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Sample records for gross motor quality

  1. Does Parent Report Gross Motor Function Level of Cerebral Palsy Children Impact on the Quality of Life in these Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashmdarfard, Marzieh; Amini, Malek; Badv, Reza Shervin; Ghaffarzade Namazi, Narges; Rassafiani, Mehdi

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of parent report gross motor function level of cerebral palsy (CP) children on the parent report quality of life of CP children. Sampling of this cross-sectional study was done in occupational therapy clinics and CP children's schools in 2016 in Zanjan, Iran. Samples size was 60 CP children aged 6-12 yr and for sampling method, a non-probability convenience was used. For assessing the quality of life of CP children the cerebral palsy quality of life (CP QOL) questionnaire and for assessing the level of gross motor function of CP children the Gross Motor Function Classification System Family Report Questionnaire (GMFCSFRQ) were used. The average age of children (22 males and 30 females) was 8.92 yr old (minimum 6 yr and maximum 12 yr). The relationship between the level of gross motor function and participation and physical health was direct and significant (r=0.65). The relationship between functioning, access to services and family health with the level of gross motor function was direct but was not significant ( P >0.05) and the relationship between pain and impact of disability and emotional well-being with the level of gross motor function was significant ( P quality of life of children with cerebral palsy. It means that the level of gross motor function cannot be used as a predictor of quality of life for children with cerebral palsy alone.

  2. Correlation between cognitive function, gross motor skills and health – Related quality of life in children with Down syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saly Said Abd El-Hady

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Children with Down syndrome (DS have delayed motor and cognitive development and have problems in health related quality of life (HRQOL. Purpose: To evaluate the correlation between cognitive function; attention/concentration, gross motor skills; standing and walking, running, jumping domains and HRQOL in children with DS. Subjects and methods: Seventy children with DS of both sexes (37 boys and 33 girls were selected from El Tarbia El Fekria School for children with Special Needs and Education and National Institute of neuro motor system. They were selected to be ranged in age from 8 to 12 years and to be free from visual, hearing or perceptual problems. They were divided into two age groups; group A (8–10 years, and group B (10–12 years. The Rehacom was used to evaluate the cognitive function (attention/concentration, the Gross Motor Function Measure-88 (GMFM-88 was used to evaluate the gross motor skills and the Pediatric quality of life inventory parent-proxy report (PedsQL TM was used to evaluate the HRQOL. Results: There was a weak to moderate correlation between the cognitive function, GMFM and HRQOL in both age groups. The level of difficulty of attention/concentration was moderate, positively and significantly correlated with GMFM; standing and walking, running, jumping domains in both age groups. There was a moderate, positive and significant correlation was found between the physical score of HRQOL and walking, running, jumping domain in age group B and between the psychosocial score of HRQOL and standing domain in age group A. Conclusion: The cognitive function and HRQOL should be considered in the evaluation of children with DS in addition to gross motor skills as there was a correlation between the cognitive function, HRQOL and GMFM. Keywords: Cognitive function, Gross motor skills, Health – related quality of life, Down syndrome children

  3. Associations of Gross Motor Delay, Behavior, and Quality of Life in Young Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder.

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    Hedgecock, James B; Dannemiller, Lisa A; Shui, Amy M; Rapport, Mary Jane; Katz, Terry

    2018-04-01

    Young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often have gross motor delays that may accentuate problem daytime behavior and health-related quality of life (QoL). The objective of this study was to describe the degree of gross motor delays in young children with ASD and associations of gross motor delays with problem daytime behavior and QoL. The primary hypothesis was that Gross motor delays significantly modifies the associations between internalizing or externalizing problem daytime behavior and QoL. This study used a cross-sectional, retrospective analysis. Data from 3253 children who were 2 to 6 years old and who had ASD were obtained from the Autism Speaks Autism Treatment Network and analyzed using unadjusted and adjusted linear regression. Measures included the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, 2nd edition, gross motor v-scale score (VABS-GM) (for Gross motor delays), the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) (for Problem daytime behavior), and the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) (for QoL). The mean VABS-GM was 12.12 (SD = 2.2), representing performance at or below the 16th percentile. After adjustment for covariates, the internalizing CBCL t score decreased with increasing VABS-GM (β = - 0.64 SE = 0.12). Total and subscale PedsQL scores increased with increasing VABS-GM (for total score: β = 1.79 SE = 0.17; for subscale score: β = 0.9-2.66 SE = 0.17-0.25). CBCL internalizing and externalizing t scores decreased with increasing PedsQL total score (β = - 0.39 SE = 0.01; β = - 0.36 SE = 0.01). The associations between CBCL internalizing or externalizing t scores and PedsQL were significantly modified by VABSGM (β = - 0.026 SE = 0.005]; β = - 0.019 SE = 0.007). The study lacked ethnic and socioeconomic diversity. Measures were collected via parent report without accompanying clinical assessment. Cross motor delay was independently associated with Problem daytime behavior and QoL in children with ASD. Gross

  4. Validating the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Downs, Jenny; Stahlhut, Michelle; Wong, Kingsley

    2016-01-01

    .93-0.98). The standard error of measurement for the total score was 2 points and we would be 95% confident that a change 4 points in the 45-point scale would be greater than within-subject measurement error. The Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale could be an appropriate measure of gross motor skills in clinical practice......Rett syndrome is a pervasive neurodevelopmental disorder associated with a pathogenic mutation on the MECP2 gene. Impaired movement is a fundamental component and the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale was developed to measure gross motor abilities in this population. The current study investigated...... the validity and reliability of the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale. Video data showing gross motor abilities supplemented with parent report data was collected for 255 girls and women registered with the Australian Rett Syndrome Database, and the factor structure and relationships between motor scores, age...

  5. Validating the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Downs

    Full Text Available Rett syndrome is a pervasive neurodevelopmental disorder associated with a pathogenic mutation on the MECP2 gene. Impaired movement is a fundamental component and the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale was developed to measure gross motor abilities in this population. The current study investigated the validity and reliability of the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale. Video data showing gross motor abilities supplemented with parent report data was collected for 255 girls and women registered with the Australian Rett Syndrome Database, and the factor structure and relationships between motor scores, age and genotype were investigated. Clinical assessment scores for 38 girls and women with Rett syndrome who attended the Danish Center for Rett Syndrome were used to assess consistency of measurement. Principal components analysis enabled the calculation of three factor scores: Sitting, Standing and Walking, and Challenge. Motor scores were poorer with increasing age and those with the p.Arg133Cys, p.Arg294* or p.Arg306Cys mutation achieved higher scores than those with a large deletion. The repeatability of clinical assessment was excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient for total score 0.99, 95% CI 0.93-0.98. The standard error of measurement for the total score was 2 points and we would be 95% confident that a change 4 points in the 45-point scale would be greater than within-subject measurement error. The Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale could be an appropriate measure of gross motor skills in clinical practice and clinical trials.

  6. Validating the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Jenny; Stahlhut, Michelle; Wong, Kingsley; Syhler, Birgit; Bisgaard, Anne-Marie; Jacoby, Peter; Leonard, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Rett syndrome is a pervasive neurodevelopmental disorder associated with a pathogenic mutation on the MECP2 gene. Impaired movement is a fundamental component and the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale was developed to measure gross motor abilities in this population. The current study investigated the validity and reliability of the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale. Video data showing gross motor abilities supplemented with parent report data was collected for 255 girls and women registered with the Australian Rett Syndrome Database, and the factor structure and relationships between motor scores, age and genotype were investigated. Clinical assessment scores for 38 girls and women with Rett syndrome who attended the Danish Center for Rett Syndrome were used to assess consistency of measurement. Principal components analysis enabled the calculation of three factor scores: Sitting, Standing and Walking, and Challenge. Motor scores were poorer with increasing age and those with the p.Arg133Cys, p.Arg294* or p.Arg306Cys mutation achieved higher scores than those with a large deletion. The repeatability of clinical assessment was excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient for total score 0.99, 95% CI 0.93-0.98). The standard error of measurement for the total score was 2 points and we would be 95% confident that a change 4 points in the 45-point scale would be greater than within-subject measurement error. The Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale could be an appropriate measure of gross motor skills in clinical practice and clinical trials.

  7. The Gross Motor Skills of Children with Mild Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonis, Karen P.; Jernice, Tan Sing Yee

    2014-01-01

    Many international studies have examined the gross motor skills of children studying in special schools while local studies of such nature are limited. This study investigated the gross motor skills of children with Mild Learning Disabilities (MLD; n = 14, M age = 8.93 years, SD = 0.33) with the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (TGMD-2, Ulrich,…

  8. Psychiatric Symptoms in Children with Gross Motor Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emck, Claudia; Bosscher, Ruud J.; van Wieringen, Piet C. W.; Doreleijers, Theo; Beek, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Children with psychiatric disorders often demonstrate gross motor problems. This study investigates if the reverse also holds true by assessing psychiatric symptoms present in children with gross motor problems. Emotional, behavioral, and autism spectrum disorders (ASD), as well as psychosocial problems, were assessed in a sample of 40 children…

  9. Gross motor skill development of kindergarten children in Japan.

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    Aye, Thanda; Kuramoto-Ahuja, Tsugumi; Sato, Tamae; Sadakiyo, Kaori; Watanabe, Miyoko; Maruyama, Hitoshi

    2018-05-01

    [Purpose] The purposes of this study were to assess and explore the gender-based differences in gross motor skill development of 5-year-old Japanese children. [Subjects and Methods] This cross-sectional study recruited 60 healthy 5-year-old (third-year kindergarten, i.e., nencho ) children (34 boys, 26 girls) from one local private kindergarten school in Otawara city, Tochigi Prefecture, Japan. Gross motor skills, including six locomotor and six object control skills, were assessed using the test of gross motor development, second edition (TGMD-2). All subjects performed two trials of each gross motor skill, and the performances were video-recorded and scored. Assessment procedures were performed according to the standardized guidelines of the TGMD-2. [Results] The majority of subjects had an average level of overall gross motor skills. Girls had significantly better locomotor skills. Boys had significantly better object control skills. [Conclusion] The gross motor skill development of 5-year-old Japanese children involves gender-based differences in locomotor and object control skills. This study provided valuable information that can be used to establish normative references for the gross motor skills of 5-year-old Japanese children.

  10. Brief Assessment of Motor Function: Content Validity and Reliability of the Upper Extremity Gross Motor Scale

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    Cintas, Holly Lea; Parks, Rebecca; Don, Sarah; Gerber, Lynn

    2011-01-01

    Content validity and reliability of the Brief Assessment of Motor Function (BAMF) Upper Extremity Gross Motor Scale (UEGMS) were evaluated in this prospective, descriptive study. The UEGMS is one of five BAMF ordinal scales designed for quick documentation of gross, fine, and oral motor skill levels. Designed to be independent of age and…

  11. Interventions to improve gross motor performance in children with neurodevelopmental disorders: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Barbara R; Elliott, Elizabeth J; Coggan, Sarah; Pinto, Rafael Z; Jirikowic, Tracy; McCoy, Sarah Westcott; Latimer, Jane

    2016-11-29

    Gross motor skills are fundamental to childhood development. The effectiveness of current physical therapy options for children with mild to moderate gross motor disorders is unknown. The aim of this study was to systematically review the literature to investigate the effectiveness of conservative interventions to improve gross motor performance in children with a range of neurodevelopmental disorders. A systematic review with meta-analysis was conducted. MEDLINE, EMBASE, AMED, CINAHL, PsycINFO, PEDro, Cochrane Collaboration, Google Scholar databases and clinical trial registries were searched. Published randomised controlled trials including children 3 to ≤18 years with (i) Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) or Cerebral Palsy (CP) (Gross Motor Function Classification System Level 1) or Developmental Delay or Minimal Acquired Brain Injury or Prematurity (gross motor outcomes obtained using a standardised assessment tool. Meta-analysis was performed to determine the pooled effect of intervention on gross motor function. Methodological quality and strength of meta-analysis recommendations were evaluated using PEDro and the GRADE approach respectively. Of 2513 papers, 9 met inclusion criteria including children with CP (n = 2) or DCD (n = 7) receiving 11 different interventions. Only two of 9 trials showed an effect for treatment. Using the least conservative trial outcomes a large beneficial effect of intervention was shown (SMD:-0.8; 95% CI:-1.1 to -0.5) with "very low quality" GRADE ratings. Using the most conservative trial outcomes there is no treatment effect (SMD:-0.1; 95% CI:-0.3 to 0.2) with "low quality" GRADE ratings. Study limitations included the small number and poor quality of the available trials. Although we found that some interventions with a task-orientated framework can improve gross motor outcomes in children with DCD or CP, these findings are limited by the very low quality of the available evidence. High quality intervention

  12. Interlimb Coordination: An Important Facet of Gross-Motor Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobbio, Tatiana; Gabbard, Carl; Cacola, Priscila

    2009-01-01

    Motor development attains landmark significance during early childhood. Although early childhood educators may be familiar with the gross-motor skill category, the subcategory of interlimb coordination needs greater attention than it typically receives from teachers of young children. Interlimb coordination primarily involves movements requiring…

  13. Assessing Gross Motor Skills of Kosovar Preschool Children

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    Shala, Merita

    2009-01-01

    In the light of the new developments in preschool education in Kosovo, this study attempts to carry out an assessment of the development of gross motor skills of preschool children attending institutional education. The emphasis is on creating a set of tests to measure the motor attainments of these children by conducting assessments of the…

  14. Gross Motor Skill Acquisition in Adolescents with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meegan, Sarah; Maraj, Brian K. V.; Weeks, Daniel; Chua, Romeo

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess whether verbal-motor performances deficits exhibited by individuals with Down syndrome limited their ability to acquire gross motor skills when given visual and verbal instruction together and then transferred to either a visual or verbal instructional mode to reproduce the movement. Nine individuals with…

  15. Gross Motor Profile and Its Association with Socialization Skills in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Hardiono D. Pusponegoro; Pustika Efar; Soedjatmiko; Amanda Soebadi; Agus Firmansyah; Hui-Ju Chen; Kun-Long Hung

    2016-01-01

    While social impairment is considered to be the core deficit in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a large proportion of these children have poor gross motor ability, and gross motor deficits may influence socialization skills in children with ASD. The objectives of this study were to compare gross motor skills in children with ASD to typically developing children, to describe gross motor problems in children with ASD, and to investigate associations between gross motor and sociali...

  16. Assessment of Preschoolers' Gross Motor Proficiency: Revisiting Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Hazel Mei Yung

    2011-01-01

    Literature reveals that there are very few validated motor proficiency tests for young children. According to Gallahue and Ozmun, the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency is a valid test. However, manipulative skills, which are classified as gross motor skills by most motor development specialists, are only tested in the Upper Limb…

  17. Awareness and use of Gross Motor Function Classification System ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction The degree of disability in children with Cerebral Palsy (CP) can be evaluated with the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS), a valid tool which was designed for such purposes. However, there appears to be paucity of data on the awareness and use of the GMFCS particularly in the ...

  18. Fine and Gross Motor Ability in Males with ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Both fine and gross motor abilities were evaluated in 10-year-old males with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and compared to a group of control children at the School of Psychology, Curtin University of Technology, Perth, Australia.

  19. School Physical Activity Programming and Gross Motor Skills in Children.

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    Burns, Ryan D; Fu, You; Hannon, James C; Brusseau, Timothy A

    2017-09-01

    We examined the effect of a comprehensive school physical activity program (CSPAP) on gross motor skills in children. Participants were 959 children (1st-6th grade; Mean age = 9.1 ± 1.5 years; 406 girls, 553 boys) recruited from 5 low-income schools receiving a year-long CSPAP intervention. Data were collected at the beginning of the school year and at a 36-week follow-up. Gross motor skills were assessed using the Test for Gross Motor Development (3rd ed.) (TGMD-3) instrument. Multi-level mixed effects models were employed to examine the effect of CSPAP on TGMD-3 scores, testing age and sex as effect modifiers and adjusting for clustering of observations within the data structure. There were statistically significant coefficients for time (β = 8.1, 95% CI [3.9, 12.3], p skills and ball skills sub-test scores. Children showed improved gross motor skill scores at the end of the 36-week CSPAP that were modified by age, as younger children displayed greater improvements in TGMD-3 scores compared to older children.

  20. A Study on Gross Motor Skills of Preschool Children

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    Wang, Joanne Hui-Tzu

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a creative movement program on gross motor skills of preschool children. Sixty children between the ages of 3 to 5 were drawn from the population of a preschool in Taichung, Taiwan. An experimental pretest-posttest control-group design was utilized. The children enrolled in the…

  1. Threshold values of ankle dorsiflexion and gross motor function in 60 children with cerebral palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Helle M; Svensson, Joachim; Thorning, Maria

    2018-01-01

    Background and purpose - Threshold values defining 3 categories of passive range of motion are used in the Cerebral Palsy follow-Up Program to guide clinical decisions. The aim of this study was to investigate the threshold values by testing the hypothesis that passive range of motion in ankle...... dorsiflexion is associated with gross motor function and that function differs between the groups of participants in each category. Patients and methods - We analyzed data from 60 ambulatory children (aged 5-9 years) with spastic cerebral palsy. Outcomes were passive range of motion in ankle dorsiflexion...... with flexed and extended knee and gross motor function (Gait Deviation Index, Gait Variable Score of the ankle, peak dorsiflexion during gait, 1-minute walk, Gross Motor Function Measure, the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory Cerebral Palsy Module, and Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument). Results...

  2. The relationship between gross motor skills and visual perception of preschoolers

    OpenAIRE

    TEPELI, Kezban

    2014-01-01

    Answers were searched for these questions; “Is there a relationship between visual perceptions and gross motor skills of preschool children?”, “Are preschool children's visual perceptions predictors of their gross motor skills?”, “Is there any difference between visual perceptions of the children having low, average and high level of gross motor skills?” within this study where the relationship between preschool children's visual perceptions and their gross motor skills were compara...

  3. The Relationship between Gross Motor Skills and Academic Achievement in Children with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westendorp, Marieke; Hartman, Esther; Houwen, Suzanne; Smith, Joanne; Visscher, Chris

    2011-01-01

    The present study compared the gross motor skills of 7- to 12-year-old children with learning disabilities (n = 104) with those of age-matched typically developing children (n = 104) using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2. Additionally, the specific relationships between subsets of gross motor skills and academic performance in reading,…

  4. The relationship between gross motor skills and academic achievement in children with learning disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westendorp, Marieke; Hartman, Esther; Houwen, Suzanne; Smith, Joanne; Visscher, Chris

    2011-01-01

    The present study compared the gross motor skills of 7- to 12-year-old children with learning disabilities (n = 104) with those of age-matched typically developing children (n = 104) using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2. Additionally, the specific relationships between subsets of gross motor

  5. Association Between Gross-Motor and Executive Function Depends on Age and Motor Task Complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spedden, Meaghan E; Malling, Anne Sofie B; Andersen, Ken K

    2017-01-01

    The objective was to examine associations between motor and executive function across the adult lifespan and to investigate the role of motor complexity in these associations. Young, middle-aged and older adults (n = 82; 19-83y) performed two gross-motor tasks with different levels of complexity...... and a Stroop-like computer task. Performance was decreased in older adults. The association between motor and cognitive performance was significant for older adults in the complex motor task (p = 0.03, rs = -0.41), whereas no significant associations were found for young or middle-aged groups, suggesting...... that the link between gross-motor and executive function emerges with age and depends on motor complexity....

  6. Effects of Aquatic Intervention on Gross Motor Skills in Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roostaei, Meysam; Baharlouei, Hamzeh; Azadi, Hamidreza; Fragala-Pinkham, Maria A

    2017-10-20

    To review the literature on the effects of aquatic intervention on gross motor skills for children with cerebral palsy (CP). Six databases were searched from inception to January 2016. Aquatic studies for children aged 1-21 years with any type or CP classification and at least one outcome measuring gross motor skills were included. Information was extracted on study design, outcomes, and aquatic program type, frequency, duration, and intensity. Quality was rated using the Centre of Evidence-Based Medicine: Levels of Evidence and the PEDro scale. Of the 11 studies which met inclusion criteria, only two used randomized control trial design, and the results were mixed. Quality of evidence was rated as moderate to high for only one study. Most studies used quasi-experimental designs and reported improvements in gross motor skills for within group analyses after aquatic programs were held for two to three times per week and lasting for 6-16 weeks. Participants were classified according to the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels I-V, and were aged 3-21 years. Mild to no adverse reactions were reported. Evidence on aquatic interventions for ambulatory children with CP is limited. Aquatic exercise is feasible and adverse effects are minimal; however, dosing parameters are unclear. Further research is needed to determine aquatic intervention effectiveness and exercise dosing across age categories and GMFCS levels.

  7. Trained, generalized, and collateral behavior changes of preschool children receiving gross-motor skills training.

    OpenAIRE

    Kirby, K C; Holborn, S W

    1986-01-01

    Three preschool children participated in a behavioral training program to improve their gross-motor skills. Ten target behaviors were measured in the training setting to assess direct effects of the program. Generalization probes for two gross-motor behaviors, one fine-motor skill, and two social behaviors were conducted in other settings. Results indicated that the training program improved the gross-motor skills trained and that improvements sometimes generalized to other settings. Contrary...

  8. Gross Motor Profile and Its Association with Socialization Skills in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusponegoro, Hardiono D; Efar, Pustika; Soedjatmiko; Soebadi, Amanda; Firmansyah, Agus; Chen, Hui-Ju; Hung, Kun-Long

    2016-12-01

    While social impairment is considered to be the core deficit in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a large proportion of these children have poor gross motor ability, and gross motor deficits may influence socialization skills in children with ASD. The objectives of this study were to compare gross motor skills in children with ASD to typically developing children, to describe gross motor problems in children with ASD, and to investigate associations between gross motor and socialization skills in children with ASD. This was a cross-sectional study including 40 ASD children aged from 18 months to 6 years and 40 age-matched typically developing controls. Gross motor and socialization skills were scored using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, 2 nd edition (Vineland-II). Below average gross motor function was found in eight of 40 (20%) ASD children. The mean gross motor v-scale score in the ASD group was 15.1 [standard deviation (SD) 3.12], significantly lower than in the control group [18.7, SD 2.09, p = 0.0001; 95% confidence intervals (CI) from -4.725 to -2.525]. The differences were most prominent in ball throwing and catching, using stairs, jumping, and bicycling. The ASD children with gross motor impairments had a mean socialization domain score of 66.6 (SD 6.50) compared to 85.7 (SD 10.90) in those without gross motor impairments (p = 0.0001, 95% CI from -25.327 to -12.736). Children with ASD had lower gross motor skills compared to typically developing children. Gross motor impairments were found in 20% of the ASD children, and these children also had lower socialization skills than those without gross motor impairments. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Gross Motor Development of Malaysian Hearing Impaired Male Pre- and Early School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawi, Khairi; Lian, Denise Koh Choon; Abdullah, Rozlina Tan

    2014-01-01

    Acquisition of gross motor skill is a natural developmental process for children. This aspect of human development increases with one's chronological age, irrespective of any developmental conditions. The purpose of this study was to assess the level of gross motor skill development among pre- and early school-aged children with motor disability.…

  10. Trained, Generalized, and Collateral Behavior Changes of Preschool Children Receiving Gross-Motor Skills Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Kimberly C.; Holborn, Stephen W.

    1986-01-01

    Three preschool children participated in a behavioral training program to improve their gross-motor skills. Results indicated that the program improved the 10 targeted gross-motor skills and that improvements sometimes generalized to other settings. The program did not produce changes in fine-motor skills or social behaviors. Implications are…

  11. Divergence of fine and gross motor skills in prelingually deaf children: implications for cochlear implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, David L; Pisoni, David B; Miyamoto, Richard T

    2006-08-01

    The objective of this study was to assess relations between fine and gross motor development and spoken language processing skills in pediatric cochlear implant users. The authors conducted a retrospective analysis of longitudinal data. Prelingually deaf children who received a cochlear implant before age 5 and had no known developmental delay or cognitive impairment were included in the study. Fine and gross motor development were assessed before implantation using the Vineland Adaptive Behavioral Scales, a standardized parental report of adaptive behavior. Fine and gross motor scores reflected a given child's motor functioning with respect to a normative sample of typically developing, normal-hearing children. Relations between these preimplant scores and postimplant spoken language outcomes were assessed. In general, gross motor scores were found to be positively related to chronologic age, whereas the opposite trend was observed for fine motor scores. Fine motor scores were more strongly correlated with postimplant expressive and receptive language scores than gross motor scores. Our findings suggest a disassociation between fine and gross motor development in prelingually deaf children: fine motor skills, in contrast to gross motor skills, tend to be delayed as the prelingually deaf children get older. These findings provide new knowledge about the links between motor and spoken language development and suggest that auditory deprivation may lead to atypical development of certain motor and language skills that share common cortical processing resources.

  12. MotorSense: Using Motion Tracking Technology to Support the Identification and Treatment of Gross-Motor Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnedillo-Sánchez, Inmaculada; Boyle, Bryan; Bossavit, Benoît

    2017-01-01

    MotorSense is a motion detection and tracking technology that can be implemented across a range of environments to assist in detecting delays in gross-motor skills development. The system utilises the motion tracking functionality of Microsoft's Kinect™. It features games that require children to perform graded gross-motor tasks matched with their chronological and developmental ages. This paper describes the rationale for MotorSense, provides an overview of the functionality of the system and illustrates sample activities.

  13. The clinical effect of hippotherapy on gross motor function of children with Cerebral Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Litlle

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cerebral palsy (CP is the most common cause of physical disability affecting gross motor function (GMF in early childhood. Hippotherapy is a treatment approach aimed at improving GMF in children with CP. Several systematic reviews have been published showing an improvement in Dimension E of the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM after hippotherapy. However, these reviews failed to evaluate the clinical effect of hippotherapy in improving GMF in children with CP. Objective: To critically appraise the evidence of hippotherapy to ascertain whether it is a clinically meaningful approach for children with CP. Methodology: Five computerised bibliographic databases were searched. Predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria were set. The PEDro scale was used to assess the quality of the studies. A revised JBI Data extraction tool was used to extract data from the selected articles. Revman© Review Manager Software was used to create forest plots for comparisons of results. Results: All studies used the GMFM as an outcome measure for gross motor function. The added benefit of hippotherapy is a minimum 1% and a maximum 7% increase on the GMFM scores. However, all 95% confidence intervals (CI around all the mean differences were insignificant. Conclusion: The clinical effect of hippotherapy on the GMF of children with CP is small. Larger studies are required to provide evidence of the effect of hippotherapy within this population.

  14. Neonatal Stroke Causes Poor Midline Motor Behaviors and Poor Fine and Gross Motor Skills during Early Infancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao-Ying; Lo, Warren D.; Heathcock, Jill C.

    2013-01-01

    Upper extremity movements, midline behaviors, fine, and gross motor skills are frequently impaired in hemiparesis and cerebral palsy. We investigated midline toy exploration and fine and gross motor skills in infants at risk for hemiplegic cerebral palsy. Eight infants with neonatal stroke (NS) and thirteen infants with typical development (TD)…

  15. Gross motor performance and self-perceived motor competence in children with emotional, behavioural, and pervasive developmental disorders: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emck, C.; Bosscher, R.J.; Beek, P.J.; Doreleijers, T.A.H.

    2009-01-01

    Aims: Motor performance and self-perceived motor competence have a great impact on the psychosocial development of children in general. In this review, empirical studies of gross motor performance and self-perception of motor competence in children with emotional (depression and anxiety),

  16. Are gross motor skills and sports participation related in children with intellectual disabilities?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westendorp, Marieke; Houwen, Suzanne; Hartman, Esther; Visscher, Chris

    2011-01-01

    This study compared the specific gross motor skills of 156 children with intellectual disabilities (ID) (50 79) with that of 255 typically developing children, aged 7-12 years. Additionally, the relationship between the specific gross motor skills and organized sports participation was examined

  17. Are Gross Motor Skills and Sports Participation Related in Children with Intellectual Disabilities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westendorp, Marieke; Houwen, Suzanne; Hartman, Esther; Visscher, Chris

    2011-01-01

    This study compared the specific gross motor skills of 156 children with intellectual disabilities (ID) (50 less than or equal to IQ greater than or equal to 79) with that of 255 typically developing children, aged 7-12 years. Additionally, the relationship between the specific gross motor skills and organized sports participation was examined in…

  18. The Effects of Basketball Basic Skills Training on Gross Motor Skills Development of Female Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayazit, Betul

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of basketball basic skills training on gross motor skills development of female children in Turkey. For that purpose, 40 female children took part in the study voluntarily. Basketball basic skills test was used to improve the gross motor skills of the female children in the study. Also,…

  19. De Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM): een onderzoek naar de betrouwbaarheid van de Nederlandse vertaling.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenhof, C.; Ketelaar, M.; Petegem-van Beek, E. van

    2003-01-01

    This article is about the psychometric characteristics of the Dutch translation of the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM). It describes the reliability of the instrument. The article "Gross Motor Function Measure" (GMFM): a validity study of the Dutch translation focusses on the responsiveness of

  20. De Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM): een onderzoek naar de responsiviteit van de Nederlandse vertaling.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenhof, C.; Ketelaar, M.; Petegem-van Beek, E. van; Vermeer, A.

    2003-01-01

    This article is about the psychometric characteristics of the Dutch translation of the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM). It describes the responsiveness to change. The article "Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM): a reliability study of the Dutch translation" focuses on the reliability of the

  1. The Performance of Fundamental Gross Motor Skills by Children Enrolled in Head Start.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodard, Rebecca J.; Yun, Joonkoo

    2001-01-01

    This study sought to descriptively evaluate the performance of fundamental gross motor skills among Head Start children. Levels of performance were compared and contrasted with performance profiles of the Test of Gross Motor Development. Findings suggest that Head Start curriculum should focus on the importance of developing fundamental gross…

  2. Gross-Motor Skill Acquisition by Preschool Dance Students under Self-Instruction Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vintere, Parsla; Hemmes, Nancy S.; Brown, Bruce L.; Poulson, Claire L.

    2004-01-01

    The effects of two training procedures -- (a) modeling and praise and (b) self-instruction, modeling, and praise -- on complex gross-motor chain acquisition for preschool dance class students were evaluated. Six girls participated in the study. A multiple baseline design across six gross-motor chains with a secondary group comparison for treatment…

  3. Oropharyngeal dysphagia and gross motor skills in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benfer, Katherine A; Weir, Kelly A; Bell, Kristie L; Ware, Robert S; Davies, Peter S W; Boyd, Roslyn N

    2013-05-01

    To determine the prevalence of oropharyngeal dysphagia (OPD) and its subtypes (oral phase, pharyngeal phase, saliva control), and their relationship to gross motor functional skills in preschool children with cerebral palsy (CP). It was hypothesized that OPD would be present across all gross motor severity levels, and children with more severe gross motor function would have increased prevalence and severity of OPD. Children with a confirmed diagnosis of CP, 18 to 36 months corrected age, born in Queensland between 2006 and 2009, participated. Children with neurodegenerative conditions were excluded. This was a cross-sectional population-based study. Children were assessed by using 2 direct OPD measures (Schedule for Oral Motor Assessment; Dysphagia Disorders Survey), and observations of signs suggestive of pharyngeal phase impairment and impaired saliva control. Gross motor skills were described by using the Gross Motor Function Measure, Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS), Manual Ability Classification System, and motor type/ distribution. OPD was prevalent in 85% of children with CP, and there was a stepwise relationship between OPD and GMFCS level. There was a significant increase in odds of having OPD, or a subtype, for children who were nonambulant (GMFCS V) compared with those who were ambulant (GMFCS I) (odds ratio = 17.9, P = .036). OPD was present across all levels of gross motor severity using direct assessments. This highlights the need for proactive screening of all young children with CP, even those with mild impairments, to improve growth and nutritional outcomes and respiratory health.

  4. Structural equation modeling of motor impairment, gross motor function, and the functional outcome in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun-Young; Kim, Won-Ho

    2013-05-01

    Physical therapy intervention for children with cerebral palsy (CP) is focused on reducing neurological impairments, improving strength, and preventing the development of secondary impairments in order to improve functional outcomes. However, relationship between motor impairments and functional outcome has not been proved definitely. This study confirmed the construct of motor impairment and performed structural equation modeling (SEM) between motor impairment, gross motor function, and functional outcomes of regarding activities of daily living in children with CP. 98 children (59 boys, 39 girls) with CP participated in this cross-sectional study. Mean age was 11 y 5 mo (SD 1 y 9 mo). The Manual Muscle Test (MMT), the Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS), range of motion (ROM) measurement, and the selective motor control (SMC) scale were used to assess motor impairments. Gross motor function and functional outcomes were measured using the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) and the Functional Skills domain of the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI) respectively. Measurement of motor impairment was consisted of strength, spasticity, ROM, and SMC. The construct of motor impairment was confirmed though an examination of a measurement model. The proposed SEM model showed good fit indices. Motor impairment effected gross motor function (β=-.0869). Gross motor function and motor impairment affected functional outcomes directly (β=0.890) and indirectly (β=-0.773) respectively. We confirmed that the construct of motor impairment consist of strength, spasticity, ROM, and SMC and it was identified through measurement model analysis. Functional outcomes are best predicted by gross motor function and motor impairments have indirect effects on functional outcomes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Relationships Between Gross Motor Skills and Social Function in Young Boys With Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Jamie M; Long, Toby M; Biasini, Fred

    2018-05-02

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between gross motor skills and social function in young boys with autism spectrum disorder. Twenty-one children with autism spectrum disorder participated in the study. The Peabody Developmental Motor Scales Second Edition and the Miller Function and Participation Scales were used to assess gross motor skills. The Social Skills Improvement System Rating Scales was used to assess social function. Moderately high correlations were found between overall gross motor and social skills (r = 0.644) and between the core stability motor subtest and overall social skills (r = -0.672). Specific motor impairments in stability, motor accuracy, and object manipulation scores were predictive of social function. This study suggests that motor skills and social function are related in young boys with autism. Implications for physical therapy intervention are also discussed.

  6. Neonatal stroke causes poor midline motor behaviors and poor fine and gross motor skills during early infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao-Ying; Lo, Warren D; Heathcock, Jill C

    2013-03-01

    Upper extremity movements, midline behaviors, fine, and gross motor skills are frequently impaired in hemiparesis and cerebral palsy. We investigated midline toy exploration and fine and gross motor skills in infants at risk for hemiplegic cerebral palsy. Eight infants with neonatal stroke (NS) and thirteen infants with typical development (TD) were assessed from 2 to 7 months of age. The following variables were analyzed: percentage of time in midline and fine and gross motor scores on the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID-III). Infants with neonatal stroke demonstrated poor performance in midline behaviors and fine and gross motor scores on the BSID-III. These results suggest that infants with NS have poor midline behaviors and motor skill development early in infancy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Clubfoot Does Not Impair Gross Motor Development in 5-Year-Olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Karina A; Karol, Lori A; Jeans, Kelly A; Jo, Chan-Hee

    2018-04-01

    To evaluate the gross motor development of 5-year-olds using the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales, 2nd Edition (PDMS-2), test after initial nonoperative management of clubfoot as infants. The PDMS-2 Stationary, Locomotion, and Object Manipulation subtests were assessed on 128 children with idiopathic clubfeet at the age of 5 years. Children were categorized by their initial clubfoot severity as greater than 13, unilateral or bilateral involvement, and required surgery. Children with treated clubfeet had average gross motor scores (99 Gross Motor Quotient) compared with age-matched normative scores. Children with more severe clubfeet required surgery significantly more than children with less severe scores (P < .01). Peabody scores were not significantly different according to initial clubfoot severity, unilateral versus bilateral involvement, and surgical versus nonsurgical outcomes. Clubfoot does not significantly impair gross motor development in 5-year-olds.

  8. The relationship between spasticity and gross motor capability in nonambulatory children with spastic cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katusic, Ana; Alimovic, Sonja

    2013-09-01

    Spasticity has been considered as a major impairment in cerebral palsy (CP), but the relationship between this impairment and motor functions is still unclear, especially in the same group of patients with CP. The aim of this investigation is to determine the relationship between spasticity and gross motor capability in nonambulatory children with spastic CP. Seventy-one children (30 boys, 41 girls) with bilateral spastic cerebral palsy and with Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels IV (n=34) and V (n=37) were included in the study. The spasticity level in lower limbs was evaluated using the Modified Modified Ashworth Scale and the gross motor function with the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM-88). Spearman's correlation analysis was used to determine the nature and the strength of the relationship. The results showed a moderate correlation between spasticity and gross motor skills (ρ=0.52 for the GMFCS level; ρ=0.57 for the GMFM-88), accounting for less than 30% of the explained variance. It seems that spasticity is just one factor among many others that could interfere with gross motor skills, even in children with severe forms of spastic CP. Knowledge of the impact of spasticity on motor skills may be useful in the setting of adequate rehabilitation strategies for nonambulatory children with spastic CP.

  9. Attainment of gross motor milestones by preterm children with normal development upon school entry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dokkum, Nienke H; de Kroon, Marlou L A; Bos, Arend F; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; Kerstjens, Jorien M

    BACKGROUND: Little is known on the motor development of moderately preterm born (MPT) children, in comparison with early preterm born (EPT) children and fullterm born (FT), for children with normal motor outcomes at school entry. AIMS: To compare attainment rates of gross motor milestones reached

  10. The central role of trunk control in the gross motor function of children with cerebral palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Curtis, Derek John; Butler, Penny; Saavedra, Sandy

    2015-01-01

    . The participants were tested using the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM), the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI), and the Segmental Assessment of Trunk Control (SATCo). Results Linear regression analysis showed a positive relationship between the segmental level of trunk control and age......, with both gross motor function and mobility. Segmental trunk control measured using the SATCo could explain between 38% and 40% of variation in GMFM and between 32% and 37% of variation in PEDI. Interpretation This study suggests a strong association between segmental trunk postural control and gross motor...

  11. A preliminary investigation of the relationship between language and gross motor skills in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merriman, W J; Barnett, B E

    1995-12-01

    This study was undertaken to explore the relationship between language skills and gross-motor skills of 28 preschool children from two private preschools in New York City. Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients were calculated for language (revised Preschool Language Scale) and gross motor (Test of Gross Motor Development) scores. Locomotor skills were significantly related to both auditory comprehension and verbal ability while object control scores did not correlate significantly with either language score. These results were discussed in terms of previous research and with reference to dynamical systems theory. Suggestions for research were made.

  12. Effects of gross motor function and manual function levels on performance-based ADL motor skills of children with spastic cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Myoung-Ok

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine effects of Gross Motor Function Classification System and Manual Ability Classification System levels on performance-based motor skills of children with spastic cerebral palsy. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-three children with cerebral palsy were included. The Assessment of Motor and Process Skills was used to evaluate performance-based motor skills in daily life. Gross motor function was assessed using Gross Motor Function Classification S...

  13. Assessment of global motor performance and gross and fine motor skills of infants attending day care centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Carolina T; Santos, Denise C C; Tolocka, Rute E; Baltieri, Letícia; Gibim, Nathália C; Habechian, Fernanda A P

    2010-01-01

    To analyze the global motor performance and the gross and fine motor skills of infants attending two public child care centers full-time. This was a longitudinal study that included 30 infants assessed at 12 and 17 months of age with the Motor Scale of the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition (Bayley-III). This scale allows the analysis of global motor performance, fine and gross motor performance, and the discrepancy between them. The Wilcoxon test and Spearman's correlation coefficient were used. Most of the participants showed global motor performance within the normal range, but below the reference mean at 12 and 17 months, with 30% classified as having "suspected delays" in at least one of the assessments. Gross motor development was poorer than fine motor development at 12 and at 17 months of age, with great discrepancy between these two subtests in the second assessment. A clear individual variability was observed in fine motor skills, with weak linear correlation between the first and the second assessment of this subtest. A lower individual variability was found in the gross motor skills and global motor performance with positive moderate correlation between assessments. Considering both performance measurements obtained at 12 and 17 months of age, four infants were identified as having a "possible delay in motor development". The study showed the need for closer attention to the motor development of children who attend day care centers during the first 17 months of life, with special attention to gross motor skills (which are considered an integral part of the child's overall development) and to children with suspected delays in two consecutive assessments.

  14. Associations between gross motor skills and physical activity in Australian toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldman, Sanne L C; Jones, Rachel A; Santos, Rute; Sousa-Sá, Eduarda; Pereira, João R; Zhang, Zhiguang; Okely, Anthony D

    2018-08-01

    Physical activity can be promoted by high levels of gross motor skills. A systematic review found a positive relationship in children (3-18 years) but only few studies examined this in younger children. The aim of this study was to examine the association between gross motor skills and physical activity in children aged 11-29 months. Cross-sectional study. This study involved 284 children from 30 childcare services in NSW, Australia (Mean age=19.77±4.18months, 53.2% boys). Physical activity was measured using accelerometers (Actigraph GT3X+). Gross motor skills were assessed using the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales Second Edition (PDMS-2). Multilevel linear regression analyses were computed to assess associations between gross motor skills and physical activity, adjusting for sex, age and BMI. Children spent 53.08% of their time in physical activity and 10.39% in moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Boys had higher total physical activity (pskills score was 96.16. Boys scored higher than girls in object manipulation (pskills and total physical activity or MVPA. Although gross motor skills were not associated with physical activity in this sample, stronger associations are apparent in older children. This study therefore highlights a potential important age to promote gross motor skills. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Gross motor development and physical activity in kindergarten age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colella, Dario; Morano, Milena

    2011-10-01

    Physical activity in kindergarten is a fundamental part of the child's educational process. Body experience and physical activity contribute to the development of self-awareness and the learning of different modes of expression, as well as encouraging the acquisition of physically active lifestyles. Recent scientific evidence has confirmed the role of physical activity in disease prevention and quality of life improvement, and stressed the importance of integrated educational programmes promoting physical activity and healthy eating habits. A key priority of scientific research is to identify the opportunities and methods of motor learning and to increase the daily physical activity levels of children by reducing sedentary time and promoting active play and transport (i.e. walking, cycling). Family, school and community involvement are all needed to assure adherence to the official guidelines on how much physical activity children need to boost their health and stave off obesity.

  16. Longitudinal Association Between Gross Motor Capacity and Neuromusculoskeletal Function in Children and Youth With Cerebral Palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Rimke C.; Becher, Jules G.; Voorman, Jeanine M.; Gorter, Jan Willem; van Eck, Mirjam; van Meeteren, Jetty; Smits, Dirk Wouter; Twisk, Jos W.; Dallmeijer, Annet J.

    Objective: To examine associations over longitudinal measurements between neuromusculoskeletal function and gross motor capacity in children and youth with cerebral palsy (CP). Design: A prospective cohort study. Setting: Rehabilitation departments of university medical centers and rehabilitations

  17. Effect of physical therapy frequency on gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Eun-Young

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study attempted to investigate the effect of physical therapy frequency based on neurodevelopmental therapy on gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy. [Subjects and Methods] The study sample included 161 children with cerebral palsy who attended a convalescent or rehabilitation center for disabled individuals or a special school for children with physical disabilities in South Korea. Gross Motor Function Measure data were collected according to physical therapy fr...

  18. Gross motor skill development of 5-year-old Kindergarten children in Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aye, Thanda; Oo, Khin Saw; Khin, Myo Thuzar; Kuramoto-Ahuja, Tsugumi; Maruyama, Hitoshi

    2017-10-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the gross motor skill development of 5-year-old Kindergarten children in Myanmar. [Subjects and Methods] Total 472 healthy Kindergarten children (237 males, 235 females) of 2016-2017 academic year from four schools in urban area and four schools in rural area of Myanmar were recruited. The gross motor skill development of all subjects was assessed with the test of gross motor development second edition (TGMD-2). All subjects performed two trials for each gross motor skill and the performance was video recorded and scored. The assessment procedures were done according to the standardized guidelines of TGMD-2. [Results] The majority of subjects had average level of gross motor skill rank. The significant differences were found on the run and gallop of locomotor skills and the most of object control skills except the catch between males and females. The significant differences were also found between subjects from urban and rural areas. [Conclusion] Gross motor skill development of 5-year-old Kindergarten children in Myanmar had gender-based and region-based differences on both locomotor and object control skills. This study added a valuable information to the establishment of a normative reference of Kindergarten aged children for future studies.

  19. Task-specific gross motor skills training for ambulant school-aged children with cerebral palsy: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toovey, Rachel; Bernie, Charmaine; Harvey, Adrienne R; McGinley, Jennifer L; Spittle, Alicia J

    2017-01-01

    The primary objective is to systematically evaluate the evidence for the effectiveness of task-specific training (TST) of gross motor skills for improving activity and/or participation outcomes in ambulant school-aged children with cerebral palsy (CP). The secondary objective is to identify motor learning strategies reported within TST and assess relationship to outcome. Systematic review. Relevant databases were searched for studies including: children with CP (mean age >4 years and >60% of the sample ambulant); TST targeting gross motor skills and activity (skill performance, gross motor function and functional skills) and/or participation-related outcomes. Quality of included studies was assessed using standardised tools for risk of bias, study design and quality of evidence across outcomes. Continuous data were summarised for each study using standardised mean difference (SMD) and 95% CIs. Thirteen studies met inclusion criteria: eight randomised controlled trials (RCTs), three comparative studies, one repeated-measures study and one single-subject design study. Risk of bias was moderate across studies. Components of TST varied and were often poorly reported. Within-group effects of TST were positive across all outcomes of interest in 11 studies. In RCTs, between-group effects were conflicting for skill performance and functional skills, positive for participation-related outcomes (one study: Life-HABITS performance SMD=1.19, 95% CI 0.3 to 2.07, pmotor function. The quality of evidence was low-to-moderate overall. Variability and poor reporting of motor learning strategies limited assessment of relationship to outcome. Limited evidence for TST for gross motor skills in ambulant children with CP exists for improving activity and participation-related outcomes and recommendations for use over other interventions are limited by poor study methodology and heterogeneous interventions. PROSPERO ID42016036727.

  20. The relationship between gross motor skills and academic achievement in children with learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westendorp, Marieke; Hartman, Esther; Houwen, Suzanne; Smith, Joanne; Visscher, Chris

    2011-01-01

    The present study compared the gross motor skills of 7- to 12-year-old children with learning disabilities (n = 104) with those of age-matched typically developing children (n = 104) using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2. Additionally, the specific relationships between subsets of gross motor skills and academic performance in reading, spelling, and mathematics were examined in children with learning disabilities. As expected, the children with learning disabilities scored poorer on both the locomotor and object-control subtests than their typically developing peers. Furthermore, in children with learning disabilities a specific relationship was observed between reading and locomotor skills and a trend was found for a relationship between mathematics and object-control skills: the larger children's learning lag, the poorer their motor skill scores. This study stresses the importance of specific interventions facilitating both motor and academic abilities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The relationships between gross motor coordination and sport-specific skills in adolescent non-athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chagas Daniel V

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. While the usefulness of gross motor coordination score as predictor of sports performance in young athletes has been demonstrated, practical applications in the settings where the focus is not on elite performance is limited. Further, little is known about the extent to which gross motor coordination score is associated with sport-specific skills among adolescent nonathletes. The aim of this study was to analyse the relationship between the degree of gross motor coordination and execution in specific volleyball tests among adolescent non-athletes. Methods. The total of 34 students (27 females and 7 males aged 13-14 years who regularly participated in volleyball during physical education classes were randomly recruited. Gross motor coordination was assessed with the Körperkoordinationstest für Kinder. Motor performance on volley-specific skills was indicated by two product-oriented tasks: volleyball under service and service reception. Correlation and linear regression analyses were applied to examine the associations between motor coordination scores and motor performance in volley-specific skills. Results. Motor coordination score was positively correlated with motor performance on specific skills (r = 0.503, p = 0.02. Linear regression analysis revealed that motor coordination score accounted for 23% of the variance in the motor performance on volleyball skills (R2 = 0.253, R2 adjusted = 0.230, F = 10.836, p = 0.02. Conclusions. The degree of gross motor coordination seems to play a significant role in the execution of specific volleyball tasks.

  2. Effect of Spark Motor Program on the development of gross motor skills in intellectually disabled educable boys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashem Faal Moganloo

    2013-11-01

    Results: Spark Program caused significant changes in all the variables of the study, except speed and agility, in the experimental group after 24 sessions. The changes included: agility and speed (P=0.731, balance (P=0, strength (P=0.002, and bilateral coordination (P=0. Conclusion: Spark Motor Program can improve gross motor skills in intellectually disabled educable students.

  3. Fine and gross motor skills differ between healthy-weight and obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentier, Ilse; D'Hondt, Eva; Shultz, Sarah; Deforche, Benedicte; Augustijn, Mireille; Hoorne, Sofie; Verlaecke, Katja; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Lenoir, Matthieu

    2013-11-01

    Within the obesity literature, focus is put on the link between weight status and gross motor skills. However, research on fine motor skills in the obese (OB) childhood population is limited. Therefore, the present study focused on possible weight related differences in gross as well as fine motor skill tasks. Thirty-four OB children (12 ♀ and 22 ♂, aged 7-13 years) were recruited prior to participating in a multidisciplinary treatment program at the Zeepreventorium (De Haan, Belgium). Additionally, a control group of 34 age and gender-matched healthy-weight (HW) children was included in the study. Anthropometric measures were recorded and gross and fine motor skills were assessed using the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency, second edition (BOT-2). Results were analyzed by independent samples t-tests, multivariate analysis of variance, and a chi-squared test. Being OB was detrimental for all subtests evaluating gross motor skill performance (i.e., upper-limb coordination, bilateral coordination, balance, running speed and agility, and strength). Furthermore, OB children performed worse in fine motor precision and a manual dexterity task, when compared to their HW peers. No group differences existed for the fine motor integration task. Our study provides evidence that lower motor competence in OB children is not limited to gross motor skills alone; OB children are also affected by fine motor skill problems. Further investigation is warranted to provide possible explanations for these differences. It is tentatively suggested that OB children experience difficulties with the integration and processing of sensory information. Future research is needed to explore whether this assumption is correct and what the underlying mechanism(s) could be. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The Effects of Modified Games on the Development of Gross Motor Skill in Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestari, Indah; Ratnaningsih, Tri

    2016-01-01

    Gross motor skills on children must be optimized much earlier since it plays important role not only on their interaction process but also in supporting other multiple developments. One of the means in developing child's motor skill is by providing innovative games i.e. modified games including game format, game timing, and game sequence. The…

  5. Divergent Development of Gross Motor Skills in Children Who Are Blind or Sighted

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brambring, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This empirical study compared the average ages at which four congenitally blind children acquired 29 gross motor skills with age norms for sighted children. The results indicated distinct developmental delays in the acquisition of motor skills and a high degree of variability in developmental delays within and across the six subdomains that were…

  6. Correlates of Gross Motor Competence in Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Lisa M; Lai, Samuel K; Veldman, Sanne L C; Hardy, Louise L; Cliff, Dylan P; Morgan, Philip J; Zask, Avigdor; Lubans, David R; Shultz, Sarah P; Ridgers, Nicola D; Rush, Elaine; Brown, Helen L; Okely, Anthony D

    2016-11-01

    Gross motor competence confers health benefits, but levels in children and adolescents are low. While interventions can improve gross motor competence, it remains unclear which correlates should be targeted to ensure interventions are most effective, and for whom targeted and tailored interventions should be developed. The aim of this systematic review was to identify the potential correlates of gross motor competence in typically developing children and adolescents (aged 3-18 years) using an ecological approach. Motor competence was defined as gross motor skill competency, encompassing fundamental movement skills and motor coordination, but excluding motor fitness. Studies needed to assess a summary score of at least one aspect of motor competence (i.e., object control, locomotor, stability, or motor coordination). A structured electronic literature search was conducted in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement. Six electronic databases (CINAHL Complete, ERIC, MEDLINE Complete, PsycINFO ® , Scopus and SPORTDiscus with Full Text) were searched from 1994 to 5 August 2014. Meta-analyses were conducted to determine the relationship between potential correlates and motor competency if at least three individual studies investigated the same correlate and also reported standardized regression coefficients. A total of 59 studies were identified from 22 different countries, published between 1995 and 2014. Studies reflected the full range of age groups. The most examined correlates were biological and demographic factors. Age (increasing) was a correlate of children's motor competence. Weight status (healthy), sex (male) and socioeconomic background (higher) were consistent correlates for certain aspects of motor competence only. Physical activity and sport participation constituted the majority of investigations in the behavioral attributes and skills category. Whilst we found physical activity to be a positive

  7. The effect of height, weight and head circumference on gross motor development in achondroplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, Penelope Jane; Ware, Robert S; Donaghey, Samantha; McGill, James; Zankl, Andreas; Pacey, Verity; Ault, Jenny; Savarirayan, Ravi; Sillence, David; Thompson, Elizabeth; Townshend, Sharron; Johnston, Leanne M

    2013-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether height, weight, head circumference and/or relationships between these factors are associated with gross motor milestone acquisition in children with achondroplasia. Population-based data regarding timing of major gross motor milestones up to 5 years were correlated with height, weight and head circumference at birth and 12 months in 48 children with achondroplasia born in Australia and New Zealand between 2000 and 2009. Although as a group children with achondroplasia showed delayed gross motor skill acquisition, within group differences in height, weight or head circumference did not appear to influence timing of gross motor skills before 5 years. The exception was lie to sit transitioning, which appears likely to occur earlier if the child is taller and heavier at 12 months, and later if the child has significant head-to-body disproportion. This is the first study to investigate the relationship between common musculoskeletal impairments associated with achondroplasia and timing of gross motor achievement. Identification of the musculoskeletal factors that exacerbate delays in transitioning from lying to sitting will assist clinicians to provide more proactive assessment, advice and intervention regarding motor skill acquisition for this population. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2013 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  8. Gross Motor Function Measure Evolution Ratio: Use as a Control for Natural Progression in Cerebral Palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marois, Pierre; Marois, Mikael; Pouliot-Laforte, Annie; Vanasse, Michel; Lambert, Jean; Ballaz, Laurent

    2016-05-01

    To develop a new way to interpret Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM-66) score improvement in studies conducted without control groups in children with cerebral palsy (CP). The curves, which describe the pattern of motor development according to the children's Gross Motor Function Classification System level, were used as historical control to define the GMFM-66 expected natural evolution in children with CP. These curves have been modeled and generalized to fit the curve to particular children characteristics. Research center. Not applicable. Not applicable. Not applicable. Assuming that the GMFM-66 score evolution followed the shape of the Rosenbaum curves, by taking into account the age and GMFM-66 score of children, the expected natural evolution of the GMFM-66 score was predicted for any group of children with CP who were Ratio, was defined as follows: Gross Motor Function Measure Evolution Ratio=measured GMFM-66 score change/expected natural evolution. For practical or ethical reasons, it is almost impossible to use control groups in studies evaluating effectiveness of many therapeutic modalities. The Gross Motor Function Measure Evolution Ratio gives the opportunity to take into account the expected natural evolution of the gross motor function of children with CP, which is essential to accurately interpret the therapy effect on the GMFM-66. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Are gross motor skills and sports participation related in children with intellectual disabilities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westendorp, Marieke; Houwen, Suzanne; Hartman, Esther; Visscher, Chris

    2011-01-01

    This study compared the specific gross motor skills of 156 children with intellectual disabilities (ID) (50 ≤ IQ ≥ 79) with that of 255 typically developing children, aged 7-12 years. Additionally, the relationship between the specific gross motor skills and organized sports participation was examined in both groups. The Test of Gross Motor Development-2 and a self-report measure were used to assess children's gross motor skills and sports participation, respectively. The children with ID scored significantly lower on almost all specific motor skill items than the typically developing children. Children with mild ID scored lower on the locomotor skills than children with borderline ID. Furthermore, we found in all groups that children with higher object-control scores participated more in organized sports than children with lower object-control scores. Our results support the importance of attention for well-developed gross motor skills in children with borderline and mild ID, especially to object-control skills, which might contribute positively to their sports participation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Gross Motor Skills in Children With Idiopathic Clubfoot and the Association Between Gross Motor Skills, Foot Involvement, Gait, and Foot Motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lööf, Elin; Andriesse, Hanneke; André, Marie; Böhm, Stephanie; Iversen, Maura D; Broström, Eva W

    2017-02-24

    Little is known regarding gross motor skills (GMS) in children with idiopathic clubfoot (IC). This study describes GMS, specifically foot involvement and asymmetries, and analyses the association between GMS, gait, and foot status in children with IC. Gross motor tasks and gait were analyzed in children with IC and typically developed (TD) children. GMS were assessed using videotapes and the Clubfoot Assessment Protocol (CAP). The Gait Deviation Index (GDI) and GDI-Kinetic were calculated from gait analyses. Children were divided into bilateral, unilateral clubfoot, or TD groups. To analyze asymmetries, feet within each group were further classified into superior or inferior foot, depending on their CAP scores. Correlations identified associations between CAP and GDI, GDI-Kinetic, passive foot motion, and Dimeglio Classification Scores at birth in the clubfeet. In total, 75 children (mean age, 5 years) were enrolled (bilateral n=22, unilateral clubfoot n=25, TD=28). Children with clubfeet demonstrated significantly lower GMS, gait, and foot motion compared with TD children. One leg standing and hopping deviated in 84% and 91%, respectively, in at least one foot in children with clubfoot. Gross motor asymmetries were evident in both children with bilateral and unilateral involvement. In children with unilateral clubfoot, contralateral feet showed few deviations in GMS compared with TD; however, differences existed in gait and foot motion. The association between GMS and gait, foot motion, and initial foot status varied between poor and moderate. Gross motor deficits and asymmetries are present in children with both bilateral and unilateral IC. Development of GMS of the contralateral foot mirrors that of TD children, but modifies to the clubfoot in gait and foot motion. The weak association with gait, foot motion, and initial clubfoot severity indicates that gross motor measurements represent a different outcome entity in clubfoot treatment. We therefore, recommend

  11. Development of a Computerized Adaptive Test of Children's Gross Motor Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chien-Yu; Tung, Li-Chen; Chou, Yeh-Tai; Wu, Hing-Man; Chen, Kuan-Lin; Hsieh, Ching-Lin

    2018-03-01

    To (1) develop a computerized adaptive test for gross motor skills (GM-CAT) as a diagnostic test and an outcome measure, using the gross motor skills subscale of the Comprehensive Developmental Inventory for Infants and Toddlers (CDIIT-GM) as the candidate item bank; and (2) examine the psychometric properties and the efficiency of the GM-CAT. Retrospective study. A developmental center of a medical center. Children with and without developmental delay (N=1738). Not applicable. The CDIIT-GM contains 56 universal items on gross motor skills assessing children's antigravity control, locomotion, and body movement coordination. The item bank of the GM-CAT had 44 items that met the dichotomous Rasch model's assumptions. High Rasch person reliabilities were found for each estimated gross motor skill for the GM-CAT (Rasch person reliabilities =.940-.995, SE=.68-2.43). For children aged 6 to 71 months, the GM-CAT had good concurrent validity (r values =.97-.98), adequate to excellent diagnostic accuracy (area under receiver operating characteristics curve =.80-.98), and moderate to large responsiveness (effect size =.65-5.82). The averages of items administered for the GM-CAT were 7 to 11, depending on the age group. The results of this study support the use of the GM-CAT as a diagnostic and outcome measure to estimate children's gross motor skills in both research and clinical settings. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Promoting gross motor skills and physical activity in childcare: A translational randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Rachel A; Okely, Anthony D; Hinkley, Trina; Batterham, Marijka; Burke, Claire

    2016-09-01

    Educator-led programs for physical activity and motor skill development show potential but few have been implemented and evaluated using a randomized controlled design. Furthermore, few educator-led programs have evaluated both gross motor skills and physical activity. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate a gross motor skill and physical activity program for preschool children which was facilitated solely by childcare educators. A six-month 2-arm randomized controlled trial was implemented between April and September 2012 in four early childhood centers in Tasmania, Australia. Educators participated in ongoing professional development sessions and children participated in structured physical activity lessons and unstructured physical activity sessions. In total, 150 children were recruited from four centers which were randomized to intervention or wait-list control group. Six early childhood educators from the intervention centers were trained to deliver the intervention. Gross motor skills were assessed using the Test of Gross Motor Development (2nd edition) and physical activity was measured objectively using GT3X+ Actigraph accelerometers. No statistically significant differences were identified. However, small to medium effect sizes, in favor of the intervention group, were evident for four of the five gross motor skills and the total gross motor skill score and small to medium effect sizes were reported for all physical activity outcomes. This study highlights the potential of educator-led physical activity interventions and supports the need for further translational trials within the early childhood sector. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Early gross motor skills predict the subsequent development of language in children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedford, Rachael; Pickles, Andrew; Lord, Catherine

    2016-09-01

    Motor milestones such as the onset of walking are important developmental markers, not only for later motor skills but also for more widespread social-cognitive development. The aim of the current study was to test whether gross motor abilities, specifically the onset of walking, predicted the subsequent rate of language development in a large cohort of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We ran growth curve models for expressive and receptive language measured at 2, 3, 5 and 9 years in 209 autistic children. Measures of gross motor, visual reception and autism symptoms were collected at the 2 year visit. In Model 1, walking onset was included as a predictor of the slope of language development. Model 2 included a measure of non-verbal IQ and autism symptom severity as covariates. The final model, Model 3, additionally covaried for gross motor ability. In the first model, parent-reported age of walking onset significantly predicted the subsequent rate of language development although the relationship became non-significant when gross motor skill, non-verbal ability and autism severity scores were included (Models 2 & 3). Gross motor score, however, did remain a significant predictor of both expressive and receptive language development. Taken together, the model results provide some evidence that early motor abilities in young children with ASD can have longitudinal cross-domain influences, potentially contributing, in part, to the linguistic difficulties that characterise ASD. Autism Res 2016, 9: 993-1001. © 2015 The Authors Autism Research published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Autism Research. © 2015 The Authors Autism Research published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Autism Research.

