TGMD-II should be a point of consideration.

  1. Effects of Individual and School-Level Characteristics on a Child’s Gross Motor Coordination Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Chaves

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify child and school-level characteristics that explained inter-individual differences in gross motor coordination (GMC. Participants (n = 390, recruited from 18 Portuguese primary schools, were aged 6 to 10 years of age. Birth weight, body fat (BF, physical activity (PA, physical fitness (PF and GMC were assessed. School size, setting, infrastructure and physical education classes were considered as school context markers. A multilevel modeling approach was used to identify hierarchical effects (child and school levels. It was found that children-level variables (sex, PF, and BF significantly explained 63% of the 90% variance fraction at the individual level; boys outperformed girls (p < 0.05, individuals with higher BF were less coordinated (p < 0.05, and those with higher PF were more coordinated (p < 0.05. School-variables (e.g. school size and playing surface explained 84% of the 10% variation fraction. These findings confirm the roles of sex, PFS and BF. Interestingly they also suggest that the school environment plays a minor but significant role in GMC development. However, it is important to stress that the school context and conditions can also play an important role in a child’s motor development, providing adequate and enriching motor opportunities.

  2. Effects of Individual and School-Level Characteristics on a Child’s Gross Motor Coordination Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Raquel; Baxter-Jones, Adam; Gomes, Thayse; Souza, Michele; Pereira, Sara; Maia, José

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify child and school-level characteristics that explained inter-individual differences in gross motor coordination (GMC). Participants (n = 390), recruited from 18 Portuguese primary schools, were aged 6 to 10 years of age. Birth weight, body fat (BF), physical activity (PA), physical fitness (PF) and GMC were assessed. School size, setting, infrastructure and physical education classes were considered as school context markers. A multilevel modeling approach was used to identify hierarchical effects (child and school levels). It was found that children-level variables (sex, PF, and BF) significantly explained 63% of the 90% variance fraction at the individual level; boys outperformed girls (p < 0.05), individuals with higher BF were less coordinated (p < 0.05), and those with higher PF were more coordinated (p < 0.05). School-variables (e.g. school size and playing surface) explained 84% of the 10% variation fraction. These findings confirm the roles of sex, PFS and BF. Interestingly they also suggest that the school environment plays a minor but significant role in GMC development. However, it is important to stress that the school context and conditions can also play an important role in a child’s motor development, providing adequate and enriching motor opportunities. PMID:26264007

  3. Maternal medical conditions during pregnancy and gross motor development up to age 24 months in the Upstate KIDS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghassabian, Akhgar; Sundaram, Rajeshwari; Wylie, Amanda; Bell, Erin; Bello, Scott C; Yeung, Edwina

    2016-07-01

    We examined whether children of mothers with a medical condition diagnosed before or during pregnancy took longer to achieve gross motor milestones up to age 24 months. We obtained information on medical conditions using self-reports, birth certificates, and hospital records in 4909 mothers participating in Upstate KIDS, a population-based birth cohort. Mothers reported on their children's motor milestone achievement at 4, 8, 12, 18, and 24 months of age. After adjustment for covariates (including pre-pregnancy body mass index), children of mothers with gestational diabetes took longer to achieve sitting without support (hazard ratio [HR]=0.84, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.75-0.93), walking with assistance (HR=0.88, 95% CI 0.77-0.98), and walking alone (HR=0.88, 95% CI 0.77-0.99) than children of females with no gestational diabetes. Similar findings emerged for maternal diabetes. Gestational hypertension was associated with a longer time to achieve walking with assistance. These associations did not change after adjustment for gestational age or birthweight. Severe hypertensive disorders of pregnancy were related to a longer time to achieve milestones, but not after adjustment for perinatal factors. Children exposed to maternal diabetes, gestational or pre-gestational, may take longer to achieve motor milestones than non-exposed children, independent of maternal obesity. © 2015 Mac Keith Press.

  4. Drama for children with special needs (motor skill development)

    OpenAIRE

    Cameron, Fiona

    1991-01-01

    During placement in secondary schools, the author notice a general lack of confidence in the ability to use movement. Many of these "Clumsy Children" expressed difficulties with reading and writing and in the area of Mathematics. Was there a connection between under-developed motor skills and general academic and social behaviour? Primary 1-3 are structured around "learning by doing". After that the work changes to more cognitive based learning and more classroom structure. If the children do...

  5. Easy quantitative methodology to assess visual-motor skills

    OpenAIRE

    Chiappedi M; Toraldo A; Mandrini S; Scarpina F; Aquino M; Magnani FG; Bejor M

    2013-01-01

    Matteo Chiappedi,1 Alessio Toraldo,2 Silvia Mandrini,3 Federica Scarpina,2 Melissa Aquino,2 Francesca Giulia Magnani,2 Maurizio Bejor31Don Carlo Gnocchi ONLUS Foundation, Milan, Italy; 2University of Pavia, Department of Psychology, Pavia, Italy; 3University of Pavia, Department of Surgical, Resuscitative, Rehabilitative and Transplant Sciences, Pavia, ItalyIntroduction: Visual-motor skills are the basis for a great number of daily activities. To define a correct rehabilitation program for ne...

  6. Language, motor skills and behavior problems in preschool years

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Mari Vaage

    2014-01-01

    Child language development is a complex process. This process cannot be understood without considering its relationship to other developmental domains. Language development in preschool years is associated with development of motor skills and behavior problems, and these associations are the focus of the current thesis. Despite a large number of studies examining the co-occurrence of such developmental delays and problems, few studies have examined the developmental relationship between these...

  7. Robot Guided 'Pen Skill' Training in Children with Motor Difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shire, Katy A; Hill, Liam J B; Snapp-Childs, Winona; Bingham, Geoffrey P; Kountouriotis, Georgios K; Barber, Sally; Mon-Williams, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Motor deficits are linked to a range of negative physical, social and academic consequences. Haptic robotic interventions, based on the principles of sensorimotor learning, have been shown previously to help children with motor problems learn new movements. We therefore examined whether the training benefits of a robotic system would generalise to a standardised test of 'pen-skills', assessed using objective kinematic measures [via the Clinical Kinematic Assessment Tool, CKAT]. A counterbalanced, cross-over design was used in a group of 51 children (37 male, aged 5-11 years) with manual control difficulties. Improved performance on a novel task using the robotic device could be attributed to the intervention but there was no evidence of generalisation to any of the CKAT tasks. The robotic system appears to have the potential to support motor learning, with the technology affording numerous advantages. However, the training regime may need to target particular manual skills (e.g. letter formation) in order to obtain clinically significant improvements in specific skills such as handwriting.

  8. Robot Guided 'Pen Skill' Training in Children with Motor Difficulties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katy A Shire

    Full Text Available Motor deficits are linked to a range of negative physical, social and academic consequences. Haptic robotic interventions, based on the principles of sensorimotor learning, have been shown previously to help children with motor problems learn new movements. We therefore examined whether the training benefits of a robotic system would generalise to a standardised test of 'pen-skills', assessed using objective kinematic measures [via the Clinical Kinematic Assessment Tool, CKAT]. A counterbalanced, cross-over design was used in a group of 51 children (37 male, aged 5-11 years with manual control difficulties. Improved performance on a novel task using the robotic device could be attributed to the intervention but there was no evidence of generalisation to any of the CKAT tasks. The robotic system appears to have the potential to support motor learning, with the technology affording numerous advantages. However, the training regime may need to target particular manual skills (e.g. letter formation in order to obtain clinically significant improvements in specific skills such as handwriting.

  9. Stability of Caregiver-Reported Manual Ability and Gross Motor Function Classifications of Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imms, Christine; Carlin, John; Eliasson, Ann-Christin

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To examine the stability of caregiver-reported classifications of function of children with cerebral palsy (CP) measured 12 months apart. Method: Participants were 86 children (50 males, 36 females) with CP of all motor types and severities who were recruited into a population-based longitudinal study. Children were aged 11 years 8 months (SD…

  10. Hippocampal EEG and behaviour in dog. I. Hippocampal EEG correlates of gross motor behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnolds, D.E.A.T.; Lopes da Silva, F.H.; Aitink, J.W.; Kamp, A.

    It was shown that rewarding spectral shifts (i.e. increase in amplitude or peak frequency of the hippocampal EEG) causes a solitary dog to show increased motor behaviour. Rewarded spectral shifts concurred with a variety of behavioural transitions. It was found that statistically significant

  11. Risk Factors for Gross Motor Dysfunction in Infants with Congenital Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Suzanne H.; Eldridge, Bev J.; Galea, Mary P.; Harris, Susan R.

    2011-01-01

    Infants with congenital heart disease (CHD) that is severe enough to require early surgery are at risk for cognitive and motor delays, as well as musculoskeletal impairments, and are best managed by an interdisciplinary team during their hospital stay and after discharge. The purpose of this article is to review some of the risk factors associated…

  12. Risk Factors for Gross Motor Dysfunction in Infants with Congenital Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Suzanne H.; Eldridge, Bev J.; Galea, Mary P.; Harris, Susan R.

    2011-01-01

    Infants with congenital heart disease (CHD) that is severe enough to require early surgery are at risk for cognitive and motor delays, as well as musculoskeletal impairments, and are best managed by an interdisciplinary team during their hospital stay and after discharge. The purpose of this article is to review some of the risk factors associated…

  13. Prenatal Second-Hand Smoke Exposure Measured with Urine Cotinine May Reduce Gross Motor Development at 18 Months of Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evlampidou, Iro; Bagkeris, Manolis; Vardavas, Constantine; Koutra, Katerina; Patelarou, Evridiki; Koutis, Antonis; Chatzi, Leda; Kogevinas, Manolis

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the association of second-hand smoke exposure of pregnant mothers using urine cotinine with the neurodevelopment of their children at 18 months of age in the mother-child cohort in Crete (Rhea Study). Selected participants were Greek mothers with singleton pregnancies, had never smoked, and had available urine cotinine measurements in pregnancy, and their children for whom a neurodevelopmental assessment was completed. We performed face-to-face interviews twice during pregnancy and postnatally, and assessed children's neurodevelopment at 18 months of age using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition. We used linear regression and generalized additive models. Of 599 mothers, 175 (29%) met the inclusion criteria. Maternal urine cotinine levels were low (mean: 10.3 ng/mL, SD: 11.7 ng/mL). Reported passive smoking from different sources was strongly associated with urine cotinine levels. A negative association was observed between cotinine levels in pregnancy and child's gross motor function (beta = -3.22 per 10 ng/mL, 95% CI -5.09 to -1.34) after adjusting for factors potentially associated with neurodevelopment; results were similar in both sexes. A negative association was also observed for cognitive and receptive communication scales but the effect was small and not statistically significant. Maternal exposure during pregnancy to second-hand smoke measured through urine cotinine was associated with a decrease in gross motor function among 18-month-old children, even at low levels of exposure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Reliability of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the Gross Motor Function Measure in children with cerebral palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Kênnea M.; Albuquerque, Karolina A.; Ferreira, Marina L.; Aguiar, Stéphany K. B.; Mancini, Marisa C.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test the intra- and interrater reliability of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the 66-item Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM-66). METHOD: The sample included 48 children with cerebral palsy (CP), ranging from 2-17 years old, classified at levels I to IV of the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) and four child rehabilitation examiners. A main examiner evaluated all children using the GMFM-66 and video-recorded the assessments. The other examiners watched the video recordings and scored them independently for the assessment of interrater reliability. For the intrarater reliability evaluation, the main examiner watched the video recordings one month after the evaluation and re-scored each child. We calculated reliability by using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) with their respective 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: Excellent test reliability was documented. The intrarater reliability of the total sample was ICC=0.99 (95% CI 0.98-0.99), and the interrater reliability was ICC=0.97 (95% CI 0.95-0.98). The reliability across GMFCS levels ranged from ICC=0.92 (95% CI 0.72-0.98) to ICC=0.99 (95% CI 0.99-0.99); the lowest value was the interrater reliability for the GMFCS IV group. Reliability in the five GMFM dimensions varied from ICC=0.95 (95% CI 0.93-0.97) to ICC=0.99 (95% CI 0.99-0.99). CONCLUSION: The Brazilian Portuguese version of the GMFM-66 showed excellent intra- and interrater reliability when used in Brazilian children with CP levels GMFCS I to IV. PMID:26786081

  15. Reliability of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the Gross Motor Function Measure in children with cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kênnea M. Almeida

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To test the intra- and interrater reliability of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the 66-item Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM-66. METHOD: The sample included 48 children with cerebral palsy (CP, ranging from 2-17 years old, classified at levels I to IV of the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS and four child rehabilitation examiners. A main examiner evaluated all children using the GMFM-66 and video-recorded the assessments. The other examiners watched the video recordings and scored them independently for the assessment of interrater reliability. For the intrarater reliability evaluation, the main examiner watched the video recordings one month after the evaluation and re-scored each child. We calculated reliability by using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC with their respective 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: Excellent test reliability was documented. The intrarater reliability of the total sample was ICC=0.99 (95% CI 0.98-0.99, and the interrater reliability was ICC=0.97 (95% CI 0.95-0.98. The reliability across GMFCS levels ranged from ICC=0.92 (95% CI 0.72-0.98 to ICC=0.99 (95% CI 0.99-0.99; the lowest value was the interrater reliability for the GMFCS IV group. Reliability in the five GMFM dimensions varied from ICC=0.95 (95% CI 0.93-0.97 to ICC=0.99 (95% CI 0.99-0.99. CONCLUSION: The Brazilian Portuguese version of the GMFM-66 showed excellent intra- and interrater reliability when used in Brazilian children with CP levels GMFCS I to IV.

  16. Central neuronal motor behaviour in skilled and less skilled novices - Approaching sports-specific movement techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Tobias; Kato, Kouki; Schneider, Stefan; Türk, Stefan; Kanosue, Kazuyuki

    2017-02-14

    Research on motor behavioural processes preceding voluntary movements often refers to analysing the readiness potential (RP). For this, decades of studies used laboratory setups with controlled sports-related actions. Further, recent applied approaches focus on athlete-non-athlete comparisons, omitting possible effects of training history on RP. However, RP preceding real sport-specific movements in accordance to skill acquisition remains to be elucidated. Therefore, after familiarization 16 right-handed males with no experience in archery volunteered to perform repeated sports-specific movements, i.e. 40 arrow-releasing shots at 60s rest on a 15m distant standard target. Continuous, synchronised EEG and right limb EMG recordings during arrow-releasing served to detect movement onsets for RP analyses over distinct cortical motor areas. Based on attained scores on target, archery novices were, a posteriori, subdivided into a skilled and less skilled group. EMG results for mean values revealed no significant changes (all p>0.05), whereas RP amplitudes and onsets differed between groups but not between motor areas. Arrow-releasing preceded larger RP amplitudes (p<0.05) and later RP onsets (p<0.05) in skilled compared to less skilled novices. We suggest this to reflect attentional orienting and greater effort that accompanies central neuronal preparatory states of a sports-specific movement.

  17. Fine-motor skills testing and prediction of endovascular performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bech, Bo; Lönn, Lars; Schroeder, Torben V; Ringsted, Charlotte

    2013-12-01

    Performing endovascular procedures requires good control of fine-motor digital movements and hand-eye coordination. Objective assessment of such skills is difficult. Trainees acquire control of catheter/wire movements at various paces. However, little is known to what extent talent plays for novice candidates at entry to practice. To study the association between performance in a novel aptitude test of fine-motor skills and performance in simulated procedures. The test was based on manual course-tracking using a proprietary hand-operated roller-bar device coupled to a personal computer with monitor view rotation. A total of 40 test repetitions were conducted separately with each hand. Test scores were correlated with simulator performance. Group A (n = 14), clinicians with various levels of endovascular experience, performed a simulated procedure of contralateral iliac artery stenting. Group B (n = 19), medical students, performed 10 repetitions of crossing a challenging aortic bifurcation in a simulator. The test score differed markedly between the individuals in both groups, in particular with the non-dominant hand. Group A: the test score with the non-dominant hand correlated significantly with simulator performance assessed with the global rating scale SAVE (R = -0.69, P = 0.007). There was no association observed from performances with the dominant hand. Group B: there was no significant association between the test score and endovascular skills acquisition neither with the dominant nor with the non-dominant hand. Clinicians with increasing levels of endovascular technical experience had developed good fine-motor control of the non-dominant hand, in particular, that was associated with good procedural performance in the simulator. The aptitude test did not predict endovascular skills acquisition among medical students, thus, cannot be suggested for selection of novice candidates. Procedural experience and practice probably supplant the influence of innate

  18. Perceptual and motor learning underlies human stick-balancing skill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kwee-Yum; O'Dwyer, Nicholas; Halaki, Mark; Smith, Richard

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the acquisition of skill in balancing a stick (52 cm, 34 g) on the fingertip in nine participants using three-dimensional motion analysis. After 3.5 h of practice over 6 wk, the participants could more consistently balance the stick for longer durations with greatly reduced magnitude and speed of stick and finger movements. Irrespective of level of skill, the balanced stick behaved like a normal noninverted pendulum oscillating under greater-than-gravity torque with simple harmonic motion about a virtual pivot located at the radius of gyration above the center of mass. The control input parameter was the magnitude ratio between the torque applied on the stick by the participant and the torque due to gravity. The participants utilized only a narrow range of this parameter, which did not change with practice, to rotate the stick like a linear mass-spring system. With increased skill, the stick therefore maintained the same period of oscillation but showed marked reductions in magnitude of both oscillation and horizontal translation. Better balancing was associated with 1) more accurate visual localization of the stick and proprioceptive localization of the finger and 2) reduced cross-coupling errors between finger and stick movements in orthogonal directions; i.e., finger movements in the anteroposterior plane became less coupled with stick tip movements in the mediolateral plane, and vice versa. Development of this fine motor skill therefore depended on perceptual and motor learning to provide improved estimation of sensorimotor state and precision of motor commands to an unchanging internal model of the rotational dynamics.

  19. Caregiver-reported health-related quality of life of children with cerebral palsy and their families and its association with gross motor function: A South Indian study

    OpenAIRE

    Surender, S.; Gowda, Vykuntaraju K; Sanjay, K. S.; G V Basavaraja; Naveen Benakappa; Asha Benakappa

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: In children, health-related quality of life (HRQOL) includes parental impact and family functioning along with concepts of illness, functional status, mental health, and comfort. We are focusing on the impact of cerebral palsy (CP) on children's HRQOL and their families, and its relationship with gross motor dysfunction. Subjects and Methods: CP children aged 3–10 years under regular neurology follow-up were enrolled. The HRQOL and motor severity were prospectively assessed usin...

  20. Differences of respiratory function according to level of the gross motor function classification system in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Yong Hyun; Lee, Hye Young

    2014-03-01

    [Purpose] The current study was designed to investigate the difference in lung capacity and muscle strengthening related to respiration depending on the level of the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) in children with cerebral palsy (CP) through tests of respiratory function and respiratory pressure. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 49 children with CP who were classified as below level III of the GMFCS were recruited for this study. They were divided into three groups (i.e., GMFCS level I, GMFCS level II, and GMFCS level III). All children took the pulmonary function test (PFT) and underwent respiratory pressure testing for assessment of respiratory function in terms of lung capacity and respiratory muscle strength. [Results] The GMFCS level III group showed significantly lower scores for all tests of the PFT (i.e., forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume at one second (FEV1), and slow vital capacity (SVC)) and testing for respiratory pressures (maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP) and maximal expiratory pressure (MEP)) compared with the other two groups. The results of post hoc analysis indicated that the GMFCS level III group differed significantly from the other two groups in terms of FVC, FEV1, MIP, and MEP. In addition, a significant difference in SVC was observed between GMFCS level II and III. [Conclusion] Children with CP who had relatively low motor function showed poor pulmonary capacity and respiratory muscle weakness. Therefore, clinical manifestations regarding lung capacity and respiratory muscle will be required in children with CP who demonstrate poor physical activity.

  1. Quality of life in mothers of children with cerebral palsy: The role of children's gross motor function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghan, Leila; Dalvand, Hamid; Feizi, Awat; Samadi, Sayyed Ali; Hosseini, Seyed Ali

    2016-03-01

    Four hundred and twenty-four Iranian mothers of children with cerebral palsy (CP) were recruited using the convenience sampling approach in a cross-sectional study. The researchers assessed the quality of life (QOL) in mothers according to the gross motor function levels and types of CP. The evaluation was done using a well-validated Persian version of the 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) questionnaire. In 2012, demographic data and clinical relevant information were also collected in rehabilitation clinics affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences. The results indicated that the mean score for the study sample on physical component summary (PCS) and mental component summary (MCS) was 39.21 and 41.23, respectively. This suggests that participants considered themselves to have a low QOL (p motor function, and CP types (p < .05 and p < .01, respectively). The results indicate that mothers of children with CP suffer from poor physical and mental health. Therefore, particular attention should be paid to the QOL in mothers of children with CP, and rehabilitation professionals should offer supportive strategies to promote aspects of their QOL.

  2. Improving a bimanual motor skill through unimanual training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuji Hayashi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available When we learn a bimanual motor skill (e.g., rowing a boat, we often break it down into unimanual practices (e.g., a rowing drill with the left or right arm. Such unimanual practice is thought to be useful for learning bimanual motor skills efficiently because the learner can concentrate on learning to perform a simpler component. However, it is not so straightforward to assume that unimanual training improves bimanual performance. We have previously demonstrated that motor memories for reaching movements consist of 3 different parts: unimanual-specific, bimanual-specific, and overlapping parts. According to this scheme, unimanual training appears to be less effective, as its training effect is only partially transferred to the same limb for bimanual movement. In the present study, counter-intuitively, we demonstrate that, even after the bimanual skill is almost fully learned by means of bimanual training, additional unimanual training could further improve bimanual skill. We hypothesized that this effect occurs because unimanual training increases the memory content in the overlapping part, which might contribute to an increase in the memory for bimanual movement. To test this hypothesis, we examined whether the unimanual training performed after sufficient bimanual training could improve the bimanual performance. Participants practiced performing bimanual reaching movements in the presence of a novel force-field imposed only on their left arm. As an index for the motor performance, we used the error-clamp method (i.e., after-effect of the left arm to evaluate the force output to compensate for the force-field during the reaching movement. After sufficient bimanual training, the training effect reached a plateau. However, unimanual training performed subsequently improved the bimanual performance significantly. In contrast, when the same amount of bimanual training was continued, the bimanual performance remained unchanged, highlighting the

  3. Construction of somatic and motor skills of students in adolescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Napierala Marek.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to discuss issues concerning determinants of somatic and motor development of young people from the VII High School name Wanda Szuman in Torun. On this basis it be able to assess the current state of skills kinetic and potential students in adolescence. To measure motor abilities was used International Physical Fitness Test. The study used the following six fitness tests: running at 50 meters, long jump from the spot, grip strength using a dynamometer, traces of lying within 30 seconds, shuttles run 4 x 10 m and slope in front trunk. All tests were performed as recommended by the authors of the test. Was also the classification of all body types surveyed students acording E. Kretschmer's typology and using the key of E. Curtius. After counting the average results of boys and girls on the points turned out to be, that boys predominate over girls motor skills, but also in the suppleness sample, where the assumption had achieved worse results. They obtained a small point lead. The girls can boast a better result in traces of lying receiving six points more than boys.

  4. What is the evidence of impaired motor skills and motor control among children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)? Systematic review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaiser, Marie-Laure; Schoemaker, M M; Albaret, J-M; Geuze, R H

    This article presents a review of the studies that have analysed the motor skills of ADHD children without medication and the influence of medication on their motor skills. The following two questions guided the study: What is the evidence of impairment of motor skills and aspects of motor control

  5. Reliability of a Shuttle Run Test for Children with Cerebral Palsy Who Are Classified at Gross Motor Function Classification System Level III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verschuren, Olaf; Bosma, Liesbeth; Takken, Tim

    2011-01-01

    For children and adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP) classified as Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) level III there is no running-based field test available to assess their cardiorespiratory fitness. The current study investigated whether a shuttle run test can be reliably (test-retest) performed in a group of children with…

  6. Inter-Relationships of Functional Status in Cerebral Palsy: Analyzing Gross Motor Function, Manual Ability, and Communication Function Classification Systems in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidecker, Mary Jo Cooley; Ho, Nhan Thi; Dodge, Nancy; Hurvitz, Edward A.; Slaughter, Jaime; Workinger, Marilyn Seif; Kent, Ray D.; Rosenbaum, Peter; Lenski, Madeleine; Messaros, Bridget M.; Vanderbeek, Suzette B.; Deroos, Steven; Paneth, Nigel

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the relationships among the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS), Manual Ability Classification System (MACS), and Communication Function Classification System (CFCS) in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Method: Using questionnaires describing each scale, mothers reported GMFCS, MACS, and CFCS levels in 222…

  7. Differences in Gross Motor Achievements among Children of Four to Five Years of Age in Private and Public Institutions in Prishtine, Kosovo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shala, Merita; Bahtiri, Abedin

    2011-01-01

    This study was undertaken in order to examine differences in gross motor achievements among children of four to five years of age as the result of the development of physical education programmes offered by private and public institutions in Kosovo. Research was focused on 118 children, out of which 61 (27 girls, 34 boys) were from the public…

  8. The Effect of Picture Task Cards on Performance of the Test of Gross Motor Development by Preschool-Aged Children: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslin, Casey M.; Robinson, Leah E.; Rudisill, Mary E.

    2013-01-01

    Performance on the Test of Gross Motor Development (Second Edition; TGMD-2) by children with autism spectrum disorders improves when picture task cards were implemented into the assessment protocol [Breslin, C.M., & Rudisill, M.E. (2011). "The effect of visual supports on performance of the TGMD-2 for children with autism spectrum…

  9. Effects of concentric and eccentric control exercise on gross motor function and balance ability of paretic leg in children with spastic hemiplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Su-Ik; Kim, Mi-Sun; Choi, Jong-Duk

    2016-07-01

    [Purpose] This study examines the effect of concentric and eccentric control training of the paretic leg on balance and gross motor function in children with spastic hemiplegia. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty children with spastic hemiplegia were randomly divided into experimental and control groups. In the experimental group, 20 min of neurodevelopmental therapy and 20 min of concentric and eccentric control exercise were applied to the paretic leg. In the control group, 40 min of neurodevelopmental therapy was applied. The Pediatric Balance Scale test and standing and gait items of the Gross Motor Function Measure were evaluated before and after intervention. [Results] In the experimental group, Gross Motor Function Measure and Pediatric Balance Scale scores statistically significantly increased after the intervention. The control group showed no statistically significant difference in either score after the intervention. [Conclusion] Concentric and eccentric control exercise therapy in children with spastic hemiplegia can be effective in improving gross motor function and balance ability, and can be used to solve functional problems in a paretic leg.

  10. The Use of Music to Increase Task-Oriented Behaviors in Preschool Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders in a Gross Motor Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieringer, Shannon M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of music and music + instruction on task-oriented behaviors in preschool children with ASD within individual gross motor movement settings. Five preschool children (four boys; one girl) diagnosed with ASD attending a Midwestern private preschool for children with ASD served as participants. The…

  11. The Effect of Picture Task Cards on Performance of the Test of Gross Motor Development by Preschool-Aged Children: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslin, Casey M.; Robinson, Leah E.; Rudisill, Mary E.

    2013-01-01

    Performance on the Test of Gross Motor Development (Second Edition; TGMD-2) by children with autism spectrum disorders improves when picture task cards were implemented into the assessment protocol [Breslin, C.M., & Rudisill, M.E. (2011). "The effect of visual supports on performance of the TGMD-2 for children with autism spectrum disorder."…

  12. Can a six-week exercise intervention improve gross motor function for non-ambulant children with cerebral palsy? A pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Elizabeth; Pountney, Terry; Williams, Heather; Edelman, Natalie

    2013-02-01

    To determine the effect of a six-week exercise intervention on gross motor function for non-ambulant children with cerebral palsy. A parallel arm randomized controlled trial. Four special schools. Thirty-five children aged 8-17 with bilateral cerebral palsy; Gross Motor Function Classification System levels IV-V. Participants were randomly allocated to a static bike group, a treadmill group or control group. Participants in the bike and treadmill groups received exercise training sessions, three times weekly for six weeks. The control group received their usual care. Blinded assessments were performed at baseline and six weeks and followed up at 12 and 18 weeks. Gross Motor Function Measures GMFM-66, GMFM-88D and GMFM-88E. At six weeks significant differences were found in GMFM-88D scores between the bike group and the control group, and the treadmill group and the control group (P exercise groups. The improvements observed declined during the follow-up period. This study provides preliminary evidence that exercising on a bike or treadmill may provide short-term improvements in gross motor function for non-ambulant children with cerebral palsy. This needs to be tested in a large-scale randomized trial.

