WorldWideScience

Sample records for gross motor pattern

  1. Gross motor control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross motor control is the ability to make large, general movements (such as waving an arm or lifting a leg). ... Gross motor control is a milestone in the development of an infant. Infants develop gross motor control before they develop ...

  2. Validating the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Downs, Jenny; Stahlhut, Michelle; Wong, Kingsley;

    2016-01-01

    Rett syndrome is a pervasive neurodevelopmental disorder associated with a pathogenic mutation on the MECP2 gene. Impaired movement is a fundamental component and the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale was developed to measure gross motor abilities in this population. The current study investigated...... the validity and reliability of the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale. Video data showing gross motor abilities supplemented with parent report data was collected for 255 girls and women registered with the Australian Rett Syndrome Database, and the factor structure and relationships between motor scores, age...... and genotype were investigated. Clinical assessment scores for 38 girls and women with Rett syndrome who attended the Danish Center for Rett Syndrome were used to assess consistency of measurement. Principal components analysis enabled the calculation of three factor scores: Sitting, Standing and Walking...

  3. Validating the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Jenny; Stahlhut, Michelle; Wong, Kingsley; Syhler, Birgit; Bisgaard, Anne-Marie; Jacoby, Peter; Leonard, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Rett syndrome is a pervasive neurodevelopmental disorder associated with a pathogenic mutation on the MECP2 gene. Impaired movement is a fundamental component and the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale was developed to measure gross motor abilities in this population. The current study investigated the validity and reliability of the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale. Video data showing gross motor abilities supplemented with parent report data was collected for 255 girls and women registered with the Australian Rett Syndrome Database, and the factor structure and relationships between motor scores, age and genotype were investigated. Clinical assessment scores for 38 girls and women with Rett syndrome who attended the Danish Center for Rett Syndrome were used to assess consistency of measurement. Principal components analysis enabled the calculation of three factor scores: Sitting, Standing and Walking, and Challenge. Motor scores were poorer with increasing age and those with the p.Arg133Cys, p.Arg294* or p.Arg306Cys mutation achieved higher scores than those with a large deletion. The repeatability of clinical assessment was excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient for total score 0.99, 95% CI 0.93-0.98). The standard error of measurement for the total score was 2 points and we would be 95% confident that a change 4 points in the 45-point scale would be greater than within-subject measurement error. The Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale could be an appropriate measure of gross motor skills in clinical practice and clinical trials.

  4. Concurrent Validity of Preschooler Gross Motor Quality Scale with Test of Gross Motor Development-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shih-Heng; Sun, Hsiao-Ling; Zhu, Yi-Ching; Huang, Li-chi; Hsieh, Yueh-Ling

    2011-01-01

    Preschooler Gross Motor Quality Scale (PGMQ) was recently developed to evaluate motor skill quality of preschoolers. The purpose of this study was to establish the concurrent validity of PGMQ using Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (TGMD-2) as the gold standard. One hundred and thirty five preschool children aged from three to six years were…

  5. The Gross Motor Skills of Children with Mild Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonis, Karen P.; Jernice, Tan Sing Yee

    2014-01-01

    Many international studies have examined the gross motor skills of children studying in special schools while local studies of such nature are limited. This study investigated the gross motor skills of children with Mild Learning Disabilities (MLD; n = 14, M age = 8.93 years, SD = 0.33) with the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (TGMD-2, Ulrich,…

  6. Psychiatric Symptoms in Children with Gross Motor Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emck, Claudia; Bosscher, Ruud J.; van Wieringen, Piet C. W.; Doreleijers, Theo; Beek, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Children with psychiatric disorders often demonstrate gross motor problems. This study investigates if the reverse also holds true by assessing psychiatric symptoms present in children with gross motor problems. Emotional, behavioral, and autism spectrum disorders (ASD), as well as psychosocial problems, were assessed in a sample of 40 children…

  7. Gross Motor Profile and Its Association with Socialization Skills in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardiono D. Pusponegoro

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: Children with ASD had lower gross motor skills compared to typically developing children. Gross motor impairments were found in 20% of the ASD children, and these children also had lower socialization skills than those without gross motor impairments.

  8. Brief Assessment of Motor Function: Content Validity and Reliability of the Upper Extremity Gross Motor Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cintas, Holly Lea; Parks, Rebecca; Don, Sarah; Gerber, Lynn

    2011-01-01

    Content validity and reliability of the Brief Assessment of Motor Function (BAMF) Upper Extremity Gross Motor Scale (UEGMS) were evaluated in this prospective, descriptive study. The UEGMS is one of five BAMF ordinal scales designed for quick documentation of gross, fine, and oral motor skill levels. Designed to be independent of age and…

  9. Assessing Gross Motor Skills of Kosovar Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shala, Merita

    2009-01-01

    In the light of the new developments in preschool education in Kosovo, this study attempts to carry out an assessment of the development of gross motor skills of preschool children attending institutional education. The emphasis is on creating a set of tests to measure the motor attainments of these children by conducting assessments of the…

  10. Interlimb Coordination: An Important Facet of Gross-Motor Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobbio, Tatiana; Gabbard, Carl; Cacola, Priscila

    2009-01-01

    Motor development attains landmark significance during early childhood. Although early childhood educators may be familiar with the gross-motor skill category, the subcategory of interlimb coordination needs greater attention than it typically receives from teachers of young children. Interlimb coordination primarily involves movements requiring…

  11. Gross Motor Function Measure Evolution Ratio: Use as a Control for Natural Progression in Cerebral Palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marois, Pierre; Marois, Mikael; Pouliot-Laforte, Annie; Vanasse, Michel; Lambert, Jean; Ballaz, Laurent

    2016-05-01

    To develop a new way to interpret Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM-66) score improvement in studies conducted without control groups in children with cerebral palsy (CP). The curves, which describe the pattern of motor development according to the children's Gross Motor Function Classification System level, were used as historical control to define the GMFM-66 expected natural evolution in children with CP. These curves have been modeled and generalized to fit the curve to particular children characteristics. Research center. Not applicable. Not applicable. Not applicable. Assuming that the GMFM-66 score evolution followed the shape of the Rosenbaum curves, by taking into account the age and GMFM-66 score of children, the expected natural evolution of the GMFM-66 score was predicted for any group of children with CP who were Motor Function Measure Evolution Ratio, was defined as follows: Gross Motor Function Measure Evolution Ratio=measured GMFM-66 score change/expected natural evolution. For practical or ethical reasons, it is almost impossible to use control groups in studies evaluating effectiveness of many therapeutic modalities. The Gross Motor Function Measure Evolution Ratio gives the opportunity to take into account the expected natural evolution of the gross motor function of children with CP, which is essential to accurately interpret the therapy effect on the GMFM-66. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Assessment of Preschoolers' Gross Motor Proficiency: Revisiting Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Hazel Mei Yung

    2011-01-01

    Literature reveals that there are very few validated motor proficiency tests for young children. According to Gallahue and Ozmun, the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency is a valid test. However, manipulative skills, which are classified as gross motor skills by most motor development specialists, are only tested in the Upper Limb…

  13. Effective Collaboration among the Gross Motor Assessment Team Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menear, Kristi S.; Davis, Timothy D.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the gross motor assessment team (GMAT) members' roles and collaborative approach to making appropriate decisions and modifications when addressing the needs of individuals with disabilities in physical education. Case studies of students are used to demonstrate effective uses of the GMAT. The primary outcome of the GMAT's…

  14. Rubriek 'Meten in de praktijk': Gross Motor Function Measure.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenhof, C.; Ketelaar, M.

    2004-01-01

    De Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) is een instrument dat de grof-motorische vaardigheden meet van kinderen met cerebrale parese. De GMFM is expliciet ontwikkeld als evaluatief meetinstrument, wat betekent dat het bedoeld is om veranderingen over de tijd of verandering en die optreden na behandel

  15. Development of the Gross Motor Function Classification System (1997)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    To address the need for a standardized system to classify the gross motor function of children with cerebral palsy, the authors developed a five-level classification system analogous to the staging and grading systems used in medicine. Nominal group process and Delphi survey consensus methods were used to examine content validity and revise the…

  16. Effective Collaboration among the Gross Motor Assessment Team Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menear, Kristi S.; Davis, Timothy D.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the gross motor assessment team (GMAT) members' roles and collaborative approach to making appropriate decisions and modifications when addressing the needs of individuals with disabilities in physical education. Case studies of students are used to demonstrate effective uses of the GMAT. The primary outcome of the GMAT's…

  17. Fine and Gross Motor Ability in Males with ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Both fine and gross motor abilities were evaluated in 10-year-old males with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and compared to a group of control children at the School of Psychology, Curtin University of Technology, Perth, Australia.

  18. Gross Motor Development, Movement Abnormalities, and Early Identification of Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozonoff, Sally; Young, Gregory S.; Goldring, Stacy; Greiss-Hess, Laura; Herrera, Adriana M.; Steele, Joel; Macari, Suzanne; Hepburn, Susan; Rogers, Sally J.

    2008-01-01

    Gross motor development (supine, prone, rolling, sitting, crawling, walking) and movement abnormalities were examined in the home videos of infants later diagnosed with autism (regression and no regression subgroups), developmental delays (DD), or typical development. Group differences in maturity were found for walking, prone, and supine, with…

  19. Relationship Between Gross Motor Function and Daily Functional Skill in Children With Cerebral Palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Kwon, Tae Gun; Yi, Sook-Hee; Kim, Tae Won; Chang, Hyun Jung; Kwon, Jeong-Yi

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between gross motor function and daily functional skill in children with cerebral palsy (CP) and to explore how this relationship is moderated by the Gross Motor Function Classification System, Bimanual Fine Motor Function (BFMF), neuromotor types, and limb distribution of CP. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 112 children with CP (range, 4 years to 7 years and 7 months) was performed. Gross motor function was assessed with the Gross Motor Function ...

  20. Association of therapeutic occasion, gross motor function grading and developmental level with gross motor functional recovery in children with cerebral palsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The abnormal posture and motor pattern have not stabilized in children with cerebral palsy at early period, thus timely treatment can establish normal postural reflex and motor pattern, and prevent complications of muscle contracture, ankylosis, skeletal deformity, etc. The clinical factors affecting the rehabilitative efficacy of gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy should be observed.OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of therapeutic occasion, grading of gross motor function and developmental level on the rehabilitative efficacy in children with cerebral palsy.DESIGN: A case-controlled analysis.SETTING: Qilu Children's Hospital of Shandong University.PARTICIPANTS: Totally 138 children with cerebral palsy, who were hospitalized for 12 months in the Rehabilitation Center of Qilu Children's Hospital, Shandong University, were selected from April 2004 to September 2006, and all the children were diagnosed to be accorded with the standard set by the national seminar on cerebral palsy in 2004. There were 97 males and 41 females, including 55 cases of 0 - 2 years old,47 cases of 2 - 4 years and 36 cases of 4 - 6 years. Informed contents were obtained from relatives of all the children.METHODS: ① Comprehensive rehabilitation treatment: Vojta method was to induce the children to turn over the body and crawl by stimulating reflective turn over and crawling on belly. Bobath method including trainings of head control, turning over body, keeping sitting position, keeping balance, crawling, keeping standing position, and walking, etc.; The children were massaged by using the maneuvers of push, press, rub,pull, wave, etc. according to the sites and types of palsy. Acupuncture was performed mainly at bilateral motor areas, the needle was retained for 1 hour per time, 6 days continuously every week, and followed by a 1-day interval. ② Prognosis assessment: The gross motor functional grading of the children with cerebral palsy at admission was

  1. The relationship between gross motor skills and academic achievement in children with learning disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westendorp, Marieke; Hartman, Esther; Houwen, Suzanne; Smith, Joanne; Visscher, Chris

    2011-01-01

    The present study compared the gross motor skills of 7- to 12-year-old children with learning disabilities (n = 104) with those of age-matched typically developing children (n = 104) using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2. Additionally, the specific relationships between subsets of gross motor

  2. The relationship between gross motor skills and academic achievement in children with learning disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westendorp, Marieke; Hartman, Esther; Houwen, Suzanne; Smith, Joanne; Visscher, Chris

    2011-01-01

    The present study compared the gross motor skills of 7- to 12-year-old children with learning disabilities (n = 104) with those of age-matched typically developing children (n = 104) using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2. Additionally, the specific relationships between subsets of gross motor

  3. Prevalence of Joint Gait Patterns Defined by a Delphi Consensus Study Is Related to Gross Motor Function, Topographical Classification, Weakness, and Spasticity, in Children with Cerebral Palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwenhuys, Angela; Papageorgiou, Eirini; Schless, Simon-Henri; De Laet, Tinne; Molenaers, Guy; Desloovere, Kaat

    2017-01-01

    During a Delphi consensus study, a new joint gait classification system was developed for children with cerebral palsy (CP). This system, whose reliability and content validity have previously been established, identified 49 distinct joint patterns. The present study aims to provide a first insight toward the construct validity and clinical relevance of this classification system. The retrospective sample of convenience consisted of 286 patients with spastic CP (3-18 years old, GMFCS levels I-III, 166 with bilateral CP). Kinematic and kinetic trials from three-dimensional gait analysis were classified according to the definitions of the Delphi study, and one classified trial was randomly selected for each included limb (n = 446). Muscle weakness and spasticity were assessed for different muscle groups acting around the hip, knee, and ankle. Subsequently, Pearson Chi square tests, Cramer's V, and adjusted standardized residuals were calculated to explore the strength and direction of the associations between the joint patterns, and the different patient-specific characteristics (i.e., age, GMFCS level, and topographical classification) or clinical symptoms (muscle weakness and spasticity). Patient-specific characteristics showed several significant associations with the patterns of different joints, but the strength of most identified associations was weak. Apart from the knee during stance phase and the pelvis in the sagittal plane, the results systematically showed that the patterns with "minor gait deviations" were the most frequently observed. These minor deviations were found significantly more often in limbs with a lower level of spasticity and good muscle strength. Several other pathological joint patterns were moderately associated with weakness or spasticity, including but not limited to "outtoeing" for weakness and "intoeing" for spasticity. For the joints in the sagittal plane, significantly stronger associations were found with muscle weakness and

  4. Gross Motor Profile and Its Association with Socialization Skills in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusponegoro, Hardiono D; Efar, Pustika; Soedjatmiko; Soebadi, Amanda; Firmansyah, Agus; Chen, Hui-Ju; Hung, Kun-Long

    2016-12-01

    While social impairment is considered to be the core deficit in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a large proportion of these children have poor gross motor ability, and gross motor deficits may influence socialization skills in children with ASD. The objectives of this study were to compare gross motor skills in children with ASD to typically developing children, to describe gross motor problems in children with ASD, and to investigate associations between gross motor and socialization skills in children with ASD. This was a cross-sectional study including 40 ASD children aged from 18 months to 6 years and 40 age-matched typically developing controls. Gross motor and socialization skills were scored using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, 2(nd) edition (Vineland-II). Below average gross motor function was found in eight of 40 (20%) ASD children. The mean gross motor v-scale score in the ASD group was 15.1 [standard deviation (SD) 3.12], significantly lower than in the control group [18.7, SD 2.09, p = 0.0001; 95% confidence intervals (CI) from -4.725 to -2.525]. The differences were most prominent in ball throwing and catching, using stairs, jumping, and bicycling. The ASD children with gross motor impairments had a mean socialization domain score of 66.6 (SD 6.50) compared to 85.7 (SD 10.90) in those without gross motor impairments (p = 0.0001, 95% CI from -25.327 to -12.736). Children with ASD had lower gross motor skills compared to typically developing children. Gross motor impairments were found in 20% of the ASD children, and these children also had lower socialization skills than those without gross motor impairments. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Gross Motor Development of Malaysian Hearing Impaired Male Pre- and Early School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawi, Khairi; Lian, Denise Koh Choon; Abdullah, Rozlina Tan

    2014-01-01

    Acquisition of gross motor skill is a natural developmental process for children. This aspect of human development increases with one's chronological age, irrespective of any developmental conditions. The purpose of this study was to assess the level of gross motor skill development among pre- and early school-aged children with motor disability.…

  6. Effect of physical therapy frequency on gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun-Young

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] This study attempted to investigate the effect of physical therapy frequency based on neurodevelopmental therapy on gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy. [Subjects and Methods] The study sample included 161 children with cerebral palsy who attended a convalescent or rehabilitation center for disabled individuals or a special school for children with physical disabilities in South Korea. Gross Motor Function Measure data were collected according to physical therapy frequency based on neurodevelopmental therapy for a period of 1 year. [Results] The correlation between physical therapy frequency and Gross Motor Function Measure scores for crawling and kneeling, standing, walking, running and jumping, and rolling, and the Gross Motor Function Measure total score was significant. The differences in gross motor function according to physical therapy frequency were significant for crawling, kneeling, standing, and Gross Motor Function Measure total score. The differences in gross motor function according to frequency of physical therapy were significant for standing in Gross Motor Function Classification System Level V. [Conclusion] Intensive physical therapy was more effective for improving gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy. In particular, crawling and kneeling, and standing ability showed greater increases with intensive physical therapy.

  7. Effect of physical therapy frequency on gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun-Young

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study attempted to investigate the effect of physical therapy frequency based on neurodevelopmental therapy on gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy. [Subjects and Methods] The study sample included 161 children with cerebral palsy who attended a convalescent or rehabilitation center for disabled individuals or a special school for children with physical disabilities in South Korea. Gross Motor Function Measure data were collected according to physical therapy frequency based on neurodevelopmental therapy for a period of 1 year. [Results] The correlation between physical therapy frequency and Gross Motor Function Measure scores for crawling and kneeling, standing, walking, running and jumping, and rolling, and the Gross Motor Function Measure total score was significant. The differences in gross motor function according to physical therapy frequency were significant for crawling, kneeling, standing, and Gross Motor Function Measure total score. The differences in gross motor function according to frequency of physical therapy were significant for standing in Gross Motor Function Classification System Level V. [Conclusion] Intensive physical therapy was more effective for improving gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy. In particular, crawling and kneeling, and standing ability showed greater increases with intensive physical therapy. PMID:27390440

  8. Can Clinical Assessment of Locomotive Body Function Explain Gross Motor Environmental Performance in Cerebral Palsy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz Mengibar, Jose Manuel; Santonja-Medina, Fernando; Sanchez-de-Muniain, Paloma; Canteras-Jordana, Manuel

    2016-03-01

    Gross Motor Function Classification System has discriminative purposes but does not assess short-term therapy goals. Locomotion Stages (LS) classify postural body functions and independent activity components. Assessing the relation between Gross Motor Function Classification System level and Locomotion Stages will make us understand if clinical assessment can explain and predict motor environmental performance in cerebral palsy. A total of 462 children were assessed with both scales. High reliability and strong negative correlation (-0.908) for Gross Motor Function Classification System and Locomotion Stages at any age was found. Sensitivity was 83%, and specificity and positive predictive value were 100% within the same age range. Regression analysis showed detailed probabilities for the realization of the Gross Motor Function Classification System depending on the Locomotion Stages and the age group. Postural body function measure with Locomotion Stages is reliable, sensitive, and specific for gross motor function and able to predict environmental performance.

  9. Neonatal Stroke Causes Poor Midline Motor Behaviors and Poor Fine and Gross Motor Skills during Early Infancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao-Ying; Lo, Warren D.; Heathcock, Jill C.

    2013-01-01

    Upper extremity movements, midline behaviors, fine, and gross motor skills are frequently impaired in hemiparesis and cerebral palsy. We investigated midline toy exploration and fine and gross motor skills in infants at risk for hemiplegic cerebral palsy. Eight infants with neonatal stroke (NS) and thirteen infants with typical development (TD)…

  10. Gross Motor Performance and Self-Perceived Motor Competence in Children with Emotional, Behavioural, and Pervasive Developmental Disorders: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emck, Claudia; Bosscher, Ruud; Beek, Peter; Doreleijers, Theo

    2009-01-01

    Aims: Motor performance and self-perceived motor competence have a great impact on the psychosocial development of children in general. In this review, empirical studies of gross motor performance and self-perception of motor competence in children with emotional (depression and anxiety), behavioural, and pervasive developmental disorders are…

  11. De Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM): een onderzoek naar de responsiviteit van de Nederlandse vertaling.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenhof, C.; Ketelaar, M.; Petegem-van Beek, E. van; Vermeer, A.

    2003-01-01

    This article is about the psychometric characteristics of the Dutch translation of the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM). It describes the responsiveness to change. The article "Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM): a reliability study of the Dutch translation" focuses on the reliability of the GMF

  12. De Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM): een onderzoek naar de betrouwbaarheid van de Nederlandse vertaling.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenhof, C.; Ketelaar, M.; Petegem-van Beek, E. van

    2003-01-01

    This article is about the psychometric characteristics of the Dutch translation of the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM). It describes the reliability of the instrument. The article "Gross Motor Function Measure" (GMFM): a validity study of the Dutch translation focusses on the responsiveness of t

  13. The Effects of Basketball Basic Skills Training on Gross Motor Skills Development of Female Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayazit, Betul

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of basketball basic skills training on gross motor skills development of female children in Turkey. For that purpose, 40 female children took part in the study voluntarily. Basketball basic skills test was used to improve the gross motor skills of the female children in the study. Also,…

  14. The Effects of Basketball Basic Skills Training on Gross Motor Skills Development of Female Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayazit, Betul

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of basketball basic skills training on gross motor skills development of female children in Turkey. For that purpose, 40 female children took part in the study voluntarily. Basketball basic skills test was used to improve the gross motor skills of the female children in the study. Also,…

  15. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Test of Gross Motor Development-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ka Yee Allison; Cheung, Siu Yin

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the underlying structure of the second edition of the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (Ulrich, 2000) as applied to Chinese children. The Test of Gross Motor Development-2 was administered to 626 Hong Kong Chinese children. The outlier test with standard scoring was utilized. After data screening, a total…

  16. Developmental and physical-fitness associations with gross motor coordination problems in Peruvian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Chaves, Raquel Nichele; Bustamante Valdívia, Alcibíades; Nevill, Alan; Freitas, Duarte; Tani, Go; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Maia, José António Ribeiro

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this cross-sectional study were to examine the developmental characteristics (biological maturation and body size) associated with gross motor coordination problems in 5193 Peruvian children (2787 girls) aged 6-14 years from different geographical locations, and to investigate how the probability that children suffer with gross motor coordination problems varies with physical fitness. Children with gross motor coordination problems were more likely to have lower flexibility and explosive strength levels, having adjusted for age, sex, maturation and study site. Older children were more likely to suffer from gross motor coordination problems, as were those with greater body mass index. However, more mature children were less likely to have gross motor coordination problems, although children who live at sea level or at high altitude were more likely to suffer from gross motor coordination problems than children living in the jungle. Our results provide evidence that children and adolescents with lower physical fitness are more likely to have gross motor coordination difficulties. The identification of youths with gross motor coordination problems and providing them with effective intervention programs is an important priority in order to overcome such developmental problems, and help to improve their general health status.

  17. Influence of the environment on performance of gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatudimu, Margaret Bukola

    2012-01-01

    Assessment and physiotherapy intervention for children with cerebral palsy (CP) are conventionally carried out in the hospital or clinic setting. However, the daily lives of these children include a variety of environmental settings in addition to the clinical setting. The objective of this study was therefore to explore the possible influence of the environment on motor function in children with CP. Purposively selected children with CP (n=107), ages 1 and 6 years with mean age of 2.1 years (SD 1.10 yrs), were involved in this study. The motor function of each child was assessed in the hospital and at their homes within a one-week interval, using the gross motor function measure (GMFM); this was done at the baseline and on a monthly basis for eight consecutive months. The paired t-test rank was computed to compare the overall GMFM score and each of the sub-domain scores measured in the clinic and at home. GMFM scores measured at home were significantly higher than those measured in the clinic and this pattern was also obtained for the sub-domains throughout the study period, suggesting that children performed gross motor functions better at their homes than in the clinic.

  18. The relationship between spasticity and gross motor capability in nonambulatory children with spastic cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katusic, Ana; Alimovic, Sonja

    2013-09-01

    Spasticity has been considered as a major impairment in cerebral palsy (CP), but the relationship between this impairment and motor functions is still unclear, especially in the same group of patients with CP. The aim of this investigation is to determine the relationship between spasticity and gross motor capability in nonambulatory children with spastic CP. Seventy-one children (30 boys, 41 girls) with bilateral spastic cerebral palsy and with Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels IV (n=34) and V (n=37) were included in the study. The spasticity level in lower limbs was evaluated using the Modified Modified Ashworth Scale and the gross motor function with the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM-88). Spearman's correlation analysis was used to determine the nature and the strength of the relationship. The results showed a moderate correlation between spasticity and gross motor skills (ρ=0.52 for the GMFCS level; ρ=0.57 for the GMFM-88), accounting for less than 30% of the explained variance. It seems that spasticity is just one factor among many others that could interfere with gross motor skills, even in children with severe forms of spastic CP. Knowledge of the impact of spasticity on motor skills may be useful in the setting of adequate rehabilitation strategies for nonambulatory children with spastic CP.

  19. Longitudinal Association Between Gross Motor Capacity and Neuromusculoskeletal Function in Children and Youth With Cerebral Palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Rimke C.; Becher, Jules G.; Voorman, Jeanine M.; Gorter, Jan Willem; van Eck, Mirjam; van Meeteren, Jetty; Smits, Dirk Wouter; Twisk, Jos W.; Dallmeijer, Annet J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To examine associations over longitudinal measurements between neuromusculoskeletal function and gross motor capacity in children and youth with cerebral palsy (CP). Design: A prospective cohort study. Setting: Rehabilitation departments of university medical centers and rehabilitations c

  20. Longitudinal Association Between Gross Motor Capacity and Neuromusculoskeletal Function in Children and Youth With Cerebral Palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Rimke C.; Becher, Jules G.; Voorman, Jeanine M.; Gorter, Jan Willem; van Eck, Mirjam; van Meeteren, Jetty; Smits, Dirk Wouter; Twisk, Jos W.; Dallmeijer, Annet J.; van Schie, P. E M; Schuengel, C.; Ketelaar, M.; Lindeman, E.; Jongmans, M.; Roebroeck, M. E.; Tan, S. S.; Wiegerink, D. J H G; Reinders-Messelink, H. A.; Verheijden, J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine associations over longitudinal measurements between neuromusculoskeletal function and gross motor capacity in children and youth with cerebral palsy (CP). Design A prospective cohort study. Setting Rehabilitation departments of university medical centers and rehabilitations cent

  1. The central role of trunk control in the gross motor function of children with cerebral palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Curtis, Derek John; Butler, Penny; Saavedra, Sandy;

    2015-01-01

    Aim Improvement of gross motor function and mobility are primary goals of physical therapy in children with cerebral palsy (CP). The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between segmental control of the trunk and the corresponding gross motor function in children with CP....... Method This retrospective cross-sectional study was based on 92 consecutive referrals of children with CP in Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels I to V, 39 females, 53 males (median age 4y [range 1–14y]), and 77, 12, and 3 with spastic, dyskinetic, and ataxic CP respectively....... The participants were tested using the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM), the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI), and the Segmental Assessment of Trunk Control (SATCo). Results Linear regression analysis showed a positive relationship between the segmental level of trunk control and age...

  2. Longitudinal Association Between Gross Motor Capacity and Neuromusculoskeletal Function in Children and Youth With Cerebral Palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Rimke C.; Becher, Jules G.; Voorman, Jeanine M.; Gorter, Jan Willem; van Eck, Mirjam; van Meeteren, Jetty; Smits, Dirk Wouter; Twisk, Jos W.; Dallmeijer, Annet J.

    Objective: To examine associations over longitudinal measurements between neuromusculoskeletal function and gross motor capacity in children and youth with cerebral palsy (CP). Design: A prospective cohort study. Setting: Rehabilitation departments of university medical centers and rehabilitations

  3. Longitudinal Association Between Gross Motor Capacity and Neuromusculoskeletal Function in Children and Youth With Cerebral Palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Rimke C.; Becher, Jules G.; Voorman, Jeanine M.; Gorter, Jan Willem; van Eck, Mirjam; van Meeteren, Jetty; Smits, Dirk Wouter; Twisk, Jos W.; Dallmeijer, Annet J.; van Schie, P. E M; Schuengel, C.; Ketelaar, M.; Lindeman, E.; Jongmans, M.; Roebroeck, M. E.; Tan, S. S.; Wiegerink, D. J H G; Reinders-Messelink, H. A.; Verheijden, J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine associations over longitudinal measurements between neuromusculoskeletal function and gross motor capacity in children and youth with cerebral palsy (CP). Design A prospective cohort study. Setting Rehabilitation departments of university medical centers and rehabilitations

  4. Effect of physical therapy frequency on gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Eun-Young

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study attempted to investigate the effect of physical therapy frequency based on neurodevelopmental therapy on gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy. [Subjects and Methods] The study sample included 161 children with cerebral palsy who attended a convalescent or rehabilitation center for disabled individuals or a special school for children with physical disabilities in South Korea. Gross Motor Function Measure data were collected according to physical therapy fr...

  5. GENDER DIFFERENCES IN FINE AND GROSS MOTOR SKILLS OF NORMALLY DEVELOPING OVERWEIGHT AND OBESE ADOLESCENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şehmus ASLAN

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to compare girls’ and boys’ fine and gross motor skills in normally developing overweight and obese adolescents. 18 girls and 28 boys with 12-18 age range, in totally 46 overweight and obese adolecents participated in the study. Body mass index of participants were calculated. Fine and gross motor skills of adolescents were assessed by Short Form Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOT-2 SF. There was no differences between girls and boys for BOT-2 SF total scores (p>0.05, but it was found differences in several items of BOT-2 SF. Scores of test items for fine motor scores in the girls were higher than the boys (p0.05. Gross motor skill tests including jumping in place, dribling a ball, sit-ups, one- legged stationary hop test scores were higher in the boys, while tapping feet and fingers test score was higher in the girls (p<0.05. Our results suggested that there is differences between girls’ and boys’ fine and gross motor skills in normally developing overweight and obese adolescents. Girls have better fine motor skill performance while boys have better gross motor skill performance in overweight and obese adolescents.