  14. Relationship between communication skills and gross motor function in preschool-aged children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Andrea; Weir, Kelly A; Ware, Robert S; Boyd, Roslyn N

    2013-11-01

    To explore the communication skills of children with cerebral palsy (CP) at 24 months' corrected age with reference to typically developing children, and to determine the relationship between communication ability, gross motor function, and other comorbidities associated with CP. Prospective, cross-sectional, population-based cohort study. General community. Children with CP (N=124; mean age, 24mo; functional severity on Gross Motor Function Classification System [GMFCS]: I=47, II=14, III=22, IV=19, V=22). Not applicable. Parents reported communication skills on the Communication and Symbolic Behavior Scales Developmental Profile (CSBS-DP) Infant-Toddler Checklist. Two independent physiotherapists classified motor type, distribution, and GMFCS. Data on comorbidities were obtained from parent interviews and medical records. Children with mild CP (GMFCS I/II) had mean CSBS-DP scores that were 0.5 to 0.6 SD below the mean for typically developing peers, while those with moderate-severe impairment (GMFCS III-V) were 1.4 to 2.6 SD below the mean. GMFCS was significantly associated with performance on the CSBS-DP (F=18.55, Pgross motor ability accounting for 38% of the variation in communication. Poorer communication was strongly associated with gross motor function and full-term birth. Preschool-aged children with CP, with more severe gross motor impairment, showed delayed communication, while children with mild motor impairment were less vulnerable. Term-born children had significantly poorer communication than those born prematurely. Because a portion of each gross motor functional severity level is at risk, this study reinforces the need for early monitoring of communication development for all children with CP. Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Gross Motor Skills and Cardiometabolic Risk in Children: A Mediation Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Ryan D; Brusseau, Timothy A; Fu, You; Hannon, James C

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the linear relationship between gross motor skills and cardiometabolic risk, with aerobic fitness as a mediator variable, in low-income children from the United States. Participants were a convenience sample of 224 children (mean ± SD age = 9.1 ± 1.1 yr; 129 girls and 95 boys) recruited from five low-income elementary schools from the Mountain West Region of the United States. Gross motor skills were assessed using the Test for Gross Motor Development, 3rd Edition. Gross motor skills were analyzed using a locomotor skill, a ball skill, and a total gross motor skill score. Aerobic fitness was assessed using the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run that was administered during physical education class. A continuous and age- and sex-adjusted metabolic syndrome score (MetS) was calculated from health and blood marker measurements collected in a fasted state before school hours. Total effects, average direct effects, and indirect effects (average causal mediation effect) were calculated using a bootstrap mediation analysis method via a linear regression algorithm. The average causal mediation effect of gross locomotor skills on MetS scores, using aerobic fitness as the mediator variable, was statistically significant (β = -0.055, 95% confidence interval = -0.097 to -0.021, P = 0.003). The model explained approximately 17.5% of the total variance in MetS with approximately 43.7% of the relationship between locomotor skills and MetS mediated through aerobic fitness. Ball skills did not significantly relate with cardiometabolic risk. There is a significant relationship between gross locomotor skills and cardiometabolic risk that is partially mediated through aerobic fitness in a sample of low-income children from the United States.

  16. Gross motor skill performance in children with and without visual impairments--research to practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Matthias O; Haibach, Pamela S; Lieberman, Lauren J

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to provide an empirical basis for teaching gross motor skills in children with visual impairments. For this purpose, gross motor skill performance of 23, 6-12 year old, boys and girls who are blind (ICD-10 H54.0) and 28 sighted controls with comparable age and gender characteristics was compared on six locomotor and six object control tasks using the Test of Gross Motor Development-Second Edition. Results indicate that children who are blind perform significantly (pskills, whereby running, leaping, kicking and catching are the most affected skills, and corresponding differences are related to most running, leaping, kicking and catching component. Practical implications are provided. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Fine and gross motor skills: The effects on skill-focused dual-tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raisbeck, Louisa D; Diekfuss, Jed A

    2015-10-01

    Dual-task methodology often directs participants' attention towards a gross motor skill involved in the execution of a skill, but researchers have not investigated the comparative effects of attention on fine motor skill tasks. Furthermore, there is limited information about participants' subjective perception of workload with respect to task performance. To examine this, the current study administered the NASA-Task Load Index following a simulated shooting dual-task. The task required participants to stand 15 feet from a projector screen which depicted virtual targets and fire a modified Glock 17 handgun equipped with an infrared laser. Participants performed the primary shooting task alone (control), or were also instructed to focus their attention on a gross motor skill relevant to task execution (gross skill-focused) and a fine motor skill relevant to task execution (fine skill-focused). Results revealed that workload was significantly greater during the fine skill-focused task for both skill levels, but performance was only affected for the lesser-skilled participants. Shooting performance for the lesser-skilled participants was greater during the gross skill-focused condition compared to the fine skill-focused condition. Correlational analyses also demonstrated a significant negative relationship between shooting performance and workload during the gross skill-focused task for the higher-skilled participants. A discussion of the relationship between skill type, workload, skill level, and performance in dual-task paradigms is presented. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of gross motor function and manual function levels on performance-based ADL motor skills of children with spastic cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Myoung-Ok

    2017-02-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine effects of Gross Motor Function Classification System and Manual Ability Classification System levels on performance-based motor skills of children with spastic cerebral palsy. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-three children with cerebral palsy were included. The Assessment of Motor and Process Skills was used to evaluate performance-based motor skills in daily life. Gross motor function was assessed using Gross Motor Function Classification Systems, and manual function was measured using the Manual Ability Classification System. [Results] Motor skills in daily activities were significantly different on Gross Motor Function Classification System level and Manual Ability Classification System level. According to the results of multiple regression analysis, children categorized as Gross Motor Function Classification System level III scored lower in terms of performance based motor skills than Gross Motor Function Classification System level I children. Also, when analyzed with respect to Manual Ability Classification System level, level II was lower than level I, and level III was lower than level II in terms of performance based motor skills. [Conclusion] The results of this study indicate that performance-based motor skills differ among children categorized based on Gross Motor Function Classification System and Manual Ability Classification System levels of cerebral palsy.

  19. Impact of a Community-Based Programme for Motor Development on Gross Motor Skills and Cognitive Function in Preschool Children from Disadvantaged Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, Catherine E.; Achmat, Masturah; Forbes, Jared; Lambert, Estelle V.

    2012-01-01

    The aims of the studies were to assess the impact of the Little Champs programme for motor development on (1) the gross motor skills, and (2) cognitive function of children in the programme. In study 1, 118 children from one Early Childhood Development Centre (ECDC) were tested using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2, and in study 2, 83…

  20. Improving gross motor function and postural control with hippotherapy in children with Down syndrome: case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champagne, Danielle; Dugas, Claude

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this case report is to describe the impact of an 11-week hippotherapy program on the gross motor functions of two children (respectively 28 and 37 months old) diagnosed with Down syndrome. Hippotherapy is a strategy that uses the horse's motion to stimulate and enhance muscle contraction and postural control. The children were assessed by the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) and accelerometry. The results indicate that both children improved on many dimensions of the GMFM. Power spectral analysis of the acceleration signals showed improvement in postural control of either the head or trunk, because the children adopted two different adaptative strategies to perturbation induced by the moving horse.

  1. Gross motor function in children with spastic Cerebral Palsy and Cerebral Visual Impairment : A comparison between outcomes of the original and the Cerebral Visual Impairment adapted Gross Motor Function Measure-88 (GMFM-88-CVI)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salavati, M.; Rameckers, E. A. A.; Waninge, A.; Krijnen, W. P.; Steenbergen, B.; van der Schans, C. P.

    Purpose: To investigate whether the adapted version of the Gross Motor Function Measure 88 (GMFM-88) for children with Cerebral Palsy (CP) and Cerebral Visual Impairment (CVI) results in higher scores. This is most likely to be a reflection of their gross motor function, however it may be the result

  2. Effect of hippotherapy on gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jeong-Yi; Chang, Hyun Jung; Yi, Sook-Hee; Lee, Ji Young; Shin, Hye-Yeon; Kim, Yun-Hee

    2015-01-01

    To examine whether hippotherapy has a clinically significant effect on gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Randomized controlled trial. Outpatient therapy center. Ninety-two children with CP, aged 4-10 years, presenting variable function (Gross Motor Function Classification System [GMFCS] levels I-IV). Hippotherapy (30 minutes twice weekly for 8 consecutive weeks). Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM)-88, GMFM-66, and Pediatric Balance Scale. Pre- and post-treatment measures were completed by 91 children (45 in the intervention group and 46 in the control group). Differences in improvement on all three measures significantly differed between groups after the 8-week study period. Dimensions of GMFM-88 improved significantly after hippotherapy varied by GMFCS level: dimension E in level I, dimensions D and E in level II, dimensions C and D in level III, and dimensions B and C in level IV. Hippotherapy positively affects gross motor function and balance in children with CP of various functional levels.

  3. A longitudinal study on gross motor development in children with learning disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westendorp, Marieke; Hartman, Esther; Houwen, Suzanne; Huijgen, Barbara C. H.; Smith, Joanne; Visscher, Chris

    This longitudinal study examined the development of gross motor skills, and sex-differences therein, in 7; to 11-years-old children with learning disorders (LD) and compared the results with typically developing children to determine the performance level of children with LD. In children with LD (n

  4. Gross motor skills and sports participation of children with visual impairments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwen, S; Visscher, C.; Hartman, E.; Lemmink, K.A.P.M.

    Gross motor skill performance of children with visual impairments and its association with the degree of visual impairment and sports participation was examined. Twenty children with visual impairments (M age = 9.2 years, SD =1.5) and 100 sighted children (M age = 9.1 years, SD = 1.5) from

  5. Gross Motor Skills and Sports Participation of Children with Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houwen, Suzanne; Visscher, Chris; Hartman, Esther; Lemmink, Koen A. P. M.

    2007-01-01

    Gross motor skill performance of children with visual impairments and its association with the degree of visual impairment and sports participation was examined. Twenty children with visual impairments (M age = 9.2 years, SD = 1.5) and 100 sighted children (M age = 9.1 years, SD = 1.5) from mainstream schools participated. The results showed that…

  6. Gross Motor Performance and Physical Fitness in Children with Psychiatric Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emck, Claudia; Bosscher, Ruud J.; van Wieringen, Piet C. W.; Doreleijers, Theo; Beek, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: Gross motor performance appears to be impaired in children with psychiatric disorders but little is known about which skill domains are affected in each disorder, nor about possible accompanying deficits in physical fitness. The present study has sought to provide information about these issues in children with emotional, behavioural, and…

  7. Gross Motor Development in Children Aged 3-5 Years, United States 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kit, Brian K; Akinbami, Lara J; Isfahani, Neda Sarafrazi; Ulrich, Dale A

    2017-07-01

    Objective Gross motor development in early childhood is important in fostering greater interaction with the environment. The purpose of this study is to describe gross motor skills among US children aged 3-5 years using the Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD-2). Methods We used 2012 NHANES National Youth Fitness Survey (NNYFS) data, which included TGMD-2 scores obtained according to an established protocol. Outcome measures included locomotor and object control raw and age-standardized scores. Means and standard errors were calculated for demographic and weight status with SUDAAN using sample weights to calculate nationally representative estimates, and survey design variables to account for the complex sampling methods. Results The sample included 339 children aged 3-5 years. As expected, locomotor and object control raw scores increased with age. Overall mean standardized scores for locomotor and object control were similar to the mean value previously determined using a normative sample. Girls had a higher mean locomotor, but not mean object control, standardized score than boys (p  0.05). Conclusions In a nationally representative sample of US children aged 3-5 years, TGMD-2 mean locomotor and object control standardized scores were similar to the established mean. These results suggest that standardized gross motor development among young children generally did not differ by demographic or weight status.

  8. Get Kids Moving: Simple Activities To Build Gross-Motor Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Child Care, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Highlights the importance of activities to build gross motor skills and provides hints for encouraging such activities. Specific areas of activities presented are: (1) running and jumping; (2) music games; (3) action games; (4) races; (5) bed sheets or parachutes; (6) hula hoops; (7) balls; (8) batting; (9) balance; and (10) creative movement. (SD)

  9. Correlation between cognitive function, gross motor skills and health â

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Saly Said Abd El-Hady

    ... attention and concentration, learning, memory and language that can result in mild to profound ... adulthood and affect health related quality of life (HRQOL) and wellbeing in ... investigate the correlation between cognitive function; attention/-.

  10. Cognitive-motor interference during fine and gross motor tasks in children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schott, Nadja; El-Rajab, Inaam; Klotzbier, Thomas

    2016-10-01

    While typically developing children produce relatively automatized postural control processes, children with DCD seem to exhibit an automatization deficit. Dual tasks with various cognitive loads seem to be an effective way to assess the automatic deficit hypothesis. The aims of the study were: (1) to examine the effect of a concurrent cognitive task on fine and gross motor tasks in children with DCD, and (2) to determine whether the effect varied with different difficulty levels of the concurrent task. We examined dual-task performance (Trail-Making-Test, Trail-Walking-Test) in 20 children with DCD and 39 typically developing children. Based on the idea of the Trail-Making-Test, participants walked along a fixed pathway, following a prescribed path, delineated by target markers of (1) increasing sequential numbers, and (2) increasing sequential numbers and letters. The motor and cognitive dual-task effects (DTE) were calculated for each task. Regardless of the cognitive task, children with DCD performed equally well in fine and gross motor tasks, and were slower in the dual task conditions than under single task-conditions, compared with children without DCD. Increased cognitive task complexity resulted in slow trail walking as well as slower trail tracing. The motor interference for the gross motor tasks was least for the simplest conditions and greatest for the complex conditions and was more pronounced in children with DCD. Cognitive interference was low irrespective of the motor task. Children with DCD show a different approach to allocation of cognitive resources, and have difficulties making motor skills automatic. The latter notion is consistent with impaired cerebellar function and the "automatization deficit hypothesis", suggesting that any deficit in the automatization process will appear if conscious monitoring of the motor skill is made more difficult by integrating another task requiring attentional resources. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All

  11. Factors Associated with Enhanced Gross Motor Progress in Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Register-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Størvold, Gunfrid V; Jahnsen, Reidun B; Evensen, Kari Anne I; Romild, Ulla K; Bratberg, Grete H

    2018-05-01

    To examine associations between interventions and child characteristics; and enhanced gross motor progress in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Prospective cohort study based on 2048 assessments of 442 children (256 boys, 186 girls) aged 2-12 years registered in the Cerebral Palsy Follow-up Program and the Cerebral Palsy Register of Norway. Gross motor progress estimates were based on repeated measures of reference percentiles for the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM-66) in a linear mixed model. Mean follow-up time: 2.9 years. Intensive training was the only intervention factor associated with enhanced gross motor progress (mean 3.3 percentiles, 95% CI: 1.0, 5.5 per period of ≥3 sessions per week and/or participation in an intensive program). Gross motor function was on average 24.2 percentiles (95% CI: 15.2, 33.2) lower in children with intellectual disability compared with others. Except for eating problems (-10.5 percentiles 95% CI: -18.5, -2.4) and ankle contractures by age (-1.9 percentiles 95% CI: -3.6, -0.2) no other factors examined were associated with long-term gross motor progress. Intensive training was associated with enhanced gross motor progress over an average of 2.9 years in children with CP. Intellectual disability was a strong negative prognostic factor. Preventing ankle contractures appears important for gross motor progress.

  12. Correlation between cognitive function, gross motor skills and health â

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Saly Said Abd El-Hady

    and health – Related quality of life in children with Down syndrome. Saly Said Abd El-Hady ... knowledge. It is a general term involving multiple classes of mental capacities. ..... organizations that can inappropriately influence this work. .... skills, cognitive development and balance functions of children with Down · syndrome.

  13. Relation between hand function and gross motor function in full term infants aged 4 to 8 months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange F. Nogueira

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: In children, reaching emerges around four months of age, which is followed by rapid changes in hand function and concomitant changes in gross motor function, including the acquisition of independent sitting. Although there is a close functional relationship between these domains, to date they have been investigated separately. Objective: To investigate the longitudinal profile of changes and the relationship between the development of hand function (i.e. reaching for and manipulating an object and gross motor function in 13 normally developing children born at term who were evaluated every 15 days from 4 to 8 months of age. Method: The number of reaches and the period (i.e. time of manipulation to an object were extracted from video synchronized with the Qualisys(r movement analysis system. Gross motor function was measured using the Alberta Infant Motor Scale. ANOVA for repeated measures was used to test the effect of age on the number of reaches, the time of manipulation and gross motor function. Hierarchical regression models were used to test the associations of reaching and manipulation with gross motor function. Results: Results revealed a significant increase in the number of reaches (p<0.001, the time of manipulation (p<0.001 and gross motor function (p<0.001 over time, as well as associations between reaching and gross motor function (R2=0.84; p<0.001 and manipulation and gross motor function (R2=0.13; p=0.02 from 4 to 6 months of age. Associations from 6 to 8 months of age were not significant. Conclusion: The relationship between hand function and gross motor function was not constant, and the age span from 4 to 6 months was a critical period of interdependency of hand function and gross motor function development.

  14. Balance, Proprioception, and Gross Motor Development of Chinese Children Aged 3 to 6 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Gui-Ping; Jiao, Xi-Bian; Wu, Sheng-Kou; Ji, Zhong-Qiu; Liu, Wei-Tong; Chen, Xi; Wang, Hui-Hui

    2018-01-01

    The authors' aim was to find the features of balance, proprioception, and gross motor development of Chinese children 3-6 years old and their correlations, provide theoretical support for promoting children's motor development, and enrich the world theoretical system of motor development. This study used a Tekscan foot pressure measurement instrument (Tekscan, Inc., Boston, MA), walking on a balance beam, Xsens 3-dimensional positional measuring system (Xsens Technologies, Enschede, the Netherlands), and Test of Gross Motor Development-2 to assess static balance, dynamic balance, knee proprioception, and levels of gross motor development (GMD) of 3- to 6-year-old children (n = 60) in Beijing. The results are as follows: children had significant age differences in static balance, dynamic balance, proprioception, and levels of GMD; children had significant gender differences in static balance, proprioception, and levels of GMD; children's static balance, dynamic balance, and proprioception had a very significant positive correlation with GMD (p < .01), but no significant correlation with body mass index.

  15. Laterality of cerebral hemispheres on CT scan and gross motor function in severely handicapped children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwasaki, Nobuaki; Hamano, Kenzo; Nakamoto, Natsue; Okada, Yusuke [Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan); Takeya, Toshiki

    1997-06-01

    The relation between brain damage and gross motor function in severely handicapped children (spastic type) was studied. The subjects were fifteen cases with laterality in their cerebral hemisphere CT scans (laterality group) and 28 cases with no laterality (control group). All cases were divided into four groups according to the level of gross motor function. The grade of brain damage was estimated based on CT scan analysis using the following parameters and index: maximum frontal extracerebral space (ES), maximum width of Sylvian fissure (SY), Evans` ratio, and cella media index. In the laterality group, the parameters and index were measured for both cerebral hemispheres, respectively. In the more severely disturbed hemisphere of the laterality group, ES and SY were significantly enlarged compared with those of the cases with the same level of motor function in the control group (p<0.01). In the less severely disturbed hemisphere of the laterality group, the ES, SY, Evans` ratio and cell media index were not significantly enlarged compared to cases with the same level of motor function as the control group. These findings may indicate that gross motor function of severely handicapped children is closely related to the less severely disturbed cerebral hemisphere. (author)

  16. Laterality of cerebral hemispheres on CT scan and gross motor function in severely handicapped children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasaki, Nobuaki; Hamano, Kenzo; Nakamoto, Natsue; Okada, Yusuke; Takeya, Toshiki.

    1997-01-01

    The relation between brain damage and gross motor function in severely handicapped children (spastic type) was studied. The subjects were fifteen cases with laterality in their cerebral hemisphere CT scans (laterality group) and 28 cases with no laterality (control group). All cases were divided into four groups according to the level of gross motor function. The grade of brain damage was estimated based on CT scan analysis using the following parameters and index: maximum frontal extracerebral space (ES), maximum width of Sylvian fissure (SY), Evans' ratio, and cella media index. In the laterality group, the parameters and index were measured for both cerebral hemispheres, respectively. In the more severely disturbed hemisphere of the laterality group, ES and SY were significantly enlarged compared with those of the cases with the same level of motor function in the control group (p<0.01). In the less severely disturbed hemisphere of the laterality group, the ES, SY, Evans' ratio and cell media index were not significantly enlarged compared to cases with the same level of motor function as the control group. These findings may indicate that gross motor function of severely handicapped children is closely related to the less severely disturbed cerebral hemisphere. (author)

  17. PROMOTING GROSS MOTOR SKILLS IN TODDLERS: THE ACTIVE BEGINNINGS PILOT CLUSTER RANDOMIZED TRIAL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldman, Sanne L C; Okely, Anthony D; Jones, Rachel A

    2015-12-01

    This study examined the feasibility, acceptability, and potential efficacy of a gross motor skill program for toddlers. An 8-wk. skills program in which children practiced three skills was implemented for 10 min. daily in two randomly designated childcare centers. Two other centers served as the control group. Recruitment and retention rates were collected for feasibility. Data on professional development, children's participation, program duration, and appropriateness of the lessons were collected for acceptability, and the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 and Get Skilled, Get Active (total of 28 points) were used to look at the potential efficacy. The participants were 60 toddlers (M age=2.5 yr., SD=0.4; n=29 boys), and the retention rate was 95%. Overall participation was 76%, and educators rated 98% of the lessons as appropriate. Compared with the control group, the intervention group showed significantly greater improvements in motor skills (pmotor skills among toddlers.

  18. Effects of Motor Skill Intervention on Gross Motor Development, Creative Thinking and Academic Performance in Preschool Children

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    Judith Jiménez Díaz

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate how students (mean= 6.08±0.5 years benefit from a physical education program in motor performance, creative thinking and academic achievement. Students (n = 39 were randomly assigned to comparison group (6 boys and 7 girls who received the regular preschool program (which includes 1 session of 30 minutes per week; intervention group 1 (6 boys and 7 girls who received the regular preschool program plus 1 session of 30 minutes per week of the intervention program; or intervention group 2 (6 boys and 7 girls, who received the regular preschool program plus 1 session of 60 minutes per week of the intervention program; during 8 weeks. All participants performed the Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD-2 and the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking (TTCT before and after the study. The academic achievement score was given by the school. The ANOVA (Group x Gender x Time pre and post analysis revealed a significant triple interaction in the object control. Significant double interactions in the locomotor subscale and in the gross motor quotient were also found. After the post-hoc analysis, the results suggest that the physical education program benefits the gross motor performance and did not have an effect on the creative thinking or on the academic achievement.

  19. Effect of Group Setting on Gross Motor Performance in Children 3-5 Years Old with Motor Delays.

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    Fay, Deanne; Wilkinson, Tawna; Wagoner, Michelle; Brooks, Danna; Quinn, Lauren; Turnell, Andrea

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate differences in gross motor performance of children 3-5 years of age with motor delays when assessed individually compared to assessment in a group setting among peers with typical development (TD). Twenty children with motor delays and 42 children with TD were recruited from a preschool program. A within-subject repeated measures design was used; each child with delay was tested both in an individual setting and in a group setting with two to four peers with TD. Testing sessions were completed 4-8 days apart. Ten different motor skills from the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales-2 were administered. Performance of each item was videotaped and scored by a blinded researcher. Overall gross motor performance was significantly different (p < .05) between the two settings, with 14 of 20 children demonstrating better performance in the group setting. In particular, children performed better on locomotion items (p < .05). The higher scores for locomotion in the group setting may be due to the influence of competition, motivation, or modeling. Assessing a child in a group setting is recommended as part of the evaluation process.

  20. Spontaneous movements of preterm infants is associated with outcome of gross motor development.

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    Miyagishima, Saori; Asaka, Tadayoshi; Kamatsuka, Kaori; Kozuka, Naoki; Kobayashi, Masaki; Igarashi, Lisa; Hori, Tsukasa; Tsutsumi, Hiroyuki

    2018-04-30

    We conducted a longitudinal cohort study to analyze the relationship between outcome of gross motor development in preterm infants and factors that might affect their development. Preterm infants with a birth weight of antigravity limbs movements by 3D motion capture system at 3 months corrected age. Gross motor developmental outcomes at 6 and 12 months corrected age were evaluated using the Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS). Statistical analysis was carried out by canonical correlation analysis. Eighteen preterm infants were included. In the 6 months corrected age analysis, spontaneous movement had a major effect on Prone and Sitting at 6 months corrected age of AIMS. In the 12 months corrected age analysis, spontaneous movement had a major effect on Sitting and Standing at 12 months corrected age of AIMS. In preterm infants, better antigravity spontaneous movements at 3 months corrected age were significantly correlated with better gross motor development at 6 or 12 months corrected age. Copyright © 2018 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. A longitudinal study on gross motor development in children with learning disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westendorp, Marieke; Hartman, Esther; Houwen, Suzanne; Huijgen, Barbara C H; Smith, Joanne; Visscher, Chris

    2014-02-01

    This longitudinal study examined the development of gross motor skills, and sex-differences therein, in 7- to 11-years-old children with learning disorders (LD) and compared the results with typically developing children to determine the performance level of children with LD. In children with LD (n=56; 39 boys, 17 girls), gross motor skills were assessed with the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 and measured annually during a 3-year period. Motor scores of 253 typically developing children (125 boys, 112 girls) were collected for references values. The multilevel analyses showed that the ball skills of children with LD improved with age (p50). Boys had higher ball skill scores than girls (p=.002) and these differences were constant over time. Typically developing children outperformed the children with LD on the locomotor skills and ball skills at all ages, except the locomotor skills at age 7. Children with LD develop their ball skills later in the primary school-period compared to typically developing peers. However, 11 year-old children with LD had a lag in locomotor skills and ball skills of at least four and three years, respectively, compared to their peers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The impact of diurnal sleep on the consolidation of a complex gross motor adaptation task

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    Hoedlmoser, Kerstin; Birklbauer, Juergen; Schabus, Manuel; Eibenberger, Patrick; Rigler, Sandra; Mueller, Erich

    2015-01-01

    Diurnal sleep effects on consolidation of a complex, ecological valid gross motor adaptation task were examined using a bicycle with an inverse steering device. We tested 24 male subjects aged between 20 and 29 years using a between-subjects design. Participants were trained to adapt to the inverse steering bicycle during 45 min. Performance was tested before (TEST1) and after (TEST2) training, as well as after a 2 h retention interval (TEST3). During retention, participants either slept or remained awake. To assess gross motor performance, subjects had to ride the inverse steering bicycle 3 × 30 m straight-line and 3 × 30 m through a slalom. Beyond riding time, we sophisticatedly measured performance accuracy (standard deviation of steering angle) in both conditions using a rotatory potentiometer. A significant decrease of accuracy during straight-line riding after nap and wakefulness was shown. Accuracy during slalom riding remained stable after wakefulness but was reduced after sleep. We found that the duration of rapid eye movement sleep as well as sleep spindle activity are negatively related with gross motor performance changes over sleep. Together these findings suggest that the consolidation of adaptation to a new steering device does not benefit from a 2 h midday nap. We speculate that in case of strongly overlearned motor patterns such as normal cycling, diurnal sleep spindles and rapid eye movement sleep might even help to protect everyday needed skills, and to rapidly forget newly acquired, interfering and irrelevant material. PMID:25256866

  3. Physical fitness of primary school children in the reflection of different levels of gross motor coordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Ružbarská

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lower level of motor competences may result in unsuccessful engaging of children in physical activities as early as pre-school age and also prepubescent ages. This may subsequently lead to a spiral of forming negative attitudes towards an active lifestyle and may be accompanied by a negative trend in weight status and physical fitness outcomes. Objective: The aim of the study was to identify and analyze differences in physical fitness and somatic parameters of primary school-aged children according to level of their gross motor coordination. Methods:  A sample of 436 children aged 7 to 10 years, of which were 222 girls and 214 boys, performed physical fitness tests - Eurofit test battery. The level of motor coordination was assessed using the test battery Körperkoordination-Test-für-Kinder (KTK. The anthropometric data (body mass, body height, sum of five skinfolds were measured. The one-way ANOVA was used to assess differences in physical fitness test items and anthropometry parameters between children with normal motor quotient (MQ ≥ 86 and decreased levels of gross motor coordination (MQ ≤ 85. Results: Research findings indicate a strongly negative trend in physical development of children with motor deficits (MQ ≤ 85. The results of ANOVA revealed significantly less favourable level of most of the assessed physical fitness parameters in children with decreased level of motor coordination. Conclusions: The findings suggest that physical fitness outcomes of primary school-aged children are associated with a lower level of motor coordination. Motor coordination probably plays an important role in preventing, or moderating the so-called negative trajectory leading to childhood overweight or obesity.

  4. Gross and fine motor function in fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasouli, Omid; Fors, Egil A; Borchgrevink, Petter Chr; Öhberg, Fredrik; Stensdotter, Ann-Katrin

    2017-01-01

    This paper aimed to investigate motor proficiency in fine and gross motor function, with a focus on reaction time (RT) and movement skill, in patients with fibromyalgia (FM) and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) compared to healthy controls (HC). A total of 60 individuals (20 CFS, 20 FM, and 20 HC), age 19-49 years, participated in this study. Gross motor function in the lower extremity was assessed using a RT task during gait initiation in response to an auditory trigger. Fine motor function in the upper extremity was measured during a precision task (the Purdue Pegboard test) where the number of pins inserted within 30 s was counted. No significant differences were found between FM and CFS in any parameters. FM and CFS groups had significantly longer RT than HC in the gait initiation ( p =0.001, and p =0.004 respectively). In the Purdue Pegboard test, 20% in the FM group, 15% in the CFS groups, and 0% of HC group, scored below the threshold of the accepted performance. However, there were no significant differences between FM, CFS, and HC in this task ( p =0.12). Compared to controls, both CFS and FM groups displayed significantly longer RT in the gait initiation task. Generally, FM patients showed the worst results in both tests, although no group differences were found in fine motor control, according to the Purdue Pegboard test.

  5. Impact of malnutrition on gastrointestinal disorders and gross motor abilities in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanozzi, Angelo; Capano, Guglielmo; Miele, Erasmo; Romano, Alfonso; Scuccimarra, Goffredo; Del Giudice, Ennio; Strisciuglio, Caterina; Militerni, Roberto; Staiano, Annamaria

    2007-01-01

    Children with cerebral palsy (CP) often demonstrate abnormal feeding behaviours, leading to reduced food consumption and malnutrition. Moreover, most of them present with gastrointestinal disorders, such as gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and/or chronic constipation (CC), and poor motor function rehabilitation. The aim of our study was to assess the possible relationship between malnutrition and gastrointestinal problems and to evaluate the role of nutrition on their gross motor abilities in a population of children with CP and mental retardation. Twenty-one consecutive children (10 boys; mean age: 5.8+/-4.7 years; range: 1-14 years) with CP and severe mental retardation. Nutritional assessment included the measurement of body mass index (BMI=W/H2), fat body mass (FBM) and fat free mass (FFM). Children with symptoms suggesting GERD underwent prolonged 24h intraesophageal pH monitoring and/or upper GI endoscopy with biopsies before and after a 6 months of pharmaceutical (omeprazole) and nutritional (20% increment of daily caloric intake) treatments. The motor function was evaluated by "The Gross Motor Function Measure" (GMFM) before and after the 6 months on nutritional rehabilitation. BMI for age was or=25 degrees percentile, five of nine (55.5%) patients had persistent GERD when they were taken off the medication. Malnutrition and gastrointestinal disorders are very common in children with cerebral palsy. Improved nutritional status, particularly fat free mass gain, appears to have an impact on motor function in children with CP.

  6. Effects of hippotherapy on gross motor function and functional performance of children with cerebral palsy.

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    Park, Eun Sook; Rha, Dong Wook; Shin, Jung Soon; Kim, Soohyeon; Jung, Soojin

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of our study was to investigate the effects of hippotherapy on gross motor function and functional performance in children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP). We recruited 34 children (M:F=15:19, age: 3-12 years) with spastic CP who underwent hippotherapy for 45 minutes twice a week for 8 weeks. Twenty-one children with spastic CP were recruited for control group. The distribution of gross motor function classification system level and mean age were not significantly different between the two groups. Outcome measures, including the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM)-66, GMFM-88 and the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory: Functional Skills Scale (PEDI-FSS), were assessed before therapy and after the 8-weeks intervention as outcome measures. There were no significant differences between intervention and control groups in mean baseline total scores of GMFM-66, GMFM-88 or PEDI-FSS. After the 8-weeks intervention, mean GMFM-66 and GMFM-88 scores were significantly improved in both groups. However, the hippotherapy group had significantly greater improvement in dimension E and GMFM-66 total score than the control group. The total PEDI-FSS score and the sub-scores of its 3 domains were significantly improved in the hippotherapy group, but not in the control group. The results of our study demonstrate the beneficial effects of hippotherapy on gross motor function and functional performance in children with CP compared to control group. The significant improvement in PEDI-FSS scores suggests that hippotherapy may be useful to maximize the functional performance of children with CP.

  7. Effect of a 12-Week Physical Activity Program on Gross Motor Skills in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Ryan D; Fu, You; Fang, Yi; Hannon, James C; Brusseau, Timothy A

    2017-12-01

    This study examined the effects of a 12-week Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program (CSPAP) on gross motor skill development in children from low-income families. Participants were 1,460 school-aged children (mean age = 8.4 ± 1.8 years; 730 girls, 730 boys) recruited from three schools receiving U.S. governmental financial assistance. Students were recruited from grades K-6. CSPAP was implemented over one semester during the 2014-2015 school year. Select gross motor skill items were assessed during each student's physical education class at baseline and at a 12-week follow-up using the Test for Gross Motor Development-2nd Edition (TGMD-2). Each student's TGMD-2 score was converted to a percentage of the total possible score. A 7 × 2 × 2 analysis of variance test with repeated measures was employed to examine the effects of age, sex, and time on TGMD-2 percent scores, adjusting for clustering within the data structure. There were greater TGMD-2 percent scores at follow-up compared with baseline (82.4% vs. 72.6%, mean difference = 9.8%, p < .001, Cohen's d = 0.67), and greater improvements were seen in younger children compared with older children (mean difference of change = 4.0%-7.5%, p < .01, Cohen's d = 0.30-0.55).

  8. Comparison the Impact of Spark Motor Program and Basketball Techniques on Improving Gross Motor Skills in Educable Intellectually Disabled Boys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashem Faal Moghanlo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives : Different types of practises are known for improving motor skills in intellectually disabled boys. The purpose of this study was to compar e the impact of spark motor program and basketball on improving of gross motor skills in this people.   Methods: In this semi-experimental study , from 98 educable intellectually disabled students who studied in special school in Urmia, 30 children ( age range of 9 to 13 years and IQ mean 64.4 were selected objectively and divided in three groups (2 experimental and 1 control based on pre - test. BOTMP was used as a measurement of motor ability. Selected motor program (Spark motor program including strengthening training, games, sports and basketball techniques was performed for 24 sessions. T-tests (dependent and co-variance were used to comparison of results.   Results: In Spark group after 24 sessions, there were significant effects on balance (p= 0.000, bilateral coordination (p=0.000 and strength (p=0.001. There was no significant effect in agility and speed (p= 0.343 in basketball techniques group after 24 sessions, there were significant effects in agility and speed (p= 0.001, balance (p= 0.000, bilateral coordination (p= 0.013 and strength (p= 0.007.   Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, it can be claimed that the Spark program and basketball techniques improve gross motor skills in educable intellectually disabled students. We also found a significant difference between the Spark program and basketball techniques efficacy on the improved skills. Furthermore, the efficacy of Spark program was significantly higher than basketball techniques (p<0.05.

  9. Relation between hand function and gross motor function in full term infants aged 4 to 8 months

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Solange F.; Figueiredo, Elyonara M.; Gonçalves, Rejane V.; Mancini, Marisa C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: In children, reaching emerges around four months of age, which is followed by rapid changes in hand function and concomitant changes in gross motor function, including the acquisition of independent sitting. Although there is a close functional relationship between these domains, to date they have been investigated separately. Objective: To investigate the longitudinal profile of changes and the relationship between the development of hand function (i.e. reaching for and manipulating an object) and gross motor function in 13 normally developing children born at term who were evaluated every 15 days from 4 to 8 months of age. Method: The number of reaches and the period (i.e. time) of manipulation to an object were extracted from video synchronized with the Qualisys(r) movement analysis system. Gross motor function was measured using the Alberta Infant Motor Scale. ANOVA for repeated measures was used to test the effect of age on the number of reaches, the time of manipulation and gross motor function. Hierarchical regression models were used to test the associations of reaching and manipulation with gross motor function. Results: Results revealed a significant increase in the number of reaches (pgross motor function (pgross motor function (R2=0.84; pgross motor function (R2=0.13; p=0.02) from 4 to 6 months of age. Associations from 6 to 8 months of age were not significant. Conclusion: The relationship between hand function and gross motor function was not constant, and the age span from 4 to 6 months was a critical period of interdependency of hand function and gross motor function development. PMID:25714437

  10. Improvement of gross motor and cognitive abilities by an exercise training program: three case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alesi M

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Marianna Alesi,1 Giuseppe Battaglia,2 Michele Roccella,1 Davide Testa,1 Antonio Palma,2 Annamaria Pepi1 1Department of Psychology, 2Department of Law, Social and Sport Science, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy Background: This work examined the efficacy of an integrated exercise training program (coach and family in three children with Down syndrome to improve their motor and cognitive abilities, in particular reaction time and working memory. Methods: The integrated exercise training program was used in three children with Down syndrome, comprising two boys (M1, with a chronological age of 10.3 years and a mental age of 4.7 years; M2, with a chronological age of 14.6 years and a mental age of less than 4 years and one girl (F1, chronological age 14.0 years and a mental age of less than 4 years. Results: Improvements in gross motor ability scores were seen after the training period. Greater improvements in task reaction time were noted for both evaluation parameters, ie, time and omissions. Conclusion: There is a close interrelationship between motor and cognitive domains in individuals with atypical development. There is a need to plan intervention programs based on the simultaneous involvement of child and parents and aimed at promoting an active lifestyle in individuals with Down syndrome. Keywords: disability, Down syndrome, gross motor abilities, cognitive abilities, physical activity

  11. Difference in children's gross motor skills between two types of preschools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Bik C; Louie, Lobo H T

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of preschool type (public vs private) on motor skill performance in 239 (121 boys, 118 girls) preschool children ages 3 to 6.5 yr. Preschoolers were tested on 12 fundamental motor skills from the Test of Gross Motor Development-Second Edition and 11 anthropometrics (body height, weight, Body Mass Index, waist and hip girths, and body segment lengths). Analysis of variance controlled for anthropometrics and age indicated that children from private preschools performed better on locomotor skills than those from public preschools. However, no difference was found in object control skills. The results suggest that performance of locomotor skills by preschool children is affected by their schools' physical environment.

  12. Gross motor skills in toddlers: Prevalence and socio-demographic differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldman, Sanne L C; Jones, Rachel A; Santos, Rute; Sousa-Sá, Eduarda; Okely, Anthony D

    2018-05-19

    Gross motor skills (GMS) are a vital component of a child's development. Monitoring levels and correlates of GMS is important to ensure appropriate strategies are put in place to promote these skills in young children. The aim of this study was to describe the current level of GMS development of children aged 11-29months and how these levels differ by age, sex, BMI and socio-economic status. Cross-sectional study. This study involved children from 30 childcare services in NSW, Australia. GMS were assessed using the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales Second Edition. Prevalence was reported using the gross motor quotient and both raw and standard scores for locomotor, object manipulation and stationary subtests. Socio-demographics were collected via parent questionnaires. Analyses included t-tests, chi-square tests, one-way ANOVA and linear regression models. This study included 335 children (mean age=19.80±4.08months, 53.9% boys). For the gross motor quotient, 23.3% of the children scored below average. For the GMS subtests, 34.3% of children scored below average for locomotion, 10.1% for object manipulation and 0.3% for stationary. Boys were more proficient in object manipulation than girls (p=0.001). GMS were negatively associated with age and a higher socio-economic status (all pstudy to show the prevalence of below average at locomotor skills in toddlers is higher than reported in normative samples. Early commencement of GMS promotion is recommended with a focus on locomotor skills and girls' object manipulation skills. Copyright © 2018 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Relationship between habitual physical activity and gross motor skills is multifaceted in 5- to 8-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laukkanen, A; Pesola, A; Havu, M; Sääkslahti, A; Finni, T

    2014-04-01

    Adequate motor skills are essential for children participating in age-related physical activities, and gross motor skills may play an important role for maintaining sufficient level of physical activity (PA) during life course. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between gross motor skills and PA in children when PA was analyzed by both metabolic- and neuromuscular-based methods. Gross motor skills (KTK--Körperkoordinationstest für Kinder and APM inventory--manipulative skill test) of 84 children aged 5-8 years (53 preschoolers, 28 girls; 31 primary schoolers, 18 girls) were measured, and accelerometer-derived PA was analyzed using in parallel metabolic counts and neuromuscular impact methods. The gross motor skills were associated with moderate-to-high neuromuscular impacts, PA of vigorous metabolic intensity, and mean level of PA in primary school girls (0.5 motor skills (0.4 motor skills and PA stressing both metabolic and neuromuscular systems in children. Furthermore, PA highly stressing neuromuscular system interacts with gross motor proficiency in girls especially. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Changes in gross grasp strength and fine motor skills in adolescents with pediatric multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squillace, Mary; Ray, Sharon; Milazzo, Maria

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the gross grasp strength and fine motor dexterity of adolescents, who are diagnosed with multiple sclerosis (MS). A total sample size of 72 participants between the ages of 13 to 17 was studied. Thirty six with a diagnosis of pediatric relapse remitting MS and 36 matched control participants were selected from various local youth groups. Data on hand strength and dexterity was collected using a dynamometer, nine hole peg board and Purdue pegboard on both groups. Utilizing ANCOVA to describe the differences across the two groups by diagnosis, controlling for age and gender, it was found that the MS group demonstrated significantly decreased dexterity when compared to age and gender matched controls. There was no significant difference in gross grasp strength by diagnostic group. This preliminary study showed that children with a diagnosis of pediatric MS may have differences in fine motor dexterity, but not gross grasp strength from their peers who do not have the diagnosis. Further study is indicated to examine this phenomenon.

  15. Gross and fine motor skills in children treated for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Cinzia R; McCarthy, Maria; Galvin, Jane; Green, Jessica L; Murphy, Alexandra; Knight, Sarah; Williams, Jacqueline

    2013-06-01

    Chemotherapy treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) may disrupt motor development, with suggestions that gross and fine motor deficits are different depending on time since treatment. Thirty-seven participants aged between 2.5 to 5 years at the time of diagnosis were assessed using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children, 2nd Edition (MABC-2) and the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency, 2nd Edition, Short Form (BOT-2 SF), and divided into groups (i.e., months-off-treatment): (1) 0-12, (2) 13-24, and (3) 25-60 for comparison. MABC-2 and BOT-2 SF mean total scores fell within the average range. Twenty-six percent of the sample performed in the impaired range on the MABC-2. Group 2 had significantly lower Manual Dexterity scores than the normative population and lower BOT-2 SF scores than Group 1. Most children treated for ALL display appropriate motor skills, yet around a quarter experience general motor difficulties. Time-off-treatment did not affect the prevalence of motor impairments on any measure.

  16. Determinants of gross motor skill performance in children with visual impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haibach, Pamela S; Wagner, Matthias O; Lieberman, Lauren J

    2014-10-01

    Children with visual impairments (CWVI) generally perform poorer in gross motor skills when compared with their sighted peers. This study examined the influence of age, sex, and severity of visual impairment upon locomotor and object control skills in CWVI. Participants included 100 CWVI from across the United States who completed the Test of Gross Motor Development II (TGMD-II). The TGMD-II consists of 12 gross motor skills including 6 object control skills (catching, kicking, striking, dribbling, throwing, and rolling) and 6 locomotor skills (running, sliding, galloping, leaping, jumping, and hopping). The full range of visual impairments according to United States Association for Blind Athletes (USABA; B3=20/200-20/599, legally blind; B2=20/600 and up, travel vision; B1=totally blind) were assessed. The B1 group performed significantly worse than the B2 (0.000 ≤ p ≤ 0.049) or B3 groups (0.000 ≤ p ≤ 0.005); however, there were no significant differences between B2 and B3 except for the run (p=0.006), catch (p=0.000), and throw (p=0.012). Age and sex did not play an important role in most of the skills, with the exception of boys outperforming girls striking (p=0.009), dribbling (p=0.013), and throwing (p=0.000), and older children outperforming younger children in dribbling (p=0.002). The significant impact of the severity of visual impairment is likely due to decreased experiences and opportunities for children with more severe visual impairments. In addition, it is likely that these reduced experiences explain the lack of age-related differences in the CWVI. The large disparities in performance between children who are blind and their partially sighted peers give direction for instruction and future research. In addition, there is a critical need for intentional and specific instruction on motor skills at a younger age to enable CWVI to develop their gross motor skills. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The efficacy of GMFM-88 and GMFM-66 to detect changes in gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy (CP): a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alotaibi, Madawi; Long, Toby; Kennedy, Elizabeth; Bavishi, Siddhi

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to review published research on the use of the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM-88) and (GMFM-66) as outcome measures to determine if these tools detect changes in gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy (CP) undergoing interventions. A comprehensive literature search was conducted using Medline and PubMed to identify studies published from January 2000 through January 2011 that reported the accuracy of GMFM-88 and GMFM-66 to measure changes over time in children with CP undergoing interventions. The keywords used for the search were "GMFM" and "CP". Two of the authors (M.A. and S.B.) reviewed the titles and abstracts found in the databases. The methodological quality of the studies was assessed by using the Critical Review Form-Quantitative Studies. Of 62 papers initially identified, 21 studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. These articles consist of three longitudinal studies, six randomized controlled trials, four repeated measure design, six pre-post test design, a case series and one non-randomized prospective study. The included studies were generally of moderate to high methodological quality. The studies included children from a wide age range of 10 months to 16 years. According to the National Health and Medical Research Council, the study designs were level II, III-2, III-3 and IV. The review suggests that the GMFM-88 and GMFM-66 are useful as outcome measures to detect changes in gross motor function in children with CP undergoing interventions. Implications for Rehabilitation Accurate measurement of change in gross motor skill acquisition is important to determine effectiveness of intervention programs in children with cerebral palsy (CP). The Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM-88 and GMFM-66) are common tools used by rehabilitation specialists to measure gross motor function in children with CP. The GMFM appears to be an effective outcome tool for measuring change in gross motor function according to

  18. Longitudinal development of gross motor function among Dutch children and young adults with cerebral palsy: an investigation of motor growth curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, Dirk-Wouter; Gorter, Jan Willem; Hanna, Steven E; Dallmeijer, Annet J; van Eck, Mirjam; Roebroeck, Marij E; Vos, Rimke C; Ketelaar, Marjolijn

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to describe patterns for gross motor development by level of severity in a Dutch population of individuals with cerebral palsy (CP). This longitudinal study included 423 individuals (260 males, 163 females) with CP. The mean age at baseline was 9 years 6 months (SD 6y 2mo, range 1-22y). The level of severity of CP among participants, according to the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS), was 50% level I, 13% level II, 14% level III, 13% level IV, and 10% level V. Participants had been assessed up to four times with the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM-66) at 1- or 2-year intervals between 2002 and 2009. Data were analysed using non-linear mixed effects modelling. For each GMFCS level, patterns were created by contrasting a stable limit model (SLM) with a peak and decline model (PDM), followed by estimating limits and rates of gross motor development. The SLM showed a better fit for all GMFCS levels than the PDM. Within the SLM, significant differences between GMFCS levels were found for both the limits (higher values for lower GMFCS levels) and the rates (higher values for GMFCS levels I-II vs level IV and for GMFCS levels I-IV vs level V) of gross motor development. The results validate the existence of five distinct patterns for gross motor development by level of severity of CP. ©The Authors. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology © 2013 Mac Keith Press.

  19. The relationship between body mass index and gross motor development in children aged 3 to 5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nervik, Deborah; Martin, Kathy; Rundquist, Peter; Cleland, Joshua

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between obesity and gross motor development in children who are developing typically and determine whether body mass index (BMI) predicts difficulty in gross motor skills. BMIs were calculated and gross motor skills examined in 50 children who were healthy aged 3 to 5 years using the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales, 2nd edition (PDMS-2). Pearson chi-square statistic and stepwise linear hierarchical regression were used for analysis. A total of 24% of the children were overweight/obese, whereas 76% were found not to be overweight/obese. Fifty-eight percent of the overweight/obese group scored below average on the PDMS-2 compared to 15% of the nonoverweight group. Association between BMI and gross motor quotients was identified with significance of less than 0.002. Regression results were nonsignificant with all 50 subjects, yet showed significance (P = 0.018) when an outlier was excluded. Children aged 3 to 5 years with high BMIs may have difficulty with their gross motor skills. Further research is needed.

  20. Design of a Quality Control Program for the Measurement of Gross Alpha and Gross Beta Activities (LMPR-CIEMAT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, A.; Yague, L.; Gasco, C.; Navarro, N.; Higueras, E.; Noguerales, C.

    2010-01-01

    In accordance with international standards, general requirements for testing laboratories have to include a quality system for planning, implementing, and assessing the work performed by the organization and for carrying out required quality assurance and quality control. The purpose of internal laboratory quality control is to monitor performance, identify problems, and initiate corrective actions. This report describes the internal quality control to monitor the gross alpha and beta activities determination. Identification of specific performance indicators, the principles that govern their use and statistical means of evaluation are explained. Finally, calculation of alpha and beta specific activities, uncertainties and detection limits are performed. (Author) 10 refs.

  1. Sleep-related offline improvements in gross motor task performance occur under free recall requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas eMalangre

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Nocturnal sleep effects on memory consolidation following gross motor sequence learning were examined using a complex arm movement task. This task required participants to produce non-regular spatial patterns in the horizontal plane by successively fitting a small peg into different target-holes on an electronic pegboard. The respective reaching movements typically differed in amplitude and direction. Targets were visualized prior to each transport movement on a computer screen. With this task we tested 18 subjects (22.6 +/- 1.9 years; 8 female using a between-subjects design. Participants initially learned a 10-element arm movement sequence either in the morning or in the evening. Performance was retested under free recall requirements 15 minutes post training, as well as 12 hrs and 24 hrs later. Thus each group was provided with one sleep-filled and one wake retention interval. Dependent variables were error rate (number of erroneous sequences and average sequence execution time (correct sequences only. Performance improved during acquisition. Error rate remained stable across retention. Sequence execution time (inverse to execution speed significantly decreased again during the sleep-filled retention intervals, but remained stable during the respective wake intervals. These results corroborate recent findings on sleep-related enhancement consolidation in ecological valid, complex gross motor tasks. At the same time they suggest this effect to be truly memory-based and independent from repeated access to extrinsic sequence information during retests.

  2. Evaluation of gross motor function before and after virtual reality application

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    Luiza da Silva Pereira Tannus

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Recently virtual reality has been aggregated to the therapeutic possibilities for patients who need functionality gains, such as individuals with cerebral palsy (CP. Aim: to evaluate the effects of virtual reality on the gross motor function of individuals with CP. Methods: longitudinal study, realized in a special education school, with five individuals with CP (7.4 years of age ± 1.14 of both sexes, evaluated using the B, D and E dimensions of the GMFM 88, before and after the application of three Wii Fit Plus(r console games: Hula Hoop, Slide Penguin and Soccer Heading. These games were applied for four minutes per game, at the beginner level, twice a week, for twelve consecutives weeks. The normality of the sample was evaluated through the Shapiro-Wilk's test. The results obtained before and after the Wii Fit(r application were compared using descriptive statistics. Results: all the individuals obtained improvements in the dimensions evaluated after the virtual reality application, with a 5.14% general improvement, varying between 1.9% and 9.6%. The standing (D and walking, running and jumping (E dimensions were the dimensions which obtained higher improvement percentages. Conclusion: considering the study limitations, the results obtained suggest that virtual reality can promote benefits in the gross motor function of individuals with cerebral palsy.

  3. Vitamin D levels are associated with gross motor function in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paganoni, Sabrina; Macklin, Eric A; Karam, Chafic; Yu, Hong; Gonterman, Fernando; Fetterman, K Ashley; Cudkowicz, Merit; Berry, James; Wills, Anne-Marie

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether serum vitamin D [25(OH)D] levels are associated with disease progression in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). 25(OH)D was measured in subjects enrolled in a multicenter study for validation of ALS biomarkers. Baseline 25(OH)D levels were correlated with baseline ALSFRS-R scores. Average 25(OH)D levels from baseline and month 6 visits (seasonally asynchronous) were used to predict subsequent rate of change in ALSFRS-R from month 6 to month 18. Most subjects had either insufficient or deficient 25(OH)D levels. Lower 25(OH)D was associated with lower ALSFRS-R gross motor scores, but not lower ALSFRS-R total scores at baseline. Levels of 25(OH)D were not predictive of disease progression over the next 12 months. 25(OH)D was associated with baseline gross motor ALSFRS-R scores but did not predict the rate of disease progression. Vitamin D levels may reflect poor mobility in patients with ALS. Muscle Nerve, 2017 Muscle Nerve 56: 726-731, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Analysis of an intervention directed to the development of balance and gross and fine motor coordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Carrillo Maronesi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Children’s motor skills evolve according to age and the continuing influence of intrinsic and extrinsic factors that cause variations from one child to another; this makes the course of development unique in each child. Objective: To develop an intervention for a child with delays in fine motor coordination, gross motor coordination and balance and analyze its impact on the child’s development. Methods: Pre- and post-test quasi-experimental design. The instrument used was the Motor Development Scale applied to a 4 year old child. An intervention plan was developed based on the results obtained throught the tests. The plan consists of activities designed to stimulate the aforementioned acquisitions. The implementation of the intervention plan lasted two months. The child was tested at the beginning and at the end of the intervention to determine whether there was gain in the stimulated acquisitions. The JT method was adopted for data analysis and verification of occurrence of reliable and clinically relevant positive changes. Results: The results of this study demonstrate that reliable positive changes occurred with respect to the psychomotor items that underwent stimulation. Conclusion: It is possible to infer that this intervention had a positive effect on the child’s development . Hence, this study contributes to improve the care provided to children with delayed psychomotor development, illustrating possibilities of strategies and activities. It also allows the recognition of the action of occupational therapists as one of the professionals who compose the multidisciplinary team focused on early intervention.

  5. The Effect of Resistance Training on Performance of Gross Motor Skills and Balance in Children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Ebrahim Zarrinkalam; Majid Ebadi Fara

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Cerebral palsy is the most common chronic motor disability in children and can have negative effect on motor functions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of eight weeks resistance training on gross motor ability, balance and walking speed in a group of such children. Methods: 21 cerebral palsy boys with spastic diplegia, aged between 12 and 16 years (mean, 13.66 years), participated in this study. A pre-test, involving walking, sitting, standing and walkin...

  6. Reliability of the test of gross motor development second edition (TGMD-2) for Kindergarten children in Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aye, Thanda; Oo, Khin Saw; Khin, Myo Thuzar; Kuramoto-Ahuja, Tsugumi; Maruyama, Hitoshi

    2017-10-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate reliability of the test of gross motor development second edition (TGMD-2) for Kindergarten children in Myanmar. [Subjects and Methods] Fifty healthy Kindergarten children (23 males, 27 females) whose parents/guardians had given written consent were participated. The subjects were explained and demonstrated all 12 gross motor skills of TGMD-2 before the assessment. Each subject individually performed two trials for each gross motor skill and the performance was video recorded. Three raters separately watched the video recordings and rated for inter-rater reliability. The second assessment was done one month later with 25 out of 50 subjects for test-rest reliability. The video recordings of 12 subjects were randomly selected from the first 50 recordings for intra-rater reliability six weeks after the first assessment. The agreement on the locomotor and object control raw scores and the gross motor quotient (GMQ) were calculated. [Results] The findings of all the reliability coefficients for the locomotor and object control raw scores and the GMQ were interpreted as good and excellent reliability. [Conclusion] The results represented that TGMD-2 is a highly reliable and appropriate assessment tool for assessing gross motor skill development of Kindergarten children in Myanmar.