  13. A Multivariate Model of Determinants of Change in Gross-Motor Abilities and Engagement in Self-Care and Play of Young Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarello, Lisa A.; Palisano, Robert J.; Bartlett, Doreen J.; McCoy, Sarah Westcott

    2011-01-01

    A multivariate model of determinants of change in gross-motor ability and engagement in self-care and play provides physical and occupational therapists a framework for decisions on interventions and supports for young children with cerebral palsy and their families. Aspects of the child, family ecology, and rehabilitation and community services…

  14. A Multivariate Model of Determinants of Change in Gross-Motor Abilities and Engagement in Self-Care and Play of Young Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarello, Lisa A.; Palisano, Robert J.; Bartlett, Doreen J.; McCoy, Sarah Westcott

    2011-01-01

    A multivariate model of determinants of change in gross-motor ability and engagement in self-care and play provides physical and occupational therapists a framework for decisions on interventions and supports for young children with cerebral palsy and their families. Aspects of the child, family ecology, and rehabilitation and community services…

  15. The effect of training in an interactive dynamic stander on ankle dorsiflexion and gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Curtis, Derek John; Bencke, Jesper; Mygind, Bente

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of active stretching of ankle plantarflexors using an interactive dynamic stander in children with cerebral palsy (CP). METHODS: Six children in Gross Motor Function Classification System classes I-III, aged 4-10 years, trained intensive active dorsiflexion...

  16. Fine and Gross Motor Task Performance When Using Computer-Based Video Models by Students with Autism and Moderate Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechling, Linda C.; Swindle, Catherine O.

    2013-01-01

    This investigation examined the effects of video modeling on the fine and gross motor task performance by three students with a diagnosis of moderate intellectual disability (Group 1) and by three students with a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (Group 2). Using a multiple probe design across three sets of tasks, the study examined the…

  17. Reliability of the modified Gross Motor Function Measure-88 (GMFM-88) for children with both Spastic Cerebral Palsy and Cerebral Visual Impairment : A preliminary study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salavati, M.; Krijnen, W. P.; Rameckers, E. A. A.; Looijestijn, P. L.; Maathuis, C. G. B.; van der Schans, C. P.; Steenbergen, B.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The aims of this study were to adapt the Gross Motor Function Measure-88 (GMFM-88) for children with Cerebral Palsy (CP) and Cerebral Visual Impairment (CVI) and to determine the test-retest and interobserver reliability of the adapted version. Method: Sixteen paediatric physical therapists

  18. Screening preschool children for fine motor skills: environmental influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comuk-Balci, Nilay; Bayoglu, Birgul; Tekindal, Agah; Kerem-Gunel, Mintaze; Anlar, Banu

    2016-03-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of gender and family factors on performance in the fine motor domain of the Denver II developmental screening test. [Subjects and Methods] Data were obtained from 2038 healthy children, 999 boys (49%) and 1039 girls (51%) in four age groups: 0-24 months (57%), 25-40 months (21.1%), 41-56 months (10.4%), and 57-82 months (11.5%). [Results] Female gender, higher maternal age, especially in children older than 24 months, and higher maternal education were associated with earlier accomplishment of fine motor items. Higher socioeconomic status was correlated with fine motor skills more noticeably at young ages. [Conclusion] The results of this study support the role of environmental factors in the interpretation of fine motor test results and point to target groups for intervention, such as infants in the low socioeconomic group and preschool children of less educated mothers. Studies in different populations may reveal particular patterns that affect child development.

  19. Learning motor skills from algorithms to robot experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Kober, Jens

    2014-01-01

    This book presents the state of the art in reinforcement learning applied to robotics both in terms of novel algorithms and applications. It discusses recent approaches that allow robots to learn motor skills and presents tasks that need to take into account the dynamic behavior of the robot and its environment, where a kinematic movement plan is not sufficient. The book illustrates a method that learns to generalize parameterized motor plans which is obtained by imitation or reinforcement learning, by adapting a small set of global parameters, and appropriate kernel-based reinforcement learning algorithms. The presented applications explore highly dynamic tasks and exhibit a very efficient learning process. All proposed approaches have been extensively validated with benchmarks tasks, in simulation, and on real robots. These tasks correspond to sports and games but the presented techniques are also applicable to more mundane household tasks. The book is based on the first author’s doctoral thesis, which wo...

  20. Role of Early Parenting and Motor Skills on Development in Children with Spina Bifida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomax-Bream, Laura E.; Taylor, Heather B.; Landry, Susan H.; Barnes, Marcia A.; Fletcher, Jack M.; Swank, Paul

    2007-01-01

    The impact of parenting and motor skills on the development of cognitive, language, and daily living skills was examined in 165 children (91 with spina bifida, SB), from 6-36 months of age. Motor scores significantly influenced cognitive, language, and daily living skills. Higher quality parenting was associated with higher levels of development…

  1. Sleep spindle and slow wave frequency reflect motor skill performance in primary school-age children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Astill, Rebecca G; Piantoni, Giovanni; Raymann, Roy J E M; Vis, Jose C; Coppens, Joris E; Walker, Matthew P; Stickgold, Robert; Van Der Werf, Ysbrand D; Van Someren, Eus J W

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim: The role of sleep in the enhancement of motor skills has been studied extensively in adults. We aimed to determine involvement of sleep and characteristics of spindles and slow waves in a motor skill in children. Hypothesis: We hypothesized sleep-dependence of skill enhancement a

  2. Avaliação da motricidade ampla e fina na Síndrome de Williams: relato de caso Findings of the gross and fine motor in the Syndrome William Case: case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Melo Almeida

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivo analisar os achados da motricidade ampla e fina de uma criança de 8 anos de idade portador da Síndrome de Williams. Foram coletados dados biológicos da criança e da mãe durante a gestação e história pré, peri e pós-natal da criança e suas condições clínicas. O desenvolvimento motor amplo e fino foi avaliado pelo Inventário Portage Operacionalizado. Os resultados demonstraram que a criança revelou maior dificuldade na motricidade fina em relação à ampla, apresentando dificuldades na escrita, em manipular objetos que necessite fazer movimento de pronação e supinação e dificuldade no movimento de pinça.This study aimed to analyze the findings of motor and fine of an 8 years old holder of Williams Syndrome. Data were collected biological child and mother during pregnancy and history of pre, peri and postnatal child and their clinical conditions. The development and fine motor function was assessed by Portage Guide. The results showed that children showed greater difficulty with fine motor skills in relation to gross skills, having difficulty in writing, to manipulate objects that need to make movement of pronation and supination and difficulty in of the pincer movement.

  3. Easy quantitative methodology to assess visual-motor skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiappedi M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Matteo Chiappedi,1 Alessio Toraldo,2 Silvia Mandrini,3 Federica Scarpina,2 Melissa Aquino,2 Francesca Giulia Magnani,2 Maurizio Bejor31Don Carlo Gnocchi ONLUS Foundation, Milan, Italy; 2University of Pavia, Department of Psychology, Pavia, Italy; 3University of Pavia, Department of Surgical, Resuscitative, Rehabilitative and Transplant Sciences, Pavia, ItalyIntroduction: Visual-motor skills are the basis for a great number of daily activities. To define a correct rehabilitation program for neurological patients who have impairment in these skills, there is a need for simple and cost-effective tools to determine which of the visual-motor system levels of organization are compromised by neurological lesions. In their 1995 book, The Visual Brain in Action (Oxford: Oxford University Press, AD Milner and MA Goodale proposed the existence of two pathways for the processing of visual information, the “ventral stream” and “dorsal stream,” that interact in movement planning and programming. Beginning with this model, our study aimed to validate a method to quantify the role of the ventral and dorsal streams in perceptual and visual-motor skills.Subjects and methods: Nineteen right-handed healthy subjects (mean age 22.8 years ± 3.18 with normal or corrected-to-normal vision were recruited. We proposed that a delayed pointing task, a distance reproduction task, and a delayed anti-pointing task could be used to assess the ventral stream, while the dorsal stream could be evaluated with a grasping task and an immediate pointing task. Performance was recorded and processed with the video-analysis software Dartfish ProSuite.Results: Results showed the expected pattern of predominance of attention for the superior left visual field, predominance of the flexor tone in proximal peri-personal space arm movements, tendency toward overestimation of short distances, and underestimation of long distances.Conclusion: We believe that our method is advantageous

  4. [Relationship between the motor development of the body and the acquisition of oral skills].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telles, Mariângela Silva; Macedo, Célia Sperandeo

    2008-01-01

    the literature points to the influence of body posture on the oral skills of children which sensorimotor deficits. Only a few studies with normal children exist on this subject. to study the relationship between motor skills and oral motor skills in children, from the first day of life to 24 months of age. 42 children were video recorded at the first day of life, and at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 9, 12 and 24 months of age. Recordings were made in the following postures: supine, prone, seated, standing and during breast and bottle feeding (until 5 months), using spoon (purée: 3 - 12 months); cup (water or juice: 6 - 24 months) and eating solid food (6 -24 months). Quantitative scores for body motor development and oral skills were established; and for the statistical analysis the Pearson Correlation Coefficient Test was used with a significance level of 5%. the results of motor development point to similar data between supine, prone, seated and standing positions; for the oral motor skills (during feeding/ breastfeeding, using spoon, cup and chewing). A similarity was observed in the acquisition of motor abilities related to the lips, tongue and jaw in each of the feeding situations. There was an association between the motor and the oral motor skills; the results indicate that the motor development (motor skills) occurred prior to the development of the oral skills from the 5th to 24 months and that the skills related to the jaw when using a cup and spoon occurred prior to the development of the skills related to the lips and tongue. there was a growing increase in the acquisition of motor and oral skills along the ages, as well as a variability of skills in the ages between the 3rd and 24 months and a significant association between the motor and oral skills.

  5. Individual differences in highly skilled visual perceptual-motor striking skill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Sean; Brenton, John; Dempsey, Alasdair R; Harbaugh, Allen G; Reid, Corinne

    2015-07-01

    Expertise studies into visual perceptual-motor skills have mainly focused their investigation upon group comparisons rather than individual comparisons. This study investigated the pick-up of visual information to time weight transfer and bat kinematics within an exemplar group of striking sport experts using an in situ temporal occlusion paradigm. Highly skilled cricket batsmen faced bowlers and attempted to strike delivered balls, whilst their vision was either temporally occluded through occlusion glasses prior to ball bounce or not occluded (control condition). A chronometric analysis was conducted on trials in the occlusion condition to quantify the pick-up of visual information to time biomechanical variables. Results indicated that initiation of weight transfer and bat downswing, as well as bat downswing completion, was significantly different between some individual batsmen. No significant difference was found between individual batsmen for time of weight transfer completion. Unexpectedly, it was found that achievement of the goal to strike delivered balls, that is, the frequency of bat-ball contacts was not significantly different between batsmen. Collectively, the findings indicate that individual differences exist in the coordination pattern of a complex whole body visual perceptual-motor skill, but these different patterns are used to achieve a similar outcome, which is known as motor equivalence.

  6. Long lasting structural changes in primary motor cortex after motor skill learning: a behavioural and stereological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Paola

    2008-01-01

    Many motor skills, once acquired, are stored over a long time period, probably sustained by permanent neuronal changes. Thus, in this paper we have investigated with quantitative stereology the generation and persistence of neuronal density changes in primary motor cortex (MI) following motor skill learning (skilled reaching task). Rats were trained a lateralised reaching task during an "early" (22-31 days old) or "late" (362-371 days old) postnatal period. The trained and corresponding control rats were sacrificed at day 372, immediately after the behavioural testing. The "early" trained group preserved the learned skilled reaching task when tested at day 372, without requiring any additional training. The "late" trained group showed a similar capacity to that of the "early" trained group for learning the skilled reaching task. All trained animals ("early" and "late" trained groups) showed a significant Inter hemispheric decrease of neuronal density in the corresponding motor forelimb representation area of MI (cortical layers II-III). It is concluded that learning a skilled reaching task implies long lasting structural changes in restricted cortical regions of the motor cortex. The generation and persistence of these changes probably reflect a plastic reorganization for storing and retrieving motor skills. The plastic changes were also observed in the older rats, suggesting that motor cortex maintains its plastic capacity throughout the lifespan.

  7. Toward Personalized Vibrotactile Support When Learning Motor Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga C. Santos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Personal tracking technologies allow sensing of the physical activity carried out by people. Data flows collected with these sensors are calling for big data techniques to support data collection, integration and analysis, aimed to provide personalized support when learning motor skills through varied multisensorial feedback. In particular, this paper focuses on vibrotactile feedback as it can take advantage of the haptic sense when supporting the physical interaction to be learnt. Despite each user having different needs, when providing this vibrotactile support, personalization issues are hardly taken into account, but the same response is delivered to each and every user of the system. The challenge here is how to design vibrotactile user interfaces for adaptive learning of motor skills. TORMES methodology is proposed to facilitate the elicitation of this personalized support. The resulting systems are expected to dynamically adapt to each individual user’s needs by monitoring, comparing and, when appropriate, correcting in a personalized way how the user should move when practicing a predefined movement, for instance, when performing a sport technique or playing a musical instrument.

  8. ANTROPOMETRIC CHARACTERISTICS AND MOTOR SKILLS OF YOUNG MONTENEGRO BASKETBALL PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milovan Ljubojević

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Testing and measurement in basketball is basically supposed to help in the initial evaluation and interpretation of features and capabilities of players that are important for their activity. The main objective of testing is the possibility of obtaining information about the three general indicators in basketball practice, namely: the level of current results in certain ability, the pace of results improvement in the ability and stability of the results in tests of ability. For this purpose, testing and measurement of young basketball players, members of the Montenegro under-18 team, was carried out. The aim of this paper is to present the basic features and capabilities of young basketball players of Montenegro and their comparison with some other teams. Variables from anthropometry space were measured: body height, arm span, reach height, body mass. Motor skills were observed by variables: the last squat, thrust from a flat bench, rear thrust, lying-sitting for 30 seconds, sargent test, long jump, 20 yard test, kamikaze, špagat, sitting bow. Based on the processed results it can be concluded that the motor skills of our young players, tested in this study, are at the level of the young players of other representations. The results will be of great help to coaches who work with these players.

  9. Developmental changes in motor cortex activity as infants develop functional motor skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyori, Ryota; Bisconti, Silvia; Meehan, Sean K; Ulrich, Beverly D

    2016-09-01

    Despite extensive research examining overt behavioral changes of motor skills in infants, the neural basis underlying the emergence of functional motor control has yet to be determined. We used functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to record hemodynamic activity of the primary motor cortex (M1) from 22 infants (11 six month-olds, 11 twelve month-olds) as they reached for an object, and stepped while supported over a treadmill. Based on the developmental systems framework, we hypothesized that as infants increased goal-directed experience, neural activity shifts from a diffused to focal pattern. Results showed that for reaching, younger infants showed diffuse areas of M1 activity that became focused by 12 months. For elicited stepping, younger infants produced much less M1 activity which shifted to diffuse activity by 12 months. Thus, the data suggest that as infants gain goal-directed experience, M1 activity emerges, initially showing a diffuse area of activity, becoming refined as the behavior stabilizes. Our data begin to document the cortical activity underlying early functional skill acquisition.

  10. Effects of bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells on gross motor function measure scores of children with cerebral palsy: a preliminary clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaodong; Cheng, Hongbin; Hua, Rongrong; Yang, Jing; Dai, Guanghui; Zhang, Zan; Wang, Renzhi; Qin, Chuan; An, Yihua

    2013-12-01

    Pre-clinical evidence indicates that autologous bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cell (BM-MSC) transplantation improves motor function in patients with central nervous system disorders. After providing informed consent, 52 patients with cerebral palsy (CP) who met the study criteria received BM-MSC transplantation. Gross motor function was assessed using the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM)-88 and GMFM-66 scales at baseline (before transplantation) and at 1 month, 6 months and 18 months post-transplantation. The participants completed the trial without visible side effects. The GMFM-66 percentile (motor growth curves) was used as the control index of motor function to exclude the interference of improvement with age. The score domains A, B, C and D and the total GMFM-88 and GMFM-66 scores in participants increased at 1 month, 6 months and 18 months post-transplantation compared with the baseline value (P cell transplantation. Autologous BM-MSC transplantation appears to be a feasible, safe and effective therapy for patients with CP. The treatment improved the development of children with CP with regard to motor function. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Physical activity and motor skills in children attending 43 preschools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Line Grønholt; Kristensen, Peter Lund; Ried-Larsen, Mathias

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about health characteristics and the physical activity (PA) patterns in children attending preschools. The objective of this study was to describe the gender differences in relation to body mass index (BMI), motor skills (MS) and PA, including PA patterns by the day type...... provide a valuable reference material for studies monitoring future trends in obesity, MS and PA behaviour in Denmark and other countries.Knowledge about sources of variation in PA among preschool children is scarce and our findings need to be replicated in future studies. A potentially important finding...... and time of day. Additionally, the between-preschool variation in mean PA was estimated using the intraclass correlation. METHODS: We invited 627 children 5-6 years of age attending 43 randomly selected preschools in Odense, Denmark. Aiming and catching MS was assessed using subtests of the Movement...

  12. The Association between Motor Skill Competence and Physical Fitness in Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stodden, David; Langendorfer, Stephen; Roberton, Mary Ann

    2009-01-01

    We examined the relationship between competence in three fundamental motor skills (throwing, kicking, and jumping) and six measures of health-related physical fitness in young adults (ages 18-25). We assessed motor skill competence using product scores of maximum kicking and throwing speed and maximum jumping distance. A factor analysis indicated…

  13. Sensori-Motor and Daily Living Skills of Preschool Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasmin, Emmanuelle; Couture, Melanie; McKinley, Patricia; Reid, Greg; Fombonne, Eric; Gisel, Erika

    2009-01-01

    Sensori-motor development and performance of daily living skills (DLS) remain little explored in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The objective of this study was to determine the impact of sensori-motor skills on the performance of DLS in preschool children with ASD. Thirty-five children, 3-4 years of age, were recruited and assessed…

  14. Effects of Age and Visual-Motor Skills on Preschool Children's Computer-Game Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strein, William

    1987-01-01

    The relationship of both age and visual-motor skills to performance on an arcade-like video game was studied with 16 preschool children. While age was positively related to performance, no significant relationship was found for the visual-motor skills variable. (Author/CB)

  15. The Association between Motor Skill Competence and Physical Fitness in Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stodden, David; Langendorfer, Stephen; Roberton, Mary Ann

    2009-01-01

    We examined the relationship between competence in three fundamental motor skills (throwing, kicking, and jumping) and six measures of health-related physical fitness in young adults (ages 18-25). We assessed motor skill competence using product scores of maximum kicking and throwing speed and maximum jumping distance. A factor analysis indicated…

  16. Determining the Motor Skills Development of Mentally Retarded Children through the Contribution of Visual Arts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erim, Gonca; Caferoglu, Müge

    2017-01-01

    Visual arts education is a process that helps the reflection of inner worlds, socialization via group works and healthier motor skills development of normally developing or handicapped children like the mentally retarded. This study aims to determine the influence of visual art studies on the motor skills development of primary school first grade…

  17. Design and evaluation of a computerized test for hand motor skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Hsien-Sheng; Chang, Cheng-Sian; Lin, Chien-Yu; Chiu, Ching-Tsun

    2014-06-01

    The purposes of this study are to design and develop a computerized test to measure junior high school students' motor skills, specifically their abilities in hand-eye motor coordination and hand motor skills, using the Wii Remote. The hand motor skills computerized test, which is based on the operational examinations in the General Aptitude Test Battery, examines hand and finger dexterity (i.e., motion, rotation, fabrication, and disassembly tests). 55 students participated in the experiment to assess the reliability and validity of the computerized test, which were supported. Information literacy and experience in the use of Wii devices did not affect the reliability.

  18. Effects of concentric and eccentric control exercise on gross motor function and balance ability of paretic leg in children with spastic hemiplegia

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Su-Ik; Kim, Mi-sun; Choi, Jong-Duk

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study examines the effect of concentric and eccentric control training of the paretic leg on balance and gross motor function in children with spastic hemiplegia. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty children with spastic hemiplegia were randomly divided into experimental and control groups. In the experimental group, 20 min of neurodevelopmental therapy and 20 min of concentric and eccentric control exercise were applied to the paretic leg. In the control group, 40 min of neurodevelo...

  19. Desempenho motor grosso e sua associação com fatores neonatais, familiares e de exposição à creche em crianças até três anos de idade Gross motor performance and its association with neonatal and familial factors and day care exposure among children up to three years old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DCC Santos

    2009-04-01

    evaluated 145 children (58 aged 6-11 months, 54 aged 12-23 months and 33 aged 24-38 months attending six public day care centers in Piracicaba, State of São Paulo. The Peabody Developmental Motor Scale-2 test was used to assess overall gross motor performance and the motor subtests that make up the scale (reflexes, stationary skills, locomotion skills and object manipulation. Neonatal, familial and daycare center exposure data were also collected and their association with suspected delays in gross motor performance was investigated. RESULTS:The prevalence of suspected delays in gross motor performance was 17%, with disadvantages among children under 24 months of age and with regard to locomotion skills. There were associations of risk between suspected delays in gross motor performance and family income, and between suspected delays in locomotion skills and parental educational level. Children whose families had a monthly income of up to 700 reais were 2.81 times more likely to present delays in gross motor performance. Children whose parents had up to eight years of education were 4.63 times more likely to present delays in locomotion skills. There was no association of risk with the other variables. CONCLUSION: The results indicate the need for greater attention to motor development during the first 24 months of children who attend day care centers, especially those with low-income and less-educated parents.

  20. Haptics in teaching handwriting: the role of perceptual and visuo-motor skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bara, Florence; Gentaz, Edouard

    2011-08-01

    Two studies were carried out in order to better understand the role of perceptual and visuo-motor skills in handwriting. Two training programs, visual-haptic (VH) and visual (V), were compared which differed in the way children explored the letters. The results revealed that improvements of VH training on letter recognition and handwriting quality were higher than improvements after V training. We suppose that VH training was more efficient because it improved both perceptual and visuo-motor skills. In the second experiment, in order to investigate the part of each component, we assessed the link between visuo-motor skills, perceptual skills and handwriting. The results showed that only the visuo-motor tasks predict handwriting copying performance. These results are discussed in relation to the respective roles of the perceptual and visuo-motor skills on letter shape learning and handwriting movement execution.

  1. Correlation between the gross motor performance measurement and pediatric balance scale with respect to movement disorder in children with cerebral palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hae-Yeon; Ahn, So-Yoon

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To determine whether the Gross Motor Performance Measurement is useful in predicting the future score of the Pediatric Balance Scale, this study examined the correlation between the 2 measurement tools with respect to movement disorder in children with cerebral palsy. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 38 study subjects with cerebral palsy were divided into 3 groups (spastic, dyskinetic, and ataxic) by means of systematic proportional stratified sampling in accordance with the characteristics of their movement disorders. [Results] The spastic Pediatric Balance Scale had an intermediate level of positive correlation with dissociated movement (r=0.411), alignment (r=0.518), and weight shift (r=0.461). The dyskinetic Pediatric Balance Scale had a strong positive correlation with dissociated movement (r=0.905), coordination (r=0.882), alignment (r=0.930), and stability (r=0.924). The ataxic Pediatric Balance Scale had an intermediate level of positive correlation with the overall Gross Motor Performance Measurement (r=0.636), and a strong positive correlation with dissociated movement (r=0.866), coordination (r=0.871) and stability (r=0.984). [Conclusion] Gross Motor Performance Measurement is important in evaluating the quality of movement, and can be considered an excellent supplementary tool in predicting functional balance. PMID:27630414

  2. Correlation between the gross motor performance measurement and pediatric balance scale with respect to movement disorder in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hae-Yeon; Ahn, So-Yoon

    2016-08-01

    [Purpose] To determine whether the Gross Motor Performance Measurement is useful in predicting the future score of the Pediatric Balance Scale, this study examined the correlation between the 2 measurement tools with respect to movement disorder in children with cerebral palsy. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 38 study subjects with cerebral palsy were divided into 3 groups (spastic, dyskinetic, and ataxic) by means of systematic proportional stratified sampling in accordance with the characteristics of their movement disorders. [Results] The spastic Pediatric Balance Scale had an intermediate level of positive correlation with dissociated movement (r=0.411), alignment (r=0.518), and weight shift (r=0.461). The dyskinetic Pediatric Balance Scale had a strong positive correlation with dissociated movement (r=0.905), coordination (r=0.882), alignment (r=0.930), and stability (r=0.924). The ataxic Pediatric Balance Scale had an intermediate level of positive correlation with the overall Gross Motor Performance Measurement (r=0.636), and a strong positive correlation with dissociated movement (r=0.866), coordination (r=0.871) and stability (r=0.984). [Conclusion] Gross Motor Performance Measurement is important in evaluating the quality of movement, and can be considered an excellent supplementary tool in predicting functional balance.

  3. Changes in corticospinal drive to spinal motoneurones following visuo-motor skill learning in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez, Monica A.; Jensen, Jesper Lundbye; Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2006-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated an increase in the excitability of the leg motor cortical area in relation to acquisition of a visuo-motor task in healthy humans. It remains unknown whether the interaction between corticospinal drive and spinal motoneurones is also modulated following motor skill...

  4. Motor Skills in Hearing Impaired Children with or without Cochlear Implant--A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidranski, Tihomir; Farkaš, Daria

    2015-07-01

    Hearing impairment is a major limitation in communication, and it can obstruct psychological development, development of social skills and motor development. Hearing impairment is the third most common contemporary chronic health condition, and it has become a public health problem. The effectiveness of problem solving in everyday life and in emergency situations depends greatly on the amount and quality of the motor programs. Therefore, it is evident that the normal motor development in persons with hearing impairment is essential for everyday life. The aim of this research is to analyze the available information pertaining to motor skills of hearing impaired children both with and without a cochlear implant (CI) and to analyze possibilities of influencing their motor skills. The relevant studies on motor skills of hearing impaired children both with and without CI were obtained by an extensive computer search of various databases using special keywords and extraction with respect to certain criteria, resulting in 22 studies. The overall results of this systematic review indicate that the children with hearing impairment exhibit suboptimal levels of motor skills especially balance. Very few studies compared children with hearing impairment with CI units and without CI units and the results of those studies are quite contradictory. Numerous studies have confirmed that the regular and appropriate physical exercise can improve motor skills of children with hearing impairment, especially balance. The fact that the development of motor skills is crucial for the child's interaction with the outside world, action, perception and acquisition of academic skills and other skills necessary for life shows the importance of motor skills development for children with hearing impairment.

  5. The differential consolidation of perceptual and motor learning in skill acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallgató, Emese; Győri-Dani, Dóra; Pekár, Judit; Janacsek, Karolina; Nemeth, Dezso

    2013-04-01

    Implicit skill learning is an unconscious way of learning which underlies not only motor but also cognitive and social skills. This form of learning is based on both motor and perceptual information. Although many studies have investigated the perceptual and motor components of "online" skill learning, the effect of consolidation on perceptual and motor characteristics of skill learning has not been studied to our knowledge. In our research we used a sequence learning task to determine if consolidation had the same or different effect on the perceptual and the motor components of skill acquisition. We introduced a 12-h (including or not including sleep) and a 24-h (diurnal control) delay between the learning and the testing phase with AM-PM, PM-AM, AM-AM and PM-PM groups, in order to examine whether the offline period had differential effects on perceptual and motor learning. Although both perceptual and motor learning were significant in the testing phase, results showed that motor knowledge transfers more effectively than perceptual knowledge during the offline period, irrespective of whether sleep occurred or not and whether there was a 12- or 24-h delay period between the learning and the testing phase. These results have important implications for the debate concerning perceptual/motor learning and the role of sleep in skill acquisition.

  6. Motor development and motor resonance difficulties in autism: relevance to early intervention for language and communication skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleery, Joseph P; Elliott, Natasha A; Sampanis, Dimitrios S; Stefanidou, Chrysi A

    2013-01-01

    Research suggests that a sub-set of children with autism experience notable difficulties and delays in motor skills development, and that a large percentage of children with autism experience deficits in motor resonance. These motor-related deficiencies, which evidence suggests are present from a very early age, are likely to negatively affect social-communicative and language development in this population. Here, we review evidence for delayed, impaired, and atypical motor development in infants and children with autism. We then carefully review and examine the current language and communication-based intervention research that is relevant to motor and motor resonance (i.e., neural "mirroring" mechanisms activated when we observe the actions of others) deficits in children with autism. Finally, we describe research needs and future directions and developments for early interventions aimed at addressing the speech/language and social-communication development difficulties in autism from a motor-related perspective.