  6. Sleep-related offline improvements in gross motor task performance occur under free recall requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas eMalangre

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Nocturnal sleep effects on memory consolidation following gross motor sequence learning were examined using a complex arm movement task. This task required participants to produce non-regular spatial patterns in the horizontal plane by successively fitting a small peg into different target-holes on an electronic pegboard. The respective reaching movements typically differed in amplitude and direction. Targets were visualized prior to each transport movement on a computer screen. With this task we tested 18 subjects (22.6 +/- 1.9 years; 8 female using a between-subjects design. Participants initially learned a 10-element arm movement sequence either in the morning or in the evening. Performance was retested under free recall requirements 15 minutes post training, as well as 12 hrs and 24 hrs later. Thus each group was provided with one sleep-filled and one wake retention interval. Dependent variables were error rate (number of erroneous sequences and average sequence execution time (correct sequences only. Performance improved during acquisition. Error rate remained stable across retention. Sequence execution time (inverse to execution speed significantly decreased again during the sleep-filled retention intervals, but remained stable during the respective wake intervals. These results corroborate recent findings on sleep-related enhancement consolidation in ecological valid, complex gross motor tasks. At the same time they suggest this effect to be truly memory-based and independent from repeated access to extrinsic sequence information during retests.

  7. Effect of Spark Motor Program on the development of gross motor skills in intellectually disabled educable boys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashem Faal Moganloo

    2013-11-01

    Results: Spark Program caused significant changes in all the variables of the study, except speed and agility, in the experimental group after 24 sessions. The changes included: agility and speed (P=0.731, balance (P=0, strength (P=0.002, and bilateral coordination (P=0. Conclusion: Spark Motor Program can improve gross motor skills in intellectually disabled educable students.

  8. 75 FR 73998 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; New Pneumatic Tires for Motor Vehicles With a Gross...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ... Vehicle Safety Standards; New Pneumatic Tires for Motor Vehicles With a Gross Vehicle Weight Rating (GVWR... Federal motor vehicle safety standard (FMVSS) that applies to new pneumatic tires for use on vehicles with... (NPRM) proposing to upgrade FMVSS No. 119 (49 CFR 571.119), which applies to new pneumatic tires...

  9. The Effects of Modified Games on the Development of Gross Motor Skill in Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestari, Indah; Ratnaningsih, Tri

    2016-01-01

    Gross motor skills on children must be optimized much earlier since it plays important role not only on their interaction process but also in supporting other multiple developments. One of the means in developing child's motor skill is by providing innovative games i.e. modified games including game format, game timing, and game sequence. The…

  10. Tracking of Gross Motor Coordination from Childhood into Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Rodrigo Antunes; Bugge, Anna; Pfeiffer, Karin Allor; Andersen, Lars Bo

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to analyze tracking and stability of motor coordination in children from age 6 years to ages 9 and 13 years. Method: Data were from the Copenhagen School Child Intervention Study. Motor coordination (MC) was measured using the körperkoordinationstest für Kinder (KTK) test. The crude performance score on every…

  11. The gross motor function measure is a valid and sensitive outcome measure for spinal muscular atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Leslie; Owens, Hollis; Hynan, Linda S; Iannaccone, Susan T

    2006-06-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy is a genetic disease of the anterior horn cell with high morbidity rate in childhood. Certain drugs may be of benefit and are in or under consideration for Phase II trials. Outcome measures that are age appropriate and representative of disease activity remain under study. Several have not yet been validated for spinal muscular atrophy. The Gross Motor Function Measure is a measure of motor function. We showed previously that the Gross Motor Function Measure is a reliable outcome measure to assess motor function in children with spinal muscular atrophy. By collating our data from 40 spinal muscular atrophy patients, ages 5 through 17 years, we now show the validity of the Gross Motor Function Measure when compared to Quantitative Muscle Testing and ambulatory status in children with spinal muscular atrophy. The median for Gross Motor Function Measure total scores for walkers was 237 (range: 197-261) and for non-walkers, 64 (range: 4-177; PGross Motor Function Measure is valid and sensitive as an outcome measure for clinical trials in pediatric spinal muscular atrophy.

  12. Associations between gross motor and communicative development in at-risk infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBarton, Eve Sauer; Iverson, Jana M

    2016-08-01

    Infants' advances in locomotion relate to advances in communicative development. However, little is known about these relations in infants at risk for delays in these domains and whether they may extend to earlier achievements in gross motor development in infancy. We examined whether advances in sitting and prone locomotion are related to communicative development in infants who have an older sibling with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and are at risk for motor and communication delays (heightened-risk; HR). We conducted a longitudinal study with 37 HR infants who did not receive an ASD diagnosis at 36 months. Infants were observed monthly between the ages of 5 and 14 months. We assessed gross motor development using the Alberta Infant Motor Scales (AIMS) and recorded ages of onset of verbal and nonverbal communicative behaviors. Results indicated increased presence of early gross motor delay from 5 to 10 months. In addition, there were positive relations between sitting and gesture and babble onset and between prone development and gesture onset. Thus, links between gross motor development and communication extend to at-risk development and provide a starting point for future research on potential cascading consequences of motor advances on communication development.

  13. The Natural History of Gross Motor Development in Children with Cerebral Palsy Aged 1 to 15 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckung, E.; Carlsson, G.; Carlsdotter, S.; Uvebrant, P.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore motor development in children with cerebral palsy (CP) using developmental curves for CP, subtypes, and the five severity levels of the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS). The Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) and the GMFCS were applied to 317 children (145 females, 172 males) with CP, aged…

  14. EFFECT OF SENSORY INTEGRATION THERAPY ON GROSS MOTOR FUNCTION IN CHILDREN WITH CEREBRAL PALSY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Shamsoddini

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveThe primary problem in children with cerebral palsy (CP, frequently referred for occupational therapy, is gross motor dysfunction. The current study was designed to investigate the effects of sensory integration therapy (SIT on gross motor skills in CP patients.Materials & MethodsTwenty-four children with diplegic spastic CP were randomly divided into two groups: First group (n=14,6 girls, 8 boys, age range 2 to 6 years, mean age 3.9 years; the second or control group (n=10, 5 girls, 5 boys, age range 2 to 6 years, mean age 3.4 years. SIT training was given to the first group and only the home program was given for the second group. All children were evaluated with gross motor function measurement (GMFM 88 for rolling, sitting, crawling, standing and walking position before and after intervention. Treatment duration for both groups was 1 hour, 5 days per week for a period of 12 weeks.ResultsGross motor function in children of the case group improved significantly better that in the control group, after intervention in sitting (P=0.02, crawling (P=0.001 and standing (P=0.03 positions; however no significant difference was seen in rolling (P=0.65 and walking (P=0.69 ability assessment.ConclusionThis study showed the beneficial effects of the SIT training program for children with CP; the SIT intervention had a significantly positive effect on gross motor function in the children with diplegic spastic CP. Moreover the results of the present study showed that sensory integration and vestibular stimulation were effective in children with cerebral palsy.Keywords:Cerebral palsy, Children, Gross motor, Occupational therapy, Sensory integration

  15. Effect of cerebrolysin on gross motor function of children with cerebral palsy: a clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasiri, Jafar; Safavifar, Faezeh

    2017-01-10

    Gross motor dysfunction is considered as the most challenging problem in cerebral palsy (CP). It is proven that improvement of gross motor function could reduce CP-related disabilities and provide better quality of life in this group of patients. Therefore, the aim of this trial is to evaluate the effectiveness of cerebrolysin (CBL) on gross motor function of children with CP who are undergoing treatment. In this clinical trial study, paediatric patients aged 18-75 months with spastic diplegic or quadriplegic cerebral palsy, who were under rehabilitation therapy, were selected and randomly allocated in control and CBL groups. Patients in CBL group underwent treatment with standard rehabilitation therapy plus CBL. The latter was administrated intramuscularly as a single daily dose of 0.1 cc/kg for 10 days and then continued weekly for 4 months. Gross motor function of participants in the two studied groups, before and after trial, was evaluated and compared using the validated Persian version of gross motor function classification system-expanded and revised (GMFCS-E&R). During this trial, 108 patients with CP were evaluated for eligibility. From these, 50 patients were enrolled and randomly allocated in the CBL and control groups. Four months after trial, the mean level of GMFCS decreased significantly in the two groups (P < 0.05). However, it was significantly lower in the CBL group than in the control group (2.1 vs. 3.16, P < 0.05). The results of this trial indicated that CBL could improve gross motor function in patients with CP. This finding is consistent with neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects of CBL, which have been reported in various clinical trials in other neurological disorders. Further studies are recommended to establish the value of continued neuroprotection and to determine the pharmacokinetics/dynamics of CBL in this group of patients.

  16. Improving gross motor function and postural control with hippotherapy in children with Down syndrome: case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champagne, Danielle; Dugas, Claude

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this case report is to describe the impact of an 11-week hippotherapy program on the gross motor functions of two children (respectively 28 and 37 months old) diagnosed with Down syndrome. Hippotherapy is a strategy that uses the horse's motion to stimulate and enhance muscle contraction and postural control. The children were assessed by the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) and accelerometry. The results indicate that both children improved on many dimensions of the GMFM. Power spectral analysis of the acceleration signals showed improvement in postural control of either the head or trunk, because the children adopted two different adaptative strategies to perturbation induced by the moving horse.

  17. Effects of gross motor function and manual function levels on performance-based ADL motor skills of children with spastic cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Myoung-Ok

    2017-02-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine effects of Gross Motor Function Classification System and Manual Ability Classification System levels on performance-based motor skills of children with spastic cerebral palsy. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-three children with cerebral palsy were included. The Assessment of Motor and Process Skills was used to evaluate performance-based motor skills in daily life. Gross motor function was assessed using Gross Motor Function Classification Systems, and manual function was measured using the Manual Ability Classification System. [Results] Motor skills in daily activities were significantly different on Gross Motor Function Classification System level and Manual Ability Classification System level. According to the results of multiple regression analysis, children categorized as Gross Motor Function Classification System level III scored lower in terms of performance based motor skills than Gross Motor Function Classification System level I children. Also, when analyzed with respect to Manual Ability Classification System level, level II was lower than level I, and level III was lower than level II in terms of performance based motor skills. [Conclusion] The results of this study indicate that performance-based motor skills differ among children categorized based on Gross Motor Function Classification System and Manual Ability Classification System levels of cerebral palsy.

  18. Impact of a Community-Based Programme for Motor Development on Gross Motor Skills and Cognitive Function in Preschool Children from Disadvantaged Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, Catherine E.; Achmat, Masturah; Forbes, Jared; Lambert, Estelle V.

    2012-01-01

    The aims of the studies were to assess the impact of the Little Champs programme for motor development on (1) the gross motor skills, and (2) cognitive function of children in the programme. In study 1, 118 children from one Early Childhood Development Centre (ECDC) were tested using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2, and in study 2, 83…

  19. Gross motor ability predicts response to upper extremity rehabilitation in chronic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Sarah Hulbert; Rafiei, Mohammad Hossein; Borstad, Alexandra; Adeli, Hojjat; Gauthier, Lynne V

    2017-08-30

    The majority of rehabilitation research focuses on the comparative effectiveness of different interventions in groups of patients, while much less is currently known regarding individual factors that predict response to rehabilitation. In a recent article, the authors presented a prognostic model to identify the sensorimotor characteristics predictive of the extent of motor recovery after Constraint-Induced Movement (CI) therapy amongst individuals with chronic mild-to-moderate motor deficit using the enhanced probabilistic neural network (EPNN). This follow-up paper examines which participant characteristics are robust predictors of rehabilitation response irrespective of the training modality. To accomplish this, EPNN was first applied to predict treatment response amongst individuals who received a virtual-reality gaming intervention (utilizing the same enrollment criteria as the prior study). The combinations of predictors that yield high predictive validity for both therapies, using their respective datasets, were then identified. High predictive classification accuracy was achieved for both the gaming (94.7%) and combined datasets (94.5%). Though CI therapy employed primarily fine-motor training tasks and the gaming intervention emphasized gross-motor practice, larger improvements in gross motor function were observed within both datasets. Poorer gross motor ability at pre-treatment predicted better rehabilitation response in both the gaming and combined datasets. The conclusion of this research is that for individuals with chronic mild-to-moderate upper extremity hemiparesis, residual deficits in gross motor function are highly responsive to motor restorative interventions, irrespective of the modality of training. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Gross motor function in children with spastic cerebral palsy and cerebral visual impairment: A comparison between outcomes of the original and the Cerebral Visual Impairment adapted Gross Motor Function Measure-88 (GMFM-88-CVI)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salavati, M.; Rameckers, E.A.A.; Waninge, A.; Krijnen, W.P.; Steenbergen, B.; Schans, C.P. van der

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether the adapted version of the Gross Motor Function Measure-88 (GMFM-88) for children with Cerebral Palsy (CP) and Cerebral Visual Impairment (CVI) results in higher scores. This is most likely to be a reflection of their gross motor function, however it may be the result

  1. Gross motor function in children with spastic Cerebral Palsy and Cerebral Visual Impairment : A comparison between outcomes of the original and the Cerebral Visual Impairment adapted Gross Motor Function Measure-88 (GMFM-88-CVI)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salavati, M.; Rameckers, E. A. A.; Waninge, A.; Krijnen, W. P.; Steenbergen, B.; van der Schans, C. P.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether the adapted version of the Gross Motor Function Measure 88 (GMFM-88) for children with Cerebral Palsy (CP) and Cerebral Visual Impairment (CVI) results in higher scores. This is most likely to be a reflection of their gross motor function, however it may be the result

  2. Gross motor function in children with spastic cerebral palsy and cerebral visual impairment: A comparison between outcomes of the original and the Cerebral Visual Impairment adapted Gross Motor Function Measure-88 (GMFM-88-CVI)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salavati, M.; Rameckers, E.A.A.; Waninge, A.; Krijnen, W.P.; Steenbergen, B.; Schans, C.P. van der

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether the adapted version of the Gross Motor Function Measure-88 (GMFM-88) for children with Cerebral Palsy (CP) and Cerebral Visual Impairment (CVI) results in higher scores. This is most likely to be a reflection of their gross motor function, however it may be the result

  3. Development of the Gross Motor Function Classification System for Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Peter L.; Palisano, Robert J.; Bartlett, Doreen J.; Galuppi, Barbara E.; Russell, Dianne J.

    2008-01-01

    The Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) for cerebral palsy has been widely used internationally for clinical, research, and administrative purposes. This paper recounts the ideas and work behind the creation of the GMFCS, reports on the lessons learned, and identifies some philosophical challenges inherent in trying to develop an…

  4. Gross motor skills and sports participation of children with visual impairments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwen, S; Visscher, C.; Hartman, E.; Lemmink, K.A.P.M.

    2007-01-01

    Gross motor skill performance of children with visual impairments and its association with the degree of visual impairment and sports participation was examined. Twenty children with visual impairments (M age = 9.2 years, SD =1.5) and 100 sighted children (M age = 9.1 years, SD = 1.5) from mainstrea

  5. Gross Motor Performance and Physical Fitness in Children with Psychiatric Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emck, Claudia; Bosscher, Ruud J.; van Wieringen, Piet C. W.; Doreleijers, Theo; Beek, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: Gross motor performance appears to be impaired in children with psychiatric disorders but little is known about which skill domains are affected in each disorder, nor about possible accompanying deficits in physical fitness. The present study has sought to provide information about these issues in children with emotional, behavioural, and…

  6. Self-Pacing a Gross Motor Skills Course: Crawler Tractor Operator, MOS 62E20.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Mark F.; Taylor, John E.

    As part of the Army's emphasis on performance-oriented instruction in training centers, a study was conducted to determine the feasibility of using self-paced instruction in a gross motor skills course. The Crawler Tractor Operator Course, a seven-week heavy equipment course conducted at Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri was selected for the study…

  7. A longitudinal study on gross motor development in children with learning disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westendorp, Marieke; Hartman, Esther; Houwen, Suzanne; Huijgen, Barbara C. H.; Smith, Joanne; Visscher, Chris

    This longitudinal study examined the development of gross motor skills, and sex-differences therein, in 7; to 11-years-old children with learning disorders (LD) and compared the results with typically developing children to determine the performance level of children with LD. In children with LD (n

  8. Gross motor skills and sports participation of children with visual impairments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwen, S; Visscher, C.; Hartman, E.; Lemmink, K.A.P.M.

    Gross motor skill performance of children with visual impairments and its association with the degree of visual impairment and sports participation was examined. Twenty children with visual impairments (M age = 9.2 years, SD =1.5) and 100 sighted children (M age = 9.1 years, SD = 1.5) from

  9. A longitudinal study on gross motor development in children with learning disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westendorp, Marieke; Hartman, Esther; Houwen, Suzanne; Huijgen, Barbara C. H.; Smith, Joanne; Visscher, Chris

    2014-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the development of gross motor skills, and sex-differences therein, in 7; to 11-years-old children with learning disorders (LD) and compared the results with typically developing children to determine the performance level of children with LD. In children with LD (n

  10. Effects of Aquatic Intervention on Gross Motor Skills in Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roostaei, Meysam; Baharlouei, Hamzeh; Azadi, Hamidreza; Fragala-Pinkham, Maria A

    2016-12-14

    To review the literature on the effects of aquatic intervention on gross motor skills for children with cerebral palsy (CP). Six databases were searched from inception to January 2016. Aquatic studies for children aged 1-21 years with any type or CP classification and at least one outcome measuring gross motor skills were included. Information was extracted on study design, outcomes, and aquatic program type, frequency, duration, and intensity. Quality was rated using the Centre of Evidence-Based Medicine: Levels of Evidence and the PEDro scale. Of the 11 studies which met inclusion criteria, only two used randomized control trial design, and the results were mixed. Quality of evidence was rated as moderate to high for only one study. Most studies used quasi-experimental designs and reported improvements in gross motor skills for within group analyses after aquatic programs were held for two to three times per week and lasting for 6-16 weeks. Participants were classified according to the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels I-V, and were aged 3-21 years. Mild to no adverse reactions were reported. Evidence on aquatic interventions for ambulatory children with CP is limited. Aquatic exercise is feasible and adverse effects are minimal; however, dosing parameters are unclear. Further research is needed to determine aquatic intervention effectiveness and exercise dosing across age categories and GMFCS levels.

  11. Gross Motor Performance and Physical Fitness in Children with Psychiatric Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emck, Claudia; Bosscher, Ruud J.; van Wieringen, Piet C. W.; Doreleijers, Theo; Beek, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: Gross motor performance appears to be impaired in children with psychiatric disorders but little is known about which skill domains are affected in each disorder, nor about possible accompanying deficits in physical fitness. The present study has sought to provide information about these issues in children with emotional, behavioural, and…

  12. Relation between hand function and gross motor function in full term infants aged 4 to 8 months

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Solange F.; Figueiredo, Elyonara M.; Gonçalves, Rejane V.; Mancini, Marisa C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: In children, reaching emerges around four months of age, which is followed by rapid changes in hand function and concomitant changes in gross motor function, including the acquisition of independent sitting. Although there is a close functional relationship between these domains, to date they have been investigated separately. Objective: To investigate the longitudinal profile of changes and the relationship between the development of hand function (i.e. reaching for and manipulating an object) and gross motor function in 13 normally developing children born at term who were evaluated every 15 days from 4 to 8 months of age. Method: The number of reaches and the period (i.e. time) of manipulation to an object were extracted from video synchronized with the Qualisys(r) movement analysis system. Gross motor function was measured using the Alberta Infant Motor Scale. ANOVA for repeated measures was used to test the effect of age on the number of reaches, the time of manipulation and gross motor function. Hierarchical regression models were used to test the associations of reaching and manipulation with gross motor function. Results: Results revealed a significant increase in the number of reaches (p<0.001), the time of manipulation (p<0.001) and gross motor function (p<0.001) over time, as well as associations between reaching and gross motor function (R2=0.84; p<0.001) and manipulation and gross motor function (R2=0.13; p=0.02) from 4 to 6 months of age. Associations from 6 to 8 months of age were not significant. Conclusion: The relationship between hand function and gross motor function was not constant, and the age span from 4 to 6 months was a critical period of interdependency of hand function and gross motor function development. PMID:25714437

  13. Association between gross motor function (GMFCS and manual ability (MACS in children with cerebral palsy. A population-based study of 359 children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arner Marianne

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS has become an important tool to describe motor function in children with Cerebral Palsy (CP. The Manual Ability Classification System (MACS was developed recently as a corresponding classification of manual ability. The aim of this study was to describe the association between gross motor function and manual ability in a total population of children with cerebral palsy. Methods 365 children, born 1992 to 2001, who were registered in a population-based health care programme (CPUP for children with CP living in the south of Sweden were included in the study. GMFCS was evaluated by the child's physiotherapist and MACS by the occupational therapist. CP diagnosis and subtype were determined by the neuropaediatrician at or after the age of four. Results GMFCS levels were available in all 365 children, MACS levels in 359 (98%. There was a poor overall correlation between gross motor function and manual ability. However, different associations between gross motor function and manual ability were found in the different diagnostic subtypes. Children with spastic hemiplegia generally had a lower level of manual ability than gross motor function (p Conclusion Gross motor function and manual ability are often discrepant in children with CP, and the patterns seem to vary across the different subgroups based on the predominant neurological findings. To give a complete clinical picture when evaluating these children, both aspects have to be described. The GMFCS and the MACS seem to work well in this context and seem very useful in population-based studies, in health care registers for children with CP, and in clinical practice.

  14. Effects of Motor Skill Intervention on Gross Motor Development, Creative Thinking and Academic Performance in Preschool Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Jiménez Díaz

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate how students (mean= 6.08±0.5 years benefit from a physical education program in motor performance, creative thinking and academic achievement. Students (n = 39 were randomly assigned to comparison group (6 boys and 7 girls who received the regular preschool program (which includes 1 session of 30 minutes per week; intervention group 1 (6 boys and 7 girls who received the regular preschool program plus 1 session of 30 minutes per week of the intervention program; or intervention group 2 (6 boys and 7 girls, who received the regular preschool program plus 1 session of 60 minutes per week of the intervention program; during 8 weeks. All participants performed the Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD-2 and the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking (TTCT before and after the study. The academic achievement score was given by the school. The ANOVA (Group x Gender x Time pre and post analysis revealed a significant triple interaction in the object control. Significant double interactions in the locomotor subscale and in the gross motor quotient were also found. After the post-hoc analysis, the results suggest that the physical education program benefits the gross motor performance and did not have an effect on the creative thinking or on the academic achievement.

  15. Gross motor skill performance in a sample of overweight and non-overweight preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morano, Milena; Colella, Dario; Caroli, Margherita

    2011-10-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the gross motor skill performance of overweight and non-overweight preschool children from South of Italy, and to investigate possible differences by gender. Participants were 38 boys and 42 girls (4.5 ± 0.5 yr) categorized as overweight (n = 38) and non-overweight (n = 42), according to the IOTF body mass index (BMI) cut-off points. The Test of Gross Motor Development was used to assess seven locomotor skills (run, gallop, hop, leap, horizontal jump, skip and slide) and five object-control skills (two-hand strike, stationary bounce, catch, kick and overhand throw). The raw, standard and percentile scores and the Gross Motor Development Quotient (GMDQ) were calculated for each participant. ANOVA 2 (gender) x 2 (group) was conducted on the subtest standard scores and the GMDQ. No differences in performance were found between boys and girls on the subscale standard scores and the GMDQ. Significant main effects (p overweight children reporting lower movement competence than their counterparts. Pearson's correlations revealed relationships (p Overweight participants showed poorer performance on locomotor and object-control tasks than their non-overweight peers. Interventions to promote physical activity in overweight children should be directed towards achieving a healthy weight and motor skill improvement.

  16. Physical fitness of primary school children in the reflection of different levels of gross motor coordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Ružbarská

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lower level of motor competences may result in unsuccessful engaging of children in physical activities as early as pre-school age and also prepubescent ages. This may subsequently lead to a spiral of forming negative attitudes towards an active lifestyle and may be accompanied by a negative trend in weight status and physical fitness outcomes. Objective: The aim of the study was to identify and analyze differences in physical fitness and somatic parameters of primary school-aged children according to level of their gross motor coordination. Methods:  A sample of 436 children aged 7 to 10 years, of which were 222 girls and 214 boys, performed physical fitness tests - Eurofit test battery. The level of motor coordination was assessed using the test battery Körperkoordination-Test-für-Kinder (KTK. The anthropometric data (body mass, body height, sum of five skinfolds were measured. The one-way ANOVA was used to assess differences in physical fitness test items and anthropometry parameters between children with normal motor quotient (MQ ≥ 86 and decreased levels of gross motor coordination (MQ ≤ 85. Results: Research findings indicate a strongly negative trend in physical development of children with motor deficits (MQ ≤ 85. The results of ANOVA revealed significantly less favourable level of most of the assessed physical fitness parameters in children with decreased level of motor coordination. Conclusions: The findings suggest that physical fitness outcomes of primary school-aged children are associated with a lower level of motor coordination. Motor coordination probably plays an important role in preventing, or moderating the so-called negative trajectory leading to childhood overweight or obesity.

  17. Reference Curves for the Gross Motor Function Measure: Percentiles for Clinical Description and Tracking Over Time Among Children With Cerebral Palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Hanna, Steven E.; Bartlett, Doreen J; Rivard, Lisa M; Russell, Dianne J

    2008-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Physical therapists frequently use the 66-item Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM-66) with the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) to examine gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Until now, reference percentiles for this measure were not available. The aim of this study was to improve the clinical utility of this gross motor measure by developing cross-sectional reference percentiles for the GMFM-66 within levels of the GMFCS.

  18. Hip displacement in relation to age and gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Larnert, Per; Risto, Olof; Hägglund, Gunnar; Wagner, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Hip dislocation in cerebral palsy (CP) is a serious complication. By radiographic screening and prophylactic surgery of children at risk most dislocations can be prevented. CPUP, the Swedish CP registry and follow-up program, includes annual radiographic examinations of children at Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels III–V. Data from CPUP were analysed to assess the risk of hip displacement in relation to GMFCS levels and age. Methods All children at GMFCS levels...

  19. The clinimetric properties of performance-based gross motor tests used for children with developmental coordination disorder: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Leanne M; Hillier, Susan L; Civetta, Lauren R

    2010-01-01

    Performance-based measures of gross motor skills are required for children with developmental coordination disorder to quantify motor ability and objectify change. Information related to psychometrics, clinical utility, feasibility, and client appropriateness and acceptability is needed so that clinicians and researchers are assured that they have chosen the most appropriate and robust tool. This review identified performance-based measures of gross motor skills for this population, and the research evidence for their clinimetric properties through a systematic literature search. Seven measures met the inclusion criteria and were appraised for their clinimetric properties. The Movement Assessment Battery for Children and the Test for Gross Motor Development (second version) scored highest on appraisal. The 2 highest scoring measures are recommended in the first instance for clinicians wishing to evaluate gross motor performance in children with developmental coordination disorder. However, both measures require further testing to increase confidence in their validity for this population.

  20. Gross and fine motor function in fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasouli, Omid; Fors, Egil A; Borchgrevink, Petter Chr; Öhberg, Fredrik; Stensdotter, Ann-Katrin

    2017-01-01

    Purpose This paper aimed to investigate motor proficiency in fine and gross motor function, with a focus on reaction time (RT) and movement skill, in patients with fibromyalgia (FM) and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) compared to healthy controls (HC). Methods A total of 60 individuals (20 CFS, 20 FM, and 20 HC), age 19–49 years, participated in this study. Gross motor function in the lower extremity was assessed using a RT task during gait initiation in response to an auditory trigger. Fine motor function in the upper extremity was measured during a precision task (the Purdue Pegboard test) where the number of pins inserted within 30 s was counted. Results No significant differences were found between FM and CFS in any parameters. FM and CFS groups had significantly longer RT than HC in the gait initiation (p=0.001, and p=0.004 respectively). In the Purdue Pegboard test, 20% in the FM group, 15% in the CFS groups, and 0% of HC group, scored below the threshold of the accepted performance. However, there were no significant differences between FM, CFS, and HC in this task (p=0.12). Conclusion Compared to controls, both CFS and FM groups displayed significantly longer RT in the gait initiation task. Generally, FM patients showed the worst results in both tests, although no group differences were found in fine motor control, according to the Purdue Pegboard test. PMID:28223840

  1. The relationship between gross motor function and manual ability in cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oskoui, Maryam; Majnemer, Annette; Dagenais, Lynn; Shevell, Michael I

    2013-12-01

    A retrospective cohort study was conducted to describe the relationship between gross motor function and manual ability in children with cerebral palsy and explore differences between cerebral palsy subtypes and associated comorbidities. Children with cerebral palsy born between 1999 and 2008 were included from the Registre de la Paralyse Cérébrale de Québec identifying 332 children. The overall agreement between Gross Motor Function Classification System and Manual Ability Classification Scale Levels was moderate (kappa 0.457, standard error 0.034) with a strong positive correlation (Spearman rho of 0.820, standard error 0.023). This agreement was moderate among children with spastic quadriparesis and dysketic cerebral palsy, fair in children with spastic diplegia, and poor in children with spastic hemiplegia. Children with cognitive impairment showed a higher correlation than those without cognitive impairment. The correlation between gross motor function and manual ability in children with CP varies based on neurologic subtype and cognitive level.