  7. Gross and fine motor function in fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasouli O

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Omid Rasouli,1,2 Egil A Fors,3 Petter Chr Borchgrevink,4,5 Fredrik Öhberg,6 Ann-Katrin Stensdotter1 1Department of Neuromedicine and Movement Science, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway; 2Department of Public Health and Nursing, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway; 3Department of Public Health and Nursing, General Practice Research Unit, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway; 4Department of Circulation and Medical Imaging, Pain and Palliation Research Group, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway; 5National Competence Centre for Complex Symptom Disorders, St. Olav’s University Hospital, Trondheim, Norway; 6Department of Radiation Sciences, Biomedical Engineering, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden Purpose: This paper aimed to investigate motor proficiency in fine and gross motor function, with a focus on reaction time (RT and movement skill, in patients with fibromyalgia (FM and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS compared to healthy controls (HC.Methods: A total of 60 individuals (20 CFS, 20 FM, and 20 HC, age 19–49 years, participated in this study. Gross motor function in the lower extremity was assessed using a RT task during gait initiation in response to an auditory trigger. Fine motor function in the upper extremity was measured during a precision task (the Purdue Pegboard test where the number of pins inserted within 30 s was counted.Results: No significant differences were found between FM and CFS in any parameters. FM and CFS groups had significantly longer RT than HC in the gait initiation (p=0.001, and p=0.004 respectively. In the Purdue Pegboard test, 20% in the FM group, 15% in the CFS groups, and 0% of HC group, scored below the threshold of the accepted performance. However, there were no

  8. The Effect of Resistance Training on Performance of Gross Motor Skills and Balance in Children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Zarrinkalam

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Cerebral palsy is the most common chronic motor disability in children and can have negative effect on motor functions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of eight weeks resistance training on gross motor ability, balance and walking speed in a group of such children. Methods: 21 cerebral palsy boys with spastic diplegia, aged between 12 and 16 years (mean, 13.66 years, participated in this study. A pre-test, involving walking, sitting, standing and walking up stairs. They were randomly divided into an experimental and control groups. Then, the experimental group participated in 8 weeks of resistance training.  The data was attained from a 10 meter walk test, Berg Balance Test, gross motor ability Section E, D and GMFCS tests.  Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, sample t-test were used for analyzing the data. Results: The results showed a significant improvement in the performance of experimental group in gross motor abilities section  E and D, balance and walking speed after 8 weeks of resistance training (P <0.05(. However, significant differences were not observed in the control group before and after the study (P <0.05.  Conclusion: The results showed that resistance training improves gross motor ability, balance and gait in children with cerebral palsy hence, it is recommended that resistance exercise be used as a therapeutic modality for children with cerebral palsy.

  9. Test of Gross Motor Development: expert validity, confirmatory validity and internal consistence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Cristina Valentini

    2008-01-01

    The Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD-2 is an instrument used to evaluate children’s level of motor development. The objective of this study was to translate and verify the clarity and pertinence of the TGMD-2 items by experts and the confirmatory factorial validity and the internal consistence by means of test-retest of the Portuguese TGMD-2. A cross-cultural translation was used to construct the Portuguese version. The participants of this study were 7 professionals and 587 children, from 27 schools (kindergarten and elementary from 3 to 10 years old (51.1% boys and 48.9% girls. Each child was videotaped performing the test twice. The videotaped tests were then scored. The results indicated that the Portuguese version of the TGMD-2 contains clear and pertinent motor items; demonstrated satisfactory indices of confirmatory factorial validity (÷2/gl = 3.38; Goodness-of-fit Index = 0.95; Adjusted Goodness-of-fit index = 0.92 and Tucker and Lewis’s Index of Fit = 0.83 and test-retest internal consistency (locomotion r = 0.82; control of object: r = 0.88. The Portuguese TGMD-2 demonstrated validity and reliability for the sample investigated.

  10. The development of a screening tool to evaluate gross motor function in HIV-infected infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilburn, Nicole; Potterton, Joanne; Stewart, Aimee; Becker, Piet

    2011-12-01

    Neurodevelopmental delay or HIV encephalopathy is a stage four disease indicator for paediatric HIV/AIDS according to the World Health Organisation (WHO), and may be used as a criterion for initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). To date, the only means of prevention of this condition is early initiation of HAART. Studies which have been carried out in South African clinics have revealed the high prevalence of this condition. In developing countries, commencement of HAART is based on declining virologic and immunologic status, as standardised neurodevelopmental assessment tools are not widely available. A standardised developmental screening tool which is suitable for use in a developing country is therefore necessary in order to screen for neurodevelopmental delay to allow for further assessment and referral to rehabilitation services, as well as providing an additional assessment criterion for initiation of HAART. The infant gross motor screening test (IGMST) was developed for this purpose. The standardisation sample of the IGMST consisted of 112 HIV-infected infants between six and 18 months of age. Item selection for the IGMST was based on the Gross Motor scale of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID)-III. Content validity was assessed by a panel of experts using a nominal group technique (NGT; agreement >80%). Concurrent validity (n=60) of the IGMST was carried out against the BSID-III, and agreement was excellent (K=0.85). The diagnostic properties of the IGMST were evaluated and revealed: sensitivity 97.4%, specificity 85.7%, positive predictive value (PPV) 92.7%, and negative predictive value (NPV) 94.7%. Reliability testing (n=30) revealed inter-rater reliability as: r=1, test-retest reliability: r=0.98 and intra-rater reliability: r=0.98. The results indicate that the statistical properties of the IGMST are excellent, and the tool is suitable for use within the paediatric HIV setting.

  11. 76 FR 45741 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Pennsylvania; Diesel-Powered Motor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    ... Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Pennsylvania; Diesel-Powered Motor Vehicle Idling Act AGENCY... the Commonwealth's Diesel-Powered Motor Vehicle Idling Act (Act 124 of 2008, or simply Act 124) into... allowable time that heavy-duty, commercial highway diesel vehicles of over 10,000 pounds gross vehicle...

  12. Concurrent Validity of Two Standardized Measures of Gross Motor Function in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Jamie M; Long, Toby; Biasini, Fred

    2018-04-02

    This study provides information on how two standardized measures based on different theoretical frameworks can be used in collecting information on motor development and performance in 4- and 5-year-olds with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The purpose of the study was to determine the concurrent validity of the Miller Function and Participation Scales (M-FUN) with the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales, Second Edition (PDMS-2) in young children with ASD. The gross motor sections of the PDMS-2 and the M-FUN were administered to 22 children with ASD between the ages of 48 and 71 months. Concurrent validity between overall motor scores and agreement in identification of motor delay were assessed. A very strong correlation (Pearson's r =.851) was found between the M-FUN scale scores and the PDMS-2 gross motor quotients (GMQs). Strong agreement in identification of children with average motor skills and delayed motor skills at 1.5 standard deviations below the mean was also found. This study supports the concurrent validity of the M-FUN with the PDMS-2 for young children with ASD. While both tests provide information regarding motor delay, the M-FUN may provide additional information regarding the neurological profile of the child.

  13. Test of Gross Motor Development : Expert Validity, confirmatory validity and internal consistence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Cristina Valentini

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD-2 is an instrument used to evaluate children’s level of motordevelopment. The objective of this study was to translate and verify the clarity and pertinence of the TGMD-2 items by expertsand the confirmatory factorial validity and the internal consistence by means of test-retest of the Portuguese TGMD-2. Across-cultural translation was used to construct the Portuguese version. The participants of this study were 7 professionalsand 587 children, from 27 schools (kindergarten and elementary from 3 to 10 years old (51.1% boys and 48.9% girls.Each child was videotaped performing the test twice. The videotaped tests were then scored. The results indicated thatthe Portuguese version of the TGMD-2 contains clear and pertinent motor items; demonstrated satisfactory indices ofconfirmatory factorial validity (χ2/gl = 3.38; Goodness-of-fit Index = 0.95; Adjusted Goodness-of-fit index = 0.92 and Tuckerand Lewis’s Index of Fit = 0.83 and test-retest internal consistency (locomotion r = 0.82; control of object: r = 0.88. ThePortuguese TGMD-2 demonstrated validity and reliability for the sample investigated.

  14. THE INFLUENCE OF THE EXERCISES OF GROSS AND FINE MOTOR SKILLS ON VISUO-MOTOR COORDINATION OF THE CEREBRAL PALSY CHILDREN

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    Almira Mujkić

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Visuomotor coordination is reffered to eye coordination and to various parts of the body in different activities and games. The aim of the research was to establish the influence of the exercises of gross and fine motor skills on visuomotor coordination of the cerebral palsy children. The sample was the case study where a male person of 3 and a half years old was an examinee. Measuring instrument used was the Test of visuomotor coordination of the gross motor skills of the dominant hand. Data were analyzed by t-test.

  15. Early neuromotor development of high risk infants - Gross motor function in preterm and full-term born infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Haastert, I.C.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis is the result of 20 years follow-up of preterm and full-term born ‘graduates’ of the neonatal intensive care unit of the Wilhelmina Children’s Hospital, Utrecht. The aim was to answer questions that arose during admission and follow-up assessments. Typical gross motor development of

  16. Comparison of Effectiveness of Adeli Suit Therapy and Bobath Approach on Gross Motor Function Improvement in Children with Cerebral Palsy

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    Mohammad Khayat-Zadeh-Mahani

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of Adeli Suit Therapy (AST and Bobath approach on improvement of gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy aged 4 to 11 years of old. Materials & Methods: In this experimental and randomized clinical trial study, 24 children with cerebral palsy were selected simply according to inclusive and exclusive criteria from patients referred to ValieAsr rehabilitation center and then assigned into two Adeli Suit Thrapy and Bobath groups by simple random method. Period of therapeutic intervention was 36 sessions, 3 times per week for both groups. Assessment tool was Gross Motor Function Measure test (GMFM–66. Data was analyzed by Kolmogroff Smirnoff, Independent T-test and ANOVA for repeated measurements. Results: After intervention, the gross motor function improved significantly in both groups (P<0.001. Follow up study revealed significant improvement of functions in Adeli Suit group (P=0.007 and significant regression of functions in Bobath group (P=0.004. There was no significant difference, just after the intervention, between two groups (P=0.598, but there was significant difference between two groups at follow up assessments (P=0.002. Conclusion: Both Adeli Suit and Bobath approaches are effective in improvement of gross motor functions in children with cerebral palsy during the therapeutic sessions. At follow up study, the Adeli Suit group, were still improving their function whereas the Bobath group regressed.

  17. Knee Muscle Strength at Varying Angular Velocities and Associations with Gross Motor Function in Ambulatory Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Wei-Hsien; Chen, Hseih-Ching; Shen, I-Hsuan; Chen, Chung-Yao; Chen, Chia-Ling; Chung, Chia-Ying

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationships of muscle strength at different angular velocities and gross motor functions in ambulatory children with cerebral palsy (CP). This study included 33 ambulatory children with spastic CP aged 6-15 years and 15 children with normal development. Children with CP were categorized into level I (n =…

  18. [Breastfeeding, gross motor development and obesity, is there any causal association?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisstaub N, Gerardo; Schonhaut B, Luisa; Salazar R, Gabriela

    2017-01-01

    Childhood obesity is the main nutritional and public health problem in Chile, being the principal causes, the increase in energy dense foods and the decline of physical activity. Interventions to prevent obesity at infancy are focused mainly in improving quality and quantity of dietary intake, without taking into account physical activity, which is expressed under two years of age, mainly by motor development. Some studies have proven that motor development at early age, may influence the ability to perform physical activity. Thus, infants scoring a lower motor development may have a greater risk of becoming obese. It isn’t know if childhood obesity causes lower motor development (given that children may have greater difficulty to move), or on the contrary, it is the lower ability to move, which increases the obesity risk. The objective of this manuscriptis analize the evidence regards the relation between breastfeeding, motor development and obesity in the childhood.To be able to understand this asocation and casual mecanism, it is important to develop stategys focused in early infancy to promote breastfeeding, healthy eating and early stimulation, starting in pediatric office.

  19. Gross motor development in full-term Greek infants assessed by the Alberta Infant Motor Scale: reference values and socioeconomic impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrengelas, Dimitrios; Kalampoki, Vassiliki; Kleisiouni, Paraskevi; Konstantinou, Dimitrios; Siahanidou, Tania

    2014-07-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate gross motor development in Greek infants and establish AIMS percentile curves and to examine possible association of AIMS scores with socioeconomic parameters. Mean AIMS scores of 1068 healthy Greek full-term infants were compared at monthly age level with the respective mean scores of the Canadian normative sample. In a subgroup of 345 study participants, parents provided, via interview, information about family socioeconomic status. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to evaluate the relationship of infant motor development with socioeconomic parameters. Mean AIMS scores did not differ significantly between Greek and Canadian infants in any of the 19 monthly levels of age. In multiple linear regression analysis, the educational level of the mother and also whether the infant was being raised by grandparents/babysitter were significantly associated with gross motor development (p=0.02 and psocioeconomic factors are associated with the infants' motor development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Weight loss and improved gross motor coordination in children as a result of multidisciplinary residential obesity treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Hondt, Eva; Gentier, Ilse; Deforche, Benedicte; Tanghe, Ann; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Lenoir, Matthieu

    2011-10-01

    This study evaluated the short-term effectiveness of a multidisciplinary residential obesity treatment program by describing changes in body weight, related measures, and gross motor co-ordination. Secondarily, it was examined to what extent the amount of relative weight loss achieved by overweight and obese (OW/OB) participants explained the projected improvement in gross motor co-ordination. Thirty-six OW/OB children (aged 10.5 ± 1.4 years, 12 girls and 24 boys) were recruited at the Zeepreventorium VZW (De Haan, Belgium), where they followed a specific program consisting of moderate dietary restriction, psychological support, and physical activity. For reference purposes, an additional group of 36 age- and gender-matched healthy-weight (HW) children was included in the study. Anthropometric measures were recorded and gross motor co-ordination was assessed using the Körperkoordinationstest für Kinder (KTK) on two occasions with an interval of 4 months. Regardless of the test moment, OW/OB participants displayed significantly poorer KTK performances (P motor co-ordination performance, with a greater increase in KTK score(s) from baseline to re-test as compared to HW peers (P motor co-ordination, which in turn may promote physical activity participation.

  1. The effect of aquatic intervention on the gross motor function and aquatic skills in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrijević, Lidija; Aleksandrović, Marko; Madić, Dejan; Okičić, Tomislav; Radovanović, Dragan; Daly, Daniel

    2012-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of an aquatic intervention on the gross motor function and aquatic skills of children with cerebral palsy (CP). Twenty-nine children with CP, aged 5 to 14, were recruited. Fourteen children completed an aquatic intervention (EG), and 13 children served as controls (CG). Two participants dropped out due to events (illness) unrelated to the intervention. The aquatic intervention lasted 6 weeks (2 sessions per week at 55 minutes per session) with a follow-up period of 3 weeks. The outcome measures were the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) for motor function and the Water Orientation Test Alyn 2 (WOTA 2) for aquatic skills assessment. A significant improvement was observed in the secondary assessment of GMFM and WOTA 2. In contrast to the aquatic skills improvement, the GMFM change was not maintained at follow-up. Our results indicate that children with CP can improve gross motor function on dry land and aquatic skills with a 6-week water intervention. The intervention period was too short for sustainable improvement in dry-land motor skills after intervention (follow-up), but time was sufficient to achieve sustainable improvements in aquatic skills.

  2. Impact of Vitamin D Supplementation on Gross Motor Development of Healthy Term Infants: A Randomized Dose-Response Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicklow, Brandy; Gallo, Sina; Majnemer, Annette; Vanstone, Catherine; Comeau, Kathryn; Jones, Glenville; L'Abbe, Mary; Khamessan, Ali; Sharma, Atul; Weiler, Hope; Rodd, Celia

    2016-08-01

    In addition to benefits for bone health, vitamin D is implicated in muscle function in children and adults. To determine if vitamin D dosage positively correlated with gross motor development at 3 and 6 months of age. We hypothesized that higher doses would be associated with higher scores for gross motor skills. A consecutive sample of 55 healthy, term, and breastfed infants from Montreal, Canada were recruited from a randomized trial of vitamin D supplementation between 2009 and 2012. Infants were randomized to 400 International Units (IU) (n = 19), 800 IU (n = 18) or 1,200 IU (n = 18) vitamin D3/day. Motor performance at 3 and 6 months was quantified by the Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS). Plasma vitamin D3 metabolites were measured by tandem mass spectrometry. AIMS scores did not differ at 3 months. However, total AIMS scores and sitting subscores were significantly higher at 6 months in infants receiving 400 IU/day compared to 800 IU/day and 1,200 IU/day groups (p gross motor achievements were significantly higher in infants receiving 400 IU/day vitamin D. Our findings also support longer infants being slightly delayed.

  3. Introduction of the gross motor function classification system in Venezuela--a model for knowledge dissemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löwing, Kristina; Arredondo, Ynes C; Tedroff, Marika; Tedroff, Kristina

    2015-09-04

    A current worldwide common goal is to optimize the health and well-being of children with cerebral palsy (CP). In order to reach that goal, for this heterogeneous group, a common language and classification systems are required to predict development and offer evidence based interventions. In most countries in Africa, South America, Asia and Eastern Europe the classification systems for CP are unfamiliar and rarely used. Education and implementation are required. The specific aims of this study were to examine a model in order to introduce the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS-E&R) in Venezuela, and to examine the validity and the reliability. Children with CP, registered at a National child rehabilitation centre in Venezuela, were invited to participate. The Spanish version of GMFCS-E&R was used. The Wilson mobility scale was translated and used to examine the concurrent validity. A structured questionnaire, comprising aspects of mobility and gross motor function, was constructed. In addition, each child was filmed. A paediatrician in Venezuela received supervised self-education in GMFCS-E&R and the Wilson mobility scale. A Swedish student was educated in GMFCS-E&R and the Wilson mobility scale prior to visiting Venezuela. In Venezuela, all children were classified and scored by the paediatrician and student independently. An experienced paediatric physiotherapist (PT) in Sweden made independent GMFCS-E&R classifications and Wilson mobility scale scorings, accomplished through merging data from the structured questionnaire with observations of the films. Descriptive statistics were used and reliability was presented with weighted Kappa (Kw). Spearman's correlation coefficient was calculated to explore the concurrent validity between GMFCS-E&R and Wilson mobility scale. Eighty-eight children (56 boys), mean age 10 years (3-18), with CP participated. The inter-rater reliability of GMFCS-E&R between; the paediatrician and the PT was Kw = 0.85 (95% CI

  4. Content validity and reliability of test of gross motor development in Chilean children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Cano-Cappellacci

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To validate a Spanish version of the Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD-2 for the Chilean population. METHODS Descriptive, transversal, non-experimental validity and reliability study. Four translators, three experts and 92 Chilean children, from five to 10 years, students from a primary school in Santiago, Chile, have participated. The Committee of Experts has carried out translation, back-translation and revision processes to determine the translinguistic equivalence and content validity of the test, using the content validity index in 2013. In addition, a pilot implementation was achieved to determine test reliability in Spanish, by using the intraclass correlation coefficient and Bland-Altman method. We evaluated whether the results presented significant differences by replacing the bat with a racket, using T-test. RESULTS We obtained a content validity index higher than 0.80 for language clarity and relevance of the TGMD-2 for children. There were significant differences in the object control subtest when comparing the results with bat and racket. The intraclass correlation coefficient for reliability inter-rater, intra-rater and test-retest reliability was greater than 0.80 in all cases. CONCLUSIONS The TGMD-2 has appropriate content validity to be applied in the Chilean population. The reliability of this test is within the appropriate parameters and its use could be recommended in this population after the establishment of normative data, setting a further precedent for the validation in other Latin American countries.

  5. Test of gross motor development-2 for Filipino children with intellectual disability: validity and reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capio, Catherine M; Eguia, Kathlynne F; Simons, Johan

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to examine aspects of validity and reliability of the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (TGMD-2) in Filipino children with intellectual disability. Content and construct validity were verified, as well as inter-rater and intra-rater reliability. Two paediatric physiotherapists tested 81 children with intellectual disability (mean age = 9.29 ± 2.71 years) on locomotor and object control skills. Analysis of covariance, confirmatory factor analysis and analysis of variance were used to test validity, while Cronbach's alpha, intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) and Bland-Altman plots were used to examine reliability. Age was a significant predictor of locomotor and object control scores (P = 0.004). The data fit the hypothesised two-factor model with fit indices as follows: χ(2) = 33.525, DF = 34, P = 0.491, χ(2)/DF = 0.986. As hypothesised, gender was a significant predictor for object control skills (P = 0.038). Participants' mean scores were significantly below mastery (locomotor, P intellectual disability.

  6. Interrater reliability assessment using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Lisa M; Minto, Christine; Lander, Natalie; Hardy, Louise L

    2014-11-01

    The aim was to examine interrater reliability of the object control subtest from the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 by live observation in a school field setting. Reliability Study--cross sectional. Raters were rated on their ability to agree on (1) the raw total for the six object control skills; (2) each skill performance and (3) the skill components. Agreement for the object control subtest and the individual skills was assessed by an intraclass correlation (ICC) and a kappa statistic assessed for skill component agreement. A total of 37 children (65% girls) aged 4-8 years (M = 6.2, SD = 0.8) were assessed in six skills by two raters; equating to 222 skill tests. Interrater reliability was excellent for the object control subset (ICC = 0.93), and for individual skills, highest for the dribble (ICC = 0.94) followed by strike (ICC = 0.85), overhand throw (ICC = 0.84), underhand roll (ICC = 0.82), kick (ICC = 0.80) and the catch (ICC = 0.71). The strike and the throw had more components with less agreement. Even though the overall subtest score and individual skill agreement was good, some skill components had lower agreement, suggesting these may be more problematic to assess. This may mean some skill components need to be specified differently in order to improve component reliability. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The relationship between motor function, cognition, independence and quality of life in myelomeningocele patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Carolina Lundberg; Moura, Maria Clara Drummond Soares de; Becker, Karine Kyomi; Teixeira, Rosani Aparecida Antunes; Voos, Mariana Callil; Hasue, Renata Hydee

    2017-08-01

    Motor function, cognition, functional independence and quality of life have been described in myelomeningocele patients, but no study has investigated their relationships. We aimed to investigate the relationships between motor function, cognition, functional independence, quality of life, age, and lesion level in myelomeningocele patients, and investigate the influence of hydrocephalus on these variables. We assessed 47 patients with the Gross Motor Function Measure (motor function), Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices (cognition), Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (functional independence) and the Autoquestionnaire Qualité de vie Enfant Imagé (quality of life). Spearman's correlation tests determined relationships between the variables. The Friedman ANOVAs determined the influence of hydrocephalus. Motor function was strongly related to mobility and lesion level, and moderately related to cognition, self-care and social function. Cognition and quality of life were moderately related to functional independence. Age correlated moderately with functional independence and quality of life. Hydrocephalus resulted in poorer motor/cognitive outcomes and lower functional independence.

  8. The Effect of Physical Exercise on the Development of Gross Motor Skills in Children with Attention Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder

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    Saeed Kosari

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The study is about to examine the effect of the selective physical exercises on gross motor activities of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Materials and Methods: In this quasi-experimental study out of 120 students with ADHD who were studying under supervision of Tehran Department of Education of Exceptional Children, a number of 20 children (8.8±0.7 years old with ADHD were selected randomly and based on pre-test. The measuring tool was the Bruininks-Oseretsky test of motor proficiency. The selected motor program (SPARK physical education program including reinforcement activities, playing and sporting for children was repeated for 18 sessions by our subjects. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test (KS-test was used to check normal data distribution and the correlative t-test and independent t-test were used to compare mean values. Results: Eighteen sessions of the selected motor activities for the experiment group made significant differences in all variables of the study, but it was not the case for the control group. The experiment group’s differences were running speed and agility (p=0.001, balance (p=0.001, bilateral coordination (p=0.001 and strength (p=0.001.Conclusion: With regard to results of the study, it can be claimed that the selected physical education program which has been inspired by Spark physical education program is able to improve gross motor skills in children with ADHD.

  9. Relationships between Isometric Muscle Strength, Gait Parameters, and Gross Motor Function Measure in Patients with Cerebral Palsy.

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    Shin, Hyung Ik; Sung, Ki Hyuk; Chung, Chin Youb; Lee, Kyoung Min; Lee, Seung Yeol; Lee, In Hyeok; Park, Moon Seok

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the correlation between isometric muscle strength, gross motor function, and gait parameters in patients with spastic cerebral palsy and to find which muscle groups play an important role for gait pattern in a flexed knee gait. Twenty-four ambulatory patients (mean age, 10.0 years) with spastic cerebral palsy who were scheduled for single event multilevel surgery, including distal hamstring lengthening, were included. Preoperatively, peak isometric muscle strength was measured for the hip flexor, hip extensor, knee flexor, and knee extensor muscle groups using a handheld dynamometer, and three-dimensional (3D) gait analysis and gross motor function measure (GMFM) scoring were also performed. Correlations between peak isometric strength and GMFM, gait kinematics, and gait kinetics were analyzed. Peak isometric muscle strength of all muscle groups was not related to the GMFM score and the gross motor function classification system level. Peak isometric strength of the hip extensor and knee extensor was significantly correlated with the mean pelvic tilt (r=-0.588, p=0.003 and r=-0.436, p=0.033) and maximum pelvic obliquity (r=-0.450, p=0.031 and r=-0.419, p=0.041). There were significant correlations between peak isometric strength of the knee extensor and peak knee extensor moment in early stance (r=0.467, p=0.021) and in terminal stance (r=0.416, p=0.043). There is no correlation between muscle strength and gross motor function. However, this study showed that muscle strength, especially of the extensor muscle group of the hip and knee joints, might play a critical role in gait by stabilizing pelvic motion and decreasing energy consumption in a flexed knee gait.

  10. Relationship between gross motor and intellectual function in children with cerebral palsy: a cross-sectional study.

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    Dalvand, Hamid; Dehghan, Leila; Hadian, Mohammad Reza; Feizy, Awat; Hosseini, Seyed Ali

    2012-03-01

    To explore the relationship between gross motor and intellectual function in children with cerebral palsy (CP). A cross-sectional study. Occupational therapy clinic. Children with CP (N=662; 281 girls, 381 boys; age range, 3-14y). Not applicable. Intelligence testing was carried out by means of the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised. Gross motor function level was determined by the Gross Motor Function Classification System Expanded and Revised (GMFCS E&R). Of the children, 10.4% were at level I of the GMFCS E&R, 38% at levels II and III, and 51.5% at levels IV and V. The lowest level of intelligence or profound intellectual disability was found in children with spastic quadriplegia (n=28, 62.2%). Children at the lowest levels (I-IV, GMFCS E&R) obtained higher ratings in terms of intelligence in comparison with children at level V. Based on the present results, the diagnosis was statistically related to the intellectual level as dependent variable (Pintelligence, respectively. Sex and age were not statistically related to the dependent variable. The study results demonstrated a significant association between GMFCS E&R and intellectual function. Therefore, we suggest that particular attention should be paid to the intellectual level in terms of evaluations of gross motor function. These results, in respect, might be interested for occupational and physical therapists who are involved in rehabilitation programs for these children. Copyright © 2012 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Early postoperative physical therapy for improving short-term gross motor outcome in infants with cyanotic and acyanotic congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haseba, Sumihito; Sakakima, Harutoshi; Nakao, Syuhei; Ohira, Misaki; Yanagi, Shigefumi; Imoto, Yutaka; Yoshida, Akira; Shimodozono, Megumi

    2018-07-01

    We analysed the gross motor recovery of infants and toddlers with cyanotic and acyanotic congenital heart disease (CHD) who received early postoperative physical therapy to see whether there was any difference in the duration to recovery. This study retrospectively evaluated the influence of early physical therapy on postoperative gross motor outcomes of patients with CHD. The gross motor ability of patients with cyanotic (n = 25, average age: 376.4 days) and acyanotic (n = 26, average age: 164.5 days) CHD was evaluated using our newly developed nine-grade mobility assessment scale. Physical therapy was started at an average of five days after surgery, during which each patient's gross motor ability was significantly decreased compared with the preoperative level. Patients (who received early postoperative physical therapy) with cyanotic (88.0%) and acyanotic CHD (96.2%) showed improved preoperative mobility grades by the time of hospital discharge. However, patients with cyanotic CHD had a significantly prolonged recovery period compared to those with acyanotic CHD (p congenital heart disease are likely at greater risk of gross motor delays and have a prolonged recovery period of gross motor ability compared to those with acyanotic congenital heart disease. Early postoperative physical therapy for patients with congenital heart disease after cardiac surgery promoted gross motor recovery. The postoperative recovery period to preoperative mobility grade was affected by pre-, intra-, and postoperative factors. Rehabilitation experts should consider the risk of gross motor delays of patients with congenital heart disease after cardiac surgery and the early postoperative physical therapy to promote their gross motor recovery.

  12. Functional Communication Profiles in Children with Cerebral Palsy in Relation to Gross Motor Function and Manual and Intellectual Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ja Young; Park, Jieun; Choi, Yoon Seong; Goh, Yu Ra; Park, Eun Sook

    2018-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate communication function using classification systems and its association with other functional profiles, including gross motor function, manual ability, intellectual functioning, and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics in children with cerebral palsy (CP). This study recruited 117 individuals with CP aged from 4 to 16 years. The Communication Function Classification System (CFCS), Viking Speech Scale (VSS), Speech Language Profile Groups (SLPG), Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS), Manual Ability Classification System (MACS), and intellectual functioning were assessed in the children along with brain MRI categorization. Very strong relationships were noted among the VSS, CFCS, and SLPG, although these three communication systems provide complementary information, especially for children with mid-range communication impairment. These three communication classification systems were strongly related with the MACS, but moderately related with the GMFCS. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that manual ability and intellectual functioning were significantly related with VSS and CFCS function, whereas only intellectual functioning was significantly related with SLPG functioning in children with CP. Communication function in children with a periventricular white matter lesion (PVWL) varied widely. In the cases with a PVWL, poor functioning was more common on the SLPG, compared to the VSS and CFCS. Very strong relationships were noted among three communication classification systems that are closely related with intellectual ability. Compared to gross motor function, manual ability seemed more closely related with communication function in these children. © Copyright: Yonsei University College of Medicine 2018.

  13. Gross Motor Function Classification System Expanded & Revised (GMFCS E & R: reliability between therapists and parents in Brazil

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    Daniela B. R. Silva

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several studies have demonstrated the importance of using the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS to classify gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy, but the reliability of the expanded and revised version has not been examined in Brazil (GMFCS E & R. OBJECTIVE:: To determine the intra- and inter-rater reliability of the Portuguese-Brazil version of the GMFCS E & R applied by therapists and compare to classification provided by parents of children with cerebral palsy. METHOD: Data were obtained from 90 children with cerebral palsy, aged 4 to 18 years old, attending the neurology or rehabilitation service of a Brazilian hospital. Therapists classified the children's motor function using the GMFCS E & R and parents used the Brazilian Portuguese version of the GMFCS Family Report Questionnaire. Intra- and inter-rater reliability was obtained through percentage agreement and Cohen's unweighted Kappa statistics (k. The Chi-square test was used to identify significant differences in the classification of parents and therapists. RESULTS: Almost perfect agreement was reached between the therapists [K=0.90 (95% confidence interval 0.83-0.97] and intra-raters (therapists with K=1.00 [95% confidence interval (1.00-1.00], p<0.001. Agreement between therapists and parents was substantial (k=0.716, confidence interval 0.596-0.836, though parents classify gross motor impairment more severely than therapists (p=0.04. CONCLUSIONS: The Portuguese version of the GMFCS E & R is reliable for use by parents and therapists. Parents tend to classify their children's limitations more severely, because they know their performance in different environments.

  14. Effect of Sensory Integration Therapy on Gross and Fine Motor Skills of 5-7 Years old Children with Down Syndrome

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    Hossein Sourtji

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Children with Down syndrome have sensory integration dysfunction, and a range of physical problems and difficulties that may affect their motor development. The aim of present study was to determine effectiveness of sensory integration therapy on gross and fine motor skills of 5-7 years old children with Down syndrome.  Materials & Methods: Sixty 5-7 years old children were diagnosed as having Down syndrome, were selected by randomized sampling and participated in this experimental study. Each participant was assessed by researcher, that the assessment used was Peabody Developmental Motor Scales. The children were randomly assigned to the intervention (sensory integration therapy and control groups. Sensory integration therapy was given to intervention group. Data were analyzed by Leven test, Independent T test and covariance analysis. Results: There was significant difference between pretest and post test scores of intervention and control groups in gross motor development (P<0.000, but in fine motor development there was significant difference between pretest and post test scores only in intervention group (P<0.001 and in control group it wasn’t significant (P=0.013. Also there was significant difference between two groups in gross and fine motor development (P<0.001. Conclusion: The results showed the sensory integration therapy were effective in gross and fine motor of children with Down syndrome. It was concluded that sensory integration therapy should be applied for children with Down syndrome who have gross and fine motor difficulties.

  15. Gross motor function in children with spastic Cerebral Palsy and Cerebral Visual Impairment: A comparison between outcomes of the original and the Cerebral Visual Impairment adapted Gross Motor Function Measure-88 (GMFM-88-CVI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salavati, M; Rameckers, E A A; Waninge, A; Krijnen, W P; Steenbergen, B; van der Schans, C P

    2017-01-01

    To investigate whether the adapted version of the Gross Motor Function Measure-88 (GMFM-88) for children with Cerebral Palsy (CP) and Cerebral Visual Impairment (CVI) results in higher scores. This is most likely to be a reflection of their gross motor function, however it may be the result of a better comprehension of the instruction of the adapted version. The scores of the original and adapted GMFM-88 were compared in the same group of children (n=21 boys and n=16 girls), mean (SD) age 113 (30) months with CP and CVI, within a time span of two weeks. A paediatric physical therapist familiar with the child assessed both tests in random order. The GMFCS level, mental development and age at testing were also collected. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to compare two different measurements (the original and adapted GMFM-88) on a single sample, (the same child with CP and CVI; pchildren with CP and CVI showed a positive difference in percentage score on at least one of the five dimensions and positive percentage scores for the two versions differed on all five dimensions for fourteen children. For six children a difference was seen in four dimensions and in 10 children difference was present in three dimensions (GMFM dimension A, B& C or C, D & E) (pchildren with CP and CVI that is not adversely impacted bytheir visual problems. On the basis of these findings, we recommend using the adapted GMFM-88 to measure gross motor functioning in children with CP and CVI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Gross and fine motor skills of children with Hurler syndrome (MPS-IH) post umbilical cord blood transplantation: a case series report.

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    Dusing, Stacey C; Rosenberg, Angela; Hiemenz, Jennifer R; Piner, Shelley; Escolar, Maria

    2005-01-01

    Recent advancements in medical treatment of Hurler syndrome have resulted in longer life expectancies and a greater need for therapeutic services. The purpose of this case series is to provide recommendations for assessing children with Hurler syndrome after umbilical cord blood transplant (UCBT). CLINICAL DESCRIPTIONS: Two children with Hurler syndrome were seen for longitudinal assessments following an UCBT for Hurler syndrome. The raw scores and percentage of fine and gross motor items each child completed on the Motor Scale of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II (BSID-II) were reviewed. Both children gained new motor skills with each successive motor assessment. Both children were able to complete a higher percentage of fine motor skills than gross motor skills in the most advanced item set assessed. The children presented in these two case reports both had better fine motor skills than gross motor skills, which inflated their standard scores on the BSID-II. Clinicians assessing children with Hurler syndrome should use standardized assessments that allow for differentiation of fine and gross motor skills to prevent this situation.

  17. Development of the Correspondence between Real and Imagined Fine and Gross Motor Actions

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    Sachet, Alison B.; Frey, Scott H.; Jacobs, Stéphane; Taylor, Marjorie

    2016-01-01

    The development of the correspondence between real and imagined motor actions was investigated in 2 experiments. Experiment 1 evaluated whether children imagine body position judgments of fine motor actions in the same way as they perform them. Thirty-two 8-year-old children completed a task in which an object was presented in different…

  18. Infants with Down Syndrome: Percentage and Age for Acquisition of Gross Motor Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Karina; Basso, Renata Pedrolongo; Lindquist, Ana Raquel Rodrigues; da Silva, Louise Gracelli Pereira; Tudella, Eloisa

    2013-01-01

    The literature is bereft of information about the age at which infants with Down syndrome (DS) acquire motor skills and the percentage of infants that do so by the age of 12 months. Therefore, it is necessary to identify the difference in age, in relation to typical infants, at which motor skills were acquired and the percentage of infants with DS…

  19. Avaliação do desempenho motor global e em habilidades motoras axiais e apendiculares de lactentes frequentadores de creche Assessment of global motor performance and gross and fine motor skills of infants attending day care centers

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    Carolina T Souza

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar o desempenho motor global em habilidades motoras axiais e apendiculares de lactentes que frequentavam, em tempo integral, duas Escolas Municipais de Educação Infantil. MÉTODOS: Estudo longitudinal do qual participaram 30 lactentes avaliados aos 12 e 17 meses de vida com a escala motora das Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development-III, que possibilita a análise do desempenho motor global, apendicular e axial e a discrepância entre eles. Utilizaram-se o teste de Wilcoxon e o Coeficiente de Correlação de Spearman. RESULTADOS: A maioria dos participantes apresentou desempenho motor global dentro dos limites de normalidade, porém abaixo da média de referência aos 12 e 17 meses, com 30% classificados como suspeitos de atraso em pelo menos uma das avaliações. O desempenho motor axial foi inferior ao apendicular aos 12 e aos 17 meses, com grande discrepância entre eles especialmente na 2ª avaliação. Observou-se marcada variabilidade individual nas habilidades motoras apendiculares, com fraca correlação linear no desempenho entre a 1ª e a 2ª avaliações nesse domínio. Nas habilidades axiais e no desempenho motor global, encontrou-se menor variabilidade individual, com correlações moderadas e positivas entre a 1ª e a 2ª avaliações. Identificaram-se quatro lactentes com suspeita de atraso no desenvolvimento motor em ambas as avaliações. CONCLUSÕES: O estudo aponta necessidade de maior atenção ao desenvolvimento motor durante os primeiros 17 meses de crianças que frequentam creches, com especial vigilância à motricidade axial (considerando que ela é parte integrante do desenvolvimento global da criança e às crianças com desempenho suspeito de atraso em duas avaliações consecutivas.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the global motor performance and the gross and fine motor skills of infants attending two public child care centers full-time. METHODS: This was a longitudinal study that included 30 infants

  20. Attainment of gross motor milestones in children with Down syndrome in Kosovo - developmental perspective.

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    Beqaj, Samire; Jusaj, Njomza; Živković, Vujica

    2017-08-01

    Aim To investigate the age (in months) at which motor skills are developed in children with Down syndrome (DS), and compare it to the age of the development of the same skills in both, children with typical development (TD), and children with DS reported by four other studies. Methods Sixteen children (7 girls and 9 boys) were monthly assessed for the development of nineteen motor skills between 2008 and 2011. The mean ages when the skills were accomplished were presented using descriptive statistics. Independent T-samples test (significance skills. No significant difference was found between developmental age in children from the present study and children with DS from other studies. Conclusion The rate of attainment of motor skills is delayed in children with DS in comparison to children with TD, however, the developmental sequence is the same. The delayed development is more prominent in more complex skills. Copyright© by the Medical Assotiation of Zenica-Doboj Canton.

  1. Effects of Individual and School-Level Characteristics on a Child’s Gross Motor Coordination Development

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    Raquel Chaves

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify child and school-level characteristics that explained inter-individual differences in gross motor coordination (GMC. Participants (n = 390, recruited from 18 Portuguese primary schools, were aged 6 to 10 years of age. Birth weight, body fat (BF, physical activity (PA, physical fitness (PF and GMC were assessed. School size, setting, infrastructure and physical education classes were considered as school context markers. A multilevel modeling approach was used to identify hierarchical effects (child and school levels. It was found that children-level variables (sex, PF, and BF significantly explained 63% of the 90% variance fraction at the individual level; boys outperformed girls (p < 0.05, individuals with higher BF were less coordinated (p < 0.05, and those with higher PF were more coordinated (p < 0.05. School-variables (e.g. school size and playing surface explained 84% of the 10% variation fraction. These findings confirm the roles of sex, PFS and BF. Interestingly they also suggest that the school environment plays a minor but significant role in GMC development. However, it is important to stress that the school context and conditions can also play an important role in a child’s motor development, providing adequate and enriching motor opportunities.

  2. Prospective associations between measures of gross and fine motor coordination in infants and objectively measured physical activity and sedentary behavior in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Guillermo F López; Williams, Genevieve; Aggio, Daniel; Vicinanza, Domenico; Stubbs, Brendon; Kerr, Catherine; Johnstone, James; Roberts, Justin; Smith, Lee

    2017-11-01

    One important determinant of childhood physical activity and sedentary behavior may be that of motor development in infancy. The present analyses aimed to investigate whether gross and fine motor delays in infants were associated with objective and self-reported activity in childhood. Data were from the UK Millennium Cohort Study, a prospective cohort study, involving UK children born on or around the millennium (September 2000 and January 2002). When children were 9 months old, parents reported children's fine and gross motor-coordination, and at 7 years, sports club attendance and daily TV viewing time. Children's physical activity was measured using accelerometers at 7 years. Adjusted regression models were used to examine associations between delayed motor development and accelerometry measured moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and sedentary behavior, and parent-reported sport club attendance and TV viewing time. In this sample (n = 13,021), gross motor delay in infancy was associated with less time in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (B -5.0 95% confidence interval [CI] -6.8, -3.2) and more time sedentary (B 13.5 95% CI 9.3, 17.8) in childhood. Gross and fine motor delays during infancy were associated with a reduced risk of having high attendance at sports clubs in childhood (both relative risk [RR] 0.7, 95% CI 0.6, 0.9). Fine motor delays, but not gross delays, were also associated with an increased risk of having high TV viewing time (RR 1.3 95% CI 1.0, 1.6). Findings from the present study suggest that delays in motor development in infancy are associated with physical activity and sedentary time in childhood.

  3. Hippocampal EEG and behaviour in dog. I. Hippocampal EEG correlates of gross motor behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnolds, D.E.A.T.; Lopes da Silva, F.H.; Aitink, J.W.; Kamp, A.

    It was shown that rewarding spectral shifts (i.e. increase in amplitude or peak frequency of the hippocampal EEG) causes a solitary dog to show increased motor behaviour. Rewarded spectral shifts concurred with a variety of behavioural transitions. It was found that statistically significant

  4. Sibling Relationships of Preschool-Aged Children in Gross Motor Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbaugh, Sarah J.; Clifton, Marguerite A.

    1984-01-01

    The behaviors and interactions of preschool-aged siblings in object-oriented and body-oriented conditions were observed to discover if the child's siblings significantly influenced motor skill development. This study focused on categories of sibling behaviors and interactions. (Author/DF)

  5. Risk Factors for Gross Motor Dysfunction in Infants with Congenital Heart Disease

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    Long, Suzanne H.; Eldridge, Bev J.; Galea, Mary P.; Harris, Susan R.

    2011-01-01

    Infants with congenital heart disease (CHD) that is severe enough to require early surgery are at risk for cognitive and motor delays, as well as musculoskeletal impairments, and are best managed by an interdisciplinary team during their hospital stay and after discharge. The purpose of this article is to review some of the risk factors associated…

  6. Reliability of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the Gross Motor Function Measure in children with cerebral palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Kênnea M.; Albuquerque, Karolina A.; Ferreira, Marina L.; Aguiar, Stéphany K. B.; Mancini, Marisa C.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test the intra- and interrater reliability of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the 66-item Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM-66). METHOD: The sample included 48 children with cerebral palsy (CP), ranging from 2-17 years old, classified at levels I to IV of the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) and four child rehabilitation examiners. A main examiner evaluated all children using the GMFM-66 and video-recorded the assessments. The other examiners watched the video recordings and scored them independently for the assessment of interrater reliability. For the intrarater reliability evaluation, the main examiner watched the video recordings one month after the evaluation and re-scored each child. We calculated reliability by using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) with their respective 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: Excellent test reliability was documented. The intrarater reliability of the total sample was ICC=0.99 (95% CI 0.98-0.99), and the interrater reliability was ICC=0.97 (95% CI 0.95-0.98). The reliability across GMFCS levels ranged from ICC=0.92 (95% CI 0.72-0.98) to ICC=0.99 (95% CI 0.99-0.99); the lowest value was the interrater reliability for the GMFCS IV group. Reliability in the five GMFM dimensions varied from ICC=0.95 (95% CI 0.93-0.97) to ICC=0.99 (95% CI 0.99-0.99). CONCLUSION: The Brazilian Portuguese version of the GMFM-66 showed excellent intra- and interrater reliability when used in Brazilian children with CP levels GMFCS I to IV. PMID:26786081

  7. Systematic review of physiotherapy interventions to improve gross motor capacity and performance in children and adolescents with an acquired brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baque, Emmah; Sakzewski, Leanne; Barber, Lee; Boyd, Roslyn N

    2016-01-01

    To systematically review the efficacy of physiotherapy interventions to improve gross motor capacity, performance and societal participation in children aged 5-17 years with an acquired brain injury (ABI). Randomized and non-randomized controlled trials, cohort, case series, case-control and case studies were included and classified according to grades of evidence. Methodological quality of studies was assessed using the Downs and Black (D&B) scale and quantitative data was analysed using effect sizes. Two home-based studies investigated functional strength training (one randomized controlled trial, n = 20, level 2b, D&B = 16/32 and one non-randomized self-control study, n = 19, level 4, D&B = 15/32). Four studies evaluated virtual reality including: one pilot study, n = 50, level 4, D&B = 22/32; one single-subject, non-concurrent, randomized multiple baseline study, n = 3, level 4, D&B = 15/32; one case series study, n = 2, level 4, D&B = 15/32; one case study, n = 1, level 4, D&B = 15/32. Effect sizes for the randomized controlled trial ranged between 0.30-1.29 for the Functional Reach and Timed Up and Go outcome measures. There is preliminary evidence to support the efficacy of physiotherapy interventions to improve gross motor outcomes in children with an ABI. Both functional strength training and virtual-reality based therapy are potential treatment options for clinicians to prescribe in either home or clinical settings.

  8. Evaluating dissection in the gross anatomy course: Correlation between quality of laboratory dissection and students outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwachukwu, Chika; Lachman, Nirusha; Pawlina, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    Anatomy learned by active exploration through dissection has many proven benefits including improvement of anatomic knowledge. Decreased laboratory time may affect the quality of dissection and ultimately lower student performance in anatomy translating to lower knowledge acquisition. The aim of this study was to determine whether the quality of students' dissection in teams correlates with their performance in the gross anatomy course. Quality of dissections for each team enrolled in a gross anatomy course at Mayo Medical School was evaluated biweekly using a five-point rubric based on course learning objectives. Assessment of anatomic knowledge was based on sequential laboratory practice practical examination scores, achievements on daily audience response system (ARS) quizzes, and final practical, written, and National Board of Medical Examiners(®) (NBME(®) ) Gross Anatomy and Embryology Subject Examinations. Twelve teams comprising 48 students were included in the study. There was a positive correlation between dissection quality and practice practical examination score (R = 0.83) and a negative correlation between dissection quality and ARS quizzes (R = -0.985). Dissection teams with a passing score on their dissection evaluations (>70%) performed better on their final examinations. Based on an end of course survey, students agreed that dissection evaluations should continue to be a part of the course. This study showed that better quality of dissection was associated with higher scores on practice practical examinations, final practical, written, and NBME examinations. The study demonstrated a positive correlation between dissection evaluations, accompanied by formative feedback during the course, and higher scores on final course assessments. © 2014 American Association of Anatomists.

  9. Associations between fine and gross motor skills, aerobic fitness, cognition and academic performance in 7-8 years old Danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Rune Rasmussen; Beck, Mikkel Malling; Geertsen, Svend Sparre

    Purpose: The current literature is concentrated around the positive effects of aerobic fitness (AF) on performance in cognitive tests (CP) and academic performance (AP) (reviewed in Hillman 2008). However, motor skills (MS) are often overlooked in this equation, and studies evaluating both AF......, phonological working-memory capacity (PWM), spatial working-memory capacity (SWM), math performance (MP) and fine- and gross-motor skill (FMS & GMS) assessed. Results: Significant associations were found between FMS and MP (P

  10. The Effects of an Intervention on the Gross and Fine Motor Skills of Hispanic Pre-K Children from Low SES Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Michelle; Liu, Ting

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a motor skill intervention on gross and fine motor skill performance of Hispanic pre-K children from low SES backgrounds. One hundred and forty-nine pre-K children were randomly assigned to an intervention group (n = 74) and control group (n = 75). All children were assessed on fine and gross…

  11. Effect of task-oriented training and high-variability practice on gross motor performance and activities of daily living in children with spastic diplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hae-Yeon; Ahn, So-Yoon

    2016-10-01

    [Purpose] This study investigates how a task-oriented training and high-variability practice program can affect the gross motor performance and activities of daily living for children with spastic diplegia and provides an effective and reliable clinical database for future improvement of motor performances skills. [Subjects and Methods] This study randomly assigned seven children with spastic diplegia to each intervention group including that of a control group, task-oriented training group, and a high-variability practice group. The control group only received neurodevelopmental treatment for 40 minutes, while the other two intervention groups additionally implemented a task-oriented training and high-variability practice program for 8 weeks (twice a week, 60 min per session). To compare intra and inter-relationships of the three intervention groups, this study measured gross motor performance measure (GMPM) and functional independence measure for children (WeeFIM) before and after 8 weeks of training. [Results] There were statistically significant differences in the amount of change before and after the training among the three intervention groups for the gross motor performance measure and functional independence measure. [Conclusion] Applying high-variability practice in a task-oriented training course may be considered an efficient intervention method to improve motor performance skills that can tune to movement necessary for daily livelihood through motor experience and learning of new skills as well as change of tasks learned in a complex environment or similar situations to high-variability practice.

  12. Infants with Down syndrome: percentage and age for acquisition of gross motor skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Karina; Basso, Renata Pedrolongo; Lindquist, Ana Raquel Rodrigues; da Silva, Louise Gracelli Pereira; Tudella, Eloisa

    2013-03-01

    The literature is bereft of information about the age at which infants with Down syndrome (DS) acquire motor skills and the percentage of infants that do so by the age of 12 months. Therefore, it is necessary to identify the difference in age, in relation to typical infants, at which motor skills were acquired and the percentage of infants with DS that acquire them in the first year of life. Infants with DS (N=20) and typical infants (N=25), both aged between 3 and 12 months, were evaluated monthly using the AIMS. In the prone position, a difference of up to 3 months was found for the acquisition of the 3rd to 16th skill. There was a difference in the percentage of infants with DS who acquired the 10th to 21st skill (from 71% to 7%). In the supine position, a difference of up to one month was found from the 3rd to 7th skill; however, 100% were able to perform these skills. In the sitting position, a difference of 1-4 months was found from the 1st to 12th skill, ranging from 69% to 29% from the 9th to 12th. In the upright position, the difference was 2-3 months from the 3rd to 8th skill. Only 13% acquired the 8th skill and no other skill was acquired up to the age of 12 months. The more complex the skills the greater the difference in age between typical infants and those with DS and the lower the percentage of DS individuals who performed the skills in the prone, sitting and upright positions. None of the DS infants were able to stand without support. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Systematic review and meta-analysis of the effect of equine assisted activities and therapies on gross motor outcome in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Sung-Hui; Chen, Hung-Chou; Tam, Ka-Wai

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the literature on the efficacy of equine assisted activities and therapies (EAAT) on gross motor outcomes representing the ICF component of body functions and activity in children with cerebral palsy (CP). We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials and observational studies of hippotherapy (HPOT) and therapeutic horseback riding (TR) for children with spastic CP. Gross motor outcomes, assessed via muscle activity and muscle tone, gait, posture and Gross Motor Function Measures (GMFM) were evaluated. Five TR studies and nine HPOT studies were included. Our meta-analysis indicated that short-term HPOT (total riding time 8-10 min) significantly reduced asymmetrical activity of the hip adductor muscles. HPOT could improve postural control in children with spastic CP, GMFCS level < 5. However, the evidence did not show a statistically significant effect on GMFM after long-term HPOT or TR (total riding time, 8-22 h) in children with spastic CP. This systematic review found insufficient evidence to support the claim that long-term TR or HPOT provide a significant benefit to children with spastic CP. We found no statistically significant evidence of either therapeutic effect or maintenance effects on the gross motor activity status in CP children.

  14. Test of Gross Motor Development-3 (TGMD-3) with the Use of Visual Supports for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Validity and Reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, K. A.; Bredero, B.; Van Damme, T.; Ulrich, D. A.; Simons, J.

    2017-01-01

    The validity and reliability of the Test of Gross Motor Development-3 (TGMD-3) were measured, taking into consideration the preference for visual learning of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The TGMD-3 was administered to 14 children with ASD (4-10 years) and 21 age-matched typically developing children under two conditions: TGMD-3…

  15. The Effect of Picture Task Cards on Performance of the Test of Gross Motor Development by Preschool-Aged Children: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslin, Casey M.; Robinson, Leah E.; Rudisill, Mary E.

    2013-01-01

    Performance on the Test of Gross Motor Development (Second Edition; TGMD-2) by children with autism spectrum disorders improves when picture task cards were implemented into the assessment protocol [Breslin, C.M., & Rudisill, M.E. (2011). "The effect of visual supports on performance of the TGMD-2 for children with autism spectrum…

  16. Fine and Gross Motor Task Performance When Using Computer-Based Video Models by Students with Autism and Moderate Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechling, Linda C.; Swindle, Catherine O.

    2013-01-01

    This investigation examined the effects of video modeling on the fine and gross motor task performance by three students with a diagnosis of moderate intellectual disability (Group 1) and by three students with a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (Group 2). Using a multiple probe design across three sets of tasks, the study examined the…

  17. Short- and long-term effects of selective dorsal rhizotomy on gross motor function in ambulatory children with spastic diplegia Clinical article

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schie, P.E.M.; Schothorst, M.; Dallmeijer, A.J.; Vermeulen, R.J.; van Ouwerkerk, W.J.R.; Strijers, R.L.M.; Becher, J.G.

    2011-01-01

    Object. The primary aim of this prospective cohort study was to evaluate the short-term (1 year) and long-term (mean 6 years) effects of selective dorsal rhizotomy (SDR) on gross motor function and spasticity in ambulatory children with spastic diplegia. Secondary aims were to investigate side

  18. Exploring the Relationship between Participation in a Structured Sports Program and Development of Gross Motor Skills in Children Ages 3 to 6 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahagirdar, Ishanee; Venditti, Laura Anne; Duncan, Andrea; Reed, Nick; Fleming, Sean

    2017-01-01

    This study looked at the relationship between participation in a structured sports program and gross-motor-skills development in children aged 3 to 6 years. Twenty-seven children participated in the study, with 16 children receiving an eight-week sports program intervention. Children were assessed at pre- and postintervention using a modified…

  19. Gross motor function, functional skills and caregiver assistance in children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP) with and without cerebral visual impairment (CVI)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salavati, M.; Rameckers, E.A.A.; Steenbergen, B.; Schans, C.P. van der

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To determine whether the level of gross motor function and functional skills in children with cerebral palsy (CP) and cerebral visual impairment (CVI) as well as caregiver assistance are lower in comparison with the corresponding group of children experiencing CP without CVI. Method: Data

  20. Gross motor function, functional skills and caregiver assistance in children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP) with and without cerebral visual impairment (CVI)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salavati, Masoud; Rameckers, E.A.A.; Steenbergen, B.; van der Schans, Cees

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Aim: To determine whether the level of gross motor function and functional skills in children with cerebral palsy (CP) and cerebral visual impairment (CVI) as well as caregiver assistance are lower in comparison with the corresponding group of children experiencing CP without CVI. Method:

  1. Accuracy of the Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS) to detect developmental delay of gross motor skills in preterm infants: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Albuquerque, Plínio Luna; Lemos, Andrea; Guerra, Miriam Queiroz de Farias; Eickmann, Sophie Helena

    2015-02-01

    To assess, through a systematic review, the ability of Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS) to diagnose delayed motor development in preterm infants. Systematic searches identified five studies meeting inclusion criteria. These studies were evaluated in terms of: participants' characteristics, main results and risk of bias. The risk of bias was assessed with the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies--second edition (QUADAS-2). All five studies included a high risk of bias in at least one of the assessed fields. The most frequent biases included were presented in patient selection and lost follow up. All studies used the Pearson correlation coefficient to assess the diagnostic capability of the Alberta Infant Motor Scale. None of the assessed studies used psychometric measures to analyze the data. Given the evidence, the research supporting the ability of Alberta Infant Motor Scale to diagnose delayed motor development in preterm infants presents limitations. Further studies are suggested in order to avoid the above-mentioned biases to assess the Alberta Infant Motor Scale accuracy in preterm babies.

  2. Longitudinal cohort protocol study of oropharyngeal dysphagia: relationships to gross motor attainment, growth and nutritional status in preschool children with cerebral palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benfer, Katherine A; Weir, Kelly A; Bell, Kristie L; Ware, Robert S; Davies, Peter S W; Boyd, Roslyn N

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The prevalence of oropharyngeal dysphagia (OPD) in children with cerebral palsy (CP) is estimated to be between 19% and 99%. OPD can impact on children's growth, nutrition and overall health. Despite the growing recognition of the extent and significance of health issues relating to OPD in children with CP, lack of knowledge of its profile in this subpopulation remains. This study aims to investigate the relationship between OPD, attainment of gross motor skills, growth and nutritional status in young children with CP at and between two crucial age points, 18–24 and 36 months, corrected age. Methods and analysis This prospective longitudinal population-based study aims to recruit a total of 200 children with CP born in Queensland, Australia between 1 September 2006 and 31 December 2009 (60 per birth-year). Outcomes include clinically assessed OPD (Schedule for Oral Motor Assessment, Dysphagia Disorders Survey, Pre-Speech Assessment Scale, signs suggestive of pharyngeal phase impairment, Thomas-Stonell and Greenberg Saliva Severity Scale), parent-reported OPD on a feeding questionnaire, gross motor skills (Gross Motor Function Measure, Gross Motor Function Classification System and motor type), growth and nutritional status (linear growth and body composition) and dietary intake (3 day food record). The strength of relationship between outcome and exposure variables will be analysed using regression modelling with ORs and relative risk ratios. Ethics and dissemination This protocol describes a study that provides the first large population-based study of OPD in a representative sample of preschool children with CP, using direct clinical assessment. Ethics has been obtained through the University of Queensland Medical Research Ethics Committee, the Children's Health Services District Ethics Committee, and at other regional and organisational ethics committees. Results are planned to be disseminated in six papers submitted to peer reviewed journals

  3. Physical therapy interventions for gross motor skills in people with an intellectual disability aged 6 years and over: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocking, Judith; McNeil, Julian; Campbell, Jared

    2016-12-01

    cadence and nondimensionalized gait velocity following body-weight-supported gait training; cadence following lower limb strengthening exercises; and the Gross Motor Function Measure-88 measures following adapted judo training. These results suggest that task-specific training may be useful. However, the overall quality of evidence was low. The evidence identified by this systematic review supporting physical therapy for improving GMSs in people with an intellectual disability was limited because of the low quality of studies (only two were RCTs) and only three statistically significant findings. Given the current paucity of evidence, a future systematic review, which sought to identify evidence regarding interventions used by a range of health and education professionals for improving GMSs in people with an intellectual disability, could provide a broader evidence base for clinical interventions which may be utilized by physical therapists.

  4. Assessment of Fine and Gross Motor Skills and Its Relationship with Some Anthropometric Indices and Environmental Factors among Preschool Children Aged in 3-6 in North of Tehran

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan Kordi

    2015-01-01

    Objective: One of the most important issues in the development of fundamental motor skills in the early years of life is development of fine and gross motor skills. The aim of this study was fine and gross motor skills assessment and the relationship between some anthropometric indices and environmental factors with the development of fine and gross motor skills in preschool children that aged 3-6 in north of Tehran,2014. Materials & Methods: The research society was Tehran’s first and se...