  7. Motor Development and Motor Resonance Difficulties in Autism: Relevance to Early Intervention for Language and Communication Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph P. Mccleery

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Research suggests that a sub-set of children with autism experience notable difficulties and delays in motor skills development, and that a large percentage of children with autism experience deficits in motor resonance. These motor-related deficiencies, which evidence suggests are present from a very early age, are likely to negatively affect social-communicative and language development in this population. Here, we review evidence for delayed, impaired, and atypical motor development in infants and children with autism. We then carefully review and examine the current language and communication-based intervention research that is relevant to motor and motor resonance (i.e., neural mirroring mechanisms activated when we observe the actions of others deficits in children with autism. Finally, we describe research needs and future directions and developments for early interventions aimed at addressing the speech/language and social-communication development difficulties in autism from a motor-related perspective.

  8. Enhancing the Motor Skills of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Pool-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jihyun; Porretta, David L.

    2013-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) often experience difficulties with motor skill learning and performance. The pool is a unique learning environment that can help children with ASDs learn or improve aquatic skills, fitness, and social skills. A pool-based approach is also aligned with the elements of dynamic systems theory, which…

  9. Global models: Robot sensing, control, and sensory-motor skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenker, Paul S.

    1989-01-01

    Robotics research has begun to address the modeling and implementation of a wide variety of unstructured tasks. Examples include automated navigation, platform servicing, custom fabrication and repair, deployment and recovery, and science exploration. Such tasks are poorly described at onset; the workspace layout is partially unfamiliar, and the task control sequence is only qualitatively characterized. The robot must model the workspace, plan detailed physical actions from qualitative goals, and adapt its instantaneous control regimes to unpredicted events. Developing robust representations and computational approaches for these sensing, planning, and control functions is a major challenge. The underlying domain constraints are very general, and seem to offer little guidance for well-bounded approximation of object shape and motion, manipulation postures and trajectories, and the like. This generalized modeling problem is discussed, with an emphasis on the role of sensing. It is also discussed that unstructured tasks often have, in fact, a high degree of underlying physical symmetry, and such implicit knowledge should be drawn on to model task performance strategies in a methodological fashion. A group-theoretic decomposition of the workspace organization, task goals, and their admissible interactions are proposed. This group-mechanical approach to task representation helps to clarify the functional interplay of perception and control, in essence, describing what perception is specifically for, versus how it is generically modeled. One also gains insight how perception might logically evolve in response to needs of more complex motor skills. It is discussed why, of the many solutions that are often mathematically admissible to a given sensory motor-coordination problem, one may be preferred over others.

  10. The Dutch motor skills assessment as tool for talent development in table tennis : a reproducibility and validity study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faber, Irene R.; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, Maria W. G.; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T.; Oosterveld, Frits G. J.

    2015-01-01

    A motor skills assessment could be helpful in talent development by estimating essential perceptuo-motor skills of young players, which are considered requisite to develop excellent technical and tactical qualities. The Netherlands Table Tennis Association uses a motor skills assessment in their

  11. The Dutch motor skills assessment as tool for talent development in table tennis: a reproducibility and validity study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faber, I.R.; Sanden, M.W.; Elferink-Gemser, M.T.; Oosterveld, F.G.J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A motor skills assessment could be helpful in talent development by estimating essential perceptuo-motor skills of young players, which are considered requisite to develop excellent technical and tactical qualities. The Netherlands Table Tennis Association uses a motor skills assessment in

  12. The Dutch motor skills assessment as tool for talent development in table tennis: a reproducibility and validity study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faber, I.R.; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M.W.G.; Elferink-Gemser, M.T.; Oosterveld, F.G.

    2015-01-01

    A motor skills assessment could be helpful in talent development by estimating essential perceptuo-motor skills of young players, which are considered requisite to develop excellent technical and tactical qualities. The Netherlands Table Tennis Association uses a motor skills assessment in their

  13. The Dutch motor skills assessment as tool for talent development in table tennis : a reproducibility and validity study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faber, Irene R.; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, Maria W. G.; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T.; Oosterveld, Frits G. J.

    2015-01-01

    A motor skills assessment could be helpful in talent development by estimating essential perceptuo-motor skills of young players, which are considered requisite to develop excellent technical and tactical qualities. The Netherlands Table Tennis Association uses a motor skills assessment in their tal

  14. The Dutch motor skills assessment as tool for talent development in table tennis: a reproducibility and validity study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faber, I.R.; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M.W.G.; Elferink-Gemser, M.T.; Oosterveld, F.G.

    2015-01-01

    A motor skills assessment could be helpful in talent development by estimating essential perceptuo-motor skills of young players, which are considered requisite to develop excellent technical and tactical qualities. The Netherlands Table Tennis Association uses a motor skills assessment in their tal

  15. The Dutch motor skills assessment as tool for talent development in table tennis: a reproducibility and validity study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faber, I.R.; Sanden, M.W.; Elferink-Gemser, M.T.; Oosterveld, F.G.J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A motor skills assessment could be helpful in talent development by estimating essential perceptuo-motor skills of young players, which are considered requisite to develop excellent technical and tactical qualities. The Netherlands Table Tennis Association uses a motor skills assessment in

  16. Neural substrates underlying stimulation-enhanced motor skill learning after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, Stéphanie; Dricot, Laurence; Laloux, Patrice; Gradkowski, Wojciech; Desfontaines, Philippe; Evrard, Frédéric; Peeters, André; Jamart, Jacques; Vandermeeren, Yves

    2015-01-01

    Motor skill learning is one of the key components of motor function recovery after stroke, especially recovery driven by neurorehabilitation. Transcranial direct current stimulation can enhance neurorehabilitation and motor skill learning in stroke patients. However, the neural mechanisms underlying the retention of stimulation-enhanced motor skill learning involving a paretic upper limb have not been resolved. These neural substrates were explored by means of functional magnetic resonance imaging. Nineteen chronic hemiparetic stroke patients participated in a double-blind, cross-over randomized, sham-controlled experiment with two series. Each series consisted of two sessions: (i) an intervention session during which dual transcranial direct current stimulation or sham was applied during motor skill learning with the paretic upper limb; and (ii) an imaging session 1 week later, during which the patients performed the learned motor skill. The motor skill learning task, called the 'circuit game', involves a speed/accuracy trade-off and consists of moving a pointer controlled by a computer mouse along a complex circuit as quickly and accurately as possible. Relative to the sham series, dual transcranial direct current stimulation applied bilaterally over the primary motor cortex during motor skill learning with the paretic upper limb resulted in (i) enhanced online motor skill learning; (ii) enhanced 1-week retention; and (iii) superior transfer of performance improvement to an untrained task. The 1-week retention's enhancement driven by the intervention was associated with a trend towards normalization of the brain activation pattern during performance of the learned motor skill relative to the sham series. A similar trend towards normalization relative to sham was observed during performance of a simple, untrained task without a speed/accuracy constraint, despite a lack of behavioural difference between the dual transcranial direct current stimulation and sham

  17. The Method of Team Sports Athletes’ Motor Skills Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir E.Afonshina

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available It is proposed that the training session be conducted on the ground with controlled light-dynamic illumination to be generated by small-size laser or other light emitters fastened on the athlete’s head. For safety the emitters are to be installed so as to prevent the trainee’s eyes from direct emanation. The emitters create mobile unallowed and allowed zones seen as the figures of various shape to be used for simulation of the training modes. The figures are controlled by software and hardware system including a gyroscopic orientation system of light emitters and a system of positioning of the athlete on the playing court. The system of gyroscopic orientation of light emitters is placed together with the emitters and depending on the head rotation, neck bends and vertical movements of the athlete's head and his/her movements on the playing court during the training session. The system of gyroscopic orientation automatically adjusts the position of the figures, while maintaining their target location and movement set by the selected training programme. The training can take place outside of specially equipped athletic field, on any smooth surface. The contours of the mobile unallowed and allowed zones are clearly visible and have no shadow formations. The method of motor skills development proposed incorporates the principles and techniques of sports coaching used for training both certain athletes and sports teams. The method facilitates in personalising the training tasks, acquiring playing skills by simulating different complex game situations, improving the efficiency of training, bringing it closer to the real play conditions, developing game thinking. The method can be used for training teams of different profile specialising in football, hockey, handball, rugby, basketball and other team sports.

  18. Combined treatment using acupuncture and music therapy on children with cerebral palsy Gross motor function measure comparison In 60 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lixiong Wu; Haibo Yu; Yongfeng Liu

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The use of acupuncture has received recognition to effectively treat cerebral palsy. Moreover, music therapy can be used to modify treatment of cerebral palsy. OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of combined treatment using acupuncture and music therapy on gross motor function measure (GMFM) of children with cerebral palsy, compared with acupuncture treatment alone. DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: Randomized, controlled, clinical study. The experiment was conducted in Shenzhen Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine between January 2007 and September 2007. PARTICIPANTS: All children with cerebral palsy in the trial were from the outpatient department of Shenzhen Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine. The children were randomly divided into two groups: 30 children in Group B received acupuncture and music therapy, while 30 children in Group A received only acupuncture therapy. METHODS: Subjects in Groups A and B received acupuncture based on syndrome differentiation. The main acupoints were necessary for all participants. At first, flash needling was applied to the acupoints. For the remaining acupoints, the technique of transverse needling was applied to the head acupoints, and perpendicular needling was used for the other points. The inserted needles were twirled and then maintained for 30 minutes. The needle was twirled for one second every other 10 minutes, without reinforcing-reducing techniques. The therapy was performed every other day. The trial consisted of three periods each, and lasted for 84 days. Subjects in Group B received music therapy. They listened to music that they preferred while acupuncture was being performed. Following acupuncture, they were allowed to perform musical activities, such as percussion, singing, and dancing. The music therapy was scheduled for one hour, including listening to music for 30 minutes and music activities for 30 minutes. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The comprehensive functional evaluation scale of cerebral palsy and

  19. Radiological outcome of reconstructive hip surgery in children with gross motor function classification system IV and V cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shiran; Wilson, Nichola C; Mackey, Anna H; Stott, Ngaire Susan

    2014-09-01

    Hip subluxation is common in children with cerebral palsy (CP). The aim of this study was to describe the radiological outcome of reconstructive hip surgery in children with CP, gross motor function classification system (GMFCS) level IV and V, and determine whether the GMFCS level plays a predictive role in outcome. This was a retrospective cohort study conducted at a tertiary-level pediatric hospital with a CP hip surveillance program. Of 110 children with GMFCS IV and V CP registered for hip surveillance, 45 underwent reconstructive hip surgery between 1997 and 2009, defined as varus derotational proximal femoral osteotomy with or without additional pelvic osteotomy. Eleven children were excluded because of lack of 12-month follow-up (n=10) or missing clinical records (n=1). Thus, 21 GMFCS IV children (median age 6 years at surgery) and 13 GMFCS V children (median age 5 years at surgery), who underwent 58 index surgeries, were included in the study. Clinical records and radiology were reviewed. The two surgical groups were femoral osteotomy (varus derotational femoral osteotomy with an AO blade plate or femoral locking plate fixation), or femoral ostetotomy with additional pelvic osteotomy. Reimer's migration percentage (MP) was calculated from anteroposterior pelvis radiographs to determine the outcome for each hip independently. Failure was defined as MP of greater than 60% or further operation on the hip. Reconstructive surgeries were performed for 58 hips with a median preoperative MP of 55%. There were 15 failures at a median of 62 months, including nine failures in 35 GMFCS IV hips and six failures in 23 GMFCS V hips. Overall, GMFCS V hips tended to fail earlier, (hazard ratio 2.3) with a median time to failure of 78 and 39 months for GMFCS IV and V hips, respectively. Combined femoral and pelvic osteotomies had the lowest failure rates in both groups of patients. The GMFCS classification may have some predictive value for outcomes following reconstructive

  20. Analogy learning and the performance of motor skills under pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Wing Kai; Maxwell, Jon P; Masters, Richard

    2009-06-01

    The efficacy of analogical instruction, relative to explicit instruction, for the acquisition of a complex motor skill and subsequent performance under pressure was investigated using a modified (seated) basketball shooting task. Differences in attentional resource allocation associated with analogy and explicit learning were also examined using probe reaction times (PRT). Access to task-relevant explicit (declarative) knowledge was assessed. The analogy and explicit learning groups performed equally well during learning and delayed retention tests. The explicit group experienced a drop in performance during a pressured transfer test, relative to their performance during a preceding retention test. However, the analogy group's performance was unaffected by the pressure manipulation. Results from PRTs suggested that both groups allocated equal amounts of attentional resources to the task throughout learning and test trials. Analogy learners had significantly less access to rules about the mechanics of their movements, relative to explicit learners. The results are interpreted in the context of Eysenck and Calvo's (1992) processing efficiency theory and Masters's (1992) theory of reinvestment.

  1. Practice with sleep makes perfect: sleep-dependent motor skill learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Matthew P; Brakefield, Tiffany; Morgan, Alexandra; Hobson, J Allan; Stickgold, Robert

    2002-07-01

    Improvement in motor skill performance is known to continue for at least 24 hr following training, yet the relative contributions of time spent awake and asleep are unknown. Here we provide evidence that a night of sleep results in a 20% increase in motor speed without loss of accuracy, while an equivalent period of time during wake provides no significant benefit. Furthermore, a significant correlation exists between the improved performance overnight and the amount of stage 2 NREM sleep, particularly late in the night. This finding of sleep-dependent motor skill improvement may have important implications for the efficient learning of all skilled actions in humans.

  2. Motor Development: Manual of Alternative Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, James E.

    The manual of alternative procedures for teaching handicapped children focuses on programming, planning, and implementing training in the gross motor (posture, limb control, locomotion) and fine motor (facial, digital) skills. The manual consists of the following sections: specific teaching tactics commonly used in motor training stiuations…

  3. Motor development in visually impaired children

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hallemans, Ann

    2016-01-01

    ..., a visual impairment affects their overall development, including their motor development and skill acquisition. Different studies report a delay in gross motor milestones such as head control, sitting, standing, crawling, and walking during the first year of life. Vision appears to be key to normal postural and motor development in infants. W...

  4. Assessing Motor Skill Competency in Elementary School Students: A Three-Year Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weiyun; Mason, Steve; Hypnar, Andrew; Bennett, Austin

    2016-03-01

    This study was to examine how well fourth- and fifth-grade students demonstrated motor skill competency assessed with selected PE Metrics assessment rubrics (2009). Fourth- and fifth-grade students (n = 1,346-1,926) were assessed on their performance of three manipulative skills using the PE Metrics Assessment Rubrics during the pre-intervention year, the post-intervention year 1, and the post-intervention year 3. Descriptive statistics, independent t-test, ANOVA, and follow-up comparisons were conducted for data analysis. The results indicated that the post-intervention year 2 cohort performed significantly more competent than the pre-intervention cohort and the post-intervention year 1 cohort on the three manipulative skill assessments. The post-intervention year 1 cohort significantly outperformed the pre-intervention cohort on the soccer dribbling, passing, and receiving and the striking skill assessments, but not on the throwing skill assessment. Although the boys in the three cohorts performed significantly better than the girls on all three skills, the girls showed substantial improvement on the overhand throwing and the soccer skills from baseline to the post-intervention year 1 and the post-intervention year 2. However, the girls, in particular, need to improve striking skill. The CTACH PE was conducive to improving fourth- and fifth-grade students' motor skill competency in the three manipulative skills. This study suggest that PE Metrics assessment rubrics are feasible tools for PE teachers to assess levels of students' demonstration of motor skill competency during a regular PE lesson. Key pointsCATCH PE is an empirically-evidenced quality PE curricular that is conducive to improving students' manipulative skill competency.Boys significantly outperformed than girls in all three manipulative skills.Girls need to improve motor skill competency in striking skill. PE Metrics are feasible assessment rubrics that can be easily used by trained physical

  5. Infant and toddler oral- and manual-motor skills predict later speech fluency in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gernsbacher, Morton Ann; Sauer, Eve A; Geye, Heather M; Schweigert, Emily K; Hill Goldsmith, H

    2008-01-01

    Spoken and gestural communication proficiency varies greatly among autistic individuals. Three studies examined the role of oral- and manual-motor skill in predicting autistic children's speech development. Study 1 investigated whether infant and toddler oral- and manual-motor skills predict middle childhood and teenage speech fluency; Study 2 verified those early infant and toddler predictions with historical home video; and Study 3 assessed the relation between autistic children's current-day oral-motor skill and their speech fluency. Infant and toddler oral-motor and manual-motor skills inter-correlated significantly, distinguished autistic children (N = 115) from typically developing children (N = 44), and distinguished autistic children whose current-day speech was minimally fluent (N = 33), moderately fluent (N = 39), and highly fluent (N = 39). These results were corroborated by analysis of historical home video (N = 32) and verified with current-day assessment (N = 40). The prominent associations among early oral- and manual-motor skills and later speech fluency bear implications for understanding communication in autism. For instance, these associations challenge the common assumption (made even in diagnostic criteria) that manual modes of communication are available to autistic individuals - if simply they choose to use them. These associations also highlight a potential confound from manual-motor skills when assessing autistic cognition, receptive language, and 'nonverbal' social communication.

  6. Spatial sound in the use of multimodal interfaces for the acquisition of motor skills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Pablo F.

    2008-01-01

    in facilitating skill acquisition by complementing, or substituting, other sensory modalities. An overview of related research areas on audiovisual and audiotactile interaction is given in connection to the potential benefits of spatial sound as a means to improve the perceptual quality of the interfaces as well......This paper discusses the potential effectiveness of spatial sound in the use of multimodal interfaces and virtual environment technologies for the acquisition of motor skills. Because skills are generally of multimodal nature, spatial sound is discussed in terms of the role that it may play...... as to convey information considered critical for the transfer of motor skills....

  7. Shared and differentiated motor skill impairments in children with dyslexia and/or attention deficit disorder: From simple to complex sequential coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand-Krynski, Marie-Ève; Morin-Moncet, Olivier; Bélanger, Anne-Marie; Beauchamp, Miriam H; Leonard, Gabriel

    2017-01-01

    Dyslexia and Attention deficit disorder (AD) are prevalent neurodevelopmental conditions in children and adolescents. They have high comorbidity rates and have both been associated with motor difficulties. Little is known, however, about what is shared or differentiated in dyslexia and AD in terms of motor abilities. Even when motor skill problems are identified, few studies have used the same measurement tools, resulting in inconstant findings. The present study assessed increasingly complex gross motor skills in children and adolescents with dyslexia, AD, and with both Dyslexia and AD. Our results suggest normal performance on simple motor-speed tests, whereas all three groups share a common impairment on unimanual and bimanual sequential motor tasks. Children in these groups generally improve with practice to the same level as normal subjects, though they make more errors. In addition, children with AD are the most impaired on complex bimanual out-of-phase movements and with manual dexterity. These latter findings are examined in light of the Multiple Deficit Model.

  8. The Neural Basis for Learning of Simple Motor Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisberger, Stephen G.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) which is used to investigate the neural basis for motor learning in monkeys. Suggests organizing principles that may apply in forms of motor learning as a result of similarities among VOR and other motor systems. (Author/RT)

  9. 5. Motor skills and verbal fluency in HIV positive older adults in Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    46987.2

    infected older adults resident in a rural area in Eastern. Zambia with low ... motor tasks more especially with the improved treatment of HIV. ... skills, memory including learning and recall, simple ..... cause for biased cognitive development.

  10. Between-subject variability of muscle synergies during a complex motor skill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien eFrère

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to determine whether subjects who have learned a complex motor skill exhibit similar neuromuscular control strategies. We studied a population of experienced gymnasts during backward giant swings on the high bar. This cyclic movement is interesting because it requires learning, as untrained subjects are unable to perform this task. 9 gymnasts were tested. Both kinematics and electromyographic (EMG patterns of 12 upper-limb and trunk muscles were recorded. Muscle synergies were extracted by non-negative matrix factorization, providing two components: muscle synergy vectors and synergy activation coefficients. First, the coefficient of correlation (r and circular cross-correlation (rmax were calculated to assess similarities in the mechanical patterns, EMG patterns and muscle synergies between gymnasts. We performed a further analysis to verify that the muscle synergies (in terms of muscle synergy vectors or synergy activation coefficients extracted for one gymnast accounted for the EMG patterns of the other gymnasts. 3 muscle synergies explained 89.9±2.0% of the variance accounted for (VAF. The coefficients of correlation of the muscle synergy vectors among the participants were 0.83±0.08, 0.86±0.09, and 0.66±0.28 for synergy #1, #2, and #3, respectively. By keeping the muscle synergy vectors constant, we obtained an averaged VAF across all pairwise comparisons of 79±4%. For the synergy activation coefficients, rmax-values were 0.96±0.03, 0.92±0.03, and 0.95±0.03, for synergy #1, #2, and #3, respectively. By keeping the synergy activation coefficients constant, we obtained an averaged VAF across all pairwise comparisons of 72±5%. Although variability was found (especially for synergy #3, the gymnasts exhibited gross similar neuromuscular strategies when performing backward giant swings. This confirms that the muscle synergies are consistent across participants, even during a skilled motor task that

  11. Motor Skill Improvement in Preschoolers: How Effective Are Activity Cards?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Donath

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Strategies to early develop and implement motor skill promotion in preschoolers are lacking. Thus, we examined the effects of a card-based exercise promotion program in a kindergarten setting. 214 preschool children (5.5 ± 0.6 y, range 4.2–6.7 y were examined in the present intervention study. Body mass index (BMI and waist circumference were measured. Children were randomly assigned to the KIDZ-Box® physical activity intervention program (INT: n = 107 or the control group (CON: n = 107. Children were trained daily for 15 min over 7 month at the preschool for agility, balance, endurance and jump performance, employing the card-based KIDZ-Box® media package. At pre- and post-testing, dynamic balance, jump and agility performance were tested. Cross-sectionally, agility testing differed between sexes (p = 0.01 and BMI (p = 0.02. Trends towards a significant association were found between BMI and side-to-side jumping (p = 0.1 and beam balancing (p = 0.05. Relevant interventional effects favoring the intervention group were slightly found for agility (p = 0.04, ηp2 = 0.02 and moderately for side-to-side jumping (p < 0.001, ηp2 = 0.08. Balance performance did not relevantly improve. As jumping cards have been used frequently by the teachers, jumping improvements are plausible. The activity cards are feasibly applicable but should be employed with more structure during longer training sessions.

  12. Association timed "up and go" test with respect to gross motor function classification system level in children diagnosed as cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjivani N Dhote; Suvarna S Ganvir

    2013-01-01

    Background: Timed "up and go" (TUG) test is a quick test, used in clinical practice as an outcome measure to assess functional ambulatory mobility or dynamic balance in adults. However, little information is available of TUG test used in cerebral palsy (CP). Hence, the purpose of our study was to find score of TUG with respect to gross motor function classification system (GMFCS) in CP children. Aims: To find the mean score of TUG test with respect to GMFCS level in children diagnosed as CP. ...

  13. Neural substrates underlying motor skill learning in chronic hemiparetic stroke patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie eLefebvre

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Motor skill learning is critical in post-stroke motor recovery, but little is known about its underlying neural substrates. Recently, using a new visuomotor skill learning paradigm involving a speed/accuracy trade-off in healthy individuals we identified three subpopulations based on their behavioral trajectories: fitters (in whom improvement in speed or accuracy coincided with deterioration in the other parameter, shifters (in whom speed and/or accuracy improved without degradation of the other parameter, and non-learners. We aimed to identify the neural substrates underlying the first stages of motor skill learning in chronic hemiparetic stroke patients and to determine whether specific neural substrates were recruited in shifters versus fitters. During functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, 23 patients learned the visuomotor skill with their paretic upper limb. In the whole-group analysis, correlation between activation and motor skill learning was restricted to the dorsal prefrontal cortex of the damaged hemisphere (DLPFCdamh: r=-0.82 and the dorsal premotor cortex (PMddamh: r=0.70; the correlations was much lesser (-0.160.25 in the other regions of interest. In a subgroup analysis, significant activation was restricted to bilateral posterior parietal cortices of the fitters and did not correlate with motor skill learning. Conversely, in shifters significant activation occurred in the primary sensorimotor cortexdamh and supplementary motor areadamh and in bilateral PMd where activation changes correlated significantly with motor skill learning (r=0.91. Finally, resting-state activity acquired before learning showed a higher functional connectivity in the salience network of shifters compared with fitters (qFDR<0.05. These data suggest a neuroplastic compensatory reorganization of brain activity underlying the first stages of motor skill learning with the paretic upper limb in chronic hemiparetic stroke patients, with a key role of

  14. The Relationship between Motor Skills, Perceived Social Support, and Internalizing Problems in a Community Adolescent Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Oreste Mancini

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Poor motor skills are associated with a range of psychosocial consequences, including internalizing (anxious and depressive symptoms. The Elaborated Environmental Stress Hypothesis provides a causal framework to explain this association. The framework posits that motor skills impact internalizing problems through an indirect effect via perceived social support. However, empirical evaluation is required. We examined whether motor skills has an indirect effect on anxious and depressive symptoms via perceived family support domains. Methods: This study used a community sample of 93 adolescents (12-16 years. Participants completed measures of motor skills, perceived social support across three dimensions (family, friend, and significant other, depressive symptoms, and anxious symptoms. Age, gender, verbal IQ, and ADHD symptoms were included as control variables.Results: Regression analysis using PROCESS revealed that motor skills had an indirect effect on depressive symptoms via perceived family support, but not by perceived friend support or significant other support. The negative association between motor skills and anxious symptoms was not mediated by any perceived social support domain. Conclusions: Findings are consistent with previous literature indicating an association between motor skills and internalizing problems. However, we identified a different pattern of relationships across anxious and depressive symptoms. While anxiety and depressive symptoms were highly correlated, motor skills had an indirect effect on depressive symptoms via perceived family support only. Our findings highlight the importance of family support as a potential protective factor in the onset of depressive symptoms. This study provides partial support for the Elaborated Environmental Stress Hypothesis, however further research is required.

  15. Dynamics of girls’ motor skills in a three-year research cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Bieniek

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the research: To evaluate the motor performance of girls from Swietokrzyskie Voivodship in a 3-year cycle of research, taking into account any additional physical activity. Material and methods: The study period covered the years 2008 to 2010. The study included 31 girls from birth vintage 1997 from Secondary School No. 11 in Kielce. To assess motor skills the Krzysztof Zuchora Physical Fitness Index was used. In order to obtain information about taking up additional physical activity a questionnaire technique was used. Results : The undertaken studies do not indicate a radical improvement or deterioration in the overall motor performance of girls in the three-year test cycle. Only analysis of individual motor skills gives a better picture of the direction of the motor skills development of tested students. Execution of continuous testing of motor skills of girls at puberty makes it possible to know the progress or regress of individual abilities. Conlusions : Studies confirm that taking up additional physical activity has a positive influence on the development of human motor skills. Girls at puberty require special interest and encouragement to take up physical activity during physical education classes or other forms of physical activity.

  16. Reduced asymmetry in motor skill learning in left-handed compared to right-handed individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Robert L; Kantak, Shailesh S

    2016-02-01

    Hemispheric specialization for motor control influences how individuals perform and adapt to goal-directed movements. In contrast to adaptation, motor skill learning involves a process wherein one learns to synthesize novel movement capabilities in absence of perturbation such that they are performed with greater accuracy, consistency and efficiency. Here, we investigated manual asymmetry in acquisition and retention of a complex motor skill that requires speed and accuracy for optimal performance in right-handed and left-handed individuals. We further determined if degree of handedness influences motor skill learning. Ten right-handed (RH) and 10 left-handed (LH) adults practiced two distinct motor skills with their dominant or nondominant arms during separate sessions two-four weeks apart. Learning was quantified by changes in the speed-accuracy tradeoff function measured at baseline and one-day retention. Manual asymmetry was evident in the RH group but not the LH group. RH group demonstrated significantly greater skill improvement for their dominant-right hand than their nondominant-left hand. In contrast, for the LH group, both dominant and nondominant hands demonstrated comparable learning. Less strongly-LH individuals (lower EHI scores) exhibited more learning of their dominant hand. These results suggest that while hemispheric specialization influences motor skill learning, these effects may be influenced by handedness.

  17. Association between daily activities, process skills, and motor skills in community-dwelling patients after left hemiparetic stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Sinae

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationships between daily activities, information processing, and motor skills in individuals with hemineglect after having a left hemiparetic stroke. [Subjects and Methods] The instrumental activities of daily living of 35 patients (22 male and 13 female; age: 57.1 ± 16.9 years) with hemineglect after having a left hemiparetic stroke were assessed by using three clinical measurement tools, including activity card sorting, assessment of motor and process skills, and the modified Barthel Index. [Results] The results of the regression analysis indicated that the patients’ processing skills in instrumental activities of daily living after having a left hemiparetic stroke were reduced. Participation in leisure and social activities was also affected as assessed by using the modified Barthel Index. [Conclusion] This study supports the clinical need for rehabilitation intervention after a left hemiparetic stroke to improve patients’ processing skills and independence in performing activities of daily living. PMID:27390426

  18. Effect of the Children’s Health Activity Motor Program on Motor Skills and Self-Regulation in Head Start Preschoolers: An Efficacy Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Leah Elizabeth Robinson; Kara K Palmer; Bub, Kristen L.