  2. The clinical effect of hippotherapy on gross motor function of children with Cerebral Palsy

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    K Litlle

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cerebral palsy (CP is the most common cause of physical disability affecting gross motor function (GMF in early childhood. Hippotherapy is a treatment approach aimed at improving GMF in children with CP. Several systematic reviews have been published showing an improvement in Dimension E of the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM after hippotherapy. However, these reviews failed to evaluate the clinical effect of hippotherapy in improving GMF in children with CP.Objective: To critically appraise the evidence of hippotherapy to ascertain whether it is a clinically meaningful approach for children with CP.Methodology: Five computerised bibliographic databases were searched. Predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria were set. The PEDro scale was used to assess the quality of the studies. A revised JBI Data extraction tool was used to extract data from the selected articles. Revman© Review Manager Software was used to create forest plots for comparisons of results.Results: All studies used the GMFM as an outcome measure for gross motor function. The added benefit of hippotherapy is a minimum 1% and a maximum 7% increase on the GMFM scores. However, all 95% confidence intervals (CI around all the mean differences were insignificant.Conclusion: The clinical effect of hippotherapy on the GMF of children with CP is small. Larger studies are required to provide evidence of the effect of hippotherapy within this population.

  3. Effects of an aquatic program on gross motor function of children with spastic cerebral palsy

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    NIKOLAOS CHRYSAGIS; ANGELIKI DOUKA; MICHAIL NIKOPOULOS; FOTEINI APOSTOLOPOULOU; DIMITRA KOUTSOUKI

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of a 10-week aquatic program on the gross motor function, on the range of motion and on spasticity of childrenwith cerebral palsy (CP. Six students served as subjects for the experimental group and another 6 were assigned to the control group. The aquatic program was taking place twice a week and consisted of a warm up, the main training session and a cool down phase. Measuring instruments were the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM (dimensions D and E, a goniometer and the modified Ashworth Scale. Pre-test and Post-test were executed before and after the intervention program. Significant interaction effect was found with respect to: the active shoulder flexion (p=.052, the active shoulder abduction (p=.052, the passive hip abduction (p=.001 and the passive knee extension (p=.045. Interaction effect was found for spasticity of the hip adductors (p=.002 and knee flexors (p=.049. Results of the present study indicated that an aquatic program might have a positive effect in gross motor function as well as in range of motion and spasticity in students with spastic cerebral palsy.

  4. Comparison the Impact of Spark Motor Program and Basketball Techniques on Improving Gross Motor Skills in Educable Intellectually Disabled Boys

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    Hashem Faal Moghanlo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives : Different types of practises are known for improving motor skills in intellectually disabled boys. The purpose of this study was to compar e the impact of spark motor program and basketball on improving of gross motor skills in this people.   Methods: In this semi-experimental study , from 98 educable intellectually disabled students who studied in special school in Urmia, 30 children ( age range of 9 to 13 years and IQ mean 64.4 were selected objectively and divided in three groups (2 experimental and 1 control based on pre - test. BOTMP was used as a measurement of motor ability. Selected motor program (Spark motor program including strengthening training, games, sports and basketball techniques was performed for 24 sessions. T-tests (dependent and co-variance were used to comparison of results.   Results: In Spark group after 24 sessions, there were significant effects on balance (p= 0.000, bilateral coordination (p=0.000 and strength (p=0.001. There was no significant effect in agility and speed (p= 0.343 in basketball techniques group after 24 sessions, there were significant effects in agility and speed (p= 0.001, balance (p= 0.000, bilateral coordination (p= 0.013 and strength (p= 0.007.   Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, it can be claimed that the Spark program and basketball techniques improve gross motor skills in educable intellectually disabled students. We also found a significant difference between the Spark program and basketball techniques efficacy on the improved skills. Furthermore, the efficacy of Spark program was significantly higher than basketball techniques (p<0.05.

  5. Effects of Neurodevelopmental Therapy on Gross Motor Function in Children with Cerebral Palsy

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    Sina LABAF

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA How to Cite This Article: labaf S, Shamsoddini A, Hollisaz MT, Sobhani V, Shakibaee A . Effects of Neurodevelopmental Therapy on Gross Motor Function in Children with Cerebral Palsy. Iran J Child Neurol. Spring 2015;9(1:37-42.AbstractObjectiveNeurodevelopmental treatments are an advanced therapeutic approach practiced by experienced occupational therapists for the rehabilitation of children with cerebral palsy. The primary challenge in children with cerebral palsy is gross motor dysfunction. We studied the effects of neurodevelopmental therapy on gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy.Materials & MethodsIn a quasi-experimental design, 28 children with cerebral palsy were randomly divided into two groups. Neurodevelopmental therapy was given to a first group (n=15 with a mean age of 4.9 years; and a second group with a mean age 4.4 years (n=13 who were the control group. All children were evaluated with the Gross Motor Function Measure. Treatments were scheduled for three - one-hour sessions per week for 3 months.ResultsWe obtained statistically significant differences in the values between the baseline and post treatment in two groups. The groups were significantly different in laying and rolling (P=0.000, sitting (0.002, crawling and kneeling (0.004, and standing abilities (P=0.005. However, there were no significantdifferences in walking, running, and jumping abilities between the two groups (0.090.ConclusionWe concluded that the neurodevelopmental treatment improved gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy in four dimensions (laying and rolling, sitting, crawling and kneeling, and standing. However, walking, running, and jumping did not improve significantly. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso

  6. Improvement of gross motor and cognitive abilities by an exercise training program: three case reports

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    Alesi M

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Marianna Alesi,1 Giuseppe Battaglia,2 Michele Roccella,1 Davide Testa,1 Antonio Palma,2 Annamaria Pepi1 1Department of Psychology, 2Department of Law, Social and Sport Science, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy Background: This work examined the efficacy of an integrated exercise training program (coach and family in three children with Down syndrome to improve their motor and cognitive abilities, in particular reaction time and working memory. Methods: The integrated exercise training program was used in three children with Down syndrome, comprising two boys (M1, with a chronological age of 10.3 years and a mental age of 4.7 years; M2, with a chronological age of 14.6 years and a mental age of less than 4 years and one girl (F1, chronological age 14.0 years and a mental age of less than 4 years. Results: Improvements in gross motor ability scores were seen after the training period. Greater improvements in task reaction time were noted for both evaluation parameters, ie, time and omissions. Conclusion: There is a close interrelationship between motor and cognitive domains in individuals with atypical development. There is a need to plan intervention programs based on the simultaneous involvement of child and parents and aimed at promoting an active lifestyle in individuals with Down syndrome. Keywords: disability, Down syndrome, gross motor abilities, cognitive abilities, physical activity

  7. Gross Motor Coincidence Timing by Children with Learning Difficulties and Children Matched on Mean Chronological and Mental Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacklin, Susan M.

    1987-01-01

    This study examines the learning of a gross motor coincidence timing task by children with learning difficulties, compared with that by children of average intelligence of an equivalent chronological age and mental age. Results are discussed. (Author/MT)

  8. Gross Motor Function Classification System used in adults with cerebral palsy: agreement of self-reported versus professional rating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahnsen, Reidun; Aamodt, Geir; Rosenbaum, Peter

    2006-09-01

    The present study investigated the reliability of self-reported rating of Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels compared with professional rating, and changes in gross motor function over time, in adults with cerebral palsy. Twenty-nine females and 33 males aged between 18 years 5 months and 62 years 11 months (mean age 34y 7mo [SD 10y 6mo]) participated in the study. Participants rated their current gross motor function using the GMFCS and reported their judgement of their gross motor function at age 10 to 12 years. The project leader, a physical therapist, also classified participants' current GMFCS levels and conducted a chart review on all accessible medical records of participants' gross motor function when they were 10 to 12 years old, rating the GMFCS level accordingly. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) between self-reported and professional ratings showed excellent agreement (ICC=0.93-0.95, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.89-0.97). More than half the participants experienced a stable gross motor function from the age of 10 to 12 years to the present. Those at GMFCS Levels II and III at the age of 10 to 12 years (according to the professional rating) had significant change for the worse in gross motor function over time, with odds ratios of 9.30 (95% CI 1.2-73.0, p=0.03) and 7.00 (95% CI 1.1-43.0, p=0.04) respectively. Interview data on circumstances regarding changes in gross motor function since childhood are also reported. Changes in GMFCS level were mostly associated with physical or social environmental factors.

  9. Correlation between the Gait Deviation Index and gross motor function (GMFCS level) in children with cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Malt, Merete A.; Aarli, Ånen; Bogen, Bård; Fevang, Jonas M

    2016-01-01

    Aim The Gait Deviation Index (GDI) is a score derived from three-dimensional gait analysis (3DGA). The GDI provides a numerical value that expresses overall gait pathology (ranging from 0 to 100, where 100 indicates the absence of gait pathology). The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the GDI and different levels of gross motor function [defined as the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS)] and to explore if age, height, weight, gender and cerebral pals...

  10. Gross Motor Function Classification System Expanded & Revised (GMFCS E & R): reliability between therapists and parents in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela B. R. Silva; Luzia I. Pfeifer; Carolina A. R. Funayama

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several studies have demonstrated the importance of using the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) to classify gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy, but the reliability of the expanded and revised version has not been examined in Brazil (GMFCS E & R). OBJECTIVE:: To determine the intra- and inter-rater reliability of the Portuguese-Brazil version of the GMFCS E & R applied by therapists and compare to classification provided by parents of children...

  11. Determinants of gross motor skill performance in children with visual impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haibach, Pamela S; Wagner, Matthias O; Lieberman, Lauren J

    2014-10-01

    Children with visual impairments (CWVI) generally perform poorer in gross motor skills when compared with their sighted peers. This study examined the influence of age, sex, and severity of visual impairment upon locomotor and object control skills in CWVI. Participants included 100 CWVI from across the United States who completed the Test of Gross Motor Development II (TGMD-II). The TGMD-II consists of 12 gross motor skills including 6 object control skills (catching, kicking, striking, dribbling, throwing, and rolling) and 6 locomotor skills (running, sliding, galloping, leaping, jumping, and hopping). The full range of visual impairments according to United States Association for Blind Athletes (USABA; B3=20/200-20/599, legally blind; B2=20/600 and up, travel vision; B1=totally blind) were assessed. The B1 group performed significantly worse than the B2 (0.000 ≤ p ≤ 0.049) or B3 groups (0.000 ≤ p ≤ 0.005); however, there were no significant differences between B2 and B3 except for the run (p=0.006), catch (p=0.000), and throw (p=0.012). Age and sex did not play an important role in most of the skills, with the exception of boys outperforming girls striking (p=0.009), dribbling (p=0.013), and throwing (p=0.000), and older children outperforming younger children in dribbling (p=0.002). The significant impact of the severity of visual impairment is likely due to decreased experiences and opportunities for children with more severe visual impairments. In addition, it is likely that these reduced experiences explain the lack of age-related differences in the CWVI. The large disparities in performance between children who are blind and their partially sighted peers give direction for instruction and future research. In addition, there is a critical need for intentional and specific instruction on motor skills at a younger age to enable CWVI to develop their gross motor skills.

  12. Associations between gross motor coordination and academic achievement in elementary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Luís; Santos, Rute; Pereira, Beatriz; Lopes, Vítor P

    2013-02-01

    We aimed to evaluate the relationship between gross motor coordination (MC) and academic achievement (AA) in a sample of Portuguese children aged 9-12 years. The study took place during the 2009/2010 school year and involved 596 urban children (281 girls) from the north of Portugal. AA was assessed using the Portuguese Language and Mathematics National Exams. Gross MC was evaluated with the Körperkoordination Test für Kinder. Cardiorespiratory fitness was predicted by a maximal multistage 20-m shuttle-run test of the Fitnessgram Test Battery. Body weight and height were measured following standard procedures. Socio-economic status was based on annual family income. Logistic Regression was used to analyze the association of gross MC with AA. 51.6% of the sample exhibited MC disorders or MC insufficiency and none of the participants showed very good MC. In both genders, children with insufficient MC or MC disorders exhibited a higher probability of having low AA, compared with those with normal or good MC (pbody mass index and socio-economic status.

  13. Associations between Manual Abilities, Gross Motor Function, Epilepsy, and Mental Capacity in Children with Cerebral Palsy

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    Ewa GAJEWSKA*

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: Gajewska E, Sobieska M, Samborski W. Associations between Manual Abilities, Gross Motor Function, Epilepsy, and Mental Capacity in Children with Cerebral Palsy. Iran J Child Neurol. 2014 Spring 8(2:45-52.ObjectiveThis study aimed to evaluate gross motor function and hand function in children with cerebral palsy to explore their association with epilepsy and mental capacity. Material & MethodsThe research investigating the association between gross and fine motor function and the presence of epilepsy and/or mental impairment was conducted on a group of 83 children (45 girls, 38 boys. Among them, 41 were diagnosedwith quadriplegia, 14 hemiplegia, 18 diplegia, 7 mixed form, and 3 athetosis.A neurologist assessed each child in terms of possible epilepsy and confirmed diagnosis in 35 children. A psychologist assessed the mental level (according toWechsler and found 13 children within intellectual norm, 3 children with mild mental impairment, 18 with moderate, 27 with severe, and 22 with profound.Children were then classified based on Gross Motor Function Classification System and Manual Ability Classification Scale.ResultsThe gross motor function and manual performance were analysed in relation to mental impairment and the presence of epilepsy. Epilepsy was found to disturb conscious motor functions, but also higher degree of mental impairment wasobserved in children with epilepsy.ConclusionThe occurrence of epilepsy in children with cerebral palsy is associated with worse manual function. The occurrence of epilepsy is associated with limitations in conscious motor functions. There is an association between epilepsy in children with cerebral palsy and the degree of mental impairment.The occurrence of epilepsy, mainly in children with hemiplegia and diplegia is associated with worse mental capacities.ReferencesRichards CL, Malouin F. Cerebral palsy: definition, assessment and rehabilitation. Handb Clin Neurol

  14. Relationships between Gross Motor Abilities and Problematic Behaviors of Handicapped Children in Different Age Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uesugi, Masayuki; Araki, Tomoko; Fujii, Shun; Itotani, Keisuke; Otani, Yoshitaka; Seiichi, Takemasa

    2014-12-01

    [Purpose] In this study, we examined problematic behaviors of independent-walking and non-independent-walking handicapped children in the infant, school child and adolescent development phases, using the Japanese version of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC-J) to determine if such behaviors relate to their gross motor abilities. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 86 handicapped children who were receiving physical therapy. The subjects were classified into three groups by age. Using the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS), each group was further divided into an independent-walking group and non-independent-walking group. Thirteen physical therapists and 8 occupational therapists, who were treating the subject children, rated the subjects using the ABC-J. [Results] Significant differences were observed between the independent-walking and the non-independent-walking groups in the stereotypy and lethargy scores of infants. [Conclusion] For schoolchildren and adolescents, no significant differences were observed between the independent-walking and the non-independent-walking groups in their problematic behavior scores.

  15. The Effect of Resistance Training on Performance of Gross Motor Skills and Balance in Children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy

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    Ebrahim Zarrinkalam

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Cerebral palsy is the most common chronic motor disability in children and can have negative effect on motor functions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of eight weeks resistance training on gross motor ability, balance and walking speed in a group of such children. Methods: 21 cerebral palsy boys with spastic diplegia, aged between 12 and 16 years (mean, 13.66 years, participated in this study. A pre-test, involving walking, sitting, standing and walking up stairs. They were randomly divided into an experimental and control groups. Then, the experimental group participated in 8 weeks of resistance training.  The data was attained from a 10 meter walk test, Berg Balance Test, gross motor ability Section E, D and GMFCS tests.  Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, sample t-test were used for analyzing the data. Results: The results showed a significant improvement in the performance of experimental group in gross motor abilities section  E and D, balance and walking speed after 8 weeks of resistance training (P <0.05(. However, significant differences were not observed in the control group before and after the study (P <0.05.  Conclusion: The results showed that resistance training improves gross motor ability, balance and gait in children with cerebral palsy hence, it is recommended that resistance exercise be used as a therapeutic modality for children with cerebral palsy.

  16. The relationship between spasticity in young children (18 months of age with cerebral palsy and their gross motor function development

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    Verschuren Olaf

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is thought that spasticity has an influence on the development of functional motor abilities among children with cerebral palsy (CP. The extent to which spasticity is associated with the change in motor abilities in young children with CP has not been established. The objective of this study is to evaluate the relationship of initial spasticity in young children with CP and their gross motor function development over one year. Methods Fifty children with CP aged 18 months, GMFCS-levels I-V participated in a longitudinal observational study. Change in gross motor functioning (GMFM-66 was measured over one year. The level of spasticity measured at the first assessment was determined with the Modified Tardieu Scale in three muscle groups of the lower extremity (adductor muscles, the hamstrings and the m. gastrocnemius. The Spasticity Total Score per child was calculated with a maximum score of 12 points. Results Spearman's Rho Correlation (-0.28 revealed a statistically significant relationship (p Conclusion Our findings indicate that when measured over one year, spasticity is marginally related to gross motor function development in infants with CP. The initial level of spasticity is only one of the many child, environmental and family factors that determines gross motor development of a young child with CP.

  17. Relationship between time use in physical activity and gross motor performance of preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ling-Yi; Cherng, Rong-Ju; Chen, Yung-Jung

    2017-02-01

    Participation in physical activity is an important health concern for children in most Western communities, but little is known about Asian children's participation. The purpose of this study was to extend the current knowledge on how much time preschool children in Taiwan spend on physical activity, to examine its relationship with gross motor performance and to provide information on the establishment of physical activity guidelines for preschool children in Taiwan. Two hundred and sixty-four children between 36 and 71 months old were recruited from a university medical centre and from preschools in Taiwan. The primary outcomes were measured using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-Second Edition and the modified Preschool-aged Children's Physical Activity Questionnaire. 89.8% of our participants did not meet the recommendations from the National Association for Sport and Physical Education for time spent in physical activities. Participants spent an average of 155 minutes/week in low intensity physical activity. Children with motor difficulties tended to spend less time on physical activity than did typically developing children. The mother's level of education and whether the child was overweight or obese correlated with how much time the children spent on physical activity. We conclude that paediatric occupational therapists should explain to parents the relationship between physical activity and motor development and advocate for developmentally positive physical activities for preschool children. Physical activity guidelines for Taiwanese preschoolers should be established immediately. © 2016 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  18. THE INFLUENCE OF THE EXERCISES OF GROSS AND FINE MOTOR SKILLS ON VISUO-MOTOR COORDINATION OF THE CEREBRAL PALSY CHILDREN

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    Almira Mujkić

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Visuomotor coordination is reffered to eye coordination and to various parts of the body in different activities and games. The aim of the research was to establish the influence of the exercises of gross and fine motor skills on visuomotor coordination of the cerebral palsy children. The sample was the case study where a male person of 3 and a half years old was an examinee. Measuring instrument used was the Test of visuomotor coordination of the gross motor skills of the dominant hand. Data were analyzed by t-test.

  19. Effect of Upper Limb Deformities on Gross Motor and Upper Limb Functions in Children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun Sook; Sim, Eun Geol; Rha, Dong-wook

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the nature and extent of upper limb deformities via the use of various classifications, and to analyze the relationship between upper limb deformities and gross motor or upper limb functionality levels. Upper extremity data were collected from 234 children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP) who were…

  20. Stability and Decline in Gross Motor Function among Children and Youth with Cerebral Palsy Aged 2 to 21 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Steven E.; Rosenbaum, Peter L.; Bartlett, Doreen J.; Palisano, Robert J.; Walter, Stephen D.; Avery, Lisa; Russell, Dianne J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports the construction of gross motor development curves for children and youth with cerebral palsy (CP) in order to assess whether function is lost during adolescence. We followed children previously enrolled in a prospective longitudinal cohort study for an additional 4 years, as they entered adolescence and young adulthood. The…

  1. Early neuromotor development of high risk infants - Gross motor function in preterm and full-term born infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Haastert, I.C.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis is the result of 20 years follow-up of preterm and full-term born ‘graduates’ of the neonatal intensive care unit of the Wilhelmina Children’s Hospital, Utrecht. The aim was to answer questions that arose during admission and follow-up assessments. Typical gross motor development of pret

  2. Knee Muscle Strength at Varying Angular Velocities and Associations with Gross Motor Function in Ambulatory Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Wei-Hsien; Chen, Hseih-Ching; Shen, I-Hsuan; Chen, Chung-Yao; Chen, Chia-Ling; Chung, Chia-Ying

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationships of muscle strength at different angular velocities and gross motor functions in ambulatory children with cerebral palsy (CP). This study included 33 ambulatory children with spastic CP aged 6-15 years and 15 children with normal development. Children with CP were categorized into level I (n =…

  3. Effects of static bicycle training on gross motor function, muscle strength and spasticity of adolescents with spastic cerebral palsy

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    CHRISTOS TSIGKANOS

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of an 8- week lower limb strengthening program on gross motor function, muscle strength and spasticity levels of both the quadriceps and hip adductors of adolescents 14 to 19 years of age with spastic cerebral palsy using a specific static bicycle (Thera-Vital exerciser. Eight students were assigned to the experimental group and another 8 to the control group. The strengthening program took place 3 times a week (6 sets of 10 to 15 full cycling circles. The Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM (dimensions D and E, an isometric hand-held dynamometer and Asworth scale were the measurement instruments used in the study. A multivariance analysis of variance (MANOVA was applied for identifying the statistical importance of the results of the intervention protocol. A statistically significant improvement in both gross motor function (p = 0.016 and muscle strength (p = 0.039 was found without a statistically significant alteration of the muscle tone of the quadriceps and hip adductors of the participants (p = 0.13 and p = 0.33. The results of the present study indicate that static bicycle is a safe and effective means of exercise since it improves the gross motor function of adolescents with cerebral palsy without increasing the muscle tone of the lower limb.

  4. Effects of age and timing of augmented feedback on learning muscle relaxation while performing a gross motor task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, H; Hermens, Hermanus J.

    Objective: To examine the combined effect of age and timing of augmented feedback on learning muscle relaxation. Performing a gross motor task, subjects had to lower their trapezius muscle activity using the electromyographic signal as visual myofeedback. Design: Healthy subjects (16 young adults:

  5. Intensification of the Learning Process: Gross Motor Performance Scale. A Series of Reports Designed for Classroom Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucks County Public Schools, Doylestown, PA.

    The Gross Motor Performance Screening Test was designed to aid the classroom teacher in obtaining specific information about the child's physical abilities. The test includes items which have been found to measure the various factors of physical fitness. It also includes items to measure skills important to the child and adult. Included also are…

  6. Knee Muscle Strength at Varying Angular Velocities and Associations with Gross Motor Function in Ambulatory Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Wei-Hsien; Chen, Hseih-Ching; Shen, I-Hsuan; Chen, Chung-Yao; Chen, Chia-Ling; Chung, Chia-Ying

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationships of muscle strength at different angular velocities and gross motor functions in ambulatory children with cerebral palsy (CP). This study included 33 ambulatory children with spastic CP aged 6-15 years and 15 children with normal development. Children with CP were categorized into level I (n =…

  7. Interobserver Agreement of the Gross Motor Function Classification System in an Ambulant Population of Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Brona C.; Kerr, Claire; Parkes, Jackie

    2007-01-01

    Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) level was reported by three independent assessors in a population of children with cerebral palsy (CP) aged between 4 and 18 years (n=184; 112 males, 72 females; mean age 10y 10mo [SD 3y 7mo]). A software algorithm also provided a computed GMFCS level from a regional CP registry. Participants had…

  8. Potential Predictors of Changes in Gross Motor Function during Various Tasks for Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Follow-Up Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chia-ling; Chen, Chung-yao; Chen, Hsieh-ching; Liu, Wen-yu; Shen, I-hsuan; Lin, Keh-chung

    2013-01-01

    Very few studies have investigated predictors of change in various gross motor outcomes in ambulatory children with cerebral palsy (CP). The aim of this study was to identify potential predictors for change in gross motor outcomes measured during various tasks in children with CP. A group of 45 children (age, 6-15 years) with CP and 7 potential…

  9. Spatial patterns for the three species Gross-Pitaevskii system in the plane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Squassina

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we highlight some particular spatial patterns of ground state solutions for the three species Gross-Pitaevskii system in the plane having physical coefficients with particular attention to the cases where the inter-species coefficients become large. The solutions models least energy stationary states of a mixture of three Bose-Einstein condensates.

  10. Does a physiotherapy programme of gross motor training influence motor function and activities of daily living in children presenting with developmental coordination disorder?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonill S. Maharaj

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD lack motor coordination and have difficulty performing motor skills and activities of daily living. Research shows these children do not outgrow their motor difficulties and without intervention do not improve. Physiotherapy is relevant for these children, but due to limited clinical protocols for DCD the aim of this study was to determine the effect of a gross motor training programme for 6–12-year-old children with DCD.Methods: This randomised pre-test, post-test study recruited 64 children with scores of 15th percentile or below using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC. The children were divided equally into an intervention group receiving 8 weeks of gross motor training for core stability, strengthening exercises, balance and coordination with task-specific activities for 30 min per week, while the control group continued with general therapy and activities of daily living. The M-ABC and Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire (DCDQ were used to assess each child before and after 8 weeks.Results: Sixty children completed the study, with 43 males and 17 females (mean age 10.02 years, SD = 2.10. There were no adverse reactions to the programme and M-ABC scores for the intervention programme improved by 6.46%, ball skills (3.54% and balance (4.80% compared with the control (0.17% and (0.15%, respectively. There were significant (p < 0.05 improvements in DCDQ scores, but teachers allocated lower scores than parents.Conclusion: This study supports 8 weeks of gross motor training which can be a beneficial intervention for physiotherapists to improve gross motor function for DCD.Keywords: Developmental, co-ordination, skills, motor

  11. The effect of aquatic intervention on the gross motor function and aquatic skills in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrijević, Lidija; Aleksandrović, Marko; Madić, Dejan; Okičić, Tomislav; Radovanović, Dragan; Daly, Daniel

    2012-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of an aquatic intervention on the gross motor function and aquatic skills of children with cerebral palsy (CP). Twenty-nine children with CP, aged 5 to 14, were recruited. Fourteen children completed an aquatic intervention (EG), and 13 children served as controls (CG). Two participants dropped out due to events (illness) unrelated to the intervention. The aquatic intervention lasted 6 weeks (2 sessions per week at 55 minutes per session) with a follow-up period of 3 weeks. The outcome measures were the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) for motor function and the Water Orientation Test Alyn 2 (WOTA 2) for aquatic skills assessment. A significant improvement was observed in the secondary assessment of GMFM and WOTA 2. In contrast to the aquatic skills improvement, the GMFM change was not maintained at follow-up. Our results indicate that children with CP can improve gross motor function on dry land and aquatic skills with a 6-week water intervention. The intervention period was too short for sustainable improvement in dry-land motor skills after intervention (follow-up), but time was sufficient to achieve sustainable improvements in aquatic skills.

  12. Compositional symbol grounding for motor patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto eGreco

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available We developed a new experimental and simulative paradigm to study the establishing of compositional grounded representations for motor patterns. Participants learned to associate nonsense arm motor patterns, performed in three different hand postures, with nonsense words. There were two group conditions: in the first (compositional, each pattern was associated with a two-word (verb-adverb sentence; in the second (holistic, each same pattern was associated with a unique word. Two experiments were performed. In the first, motor pattern recognition and naming were tested in the two conditions. Results showed that verbal compositionality had no role in recognition and that the main source of confusability in this task came from discriminating hand postures. As the naming task resulted too difficult, some changes in the learning procedure were implemented in the second experiment. In this experiment, the compositional group achieved better results in naming motor patterns especially for patterns where hand postures discrimination was relevant. In order to ascertain the differential effect, upon this result, of memory load and of systematic grounding, neural network simulations were also made. After a basic simulation that worked as a good model of subjects performance, in following simulations the number of stimuli (motor patterns and words was increased and the systematic association between words and patterns was disrupted, while keeping the same number of words and syntax. Results showed that in both conditions the advantage for the compositional condition significantly increased. These simulations showed that the advantage for this condition may be more related to the systematicity rather than to the mere informational gain. All results are discussed in connection to the possible support of the hypothesis of a compositional motor representation and towards a more precise explanation of the factors that make compositional representations working.

  13. Compositional symbol grounding for motor patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Alberto; Caneva, Claudio

    2010-01-01

    We developed a new experimental and simulative paradigm to study the establishing of compositional grounded representations for motor patterns. Participants learned to associate non-sense arm motor patterns, performed in three different hand postures, with non-sense words. There were two group conditions: in the first (compositional), each pattern was associated with a two-word (verb-adverb) sentence; in the second (holistic), each same pattern was associated with a unique word. Two experiments were performed. In the first, motor pattern recognition and naming were tested in the two conditions. Results showed that verbal compositionality had no role in recognition and that the main source of confusability in this task came from discriminating hand postures. As the naming task resulted too difficult, some changes in the learning procedure were implemented in the second experiment. In this experiment, the compositional group achieved better results in naming motor patterns especially for patterns where hand postures discrimination was relevant. In order to ascertain the differential effect, upon this result, of memory load and of systematic grounding, neural network simulations were also made. After a basic simulation that worked as a good model of subjects performance, in following simulations the number of stimuli (motor patterns and words) was increased and the systematic association between words and patterns was disrupted, while keeping the same number of words and syntax. Results showed that in both conditions the advantage for the compositional condition significantly increased. These simulations showed that the advantage for this condition may be more related to the systematicity rather than to the mere informational gain. All results are discussed in connection to the possible support of the hypothesis of a compositional motor representation and toward a more precise explanation of the factors that make compositional representations working.