  5. Preparation and validation of gross alpha/beta samples used in EML's quality assessment program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarpitta, S.C.

    1997-10-01

    A set of water and filter samples have been incorporated into the existing Environmental Measurements Laboratory's (EML) Quality Assessment Program (QAP) for gross alpha/beta determinations by participating DOE laboratories. The participating laboratories are evaluated by comparing their results with the EML value. The preferred EML method for measuring water and filter samples, described in this report, uses gas flow proportional counters with 2 in. detectors. Procedures for sample preparation, quality control and instrument calibration are presented. Liquid scintillation (LS) counting is an alternative technique that is suitable for quantifying both the alpha ( 241 Am, 230 Th and 238 Pu) and beta ( 90 Sr/ 90 Y) activity concentrations in the solutions used to prepare the QAP water and air filter samples. Three LS counting techniques (Cerenkov, dual dpm and full spectrum analysis) are compared. These techniques may be used to validate the activity concentrations of each component in the alpha/beta solution before the QAP samples are actually prepared

  6. Effect of a new physiotherapy concept on bone mineral density, muscle force and gross motor function in children with bilateral cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, C; Nikopoulou-Smyrni, P; Stabrey, A; Semler, O; Schoenau, E

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a new physiotherapy concept on bone density, muscle force and motor function in bilateral spastic cerebral palsy children. In a retrospective data analysis 78 children were analysed. The concept included whole body vibration, physiotherapy, resistance training and treadmill training. The concept is structured in two in-patient stays and two periods of three months home-based vibration training. Outcome measures were dual-energy x-ray absorption (DXA), Leonardo Tilt Table and a modified Gross Motor Function Measure before and after six months of training. Percent changes were highly significant for bone mineral density, -content, muscle mass and significant for angle of verticalisation, muscle force and modified Gross Motor Function Measure after six months training. The new physiotherapy concept had a significant effect on bone mineral density, muscle force and gross motor function in bilateral spastic cerebral palsy children. This implicates an amelioration in all International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health levels. The study serves as a basis for future research on evidence based paediatric physiotherapy taking into account developmental implications.

  7. Assessment of Fine and Gross Motor Skills and Its Relationship with Some Anthropometric Indices and Environmental Factors among Preschool Children Aged in 3-6 in North of Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Kordi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: One of the most important issues in the development of fundamental motor skills in the early years of life is development of fine and gross motor skills. The aim of this study was fine and gross motor skills assessment and the relationship between some anthropometric indices and environmental factors with the development of fine and gross motor skills in preschool children that aged 3-6 in north of Tehran,2014. Materials & Methods: The research society was Tehran’s first and second areas preschools. Four preschools were selected based on availability and 206 children (girls and boys participated voluntary. Data were collected from the family information questionnaires and Denver development test type 2. Results: On average, only 56/06 percent of children in gross motor skills and 77/56 percent of children in fine motor skills were in normal and developed conditions. But 23/86 percent of children in gross motor skills and 14/9 percent of children in fine motor skills were at caution and 12/83 percent of children in gross motor skills and 7/56 percent of children in fine motor skills were exposed to delayed development delays in performance. There was a significant correlation among some of the anthropometric indices such as shoulder, hip and arm length, waist, chest circumference and the performance of some gross motor skills such as jumping, hoping, throwing. Among environmental factors, factors like watching television time and sleeping time affected children's kicking. Conclusion: A noticeable number of children who participated in this study had poor gross motor skills, thus strengthening and improving these skills required to specific attention and planning.

  8. Evaluation of the reliability and construct validity of test of gross motor development-2 (Ulrich 2 in children of Semnan province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Soltanian

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this study was to assess the validity and reliability of the second edition of test of gross motor development (TGMD-2; Ulrich in 7-11 aged children of Semnan province, Iran.Materials and Methods: TGMD-2 measures 12 fundamental movement skills divided evenly into locomotor and object control subtests. 1277 children (651 girls and 626 boys aged from seven to eleven years were participated.Results: Cronbach's alpha coefficients for the two subtests were ranged from 0.60 to 0.78, and test-retest reliability was from 0.86 to 0.89. Two-factor structure of TGMD-2 and proper assignment of skills to locomotor and object control factors were supported for our population.Conclusion: Based on our findings, we conclude that the TGMD-2 is an appropriate tool to examine the gross motor skills in this population

  9. The effect of training in an interactive dynamic stander on ankle dorsiflexion and gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Curtis, Derek John; Bencke, Jesper; Mygind, Bente

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of active stretching of ankle plantarflexors using an interactive dynamic stander in children with cerebral palsy (CP). METHODS: Six children in Gross Motor Function Classification System classes I-III, aged 4-10 years, trained intensive active dorsiflexion...... in an interactive dynamic stander using ankle movement to play custom computer games following a 10-week control period. Gross Motor Function Measure Item Set, gait performance and passive and active dorsiflexion with extended and flexed knee were chosen as outcome parameters. RESULTS: Median active and passive......, these results may indicate that intensive active stretching in an interactive dynamic stander could be an effective new conservative clinical treatment of ankle plantarflexor contracture in children with CP....

  10. Leveling the Playing Field: Assessment of Gross Motor Skills in Low Socioeconomic Children to their Higher Socioeconomic Counterparts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan M. Adkins

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fundamental movements (FM of children influence the willingness to engage in physical activity (PA. Thus, proper FM skills are the foundation for a lifespan of PA. Objective: This study examined what factors may affect children’s PA in relation to FM pattern capabilities. Methods: The study examined the influence of SES when three low-income schools were provided additional PA opportunities on days PE was not taught. FM patterns in relation to object control (OC and locomotor skill (LC development were evaluated on K (n = 871, 1st (n = 893, and 2nd graders (n = 829 using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (TGMD-2 instrument (Ulrich, 2000. Schools were dichotomized and categorized as being low SES (n = 2008 and high SES (n = 578 status. Results: A significant relationship was revealed with LC (r = 0.264; p = 0.001, OC (r = 0.171; p = 0.001, and total TGMD-2 (r = 0.264; p = 0.001. Low and high SES schools significantly improved overall TGMD-2 scores. High SES schools children were significantly higher in LC [F, (2, 1272 = 29.31, p = 0.001], OC [F, (2, 1272 = 23.14, p = 0.001], and total TGMD-2 [F, (1, 1272 = 38.11, p = 0.001]. Conclusion: Low SES schools need to concentrate on PA-based activities to engage students in FM patterns, to help narrow the gap in FM capabilities. In addition, the increase in PA opportunities for lower SES schools could positively impact brain function, cardiovascular fitness, and overall well-being.

  11. Combined treatment using acupuncture and music therapy on children with cerebral palsy Gross motor function measure comparison In 60 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lixiong Wu; Haibo Yu; Yongfeng Liu

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The use of acupuncture has received recognition to effectively treat cerebral palsy. Moreover, music therapy can be used to modify treatment of cerebral palsy. OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of combined treatment using acupuncture and music therapy on gross motor function measure (GMFM) of children with cerebral palsy, compared with acupuncture treatment alone. DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: Randomized, controlled, clinical study. The experiment was conducted in Shenzhen Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine between January 2007 and September 2007. PARTICIPANTS: All children with cerebral palsy in the trial were from the outpatient department of Shenzhen Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine. The children were randomly divided into two groups: 30 children in Group B received acupuncture and music therapy, while 30 children in Group A received only acupuncture therapy. METHODS: Subjects in Groups A and B received acupuncture based on syndrome differentiation. The main acupoints were necessary for all participants. At first, flash needling was applied to the acupoints. For the remaining acupoints, the technique of transverse needling was applied to the head acupoints, and perpendicular needling was used for the other points. The inserted needles were twirled and then maintained for 30 minutes. The needle was twirled for one second every other 10 minutes, without reinforcing-reducing techniques. The therapy was performed every other day. The trial consisted of three periods each, and lasted for 84 days. Subjects in Group B received music therapy. They listened to music that they preferred while acupuncture was being performed. Following acupuncture, they were allowed to perform musical activities, such as percussion, singing, and dancing. The music therapy was scheduled for one hour, including listening to music for 30 minutes and music activities for 30 minutes. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The comprehensive functional evaluation scale of cerebral palsy and

  12. Effect of body-weight suspension training versus treadmill training on gross motor abilities of children with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emara, Hatem A; El-Gohary, Tarek M; Al-Johany, Ahmed A

    2016-06-01

    Suspension training and treadmill training are commonly used for promoting functional gross motor skills in children with cerebral palsy. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of body-weight suspension training versus treadmill training on gross motor functional skills. Assessor-blinded, randomized, controlled intervention study. Outpatient rehabilitation facility. Twenty children with spastic diplegia (7 boys and 13 girls) in the age ranged from 6 to 8 years old were randomly allocated into two equal groups. All children were assessed at baseline, after 18-session and after 36-session. During the twelve-week outpatient rehabilitation program, both groups received traditional therapeutic exercises. Additionally, one group received locomotor training using the treadmill while the other group received locomotor training using body-weight suspension through the dynamic spider cage. Assessment included dimensions "D" standing and "E" walking of the gross motor function measure, in addition to the 10-m Walking Test and the five times sit to stand test. Training was applied three times per week for twelve consecutive weeks. No significant difference was found in standing or walking ability for measurements taken at baseline or after 18-session of therapy. Measurements taken at 36-session showed that suspension training achieved significantly (Ptraining for dimension D as well as for dimension E. No significant difference was found between suspension training and treadmill training regarding walking speed or sit to stand transitional skills. Body-weight suspension training is effective in improving walking and locomotor capabilities in children with spastic diplegia. After three month suspension training was superior to treadmill training. Body-weight suspension training promotes adequate postural stability, good balance control, and less exertion which facilitates efficient and safe gait.

  13. The swimming program effects on the gross motor function, mental adjustment to the aquatic environment, and swimming skills in children with cerebral palsy: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorgić Bojan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to determine the swimming program effects on the gross motor function, mental adjustment to the aquatic environment and the ability to move in the water and swim in children with cerebral palsy. The sample consisted of seven children (4 boys and 3 girls with spastic cerebral palsy and an average age of 9y 5mo ± 1y 3 mo. The swimming program lasted 6 weeks, with two swimming sessions per week. Each session lasted 45 minutes. The swimming program included the application of the Halliwick Method and swimming exercises which are used in a healthy population. The GMFM test was used for the assessment of gross motor functions. The WOTA2 test was applied to assess mental adjustment and swimming skills. The Wilcoxon matched pairs test was used to determine the statistically significant differences between the initial and final measuring. The results have indicated that there was statistically significant differences in the E dimension (p=0.04 and the total score T (p=0.03 of the GMFM test, then for mental adjustment to the aquatic environment WMA (p=0.02, ability to move in water andswimming skills WSW (p=0.03 and the overall result WTO (p=0.02 of the WOTA2 test. The applied swimming program had a statistically significant effect on the improvement in walking, running and jumping as well as the overall gross motor functions of children with cerebral palsy. The applied program also contributed to a statistically significant influence on the increase in mental adjustment to the aquatic environment and the ability to move in water and swim.

  14. Trends in physical activity, health-related fitness, and gross motor skills in children during a two-year comprehensive school physical activity program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusseau, Timothy A; Hannon, James C; Fu, You; Fang, Yi; Nam, Kahyun; Goodrum, Sara; Burns, Ryan D

    2018-01-06

    The purpose of this study was to examine the trends in school-day step counts, health-related fitness, and gross motor skills during a two-year Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program (CSPAP) in children. Longitudinal trend analysis. Participants were a sample of children (N=240; mean age=7.9±1.2 years; 125 girls, 115 boys) enrolled in five low-income schools. Outcome variables consisted of school day step counts, Body Mass Index (BMI), estimated VO 2 Peak , and gross motor skill scores assessed using the Test of Gross Motor Development-3rd Edition (TGMD-3). Measures were collected over a two-year CSPAP including a baseline and several follow-up time-points. Multi-level mixed effects models were employed to examine time trends on each continuous outcome variable. Markov-chain transition models were employed to examine time trends for derived binary variables for school day steps, BMI, and estimated VO 2 Peak . There were statistically significant time coefficients for estimated VO 2 Peak (b=1.10mL/kg/min, 95% C.I. [0.35mL/kg/min-2.53mL/kg/min], p=0.009) and TGMD-3 scores (b=7.8, 95% C.I. [6.2-9.3], p<0.001). There were no significant changes over time for school-day step counts or BMI. Boys had greater change in odds of achieving a step count associating with 30min of school day MVPA (OR=1.25, 95% C.I. [1.02-1.48], p=0.044). A two-year CSPAP related to increases in cardio-respiratory endurance and TGMD-3 scores. School day steps and BMI were primarily stable across the two-year intervention. Copyright © 2018 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of home-based locomotor treadmill training on gross motor function in young children with cerebral palsy: a quasi-randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattern-Baxter, Katrin; McNeil, Stefani; Mansoor, Jim K

    2013-11-01

    To examine the effects of an intensive home-based program of treadmill training on motor skills related to walking in preambulatory children with cerebral palsy (CP). Quasi-randomized controlled trial. Homes of the participants. Children with CP (N=12) with Gross Motor Function Classification System levels I and II were assigned to the intervention group (n=6; mean age ± SD, 21.76±6.50mo) and control group (n=6; 21.25±6.07mo). All children were tested preintervention, postintervention, at a 1-month follow-up, and at a 4-month follow-up. All children received their weekly scheduled physical therapy sessions at their homes. In addition, children in the intervention group walked on a portable treadmill in their homes 6 times per week, twice daily for 10- to 20-minute sessions, for 6 weeks. The intervention was carried out by the children's parents with weekly supervision by a physical therapist. Gross Motor Function Measure-66 Dimensions D/E, Peabody Developmental Motor Scales-2 (PDMS-2), Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI), timed 10-m walk test (10MWT), and Functional Mobility Scale (FMS). The Friedman test and Mann-Whitney U test were conducted for within-group and between-group differences, respectively. There was a significant between-group treatment effect for the PDMS-2 at posttest (P=.01) and 1-month postintervention follow-up (P=.09), as well as for the PEDI at posttest (P=.01), the 1-month postintervention follow-up (P=.009), and the 4-month postintervention follow-up (P=.04). The FMS was significant at the posttest (P=.04). Home-based treadmill training accelerates the attainment of walking skills and decreases the amount of support used for walking in young children with CP. Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Quality electric motor repair: A guidebook for electric utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schueler, V.; Douglass, J.

    1995-08-01

    This guidebook provides utilities with a resource for better understanding and developing their roles in relation to electric motor repair shops and the industrial and commercial utility customers that use them. The guidebook includes information and tools that utilities can use to raise the quality of electric motor repair practices in their service territories.

  17. Vitamin B12 and Folic Acid Improve Gross Motor and Problem-Solving Skills in Young North Indian Children: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvestad, Ingrid; Taneja, Sunita; Kumar, Tivendra; Hysing, Mari; Refsum, Helga; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S; Bhandari, Nita; Strand, Tor A

    2015-01-01

    Deficiencies of vitamin B12 and folate are associated with delayed development and neurological manifestations. The objective of this study was to measure the effect of daily supplementation of vitamin B12 and/or folic acid on development in young North Indian children. In a randomized, double blind trial, children aged six to 30 months, received supplement with placebo or vitamin B12 and/or folic acid for six months. Children were allocated in a 1:1:1:1 ratio in a factorial design and in blocks of 16. We measured development in 422 children by the Ages and Stages Questionnaire 3rd ed. at the end of the intervention. Compared to placebo, children who received both vitamin B12 and folic acid had 0.45 (95% CI 0.19, 0.73) and 0.28 (95% CI 0.02, 0.54) higher SD-units in the domains of gross motor and problem solving functioning, respectively. The effect was highest in susceptible subgroups consisting of stunted children, those with high plasma homocysteine (> 10 μmol/L) or in those who were younger than 24 at end study. With the exception of a significant improvement on gross motor scores by vitamin B12 alone, supplementation of either vitamin alone had no effect on any of the outcomes. Our findings suggest that supplementation of vitamin B12 and folic acid benefit development in North Indian Children. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00717730.

  18. A Field-Based Testing Protocol for Assessing Gross Motor Skills in Preschool Children: The Children's Activity and Movement in Preschool Study Motor Skills Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Harriet G.; Pfeiffer, Karin A.; Dowda, Marsha; Jeter, Chevy; Jones, Shaverra; Pate, Russell R.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a valid and reliable tool for use in assessing motor skills in preschool children in field-based settings. The development of the Children's Activity and Movement in Preschool Study Motor Skills Protocol included evidence of its reliability and validity for use in field-based environments as part of large…

  19. Assessment of gross motor skills and phenotype profile in children 9-11 years of age in survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Mario; Viret, Pierre; Bui, Hung Tien; Laverdière, Caroline; Kalinova, Émilia; Comtois, Alain-Steve

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of a new gross motor skill test battery in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) children who have been off therapy for at least 1 year and to assess its discriminatory power (discriminant analysis) from healthy children. Twenty children (10 males and 10 females) 9-11 years of age (median age = 10.6 years) were assessed by the UQAC-UQAM test battery and then compared to recent provincial norms. This pilot study was also an opportunity to validate this test battery as a reliable tool for clinical or research purposes in the area of chronic or disabling diseases in children. Eleven motor skill variables grouped into five factors have been measured (speed, agility, balance, coordination, and reaction time). Scores from 10 of the 11 motor skill tests showed significant differences when compared to the control group (P ≤ 0.05). Nearly 50% of patients obtained an average score below the 15th percentile. Furthermore, stepwise discriminant analysis allowed classifying successfully 88.4% of children in the correct group (ALL or Control). The normal development of GMS among children affected by ALL appears to have been compromised. The UQAC-UQAM test battery seems to be sensitive enough to quantify with precision the extent of the motor impairment in these children. The UQAC-UQAM test battery appears to be a useful tool to evaluate the extent to which ALL survivors are affected. Early motor intervention should be considered for those patients even during the treatment periods. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Therapeutic Effects of Horseback Riding Therapy on Gross Motor Function in Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalen, Cara N.; Case-Smith, Jane

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This systematic review examined the efficacy of hippotherapy or therapeutic horseback riding (THR) on motor outcomes in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Methods: Databases were searched for clinical trials of hippotherapy or THR for children with CP. Results: Nine articles were included in this review. Although the current level of…

  1. Influence of aquatic physical therapy on gross motor skills in children under 5 years of age with cerebral palsy: Systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Latorre-García

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aquatic environment has been used and is used to perform physiotherapy treatments in different pathologies including cerebral palsy. No method has been proven more effective than the others. Aim: The objective of this article is to carry out a systematic review of the scientific literature on how physical exercise in water affects the gross motor skills and neurodevelopment of children with cerebral palsy. Methods: A systematic search was carried out using the PRISMA model. The search for articles in this review was done in the databases through Scopus and PubMed, as well as in the Web of Science (WOS platform and in official websites of international organizations, such as the World Health Organization (WHO. The review was carried out between the months of June and December of the year 2016. Results: Of the 8 studies that met the inclusion criteria, only two used randomized control trial design and the results were mixed. Most of the studies used quasi-experimental designs and reported improvements in gross motor skills, for group analyzes, after the aquatic programs were maintained from two to three sessions a week and lasted from 6 to 16 weeks. Participants were evaluated and classified according to the different development scales, and were less than 5 years old. Conclusions: Although the different studies have not demonstrated a greater efficacy of aquatic physiotherapy compared to other treatment concepts, neither has been less, so that the exercise in water increases the therapeutic possibilities to which the chronic nature of the Pathology must access the patient throughout his life. Aquatic exercise is feasible and adverse effects are minimal; but the dosage parameters are not clear. However, in order to promote the prescription by physicians of this type of therapy, it is necessary to carry out research studies that demonstrate in a quantitative way the efficacy of the method, with longer and longer samples.

  2. Self-care and mobility skills in children with cerebral palsy, related to their manual ability and gross motor function classifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öhrvall, Ann-Marie; Eliasson, Ann-Christin; Löwing, Kristina; Ödman, Pia; Krumlinde-Sundholm, Lena

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the acquisition of self-care and mobility skills in children with cerebral palsy (CP) in relation to their manual ability and gross motor function. Data from the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI) self-care and mobility functional skill scales, the Manual Ability Classification System (MACS), and the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) were collected from 195 children with CP (73 females, 122 males; mean age 8 y 1 mo; SD 3 y 11 mo; range 3-15 y); 51% had spastic bilateral CP, 36% spastic unilateral CP, 8% dyskinetic CP, and 3% ataxic CP. The percentage of children classified as MACS levels I to V was 28%, 34%, 17%, 7%, and 14% respectively, and classified as GMFCS levels I to V was 46%, 16%, 15%, 11%, and 12% respectively. Children classified as MACS and GMFCS levels I or II scored higher than children in MACS and GMFCS levels III to V on both the self-care and mobility domains of the PEDI, with significant differences between all classification levels (pskills (66%) and that GMFCS was the strongest predictor of mobility skills (76%). A strong correlation between age and self-care ability was found among children classified as MACS level I or II and between age and mobility among children classified as GMFCS level I. Many of these children achieved independence, but at a later age than typically developing children. Children at other MACS and GMFCS levels demonstrated minimal progress with age. Knowledge of a child's MACS and GMFCS level can be useful when discussing expectations of, and goals for, the development of functional skills. © The Authors. Journal compilation © Mac Keith Press 2010.

  3. THEORETICAL BASIS OF MOTOR CAR QUALITY EVALUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Bazhinova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Comprehensive assessment of the quality of cars, which is based on the integral parameters of comfort, reliability, safety, environmental and technical solutions are considered and defined. The amount of parameters that define the quality level of the car use throughout the country is defined. Mathematical formulas and quality indicators of the integral index are developed. The integral quality index of vehicles allows comparing the vehicles of different classes based on external operating conditions. The numerical values of the integral index determines the quality of the car.

  4. Design of a Quality Control Program for the Measurement of Gross Alpha and Gross Beta Activities (LMPR-CIEMAT); Diseno del Control de Calidad de las Medidas de Actividad Alfa-Beta Total (LMPR-CIEMAT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, A.; Yague, L.; Gasco, C.; Navarro, N.; Higueras, E.; Noguerales, C.

    2010-10-21

    In accordance with international standards, general requirements for testing laboratories have to include a quality system for planning, implementing, and assessing the work performed by the organization and for carrying out required quality assurance and quality control. The purpose of internal laboratory quality control is to monitor performance, identify problems, and initiate corrective actions. This report describes the internal quality control to monitor the gross alpha and beta activities determination. Identification of specific performance indicators, the principles that govern their use and statistical means of evaluation are explained. Finally, calculation of alpha and beta specific activities, uncertainties and detection limits are performed. (Author) 10 refs.

  5. Development of Child and Family-Centered Engagement Guidelines for Clinical Administration of the Challenge to Measure Advanced Gross Motor Skills: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Barbara E; Mistry, Bhavnita; Wright, F Virginia

    2017-07-28

    This article describes a qualitative study aimed at producing child-centered guidelines for the administration of a measure of children's advanced gross motor skills, the Challenge. The purpose of the guidelines is to promote collaborative interpretation and application of results. The study was conducted in three Canadian cities and included 31 children with cerebral palsy (GMFCS Level I or II) ages 8 to 18 and one parent/caregiver per child (N = 62 participants). Following Challenge administration, each child and one of their caregivers took part in separate qualitative interviews. Analyses were oriented to exploring understandings of the purposes of testing, impressions of the child's performance, and perceptions of how results might inform activity choices and interventions. Three themes were generated: investments in doing well; I know my child/myself; and caregivers' interpretations of child's performance. Themes were then integrated with principles of child and family-centered care to develop The Challenge Engagement Guidelines directed at reducing test anxiety and enhancing shared decision making. The Guidelines are the first of their kind to integrate child and family-centered principles into the administration protocol of a motor measure. Although developed for the Challenge, the principles have applicability to other rehabilitation measures.

  6. The effects of 12 weeks exercise program on the level of gross motor skill of the children with Atypical autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ersin Arslan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was conducted to determine the effects of the 12- weeks-exercise program on the level of grossmotor skills of children with Atypical Autism. Material and Method: 14 male children, who were diagnosed with Atypical Autism, were recruitted for the study (Mean Age was 10.07±0.25 years, weight 24.97±0.64kg, length was126.79±1.33cm. They were divided into two groups. 1st group was defined as Autistic Exercise Group (AEG, n= 7, 2nd group was defined as Autistic Control Group (ACG, n=7. In this study, the tests related with running speed and fleetness, balance, bilateral coordination and strength of the parameters of Bruininks-Oseretsky Rough Motor Sufficiency Test (BOT2 were applied. Exercise program was applied to the children in exercise group for 12 weeks’ period, 60 minutes each day and three days a week, conducting a teaching technique based on reduction of the clues gradually. Data were analyzed by Paired Sample Wilcoxon test and Mann-Whitney U test was used. The significance level of p 0.05. Besides, no difference was seen at the statistical comparison of the data of pre and final tests for the control group (p>0.05. Conclusion: In conclusion it can be emphasized that exercises, which are done regularly, can have important contributions on the developments of parameters of rough motor skills of children with Atypical Autistism

  7. Fine motor control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gross (large, general) motor control. An example of gross motor control is waving an arm in greeting. Problems ... out the child's developmental age. Children develop fine motor skills over time, by practicing and being taught. To ...

  8. Change in mobility function and its causes in adults with cerebral palsy by Gross Motor Function Classification System level: A cross-sectional questionnaire study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himuro, Nobuaki; Mishima, Reiko; Seshimo, Takashi; Morishima, Toshibumi; Kosaki, Keisuke; Ibe, Shigeharu; Asagai, Yoshimi; Minematsu, Koji; Kurita, Kazuhiro; Okayasu, Tsutomu; Shimura, Tsukasa; Hoshino, Kotaro; Suzuki, Toshiro; Yanagizono, Taiichiro

    2018-04-07

    The prognosis for mobility function by Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) level is vital as a guide to rehabilitation for people with cerebral palsy. This study sought to investigate change in mobility function and its causes in adults with cerebral palsy by GMFCS level. We conducted a cross-sectional questionnaire study. A total of 386 participants (26 y 8 m, SD 5 y 10 m) with cerebral palsy were analyzed. Participant numbers by GMFCS level were: I (53), II (139), III (74) and IV (120). The median age of participants with peak mobility function in GMFCS level III was younger than that in the other levels. 48% had experienced a decline in mobility. A Kaplan-Meier plot showed the risk of mobility decline increased in GMFCS level III; the hazard ratio was 1.97 (95% CI, 1.20-3.23) compared with level I. The frequently reported causes of mobility decline were changes in environment, and illness and injury in GMFCS level III, stiffness and deformity in level IV, and reduced physical activity in level II and III. Peak mobility function and mobility decline occurred at a younger age in GMFCS level III, with the cause of mobility decline differing by GMFCS level.

  9. The Comparison of Neurodevelopmental-Bobath Approach with Occupational Therapy Home Program on Gross Motor Function of Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faranak Behzadi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Traditional Bobath approach (TBA is one of the several methods which is used for the treatment of children with cerebral palsy (CP who are referred to occupational therapy settings. In this study the effect of TBA on the gross motor function (GMF of children with CP was compared with that of the Home Program Bobath approach (HPBA. Methods: Thirty children with CP participated in this study. They were randomly assigned in two groups. Control group received Bobath traditional services for 12 sessions. In the intervention group, along with these services, parents participated in training program and followed the exercises. Scale was used to assess GMF before and after intervention. Results: Participants of this study consisted of 9 girls and 6 boys in traditional group and 10 girls and 5 boys in home-based group. The mean age of homebased group was 19.53±3.35 months and traditional group was 17.20±6.80. GMF increased significantly in both groups. In addition, differences between the two groups were significant (P=0.007. Conclusion: the results of this study showed that TBA with HPBA was more effective than the traditional ones.

  10. Burke-Fahn-Marsden dystonia severity, Gross Motor, Manual Ability, and Communication Function Classification scales in childhood hyperkinetic movement disorders including cerebral palsy: a 'Rosetta Stone' study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elze, Markus C; Gimeno, Hortensia; Tustin, Kylee; Baker, Lesley; Lumsden, Daniel E; Hutton, Jane L; Lin, Jean-Pierre S-M

    2016-02-01

    Hyperkinetic movement disorders (HMDs) can be assessed using impairment-based scales or functional classifications. The Burke-Fahn-Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale-movement (BFM-M) evaluates dystonia impairment, but may not reflect functional ability. The Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS), Manual Ability Classification System (MACS), and Communication Function Classification System (CFCS) are widely used in the literature on cerebral palsy to classify functional ability, but not in childhood movement disorders. We explore the concordance of these three functional scales in a large sample of paediatric HMDs and the impact of dystonia severity on these scales. Children with HMDs (n=161; median age 10y 3mo, range 2y 6mo-21y) were assessed using the BFM-M, GMFCS, MACS, and CFCS from 2007 to 2013. This cross-sectional study contrasts the information provided by these scales. All four scales were strongly associated (all Spearman's rank correlation coefficient rs >0.72, pdisorders including cerebral palsy can be effectively evaluated using these scales. © 2015 Mac Keith Press.

  11. The effect of a Lean quality improvement implementation program on surgical pathology specimen accessioning and gross preparation error frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Maxwell L; Wilkerson, Trent; Grzybicki, Dana M; Raab, Stephen S

    2012-09-01

    Few reports have documented the effectiveness of Lean quality improvement in changing anatomic pathology patient safety. We used Lean methods of education; hoshin kanri goal setting and culture change; kaizen events; observation of work activities, hand-offs, and pathways; A3-problem solving, metric development, and measurement; and frontline work redesign in the accessioning and gross examination areas of an anatomic pathology laboratory. We compared the pre- and post-Lean implementation proportion of near-miss events and changes made in specific work processes. In the implementation phase, we documented 29 individual A3-root cause analyses. The pre- and postimplementation proportions of process- and operator-dependent near-miss events were 5.5 and 1.8 (P < .002) and 0.6 and 0.6, respectively. We conclude that through culture change and implementation of specific work process changes, Lean implementation may improve pathology patient safety.

  12. Associations of vitamin D status, bone health and anthropometry, with gross motor development and performance of school-aged Indian children who were born at term with low birth weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filteau, Suzanne; Rehman, Andrea M; Yousafzai, Aisha; Chugh, Reema; Kaur, Manpreet; Sachdev, H P S; Trilok-Kumar, Geeta

    2016-01-01

    Objectives There is little information regarding motor development of children born at term with low birth weight (LBW), a group that constitutes a large proportion of children in South Asia. We used data from infancy and at school age from a LBW cohort to investigate children's motor performance using causal inference. Design Cross-sectional follow-up study. Setting Delhi, India. Participants We recruited 912 children aged 5 years who had participated in a trial of vitamin D for term LBW infants in the first 6 months of life. Outcome measures We focused on gross motor development, using the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) gross motor scale and several measures of motor performance. We examined the effects on these of current anthropometry, vitamin D status and bone health, controlling for age, sex, season of interview, socioeconomic variables, early growth, recent morbidity, sun exposure and animal food intake. Results In adjusted analyses, stunted children (height-for-age Z (HAZ) squats in 15 s. Poorer vitamin D status was associated with the ability to perform more stands and squats. Lower tibia ultrasound Z score was associated with greater hand grip strength. Early growth and current body mass index had no associations with motor outcomes. Conclusions Current HAZ and arm muscle area showed the strongest associations with gross motor outcomes, likely due to a combination of simple physics and factors associated with stunting. The counterintuitive inverse associations of tibia health and vitamin D status with outcomes may require further research. PMID:26747034

  13. Reliability of the modified Gross Motor Function Measure-88 (GMFM-88) for children with both Spastic Cerebral Palsy and Cerebral Visual Impairment: A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salavati, M; Krijnen, W P; Rameckers, E A A; Looijestijn, P L; Maathuis, C G B; van der Schans, C P; Steenbergen, B

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to adapt the Gross Motor Function Measure-88 (GMFM-88) for children with Cerebral Palsy (CP) and Cerebral Visual Impairment (CVI) and to determine the test-retest and interobserver reliability of the adapted version. Sixteen paediatric physical therapists familiar with CVI participated in the adaptation process. The Delphi method was used to gain consensus among a panel of experts. Seventy-seven children with CP and CVI (44 boys and 33 girls, aged between 50 and 144 months) participated in this study. To assess test-retest and interobserver reliability, the GMFM-88 was administered twice within three weeks (Mean=9 days, SD=6 days) by trained paediatric physical therapists, one of whom was familiar with the child and one who wasn't. Percentages of identical scores, Cronbach's alphas and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were computed for each dimension level. All experts agreed on the proposed adaptations of the GMFM-88 for children with CP and CVI. Test-retest reliability ICCs for dimension scores were between 0.94 and 1.00, mean percentages of identical scores between 29 and 71, and interobserver reliability ICCs of the adapted GMFM-88 were 0.99-1.00 for dimension scores. Mean percentages of identical scores varied between 53 and 91. Test-retest and interobserver reliability of the GMFM-88-CVI for children with CP and CVI was excellent. Internal consistency of dimension scores lay between 0.97 and 1.00. The psychometric properties of the adapted GMFM-88 for children with CP and CVI are reliable and comparable to the original GMFM-88. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Classification of cerebral palsy: association between gender, age, motor type, topography and Gross Motor Function Classificação da paralisia cerebral: associação entre gênero, idade, tipo motor, topografia e Função Motora Grossa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luzia Iara Pfeifer

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to assess the relation between gender, age, motor type, topography and gross motor function, based on the Gross Motor Function System of children with cerebral palsy. Trunk control, postural changes and gait of one hundred children between 5 months and 12 years old, were evaluated. There were no significant differences between gender and age groups (p=0.887 or between gender and motor type (p=0.731. In relation to body topography most children (88% were spastic quadriplegic. Most hemiplegics children were rated in motor level I, children with diplegia were rated in motor level III, and quadriplegic children were rated in motor level V. Functional classification is necessary to understand the differences in cerebral palsy and to have the best therapeutic planning since it is a complex disease which depends on several factors.Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a relação entre gênero, idade, tipo motor, topografia e Função Motora Grossa, baseado no Sistema de Função Motora Grossa em crianças com paralisia cerebral. Participaram desta pesquisa 100 crianças com idade entre 5 meses a 12 anos que foram observadas em relação ao controle de tronco, trocas posturais e marcha. Não houve diferenças significativas entre gêneros e grupos etários (p=0,887 e entre gênero e tipo motor (p=0,731. Em relação à topografia corporal, houve predomínio de crianças com quadriplegia, sendo que a maioria (88% era do tipo espástico. Quanto ao nível motor, as crianças hemiplégicas pertenciam em sua maioria ao nível I, as diplégicas ao nível III e as quadriplégicas ao nível V. Sendo a paralisia cerebral uma condição complexa que depende de diversos fatores, beneficia-se de classificações funcionais para compreensão da diversidade e melhor planejamento terapêutico.

  15. [Stimulation at home and motor development among 36-month-old Mexican children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, Erika; Torres-Sánchez, Luisa; Hernández, María Del Carmen; López-Carrillo, Lizbeth; Schnaas, Lourdes

    2010-01-01

    To identify the relationship between stimulation at home and motor development among 36 month-old children. The development of gross and fine motor skills of 169 infants (50.9% boys and 49.1% girls) was assessed at the age of 36 months with the Peabody Developmental Motor Scale. The quality of home stimulation was determined during a prior evaluation (at 30 months) by means of the HOME Scale. Total stimulation at home was significantly associated with better performance in the gross and fine motor areas. Particular aspects of this home stimulation were related to better gross and fine motor functions. Static balance and locomotion (gross motor skills) and grasping and visual-motor integration (fine motor skills) are associated with particular aspects of home stimulation, such as parent-child interaction, verbal reinforcement of the child's positive actions and providing the child with clear boundaries.

  16. Functional classifications for cerebral palsy: correlations between the gross motor function classification system (GMFCS), the manual ability classification system (MACS) and the communication function classification system (CFCS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compagnone, Eliana; Maniglio, Jlenia; Camposeo, Serena; Vespino, Teresa; Losito, Luciana; De Rinaldis, Marta; Gennaro, Leonarda; Trabacca, Antonio

    2014-11-01

    This study aimed to investigate a possible correlation between the gross motor function classification system-expanded and revised (GMFCS-E&R), the manual abilities classification system (MACS) and the communication function classification system (CFCS) functional levels in children with cerebral palsy (CP) by CP subtype. It was also geared to verify whether there is a correlation between these classification systems and intellectual functioning (IF) and parental socio-economic status (SES). A total of 87 children (47 males and 40 females, age range 4-18 years, mean age 8.9±4.2) were included in the study. A strong correlation was found between the three classifications: Level V of the GMFCS-E&R corresponds to Level V of the MACS (rs=0.67, p=0.001); the same relationship was found for the CFCS and the MACS (rs=0.73, p<0.001) and for the GMFCS-E&R and the CFCS (rs=0.61, p=0.001). The correlations between the IQ and the global functional disability profile were strong or moderate (GMFCS and IQ: rs=0.66, p=0.001; MACS and IQ: rs=0.58, p=0.001; CFCS and MACS: rs=0.65, p=0.001). The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to determine if there were differences between the GMFCS-E&R, the CFCS and the MACS by CP type. CP types showed different scores for the IQ level (Chi-square=8.59, df=2, p=0.014), the GMFCS-E&R (Chi-square=36.46, df=2, p<0.001), the CFCS (Chi-square=12.87, df=2, p=0.002), and the MACS Level (Chi-square=13.96, df=2, p<0.001) but no significant differences emerged for the SES (Chi-square=1.19, df=2, p=0.554). This study shows how the three functional classifications (GMFCS-E&R, CFCS and MACS) complement each other to provide a better description of the functional profile of CP. The systematic evaluation of the IQ can provide useful information about a possible future outcome for every functional level. The SES does not appear to affect functional profiles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Proximal Femoral Varus Derotation Osteotomy in Children with Cerebral Palsy: The Effect of Age, Gross Motor Function Classification System Level, and Surgeon Volume on Surgical Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore, Benjamin J; Zurakowski, David; Dufreny, Chantal; Powell, Dustin; Matheney, Travis H; Snyder, Brian D

    2015-12-16

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate mid-term results of proximal femoral varus derotation osteotomy (VDRO) in children with cerebral palsy and determine what effect age, Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) level, and surgeon volume had on surgical success. We analyzed a cohort of children with cerebral palsy who underwent VDRO for hip displacement at a tertiary-level pediatric hospital between 1994 and 2007. Age, sex, GMFCS level, preoperative radiographic parameters, previous botulinum toxin administration or soft-tissue release, adjunctive pelvic osteotomy, the performance of bilateral surgery at the index VDRO, and surgeon volume (the number of procedures performed) were recorded. Results were analyzed via univariate and multivariate analyses for association with the need for revision hip surgery. Kaplan-Meier survivorship curves were generated, determining the time from index surgery to failure (defined as the need for subsequent surgical procedures on the hip and/or pelvis, or a hip migration percentage of >50% at the time of final follow-up), and were further stratified according to osseous versus soft-tissue revision. A total of 567 VDROs were performed in 320 children (mean age [and standard deviation], 8.2 ± 3.8 years). The mean follow-up was 8.3 years (range, three to eighteen years). Of the initial 320 patients, 117 (37%) were considered to have had failure. Multivariate Cox regression analysis confirmed that younger age at surgery (p < 0.001), increased GMFCS level (p = 0.01), and lower annual surgical hip volume (p = 0.02) were significant independent predictors of any type of surgical revision. Furthermore, soft-tissue release at VDRO was protective against revision (p = 0.02). Five-year survivorship analysis revealed a 92% success rate for children classified as GMFCS levels I and II compared with a 76% success rate for those of GMFCS level V (p < 0.01). This study demonstrated a 37% failure rate after VDRO in children with

  18. Association between spasticity and the level of motor function with quality of life in community dwelling Iranian young adults with spastic cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Salehi Dehno

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available  Abstract Background: Consequences of cerebral palsy in adulthood can affect physical, psychological capabilities and quality of life. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between quality of life with spasticity and level of motor function in Iranian young adults with spastic cerebral palsy who were community dweller. Methods: In an analytical cross sectional study, 77 participants with spastic cerebral palsy (44 women، 33 men with age range of 20 to 40 years; (mean age 26.19±5 yr took part in this study. They were enrolled from three Raad Rehabilitation Goodwill complexes in Tehran and Karaj cities. All subjects were recruited through convenient sampling. Severity of Spasticity for knee flexors was measured with Modified Tardieu Scale. In addition, the level of motor function, and quality of life were assessed respectively through Gross Motor Function Classification System and World Health Organization Quality of life questionnaire (WHOQOL- BREF. To analyze data, Pearson and spearman correlation coefficient was used. Results: No correlation found between quality of life with knee flexor muscles spasticity and level of motor function (p> 0.05. Conclusion: Quality of life as a multi dimensional concept has been impacted by many factors such as physical status, environmental issues and culture. Possibly, severity of spasticity and level of function have a less pronounced effect on quality of life in community dwelling adults with cerebral palsy. 

  19. Quality of Life, Motor Ability, and Weight Status among School-aged Children of Tehran

    OpenAIRE

    Khodaverdi, F; Bahram, A; Jafarabadi, M Asghari

    2012-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between health Related quality of life (HRQOL), motor ability and weight status in children. Methods: Two hundred forty children ages 9–11 yr who were selected via multi stage cluster sampling design from primary schools in the Shahre Qods at Tehran, Iran in 2007. HRQOL was assessed by the pediatric quality of life inventory (PedsQL). Motor abilities were determined by a Basic Motor Ability Test (BMAT). Body mass index was calculate...

  20. Avaliação da motricidade ampla e fina na Síndrome de Williams: relato de caso Findings of the gross and fine motor in the Syndrome William Case: case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Melo Almeida

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivo analisar os achados da motricidade ampla e fina de uma criança de 8 anos de idade portador da Síndrome de Williams. Foram coletados dados biológicos da criança e da mãe durante a gestação e história pré, peri e pós-natal da criança e suas condições clínicas. O desenvolvimento motor amplo e fino foi avaliado pelo Inventário Portage Operacionalizado. Os resultados demonstraram que a criança revelou maior dificuldade na motricidade fina em relação à ampla, apresentando dificuldades na escrita, em manipular objetos que necessite fazer movimento de pronação e supinação e dificuldade no movimento de pinça.This study aimed to analyze the findings of motor and fine of an 8 years old holder of Williams Syndrome. Data were collected biological child and mother during pregnancy and history of pre, peri and postnatal child and their clinical conditions. The development and fine motor function was assessed by Portage Guide. The results showed that children showed greater difficulty with fine motor skills in relation to gross skills, having difficulty in writing, to manipulate objects that need to make movement of pronation and supination and difficulty in of the pincer movement.

  1. Water quality - Measurement of gross alpha activity in non-saline water - Thick source method. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This International Standard specifies a method for the determination of gross alpha activity in non-saline waters for alpha-emitting radionuclides which are not volatile at 350 degree Centigrade. It is possible to determine supported volatile radionuclides measured to an extent determined by half-life, matrix retention (of the volatile species) and the duration of measurement (counting time). The method is applicable to raw and potable waters. The range of application depends on the amount of suspended matter in the water and on the performance characteristics (background count rate and counting efficiency) of the counter. Gross alpha radioactivity is determined by using proportional counting or solid scintillation counting on water residue deposited on a planchet. Due to the strong absorption of the residue deposit, it is considered that the alpha emission from the surface is proportional to the alpha activity of the deposit. Gross alpha determination is not an absolute determination of the sample alpha radioactive content, but a relative determination referring to a specific alpha emitter which constitutes the standard calibration source. This type of determination is also known as alpha index. The sample is acidified to stabilize it, evaporated almost to dryness, converted to the sulfate form and then ignited at 350 degree Centigrade. A portion of the residue is transferred to a planchet and the alpha activity measured by counting in an alpha-particle detector or counting system previously calibrated against an alpha-emitting standard and the alpha activity concentration calculated. The paper provides information about scope, normative references, symbols, definitions and units, principle, reagents and equipment, procedure, contamination check, expression of results and test report

  2. Multiple roads lead to Rome: combined high-intensity aerobic and strength training vs. gross motor activities leads to equivalent improvement in executive functions in a cohort of healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, Nicolas; Bherer, Louis; Nadeau, Sylvie; Lauzière, Séléna; Lehr, Lora; Bobeuf, Florian; Lussier, Maxime; Kergoat, Marie Jeanne; Vu, Thien Tuong Minh; Bosquet, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    The effects of physical activity on cognition in older adults have been extensively investigated in the last decade. Different interventions such as aerobic, strength, and gross motor training programs have resulted in improvements in cognitive functions. However, the mechanisms underlying the relationship between physical activity and cognition are still poorly understood. Recently, it was shown that acute bouts of exercise resulted in reduced executive control at higher relative exercise intensities. Considering that aging is characterized by a reduction in potential energy ([Formula: see text] max - energy cost of walking), which leads to higher relative walking intensity for the same absolute speed, it could be argued that any intervention aimed at reducing the relative intensity of the locomotive task would improve executive control while walking. The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of a short-term (8 weeks) high-intensity strength and aerobic training program on executive functions (single and dual task) in a cohort of healthy older adults. Fifty-one participants were included and 47 (age, 70.7 ± 5.6) completed the study which compared the effects of three interventions: lower body strength + aerobic training (LBS-A), upper body strength + aerobic training (UBS-A), and gross motor activities (GMA). Training sessions were held 3 times every week. Both physical fitness (aerobic, neuromuscular, and body composition) and cognitive functions (RNG) during a dual task were assessed before and after the intervention. Even though the LBS-A and UBS-A interventions increased potential energy to a higher level (Effect size: LBS-A-moderate, UBS-A-small, GMA-trivial), all groups showed equivalent improvement in cognitive function, with inhibition being more sensitive to the intervention. These findings suggest that different exercise programs targeting physical fitness and/or gross motor skills may lead to equivalent improvement in

  3. Desempenho motor grosso e sua associação com fatores neonatais, familiares e de exposição à creche em crianças até três anos de idade Gross motor performance and its association with neonatal and familial factors and day care exposure among children up to three years old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DCC Santos

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar o desempenho motor grosso e sua associação com fatores neonatais, familiares e de exposição à creche em crianças com até três anos de idade, frequentadoras de creches públicas. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal no qual foram avaliadas 145 crianças (58 com idade entre 6-11 meses, 54 entre 12-23 meses e 33 entre 24-38 meses frequentadoras de seis creches públicas de Piracicaba (SP. O teste Peabody Developmental Motor Scale-2 foi utilizado para avaliação do desempenho motor grosso global e subtestes motores que compõem a escala (Reflexos, Habilidades Estacionárias, Habilidades de Locomoção e Manipulação de Objetos. Foram coletados dados neonatais, familiares e de exposição à creche e pesquisada a associação desses ao desempenho motor suspeito de atraso. RESULTADOS:A prevalência de suspeita de atraso no desempenho motor grosso foi de 17%, com desvantagens em crianças menores de 24 meses e em Habilidades de Locomoção; encontrada associação de risco de desempenho motor grosso suspeito de atraso e renda familiar, e suspeita de atraso em Habilidades de Locomoção e escolaridade paterna. Crianças cujas famílias tinham renda mensal até R$700,00 estavam 2,81 vezes mais expostas a apresentar desempenho motor grosso suspeito de atraso. Crianças cujos pais tinham até oito anos de escolaridade apresentaram risco 4,63 vezes maior de atraso em Habilidades de Locomoção. Não foi encontrada associação de risco com as demais variáveis. CONCLUSÃO:Os resultados apontam maior atenção ao desenvolvimento motor durante os primeiros 24 meses de crianças que frequentam creches, especialmente as inseridas em famílias com menor renda mensal e cujos pais têm menos escolaridade.OBJECTIVE: To analyze gross motor performance and its association with neonatal and familial factors and day care exposure among children up to three years of age attending public day care centers. METHODS:This was a cross-sectional study that

  4. California; Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District; VOCs from Motor Vehicle Assembly Coating Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is proposing to approve a revision to the Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District portion of the California SIP concerning emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from motor vehicle assembly coating operations.

  5. Quality of Life, Motor Ability, and Weight Status Among School-aged Children of Tehran

    OpenAIRE

    M Asghari Jafarabadi; A Bahram; F Khodaverdi

    2012-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between health Related quality of life (HRQOL), motor ability and weight status in children.Methods:Two hundred forty children ages 9-11 yr who were selected via multi stage cluster sampling design from primary schools in the Shahre Qods at Tehran,Iran in 2007. HRQOL was assessed by the pediatric quality of life inventory (PedsQL).Motor abilities were determined by a Basic Motor Ability Test (BMAT).Body mass index was calculated to ...

  6. Quality of Life, Motor Ability, and Weight Status among School-aged Children of Tehran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodaverdi, F; Bahram, A; Jafarabadi, M Asghari

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the relationship between health Related quality of life (HRQOL), motor ability and weight status in children. Two hundred forty children ages 9-11 yr who were selected via multi stage cluster sampling design from primary schools in the Shahre Qods at Tehran, Iran in 2007. HRQOL was assessed by the pediatric quality of life inventory (PedsQL). Motor abilities were determined by a Basic Motor Ability Test (BMAT). Body mass index was calculated to determine weight status. Psychosocial, physical, and total health related qualities of life (all PBMAT variables and weight status. Regardless of motor ability levels, reducing body weight among children is a potential avenue for promoting improved HRQOL. Over weight boys reported significantly worse school performance than over weight girls, suggesting the importance in considering such dimensions in programs aimed at further understanding obesity in children.

  7. Effect of power quality on windings temperature of marine induction motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gnacinski, P. [Gdynia Maritime University, Department of Ship Electrical Power Engineering, Morska Str. 83, 81-225 Gdynia (Poland)], E-mail: piotrg@am.gdynia.pl

    2009-10-15

    Marine induction machines are exposed to various power quality disturbances appearing simultaneously in ship power systems: frequency and voltage rms value deviation, voltage unbalance and voltage waveform distortions. As a result, marine induction motors can be seriously overheated due to lowered supply voltage quality. Improvement of the protection of marine induction machines requires an appropriate method of power quality assessment and modification of the power quality regulations of ship classification societies. This paper presents an analytical model of an induction cage machine supplied with voltage of lowered quality, used in part II of the work (effect of power quality on windings temperature of marine induction motors. Part II. Results of investigations and recommendations for related regulations) for power quality assessment in ship power systems, and for justification of the new power quality regulations proposal. The presented model is suitable for implementation in an on-line measurement system.

  8. Effect of power quality on windings temperature of marine induction motors. Part I: Machine model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gnacinski, P. [Gdynia Maritime Univ., Dept. of Ship Electrical Power Engineering, Morska Str. 83, 81-225 Gdynia (Poland)

    2009-10-15

    Marine induction machines are exposed to various power quality disturbances appearing simultaneously in ship power systems: frequency and voltage rms value deviation, voltage unbalance and voltage waveform distortions. As a result, marine induction motors can be seriously overheated due to lowered supply voltage quality. Improvement of the protection of marine induction machines requires an appropriate method of power quality assessment and modification of the power quality regulations of ship classification societies. This paper presents an analytical model of an induction cage machine supplied with voltage of lowered quality, used in part II of the work (effect of power quality on windings temperature of marine induction motors. Part II. Results of investigations and recommendations for related regulations) for power quality assessment in ship power systems, and for justification of the new power quality regulations proposal. The presented model is suitable for implementation in an on-line measurement system. (author)

  9. NM Gross Receipts Baseline

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  10. Nocturnal motor activity in fibromyalgia patients with poor sleep quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyyppä, M T; Kronholm, E

    1995-01-01

    Nocturnal motor activity was examined in long-term rehabilitation patients complaining of poor sleep and having fibromyalgia syndrome (N = 24) or other musculoskeletal disorders (N = 60) and compared with that in 91 healthy controls drawn from a random community sample. Self-reports on sleep complaints and habits were collected. The frequency of nocturnal body movements, the "apnoea" index and ratio of "quiet sleep" to total time in bed were measured using the Static Charge Sensitive Bed (SCSB) (BioMatt). As a group, patients with fibromyalgia syndrome did not differ from patients with other musculoskeletal disorders or from healthy controls in their nocturnal motor activity. The "apnoea" index was a little higher in the fibromyalgia group than in the healthy control group but did not differ from that of the group of other musculoskeletal patients. Further multivariate analyses adjusted for age, BMI, medication and "apnoea" index did not support the assumption that an increased nocturnal motor activity characterizes patients with fibromyalgia syndrome.

  11. Gross National Happiness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giri, Krishna Prasad; Kjær-Rasmussen, Lone Krogh

    This paper investigates practices related to the ideology of infusing Gross National Happiness (GNH) into school curriculum, the effectiveness of the meditation and mind training and the implication of GNH for school environment. It also explores how GNH ambience has been managed and practiced...... of Gross National Happiness and Educating for Gross National happiness....

  12. The relationship of gross upper and lower limb motor competence to measures of health and fitness in adolescents aged 13-14 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weedon, Benjamin David; Liu, Francesca; Mahmoud, Wala; Metz, Renske; Beunder, Kyle; Delextrat, Anne; Morris, Martyn G; Esser, Patrick; Collett, Johnny; Meaney, Andy; Howells, Ken; Dawes, Helen

    2018-01-01

    Motor competence (MC) is an important factor in the development of health and fitness in adolescence. This cross-sectional study aims to explore the distribution of MC across school students aged 13-14 years old and the extent of the relationship of MC to measures of health and fitness across genders. A total of 718 participants were tested from three different schools in the UK, 311 girls and 407 boys (aged 13-14 years), pairwise deletion for correlation variables reduced this to 555 (245 girls, 310 boys). Assessments consisted of body mass index, aerobic capacity, anaerobic power, and upper limb and lower limb MC. The distribution of MC and the strength of the relationships between MC and health/fitness measures were explored. Girls performed lower for MC and health/fitness measures compared with boys. Both measures of MC showed a normal distribution and a significant linear relationship of MC to all health and fitness measures for boys, girls and combined genders. A stronger relationship was reported for upper limb MC and aerobic capacity when compared with lower limb MC and aerobic capacity in boys (t=-2.21, degrees of freedom=307, P=0.03, 95% CI -0.253 to -0.011). Normally distributed measures of upper and lower limb MC are linearly related to health and fitness measures in adolescents in a UK sample. NCT02517333.

  13. The relationship of gross upper and lower limb motor competence to measures of health and fitness in adolescents aged 13–14 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Francesca; Mahmoud, Wala; Metz, Renske; Beunder, Kyle; Delextrat, Anne; Morris, Martyn G; Esser, Patrick; Collett, Johnny; Meaney, Andy; Howells, Ken; Dawes, Helen

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Motor competence (MC) is an important factor in the development of health and fitness in adolescence. Aims This cross-sectional study aims to explore the distribution of MC across school students aged 13–14 years old and the extent of the relationship of MC to measures of health and fitness across genders. Methods A total of 718 participants were tested from three different schools in the UK, 311 girls and 407 boys (aged 13–14 years), pairwise deletion for correlation variables reduced this to 555 (245 girls, 310 boys). Assessments consisted of body mass index, aerobic capacity, anaerobic power, and upper limb and lower limb MC. The distribution of MC and the strength of the relationships between MC and health/fitness measures were explored. Results Girls performed lower for MC and health/fitness measures compared with boys. Both measures of MC showed a normal distribution and a significant linear relationship of MC to all health and fitness measures for boys, girls and combined genders. A stronger relationship was reported for upper limb MC and aerobic capacity when compared with lower limb MC and aerobic capacity in boys (t=−2.21, degrees of freedom=307, P=0.03, 95% CI −0.253 to –0.011). Conclusion Normally distributed measures of upper and lower limb MC are linearly related to health and fitness measures in adolescents in a UK sample. Trial registration number NCT02517333. PMID:29629179

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF MOTOR QUALITIES ADOLESCENTS IN IMPROVING COMPLEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullahat Rashidovich Mamaev

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study the actualization of the problem of improvement of children and adolescents in the wellness center, which consists in urgent need of modernization sports and recreation activities with adolescents 13-14 years in terms of stay in the health complex. The paper presents the survey of adolescents Romodanovskaya secondary school number 3 of the Republic of Mordovia. Identified motor abilities using tests of physical fitness. Application of the results will increase the efficiency of the process of physical education, positive impact on the formation of personality traits of adolescents and strengthen the health effect of physical exercise.

  15. Longitudinal motor development of "apparently normal" high-risk infants at 18 months, 3 and 5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyen, Traci Anne; Lui, Kei

    2002-12-01

    Motor development appears to be more affected by premature birth than other developmental domains, however few studies have specifically investigated the development of gross and fine motor skills in this population. To examine longitudinal motor development in a group of "apparently normal" high-risk infants. Developmental follow-up clinic in a perinatal centre. Longitudinal observational cohort study. Fifty-eight infants born less than 29 weeks gestation and/or 1000 g and without disabilities detected at 12 months. Longitudinal gross and fine motor skills at 18 months, 3 and 5 years using the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales. The HOME scale provided information of the home environment as a stimulus for development. A large proportion (54% at 18 months, 47% at 3 years and 64% at 5 years) of children continued to have fine motor deficits from 18 months to 5 years. The proportion of infants with gross motor deficits significantly increased over this period (14%, 33% and 81%, pmotor development was positively influenced by the quality of the home environment. A large proportion of high-risk infants continued to have fine motor deficits, reflecting an underlying problem with fine motor skills. The proportion of infants with gross motor deficits significantly increased, as test demands became more challenging. In addition, the development of gross and fine motor skills appears to be influenced differently by the home environment.

  16. Investigating impact of motor oil quality on vehicles engine induced noise level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Arefian

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Vehicle engine id one of the main sources of noise which its level is influenced by various parameters. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of motor oils quality before and after oil change on the variability of vehicle engine induced noise level. In this study it is tried to follow-up the efficacy of motor oil quality on engines sound level. Material and Method: First, engine noise of 94 vehicles were recorded for 30 seconds before and after oil change and all the vehicles technical information including mileage, type of motor oil, and type of vehicle were registered. Following, the recorded noises were calibrated in semi-anechoic chamber and the sound pressure levels were measured with A and C-weighting network and main octav bands, using a sound level meters. The obtained results analyzed using SPSS software version 17. Results: The effects of motor oil quality on different noise levels of engines were determined and a significant reduction in noise level of vehicles engine was observed. Investigation of the relationship between mileage and motor oil quality on various engines sound level manifested that vehicles with mileage ranged 100000-150000 miles had significant reduction in their sound pressure levels in comparison with other vehicles. Conclusion: The results revealed that engine oil is among factors reducing the vehicle engine induced noise level. Moreover, the engine oil type and the vehicle mileage are key variables which determine the impact of engine oil quality on reduction of the sound level of vehicles engine.

  17. Preoperative motor deficit in lumbar disc herniation and its influence on quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asdrubal Falavigna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Evaluate the impact of motor deficit (MD on pain, disability, depression and quality of life measures of patients with LDH prior to a specific treatment. Methods: A total of 254 consecutively enrolled patients with LDH associated to neurological impairment and sciatica who have not responded to conservative treatment were evaluated. After reviewing the exclusion criteria, 168 were included. Validated instruments were used in the preoperative period to evaluate: pain, disability, quality of life, anxiety and depression. Results: Normal motor strength was observed in 57 (33.9% patients and MD was observed in 111 (66.1% cases. No statistically significant differences were observed between patients with and without MD regarding gender, age, level of herniation, lateralization and workers' compensation. Regarding quality of life, no difference was detected in the eight domains of SF36 and between the PCS and MCS groups. The only difference observed was a higher disability rate in the MD group, with the mean ODI difference being 7.84 (CI 95%: 1.82â€"13.87; p=0.011. Motor weakness was observed in 35.1% (n=39/111 of patients who had abnormal results at the motor evaluation, being related to severity (X²: 46.058; p<0.0001. Conclusion: In patients with LDH without prior specific treatment, the presence of MD did not modify the pain, disability, depression measures and self-reported quality of life. The MD has no discriminative power for measures of quality of life in patients with LDH.