    2016-01-01

    Self-regulatory skills are broadly defined as the ability to manage emotions, focus attention, and inhibit some behaviors while activating others in accordance with social expectations and are an established indicator of academic success. Growing evidence links motor skills and physical activity to self-regulation. This study examined the efficacy of a motor skills intervention (i.e., the Children’s Health Activity Motor Program, CHAMP) that is theoretically grounded in Achievement Goal Theor...

  19. Visual Constructive and Visual-Motor Skills in Deaf Native Signers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Peter C.; Cohen, Julie; Dye, Matthew W. G.; Bavelier, Daphne

    2007-01-01

    Visual constructive and visual-motor skills in the deaf population were investigated by comparing performance of deaf native signers (n = 20) to that of hearing nonsigners (n = 20) on the Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration, Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test, Wechsler Memory Scale Visual Reproduction subtest, and…

  20. A Model for the Transfer of Perceptual-Motor Skill Learning in Human Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosalie, Simon M.; Muller, Sean

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a preliminary model that outlines the mechanisms underlying the transfer of perceptual-motor skill learning in sport and everyday tasks. Perceptual-motor behavior is motivated by performance demands and evolves over time to increase the probability of success through adaptation. Performance demands at the time of an event…

  1. Relationship between Motor Skill Competency and Executive Function in Children with Down's Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schott, N.; Holfelder, B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Previous studies suggest that children with Down's syndrome (DS), a genetically based neurodevelopmental disorder, demonstrate motor problems and cognitive deficits. The first aim of this study was to examine motor skills and executive functions (EFs) in school-age children with DS. The second aim was to investigate the relationship…

  2. Motor Skill Performance by Low SES Preschool and Typically Developing Children on the PDMS-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ting; Hoffmann, Chelsea; Hamilton, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the motor skill performance of preschool children from low socioeconomic (SES) backgrounds to their age matched typically developing peers using the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales-2 (PDMS-2). Sixty-eight children (34 low SES and 34 typically developing; ages 3-5) performed the PDMS-2. Standard scores…

  3. Motor Skill Performance and Sports Participation in Deaf Elementary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Esther; Houwen, Suzanne; Visscher, Chris

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to examine motor performance in deaf elementary school children and its association with sports participation. The population studied included 42 deaf children whose hearing loss ranged from 80 to 120 dB. Their motor skills were assessed with the Movement Assessment Battery for Children, and a questionnaire was used to determine…

  4. Motor Skill Performance and Sports Participation in Deaf Elementary School Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartman, Esther; Houwen, Suzanne; Visscher, Chris

    This study aimed to examine motor performance in deaf elementary school children and its association with sports participation. The population studied included 42 deaf children whose hearing loss ranged from 80 to 120 dB. Their motor skills were assessed with the Movement Assessment Battery for

  5. A Single Bout of Moderate Aerobic Exercise Improves Motor Skill Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Statton, Matthew A; Encarnacion, Marysol; Celnik, Pablo; Bastian, Amy J

    2015-01-01

    Long-term exercise is associated with improved performance on a variety of cognitive tasks including attention, executive function, and long-term memory. Remarkably, recent studies have shown that even a single bout of aerobic exercise can lead to immediate improvements in declarative learning and memory, but less is known about the effect of exercise on motor learning. Here we sought to determine the effect of a single bout of moderate intensity aerobic exercise on motor skill learning. In experiment 1, we investigated the effect of moderate aerobic exercise on motor acquisition. 24 young, healthy adults performed a motor learning task either immediately after 30 minutes of moderate intensity running, after running followed by a long rest period, or after slow walking. Motor skill was assessed via a speed-accuracy tradeoff function to determine how exercise might differentially affect two distinct components of motor learning performance: movement speed and accuracy. In experiment 2, we investigated both acquisition and retention of motor skill across multiple days of training. 20 additional participants performed either a bout of running or slow walking immediately before motor learning on three consecutive days, and only motor learning (no exercise) on a fourth day. We found that moderate intensity running led to an immediate improvement in motor acquisition for both a single session and on multiple sessions across subsequent days, but had no effect on between-day retention. This effect was driven by improved movement accuracy, as opposed to speed. However, the benefit of exercise was dependent upon motor learning occurring immediately after exercise-resting for a period of one hour after exercise diminished the effect. These results demonstrate that moderate intensity exercise can prime the nervous system for the acquisition of new motor skills, and suggest that similar exercise protocols may be effective in improving the outcomes of movement rehabilitation

  6. An overview of motor skill performance and balance in hearing impaired children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Finita

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Childhood hearing impairment is a common chronic condition that may have a major impact on acquisition of speech, social and physical development. Numerous literature states that injury to the vestibular organs may result in accompanying balance and motor development disorders. But still postural control and motor assessments are not a routine procedure in hearing impaired children. Hence, we aim to provide an overview on motor skill performance and balance in hearing impaired children.

  7. A Single Bout of Moderate Aerobic Exercise Improves Motor Skill Acquisition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew A Statton

    Full Text Available Long-term exercise is associated with improved performance on a variety of cognitive tasks including attention, executive function, and long-term memory. Remarkably, recent studies have shown that even a single bout of aerobic exercise can lead to immediate improvements in declarative learning and memory, but less is known about the effect of exercise on motor learning. Here we sought to determine the effect of a single bout of moderate intensity aerobic exercise on motor skill learning. In experiment 1, we investigated the effect of moderate aerobic exercise on motor acquisition. 24 young, healthy adults performed a motor learning task either immediately after 30 minutes of moderate intensity running, after running followed by a long rest period, or after slow walking. Motor skill was assessed via a speed-accuracy tradeoff function to determine how exercise might differentially affect two distinct components of motor learning performance: movement speed and accuracy. In experiment 2, we investigated both acquisition and retention of motor skill across multiple days of training. 20 additional participants performed either a bout of running or slow walking immediately before motor learning on three consecutive days, and only motor learning (no exercise on a fourth day. We found that moderate intensity running led to an immediate improvement in motor acquisition for both a single session and on multiple sessions across subsequent days, but had no effect on between-day retention. This effect was driven by improved movement accuracy, as opposed to speed. However, the benefit of exercise was dependent upon motor learning occurring immediately after exercise-resting for a period of one hour after exercise diminished the effect. These results demonstrate that moderate intensity exercise can prime the nervous system for the acquisition of new motor skills, and suggest that similar exercise protocols may be effective in improving the outcomes of movement

  8. Sit to Talk: Relation between Motor Skills and Language Development in Infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libertus, Klaus; Violi, Dominic A

    2016-01-01

    Relations between walking skills and language development have been reported in 10- to 14-month-old infants. However, whether earlier emerging motor milestones also affect language skills remains unknown. The current research fills this gap by examining the relation between reaching and sitting skills and later language development, respectively. Reaching and sitting were assessed eight times, starting when infants (N = 29) were around 3 months of age. All assessments were completed and recorded remotely via videoconference using Skype or FaceTime. Subsequently, infants' language and motor skills were assessed via parent questionnaires (Communicative Development Inventories and Early Motor Questionnaire) at 10 and 14 months of age. Results revealed a significant correlation between the emergence of sitting skills and receptive vocabulary size at 10 and 14 months of age. Regression analyses further confirmed this pattern and revealed that the emergence of sitting is a significant predictor of subsequent language development above and beyond influences of concurrent motor skills. These findings suggest that the onset of independent sitting may initiate a developmental cascade that results in increased language learning opportunities. Further, this study also demonstrates how infants' early motor skills can be assessed remotely using videoconference.

  9. Cerebellar Development and Plasticity: Perspectives for Motor Coordination Strategies, for Motor Skills, and for Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Swinny, J. D; van der Want, J.J.L.; Gramsbergen, A.

    2005-01-01

    The role of the mammalian cerebellum ranges from motor coordination, sensory-motor integration, motor learning, and timing to nonmotor functions such as cognition. In terms of motor function, the development of the cerebellum is of particular interest because animal studies show that the development of the cerebellar cortical circuitry closely parallels motor coordination. Ultrastructural analysis of the morphological development of the cerebellar circuitry, coupled with the temporal and spat...

  10. The relation between in hand manipulation skills,and visual-motor integration skills with hand writing skills of students of grade one of primery schools in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minoo Kalantari

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Hand writing is one of the most important abilities that children can gain and use as one part of their duties during their schooling. Students should write fluently and fast to have good connection with school works and gain good grades in exams. It is clear that hand writing problems can influence on children’s other abilities, because this skill is declared often as a reflection of intelligence and although what they write is the same, students with bad hand writing gain lower grades than students with nice hand writing. Recognition of sub base items in this problem will be affective in assessment, intermediation and prevention programs for children who are suffering from this problem. This study is designed to appoint the relation between in hand manipulation skills and visual-motor integration skills with hand writing skills of students of grade one of primary schools in Tehran.Material & Methods: This study was a descriptive-analytic (sectional investigation. 139 students had been chosen by accident. Instruments which had been used in this study consisted of visual-motor integration test, hand writing quality checklist, chronometer and nine hole PEG test. After data collection, the results were analyzed.Results: The results indicate that visual- motor integration and in hand manipulation skills both are affective in children’s hand writing skills. Grades of girls and boys in visual-motor integration were significantly different. Mean grade of girls in this test was higher than boys, but these variants in hand manipulation skills were not significantly different. Also there was no significant different in handwriting speed and quality between boys and girls.Conclusion: The results indicate that by assessment of visual- motor integration skills and in hand manipulation skills we may be able to find more exact ways to prevent and treat children who are suffering from hand writing problems.

  11. Acquisition and improvement of human motor skills: Learning through observation and practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iba, Wayne

    1991-01-01

    Skilled movement is an integral part of the human existence. A better understanding of motor skills and their development is a prerequisite to the construction of truly flexible intelligent agents. We present MAEANDER, a computational model of human motor behavior, that uniformly addresses both the acquisition of skills through observation and the improvement of skills through practice. MAEANDER consists of a sensory-effector interface, a memory of movements, and a set of performance and learning mechanisms that let it recognize and generate motor skills. The system initially acquires such skills by observing movements performed by another agent and constructing a concept hierarchy. Given a stored motor skill in memory, MAEANDER will cause an effector to behave appropriately. All learning involves changing the hierarchical memory of skill concepts to more closely correspond to either observed experience or to desired behaviors. We evaluated MAEANDER empirically with respect to how well it acquires and improves both artificial movement types and handwritten script letters from the alphabet. We also evaluate MAEANDER as a psychological model by comparing its behavior to robust phenomena in humans and by considering the richness of the predictions it makes.

  12. Development of oral motor behavior related to the skill assisted spoon feeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engel-Hoek, L. van den; Hulst, K. van; Gerven, M.H.J.C van; Haaften, L. van; Groot, S.A. de

    2014-01-01

    Milestones in the typical development of eating skills are considered to be nippling (breast or bottle), eating from a spoon, drinking from a cup, biting and chewing. The purpose of this research was to study the development and consolidation of oral motor behavior related to the skill assisted spoo

  13. Development of oral motor behavior related to the skill assisted spoon feeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engel-Hoek, L. van den; Hulst, K. van; Gerven, M.H.J.C van; Haaften, L. van; Groot, S.A. de

    2014-01-01

    Milestones in the typical development of eating skills are considered to be nippling (breast or bottle), eating from a spoon, drinking from a cup, biting and chewing. The purpose of this research was to study the development and consolidation of oral motor behavior related to the skill assisted spoo

  14. Aging increases the susceptibility to motor memory interference and reduces off-line gains in motor skill learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roig, Marc; Ritterband-Rosenbaum, Anina; Jensen, Jesper Lundbye

    2014-01-01

    -line gains in motor skill learning after practice in children, young, and older adults. Subjects performed a ballistic task (A) followed by an accuracy-tracking task (B) designed to disrupt the consolidation of A. Retention tests of A were performed immediately and 24 hours after B. Older adults showed...

  15. The death of handwriting: secondary effects of frequent computer use on basic motor skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulzenbruck, Sandra; Hegele, Mathias; Rinkenauer, Gerhard; Heuer, Herbert

    2011-01-01

    The benefits of modern technologies such as personal computers, in-vehicle navigation systems, and electronic organizers are evident in everyday life. However, only recently has it been proposed that the increasing use of personal computers in producing written texts may significantly contribute to the loss of handwriting skills. Such a fundamental change of human habits is likely to have generalized consequences for other basic fine motor skills as well. In this article, the authors provide evidence that the skill to produce precisely controlled arm-hand movements is related to the usage of computer keyboards in producing written text in everyday life. This result supports the notion that specific cultural skills such as handwriting and typing shape more general perceptual and motor skills. More generally, changing technologies are associated with generalized changes of the profile of basic human skills.

  16. Mediating effects of the ICF domain of function and the gross motor function measure on the ICF domains of activity, and participation in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byoung-Hee; Kim, Yu-Mi; Jeong, Goo-Churl

    2015-10-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to evaluate the mediating effect of gross motor function, measured using the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) and of general function, measured using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health-Child and Youth Check List (ICF-CY), on the ICF domains of activity and participation in children with cerebral palsy (CP). [Subjects] Ninety-five children with CP, from Seoul, Korea, participated in the study. [Methods] The GMFM was administered in its entirety to patients without orthoses or mobility aids. The ICF-CY was used to evaluate the degree of disability and health of subjects. [Results] GMFM score and ICF-CY function were negatively correlated to ICF-CY activity and participation. ICF-CY partially mediated the effects of the GMFM on activity and participation. [Conclusion] When establishing a treatment plan for a child with CP, limitations in activity and participation, as described by the ICF-CY, should be considered in addition to the child's physical abilities and development. In addition, the treatment plan should focus on increasing the child's activity and participation level, as well as his/her physical level.

  17. Using Video Game Telemetry Data to Research Motor Chunking, Action Latencies, and Complex Cognitive-Motor Skill Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Joseph J; McColeman, C M; Stepanova, Ekaterina R; Blair, Mark R

    2017-04-01

    Many theories of complex cognitive-motor skill learning are built on the notion that basic cognitive processes group actions into easy-to-perform sequences. The present work examines predictions derived from laboratory-based studies of motor chunking and motor preparation using data collected from the real-time strategy video game StarCraft 2. We examined 996,163 action sequences in the telemetry data of 3,317 players across seven levels of skill. As predicted, the latency to the first action (thought to be the beginning of a chunked sequence) is delayed relative to the other actions in the group. Other predictions, inspired by the memory drum theory of Henry and Rogers, received only weak support. Copyright © 2017 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  18. A Comparison of Perceptual Motor Skill with Auditory Comprehension as Correlates of Word Recognition, Oral Reading, and Silent Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, Chester E.

    A study was conducted to examine the relationship of perceptual motor skills as measured by the Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test to word recognition, oral reading, and silent reading. In addition, perceptual motor skill and auditory comprehension were compared as correlates of the three reading variables. Subjects were 60 primary grade students in…

  19. Mastery and Exercise Play Interventions: Motor Skill Development and Verbal Recall of Children with and without Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentini, Nadia Cristina; Pierosan, Licia; Rudisill, Mary E.; Hastie, Peter A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Fundamental motor skill proficiency is essential for engagement in sports and physical play and in the development of a healthy lifestyle. Children with motor delays (with and without disabilities) lack the motor skills necessary to participate in games and physical activity, and tend to spend more time as onlookers than do their…

  20. The Evidence Against Learnability of Early Motor Skills Reconsidered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razel, Micha

    This paper attempts to refute the assumption that early motor development is determined genetically and is not influenced by environmental factors. The paper re-examines three studies which are consistently cited as providing evidence for a maturational theory of motor development: the "early training study" by Gesell and Thompson, the "swaddling…

  1. Language and Motor Speech Skills in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirila, Silja; van der Meere, Jaap; Pentikainen, Taina; Ruusu-Niemi, Pirjo; Korpela, Raija; Kilpinen, Jenni; Nieminen, Pirkko

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate associations between the severity of motor limitations, cognitive difficulties, language and motor speech problems in children with cerebral palsy. Also, the predictive power of neonatal cranial ultrasound findings on later outcome was investigated. For this purpose, 36 children (age range 1 year 10 months…

  2. Language and motor speech skills in children with cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pirila, Sija; van der Meere, Jaap; Pentikainen, Taina; Ruusu-Niemi, Pirjo; Korpela, Raija; Kilpinen, Jenni; Nieminen, Pirkko; Ruusu-Niemin, P; Kilpinen, R

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate associations between the severity of motor limitations, cognitive difficulties, language and motor speech problems in children with cerebral palsy. Also, the predictive power of neonatal cranial ultrasound findings on later outcome was investigated. For this

  3. Acute effects of dietary constituents on motor skill and cognitive performance in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Lindsay B; Nuccio, Ryan P; Jeukendrup, Asker E

    2014-12-01

    Performance in many sports is at least partially dependent on motor control, coordination, decision-making, and other cognitive tasks. This review summarizes available evidence about the ingestion of selected nutrients or isolated compounds (dietary constituents) and potential acute effects on motor skill and/or cognitive performance in athletes. Dietary constituents discussed include branched-chain amino acids, caffeine, carbohydrate, cocoa flavanols, Gingko biloba, ginseng, guarana, Rhodiola rosea, sage, L-theanine, theobromine, and tyrosine. Although this is not an exhaustive list, these are perhaps the most researched dietary constituents. Caffeine and carbohydrate have the greatest number of published reports supporting their ability to enhance acute motor skill and cognitive performance in athletes. At this time, there is insufficient published evidence to substantiate the use of any other dietary constituents to benefit sports-related motor skill or cognitive performance. The optimal dose and timing of caffeine and carbohydrate intake promoting enhanced motor skill and cognitive performance remain to be identified. Valid, reliable, and sensitive batteries of motor skills and cognitive tests should be developed for use in future efficacy studies.

  4. The relationship between motor skills and cognitive skills in 4-16 year old typically developing children : A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Fels, Irene M. J.; te Wierike, Sanne C. M.; Hartman, Esther; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T.; Smith, Joanne; Visscher, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This review aims to give an overview of studies providing evidence for a relationship between motor and cognitive skills in typically developing children. Design: A systematic review. Methods: PubMed, Web of Science, and PsychINFO were searched for relevant articles. A total of 21 articl

  5. Effect of a Mastery Climate Motor Program on Object Control Skills and Perceived Physical Competence in Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Leah E.

    2011-01-01

    Fundamental motor skills (e.g., run, jump, catch, and throw) are essential building blocks for more advanced and context-specific skills. Children with these motor skills are able to function independently while learning and exploring their environment. The National Association for Sport and Physical Education (NASPE) "Active Start"…

  6. Effectiveness of a Fundamental Motor Skill Intervention for 4-Year-Old Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremer, Emily; Balogh, Robert; Lloyd, Meghann

    2015-01-01

    A wait-list control experimental design was employed to investigate the effectiveness of a fundamental motor skill intervention at improving the motor skills, adaptive behavior, and social skills of 4-year-old children with autism spectrum disorder (experimental n?=?5, control n?=?4); the impact of intervention intensity was also explored. The…

  7. Correlation Between Lower And Higher Order Sensory Functions And Fine And Gross Motor Function In Dominant And Non-Dominant Hand Of Patients With Choronic Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandehgary Najafabadi Mahbubeh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: To investigate the correlation between lower and higher order sensory functions and manual dexterity as well as Identify factors affecting upper extremity motor function(UEMF in subjects with chronic stroke. Methods: In this correlational study, seventy chronic stroke subjects (48 male and 22 female by mean age of 56.94 (±12.92 years and mean time after stroke of 3.01 (±2.64 years were selected by simple nonprobability method. Lower order sensory function (i.e., light touch threshold, higher order sensory functions (i.e., tactile acuity, weight and texture discrimination, haptic performance and wrist proprioception were measured by Weinstein enhanced sensory test, two point discrimination, wrist position sense test, hand active sensation test and haptic object test, respectively. The gross and fine manual dexterity were measured by Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT, Box and Block Test(BBT and Purdue Pegboard (PPB test. The step by step regression model was used to investigate the sensory determinants of motor function. Results: A weak to high significant correlation (r =0.25 to 0.80 was found between sensory predictors and motor outcomes. The regression models explained 19.8%, 30.3% and 52.3% of variancein motor function measures of the PPB, BBT and WMFT, respectively. The tactile threshold (p<0.001 was the most relevant predictor in all stepwise models for all motor outcomes in dominant or non-dominant hand , followed by tactile acuity, haptic performance and wrist proprioception (p< 0.05. The weight and texture discrimination was not included in any outcome models.  Conclusion: The results of present study showed that tactile threshold as lowr order sensory function is the most relevant predictor for UEMF in stroke. The results reinforce that rehabilitation interventions focused on tactile threshold may be best able to impact UEMF in stroke subjects.

  8. Optimal training design for procedural motor skills: a review and application to laparoscopic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruit, Edward N; Band, Guido P H; Hamming, Jaap F; Ridderinkhof, K Richard

    2014-11-01

    This literature review covers the choices to consider in training complex procedural, perceptual and motor skills. In particular, we focus on laparoscopic surgery. An overview is provided of important training factors modulating the acquisition, durability, transfer, and efficiency of trained skills. We summarize empirical studies and their theoretical background on the topic of training complex cognitive and motor skills that are pertinent to proficiency in laparoscopic surgery. The overview pertains to surgical simulation training for laparoscopy, but also to training in other demanding procedural and dexterous tasks, such as aviation, managing complex systems and sports. Evidence-based recommendations are provided for facilitating efficiency in laparoscopic motor skill training such as session spacing, adaptive training, task variability, part-task training, mental imagery and deliberate practice.

  9. M1 contributes to the intrinsic but not the extrinsic components of motor-skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romei, Vincenzo; Thut, Gregor; Ramos-Estebanez, Ciro; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2009-10-01

    Procedural skills consist of several components that can be simultaneously acquired. During a motor-learning task we can distinguish between how a "movement" is performed (intrinsic component) and the spatial-related (extrinsic) component of this movement. The intrinsic movement component is thought to be supported by motor loops, including primary motor cortex (M1) as assessed with neuroimaging studies. Here we want to test further whether M1 makes a critical contribution to the movement rather than spatial-related component of skill-learning. To this purpose, we used repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) and the serial reaction time (SRT) task. Twenty right-handed participants performed the SRT-task starting with their left or right hand. After this learning session, participants switched to the untrained hand by performing original (spatial-related) and mirror-ordered (movement-based) sequences. rTMS was applied to M1 ipsi- or contralateral to the transfer-hand and both sequences were retested. Results revealed rTMS-interference with motor-skill transfer of mirror-ordered but not original sequences, showing that M1 is critically involved in the retrieval/transformation of the intrinsic but not the extrinsic movement coordinates. rTMS-interference in the mirror-condition consisted of both (i) disruption and (ii) release of motor-skill transfer depending on the stimulated hemisphere and on transfer-hand. The pattern of results suggests (i) contralateral (right) M1 involvement in retrieval/transformation of motor information during left-hand reproduction of previously acquired right-hand motor-skills; and (ii) modulatory interactions of inhibitory nature from the dominant (left) to the non-dominant (right) M1 in the same transfer-condition. These results provide further evidence that M1 is essential to intrinsic movement-based skill-learning and novel insight on models of motor-learning and hemispheric specialization, suggesting the involvement of

  10. Development of oral motor behavior related to the skill assisted spoon feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Engel-Hoek, Lenie; van Hulst, Karen C M; van Gerven, Marjo H J C; van Haaften, Leenke; de Groot, Sandra A F

    2014-05-01

    Milestones in the typical development of eating skills are considered to be nippling (breast or bottle), eating from a spoon, drinking from a cup, biting and chewing. The purpose of this research was to study the development and consolidation of oral motor behavior related to the skill assisted spoon feeding in young infants. The present study longitudinally investigated the development of this skill in 39 healthy children from the start of spoon feeding until the skill was acquired. The Observation List Spoon Feeding with 7 observation items for oral motor behavior and 6 items for abnormal behavior was used. Results showed that infants between 4 and 8 months of age needed 5.7 weeks (SD 2.1), with a range of 8 weeks (from 2 to 10 weeks) to acquire this skill. No significant correlation (p=.109) between age at start spoon feeding and weeks needed to develop the skill was found. During this period oral motor behavior consolidated and abnormal behavior diminished. With this study it is shown that the period in weeks needed to acquire the oral motor behavior for the skill assisted spoon feeding is important in case of feeding problems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Neuropsychology and the relearning of motor skills following stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hochstenbach, J; Mulder, T

    1999-01-01

    Regaining independent mobility is one of the most important goals in physical therapy with patients suffering from the consequences of stroke. Both physical therapy and occupational therapy are learning processes in which the patient has to remaster old skills or has to learn novel skills. It is arg

  12. Graphemes as Motor Units in the Acquisition of Writing Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandel, Sonia; Soler, Olga; Valdois, Sylviane; Gros, Celine

    2006-01-01

    This study examined whether the graphemic structure of words modulates the timing of handwriting production during the acquisition of writing skills. This is particularly important during the acquisition period because phonological recoding skills are determinant in the elaboration of orthographic representations. First graders wrote seven-letter…

  13. Neuropsychology and the relearning of motor skills following stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hochstenbach, J; Mulder, T

    Regaining independent mobility is one of the most important goals in physical therapy with patients suffering from the consequences of stroke. Both physical therapy and occupational therapy are learning processes in which the patient has to remaster old skills or has to learn novel skills. It is

  14. The Comparison of School-Age Children's Performance on Two Motor Assessments: The Test of Gross Motor Development and the Movement Assessment Battery for Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Samuel W.; Robinson, Leah E.; Rudisill, Mary E.; Wadsworth, Danielle D.; Morera, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Background: Competence in the motor domain is associated with positive, health-related outcomes. Physical education teachers often administer assessments into their programs to measure motor competence for a variety of reasons. Recently, researchers have questioned the relatedness of performance on different assessments. Purpose: The purpose of…

  15. Fine motor skills in adult Tourette patients are task-dependent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neuner Irene

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tourette syndrome is a neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by motor and phonic tics. Deficient motor inhibition underlying tics is one of the main hypotheses in its pathophysiology. Therefore the question arises whether this supposed deficient motor inhibition affects also voluntary movements. Despite severe motor tics, different personalities who suffer from Tourette perform successfully as neurosurgeon, pilot or professional basketball player. Methods For the investigation of fine motor skills we conducted a motor performance test battery in an adult Tourette sample and an age matched group of healthy controls. Results The Tourette patients showed a significant lower performance in the categories steadiness of both hands and aiming of the right hand in comparison to the healthy controls. A comparison of patients’ subgroup without comorbidities or medication and healthy controls revealed a significant difference in the category steadiness of the right hand. Conclusions Our results show that steadiness and visuomotor integration of fine motor skills are altered in our adult sample but not precision and speed of movements. This alteration pattern might be the clinical vignette of complex adaptations in the excitability of the motor system on the basis of altered cortical and subcortical components. The structurally and functionally altered neuronal components could encompass orbitofrontal, ventrolateral prefrontal and parietal cortices, the anterior cingulate, amygdala, primary motor and sensorimotor areas including altered corticospinal projections, the corpus callosum and the basal ganglia.

  16. Disentangling fine motor skills' relations to academic achievement: the relative contributions of visual-spatial integration and visual-motor coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Abby G; Rowe, Ellen; Curby, Timothy W

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has established a connection between children's fine motor skills and their academic performance. Previous research has focused on fine motor skills measured prior to elementary school, while the present sample included children ages 5-18 years old, making it possible to examine whether this link remains relevant throughout childhood and adolescence. Furthermore, the majority of research linking fine motor skills and academic achievement has not determined which specific components of fine motor skill are driving this relation. The few studies that have looked at associations of separate fine motor tasks with achievement suggest that copying tasks that tap visual-spatial integration skills are most closely related to achievement. The present study examined two separate elements of fine motor skills--visual-motor coordination and visual-spatial integration--and their associations with various measures of academic achievement. Visual-motor coordination was measured using tracing tasks, while visual-spatial integration was measured using copy-a-figure tasks. After controlling for gender, socioeconomic status, IQ, and visual-motor coordination, and visual-spatial integration explained significant variance in children's math and written expression achievement. Knowing that visual-spatial integration skills are associated with these two achievement domains suggests potential avenues for targeted math and writing interventions for children of all ages.