  14. Content validity and reliability of test of gross motor development in Chilean children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Cano-Cappellacci

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To validate a Spanish version of the Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD-2 for the Chilean population. METHODS Descriptive, transversal, non-experimental validity and reliability study. Four translators, three experts and 92 Chilean children, from five to 10 years, students from a primary school in Santiago, Chile, have participated. The Committee of Experts has carried out translation, back-translation and revision processes to determine the translinguistic equivalence and content validity of the test, using the content validity index in 2013. In addition, a pilot implementation was achieved to determine test reliability in Spanish, by using the intraclass correlation coefficient and Bland-Altman method. We evaluated whether the results presented significant differences by replacing the bat with a racket, using T-test. RESULTS We obtained a content validity index higher than 0.80 for language clarity and relevance of the TGMD-2 for children. There were significant differences in the object control subtest when comparing the results with bat and racket. The intraclass correlation coefficient for reliability inter-rater, intra-rater and test-retest reliability was greater than 0.80 in all cases. CONCLUSIONS The TGMD-2 has appropriate content validity to be applied in the Chilean population. The reliability of this test is within the appropriate parameters and its use could be recommended in this population after the establishment of normative data, setting a further precedent for the validation in other Latin American countries.

  15. Test of gross motor development-2 for Filipino children with intellectual disability: validity and reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capio, Catherine M; Eguia, Kathlynne F; Simons, Johan

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to examine aspects of validity and reliability of the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (TGMD-2) in Filipino children with intellectual disability. Content and construct validity were verified, as well as inter-rater and intra-rater reliability. Two paediatric physiotherapists tested 81 children with intellectual disability (mean age = 9.29 ± 2.71 years) on locomotor and object control skills. Analysis of covariance, confirmatory factor analysis and analysis of variance were used to test validity, while Cronbach's alpha, intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) and Bland-Altman plots were used to examine reliability. Age was a significant predictor of locomotor and object control scores (P = 0.004). The data fit the hypothesised two-factor model with fit indices as follows: χ(2) = 33.525, DF = 34, P = 0.491, χ(2)/DF = 0.986. As hypothesised, gender was a significant predictor for object control skills (P = 0.038). Participants' mean scores were significantly below mastery (locomotor, P children with intellectual disability.

  16. Leveling the Playing Field: Assessment of Gross Motor Skills in Low Socioeconomic Children to their Higher Socioeconomic Counterparts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan M. Adkins

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fundamental movements (FM of children influence the willingness to engage in physical activity (PA. Thus, proper FM skills are the foundation for a lifespan of PA. Objective: This study examined what factors may affect children’s PA in relation to FM pattern capabilities. Methods: The study examined the influence of SES when three low-income schools were provided additional PA opportunities on days PE was not taught. FM patterns in relation to object control (OC and locomotor skill (LC development were evaluated on K (n = 871, 1st (n = 893, and 2nd graders (n = 829 using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (TGMD-2 instrument (Ulrich, 2000. Schools were dichotomized and categorized as being low SES (n = 2008 and high SES (n = 578 status. Results: A significant relationship was revealed with LC (r = 0.264; p = 0.001, OC (r = 0.171; p = 0.001, and total TGMD-2 (r = 0.264; p = 0.001. Low and high SES schools significantly improved overall TGMD-2 scores. High SES schools children were significantly higher in LC [F, (2, 1272 = 29.31, p = 0.001], OC [F, (2, 1272 = 23.14, p = 0.001], and total TGMD-2 [F, (1, 1272 = 38.11, p = 0.001]. Conclusion: Low SES schools need to concentrate on PA-based activities to engage students in FM patterns, to help narrow the gap in FM capabilities. In addition, the increase in PA opportunities for lower SES schools could positively impact brain function, cardiovascular fitness, and overall well-being.

  17. Gross motor function in children with spastic Cerebral Palsy and Cerebral Visual Impairment: A comparison between outcomes of the original and the Cerebral Visual Impairment adapted Gross Motor Function Measure-88 (GMFM-88-CVI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salavati, M; Rameckers, E A A; Waninge, A; Krijnen, W P; Steenbergen, B; van der Schans, C P

    2017-01-01

    To investigate whether the adapted version of the Gross Motor Function Measure-88 (GMFM-88) for children with Cerebral Palsy (CP) and Cerebral Visual Impairment (CVI) results in higher scores. This is most likely to be a reflection of their gross motor function, however it may be the result of a better comprehension of the instruction of the adapted version. The scores of the original and adapted GMFM-88 were compared in the same group of children (n=21 boys and n=16 girls), mean (SD) age 113 (30) months with CP and CVI, within a time span of two weeks. A paediatric physical therapist familiar with the child assessed both tests in random order. The GMFCS level, mental development and age at testing were also collected. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to compare two different measurements (the original and adapted GMFM-88) on a single sample, (the same child with CP and CVI; pvisual problems. On the basis of these findings, we recommend using the adapted GMFM-88 to measure gross motor functioning in children with CP and CVI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Relation between hand function and gross motor function in full term infants aged 4 to 8 months

    OpenAIRE

    Nogueira, Solange F.; Figueiredo,Elyonara M.; Rejane V. Gonçalves; Marisa C. Mancini

    2015-01-01

    Background: In children, reaching emerges around four months of age, which is followed by rapid changes in hand function and concomitant changes in gross motor function, including the acquisition of independent sitting. Although there is a close functional relationship between these domains, to date they have been investigated separately. Objective: To investigate the longitudinal profile of changes and the relationship between the development of hand function (i.e. reaching for and manipulat...

  19. Differences of Respiratory Function According to Level of the Gross Motor Function Classification System in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Kwon, Yong Hyun; Lee, Hye Young

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The current study was designed to investigate the difference in lung capacity and muscle strengthening related to respiration depending on the level of the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) in children with cerebral palsy (CP) through tests of respiratory function and respiratory pressure. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 49 children with CP who were classified as below level III of the GMFCS were recruited for this study. They were divided into three groups (i.e.,...

  20. Effects of recombinant growth hormone replacement and physical rehabilitation in recovery of gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimunde, Pedro; Rodicio, Cristina; López, Natalia; Alonso, Alba; Devesa, Pablo; Devesa, Jesús

    2010-11-30

    Cerebral palsy is an important health issue that has a strong socioeconomic impact. There is no cure for cerebral palsy, and therapeutic approaches only report small benefits for affected people. In this study we assessed the effects of growth hormone treatment (0.3 μg/kg/day) combined with physical rehabilitation in the recovery of gross motor function in children with growth hormone deficiency and cerebral palsy (four males and six females, mean age 5.63 ± 2.32 years) as compared with that observed in a similar population of cerebral palsy children (five males, five females, mean age 5.9 ± 2.18 years) without growth hormone deficiency treated only with physical rehabilitation for two months. The Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM-88) and Modified Ashworth Scale were performed before commencing the treatment and after completion thereof. In children with cerebral palsy and growth hormone deficiency, Dimension A (P gross motor function in children with growth hormone deficiency and cerebral palsy.

  1. Effect of task-oriented training and high-variability practice on gross motor performance and activities of daily living in children with spastic diplegia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kwon, Hae-Yeon; Ahn, So-Yoon

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigates how a task-oriented training and high-variability practice program can affect the gross motor performance and activities of daily living for children with spastic diplegia...

  2. The impact of sensory integration therapy on gross motor function in children after prenatal exposure to alcohol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Wilczyński

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : In Poland there are 900 cases of full-blown foetal alcohol syndrome (FAS in neonates per year, and in 9000 children there are some symptoms of it. Aim of the research : To analyse the impact of sensory integration (SI therapy on gross motor skills function in children after prenatal exposure to alcohol. Material and methods: The study was conducted on a group of 20 children aged 4–5 years with information from an interview about prenatal exposure to alcohol. The diagnosis of sensory integration disorder consisted of two 60-minute diagnostics meetings. Twelve trials with clinical observations were performed by Ayres: finger to nose, cocontraction, prone extension posture, flexed position supine, asymmetrical tonic neck reflex (ATOS, symmetrical tonic neck reflex (STOS, muscle tension, Schilder test, dynamic balance, static balance, gravitational insecurity, and trunk stabilisation. The therapeutic program included: normalisation of the vestibular and proprioceptive system, normalisation of the touch system, strengthening muscle tension, development of motion planning, development of oculomotor performance, development of motor coordination, hand therapy, integration of ATOS, STOS, development of locomotion and balance functions, and improving efficiency of gross and small motor skills. Results and conclusions : High efficiency of SI therapy has been shown in children after prenatal exposure to alcohol on the example of gross motor skills. Positive effects of SI therapy have been shown for tests: finger to nose, in the erect position on the stomach, the flexural position on the back, ATOS, STOS, Schilder test, dynamic balance, static balance, and the uncertainty of gravity and trunk stabilisation. Only cocontraction and muscle tension tests showed no efficacy of SI therapy. The a-Cronbach position analysis showed high reliability of the performed tests both before and after the therapy. It is advisable to continue the study on a

  3. Gross Motor Function Classification System Expanded & Revised (GMFCS E & R: reliability between therapists and parents in Brazil

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    Daniela B. R. Silva

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several studies have demonstrated the importance of using the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS to classify gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy, but the reliability of the expanded and revised version has not been examined in Brazil (GMFCS E & R. OBJECTIVE:: To determine the intra- and inter-rater reliability of the Portuguese-Brazil version of the GMFCS E & R applied by therapists and compare to classification provided by parents of children with cerebral palsy. METHOD: Data were obtained from 90 children with cerebral palsy, aged 4 to 18 years old, attending the neurology or rehabilitation service of a Brazilian hospital. Therapists classified the children's motor function using the GMFCS E & R and parents used the Brazilian Portuguese version of the GMFCS Family Report Questionnaire. Intra- and inter-rater reliability was obtained through percentage agreement and Cohen's unweighted Kappa statistics (k. The Chi-square test was used to identify significant differences in the classification of parents and therapists. RESULTS: Almost perfect agreement was reached between the therapists [K=0.90 (95% confidence interval 0.83-0.97] and intra-raters (therapists with K=1.00 [95% confidence interval (1.00-1.00], p<0.001. Agreement between therapists and parents was substantial (k=0.716, confidence interval 0.596-0.836, though parents classify gross motor impairment more severely than therapists (p=0.04. CONCLUSIONS: The Portuguese version of the GMFCS E & R is reliable for use by parents and therapists. Parents tend to classify their children's limitations more severely, because they know their performance in different environments.

  4. Development and Pilot Testing of the Challenge Module: A Proposed Adjunct to the Gross Motor Function Measure for High-Functioning Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Ashlea; Kavanaugh, Abi; Moher, Rosemarie; McInroy, Megan; Gupta, Neena; Salbach, Nancy M.; Wright, F. Virginia

    2011-01-01

    The aim was to develop a Challenge Module (CM) as a proposed adjunct to the Gross Motor Function Measure for children with cerebral palsy who have high-level motor function. Items were generated in a physiotherapist (PT) focus group. Item reduction was based on PTs' ratings of item importance and safety via online surveys. The proposed CM items…

  5. Effect of strength training of ankle plantarflexors on selective voluntary motor control, gait parameters, and gross motor function of children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jee Woon; Her, Jin Gang; Ko, Jooyeon

    2013-10-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of ankle plantarflexor strength training on selective voluntary motor control, gait parameters, and gross motor function of children with cerebral palsy (CP), focusing on changes in the strength and muscle activity of the ankle plantarflexors. [Methods] Six children aged between 4 and 10 years with CP participated in a 6 week strengthening program. The subjects were evaluated before and after the intervention in terms of ankle plantarflexor strength, muscle activity, gait velocity, cadence, step length, and D (standing) and E (walking, running, and jumping) dimensions of the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM). The data were analyzed using the non-parametric Wilcoxon signed-rank test. [Results] The strength of the plantarflexors increased in the majority of subjects. Significant and clinically meaningful post-intervention improvements in subject's gait velocity, cadence, and step length were found. [Conclusion] The controlled ankle plantarflexor strengthening program may lead to improvements in strength and spatiotemporal gait parameters of children with CP.

  6. Infants with Down Syndrome: Percentage and Age for Acquisition of Gross Motor Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Karina; Basso, Renata Pedrolongo; Lindquist, Ana Raquel Rodrigues; da Silva, Louise Gracelli Pereira; Tudella, Eloisa

    2013-01-01

    The literature is bereft of information about the age at which infants with Down syndrome (DS) acquire motor skills and the percentage of infants that do so by the age of 12 months. Therefore, it is necessary to identify the difference in age, in relation to typical infants, at which motor skills were acquired and the percentage of infants with DS…

  7. Development and Initial Validation of the Preschooler Gross Motor Quality Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shih-Heng; Zhu, Yi-Ching; Shih, Ching-Lin; Lin, Chien-Hui; Wu, Sheng K.

    2010-01-01

    Motor skills have great impact on children in adapting to an environment and developing interpersonal interaction, cognition, and social behavior. Understanding what children can do and how they perform it is essential. Most motor tests seldom contain quality evaluation in the items or criteria. The purpose of this study was to develop and…

  8. Development of the Correspondence between Real and Imagined Fine and Gross Motor Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachet, Alison B.; Frey, Scott H.; Jacobs, Stéphane; Taylor, Marjorie

    2016-01-01

    The development of the correspondence between real and imagined motor actions was investigated in 2 experiments. Experiment 1 evaluated whether children imagine body position judgments of fine motor actions in the same way as they perform them. Thirty-two 8-year-old children completed a task in which an object was presented in different…

  9. Handwriting Error Patterns of Children with Mild Motor Difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloy-Miller, Theresa; And Others

    1995-01-01

    A test of handwriting legibility and 6 perceptual-motor tests were completed by 66 children ages 7-12. Among handwriting error patterns, execution was associated with visual-motor skill and sensory discrimination, aiming with visual-motor and fine-motor skills. The visual-spatial factor had no significant association with perceptual-motor…

  10. COMPARISON BETWEEN THE EFFECT OF NEURODEVELOPMENTAL TREATMENT AND SENSORY INTEGRATION THERAPY ON GROSS MOTOR FUNCTION IN CHILDREN WITH CEREBRAL PALSY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza SHAMSODDINI

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveThis study was planned to compare the effects of neurodevelopmental treatment and sensory integration therapy on gross motor function in children with cerebral palsyMaterials & MethodsTwenty two children with spastic CP were randomly divided into two groups. Sensory integrative therapy was given to the first group (n=11, and neurodevelopmental treatment was given to the second group (n=11. All children were evaluated with GMFM-88. Treatment was scheduled for three - one hour sessions per week for 3 months.ResultsTwenty two children with spastic CP (11 diplegia and 11 quadriplegia participated in this study. When two groups were compared, a significant difference was found in lying and rolling (P=0.003, sitting (0.009, crawling and kneeling (0.02 and standing ability (P=0.04. But there was no significant difference in walking, running, and jumping abilities between the two groups (0.417. Paired t-tests revealed a significant difference between pre and post test results, with increases in scores of lying and rolling, sitting, crawling and kneeling, standing in sensory integration therapy (SIT and neurodevelopmental treatment (NDT approaches.Conclusion Neurodevelopmental treatment and sensory integration therapy improved gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy in four dimensions (lying and rolling, sitting, crawling and kneeling, standing. However, walking, running and jumping did not significantly improve.

  11. Avaliação do desempenho motor global e em habilidades motoras axiais e apendiculares de lactentes frequentadores de creche Assessment of global motor performance and gross and fine motor skills of infants attending day care centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina T Souza

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar o desempenho motor global em habilidades motoras axiais e apendiculares de lactentes que frequentavam, em tempo integral, duas Escolas Municipais de Educação Infantil. MÉTODOS: Estudo longitudinal do qual participaram 30 lactentes avaliados aos 12 e 17 meses de vida com a escala motora das Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development-III, que possibilita a análise do desempenho motor global, apendicular e axial e a discrepância entre eles. Utilizaram-se o teste de Wilcoxon e o Coeficiente de Correlação de Spearman. RESULTADOS: A maioria dos participantes apresentou desempenho motor global dentro dos limites de normalidade, porém abaixo da média de referência aos 12 e 17 meses, com 30% classificados como suspeitos de atraso em pelo menos uma das avaliações. O desempenho motor axial foi inferior ao apendicular aos 12 e aos 17 meses, com grande discrepância entre eles especialmente na 2ª avaliação. Observou-se marcada variabilidade individual nas habilidades motoras apendiculares, com fraca correlação linear no desempenho entre a 1ª e a 2ª avaliações nesse domínio. Nas habilidades axiais e no desempenho motor global, encontrou-se menor variabilidade individual, com correlações moderadas e positivas entre a 1ª e a 2ª avaliações. Identificaram-se quatro lactentes com suspeita de atraso no desenvolvimento motor em ambas as avaliações. CONCLUSÕES: O estudo aponta necessidade de maior atenção ao desenvolvimento motor durante os primeiros 17 meses de crianças que frequentam creches, com especial vigilância à motricidade axial (considerando que ela é parte integrante do desenvolvimento global da criança e às crianças com desempenho suspeito de atraso em duas avaliações consecutivas.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the global motor performance and the gross and fine motor skills of infants attending two public child care centers full-time. METHODS: This was a longitudinal study that included 30 infants

  12. Structural Equation Modeling of Motor Impairment, Gross Motor Function, and the Functional Outcome in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun-Young; Kim, Won-Ho

    2013-01-01

    Physical therapy intervention for children with cerebral palsy (CP) is focused on reducing neurological impairments, improving strength, and preventing the development of secondary impairments in order to improve functional outcomes. However, relationship between motor impairments and functional outcome has not been proved definitely. This study…

  13. Reliability and validity of the test of gross motor development-II in Korean preschool children: applying AHP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chung-Il; Han, Dong-Wook; Park, Il-Hyeok

    2014-04-01

    The Test of Gross Motor Development-II (TGMD-II) is a frequently used assessment tool for measuring motor ability. The purpose of this study is to investigate the reliability and validity of TGMD-II's weighting scores (by comparing pre-weighted TGMD-II scores with post ones) as well as examine applicability of the TGMD-II on Korean preschool children. A total of 121 Korean children (three kindergartens) participated in this study. There were 65 preschoolers who were 5-years-old (37 boys and 28 girls) and 56 preschoolers who were 6-years-old (34 boys and 22 girls). For internal consistency, reliability, and construct validity, only one researcher evaluated all of the children using the TGMD-II in the following areas: running; galloping; sliding; hopping; leaping; horizontal jumping; overhand throwing; underhand rolling; striking a stationary ball; stationary dribbling; kicking; and catching. For concurrent validity, the evaluator measured physical fitness (strength, flexibility, power, agility, endurance, and balance). The key findings were as follows: first, the reliability coefficient and the validity coefficient between pre-weighted and post-weighted TGMD-II scores were quite similar. Second, the research showed adequate reliability and validity of the TGMD-II for Korean preschool children. The TGMD-II is a proper instrument to test Korean children's motor development. Yet, applying relative weighting on the TGMD-II should be a point of consideration.

  14. Effects of Individual and School-Level Characteristics on a Child’s Gross Motor Coordination Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Chaves

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify child and school-level characteristics that explained inter-individual differences in gross motor coordination (GMC. Participants (n = 390, recruited from 18 Portuguese primary schools, were aged 6 to 10 years of age. Birth weight, body fat (BF, physical activity (PA, physical fitness (PF and GMC were assessed. School size, setting, infrastructure and physical education classes were considered as school context markers. A multilevel modeling approach was used to identify hierarchical effects (child and school levels. It was found that children-level variables (sex, PF, and BF significantly explained 63% of the 90% variance fraction at the individual level; boys outperformed girls (p < 0.05, individuals with higher BF were less coordinated (p < 0.05, and those with higher PF were more coordinated (p < 0.05. School-variables (e.g. school size and playing surface explained 84% of the 10% variation fraction. These findings confirm the roles of sex, PFS and BF. Interestingly they also suggest that the school environment plays a minor but significant role in GMC development. However, it is important to stress that the school context and conditions can also play an important role in a child’s motor development, providing adequate and enriching motor opportunities.

  15. Effects of Individual and School-Level Characteristics on a Child’s Gross Motor Coordination Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Raquel; Baxter-Jones, Adam; Gomes, Thayse; Souza, Michele; Pereira, Sara; Maia, José

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify child and school-level characteristics that explained inter-individual differences in gross motor coordination (GMC). Participants (n = 390), recruited from 18 Portuguese primary schools, were aged 6 to 10 years of age. Birth weight, body fat (BF), physical activity (PA), physical fitness (PF) and GMC were assessed. School size, setting, infrastructure and physical education classes were considered as school context markers. A multilevel modeling approach was used to identify hierarchical effects (child and school levels). It was found that children-level variables (sex, PF, and BF) significantly explained 63% of the 90% variance fraction at the individual level; boys outperformed girls (p < 0.05), individuals with higher BF were less coordinated (p < 0.05), and those with higher PF were more coordinated (p < 0.05). School-variables (e.g. school size and playing surface) explained 84% of the 10% variation fraction. These findings confirm the roles of sex, PFS and BF. Interestingly they also suggest that the school environment plays a minor but significant role in GMC development. However, it is important to stress that the school context and conditions can also play an important role in a child’s motor development, providing adequate and enriching motor opportunities. PMID:26264007

  16. Maternal medical conditions during pregnancy and gross motor development up to age 24 months in the Upstate KIDS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghassabian, Akhgar; Sundaram, Rajeshwari; Wylie, Amanda; Bell, Erin; Bello, Scott C; Yeung, Edwina

    2016-07-01

    We examined whether children of mothers with a medical condition diagnosed before or during pregnancy took longer to achieve gross motor milestones up to age 24 months. We obtained information on medical conditions using self-reports, birth certificates, and hospital records in 4909 mothers participating in Upstate KIDS, a population-based birth cohort. Mothers reported on their children's motor milestone achievement at 4, 8, 12, 18, and 24 months of age. After adjustment for covariates (including pre-pregnancy body mass index), children of mothers with gestational diabetes took longer to achieve sitting without support (hazard ratio [HR]=0.84, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.75-0.93), walking with assistance (HR=0.88, 95% CI 0.77-0.98), and walking alone (HR=0.88, 95% CI 0.77-0.99) than children of females with no gestational diabetes. Similar findings emerged for maternal diabetes. Gestational hypertension was associated with a longer time to achieve walking with assistance. These associations did not change after adjustment for gestational age or birthweight. Severe hypertensive disorders of pregnancy were related to a longer time to achieve milestones, but not after adjustment for perinatal factors. Children exposed to maternal diabetes, gestational or pre-gestational, may take longer to achieve motor milestones than non-exposed children, independent of maternal obesity. © 2015 Mac Keith Press.

  17. Stability of Caregiver-Reported Manual Ability and Gross Motor Function Classifications of Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imms, Christine; Carlin, John; Eliasson, Ann-Christin

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To examine the stability of caregiver-reported classifications of function of children with cerebral palsy (CP) measured 12 months apart. Method: Participants were 86 children (50 males, 36 females) with CP of all motor types and severities who were recruited into a population-based longitudinal study. Children were aged 11 years 8 months (SD…

  18. Hippocampal EEG and behaviour in dog. I. Hippocampal EEG correlates of gross motor behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnolds, D.E.A.T.; Lopes da Silva, F.H.; Aitink, J.W.; Kamp, A.

    It was shown that rewarding spectral shifts (i.e. increase in amplitude or peak frequency of the hippocampal EEG) causes a solitary dog to show increased motor behaviour. Rewarded spectral shifts concurred with a variety of behavioural transitions. It was found that statistically significant

  19. Risk Factors for Gross Motor Dysfunction in Infants with Congenital Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Suzanne H.; Eldridge, Bev J.; Galea, Mary P.; Harris, Susan R.

    2011-01-01

    Infants with congenital heart disease (CHD) that is severe enough to require early surgery are at risk for cognitive and motor delays, as well as musculoskeletal impairments, and are best managed by an interdisciplinary team during their hospital stay and after discharge. The purpose of this article is to review some of the risk factors associated…

  20. Risk Factors for Gross Motor Dysfunction in Infants with Congenital Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Suzanne H.; Eldridge, Bev J.; Galea, Mary P.; Harris, Susan R.

    2011-01-01

    Infants with congenital heart disease (CHD) that is severe enough to require early surgery are at risk for cognitive and motor delays, as well as musculoskeletal impairments, and are best managed by an interdisciplinary team during their hospital stay and after discharge. The purpose of this article is to review some of the risk factors associated…

  1. Prenatal Second-Hand Smoke Exposure Measured with Urine Cotinine May Reduce Gross Motor Development at 18 Months of Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evlampidou, Iro; Bagkeris, Manolis; Vardavas, Constantine; Koutra, Katerina; Patelarou, Evridiki; Koutis, Antonis; Chatzi, Leda; Kogevinas, Manolis

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the association of second-hand smoke exposure of pregnant mothers using urine cotinine with the neurodevelopment of their children at 18 months of age in the mother-child cohort in Crete (Rhea Study). Selected participants were Greek mothers with singleton pregnancies, had never smoked, and had available urine cotinine measurements in pregnancy, and their children for whom a neurodevelopmental assessment was completed. We performed face-to-face interviews twice during pregnancy and postnatally, and assessed children's neurodevelopment at 18 months of age using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition. We used linear regression and generalized additive models. Of 599 mothers, 175 (29%) met the inclusion criteria. Maternal urine cotinine levels were low (mean: 10.3 ng/mL, SD: 11.7 ng/mL). Reported passive smoking from different sources was strongly associated with urine cotinine levels. A negative association was observed between cotinine levels in pregnancy and child's gross motor function (beta = -3.22 per 10 ng/mL, 95% CI -5.09 to -1.34) after adjusting for factors potentially associated with neurodevelopment; results were similar in both sexes. A negative association was also observed for cognitive and receptive communication scales but the effect was small and not statistically significant. Maternal exposure during pregnancy to second-hand smoke measured through urine cotinine was associated with a decrease in gross motor function among 18-month-old children, even at low levels of exposure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Reliability of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the Gross Motor Function Measure in children with cerebral palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Kênnea M.; Albuquerque, Karolina A.; Ferreira, Marina L.; Aguiar, Stéphany K. B.; Mancini, Marisa C.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test the intra- and interrater reliability of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the 66-item Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM-66). METHOD: The sample included 48 children with cerebral palsy (CP), ranging from 2-17 years old, classified at levels I to IV of the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) and four child rehabilitation examiners. A main examiner evaluated all children using the GMFM-66 and video-recorded the assessments. The other examiners watched the video recordings and scored them independently for the assessment of interrater reliability. For the intrarater reliability evaluation, the main examiner watched the video recordings one month after the evaluation and re-scored each child. We calculated reliability by using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) with their respective 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: Excellent test reliability was documented. The intrarater reliability of the total sample was ICC=0.99 (95% CI 0.98-0.99), and the interrater reliability was ICC=0.97 (95% CI 0.95-0.98). The reliability across GMFCS levels ranged from ICC=0.92 (95% CI 0.72-0.98) to ICC=0.99 (95% CI 0.99-0.99); the lowest value was the interrater reliability for the GMFCS IV group. Reliability in the five GMFM dimensions varied from ICC=0.95 (95% CI 0.93-0.97) to ICC=0.99 (95% CI 0.99-0.99). CONCLUSION: The Brazilian Portuguese version of the GMFM-66 showed excellent intra- and interrater reliability when used in Brazilian children with CP levels GMFCS I to IV. PMID:26786081

  3. Reliability of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the Gross Motor Function Measure in children with cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kênnea M. Almeida

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To test the intra- and interrater reliability of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the 66-item Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM-66. METHOD: The sample included 48 children with cerebral palsy (CP, ranging from 2-17 years old, classified at levels I to IV of the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS and four child rehabilitation examiners. A main examiner evaluated all children using the GMFM-66 and video-recorded the assessments. The other examiners watched the video recordings and scored them independently for the assessment of interrater reliability. For the intrarater reliability evaluation, the main examiner watched the video recordings one month after the evaluation and re-scored each child. We calculated reliability by using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC with their respective 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: Excellent test reliability was documented. The intrarater reliability of the total sample was ICC=0.99 (95% CI 0.98-0.99, and the interrater reliability was ICC=0.97 (95% CI 0.95-0.98. The reliability across GMFCS levels ranged from ICC=0.92 (95% CI 0.72-0.98 to ICC=0.99 (95% CI 0.99-0.99; the lowest value was the interrater reliability for the GMFCS IV group. Reliability in the five GMFM dimensions varied from ICC=0.95 (95% CI 0.93-0.97 to ICC=0.99 (95% CI 0.99-0.99. CONCLUSION: The Brazilian Portuguese version of the GMFM-66 showed excellent intra- and interrater reliability when used in Brazilian children with CP levels GMFCS I to IV.