  18. Gross Sales Tax Collections

    Data.gov (United States)

    City of Jackson, Mississippi — This data is captured directly from the MS Department of Revenue and specific to the City of Jackson. It is compiled from Gross Sales Tax reported by taxpayers each...

  19. Loovkirjutamist õpetab Philip Gross

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    T.S. Elioti luulepreemia laureaat Philip Gross on Tallinna Ülikooli talvekooli rahvusvahelise kursuse "Poetry: A Conversation between Words and Silence" läbiviija. Oma seminarides keskendub ta lisaks loovkirjutamisele ka loova lugemise vajadusele

  20. Correlation between the Quality of Attention and Cognitive Competence with Motor Action in Stroke Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Arsic, S.; Konstantinovic, Lj.; Eminovic, F.; Pavlovic, D.; Popovic, M. B.; Arsic, V.

    2015-01-01

    It is considered that cognitive function and attention could affect walking, motion control, and proper conduct during the walk. To determine whether there is a difference in the quality of attention and cognitive ability in stroke patients and patients without neurological damage of similar age and education and to determine whether the connection of attention and cognition affects motor skills, the sample consisted of 50 stroke patients tested with hemiparesis, involved in the process of re...

  1. Total Quality Management and Business Excellence: The Best Practices at Toyota Motor Corporation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin-George Toma

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Today’s rough competition at a global level in all spheres of activity imposes companies worldwide to make sustained efforts in order to improve their products, services and processes. The automotive industry has always provided valuable examples of companies that achieved business excellence by putting quality at the core of their production system such as Toyota Motor Corporation. It has continuously designed, implemented and developed the Toyota Production System that influenced the emergence of the business excellence models. The paper aims to highlight the relationship between the concepts of total quality management and business excellence, and to identify and analyze the best practices related to them at Toyota Motor Corporation, a leader of automotive industry. The information obtained through the direct and personal observation method and from multiple secondary sources of data was collected, processed and analyzed in order to achieve the objectives of the paper. The main results show that the best practices of Toyota Motor Corporation related to total quality management and business excellence derive from the Toyota Production System and these practices are to be found in the attributes of business excellence.

  2. Motor and non-motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease and their impact on quality of life and on different clinical subgroups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berganzo, K; Tijero, B; González-Eizaguirre, A; Somme, J; Lezcano, E; Gabilondo, I; Fernandez, M; Zarranz, J J; Gómez-Esteban, J C

    The aim of the present study is to analyse the influence that motor and non-motor symptoms have on the quality of life (QoL) of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), and to study the relationship between the two types of symptoms. This cross-sectional study included 103 patients with PD (55 men and 48 women). Quality of life was measured on the PDQ-39 scale. The UPDRS scale (I-IV) was also used, and different items were grouped to analyse the presence of tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia, and axial symptoms. The non-motor symptoms scale (NMSS) was administered to assess non-motor symptoms. We performed correlation analyses between different scales to analyse the influence of motor and non-motor symptoms on QoL. Correlations were observed between the PDQ-39 summary index (PDQ39_SI) and the NMSS (correlation coefficient [cc], 0.56; pde Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Impacts of dance on non-motor symptoms, participation, and quality of life in Parkinson disease and healthy older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeely, ME; Duncan, RP; Earhart, GM

    2015-01-01

    Evidence indicates exercise is beneficial for motor and non-motor function in older adults and people with chronic diseases including Parkinson disease (PD). Dance may be a relevant form of exercise in PD and older adults due to social factors and accessibility. People with PD experience motor and non-motor symptoms, but treatments, interventions, and assessments often focus more on motor symptoms. Similar non-motor symptoms also occur in older adults. While it is well-known that dance may improve motor outcomes, it is less clear how dance affects non-motor symptoms. This review aims to describe the effects of dance interventions on non-motor symptoms in older adults and PD, highlights limitations of the literature, and identifies opportunities for future research. Overall, intervention parameters, study designs, and outcome measures differ widely, limiting comparisons across studies. Results are mixed in both populations, but evidence supports the potential for dance to improve mood, cognition, and quality of life in PD and healthy older adults. Participation and non-motor symptoms like sleep disturbances, pain, and fatigue have not been measured in older adults. Additional well-designed studies comparing dance and exercise interventions are needed to clarify the effects of dance on non-motor function and establish recommendations for these populations. PMID:26318265

  4. Severe fatigue and reduced quality of life in children with hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy 1A

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jagersma, Elbrich; Jeukens-Visser, Martine; van Paassen, Barbara W.; Meester-Delver, Anke; Nollet, Frans

    2013-01-01

    Severe fatigue and low quality of life are reported by a majority of adult patients with hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy 1A. In children with hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy 1A, the prevalence and impact of fatigue have not been studied yet. In this questionnaire survey, 55 Dutch

  5. Promoting physical activity, healthy eating and gross motor skills development among preschoolers attending childcare centers: Process evaluation of the Healthy Start-Départ Santé intervention using the RE-AIM framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Stéphanie; Chow, Amanda Froehlich; Humbert, M Louise; Bélanger, Mathieu; Muhajarine, Nazeem; Vatanparast, Hassan; Leis, Anne

    2018-06-01

    The Healthy Start-Départ Santé intervention was developed to promote physical activity, gross motor skills and healthy eating among preschoolers attending childcare centers. This process evaluation aimed to report the reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation and maintenance of the Healthy Start-Départ Santé intervention. The RE-AIM framework was used to guide this process evaluation. Data were collected across 140 childcare centers who received the Healthy Start-Départ Santé intervention in the provinces of Saskatchewan and New Brunswick, Canada. Quantitative data were collected through director questionnaires at 10 months and 2 years after the initial training and analyzed using descriptive statistics. Qualitative data were collected throughout the intervention. The intervention was successful in reaching a large number of childcare centres and engaging both rural and urban communities across Saskatchewan and New Brunswick. Centres reported increasing opportunities for physical activity and healthy eating, which were generally low-cost, easy and quick to implement. However, these changes were rarely transformed into formal written policies. A total of 87% of centers reported using the physical activity resource and 68% using the nutrition resource on a weekly basis. Implementation fidelity of the initial training was high. Of those centers who received the initial training, 75% participated in the mid-point booster session training. Two year post-implementation questionnaires indicated that 47% of centers were still using the Active Play Equipment kit, while 42% were still using the physical activity resource and 37% were still using the nutrition resource. Key challenges to implementation and sustainability identified during the evaluation were consistent among all of the REAIM elements. These challenges included lack of time, lack of support from childcare staff and low parental engagement. Findings from this study suggest the implementation of

  6. Final Approval of California Air Plan Revision; Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District; VOCs From Motor Vehicle Assembly Coating Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is taking final action to approve a revision to the Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District (AVAQMD) portion of the California SIP concerning the emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from motor vehicle assembly coating operations.

  7. 26 CFR 41.4482(b)-1 - Definition of taxable gross weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Motor Vehicles § 41.4482(b)-1 Definition of taxable gross weight. (a) Actual unloaded weight—(1) In... general. The taxable gross weight of a highway motor vehicle is the sum of the actual unloaded weight of the vehicle fully equipped for service, the actual unloaded weight of any semitrailers or trailers...

  8. Correlation between the Quality of Attention and Cognitive Competence with Motor Action in Stroke Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Arsic

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It is considered that cognitive function and attention could affect walking, motion control, and proper conduct during the walk. To determine whether there is a difference in the quality of attention and cognitive ability in stroke patients and patients without neurological damage of similar age and education and to determine whether the connection of attention and cognition affects motor skills, the sample consisted of 50 stroke patients tested with hemiparesis, involved in the process of rehabilitation, and 50 persons, randomly chosen, without neurological damage. The survey used the following tests: Trail Making (TMT A B test for assessing the flexibility of attention; Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE for cognitive status; Functional Ambulation Category (FAC test to assess the functional status and parameters of walk: speed, frequency, and length of stride; STEP test for assessing the precision of movement and balance. With stroke patients, relationship between age and performance on the MMSE test was marginally significant. The ratio of performance to TMT A B test and years does not indicate statistical significance, while statistical significance between the MMSE test performance and education exists. In stroke patients, performance on MMSE test is correlated with the frequency and length of stride walk. The quality of cognitive function and attention is associated with motor skills but differs in stroke patients and people without neurological damage of similar age. The significance of this correlation can supplement research in neurorehabilitation, improve the quality of medical rehabilitation, and contribute to efficient recovery of these patients.

  9. Correlation between the Quality of Attention and Cognitive Competence with Motor Action in Stroke Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsic, S; Konstantinovic, Lj; Eminovic, F; Pavlovic, D; Popovic, M B; Arsic, V

    2015-01-01

    It is considered that cognitive function and attention could affect walking, motion control, and proper conduct during the walk. To determine whether there is a difference in the quality of attention and cognitive ability in stroke patients and patients without neurological damage of similar age and education and to determine whether the connection of attention and cognition affects motor skills, the sample consisted of 50 stroke patients tested with hemiparesis, involved in the process of rehabilitation, and 50 persons, randomly chosen, without neurological damage. The survey used the following tests: Trail Making (TMT A B) test for assessing the flexibility of attention; Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) for cognitive status; Functional Ambulation Category (FAC) test to assess the functional status and parameters of walk: speed, frequency, and length of stride; STEP test for assessing the precision of movement and balance. With stroke patients, relationship between age and performance on the MMSE test was marginally significant. The ratio of performance to TMT A B test and years does not indicate statistical significance, while statistical significance between the MMSE test performance and education exists. In stroke patients, performance on MMSE test is correlated with the frequency and length of stride walk. The quality of cognitive function and attention is associated with motor skills but differs in stroke patients and people without neurological damage of similar age. The significance of this correlation can supplement research in neurorehabilitation, improve the quality of medical rehabilitation, and contribute to efficient recovery of these patients.

  10. Relação entre índice de massa corporal e habilidade motora grossa em crianças de quatro a seis anos Relationship between body mass index and gross motor skill in four to six year-old children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Zandonadi Catenassi

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve por objetivo verificar a relação entre o desempenho em tarefas de habilidade motora grossa com o índice de massa corporal (IMC em meninos e meninas de quatro a seis anos de idade. Para tanto, foram analisadas 27 crianças, sendo 16 meninos e 11 meninas, com idade média de 5,64 ± 0,67 anos. As crianças foram submetidas ao Test of Gross Motor Development - Second Edition (TGMD-2, proposto por Ulrich (2000 e ao Körperkoordinations-test für Kinder (KTK, proposto por Kiphard e Schilling (1974. A pontuação obtida nos dois testes foi reduzida a uma escala comum a ambos. Foi verificada a correlação entre essa escala e o IMC das crianças por meio do teste de correlação de Spearman, com P This study had to aim to verify the relationship between performance in gross motor skill tasks and body mass index (BMI in four to six year-old boys and girls. 27 children were analyzed, 16 boys and 11 girls, mean age of 5.64 ± 0.67 years. The children were submitted to the Test of Gross Motor Development-Second Edition (TGMD-2, proposed by Ulrich (2000 and to the Körperkoordinations-test für Kinder (KTK, proposed by Kiphard and Schilling (1974. The punctuation obtained in the two tests was reduced to a scale common to both. The correlation between this scale and the BMI of the children was verified through the Spearman correlation test, with P < 0.05. No significant interaction was observed among variables when boys and girls were analyzed or when the analysis was conducted with gender distinction. Moreover, no interaction between the BMI and tasks which required higher demand of physical capacities was observed, which should be verified in further studies. It was possible to conclude from our results, that the performance of four to six year-old children in tasks which involved gross motor skill did not relate with BMI.

  11. Non-motor symptoms and the quality of life in multiple system atrophy with different subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, LingYu; Cao, Bei; Ou, RuWei; Wei, Qian-Qian; Zhao, Bi; Yang, Jing; Wu, Ying; Shang, HuiFang

    2017-02-01

    The differences in non-motor symptoms (NMS) and quality of life (QOL) between MSA patients with different subtypes remain unknown, so do the determinants of poor QOL in both subtypes. A total of 172 MSA patients were enrolled in the study. NMS of patients with MSA were assessed using the non-motor symptoms scale (NMSS) and Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire-39 item version (PDQ-39) was used to evaluate the QOL of patients with MSA. The most prevalent NMS domain was urinary (91.3%) in both subtypes. The mood/apathy domain was more severe in MSA-P than MSA-C patients (P sleep/fatigue symptoms and gastrointestinal symptoms were determinants of poor QOL in MSA-P patients. While in MSA-C patients, longer disease duration, disease severity and mood/apathy symptoms were determinants of poor QOL. NMS are more severe and prevalent in MSA-P patients, especially for mood/apathy and gastrointestinal symptoms. There is a close relationship between NMS and QOL in both MSA subtypes. Disease severity, longer disease duration and severe NMS are determinants of poor QOL in MSA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Monitoring of gross alpha, gross beta and tritium activities in portuguese drinking waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, I.; Madruga, M.J.; Ferrador, G.O.; Sequeira, M.M.; Oliveira, E.J.; Gomes, A.R.; Rodrigues, F.D.; Carvalho, F.P.

    2006-01-01

    The gross beta and tritium activities in the forty Portuguese drinking waters analyzed using the ISO standard methods (Portuguese Guidelines) are below the guidance levels proposed in the Portuguese Drinking Water Quality Guidelines. In what concerns the gross alpha activity only 18% exceeded the recommended level. In general, it can be concluded that the ingestion of these drinking waters does not create a radiological hazard to the human consumption, however, more detailed analyses will be necessary mainly the determinations of the individual alpha emitters radionuclide concentrations. The minimum gross alpha and gross beta detectable activities by L.S.C. methodology are higher than for the proportional counting technique (ISO method). Higher concentration factors will be needed to reach lower required detection limits. (authors)

  13. Optimization of Interior Permanent Magnet Motor by Quality Engineering and Multivariate Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Yukihiro; Kawase, Yoshihiro

    This paper has described the method of optimization based on the finite element method. The quality engineering and the multivariable analysis are used as the optimization technique. This optimizing method consists of two steps. At Step.1, the influence of parameters for output is obtained quantitatively, at Step.2, the number of calculation by the FEM can be cut down. That is, the optimal combination of the design parameters, which satisfies the required characteristic, can be searched for efficiently. In addition, this method is applied to a design of IPM motor to reduce the torque ripple. The final shape can maintain average torque and cut down the torque ripple 65%. Furthermore, the amount of permanent magnets can be reduced.

  14. Similar effects of two modified constraint-induced therapy protocols on motor impairment, motor function and quality of life in patients with chronic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilma Costa Souza

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Modified constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT protocols show motor function and real-world arm use improvement. Meanwhile it usually requires constant supervision by physiotherapists and is therefore more expensive than customary care. This study compared the preliminary efficacy of two modified CIMT protocols. A two-group randomized controlled trial with pre and post treatment measures and six months follow-up was conducted. Nineteen patients with chronic stroke received 10 treatment sessions distributed three to four times a week over 22 days. CIMT3h_direct group received 3 hours of CIMT supervised by a therapist (n=10 while CIMT1.5h_direct group had 1.5 hours of supervised CIMT+1.5 hours home exercises supervised by a caregiver (n=9. Outcome measures were the Fugl-Meyer Assessment, the Motor Activity Log, and the Stroke Specific Quality of Life Scale. The modified CIMT protocols were feasible and well tolerated. Improvements in motor function, real-world arm use and quality of life did not differ significantly between treated groups receiving either 3 or 1.5 hours mCIMT supervised by a therapist.

  15. Air quality and climate impacts due to CNG conversion of motor vehicles in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadud, Zia; Khan, Tanzila

    2013-12-17

    Dhaka had recently experienced rapid conversion of its motor vehicle fleet to run on compressed natural gas (CNG). This paper quantifies ex-post the air quality and climate benefits of the CNG conversion policy, including monetary valuations, through an impact pathway approach. Around 2045 (1665) avoided premature deaths in greater Dhaka (City Corporation) can be attributed to air quality improvements from the CNG conversion policy in 2010, resulting in a saving of around USD 400 million. Majority of these health benefits resulted from the conversion of high-emitting diesel vehicles. CNG conversion was clearly detrimental from climate change perspective using the changes in CO2 and CH4 only (CH4 emissions increased); however, after considering other global pollutants (especially black carbon), the climate impact was ambiguous. Uncertainty assessment using input distributions and Monte Carlo simulation along with a sensitivity analysis show that large uncertainties remain for climate impacts. For our most likely estimate, there were some climate costs, valued at USD 17.7 million, which is an order of magnitude smaller than the air quality benefits. This indicates that such policies can and should be undertaken on the grounds of improving local air pollution alone and that precautions should be taken to reduce the potentially unintended increases in GHG emissions or other unintended effects.

  16. Gross decontamination experiment report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, R.; Kinney, K.; Dettorre, J.; Gilbert, V.

    1983-07-01

    A Gross Decontamination Experiment was conducted on various levels and surfaces of the TMI - Unit 2 reactor building in March 1982. The polar crane, D-rings, missile shields, refueling canals, refueling bridges, equipment, and elevations 305' and 347'-6'' were flushed with low pressure water. Additionally, floor surfaces on elevation 305' and floor surfaces and major pieces of equipment on elevation 347'-6'' were sprayed with high pressure water. Selective surfaces were decontaminated with a mechanical scrubber and chemicals. Strippable coating was tested and evaluated on equipment and floor surfaces. The effectiveness, efficiency, and safety of several decontamination techniques were established for the large, complex decontamination effort. Various decontamination equipment was evaluated and its effectiveness was documented. Decontamination training and procedures were documented and evaluated, as were the support system and organization for the experiment

  17. Gross xenon stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewins, J.D.; Wilson, P.P.H.

    1997-01-01

    The effect of xenon in thermal reactors on steady operation is generally destabilizing. Illustrating this involves the study of appropriate transfer functions, which may be conveniently displayed in three ways: as Bode, Nyquist, and root-locus diagrams. The three forms allow different aspects to be highlighted. These are illustrated for the effect of xenon with allowance not only for the stabilizing effect of the direct yield in fission but also to show the consequences of neglecting the time dependence due to the thermal capacity of the reactor. With careful interpretation, all these forms give an interpretation of stability that is consistent with direct evaluation and promote the understanding of the onset of gross oscillations in power

  18. Gross decontamination experiment report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, R.; Kinney, K.; Dettorre, J.; Gilbert, V.

    1983-07-01

    A Gross Decontamination Experiment was conducted on various levels and surfaces of the TMI - Unit 2 reactor building in March 1982. The polar crane, D-rings, missile shields, refueling canals, refueling bridges, equipment, and elevations 305' and 347'-6'' were flushed with low pressure water. Additionally, floor surfaces on elevation 305' and floor surfaces and major pieces of equipment on elevation 347'-6'' were sprayed with high pressure water. Selective surfaces were decontaminated with a mechanical scrubber and chemicals. Strippable coating was tested and evaluated on equipment and floor surfaces. The effectiveness, efficiency, and safety of several decontamination techniques were established for the large, complex decontamination effort. Various decontamination equipment was evaluated and its effectiveness was documented. Decontamination training and procedures were documented and evaluated, as were the support system and organization for the experiment.

  19. PROGNOSTIC QUALITY OF MOTOR AND MORPHOLOGICAL FACTORS IN RELATION TO TRACK AND FIELD EVENTS OF SPRINT AND JUMPING TYPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemal Idrizović

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of the impact of motor manifestations and morphological features on the quality in the realization of track and field events of sprint and jumping type was the main issue of this research. The aim of the paper was to establish the impact of the ap- plied predictor systems of variables, motor and morphological ones, on the criteria va- riables, the results in track and field events: long jump and 60m sprint event. The results obtained in this research lead to the conclusion that this type of track and field events, or the quality of their realization in the motor sense mostly depends on the locomotive complexes of similar structure. However, in the morphological sense, such impact is va- riable.

  20. Motor performance of pupils with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    OpenAIRE

    Otipková, Zuzana

    2012-01-01

    Title: Motor performance of pupils with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Objectives: The aim of the work was to determine the level of fine and gross motor skills of upper extremities of the pupils with diagnosis ADHD at schools specialized on these pupils and compare it with the fine and gross motor skills of upper extremities of children without this diagnosis at common elementary school. Further work objective was to determine the level of gross motor skills of lower limbs ...

  1. Effects of Ai Chi on balance, quality of life, functional mobility, and motor impairment in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt, Emine Eda; Büyükturan, Buket; Büyükturan, Öznur; Erdem, Hatice Rana; Tuncay, Figen

    2018-04-01

    In this study, we aimed to investigate effects of Ai Chi on balance, functional mobility, health-related quality of life, and motor impairment in patients with Parkinson's disease. This study was conducted as an open-label randomized controlled trial (ISRCTN26292510) with repeated measures. Forty patients with Parkinson's disease stages 2 to 3 according to the Hoehn and Yahr Scale were randomly allocated to either an Ai Chi exercise group or a land-based exercise control group for 5 weeks. Balance was measured using the Biodex-3,1 and the Berg Balance Scale. Functional mobility was evaluated using the Timed Up and Go Test. Additionally, health-related quality of life and motor activity were assessed with the Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire-39 and the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale-III. Although patients in both groups showed significant improvement in all outcome variables, improvement of dynamic balance was significantly greater in the Ai Chi group (p Balance Scale (p balance, mobility, motor ability, and quality of life. In addition, Ai Chi exercise was more effective as an intervention than land-based exercise in patients with mild to moderate Parkinson's disease. Implications for rehabilitation Ai Chi exercises (aquatic exercises) may help improve balance, functional mobility, health-related quality of life, and motor ability in patients with mild to moderate Parkinson's disease more efficiently than similar land-based exercises. Ai Chi exercises should be considered as a rehabilitation option for treatment of patients with mild or moderate Parkinson's disease.

  2. QUALITY LEVEL-RELATED DIFFERENCES IN SELECTED MORPHOLOGICAL BODY CHARACTERISTICS AND MOTOR ABILITIES OF GOALKEEPERS IN TEAM HANDBALL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Šibila

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to identify the quality level-related differences between two groups of team handball goalkeepers in selected morphological body characteristics and motor abilities. A group of 36 senior goalkeepers who were members of first and second Slovenian handball league clubs (age: 22,6 ± 5,4 yr, height: 185,8 ± 4,7 cm, body weight: 88,7 ± 9,1 kg, training experience: 11,8 ± 4,8 yr participated in the present study. The goalkeepers were divided in two groups, according to their competition level. The sample of variables consisted of age and competition experience data, four morphological body characteristics and of six motor ability tests. In order to determine differences between two groups of goalkeepers in selected morphologic and motor variables a one–way analysis of variance (one-way ANOVA was employed. Findings of the present study indicate existing of quality level-related differences between two groups of team handball goalkeepers in selected morphological body characteristics and motor abilities. Further individualization and careful planning of training process of the goalkeepers is essential if we want to improve for goalkeepers’ important motor abilities and morphological body characteristics.

  3. Deficits in Lower Limb Muscle Reflex Contraction Latency and Peak Force Are Associated With Impairments in Postural Control and Gross Motor Skills of Children With Developmental Coordination Disorder: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Shirley S M; Ng, Shamay S M; Guo, X; Wang, Yuling; Chung, Raymond C K; Stat, Grad; Ki, W Y; Macfarlane, Duncan J

    2015-10-01

    This cross-sectional, exploratory study aimed to compare neuromuscular performance, balance and motor skills proficiencies of typically developing children and those with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and to determine associations of these neuromuscular factors with balance and motor skills performances in children with DCD.One hundred thirty children with DCD and 117 typically developing children participated in the study. Medial hamstring and gastrocnemius muscle activation onset latencies in response to an unexpected posterior-to-anterior trunk perturbation were assessed by electromyography and accelerometer. Hamstring and gastrocnemius muscle peak force and time to peak force were quantified by dynamometer, and balance and motor skills performances were evaluated with the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC).Independent t tests revealed that children with DCD had longer hamstring and gastrocnemius muscle activation onset latencies (P  0.025), than the controls. Multiple regression analysis accounting for basic demographics showed that gastrocnemius peak force was independently associated with the MABC balance subscore and ball skills subscore, accounting for 5.7% (P = 0.003) and 8.5% (P = 0.001) of the variance, respectively. Gastrocnemius muscle activation onset latency also explained 11.4% (P skills subscore.Children with DCD had delayed leg muscle activation onset times and lower isometric peak forces. Gastrocnemius peak force was associated with balance and ball skills performances, whereas timing of gastrocnemius muscle activation was a determinant of ball skill performance in the DCD population.

  4. Short-term quality of life after subthalamic stimulation depends on non-motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dafsari, Haidar Salimi; Weiß, Luisa; Silverdale, Monty; Rizos, Alexandra; Reddy, Prashanth; Ashkan, Keyoumars; Evans, Julian; Reker, Paul; Petry-Schmelzer, Jan Niklas; Samuel, Michael; Visser-Vandewalle, Veerle; Antonini, Angelo; Martinez-Martin, Pablo; Ray-Chaudhuri, K; Timmermann, Lars

    2018-02-24

    Subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) improves quality of life (QoL), motor, and non-motor symptoms (NMS) in advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). However, considerable inter-individual variability has been observed for QoL outcome. We hypothesized that demographic and preoperative NMS characteristics can predict postoperative QoL outcome. In this ongoing, prospective, multicenter study (Cologne, Manchester, London) including 88 patients, we collected the following scales preoperatively and on follow-up 6 months postoperatively: PDQuestionnaire-8 (PDQ-8), NMSScale (NMSS), NMSQuestionnaire (NMSQ), Scales for Outcomes in PD (SCOPA)-motor examination, -complications, and -activities of daily living, levodopa equivalent daily dose. We dichotomized patients into "QoL responders"/"non-responders" and screened for factors associated with QoL improvement with (1) Spearman-correlations between baseline test scores and QoL improvement, (2) step-wise linear regressions with baseline test scores as independent and QoL improvement as dependent variables, (3) logistic regressions using aforementioned "responders/non-responders" as dependent variable. All outcomes improved significantly on follow-up. However, approximately 44% of patients were categorized as "QoL non-responders". Spearman-correlations, linear and logistic regression analyses were significant for NMSS and NMSQ but not for SCOPA-motor examination. Post-hoc, we identified specific NMS (flat moods, difficulties experiencing pleasure, pain, bladder voiding) as significant contributors to QoL outcome. Our results provide evidence that QoL improvement after STN-DBS depends on preoperative NMS characteristics. These findings are important in the advising and selection of individuals for DBS therapy. Future studies investigating motor and non-motor PD clusters may enable stratifying QoL outcomes and help predict patients' individual prospects of benefiting from DBS. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier

  5. Pricing, renegotiation and gross inequities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkham, J.S. (Van Cott, Bagley, Cornwall McCarthy, Salt Lake City, UT (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Reviews pricing, renegotiation and gross inequity provisions of coal supply agreements in order to provide practical assistance to an attorney called upon to draft in written form the intent of buyer and seller. 26 refs.

  6. Motor competence and characteristics within the preschool environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    True, Larissa; Pfeiffer, Karin Allor; Dowda, Marsha; Williams, Harriet G; Brown, William H; O'Neill, Jennifer R; Pate, Russell R

    2017-08-01

    Environmental characteristics within preschools that influence children's motor competence are largely unknown. The purpose of the present study was to examine the contribution of various preschool environmental characteristics to children's locomotor, object control, and total gross motor scores. Cross-sectional, observational study of 3-5 year-old children (n=229) from 22 preschools in South Carolina. The Children's Activity and Movement in Preschool Study (CHAMPS) Motor Skills Protocol assessed MC. Preschool directors provided information regarding policies and practices. The research team measured playgrounds and classrooms, and the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale-Revised assessed preschool quality. Time spent in open space and electronic media use were also assessed using direct observation. The aforementioned variables predicted children's object control, locomotor, and total gross motor scores. Classroom size/child ratio, teacher education, playground size, electronic media use, and trips to outside organizations emerged as significant predictors of locomotor score and total motor score. The object control model was non-significant. Preschools may be able to promote motor competence by allowing children more time in open spaces, structured activity experiences, and by expanding existing outdoor playground space whenever possible. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Can physiotherapy after stroke based on the Bobath concept result in improved quality of movement compared to the motor relearning programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhammer, Birgitta; Stanghelle, Johan K

    2011-06-01

    The primary aim of the present study was to investigate, based on data from our study in 2000, whether the Bobath approach enhanced quality of movement better than the Motor Relearning Programme (MRP) during rehabilitation of stroke patients. A randomized controlled stratified trial of acute stroke patients. The patients were treated according to Motor Relearning Programme and Bobath approach and assessed with Motor Assessment Scale, Sødring Motor Evaluation Scale, Nottingham Health Profile and the Barthel Index. A triangulation of the test scores was made in reference to the Movement Quality Model and biomechanical, physiological, psycho-socio-cultural, and existential themes. The items arm (p = 0.02-0.04) sitting (p = 0.04) and hand (p = 0.01-0.03) were significantly better in the Motor Relearning Programme group than in the Bobath group, in both Sødring Motor Evaluation Scale and Motor Assessment Scale. Leg function, balance, transfer, walking and stair climbing did not differ between the groups. The Movement Quality Model and the movement qualities biomechanical, physiological and psycho-socio-cultural showed higher scoring in the Motor Relearning Programme group, indicating better quality of movement in all items. Regression models established the relationship with significant models of motor performance and self reported physical mobility (adjusted R(2) 0.30-0.68, p < 0.0001), energy (adjusted R(2) 0.13-0.14, p = 0.03-0.04, emotion (adjusted R(2) 0.30-0.38, p < 0.0001) and social interaction (arm function, adjusted R(2) 0.25, p = 0.0001). These analyses confirm that task oriented exercises of the Motor Relearning Programme type are preferable regarding quality of movement in the acute rehabilitation of patients with stroke. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Comparison of investigator-delineated gross tumor volumes and quality assurance in pancreatic cancer: Analysis of the pretrial benchmark case for the SCALOP trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fokas, Emmanouil; Clifford, Charlotte; Spezi, Emiliano; Joseph, George; Branagan, Jennifer; Hurt, Chris; Nixon, Lisette; Abrams, Ross; Staffurth, John; Mukherjee, Somnath

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the variation in investigator-delineated volumes and assess plans from the radiotherapy trial quality assurance (RTTQA) program of SCALOP, a phase II trial in locally advanced pancreatic cancer. Participating investigators (n=25) outlined a pre-trial benchmark case as per RT protocol, and the accuracy of investigators' GTV (iGTV) and PTV (iPTV) was evaluated, against the trials team-defined gold standard GTV (gsGTV) and PTV (gsPTV), using both qualitative and geometric analyses. The median Jaccard Conformity Index (JCI) and Geographical Miss Index (GMI) were calculated. Participating RT centers also submitted a radiotherapy plan for this benchmark case, which was centrally reviewed against protocol-defined constraints. Twenty-five investigator-defined contours were evaluated. The median JCI and GMI of iGTVs were 0.57 (IQR: 0.51-0.65) and 0.26 (IQR: 0.15-0.40). For iPTVs, these were 0.75 (IQR: 0.71-0.79) and 0.14 (IQR: 0.11-0.22) respectively. Qualitative analysis showed largest variation at the tumor edges and failure to recognize a peri-pancreatic lymph node. There were no major protocol deviations in RT planning, but three minor PTV coverage deviations were identified. . SCALOP demonstrated considerable variation in iGTV delineation. RTTQA workshops and real-time central review of delineations are needed in future trials. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparison of investigator-delineated gross tumour volumes and quality assurance in pancreatic cancer: Analysis of the on-trial cases for the SCALOP trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fokas, Emmanouil; Spezi, Emiliano; Patel, Neel; Hurt, Chris; Nixon, Lisette; Chu, Kwun-Ye; Staffurth, John; Abrams, Ross; Mukherjee, Somnath

    2016-08-01

    We performed a retrospective central review of tumour outlines in patients undergoing radiotherapy in the SCALOP trial. The planning CT scans were reviewed retrospectively by a central review team, and the accuracy of investigators' GTV (iGTV) and PTV (iPTV) was compared to the trials team-defined gold standard (gsGTV and gsPTV) using the Jaccard Conformity Index (JCI) and Geographical Miss Index (GMI). The prognostic value of JCI and GMI was also assessed. The RT plans were also reviewed against protocol-defined constraints. 60 patients with diagnostic-quality planning scans were included. The median whole volume JCI for GTV was 0.64 (IQR: 0.43-0.82), and the median GMI was 0.11 (IQR: 0.05-0.22). For PTVs, the median JCI and GMI were 0.80 (IQR: 0.71-0.88) and 0.04 (IQR: 0.02-0.12) respectively. Tumour was completely missed in 1 patient, and⩾50% of the tumour was missed in 3. Patients with JCI for GTV⩾0.7 had 7.12 (95% CIs: 1.83-27.67, p=0.005) higher odds of progressing by 9months in multivariate analysis. Major deviations in RT planning were noted in 4.5% of cases. Radiotherapy workshops and real-time central review of contours are required in RT trials of pancreatic cancer. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Patient-Reported Needs, Non-Motor Symptoms, and Quality of Life in Essential Tremor and Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah K. Lageman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Non‐motor symptoms, quality of life, service needs, and barriers to care of individuals with movement disorders are not well explored. This study assessed these domains within a sample of individuals with essential tremor (ET and Parkinson's disease (PD.Methods: A survey exploring symptoms, needs, and barriers to care was disseminated to a convenience sample (N = 96 of individuals with a primary diagnosis of ET (N = 19 or PD (N = 77. Results: Similarities in overall quality of life and impact on daily functioning were found across individuals with ET and PD. Noteworthy differences included endorsement of different types of service needs and utilization patterns and fewer non‐motor symptoms reported among those with ET (M = 6.1, SD = 2.4 than those with PD (M = 10.4, SD = 3.4. Non‐motor symptoms significantly impacted movement disorder‐related quality of life for both diagnostic groups, but this relationship was stronger for individuals with ET, t(12 = 3.69, p = 0.003, β = 0.73 than with PD, t(56 = 4.00, p<0.001, β = 0.47. Individuals with ET also reported higher rates of stigma (31.6% vs. 7.8% and greater impact of non‐motor symptoms on emotional well‐being, R2 = 0.37, F(1, 13 = 7.17, p = 0.020. Discussion: This is the first study to describe and compare the needs, barriers to care, and impact on quality of life of two distinct movement disorder groups. Our results support the recent efforts of the field to identify interventions to address the non‐motor symptoms of movement disorders and indicate need for greater appreciation of the specific differences in symptoms and quality of life experienced across movement disorder diagnoses.

  11. Identification of the impact of using sports games’ elements on the development of motoric qualities in students of exercise therapy group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.E. Kudelko

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The influence of sports on the development of motor qualities of students is researched. The study involved two groups of students by 12 people with various illnesses. They were asked to perform a set of exercises to develop their motoric qualities. The results of students' physical qualities testing before and after the teaching experiment are illustrated. The considerable improvement of the testing results after applying the set of exercises with elements of sports games for the motoric qualities development was marked. The results of the experiment confirmed that the level of students' physical fitness was increased and the development of the basic physical qualities: speed, dexterity and speed-force qualities was accelerated to the extent possible. To improve the working capacity of students who have limited physical activity it is necessary to use special means of physical education.

  12. Motor skills of toddlers with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Meghann; MacDonald, Megan; Lord, Catherine

    2013-03-01

    With increased interest in the early diagnosis and treatment of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), more attention has been called to the motor skills of very young children with ASD. This study describes the gross and fine motor skills of a cross-sectional group of 162 children with ASD between the ages of 12 and 36 months, as well as a subset of 58 children followed longitudinally. Gross motor and fine motor age equivalent scores were obtained for all children. A 'motor difference' variable was calculated for each child's gross and fine motor skills by taking the absolute difference of the children's age equivalent motor score and their respective chronological age. In Study 1 (the cross-sectional analysis), ANCOVA (co-varied for nonverbal problem solving) revealed significant group differences in the gross motor and fine motor age difference variables. Post-hoc analysis revealed that gross motor and fine motor differences became significantly greater with each 6-month period of chronological age. In Study 2, 58 children were measured twice, an average of 12 months apart. Results indicate that the gross motor and fine motor difference scores significantly increased between the first and second measurements. The importance of addressing motor development in early intervention treatments is discussed.

  13. Acoustic Characterization of a Stationary Field Synchronous Motor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Woodward, E

    2001-01-01

    .... We investigate the gross acoustic signature of a notional stationary field synchronous motor utilized as a marine propulsion motor in a naval combatant using the following methodology: (1) model the forces...

  14. Comparing Life Quality Strategies and Emotion Regulation in People with Congenital and Non-Congenital Motor Disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedeh Zeynab Miraghaei

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of the present study was to compare emotion regulation strategies and life quality of people with congenital and non-congenital motor disabilities. Method: This study is a casual-comparative study and its population consisted of all people with congenital and non-congenital motor disability in Kahrizak Charity Foundation in Tehran in 2016. To conduct the study, available sampling method was used, and congenital and non-congenital disabled people were selected (200 people. To collect data, Cognitive Emotion Regulation Scale by Granovsky and life quality questionnaire were used. Research hypotheses were tested using multivariate analysis of variance. Results: The findings of this study showed that there is a significant difference between emotion regulation components in people with congenital and non-congenital disabilities (p<0.05. Also, according to the findings, a significant difference was observed between life quality dimensions (physical and mental health in people with congenital and non-congenital disabilities (p<0.05. Conclusion: According to the significant difference between two groups of subjects, necessary measures regarding consultation and psychotherapy should be taken into consideration to let people benefit from desirable mental health level.

  15. Motor Development Programming in Trisomic-21 Babies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, Teresa; Menendez, Javier; Rosique, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    The present study contributes to the understanding of gross motor development in babies with Down's syndrome. Also, it facilitates the comprehension of the efficiency of the early motor stimulation as well as of beginning it as early as possible. We worked with two groups of babies with Down's syndrome, beginning the early motor training in each…

  16. [The study of chronic partial denervation and quality of life in patients with motor neuron disease treated with semax].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serdiuk, A V; Levitskiĭ, G N; Miasoedov, N F; Skvortsova, V I

    2007-01-01

    The study of chronic partial denervation (CPD) and quality of life was carried out in 27 patients with definite, probable and possible diagnosis of motor neuron disease (MND) treated with semax (1% solution). The needle electromyography (EMG) was performed thrice with short-term 2 month interval (60 days before enrollment and on day 1 and day 48 of the study) in three muscles on bulbar, cervical and lumbosacral levels on the less affected side. According to Revised El-Escorial Criteria (1998) the needle EMG for diagnostic purposes was also performed in two muscles on the cervical and lumbosacral levels on the more affected side along with stimulation electroneuronmyography of motor and sensory fibers of the peripheral nerves of neck, upper and lower extremities. The open-label clinical trial of Semax (1% solution) was conducted in sequential groups of patients. The drug was administered intranasally in two 10-day-long courses with 2-weeks break in daily dose of 12 mg. Sixty days before enrollment, and on days 1, 10, 24, 34 and 48, patients were assessed by the Norris ALS, the ALS Functioning Rating Scale and the ALSAQ-40 quality of life in the ALS scale. It was shown that CPD on the early as well as on the late stages was characterized by forward-backward, but not unidirectional course, that did not allow to recommend the follow-up needle EMG with short-term interval for evaluation of drug efficacy monitoring. Early CPD stages were characterized by forward-backwards fluctuations reflecting the compensatory reinnervation process (a phenomenon of exchange of muscle fibers, more rational in view of reinnervation, between adjacent motor units) whereas on the late CPD stages these forward-backwards CPD fluctuations reflected the processes of progressive deterioration of muscle fibers and secondary demyelination of large motor axons. Semax (1% solution) does not influence either the course of CPD or the dynamics of clinical estimates, in particular the terms of ensuing

  17. Influence of physiotherapy on severity of motor symptoms and quality of life in patients with Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholewa, J; Boczarska-Jedynak, M; Opala, G

    2013-01-01

    Parkinson disease (PD) is one of the most frequent diseases of the central nervous system. Rehabilitation is one of the factors which may help the patients to maintain higher physical activity in everyday life. The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of movement rehabilitation on severity of motor symptoms in PD patients. The study included 70 patients suffering from PD according to the Hoehn and Yahr scale. Patients' clinical status was assessed with Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) parts I-III. Additionally, activity of daily living was evaluated with the Schwab and England scale. The quality of life was evaluated by the Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire (PDQ-39). The examinations were conducted before and after the twelve weeks of the experiment. Patients included in the intervention group (n = 40) took part in 60-minute rehabilitation exercises twice a week, which were aimed at increasing movement ranges, balance improvement, movement agility and walking. The main emphasis was placed on the ability to cope with daily activities. A significant difference in scores of given scales before and after the 12-week period was observed in the intervention group: UPDRS part I score decreased by 17.31%, part II decreased by 22.2%, part III decreased by 18.96%, and PDQ-39 score decreased by 17.12%. Mean score of the Schwab and England scale increased by 9.69%, indicating an improved quality of life. The applied rehabilitation programme decreased the severity of motor symptoms in patients with PD.

  18. Quantum Gross-Pitaevskii Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jutho Haegeman, Damian Draxler, Vid Stojevic, J. Ignacio Cirac, Tobias J. Osborne, Frank Verstraete

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a non-commutative generalization of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation for one-dimensional quantum gasses and quantum liquids. This generalization is obtained by applying the time-dependent variational principle to the variational manifold of continuous matrix product states. This allows for a full quantum description of many body system ---including entanglement and correlations--- and thus extends significantly beyond the usual mean-field description of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation, which is known to fail for (quasi one-dimensional systems. By linearizing around a stationary solution, we furthermore derive an associated generalization of the Bogoliubov -- de Gennes equations. This framework is applied to compute the steady state response amplitude to a periodic perturbation of the potential.

  19. Measurement of gross alpha, gross beta, radon and radium activity concentrations in aqueous samples using liquid scintillation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaini Hamzah; Ahmad Saat; Masitah Alias; Siti Afiqah Abdul Rahman; Mohamed Kasim; Abdul Kadir Ishak

    2011-01-01

    Recently, Malaysia has taken a positive step toward providing a better water quality by introducing more water quality parameters into its Water Quality Standard. With regard to the natural radionuclides that may present in the water, 3 parameters were introduced that is gross alpha, gross beta and radium which need to be measured and cannot exceed 0.1, 1.0 and 1.0 Bq/ L respectively. This study was conducted to develop a more practical method in measuring these parameters in aqueous environmental samples. Besides having a lot of former tin mining areas, some part of Malaysia is located on the granitic rock which also contributes to a certain extent the amount of natural radionuclides such as uranium and thorium. For all we know these two radionuclides are the origin of other radionuclides being produced from their decay series. The State of Kelantan was chosen as the study area, where the water samples were collected from various part of the Kelantan River. 25 liters of samples were collected, acidify to pH 2 and filtered before the analysis. Measurement of these parameters was done using liquid scintillation counter (LSC). The LSC was set up to the optimum discriminator level and counting was done using alpha-beta mode. The results show that gross alpha and beta can be measured using scintillation cocktail and radium and radon using extraction method. The results for gross alpha, gross beta, 222 Ra and 226 Ra are 0.39-6.42, 0.66-16.18, 0.40-4.65 and 0.05-0.56 Bq/ L. MDA for gross alpha, gross beta and radium is 0.03, 0.08 and 0.00035 Bq/ L respectively. (Author)

  20. Development of fine motor skills in preterm infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Arend F.; Van Braeckel, Koenraad N. J. A.; Hitzert, Marrit M.; Tanis, Jozien C.; Roze, Elise

    2013-01-01

    Fine motor skills are related to functioning in daily life and at school. We reviewed the status of knowledge, in preterm children, on the development of fine motor skills, the relation with gross motor skills, and risk factors for impaired fine motor skills. We searched the past 15 years in PubMed,

  1. NM Gross Receipts January - June 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  2. NM Gross Receipts July - December 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  3. NM Gross Receipts January - June 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  4. NM Gross Receipts July - December 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  5. NM Gross Receipts January - June 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  6. NM Gross Receipts January - June 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  7. Esophageal Motor Abnormalities in Patients With Scleroderma: Heterogeneity, Risk Factors, and Effects on Quality of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowell, Michael D; Umar, Sarah B; Griffing, W Leroy; DiBaise, John K; Lacy, Brian E; Vela, Marcelo F

    2017-02-01

    Systemic scleroderma (SSc) is associated with esophageal aperistalsis and hypotensive esophagogastric junction pressure, although there could be a gradation in esophageal motor dysfunction. We characterized esophageal motor function by high-resolution esophageal manometry (HRM) and assessed associations between SSc severity, health-related quality of life (HRQOL), and HRM findings in patients. We performed a prospective study of 200 patients with SSc and 102 patients without SSc (controls) who underwent HRM at Mayo Clinic Arizona from May 2006 through January 2015. We used data on integrated relaxation pressure, distal contractile integral, and distal latency to classify esophageal motility disorders according to the Chicago Classification v 3.0. A subset of subjects (n = 122) completed SSc-specific gastrointestinal symptom and HRQOL questionnaires. HRM findings, symptoms, and HRQOL data were compared among diffuse SSc, limited SSc, and control subjects. Categorical variables were compared by using the χ 2 or Fisher exact test; continuous variables were compared by using Mann-Whitney or Kruskal-Wallis test. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the association between severity of esophageal dysmotility and baseline clinical factors. Among patients with SSc, 83 had diffuse SSc (42%), and 117 had limited SSc (58%). Absent contractility was more frequent in patients with SSc than in controls (56% vs 13%; P esophagus (esophagogastric junction pressure with absent contractility) was only observed in 33% of patients (34% with diffuse SSc vs 32% limited SSc) (P = .880). Severe esophageal dysmotility was associated with disease duration, interstitial lung disease, and higher gastrointestinal symptom scores (P esophagus in only one-third of patients with SSc. Esophageal motor function appears to be heterogeneous in SSc. Esophageal dysmotility reduces HRQOL in patients with SSc. Copyright © 2017 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Tracking of Gross Motor Coordination From Childhood Into Adolescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lima, Rodrigo Antunes; Bugge, Anna; Pfeiffer, Karin Allor

    2017-01-01

    classified as low (MQ score 115). Pearson correlation was used to calculate the tracking coefficients of each KTK element and MQ score, and weighted kappa was used to analyze maintenance in MC classification groups. Mixed-effects logistic regression...

  9. Responsiveness of the Test of Basic Motor Skills of Children with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Heuvel, Marieke E.; de Jong, Inge; Lauteslager, Peter E. M.; Volman, M. J. M.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the responsiveness of the Test of Basic Motor Skills for Children with Down Syndrome (BMS). Forty-one children with Down Syndrome, 3 to 36 months of age, participated in the study. Gross motor skills were assessed three times using the BMS and the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) before and after a baseline…

  10. Gross anatomy of network security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Thomas J.

    2002-01-01

    Information security involves many branches of effort, including information assurance, host level security, physical security, and network security. Computer network security methods and implementations are given a top-down description to permit a medically focused audience to anchor this information to their daily practice. The depth of detail of network functionality and security measures, like that of the study of human anatomy, can be highly involved. Presented at the level of major gross anatomical systems, this paper will focus on network backbone implementation and perimeter defenses, then diagnostic tools, and finally the user practices (the human element). Physical security measures, though significant, have been defined as beyond the scope of this presentation.

  11. Motor performance, exercise tolerance, and health-related quality of life in children on dialysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijsermans, RM; Creemers, DG; Helders, PJ; Schroder, CH

    In contrast to the adult population, little is known regarding health-related quality of life and exercise tolerance in children with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) undergoing chronic intermittent hemodialysis. We designed a pilot study to investigate whether research into this area is indicated.

  12. STUDYING OF INFLUENCE OF BIOFUEL MOTOR QUALITIES ON POWER AND ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE DIESEL ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levterov, A.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The results of bench tests of D21A (2 Ч 10,5/12 diesel engine at its operation on mixed diesel fuel with improved qualities (Euro and the biofuel synthesized by the way of ethanol intereste-rification of rapeseed oil are offered.

  13. Motor performance in Prader-Willi syndrome patients and its potential influence on caregiver’s quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Jia-Yi Chiu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS is a complex, multisystem genetic disorder characterized by a variety of physical, cognitive, and behavioral impairments. PWS is a unique sarcopenia model characterized by an abnormal increase in body fat mass and a decrease in muscle mass that predisposes patients to reduced physical activity, functional limitations, and disability. These manifestations may require both symptomatic and supportive management, thus negatively influencing their lifelong family caregiver’s quality of life. The aim of this study was to examine the functional motor performance of adults with PWS in Taiwan and to measure the quality of life of their primary family caregivers. Methods The functional motor tests consisted of the following: (1 30-s sit-to-stand test, (2 timed up-and-go test, (3 hand grip and lateral pinch strength tests, and (4 Berg Balance Scale. The World Health Organization Quality of Life-short form (WHOQOL-BREF and the Short-Form 36 Health Survey Questionnaire (SF-36 were used to evaluate health-related quality of life, and the parenting stress index was used to assess the magnitude of stress within the parent-child system. Results The participants included seven adults (two females and five males with genetically confirmed PWS and their respective main caregivers. The mean age of the adults with PWS was 25.28 years; range 18–31 years, SD 5.10; the mean BMI was 29.2 kg/m2, SD 6.43. All adults with PWS showed lower hand grip and lateral pinch strengths, fewer sit-to-stand cycles during the 30-s chair stand test, and greater average time during the timed up-and-go test when compared to the normative data on healthy adults. Balance was negatively correlated with the caregiver’s health concepts of social functioning (rs −0.879, P = 0.009 and with role limitations due to physical problems (rs −0.899, P = 0.006 and emotional problems (rs −0.794, P = 0.033; hand grip strength was negatively correlated

  14. Motor performance in Prader-Willi syndrome patients and its potential influence on caregiver's quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Valeria Jia-Yi; Tsai, Li-Ping; Wei, Jang-Ting; Tzeng, I-Shiang; Wu, Hsin-Chi

    2017-01-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a complex, multisystem genetic disorder characterized by a variety of physical, cognitive, and behavioral impairments. PWS is a unique sarcopenia model characterized by an abnormal increase in body fat mass and a decrease in muscle mass that predisposes patients to reduced physical activity, functional limitations, and disability. These manifestations may require both symptomatic and supportive management, thus negatively influencing their lifelong family caregiver's quality of life. The aim of this study was to examine the functional motor performance of adults with PWS in Taiwan and to measure the quality of life of their primary family caregivers. The functional motor tests consisted of the following: (1) 30-s sit-to-stand test, (2) timed up-and-go test, (3) hand grip and lateral pinch strength tests, and (4) Berg Balance Scale. The World Health Organization Quality of Life-short form (WHOQOL-BREF) and the Short-Form 36 Health Survey Questionnaire (SF-36) were used to evaluate health-related quality of life, and the parenting stress index was used to assess the magnitude of stress within the parent-child system. The participants included seven adults (two females and five males) with genetically confirmed PWS and their respective main caregivers. The mean age of the adults with PWS was 25.28 years; range 18-31 years, SD 5.10; the mean BMI was 29.2 kg/m 2 , SD 6.43. All adults with PWS showed lower hand grip and lateral pinch strengths, fewer sit-to-stand cycles during the 30-s chair stand test, and greater average time during the timed up-and-go test when compared to the normative data on healthy adults. Balance was negatively correlated with the caregiver's health concepts of social functioning ( r s -0.879, P  = 0.009) and with role limitations due to physical problems ( r s -0.899, P  = 0.006) and emotional problems ( r s -0.794, P  = 0.033); hand grip strength was negatively correlated with bodily pain ( r s -0.800, P

  15. Estimulación en el hogar y desarrollo motor en niños mexicanos de 36 meses Stimulation at home and motor development among 36 month-old Mexican children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Osorio

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar la relación entre la estimulación en el hogar y el desarrollo motor en niños de 36 meses de edad. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se evaluó el desarrollo motor grueso y fino de 169 infantes (50.9% varones mediante la Escala de Desarrollo Motor de Peabody y se determinó la calidad de estimulación en el hogar en una evaluación previa con la Escala HOME a los 30 meses de edad. RESULTADOS: La estimulación total en el hogar se asoció significativamente con un mejor desempeño en las áreas motora gruesa y fina. Aspectos particulares de esta estimulación se relacionaron con una mejor motricidad gruesa y fina. CONCLUSIÓN: Equilibrio y locomoción en la motricidad gruesa y agarre e integración visomotora en la motricidad fina son los componentes motores asociados a aspectos particulares de la estimulación como la interacción madre-hijo, el reforzamiento de acciones positivas en forma verbal y la presencia de límites claros.OBJECTIVE: To identify the relationship between stimulation at home and motor development among 36 month-old children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The development of gross and fine motor skills of 169 infants (50.9% boys and 49.1% girls was assessed at the age of 36 months with the Peabody Developmental Motor Scale. The quality of home stimulation was determined during a prior evaluation (at 30 months by means of the HOME Scale. RESULTS: Total stimulation at home was significantly associated with better performance in the gross and fine motor areas. Particular aspects of this home stimulation were related to better gross and fine motor functions. CONCLUSION: Static balance and locomotion (gross motor skills and grasping and visual-motor integration (fine motor skills are associated with particular aspects of home stimulation, such as parent-child interaction, verbal reinforcement of the child's positive actions and providing the child with clear boundaries.

  16. Multimodal Therapy Involving High-Intensity Interval Training Improves the Physical Fitness, Motor Skills, Social Behavior, and Quality of Life of Boys With ADHD: A Randomized Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meßler, Carolin Friederike; Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Sperlich, Billy

    2018-06-01

    To compare the effects of multimodal therapy including supervised high-intensity interval training (HIIT) with those of standard multimodal therapy (TRAD) concerning key variables of physical fitness (peak power and oxygen uptake), motor skills, social behavior, and quality of life in boys with ADHD. A single-center, two-arm randomized, controlled design was used, with 28 boys (8-13 years of age, IQ = 83-136) being randomly assigned to multimodal HIIT (three sessions/week, 4 × 4-min intervals at 95% of peak heart rate) or TRAD. The Movement Assessment Battery for Children II evaluated motor skills and the German version of the hyperkinetic disorder questionnaire for external evaluation by the guardians (FBB-HKS) or German version of the hyperkinetic disorder questionnaire for self-assessment by the children (SBB-HKS) and the KINDL-R questionnaires mental health and health-related quality of life. Both interventions enhanced peak power, and HIIT also reduced submaximal oxygen uptake. HIIT was more effective than TRAD in improving the total score for motor skills (including manual dexterity and ball skills; p HIIT improved physical fitness, motor skills, certain aspects of quality of life, competence, and attention in boys with ADHD.

  17. Olhares distintos sobre a noção de estabilidade e mudança no desempenho da coordenação motora grossa Ángulos diferentes sobre el concepto de estabilidad y cambio en el rendimiento de la coordinación motora gruesa Distinct views on the notion of stability and change in the performance of gross motor coordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Basso

    2012-09-01

    discuten en términos de diferentes trayectorias de desarrollo de la CMG.Studies about gross motor coordination in children (GMC focus on the description of normative values derived from age and sex, and few analyzed the dynamics of change of each child within its group. The goal of the present study is estimate the stability of intra-individual change over inter-individual differences over eighteen months. One hundred and twenty students with seven years old in the city of Muzambinho - MG participated in the study. Data was collected four times, with a six-month interval between each assessment. GMC was evaluated through KTK test battery. Mean values for all tests increased over time, with differences between sex for equilibrium test. The correlation values between initial performance and improvements over eighteen months indicated high heterogeneity. Results of stability estimates were weak for tests. These results were discussed about different trajectories in the development of motor coordination.

  18. Evaluation of gross radioactivity in foodstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zorer, Oezlem Selcuk; Oeter, Cigdem

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents the results of radiological investigations of food products sampled in the summer and fall of 2011 and 2012 in different parts of Van, Turkey. Gross radioactivity measurements in food products were evaluated. Food items were divided into eight groups: (1) water, (2) fish, (3) cheese products, (4) fruits, (5) vegetables, (6) herbs, (7) walnut and (8) rock salt. The levels of the gross alpha and gross beta radioactivity in all food samples varied widely ranging from 0.070 to 10.885 Bq/g and from 0.132 to 48.285 Bq/g on dry mass basis, respectively. In one sample, gross alpha and gross beta activity concentrations were found to be relatively high according to the other samples and in all samples, the gross alpha radioactivity was measured lower than the gross beta radioactivity. The gross α and gross β activities were measured by using α/β counter of the multi-detector low background system (PIC MPC-9604).

  19. Evaluation of gross radioactivity in foodstuffs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zorer, Oezlem Selcuk; Oeter, Cigdem [Yuzuncu Yil Univ., Van (Turkey). Dept. of Chemistry

    2015-05-15

    The paper presents the results of radiological investigations of food products sampled in the summer and fall of 2011 and 2012 in different parts of Van, Turkey. Gross radioactivity measurements in food products were evaluated. Food items were divided into eight groups: (1) water, (2) fish, (3) cheese products, (4) fruits, (5) vegetables, (6) herbs, (7) walnut and (8) rock salt. The levels of the gross alpha and gross beta radioactivity in all food samples varied widely ranging from 0.070 to 10.885 Bq/g and from 0.132 to 48.285 Bq/g on dry mass basis, respectively. In one sample, gross alpha and gross beta activity concentrations were found to be relatively high according to the other samples and in all samples, the gross alpha radioactivity was measured lower than the gross beta radioactivity. The gross α and gross β activities were measured by using α/β counter of the multi-detector low background system (PIC MPC-9604).

  20. Measures of Gross National Happiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruut Veenhoven

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Happiness is rising on the political agenda and this calls for measures of how well nations perform in creating great happiness for a great number, analogous to measures of success in creating wealth, such as GDP. Happiness is defined as subjective enjoyment of one’s life as-a-whole and this can be measured using self-reports. Question on happiness are currently used in large scale surveys of the general population in nations. As a result we have now comparable data on happiness in 144 contemporary nations and time-series of 25 years and longer on 11 developed nations. These data can be aggregated in different ways: If the aim is simply greater happiness for a greater number of citizens, Average happiness (AH is an appropriate measure. If the focus is on enduring happiness, it is better to combine average happiness with longevity in an index of Happy Life Years (HLY. If the aim is to reduce disparity among citizens a relevant indicator is the Inequality of Happiness (IH in the nations as measured with the standard deviation. Average and dispersion can also be combined in an index of Inequality-Adjusted Happiness (IAH. Comparison across nations shows sizable differences on all these measures of gross national happiness and these differences correspond with societal characteristics that can be influenced by policy makers, such as freedom and justice. Comparison over time shows major improvement during the last decade.