  17. OPPORTUNITIES FOR PSYCHO-MOTOR SKILLS DEVELOPMENT IN CHILDREN WITH DOWN SYNDROME - ADAPTED SWIMMING -

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chera-Ferrario B.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Sport activities have a beneficial effect on the mind and body of any type of person. The benefits of sport are even more evident in children with Down Syndrome, who exhibit a general delay in neuro-motor structures. Our aim was to develop the psycho-motor skills in children with Down Syndrome through adapted swimming exercises. We believe that our involvement in adapted swimming for children with Down Syndrome may help develop certain aspects of psycho-motor abilities. The swimming took place with 6 Down Syndrome children from the Special Needs School in Targoviste, for a period of six months and the children being assisted by volunteer students from the Valahia University Department of Sport in Targoviste.The most important result was the children's delight in coming to the pool and taking part in the swimming lessons. Through the methods and exercises used and the devoted involvement of the volunteers, the children developed great levels of trust and courage and learned to swim using only aids. After performing motor skill tests on the children, we observed a general growth in the motor skills monitored.Continuation of the adapted swimming is very important in order to mobilize the skills obtained and continue development of psycho-motor abilities.

  18. Changes in striatal dopamine release associated with human motor-skill acquisition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoji Kawashima

    Full Text Available The acquisition of new motor skills is essential throughout daily life and involves the processes of learning new motor sequence and encoding elementary aspects of new movement. Although previous animal studies have suggested a functional importance for striatal dopamine release in the learning of new motor sequence, its role in encoding elementary aspects of new movement has not yet been investigated. To elucidate this, we investigated changes in striatal dopamine levels during initial skill-training (Day 1 compared with acquired conditions (Day 2 using (11C-raclopride positron-emission tomography. Ten volunteers learned to perform brisk contractions using their non-dominant left thumbs with the aid of visual feedback. On Day 1, the mean acceleration of each session was improved through repeated training sessions until performance neared asymptotic levels, while improved motor performance was retained from the beginning on Day 2. The (11C-raclopride binding potential (BP in the right putamen was reduced during initial skill-training compared with under acquired conditions. Moreover, voxel-wise analysis revealed that (11C-raclopride BP was particularly reduced in the right antero-dorsal to the lateral part of the putamen. Based on findings from previous fMRI studies that show a gradual shift of activation within the striatum during the initial processing of motor learning, striatal dopamine may play a role in the dynamic cortico-striatal activation during encoding of new motor memory in skill acquisition.

  19. Probing for hemispheric specialization for motor skill learning: a transcranial direct current stimulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schambra, Heidi M; Abe, Mitsunari; Luckenbaugh, David A; Reis, Janine; Krakauer, John W; Cohen, Leonardo G

    2011-08-01

    Convergent findings point to a left-sided specialization for the representation of learned actions in right-handed humans, but it is unknown whether analogous hemispheric specialization exists for motor skill learning. In the present study, we explored this question by comparing the effects of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over either left or right motor cortex (M1) on motor skill learning in either hand, using a tDCS montage to better isolate stimulation to one hemisphere. Results were compared with those previously found with a montage more commonly used in the field. Six groups trained for three sessions on a visually guided sequential pinch force modulation task with their right or left hand and received right M1, left M1, or sham tDCS. A linear mixed-model analysis for motor skill showed a significant main effect for stimulation group (left M1, right M1, sham) but not for hand (right, left) or their interaction. Left M1 tDCS induced significantly greater skill learning than sham when hand data were combined, a result consistent not only with the hypothesized left hemisphere specialization for motor skill learning but also with possible increased left M1 responsiveness to tDCS. The unihemispheric montage effect size was one-half that of the more common montage, and subsequent power analysis indicated that 75 subjects per group would be needed to detect differences seen with only 12 subjects with the customary bihemispheric montage.

  20. Skilled Bimanual Training Drives Motor Cortex Plasticity in Children With Unilateral Cerebral Palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friel, Kathleen M; Kuo, Hsing-Ching; Fuller, Jason; Ferre, Claudio L; Brandão, Marina; Carmel, Jason B; Bleyenheuft, Yannick; Gowatsky, Jaimie L; Stanford, Arielle D; Rowny, Stefan B; Luber, Bruce; Bassi, Bruce; Murphy, David L K; Lisanby, Sarah H; Gordon, Andrew M

    2016-10-01

    Background Intensive bimanual therapy can improve hand function in children with unilateral spastic cerebral palsy (USCP). We compared the effects of structured bimanual skill training versus unstructured bimanual practice on motor outcomes and motor map plasticity in children with USCP. Objective We hypothesized that structured skill training would produce greater motor map plasticity than unstructured practice. Methods Twenty children with USCP (average age 9.5; 12 males) received therapy in a day camp setting, 6 h/day, 5 days/week, for 3 weeks. In structured skill training (n = 10), children performed progressively more difficult movements and practiced functional goals. In unstructured practice (n = 10), children engaged in bimanual activities but did not practice skillful movements or functional goals. We used the Assisting Hand Assessment (AHA), Jebsen-Taylor Test of Hand Function (JTTHF), and Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM) to measure hand function. We used single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation to map the representation of first dorsal interosseous and flexor carpi radialis muscles bilaterally. Results Both groups showed significant improvements in bimanual hand use (AHA; P < .05) and hand dexterity (JTTHF; P < .001). However, only the structured skill group showed increases in the size of the affected hand motor map and amplitudes of motor evoked potentials (P < .01). Most children who showed the most functional improvements (COPM) had the largest changes in map size. Conclusions These findings uncover a dichotomy of plasticity: the unstructured practice group improved hand function but did not show changes in motor maps. Skill training is important for driving motor cortex plasticity in children with USCP.

  1. A single bout of high-intensity interval training improves motor skill retention in individuals with stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nepveu, Jean-Francois; Thiel, Alexander; Tang, Ada

    2017-01-01

    intensity is sufficient to induce neuroplastic changes and improve motor skill retention in patients with chronic stroke. METHODS: Twenty-two patients with different levels of motor impairment were recruited. On the first session, the effects of a maximal graded exercise test on corticospinal...... exercise test triggers only modest neuroplastic changes in patients with chronic stroke. However, a single bout of high-intensity interval training performed immediately after motor practice improves skill retention, which could potentially accelerate motor recovery in these individuals....

  2. A Matter of Balance: Motor Control is Related to Children's Spatial and Proportional Reasoning Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, Andrea; Möhring, Wenke

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has shown close links between spatial and mathematical thinking and between spatial abilities and motor skills. However, longitudinal research examining the relations between motor, spatial, and mathematical skills is rare, and the nature of these relations remains unclear. The present study thus investigated the relation between children's motor control and their spatial and proportional reasoning. We measured 6-year-olds' spatial scaling (i.e., the ability to reason about different-sized spaces), their mental transformation skills, and their ability to balance on one leg as an index for motor control. One year later (N = 126), we tested the same children's understanding of proportions. We also assessed several control variables (verbal IQ and socio-economic status) as well as inhibitory control, visuo-spatial and verbal working memory. Stepwise hierarchical regressions showed that, after accounting for effects of control variables, children's balance skills significantly increased the explained variance in their spatial performance and proportional reasoning. Our results suggest specific relations between balance skills and spatial as well as proportional reasoning skills that cannot be explained by general differences in executive functioning or intelligence.

  3. Fine motor skills predict maths ability better than they predict reading ability in the early primary school years

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    Nicola J. Pitchford

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Fine motor skills have long been recognised as an important foundation for development in other domains. However, more precise insights into the role of fine motor skills, and their relationships to other skills in mediating early educational achievements, are needed to support the development of optimal educational interventions. We explored concurrent relationships between two components of fine motor skills, Fine Motor Precision and Fine Motor Integration, and early reading and maths development in two studies with primary school children of low-to-mid socio-economic status in the U.K. Two key findings were revealed. First, despite being in the first two years of primary school education, significantly better performance was found in reading compared to maths across both studies. This may reflect the protective effects of recent national-level interventions to promote early literacy skills in young children in the U.K. that have not been similarly promoted for maths. Second, fine motor skills were a better predictor of early maths ability than they were of early reading ability. Hierarchical multiple regression revealed that fine motor skills did not significantly predict reading ability when verbal short-term memory was taken into account. In contrast, Fine Motor Integration remained a significant predictor of maths ability, even after the influence of non-verbal IQ had been accounted for. These results suggest that fine motor skills should have a pivotal role in educational interventions designed to support the development of early mathematical skills.

  4. THE EFFECT OF EGGSHELL MOSAIC TRAINING TOWARD FINE MOTOR SKILLS OF CHILDREN WITH INTELLECTUAL AND DEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITY (IDD

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    Diadra Finalistiani

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to determine the effect of eggshell mosaic toward fine motor skills of children with intellectual and develompental disability. The data was collected with observation, and the analysis technique used analysis in condition and analysis between conditions. The conclusion of this research was eggshell mosaic gives effect toward the fine motor skills of the children, it was shown from fine motor skills of the children before eggshell mosaic treatment, during the treatment and after controlling, and the fine motor skills of the children was improved.

  5. Fine Motor Skills Predict Maths Ability Better than They Predict Reading Ability in the Early Primary School Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitchford, Nicola J; Papini, Chiara; Outhwaite, Laura A; Gulliford, Anthea

    2016-01-01

    Fine motor skills have long been recognized as an important foundation for development in other domains. However, more precise insights into the role of fine motor skills, and their relationships to other skills in mediating early educational achievements, are needed to support the development of optimal educational interventions. We explored concurrent relationships between two components of fine motor skills, Fine Motor Precision and Fine Motor Integration, and early reading and maths development in two studies with primary school children of low-to-mid socio-economic status in the UK. Two key findings were revealed. First, despite being in the first 2 years of primary school education, significantly better performance was found in reading compared to maths across both studies. This may reflect the protective effects of recent national-level interventions to promote early literacy skills in young children in the UK that have not been similarly promoted for maths. Second, fine motor skills were a better predictor of early maths ability than they were of early reading ability. Hierarchical multiple regression revealed that fine motor skills did not significantly predict reading ability when verbal short-term memory was taken into account. In contrast, Fine Motor Integration remained a significant predictor of maths ability, even after the influence of non-verbal IQ had been accounted for. These results suggest that fine motor skills should have a pivotal role in educational interventions designed to support the development of early mathematical skills.

  6. Altered synaptic plasticity in Tourette's syndrome and its relationship to motor skill learning.

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    Valerie Cathérine Brandt

    Full Text Available Gilles de la Tourette syndrome is a neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by motor and phonic tics that can be considered motor responses to preceding inner urges. It has been shown that Tourette patients have inferior performance in some motor learning tasks and reduced synaptic plasticity induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation. However, it has not been investigated whether altered synaptic plasticity is directly linked to impaired motor skill acquisition in Tourette patients. In this study, cortical plasticity was assessed by measuring motor-evoked potentials before and after paired associative stimulation in 14 Tourette patients (13 male; age 18-39 and 15 healthy controls (12 male; age 18-33. Tic and urge severity were assessed using the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale and the Premonitory Urges for Tics Scale. Motor learning was assessed 45 minutes after inducing synaptic plasticity and 9 months later, using the rotary pursuit task. On average, long-term potentiation-like effects in response to the paired associative stimulation were present in healthy controls but not in patients. In Tourette patients, long-term potentiation-like effects were associated with more and long-term depression-like effects with less severe urges and tics. While motor learning did not differ between patients and healthy controls 45 minutes after inducing synaptic plasticity, the learning curve of the healthy controls started at a significantly higher level than the Tourette patients' 9 months later. Induced synaptic plasticity correlated positively with motor skills in healthy controls 9 months later. The present study confirms previously found long-term improvement in motor performance after paired associative stimulation in healthy controls but not in Tourette patients. Tourette patients did not show long-term potentiation in response to PAS and also showed reduced levels of motor skill consolidation after 9 months compared to healthy controls. Moreover

  7. Therapeutic Effects of Horseback Riding Therapy on Gross Motor Function in Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Systematic Review

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    Whalen, Cara N.; Case-Smith, Jane

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This systematic review examined the efficacy of hippotherapy or therapeutic horseback riding (THR) on motor outcomes in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Methods: Databases were searched for clinical trials of hippotherapy or THR for children with CP. Results: Nine articles were included in this review. Although the current level of…

  8. Cerebellar Development and Plasticity: Perspectives for Motor Coordination Strategies, for Motor Skills, and for Therapy

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    J. D. Swinny

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of the mammalian cerebellum ranges from motor coordination, sensory-motor integration, motor learning, and timing to nonmotor functions such as cognition. In terms of motor function, the development of the cerebellum is of particular interest because animal studies show that the development of the cerebellar cortical circuitry closely parallels motor coordination. Ultrastructural analysis of the morphological development of the cerebellar circuitry, coupled with the temporal and spatial identification of the neurochemical substrates expressed during development, will help to elucidate their roles in the establishment of the cerebellar circuitry and hence motor activity. Furthermore, the convenience of a number of naturally occurring mouse mutations has allowed a functional dissection of the various cellular elements that make up the cerebellar circuitry. This understanding will also help in the approach to possible therapies of pathologies arising during development because tile cerebellum is especially prone to such perturbation because of its late development.

  9. Assessing Motor Skill Competency in Elementary School Students: A Three-Year Study

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    Weiyun Chen, Steve Mason, Andrew Hypnar, Austin Bennett

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was to examine how well fourth- and fifth-grade students demonstrated motor skill competency assessed with selected PE Metrics assessment rubrics (2009. Fourth- and fifth-grade students (n = 1,346-1,926 were assessed on their performance of three manipulative skills using the PE Metrics Assessment Rubrics during the pre-intervention year, the post-intervention year 1, and the post-intervention year 3. Descriptive statistics, independent t-test, ANOVA, and follow-up comparisons were conducted for data analysis. The results indicated that the post-intervention year 2 cohort performed significantly more competent than the pre-intervention cohort and the post-intervention year 1 cohort on the three manipulative skill assessments. The post-intervention year 1 cohort significantly outperformed the pre-intervention cohort on the soccer dribbling, passing, and receiving and the striking skill assessments, but not on the throwing skill assessment. Although the boys in the three cohorts performed significantly better than the girls on all three skills, the girls showed substantial improvement on the overhand throwing and the soccer skills from baseline to the post-intervention year 1 and the post-intervention year 2. However, the girls, in particular, need to improve striking skill. The CTACH PE was conducive to improving fourth- and fifth-grade students’ motor skill competency in the three manipulative skills. This study suggest that PE Metrics assessment rubrics are feasible tools for PE teachers to assess levels of students’ demonstration of motor skill competency during a regular PE lesson.

  10. A new method for tracking of motor skill learning through practical application of Fitts' law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashworth-Beaumont, Jim; Nowicky, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    A novel upper limb motor skill measure, task productivity rate (TPR) was developed integrating speed and spatial error, delivered by a practical motor skill rehabilitation task (MSRT). This prototype task involved placement of 5 short pegs horizontally on a spatially configured rail array. The stability of TPR was tested on 18 healthy right-handed adults (10 women, 8 men, median age 29 years) in a prospective single-session quantitative within-subjects study design. Manipulations of movement rate 10% faster and slower relative to normative states did not significantly affect TPR, F(1.387, 25.009) = 2.465, p = .121. A significant linear association between completion time and error was highest during the normative state condition (Pearson's r = .455, p learning with possible changes in coregulation behavior underlying practice under different conditions. These findings extend Fitts' law theory to tracking of practical motor skill using a dexterity task, which could have potential clinical applications in rehabilitation.

  11. Motor skills in children aged 7-10 years, diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whyatt, Caroline P; Craig, Cathy M

    2012-09-01

    This study used the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC2) to assess motor skills in children aged 7-10 years with autism (n = 18) in comparison to two groups of age-matched typically developing children; a receptive vocabulary matched group (n = 19) and a nonverbal IQ matched group (n = 22). The results supported previous work, as indicated by a significant general motor impairment in the group with autism. However, sub-analysis of the M-ABC2 revealed that there were only 2 out of 8 subcomponent skills which showed universal significant specific deficits for the autism group; i.e. catching a ball and static balance. These results suggest that motor skill deficits associated with autism may not be pervasive but more apparent in activities demanding complex, interceptive actions or core balance ability.

  12. Gender impacts on motor skill proficiency-physical activity relationship in children

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    Diana Samara

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Physical activity is the greatest contributor to achievement of adequate physical activity. Children performing adequate daily physical activity will get positive benefits from their activity. Several studies indicate a difference in motor skills between boys and girls. To understand the development of motor skill proficiency and physical activity in boys and girls, a study was conducted to determine the role of gender on motor skill proficiency and physical activity in children aged 6-12 years. METHODS A cross-sectional observational study was conducted and a total of 162 children were included at a primary school in the Grogol area, West Jakarta. Data collection was by questionnaire-based interviews, covering age, gender, and physical activity (watching TV, playing games, and outdoor play. Assessment of motor skills was performed using the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test–Second Edition (BOT-2. Data analysis was performed using SPSS for Windows release 17.0 and level of significance was set at 0.05. RESULTS Multiple linear regression results showed that in boys the strength subset was the most influential factor on TV watching activity, with the higher scores for strength indicating a lower TV watching activity (â=-0.125;p=0.021. Age was the most influential factor on outdoor playing activity in girls, with older girls having lower outdoor playing activity (â=-0.375;p=0.016. CONCLUSIONS This study revealed that gender difference impacts on motor skills and physical activity in children. Higher motor proficiency increases outdoor playing activity only in boys. Primary school pupils should be given opportunities for performing outdoor playing activities to improve their motor proficiency.

  13. DO INFANTS USING BABY WALKERS SUFFER DEVELOPMENTAL DELAYS IN ACQUISITION OF MOTOR SKILLS?

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    A. Talebian

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available  AbstractObjectiveDevelopment is a complex process, completed over a specific period of time, through the maturation of the nervous system. It is affected by genetic, ethnic, nutritional, social, and economic factors; one of the environmental factors affecting the acquisition of motor skills in infants is the use of baby walkers. Since this device is very commonly used for infants in our country, we conducted this study to evaluate its effects on the acquisition of motor skills in this age group of children.Materials & MethodsThis longitudinal study was conducted in 2005 on 300 infants referring to the Primary Health Care Centers of Kashan district in 1384; the infants were divided into two groups of 150 babies each, with the case group using baby walkers, while the other 150, the controls, did not. All babies were followed for two years, and the ages for acquisition of motor skills were documented during face-to face or telephone interviews with the parents. Data were analyzed using the T-test and the Chi Square test.ResultsOf the study population, 175 babies (58.33% were male. The mean age of acquisition of motor skills including rolling, crawling, moving on hands and feet, sitting without and with help, standing and walking dependently and independently were found to be delayed in infants using baby walkers, a difference between the two groups of walker users and non- walker users that was statistically significant (PConclusionConsidering the adverse effects that walkers have on the acquisition of motor skills in infants, as demonstrated by the results of this study, we do not recommend the use of baby walkers in infants.Keywords: Baby walker, Motor skills, Infants.   

  14. Physical fitness, motor skill, and physical activity relationships in grade 4 to 6 children.

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    Larouche, Richard; Boyer, Charles; Tremblay, Mark Stephen; Longmuir, Patricia

    2014-05-01

    The present study sought to quantify the relationships among physical activity (PA), health-related fitness, and motor skill in children (grades 4 to 6), and to determine whether specific tests of fitness or motor skill are independently associated with objectively measured PA level. Four hundred and ninety-one students (56.4% female) wore a Digi-Walker pedometer for 7 consecutive days. Standardized protocols were used to assess health-related fitness (body mass index percentile, waist circumference, 20-m shuttle run, plank, handgrip, and trunk flexibility). Motor skill was evaluated using a validated obstacle course. Pearson correlations (with Holm adjustments for multiple comparisons) initially assessed associations among PA, health-related fitness, and motor skill. Multi-variable linear regression was used to determine which factors were significantly associated with daily step counts, while adjusting for gender, age, testing season, and socioeconomic status. Step counts were significantly correlated with predicted aerobic power (r = 0.30), obstacle course time (r = -0.27), obstacle course score (r = 0.20), plank isometric torso endurance (r = 0.16), and handgrip strength (r = 0.12), but not with waist circumference (r = -0.10), trunk flexibility (r = 0.10), or overweight status (ρ = -0.06). In the multi-variable model, predicted aerobic power, obstacle course time, testing season, gender, and the predicted aerobic power by gender interaction were significantly associated with step counts, explaining 16.4% of the variance. Specifically, the relationship between predicted aerobic power and step counts was stronger in girls. These findings suggest that aerobic fitness and motor skill are independently associated with children's PA. Future longitudinal studies should evaluate whether interventions to enhance aerobic fitness and motor skill could enhance daily PA among children of this age.

  15. Motor Skill Learning in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, Jin; Lee, Chi-Mei

    2013-01-01

    Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) are characterized as having motor difficulties and learning impairment that may last well into adolescence and adulthood. Although behavioral deficits have been identified in many domains such as visuo-spatial processing, kinesthetic perception, and cross-modal sensory integration, recent…

  16. Skill acquisition of manual wheelchair propulsion: initial motor learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vegter, R.J.K.; Lamoth, C.J.; Veeger, H.E.J.; De Groot, S.; Van der Woude, L.H.V.

    2011-01-01

    Changes in propulsion technique due to motor learning might account for a higher mechanical efficiency (ME, the ratio of internal power over external power). The changes in ME and propulsion technique were studied in a learning experiment, three times a week for eight minutes, with nine able-bodied

  17. Co-occurring development of early childhood communication and motor skills: results from a population-based longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, M V; Lekhal, R; Aarø, L E; Schjølberg, S

    2014-01-01

    Communicative and motor development is frequently found to be associated. In the current study we investigate to what extent communication and motor skills at 1½ years predict skills in the same domains at 3 years of age. This study is based on the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Heath. Data stem from 62,944 children and their mothers. Mothers completed questionnaires on their child's communication and motor skills at ages 1½ and 3. Associations between communication and motor skills were estimated in a cross-lagged model with latent variables. Early communication skills were correlated with early motor skills (0.72). Stability was high (0.81) across time points for motor skills and somewhat lower (0.40) for communication skills. Early motor skills predicted later communication skills (0.38) whereas early communication skills negatively predicted later motor skills (-0.14). Our findings provide support for the hypothesis that these two difficulties are not symptoms of separate disorders, but might rather be different manifestations of a common underlying neurodevelopmental weakness. However, there also seem to be specific developmental pathways for each domain. Besides theoretical interest, more knowledge about the relationship between these early skills might shed light upon early intervention strategies and preventive efforts commonly used with children with problems in these areas. Our findings suggest that the relationship between language and motor skills is not likely to be simple and directional but rather to be complex and multifaceted. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Motor skills of children with unilateral visual impairment in the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celano, Marianne; Hartmann, E Eugenie; DuBois, Lindreth G; Drews-Botsch, Carolyn

    2016-02-01

    To assess motor functioning in children aged 4 years 6 months enrolled in the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study, and to determine contributions of visual acuity and stereopsis to measured motor skills. One hundred and four children (53% female) with unilateral aphakia randomized to intraocular lens or contact lens treatment were evaluated at 4 years 6 months (age range 4y 6mo-4y 11mo) for monocular recognition visual acuity, motor skills, and stereopsis by a traveling examiner masked to treatment condition. Motor skills were assessed with the Movement Assessment Battery for Children--Second Edition (MABC-2). Visual acuity was operationalized as log10 of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) value for treated eye, best logMAR value for either eye, and intraocular logMAR difference. Student's t-tests showed no significant differences in MABC-2 scores between the intraocular lens and contact lens groups. The mean total score was low (6.43; 18th centile) compared with the normative reference group. Motor functioning was not related to visual acuity in the treated eye or to intraocular logMAR difference, but was predicted in a regression model by the better visual acuity of either eye (usually the fellow eye), even after accounting for the influence of age at surgery, examiner, orthotropic ocular alignment, and stereopsis. Children with unilateral congenital cataract may have delayed motor functioning at 4 years 6 months, which may adversely affect their social and academic functioning. © 2015 Mac Keith Press.

  19. Overthinking skilled motor performance: or why those who teach can't do.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flegal, Kristin E; Anderson, Michael C

    2008-10-01

    Skilled athletes often maintain that overthinking disrupts performance of their motor skills. Here, we examined whether these experiences have a basis in verbal overshadowing, a phenomenon in which describing memories for ineffable perceptual experiences disrupts later retention. After learning a unique golf-putting task, golfers of low and intermediate skill either described their actions in detail or performed an irrelevant verbal task. They then performed the putting task again. Strikingly, describing their putting experience significantly impaired higher skill golfers' ability to reachieve the putting criterion, compared with higher skill golfers who performed the irrelevant verbal activity. Verbalization had no such effect, however, for lower skill golfers. These findings establish that the effects of overthinking extend beyond dual-task interference and may sometimes reflect impacts on long-term memory. We propose that these effects are mediated by competition between procedural and declarative memory, as suggested by recent work in cognitive neuroscience.

  20. Developing an eBook-Integrated High-Fidelity Mobile App Prototype for Promoting Child Motor Skills and Taxonomically Assessing Children’s Emotional Responses Using Face and Sound Topology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, William; Liu, Connie; John, Rita Marie; Ford, Phoebe

    2014-01-01

    Developing gross and fine motor skills and expressing complex emotion is critical for child development. We introduce “StorySense”, an eBook-integrated mobile app prototype that can sense face and sound topologies and identify movement and expression to promote children’s motor skills and emotional developmental. Currently, most interactive eBooks on mobile devices only leverage “low-motor” interaction (i.e. tapping or swiping). Our app senses a greater breath of motion (e.g. clapping, snapping, and face tracking), and dynamically alters the storyline according to physical responses in ways that encourage the performance of predetermined motor skills ideal for a child’s gross and fine motor development. In addition, our app can capture changes in facial topology, which can later be mapped using the Facial Action Coding System (FACS) for later interpretation of emotion. StorySense expands the human computer interaction vocabulary for mobile devices. Potential clinical applications include child development, physical therapy, and autism. PMID:25954336

  1. The possible benefits of reduced errors in the motor skills acquisition of children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Capio Catherine M

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract An implicit approach to motor learning suggests that relatively complex movement skills may be better acquired in environments that constrain errors during the initial stages of practice. This current concept paper proposes that reducing the number of errors committed during motor learning leads to stable performance when attention demands are increased by concurrent cognitive tasks. While it appears that this approach to practice may be beneficial for motor learning, further studies are needed to both confirm this advantage and better understand the underlying mechanisms. An approach involving error minimization during early learning may have important applications in paediatric rehabilitation.

  2. [Electroencephalography measures in motor skill learning and effects of bromazepam].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, Victor Hugo; Machado, Dionis; Cunha, Marlo; Portella, Claudio Elidio; Cagy, Maurício; Furtado, Vernon; Piedade, Roberto; Ribeiro, Pedro

    2005-06-01

    Neuromodulators change brain's neural circuitry. Bromazepam is often been used in the pharmacological treatment of anxiety disorders. Few papers links this anxiolytic to motor tasks. The purpose of this study was to examine motor and electrophysiological changes produced by administration of bromazepam in differents doses (3 and 6 mg). The sample consisted of 39 healthy individuals, of both sexes, between 20 and 30 years of age. The control (placebo) and experimental (bromazepam 3mg and bromazepam 6 mg) groups were submitted to a typewriting task, in a randomized, double-blind design. The results did not reveal differences on score and time of the attention test. In the comportamental analysis was noticed blocks as main effect to behavioral variables (time and mistakes in the task). Electrophysiological data showed significants interactions to: laterally/condition/moment; laterally/condition; laterally/moment; condition/moment; condition/site.

  3. Relationship between writing skills and visual-motor control in low-vision students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atasavun Uysal, Songül; Aki, Esra

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between handwriting skills and visual motor control among students with low vision and to compare this with the performance of their normal sighted peers. 42 students with low vision and 26 normal sighted peers participated. The Bruininks-Oseretsky Motor Proficiency Test-Short Form (BOTMP-SF), Jebsen Taylor Hand Function Test's writing subtest, and a legibility assessment were administered. Significant differences were found between groups for students' writing speed, legibility, and visual motor control. Visual motor control was correlated both writing speed and legibility. Students with low vision had poorer handwriting performance, with lower legibility and slower writing speed. Writing performance time was related to visual motor control in students with low vision.

  4. Reduced corticomotor excitability and motor skills development in children born preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitcher, Julia B; Schneider, Luke A; Burns, Nicholas R; Drysdale, John L; Higgins, Ryan D; Ridding, Michael C; Nettelbeck, Theodore J; Haslam, Ross R; Robinson, Jeffrey S

    2012-11-15

    The mechanisms underlying the altered neurodevelopment commonly experienced by children born preterm, but without brain lesions, remain unknown. While individuals born the earliest are at most risk, late preterm children also experience significant motor, cognitive and behavioural dysfunction from school age, and reduced income and educational attainment in adulthood. We used transcranial magnetic stimulation and functional assessments to examine corticomotor development in 151 children without cerebral palsy, aged 10-13 years and born after gestations of 25-41 completed weeks. We hypothesized that motor cortex and corticospinal development are altered in preterm children, which underpins at least some of their motor dysfunction. We report for the first time that every week of reduced gestation is associated with a reduction in corticomotor excitability that remains evident in late childhood. This reduced excitability was associated with poorer motor skill development, particularly manual dexterity. However, child adiposity, sex and socio-economic factors regarding the child's home environment soon after birth were also powerful influences on development of motor skills. Preterm birth was also associated with reduced left hemisphere lateralization, but without increasing the likelihood of being left handed per se. These corticomotor findings have implications for normal motor development, but also raise questions regarding possible longer term consequences of preterm birth on motor function.