  4. Early onset of forced impaired forelimb use causes recovery of forelimb skilled motor function but no effect on gross sensory-motor function after capsular hemorrhage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Akimasa; Tamakoshi, Keigo; Hamakawa, Michiru; Shimada, Haruka; Nakashima, Hiroki; Masuda, Tadashi; Hida, Hideki; Ishida, Kazuto

    2011-11-20

    Intensive use of the impaired forelimb promotes behavioral recovery and induces plastic changes of the central nervous system after stroke. However, the optimal onset of intensive use treatment after stroke is controversial. In this study, we investigated whether early forced impaired limb use (FLU) initiated 24h after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) of the internal capsule affected behavioral recovery and histological damage. Rats were subjected to ICH via low-dose collagenase infusion or sham stroke. One day after surgery, the ipsilateral forelimbs of half of the ICH and sham rats were casted for a week to induce the use of their contralateral forelimbs. Behavioral assessments were performed on days 10-12 and 26-28 after the surgery and followed by histological assessments. Improvements in skilled reaching and coordinated stepping function were found in the FLU-treated group in comparison with the untreated group after ICH. Additionally, FLU-treated ICH animals showed more normal and precise reaching and stepping movements as compared with ICH control animals. In contrast, FLU did not have a significant impact on gross sensory-motor functions such as the motor deficit score, contact placing response and spontaneous usage of the impaired paw. The volume of tissue lost and the number of spared corticospinal neurons in lesioned motor cortex were not affected by early FLU after ICH. These findings demonstrate the efficacy of early focused use of an impaired limb after internal capsule hemorrhage.

  5. Caregiver-reported health-related quality of life of children with cerebral palsy and their families and its association with gross motor function: A South Indian study

    OpenAIRE

    Surender, S.; Gowda, Vykuntaraju K; Sanjay, K. S.; G V Basavaraja; Naveen Benakappa; Asha Benakappa

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: In children, health-related quality of life (HRQOL) includes parental impact and family functioning along with concepts of illness, functional status, mental health, and comfort. We are focusing on the impact of cerebral palsy (CP) on children's HRQOL and their families, and its relationship with gross motor dysfunction. Subjects and Methods: CP children aged 3–10 years under regular neurology follow-up were enrolled. The HRQOL and motor severity were prospectively assessed usin...

  6. Associations between fine and gross motor skills, aerobic fitness, cognition and academic performance in 7-8 years old Danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Rune Rasmussen; Beck, Mikkel Malling; Geertsen, Svend Sparre

    Purpose: The current literature is concentrated around the positive effects of aerobic fitness (AF) on performance in cognitive tests (CP) and academic performance (AP) (reviewed in Hillman 2008). However, motor skills (MS) are often overlooked in this equation, and studies evaluating both AF......, phonological working-memory capacity (PWM), spatial working-memory capacity (SWM), math performance (MP) and fine- and gross-motor skill (FMS & GMS) assessed. Results: Significant associations were found between FMS and MP (P

  7. Differences of respiratory function according to level of the gross motor function classification system in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Yong Hyun; Lee, Hye Young

    2014-03-01

    [Purpose] The current study was designed to investigate the difference in lung capacity and muscle strengthening related to respiration depending on the level of the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) in children with cerebral palsy (CP) through tests of respiratory function and respiratory pressure. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 49 children with CP who were classified as below level III of the GMFCS were recruited for this study. They were divided into three groups (i.e., GMFCS level I, GMFCS level II, and GMFCS level III). All children took the pulmonary function test (PFT) and underwent respiratory pressure testing for assessment of respiratory function in terms of lung capacity and respiratory muscle strength. [Results] The GMFCS level III group showed significantly lower scores for all tests of the PFT (i.e., forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume at one second (FEV1), and slow vital capacity (SVC)) and testing for respiratory pressures (maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP) and maximal expiratory pressure (MEP)) compared with the other two groups. The results of post hoc analysis indicated that the GMFCS level III group differed significantly from the other two groups in terms of FVC, FEV1, MIP, and MEP. In addition, a significant difference in SVC was observed between GMFCS level II and III. [Conclusion] Children with CP who had relatively low motor function showed poor pulmonary capacity and respiratory muscle weakness. Therefore, clinical manifestations regarding lung capacity and respiratory muscle will be required in children with CP who demonstrate poor physical activity.

  8. Quality of life in mothers of children with cerebral palsy: The role of children's gross motor function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghan, Leila; Dalvand, Hamid; Feizi, Awat; Samadi, Sayyed Ali; Hosseini, Seyed Ali

    2016-03-01

    Four hundred and twenty-four Iranian mothers of children with cerebral palsy (CP) were recruited using the convenience sampling approach in a cross-sectional study. The researchers assessed the quality of life (QOL) in mothers according to the gross motor function levels and types of CP. The evaluation was done using a well-validated Persian version of the 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) questionnaire. In 2012, demographic data and clinical relevant information were also collected in rehabilitation clinics affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences. The results indicated that the mean score for the study sample on physical component summary (PCS) and mental component summary (MCS) was 39.21 and 41.23, respectively. This suggests that participants considered themselves to have a low QOL (p motor function, and CP types (p < .05 and p < .01, respectively). The results indicate that mothers of children with CP suffer from poor physical and mental health. Therefore, particular attention should be paid to the QOL in mothers of children with CP, and rehabilitation professionals should offer supportive strategies to promote aspects of their QOL.

  9. Comparing children with and without dyslexia on the Movement Assessment Battery for Children and the Test of Gross Motor Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getchell, Nancy; Pabreja, Priya; Neeld, Kevin; Carrio, Victor

    2007-08-01

    Dyslexia is the most commonly occurring learning disability in the United States, characterized by difficulties with word recognition, spelling, and decoding. A growing body of literature suggests that deficits in motor skill performance exist in the dyslexic population. This study compared the performance of children with and without dyslexia on different subtests of the Test of Gross Motor Development and Movement Assessment Battery for Children and assessed whether there were developmental changes in the scores of the dyslexic group. Participants included 26 dyslexic children (19 boys and 7 girls; 9.5 yr. old, SD = 1.7) and 23 age- and sex-matched typically developing (17 boys and 6 girls; 9.9 yr. old, SD = 1.3) children as a control group. Mann-Whitney U tests indicated that the dyslexic group performed significantly lower than the control group only on the Total Balance subtest of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children. Additionally, the young dyslexic group performed significantly better on the Total Balance subtest, compared to the older dyslexic group. These results suggest that cerebellar dysfunction may account for differences in performance.

  10. Reliability of a Shuttle Run Test for Children with Cerebral Palsy Who Are Classified at Gross Motor Function Classification System Level III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verschuren, Olaf; Bosma, Liesbeth; Takken, Tim

    2011-01-01

    For children and adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP) classified as Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) level III there is no running-based field test available to assess their cardiorespiratory fitness. The current study investigated whether a shuttle run test can be reliably (test-retest) performed in a group of children with…

  11. Inter-Relationships of Functional Status in Cerebral Palsy: Analyzing Gross Motor Function, Manual Ability, and Communication Function Classification Systems in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidecker, Mary Jo Cooley; Ho, Nhan Thi; Dodge, Nancy; Hurvitz, Edward A.; Slaughter, Jaime; Workinger, Marilyn Seif; Kent, Ray D.; Rosenbaum, Peter; Lenski, Madeleine; Messaros, Bridget M.; Vanderbeek, Suzette B.; Deroos, Steven; Paneth, Nigel

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the relationships among the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS), Manual Ability Classification System (MACS), and Communication Function Classification System (CFCS) in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Method: Using questionnaires describing each scale, mothers reported GMFCS, MACS, and CFCS levels in 222…

  12. Gross motor function, functional skills and caregiver assistance in children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP) with and without cerebral visual impairment (CVI)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salavati, M.; Rameckers, E.A.A.; Steenbergen, B.; Schans, C.P. van der

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To determine whether the level of gross motor function and functional skills in children with cerebral palsy (CP) and cerebral visual impairment (CVI) as well as caregiver assistance are lower in comparison with the corresponding group of children experiencing CP without CVI. Method: Data aggre

  13. Differences in Gross Motor Achievements among Children of Four to Five Years of Age in Private and Public Institutions in Prishtine, Kosovo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shala, Merita; Bahtiri, Abedin

    2011-01-01

    This study was undertaken in order to examine differences in gross motor achievements among children of four to five years of age as the result of the development of physical education programmes offered by private and public institutions in Kosovo. Research was focused on 118 children, out of which 61 (27 girls, 34 boys) were from the public…

  14. The Effect of Picture Task Cards on Performance of the Test of Gross Motor Development by Preschool-Aged Children: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslin, Casey M.; Robinson, Leah E.; Rudisill, Mary E.

    2013-01-01

    Performance on the Test of Gross Motor Development (Second Edition; TGMD-2) by children with autism spectrum disorders improves when picture task cards were implemented into the assessment protocol [Breslin, C.M., & Rudisill, M.E. (2011). "The effect of visual supports on performance of the TGMD-2 for children with autism spectrum…

  15. Effects of concentric and eccentric control exercise on gross motor function and balance ability of paretic leg in children with spastic hemiplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Su-Ik; Kim, Mi-Sun; Choi, Jong-Duk

    2016-07-01

    [Purpose] This study examines the effect of concentric and eccentric control training of the paretic leg on balance and gross motor function in children with spastic hemiplegia. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty children with spastic hemiplegia were randomly divided into experimental and control groups. In the experimental group, 20 min of neurodevelopmental therapy and 20 min of concentric and eccentric control exercise were applied to the paretic leg. In the control group, 40 min of neurodevelopmental therapy was applied. The Pediatric Balance Scale test and standing and gait items of the Gross Motor Function Measure were evaluated before and after intervention. [Results] In the experimental group, Gross Motor Function Measure and Pediatric Balance Scale scores statistically significantly increased after the intervention. The control group showed no statistically significant difference in either score after the intervention. [Conclusion] Concentric and eccentric control exercise therapy in children with spastic hemiplegia can be effective in improving gross motor function and balance ability, and can be used to solve functional problems in a paretic leg.

  16. The Use of Music to Increase Task-Oriented Behaviors in Preschool Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders in a Gross Motor Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieringer, Shannon M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of music and music + instruction on task-oriented behaviors in preschool children with ASD within individual gross motor movement settings. Five preschool children (four boys; one girl) diagnosed with ASD attending a Midwestern private preschool for children with ASD served as participants. The…

  17. The Effect of Picture Task Cards on Performance of the Test of Gross Motor Development by Preschool-Aged Children: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslin, Casey M.; Robinson, Leah E.; Rudisill, Mary E.

    2013-01-01

    Performance on the Test of Gross Motor Development (Second Edition; TGMD-2) by children with autism spectrum disorders improves when picture task cards were implemented into the assessment protocol [Breslin, C.M., & Rudisill, M.E. (2011). "The effect of visual supports on performance of the TGMD-2 for children with autism spectrum disorder."…

  18. Gross motor function, functional skills and caregiver assistance in children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP) with and without cerebral visual impairment (CVI)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salavati, M.; Rameckers, E.A.A.; Steenbergen, B.; Schans, C.P. van der

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To determine whether the level of gross motor function and functional skills in children with cerebral palsy (CP) and cerebral visual impairment (CVI) as well as caregiver assistance are lower in comparison with the corresponding group of children experiencing CP without CVI. Method: Data

  19. Can a six-week exercise intervention improve gross motor function for non-ambulant children with cerebral palsy? A pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Elizabeth; Pountney, Terry; Williams, Heather; Edelman, Natalie

    2013-02-01

    To determine the effect of a six-week exercise intervention on gross motor function for non-ambulant children with cerebral palsy. A parallel arm randomized controlled trial. Four special schools. Thirty-five children aged 8-17 with bilateral cerebral palsy; Gross Motor Function Classification System levels IV-V. Participants were randomly allocated to a static bike group, a treadmill group or control group. Participants in the bike and treadmill groups received exercise training sessions, three times weekly for six weeks. The control group received their usual care. Blinded assessments were performed at baseline and six weeks and followed up at 12 and 18 weeks. Gross Motor Function Measures GMFM-66, GMFM-88D and GMFM-88E. At six weeks significant differences were found in GMFM-88D scores between the bike group and the control group, and the treadmill group and the control group (P exercise groups. The improvements observed declined during the follow-up period. This study provides preliminary evidence that exercising on a bike or treadmill may provide short-term improvements in gross motor function for non-ambulant children with cerebral palsy. This needs to be tested in a large-scale randomized trial.

  20. A Multivariate Model of Determinants of Change in Gross-Motor Abilities and Engagement in Self-Care and Play of Young Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarello, Lisa A.; Palisano, Robert J.; Bartlett, Doreen J.; McCoy, Sarah Westcott

    2011-01-01

    A multivariate model of determinants of change in gross-motor ability and engagement in self-care and play provides physical and occupational therapists a framework for decisions on interventions and supports for young children with cerebral palsy and their families. Aspects of the child, family ecology, and rehabilitation and community services…

  1. A Multivariate Model of Determinants of Change in Gross-Motor Abilities and Engagement in Self-Care and Play of Young Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarello, Lisa A.; Palisano, Robert J.; Bartlett, Doreen J.; McCoy, Sarah Westcott

    2011-01-01

    A multivariate model of determinants of change in gross-motor ability and engagement in self-care and play provides physical and occupational therapists a framework for decisions on interventions and supports for young children with cerebral palsy and their families. Aspects of the child, family ecology, and rehabilitation and community services…

  2. The effect of training in an interactive dynamic stander on ankle dorsiflexion and gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Curtis, Derek John; Bencke, Jesper; Mygind, Bente

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of active stretching of ankle plantarflexors using an interactive dynamic stander in children with cerebral palsy (CP). METHODS: Six children in Gross Motor Function Classification System classes I-III, aged 4-10 years, trained intensive active dorsiflexion...

  3. Fine and Gross Motor Task Performance When Using Computer-Based Video Models by Students with Autism and Moderate Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechling, Linda C.; Swindle, Catherine O.

    2013-01-01

    This investigation examined the effects of video modeling on the fine and gross motor task performance by three students with a diagnosis of moderate intellectual disability (Group 1) and by three students with a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (Group 2). Using a multiple probe design across three sets of tasks, the study examined the…

  4. Reliability of the modified Gross Motor Function Measure-88 (GMFM-88) for children with both Spastic Cerebral Palsy and Cerebral Visual Impairment : A preliminary study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salavati, M.; Krijnen, W. P.; Rameckers, E. A. A.; Looijestijn, P. L.; Maathuis, C. G. B.; van der Schans, C. P.; Steenbergen, B.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The aims of this study were to adapt the Gross Motor Function Measure-88 (GMFM-88) for children with Cerebral Palsy (CP) and Cerebral Visual Impairment (CVI) and to determine the test-retest and interobserver reliability of the adapted version. Method: Sixteen paediatric physical therapists

  5. Exploring the Relationship between Participation in a Structured Sports Program and Development of Gross Motor Skills in Children Ages 3 to 6 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahagirdar, Ishanee; Venditti, Laura Anne; Duncan, Andrea; Reed, Nick; Fleming, Sean

    2017-01-01

    This study looked at the relationship between participation in a structured sports program and gross-motor-skills development in children aged 3 to 6 years. Twenty-seven children participated in the study, with 16 children receiving an eight-week sports program intervention. Children were assessed at pre- and postintervention using a modified…

  6. Localization of Motor Neurons and Central Pattern Generators for Motor Patterns Underlying Feeding Behavior in Drosophila Larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Sebastian Hückesfeld; Andreas Schoofs; Philipp Schlegel; Anton Miroschnikow; Pankratz, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Motor systems can be functionally organized into effector organs (muscles and glands), the motor neurons, central pattern generators (CPG) and higher control centers of the brain. Using genetic and electrophysiological methods, we have begun to deconstruct the motor system driving Drosophila larval feeding behavior into its component parts. In this paper, we identify distinct clusters of motor neurons that execute head tilting, mouth hook movements, and pharyngeal pumping during larval feedin...

  7. Association between gross motor function and postural control in sitting in children with Cerebral Palsy: a correlational study in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero Mendoza, Sergio; Gómez-Conesa, Antonia; Hidalgo Montesinos, María Dolores

    2015-09-16

    Cerebral palsy (CP) is one of the causes of physical disability in children. Sitting abilities can be described using the Level of Sitting Scale (LSS) and the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS). There is growing interest in the sitting posture of children with CP owing to a stable sitting position allows for the development of eye-hand coordination, functions of the upper extremities and functional skills. Besides, in recent years researchers have tried to develop a new terminology to classify the CP as performed by the Surveillance of Cerebral Palsy in Europe (SCPE), in order to improve the monitoring of the frequency of the PC, providing a framework for research and service planning. The aim of this study was to analyse the relationship between GMFCS and LSS. The second purpose was to describe how the SCPE relates to sitting abilities with the GMFCS and LSS. The study involved 139 children with CP (range 3-18 years) from 24 educational centres. Age, gender, CP classification according to SCPE, GMFCS and LSS levels were recorded by an experienced physiotherapist. A significant inverse relationship between GMFCS and LSS score levels was found (rs = -0.86, p = 0.00). 45.3% of the children capable of leaning in any direction and of re-erecting the trunk (level VIII on the LSS) could walk without limitation (level I on the GMFCS). There were differences in the distribution of the GMFCS (χ(2)(4):50.78) and LSS (χ(2)(7): 37.15) levels and CP according to the distribution of the spasticity (p correlation between both scales and a relation between sitting ability and the capacity to walk with or without technical devices. GMFCS and the LSS are useful tools for describing the functional abilities and limitations of children with CP, specially sitting and mobility. Classification based on the distribution of spasticity and the gross motor function provides clinical information on the prognosis and development of children with CP.

  8. Longitudinal cohort protocol study of oropharyngeal dysphagia: relationships to gross motor attainment, growth and nutritional status in preschool children with cerebral palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benfer, Katherine A; Weir, Kelly A; Bell, Kristie L; Ware, Robert S; Davies, Peter S W; Boyd, Roslyn N

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The prevalence of oropharyngeal dysphagia (OPD) in children with cerebral palsy (CP) is estimated to be between 19% and 99%. OPD can impact on children's growth, nutrition and overall health. Despite the growing recognition of the extent and significance of health issues relating to OPD in children with CP, lack of knowledge of its profile in this subpopulation remains. This study aims to investigate the relationship between OPD, attainment of gross motor skills, growth and nutritional status in young children with CP at and between two crucial age points, 18–24 and 36 months, corrected age. Methods and analysis This prospective longitudinal population-based study aims to recruit a total of 200 children with CP born in Queensland, Australia between 1 September 2006 and 31 December 2009 (60 per birth-year). Outcomes include clinically assessed OPD (Schedule for Oral Motor Assessment, Dysphagia Disorders Survey, Pre-Speech Assessment Scale, signs suggestive of pharyngeal phase impairment, Thomas-Stonell and Greenberg Saliva Severity Scale), parent-reported OPD on a feeding questionnaire, gross motor skills (Gross Motor Function Measure, Gross Motor Function Classification System and motor type), growth and nutritional status (linear growth and body composition) and dietary intake (3 day food record). The strength of relationship between outcome and exposure variables will be analysed using regression modelling with ORs and relative risk ratios. Ethics and dissemination This protocol describes a study that provides the first large population-based study of OPD in a representative sample of preschool children with CP, using direct clinical assessment. Ethics has been obtained through the University of Queensland Medical Research Ethics Committee, the Children's Health Services District Ethics Committee, and at other regional and organisational ethics committees. Results are planned to be disseminated in six papers submitted to peer reviewed journals

  9. Contrasting the patterns of aspen forest and sagebrush shrubland gross ecosystem exchange in montane Idaho, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellows, A.; Flerchinger, G. N.; Seyfried, M. S.

    2015-12-01

    We investigated the environmental controls on Gross Ecosystem Exchange (GEE) at an aspen forest and a sagebrush shrubland in southwest Idaho. The two sites were situated within a mosaic of vegetation that included temperate deciduous trees, shrublands, and evergreen conifer trees. The distribution of vegetation was presumably linked to water availability; aspen were located in wetter high-elevations sites, topographic drainages, or near snow drifts. Local temperatures have increased by ~2-3 °C over the past 50 years and less precipitation has arrived as snow. These ongoing changes in weather may impact snow water redistribution, plant-water availability, and plant-thermal stress, with associated impacts on vegetation health and production. We used eddy covariance to measure the exchange of water and carbon dioxide above the two sites and partitioned the net carbon flux to determine GEE. The sagebrush record was from 2003-2007 and the aspen record was from 2007-12. The region experienced a modest-to-severe drought in 2007, with ~73% of typical precipitation. We found that aspen were local "hotspots" for carbon exchange; peak rates of aspen GEE were ~ 60% greater than the peak rates of sagebrush GEE. Light, temperature, and water availability were dominant controls on the seasonality of GEE at both sites. Sagebrush and aspen were dormant during winter, limited by cold temperatures during winter and early spring, and water availability during mid-late summer. The onset of summer drought was typically later in the aspen than in the sagebrush. Drifting snow, lateral water redistribution, or increased rooting depths may have increased water availability in the aspen stand. Seasonal patterns of observed soil moisture and evaporation indicated aspen were rooted to >= 1 m. The sagebrush and aspen both responded strongly to the 2007 drought; peak GEE decreased by ~75%, peak GEE shifted to earlier parts of the year, and mid-summer GEE was decreased. We consider potential

  10. Delayed focal involvement of upper motor neurons in the Madras pattern of motor neuron disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, R; Scalise, A; Iani, C; Palmieri, M G; Bernardi, G

    1998-12-01

    We report the case of a young man from the south of India, initially presenting the typical signs of benign monomelic amyotrophy (BMA) in the left upper limb. After several years, the involvement of other limbs and the appearance of bulbar signs suggested the possible diagnosis of the Madras pattern of motor neuron disease (MMND). Serial motor evoked potential (MEP) recordings allowed detection of the onset of a focal involvement of upper motor neurons (UMN) controlling innervation in the originally amyotrophic limb. Therefore, serial MEP recordings can be useful for the early detection of sub-clinical UMN damage in motor neuron disease presenting with pure lower motor neuron (LMN) signs.

  11. Localization of Motor Neurons and Central Pattern Generators for Motor Patterns Underlying Feeding Behavior in Drosophila Larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Hückesfeld

    Full Text Available Motor systems can be functionally organized into effector organs (muscles and glands, the motor neurons, central pattern generators (CPG and higher control centers of the brain. Using genetic and electrophysiological methods, we have begun to deconstruct the motor system driving Drosophila larval feeding behavior into its component parts. In this paper, we identify distinct clusters of motor neurons that execute head tilting, mouth hook movements, and pharyngeal pumping during larval feeding. This basic anatomical scaffold enabled the use of calcium-imaging to monitor the neural activity of motor neurons within the central nervous system (CNS that drive food intake. Simultaneous nerve- and muscle-recordings demonstrate that the motor neurons innervate the cibarial dilator musculature (CDM ipsi- and contra-laterally. By classical lesion experiments we localize a set of CPGs generating the neuronal pattern underlying feeding movements to the subesophageal zone (SEZ. Lesioning of higher brain centers decelerated all feeding-related motor patterns, whereas lesioning of ventral nerve cord (VNC only affected the motor rhythm underlying pharyngeal pumping. These findings provide a basis for progressing upstream of the motor neurons to identify higher regulatory components of the feeding motor system.

  12. Effects of bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells on gross motor function measure scores of children with cerebral palsy: a preliminary clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaodong; Cheng, Hongbin; Hua, Rongrong; Yang, Jing; Dai, Guanghui; Zhang, Zan; Wang, Renzhi; Qin, Chuan; An, Yihua

    2013-12-01

    Pre-clinical evidence indicates that autologous bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cell (BM-MSC) transplantation improves motor function in patients with central nervous system disorders. After providing informed consent, 52 patients with cerebral palsy (CP) who met the study criteria received BM-MSC transplantation. Gross motor function was assessed using the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM)-88 and GMFM-66 scales at baseline (before transplantation) and at 1 month, 6 months and 18 months post-transplantation. The participants completed the trial without visible side effects. The GMFM-66 percentile (motor growth curves) was used as the control index of motor function to exclude the interference of improvement with age. The score domains A, B, C and D and the total GMFM-88 and GMFM-66 scores in participants increased at 1 month, 6 months and 18 months post-transplantation compared with the baseline value (P cell transplantation. Autologous BM-MSC transplantation appears to be a feasible, safe and effective therapy for patients with CP. The treatment improved the development of children with CP with regard to motor function. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of concentric and eccentric control exercise on gross motor function and balance ability of paretic leg in children with spastic hemiplegia

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Su-Ik; Kim, Mi-sun; Choi, Jong-Duk

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study examines the effect of concentric and eccentric control training of the paretic leg on balance and gross motor function in children with spastic hemiplegia. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty children with spastic hemiplegia were randomly divided into experimental and control groups. In the experimental group, 20 min of neurodevelopmental therapy and 20 min of concentric and eccentric control exercise were applied to the paretic leg. In the control group, 40 min of neurodevelo...

  14. Longitudinal cohort protocol study of oropharyngeal dysphagia: relationships to gross motor attainment, growth and nutritional status in preschool children with cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Benfer, Katherine A; Weir, Kelly A; Bell, Kristie L.; Ware, Robert S; Davies, Peter S. W.; Boyd, Roslyn N.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The prevalence of oropharyngeal dysphagia (OPD) in children with cerebral palsy (CP) is estimated to be between 19% and 99%. OPD can impact on children's growth, nutrition and overall health. Despite the growing recognition of the extent and significance of health issues relating to OPD in children with CP, lack of knowledge of its profile in this subpopulation remains. This study aims to investigate the relationship between OPD, attainment of gross motor skills, growth and nutri...

  15. Motor control by precisely timed spike patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Srivastava, Kyle H; Holmes, Caroline M; Vellema, Michiel

    2017-01-01

    A fundamental problem in neuroscience is understanding how sequences of action potentials ("spikes") encode information about sensory signals and motor outputs. Although traditional theories assume that this information is conveyed by the total number of spikes fired within a specified time...

  16. Patterns of molecular motors that guide and sort filaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupp, Beat; Nédélec, François

    2012-11-21

    Molecular motors can be immobilized to transport filaments and loads that are attached to these filaments inside a nano-device. However, if motors are distributed uniformly over a flat surface, the motility is undirected, and the filaments move equally in all directions. For many applications it is important to control the direction in which the filaments move, and two strategies have been explored to achieve this: applying external forces and confining the filaments inside channels. In this article, we discuss a third strategy in which the topography of the sample remains flat, but the motors are distributed non-uniformly over the surface. Systems of filaments and patterned molecular motors were simulated using a stochastic engine that included Brownian motion and filament bending elasticity. Using an evolutionary algorithm, patterns were optimized for their capacity to precisely control the paths of the filaments. We identified patterns of motors that could either direct the filaments in a particular direction, or separate short and long filaments. These functionalities already exceed what has been achieved with confinement. The patterns are composed of one or two types of motors positioned in lines or along arcs and should be easy to manufacture. Finally, these patterns can be easily combined into larger designs, allowing one to precisely control the motion of microscopic objects inside a device.

  17. Correlation between the gross motor performance measurement and pediatric balance scale with respect to movement disorder in children with cerebral palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hae-Yeon; Ahn, So-Yoon

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To determine whether the Gross Motor Performance Measurement is useful in predicting the future score of the Pediatric Balance Scale, this study examined the correlation between the 2 measurement tools with respect to movement disorder in children with cerebral palsy. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 38 study subjects with cerebral palsy were divided into 3 groups (spastic, dyskinetic, and ataxic) by means of systematic proportional stratified sampling in accordance with the characteristics of their movement disorders. [Results] The spastic Pediatric Balance Scale had an intermediate level of positive correlation with dissociated movement (r=0.411), alignment (r=0.518), and weight shift (r=0.461). The dyskinetic Pediatric Balance Scale had a strong positive correlation with dissociated movement (r=0.905), coordination (r=0.882), alignment (r=0.930), and stability (r=0.924). The ataxic Pediatric Balance Scale had an intermediate level of positive correlation with the overall Gross Motor Performance Measurement (r=0.636), and a strong positive correlation with dissociated movement (r=0.866), coordination (r=0.871) and stability (r=0.984). [Conclusion] Gross Motor Performance Measurement is important in evaluating the quality of movement, and can be considered an excellent supplementary tool in predicting functional balance. PMID:27630414

  18. Correlation between the gross motor performance measurement and pediatric balance scale with respect to movement disorder in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hae-Yeon; Ahn, So-Yoon

    2016-08-01

    [Purpose] To determine whether the Gross Motor Performance Measurement is useful in predicting the future score of the Pediatric Balance Scale, this study examined the correlation between the 2 measurement tools with respect to movement disorder in children with cerebral palsy. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 38 study subjects with cerebral palsy were divided into 3 groups (spastic, dyskinetic, and ataxic) by means of systematic proportional stratified sampling in accordance with the characteristics of their movement disorders. [Results] The spastic Pediatric Balance Scale had an intermediate level of positive correlation with dissociated movement (r=0.411), alignment (r=0.518), and weight shift (r=0.461). The dyskinetic Pediatric Balance Scale had a strong positive correlation with dissociated movement (r=0.905), coordination (r=0.882), alignment (r=0.930), and stability (r=0.924). The ataxic Pediatric Balance Scale had an intermediate level of positive correlation with the overall Gross Motor Performance Measurement (r=0.636), and a strong positive correlation with dissociated movement (r=0.866), coordination (r=0.871) and stability (r=0.984). [Conclusion] Gross Motor Performance Measurement is important in evaluating the quality of movement, and can be considered an excellent supplementary tool in predicting functional balance.