  1. Relationship between motor skills, participation in leisure activities and quality of life of children with Developmental Coordination Disorder: temporal aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raz-Silbiger, S; Lifshitz, N; Katz, N; Steinhart, S; Cermak, S A; Weintraub, N

    2015-03-01

    The study examined the relationship between motor skills, participation in leisure activities and quality of life (QOL), within a temporal context (school year vs. summer vacation and school days vs. weekends). Parents of 22 children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) and of 55 typically developing children, aged 6-11, filled out two questionnaires relating to their children's participation in leisure activities (vigorous, moderate and sedentary) and QOL. The Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2 (MABC-2) was administered to their children. Results showed that among the children with DCD, balance scores positively correlated with participation in sedentary activities, and in both groups both balance and aiming and catching were related to the physical and school aspects of QOL. Furthermore, participation in vigorous activities in the summer was positively correlated with social and school QOL. In contrast, among typically developing children, participation in vigorous activities during the school year was negatively correlated with school QOL. Finally, in both groups, participation in sedentary activities during school days was negatively correlated with school QOL. These results suggest that the parents' perceptions of their children's QOL may be related to the level of activeness of the leisure activities but also to temporal aspects. Therefore, it is important that therapists and educators consider the temporal aspects, when consulting with parents and their children regarding participation in leisure activities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [The physical therapy undergraduate students' responses to the gross human anatomy subjects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anahara, Reiko; Kawashiro, Yukiko; Matsuno, Yoshiharu; Mori, Chisato; Kohno, Toshihiko

    2008-09-01

    Instruction in gross human anatomy is one of the important items in the subject for co-medical students of the physical therapist course. The physical therapy undergraduate students are required to have a solid understanding of the structure and formation of the human body. Therefore, their good-understanding of the course on the gross human anatomy and their experience of the gross human anatomy laboratory (observation practice) are acquired to improve their knowledge of the human body. To clarify the student responses to the gross human anatomy course including the gross human anatomy laboratory, several questionnaires were administered to the freshman physical therapy undergraduate student for two years. We found that more than 80% of the students, who felt a negative attitude for gross human anatomy before the course started, had a positive attitude about the gross human anatomy after going through the course. The experience of the gross human anatomy laboratory increased the students' activity of learning and they thought more about the dignity of being human after the course than before viewing. In addition, the results suggested that the multiple experiences of the gross human anatomy course are useful for the physical therapy undergraduate students to improve the quality of their understanding of the human body.

  3. A retrospective quality assessment of pre-hospital emergency medical documentation in motor vehicle accidents in south-eastern Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staff Trine

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have evaluated pre-hospital documentation quality. We retrospectively assessed emergency medical service (EMS documentation of key logistic, physiologic, and mechanistic variables in motor vehicle accidents (MVAs. Methods Records from police, Emergency Medical Communication Centers (EMCC, ground and air ambulances were retrospectively collected for 189 MVAs involving 392 patients. Documentation of Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS, respiratory rate (RR, and systolic blood pressure (SBP was classified as exact values, RTS categories, clinical descriptions enabling post-hoc inference of RTS categories, or missing. The distribution of values of exact versus inferred RTS categories were compared (Chi-square test for trend. Results 25% of ground and 11% of air ambulance records were unretrieveable. Patient name, birth date, and transport destination was documented in >96% of ambulance records and 81% of EMCC reports. Only 54% of patient encounter times were transmitted to the EMCC, but 77% were documented in ground and 96% in air ambulance records. Ground ambulance records documented exact values of GCS in 48% and SBP in 53% of cases, exact RR in 10%, and RR RTS categories in 54%. Clinical descriptions made post-hoc inference of RTS categories possible in another 49% of cases for GCS, 26% for RR, and 20% for SBP. Air ambulance records documented exact values of GCS in 89% and SBP in 84% of cases, exact RR in 7% and RR RTS categories in 80%. Overall, for lower RTS categories of GCS, RR and SBP the proportion of actual documented values to inferred values increased (All: p Conclusion EMS documentation of logistic and mechanistic variables was adequate. Patient physiology was frequently documented only as descriptive text. Our finding indicates a need for improved procedures, training, and tools for EMS documentation. Documentation is in itself a quality criterion for appropriate care and is crucial to trauma research.

  4. Anthropometric and motor development profiles of street children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With regard to the gross motor development, deficits were found with regard to running speed and agility, bilateral coordination and strength. Fine motor deficits were found in upper limb speed and dexterity, response speed and visual motor control. The neuromotor development of street children also showed deficits, ...

  5. 46 CFR 169.666 - Generators and motors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Generators and motors. 169.666 Section 169.666 Shipping... of Less Than 100 Gross Tons § 169.666 Generators and motors. (a) Each vessel of more than 65 feet in...) Each generator and motor must be in a location that is accessible, adequately ventilated, and as dry as...

  6. Alternative Measure of Wellbeing: Bhutan's Gross National ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    There is growing demand for innovative yet rigorous measures of national wellbeing beyond gross domestic product. In 2008, the Centre for Bhutan Studies - Bhutan's main policy research centre - posted data from a preliminary survey of the country's Gross National Happiness (GNH). The Centre for Bhutan Studies ...

  7. Relationship between motor proficiency and body composition in 6- to 10-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmeleira, José; Veiga, Guida; Cansado, Hugo; Raimundo, Armando

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between motor skill competence and body composition of 6- to 10-year-old children. Seventy girls and 86 boys participated. Body composition was measured by body mass index and skinfold thickness. Motor proficiency was evaluated through the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency-Short Form, which included measures of gross motor skills and fine motor skills. Significant associations were found for both sexes between the percentage of body fat and (i) the performance in each gross motor task, (ii) the composite score for gross motor skills and (iii) the motor proficiency score. The percentage of body fat was not significantly associated with the majority of the fine motor skills items and with the respective composite score. Considering body weigh categories, children with normal weight had significantly higher scores than their peers with overweight or with obesity in gross motor skills and in overall motor proficiency. Children's motor proficiency is negatively associated with body fat, and normal weight children show better motor competence than those who are overweight or obese. The negative impact of excessive body weight is stronger for gross motor skills that involve dynamic body movements than for stationary object control skills; fine motor skills appear to be relatively independent of the constraints imposed by excessive body weight. © 2017 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  8. Gross alpha and beta activities in Tunisian mineral water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamrouni Benbelgacem, Samar

    2011-01-01

    The quality of natural mineral water is a universal health problem seeing its vital importance. This problem is related to the presence of the radionuclides since this water is coming from underground, during their circulation it dissolves and conveys the radionuclides which are present in the earth's crust. This problem which leads to the contamination of the mineral water urged the World Health Organization to set standards and to recommend the respect of the median values of the activities alpha and beta within the framework of the man protection against this internal exhibition. Concerning the radiological quality of Tunisian mineral water studied in this project, we showed, by using the gross alpha and beta activities counting, that this water is specific to human consumption since their gross alpha and beta activities do not forward any risk on health.

  9. Motor skills of children with autistic spectrum disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zikl Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The contribution contains results of a research of motor skills of children with autistic spectrum disorder. The group of children represents besides major triad of symptoms, also described difficulties in the field of motor skills. Our aim to find out what motor skills of these children are in comparison with intact population and what differences are found in individual motor items, i.e. in fine motor skills, gross motor skills and in balance. The data was gained with the use of standardized Movement Assessment Battery test for Children 2 (MABC-2. Objective testing of this group of children is relatively difficult. There were successfully tested 36 children with ASD during this phase of research. The research demonstrated evident motor disorder at 86% of children in the observed sample. Statistically significant were worse results in the field of fine motor skills compared to the results in gross motor skills and balance.

  10. Signs of abnormal motor performance in preschool children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Šlachtová

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The determination of the level of motor development should be a common part of examinations performed by paediatricians, physiotherapists and also teachers. The importance has been increasing because of the prevalence of developmental coordination disorder. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to find the differences in performance of the selected motor tasks of gross motor function in preschoolers on both quantitative and qualitative parameters. METHODS: In the study 261 children were included, boys and girls aged 4–6 years (the average age 5.4 years attending regular kindergartens. We used motor tasks of standing on one leg and hopping. Significant differences in quantitative parameters were assessed by two-way ANOVA in Statistica (version 9 software. Relative frequency of characters in qualitative parameters was assessed by the test of the difference between two proportions. RESULTS: Significant differences between the age groups appeared in the quantitative parameters comparing 4 and 5 year old children and 4 and 6 year old children. Regardless of gender there were no differences between 5 year and 6 year old children. Overall, the girls mastered the tasks of the test better than the boys in the quantitative parameters of evaluation. From the evaluation of the quality of motor performance the most frequently reached performance in the tasks of the test has been described (relative frequency of characters. Significantly different motor performance from most children of the sample was observed particularly in the associated movements of limbs or trunk and face, showing for a reduced ability of selective relaxation at higher demands of the movement task. CONCLUSIONS: The different motor performance in observed parameters, showing for a reduced ability of selective relaxation, could be regarded as signs of abnormal motor performance in that age category.

  11. Motor Deficits of Girls with Down Syndrome in Comparing with Girls with Intellectual Disability in the School Ages Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Daftari-Anbardan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Motor function in children with Down syndrome is similar to mentally retarded children. But the movements are slower and have lower quality. The purpose of this study was to identify weaknesses in motor function in children with Down syndrome, by using Bruininks Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOTMP. Materials & Methods: In this cross-sectional study, thirty six children with intellectual disability, 18 girls with Down syndrome and 18 girls without Down syndrome, with chronological aged 8-13 years were investigated. The subjects of Down syndrome were selected by available sampling. The subjects of intellectual disability were selected by simple random sampling. Two groups of participants were matched for chronological age and IQ level. The measurement was BOTMP. Statistical analysis was performed using the Mann-Whitney U rank sum test and t-test. Results: The children with Down syndrome scored significantly lower than the mentally retarded children in the areas of gross motor skill composite (P<0.014 balance (P<0.029, response time (P<0.034 and visual motor control (P<0.048, but the fine motor and overlay motor skill composite, and subtests of bilateral coordination, strength, upper limb coordination scores were no significantly different between two groups. Conclusion: Motor rehabilitation is appropriate for children with intellectual disability, especially for children with Down syndrome, in throughout their adolescence. Key words: Motor skill/ Intellectual Disability/ Down syndrome/ BOTMP

  12. Relationship between the non-motor items of the MDS-UPDRS and Quality of Life in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorvanek, Matej; Rosenberger, Jaroslav; Minar, Michal; Grofik, Milan; Han, Vladimir; Groothoff, Johan W; Valkovic, Peter; Gdovinova, Zuzana; van Dijk, Jitse P

    2015-01-01

    The Movement Disorder Society-Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS) is a newly developed comprehensive tool to assess Parkinson's disease (PD), which covers a wider range of non-motor PD manifestations than the original UPDRS scale. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between the MDS-UPDRS and Quality of Life (QoL) and to analyze the relationship between individual MDS-UPDRS non-motor items and QoL. A total of 291 PD patients were examined in a multicenter Slovak study. Patients were assessed by the MDS-UPDRS, HY scale and PDQ39. Data were analyzed using the multiple regression analyses. The mean participant age was 68.0 ± 9.0 years, 53.5% were men, mean disease duration was 8.3 ± 5.3 years and mean HY was 2.7 ± 1.0. In a multiple regression analysis model the PDQ39 summary index was related to MDS-UPDRS parts II, I and IV respectively, but not to part III. Individual MDS-UPDRS non-motor items related to the PDQ39 summary index in the summary group and in the non-fluctuating patients subgroup were pain, fatigue and features of dopamine dysregulation syndrome (DDS). In the fluctuating PD patient subgroup, PDQ39 was related to pain and Depressed mood items. Other MDS-UPDRS non-motor items e.g. Anxious mood, Apathy, Cognitive impairment, Hallucinations and psychosis, Sleep problems, Daytime sleepiness and Urinary problems were related to some PDQ39 domains. The overall burden of NMS in PD is more important in terms of QoL than motor symptoms. Individual MDS-UPDRS non-motor items related to worse QoL are especially pain and other sensations, fatigue and features of DDS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Skeletal maturation, fundamental motor skills and motor coordination in children 7-10 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Duarte L; Lausen, Berthold; Maia, José António; Lefevre, Johan; Gouveia, Élvio Rúbio; Thomis, Martine; Antunes, António Manuel; Claessens, Albrecht L; Beunen, Gaston; Malina, Robert M

    2015-01-01

    Relationships between skeletal maturation and fundamental motor skills and gross motor coordination were evaluated in 429 children (213 boys and 216 girls) 7-10 years. Skeletal age was assessed (Tanner-Whitehouse 2 method), and stature, body mass, motor coordination (Körperkoordinations Test für Kinder, KTK) and fundamental motor skills (Test of Gross Motor Development, TGMD-2) were measured. Relationships among chronological age, skeletal age (expressed as the standardised residual of skeletal age on chronological age) and body size and fundamental motor skills and motor coordination were analysed with hierarchical multiple regression. Standardised residual of skeletal age on chronological age interacting with stature and body mass explained a maximum of 7.0% of the variance in fundamental motor skills and motor coordination over that attributed to body size per se. Standardised residual of skeletal age on chronological age alone accounted for a maximum of 9.0% of variance in fundamental motor skills, and motor coordination over that attributed to body size per se and interactions between standardised residual of skeletal age on chronological age and body size. In conclusion, skeletal age alone or interacting with body size has a negligible influence on fundamental motor skills and motor coordination in children 7-10 years.

  14. Understanding why an active video game intervention did not improve motor skill and physical activity in children with developmental coordination disorder: A quantity or quality issue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howie, Erin K; Campbell, Amity C; Abbott, Rebecca A; Straker, Leon M

    2017-01-01

    Active video games (AVGs) have been identified as a novel strategy to improve motor skill and physical activity in clinical populations. A recent cross-over randomized trial found AVGs to be ineffective at improving motor skill and physical activity in the home-environment for children with or at-risk for developmental coordination disorder (DCD). The study purpose was to better understand why the intervention had been ineffective by examining the quantity and quality of AVG play during an AVG intervention for children with or at-risk for DCD. Participants (n=21, ages 9-12) completed the 16 week AVG intervention. Detailed quantitative and qualitative data were systematically triangulated to obtain the quantity of exposure (AVG exposure over time, patterns of exposure) and quality of use (game selection, facilitators and barriers to play). The median AVG dose (range 30-35min/day) remained relatively stable across the intervention and met the prescribed dose. Play quality was impacted by game selection, difficulty playing games, lack of time, illness, technical difficulties and boredom. The ineffectiveness of a home-based AVG intervention may be due to quality of play. Strategies to improve the quality of game play may help realize the potential benefits of AVGs as a clinical tool for children with DCD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Individual Differences in Language Development: Relationship with Motor Skill at 21 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcock, Katherine J.; Krawczyk, Kirsty

    2010-01-01

    Language development has long been associated with motor development, particularly manual gesture. We examined a variety of motor abilities--manual gesture including symbolic, meaningless and sequential memory, oral motor control, gross and fine motor control--in 129 children aged 21 months. Language abilities were assessed and cognitive and…

  16. Using Achievement Goal Theory in Motor Skill Instruction: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Kara K; Chinn, Katherine M; Robinson, Leah E

    2017-12-01

    Over the past two decades, achievement goal theory (AGT) has been used as a theoretical framework to design and implement motor skill programming in young children. The purpose of this systematic review was to examine the effects of AGT in motor skill interventions and programming in children aged 0-12 years. This systematic literature search was conducted using three databases: Google Scholar, PubMed, and EBSCOhost. Studies were included if they met the following four inclusion criteria: (1) had an intervention with a gross motor outcome, (2) used an intervention grounded in AGT, (3) included young children (aged 0-12 years), and (4) were written in English. Studies were rated according to methodological reporting quality. All literature searches and reporting were consistent with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) protocol. A total of 12 studies met all inclusion criteria and were included in the sample. All studies reported that AGT motor skill interventions were effective for improving motor skills in young children. Studies varied in regard to intervention groups, duration, dosage, and the personnel responsible for implementing the intervention. None of the included studies met the requirements to be considered as having high methodological quality. Based on these findings, AGT is an effective theoretical approach for designing and implementing motor skill interventions for young children.

  17. The Gross-Llewellyn Smith sum rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, W.G.

    1981-01-01

    We present the most recent data on the Gross-Llewellyn Smith sum rule obtained from the combined BEBC Narrow Band Neon and GGM-PS Freon neutrino/antineutrino experiments. The data for the Gross-Llewellyn Smith sum rule as a function of q 2 suggest a smaller value for the QCD coupling constant parameter Λ than is obtained from the analysis of the higher moments. (author)

  18. Motor Neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounsgaard, Jorn

    2017-01-01

    Motor neurons translate synaptic input from widely distributed premotor networks into patterns of action potentials that orchestrate motor unit force and motor behavior. Intercalated between the CNS and muscles, motor neurons add to and adjust the final motor command. The identity and functional...... in in vitro preparations is far from complete. Nevertheless, a foundation has been provided for pursuing functional significance of intrinsic response properties in motoneurons in vivo during motor behavior at levels from molecules to systems....

  19. Motor Skill Competence and Perceived Motor Competence: Which Best Predicts Physical Activity among Girls?

    OpenAIRE

    Khodaverdi, Zeinab; Bahram, Abbas; Khalaji, Hassan; Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background The main purpose of this study was to determine which correlate, perceived motor competence or motor skill competence, best predicts girls? physical activity behavior. Methods A sample of 352 girls (mean age=8.7, SD=0.3 yr) participated in this study. To assess motor skill competence and perceived motor competence, each child completed the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 and Physical Ability sub-scale of Marsh?s Self-Description Questionnaire. Children?s physical activit...

  20. Requirement of radiochemical recovery determination for gross alpha and gross beta estimation in drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raveendran, Nanda; Rao, D.D.; Hegde, A.G.

    2010-01-01

    Presence of radionuclides in drinking water which emits Alpha and Beta particles are the potential sources of internal exposure in drinking water. Gross alpha and gross beta determination in drinking water and packaged drinking water (PDW) as per BIS (Bureau of Indian standards) standards is discussed here. The methods have been tested to account for losses in the radiochemical procedures using radionuclides such as 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 226 Ra, 239 Pu, 243 Am, 232 U. The methods have also been validated in an IAEA proficiency test conducted during 2009. Monitoring of gross alpha and gross beta activity observed in drinking water/packaged drinking water from various states of India were within the limits set by BIS. Average radiochemical recoveries of 84% and 63% were obtained for gross α and gross β respectively. (author)

  1. The Level of motor Skills of the First Grade Pupils

    OpenAIRE

    HEJLOVÁ, Kateřina

    2011-01-01

    The thesis focuses on motor abilities of children from birth to the age of eight years. It outlines the development of gross motor skills, fine motor skills and micromotor skills, and methods how to help children develop these particular areas. The level of motor skills is determined by method of testing in first graders from Stonařov, Pavlov, Třešť and České Budějovice.

  2. Organization of Physical Activities as a Precondition of Quality Development of Motor Abilities of Pre-School and School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Živorad

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In their work authors consider the significance of the organization of physical activities for the development of abilities of pre-school and school children. Led by theoretical basis that physical development of children represents the basis of their whole development, and that “fine motor skills” are determined by the development of its large motorics, the authors point to the significance of the content and structure of physical education programme in preschool institutions and younger age school classes. It is evident that the effects of cultivating of children development during preschool period can be seen in younger primary school classes. The goal of this research was to determine if and how much the different organization of preparatory part of physical education lesson for younger school children, determines the differences in the development of their motor abilities. By the use of experimental method, the effects of prolonged preparatory part of a lesson in younger school classes. This part was realized through complex of exercises which were supposed to have influence on transformation of motor abilities in relation to the structure with standard duration of certain parts of a lesson. It is determined that certain increase in body movement of students during physical activity can significantly contribute to better development of motor abilities. These abilities determine correct physical development and strengthening of health, which determines general aim of physical education.

  3. Is there an association among actual motor competence, perceived motor competence, physical activity, and sedentary behavior in preschool children?

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, Vítor P.; Barnett, L.M.; Rodrigues, Luis Paulo

    2016-01-01

    The purpose is to explore relationships among moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA), sedentary behavior (SB), and actual gross motor competence (MC) and perceived motor competence (PMC) in young children. Data were collected in 101 children (M age = 4.9 ± 0.93 years). MVPA was measured with accelerometry. Gross MC was assessed with the Portuguese version of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children. PMC was evaluated with the Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Social Accep...

  4. The Comparison of Traditional Exercises & Body Weight Supported Training (BWST Exercises on Sensory-Motor Function, Quality and Quantity of Walking in Paraplegic Spinal Cord Injured Persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Raeisi-dehkordi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was the comparison of traditional exercises & body weight supported training (BWST exercises on sensory-motor function, quality and quantity of walking in paraplegic spinal cord injured persons. Materials & Methods: 17 voluntary paraplegic spinal cord injured persons (Asia B,C, age 32.53±1.793 years, height 175.71±1.658 cm, weight 71.59±2.442 kg, and body mass index (BMI 23.18 ± 0.828 kg/m2 availability. The subjects were randomly assigned to BWSTT group (N=10 and Traditional exercises group (N=7 according to sensory and motor score. The subjects trained for 12 weeks, four times per week and 60 min per session. BWSTT include 15 min warm-up on fixed gear bike, 45 min BWSTT with 50% body weight and 10 min cold-down finally. 10% load was added each week. Traditional exercises included 15 min warm-up plus 45 min stretch exercise and resistance training. Results: The data showed that there were significant differences in changes of sensory function Pin score (P=0.002 and Light Score (P=0.002 sensory function, motor function (P=0.000, Walking index Spinal cord injury (WISCI (P=0.002, 6 min walking test (P=0.001 and 10 meter walking (P=0.001 between BWSTT and traditional exercise. Conclusion: BWSTT in comparison with traditional exercise can improve sensory-motor function and quality and quantity of walking in paraplegic spinal cord injured persons.

  5. Organization of Physical Activities as a Precondition of Quality Development of Motor Abilities of Pre-School and School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovic, Živorad; Kopas-Vukašinovic, Emina

    2015-01-01

    In their work authors consider the significance of the organization of physical activities for the development of abilities of pre-school and school children. Led by theoretical basis that physical development of children represents the basis of their whole development, and that "fine motor skills" are determined by the development of…

  6. Relations among motor, social, and cognitive skills in pre-kindergarten children with developmental disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Helyn; Carlson, Abby G; Curby, Timothy W; Winsler, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Despite the comorbidity between motor difficulties and certain disabilities, limited research has examined links between early motor, cognitive, and social skills in preschool-aged children with developmental disabilities. The present study examined the relative contributions of gross motor and fine motor skills to the prediction of improvements in children's cognitive and social skills among 2,027 pre-kindergarten children with developmental disabilities, including specific learning disorder, speech/language impairment, intellectual disability, and autism spectrum disorder. Results indicated that for pre-kindergarten children with developmental disabilities, fine motor skills, but not gross motor skills, were predictive of improvements in cognitive and social skills, even after controlling for demographic information and initial skill levels. Moreover, depending on the type of developmental disability, the pattern of prediction of gross motor and fine motor skills to improvements in children's cognitive and social skills differed. Implications are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Gross alpha and gross beta determination in surface and groundwater water by liquid scintillation counting (LSC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faria, Ligia S.; Moreira, Rubens M.

    2013-01-01

    The present study has used 40 samples of groundwater and surface water collected at four different sites along the period of one year in Brumadinho and Nova Lima, two municipalities in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, as part of a more extensive study aiming at determination of the natural radioactivity in the water used for domestic use. These two sites are inside an Environmental Protection Area is located in a region of very intensive iron ore exploration. In addition of mineral resources, the region has a geological characteristic that includes quartzitic conglomerates associated with uranium. Radioactivity levels were determined via liquid scintillation counting (LSC), a fast and high counting efficiency method that can be advantageously employed to determine gross alpha and gross beta activity in liquid samples. Previously to gross alpha and gross beta counting the samples were acidified with concentrated HNO 3 in the field. The technique involved a pre-concentration of the sample to obtain a low detection limit. Specific details of the employed methodology are commented. The results showed that concentrations of gross alpha natural activity and gross beta values ranged from less than the detection limit of the equipment (0.03 Bq.L -1 ) to 0.275 ± 0.05 Bq.L -1 for gross alpha. As regards gross beta, all samples were below the limit of detection. (author)

  8. An evaluation of the total quality management implementation strategy for the advanced solid rocket motor project at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. M.S. Thesis - Tennessee Univ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, Harry F.; Sullivan, Kenneth W.

    1991-01-01

    An evaluation of the NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) strategy to implement Total Quality Management (TQM) in the Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) Project is presented. The evaluation of the implementation strategy reflected the Civil Service personnel perspective at the project level. The external and internal environments at MSFC were analyzed for their effects on the ASRM TQM strategy. Organizational forms, cultures, management systems, problem solving techniques, and training were assessed for their influence on the implementation strategy. The influence of ASRM's effort was assessed relative to its impact on mature projects as well as future projects at MSFC.

  9. Measurement of gross alpha and gross beta activity concentrations in human tooth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soeguet, Omer; Aydin, Mehmet Fatih; Kuecuekoender, Erdal; Zorer, Ozlem Selcuk; Dogru, Mahmut

    2010-01-01

    The gross alpha and gross beta activity concentrations were measured in human tooth taken from 3 to 6 age-groups to 40 and over ones. Accumulated teeth samples are investigated in two groups as under and above 18 years. The gross alpha and beta radioactivity of human tooth samples was measured by using a gas-flow proportional counter (PIC-MPC 9604-α/β counter). In tooth samples, for female age-groups, the obtained results show that the mean gross alpha and gross beta activity concentrations varied between 0.534-0.203 and 0.010-0.453 Bq g -1 and the same concentrations for male age-groups varied between 0.009-1.168 and 0.071-0.204 Bq g -1 , respectively.

  10. Motor Skill Competence and Perceived Motor Competence: Which Best Predicts Physical Activity among Girls?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodaverdi, Zeinab; Bahram, Abbas; Khalaji, Hassan; Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan

    2013-10-01

    The main purpose of this study was to determine which correlate, perceived motor competence or motor skill competence, best predicts girls' physical activity behavior. A sample of 352 girls (mean age=8.7, SD=0.3 yr) participated in this study. To assess motor skill competence and perceived motor competence, each child completed the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 and Physical Ability sub-scale of Marsh's Self-Description Questionnaire. Children's physical activity was assessed by the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children. Multiple linear regression model was used to determine whether perceived motor competence or motor skill competence best predicts moderate-to-vigorous self-report physical activity. Multiple regression analysis indicated that motor skill competence and perceived motor competence predicted 21% variance in physical activity (R(2)=0.21, F=48.9, P=0.001), and motor skill competence (R(2)=0.15, ᵝ=0.33, P= 0.001) resulted in more variance than perceived motor competence (R(2)=0.06, ᵝ=0.25, P=0.001) in physical activity. Results revealed motor skill competence had more influence in comparison with perceived motor competence on physical activity level. We suggest interventional programs based on motor skill competence and perceived motor competence should be administered or implemented to promote physical activity in young girls.

  11. 26 CFR 1.61-1 - Gross income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gross income. 1.61-1 Section 1.61-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Definition of Gross Income, Adjusted Gross Income, and Taxable Income § 1.61-1 Gross...

  12. Evaluation of free i-applications for tertiary level gross anatomy education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew F. Pollard

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe use of electronic resources in education, including i-applications used on portable handheld devices, is increasing. Apple® handheld devices are popular, with free applications the most prevalent download form. Many gross anatomy i-applications are available, however no information on the quality of free anatomy products is available. Rating such products could therefore guide product recommendations.AimTo evaluate the quality and range of free iPod® applications that are applicable for tertiary level gross anatomy education.MethodsA search of the iTunes® Application Store with keywords anatomy, free, medical, functional, clinical, gross, and human was performed, with inclusion based on free applications containing human gross anatomy usable for tertiary education purposes. Application specification was noted; each was trialled independently and rated for usability, specification, academic level, and quality (image and programme.ResultsSixty-three applications were identified and eleven met inclusion criteria. Two provided gross anatomy of the entire body, nine examined specific regions or systems. Five were judged introductory in academic level, five intermediate, and one advanced. One application was rated low quality, and four excellent. None were considered difficult to use (six easy, five medium. Application size ranged between 1.2MB and 229MB (mean 27MB.ConclusionsThere are few free i-applications for learning gross anatomy and most concentrate on individual body systems, with the academic level and usability of all products well rated. Results suggest some free I-applications could be suitable adjuncts for gross anatomy education at both an undergraduate and graduate level.

  13. Gross Revenue risk in Swiss dairy farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benni, El N.; Finger, R.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated how agricultural policy reforms, including market liberalization and market deregulation, have influenced gross revenue risk of Swiss dairy producers using farm-level panel data between 1990 and 2009. Based on detrended data, variance decomposition was applied to assess how

  14. Relations between Playing Activities and Fine Motor Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suggate, Sebastian; Stoeger, Heidrun; Pufke, Eva

    2017-01-01

    Children's fine motor skills (FMS) are being increasingly recognized as an important aspect of preschool development; yet, we know very little about the experiences that foster their development. We utilized a parent-administered children's fine and gross motor activities questionnaire (MAQ) to investigate links with FMS. We recruited a sample of…

  15. Motor Skills of Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Meghann; MacDonald, Megan; Lord, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    With increased interest in the early diagnosis and treatment of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), more attention has been called to the motor skills of very young children with ASD. This study describes the gross and fine motor skills of a cross-sectional group of 162 children with ASD between the ages of 12 and 36 months, as well as…

  16. The Dutch motor skills assessment as tool for talent development in table tennis: a reproducibility and validity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, Irene R; Nijhuis-Van Der Sanden, Maria W G; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T; Oosterveld, Frits G J

    2015-01-01

    A motor skills assessment could be helpful in talent development by estimating essential perceptuo-motor skills of young players, which are considered requisite to develop excellent technical and tactical qualities. The Netherlands Table Tennis Association uses a motor skills assessment in their talent development programme consisting of eight items measuring perceptuo-motor skills specific to table tennis under varying conditions. This study aimed to investigate this assessment regarding its reproducibility, internal consistency, underlying dimensions and concurrent validity in 113 young table tennis players (6-10 years). Intraclass correlation coefficients of six test items met the criteria of 0.7 with coefficients of variation between 3% and 8%. Cronbach's alpha valued 0.853 for internal consistency. The principal components analysis distinguished two conceptually meaningful factors: "ball control" and "gross motor function." Concurrent validity analyses demonstrated moderate associations between the motor skills assessment's results and national ranking; boys r = -0.53 (P motor skills assessment seems to be a reproducible, objective part of a talent development programme, more longitudinal studies are required to investigate its predictive validity.

  17. Obesity leads to declines in motor skills across childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, J; East, P; Blanco, E; Sim, E Kang; Castillo, M; Lozoff, B; Gahagan, S

    2016-05-01

    Poor motor skills have been consistently linked with a higher body weight in childhood, but the causal direction of this association is not fully understood. This study investigated the temporal ordering between children's motor skills and weight status at 5 and 10 years. Participants were 668 children (54% male) who were studied from infancy as part of an iron deficiency anaemia preventive trial and follow-up study in Santiago, Chile. All were healthy, full-term and weighing 3 kg or more at birth. Cross-lagged panel modelling was conducted to understand the temporal precedence between children's weight status and motor proficiency. Analyses also examined differences in gross and fine motor skills among healthy weight, overweight, and obese children. A higher BMI at 5 years contributed to declines in motor proficiency from 5 to 10 years. There was no support for the reverse, that is, poor motor skills at 5 years did not predict increases in relative weight from 5 to 10 years. Obesity at 5 years also predicted declines in motor proficiency. When compared with normal weight children, obese children had significantly poorer total and gross motor skills at both 5 and 10 years. Overweight children had poorer total and gross motor skills at 10 years only. The differences in total and gross motor skills among normal weight, overweight and obese children appear to increase with age. There were small differences in fine motor skill between obese and non-obese children at 5 years only. Obesity preceded declines in motor skills and not the reverse. Study findings suggest that early childhood obesity intervention efforts might help prevent declines in motor proficiency that, in turn, may positively impact children's physical activity and overall fitness levels. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Impact of Helminth Infection during Pregnancy on Cognitive and Motor Functions of One-Year-Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mireku, Michael O.; Boivin, Michael J.; Davidson, Leslie L.; Ouédraogo, Smaïla; Koura, Ghislain K.; Alao, Maroufou J.; Massougbodji, Achille; Cot, Michel; Bodeau-Livinec, Florence

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the effect of helminth infection during pregnancy on the cognitive and motor functions of one-year-old children. Methods Six hundred and thirty five singletons born to pregnant women enrolled before 29 weeks of gestation in a trial comparing two intermittent preventive treatments for malaria were assessed for cognitive and motor functions using the Mullen Scales of Early Learning, in the TOVI study, at twelve months of age in the district of Allada in Benin. Stool samples of pregnant women were collected at recruitment, second antenatal care (ANC) visit (at least one month after recruitment) and just before delivery, and were tested for helminths using the Kato-Katz technique. All pregnant women were administered a total of 600 mg of mebendazole (100 mg two times daily for 3 days) to be taken after the first ANC visit. The intake was not directly observed. Results Prevalence of helminth infection was 11.5%, 7.5% and 3.0% at first ANC visit, second ANC visit and at delivery, respectively. Children of mothers who were infected with hookworms at the first ANC visit had 4.9 (95% CI: 1.3–8.6) lower mean gross motor scores compared to those whose mothers were not infected with hookworms at the first ANC visit, in the adjusted model. Helminth infection at least once during pregnancy was associated with infant cognitive and gross motor functions after adjusting for maternal education, gravidity, child sex, family possessions, and quality of the home stimulation. Conclusion Helminth infection during pregnancy is associated with poor cognitive and gross motor outcomes in infants. Measures to prevent helminth infection during pregnancy should be reinforced. PMID:25756357

  19. Parent-reported quality of life of children with cerebral palsy in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnaud, Catherine; White-Koning, Melanie; I. Michelsen, Susan

    2008-01-01

    : The parental response rates were >93% for all domains except one. Gross motor function and IQ level were found to be associated independently with quality of life in most domains. However, greater severity of impairment was not always associated with poorer quality of life; in the moods and emotions, self-perception......, social acceptance, and school environment domains, less severely impaired children were more likely to have poor quality of life. Pain was associated with poor quality of life in the physical and psychological well-being and self-perception domains. Parents with higher levels of stress were more likely...

  20. Programme to encourage the development of fine motor skills with a girl with developmental delay

    OpenAIRE

    Ivančič, Urška

    2017-01-01

    Movement plays an important role in the integral development of a child. Good motor skills facilitate learning and thus they consequently have a positive impact on improved learning success. The theoretical part presents the importance and role of gross motor skills and its relationship to the development of fine motor skills. More specifically, we have focused on the following: the course of development of fine motor skills, the impact fine motor skills have on the child and we have also loo...

  1. Motor skills in kindergarten: Internal structure, cognitive correlates and relationships to background variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberer, Nicole; Gashaj, Venera; Roebers, Claudia M

    2017-04-01

    The present study aimed to contribute to the discussion about the relation between motor coordination and executive functions in preschool children. Specifically, the relation between gross and fine motor skills and executive functions as well as the relation to possible background variables (SES, physical activity) were investigated. Based on the data of N=156 kindergarten children the internal structure of motor skills was investigated and confirmed the theoretically assumed subdivision of gross and fine motor skills. Both, gross and fine motor skills correlated significantly with executive functions, whereas the background variables seemed to have no significant impact on the executive functions and motor skills. Higher order control processes are discussed as an explanation of the relation between executive functions and motor skills. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of robotic treadmill training on functional mobility, walking capacity, motor symptoms and quality of life in ambulatory patients with Parkinson's disease: a preliminary prospective longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paker, Nurdan; Bugdayci, Derya; Goksenoglu, Goksen; Sen, Aysu; Kesiktas, Nur

    2013-01-01

    Decreased mobility and walking capacity occur frequently in Parkinson's disease (PD). Robotic treadmill training is a novel method to improve the walking capacity in rehabilitation. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the effects of robotic treadmill training on functional mobility and walking capacity in PD. Secondly, we aimed to assess the effects of the robotic treadmill training the motor symptoms and quality of life in patients with PD. Seventy patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease who admitted to the outpatient clinic of the rehabilitation hospital were screened and 12 ambulatory volenteers who met the study criteria were included in this study. Patients were evaluated by Hoehn Yahr (HY) scale clinically. Two sessions robotic treadmill training per week during 5 weeks was planned for every patient. Patients were evaluated by the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test, 10 meter walking test (10 MWT), Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) motor section and Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire-39 (PDQ-39) at the baseline, at the 5 and 12 weeks. Cognitive and emotional states of the patients were assessed by Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) test and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) at the baseline. All patients were under medical treatment for the PD in this study and drug treatment was not changed during the study. Ten patients completed the study. The mean age was 65.6 ± 6.6 years. Five patients (50%) were women. Disease severity was between the HY stage 1-3. Two patients did not continue the robotic treadmill training after 7 sessions. They also did not want to come for control visits. TUG test, 10 MWT and UPDRS motor subscale scores showed statistically significant improvement after robotic treadmill training (p = 0.02, p = 0.001, p = 0.016). PDQ-39 scores improved significantly after robotic treadmill training (p = 0.03), however, the scores turned back to the baseline level at the 12. week control. As a result of this

  3. Determination of gross gamma and gross beta activities in liquid effluent samples. Phase I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, K.E.; Sood, S.P.

    1985-08-01

    Several inadequacies in the presently used procedures for gross gamma and gross beta measurements in aqueous wastes have been identified. Both the presence of suspended particulate activity and the use of cesium-137 as a calibration standard can cause gross gamma measurements to overestimate the actual activity in the sample. At the same time, sample preparation for the determination of gross beta activities causes large losses of radioiodine before the measurement step and the presence of solid material can cause a serious decrease in the beta counting efficiency. A combination of these errors could result in large discrepancies between the results obtained by the two measurement methods. Improved procedures are required to overcome these problems

  4. A Group Motor Skills Program for Children with Coordination Difficulties: Effect on Fundamental Movement Skills and Physical Activity Participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Kyra J; Staples, Kerri L

    2016-01-01

    Children with coordination difficulties are at risk of low levels of physical activity (PA) participation. This intervention examined the effects of a multidisciplinary program that emphasized parent participation on motor skill performance and PA. Ten boys (5-7 years) completed a group program consisting of conditioning exercises and activities designed to address child-selected goals. Motor proficiency and PA participation were assessed before and after the program using the Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD-2) and triaxial accelerometers, respectively. Rating scales captured child and parent perceptions of performance for each child's goals. TGMD-2 subtest raw scores, age equivalent and percentile scores improved, along with parent ratings of their child's performance. Six children reported skill improvements. On average, moderate to vigorous PA improved by 10 min per day although these gains were not significant. Time spent in sedentary activities was unchanged. None of the children met the Canadian PA and sedentary behaviour guidelines. The results support effectiveness of a group program to improve gross motor performance and levels of PA in children with coordination difficulties. Gains in both of these domains also have the potential to impact quality of life and reduce health risks associated with inactivity.

  5. Activity level of gross α and gross β in airborne aerosol samples around the Qinshan NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Bin; Ye Jida; Chen Qianyuan; Wu Xiaofei; Song Weili; Wang Hongfeng

    2007-01-01

    The monitoring results of gross α and gross 13 activity from 2001 to 2005 for environmental airborne aerosol samples around the Qinshan NPP base are presented in this paper. A total of 170 aerosol samples were collected from monitoring sites of Caichenmen village, Qinlian village, Xiajiawan village and Yangliucun village around the Qinshan NPP base. The measured specific activity of gross α and gross β are in the range of 0.02-0.38 mBq/m 3 and 0.10-1.81 mBq/m 3 , respectively, with an average of 0.11 mBq/m 3 and 0.45mBq/m 3 , respectively. They are lower than the average of 0.15 mBq/m 3 and 0.52 mBq/m 3 , of reference site at Hangzhou City. It is indicated that the specific activity of gross α and gross β for environmental aerosol samples around the Qinshan NPP base had not been increased in normal operating conditions of the NPP. (authors)

  6. Gross alpha and beta activities in drinking water from Goias State, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mingote, Raquel M. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Nogueira, Regina A.; Costa, Heliana F. da, E-mail: raquel.mingote@cdtn.br, E-mail: rnogueira@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: heliana@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Centro-Oeste (CRCN-CO/CNEN), Abadia de Goias, GO (Brazil). Parque Estadual Telma Ortegal

    2017-07-01

    Detection of gross alpha and beta radioactivity is important for a quick surveying of both natural and anthropogenic radioactivity in water. Furthermore, gross alpha and gross beta parameters are included in Brazilian legislation on quality of drinking water. In this work, a low background liquid scintillation spectrometer was used to simultaneously determine gross alpha and gross beta in samples of the public water supplies in the state of Goias, Brazil, during 2010-2015. Sample preparation involved evaporation to concentrate the sample ten-fold. The results indicate that the water meets the radioactivity standards required by the regulations MS 2914/2011 of the Brazilian Department of Health. Concerning the high level of censored observations, a statistical treatment of data was conducted by using analysis methods of censored data to provide a reference value of the gross alpha and beta radioactivity in drinking water from the state of Goias. The estimated typical activities are very low, 0.030 Bq•L{sup -1} and 0.058 Bq•L{sup -1}, respectively. (author)

  7. TERATOGENIC EFFECTS OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES: GROSS ANOMALIES

    OpenAIRE

    Jyoti Prakash; Rajniti; Deepika; Royana

    2015-01-01

    BACK GROUND: Prenatal exposure of AgNPs can induces devastative and detrimental effect in the organogenesis period of the developing embryos and foetuses. Organogenesis period is highly condemnatory and persuadable. Any injury to embryo during this period leads to dysmorphogenesis or even death AIM: The present study means to evaluate the gross anomalies on developing f o etus subsequent to silver nanoparticle ingestion during the gestational period. ...

  8. Motor Skill Development in Italian Pre-School Children Induced by Structured Activities in a Specific Playground.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Tortella

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects and specificity of structured and unstructured activities played at the playground Primo Sport 0246 in Northern Italy on motor skill competence in five years old children. The playground was specifically designed to promote gross motor skills in preschool children; in this study 71 children from local kindergartens came to the park once a week for ten consecutive weeks and were exposed to 30 minutes of free play and 30 minutes of structured activities. Before and after the ten visits, each child completed nine tests to assess levels of motor skills, three for fine-motor skills and six for gross-motor skills. As control, motor skills were also assessed on 39 children from different kindergartens who did not come to the park. The results show that the experimental group who practiced gross-motor activities in the playground for 1 hour a week for 10 weeks improved significantly in 4 out of the 6 gross motor tasks and in none of the fine motor tasks. The data indicate that limited transfer occurred between tasks referring to different domains of motor competences while suggesting cross feeding for improvement of gross-motor skills between different exercises when domains related to physical fitness and strength of specific muscle groups are involved. These results are relevant to the issue of condition(s appropriate for maintaining and developing motor skills in this age group as well as for the planning, organization and implementation of play and physical activities in kindergartens.

  9. Motor Skill Development in Italian Pre-School Children Induced by Structured Activities in a Specific Playground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortella, Patrizia; Haga, Monika; Loras, Håvard; Sigmundsson, Hermundur; Fumagalli, Guido

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects and specificity of structured and unstructured activities played at the playground Primo Sport 0246 in Northern Italy on motor skill competence in five years old children. The playground was specifically designed to promote gross motor skills in preschool children; in this study 71 children from local kindergartens came to the park once a week for ten consecutive weeks and were exposed to 30 minutes of free play and 30 minutes of structured activities. Before and after the ten visits, each child completed nine tests to assess levels of motor skills, three for fine-motor skills and six for gross-motor skills. As control, motor skills were also assessed on 39 children from different kindergartens who did not come to the park. The results show that the experimental group who practiced gross-motor activities in the playground for 1 hour a week for 10 weeks improved significantly in 4 out of the 6 gross motor tasks and in none of the fine motor tasks. The data indicate that limited transfer occurred between tasks referring to different domains of motor competences while suggesting cross feeding for improvement of gross-motor skills between different exercises when domains related to physical fitness and strength of specific muscle groups are involved. These results are relevant to the issue of condition(s) appropriate for maintaining and developing motor skills in this age group as well as for the planning, organization and implementation of play and physical activities in kindergartens.

  10. Motor Skill Development in Italian Pre-School Children Induced by Structured Activities in a Specific Playground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortella, Patrizia; Haga, Monika; Loras, Håvard

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects and specificity of structured and unstructured activities played at the playground Primo Sport 0246 in Northern Italy on motor skill competence in five years old children. The playground was specifically designed to promote gross motor skills in preschool children; in this study 71 children from local kindergartens came to the park once a week for ten consecutive weeks and were exposed to 30 minutes of free play and 30 minutes of structured activities. Before and after the ten visits, each child completed nine tests to assess levels of motor skills, three for fine-motor skills and six for gross-motor skills. As control, motor skills were also assessed on 39 children from different kindergartens who did not come to the park. The results show that the experimental group who practiced gross-motor activities in the playground for 1 hour a week for 10 weeks improved significantly in 4 out of the 6 gross motor tasks and in none of the fine motor tasks. The data indicate that limited transfer occurred between tasks referring to different domains of motor competences while suggesting cross feeding for improvement of gross-motor skills between different exercises when domains related to physical fitness and strength of specific muscle groups are involved. These results are relevant to the issue of condition(s) appropriate for maintaining and developing motor skills in this age group as well as for the planning, organization and implementation of play and physical activities in kindergartens. PMID:27462985

  11. The informative value of motor, mental, and moral qualities in the personality structure of preschool children aged 4 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pangelova N.E.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was to determine the presence or usefulness of the main components of the relationship of physical and psycho-physiological state in the personality structure of children of preschool age. The experiment involved 107 children aged 4 years (54 male, 53 female. Factor analysis of the structure of the motor system, the intellectual and moral sphere of children. Found that it is determined six orthogonal factors. The results give reason to believe that the development of the physical, intellectual and moral sphere of children of this age is complex. The interpretation of these data in the pedagogical aspect suggests that pre-school children are becoming a person under the influence of biological and psychological factors. Their activation is possible in the process of physical education.

  12. A Method Validation for Determination of Gross Alpha and Gross Beta in Water Sample Using Low Background Gross Alpha/ Beta Counting System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zal Uyun Wan Mahmood; Norfaizal Mohamed; Nita Salina Abu Bakar

    2016-01-01

    Method validation (MV) for the measurement of gross alpha and gross beta activity in water (drinking, mineral and environmental) samples using Low Background Gross Alpha/ Beta Counting System was performed to characterize precision, accuracy and reliable results. The main objective of this assignment is to ensure that both the instrument and method always good performed and resulting accuracy and reliable results. Generally, almost the results of estimated RSD, z-score and U_s_c_o_r_e were reliable which are recorded as ≤30 %, less than 2 and less than 1.5, respectively. Minimum Detected Activity (MDA) was estimated based on the counting time of 100 minutes and present background counting value of gross alpha (0.01 - 0.35 cpm) and gross beta (0.50 - 2.18 cpm). Estimated Detection Limit (DL) was 0.1 Bq/ L for gross alpha and 0.2 Bq/ L for gross beta and expended uncertainty was relatively small of 9.77 % for gross alpha and 10.57 % for gross beta. Align with that, background counting for gross alpha and gross beta was ranged of 0.01 - 0.35 cpm and 0.50 - 2.18 cpm, respectively. While, sample volume was set at minimum of 500 mL and maximum of 2000 mL. These proven the accuracy and precision result that are generated from developed method/ technique is satisfactory and method is recommended to be used. Therefore, it can be concluded that the MV found no doubtful on the ability of the developed method. The test result showed the method is suitable for all types of water samples which are contained several radionuclides and elements as well as any impurities that interfere the measurement analysis of gross alpha and gross beta. (author)

  13. Possible linkage between visual and motor development in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew, Helen; Lee, Hee Song; Lee, Jae Yeun; Song, Junyoung; Min, Kyunghoon; Kim, MinYoung

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine ophthalmic disorders associated with neurological disorders in children with cerebral palsy. Children clinically diagnosed as cerebral palsy with supportive abnormal magnetic resonance imaging results were included in this prospective study. All participants were recommended to have comprehensive ophthalmic exams. To assess motor function, the Gross Motor Function Classification System and the Gross Motor Function Measure were used. To assess motor and cognitive function, the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II was used. Forty-seven children completed all the evaluations and the data were analyzed. Ametropia was seen in 78.7% and strabismus was seen in 44.7% of the 47 children. When subjects were divided into severely impaired and mildly impaired groups based on Gross Motor Function Classification System level, ametropia was more prevalent in the severely impaired than the mildly impaired (95.8% versus 60.9%, P gross motor impairment correlated with the degree of refractive error in the subjects older than 36 months (r = -0.65 for the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II motor scale, P gross motor function have a high possibility of severe refractive disorder that becomes evident from 36 months after birth. These results suggest that brain injury and impaired motor development negatively affect ophthalmic development. Hence, an ophthalmic examination is recommended for young children with cerebral palsy to start early management. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. 75 FR 78897 - Definition of Omission From Gross Income

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-17

    ... Definition of Omission From Gross Income AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Final regulations. SUMMARY: This document contains final regulations defining an omission from gross income for... overstatement of basis in a sold asset results in an omission from gross income. The regulations will affect any...

  15. Comparison of the quality of life in cerebral palsy children with physical therapy more and less than 10 months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Anggreany

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Cerebral palsy (CP is the most common cause of severe physical disability in childhood. These limitations may cause lower level experience or quality of life (QoL. Physical therapy (PT plays a central role in managing CP. Objective To compare QoL in CP children with PT more and less than 10 months and to compare gross motoric level before and after PT. Methods A cross sectional study was performed from June 2012 to March 2013 in Medan. Eligible population were four to twelve year old CP children who received PT. Subjects were divided into 2 group, group I was CP children with PT more than 10 months, group II was CP children with PT less than 10 months. Parents were asked to fill CP QOL questionnaires. To evaluate motor impairment level we used gross motor function classification system (GMFCS that classified the motoric impairment into 5 levels. Data was analyzed by using independent T-test and MannWhitney U test with 95% confidence interval. Results There were 60 CP children divided into 2 groups of 30 children. The mean duration of PT in group I was 35.7 (SD 19.37 months and group II was 4.2 (SD 3.13 months. Gross motoric level in both group increased from GMFCS IV to GMFCS II in group I (P=0.0001 and from GMFCS IV to GMFCS III (P=0.002 in group II. The mean total CP QoL scores in group I and II were 79.63 (SD 5.73 and 47.71 (SD 6.85, respectively (P=0.0001. Conclusions Cerebral palsy children who received more than 10 months PT have higher QoL than children with less than 10 months PT. There was significant gross motor improvement after PT in both groups.

  16. Motor-enriched learning activities can improve mathematical performance in preadolescent children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck, Mikkel Malling; Lind, Rune Rasmussen; Geertsen, Svend Sparre

    2016-01-01

    Objective: An emerging field of research indicates that physical activity can benefit cognitive functions and academic achievements in children. However, less is known about how academic achievements can benefit from specific types of motor activities (e.g., fine and gross) integrated into learning......-enriched mathematical teaching in Danish preadolescent children (n = 165, age = 7.5 ± 0.02 years). Three groups were included: a control group (CON), which received non-motor enriched conventional mathematical teaching, a fine motor math group (FMM) and a gross motor math group (GMM), which received mathematical.......73 correct answers (p = 0.04) and FMM 2.14 ± 0.72 correct answers (p = 0.008). These effects were not observed in low math-performers. The effects were partly accounted for by visuo-spatial short-term memory and gross motor skills. Conclusion: The study demonstrates that motor enriched learning activities...

  17. The Pragmatic Idealist: Valerie Gross--Howard County Library, Columbia, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Library Journal, 2004

    2004-01-01

    In the two years since Valerie Gross became director of the Howard County Library (HCL), it has won the county's Community Organization of the Year award, its Accessibility Award, and its Chamber of Commerce's Non-Profit Business of the Year ACE award for contributions to education, economic development, and quality of life. And for the first…

  18. Innovative procedure for the determination of gross-alpha/gross-beta activities in drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wisser, S.; Frenzel, E.; Dittmer, M.

    2006-01-01

    An alternative sample preparation method for the determination of gross-alpha/beta activity concentrations in drinking water is introduced in this paper. After the freeze-drying of tap water samples, determination by liquid scintillation counting can be applied utilizing alpha/beta separation. It has been shown that there is no adsorption or loss of solid radionuclides during the freeze-drying procedure. However, the samples have to be measured quickly after the preparation since the ingrowth of daughter isotopes negatively effects the measurement. The limits of detection for gross-alpha and gross-beta activity are in the range 25-210 mBq/l, respectively, for a measurement time of only 8-9 h

  19. Gross shell structure of moments of inertia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deleplanque, M.A.; Frauendorf, S.; Pashkevich, V.V.; Chu, S.Y.; Unzhakova, A.

    2002-01-01

    Average yrast moments of inertia at high spins, where the pairing correlations are expected to be largely absent, were found to deviate from the rigid-body values. This indicates that shell effects contribute to the moment of inertia. We discuss the gross dependence of moments of inertia and shell energies on the neutron number in terms of the semiclassical periodic orbit theory. We show that the ground-state shell energies, nuclear deformations and deviations from rigid-body moments of inertia are all due to the same periodic orbits

  20. Solitons in Gross-Pitaevskii equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, E.

    1985-01-01

    It is observed that, when the potential is integrable and repulsive, the Gross-Pitaevskii Equation, with non-vanishing boundary conditions, describes a family of planar solitons. A method is presented which provides an exact soliton field to the Dirac Delta potential and an approximation solution to any other kind of potential. As an example the method is then applied to the case of a repulsive Yukawa potential. A brief discuss the relation between these solitons and Anderson's superfluidity mechanism, is also presented. (author) [pt

  1. Normal motor milestone development for use to promote child care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdin A. Husaini

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Motor behavior is an essential aspect of child development, and usually assessed in terms of age of achievement of motor milestone. The early detection of infants experiencing subtle delays in motor maturation can allow early intervention in developmental problems. Intervention can be more effective if delays are identified early. In order to facilitate the identification of early delays, the Center of Nutrition and Foods Research and Development in Bogor has designed a simple tool to monitor the child (aged 3 to 18 months motor development. Objective To develop an observable of normal gross motor maturation for use to detect deviance or motor delay. Methods A total of 2100 healthy children, aged 3-18 months, from high socio-economic group, in urban and suburban areas, were studied. Body length, weight and motor development were measured on all children. Gross motor development was measured 17 pre selected milestones: lie, sit, crawl, creep, stand Mth assistance, walk with assistance, stand alone, walk alone, and run. Results There were no differences between males and females in the comparison of attainment motor maturation therefore a sex combined curve was developed. Conclusion The curve of normal motor milestone development can be used as a tool to evaluate motor development over time, and/or as a child development card for use in primary health care.

  2. Transportation-Related Safety Behaviors in Top-Grossing Children's Movies from 2008 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boppana, Shilpa; Shen, Jiabin; Schwebel, David C

    2016-05-01

    Children regularly imitate behavior from movies. The authors assessed injury risk behaviors in top-grossing children's films. The 5 top-grossing G- or PG-rated movies annually from 2008 to 2013 were included, including animated movies and those set in the past/future. Researchers coded transportation scenes for risk taking in 3 domains: protection/equipment, unsafe behaviors, and distraction/attention. Safe and risky behaviors were recorded across the 3 domains. With regard to protection and equipment, 20% of motor vehicle scenes showed characters riding without seat belts and 27% of scenes with motorcycles showed characters riding without helmets. Eighty-nine percent of scenes with horses showed riders without helmets and 67% of boat operators failed to wear personal flotation devices. The most common unsafe behaviors were speeding and unsafe street-crossing. Twenty-one percent of scenes with motor vehicles showed drivers speeding and 90% of pedestrians in films failed to wait for signal changes. Distracted and inattentive behaviors were rare, with distracted driving of motor vehicles occurring in only approximately 2% of total driving scenes. Although many safe transportation behaviors were portrayed, the film industry continues to depict unsafe behaviors in movies designed for pediatric audiences. There is a need for the film industry to continue to balance entertainment and art with modeling of safe behavior for children.

  3. The electric motor handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurst, R.W.; Feltham, P. (eds.)

    2004-05-01

    This handbook outlines the important role that electric motors play in modern society. It covers the field of motor applications from various motor types to their use and repair. It also presents practical applications of electric motors and methods on motor efficiency. More than half of all electricity generated, and 75 per cent of all industrial electricity consumption is consumed by electric motors. Electrical personnel must be aware of all factors involved in electric motors in order to choose and apply the appropriate size of electric motor. These factors include efficiency, sizing and proper application. The efficient use and maximum life expectancy of electric motors depends on proper motor protection, control and maintenance. This handbook includes articles from leading experts on electric motors in modern electrical systems. The content includes: design considerations; proper electric motor sizing techniques; optimal electric motor application; electric motor protection technology; electric motor control principles; electric motor maintenance and troubleshooting; induction electric motors; electric motor bearing currents; electric motor bearing lubrication; electromagnetism; electric motor enclosures; electric motor testing; electric motor repair; DC electric motor; electric motor starters; electric motor brushes; industrial electric motors; electric motor diagrams; AC electric motors; electric motor wiring; electric motor service; electric motor rewinding; electric motor winding; diagram of electric motor wiring; electric motor kit; and, troubleshooting electric motors. A directory of motor manufacturers and suppliers was also included. refs., tabs., figs.

  4. Association between Body Composition and Motor Performance in Preschool Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja H. Kakebeeke

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Being overweight makes physical movement more difficult. Our aim was to investigate the association between body composition and motor performance in preschool children. Methods: A total of 476 predominantly normal-weight preschool children (age 3.9 ± 0.7 years; m/f: 251/225; BMI 16.0 ± 1.4 kg/m2 participated in the Swiss Preschoolers' Health Study (SPLASHY. Body composition assessments included skinfold thickness, waist circumference (WC, and BMI. The Zurich Neuromotor Assessment (ZNA was used to assess gross and fine motor tasks. Results: After adjustment for age, sex, socioeconomic status, sociocultural characteristics, and physical activity (assessed with accelerometers, skinfold thickness and WC were both inversely correlated with jumping sideward (gross motor task β-coefficient -1.92, p = 0.027; and -3.34, p = 0.014, respectively, while BMI was positively correlated with running performance (gross motor task β-coefficient 9.12, p = 0.001. No significant associations were found between body composition measures and fine motor tasks. Conclusion: The inverse associations between skinfold thickness or WC and jumping sideward indicates that children with high fat mass may be less proficient in certain gross motor tasks. The positive association between BMI and running suggests that BMI might be an indicator of fat-free (i.e., muscle mass in predominately normal-weight preschool children.

  5. Severity of motor dysfunction in children with cerebral palsy seen in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GMD) of varying degrees of severity. The Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) is widely used internationally to classify children with CP into functional severity levels. There are few reports on the use of GMFCS in Nigeria to ...

  6. Analytical studies on the quality and environmental impact of commercial motor gasoline available in multan region of pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasin, G.; Ansari, T.M.; Naqvi, S.M.S.R.