  5. Mental practice promotes motor anticipation: evidence from skilled music performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Nicolò F; De Buglio, Matteo; Trimarchi, Pietro D; Chielli, Alfonso; Bricolo, Emanuela

    2013-01-01

    Mental practice (MP) has been shown to improve movement accuracy and velocity, but it is not known whether MP can also optimize movement timing. We addressed this question by studying two groups of expert pianists who performed challenging music sequences after either MP or physical practice (PP). Performance and motion-capture data were collected along with responses to imagery questionnaires. The results showed that MP produced performance improvements, although to a lower degree than PP did. MP and PP induced changes in both movement velocity and movement timing, promoting the emergence of movement anticipatory patterns. Furthermore, motor imagery was associated with greater changes in movement velocity, while auditory imagery was associated with greater movement anticipation. Data from a control group that was not allowed to practice confirmed that the changes in accuracy and kinematics were not due to mere repetition of the sequence during testing. This study provides the first evidence of an anticipatory control following MP and extends the present knowledge on the effectiveness of MP to a task of unparalleled motor complexity. The practical implications of MP in the motor domain are discussed.

  6. Mental practice promotes motor anticipation: evidence from skilled music performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolò Francesco Bernardi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Mental practice (MP has been shown to improve movement accuracy and velocity, but it is not known whether MP can also optimize movement timing. We addressed this question by studying two groups of expert pianists who performed challenging music sequences after either MP or physical practice (PP. Performance and motion-capture data were collected along with responses to imagery questionnaires. The results showed that MP produced performance improvements, although to a lower degree than PP did. MP and PP induced changes in both movement velocity and movement timing, promoting the emergence of movement anticipatory patterns. Furthermore, motor imagery was associated with greater changes in movement velocity, while auditory imagery was associated with greater movement anticipation. Data from a control group that was not allowed to practice confirmed that the changes in accuracy and kinematics were not due to mere repetition of the sequence during testing. This study provides the first evidence of an anticipatory control following MP and extends the present knowledge on the effectiveness of mental practice to a task of unparalleled motor complexity. The practical implications of MP in the motor domain are discussed.

  7. Examining the Potential of Web-Based Multimedia to Support Complex Fine Motor Skill Learning: An Empirical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papastergiou, Marina; Pollatou, Elisana; Theofylaktou, Ioannis; Karadimou, Konstantina

    2014-01-01

    Research on the utilization of the Web for complex fine motor skill learning that involves whole body movements is still scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the introduction of a multimedia web-based learning environment, which was targeted at a rhythmic gymnastics routine consisting of eight fine motor skills, into an…

  8. Atypical Acquisition and Atypical Expression of Memory Consolidation Gains in a Motor Skill in Young Female Adults with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adi-Japha, Esther; Fox, Orly; Karni, Avi

    2011-01-01

    Individuals with ADHD often show performance deficits in motor tasks. It is not clear, however, whether this reflects less effective acquisition of skill (procedural knowledge), or deficient consolidation into long-term memory, in ADHD. The aim of the study was to compare the acquisition of skilled motor performance, the expression of…

  9. Associations between Low-Income Children's Fine Motor Skills in Preschool and Academic Performance in Second Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinehart, Laura; Manfra, Louis

    2013-01-01

    Research Findings: Given the growing literature pertaining to the importance of fine motor skills for later academic achievement (D. W. Grissmer, K. J. Grimm, S. M. Aiyer, W. M. Murrah, & J. S. Steele, 2010), the current study examines whether the fine motor skills of economically disadvantaged preschool students predict later academic…

  10. Older age relates to worsening of fine motor skills: A population based study of middle-aged and elderly persons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y.Y. Hoogendam (Jory); F. van der Lijn (Fedde); M.W. Vernooij (Meike); A. Hofman (Albert); W.J. Niessen (Wiro); A. van der Lugt (Aad); M.A. Ikram (Arfan); J.N. van der Geest (Jos)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: In a population-based study of 1,912 community-dwelling persons of 45 years and older we investigated the relation between age and fine motor skills using the Archimedes spiral drawing test. Also, we studied the effect of brain volume on fine motor skills. Methods: Particip

  11. Atypical Acquisition and Atypical Expression of Memory Consolidation Gains in a Motor Skill in Young Female Adults with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adi-Japha, Esther; Fox, Orly; Karni, Avi

    2011-01-01

    Individuals with ADHD often show performance deficits in motor tasks. It is not clear, however, whether this reflects less effective acquisition of skill (procedural knowledge), or deficient consolidation into long-term memory, in ADHD. The aim of the study was to compare the acquisition of skilled motor performance, the expression of…

  12. The Relationship between Motor Skills Difficulties and Self-Esteem in Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodal, Katherine; Bond, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Research findings indicate that there appears to be a relationship between poor motor skills and self-esteem, however this relationship is ambiguous. This review examines the effects of poor motor skills on global and/or domain specific self-esteem. Four databases, Google Scholar and the Manchester Online library were searched for articles…

  13. The Relationship between Motor Skills Difficulties and Self-Esteem in Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodal, Katherine; Bond, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Research findings indicate that there appears to be a relationship between poor motor skills and self-esteem, however this relationship is ambiguous. This review examines the effects of poor motor skills on global and/or domain specific self-esteem. Four databases, Google Scholar and the Manchester Online library were searched for articles…

  14. Prefered time headway in car-following and individual differences in perceptual-motor skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winsum, W. van

    1999-01-01

    18 Subjects were tested in a simulator to assess whether choice of time headway in car-following is related to individual differences in perceptual-motor skills. Drivers with a larger preferred time headway committed larger steering errors while driving on a winding road and were less accurate in

  15. Preferred time headway in car-following and individual differences in perceptual-motor skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Winsum, W

    1998-01-01

    18 subjects were tested in a simulator to assess whether choice of time headway in car-following is related to individual differences in perceptual-motor skills. Drivers with a larger preferred time headway committed larger steering errors while driving on a winding road and were less accurate in

  16. Do Nimble Hands Make for Nimble Lexicons? Fine Motor Skills Predict Knowledge of Embodied Vocabulary Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suggate, Sebastian P.; Stoeger, Heidrun

    2014-01-01

    Theories and research in embodied cognition postulate that cognition grounded in action enjoys a processing advantage. Extending this theory to the study of how fine motor skills (FMS) link to vocabulary development in preschool children, the authors investigated FMS and vocabulary in 76 preschoolers. Building on previous research, they…

  17. Vocational High School Cooperation with PT Astra Honda Motor to Prepare Skilled Labor in Industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoto; Widiyanti

    2017-01-01

    SMK Nasional as a secondary vocational education institution contribute in creating skilled labor to meet the needs of the industry. Motorcycle Engineering expertise program at the SMK Nasional in improving the graduate's quality carries out industrial class education with PT Astra Honda Motor (PT AHM); it is intended so that there is a link and…

  18. Motor Skills Enhance Procedural Memory Formation and Protect against Age-Related Decline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, N.C.; Genzel, L.K.E.; Konrad, B.N; Pawlowski, M.; Neville, D.; Fernandez, G.; Steiger, A.; Dresler, M.

    2016-01-01

    The ability to consolidate procedural memories declines with increasing age. Prior knowledge enhances learning and memory consolidation of novel but related information in various domains. Here, we present evidence that prior motor experience-in our case piano skills-increases procedural learning

  19. Do Nimble Hands Make for Nimble Lexicons? Fine Motor Skills Predict Knowledge of Embodied Vocabulary Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suggate, Sebastian P.; Stoeger, Heidrun

    2014-01-01

    Theories and research in embodied cognition postulate that cognition grounded in action enjoys a processing advantage. Extending this theory to the study of how fine motor skills (FMS) link to vocabulary development in preschool children, the authors investigated FMS and vocabulary in 76 preschoolers. Building on previous research, they…

  20. Preschool Children's Fundamental Motor Skills: A Review of Significant Determinants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iivonen, S.; Sääkslahti, A. K.

    2014-01-01

    Fundamental motor skills (FMS) affect children's physical, social, and cognitive development. To plan successful interventions when promoting the development of children's FMS, the underlying positive determinants for the acquisition of FMS competence during preschool years need to be identified. The purpose of this systematic review was…

  1. Physical Activity and Motor Skills in Children with and without Visual Impairments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwen, Suzanne; Hartman, Esther; Visscher, Chris

    2009-01-01

    HOUWEN, S., E. HARTMAN, and C. VISSCHER. Physical Activity and Motor Skills in Children with and without Visual Impairments. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 41, No, 1, pp. 103-109, 2009. Purpose: To examine the physical activity levels of children with and without visual impairments(VI). We further in

  2. Adolescents' school-related self-concept mediates motor skills and psychosocial well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viholainen, Helena; Aro, Tuija; Purtsi, Jarno; Tolvanen, Asko; Cantell, Marja

    Background The health benefits of exercise participation and physical activity for mental health and psychosocial well-being (PSWB) have been shown in several studies. However, one important background factor, that is, motor skills (MSs), has largely been ignored. In addition, most of the existing

  3. Fine Motor Skills in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Developmental Coordination Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The manual dexterity subtests of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children, and handwriting and computerized graphomotor tasks were used to investigate motor skills of a group of 12 children (11 males, 1 female; mean age 9 years 7 months with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and developmental coordination disorder (DCD and 12 controls at University Medical Centre Groningen, the Netherlands.

  4. Using Video-Based Modeling to Promote Acquisition of Fundamental Motor Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrusnikova, Iva; Rattigan, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    Video-based modeling is becoming increasingly popular for teaching fundamental motor skills to children in physical education. Two frequently used video-based instructional strategies that incorporate modeling are video prompting (VP) and video modeling (VM). Both strategies have been used across multiple disciplines and populations to teach a…

  5. Preferred time headway in car-following and individual differences in perceptual-motor skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Winsum, W

    1998-01-01

    18 subjects were tested in a simulator to assess whether choice of time headway in car-following is related to individual differences in perceptual-motor skills. Drivers with a larger preferred time headway committed larger steering errors while driving on a winding road and were less accurate in ma

  6. Prefered time headway in car-following and individual differences in perceptual-motor skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winsum, W. van

    1999-01-01

    18 Subjects were tested in a simulator to assess whether choice of time headway in car-following is related to individual differences in perceptual-motor skills. Drivers with a larger preferred time headway committed larger steering errors while driving on a winding road and were less accurate in ma

  7. Effects of Peer Mediated Instruction with Task Cards on Motor Skill Acquisition in Tennis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iserbyt, Peter; Madou, Bob; Vergauwen, Lieven; Behets, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    This study compared the motor skill effects of a peer teaching format by means of task cards with a teacher-centered format. Tennis performance of eighth grade students (n = 55) was measured before and after a four week intervention period in a regular physical education program. Results show that peer mediated learning with task cards…

  8. Fine Motor Skill Predicts Expressive Language in Infant Siblings of Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBarton, Eve Sauer; Iverson, Jana M.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated whether fine motor and expressive language skills are related in the later-born siblings of children with autism (heightened-risk, HR infants) who are at increased risk for language delays. We observed 34 HR infants longitudinally from 12 to 36 months. We used parent report and standardized observation measures to assess fine motor…

  9. The Effects of Collectivism-Individualism on the Cooperative Learning of Motor Skill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yi; Sun, Yan; Strobel, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    This study examined how cultural background (collectivism vs. individualism) affects motor skill learning in a dyadic cooperative learning environment. The research context of this study was Nintendo™ Wii Tennis. Twenty college students from a Midwestern university participated in the study, among whom half were from an individualistic culture…

  10. Early communicative behaviors and their relationship to motor skills in extremely preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benassi, Erika; Savini, Silvia; Iverson, Jana M; Guarini, Annalisa; Caselli, Maria Cristina; Alessandroni, Rosina; Faldella, Giacomo; Sansavini, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    Despite the predictive value of early spontaneous communication for identifying risk for later language concerns, very little research has focused on these behaviors in extremely low-gestational-age infants (ELGAmotor development. In this study, communicative behaviors (gestures, vocal utterances and their coordination) were evaluated during mother-infant play interactions in 20 ELGA infants and 20 full-term infants (FT) at 12 months (corrected age for ELGA infants). Relationships between gestures and motor skills, evaluated using the Bayley-III Scales were also examined. ELGA infants, compared with FT infants, showed less advanced communicative, motor, and cognitive skills. Giving and representational gestures were produced at a lower rate by ELGA infants. In addition, pointing gestures and words were produced by a lower percentage of ELGA infants. Significant positive correlations between gestures (pointing and representational gestures) and fine motor skills were found in the ELGA group. We discuss the relevance of examining spontaneous communicative behaviors and motor skills as potential indices of early development that may be useful for clinical assessment and intervention with ELGA infants.

  11. The Inter-Disciplinary Impact of Computerized Application of Spatial Visualization on Motor and Concentration Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Zaretsky

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The present inter-disciplinary research is aimed at investigating the impact of computerized application of spatial visualization on motor and concentration skills. An experiment composed of experimental and control groups for checking the central hypothesis among subjects of the same age group was carried out by physical education MA students. Virtual simulations offer MA students and teachers the unique opportunity to observe and manipulate normally inaccessible objects, variables and processes in real time. The research design focused on a qualitative research comparing the pupils' percents of success in spatial visualization and motor skills between pre- and post- training. The findings showed that just as the students realized the experimental group pupils' achievements, the computer's inter-disciplinary impact on motor performance and concentration skills became clear to the MA students. The virtual computerized training based on spatial visualization mostly contributed to the inter-disciplinary research, physical education and communication. All the findings lead to the conclusion that computerized application of spatial visualization seem to mediate between virtual reality and developing motor skills in real time involving penalty kick, basketball, jumping, etc.

  12. Goal scoring in soccer: A polar coordinate analysis of motor skills used by Lionel Messi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta eCastañer

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Soccer research has traditionally focused on technical and tactical aspects of team play, but few studies have analyzed motor skills in individual actions, such as goal scoring. The objective of this study was to investigate how Lionel Messi, one of the world’s top soccer players, uses his motor skills and laterality in individual attacking actions resulting in a goal. We analyzed 103 goals scored by Messi between over a decade in three competitions: La Liga (n = 74, Copa del Rey (n = 8, and the UEFA Champions League (n = 21. We used an ad hoc observation instrument (OSMOS-soccer player comprising 10 criteria and 50 categories; polar coordinate analysis, a powerful data reduction technique, revealed significant associations for body part and orientation, foot contact zone, turn direction, and locomotion. No significant associations were observed for pitch area or interaction with opponents. Our analysis confirms significant associations between different aspects of motor skill use by Messi immediately before scoring, namely use of lower limbs, foot contact zones, turn direction, use of wings, and orientation of body to move towards the goal. Studies of motor skills in soccer could shed light on the qualities that make certain players unique.

  13. Adolescents' School-Related Self-Concept Mediates Motor Skills and Psychosocial Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viholainen, Helena; Aro, Tuija; Purtsi, Jarno; Tolvanen, Asko; Cantell, Marja

    2014-01-01

    Background: The health benefits of exercise participation and physical activity for mental health and psychosocial well-being (PSWB) have been shown in several studies. However, one important background factor, that is, motor skills (MSs), has largely been ignored. In addition, most of the existing research focuses on poor MSs, that is, poor MSs…

  14. Adolescents' school-related self-concept mediates motor skills and psychosocial well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viholainen, Helena; Aro, Tuija; Purtsi, Jarno; Tolvanen, Asko; Cantell, Marja

    2014-01-01

    Background The health benefits of exercise participation and physical activity for mental health and psychosocial well-being (PSWB) have been shown in several studies. However, one important background factor, that is, motor skills (MSs), has largely been ignored. In addition, most of the existing r

  15. Impaired off-line motor skills consolidation in young primary insomniacs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cellini, Nicola; de Zambotti, Massimiliano; Covassin, Naima; Sarlo, Michela; Stegagno, Luciano

    2014-10-01

    Compelling evidence indicates that sleep can facilitate the off-line consolidation of declarative, perceptual, emotional and procedural memories. Here we assessed the sleep-related off-line consolidation of motor skills in 13 young primary insomniacs (23.31±2.5 yrs) compared to 13 healthy sleepers (24.31±1.6 yrs) using the sequential finger tapping task. During a training session insomniacs performed less correct sequences than controls. However, both groups exhibited similar on-line motor learning in the pre-sleep evening session. After a night of sleep, healthy controls improved their performance, indicating an overnight effect of sleep on motor skills consolidation. In contrast, insomniacs failed to exhibit a sleep-related enhancement in memory performance indicating impairment in the off-line motor skills consolidation process. Our results suggest that young adults with insomnia experience impaired off-line memory consolidation which seems not to be associated with reduced ability to acquire new motor information.

  16. Evaluation of changes somatic features and motor skills of high school students from Kruszwica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cieslicka Miroslawa.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The study of the physical development of children and youth have quite a rich tradition. Conducted observations show that standard of living is very different in different regions of the country. The purpose of physical education is not only to improve the body of a young man, but also providing it with the knowledge and skills related to physical education. The aim of this study was to assess the state of development of somatic children aged 13 - 14 years of high school in Kruszwica, determine the level of their motor skills and evaluation of somatic sexual dimorphism. And the answer: if holiday break contributed to changes somatic features and motor skills of subjects. Materials and methods. The study was conducted twice: before the summer (June and after the summer break, and have them included 72 students (39 boys and 33 girls aged 13 - 14 years. Physical development determined on the somatic features: height and weight, efficiency of the motor, in turn, on the basis of level of skills and mobility. Habit of body students characterized using the Rohrer index. To determine the motor of subjects used trials of the International Physical Fitness Test. Results and conclusions. Analysis of the results allows to draw the following conclusions: •After holiday break students are higher and heavier than before the holidays. •After holiday break increased motor skills of both sexes in the strength of the abdominal muscles, but only in boys increase the explosive power in the legs and improve their speed. •Boys achieved better results after holiday break than girls in testing the speed and explosive power tests of legs. •According to Mollison Index compared characteristics of somatic and motor skills before summer the most varied of agility course and body height, after holidays: the explosive power of the legs and body height. •The impact of the summer break has not affected to changes in somatic and motor skills of the young

  17. Effects of Long-Duration Microgravity on Fine Motor Skills: ISS One-Year Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Kritina; Greene, Maya; Cross, Ernest

    2017-01-01

    Fine motor skills will be critical in future long-duration missions, particularly those skills needed to interact with advanced technologies in next-generation vehicles, spacesuits, and habitats. Studies to date on the effects of microgravity and gravitational transitions on fine motor performance have not yielded conclusive results. Datasets are incomplete-timeline gaps in the microgravity data sessions. Studies have not focused on the fine motor actions that are likely to be required for interacting with software displays and controls (pointing, clicking, dragging, multi-touch/pinching). The majority of studies have used a joystick or arm reaching task. Touchscreen tablets are already in use on ISS, and at least one commercial partner is already planning a cockpit with touchscreens as the primary means of input. We must ensure that crewmembers are ready to perform with computer-based devices after a long-duration voyage and transition to surface operations.

  18. Memory and motor skill components of the WAIS-III Digit Symbol-Coding subtest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreiner, D S; Ryan, J J

    2001-02-01

    We examined motor skill and memory components of the Digit Symbol-Coding subtest of the WAIS-III in a clinical sample. Research using previous versions of the WAIS in non-clinical samples has suggested that the age-related decline in Digit Symbol-Coding scores is more related to motor ability rather than to the memory requirements of the test. Our results extend this conclusion to a clinical sample, using the WAIS-II. Copy scores measure motor skill on the Digit Symbol-Coding subtest, and Incidental Learning scores (Free Recall and Pairing) measure memory. A large proportion of Digit Symbol-Coding variance was explained by Copy scores with Incidental Learning scores controlled, but Incidental Learning scores explained little additional variance when Copy scores were controlled. The same pattern was found when we used the Immediate Memory and General Memory Indexes from the Wechsler Memory Scale-II as independent measures of memory.

  19. Results of experimental testing of hee girl students’ motor skills at aerobic trainings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinova N. P.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to analyze dynamic of motor skills’ formation in girl students, who practice aerobic by experimental program. Material: in the research 40 girl students participated. Motor skills level was tested with the help of state and additional tests. Results: it was found that for training quickness it is necessary to use rope skipping in mode, corresponding to development of this quality. For training maximal strength it is purposeful to use more complex power exercises in ground part of the complex. Conclusions: implementation of rope skipping means in dance aerobic trainings increases training influence on practically all motor skills. Rope skipping permits to doze and regulate training load. The same under musical accompaniment develop sense of rhythm. In some modes such jumps facilitate training of speed power qualities and power endurance.

  20. Motor Skills of Children Newly Diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Prior to and Following Treatment with Stimulant Medication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brossard-Racine, Marie; Shevell, Michael; Snider, Laurie; Belanger, Stacey Ageranioti; Majnemer, Annette

    2012-01-01

    Motor difficulties are common in children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Although preliminary evidence has suggested that methylphenidate can improve the motor skills in children with ADHD and Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD), the effect of stimulant medication on motor performance in children newly diagnosed with…

  1. Aural rehabilitation in children with cochlear implants: a study of cognition, social communication, and motor skill development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeddi, Zahra; Jafari, Zahra; Motasaddi Zarandy, Masoud; Kassani, Aziz

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the benefits of aural rehabilitation on the development of cognition, social communication, and motor skills in children with cochlear implants. The study examined the development of cognition, social communication, and motor skills in 15 deaf children (7 males, 8 females; mean age 45 months 27 days) using the Newsha Developmental Scale before they received the cochlear implants, and then again 2, 4, 6, and 8 months after the implantation. The developmental age, Pretest Developmental Rate, Intervention Efficiency Index, and Proportional Change Index were calculated for each skill. There were significant differences between the preintervention and four follow-up Developmental Rate assessments for cognition, social communication, and motor skills (P skills (P ≤ 0.005). Cochlear implantation and aural rehabilitation may result in accelerated rates of cognition, social communication, and motor skill development in deaf children.

  2. DO INFANTS USING BABY WALKERS SUFFER DEVELOPMENTAL DELAYS IN ACQUISITION OF MOTOR SKILLS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Talebian

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveDevelopment is a complex process, completed over a specific period of time, through the maturation of the nervous system. It is affected by genetic, ethnic, nutritional, social, and economic factors; one of the environmental factors affecting the acquisition of motor skills in infants is the use of baby walkers. Since this device is very commonly used for infants in our country, we conducted this study to evaluate its effects on the acquisition of motor skills in this age group of children. Materials & MethodsThis longitudinal study was conducted in 2005 on 300 infants referring to the Primary Health Care Centers of Kashan district in 1384; the infants were divided into two groups of 150 babies each, with the case group using baby walkers, while the other 150, the controls, did not. All babies were followed for two years, and the ages for acquisition of motor skills were documented during face-to face or telephone interviews with the parents. Data were analyzed using the T-test and the Chi Square test.ResultsOf the study population, 175 babies (58.33% were male. The mean age of acquisition of motor skills including rolling, crawling, moving on hands and feet, sitting without and with help, standing and walking dependently and independently were found to be delayed in infants using baby walkers, a difference between the two groups of walker users and non- walker users that was statistically significant (P<0.001.ConclusionConsidering the adverse effects that walkers have on the acquisition of motor skills in infants, as demonstrated by the results of this study, we do not recommend the use of baby walkers in infants.

  3. Influence of self-controlled feedback on learning a serial motor skill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Soowoen; Ali, Asif; Kim, Wonchan; Kim, Jingu; Choi, Sungmook; Radlo, Steven J

    2015-04-01

    Self-controlled feedback on a variety of tasks are well established as effective means of facilitating motor skill learning. This study assessed the effects of self-controlled feedback on the performance of a serial motor skill. The task was to learn the sequence of 18 movements that make up the Taekwondo Poomsae Taegeuk first, which is the first beginner's practice form learned in this martial art. Twenty-four novice female participants (M age=27.2 yr., SD=1.8) were divided into two groups. All participants performed 16 trials in 4 blocks of the acquisition phase and 20 hr. later, 8 trials in 2 blocks of the retention phase. The self-controlled feedback group had significantly higher performance compared to the yoked-feedback group with regard to acquisition and retention. The results of this study may contribute to the literature regarding feedback by extending the usefulness of self-controlled feedback for learning a serial skill.

  4. Sport stacking activities in school children's motor skill development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuhua; Coleman, Diane; Ransdell, Mary; Coleman, Lyndsie; Irwin, Carol

    2011-10-01

    This study examined the impact of a 12-wk. sport stacking intervention on reaction time (RT), manual dexterity, and hand-eye coordination in elementary school-aged children. 80 Grade 2 students participated in a 15-min. sport stacking practice session every school day for 12 wk., and were tested on psychomotor performance improvement. Tests for choice RT, manual dexterity, and photoelectric rotary pursuit tracking were conducted pre- and post-intervention for both experimental group (n = 36) and the controls (n = 44) who did no sport stacking. Students who had the intervention showed a greater improvement in two-choice RT. No other group difference was found. Such sport stacking activities may facilitate children's central processing and perceptual-motor integration.

  5. Impact of clinical types and involved sites on the recovery of gross motor function after interventions in children with cerebral palsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongying Li; Huafeng Yu; Yan Huang; Lin Sang; Haixia Ha

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND:The recovery of gross motor function is the basis for the improvement of other abilities.It is helpful for judging the rehabilitative effect and prognosis of children with cerebral palsy to analyze the effect of different clinical types on the gross motor ability. OBJECTIVE:To investigate the influence of different clinical types and different involved sites of limbs of cerebral palsy on the effect of rehabilitative interventions on gross motor function.DESIGN:A controlled observation before and after treatment.SETTING:Rehabilitation Center of Qilu Children's Hospital,Shandong University.PARTICIPANTS:Totally 138 children with cerebral palsy having complete data,who were hospitalized for 12 months in the Rehabilitation Center of Qilu Children's Hospital,Shandong University,were selected from April 2004 to September 2006,including 97 males and 41 females;55 cases were younger than 2 years old.47 cases younger than 4 years and 36 cases younger than 6 years;76 cases of spasm type,30 cases of involuntary movement and 32 cases of mixed type(mixture of spasm and involuntary movement);64 cases of diplegia.46 cases of tetraplegia and 28 cases of hemiplegia.All the children and their relatives were informed and agreed to cooperate with the experiments.METHODS:All the 138 children with cerebral palsy were given comprehensive rehabilitative treatment:The assessment of comprehensive ability was conducted to all the children with cerebral palsy by the rehabilitative group before rehabilitation treatment,the rehabilitative objective was established according to the results of the assessment,then feasible rehabilitative training plan was made up.The comprehensive rehabilitative treatment was conducted as planned afterwards:①Physical therapy:The Bobath method was used.and motor development was promoted by proprioceptive hand technique.②Traditional Chinese medicine therapy:Massage:The children were massaged by using the maneuvers of push

  6. Evaluation of motor skills in children participating in social/sports projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Maurilia dos Santos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Besides the biological evolutionary process, studies have shown that environmental and social factors can influence the motor development. The aim of this study was to evaluate the motor skills of students participating in social educational projects, sports projects and those not engaged in structured extracurricular activities in Florianópolis - SC - Brazil.Were evaluated 136 children 8 - 9 years old, both sexes, from 40 public schools. For data collection was used the Motor Development Scale and a structured interview regarding the activities undertaken by the child during the period that they are not in school. Descriptive statistics, ANOVA and the Post-hoc test of Tukey were used to data analysis, with significance level p < .05. The results showed higher patterns of motor development in children that participating in social projects with sport character and expressive low coordination patterns in children who do not participate in structured activities or projects outside of school.

  7. Children show limited movement repertoire when learning a novel motor skill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mei-Hua; Farshchiansadegh, Ali; Ranganathan, Rajiv

    2017-09-27

    Examining age differences in motor learning using real-world tasks is often problematic due to task novelty and biomechanical confounds. Here, we investigated how children and adults acquire a novel motor skill in a virtual environment. Participants of three different age groups (9-year-olds, 12-year-olds, and adults) learned to use their upper body movements to control a cursor on a computer screen. Results showed that 9-year-old and 12-year-old children showed poorer ability to control the cursor at the end of practice. Critically, when we investigated the movement coordination, we found that the lower task performance of children was associated with limited exploration of their movement repertoire. These results reveal the critical role of motor exploration in understanding developmental differences in motor learning. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Fundamental Movement Skills and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staples, Kerri L.; Reid, Greg

    2010-01-01

    Delays and deficits may both contribute to atypical development of movement skills by children with ASD. Fundamental movement skills of 25 children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) (ages 9-12 years) were compared to three typically developing groups using the "Test of Gross Motor Development" ("TGMD-2"). The group matched on chronological age…

  9. Development of a skilled forelimb reach task in mice and the effects of C-8 projecting cortical spinal neuron ablation in motor learning by photothermal Au nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Montenegro, Justin R.