  19. Learning new gait patterns: Exploratory muscle activity during motor learning is not predicted by motor modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganathan, Rajiv; Krishnan, Chandramouli; Dhaher, Yasin Y; Rymer, William Z

    2016-03-21

    The motor module hypothesis in motor control proposes that the nervous system can simplify the problem of controlling a large number of muscles in human movement by grouping muscles into a smaller number of modules. Here, we tested one prediction of the modular organization hypothesis by examining whether there is preferential exploration along these motor modules during the learning of a new gait pattern. Healthy college-aged participants learned a new gait pattern which required increased hip and knee flexion during the swing phase while walking in a lower-extremity robot (Lokomat). The new gait pattern was displayed as a foot trajectory in the sagittal plane and participants attempted to match their foot trajectory to this template. We recorded EMG from 8 lower-extremity muscles and we extracted motor modules during both baseline walking and target-tracking using non-negative matrix factorization (NMF). Results showed increased trajectory variability in the first block of learning, indicating that participants were engaged in exploratory behavior. Critically, when we examined the muscle activity during this exploratory phase, we found that the composition of motor modules changed significantly within the first few strides of attempting the new gait pattern. The lack of persistence of the motor modules under even short time scales suggests that motor modules extracted during locomotion may be more indicative of correlated muscle activity induced by the task constraints of walking, rather than reflecting a modular control strategy.

  20. Myofascial Structural Integration Therapy on Gross Motor Function and Gait of Young Children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loi, Elizabeth C; Buysse, Christina A; Price, Karen S; Jaramillo, Theresa M; Pico, Elaine L; Hansen, Alexis B; Feldman, Heidi M

    2015-01-01

    Though the cause of motor abnormalities in cerebral palsy is injury to the brain, structural changes in muscle and fascia may add to stiffness and reduced function. This study examined whether myofascial structural integration therapy, a complementary treatment that manipulates muscle and fascia, would improve gross motor function and gait in children Gross Motor Function Measure-66 assessed at 3-month intervals. Gait (n = 8) was assessed using the GAITRite(®) electronic walkway. Parents completed a survey at study conclusion. Comparing Treatment (n = 15) and Waitlist-Control groups (n = 9), we found a significant main effect of time but no effect of group or time × group interaction. The pooled sample (n = 27) showed a main effect of time, but no significantly greater change after treatment than between other assessments. Foot length on the affected side increased significantly after treatment, likely indicating improvement in the children's ability to approach a heel strike. Parent surveys indicated satisfaction and improvements in the children's quality of movement. MSI did not increase the rate of motor skill development, but was associated with improvement in gait quality.

  1. Myofascial structural integration therapy on gross motor function and gait of young children with spastic cerebral palsy: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth C Loi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Though the cause of motor abnormalities in cerebral palsy is injury to the brain, structural changes in muscle and fascia may add to stiffness and reduced function. This study examined whether Myofascial Structural Integration therapy (MSI, a complementary treatment that manipulates muscle and fascia, would improve gross motor function and gait in children < 4 years with cerebral palsy. Participants (N=29 were enrolled in a randomized controlled trial (RCT: NCT01815814, https://goo.gl/TGxvwd or Open Label Extension. The main outcome was the Gross Motor Function Measure-66 assessed at 3-month intervals. Gait (n=8 was assessed using the GAITRite® electronic walkway. Parents completed a survey at study conclusion.Comparing Treatment (n=15 and Waitlist-Control Groups (n=9, we found a significant main effect of time but no effect of group or timeXgroup interaction. The pooled sample (n=27 showed a main effect of time, but no significantly greater change after treatment than between other assessments. Foot length on the affected side increased significantly after treatment, likely indicating improvement in the children’s ability to approach a heel strike. Parent surveys indicated satisfaction and improvements in the children's quality of movement. MSI did not increase the rate of motor skill development, but was associated with improvement in gait quality.

  2. Combined treatment using acupuncture and music therapy on children with cerebral palsy Gross motor function measure comparison In 60 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lixiong Wu; Haibo Yu; Yongfeng Liu

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The use of acupuncture has received recognition to effectively treat cerebral palsy. Moreover, music therapy can be used to modify treatment of cerebral palsy. OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of combined treatment using acupuncture and music therapy on gross motor function measure (GMFM) of children with cerebral palsy, compared with acupuncture treatment alone. DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: Randomized, controlled, clinical study. The experiment was conducted in Shenzhen Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine between January 2007 and September 2007. PARTICIPANTS: All children with cerebral palsy in the trial were from the outpatient department of Shenzhen Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine. The children were randomly divided into two groups: 30 children in Group B received acupuncture and music therapy, while 30 children in Group A received only acupuncture therapy. METHODS: Subjects in Groups A and B received acupuncture based on syndrome differentiation. The main acupoints were necessary for all participants. At first, flash needling was applied to the acupoints. For the remaining acupoints, the technique of transverse needling was applied to the head acupoints, and perpendicular needling was used for the other points. The inserted needles were twirled and then maintained for 30 minutes. The needle was twirled for one second every other 10 minutes, without reinforcing-reducing techniques. The therapy was performed every other day. The trial consisted of three periods each, and lasted for 84 days. Subjects in Group B received music therapy. They listened to music that they preferred while acupuncture was being performed. Following acupuncture, they were allowed to perform musical activities, such as percussion, singing, and dancing. The music therapy was scheduled for one hour, including listening to music for 30 minutes and music activities for 30 minutes. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The comprehensive functional evaluation scale of cerebral palsy and

  3. Radiological outcome of reconstructive hip surgery in children with gross motor function classification system IV and V cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shiran; Wilson, Nichola C; Mackey, Anna H; Stott, Ngaire Susan

    2014-09-01

    Hip subluxation is common in children with cerebral palsy (CP). The aim of this study was to describe the radiological outcome of reconstructive hip surgery in children with CP, gross motor function classification system (GMFCS) level IV and V, and determine whether the GMFCS level plays a predictive role in outcome. This was a retrospective cohort study conducted at a tertiary-level pediatric hospital with a CP hip surveillance program. Of 110 children with GMFCS IV and V CP registered for hip surveillance, 45 underwent reconstructive hip surgery between 1997 and 2009, defined as varus derotational proximal femoral osteotomy with or without additional pelvic osteotomy. Eleven children were excluded because of lack of 12-month follow-up (n=10) or missing clinical records (n=1). Thus, 21 GMFCS IV children (median age 6 years at surgery) and 13 GMFCS V children (median age 5 years at surgery), who underwent 58 index surgeries, were included in the study. Clinical records and radiology were reviewed. The two surgical groups were femoral osteotomy (varus derotational femoral osteotomy with an AO blade plate or femoral locking plate fixation), or femoral ostetotomy with additional pelvic osteotomy. Reimer's migration percentage (MP) was calculated from anteroposterior pelvis radiographs to determine the outcome for each hip independently. Failure was defined as MP of greater than 60% or further operation on the hip. Reconstructive surgeries were performed for 58 hips with a median preoperative MP of 55%. There were 15 failures at a median of 62 months, including nine failures in 35 GMFCS IV hips and six failures in 23 GMFCS V hips. Overall, GMFCS V hips tended to fail earlier, (hazard ratio 2.3) with a median time to failure of 78 and 39 months for GMFCS IV and V hips, respectively. Combined femoral and pelvic osteotomies had the lowest failure rates in both groups of patients. The GMFCS classification may have some predictive value for outcomes following reconstructive

  4. Influence of varied stimuli on development of motor patterns in the premature infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, J S

    1979-01-01

    The premature infant is at risk for both mortality and morbidity. His writhing contributes to weight loss, and his extrauterine environment does not contain the multi-modality patterned afferent stimuli that impinge upon the developing brain in utero. Sound is the most effective modality to achieve concurrent decrement in motility along with enhancement of cortical activity. It was anticipated that subjects exposed to 5 minutes of patterned sound 6 times a day would, by 36 weeks gestation, evidence: (a) less gross motor activity, (b) the normal predominance of upper over lower limb activity, and (c) beginning laterality. The sample consisted of 80 males and 73 females whose gestational age at birth was 26--33 weeks. By random assignment 52 subjects were exposed to the routine ambient noise of the isolette and nursery, 50 to a tape recording of their mother's voice, and 51 to an orchestral arrangement of Brahm's Lullaby. Limb activity was measured just prior to discharge by accelerometers worn unilaterally for a 24-hour period on the ankle and wrist prior to transfer to the alternate side for an additional 24 hours. No statistically significant differences were demonstrated among the limb patterns of the 3 groups. Large intragroup variation in gross activity precluded demonstration of between-group differences. The majority of subjects evidenced predominance of upper limb activity and laterality.

  5. Development of motorized plasma lithography for cell patterning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deguchi, Shinji; Nagasawa, Yohei; Saito, Akira C; Matsui, Tsubasa S; Yokoyama, Sho; Sato, Masaaki

    2014-03-01

    The micropatterning of cells, which restricts the adhesive regions on the substrate and thus controls cell geometry, is used to study mechanobiology-related cell functions. Plasma lithography is a means of providing such patterns and uses a spatially-selective plasma treatment. Conventional plasma lithography employs a positionally-fixed mask with which the geometry of the patterns is determined and thus is not suited for producing on-demand geometries of patterns. To overcome this, we have manufactured a new device with a motorized mask mounted in a vacuum chamber of a plasma generator, which we designate motorized plasma lithography. Our pilot tests indicate that various pattern geometries can be obtained with the control of a shielding mask during plasma treatment. Our approach can thus omit the laborious process of preparing photolithographically microfabricated masks required for the conventional plasma lithography.

  6. Association timed "up and go" test with respect to gross motor function classification system level in children diagnosed as cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjivani N Dhote; Suvarna S Ganvir

    2013-01-01

    Background: Timed "up and go" (TUG) test is a quick test, used in clinical practice as an outcome measure to assess functional ambulatory mobility or dynamic balance in adults. However, little information is available of TUG test used in cerebral palsy (CP). Hence, the purpose of our study was to find score of TUG with respect to gross motor function classification system (GMFCS) in CP children. Aims: To find the mean score of TUG test with respect to GMFCS level in children diagnosed as CP. ...

  7. Muscular endurance training and motor unit firing patterns during fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mettler, Joni A; Griffin, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    With muscular training, the central nervous system may regulate motor unit firing rates to sustain force output and delay fatigue. The aims of this study were to investigate motor unit firing rates and patterns of the adductor pollicis (AdP) muscle in young, able-bodied adults throughout a sustained submaximal isometric fatiguing contraction and postactivation potentiation pre-post 4 weeks of muscular endurance training. Fifteen participants (training group: N = 10; control group: N = 5) performed maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) and a sustained isometric 20 % MVC fatigue task pre-post training. Single-motor-unit potentials were recorded from the AdP during the fatigue task with intramuscular fine-wire electrodes. Twitch force potentiation was measured during single-pulse electrical stimulation of the ulnar nerve before and after MVCs. The training group endurance trained their AdP muscle at 20 % MVC for 4 weeks. Mean motor unit firing rates were calculated every 5 % of endurance time (ET). ET increased by 45.2 ± 8.7 % (p pattern consisted of an initial slowing followed by an increase in firing rate late in fatigue and remained consistent pre-post training. Potentiation did not change following training. These data suggest that the ability of the neuromuscular system to sustain motor unit firing rate may serve as a mechanism to augment the duration of submaximal muscle performance and delay muscular fatigue.

  8. Muscle synergy patterns as physiological markers of motor cortical damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Vincent C K; Turolla, Andrea; Agostini, Michela; Silvoni, Stefano; Bennis, Caoimhe; Kasi, Patrick; Paganoni, Sabrina; Bonato, Paolo; Bizzi, Emilio

    2012-09-04

    The experimental findings herein reported are aimed at gaining a perspective on the complex neural events that follow lesions of the motor cortical areas. Cortical damage, whether by trauma or stroke, interferes with the flow of descending signals to the modular interneuronal structures of the spinal cord. These spinal modules subserve normal motor behaviors by activating groups of muscles as individual units (muscle synergies). Damage to the motor cortical areas disrupts the orchestration of the modules, resulting in abnormal movements. To gain insights into this complex process, we recorded myoelectric signals from multiple upper-limb muscles in subjects with cortical lesions. We used a factorization algorithm to identify the muscle synergies. Our factorization analysis revealed, in a quantitative way, three distinct patterns of muscle coordination-including preservation, merging, and fractionation of muscle synergies-that reflect the multiple neural responses that occur after cortical damage. These patterns varied as a function of both the severity of functional impairment and the temporal distance from stroke onset. We think these muscle-synergy patterns can be used as physiological markers of the status of any patient with stroke or trauma, thereby guiding the development of different rehabilitation approaches, as well as future physiological experiments for a further understanding of postinjury mechanisms of motor control and recovery.

  9. Stimulation of the human motor cortex alters generalization patterns of motor learning

    OpenAIRE

    Orban de Xivry, Jean-Jacques; Marko, Mollie K; Pekny, Sarah E.; Pastor, Damien; Izawa, Jun; Celnik, Pablo; Shadmehr, Reza

    2011-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that the generalization patterns that accompany learning carry the signatures of the neural systems that are engaged in that learning. Reach adaptation in force fields has generalization patterns that suggest primary engagement of a neural system that encodes movements in the intrinsic coordinates of joints and muscles, and lesser engagement of a neural system that encodes movements in the extrinsic coordinates of the task. Among the cortical motor areas, the intrinsi...

  10. Mediating effects of the ICF domain of function and the gross motor function measure on the ICF domains of activity, and participation in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byoung-Hee; Kim, Yu-Mi; Jeong, Goo-Churl

    2015-10-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to evaluate the mediating effect of gross motor function, measured using the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) and of general function, measured using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health-Child and Youth Check List (ICF-CY), on the ICF domains of activity and participation in children with cerebral palsy (CP). [Subjects] Ninety-five children with CP, from Seoul, Korea, participated in the study. [Methods] The GMFM was administered in its entirety to patients without orthoses or mobility aids. The ICF-CY was used to evaluate the degree of disability and health of subjects. [Results] GMFM score and ICF-CY function were negatively correlated to ICF-CY activity and participation. ICF-CY partially mediated the effects of the GMFM on activity and participation. [Conclusion] When establishing a treatment plan for a child with CP, limitations in activity and participation, as described by the ICF-CY, should be considered in addition to the child's physical abilities and development. In addition, the treatment plan should focus on increasing the child's activity and participation level, as well as his/her physical level.

  11. Correlation Between Lower And Higher Order Sensory Functions And Fine And Gross Motor Function In Dominant And Non-Dominant Hand Of Patients With Choronic Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandehgary Najafabadi Mahbubeh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: To investigate the correlation between lower and higher order sensory functions and manual dexterity as well as Identify factors affecting upper extremity motor function(UEMF in subjects with chronic stroke. Methods: In this correlational study, seventy chronic stroke subjects (48 male and 22 female by mean age of 56.94 (±12.92 years and mean time after stroke of 3.01 (±2.64 years were selected by simple nonprobability method. Lower order sensory function (i.e., light touch threshold, higher order sensory functions (i.e., tactile acuity, weight and texture discrimination, haptic performance and wrist proprioception were measured by Weinstein enhanced sensory test, two point discrimination, wrist position sense test, hand active sensation test and haptic object test, respectively. The gross and fine manual dexterity were measured by Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT, Box and Block Test(BBT and Purdue Pegboard (PPB test. The step by step regression model was used to investigate the sensory determinants of motor function. Results: A weak to high significant correlation (r =0.25 to 0.80 was found between sensory predictors and motor outcomes. The regression models explained 19.8%, 30.3% and 52.3% of variancein motor function measures of the PPB, BBT and WMFT, respectively. The tactile threshold (p<0.001 was the most relevant predictor in all stepwise models for all motor outcomes in dominant or non-dominant hand , followed by tactile acuity, haptic performance and wrist proprioception (p< 0.05. The weight and texture discrimination was not included in any outcome models.  Conclusion: The results of present study showed that tactile threshold as lowr order sensory function is the most relevant predictor for UEMF in stroke. The results reinforce that rehabilitation interventions focused on tactile threshold may be best able to impact UEMF in stroke subjects.

  12. A Field-Based Testing Protocol for Assessing Gross Motor Skills in Preschool Children: The Children's Activity and Movement in Preschool Study Motor Skills Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Harriet G.; Pfeiffer, Karin A.; Dowda, Marsha; Jeter, Chevy; Jones, Shaverra; Pate, Russell R.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a valid and reliable tool for use in assessing motor skills in preschool children in field-based settings. The development of the Children's Activity and Movement in Preschool Study Motor Skills Protocol included evidence of its reliability and validity for use in field-based environments as part of large…

  13. The Comparison of School-Age Children's Performance on Two Motor Assessments: The Test of Gross Motor Development and the Movement Assessment Battery for Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Samuel W.; Robinson, Leah E.; Rudisill, Mary E.; Wadsworth, Danielle D.; Morera, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Background: Competence in the motor domain is associated with positive, health-related outcomes. Physical education teachers often administer assessments into their programs to measure motor competence for a variety of reasons. Recently, researchers have questioned the relatedness of performance on different assessments. Purpose: The purpose of…

  14. Kinematic characteristics of motor patterns in rope skipping

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Henrique da Silva; Ana Maria Pellegrini

    2009-01-01

    Rope skipping seems to be an easy task to be performed. However, careful analysis of this motor skill shows how complex the execution of this task is. The objective of this study was to examine kinematic variables of jump patterns as a function of skipping frequency. Eight male university students performed a sequence of 30 rope jumps using two jump patterns (alternating support of the feet and simultaneous support of the feet) at three skipping frequencies (1.5, 1.7,1.9 Hz). Frequencies were...

  15. LOADED AND UNLOADED SIT-TO-STAND STRENGTHENING EXERCISES EFFECT TO GROSS MOTOR FUNCTION MEASURE IN SPASTIC DIPLEGIA CEREBRAL PALSY PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Safei

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine sit-to-stand and loaded sit-to-stand exercises effect in standing, walking, and running dimensions of gross motor function measure (GMFM in spastic diplegia cerebral palsy (SDCP patients. Methods: This study was conducted in the period of May to October 2014 and included 24 children with SDCP as the subjects. The methods used in the study were interventional study with randomized controlled trial, and investigation of CP before and after the exercise intervention. The subjects were divided into two groups, sit-to-stand exercise group and loaded sit-to-stand exercise group. Results: The results showed that the increase of standing, walking, and running dimension scores of GMFM in the loaded group were higher (standing dimension score 12.00 vs 11.08 and walking and running dimensions 13.58 vs 13.42 compared to the unloaded group. Conclusions: Both sit-to-stand and loaded sit-to-stand exercise groups do not show significant differences in improving motor skills in standing, walking, and running dimensions of GMFM. Children with SDCP may receive the exercise to improve their motor skills in mobility aspects, such as standing, walking, and running.

  16. Motor patterns during walking on a slippery walkway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappellini, Germana; Ivanenko, Yuri P; Dominici, Nadia; Poppele, Richard E; Lacquaniti, Francesco

    2010-02-01

    Friction and gravity represent two basic physical constraints of terrestrial locomotion that affect both motor patterns and the biomechanics of bipedal gait. To provide insights into the spatiotemporal organization of the motor output in connection with ground contact forces, we studied adaptation of human gait to steady low-friction conditions. Subjects walked along a slippery walkway (7 m long; friction coefficient approximately 0.06) or a normal, nonslippery floor at a natural speed. We recorded gait kinematics, ground reaction forces, and bilateral electromyographic (EMG) activity of 16 leg and trunk muscles and we mapped the recorded EMG patterns onto the spinal cord in approximate rostrocaudal locations of the motoneuron (MN) pools to characterize the spatiotemporal organization of the motor output. The results revealed several idiosyncratic features of walking on the slippery surface. The step length, cycle duration, and horizontal shear forces were significantly smaller, the head orientation tended to be stabilized in space, whereas arm movements, trunk rotations, and lateral trunk inclinations considerably increased and foot motion and gait kinematics resembled those of a nonplantigrade gait. Furthermore, walking on the slippery surface required stabilization of the hip and of the center-of-body mass in the frontal plane, which significantly improved with practice. Motor patterns were characterized by an enhanced (roughly twofold) level of MN activity, substantial decoupling of anatomical synergists, and the absence of systematic displacements of the center of MN activity in the lumbosacral enlargement. Overall, the results show that when subjects are confronted with unsteady surface conditions, like the slippery floor, they adopt a gait mode that tends to keep the COM centered over the supporting limbs and to increase limb stiffness. We suggest that this behavior may represent a distinct gait mode that is particularly suited to uncertain surface

  17. Therapeutic Effects of Horseback Riding Therapy on Gross Motor Function in Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalen, Cara N.; Case-Smith, Jane

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This systematic review examined the efficacy of hippotherapy or therapeutic horseback riding (THR) on motor outcomes in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Methods: Databases were searched for clinical trials of hippotherapy or THR for children with CP. Results: Nine articles were included in this review. Although the current level of…

  18. Influence of aquatic physical therapy on gross motor skills in children under 5 years of age with cerebral palsy: Systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Latorre-García

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aquatic environment has been used and is used to perform physiotherapy treatments in different pathologies including cerebral palsy. No method has been proven more effective than the others. Aim: The objective of this article is to carry out a systematic review of the scientific literature on how physical exercise in water affects the gross motor skills and neurodevelopment of children with cerebral palsy. Methods: A systematic search was carried out using the PRISMA model. The search for articles in this review was done in the databases through Scopus and PubMed, as well as in the Web of Science (WOS platform and in official websites of international organizations, such as the World Health Organization (WHO. The review was carried out between the months of June and December of the year 2016. Results: Of the 8 studies that met the inclusion criteria, only two used randomized control trial design and the results were mixed. Most of the studies used quasi-experimental designs and reported improvements in gross motor skills, for group analyzes, after the aquatic programs were maintained from two to three sessions a week and lasted from 6 to 16 weeks. Participants were evaluated and classified according to the different development scales, and were less than 5 years old. Conclusions: Although the different studies have not demonstrated a greater efficacy of aquatic physiotherapy compared to other treatment concepts, neither has been less, so that the exercise in water increases the therapeutic possibilities to which the chronic nature of the Pathology must access the patient throughout his life. Aquatic exercise is feasible and adverse effects are minimal; but the dosage parameters are not clear. However, in order to promote the prescription by physicians of this type of therapy, it is necessary to carry out research studies that demonstrate in a quantitative way the efficacy of the method, with longer and longer samples.

  19. Communication Deficits and the Motor System: Exploring Patterns of Associations in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mody, M; Shui, A M; Nowinski, L A; Golas, S B; Ferrone, C; O'Rourke, J A; McDougle, C J

    2017-01-01

    Many children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have notable difficulties in motor, speech and language domains. The connection between motor skills (oral-motor, manual-motor) and speech and language deficits reported in other developmental disorders raises important questions about a potential relationship between motor skills and speech-language deficits in ASD. To this end, we examined data from children with ASD (n = 1781), 2-17 years of age, enrolled in the Autism Speaks-Autism Treatment Network (AS-ATN) registry who completed a multidisciplinary evaluation that included diagnostic, physical, cognitive and behavioral assessments as part of a routine standard of care protocol. After adjusting for age, non-verbal IQ, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) medication use, and muscle tone, separate multiple linear regression analyses revealed significant positive associations of fine motor skills (FM) with both expressive language (EL) and receptive language (RL) skills in an impaired FM subgroup; in contrast, the impaired gross motor (GM) subgroup showed no association with EL but a significant negative association with RL. Similar analyses between motor skills and interpersonal relationships across the sample found both GM skills and FM skills to be associated with social interactions. These results suggest potential differences in the contributions of fine versus gross motor skills to autistic profiles and may provide another lens with which to view communication differences across the autism spectrum for use in treatment interventions.

  20. 77 FR 67613 - Patterns of Safety Violations by Motor Carrier Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-13

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration 49 CFR Parts 385 and 386 RIN 2126-AB42 Patterns of Safety Violations by Motor Carrier Management AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT... would enable the Agency to suspend or revoke the operating authority registration of motor carriers...

  1. Pattern of motor neurone disease in eastern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, S P; Das, S K; Gangopadhyay, P K; Roy, T N; Maiti, B

    1997-07-01

    A clinical study about the pattern of motor neurone disease in eastern India was carried out from July 1993 to June 1995 at Bangur Institute of Neurology, Calcutta and SSKM Hospital, Calcutta. A total of 110 cases were studied and they constituted 0.11% of all neurological cases seen in the general OPD. Of 110 cases, amyotropic lateral sclerosis (ALS) constituted 43.6%, progressive muscular atrophy (PMA) 10.9%, post-polio progressive muscular atrophy (PPMA) 1.8%, spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) 20%, atypical form Madras pattern of MND (MMND) 0.9% and monomelic amyotrophy (MMA) 22.7% of cases. Disease is more common in males than females and average duration of symptoms before presentation varied from 1 to 12 months. Most of the patients were either agricultural labourers or manual workers in ALS variety whereas MMA variety was evenly distributed in both hard labourers and sedentary workers. Most of the patients in MMA and SMA groups presented before 30 years of age whereas ALS and PMA group presented after 30 years. Trauma was the commonest antecedent event in ALS and MMA followed by electrocution in the same two groups. Family history was found to be absent in SMA group though the disease is considered as a hereditary one. Weakness of the limbs and wasting of the muscles were common presenting symptoms and signs. Bulbar symptoms and signs were found only in the ALS group. EMG showed neurogenic pattern and mixed pattern in most of the patients in all groups. Only a few patients showed myopathic pattern. Neuroimaging study helped in exclusion of compressive lesion excepting two cases of MMA where facetal hypertrophy was present. Monomelic amyotrophy, a special variety of motor neurone disease, is not rare in this part as compared to other parts of India and Asia.

  2. Patterns of presynaptic activity and synaptic strength interact to produce motor output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Terrence Michael; Calabrese, Ronald L

    2011-11-30

    Motor neuron activity is coordinated by premotor networks into a functional motor pattern by complex patterns of synaptic drive. These patterns combine both the temporal pattern of spikes of the premotor network and the profiles of synaptic strengths (i.e., conductances). Given the complexity of premotor networks in vertebrates, it has been difficult to ascertain the relative contributions of temporal patterns and synaptic strength profiles to the motor patterns observed in these animals. Here, we use the leech (Hirudo sp.) heartbeat central pattern generator (CPG), in which we can measure both the temporal pattern and the synaptic strength profiles of the entire premotor network and the motor outflow in individual animals. In this system, a series of motor neurons all receive input from the same premotor interneurons of the CPG but must be coordinated differentially to produce a functional pattern. These properties allow a theoretical and experimental dissection of the rules that govern how temporal patterns and synaptic strength profiles are combined in motor neurons so that functional motor patterns emerge, including an analysis of the impact of animal-to-animal variation in input to such variation in output. In the leech, segmental heart motor neurons are coordinated alternately in a synchronous and peristaltic pattern. We show that synchronous motor patterns result from a nearly synchronous premotor temporal pattern produced by the leech heartbeat CPG. For peristaltic motor patterns, the staggered premotor temporal pattern determines the phase range over which segmental motor neurons can fire while synaptic strength profiles define the intersegmental motor phase progression realized.

  3. Motor Circuit-Specific Burst Patterns Drive Different Muscle and Behavior Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Florian; White, Rachel S.; Stein, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    In the isolated CNS, different modulatory inputs can enable one motor network to generate multiple output patterns. Thus far, however, few studies have established whether different modulatory inputs also enable a defined network to drive distinct muscle and movement patterns in vivo, much as they enable these distinctions in behavioral studies. This possibility is not a foregone conclusion, because additional influences present in vivo (e.g., sensory feedback, hormonal modulation) could alter the motor patterns. Additionally, rhythmic neuronal activity can be transformed into sustained muscle contractions, particularly in systems with slow muscle dynamics, as in the crab (Cancer borealis) stomatogastric system used here. We assessed whether two different versions of the biphasic (protraction, retraction) gastric mill (chewing) rhythm, triggered in the isolated stomatogastric system by the modulatory ventral cardiac neurons (VCNs) and postoesophageal commissure (POC) neurons, drive different muscle and movement patterns. One distinction between these rhythms is that the lateral gastric (LG) protractor motor neuron generates tonic bursts during the VCN rhythm, whereas its POC-rhythm bursts are divided into fast, rhythmic burstlets. Intracellular muscle fiber recordings and tension measurements show that the LG-innervated muscles retain the distinct VCN-LG and POC-LG neuron burst structures. Moreover, endoscope video recordings in vivo, during VCN-triggered and POC-triggered chewing, show that the lateral teeth protraction movements exhibit the same, distinct protraction patterns generated by LG in the isolated nervous system. Thus, the multifunctional nature of an identified motor network in the isolated CNS can be preserved in vivo, where it drives different muscle activity and movement patterns. PMID:23864688

  4. Kinematic characteristics of motor patterns in rope skipping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Henrique da Silva

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Rope skipping seems to be an easy task to be performed. However, careful analysis of this motor skill shows how complex the execution of this task is. The objective of this study was to examine kinematic variables of jump patterns as a function of skipping frequency. Eight male university students performed a sequence of 30 rope jumps using two jump patterns (alternating support of the feet and simultaneous support of the feet at three skipping frequencies (1.5, 1.7,1.9 Hz. Frequencies were determined with a digital metronome and the rope was turned by the student himself. Rope jumping performance was recorded with two digital cameras for 3Danalysis. Passive markers were attached to the rope and to the ankle, knee and hip joints forcollection of the following dependent variables: continuous relative phase, time interval betweenthe loss of contact of the feet with the ground and cross of the rope under the feet of the volunteer,jump height, and rope height. ANOVA showed that for the pattern with alternating support ofthe feet the jump is executed at a lower height. In addition, analysis of the time interval revealeda delay in the withdrawal of the feet for crossing the rope in the case of the jump pattern with simultaneous support of the feet.