    2008-01-01

    Physico-chemical characteristics such as specific gravity, reid vapour pressure, copper corrosion, distillation (I.B.P., F.B.P., Total recovery and residue) and hydrocarbon contents (saturates, aromatics and polars) of gasoline of different oil marketing companies collected from retail outlets in district Multan have been analysed using standard ASTM procedures. Results have been compared with the Pakistani, Indian and European specifications to assess the quality of Pakistani gasoline (petrol). The environmental impact of gasoline has also been assessed. (author)

  7. Non-Motor Symptoms of Parkinson’s Disease and Their Impact on Quality of Life in a Cohort of Moroccan Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houyam Tibar

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundNon-motor symptoms (NMSs are a real burden in Parkinson’s disease (PD. They may appear in early pre-symptomatic stage as well as throughout the disease course. However, their relationship with the deterioration of the patient’s quality of life (QoL is still under debate. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of NMSs and their impact on the QoL in a cohort of Moroccan patients.MethodsWe carried out a cross-transactional study, where a total of 117 patients were submitted to a structured clinical interview and examination investigating motor and NMSs based on common and conventional scales. Motor symptoms were assessed by the UPDRS I–VI during ON condition. The NMSs were evaluated with common scales and their relationship with the QoL was investigated.ResultsThe mean patient’s age was 60.77 ± 11.36 years old, and the median disease duration was 6 years [2.5–9.5]. Motor’s phenotype subtypes were the mixed form in 40.2% of patients, akinetic-rigid in 20.5% and a tremor-dominant form in 39.3%. The median Hoehn and Yahr staging was 2 [1–2.5]. Regarding NMSs, the most common were urinary dysfunctions (82.6%, sleep (80.6%, and gastrointestinal (80% disorders. Other autonomic dysfunctions were also frequent: thermoregulatory dysfunctions 58.6%, cardiovascular troubles 50.9%, and sexual dysfunctions 47.9%. Depression was present in 47.9% and fatigue symptoms in 23.1%. The median score of SCOPA-AUT was 14 [7.75–21.80]. The median PD questionnaire 39-score index (PDQ39-SI was 23.22% and the most affected dimension was “mobility.” Univariate and multivariate analyses showed that the SCOPA-AUT score impacted the QoL (p = 0.001, especially the gastrointestinal (p = 0.007, and cardiovascular (p = 0.049 dimensions.ConclusionOur data show that all patients have presented at least one NMS. Autonomic and sleep disorders were the most frequent, and in contrast to other studies, digestive and cardiovascular

  8. a Gross Error Elimination Method for Point Cloud Data Based on Kd-Tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Q.; Huang, G.; Yang, S.

    2018-04-01

    Point cloud data has been one type of widely used data sources in the field of remote sensing. Key steps of point cloud data's pro-processing focus on gross error elimination and quality control. Owing to the volume feature of point could data, existed gross error elimination methods need spend massive memory both in space and time. This paper employed a new method which based on Kd-tree algorithm to construct, k-nearest neighbor algorithm to search, settled appropriate threshold to determine with result turns out a judgement that whether target point is or not an outlier. Experimental results show that, our proposed algorithm will help to delete gross error in point cloud data and facilitate to decrease memory consumption, improve efficiency.

  9. A GROSS ERROR ELIMINATION METHOD FOR POINT CLOUD DATA BASED ON KD-TREE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Kang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Point cloud data has been one type of widely used data sources in the field of remote sensing. Key steps of point cloud data’s pro-processing focus on gross error elimination and quality control. Owing to the volume feature of point could data, existed gross error elimination methods need spend massive memory both in space and time. This paper employed a new method which based on Kd-tree algorithm to construct, k-nearest neighbor algorithm to search, settled appropriate threshold to determine with result turns out a judgement that whether target point is or not an outlier. Experimental results show that, our proposed algorithm will help to delete gross error in point cloud data and facilitate to decrease memory consumption, improve efficiency.

  10. Analytical Studies on the Quality and Environmental Impact of Commercial Motor Gasoline Available in Multan Region of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Yasin

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Physico-chemical characteristics such as specific gravity, reid vapour pressure, copper corrosion, distillation (I.B.P., F.B.P., Total recovery & residue and hydrocarbon contents (saturates, aromatics and polars of gasoline of different oil marketing companies collected from retail outlets in district Multan have been analysed using standard ASTM procedures. Results have been compared with the Pakistani, Indian and European specifications to assess the quality of Pakistani gasoline (petrol. The environmental impact of gasoline has also been assessed.

  11. GROSS- GAMMA RAY OBSERVATORY ATTITUDE DYNAMICS SIMULATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrick, J.

    1994-01-01

    The Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) spacecraft will constitute a major advance in gamma ray astronomy by offering the first opportunity for comprehensive observations in the range of 0.1 to 30,000 megaelectronvolts (MeV). The Gamma Ray Observatory Attitude Dynamics Simulator, GROSS, is designed to simulate this mission. The GRO Dynamics Simulator consists of three separate programs: the Standalone Profile Program; the Simulator Program, which contains the Simulation Control Input/Output (SCIO) Subsystem, the Truth Model (TM) Subsystem, and the Onboard Computer (OBC) Subsystem; and the Postprocessor Program. The Standalone Profile Program models the environment of the spacecraft and generates a profile data set for use by the simulator. This data set contains items such as individual external torques; GRO spacecraft, Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS), and solar and lunar ephemerides; and star data. The Standalone Profile Program is run before a simulation. The SCIO subsystem is the executive driver for the simulator. It accepts user input, initializes parameters, controls simulation, and generates output data files and simulation status display. The TM subsystem models the spacecraft dynamics, sensors, and actuators. It accepts ephemerides, star data, and environmental torques from the Standalone Profile Program. With these and actuator commands from the OBC subsystem, the TM subsystem propagates the current state of the spacecraft and generates sensor data for use by the OBC and SCIO subsystems. The OBC subsystem uses sensor data from the TM subsystem, a Kalman filter (for attitude determination), and control laws to compute actuator commands to the TM subsystem. The OBC subsystem also provides output data to the SCIO subsystem for output to the analysts. The Postprocessor Program is run after simulation is completed. It generates printer and CRT plots and tabular reports of the simulated data at the direction of the user. GROSS is written in FORTRAN 77 and

  12. Development of fine motor skills in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Arend F; Van Braeckel, Koenraad N J A; Hitzert, Marrit M; Tanis, Jozien C; Roze, Elise

    2013-11-01

    Fine motor skills are related to functioning in daily life and at school. We reviewed the status of knowledge, in preterm children, on the development of fine motor skills, the relation with gross motor skills, and risk factors for impaired fine motor skills. We searched the past 15 years in PubMed, using ['motor skills' or 'fine motor function' and 'preterm infant'] as the search string. Impaired gross and fine motor skills are among the most frequently occurring problems encountered by preterm children who do not develop cerebral palsy. The prevalence is around 40% for mild to moderate impairment and 20% for moderate impairment. Fine motor skill scores on the Movement Assessment Battery for Children are about 0.62 of a standard deviation lower compared with term children. Risk factors for fine motor impairments include moderately preterm birth (odds ratio [OR] 2.0) and, among very preterm children (development of and recovery from brain injury could guide future intervention attempts aimed at improving fine motor skills of preterm children. © The Authors. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology © 2013 Mac Keith Press.

  13. Fractional Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook kinetic equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goychuk, Igor

    2017-11-01

    The linear Boltzmann equation (LBE) approach is generalized to describe fractional superdiffusive transport of the Lévy walk type in external force fields. The time distribution between scattering events is assumed to have a finite mean value and infinite variance. It is completely characterized by the two scattering rates, one fractional and a normal one, which defines also the mean scattering rate. We formulate a general fractional LBE approach and exemplify it with a particularly simple case of the Bohm and Gross scattering integral leading to a fractional generalization of the Bhatnagar, Gross and Krook (BGK) kinetic equation. Here, at each scattering event the particle velocity is completely randomized and takes a value from equilibrium Maxwell distribution at a given fixed temperature. We show that the retardation effects are indispensable even in the limit of infinite mean scattering rate and argue that this novel fractional kinetic equation provides a viable alternative to the fractional Kramers-Fokker-Planck (KFP) equation by Barkai and Silbey and its generalization by Friedrich et al. based on the picture of divergent mean time between scattering events. The case of divergent mean time is also discussed at length and compared with the earlier results obtained within the fractional KFP. Also a phenomenological fractional BGK equation without retardation effects is proposed in the limit of infinite scattering rates. It cannot be, however, rigorously derived from a scattering model, being rather clever postulated. It this respect, this retardationless equation is similar to the fractional KFP by Barkai and Silbey. However, it corresponds to the opposite, much more physical limit and, therefore, also presents a viable alternative.

  14. Motor Skill Abilities in Toddlers with Autistic Disorder, Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified, and Atypical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Johnny L.; Mahan, Sara; Fodstad, Jill C.; Hess, Julie A.; Neal, Daniene

    2010-01-01

    Motor skills were assessed in 397 toddlers, and it was demonstrated that atypically developing toddlers exhibited significantly greater motor skill abilities than toddlers with autistic disorder. No significant difference on gross or fine motor skill abilities were found between atypically developing toddlers and toddlers with pervasive…

  15. Motor homopolar

    OpenAIRE

    Martín Muñoz, Agustín

    2007-01-01

    Mostramos la construcción de un modelo de motor homopolar, uno de los más antiguos tipos de motores eléctricos. Se caracterizan porque el campo magnético del imán mantiene siempre la misma polaridad (de ahí su nombre, del griego homos, igual), de modo que, cuando una corriente eléctrica atraviesa el campo magnético, aparece una fuerza que hace girar los elementos no fijados mecánicamente. En el sencillísimo motor homopolar colgado (Schlichting y Ucke 2004), el imán puede girar ...

  16. Application of stepping motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-10-01

    This book is divided into three parts, which is about practical using of stepping motor. The first part has six chapters. The contents of the first part are about stepping motor, classification of stepping motor, basic theory og stepping motor, characteristic and basic words, types and characteristic of stepping motor in hybrid type and basic control of stepping motor. The second part deals with application of stepping motor with hardware of stepping motor control, stepping motor control by microcomputer and software of stepping motor control. The last part mentions choice of stepping motor system, examples of stepping motor, measurement of stepping motor and practical cases of application of stepping motor.

  17. The relationship of motor skills and adaptive behavior skills in young children with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Megan; Lord, Catherine; Ulrich, Dale

    2013-11-01

    To determine the relationship of motor skills and the core behaviors of young children with autism, social affective skills and repetitive behaviors, as indicated through the calibrated autism severity scores. The univariate GLM tested the relationship of gross and fine motor skills measured by the gross motor scale and the fine motor scale of the MSEL with autism symptomology as measured by calibrated autism severity scores. Majority of the data collected took place in an autism clinic. A cohort of 159 young children with ASD (n=110), PDD-NOS (n=26) and non-ASD (developmental delay, n=23) between the ages of 12-33 months were recruited from early intervention studies and clinical referrals. Children with non-ASD (developmental delay) were included in this study to provide a range of scores indicted through calibrated autism severity. Not applicable. The primary outcome measures in this study were calibrated autism severity scores. Fine motor skills and gross motor skills significantly predicted calibrated autism severity (p motor skills displayed higher levels of calibrated autism severity. The fine and gross motor skills are significantly related to autism symptomology. There is more to focus on and new avenues to explore in the realm of discovering how to implement early intervention and rehabilitation for young children with autism and motor skills need to be a part of the discussion.

  18. Inter-rater reliability of the Sødring Motor Evaluation of Stroke patients (SMES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halsaa, K E; Sødring, K M; Bjelland, E; Finsrud, K; Bautz-Holter, E

    1999-12-01

    The Sødring Motor Evaluation of Stroke patients is an instrument for physiotherapists to evaluate motor function and activities in stroke patients. The rating reflects quality as well as quantity of the patient's unassisted performance within three domains: leg, arm and gross function. The inter-rater reliability of the method was studied in a sample of 30 patients admitted to a stroke rehabilitation unit. Three therapists were involved in the study; two therapists assessed the same patient on two consecutive days in a balanced design. Cohen's weighted kappa and McNemar's test of symmetry were used as measures of item reliability, and the intraclass correlation coefficient was used to express the reliability of the sumscores. For 24 out of 32 items the weighted kappa statistic was excellent (0.75-0.98), while 7 items had a kappa statistic within the range 0.53-0.74 (fair to good). The reliability of one item was poor (0.13). The intraclass correlation coefficient for the three sumscores was 0.97, 0.91 and 0.97. We conclude that the Sødring Motor Evaluation of Stroke patients is a reliable measure of motor function in stroke patients undergoing rehabilitation.

  19. Autism spectrum disorders and motor skills: the effect on socialization as measured by the Baby And Infant Screen For Children with aUtIsm Traits (BISCUIT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipes, Megan; Matson, Johnny L; Horovitz, Max

    2011-01-01

    To examine the effects of ASD diagnosis and motor skills on socialization in young children. Two samples were used: gross motor skills sample (n = 408) and fine motor skills sample (n = 402). The Battelle Developmental Inventory-Second Edition assessed motor skills, while the Baby and Infant Screen for Children with aUtIsm Traits, Part 1 assessed socialization. A main effect of diagnosis was found for both samples on socialization such that those with autism exhibited the most severe deficits followed by those with PDD-NOS and then atypically developing children. There was a main effect for gross motor skills, with high gross motor skills showing less social impairment. The interaction term was only significant in regards to fine motor skills. The individual effects of ASD diagnosis and motor impairment as well as the interaction have implications for the assessment and treatment in these individuals.

  20. Effect of temperate climate tree species on gross ammonification, gross nitrification and N2O formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüggemann, N.; Rosenkranz, P.; Papen, H.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.

    2003-04-01

    Microbial nitrogen turnover processes in the soil, like ammonification, nitrification and denitrification, play an important role in the formation of nitrous oxide (N2O): (i) ammonification, because it releases nitrogen from organic material in the form of ammonium (NH4+), which in turn can serve as substrate for nitrification; (ii) nitrification itself (i.e. the turnover of NH4+ to nitrate, NO3-), during which nitric oxide (NO) and N2O can be released as by-products at varying ratios; (iii) denitrification, in which NO3- serves as electron acceptor and is converted to molecular nitrogen (N2) via NO and N2O as intermediates, that can also be partially lost to the atmosphere. Temperate forest soils are a substantial source of atmospheric N2O contributing up to 10% to the total atmospheric N2O budget. However, this figure is afflicted with a huge uncertainty due to a number of factors governing the soil N2O formation, consumption, release and uptake, which are not fully understood at present. To one of these factors belongs the influence of the tree species on nitrogen turnover processes in the soil and the formation of N trace gases related with them. The aim of the present work was to analyse this tree species effect for the temperate climate region. For this purpose the effect of five different temperate tree species, having the same age and growing on the same soil in direct vicinity to each other, on gross ammonification and gross nitrification as well as on N2O formation was investigated. The trees (common beech, Fagus sylvatica; pedunculate oak, Quercus robur; Norway spruce, Picea abies; Japanese larch, Larix leptolepis; mountain pine, Pinus mugo) were part of a species trial in Western Jutland, Denmark, established in 1965 on a former sandy heathland. Samples from the soil under these five tree species were taken in spring and in summer 2002, respectively, differentiating between organic layer and mineral soil. The gross rates of ammonification as well of

  1. A study of gross morphological and histological syringeal features of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study of gross morphological and histological syringeal features of true francolins (Galliformes: Francolinus, Scleroptila, Peliperdix and Dendroperdix spp.) and spurfowls ( Pternistis spp.) in a phylogenetic context.

  2. Motor function domains in alternating hemiplegia of childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoud, Melanie; Gordon, Kelly; Hall, Amanda; Jasien, Joan; Lardinois, Kara; Uchitel, Julie; Mclean, Melissa; Prange, Lyndsey; Wuchich, Jeffrey; Mikati, Mohamad A

    2017-08-01

    To characterize motor function profiles in alternating hemiplegia of childhood, and to investigate interrelationships between these domains and with age. We studied a cohort of 23 patients (9 males, 14 females; mean age 9y 4mo, range 4mo-43y) who underwent standardized tests to assess gross motor, upper extremity motor control, motor speech, and dysphagia functions. Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS), Gross Motor Function Measure-88 (GMFM-88), Manual Ability Classification System (MACS), and Revised Melbourne Assessment (MA2) scales manifested predominantly mild impairments; motor speech, moderate to severe; Modified Dysphagia Outcome and Severity Scale (M-DOSS), mild-to moderate deficits. GMFCS correlated with GMFM-88 scores (Pearson's correlation, p=0.002), MACS (p=0.038), and MA2 fluency (p=0.005) and accuracy (p=0.038) scores. GMFCS did not correlate with motor speech (p=0.399), MA2 dexterity (p=0.247), range of motion (p=0.063), or M-DOSS (p=0.856). Motor speech was more severely impaired than the GMFCS (p<0.013). There was no correlation between any of the assessment tools and age (p=0.210-0.798). Our data establish a detailed profile of motor function in alternating hemiplegia of childhood, argue against the presence of worse motor function in older patients, identify tools helpful in evaluating this population, and identify oropharyngeal function as the more severely affected domain, suggesting that brain areas controlling this function are more affected than others. © 2017 Mac Keith Press.

  3. Motor skills and calibrated autism severity in young children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Megan; Lord, Catherine; Ulrich, Dale A

    2014-04-01

    In addition to the core characteristics of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), motor skill deficits are present, persistent, and pervasive across age. Although motor skill deficits have been indicated in young children with autism, they have not been included in the primary discussion of early intervention content. One hundred fifty-nine young children with a confirmed diagnosis of ASD (n = 110), PDD-NOS (n = 26), and non-ASD (n = 23) between the ages of 14-33 months participated in this study.1 The univariate general linear model tested the relationship of fine and gross motor skills and social communicative skills (using calibrated autism severity scores). Fine motor and gross motor skills significantly predicted calibrated autism severity (p motor skills have greater social communicative skill deficits. Future directions and the role of motor skills in early intervention are discussed.

  4. Effect of Pharmacist-Led Interventions on (Non)Motor Symptoms, Medication-Related Problems, and Quality of Life in Parkinson Disease Patients: A Pilot Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stuijt, C.; Karapinar-Carkit, F.; Bemt, B.J. van den; Laar, T. van

    2018-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Patients with Parkinson disease (PD) use multiple drugs. This pill burden with consequent poor adherence may cause worsening of motor symptoms and drug-related problems. Therefore, a multifaceted pharmacist-led intervention program was designed to improve adherence, motor-functioning,

  5. Recommendations to avoid gross errors of dose in radiotherapeutic treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Cleber Nogueira de; Monti, Carlos Roberto; Sibata, Claudio Hissao

    2001-01-01

    Human mistakes are an important source of errors in radiotherapy and may occur at every step of the radiotherapy planning and treatment. To reduce this level of uncertainties, several specialized organizations have recommended a comprehensive quality assurance program. In Brazil, the requirement for these programs has been strongly stressed, and most radiotherapy services have pursued this goal regarding radiation units and dosimetry equipment, as well as the verification of the calculations of the patient's dose and the revision of the plan charts. As a contribution to the improvement of quality control, we present some recommendations to avoid failure of treatment due to error in the delivered dose, such as redundant check of the manual or computer calculations, weekly check of the total dose for each patient, and prevention of inadvertent access to any safety system of the equipment by any staff member that is only supposed to operate the machine. Moreover, the use of a computerized treatment record and verification system should be considered in order to eliminate errors due to incorrect selection of the treatment parameters, in a daily basis. We report four radioactive incidents with patient injuries occurred throughout the world and some gross errors of dose. (author)

  6. Evaluation of motor development in children with learning disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiane Medina-Papst

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine whether children with learning disabilities present any impairment in the components of motor development. Thirty children (21 boys and 9 girls, aged 8 to 10 years, with learning difficulties in school were studied. The Motor Development Scale was used to evaluate the development of the children in terms of fine motor control, gross motor control, balance, body scheme, spatial organization, and temporal organization. A deficit in the development of the body scheme component was observed for all three age groups, as well as a delayed motor development in terms of balance and gross motor control. No significant differences in general motor age were observed between (age groups. In conclusion, the children studied, especially older ones, presented motor deficits in most of the components evaluated. The inclusion of tasks that assist in the development of motor components, in addition to regular school tasks, is recommended to improve the process of learning in these children..

  7. Development of common principles for the evaluation of quality characteristics of motor activity in the fitness and sports aerobics aesthetic orientation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galyna Artemyeva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to develop and validate methods for quantifying qualitative indicators special physical preparedness of sportsmen in fitness-aerobics and sports aesthetic orientation. Materials and Methods: an analytical synthesis of these scientific and methodical literature, the use of the theory of similarity and dimensionality, biomechanical analysis of motor activity, processing of video. Results: based on the use of similarity theory presents the methods of quantitative evaluation of qualitative characteristics of motor activity in special physical training, which allow an assessment of motor talent of the athlete and to provide objective guidance to training in particular sport. Conclusions: the presented methods quantify the qualitative indicators of the special motor preparation allow us to estimate a measure of motor gifted individual and his susceptibility to training in particular sport

  8. What is the evidence of impaired motor skills and motor control among children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)? Systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, M-L; Schoemaker, M M; Albaret, J-M; Geuze, R H

    2014-11-06

    This article presents a review of the studies that have analysed the motor skills of ADHD children without medication and the influence of medication on their motor skills. The following two questions guided the study: What is the evidence of impairment of motor skills and aspects of motor control among children with ADHD aged between 6 and 16 years? What are the effects of ADHD medication on motor skills and motor control? The following keywords were introduced in the main databases: attention disorder and/or ADHD, motor skills and/or handwriting, children, medication. Of the 45 articles retrieved, 30 described motor skills of children with ADHD and 15 articles analysed the influence of ADHD medication on motor skills and motor control. More than half of the children with ADHD have difficulties with gross and fine motor skills. The children with ADHD inattentive subtype seem to present more impairment of fine motor skills, slow reaction time, and online motor control during complex tasks. The proportion of children with ADHD who improved their motor skills to the normal range by using medication varied from 28% to 67% between studies. The children who still show motor deficit while on medication might meet the diagnostic criteria of developmental coordination disorder (DCD). It is important to assess motor skills among children with ADHD because of the risk of reduced participation in activities of daily living that require motor coordination and attention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. 26 CFR 1.832-1 - Gross income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., except that in the case of a mutual fire insurance company described in § 1.831-1 the amount of single... TAXES Other Insurance Companies § 1.832-1 Gross income. (a) Gross income as defined in section 832(b)(1... approved by the National Convention of Insurance Commissioners, as well as the gain derived from the sale...

  10. 26 CFR 1.993-6 - Definition of gross receipts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definition of gross receipts. 1.993-6 Section 1.993-6 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Domestic International Sales Corporations § 1.993-6 Definition of gross receipts. (a...

  11. 7 CFR 1424.7 - Gross payable units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... payments (APP), and base production payments (BPP). Repayment rates shall be based on previous payment... 50 gallons of net production increase. (2) For BPP, which will be made on production not eligible for... biodiesel production gross payable units. (3) Adding the APP and BPP to determine biodiesel gross payable...

  12. Guidelines for Standard Photography in Gross and Clinical Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barut, Cagatay; Ertilav, Hakan

    2011-01-01

    Photography has a widespread usage in medicine and anatomy. In this review, authors focused on the usage of photography in gross and clinical anatomy. Photography in gross and clinical anatomy is not only essential for accurate documentation of morphological findings but also important in sharing knowledge and experience. Photographs of cadavers…

  13. Spreadsheet design and validation for characteristic limits determination in gross alpha and beta measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prado, Rodrigo G.P. do; Dalmazio, Ilza

    2013-01-01

    The identification and detection of ionizing radiation are essential requisites of radiation protection. Gross alpha and beta measurements are widely applied as a screening method in radiological characterization, environmental monitoring and industrial applications. As in any other analytical technique, test performance depends on the quality of instrumental measurements and reliability of calculations. Characteristic limits refer to three specific statistics, namely, decision threshold, detection limit and confidence interval, which are fundamental to ensuring the quality of determinations. This work describes a way to calculate characteristic limits for measurements of gross alpha and beta activity applying spreadsheets. The approach used for determination of decision threshold, detection limit and limits of the confidence interval, the mathematical expressions of measurands and uncertainty followed standards guidelines. A succinct overview of this approach and examples are presented and spreadsheets were validated using specific software. Furthermore, these spreadsheets could be used as tool to instruct beginner users of methods for ionizing radiation measurements. (author)

  14. Poor motor skills: a risk marker for bully victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejerot, Susanne; Plenty, Stephanie; Humble, Alice; Humble, Mats B

    2013-01-01

    Children who are clumsy are often bullied. Nevertheless, motor skills have been overlooked in research on bullying victimization. A total of 2,730 Swedish adults (83% females) responded to retrospective questions on bullying, their talents in physical education (i.e., coordination and balls skills) and school academics. Poor talents were used as indicators of poor gross motor skills and poor academic skills. A subset of participants also provided information on educational level in adulthood, childhood obesity, belonging to an ethic minority in school and socioeconomic status relative to schoolmates. A total of 29.4% of adults reported being bullied in school, and 18.4% reported having below average gross motor skills. Of those with below average motor skills, 48.6% were bullied in school. Below average motor skills in childhood were associated with an increased risk (OR 3.01 [95% CI: 1.97-4.60]) of being bullied, even after adjusting for the influence of lower socioeconomic status, poor academic performance, being overweight, and being a bully. Higher odds for bully victimization were also associated with lower socioeconomic status (OR 2.29 [95% CI: 1.45-3.63]), being overweight (OR 1.71 [95% CI: 1.18-2.47]) and being a bully (OR 2.18 [95% CI: 1.53-3.11]). The findings indicate that poor gross motor skills constitute a robust risk-marker for vulnerability for bully victimization. © 2013 The Authors. Aggressive Behavior Published by Wiley-Blackwell.

  15. Training in the Motor Vehicle Repair and Sales Sector in Ireland. Report for the FORCE Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuite, Dominick

    A study viewed the existing motor vehicle sector, structure, and trading conditions and identified and analyzed the best and most significant continuing vocational training practices in Ireland. In 1991, the motor vechicle sector accounted for 6.2 percent of the Gross National Product. Employment in the sector has decreased from an estimated…

  16. Generalized Motor Abilities and Timing Behavior in Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelaznik, Howard N.; Goffman, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To examine whether children with specific language impairment (SLI) differ from normally developing peers in motor skills, especially those skills related to timing. Method: Standard measures of gross and fine motor development were obtained. Furthermore, finger and hand movements were recorded while children engaged in 4 different timing…

  17. Development and face validity of a cerebral visual impairment motor questionnaire for children with cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salavati, Masoud; Waninge, Aly; Rameckers, E.A.A.; van der Steen, J; Krijnen, W.P.; van der Schans, C.P.; Steenbergen, B.

    2016-01-01

    AIM: The objectives of this study were (i) to develop two cerebral visual impairment motor questionnaires (CVI-MQ's) for children with cerebral palsy (CP): one for children with Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels I, II and III and one for children with GMFCS levels IV and V;

  18. Handwriting and fine motor problems after treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinders-Messelink, H.A.; Schoemaker, M.M.; Goeken, L.N H; van den Briel, M.M.; Kamps, W.A; Simner, M L; Leedham, C G; Thomassen, A J W M

    1996-01-01

    Fine motor skills and handwriting performance were investigated in 17 children at least two years after treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. It was hypothesized that as a late effect of vincristine neuropathy, children would still have fine motor and/or handwriting problems. Gross and fine

  19. Interaction of Language Processing and Motor Skill in Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiDonato Brumbach, Andrea C.; Goffman, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To examine how language production interacts with speech motor and gross and fine motor skill in children with specific language impairment (SLI). Method: Eleven children with SLI and 12 age-matched peers (4-6 years) produced structurally primed sentences containing particles and prepositions. Utterances were analyzed for errors and for…

  20. Fine Motor Skills and Executive Function Both Contribute to Kindergarten Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Claire E.; Brock, Laura L.; Murrah, William M.; Bell, Lindsay H.; Worzalla, Samantha L.; Grissmer, David; Morrison, Frederick J.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the contribution of executive function (EF) and multiple aspects of fine motor skills to achievement on 6 standardized assessments in a sample of middle-socioeconomic status kindergarteners. Three- and 4-year-olds' (n = 213) fine and gross motor skills were assessed in a home visit before kindergarten, EF was measured at fall…

  1. Relationship between Motor Skill and Body Mass Index in 5- to 10-Year-Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Hondt, Eva; Deforche, Benedicte; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Lenoir, Matthieu

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate gross and fine motor skill in overweight and obese children compared with normal-weight peers. According to international cut-off points for Body Mass Index (BMI) from Cole et al. (2000), all 117 participants (5-10 year) were classified as being normal-weight, overweight, or obese. Level of motor skill…

  2. Development and face validity of a cerebral visual impairment motor questionnaire for children with cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salavati, M.; Waninge, A.; Rameckers, E. A. A.; van der Steen, J.; Krijnen, W. P.; van der Schans, C. P.; Steenbergen, B.

    Aim The objectives of this study were (i) to develop two cerebral visual impairment motor questionnaires (CVI-MQ's) for children with cerebral palsy (CP): one for children with Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels I, II and III and one for children with GMFCS levels IV and V;

  3. An electronic instructor for gross anatomy dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josephson, Eleanor M; Moore, Larry J

    2006-01-01

    Gross anatomy is time consuming to teach and to learn. Because the process of dissection takes up so much student time, assistance in the form of an in-lab instructional DVD program might improve student performance. The DVD could be viewed with a portable device by individual dissection groups at their tables. Groups could dissect at their own pace, with access to step-by-step demonstrations and answers to frequently asked anatomical questions. We created an instructional DVD program demonstrating dissection of the canine ventral neck and thoracic limb. The effect on student exam scores of using the DVD versus not using it was measured in a controlled, two-sample study using incoming first-year veterinary students as volunteers. Volunteers were told the study was of two different dissection methods; the DVD was not specifically mentioned until after the students were separated into two groups (Blue/DVD group and Orange/No DVD group), and then only to volunteers in the Blue group. Except for the DVD, the two groups had the same resources. The difference in scores on an exam given after a single dissection period did not differ sufficiently to conclude that DVD use raised the mean score; however, 73% of the DVD group scored 60% or higher, while only 38% of the No DVD group scored 60% or higher. The difference in mean scores overall was 2.3 points out of a possible 49, suggesting that the DVD helped students, especially those with lower scores, to earn two to three more points than they would have otherwise.

  4. A quality assurance study on the accuracy of measuring physical function under current conditions for use of clinical video telehealth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoenig, Helen; Tate, Latoya; Dumbleton, Sarina; Montgomery, Christy; Morgan, Michelle; Landerman, Lawrence R; Caves, Kevin

    2013-05-01

    To determine whether conditions for use of clinical video telehealth technology might affect the accuracy of measures of physical function. Repeated measures. Veterans Administration Medical Center. Three healthy adult volunteers for a sample size of n=30 independent trials for each of 3 physical function tasks. None. Three tasks capturing differing aspects of physical function: fine-motor coordination (number of finger taps in 30s), gross-motor coordination (number of gait deviations in 10ft [3.05m]), and clinical spatial relations (identifying the proper height for a cane randomly preset ±0-2in [5.1cm] from optimal), with performance simultaneously assessed in person and video recorded. Interrater reliability and criterion validity were determined for the measurement of these 3 tasks scored according to 5 methods: (1) in person (community standard), (2) slow motion review of the video recording (criterion standard), and (3-5) full speed review at 3 Internet bandwidths (64kps, 384kps, and 768kps). Fine-motor coordination-Interrater reliability was variable (r=.43-.81) and criterion validity was poor at 64kps and 384kps, but both were acceptable at 768kps (reliability r=.74, validity β=.81). Gross-motor coordination-Interreliability was variable (range r=.53-.75) and criterion validity was poor at all bandwidths (β=.28-.47). Motionless spatial relations-Excellent reliability (r=.92-.97) and good criterion validity (β=.84-.89) at all the tested bandwidths. Internet bandwidth had differing effects on measurement validity and reliability for the fine-motor task, the gross-motor task, and spatial relations, with results for some tasks at some transmission speeds well below acceptable quality standards and community standards. Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Factors associated with the severity of motor impairment in children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to assess the relation between the severity of gross motor dysfunction (GMD) and certain factors such as the type of CP, aetiology of CP, nutrition, socioeconomic class (SEC), and the frequency of these accompanying impairments like visual, auditory, cognitive and speech impairments.

  6. Perceptual-Motor Attributes of Mentally Retarded Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cratty, Bryant J.

    To evaluate six perceptual-motor attributes of trainable and educable mentally retarded children, a battery of tests was constructed which included body perception, gross agility, balance, locomotor ability, throwing, and tracking; 83 retarded subjects provided reliability data, and their scores, with those of 120 additional subjects, provided…

  7. Exploring the Interaction of Motor and Social Skills With Autism Severity Using the SFARI Dataset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo-Dougovito, Andrew M; Reeve, Ronald E

    2017-04-01

    Social communicative deficits and stereotyped or repetitive interests or behaviors are the defining features of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A growing body of research suggests that gross motor deficits are also present in most children with ASD. This study sought to understand how pediatric ASD severity is related to motor skills and social skills. A multivariate analysis of variance analysis of 483 children with autism ( N = 444) and ASD ( N = 39) revealed a nonsignificant difference between groups. Results suggest little difference between severity groups on gross motor and social skills within the limited age range of the participants (about 5.6 years of age).

  8. Prospective association between objective measures of childhood motor coordination and sedentary behaviour in adolescence and adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lee; Fisher, Abigail; Hamer, Mark

    2015-06-10

    Higher levels of gross motor coordination are positively associated with physical activity in childhood, but little is known about how they relate to sedentary behaviour. The aim of this study was to investigate the longitudinal association between gross motor coordination at childhood and sedentary behaviour in adolescence and adulthood. Data were from the 1970 British Cohort Study (the age 10, 16, and 42-year surveys). At age 10 the participant's mother provided information on how often participants watched TV and played sports and a health visitor administered several tests to assess gross motor coordination. At aged 16 and 42-years participants reported their daily screen and TV time, respectively, and physical activity status. We examined associations between gross motor coordination at age 10 with sedentary behaviour and physical activity at age 16 and 42, using logistic regression. In multivariable models, higher levels of gross motor coordination were associated with lower odds of high screen time (n = 3073; OR 0.79, 95% CI 0.64, 0.98) at 16-years although no associations with physical activity were observed (OR 1.16, 95% CI 0.93, 1.44). Similar associations were observed with TV time in adulthood when participants were aged 42, and in addition high gross motor coordination was also associated with physical activity participation (n = 4879; OR 1.18, 95 % CI 1.02, 1.36). Intervention efforts to increase physical activity participation and reduce sedentary behaviour over the life course may be best targeted towards children with low gross motor coordination.

  9. Application of diagnostics to determine motor operated valve operational readiness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eissenberg, D.M.

    1987-01-01

    ORNL has been carrying out an aging assessment of motor-operated valves (MOVs) with the primary objective of recommending diagnostic methods for detecting and trending aging. As a result of experimental investigations at ORNL, it was discovered that the motor current during a valve stroke was a very useful diagnostic parameter for detecting and trending many MOV drive train load variations. The motor current signatures were analyzed at four levels: mean value for a stroke, gross trends during a stroke, transients, and noise frequency spectra. Examples illustrating the use of this technique are presented. The use of motor current signature analysis was also shown to apply to other electric motor driven equipment. Future work includes developing a data base of MOV diagnostics, including criteria for determining the extent of degradation and application of the technique to other LWR motor driven safety equipment

  10. Production of high quality brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB) RNA from isolated populations of rat spinal cord motor neurons obtained by Laser Capture Microdissection (LCM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Prachi; Premkumar, Brian; Morris, Renée

    2016-08-03

    The mammalian central nervous system (CNS) is composed of multiple cellular elements, making it challenging to segregate one particular cell type to study their gene expression profile. For instance, as motor neurons represent only 5-10% of the total cell population of the spinal cord, meaningful transcriptional analysis on these neurons is almost impossible to achieve from homogenized spinal cord tissue. A major challenge faced by scientists is to obtain good quality RNA from small amounts of starting material. In this paper, we used Laser Capture Microdissection (LCM) techniques to identify and isolate spinal cord motor neurons. The present analysis revealed that perfusion with paraformaldehyde (PFA) does not alter RNA quality. RNA integrity numbers (RINs) of tissue samples from rubrospinal tract (RST)-transected, intact spinal cord or from whole spinal cord homogenate were all above 8, which indicates intact, high-quality RNA. Levels of mRNA for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) or for its tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB) were not affected by rubrospinal tract (RST) transection, a surgical procedure that deprive motor neurons from one of their main supraspinal input. The isolation of pure populations of neurons with LCM techniques allows for robust transcriptional characterization that cannot be achieved with spinal cord homogenates. Such preparations of pure population of motor neurons will provide valuable tools to advance our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying spinal cord injury and neuromuscular diseases. In the near future, LCM techniques might be instrumental to the success of gene therapy for these debilitating conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Summarized report of geothermal well Gross Buchholz Gt1; Kurzprofil der Geothermiebohrung Gross Buchholz Gt1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, Frauke; Hesshaus, Annalena; Jatho, Reiner; Luppold, Friedrich-Wilhelm; Pletsch, Thomas; Tischner, Torsten [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BGR), Hannover (Germany); Hunze, Sabine; Orilski, Judith; Wonik, Thomas [Leibniz-Institut fuer Angewandte Geophysik (LIAG), Hannover (Germany); Roehling, Heinz-Gerd [Landesamt fuer Bergbau, Energie und Geologie (LBEG), Hannover (Germany)

    2012-01-15

    The well Gross Buchholz Gt1 is a deep geothermal well intended to demonstrate the feasibility of deep geothermal energy mining from tight sedimentary rocks. It is the core part of the GeneSys (Generated Geothermal Energy Systems) project, aiming at developing single well concepts for direct use of geothermal energy. During the course of the project, three different single well concepts have been developed and tested at the research well Horstberg Z1 which is geologically comparable to the Gross Buchholzwell. The latter is intended to supply the heating energy for the premises of Geozentrum Hannover, an office and lab complex of some 35.000 m{sup 2} housing about 1000 employees. The geothermal target are the sandstones of the Lower Triassic Middle Buntsandstein Formation, which have a temperature of about 165 C at 3700 depth. The well has reached a final depth of 3901 m below ground level, penetrating a nearly complete succession from the Lower Cretaceous (Albian) to the Lower Triassic (Lower Buntsandstein), while Tertiary and Upper Cretaceous sediments are missing. This article summarizes technical and geographic data, stratigraphic classification, geophysical logging, cores, and sidewall cores of the well. (orig.)

  12. Measurement of Gross Alpha and Gross Beta Radioactivity of River Yobe, North Eastern Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abba, H. T.; Sadiq, U.; Adeyemo, D. J.

    2013-01-01

    Measurement of the gross alpha and gross beta radioactivity of River Yobe has been carried out. Fifteen samples of the river water were collected from the farming, fishing, domestic/livestock and control areas along the river and were analyzed using desktop alpha/beta (MPC 2000- DP) counting system. The count results show the average alpha activities in farming, fishing, domestic/livestock and control areas are 0.207±0.082, 0.257±0.13, 0.437±0.315 and 0.237±0.10 Bq L -1 , respectively. The average beta activities in the four areas are 0.813±0.122, 0.308±0.0145, 0.563±0.230 and 0.225±0.0096 Bq L -1 , respectively. The overall results show that the alpha and beta activities in the four areas are far below the practical screening level of radioactivity in drinking water of 0.5 Bq L -1 for alpha and 1 Bq L -1 for beta recommended by CEC-FAO and WHO and therefore may not pose any serious detrimental health side-effects to the public users of the river.

  13. Generalized motor abilities and timing behavior in children with specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelaznik, Howard N; Goffman, Lisa

    2010-04-01

    To examine whether children with specific language impairment (SLI) differ from normally developing peers in motor skills, especially those skills related to timing. Standard measures of gross and fine motor development were obtained. Furthermore, finger and hand movements were recorded while children engaged in 4 different timing tasks, including tapping and drawing circles in time with a metronome or a visual target. Fourteen children with SLI (age 6 to 8 years) and 14 age-matched peers who were typically developing participated. As expected, children with SLI showed poorer performance on a standardized test of gross and fine motor skill than did their normally developing peers. However, timing skill in the manual domain was equivalent to that seen in typically developing children. Consistent with earlier findings, relatively poor gross and fine motor performance is observed in children with SLI. Surprisingly, rhythmic timing is spared.

  14. Estimation of inhalation doses from airborne releases using gross monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstein, N.P.

    1978-01-01

    Monitoring programs at most nuclear facilities involve continuous gross measurements supplemented by periodic isotopic analyses of release samples. The isotopic measurements are required to accurately assess the potential dose from the various effluent streams, but in between these measurements, one depends on the gross monitors to provide approximate indications of the dose. The effluent streams release a variety of nuclides, each with its own dose factor. This means that the relationship between the counting rate in a gross monitor and the potential dose of the effluent being monitored will depend on the isotopic composition of this release. If this composition changes, then the dose indicated by the gross monitor (calibrated for the original group of isotopes) may be significantly in error. The problem of indicating inhalation doses from gross monitoring of airborne releases is considered. In order for this type of monitor to accurately indicate dose, regardless of the isotopic makeup of a release, the analysis shows that its response to each isotope should be proportional to the dose factor of that isotope. These ideas are applied to the monitoring of air particulates using gross beta and gross gamma monitors. The study shows that the former more closely satisfies this condition and as a result, satisfactorily indicates the actual dose from reactor effluents, as determined from detailed isotopic data published in the literature. On the other hand, the gross gamma monitor, with its poorer fit to the condition, provided less than satisfactory accuracy in its dose estimates. In addition, a variety of other mathematical response functions were considered but their dose estimation capabilities were not much better than the straight beta response. The study shows that reasonably accurate dose estimates can be made using properly selected gross monitors, but that significant errors can result with improper ones. (author)

  15. Comparison of gross anatomy test scores using traditional specimens vs. QuickTime Virtual Reality animated specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maza, Paul Sadiri

    In recent years, technological advances such as computers have been employed in teaching gross anatomy at all levels of education, even in professional schools such as medical and veterinary medical colleges. Benefits of computer based instructional tools for gross anatomy include the convenience of not having to physically view or dissect a cadaver. Anatomy educators debate over the advantages versus the disadvantages of computer based resources for gross anatomy instruction. Many studies, case reports, and editorials argue for the increased use of computer based anatomy educational tools, while others discuss the necessity of dissection for various reasons important in learning anatomy, such as a three-dimensional physical view of the specimen, physical handling of tissues, interactions with fellow students during dissection, and differences between specific specimens. While many articles deal with gross anatomy education using computers, there seems to be a lack of studies investigating the use of computer based resources as an assessment tool for gross anatomy, specifically using the Apple application QuickTime Virtual Reality (QTVR). This study investigated the use of QTVR movie modules to assess if using computer based QTVR movie module assessments were equal in quality to actual physical specimen examinations. A gross anatomy course in the College of Veterinary Medicine at Cornell University was used as a source of anatomy students and gross anatomy examinations. Two groups were compared, one group taking gross anatomy examinations in a traditional manner, by viewing actual physical specimens and answering questions based on those specimens. The other group took the same examinations using the same specimens, but the specimens were viewed as simulated three-dimensional objects in a QTVR movie module. Sample group means for the assessments were compared. A survey was also administered asking students' perceptions of quality and user-friendliness of the QTVR

  16. Predicting Motor Skills from Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire Scores, Language Ability, and Other Features of New Zealand Children Entering Primary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargisson, Rebecca J.; Powell, Cheniel; Stanley, Peter; de Candole, Rosalind

    2014-01-01

    The motor and language skills, emotional and behavioural problems of 245 children were measured at school entry. Fine motor scores were significantly predicted by hyperactivity, phonetic awareness, prosocial behaviour, and the presence of medical problems. Gross motor scores were significantly predicted by the presence of medical problems. The…

  17. The Concentration on the Motor third Party Liability Insurance Market in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florina Oana VIRLANUTA

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The current paper proposes an analysis of the Romanian car insurance validity market. The topic is relevant at national and European level, and our analysis will be based on indicators such as gross written premiums, motor claims paid for bodily injuries, motor claims paid for property damage, market share on Motor Insurance market. We will also determine the degree of concentration on this market using Gini Struck Concentration Index.

  18. Australian Cerebral Palsy Child Study: protocol of a prospective population based study of motor and brain development of preschool aged children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Roslyn N; Jordan, Rachel; Pareezer, Laura; Moodie, Anne; Finn, Christine; Luther, Belinda; Arnfield, Evyn; Pym, Aaron; Craven, Alex; Beall, Paula; Weir, Kelly; Kentish, Megan; Wynter, Meredith; Ware, Robert; Fahey, Michael; Rawicki, Barry; McKinlay, Lynne; Guzzetta, Andrea

    2013-06-11

    Cerebral palsy (CP) results from a static brain lesion during pregnancy or early life and remains the most common cause of physical disability in children (1 in 500). While the brain lesion is static, the physical manifestations and medical issues may progress resulting in altered motor patterns. To date, there are no prospective longitudinal studies of CP that follow a birth cohort to track early gross and fine motor development and use Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) to determine the anatomical pattern and likely timing of the brain lesion. Existing studies do not consider treatment costs and outcomes. This study aims to determine the pathway(s) to motor outcome from diagnosis at 18 months corrected age (c.a.) to outcome at 5 years in relation to the nature of the brain lesion (using structural MRI). This prospective cohort study aims to recruit a total of 240 children diagnosed with CP born in Victoria (birth years 2004 and 2005) and Queensland (birth years 2006-2009). Children can enter the study at any time between 18 months to 5 years of age and will be assessed at 18, 24, 30, 36, 48 and 60 months c.a. Outcomes include gross motor function (GMFM-66 & GMFM-88), Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS); musculoskeletal development (hip displacement, spasticity, muscle contracture), upper limb function (Manual Ability Classification System), communication difficulties using Communication and Symbolic Behaviour Scales-Developmental Profile (CSBS-DP), participation using the Paediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI), parent reported quality of life and classification of medical and allied health resource use and determination of the aetiology of CP using clinical evaluation combined with MRI. The relationship between the pathways to motor outcome and the nature of the brain lesion will be analysed using multiple methods including non-linear modelling, multilevel mixed-effects models and generalised estimating equations. This protocol

  19. Jidosha's Motors

    OpenAIRE

    Shirakawa Okuma, Rosely; Calderón Orejuela, Javier

    2016-01-01

    La tesis narra la situación de una empresa concesionaria de vehículos nuevos, Jidosha's Motors, perteneciente a una corporación japonesa que cuenta con una cultura muy arraigada de ética y de cumplimiento. Se plantean respuestas, se identifican problemas y sus alternativas de solución para una toma adecuada de decisiones por parte de los directivos, siguiendo una estructura de análisis de situaciones de negocios (ASN). Tesis

  20. Effect of Hippotherapy on Motor Proficiency and Function in Children with Cerebral Palsy Who Walk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champagne, Danielle; Corriveau, Hélène; Dugas, Claude

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate the effects of hippotherapy on physical capacities of children with cerebral palsy. Thirteen children (4-12 years old) with cerebral palsy classified in Gross Motor Function Classification System Level I or II were included in this prospective quasi-experimental ABA design study. Participants received 10 weeks of hippotherapy (30 min per week). Gross motor function and proficiency were measured with the Bruininks-Oseretski Motor Proficiency short form [BOT2-SF]) and the Gross Motor Function Measure-88 [GMFM-88] (Dimension D and E) twice before the program (T1 and T1'), immediately after (T2), and 10 weeks following the end of the program (T3). Mean scores for dimensions D and E of the GMFM-88 Dimension scores (p = .005) and three out of the eight items of the BOT2-SF (fine motor precision (p = .013), balance (p = .025), and strength (p = .012) improved between baseline and immediately after intervention; mean scores immediately following and 10 weeks following intervention did not differ. Hippotherapy provided by a trained therapist who applies an intense and graded session for 10 weeks can improve body functions and performance of gross motor and fine motor activities in children with cerebral palsy.

  1. 26 CFR 1.61-4 - Gross income of farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... exchange is to be included in gross income. Proceeds of insurance, such as hail or fire insurance on... include crop insurance proceeds in income for taxable year following taxable year of destruction. For...

  2. Gross efficiency during rowing is not affected by stroke rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmijster, M.J.; van Soest, A.J.; de Koning, J.J.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: It has been suggested that the optimal stroke rate in rowing is partly determined by the stroke-rate dependence of internal power losses. This should be reflected in a stroke-rate dependency of gross efficiency (e

  3. A variational approach to the Gross-Neveu model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, H.; Misra, P.; Mishra, A.

    1988-01-01

    The authors solve the instability of perturbative vacuum of Gross-Neveu model. They use a variational method. The analysis is nonperturbative as it uses only equal time commmutator/anticommutator algebra

  4. Motor Performance in Relation with Sustained Attention in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solmaz Solouki

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Present study compares relationship between motor performance, sustained attention and impulse control in children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and normal children. Materials & Methods: In this descriptive-analytic study, 21 boys with ADHD and 21 normal boys in the age range of 7- 10 years old were participated. Motor performance by using Bruininks Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency and sustained attention and impulse control by using Continuous Performance Test were evaluated. Results: Analysis by T-Test and Mann-Whitney revealed significant difference between ADHD group and normal group in gross, fine and battery motor performance also sustained attention and impulse control (P<0.0001. Analysis by Z-Fisher test indicated no significant difference between Correlation Coefficient of inattention and gross motor performance in two groups (P=0.276 but significant difference between Correlation Coefficient of inattention and fine (P<0.0001 and battery (P<0.0001 motor performance were shown. Correlation Coefficient impulsivity and gross (P=0.379, fine (P=0.92 and battery (P=0.562 motor performance shown no significant difference between two groups. Conclusion: According to study results there was a positive relation between sustained attention and impulse control and most of motor performance in both groups. Therefore these findings help Occupational Therapist to determine rehabilitation priorities and to use exact strategies in order to enhance motor performance in children.

  5. Quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnett, N.; Jeffries, J.; Mach, J.; Robson, M.; Pajot, D.; Harrigan, J.; Lebsack, T.; Mullen, D.; Rat, F.; Theys, P.

    1993-01-01

    What is quality? How do you achieve it? How do you keep it once you have got it. The answer for industry at large is the three-step hierarchy of quality control, quality assurance and Total quality Management. An overview is given of the history of quality movement, illustrated with examples from Schlumberger operations, as well as the oil industry's approach to quality. An introduction of the Schlumberger's quality-associated ClientLink program is presented. 15 figs., 4 ills., 16 refs

  6. Gross and fine motor function in fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Rasouli, Omid; Fors, Egil Andreas; Borchgrevink, Petter Chr.; Öhberg, Fredrik; Stensdotter, Ann-Katrin

    2017-01-01

    Omid Rasouli,1,2 Egil A Fors,3 Petter Chr Borchgrevink,4,5 Fredrik Öhberg,6 Ann-Katrin Stensdotter1 1Department of Neuromedicine and Movement Science, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway; 2Department of Public Health and Nursing, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway; 3Department of Public Health and Nursing, General Practice Research Unit, Norwe...

  7. Young Athletes program: impact on motor development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favazza, Paddy C; Siperstein, Gary N; Zeisel, Susan A; Odom, Samuel L; Sideris, John H; Moskowitz, Andrew L

    2013-07-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of the Young Athletes program to promote motor development in preschool-aged children with disabilities. In the study, 233 children were randomly assigned to a control group or the Young Athletes (YA) intervention group which consisted of 24 motor skill lessons delivered 3 times per week for 8 weeks. Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) showed that children who participated in the YA intervention exhibited mean gains of 7-9 months on the Peabody Developmental Motor Subscales (PDMS) compared with mean gains of 3-5 months for the control group. Children in the YA intervention also exhibited significant gains on the gross motor subscale of the Vineland Teacher Rating Form (VTRF). Teachers and parents reported benefits for children not only in specific motor skills, but also kindergarten readiness skills and social/play skills. The necessity for direct and intentional instruction of motor skills, as well as the challenges of involving families in the YA program, are discussed.

  8. Actions to promote energy efficient electric motors. Motors study group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, A.T. de [Coimbra Univ. (PT). Inst. of Systems and Robotics (ISR)

    1996-10-01

    Motor electricity consumption is influenced by many factors including: motor efficiency, motor speed controls, power supply quality, harmonics, systems oversizing, distribution network, mechanical transmission system, maintenance practices, load management and cycling, and the efficiency of the end-use device (e.g. fan, pump, etc.). Due to their importance, an overview of these factors is presented in this report. This study also describes the electricity use in the industrial and tertiary sectors and the electricity consumption associated with the different types of electric motors systems in the Member States of the European Union, as well as estimated future evolution until 2010. The studies for individual countries were carried out by the different partners of the motors study group at a previous stage. The study has found that there is a lack of accurate information about the motor electricity consumption, installed motor capacity and the motor market in almost all the European Union countries and only some general statistical sources are available. There is little field data, which is mainly available in Denmark, France, Italy and the Netherlands. Due to this lack of primary information, some common assumptions were made, based on the experience of the members of the study group. This lack of end-use characterisation data shows the need for improvement from the point of view of current knowledge. It is therefore recommended that further research is undertaken to arrive at more accurate figures. These could be the basis for a better understanding for motor use in practice and - as a consequence - for a more precise appraisal of potentials and barriers to energy efficiency. (orig.)

  9. Relationship between the non-motor items of the MDS-UPDRS and Quality of Life in patients with Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skorvanek, Matej; Rosenberger, Jaroslav; Minar, Michal; Grofik, Milan; Han, Vladimir; Groothoff, Johan W.; Valkovic, Peter; Gdovinova, Zuzana; van Dijk, Jitse P.

    2015-01-01

    The Movement Disorder Society-Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS) is a newly developed comprehensive tool to assess Parkinson's disease (PD), which covers a wider range of non-motor PD manifestations than the original UPDRS scale. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship

  10. Comparing motor performance, praxis, coordination, and interpersonal synchrony between children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Maninderjit; M Srinivasan, Sudha; N Bhat, Anjana

    2018-01-01

    Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) have basic motor impairments in balance, gait, and coordination as well as autism-specific impairments in praxis/motor planning and interpersonal synchrony. Majority of the current literature focuses on isolated motor behaviors or domains. Additionally, the relationship between cognition, symptom severity, and motor performance in ASD is unclear. We used a comprehensive set of measures to compare gross and fine motor, praxis/imitation, motor coordination, and interpersonal synchrony skills across three groups of children between 5 and 12 years of age: children with ASD with high IQ (HASD), children with ASD with low IQ (LASD), and typically developing (TD) children. We used the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency and the Bilateral Motor Coordination subtest of the Sensory Integration and Praxis Tests to assess motor performance and praxis skills respectively. Children were also examined while performing simple and complex rhythmic upper and lower limb actions on their own (solo context) and with a social partner (social context). Both ASD groups had lower gross and fine motor scores, greater praxis errors in total and within various error types, lower movement rates, greater movement variability, and weaker interpersonal synchrony compared to the TD group. In addition, the LASD group had lower gross motor scores and greater mirroring errors compared to the HASD group. Overall, a variety of motor impairments are present across the entire spectrum of children with ASD, regardless of their IQ scores. Both, fine and gross motor performance significantly correlated with IQ but not with autism severity; however, praxis errors (mainly, total, overflow, and rhythmicity) strongly correlated with autism severity and not IQ. Our study findings highlight the need for clinicians and therapists to include motor evaluations and interventions in the standard-of-care of children with ASD and for the broader autism community to

  11. Movement sonification: Effects on motor learning beyond rhythmic adjustments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred Oliver Effenberg

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Motor learning is based on motor perception and emergent perceptual-motor representations. A lot of behavioral research is related to single perceptual modalities, but during last two decades the contribution of multimodal perception on motor behavior was discovered more and more. A growing number of studies indicate an enhanced impact of multimodal stimuli on motor perception, motor control and motor learning in terms of better precision and higher reliability of the related actions. Behavioral research is supported by neurophysiological data, revealing that multisensory integration supports motor control and learning. But the overwhelming part of both research lines is dedicated to basic research. Besides research in the domains of music, dance and motor rehabilitation there is nearly no evidence about enhanced effectiveness of multisensory information on learning of gross motor skills. To reduce this gap movement sonification is used here in applied research on motor learning in sports.Based on the current knowledge on the multimodal organization of the perceptual system we generate additional real-time movement information being suitable for integration with perceptual feedback streams of visual and proprioceptive modality. With ongoing training synchronously processed auditory information should be initially integrated into the emerging internal models, enhancing the efficacy of motor learning. This is achieved by a direct mapping of kinematic and dynamic motion parameters to electronic sounds, resulting in continuous auditory and convergent audiovisual or audio-proprioceptive stimulus arrays. In sharp contrast to other approaches using acoustic information as error feedback in motor learning settings we try to generate additional movement information suitable for acceleration and enhancement of adequate sensorimotor representations and processible below the level of consciousness. In the experimental setting participants were asked to

  12. Movement Sonification: Effects on Motor Learning beyond Rhythmic Adjustments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effenberg, Alfred O; Fehse, Ursula; Schmitz, Gerd; Krueger, Bjoern; Mechling, Heinz

    2016-01-01

    Motor learning is based on motor perception and emergent perceptual-motor representations. A lot of behavioral research is related to single perceptual modalities but during last two decades the contribution of multimodal perception on motor behavior was discovered more and more. A growing number of studies indicates an enhanced impact of multimodal stimuli on motor perception, motor control and motor learning in terms of better precision and higher reliability of the related actions. Behavioral research is supported by neurophysiological data, revealing that multisensory integration supports motor control and learning. But the overwhelming part of both research lines is dedicated to basic research. Besides research in the domains of music, dance and motor rehabilitation, there is almost no evidence for enhanced effectiveness of multisensory information on learning of gross motor skills. To reduce this gap, movement sonification is used here in applied research on motor learning in sports. Based on the current knowledge on the multimodal organization of the perceptual system, we generate additional real-time movement information being suitable for integration with perceptual feedback streams of visual and proprioceptive modality. With ongoing training, synchronously processed auditory information should be initially integrated into the emerging internal models, enhancing the efficacy of motor learning. This is achieved by a direct mapping of kinematic and dynamic motion parameters to electronic sounds, resulting in continuous auditory and convergent audiovisual or audio-proprioceptive stimulus arrays. In sharp contrast to other approaches using acoustic information as error-feedback in motor learning settings, we try to generate additional movement information suitable for acceleration and enhancement of adequate sensorimotor representations and processible below the level of consciousness. In the experimental setting, participants were asked to learn a closed

  13. Movement Sonification: Effects on Motor Learning beyond Rhythmic Adjustments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effenberg, Alfred O.; Fehse, Ursula; Schmitz, Gerd; Krueger, Bjoern; Mechling, Heinz

    2016-01-01

    Motor learning is based on motor perception and emergent perceptual-motor representations. A lot of behavioral research is related to single perceptual modalities but during last two decades the contribution of multimodal perception on motor behavior was discovered more and more. A growing number of studies indicates an enhanced impact of multimodal stimuli on motor perception, motor control and motor learning in terms of better precision and higher reliability of the related actions. Behavioral research is supported by neurophysiological data, revealing that multisensory integration supports motor control and learning. But the overwhelming part of both research lines is dedicated to basic research. Besides research in the domains of music, dance and motor rehabilitation, there is almost no evidence for enhanced effectiveness of multisensory information on learning of gross motor skills. To reduce this gap, movement sonification is used here in applied research on motor learning in sports. Based on the current knowledge on the multimodal organization of the perceptual system, we generate additional real-time movement information being suitable for integration with perceptual feedback streams of visual and proprioceptive modality. With ongoing training, synchronously processed auditory information should be initially integrated into the emerging internal models, enhancing the efficacy of motor learning. This is achieved by a direct mapping of kinematic and dynamic motion parameters to electronic sounds, resulting in continuous auditory and convergent audiovisual or audio-proprioceptive stimulus arrays. In sharp contrast to other approaches using acoustic information as error-feedback in motor learning settings, we try to generate additional movement information suitable for acceleration and enhancement of adequate sensorimotor representations and processible below the level of consciousness. In the experimental setting, participants were asked to learn a closed

  14. Effects of a High Protein Food Supplement on Physical Activity, Motor Performance and Health Related Quality of Life of HIV Infected Botswana Children on Anti-Retroviral Therapy (ART).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malete, Leapetswe; Mokgatlhe, Lucky; Nnyepi, Maria; Jackson, Jose; Wen, Fujun; Bennink, Maurice; Anabwani, Gabriel; Makhanda, Jerry; Thior, Ibou; Lyoka, Philemon; Weatherspoon, Lorraine

    2017-01-01

    Despite existing evidence about the benefits of nutrition, physical activity (PA) and sport to the overall health and wellbeing of children, knowledge gaps remain on this relationship in children living with chronic conditions like HIV/AIDS. Such knowledge should inform context specific programs that could enhance the quality of life of children. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of integrating a nutrition intervention (culturally tailored food supplement) into antiretroviral therapy (ART) on psychosocial outcomes and physical activity among HIV-positive children in Botswana. 201 HIV-positive children (6-15 years; M = 9.44, SD = 2.40) were recruited and randomly assigned (stratified by age and gender) to two groups. The intervention group (n = 97) received a high protein (bean-sorghum plus micronutrients) food supplement, while the control group (n = 104) received a sorghum plus micronutrients supplement. Participants were followed over 12 months. Anthropometric measures, PA, motor performance, and health related quality of life (HRQL) were collected at baseline, 6 and 12 months. Mixed repeated-measures ANOVA revealed a significant time effect of the food supplement on target variables except body fat percentage, speed, and school functioning. Time × treatment interaction was found for physical functioning, psychosocial functioning and total quality of life score. Scores on physical functioning and total of quality life in the intervention group significantly increased from baseline to 6 months compared with the control group ( p = 0.015). A combination of ART and nutritional intervention had a positive effect on physical functioning and total quality of life of HIV-positive children in this study. There were also improvements to physical activity and motor performance tests over time. More research is needed on long term effects of nutrition and PA interventions on HRQL in children living with HIV.