    2015-01-01

    Motor learning is measured quantitatively through many behavioral tests. Behavioral models for motor learning observe skill acquisition and performance over a period of time within rodents. One such behavioral test is the skilled forelimb reach-to-grasp test. This skilled forelimb reach-to-grasp test has been extensively used to observe motor learning in behavioral studies and is an appropriate metric that can be used to asses experiments of the motor cortex. In this study, the skilled foreli...

  10. Diminished motor skill development in elderly: indications for limited motor chunk use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwey, Willem B.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined whether elderly use motor chunks after practicing discrete keying sequences, just like young adults, or whether they perhaps learn these movement patterns in a different way. To that end, elderly (75–88) and young adults (18–28) practiced as part of the discrete sequence p

  11. Diminished motor skill development in elderly: indications for limited motor chunk use.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwey, Willem B.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined whether elderly use motor chunks after practicing discrete keying sequences, just like young adults, or whether they perhaps learn these movement patterns in a different way. To that end, elderly (75–88) and young adults (18–28) practiced as part of the discrete sequence

  12. Associations of postural knowledge and basic motor skill with dyspraxia in autism: implication for abnormalities in distributed connectivity and motor learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowell, Lauren R; Mahone, E Mark; Mostofsky, Stewart H

    2009-09-01

    Children with autism often have difficulty performing skilled movements. Praxis performance requires basic motor skill, knowledge of representations of the movement (mediated by parietal regions), and transcoding of these representations into movement plans (mediated by premotor circuits). The goals of this study were (a) to determine whether dyspraxia in autism is associated with impaired representational ("postural") knowledge and (b) to examine the contributions of postural knowledge and basic motor skill to dyspraxia in autism. Thirty-seven children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and 50 typically developing (TD) children, ages 8-13, completed (a) an examination of basic motor skills, (b) a postural knowledge test assessing praxis discrimination, and (c) a praxis examination. Children with ASD showed worse basic motor skill and postural knowledge than did controls. The ASD group continued to show significantly poorer praxis than did controls after accounting for age, IQ, basic motor skill, and postural knowledge. Dyspraxia in autism appears to be associated with impaired formation of spatial representations, as well as transcoding and execution. Distributed abnormality across parietal, premotor, and motor circuitry, as well as anomalous connectivity, may be implicated.

  13. Children's self-perceived bodily competencies and associations with motor skills, body mass index, teachers' evaluations, and parents' concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toftegaard-stoeckel, Jan; Groenfeldt, Vivian; Andersen, Lars Bo

    2010-10-01

    The associations between physical competence, self-perceived bodily competence, parental concern for their children's motor skill development, and teachers' evaluation of their bodily competence were assessed in 646 six- to seven-year-olds. Physical competence was assessed by the German motor ability test "Körperkoordinationstest für Kinder", while the children's, their parents', and their teachers' evaluations were obtained through questionnaires. Parental concern, teacher evaluation, and a high body mass index were the strongest predictors of low physical competence (motor skill quotient Teachers' evaluation of bodily competence was associated with low self-perceived bodily competence in the children even after adjustment for motor skill quotient, with an odds ratio of 2.3 (P teachers' evaluation of children's motor skills should be considered a key factor when tracking and assessing physical competencies among youth.

  14. Biographic and behavioral factors are associated with music-related motor skills in children pianists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spector, June T; Yong, Raymond; Altenmüller, Eckart; Jabusch, Hans-Christian

    2014-10-01

    This study aimed to identify biographical and behavioral factors associated with children pianists' motor skills using an objective assessment of a music-relevant motor task. Motor skills at the piano were assessed in 30 children pianists by measuring temporal unevenness in standardized scale playing using musical instrument digital interface (MIDI)-based scale analysis. Questionnaires were used to collect detailed information about the amount of time playing the piano, practice characteristics, attitudes toward music and practice, and the environment of music and practice. Associations between performance values and variables from the questionnaire were investigated using multivariable linear regression. A higher number of years playing the piano, more frequent parental involvement in the child's practice, more frequent practice of technical exercises, and greater enjoyment of practice and of the visual arts were associated with better motor performance. In addition to cumulative experience and aspects of practice, extrinsic motivational factors (e.g., parental interest) and intrinsic motivational factors (e.g., an artistic disposition) were associated with better performance on a musically-relevant motor task in children pianists.

  15. Effect of observation combined with motor imagery of a skilled hand-motor task on motor cortical excitability: difference between novice and expert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukazaki, Izumi; Uehara, Kazumasa; Morishita, Takuya; Ninomiya, Masato; Funase, Kozo

    2012-06-19

    We examined the effects of observation combined with motor imagery (MI) of a skilled hand-motor task on motor cortex excitability, which was assessed by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Novices and experts at 3-ball cascade juggling (3BCJ) participated in this study. In one trial, the subjects observed a video clip of 3BCJ while imagining performing it. In addition, the subjects also imagined performing 3BCJ without video clip observation. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were recorded from the hand muscles that were activated by the task during each trial. In the novices, the MEP amplitude was significantly increased by video clip observation combined with MI. In contrast, MI without video clip observation significantly increased the MEP amplitude of the experts. These results suggest that action observation of 3BCJ increases the ability of novices to make their MI performing the task. Meanwhile, experts use their own motor program to recall their MI of the task. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Motor skills in Brazilian children with developmental coordination disorder versus children with motor typical development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Ana Amélia; Magalhães, Livia Castro; Rezende, Marcia Bastos

    2014-12-01

    The aims of the study were to compare the performance of children with probable developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and motor typically developing peers on items from the Assessment of Motor Coordination and Dexterity (AMCD), to determine whether age, gender and type of school had significant impact on the scores of the AMCD items, to estimate the frequency of DCD among Brazilian children ages 7 and 8 years and to investigate whether children with DCD exhibit more symptoms of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder than children with motor typical development. A total of 793 children were screened by the Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire - Brazilian version (DCDQ-Brazil); 90 were identified as at risk for DCD; 91 matched controls were selected from the remaining participants. Children in both groups were evaluated with the AMCD, the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC-II) and Raven's coloured progressive matrices. Thirty-four children were classified as probable DCD, as defined by a combination of the DCDQ-Brazil and MABC-II scores (fifth percentile). The final frequency of DCD among children ages 7 and 8 years was 4.3%. There were significant differences between children with and without DCD on the majority of AMCD items, indicating its potential for identifying DCD in Brazilian children. The use of a motor test (MABC-II) that is not validated for the Brazilian children is a limitation of the present study. Further studies should investigate whether the AMCD is useful for identifying DCD in other age groups and in children from different regions of Brazil. The application of the AMCD may potentially contribute in improving occupational therapy practice in Brazil and in identifying children that could benefit from occupational therapy services.

  17. Effects of robotically modulating kinematic variability on motor skill learning and motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Jaime E; Reinkensmeyer, David J

    2015-04-01

    It is unclear how the variability of kinematic errors experienced during motor training affects skill retention and motivation. We used force fields produced by a haptic robot to modulate the kinematic errors of 30 healthy adults during a period of practice in a virtual simulation of golf putting. On day 1, participants became relatively skilled at putting to a near and far target by first practicing without force fields. On day 2, they warmed up at the task without force fields, then practiced with force fields that either reduced or augmented their kinematic errors and were finally assessed without the force fields active. On day 3, they returned for a long-term assessment, again without force fields. A control group practiced without force fields. We quantified motor skill as the variability in impact velocity at which participants putted the ball. We quantified motivation using a self-reported, standardized scale. Only individuals who were initially less skilled benefited from training; for these people, practicing with reduced kinematic variability improved skill more than practicing in the control condition. This reduced kinematic variability also improved self-reports of competence and satisfaction. Practice with increased kinematic variability worsened these self-reports as well as enjoyment. These negative motivational effects persisted on day 3 in a way that was uncorrelated with actual skill. In summary, robotically reducing kinematic errors in a golf putting training session improved putting skill more for less skilled putters. Robotically increasing kinematic errors had no performance effect, but decreased motivation in a persistent way.

  18. Association timed "up and go" test with respect to gross motor function classification system level in children diagnosed as cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjivani N Dhote

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Timed "up and go" (TUG test is a quick test, used in clinical practice as an outcome measure to assess functional ambulatory mobility or dynamic balance in adults. However, little information is available of TUG test used in cerebral palsy (CP. Hence, the purpose of our study was to find score of TUG with respect to gross motor function classification system (GMFCS in CP children. Aims: To find the mean score of TUG test with respect to GMFCS level in children diagnosed as CP. Materials and Methods: It was a cross-sectional observational study conducted in neuro rehabilitation unit and included 30 CP children of 4-12 years, those within GMFCS level I, II, III, and IQ ≥50. The sampling technique used was purposive sampling excluding children with cognitive deficit. Subjects performed on TUG on three occasions: Initial assessment (time 1; 30 min after initial assessment (time 2; 1 week after initial assessment (time 3. Three trials were conducted for each of the three occasions. A mean score of three trials was documented as final score. The mean of scores of TUG test of all the subjects within the particular GMFCS levels was calculated. Results: Significant variation was seen in the TUG score for three levels of GMFCS. Conclusions: Significant variation was seen as GMFCS levels get increases time duration of TUG also increases.

  19. Age-dependent effects of chronic intermittent ethanol treatment: Gross motor behavior and body weight in aged, adult and adolescent rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Douglas B; Mittleman, Guy

    2017-09-14

    The proportion of people in the population who are elderly is rapidly increasing. In addition, dangerous alcohol consumption in this demographic is rising. Approximately 33% of all people with an alcohol use disorder are diagnosed with late onset alcoholism. However, few suitable animal models for late onset alcoholism exist, making it difficult to investigate the impact of alcoholism later in life. The current study investigated if chronic intermittent ethanol exposure via intraperitoneal injections every other day for 20days in aged, adult and adolescent male rats differentially alters body weight and impairs gross motor behavior as measured by the aerial righting reflex. The body weight of aged and adult rats were significantly decreased by chronic intermittent ethanol exposure while the body weight of adolescent rats was not impacted. In addition, the aerial righting reflex of aged rats was significantly more impaired by alcohol exposure than the aerial righting reflex of adult or adolescent animals. Chronic intermittent ethanol exposure did not produce tolerance in the aerial righting reflex for any of the three age groups. The differential age sensitivity in the aerial righting reflex was not due to differential blood ethanol concentrations. The current work demonstrates the risk factors of chronic alcohol use in the elderly and highlights the need for additional study in this vulnerable demographic. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Motor-Skill Learning in an Insect Inspired Neuro-Computational Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arena, Eleonora; Arena, Paolo; Strauss, Roland; Patané, Luca

    2017-01-01

    In nature, insects show impressive adaptation and learning capabilities. The proposed computational model takes inspiration from specific structures of the insect brain: after proposing key hypotheses on the direct involvement of the mushroom bodies (MBs) and on their neural organization, we developed a new architecture for motor learning to be applied in insect-like walking robots. The proposed model is a nonlinear control system based on spiking neurons. MBs are modeled as a nonlinear recurrent spiking neural network (SNN) with novel characteristics, able to memorize time evolutions of key parameters of the neural motor controller, so that existing motor primitives can be improved. The adopted control scheme enables the structure to efficiently cope with goal-oriented behavioral motor tasks. Here, a six-legged structure, showing a steady-state exponentially stable locomotion pattern, is exposed to the need of learning new motor skills: moving through the environment, the structure is able to modulate motor commands and implements an obstacle climbing procedure. Experimental results on a simulated hexapod robot are reported; they are obtained in a dynamic simulation environment and the robot mimicks the structures of Drosophila melanogaster. PMID:28337138

  1. Enhancing Motor Skill Learning With Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation - A concise review with applications to stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeetha eMadhavan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In the past few years, there has been a rapid increase in the application of non-invasive brain stimulation to study brain-behavior relations in an effort to potentially increase the effectiveness of neuro-rehabilitation. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS, an emerging technique of non-invasive brain stimulation, has shown to produce beneficial neural effects in consequence with improvements in motor behavior. tDCS has gained popularity as it is economical, simple to use, portable and increases corticospinal excitability without producing any serious side effects. As tDCS has been increasingly investigated as an effective tool for various disorders, numerous improvements and developments have been proposed with respect to this technique. tDCS has been widely used to identify the functional relevance of particular brain regions in motor skill learning and also to facilitate activity in specific cortical areas involved in motor learning, in turn improving motor function. Understanding the interaction between tDCS and motor learning can lead to important implications for developing various rehabilitation approaches. This paper provides a brief overview of tDCS as a neuromodulatory technique and a comprehensive understanding of the interaction of tDCS with motor learning. The paper further briefly goes through the application of this priming technique in the stroke population.

  2. Preferred time headway in car-following and individual differences in perceptual-motor skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Winsum, W

    1998-12-01

    18 subjects were tested in a simulator to assess whether choice of time headway in car-following is related to individual differences in perceptual-motor skills. Drivers with a larger preferred time headway committed larger steering errors while driving on a winding road and were less accurate in maintaining a constant distance to a lead vehicle that varied its speed between 80 and 100 km/hr. compared to drivers with a smaller preferred time headway. Also, time to collision with the lead vehicle hardly affected the braking response of drivers with a larger preferred time headway. In contrast, the braking response of drivers with a smaller preferred time headway was strongly affected by time to collision with the lead vehicle. The results support the hypothesis that preferred time headway is at least to some extent the result of adaptation to the driver's braking performance and perceptual-motor skills.

  3. Relationship between motor skill and competition result of the collegiate badminton athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasaki Satoshi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a lot of studies have investigated the talent identification in the world of sports. It is very important to get to know an elite athlete's motor skills. The present study investigated the index of talent identification for collegiate badminton athletes. Subjects were 20 badminton athletes (10 men and 10 women, from 18 to 22 years old whom belonged to the university. The men divided into the athletes who participated in intercollege badminton championship, and other athletes. The women divided into the athletes who had result best 16 and more in intercollege badminton championship, and other athletes. we measured the physique (3 items and motor skill (6 items. As a result, the positive correlation was seen between the competition result and the pro-agility test in men, and the vertical jump in women. Our findings suggest that adolescent badminton athletes with higher score have possibility to advance their career in badminton.

  4. Motor-Life-Skills of Toddlers--A Comparative Study of Norwegian and British Boys and Girls Applying the Early Years Movement Skills Checklist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Thomas; Reikerås, Elin

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses motor-life-skills in a sample (n?=?1083) of 33 months (2.9-year-old) children in Norwegian early childhood education and care institutions (ECEC-institutions) and to compare the findings with the results from a similar British sample. The Early Years Movement Skills Checklist (EYMSC) (Chambers and Sugden 2006) was applied.…

  5. Early developmental influences on self-esteem trajectories from adolescence through adulthood: Impact of birth weight and motor skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Kristie L; Schmidt, Louis A; Ferro, Mark A; Missiuna, Cheryl; Saigal, Saroj; Boyle, Michael H; Van Lieshout, Ryan J

    2017-04-20

    While the trajectory of self-esteem from adolescence to adulthood varies from person to person, little research has examined how differences in early developmental processes might affect these pathways. This study examined how early motor skill development interacted with preterm birth status to predict self-esteem from adolescence through the early 30s. We addressed this using the oldest known, prospectively followed cohort of extremely low birth weight (self-report, and self-esteem was reported during three follow-up periods (age 12-16, age 22-26, and age 29-36). We found that birth weight status moderated the association between early motor skills and self-esteem. Stable over three decades, the self-esteem of normal birth weight participants was sensitive to early motor skills such that those with poorer motor functioning manifested lower self-esteem, while those with better motor skills manifested higher self-esteem. Conversely, differences in motor skill development did not affect the self-esteem from adolescence to adulthood in individuals born at extremely low birth weight. Early motor skill development may exert differential effects on self-esteem, depending on whether one is born at term or prematurely.

  6. Differences in visuo-motor control in skilled vs. novice martial arts athletes during sustained and transient attention tasks: a motor-related cortical potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Lopez, Javier; Fernandez, Thalia; Silva-Pereyra, Juan; Martinez Mesa, Juan A; Di Russo, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive and motor processes are essential for optimal athletic performance. Individuals trained in different skills and sports may have specialized cognitive abilities and motor strategies related to the characteristics of the activity and the effects of training and expertise. Most studies have investigated differences in motor-related cortical potential (MRCP) during self-paced tasks in athletes but not in stimulus-related tasks. The aim of the present study was to identify the differences in performance and MRCP between skilled and novice martial arts athletes during two different types of tasks: a sustained attention task and a transient attention task. Behavioral and electrophysiological data from twenty-two martial arts athletes were obtained while they performed a continuous performance task (CPT) to measure sustained attention and a cued continuous performance task (c-CPT) to measure transient attention. MRCP components were analyzed and compared between groups. Electrophysiological data in the CPT task indicated larger prefrontal positive activity and greater posterior negativity distribution prior to a motor response in the skilled athletes, while novices showed a significantly larger response-related P3 after a motor response in centro-parietal areas. A different effect occurred in the c-CPT task in which the novice athletes showed strong prefrontal positive activity before a motor response and a large response-related P3, while in skilled athletes, the prefrontal activity was absent. We propose that during the CPT, skilled athletes were able to allocate two different but related processes simultaneously according to CPT demand, which requires controlled attention and controlled motor responses. On the other hand, in the c-CPT, skilled athletes showed better cue facilitation, which permitted a major economy of resources and "automatic" or less controlled responses to relevant stimuli. In conclusion, the present data suggest that motor expertise

  7. Differences in Visuo-Motor Control in Skilled vs. Novice Martial Arts Athletes during Sustained and Transient Attention Tasks: A Motor-Related Cortical Potential Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Lopez, Javier; Fernandez, Thalia; Silva-Pereyra, Juan; Martinez Mesa, Juan A.; Di Russo, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive and motor processes are essential for optimal athletic performance. Individuals trained in different skills and sports may have specialized cognitive abilities and motor strategies related to the characteristics of the activity and the effects of training and expertise. Most studies have investigated differences in motor-related cortical potential (MRCP) during self-paced tasks in athletes but not in stimulus-related tasks. The aim of the present study was to identify the differences in performance and MRCP between skilled and novice martial arts athletes during two different types of tasks: a sustained attention task and a transient attention task. Behavioral and electrophysiological data from twenty-two martial arts athletes were obtained while they performed a continuous performance task (CPT) to measure sustained attention and a cued continuous performance task (c-CPT) to measure transient attention. MRCP components were analyzed and compared between groups. Electrophysiological data in the CPT task indicated larger prefrontal positive activity and greater posterior negativity distribution prior to a motor response in the skilled athletes, while novices showed a significantly larger response-related P3 after a motor response in centro-parietal areas. A different effect occurred in the c-CPT task in which the novice athletes showed strong prefrontal positive activity before a motor response and a large response-related P3, while in skilled athletes, the prefrontal activity was absent. We propose that during the CPT, skilled athletes were able to allocate two different but related processes simultaneously according to CPT demand, which requires controlled attention and controlled motor responses. On the other hand, in the c-CPT, skilled athletes showed better cue facilitation, which permitted a major economy of resources and “automatic” or less controlled responses to relevant stimuli. In conclusion, the present data suggest that motor expertise

  8. Parental Writing Support and Preschoolers' Early Literacy, Language, and Fine Motor Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindman, Samantha W; Skibbe, Lori E; Hindman, Annemarie H; Aram, Dorit; Morrison, Frederick J

    2014-01-01

    The current study examines the nature and variability of parents' aid to preschoolers in the context of a shared writing task, as well as the relations between this support and children's literacy, vocabulary, and fine motor skills. In total, 135 preschool children (72 girls) and their parents (primarily mothers) in an ethnically diverse, middle-income community were observed while writing a semi-structured invitation for a pretend birthday party together. Children's phonological awareness, alphabet knowledge, word decoding, vocabulary, and fine motor skills were also assessed. Results revealed that parents provided variable, but generally low-level, support for children's approximation of sound-symbol correspondence in their writing (i.e., graphophonemic support), as well as for their production of letter forms (i.e., print support). Parents frequently accepted errors rather than asking for corrections (i.e., demand for precision). Further analysis of the parent-child dyads (n = 103) who wrote the child's name on the invitation showed that parents provided higher graphophonemic, but not print, support when writing the child's name than other words. Overall parental graphophonemic support was positively linked to children's decoding and fine motor skills, whereas print support and demand for precision were not related to any of the child outcomes. In sum, this study indicates that while parental support for preschoolers' writing may be minimal, it is uniquely linked to key literacy-related outcomes in preschool.

  9. Acquisition of Motor and Cognitive Skills through Repetition in Typically Developing Children.

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    Sara Magallón

    Full Text Available Procedural memory allows acquisition, consolidation and use of motor skills and cognitive routines. Automation of procedures is achieved through repeated practice. In children, improvement in procedural skills is a consequence of natural neurobiological development and experience.The aim of the present research was to make a preliminary evaluation and description of repetition-based improvement of procedures in typically developing children (TDC. Ninety TDC children aged 6-12 years were asked to perform two procedural learning tasks. In an assembly learning task, which requires predominantly motor skills, we measured the number of assembled pieces in 60 seconds. In a mirror drawing learning task, which requires more cognitive functions, we measured time spent and efficiency. Participants were tested four times for each task: three trials were consecutive and the fourth trial was performed after a 10-minute nonverbal interference task. The influence of repeated practice on performance was evaluated by means of the analysis of variance with repeated measures and the paired-sample test. Correlation coefficients and simple linear regression test were used to examine the relationship between age and performance.TDC achieved higher scores in both tasks through repetition. Older children fitted more pieces than younger ones in assembling learning and they were faster and more efficient at the mirror drawing learning task.These findings indicate that three consecutive trials at a procedural task increased speed and efficiency, and that age affected basal performance in motor-cognitive procedures.

  10. FORELIMB PREFERENCE AND ASYMMETRY OF FOOD-PROCURING MOTOR SKILL PERFORMANCE BY RATS

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    I.S. Stashkevich

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Adult Wistar rats were trained to obtain food pellets from a narrow horizontal tube-feeder using their preferred forepaw when limb choice was available and using their non-preferred forepaw under forced retraining. Speed and precision variables of the performance of motor tasks using the preferred and non-preferred paws were examined in rats with different motor preferences. The dominant limb did not confer an advantage for complete skill performance compared to the non-preferred limb in either left-handed (left paw or right-handed (right paw rats. The total performance time of food-procuring tasks was shorter when using the left paw (a dominant right hemisphere, regardless of whether it was preferred (for left-handers or not (for right-handers under forced use. However, the preferred paw was most successful at the final stage of the performance of this skill (i.e. at grasping and food extraction compared to the non-preferred paw for both left- and right-handed rats. The advantage of the preferred paw in the accuracy of performance at the final stage was accompanied by slower performance of a quasi-ballistic component of separate movements compared to the non-preferred paw. The choice that defines paw preference can be determined by the specific motor and precision abilities necessary for successful completion of a food-procuring skill.

  11. Tactile stimulation during sleep alters slow oscillation and spindle densities but not motor skill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Sofia Isabel Ribeiro; Beijamini, Felipe; Weber, Frederik D; Vincenzi, Roberta Almeida; da Silva, Felipe Augusto Cini; Louzada, Fernando Mazzilli

    2017-02-01

    Studies using targeted memory reactivation have shown that presentation of auditory or olfactory contextual cues during sleep can bias hippocampal reactivations towards the preferential replay of the cue-associated material, thereby resulting in enhanced consolidation of that information. If the same cortical ensembles are indeed used for encoding and storage of a given piece of information, forcing the sleeping brain to re-engage in task-intrinsic information processing should disturb the natural ongoing consolidation processes and therefore impair possible sleep benefits. Here we aimed at recreating an integral part of the sensory experience of a motor skill in a daytime nap, by means of a tactile stimulation. We hypothesized that tampering with the tactile component of a motor skill during sleep would result in hindered performance at retest, due to interference between the highly congruent incoming stimuli and the core skill trace. Contrary to our predictions, the tactile stimulation did not influence neither speed nor accuracy, when compared to natural sleep. However, an exploratory sleep EEG analysis revealed stimulation-induced alterations in the abundance and cortical topography of slow oscillations and spindles. These findings suggest that despite the lack of a significant effect on motor behavior, tactile stimulation induced changes in EEG features suggestive of a possible uncoupling between the sleep oscillations thought to underlie consolidation processes, i.e. slow oscillations and sleep spindles.

  12. Patterned-string tasks: relation between fine motor skills and visual-spatial abilities in parrots.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Krasheninnikova

    Full Text Available String-pulling and patterned-string tasks are often used to analyse perceptual and cognitive abilities in animals. In addition, the paradigm can be used to test the interrelation between visual-spatial and motor performance. Two Australian parrot species, the galah (Eolophus roseicapilla and the cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus, forage on the ground, but only the galah uses its feet to manipulate food. I used a set of string pulling and patterned-string tasks to test whether usage of the feet during foraging is a prerequisite for solving the vertical string pulling problem. Indeed, the two species used techniques that clearly differed in the extent of beak-foot coordination but did not differ in terms of their success in solving the string pulling task. However, when the visual-spatial skills of the subjects were tested, the galahs outperformed the cockatiels. This supports the hypothesis that the fine motor skills needed for advanced beak-foot coordination may be interrelated with certain visual-spatial abilities needed for solving patterned-string tasks. This pattern was also found within each of the two species on the individual level: higher motor abilities positively correlated with performance in patterned-string tasks. This is the first evidence of an interrelation between visual-spatial and motor abilities in non-mammalian animals.

  13. Patterned-string tasks: relation between fine motor skills and visual-spatial abilities in parrots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasheninnikova, Anastasia

    2013-01-01

    String-pulling and patterned-string tasks are often used to analyse perceptual and cognitive abilities in animals. In addition, the paradigm can be used to test the interrelation between visual-spatial and motor performance. Two Australian parrot species, the galah (Eolophus roseicapilla) and the cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus), forage on the ground, but only the galah uses its feet to manipulate food. I used a set of string pulling and patterned-string tasks to test whether usage of the feet during foraging is a prerequisite for solving the vertical string pulling problem. Indeed, the two species used techniques that clearly differed in the extent of beak-foot coordination but did not differ in terms of their success in solving the string pulling task. However, when the visual-spatial skills of the subjects were tested, the galahs outperformed the cockatiels. This supports the hypothesis that the fine motor skills needed for advanced beak-foot coordination may be interrelated with certain visual-spatial abilities needed for solving patterned-string tasks. This pattern was also found within each of the two species on the individual level: higher motor abilities positively correlated with performance in patterned-string tasks. This is the first evidence of an interrelation between visual-spatial and motor abilities in non-mammalian animals.

  14. The relationship between the behavior problems and motor skills of students with intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yangchool; Jeoung, Bogja

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between the motor skills and the behavior problems of students with intellectual disabilities. The study participants were 117 students with intellectual disabilities who were between 7 and 25 years old (male, n=79; female, n=38) and attending special education schools in South Korea. Motor skill abilities were assessed by using the second version of the Bruininks-Oseretsky test of motor proficiency, which includes subtests in fine motor control, manual coordination, body coordination, strength, and agility. Data were analyzed with SPSS IBM 21 by using correlation and regression analyses, and the significance level was set at Pmotor precision and integration had a statistically significant influence on aggressive behavior. Manual dexterity showed a statistically significant influence on somatic complaint and anxiety/depression, and bilateral coordination had a statistically significant influence on social problems, attention problem, and aggressive behavior. Our results showed that balance had a statistically significant influence on social problems and aggressive behavior, and speed and agility had a statistically significant influence on social problems and aggressive behavior. Upper limb coordination and strength had a statistically significant influence on social problems.