  5. Impact of clinical types and involved sites on the recovery of gross motor function after interventions in children with cerebral palsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongying Li; Huafeng Yu; Yan Huang; Lin Sang; Haixia Ha

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND:The recovery of gross motor function is the basis for the improvement of other abilities.It is helpful for judging the rehabilitative effect and prognosis of children with cerebral palsy to analyze the effect of different clinical types on the gross motor ability. OBJECTIVE:To investigate the influence of different clinical types and different involved sites of limbs of cerebral palsy on the effect of rehabilitative interventions on gross motor function.DESIGN:A controlled observation before and after treatment.SETTING:Rehabilitation Center of Qilu Children's Hospital,Shandong University.PARTICIPANTS:Totally 138 children with cerebral palsy having complete data,who were hospitalized for 12 months in the Rehabilitation Center of Qilu Children's Hospital,Shandong University,were selected from April 2004 to September 2006,including 97 males and 41 females;55 cases were younger than 2 years old.47 cases younger than 4 years and 36 cases younger than 6 years;76 cases of spasm type,30 cases of involuntary movement and 32 cases of mixed type(mixture of spasm and involuntary movement);64 cases of diplegia.46 cases of tetraplegia and 28 cases of hemiplegia.All the children and their relatives were informed and agreed to cooperate with the experiments.METHODS:All the 138 children with cerebral palsy were given comprehensive rehabilitative treatment:The assessment of comprehensive ability was conducted to all the children with cerebral palsy by the rehabilitative group before rehabilitation treatment,the rehabilitative objective was established according to the results of the assessment,then feasible rehabilitative training plan was made up.The comprehensive rehabilitative treatment was conducted as planned afterwards:①Physical therapy:The Bobath method was used.and motor development was promoted by proprioceptive hand technique.②Traditional Chinese medicine therapy:Massage:The children were massaged by using the maneuvers of push

  6. Precise temperature compensation of phase in a rhythmic motor pattern.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamont S Tang

    Full Text Available Most animal species are cold-blooded, and their neuronal circuits must maintain function despite environmental temperature fluctuations. The central pattern generating circuits that produce rhythmic motor patterns depend on the orderly activation of circuit neurons. We describe the effects of temperature on the pyloric rhythm of the stomatogastric ganglion of the crab, Cancer borealis. The pyloric rhythm is a triphasic motor pattern in which the Pyloric Dilator (PD, Lateral Pyloric (LP, and Pyloric (PY neurons fire in a repeating sequence. While the frequency of the pyloric rhythm increased about 4-fold (Q(10 approximately 2.3 as the temperature was shifted from 7 degrees C to 23 degrees C, the phase relationships of the PD, LP, and PY neurons showed almost perfect temperature compensation. The Q(10's of the input conductance, synaptic currents, transient outward current (I(A, and the hyperpolarization-activated inward current (I(h, all of which help determine the phase of LP neuron activity, ranged from 1.8 to 4. We studied the effects of temperature in >1,000 computational models (with different sets of maximal conductances of a bursting neuron and the LP neuron. Many bursting models failed to monotonically increase in frequency as temperature increased. Temperature compensation of LP neuron phase was facilitated when model neurons' currents had Q(10's close to 2. Together, these data indicate that although diverse sets of maximal conductances may be found in identified neurons across animals, there may be strong evolutionary pressure to restrict the Q(10's of the processes that contribute to temperature compensation of neuronal circuits.

  7. Investigating the Effect of Variations in Irrigation Water Price on Cropping Pattern and Gross Margin under Uncertainty (Case Study: Khorasan Razavi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Mardani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Water shortage crisis is an issue that has led to drastic changes in different agricultural policies, especially in arid and semi-arid areas. Uncertainty in the amount of resources, e.g. water, used for agricultural production entails risk for farmers' income and cropping pattern changes. In the present study, the robust optimization model was used for optimal allocation of arable lands of Khorasan Razavi Province under uncertainty. During the allocation, the effect of water input price variations on total gross margin and cropping pattern was considered. It was found that under certain data, both parameters of total gross margin and total acreage are more than uncertain data. Given that water price variations resulted in tangible changes in wheat acreage, it is recommended to adopt appropriate policies to reduce its production risk.

  8. Predicting the performance of motor imagery in stroke patients: multivariate pattern analysis of functional MRI data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chang-hyun; Chang, Won Hyuk; Lee, Minji; Kwon, Gyu Hyun; Kim, Laehyun; Kim, Sung Tae; Kim, Yun-Hee

    2015-01-01

    In a brain-computer interface for stroke rehabilitation, motor imagery is a preferred means for providing a gateway to an effector action or behavior. However, stroke patients often exhibit failure to comply with motor imagery, and therefore their motor imagery performance is highly variable. We sought to identify motor cortical areas responsible for motor imagery performance in stroke patients, specifically by using a multivariate pattern analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging data. We adopted an imaginary finger tapping task in which motor imagery performance could be monitored for 12 chronic stroke patients with subcortical infarcts and 12 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. We identified the typical activation pattern elicited for motor imagery in healthy controls, as computed over the voxels within each searchlight in the motor cortex. Then we measured the similarity of each individual's activation pattern to the typical activation pattern. In terms of activation levels, the stroke patients showed no activation in the ipsilesional primary motor cortex (M1); in terms of activation patterns, they showed lower similarity to the typical activation pattern in the area than the healthy controls. Furthermore, the stroke patients were better able to perform motor imagery if their activation patterns in the bilateral supplementary motor areas and ipsilesional M1 were close to the typical activation pattern. These findings suggest functional roles of the motor cortical areas for compliance with motor imagery in stroke, which can be applied to the implementation of motor imagery-based brain-computer interface for stroke rehabilitation. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Association timed "up and go" test with respect to gross motor function classification system level in children diagnosed as cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjivani N Dhote

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Timed "up and go" (TUG test is a quick test, used in clinical practice as an outcome measure to assess functional ambulatory mobility or dynamic balance in adults. However, little information is available of TUG test used in cerebral palsy (CP. Hence, the purpose of our study was to find score of TUG with respect to gross motor function classification system (GMFCS in CP children. Aims: To find the mean score of TUG test with respect to GMFCS level in children diagnosed as CP. Materials and Methods: It was a cross-sectional observational study conducted in neuro rehabilitation unit and included 30 CP children of 4-12 years, those within GMFCS level I, II, III, and IQ ≥50. The sampling technique used was purposive sampling excluding children with cognitive deficit. Subjects performed on TUG on three occasions: Initial assessment (time 1; 30 min after initial assessment (time 2; 1 week after initial assessment (time 3. Three trials were conducted for each of the three occasions. A mean score of three trials was documented as final score. The mean of scores of TUG test of all the subjects within the particular GMFCS levels was calculated. Results: Significant variation was seen in the TUG score for three levels of GMFCS. Conclusions: Significant variation was seen as GMFCS levels get increases time duration of TUG also increases.

  10. Age-dependent effects of chronic intermittent ethanol treatment: Gross motor behavior and body weight in aged, adult and adolescent rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Douglas B; Mittleman, Guy

    2017-09-14

    The proportion of people in the population who are elderly is rapidly increasing. In addition, dangerous alcohol consumption in this demographic is rising. Approximately 33% of all people with an alcohol use disorder are diagnosed with late onset alcoholism. However, few suitable animal models for late onset alcoholism exist, making it difficult to investigate the impact of alcoholism later in life. The current study investigated if chronic intermittent ethanol exposure via intraperitoneal injections every other day for 20days in aged, adult and adolescent male rats differentially alters body weight and impairs gross motor behavior as measured by the aerial righting reflex. The body weight of aged and adult rats were significantly decreased by chronic intermittent ethanol exposure while the body weight of adolescent rats was not impacted. In addition, the aerial righting reflex of aged rats was significantly more impaired by alcohol exposure than the aerial righting reflex of adult or adolescent animals. Chronic intermittent ethanol exposure did not produce tolerance in the aerial righting reflex for any of the three age groups. The differential age sensitivity in the aerial righting reflex was not due to differential blood ethanol concentrations. The current work demonstrates the risk factors of chronic alcohol use in the elderly and highlights the need for additional study in this vulnerable demographic. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Altered motor control patterns in whiplash and chronic neck pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasseljen Ottar

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Persistent whiplash associated disorders (WAD have been associated with alterations in kinesthetic sense and motor control. The evidence is however inconclusive, particularly for differences between WAD patients and patients with chronic non-traumatic neck pain. The aim of this study was to investigate motor control deficits in WAD compared to chronic non-traumatic neck pain and healthy controls in relation to cervical range of motion (ROM, conjunct motion, joint position error and ROM-variability. Methods Participants (n = 173 were recruited to three groups: 59 patients with persistent WAD, 57 patients with chronic non-traumatic neck pain and 57 asymptomatic volunteers. A 3D motion tracking system (Fastrak was used to record maximal range of motion in the three cardinal planes of the cervical spine (sagittal, frontal and horizontal, and concurrent motion in the two associated cardinal planes relative to each primary plane were used to express conjunct motion. Joint position error was registered as the difference in head positions before and after cervical rotations. Results Reduced conjunct motion was found for WAD and chronic neck pain patients compared to asymptomatic subjects. This was most evident during cervical rotation. Reduced conjunct motion was not explained by current pain or by range of motion in the primary plane. Total conjunct motion during primary rotation was 13.9° (95% CI; 12.2–15.6 for the WAD group, 17.9° (95% CI; 16.1–19.6 for the chronic neck pain group and 25.9° (95% CI; 23.7–28.1 for the asymptomatic group. As expected, maximal cervical range of motion was significantly reduced among the WAD patients compared to both control groups. No group differences were found in maximal ROM-variability or joint position error. Conclusion Altered movement patterns in the cervical spine were found for both pain groups, indicating changes in motor control strategies. The changes were not related to a

  12. 5-HT receptors involved in initiation or modulation of motor patterns: opportunities for drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallis, D I

    1994-08-01

    A clearer understanding of the role of descending systems in motor control can be achieved by using in vitro preparations of mammalian spinal cord that display patterned motor output, together with the use of selective pharmacological agents. It has been suggested that 5-HT is involved in either the initiation or the modulation of certain motor behaviours, and that it acts to enhance or regulate the motor pattern. Most attention has been paid to the locomotor rhythms underlying walking or swimming, and in respiratory pattern generation. In this article, David Wallis discusses the involvement of 5-HT1 and 5-HT2 receptors in these processes and the possible therapeutic relevance.

  13. Functional classifications for cerebral palsy: correlations between the gross motor function classification system (GMFCS), the manual ability classification system (MACS) and the communication function classification system (CFCS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compagnone, Eliana; Maniglio, Jlenia; Camposeo, Serena; Vespino, Teresa; Losito, Luciana; De Rinaldis, Marta; Gennaro, Leonarda; Trabacca, Antonio

    2014-11-01

    This study aimed to investigate a possible correlation between the gross motor function classification system-expanded and revised (GMFCS-E&R), the manual abilities classification system (MACS) and the communication function classification system (CFCS) functional levels in children with cerebral palsy (CP) by CP subtype. It was also geared to verify whether there is a correlation between these classification systems and intellectual functioning (IF) and parental socio-economic status (SES). A total of 87 children (47 males and 40 females, age range 4-18 years, mean age 8.9±4.2) were included in the study. A strong correlation was found between the three classifications: Level V of the GMFCS-E&R corresponds to Level V of the MACS (rs=0.67, p=0.001); the same relationship was found for the CFCS and the MACS (rs=0.73, pfunctional disability profile were strong or moderate (GMFCS and IQ: rs=0.66, p=0.001; MACS and IQ: rs=0.58, p=0.001; CFCS and MACS: rs=0.65, p=0.001). The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to determine if there were differences between the GMFCS-E&R, the CFCS and the MACS by CP type. CP types showed different scores for the IQ level (Chi-square=8.59, df=2, p=0.014), the GMFCS-E&R (Chi-square=36.46, df=2, pfunctional classifications (GMFCS-E&R, CFCS and MACS) complement each other to provide a better description of the functional profile of CP. The systematic evaluation of the IQ can provide useful information about a possible future outcome for every functional level. The SES does not appear to affect functional profiles.

  14. Detection of Variability of the Motor Unit Action Potential Shape by Means of the Firing Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, Christian; Nikolic, Mile; Dahl, Kristian;

    1997-01-01

    The motor unit action potential is a summation of the potentials of the individual muscle fibers from the same motor unit.By using a newly developed automatic EMG decomposition system, variability of the firing patterns of the muscle fibers are analyzed.......The motor unit action potential is a summation of the potentials of the individual muscle fibers from the same motor unit.By using a newly developed automatic EMG decomposition system, variability of the firing patterns of the muscle fibers are analyzed....

  15. Correlation Analysis of Gross Motor Function Classification and Core Strength of Children with Cerebral Palsy%脑瘫患儿粗大运动功能分级与核心肌力的相关性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王刚; 李莉; 支世保

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨痉挛型四肢瘫患儿核心肌力状况及其与粗大运动功能的关系.方法:选取痉挛型四肢瘫患儿70例,采用徒手肌力检查法(manual muscle test,MMT)对其核心肌群进行肌力评估,采用粗大运动功能分级系统(Gross Motor Function Classification System,GMFCS)对其粗大运动功能进行评估,并探讨两者相关性.结果:MMT测试结果显示,受试70例痉挛型四肢瘫患儿的核心肌群肌力均减低;GMFCS测试显示,I级10例,II级28例,III级18例,IV级2例,V级12例;Pearson相关分析结果显示,受试患儿GMFCS与核心肌群肌力均呈显著负相关(P<0.01).结论:痉挛型四肢瘫患儿核心肌力减低,核心肌力与粗大运动功能分级相关.%Objective:To investigate the relationship between core strength and gross motor function of children with spastic quadriplegia. Methods:70 cases of children with spastic quadriplegia were selected, whose myodynamia of core muscles was evaluated with manual muscle test (MMT), and gross motor function was evaluated with gross motor function classification system (GMFCS), as well as the correlation between them. Results:MMT showed that core muscle strength of 70 children with spastic quadriplegia decreased;according to GMFCS there were 10 cases of grade I, 28 cases of grade II, 18 cases of grade III, 2 cases of grade IV and 12 cases of grade V;Pearson correlation analysis showed that there was significantly negative correlation between GMFCS and core muscle strength (P<0.01). Conclusion:core muscle strength of children with spastic quadriplegia de-creases, core muscle strength and gross motor function classification are relative.

  16. Evaluation of EEG oscillatory patterns and cognitive process during simple and compound limb motor imagery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weibo Yi

    Full Text Available Motor imagery (MI, sharing similar neural representations to motor execution, is regarded as a window to investigate the cognitive motor processes. However, in comparison to simple limb motor imagery, significantly less work has been reported on brain oscillatory patterns induced by compound limb motor imagery which involves several parts of limbs. This study aims to investigate differences of the electroencephalogram (EEG patterns as well as cognitive process between simple limb motor imagery and compound limb motor imagery. Ten subjects participated in the experiment involving three tasks of simple limb motor imagery (left hand, right hand, feet and three tasks of compound limb motor imagery (both hands, left hand combined with right foot, right hand combined with left foot. Simultaneous imagination of different limbs contributes to the activation of larger cortical areas as well as two estimated sources located at corresponding motor areas within beta rhythm. Compared with simple limb motor imagery, compound limb motor imagery presents a network with more effective interactions overlying larger brain regions, additionally shows significantly larger causal flow over sensorimotor areas and larger causal density over both sensorimotor areas and neighboring regions. On the other hand, compound limb motor imagery also shows significantly larger 10-11 Hz alpha desynchronization at occipital areas and central theta synchronization. Furthermore, the phase-locking value (PLV between central and occipital areas of left/right hand combined with contralateral foot imagery is significantly larger than that of simple limb motor imagery. All these findings imply that there exist apparent intrinsic distinctions of neural mechanism between simple and compound limb motor imagery, which presents a more complex effective connectivity network and may involve a more complex cognitive process during information processing.

  17. Classification of cerebral palsy: association between gender, age, motor type, topography and Gross Motor Function Classificação da paralisia cerebral: associação entre gênero, idade, tipo motor, topografia e Função Motora Grossa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luzia Iara Pfeifer

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to assess the relation between gender, age, motor type, topography and gross motor function, based on the Gross Motor Function System of children with cerebral palsy. Trunk control, postural changes and gait of one hundred children between 5 months and 12 years old, were evaluated. There were no significant differences between gender and age groups (p=0.887 or between gender and motor type (p=0.731. In relation to body topography most children (88% were spastic quadriplegic. Most hemiplegics children were rated in motor level I, children with diplegia were rated in motor level III, and quadriplegic children were rated in motor level V. Functional classification is necessary to understand the differences in cerebral palsy and to have the best therapeutic planning since it is a complex disease which depends on several factors.Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a relação entre gênero, idade, tipo motor, topografia e Função Motora Grossa, baseado no Sistema de Função Motora Grossa em crianças com paralisia cerebral. Participaram desta pesquisa 100 crianças com idade entre 5 meses a 12 anos que foram observadas em relação ao controle de tronco, trocas posturais e marcha. Não houve diferenças significativas entre gêneros e grupos etários (p=0,887 e entre gênero e tipo motor (p=0,731. Em relação à topografia corporal, houve predomínio de crianças com quadriplegia, sendo que a maioria (88% era do tipo espástico. Quanto ao nível motor, as crianças hemiplégicas pertenciam em sua maioria ao nível I, as diplégicas ao nível III e as quadriplégicas ao nível V. Sendo a paralisia cerebral uma condição complexa que depende de diversos fatores, beneficia-se de classificações funcionais para compreensão da diversidade e melhor planejamento terapêutico.

  18. Patterns of multimorbidity in people with severe or profound intellectual and motor disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Timmeren, E. A.; Waninge, A.; Lantman-de, H. M. J. van Schrojenstein; van der Putten, A. A. J.; van der Schans, C. P.

    2017-01-01

    Background. People with severe or profound intellectual and motor disabilities (SPIMD) experience multimorbidity and have complex health needs. Multimorbidity increases mortality, decreases functioning, and negatively influences quality of life. Information regarding patterns of multimorbidity in pe

  19. Characterizing the complexity of spontaneous motor unit patterns of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis using approximate entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ping; Barkhaus, Paul E.; Zhang, Xu; Zev Rymer, William

    2011-10-01

    This paper presents a novel application of the approximate entropy (ApEn) measurement for characterizing spontaneous motor unit activity of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients. High-density surface electromyography (EMG) was used to record spontaneous motor unit activity bilaterally from the thenar muscles of nine ALS subjects. Three distinct patterns of spontaneous motor unit activity (sporadic spikes, tonic spikes and high-frequency repetitive spikes) were observed. For each pattern, complexity was characterized by calculating the ApEn values of the representative signal segments. A sliding window over each segment was also introduced to quantify the dynamic changes in complexity for the different spontaneous motor unit patterns. We found that the ApEn values for the sporadic spikes were the highest, while those of the high-frequency repetitive spikes were the lowest. There is a significant difference in mean ApEn values between two arbitrary groups of the three spontaneous motor unit patterns (P < 0.001). The dynamic ApEn curve from the sliding window analysis is capable of tracking variations in EMG activity, thus providing a vivid, distinctive description for different patterns of spontaneous motor unit action potentials in terms of their complexity. These findings expand the existing knowledge of spontaneous motor unit activity in ALS beyond what was previously obtained using conventional linear methods such as firing rate or inter-spike interval statistics.

  20. New global observations of the terrestrial carbon cycle from GOSAT: Patterns of plant fluorescence with gross primary productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankenberg, Christian; Fisher, Joshua B.; Worden, John; Badgley, Grayson; Saatchi, Sassan S.; Lee, Jung-Eun; Toon, Geoffrey C.; Butz, André; Jung, Martin; Kuze, Akihiko; Yokota, Tatsuya

    2011-09-01

    Our ability to close the Earth's carbon budget and predict feedbacks in a warming climate depends critically on knowing where, when and how carbon dioxide is exchanged between the land and atmosphere. Terrestrial gross primary production (GPP) constitutes the largest flux component in the global carbon budget, however significant uncertainties remain in GPP estimates and its seasonality. Empirically, we show that global spaceborne observations of solar induced chlorophyll fluorescence - occurring during photosynthesis - exhibit a strong linear correlation with GPP. We found that the fluorescence emission even without any additional climatic or model information has the same or better predictive skill in estimating GPP as those derived from traditional remotely-sensed vegetation indices using ancillary data and model assumptions. In boreal summer the generally strong linear correlation between fluorescence and GPP models weakens, attributable to discrepancies in savannas/croplands (18-48% higher fluorescence-based GPP derived by simple linear scaling), and high-latitude needleleaf forests (28-32% lower fluorescence). Our results demonstrate that retrievals of chlorophyll fluorescence provide direct global observational constraints for GPP and open an entirely new viewpoint on the global carbon cycle. We anticipate that global fluorescence data in combination with consolidated plant physiological fluorescence models will be a step-change in carbon cycle research and enable an unprecedented robustness in the understanding of the current and future carbon cycle.

  1. Modeling Hot Spot Motor Vehicle Theft Crime in Relation to Landuse and Settlement Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djaka Marwasta

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The crowd of Yogyakarta urban has impacted its surrounding area, including Depok sub district, which is indicated by the rising of physical development, for example education facilities and settlements. The progress does not only bring positive impact, but also negative impact for instance the rising of crime number i.e. motor vehicle robbery. The aims of this research are 1 mapping motor vehicle robbery data as the distribution map and identifying motor vehicle robbery hot spot base on distrbution map; and 2 studying the correlation of motor vehicle robbery hot spot with physical environment phenomena, i.e. land use type and settlement pattern. The research method consists of two parts; they are motor vehicle robbery cluster analysis and the relation of motor vehicle robbery and physical environment analysis. Motor vehicle robbery cluster analysis is using distribution data, which analyzes the distribution into motor vehicle robbery hot spot with nearest neighbor tehnique. Contingency coefficient and frequency distribution analysis is used to analyze the correlation of motor vehicle robbery hot spot and physical environment. Contingency coefficient is used to study the relation of motor vehicle robbery hot spot polygon with physical environment condition, whereas frequency distribution is used to study the distribution of motor vehicle robbery in the hot spot with physical environment condition. Physical environment which consists of land use type, housing density, house regularity pattern, and the average of building size, are obtained from interpretation of black and white panchromatic aerial photograph year 2000, in the scale 1 : 20.000. the most motor vehicle robbery hot spot is found on the settlement area, 68,3% from 378 motor vehicle robbery cases in the hot spot. The seond level is found on the education area (16.4%. The most motor vehicle hot spot in the settlement is found on the hight density and irregular settlement, which have big

  2. Short time sports exercise boosts motor imagery patterns: Implications of mental practice in rehabilitation programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selina Christin Wriessnegger

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Motor imagery (MI is a commonly used paradigm for the study of motor learning or cognitive aspects of action control. The rationale for using MI training to promote the relearning of motor function arises from research on the functional correlates that MI shares with the execution of physical movements. While most of the previous studies investigating MI were based on simple movements in the present study a more attractive mental practice was used to investigate cortical activation during MI. We measured cerebral responses with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI in twenty three healthy volunteers as they imagined playing soccer or tennis before and after a short physical sports exercise. Our results demonstrated that only 10 minutes of training are enough to boost motor imagery patterns in motor related brain regions including premotor cortex and supplementary motor area (SMA but also fronto-parietal and subcortical structures. This supports previous findings that motor imagery has beneficial effects especially in combination with motor execution when used in motor rehabilitation or motor learning processes. We conclude that sports MI combined with an interactive game environment could be a promising additional tool in future rehabilitation programs aiming to improve upper or lower limb functions or support neuroplasticity.

  3. New global observations of the terrestrial carbon cycle from GOSAT: Patterns of vegetation fluorescence with gross primary productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankenberg, C.; Fisher, J. B.; Lee, J.; Guanter, L.; Van der Tol, C.; Toon, G. C.; kuze, A.; Yokota, T.; Badgley, G. M.; Butz, A.; Jung, M.; Saatchi, S. S.; Worden, J.

    2011-12-01

    Our ability to close the Earth's carbon budget and predict feedbacks in a warming climate depends critically on knowing where, when and how carbon dioxide is exchanged between the land and atmosphere. Terrestrial gross primary production (GPP) constitutes the largest flux component in the global carbon budget, however significant uncertainties remain in GPP estimates and its seasonality. Solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence is a powerful proxy for assessing biomass photosynthetic activity since photosynthesis and fluorescence are directly coupled processes. This gives rise to re-emission of light between approximately 670 and 780 nm. Passive methods to quantify the fluorescence signal are mainly based on the filling-in of highly saturated O2 absorption structures. This method, however, was mostly applied in field-based measurements and is not directly applicable to space-borne retrievals. We show that variability of aerosols in the atmosphere load and surface pressure cannot be unequivocally disentangled from fluorescence since all these factor impact the absorption depths of O2 lines. This gives rise to biases in the retrieved scattering properties in typical multi-spectral XCO2 retrievals when using the O2 A band but not when focussing solely of solar Fraunhofer lines. We will a) present our retrieval method based on an iterative, non-linear least-squares fitting of Fraunhofer lines, b) discuss the potential impact on XCO2 retrievals and c) show recent fluorescence results from more than one year of GOSAT data. Empirically, we show that global spaceborne observations of solar induced chlorophyll fluorescence exhibit a strong linear correlation with GPP. We found that the fluorescence emission even without any additional meteorological, vegetation type or model information has the same or better predictive skill in estimating GPP as those derived from traditional remotely-sensed vegetation indices using ancillary data and model assumptions. Our results

  4. 脑瘫患儿智力与粗大运动发育的关系分析%Correlation analysis between intelligence and gross motor development of children with cerebral palsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨敏; 周光辉; 董宏珅

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze correlation between intelligence and gross motor development of children with cere-bral palsy. Methods 56 children with cerebral palsy were treated in our hospital from January 2011 to January 2013. After intelligence assessment,the children of 50 to 60 score were selected as group A (n=30),and the children of 90 to 100 score were classified into group B (n=26).The conventional rehabilitation therapy was provided in two groups.Motor function of children were evaluated by gross motor function measure-88 (GMFM-88) after half a year. Results After treatment,GMFM-88 score of d zone and e zone in two groups was higher than that before treatment respectively,im-provement amplitude in group B was even greater,with statistical difference(P<0.05). Conclusion The motor function in children with cerebral palsy has correlation with their intelligence.On the basis of receiving same rehabilitation,children with a higher intelligence have a higher improvement in gross motor function.%目的:分析脑瘫患儿智力与粗大运动发育的关系。方法本院2011年1月~2013年1月共收治56例脑瘫患儿,经过智商评估,将评分为50~60分者划分为A组(30例),将评分为90~100分划分为B组(26例)。两组患儿都接受常规康复治疗,半年后经粗大运动功能量表88项(GMFM-88)评估患儿的运动功能。结果治疗后,两组患儿d、e区的GMFM-88评分均较治疗前提高,B组的提高幅度更大,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论脑瘫患儿的运动功能与其智力有关,在接受同等康复治疗的基础上,智力较高患儿的粗大运动功能改善程度更高。

  5. German translation of the caregiver priorities and child health index of life with disabilities questionnaire: test-retest reliability and correlation with gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Nikolai H; Brix, Olga; Bernius, Peter; Schroeder, A Sebastian; Kluger, Gerhard J; Beyerlein, Andreas; Weir, Shannon; von Kries, Rudiger; Narayanan, Unni G; Mall, Volker; Berweck, Steffen

    2014-10-01

    We aimed to translate the Caregiver Priorities and Child Health Index of Life with Disabilities (CPCHILD) questionnaire into German and to evaluate its reliability and validity by studying the association between CPCHILD scores and gross motor function as measured by the gross motor function classification system (GMFCS) in children with cerebral palsy (CP). The original CPCHILD questionnaire and manual were translated and back translated. It was administered to primary caregivers of persons with CP (GMFCS levels III-V) and was completed a second time 2 weeks after the first to measure test-retest reliability (n = 17). Primary caregivers of 68 children with CP; GMFCS level III (n = 14), level IV (n = 28), and level V (n = 26) completed the questionnaire. Mean total CPCHILD scores across GMFCS levels were 67.1 ± 14.9 for GMFCS level III, 56.6 ± 11.8 for level IV, and 44.3 ± 12.9 for level V. Good correlation (r =  - 0.56) was observed between GMFCS and total scores test-retest reliability showed intraclass correlation coefficients between 0.4 and 0.9. The German CPCHILD yielded similar test-retest reliability and score distributions across the GMFCS level as the original version. The best correlations were observed for domains that are close to the functional deficits.

  6. Avaliação da motricidade ampla e fina na Síndrome de Williams: relato de caso Findings of the gross and fine motor in the Syndrome William Case: case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Melo Almeida

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivo analisar os achados da motricidade ampla e fina de uma criança de 8 anos de idade portador da Síndrome de Williams. Foram coletados dados biológicos da criança e da mãe durante a gestação e história pré, peri e pós-natal da criança e suas condições clínicas. O desenvolvimento motor amplo e fino foi avaliado pelo Inventário Portage Operacionalizado. Os resultados demonstraram que a criança revelou maior dificuldade na motricidade fina em relação à ampla, apresentando dificuldades na escrita, em manipular objetos que necessite fazer movimento de pronação e supinação e dificuldade no movimento de pinça.This study aimed to analyze the findings of motor and fine of an 8 years old holder of Williams Syndrome. Data were collected biological child and mother during pregnancy and history of pre, peri and postnatal child and their clinical conditions. The development and fine motor function was assessed by Portage Guide. The results showed that children showed greater difficulty with fine motor skills in relation to gross skills, having difficulty in writing, to manipulate objects that need to make movement of pronation and supination and difficulty in of the pincer movement.