  15. Desempenho motor de lactentes frequentadores de berçários em creches públicas Motor performance of infants attending the nurseries of public day care centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Baltieri

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar o desempenho motor axial, apendicular e global e sua correlação com as características neonatais, familiares e de tempo de exposição à creche em crianças com idade entre 12-24 meses, frequentadoras de creches públicas. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal com 40 lactentes (idade média 14,3±2,4 meses frequentadores de creches públicas. Os participantes foram avaliados quanto ao desempenho motor com a Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development-III, a qual possibilita análise do desempenho motor e comparação dos domínios motores axial e apendicular. Foram coletados dados neonatais, familiares e de exposição à creche e pesquisou-se a correlação destes fatores ao desempenho motor. Foi utilizado o teste t pareado para comparar médias e a correlação de Pearson. RESULTADOS: O desempenho motor do grupo esteve, em média, abaixo da referência, com 22,5% das crianças classificadas como suspeitas de atraso nos desempenhos axial e global, contrastando com nenhuma no domínio apendicular. A comparação axial e apendicular apontou diferença significativa, com desempenho axial aquém do apendicular, além de 35% do grupo ter apresentado discrepância significativa entre esses domínios. Não foi encontrada correlação linear entre os domínios motores avaliados e as variáveis neonatais, familiares e de exposição à creche. CONCLUSÕES: O desempenho motor global do grupo esteve abaixo da média de referência, com desempenho motor axial inferior ao apendicular e importante discrepância entre esses. Recomenda-se atenção às habilidades motoras axiais e às oportunidades de exploração que o ambiente em creches pode propiciar, especialmente no decorrer dos dois primeiros anos de vida.OBJECTIVE: To analyze gross, fine and global motor performance and its correlation with neonatal and familial variables and day care exposure among children between 12-24 months of age attending public day care centers. METHODS: This

  16. Comparison of Motor Skills in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder and Normal Peers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahel Hemmati

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD is a motor skill disorder which impacts upon a child, s ability to perform age-appropriate activity of daily living and academic performance. They have problems in gross & fine motors, their upper limb coordination are impaired, too. In this way, we decided to compare motors skills with BOTMP test in children with DCD and their normal peers. Methods: In this study 30 children with DCD (age range is 6/5-8/5 have studied and compared with their normal peers. Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOTMP was used. Results: The study showed Motor skills in DCD children are significantly poorer than their normal peers. (P<0/001 Gross motor, Fine motor skills and the upper limb coordination are significant impaired in DCD children. Discussion: In the process of evaluation Children with DCD, standard instrument, like BOTMP can be used.BOTMP detected deficiency in gross & fine motor and other area like, upper limb coordination. We need accurate in formations for better treatment. BOTMP can be used in the process of evaluation for every DCD child, after that goals of treatment will be clearer.

  17. Motor skills in Czech children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and their neurotypical counterparts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharoun, S M; Bryden, P J; Otipkova, Z; Musalek, M; Lejcarova, A

    2013-11-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most commonly diagnosed neurobehavioural disorder. Characterized by recurring problems with impulsiveness and inattention in combination with hyperactivity, motor impairments have also been well documented in the literature. The aim of this study was to compare the fine and gross motor skills of male and female children with ADHD and their neurotypical counterparts within seven skill assessments. This included three fine motor tasks: (1) spiral tracing, (2) dot filling, (3) tweezers and beads; and four gross motor tasks: (1) twistbox, (2) foot tapping, (3) small plate finger tapping, and (4) large plate finger tapping. It was hypothesized that children with ADHD would display poorer motor skills in comparison to neurotypical controls in both fine and gross motor assessments. However, statistically significant differences between the groups only emerged in four of the seven tasks (spiral tracing, dot filling, tweezers and beads and foot tapping). In line with previous findings, the complexity underlying upper limb tasks solidified the divide in performance between children with ADHD and their neurotypical counterparts. In light of similar research, impairments in lower limb motor skill were also observed. Future research is required to further delineate trends in motor difficulties in ADHD, while further investigating the underlying mechanisms of impairment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Interaction of language processing and motor skill in children with specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiDonato Brumbach, Andrea C; Goffman, Lisa

    2014-02-01

    To examine how language production interacts with speech motor and gross and fine motor skill in children with specific language impairment (SLI). Eleven children with SLI and 12 age-matched peers (4-6 years) produced structurally primed sentences containing particles and prepositions. Utterances were analyzed for errors and for articulatory duration and variability. Standard measures of motor, language, and articulation skill were also obtained. Sentences containing particles, as compared with prepositions, were less likely to be produced in a priming task and were longer in duration, suggesting increased difficulty with this syntactic structure. Children with SLI demonstrated higher articulatory variability and poorer gross and fine motor skills compared with aged-matched controls. Articulatory variability was correlated with generalized gross and fine motor performance. Children with SLI show co-occurring speech motor and generalized motor deficits. Current theories do not fully account for the present findings, though the procedural deficit hypothesis provides a framework for interpreting overlap among language and motor domains.

  19. A&I - Data Quality - State Safety Data Quality Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Data Quality identifies FMCSA resources for evaluating, monitoring, and improving the quality of data submitted by States to the Motor Carrier Management Information...

  20. Practice Parameter: treatment of Parkinson disease with motor fluctuations and dyskinesia (an evidence-based review): report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahwa, R; Factor, S A; Lyons, K E; Ondo, W G; Gronseth, G; Bronte-Stewart, H; Hallett, M; Miyasaki, J; Stevens, J; Weiner, W J

    2006-04-11

    To make evidence-based treatment recommendations for the medical and surgical treatment of patients with Parkinson disease (PD) with levodopa-induced motor fluctuations and dyskinesia. To that end, five questions were addressed. 1. Which medications reduce off time? 2. What is the relative efficacy of medications in reducing off time? 3. Which medications reduce dyskinesia? 4. Does deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN), globus pallidus interna (GPi), or ventral intermediate (VIM) nucleus of the thalamus reduce off time, dyskinesia, and antiparkinsonian medication usage and improve motor function? 5. Which factors predict improvement after DBS? A 10-member committee including movement disorder specialists and general neurologists evaluated the available evidence based on a structured literature review including MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Ovid databases from 1965 through June 2004. 1. Entacapone and rasagiline should be offered to reduce off time (Level A). Pergolide, pramipexole, ropinirole, and tolcapone should be considered to reduce off time (Level B). Apomorphine, cabergoline, and selegiline may be considered to reduce off time (Level C). 2. The available evidence does not establish superiority of one medicine over another in reducing off time (Level B). Sustained release carbidopa/levodopa and bromocriptine may be disregarded to reduce off time (Level C). 3. Amantadine may be considered to reduce dyskinesia (Level C). 4. Deep brain stimulation of the STN may be considered to improve motor function and reduce off time, dyskinesia, and medication usage (Level C). There is insufficient evidence to support or refute the efficacy of DBS of the GPi or VIM nucleus of the thalamus in reducing off time, dyskinesia, or medication usage, or to improve motor function. 5. Preoperative response to levodopa predicts better outcome after DBS of the STN (Level B).

  1. Effect of water content nitrogen gross mineralization and immobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Videla C, Ximena; Parada, Ana Maria; Nario M, Adriana; Pino N, Ines; Hood, Rebeca

    2005-01-01

    The decomposition of organic matter in soil, and the accompanying mineralization and immobilization of inorganic N, are key processes in the soil plant cycle. It is hypothesized that moisture regime may also play an important role on these processes. Two laboratory studies were carried out to investigate the effect of moisture regime on gross mineralization and immobilization of N, in and Ultisol soil, which was incubated at 25 o C, under two moisture regimes, field capacity (CC) (40% w/w) and 85% of field capacity (34% w/w): Using mirror image 15 N isotope dilution techniques, it was possible to determine gross nitrification and mineralization rates. The rates of gross mineralization and nitrification rate in this soil was extremely rapid and efficient, specially with 85% CC. The N transformations varied with moisture regime (author)

  2. A survey of gross alpha and gross beta activity in soil samples in Kinta District, Perak, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Siak Kuan; Wagiran, Husin; Ramli, Ahmad Termizi

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the gross alpha and gross beta activity concentrations from the different soil types found in the Kinta District, Perak, Malaysia. A total of 128 soil samples were collected and their dose rates were measured 1 m above the ground. Gross alpha and gross beta activity measurements were carried out using gas flow proportional counter, Tennelec Series 5 LB5500 Automatic Low Background Counting System. The alpha activity concentration ranged from 15 to 9634 Bq kg -1 with a mean value of 1558±121 Bq kg -1 . The beta activity concentration ranged from 142 to 6173 Bq kg -1 with a mean value of 1112±32 Bq kg -1 . High alpha and beta activity concentrations are from the same soil type. The results of the analysis show a strong correlation between the gross alpha activity concentration and dose rate (R = 0.92). The data obtained can be used as a database for each soil type. (authors)

  3. Effect of power quality on windings temperature of marine induction motors. Part II: Results of investigations and recommendations for related regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnacinski, P.; Mindykowski, J.; Tarasiuk, T.

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with the effect of lowered voltage quality in ship power systems on windings temperature of low-power induction cage machines. The results of investigations carried out with experimental and analytical methods are presented. The thermal impact of power quality disturbances permitted by ship classification societies is discussed. A proposal of new power quality regulations for ship classification societies is made.

  4. Motor skills training promotes motor functional recovery and induces synaptogenesis in the motor cortex and striatum after intracerebral hemorrhage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamakoshi, Keigo; Ishida, Akimasa; Takamatsu, Yasuyuki; Hamakawa, Michiru; Nakashima, Hiroki; Shimada, Haruka; Ishida, Kazuto

    2014-03-01

    We investigated the effects of motor skills training on several types of motor function and synaptic plasticity following intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in rats. Male Wistar rats were injected with collagenase into the left striatum to induce ICH, and they were randomly assigned to the ICH or sham groups. Each group was divided into the motor skills training (acrobatic training) and control (no exercise) groups. The acrobatic group performed acrobatic training from 4 to 28 days after surgery. Motor functions were assessed by motor deficit score, the horizontal ladder test and the wide or narrow beam walking test at several time points after ICH. The number of ΔFosB-positive cells was counted using immunohistochemistry to examine neuronal activation, and the PSD95 protein levels were analyzed by Western blotting to examine synaptic plasticity in the bilateral sensorimotor cortices and striata at 14 and 29 days after ICH. Motor skills training following ICH significantly improved gross motor function in the early phase after ICH and skilled motor coordinated function in the late phase. The number of ΔFosB-positive cells in the contralateral sensorimotor cortex in the acrobatic group significantly increased compared to the control group. PSD95 protein expression in the motor cortex significantly increased in the late phase, and in the striatum, the protein level significantly increased in the early phase by motor skills training after ICH compared to no training after ICH. We demonstrated that motor skills training improved motor function after ICH in rats and enhanced the neural activity and synaptic plasticity in the striatum and sensorimotor cortex. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Caracterization of the motor profile of students with autistic disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Matiko Okuda

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Thematic focus: The motor abnormalities may be part of so-called comorbidities that can coexist with autistic disorder. Objective: To characterize the motor profile of students with autistic disorder. Method: the study included six children with autistic disorder in elementary school, male, aged 5 years and 5 months and 10 years and 9 months. After signing the consent form by parents or guardians, the students were submitted to the Motor Development Scale for assessment of fine motor, gross motor performance, balance, body scheme, spatial organization, temporal organization and laterality. Results: The results revealed a significant difference between the motor age and chronological age. According to the classification of the Scale of Motor Development, students in this study showed motor development lower than expected for age. Conclusion: The students with autistic disorder in this study presented a profile of Developmental Coordination Disorder in comorbidity, showing that participants of this research presented difficulties in activities that required skills such as handwriting. Thus, motor and psychomotor needs of these students were focused on educational and clinical environment to reduce the impact of behavioral and social manifestations.

  6. Motor control for a brushless DC motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, William J. (Inventor); Faulkner, Dennis T. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    This invention relates to a motor control system for a brushless DC motor having an inverter responsively coupled to the motor control system and in power transmitting relationship to the motor. The motor control system includes a motor rotor speed detecting unit that provides a pulsed waveform signal proportional to rotor speed. This pulsed waveform signal is delivered to the inverter to thereby cause an inverter fundamental current waveform output to the motor to be switched at a rate proportional to said rotor speed. In addition, the fundamental current waveform is also pulse width modulated at a rate proportional to the rotor speed. A fundamental current waveform phase advance circuit is controllingly coupled to the inverter. The phase advance circuit is coupled to receive the pulsed waveform signal from the motor rotor speed detecting unit and phase advance the pulsed waveform signal as a predetermined function of motor speed to thereby cause the fundamental current waveform to be advanced and thereby compensate for fundamental current waveform lag due to motor winding reactance which allows the motor to operate at higher speeds than the motor is rated while providing optimal torque and therefore increased efficiency.

  7. Long-term follow-up of mental health, health-related quality of life and associations with motor skills in young adults born preterm with very low birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husby, Ingrid Marie; Stray, Kaia Mølbach-Thellefsen; Olsen, Alexander; Lydersen, Stian; Indredavik, Marit Sæbø; Brubakk, Ann-Mari; Skranes, Jon; Evensen, Kari Anne I

    2016-04-07

    Being born with very low birth weight (VLBW: ≤ 1,500 g) is related to long-term disability and neurodevelopmental problems, possibly affecting mental health and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). However, studies in young adulthood yield mixed findings. The aim of this study was to examine mental health and HRQoL at 23 years, including changes from 20 to 23 years and associations with motor skills in VLBW young adults compared with controls. In a geographically based follow-up study, 35 VLBW and 37 term-born young adults were assessed at 23 years by using Achenbach Adult Self-Report (ASR), Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and various motor tests. The ASR and SF-36 were also used at 20 years. Longitudinal changes in ASR and SF-36 from 20 to 23 years were analysed by linear mixed models and associations with motor skills at 23 years by linear regression. At 23 years, total ASR score was 38.6 (SD: 21.7) in the VLBW group compared with 29.0 (SD: 18.6) in the control group (p = 0.048). VLBW participants had higher scores for attention problems, internalizing problems and critical items, and they reported to drink less alcohol than controls. BDI total score did not differ between groups. On SF-36, VLBW participants reported significantly poorer physical and social functioning, more role-limitations due to physical and emotional problems, more bodily pain and lower physical and mental component summaries than controls. In the VLBW group, total ASR score increased by 9.0 (95 % CI: 3.3 to 14.7) points from 20 to 23 years (p = 0.009 vs controls), physical and mental component summaries of SF-36 decreased by 2.9 (95 % CI: -4.8 to -1.1) and 4.4 (95 % CI: -7.1 to -1.7) points, respectively (p = 0.012 and p = 0.022 vs controls). Among VLBW participants, more mental health problems and lower physical and mental HRQoL were associated with poorer motor skills at 23 years. VLBW young adults reported poorer and declining

  8. Influence of crosstalk phenomenon on the measurement of gross alpha and gross beta radioactivity in drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerilemandahu; Haribala; Xu Xiao; Shen Na; Sai Wenga; Bai Guilin; Wang Chengguo

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To study the influence of crosstalk phenomenon on the measurement of gross radioactivity in drinking water. Methods: The gross activity in different standard materials with different thickness and area was measured using national standard method. Results: There was no obvious change in crosstalk factor with the increase of "2"4"1Am powder amount in the measurement, whereas the larger amount of uranium used might lead to larger crosstalk factor. The different measurement channels resulted in different crosstalk factors. The influence of beta radioactivity on alpha radioactivity measurement was significant. On the contrary, the alpha-to-beta crosstalk factor was negligible. The area of sample plate imposed no significant influence on crosstalk factor. Conclusions: The gross beta activity can be corrected to decrease the influence of alpha radioactivity using powder standard samples, when simultaneous alpha and beta counting mode is applied in measurement grass radioactivity in drinking water. (authors)

  9. Determination of gross alpha and gross beta in soil around repository facility at Bukit Kledang, Perak, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adziz, Mohd Izwan Abdul; Siong, Khoo Kok

    2018-04-01

    Recently, the Long Term Storage Facility (LTSF) in Bukit Kledang, Perak, Malaysia, has been upgraded to repository facility upon the completion of decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) process. Thorium waste and contaminated material that may contain some minor amounts of thorium hydroxide were disposed in this facility. This study is conducted to determine the concentrations of gross alpha and gross beta radioactivities in soil samples collected around the repository facility. A total of 12 soil samples were collected consisting 10 samples from around the facility and 2 samples from selected residential area near the facility. In addition, the respective dose rates were measured 5 cm and 1 m above the ground by using survey meter with Geiger Muller (GM) detector and Sodium Iodide (NaI) detector. Soil samples were collected using hand auger and then were taken back to the laboratory for further analysis. Samples were cleaned, dried, pulverized and sieved prior to analysis. Gross alpha and gross beta activity measurements were carried out using gas flow proportional counter, Canberra Series 5 XLB - Automatic Low Background Alpha and Beta Counting System. The obtained results show that, the gross alpha and gross beta activity concentration ranged from 1.55 to 5.34 Bq/g with a mean value of 3.47 ± 0.09 Bq/g and 1.64 to 5.78 Bq/g with a mean value of 3.49 ± 0.09 Bq/g, respectively. These results can be used as an additional data to represent terrestrial radioactivity baseline data for Malaysia environment. This estimation will also serve as baseline for detection of any future related activities of contamination especially around the repository facility area.

  10. ϵ-expansion in the Gross-Neveu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raju, Avinash [Center for High Energy Physics, Indian Institute of Science,Bangalore 560012 (India)

    2016-10-18

    We use the recently developed CFT techniques of Rychkov and Tan to compute anomalous dimensions in the O(N) Gross-Neveu model in d=2+ϵ dimensions. To do this, we extend the “cowpie contraction' algorithm of http://arxiv.org/abs/1506.06616 to theories with fermions. Our results match perfectly with Feynman diagram computations.

  11. Gross and microscopic lesions in corals from Micronesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, Thierry M.; Aeby, Greta S.; Hughen, Konrad A.

    2015-01-01

    The authors documented gross and microscopic morphology of lesions in corals on 7 islands spanning western, southern, and eastern Micronesia, sampling 76 colonies comprising 30 species of corals among 18 genera, with Acropora, Porites, and Montipora dominating. Tissue loss comprised the majority of gross lesions sampled (41%), followed by discoloration (30%) and growth anomaly (29%). Of 31 cases of tissue loss, most lesions were subacute (48%), followed by acute and chronic (26% each). Of 23 samples with discoloration, most were dark discoloration (40%), with bleaching and other discoloration each constituting 30%. Of 22 growth anomalies, umbonate growth anomalies composed half, with exophytic, nodular, and rugose growth anomalies composing the remainder. On histopathology, for 9 cases of dark discoloration, fungal infections predominated (77%); for 7 bleached corals, depletion of zooxanthellae from the gastrodermis made up a majority of microscopic diagnoses (57%); and for growth anomalies other than umbonate, hyperplasia of the basal body wall was the most common microscopic finding (63%). For the remainder of the gross lesions, no single microscopic finding constituted >50% of the total. Host response varied with the agent present on histology. Fragmentation of tissues was most often associated with algae (60%), whereas necrosis dominated (53%) for fungi. Two newly documented potentially symbiotic tissue-associated metazoans were seen in Porites and Montipora. Findings of multiple potential etiologies for a given gross lesion highlight the importance of incorporating histopathology in coral disease surveys. This study also expands the range of corals infected with cell-associated microbial aggregates.

  12. Gross morphometric study on the reproductive system of Japanese ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quail farming is emerging in commercial poultry farming to provide alternatives to domestic chicken production and also strengthen the poultry production demands for animal protein. This study was conducted to determine the gross morphometry of the ovary and oviduct of inapparently healthy adult laying Japanese quail ...

  13. Gross and morphometric anatomical changes of the thyroid gland in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gross and morphometric anatomical changes of the thyroid gland in the West African Dwarf Goat ( Capra hircus ) during the foetal and post-natal periods of development. ... The right lobe was more cranially located on the larynx and trachea than the left lobe in all age groups. Thyroid isthmus was absent in few foetal thyroid ...

  14. Survey On Management Systems And Gross Profit Analysis Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Survey On Management Systems And Gross Profit Analysis Of Muturu In Southern Cross River State. ... in muturu rearing for commercial purposes. Cost price of muturu within the study area was uniform due to the influence of market associations. The selling price of muturu cattle is however influenced by the location.

  15. 77 FR 51706 - Gross Combination Weight Rating (GCWR); Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ... [Docket No. FMCSA-2012-0156] RIN 2126-AB53 Gross Combination Weight Rating (GCWR); Definition AGENCY... combination weight rating'' (GCWR) in our regulations. The definition currently prescribes how the GCWR is... comment, if submitted on behalf of an association, business, labor union, etc.). You may review a Privacy...

  16. 77 FR 65497 - Gross Combination Weight Rating (GCWR); Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-29

    ... [Docket No. FMCSA-2012-0156] RIN 2126-AB53 Gross Combination Weight Rating (GCWR); Definition AGENCY... combination weight rating'' (GCWR) in 49 CFR parts 383 and 390. The DFR would have taken effect on October 26... submitted on behalf of an association, business, labor union, etc.). You may review a Privacy Act notice...

  17. Monopol suretab kohaliku loomakasvataja / Oleg Gross ; interv . Illar Mõttus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Gross, Oleg, 1952-

    2005-01-01

    Väike-Maarja jäätmetehase monopoolse seisundi vastu sõna võtnud OG Elektra omanik Oleg Gross on kindel, et jäätmetehasega suretatakse kohalikud väiksemad lihatootjad välja. Kommenteerivad talupidaja Jüri Järvet ja Rakvere Lihakombinaadi direktor Olle Horm

  18. casual relationship between gross domestic saving and economic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TOSHIBA

    private saving has both direct and indirect effects on economic growth. ... sector have a bigger impact on GDP than gross domestic savings. ... Development economists have been concerned for decades about the crucial role of ..... higher investment and higher economic growth is not supported by East African countries.

  19. Placental mesenchymal dysplasia: case report with gross and histological findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toscano, Marcello Pecoraro; Schultz, Regina

    2014-01-01

    Placental mesenchymal dysplasia (PMD) is a rare placental disorder characterized by placental enlargement and areas of abnormal, enlarged, grape-like villi. This condition may resemble a partial hydatidiform mole and may occur associated with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) or in phenotypically normal fetuses. There were 110 cases reported so far. We describe one case with typical gross and microscopic placental lesions.

  20. Placental mesenchymal dysplasia: case report with gross and histological findings

    OpenAIRE

    Marcello Pecoraro Toscano; Regina Schultz

    2014-01-01

    Placental mesenchymal dysplasia (PMD) is a rare placental disorder characterized by placental enlargement and areas of abnormal, enlarged, grape-like villi. This condition may resemble a partial hydatidiform mole and may occur associated with Beckwith?Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) or in phenotypically normal fetuses. There were 110 cases reported so far. We describe one case with typical gross and microscopic placental lesions.

  1. Anomaly detection in real-time gross payment data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Triepels, Ron; Daniels, Hennie; Heijmans, R.; Camp, Olivier; Filipe, Joaquim

    2017-01-01

    We discuss how an autoencoder can detect system-level anomalies in a real-time gross settlement system by reconstructing a set of liquidity vectors. A liquidity vector is an aggregated representation of the underlying payment network of a settlement system for a particular time interval.

  2. Comments on the research article by Gross et al. (2012)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guntur, Srinivas; Sørensen, Niels N.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this Letter to the Editor is to present a discussion on the physics of rotational augmentation based on existing work. One of the latest works by Gross et al. (2012) is highlighted here, and its conclusions are discussed. Based on the existing understanding of rotational augmentati...

  3. Lattice simulation of 2d Gross-Neveu-type models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limmer, M.; Gattringer, C.; Hermann, V.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: We discuss a Monte Carlo simulation of 2d Gross-Neveu-type models on the lattice. The four-Fermi interaction is written as a Gaussian integral with an auxiliary field and the fermion determinant is included by reweighting. We present results for bulk quantities and correlators and compare them to a simulation using a fermion-loop representation. (author)

  4. Potato production in Europe - a gross margin analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren Marcus; Bizik, Jan; Costa, Luisa Dalla

    The purpose of this paper is to examine different cropping practices, cost structures and gross margins for producing conventional table potatoes in 6 different regions within the European Union: Czech Republic, Denmark, Italy, Poland, Portugal and Slovakia. Findings from this study show that pot...

  5. Gross theory of nuclear β-decay with shell effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pabst, M.

    1979-01-01

    The present work tries to introduce shell effects selection rules into the gross theory systematically. Instead of an unbunched or bunched Fermigas spectrum a single-particle spectrum in the shell model with a Woods-Saxon potential is used. The knowledge of spin and parity of the levels allows us to introduce selection rules in an approximative way. (orig.)

  6. The effects of climatic factors on the occurrence and gross ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The bacterial agents of ovine and caprine pneumonia and associated gross pathological lesions were studied for a period of ten years (1985-1995). Bacteriological data were obtained from the necropsy report books of the Microbiology and Pathology Dagnostic units of the Department of Vetinary Pathology and ...

  7. Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma : gross appearance and corresponding pathologic and radiologic features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Kwon Ha; Kim, Chang Guhn; Lee, Moon Gyu; Ha, Hyun Kwon; Auh, Yong Ho; Lim, Jae Hoon

    1999-01-01

    To assess the clinical and pathologic features of each type of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, which is divided into three types according to gross appearance, and to determine the efficacy of CT in detecting this tumor. The pathologic and CT features of 53 surgically proven cases of intrahepatic cholangio-carcinoma were reviewed. On the basis of their gross appearance, the tumors were divided into three types, as follows : mass forming (n=33), periductal infiltrating (n=6), and intraductal growth type (n=14). CT scans were analyzed for sensitivity of detection and correlation between a tumors appearance and its histopathology. The most common histopathologic feature of mass forming and periductal infiltrating type was tubular adenocarcinoma, while in the intraductal growth type, papillary adenocarcinoma (100%) was common. With regard to pattern of tumor spread, intrahepatic and lymph node metastasis were more common in the mass forming and periductal infiltrating type than in the intraductal growth type. CT findings including intrahepatic mass, ductal wall thickening or intraductal mass associated with segmental dilatation of intrahepataic bile ducts, corresponded with these morphologic types. This classification according to gross appearance is of considerable value when interpreting the pathologic features of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. CT seems to be a useful modality for the detection of tumors and may be consistent with their gross morphologic findings

  8. Barn music at St Donat's castle / Philip Gross

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Gross, Philip, 1952-

    2011-01-01

    Muusikafestivalist "Vale of Glamorgan", mis oli 2010. a. pühendatud Arvo Pärdile. Eesti kammermuusikaansambli Resonabilis kavas oli ka festivali tellimusel valminud uelsi helilooja Gareth Peredur Churchilli "Vocable", mille teksti kirjutas Philip Gross. Festivalikontsertide muljeid leiab Grossi luuletsüklis "Barn music" (avaldatud samas ajakirjanumbris, lk. 42-43)

  9. Energy use and gross margin analysis for sesame production in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As the negative impacts of energy by-products affect the climate, the knowledge and efficient use of energy in crop production will minimise environmental problems and promote sustainable agriculture as an economic production system in Nigeria and else where. The aim of the study was to evaluate energy use and gross ...

  10. Gross and Histomorphological Assessment of the Oropharynx and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the morphology of the oropharynx and tongue of the guinea fowl using gross anatomical and histological techniques. The results showed that the mouth and pharynx of the guinea fowl lacked a definite line of demarcation, and so formed a common oropharyngeal cavity. The roof of the oropharynx ...

  11. Motor development in 9-month-old infants in relation to cultural differences and iron status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo-Barroso, Rosa M; Schapiro, Lauren; Liang, Weilang; Rodrigues, Onike; Shafir, Tal; Kaciroti, Niko; Jacobson, Sandra W; Lozoff, Betsy

    2011-03-01

    Motor development, which allows infants to explore their environment, promoting cognitive, social, and perceptual development, can be influenced by cultural practices and nutritional factors, such as iron deficiency. This study compared fine and gross motor development in 209 9-month-old infants from urban areas of China, Ghana, and USA (African-Americans) and considered effects of iron status. Iron deficiency anemia was most common in the Ghana sample (55%) followed by USA and China samples. Controlling for iron status, Ghanaian infants displayed precocity in gross motor development and most fine-motor reach-and-grasp tasks. US African-Americans performed the poorest in all tasks except bimanual coordination and the large ball. Controlling for cultural site, iron status showed linear trends for gross motor milestones and fine motor skills with small objects. Our findings add to the sparse literature on infant fine motor development across cultures. The results also indicate the need to consider nutritional factors when examining cultural differences in infant development. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. High efficiency motors; Motores de alta eficiencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uranga Favela, Ivan Jaime [Energia Controlada de Mexico, S. A. de C. V., Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1993-12-31

    This paper is a technical-financial study of the high efficiency and super-premium motors. As it is widely known, more than 60% of the electrical energy generated in the country is used for the operation of motors, in industry as well as in commerce. Therefore the importance that the motors have in the efficient energy use. [Espanol] El presente trabajo es un estudio tecnico-financiero de los motores de alta eficiencia y los motores super premium. Como es ampliamente conocido, mas del 60% de la energia electrica generada en el pais, es utilizada para accionar motores, dentro de la industria y el comercio. De alli la importancia que los motores tienen en el uso eficiente de la energia.

  13. High efficiency motors; Motores de alta eficiencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uranga Favela, Ivan Jaime [Energia Controlada de Mexico, S. A. de C. V., Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1992-12-31

    This paper is a technical-financial study of the high efficiency and super-premium motors. As it is widely known, more than 60% of the electrical energy generated in the country is used for the operation of motors, in industry as well as in commerce. Therefore the importance that the motors have in the efficient energy use. [Espanol] El presente trabajo es un estudio tecnico-financiero de los motores de alta eficiencia y los motores super premium. Como es ampliamente conocido, mas del 60% de la energia electrica generada en el pais, es utilizada para accionar motores, dentro de la industria y el comercio. De alli la importancia que los motores tienen en el uso eficiente de la energia.

  14. Effect of power quality on windings temperature of marine induction motors. Part II: Results of investigations and recommendations for related regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gnacinski, P.; Mindykowski, J.; Tarasiuk, T. [Gdynia Maritime Univ., Dept. of Ship Electrical Power Engineering, Morska Str. 83, 81-225 Gdynia (Poland)

    2009-10-15

    This paper deals with the effect of lowered voltage quality in ship power systems on windings temperature of low-power induction cage machines. The results of investigations carried out with experimental and analytical methods are presented. The thermal impact of power quality disturbances permitted by ship classification societies is discussed. A proposal of new power quality regulations for ship classification societies is made. (author)

  15. The role of older siblings in infant motor development

    OpenAIRE

    Leonard, Hayley; Hill, EL

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that infant motor skills may be affected by older siblings, but has not considered whether this is due to specific characteristics of the older sibling, or of the quality of the sibling relationship. The current study used a longitudinal diary method to record infant motor milestones from 23 infants with older siblings, along with parent reports and standardised assessments of motor skills. Parent reports of the older siblings’ motor skills and the sibling rela...

  16. The histopathologic reliability of tissue taken from cadavers within the gross anatomy laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rae, Guenevere; Newman, William P; McGoey, Robin; Donthamsetty, Supriya; Karpinski, Aryn C; Green, Jeffrey

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the histopathologic reliability of embalmed cadaveric tissue taken from the gross anatomy laboratory. Tissue samples from hearts, livers, lungs, and kidneys were collected after the medical students' dissection course was completed. All of the cadavers were embalmed in a formalin-based fixative solution. The tissue was processed, embedded in paraffin, sectioned at six micrometers, and stained with H&E. The microscope slides were evaluated by a board certified pathologist to determine whether the cellular components of the tissues were preserved at a high enough quality to allow for histopathologic diagnosis. There was a statistically significant relationship between ratings and organ groups. Across all organs, there was a smaller proportion of "poor" ratings. The lung group had the highest percentage of "poor" ratings (23.1%). The heart group had the least "poor" ratings (0.0%). The largest percentage of "satisfactory" ratings were in the lung group (52.8%), and the heart group contained the highest percentage of "good" ratings (58.5%) The lung group had the lowest percentage of "good" ratings (24.2%). These results indicate that heart tissue is more reliable than lung, kidney, or liver tissue when utilizing tissue from the gross anatomy laboratory for research and/or educational purposes. This information advises educators and researchers about the quality and histopathologic reliability of tissue samples obtained from the gross anatomy laboratory. Anat Sci Educ 11: 207-214. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists.

  17. Comparison of motor and cognitive performance of children attending public and private day care centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana M. Santos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Given that environmental factors, such as the school environment, can influence child development, more attention should be paid to the development of children attending day care centers. OBJECTIVE: Todetermine whether there are differences in the gross motor, fine motor, or cognitive performances of children between 1 and3 years-old of similar socioeconomic status attending public and private day care centers full time. METHOD: Participants were divided into 2 groups, 1 of children attending public day care centers (69 children and another of children attending private day care centers (47 children. All children were healthy and regularly attended day care full time for over 4 months. To assess cognitive, gross and fine motor performance, the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development III was used. The Mann-Whitney test was used for comparative analyses between groups of children between 13 and 24 months, 25 and 41 months, and 13 and 41 months. RESULTS: Children in public day care centers exhibited lower scores on the cognitive development scale beginning at 13 months old. The fine and gross motor performance scores were lower in children over the age of 25 months attending public centers. Maternal education was not related to the performance of children in either group. CONCLUSION: The scores of cognitive performance as well as fine and gross motor performance of children of similar socioeconomic status who attend public day care centers are lower than children attending private daycare centers.

  18. Effects of 6 weeks motor-enrichment-intervention to improve math performance in preadolescent children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wienecke, Jacob; Beck, Mikkel Malling; Lind, Rune Rasmussen

    al., 2015). We conducted a six-week cluster-randomized intervention study of motor-enriched mathematics for Danish schoolchildren (n= 148, age= 7.5 ± 0.02). We investigated whether low intensity motor activity congruently integrated during solving of math problems could enhance math performance....... Three groups were included: 1) Control group with normal math teaching, CON (used pencil, paper but refrained from additional motor activity). 2) Fine-motor-enriched-group, FM (motor-manipulating LEGO bricks integrated in the lessons). 3) Gross-motor-enriched-group, GM (full-body movements integrated...... in the lessons). In FM and GM, all math classes (six lessons pr. week) had motor activity integrated in the math lessons and the teachers of all groups followed a detailed description for the conduction of the lessons. This aimed at ensuring homogeneity between groups concerning the taught themes. The children...

  19. Uranium, thorium, gross alpha and gross beta assessment in fountain waters in towns of the Iron Quadrangle, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Claudia A.; Palmieri, Helena E.L.; Menezes, Maria Angela de B.C.; Chaves, Renata D.A.; Dalmazio, Ilza, E-mail: cferreiraquimica@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: help@cdtn.br, E-mail: menezes@cdtn.br, E-mail: rda@cdtn.br, E-mail: id@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The Iron Quadrangle region is known worldwide for its diversity, both ores and rock types, which record a long and important period of Earth's history. For thousands of years erosive processes have exposed ancient rocks, Archean and Proterozoic, in this region. The concentration of uranium, thorium, gross alpha and gross beta activities has been assessed in 34 fountains water samples collected from different towns in the Iron Quadrangle. The results obtained were compared to values established by CONAMA nº 396/2008 and Decree nº 2914/2011 by the Ministry of Health. For Th in water consumption there is no value established in the Brazilian legislation and the concentrations in all samples were lower than 0.01 μg L{sup -1}. For uranium, the values ranged from less than 0.002 to 0.61 μg L{sup -1}, and all results were lower than the value allowed of 15 μg L{sup -1} and 30 μg L{sup -1} established by the legislations above, respectively. The results for the radiation levels of gross alpha and gross beta activity in some fountains waters were slightly above the limits (0.5 Bq L{sup -1} and 1.0 Bq L{sup -1}) established by CONAMA nº 396/2008 and Decreet nº 2914/2011, respectively. (author)

  20. Uranium, thorium, gross alpha and gross beta assessment in fountain waters in towns of the Iron Quadrangle, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Claudia A.; Palmieri, Helena E.L.; Menezes, Maria Angela de B.C.; Chaves, Renata D.A.; Dalmazio, Ilza

    2013-01-01

    The Iron Quadrangle region is known worldwide for its diversity, both ores and rock types, which record a long and important period of Earth's history. For thousands of years erosive processes have exposed ancient rocks, Archean and Proterozoic, in this region. The concentration of uranium, thorium, gross alpha and gross beta activities has been assessed in 34 fountains water samples collected from different towns in the Iron Quadrangle. The results obtained were compared to values established by CONAMA nº 396/2008 and Decree nº 2914/2011 by the Ministry of Health. For Th in water consumption there is no value established in the Brazilian legislation and the concentrations in all samples were lower than 0.01 μg L -1 . For uranium, the values ranged from less than 0.002 to 0.61 μg L -1 , and all results were lower than the value allowed of 15 μg L -1 and 30 μg L -1 established by the legislations above, respectively. The results for the radiation levels of gross alpha and gross beta activity in some fountains waters were slightly above the limits (0.5 Bq L -1 and 1.0 Bq L -1 ) established by CONAMA nº 396/2008 and Decreet nº 2914/2011, respectively. (author)

  1. Oral motor deficits in speech-impaired children with autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmonte, Matthew K.; Saxena-Chandhok, Tanushree; Cherian, Ruth; Muneer, Reema; George, Lisa; Karanth, Prathibha

    2013-01-01

    Absence of communicative speech in autism has been presumed to reflect a fundamental deficit in the use of language, but at least in a subpopulation may instead stem from motor and oral motor issues. Clinical reports of disparity between receptive vs. expressive speech/language abilities reinforce this hypothesis. Our early-intervention clinic develops skills prerequisite to learning and communication, including sitting, attending, and pointing or reference, in children below 6 years of age. In a cohort of 31 children, gross and fine motor skills and activities of daily living as well as receptive and expressive speech were assessed at intake and after 6 and 10 months of intervention. Oral motor skills were evaluated separately within the first 5 months of the child's enrolment in the intervention programme and again at 10 months of intervention. Assessment used a clinician-rated structured report, normed against samples of 360 (for motor and speech skills) and 90 (for oral motor skills) typically developing children matched for age, cultural environment and socio-economic status. In the full sample, oral and other motor skills correlated with receptive and expressive language both in terms of pre-intervention measures and in terms of learning rates during the intervention. A motor-impaired group comprising a third of the sample was discriminated by an uneven profile of skills with oral motor and expressive language deficits out of proportion to the receptive language deficit. This group learnt language more slowly, and ended intervention lagging in oral motor skills. In individuals incapable of the degree of motor sequencing and timing necessary for speech movements, receptive language may outstrip expressive speech. Our data suggest that autistic motor difficulties could range from more basic skills such as pointing to more refined skills such as articulation, and need to be assessed and addressed across this entire range in each individual. PMID:23847480

  2. Oral Motor Deficits in Speech-Impaired Children with Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew K Belmonte

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Absence of communicative speech in autism has been presumed to reflect a fundamental deficit in the use of language, but at least in a subpopulation may instead stem from motor and oral motor issues. Clinical reports of disparity between receptive versus expressive speech / language abilities reinforce this hypothesis. Our early-intervention clinic develops skills prerequisite to learning and communication, including sitting, attending, and pointing or reference, in children below 6 years of age. In a cohort of 31 children, gross and fine motor skills and activities of daily living as well as receptive and expressive speech were assessed at intake and after 6 and 10 months of intervention. Oral motor skills were evaluated separately within the first 5 months of the child's enrolment in the intervention programme and again at 10 months of intervention. Assessment used a clinician-rated structured report, normed against samples of 360 (for motor and speech skills and 90 (for oral motor skills typically developing children matched for age, cultural environment and socio-economic status. In the full sample, oral and other motor skills correlated with receptive and expressive language both in terms of pre-intervention measures and in terms of learning rates during the intervention. A motor-impaired group comprising a third of the sample was discriminated by an uneven profile of skills with oral motor and expressive language deficits out of proportion to the receptive language deficit. This group learnt language more slowly, and ended intervention lagging in oral motor skills. In individuals incapable of the degree of motor sequencing and timing necessary for speech movements, receptive language may outstrip expressive speech. Our data suggest that autistic motor difficulties could range from more basic skills such as pointing to more refined skills such as articulation, and need to be assessed and addressed across this entire range in each individual.

  3. Learning from sensory and reward prediction errors during motor adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izawa, Jun; Shadmehr, Reza

    2011-03-01

    Voluntary motor commands produce two kinds of consequences. Initially, a sensory consequence is observed in terms of activity in our primary sensory organs (e.g., vision, proprioception). Subsequently, the brain evaluates the sensory feedback and produces a subjective measure of utility or usefulness of the motor commands (e.g., reward). As a result, comparisons between predicted and observed consequences of motor commands produce two forms of prediction error. How do these errors contribute to changes in motor commands? Here, we considered a reach adaptation protocol and found that when high quality sensory feedback was available, adaptation of motor commands was driven almost exclusively by sensory prediction errors. This form of learning had a distinct signature: as motor commands adapted, the subjects altered their predictions regarding sensory consequences of motor commands, and generalized this learning broadly to neighboring motor commands. In contrast, as the quality of the sensory feedback degraded, adaptation of motor commands became more dependent on reward prediction errors. Reward prediction errors produced comparable changes in the motor commands, but produced no change in the predicted sensory consequences of motor commands, and generalized only locally. Because we found that there was a within subject correlation between generalization patterns and sensory remapping, it is plausible that during adaptation an individual's relative reliance on sensory vs. reward prediction errors could be inferred. We suggest that while motor commands change because of sensory and reward prediction errors, only sensory prediction errors produce a change in the neural system that predicts sensory consequences of motor commands.

  4. Timing of motor milestones achievement and development of overweight in childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgen, Camilla Schmidt; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Due, P

    2014-01-01

    WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN ABOUT THIS SUBJECT: The risk of childhood obesity is influenced by a number of pre- and post-natal factors. The risk of childhood obesity is correlated with body weight during infancy, which might be related to the psychomotor development of the child. The previous literature...... on motor milestones and childhood overweight is limited and results are inconsistent. WHAT THIS STUDY ADDS: Weight status in early life and timing of achievement of gross motor milestones (the ability to sit and walk) are largely independent of each other. Timing of achievement of motor milestones in early...... life does not predict overweight or increased BMI later in childhood. BACKGROUND: Overweight may hinder achievement of gross motor milestones and delayed achievement of milestones may increase the risk of later overweight for reasons involving physical activity and the building of lean body mass...

  5. Gross Domestic Savings and Gross Capital: what Matters to Their Formation in an Era of Economic Recession in Nigeria?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Success Abusomwan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to empirically investigate the long run and short run dynamic impact of interest rate and output on gross domestic savings and gross capital formation in Nigeria. Literatures, both theoretical and empirical, suggest that the rate of interest and output are the key factors influencing savings and investments. A review of factors influencing interest rates and output in Nigeria is necessitated by the recent economic downturns in Nigeria that has resulted in tight monetary policy which some commentators regard as inimical to growth. Employing Ordinary Least Squares, Co-integration, Error Correction Mechanism and Granger Causality econometric techniques on a data spanning 1981 to 2014 of the Nigerian economy sourced from the World Development Index, it was found that changes in output explains the long run and short run dynamic behaviour of gross domestic savings and gross capital formation which were used as proxies for savings and investment respectively. Whereas, a bi-causality was established between output and investment, causality flowed from output to savings in Nigeria. The research also found that interest rate is not a significant determinant of savings and investment in Nigeria in both long run and short run. It is therefore recommended that to enhance investment in a period of economic downturn in Nigeria, aggregate demand should be boosted to enhance output through vigorous pursuit of fiscal policy while implementing contractionary monetary policy to address inflationary pressures created by the increase in demand. Domestic savings will improve and gross capital formation will be sustained.

  6. Discriminating Talent Identified Junior Australian Footballers Using a Fundamental Gross Athletic Movement Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Carl T.; Banyard, Harry G.; McKeown, Ian; Fransen, Job; Robertson, Sam

    2016-01-01

    Talent identification (TID) is a pertinent component of the sports sciences, affording practitioners the opportunity to target developmental interventions to a select few; optimising financial investments. However, TID is multi-componential, requiring the recognition of immediate and prospective performance. The measurement of athletic movement skill may afford practitioners insight into the latter component given its augmented relationship with functional sport specific qualities. It is currently unknown whether athletic movement skill is a discriminant quality in junior Australian football (AF). This study aimed to discriminate talent identified junior AF players from their non-talent identified counterparts using a fundamental gross athletic movement assessment. From a total of 50 under 18 (U18) AF players; two groups were classified a priori based on selection level; talent identified (n = 25; state academy representatives) and non-talent identified (n = 25; state-based competition representatives). Players performed a fundamental gross athletic movement assessment based on the Athletic Ability Assessment (AAA), consisting of an overhead squat, double lunge (left and right legs), single leg Romanian deadlift (left and right legs), and a push up (six movement criterions). Movements were scored across three assessment points using a three-point scale (resulting in a possible score of nine for each movement). A multivariate analysis of variance revealed significant between group effects on four of the six movement criterions (d = 0.56 – 0.87; p = 0.01 – 0.02). Binary logistic regression models and a receiver operating characteristic curve inspection revealed that the overhead squat score provided the greatest group discrimination (β(SE) = -0.89(0.44); p talent identified and non-talent identified groups, respectively. Results support the integration of this assessment into contemporary talent identification approaches in junior AF, as it may provide coaches

  7. Motor-Enriched Learning Activities Can Improve Mathematical Performance in Preadolescent Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Mikkel M.; Lind, Rune R.; Geertsen, Svend S.; Ritz, Christian; Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper; Wienecke, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    Objective: An emerging field of research indicates that physical activity can benefit cognitive functions and academic achievements in children. However, less is known about how academic achievements can benefit from specific types of motor activities (e.g., fine and gross) integrated into learning activities. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate whether fine or gross motor activity integrated into math lessons (i.e., motor-enrichment) could improve children's mathematical performance. Methods: A 6-week within school cluster-randomized intervention study investigated the effects of motor-enriched mathematical teaching in Danish preadolescent children (n = 165, age = 7.5 ± 0.02 years). Three groups were included: a control group (CON), which received non-motor enriched conventional mathematical teaching, a fine motor math group (FMM) and a gross motor math group (GMM), which received mathematical teaching enriched with fine and gross motor activity, respectively. The children were tested before (T0), immediately after (T1) and 8 weeks after the intervention (T2). A standardized mathematical test (50 tasks) was used to evaluate mathematical performance. Furthermore, it was investigated whether motor-enriched math was accompanied by different effects in low and normal math performers. Additionally, the study investigated the potential contribution of cognitive functions and motor skills on mathematical performance. Results: All groups improved their mathematical performance from T0 to T1. However, from T0 to T1, the improvement was significantly greater in GMM compared to FMM (1.87 ± 0.71 correct answers) (p = 0.02). At T2 no significant differences in mathematical performance were observed. A subgroup analysis revealed that normal math-performers benefitted from GMM compared to both CON 1.78 ± 0.73 correct answers (p = 0.04) and FMM 2.14 ± 0.72 correct answers (p = 0.008). These effects were not observed in low math-performers. The effects were partly

  8. Methods and Data Used to Investigate Polonium-210 as a Source of Excess Gross-Alpha Radioactivity in Ground Water, Churchill County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, Ralph L.

    2007-01-01

    Ground water is the major source of drinking water in the Carson River Basin, California and Nevada. Previous studies have shown that uranium and gross-alpha radioactivities in ground water can be greater than U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Maximum Contaminant Levels, particularly in the Carson Desert, Churchill County, Nevada. Studies also have shown that the primary source of the gross-alpha radioactivity and alpha-emitting radionuclides in ground water is the dissolution of uranium-rich granitic rocks and basin-fill sediments that have their origins in the Sierra Nevada. However, ground water sampled from some wells in the Carson Desert had gross-alpha radioactivities greater than could be accounted for by the decay of dissolved uranium. The occurrence of polonium-210 (Po-210) was hypothesized to explain the higher than expected gross-alpha radioactivities. This report documents and describes the study design, field and analytical methods, and data used to determine whether Po-210 is the source of excess gross-alpha radioactivity in ground water underlying the Carson Desert in and around Fallon, Nevada. Specifically, this report presents: 1) gross alpha and uranium radioactivities for 100 wells sampled from June to September 2001; and 2) pH, dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, and Po-210 radioactivity for 25 wells sampled in April and June 2007. Results of quality-control samples for the 2007 dataset are also presented.

  9. Design of New Complex Detector Used for Gross Beta Measuring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Junmin

    2010-01-01

    The level of gross β for radioactive aerosol in the containment of nuclear plants can indicate how serious the radioactive pollution is in the shell, and it can provide evidence which shows whether there is the phenomenon of leak in the boundaries of confined aquifer of the primary coolant circuit equipment.In the process of measuring, the counting of gross β is influenced by γ. In order to avoid the influence of γ, a new method was introduced and a new detector was designed using plastic scintillator as the major detecting component and BGO as the sub-component. Based on distinctive difference of light attenuation time, signal induced in them can be discriminated. γ background in plastic scintillator was subtracted according to the counting of γ in BGO. The functions of absolute detection efficiency were obtained. The simulation for Monte-Carlo method shows that the influence of γ background is decreased about one order of magnitude. (authors)

  10. Gross-Pitaevski map as a chaotic dynamical system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarneri, Italo

    2017-03-01

    The Gross-Pitaevski map is a discrete time, split-operator version of the Gross-Pitaevski dynamics in the circle, for which exponential instability has been recently reported. Here it is studied as a classical dynamical system in its own right. A systematic analysis of Lyapunov exponents exposes strongly chaotic behavior. Exponential growth of energy is then shown to be a direct consequence of rotational invariance and for stationary solutions the full spectrum of Lyapunov exponents is analytically computed. The present analysis includes the "resonant" case, when the free rotation period is commensurate to 2π, and the map has countably many constants of the motion. Except for lowest-order resonances, this case exhibits an integrable-chaotic transition.

  11. Vast Portfolio Selection with Gross-exposure Constraints().

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jianqing; Zhang, Jingjin; Yu, Ke

    2012-01-01

    We introduce the large portfolio selection using gross-exposure constraints. We show that with gross-exposure constraint the empirically selected optimal portfolios based on estimated covariance matrices have similar performance to the theoretical optimal ones and there is no error accumulation effect from estimation of vast covariance matrices. This gives theoretical justification to the empirical results in Jagannathan and Ma (2003). We also show that the no-short-sale portfolio can be improved by allowing some short positions. The applications to portfolio selection, tracking, and improvements are also addressed. The utility of our new approach is illustrated by simulation and empirical studies on the 100 Fama-French industrial portfolios and the 600 stocks randomly selected from Russell 3000.

  12. Vast Portfolio Selection with Gross-exposure Constraints*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jianqing; Zhang, Jingjin; Yu, Ke

    2012-01-01

    We introduce the large portfolio selection using gross-exposure constraints. We show that with gross-exposure constraint the empirically selected optimal portfolios based on estimated covariance matrices have similar performance to the theoretical optimal ones and there is no error accumulation effect from estimation of vast covariance matrices. This gives theoretical justification to the empirical results in Jagannathan and Ma (2003). We also show that the no-short-sale portfolio can be improved by allowing some short positions. The applications to portfolio selection, tracking, and improvements are also addressed. The utility of our new approach is illustrated by simulation and empirical studies on the 100 Fama-French industrial portfolios and the 600 stocks randomly selected from Russell 3000. PMID:23293404

  13. GLOBALIZATION AND GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT CONSTRUCTION IN ASEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Sri Wahyudi Suliswanto

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available There is no more doubt about the importance of economic growth, which can be calculated fromGross Domestic Product (GDP. This research analyzes the role of globalization on GDP inASEAN-5 by estimating panel data. It uses a fixed effect approach to accommodate various characteristicsin the countries. To accommodate such variation, it assumes that the intercepts variesacross these countries, while the slopes remain similar. Based on the estimation result, it suggeststhat net export and foreign direct investment represent the globalization process. Both have positiveand significant influences on GDP in the corresponding countries.Keywords: Globalization, international trade, foreign direct investment, gross domestic productJEL classification numbers: E01, F51, F43

  14. The San Andreas fault experiment. [gross tectonic plates relative velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D. E.; Vonbun, F. O.

    1973-01-01

    A plan was developed during 1971 to determine gross tectonic plate motions along the San Andreas Fault System in California. Knowledge of the gross motion along the total fault system is an essential component in the construction of realistic deformation models of fault regions. Such mathematical models will be used in the future for studies which will eventually lead to prediction of major earthquakes. The main purpose of the experiment described is the determination of the relative velocity of the North American and the Pacific Plates. This motion being so extremely small, cannot be measured directly but can be deduced from distance measurements between points on opposite sites of the plate boundary taken over a number of years.

  15. Jatropha curcas – Analysis of Gross Calorific Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juraj Ružbarský

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years biofuels have obtained a considerable interest, due to the implementation of ruling and gradual replacement of fossil fuels. One of production steps at gaining the oil is a pressing process. Wastes come into being from this process. These wastes are used as feed, fertilizer prospectively as fuel. A contemporary scientific literature pays attention namely to one of prospective produces which is a produce of the tropical and subtropical zones Jatropa curcas. Tests were performed at Jatropha Curcas seeds of a brown colour (that means gnaw. The aim of a research is an analysis of Jatropa curcas seed from the utilization point of view of the gross calorific value. The basic instrument to evaluate the gross calorific value of each variant of the experiment was a calorimeter PARR 6200 and digital scales for accurate laboratory weighing.

  16. Unitarity violation in noninteger dimensional Gross-Neveu-Yukawa model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yao; Kelly, Michael

    2018-05-01

    We construct an explicit example of unitarity violation in fermionic quantum field theories in noninteger dimensions. We study the two-point correlation function of four-fermion operators. We compute the one-loop anomalous dimensions of these operators in the Gross-Neveu-Yukawa model. We find that at one-loop order, the four-fermion operators split into three classes with one class having negative norms. This implies that the theory violates unitarity, following the definition in Ref. [1].

  17. Gross efficiency and energy expenditure in kayak ergometer exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, B B; Mourão, L; Massart, A; Figueiredo, P; Vilas-Boas, J P; Santos, A M C; Fernandes, R J

    2012-08-01

    We purposed to study energy expenditure, power output and gross efficiency during kayak ergometer exercise in 12 elite sprint kayakers. 6 males (age 24.2±4.8 years, height 180.4±4.8 cm, body mass 79.7±8.5 kg) and 6 females (age 24.3±4.5 years, height 164.5±3.9 cm, body mass 65.4±3.5 kg), performed an incremental intermittent protocol on kayak ergometer with VO2 and blood lactate concentration assessment, a non-linear increase between power output and energy expenditure being observed. Paddling power output, energy expenditure and gross efficiency corresponding to VO2max averaged 199.92±50.41 W, 75.27±6.30 ml.kg - 1.min - 1, and 10.10±1.08%. Male kayakers presented higher VO2max, power output and gross efficiency at the VO2max, and lower heart rate and maximal lactate concentration than females, but no differences were found between genders regarding energy expenditure at VO2max. Aerobic and anaerobic components of energy expenditure evidenced a significant contribution of anaerobic energy sources in sprint kayak performance. Results also suggested the dependence of the gross efficiency on the changes in the amount of the aerobic and anaerobic contributions, at heavy and severe intensities. The inter-individual variance of the relationship between energy expenditure and the corresponding paddling power output revealed a relevant tracking for females (FDγ=0.73±0.06), conversely to the male group (FDγ=0.27±0.08), supporting that some male kayakers are more skilled in some paddling intensities than others. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Gross alfa activity measurement in water from the Agueda river

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, F.; Figueroa, C.F.; Gomez, J.M.G.; Lozano, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    Gross α activity has been measured in water from the Agueda river, in the province of Salamanca (Spain), covering about 45 km around the uranium mine Fe. The activity has been found to be negligeable above the mine, and average values range from 0.13Bq/λ just after the mine to 0,05 Bq/λ 22 km below. (author) 9 refs

  19. Determination of gross plasma equilibrium from magnetic multipoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kessel, C.E.

    1986-05-01

    A new approximate technique to determine the gross plasma equilibrium parameters, major radius, minor radius, elongation and triangularity for an up-down symmetric plasma is developed. It is based on a multipole representation of the externally applied poloidal magnetic field, relating specific terms to the equilibrium parameters. The technique shows reasonable agreement with free boundary MHD equilibrium results. The method is useful in dynamic simulation and control studies.

  20. Determination of gross plasma equilibrium from magnetic multipoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessel, C.E.

    1986-05-01

    A new approximate technique to determine the gross plasma equilibrium parameters, major radius, minor radius, elongation and triangularity for an up-down symmetric plasma is developed. It is based on a multipole representation of the externally applied poloidal magnetic field, relating specific terms to the equilibrium parameters. The technique shows reasonable agreement with free boundary MHD equilibrium results. The method is useful in dynamic simulation and control studies