  15. TMS enhances retention of a motor skill in Parkinson’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moisello, Clara; Blanco, Daniella; Fontanesi, Cecilia; Lin, Jing; Biagioni, Milton; Kumar, Pawan; Brys, Miroslaw; Loggini, Andrea; Marinelli, Lucio; Abbruzzese, Giovanni; Quartarone, Angelo; Tononi, Giulio; Di Rocco, Alessandro; Ghilardi, Maria Felice

    2015-01-01

    Background In Parkinson’s disease (PD), skill retention is poor, even when acquisition rate is generally preserved. Recent work in normal subjects suggests that 5 Hz-repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (5Hz-rTMS) may induce phenomena of long-term potentiation at the cortical level. Objective/Hypothesis We thus verified whether, in PD, 5Hz-rTMS enhances retention of a visuo-motor skill that involves the activity of the right posterior parietal cortex. Methods A group of patients with PD was tested in two two-day sessions, separated by one week (treatment and placebo sessions). The first day of each session, they learned to adapt their movements to a step-wise 60° visual rotation. Immediately after the task, either real 5Hz-rTMS (treatment) or sham (placebo) stimulation was applied over the right posterior parietal cortex (P6). Retention of this motor skill was tested the following day. Results In patients with PD, adaptation achieved at the end of training was comparable in the treatment and placebo sessions and was similar to that of a group of age-matched controls. However, retention indices tested on the following day were significantly lower in the placebo compared to the treatment session in which retention indices were restored to the level of the controls. Importantly, reaction and movement time as well as other kinematic measures were the same in the treatment and placebo sessions. Conclusion These results suggest that rTMS applied after the acquisition of a motor skill over specific areas involved in this process might enhance skill retention in PD. PMID:25533243

  16. [The functional ability and efficiency of motor skills evaluation of individuals admitted into nursing homes in Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruszyński, Jacek J; Cicha-Mikołajczyk, Alicja; Gebska-Kuczerowska, Anita

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the functional ability and efficiency of motor skills of Individuals admitted into nursing homes. The study took place between the years of 1997-2004 in a group of 122 individuals. The evaluation was based on two scales: ADL and IADL. The fall-related injury scale was used to evaluate the functionality ability and efficiency of motor skills. The Tinneti Scale of fall-related accident risk assessment was used to evaluate the functional ability and efficiency of motor skills. The study concluded that a majority of the individuals revealed a decrease in their functional ability and efficiency of motor skills. This is most relevant to individuals admitted directly from hospitals. The organization and development of new nursing home facilities must meet the needs of the individuals. The individuals admitted directly from the hospital require the best care due to their critical health status.

  17. Flying the Needles: Flight Deck Automation Erodes Fine-Motor Flying Skills Among Airline Pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslbeck, Andreas; Hoermann, Hans-Juergen

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of practice and training on fine-motor flying skills during a manual instrument landing system (ILS) approach. There is an ongoing debate that manual flying skills of long-haul crews suffer from a lack of flight practice due to conducting only a few flights per month and the intensive use of automation. However, objective evidence is rare. One hundred twenty-six randomly selected airline pilots had to perform a manual flight scenario with a raw data precision approach. Pilots were assigned to four equal groups according to their level of practice and training by fleet (short-haul, long-haul) and rank (first officer, captain). Average ILS deviation scores differed significantly in relation to the group assignments. The strongest predictor variable was fleet, indicating degraded performance among long-haul pilots. Manual flying skills are subject to erosion due to a lack of practice on long-haul fleets: All results support the conclusion that recent flight practice is a significantly stronger predictor for fine-motor flying performance than the time period since flight school or even the total or type-specific flight experience. Long-haul crews have to be supported in a timely manner by adequate training tailored to address manual skills or by operational provisions like mixed-fleet flying or more frequent transitions between short-haul and long-haul operation. © 2016, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  18. Ghostman: Augmented Reality Application for Telerehabilitation and Remote Instruction of a Novel Motor Skill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winyu Chinthammit

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a pilot study using a prototype telerehabilitation system (Ghostman. Ghostman is a visual augmentation system designed to allow a physical therapist and patient to inhabit each other’s viewpoint in an augmented real-world environment. This allows the therapist to deliver instruction remotely and observe performance of a motor skill through the patient’s point of view. In a pilot study, we investigated the efficacy of Ghostman by using it to teach participants to use chopsticks. Participants were randomized to a single training session, receiving either Ghostman or face-to-face instructions by the same skilled instructor. Learning was assessed by measuring retention of skills at 24-hour and 7-day post instruction. As hypothesised, there were no differences in reduction of error or time to completion between participants using Ghostman compared to those receiving face-to-face instruction. These initial results in a healthy population are promising and demonstrate the potential application of this technology to patients requiring learning or relearning of motor skills as may be required following a stroke or brain injury.

  19. Impulse-variability theory: implications for ballistic, multijoint motor skill performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbin, M A; Stodden, David F; Fischman, Mark G; Weimar, Wendi H

    2011-01-01

    Impulse-variability theory (R. A. Schmidt, H. N. Zelaznik, B. Hawkins, J. S. Frank, & J. T. Quinn, 1979) accounts for the curvilinear relationship between the magnitude and resulting variability of the muscular forces that influence the success of goal-directed limb movements. The historical roots of impulse-variability theory are reviewed in the 1st part of this article, including the relationship between movement speed and spatial error. The authors then address the relevance of impulse-variability theory for the control of ballistic, multijoint skills, such as throwing, striking, and kicking. These types of skills provide a stark contrast to the relatively simple, minimal degrees of freedom movements that characterized early research. However, the inherent demand for ballistic force generation is a strong parallel between these simple laboratory tasks and multijoint motor skills. Therefore, the authors conclude by recommending experimental procedures for evaluating the adequacy of impulse variability as a theoretical model within the context of ballistic, multijoint motor skill performance.

  20. Functional classifications for cerebral palsy: correlations between the gross motor function classification system (GMFCS), the manual ability classification system (MACS) and the communication function classification system (CFCS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compagnone, Eliana; Maniglio, Jlenia; Camposeo, Serena; Vespino, Teresa; Losito, Luciana; De Rinaldis, Marta; Gennaro, Leonarda; Trabacca, Antonio

    2014-11-01

    This study aimed to investigate a possible correlation between the gross motor function classification system-expanded and revised (GMFCS-E&R), the manual abilities classification system (MACS) and the communication function classification system (CFCS) functional levels in children with cerebral palsy (CP) by CP subtype. It was also geared to verify whether there is a correlation between these classification systems and intellectual functioning (IF) and parental socio-economic status (SES). A total of 87 children (47 males and 40 females, age range 4-18 years, mean age 8.9±4.2) were included in the study. A strong correlation was found between the three classifications: Level V of the GMFCS-E&R corresponds to Level V of the MACS (rs=0.67, p=0.001); the same relationship was found for the CFCS and the MACS (rs=0.73, pfunctional disability profile were strong or moderate (GMFCS and IQ: rs=0.66, p=0.001; MACS and IQ: rs=0.58, p=0.001; CFCS and MACS: rs=0.65, p=0.001). The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to determine if there were differences between the GMFCS-E&R, the CFCS and the MACS by CP type. CP types showed different scores for the IQ level (Chi-square=8.59, df=2, p=0.014), the GMFCS-E&R (Chi-square=36.46, df=2, pfunctional classifications (GMFCS-E&R, CFCS and MACS) complement each other to provide a better description of the functional profile of CP. The systematic evaluation of the IQ can provide useful information about a possible future outcome for every functional level. The SES does not appear to affect functional profiles.

  1. Site Development and Teaching of Motor Skills in Early Childhood Education

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    Pedro Gil Madrona

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In the stage of Early Childhood Education children continue a progressive discovery of their body itself as a source of feelings and sensations, exploring the different possibilities of action and body functions, will constitute the necessary experiences upon which children’s thought is being built. Besides, affective relationships established in situations of psychomotor education, and particularly through game, will be essential for children’s emotional development. In this sense, this article is focused on justifying the necessary presence of Psychomotor education in Early Childhood Education as well as on showing a pedagogical proposal based on an attractive and entertaining motor intervention for children at this stage. This article contains concepts and assumptions about the psychomotor development, movement contents, motor game and the methodological approach where psychomotor storytelling, learning corners, workshops and projects based on action and adventure spaces shine in their own right. Moreover, a didactic design based on programming motor skills at this stage of Early Childhood Education in a funny and lively way also plays a relevant role in this article. We argue that professionals working in the field of Early Childhood psychomotor skills may know and recognize the value of the proposals shown here so that they can teach us to be more critical regarding our professional practice, increasing our concern about the development of motor skills – physical education in Early Childhood Education in its systematic form – which without any doubt will result in children’s higher levels of welfare and health with regards to their own construction of the reality which surrounds them.

  2. Children's initial sleep-associated changes in motor skill are unrelated to long-term skill levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinke, Katharina; Wilhelm, Ines; Bayramoglu, Müge; Klein, Susanne; Born, Jan

    2016-10-16

    Sleep is considered to support the formation of skill memory. In juvenile but not adult song birds learning a tutor's song, a stronger initial deterioration of song performance over night-sleep predicts better song performance in the long run. This and similar observations have stimulated the view of sleep supporting skill formation during development in an unsupervised off-line learning process that, in the absence of external feedback, can initially also enhance inaccuracies in skill performance. Here we explored whether in children learning a motor sequence task, as in song-learning juvenile birds, changes across sleep after initial practice predict performance levels achieved in the long run. The task was a serial reaction time task (SRTT) where subjects had to press buttons which were lighted up in a repeating eight-element sequence as fast as possible. Twenty-five children (8-12 years) practised the task in the evening before nocturnal sleep which was recorded polysomnographically. Retrieval was tested on the following morning and again 1 week later after daily training on the SRTT. As expected, changes in response speed over the initial night of sleep were negatively correlated with final performance speed after the 1-week training. However, unlike in song birds, this correlation was driven by the baseline speed level achieved before sleep. Baseline-corrected changes in speed or variability over the initial sleep period did not predict final performance on the trained SRTT sequence, or on different sequences introduced to assess generalization of the trained behaviour. The lack of correlation between initial sleep-dependent changes and long-term performance might reflect that the children were too experienced for the simple SRTT, possibly also favouring ceiling effects in performance. A consistent association found between sleep spindle activity and explicit sequence knowledge alternatively suggests that the expected correlation was masked by explicit

  3. mTOR signalling contributes to motor skill learning in mice

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    Yan eBergeron

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR kinase is a critical regulator of mRNA translation and is suspected to be involved in various long lasting forms of synaptic and behavioural plasticity. However, its role in motor learning and control has never been examined. This study investigated, in mice, the implication of mTOR in the learning processes associated with the accelerating rotarod task. We first observed that the rotarod learning did not alter the levels of total mTOR in the striatum, hippocampus, cerebellum and anterior cortex of trained mice. However, it increased the levels of phosphorylated mTOR in the striatum and hippocampus exclusively during the first session of training; no change was observed at the second and third sessions. In order to further investigate the potential role of mTOR during motor skill learning, we performed systemic and intrastriatal inhibitions of mTOR using the pharmacological inhibitor rapamycin, as well as a genetic knockdown of striatal mTOR using intrastriatal infusion of mTOR siRNA. These three independent approaches were all associated with a significant reduction in rotarod performances that were reminiscent of impaired consolidation processes. Notably, these treatments did not affect the capacity of mice to execute the pole test, suggesting that mTOR activity was mainly controlling motor learning rather than motor abilities. Moreover, all treatments decreased the levels of phosphorylated 4EBP1 and P70S6K, two molecular downstream targets of mTORC1. Our findings demonstrate that striatal mTOR, via the phosphorylation of 4EBP1 and P70S6K, play an important role in the cellular and molecular processes involved in motor skill learning.

  4. mTOR signaling contributes to motor skill learning in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Yan; Chagniel, Laure; Bureau, Geneviève; Massicotte, Guy; Cyr, Michel

    2014-01-01

    The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase is a critical regulator of mRNA translation and is suspected to be involved in various long-lasting forms of synaptic and behavioral plasticity. However, its role in motor learning and control has never been examined. This study investigated, in mice, the implication of mTOR in the learning processes associated with the accelerating rotarod task. We first observed that the rotarod learning did not alter the levels of total mTOR in the striatum, hippocampus, cerebellum, and anterior cortex of trained mice. However, it increased the levels of phosphorylated mTOR in the striatum and hippocampus exclusively during the first session of training; no change was observed at the second and third sessions. In order to further investigate the potential role of mTOR during motor skill learning, we performed systemic and intrastriatal inhibitions of mTOR using the pharmacological inhibitor rapamycin, as well as a genetic knockdown of striatal mTOR using intrastriatal infusion of mTOR siRNA. These three independent approaches were all associated with a significant reduction in rotarod performances that were reminiscent of impaired consolidation processes. Notably, these treatments did not affect the capacity of mice to execute the pole test, suggesting that mTOR activity was mainly controlling motor learning rather than motor abilities. Moreover, all treatments decreased the levels of phosphorylated 4EBP1 and P70S6K, two molecular downstream targets of mTORC1. Our findings demonstrate that striatal mTOR kinase, via the phosphorylation of 4EBP1 and P70S6K, plays an important role in the cellular and molecular processes involved in motor skill learning.

  5. Facilitating skilled right hand motor function in older subjects by anodal polarization over the left primary motor cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, Friedhelm C; Heise, Kirstin; Celnik, Pablo; Floel, Agnes; Gerloff, Christian; Cohen, Leonardo G

    2010-12-01

    Healthy ageing is accompanied by limitations in performance of activities of daily living and personal independence. Recent reports demonstrated improvements in motor function induced by noninvasive anodal direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the primary motor cortex (M1) in young healthy adults. Here we tested the hypothesis that a single session of anodal tDCS over left M1 could facilitate performance of right upper extremity tasks required for activities of daily living (Jebsen-Taylor hand function test, JTT) in older subjects relative to Sham in a double-blind cross-over study design. We found (a) significant improvement in JTT function with tDCS relative to Sham that outlasted the stimulation period by at least 30 min, (b) that the older the subjects the more prominent this improvement appeared and (c) that consistent with previous results in younger subjects, these effects were not accompanied by any overt undesired side effect. We conclude that anodal tDCS applied over M1 can facilitate performance of skilled hand functions required for activities of daily living in older subjects.

  6. Weight status and gender-related differences in motor skills and in child care - based physical activity in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonvin, Antoine; Barral, Jérôme; Kakebeeke, Tanja H; Kriemler, Susi; Longchamp, Anouk; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Puder, Jardena J

    2012-03-09

    Over the last decades, a decline in motor skills and in physical activity and an increase in obesity has been observed in children. However, there is a lack of data in young children. We tested if differences in motor skills and in physical activity according to weight or gender were already present in 2- to 4-year-old children. Fifty-eight child care centers in the French part of Switzerland were randomly selected for the Youp'là bouge study. Motor skills were assessed by an obstacle course including 5 motor skills, derived from the Zurich Neuromotor Assessment test. Physical activity was measured with accelerometers (GT1M, Actigraph, Florida, USA) using age-adapted cut-offs. Weight status was assessed using the International Obesity Task Force criteria (healthy weight vs overweight) for body mass index (BMI). Of the 529 children (49% girls, 3.4 ± 0.6 years, BMI 16.2 ± 1.2 kg/m2), 13% were overweight. There were no significant weight status-related differences in the single skills of the obstacle course, but there was a trend (p = 0.059) for a lower performance of overweight children in the overall motor skills score. No significant weight status-related differences in child care-based physical activity were observed. No gender-related differences were found in the overall motor skills score, but boys performed better than girls in 2 of the 5 motor skills (p ≤ 0.04). Total physical activity as well as time spent in moderate-vigorous and in vigorous activity during child care were 12-25% higher and sedentary activity 5% lower in boys compared to girls (all p children, child care-based physical activity was higher in boys compared to girls. These results are important to consider when establishing physical activity recommendations or targeting health promotion interventions in young children.

  7. Fine motor skills and effects of methylphenidate in children with attention-deficit - Hyperactivity disorder and developmental coordination disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flapper, Boudien C.T.; Houwen, Suzanne; Schoemaker, Marina M.

    2006-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate fine motor skills of children with both attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and those of a control group, and to examine the effects of methylphenidate on these skills. A group of 12 children with AD

  8. Effects of strength training on motor performance skills in children and adolescents: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behringer, Michael; Vom Heede, Andreas; Matthews, Maria; Mester, Joachim

    2011-05-01

    The recent literature delineates resistance training in children and adolescents to be effective and safe. However, only little is known about the transfer of achieved strength gains to athletic performance. The present meta-analysis revealed a combined mean effect size for motor skill types jumping, running, and throwing of 0.52 (95% CI: 0.33-0.71). Effect sizes for each of aforementioned skill types separately were 0.54 (95% CI: 0.34-0.74), 0.53 (95% CI: 0.23-0.83), and 0.99 (95% CI: 0.19-1.79) respectively. Furthermore, it could be shown that younger subjects and nonathletes showed higher gains in motor performance following resistance training than their counterparts and that specific resistance training regimes were not advantageous over traditional resistance training programs. Finally, a positive dose response relationship for "intensity" could be found in subgroups using traditional training regimens. These results emphasize that resistance training provides an effective way for enhancing motor performance in children and adolescents.

  9. Motor Skills and Social Impairments in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shogo Hirata

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the Japanese version of the Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire (DCDQ-J and the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS in Japanese children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD. The participants were 19 children with ASD. The DCDQ-J is a parent questionnaire that can assess the degree of motor skill impairments, and the SRS assesses the severity of social impairments. To check the criterion-related validity of the DCDQ-J in children with ASD, the Japanese version of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2 (MABC2-J was also conducted. The total score of the DCDQ-J was significantly negatively correlated with the SRS score in the same way as the MABC2-J total score. These results indicate that the severity of social impairments in children with ASD is related not only to the child’s fundamental motor abilities but also to practical motor skills in everyday life.

  10. Fine finger motor skill training with exoskeleton robotic hand in chronic stroke: stroke rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ockenfeld, Corinna; Tong, Raymond K Y; Susanto, Evan A; Ho, Sze-Kit; Hu, Xiao-ling

    2013-06-01

    Background and Purpose. Stroke survivors often show a limited recovery in the hand function to perform delicate motions, such as full hand grasping, finger pinching and individual finger movement. The purpose of this study is to describe the implementation of an exoskeleton robotic hand together with fine finger motor skill training on 2 chronic stroke patients. Case Descriptions. Two post-stroke patients participated in a 20-session training program by integrating 10 minutes physical therapy, 20 minutes robotic hand training and 15 minutes functional training tasks with delicate objects(card, pen and coin). These two patients (A and B) had cerebrovascular accident at 6 months and 11 months respectively when enrolled in this study. Outcomes. The results showed that both patients had improvements in Fugl-Meyer assessment (FM), Action Research Arm Test (ARAT). Patients had better isolation of the individual finger flexion and extension based on the reduced muscle co-contraction from the electromyographic(EMG) signals and finger extension force after 20 sessions of training. Discussion. This preliminary study showed that by focusing on the fine finger motor skills together with the exoskeleton robotic hand, it could improve the motor recovery of the upper extremity in the fingers and hand function, which were showed in the ARAT. Future randomized controlled trials are needed to evaluate the clinical effectiveness.

  11. Re-Contextualizing Dance Skills: Overcoming Impediments to Motor Learning and Expressivity in Ballet Dancers

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    Janet eKarin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The process of transmitting ballet’s complex technique to young dancers can interfere with the innate processes that give rise to efficient, expressive and harmonious movement. With the intention of identifying possible solutions, this article draws on research across the fields of neurology, psychology, motor learning, and education, and considers their relevance to ballet as an art form, a technique, and a training methodology. The integration of dancers’ technique and expressivity is a core theme throughout the paper. A brief outline of the historical development of ballet’s aesthetics and training methods leads into factors that influence dancers’ performance. An exploration of the role of the neuromotor system in motor learning and the acquisition of expert skills reveals the roles of sensory awareness, imagery, and intention in cuing efficient, expressive movement. It also indicates potentially detrimental effects of conscious muscle control, explicit learning and persistent naïve beliefs. Finally, the paper presents a new theory regarding the acquisition of ballet skills. Recontextualisation theory proposes that placing a problematic task within a new context may engender a new conceptual approach and/or sensory intention, and hence the genesis of new motor programs; and that these new programs may lead to performance that is more efficient, more rewarding for the dancer, more pleasing aesthetically, and more expressive. From an anecdotal point of view, this theory appears to be supported by the progress of many dancers at various stages of their dancing lives.

  12. Role of the Striatum and the Cerebellum in Motor Skill Acquisition

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    Markus M. Schugens

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Motor skill acquisition was investigated in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD or cerebellar dysfunction using two sensory-guided tracking tasks. The subjects had to learn to track a visual target (a square on a computer screen by moving a joystick under two different conditions. In the unreversed task, the horizontal target movements were semi-predictable and could be anticipated. In the reversed task, the horizontal movements of a pointer which had to be kept within the target square were mirror-reversed to the joystick movements. PD patients showed intact learning of the semi-predictable task and reduced learning of the mirror-reversed task; patients with cerebellar dysfunction showed the opposite pattern. These findings are discussed in relation to the differential contribution of the cerebellum and the striatum to motor skill acquisition: the cerebellum appears to participate in the implementation of anticipatory movements, whereas the striatum may be critically involved in types of motor learning which require a high degree of internal elaboration.

  13. Motor Cortical Networks for Skilled Movements Have Dynamic Properties That Are Related to Accurate Reaching

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    David F. Putrino

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurons in the Primary Motor Cortex (MI are known to form functional ensembles with one another in order to produce voluntary movement. Neural network changes during skill learning are thought to be involved in improved fluency and accuracy of motor tasks. Unforced errors during skilled tasks provide an avenue to study network connections related to motor learning. In order to investigate network activity in MI, microwires were implanted in the MI of cats trained to perform a reaching task. Spike trains from eight groups of simultaneously recorded cells (95 neurons in total were acquired. A point process generalized linear model (GLM was developed to assess simultaneously recorded cells for functional connectivity during reaching attempts where unforced errors or no errors were made. Whilst the same groups of neurons were often functionally connected regardless of trial success, functional connectivity between neurons was significantly different at fine time scales when the outcome of task performance changed. Furthermore, connections were shown to be significantly more robust across multiple latencies during successful trials of task performance. The results of this study indicate that reach-related neurons in MI form dynamic spiking dependencies whose temporal features are highly sensitive to unforced movement errors.

  14. Perceptual Estimates of Motor Skill Proficiency Are Constrained by the Stability of Coordination Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, John J

    2015-01-01

    This study demonstrated that motor skill proficiency ratings are constrained by the same order parameter dynamics that constrain action production and action perception processes. Participants produced rhythmic actions simulated by an animated stick figure of the human arm. The primary finding was that participants' proficiency ratings covaried most with relative phase (φ) variability compared to mean relative phase. In-phase (φ = 0°) was produced with the least variability and received the highest proficiency rating, whereas the patterns φ = ±150° were attempted with the most variability and received the lowest proficiency ratings. A temporal delay in attempting to produce the animated pattern had a large impact on produced relative phase, yet had little impact on the proficiency ratings. Proprioceptive processes provide individuals information on motor skill proficiency. The lead or lag motion of the hand to forearm segment of the animated arm was identified consistently through visual processes and revealed asymmetries in the mapping of visual input to motor output. The results are consistent with concepts from the dynamic pattern theory of coordination and are discussed with regard to relative phase as an informational variable that constraints the perception-action system across many levels.

  15. Longitudinal Development of Manual Motor Ability in Autism Spectrum Disorder from Childhood to Mid-Adulthood Relates to Adaptive Daily Living Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travers, Brittany G.; Bigler, Erin D.; Duffield, Tyler C.; Prigge, Molly D. B.; Froehlich, Alyson L.; Lange, Nicholas; Alexander, Andrew L.; Lainhart, Janet E.

    2017-01-01

    Many individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) exhibit motor difficulties, but it is unknown whether manual motor skills improve, plateau, or decline in ASD in the transition from childhood into adulthood. Atypical development of manual motor skills could impact the ability to learn and perform daily activities across the life span. This…

  16. Correlation Analysis of Gross Motor Function Classification and Core Strength of Children with Cerebral Palsy%脑瘫患儿粗大运动功能分级与核心肌力的相关性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王刚; 李莉; 支世保

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨痉挛型四肢瘫患儿核心肌力状况及其与粗大运动功能的关系.方法:选取痉挛型四肢瘫患儿70例,采用徒手肌力检查法(manual muscle test,MMT)对其核心肌群进行肌力评估,采用粗大运动功能分级系统(Gross Motor Function Classification System,GMFCS)对其粗大运动功能进行评估,并探讨两者相关性.结果:MMT测试结果显示,受试70例痉挛型四肢瘫患儿的核心肌群肌力均减低;GMFCS测试显示,I级10例,II级28例,III级18例,IV级2例,V级12例;Pearson相关分析结果显示,受试患儿GMFCS与核心肌群肌力均呈显著负相关(P<0.01).结论:痉挛型四肢瘫患儿核心肌力减低,核心肌力与粗大运动功能分级相关.%Objective:To investigate the relationship between core strength and gross motor function of children with spastic quadriplegia. Methods:70 cases of children with spastic quadriplegia were selected, whose myodynamia of core muscles was evaluated with manual muscle test (MMT), and gross motor function was evaluated with gross motor function classification system (GMFCS), as well as the correlation between them. Results:MMT showed that core muscle strength of 70 children with spastic quadriplegia decreased;according to GMFCS there were 10 cases of grade I, 28 cases of grade II, 18 cases of grade III, 2 cases of grade IV and 12 cases of grade V;Pearson correlation analysis showed that there was significantly negative correlation between GMFCS and core muscle strength (P<0.01). Conclusion:core muscle strength of children with spastic quadriplegia de-creases, core muscle strength and gross motor function classification are relative.

  17. Changes in sleep architecture following motor learning depend on initial skill level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Kevin R; Smith, Valerie; Smith, Carlyle T

    2007-05-01

    Previous research has linked both rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and Stage 2 sleep to procedural memory consolidation. The present study sought to clarify the relationship between sleep stages and procedural memory consolidation by examining the effect of initial skill level in this relationship in young adults. In-home sleep recordings were performed on participants before and after learning the pursuit rotor task. We divided the participants into low- and high-skill groups based on their initial performance of the pursuit rotor task. In high-skill participants, there was a significant increase in Stage 2 spindle density after learning, and there was a significant correlation between the spindle density that occurred after learning and pursuit rotor performance at retest 1 week later. In contrast, there was a significant correlation between changes in REM density and performance on the pursuit rotor task during retest 1 week later in low-skill participants, although the actual increase in REM density failed to reach significance in this group. The results of the present study suggest the presence of a double dissociation in the sleep-related processes that are involved in procedural memory consolidation in low- and high-skill individuals. These results indicate that the changes in sleep microarchitecture that take place after learning depend on the initial skill level of the individual and therefore provide validation for the model proposed by Smith et al. [Smith, C. T., Aubrey, J. B., & Peters, K. R. Different roles for REM and Stage 2 sleep in motor learning. Psychologica Belgica, 44, 79-102, 2004]. Accordingly, skill level is an important variable that needs to be considered in future research on sleep and memory consolidation.

  18. THE RELATIONS BETWEEN BODY COMPOSITION AND MOTORICAL SKILLS BY THE CHILDREN OF AGE 7

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    Sabolč Halaši

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available On the example of 125 respondents, 65 boys and 63 girls at 7.39 decimal years, who attended first grade at Primary Schools „Majšanski Put“ and „Jovan Jovanovic Zmaj“ from Subotica, basical antropometrical characteristics are measured, general motorical skills are proved on the basis of 7 motorical tests, body composition is showed by In Body 230 machine. With regressive analysis it is proved that the predictorical system of variables for the percentage of body composition (the whole quantity of body fat, water and muscles is statistically significantly connected with the criteria defined as general motorical factor and with that it is described that 39 % of boys and 34 % of girls have the same variables. Standardized regressional coefficient showed that by boys and girls at 7.39 decimal years the whole quantity of body fat and body weight have a statistically negative influence on general motorics, and by girls body height has a statistically positive influence on it.

  19. Engaging Environments Enhance Motor Skill Learning in a Computer Gaming Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohse, Keith R; Boyd, Lara A; Hodges, Nicola J

    2016-01-01

    Engagement during practice can motivate a learner to practice more, hence having indirect effects on learning through increased practice. However, it is not known whether engagement can also have a direct effect on learning when the amount of practice is held constant. To address this question, 40 participants played a video game that contained an embedded repeated sequence component, under either highly engaging conditions (the game group) or mechanically identical but less engaging conditions (the sterile group). The game environment facilitated retention over a 1-week interval. Specifically, the game group improved in both speed and accuracy for random and repeated trials, suggesting a general motor-related improvement, rather than a specific influence of engagement on implicit sequence learning. These data provide initial evidence that increased engagement during practice has a direct effect on generalized learning, improving retention and transfer of a complex motor skill.

  20. Using virtual humans and computer animations to learn complex motor skills: a case study in karate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spanlang Bernhard

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Learning motor skills is a complex task involving a lot of cognitive issues. One of the main issues consists in retrieving the relevant information from the learning environment. In a traditional learning situation, a teacher gives oral explanations and performs actions to provide the learner with visual examples. Using virtual reality (VR as a tool for learning motor tasks is promising. However, it raises questions about the type of information this kind of environments can offer. In this paper, we propose to analyze the impact of virtual humans on the perception of the learners. As a case study, we propose to apply this research problem to karate gestures. The results of this study show no significant difference on the after training performance of learners confronted to three different learning environments (traditional group, video and VR.