  7. Two ways to save a newly learned motor pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roemmich, Ryan T; Bastian, Amy J

    2015-06-01

    Savings, or faster relearning after initial learning, demonstrates humans' remarkable ability to retain learned movements amid changing environments. This is important within the context of locomotion, as the ability of the nervous system to "remember" how to walk in specific environments enables us to navigate changing terrains and progressively improve gait patterns with rehabilitation. Here, we used a split-belt treadmill to study precisely how people save newly learned walking patterns. In Experiment 1, we investigated savings by systematically varying the learning and unlearning environments. Savings was predominantly influenced by 1) previous exposure to similar abrupt changes in the environment and 2) the amount of exposure to the new environment. Relearning was fastest when these two factors coincided, and we did not observe savings after the environment was introduced gradually during initial learning. In Experiment 2, we then studied whether people store explicit information about different walking environments that mirrors savings of a new walking pattern. Like savings, we found that previous exposure to abrupt changes in the environment also drove the ability to recall a previously experienced walking environment accurately. Crucially, the information recalled was extrinsic information about the learning environment (i.e., treadmill speeds) and not intrinsic information about the walking pattern itself. We conclude that simply learning a new walking pattern is not enough for long-term savings; rather, savings of a learned walking pattern involves recall of the environment or extended training at the learned state.

  8. Relations among motor, social, and cognitive skills in pre-kindergarten children with developmental disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Helyn; Carlson, Abby G; Curby, Timothy W; Winsler, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Despite the comorbidity between motor difficulties and certain disabilities, limited research has examined links between early motor, cognitive, and social skills in preschool-aged children with developmental disabilities. The present study examined the relative contributions of gross motor and fine motor skills to the prediction of improvements in children's cognitive and social skills among 2,027 pre-kindergarten children with developmental disabilities, including specific learning disorder, speech/language impairment, intellectual disability, and autism spectrum disorder. Results indicated that for pre-kindergarten children with developmental disabilities, fine motor skills, but not gross motor skills, were predictive of improvements in cognitive and social skills, even after controlling for demographic information and initial skill levels. Moreover, depending on the type of developmental disability, the pattern of prediction of gross motor and fine motor skills to improvements in children's cognitive and social skills differed. Implications are discussed.

  9. Neurogenic and myogenic properties of pan-colonic motor patterns and their spatiotemporal organization in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Hong Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Better understanding of intrinsic control mechanisms of colonic motility will lead to better treatment options for colonic dysmotility. The aim was to investigate neurogenic and myogenic control mechanisms underlying pan-colonic motor patterns. METHODS: Analysis of in vitro video recordings of whole rat colon motility was used to explore motor patterns and their spatiotemporal organizations and to identify mechanisms of neurogenic and myogenic control using pharmacological tools. RESULTS: Study of the pan-colonic spatiotemporal organization of motor patterns revealed: fluid-induced or spontaneous rhythmic propulsive long distance contractions (LDCs, 0.4-1.5/min, involving the whole colon, rhythmic propulsive motor complexes (RPMCs (0.8-2.5/min, dominant in distal colon, ripples (10-14/min, dominant in proximal colon, segmentation and retrograde contractions (0.1-0.8/min, prominent in distal and mid colon. Spontaneous rhythmic LDCs were the dominant pattern, blocked by tetrodotoxin, lidocaine or blockers of cholinergic, nitrergic or serotonergic pathways. Change from propulsion to segmentation and distal retrograde contractions was most prominent after blocking 5-HT3 receptors. In the presence of all neural blockers, bethanechol consistently evoked rhythmic LDC-like propulsive contractions in the same frequency range as the LDCs, indicating the existence of myogenic mechanisms of initiation and propulsion. CONCLUSIONS: Neurogenic and myogenic control systems orchestrate distinct and variable motor patterns at different regions of the pan-colon. Cholinergic, nitrergic and serotonergic pathways are essential for rhythmic LDCs to develop. Rhythmic motor patterns in presence of neural blockade indicate the involvement of myogenic control systems and suggest a role for the networks of interstitial cells of Cajal as pacemakers.

  10. Flow-pattern switching in a Motored Spark Ignition Engine

    CERN Document Server

    Abraham, Preeti S; Gupta, Saurabh; Kuo, Tang-Wei; Reuss, David L; Sick, Volker

    2014-01-01

    Cyclic-to-cycle variability, CCV, of intake-jet flow in an optical engine was measured using particle image velocimetry (PIV), revealing the possibility of two different flow patterns. A phase-dependent proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) analysis showed that one or the other flow pattern would appear in the average flow, sampled from test to test or sub-sampled within a single test; each data set contained individual cycles showing one flow pattern or the other. Three-dimensional velocity data from a large-eddy simulation (LES) of the engine showed that the PIV plane was cutting through a region of high shear between the intake jet and another large flow structure. Rotating the measurement plane 10{\\deg} revealed one or the other flow structure observed in the PIV measurements. Thus, it was hypothesized that cycle-to-cycle variations in the swirl ratio result in the two different flow patterns in the PIV plane. Having an unambiguous metric to reveal large-scale flow CCV, causes for this variability were ex...

  11. Patterned-string tasks: relation between fine motor skills and visual-spatial abilities in parrots.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Krasheninnikova

    Full Text Available String-pulling and patterned-string tasks are often used to analyse perceptual and cognitive abilities in animals. In addition, the paradigm can be used to test the interrelation between visual-spatial and motor performance. Two Australian parrot species, the galah (Eolophus roseicapilla and the cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus, forage on the ground, but only the galah uses its feet to manipulate food. I used a set of string pulling and patterned-string tasks to test whether usage of the feet during foraging is a prerequisite for solving the vertical string pulling problem. Indeed, the two species used techniques that clearly differed in the extent of beak-foot coordination but did not differ in terms of their success in solving the string pulling task. However, when the visual-spatial skills of the subjects were tested, the galahs outperformed the cockatiels. This supports the hypothesis that the fine motor skills needed for advanced beak-foot coordination may be interrelated with certain visual-spatial abilities needed for solving patterned-string tasks. This pattern was also found within each of the two species on the individual level: higher motor abilities positively correlated with performance in patterned-string tasks. This is the first evidence of an interrelation between visual-spatial and motor abilities in non-mammalian animals.

  12. Patterned-string tasks: relation between fine motor skills and visual-spatial abilities in parrots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasheninnikova, Anastasia

    2013-01-01

    String-pulling and patterned-string tasks are often used to analyse perceptual and cognitive abilities in animals. In addition, the paradigm can be used to test the interrelation between visual-spatial and motor performance. Two Australian parrot species, the galah (Eolophus roseicapilla) and the cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus), forage on the ground, but only the galah uses its feet to manipulate food. I used a set of string pulling and patterned-string tasks to test whether usage of the feet during foraging is a prerequisite for solving the vertical string pulling problem. Indeed, the two species used techniques that clearly differed in the extent of beak-foot coordination but did not differ in terms of their success in solving the string pulling task. However, when the visual-spatial skills of the subjects were tested, the galahs outperformed the cockatiels. This supports the hypothesis that the fine motor skills needed for advanced beak-foot coordination may be interrelated with certain visual-spatial abilities needed for solving patterned-string tasks. This pattern was also found within each of the two species on the individual level: higher motor abilities positively correlated with performance in patterned-string tasks. This is the first evidence of an interrelation between visual-spatial and motor abilities in non-mammalian animals.

  13. Neurodevelopmental Outcome of ECMO Survivors at Five Years of Age: The Potential for Academic and Motor Difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenbacher, Deborah; Nield, Toni; Poulsen, Marie Kanne

    2001-01-01

    This study examined the cognitive and motor functioning of 52 survivors of neonatal extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) at age 5. Ten percent were diagnosed with mental retardation, while an additional 12 percent presented other disabilities. A common pattern of specific vulnerabilities in cognitive, gross motor, fine motor, and motor…

  14. Desempenho motor grosso e sua associação com fatores neonatais, familiares e de exposição à creche em crianças até três anos de idade Gross motor performance and its association with neonatal and familial factors and day care exposure among children up to three years old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DCC Santos

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar o desempenho motor grosso e sua associação com fatores neonatais, familiares e de exposição à creche em crianças com até três anos de idade, frequentadoras de creches públicas. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal no qual foram avaliadas 145 crianças (58 com idade entre 6-11 meses, 54 entre 12-23 meses e 33 entre 24-38 meses frequentadoras de seis creches públicas de Piracicaba (SP. O teste Peabody Developmental Motor Scale-2 foi utilizado para avaliação do desempenho motor grosso global e subtestes motores que compõem a escala (Reflexos, Habilidades Estacionárias, Habilidades de Locomoção e Manipulação de Objetos. Foram coletados dados neonatais, familiares e de exposição à creche e pesquisada a associação desses ao desempenho motor suspeito de atraso. RESULTADOS:A prevalência de suspeita de atraso no desempenho motor grosso foi de 17%, com desvantagens em crianças menores de 24 meses e em Habilidades de Locomoção; encontrada associação de risco de desempenho motor grosso suspeito de atraso e renda familiar, e suspeita de atraso em Habilidades de Locomoção e escolaridade paterna. Crianças cujas famílias tinham renda mensal até R$700,00 estavam 2,81 vezes mais expostas a apresentar desempenho motor grosso suspeito de atraso. Crianças cujos pais tinham até oito anos de escolaridade apresentaram risco 4,63 vezes maior de atraso em Habilidades de Locomoção. Não foi encontrada associação de risco com as demais variáveis. CONCLUSÃO:Os resultados apontam maior atenção ao desenvolvimento motor durante os primeiros 24 meses de crianças que frequentam creches, especialmente as inseridas em famílias com menor renda mensal e cujos pais têm menos escolaridade.OBJECTIVE: To analyze gross motor performance and its association with neonatal and familial factors and day care exposure among children up to three years of age attending public day care centers. METHODS:This was a cross-sectional study that

  15. Primary motor cortex neurons classified in a postural task predict muscle activation patterns in a reaching task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heming, Ethan A; Lillicrap, Timothy P; Omrani, Mohsen; Herter, Troy M; Pruszynski, J Andrew; Scott, Stephen H

    2016-04-01

    Primary motor cortex (M1) activity correlates with many motor variables, making it difficult to demonstrate how it participates in motor control. We developed a two-stage process to separate the process of classifying the motor field of M1 neurons from the process of predicting the spatiotemporal patterns of its motor field during reaching. We tested our approach with a neural network model that controlled a two-joint arm to show the statistical relationship between network connectivity and neural activity across different motor tasks. In rhesus monkeys, M1 neurons classified by this method showed preferred reaching directions similar to their associated muscle groups. Importantly, the neural population signals predicted the spatiotemporal dynamics of their associated muscle groups, although a subgroup of atypical neurons reversed their directional preference, suggesting a selective role in antagonist control. These results highlight that M1 provides important details on the spatiotemporal patterns of muscle activity during motor skills such as reaching.

  16. NM Gross Receipts Baseline

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  17. Gross National Happiness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giri, Krishna Prasad; Kjær-Rasmussen, Lone Krogh

    This paper investigates practices related to the ideology of infusing Gross National Happiness (GNH) into school curriculum, the effectiveness of the meditation and mind training and the implication of GNH for school environment. It also explores how GNH ambience has been managed and practiced...... of Gross National Happiness and Educating for Gross National happiness....

  18. Afferent roles in hindlimb wipe-reflex trajectories: free-limb kinematics and motor patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargo, W J; Giszter, S F

    2000-03-01

    The hindlimb wiping reflex of the frog is an example of a targeted trajectory that is organized at the spinal level. In this paper, we examine this reflex in 45 spinal frogs to test the importance of proprioceptive afferents in trajectory formation at the spinal level. We tested hindlimb to hindlimb wiping, in which the wiping or effector limb and the target limb move together. Loss of afferent feedback from the wiping limb was produced by cutting dorsal roots 7-9. This caused altered initial trajectory direction, increased ankle path curvature, knee-joint velocity reversals, and overshooting misses of the target limb. We established that these kinematic and motor-pattern changes were due mainly to the loss of ipsilateral muscular and joint afferents. Loss of cutaneous afferents alone did not alter the initial trajectory up to target limb contact. However, there were cutaneous effects in later motor-pattern phases after the wiping and target limb had made contact: The knee extension or whisk phase of wiping was often lost. Finally, there was a minor and nonspecific excitatory effect of phasic contralateral feedback in the motor-pattern changes after deafferentation. Specific muscle groups were altered as a result of proprioceptive loss. These muscles also showed configuration-based regulation during wiping. Biceps, semitendinosus, and sartorius (all contributing knee flexor torques) all were regulated in amplitude based on the initial position of the limb. These muscles contributed to an initial electromyographic (EMG) burst in the motor pattern. Rectus internus and semimembranosus (contributing hip extensor torques) were regulated in onset but not in the time of peak EMG or in termination of EMG based on initial position. These two muscles contributed to a second EMG burst in the motor pattern. After deafferentation the initial burst was reduced and more synchronous with the second burst, and the second burst often was broadened in duration. Ankle path curvature

  19. Coherence of EMG activity and single motor unit discharge patterns in human rhythmical force production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosnoff, Jacob J; Vaillancourt, David E; Larsson, Lars; Newell, Karl M

    2005-03-30

    The purpose of this study was to examine the modulation of the motor neuronal pool as a function of task dynamics. Specifically, we investigated the effects of task frequency on the single motor unit discharge pattern, electromyogram (EMG) activity and effector force output. Myoelectric activity and effector force were recorded while young adults isometrically abducted their first dorsal interosseus at five sinusoidal targets (0.5 Hz, 1 Hz, 2 Hz, 3 Hz and 4 Hz) and at two force levels (5% and 25% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC)). Individual motor unit spike trains were isolated from the EMG. Auto-spectral and coherence analyses were performed on the force output, EMG and motor unit spike trains. The frequency of maximal coherence between the EMG and force output closely corresponded to the target frequency in all conditions. There was a broadband distribution of power with multiple peaks in the EMG and motor unit spectrums in the 0.5 Hz and 1 Hz targets. However, the EMG and motor unit spectrums in the 2 Hz, 3 Hz and 4 Hz targets were characterized by an increasingly narrower band of activity with one dominant peak that closely corresponded to the target. There is high coherence between EMG output and target force frequency, but the relative contribution of the fast and slow neuromuscular bands are differentially influenced by the task frequency. The rhythmical organization of neuromuscular output in the 0.5 Hz task is relatively broadband and similar to that shown previously for constant level force output. The frequency structure of neuromuscular organization becomes increasingly more narrowband as the frequency of the target increases (2-4 Hz). The modulation of the motor neuronal pool is adaptive and depends on the relative contribution of feedback and feedforward control processes, which are driven by the task demands.

  20. Examining Differences in Patterns of Sensory and Motor Recovery After Stroke With Robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semrau, Jennifer A; Herter, Troy M; Scott, Stephen H; Dukelow, Sean P

    2015-12-01

    Developing a better understanding of the trajectory and timing of stroke recovery is critical for developing patient-centered rehabilitation approaches. Here, we quantified proprioceptive and motor deficits using robotic technology during the first 6 months post stroke to characterize timing and patterns in recovery. We also make comparisons of robotic assessments to traditional clinical measures. One hundred sixteen subjects with unilateral stroke were studied at 4 time points: 1, 6, 12, and 26 weeks post stroke. Subjects performed robotic assessments of proprioceptive (position sense and kinesthesia) and motor function (unilateral reaching task and bimanual object hit task), as well as several clinical measures (Functional Independence Measure, Purdue Pegboard, and Chedoke-McMaster Stroke Assessment). One week post stroke, many subjects displayed proprioceptive (48% position sense and 68% kinesthesia) and motor impairments (80% unilateral reaching and 85% bilateral movement). Interindividual recovery on robotic measures was highly variable. However, we characterized recovery as early (normal by 6 weeks post stroke), late (normal by 26 weeks post stroke), or incomplete (impaired at 26 weeks post stroke). Proprioceptive and motor recovery often followed different timelines. Across all time points, robotic measures were correlated with clinical measures. These results highlight the need for more sensitive, targeted identification of sensory and motor deficits to optimize rehabilitation after stroke. Furthermore, the trajectory of recovery for some individuals with mild to moderate stroke may be much longer than previously considered. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  1. Evidence for a general stiffening motor control pattern in neck pain: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisingset, Ingebrigt; Woodhouse, Astrid; Stensdotter, Ann-Katrin; Stavdahl, Øyvind; Lorås, Håvard; Gismervik, Sigmund; Andresen, Hege; Austreim, Kristian; Vasseljen, Ottar

    2015-03-17

    Neck pain is associated with several alterations in neck motion and motor control. Previous studies have investigated single constructs of neck motor control, while few have applied a comprehensive set of tests to investigate cervical motor control. This comparative cross- sectional study aimed to investigate different motor control constructs in neck pain patients and healthy controls. A total of 166 subjects participated in the study, 91 healthy controls (HC) and 75 neck pain patients (NP) with long-lasting moderate to severe neck pain. Neck flexibility, proprioception, head steadiness, trajectory movement control, and postural sway were assessed using a 3D motion tracking system (Liberty). The different constructs of neck motion and motor control were based on tests used in previous studies. Neck flexibility was lower in NP compared to HC, indicated by reduced cervical ROM and conjunct motion. Movement velocity was slower in NP compared to HC. Tests of head steadiness showed a stiffer movement pattern in NP compared to HC, indicated by lower head angular velocity. NP patients departed less from a predictable trajectory movement pattern (figure of eight) compared to healthy controls, but there was no difference for unpredictable movement patterns (the Fly test). No differences were found for postural sway in standing with eyes open and eyes closed. However, NP patients had significantly larger postural sway when standing on a balance pad. Proprioception did not differ between the groups. Largest effect sizes (ES) were found for neck flexibility (ES range: 0.2-0.8) and head steadiness (ES range: 1.3-2.0). Neck flexibility was the only construct that showed a significant association with current neck pain, while peak velocity was the only variable that showed a significant association with kinesiophobia. NP patients showed an overall stiffer and more rigid neck motor control pattern compared to HC, indicated by lower neck flexibility, slower movement velocity

  2. Toward the Autism Motor Signature: Gesture patterns during smart tablet gameplay identify children with autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzulewicz, Anna; Sobota, Krzysztof; Delafield-Butt, Jonathan T.

    2016-08-01

    Autism is a developmental disorder evident from infancy. Yet, its clinical identification requires expert diagnostic training. New evidence indicates disruption to motor timing and integration may underpin the disorder, providing a potential new computational marker for its early identification. In this study, we employed smart tablet computers with touch-sensitive screens and embedded inertial movement sensors to record the movement kinematics and gesture forces made by 37 children 3–6 years old with autism and 45 age- and gender-matched children developing typically. Machine learning analysis of the children’s motor patterns identified autism with up to 93% accuracy. Analysis revealed these patterns consisted of greater forces at contact and with a different distribution of forces within a gesture, and gesture kinematics were faster and larger, with more distal use of space. These data support the notion disruption to movement is core feature of autism, and demonstrate autism can be computationally assessed by fun, smart device gameplay.

  3. Motor unit recruitment pattern during low-level static and dynamic contractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søgaard, K

    1995-03-01

    Motor unit (MU) recruitment patterns were studied during dynamic and static contractions at workloads corresponding to 10% of maximal voluntary contraction force. The dynamic contraction consisted of a 20 degrees flexion and extension of the elbow performed with a velocity of 10 degrees/s. Motor unit potential trains were recorded from the brachial biceps muscle of 6 healthy females using a quadripolar needle electrode and a computerized decomposition program. Properties of the identified MUs were derived from concentric needle EMG. A total of 119 MUs were identified during dynamic contractions, 107 MUs during static anisotonic contractions, and 96 MUs during static isotonic contractions. The main result was that MUs recruited during different contractions showed similar properties and may belong to the same part of the motoneuron pool. This indicates that MU recruitment patterns during dynamic contractions may be almost as stereotypical as during static contractions and may even activate the same MUs.

  4. Perceptual Estimates of Motor Skill Proficiency Are Constrained by the Stability of Coordination Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, John J

    2015-01-01

    This study demonstrated that motor skill proficiency ratings are constrained by the same order parameter dynamics that constrain action production and action perception processes. Participants produced rhythmic actions simulated by an animated stick figure of the human arm. The primary finding was that participants' proficiency ratings covaried most with relative phase (φ) variability compared to mean relative phase. In-phase (φ = 0°) was produced with the least variability and received the highest proficiency rating, whereas the patterns φ = ±150° were attempted with the most variability and received the lowest proficiency ratings. A temporal delay in attempting to produce the animated pattern had a large impact on produced relative phase, yet had little impact on the proficiency ratings. Proprioceptive processes provide individuals information on motor skill proficiency. The lead or lag motion of the hand to forearm segment of the animated arm was identified consistently through visual processes and revealed asymmetries in the mapping of visual input to motor output. The results are consistent with concepts from the dynamic pattern theory of coordination and are discussed with regard to relative phase as an informational variable that constraints the perception-action system across many levels.

  5. Consequences of comorbidity of developmental coordination disorders and learning disabilities for severity and pattern of perceptual-motor dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongmans, Marian J; Smits-Engelsman, Bouwien C M; Schoemaker, Marina M

    2003-01-01

    Children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) have difficulty learning and performing age-appropriate perceptual-motor skills in the absence of diagnosable neurological disorders. Descriptive studies have shown that comorbidity of DCD exists with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and learning disabilities (LD). This study examined the consequences of the comorbidity of DCD and LD for the severity and pattern of perceptual-motor dysfunction. Compared to children with DCD without LD, children with comorbid DCD and LD performed lower on a standardized assessment of perceptual-motor ability. Furthermore, it appeared that children with combined DCD and LD have particular difficulty performing manual dexterity and balance tasks but not ball-skill tasks. Implications for understanding the relationship between LD and perceptual-motor problems are discussed. We conclude that the comorbidity of DCD and LD not only affects the severity of perceptual-motor dysfunction but also is associated with a distinctive pattern of perceptual-motor dysfunction.

  6. Relationships between motor patterns and intraluminal pressure in the 3-taeniated proximal colon of the rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Xiaojing; Yang, Zixian; Xue, Mai; Chen, Ji-Hong; Huizinga, Jan D

    2017-02-14

    Manometry is used worldwide to assess motor function of the gastrointestinal tract, and the measured intraluminal pressure patterns are usually equated with contraction patterns. In the colon, simultaneous pressure increases throughout the entire colon are most often called simultaneous contractions, although this inference has never been verified. To evaluate the relationship between pressure and contraction in the colon we performed high-resolution manometry and measured diameter changes reflecting circular muscle contractions in the rabbit colon. We show that within a certain range of contraction amplitudes and frequencies, the intraluminal pressure pattern faithfully resembles the contraction pattern. However, when the frequency is very high (as in fast propagating contractions in a cluster) the consequent intraluminal pressures merge. When the contraction speed of propagation is very fast (above ~5 cm/s), the resulting pressure occurs simultaneous throughout the colon; hence simultaneous pressure is measured as are caused by fast propagating contractions. The very slow propagating, low amplitude haustral boundary contractions show a very characteristic pattern in spatiotemporal contraction maps that is not faithfully reproduced in the pressure maps. Correct interpretation of pressure events in high-resolution manometry is essential to make it a reliable tool for diagnosis and management of patients with colon motor dysfunction.

  7. Common Spatio-Time-Frequency Patterns for Motor Imagery-Based Brain Machine Interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Higashi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available For efficient decoding of brain activities in analyzing brain function with an application to brain machine interfacing (BMI, we address a problem of how to determine spatial weights (spatial patterns, bandpass filters (frequency patterns, and time windows (time patterns by utilizing electroencephalogram (EEG recordings. To find these parameters, we develop a data-driven criterion that is a natural extension of the so-called common spatial patterns (CSP that are known to be effective features in BMI. We show that the proposed criterion can be optimized by an alternating procedure to achieve fast convergence. Experiments demonstrate that the proposed method can effectively extract discriminative features for a motor imagery-based BMI.

  8. A preliminary analysis of correlated evolution in Mammalian chewing motor patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Susan H; Vinyard, Christopher J; Wall, Christine E; Doherty, Alison H; Crompton, Alfred W; Hylander, William L

    2011-08-01

    Descriptive and quantitative analyses of electromyograms (EMG) from the jaw adductors during feeding in mammals have demonstrated both similarities and differences among species in chewing motor patterns. These observations have led to a number of hypotheses of the evolution of motor patterns, the most comprehensive of which was proposed by Weijs in 1994. Since then, new data have been collected and additional hypotheses for the evolution of motor patterns have been proposed. Here, we take advantage of these new data and a well-resolved species-level phylogeny for mammals to test for the correlated evolution of specific components of mammalian chewing motor patterns. We focus on the evolution of the coordination of working-side (WS) and balancing-side (BS) jaw adductors (i.e., Weijs' Triplets I and II), the evolution of WS and BS muscle recruitment levels, and the evolution of asynchrony between pairs of muscles. We converted existing chewing EMG data into binary traits to incorporate as much data as possible and facilitate robust phylogenetic analyses. We then tested hypotheses of correlated evolution of these traits across our phylogeny using a maximum likelihood method and the Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo method. Both sets of analyses yielded similar results highlighting the evolutionary changes that have occurred across mammals in chewing motor patterns. We find support for the correlated evolution of (1) Triplets I and II, (2) BS deep masseter asynchrony and Triplets I and II, (3) a relative delay in the activity of the BS deep masseter and a decrease in the ratio of WS to BS muscle recruitment levels, and (4) a relative delay in the activity of the BS deep masseter and a delay in the activity of the BS posterior temporalis. In contrast, changes in relative WS and BS activity levels across mammals are not correlated with Triplets I and II. Results from this work can be integrated with dietary and morphological data to better understand how feeding and the

  9. Consequences of Comorbidity of Developmental Coordination Disorders and Learning Disabilities for Severity and Pattern of Perceptual-Motor Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongmans, Marian J.; Smits-Engelsman, Bouwien C. M.; Schoemaker, Marina M.

    2003-01-01

    This study examined consequences of the comorbidity of developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and learning disability (LD) for the severity and pattern of perceptual-motor dysfunction. Compared to children with only DCD, those with DCD and LD had poorer perceptual-motor ability, with particular difficulty performing manual dexterity and balance…

  10. 77 FR 51706 - Gross Combination Weight Rating (GCWR); Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration 49 CFR Parts 383 and 390 RIN 2126-AB53 Gross Combination Weight Rating (GCWR); Definition AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Direct final rule; request for comments. SUMMARY: The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration...

  11. Phasic bursts of the antagonistic jaw muscles during REM sleep mimic a coordinated motor pattern during mastication

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    T. Kato; N. Nakamura; Y. Masuda; A. Yoshida; T. Morimoto; K. Yamamura; S. Yamashita; F. Sato

    2013-01-01

    .... In this study, jaw-closing and -opening muscle electromyographic (EMG) activities and jaw movements were quantified to characterize phenotypes of motor patterns during sleep in freely moving and head-restrained guinea pigs...

  12. Local Temporal Correlation Common Spatial Patterns for Single Trial EEG Classification during Motor Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Common spatial pattern (CSP is one of the most popular and effective feature extraction methods for motor imagery-based brain-computer interface (BCI, but the inherent drawback of CSP is that the estimation of the covariance matrices is sensitive to noise. In this work, local temporal correlation (LTC information was introduced to further improve the covariance matrices estimation (LTCCSP. Compared to the Euclidean distance used in a previous CSP variant named local temporal CSP (LTCSP, the correlation may be a more reasonable metric to measure the similarity of activated spatial patterns existing in motor imagery period. Numerical comparisons among CSP, LTCSP, and LTCCSP were quantitatively conducted on the simulated datasets by adding outliers to Dataset IVa of BCI Competition III and Dataset IIa of BCI Competition IV, respectively. Results showed that LTCCSP achieves the highest average classification accuracies in all the outliers occurrence frequencies. The application of the three methods to the EEG dataset recorded in our laboratory also demonstrated that LTCCSP achieves the highest average accuracy. The above results consistently indicate that LTCCSP would be a promising method for practical motor imagery BCI application.

  13. An analysis of motor unit firing pattern during sustained low force contraction in fatigued muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, H B; Christensen, H; Søgaard, K

    2001-01-01

    In the present study motor unit (MU) firing pattern was analysed during long-term static contraction in order to see if fatigue would induce rotation of activity between different MU. Surface as well as intramuscular EMG were obtained from ten subjects during a sustained hand lift for 5 minutes after performance of a 30% MVC fatiguing contraction of the extensor carpi radialis muscle. A newly developed decomposition program constituted a powerful tool to obtain detailed knowledge of long term activity pattern of MU during low force contractions. Although the muscle was highly fatigued the majority of MU showed a continuous firing pattern after recruitment and no clear incidences of rotation were found for any of the subjects. Therefore, long term, low force contractions, as performed during many occupational work tasks, may involve continuous activation of the low threshold MU and this could have mechanical as well as metabolic implications for these muscle fibers.

  14. Actigraphic registration of motor activity reveals a more structured behavioural pattern in schizophrenia than in major depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oedegaard Ketil J

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disturbances in motor activity pattern are seen in both schizophrenia and depression. However, this activity has rarely been studied objectively. The purpose of the present study has been to study the complexity of motor activity patterns in these patients by using actigraphy. Findings Motor activity was recorded using wrist-worn actigraphs for periods of 2 weeks in patients with schizophrenia and major depression and compare them to healthy controls. Average motor activity was recorded and three non-parametric variables, interdaily stability (IS, intradaily variability (IV, and relative amplitude (RA were calculated on the basis of these data. The motor activity was significantly lower both in patients with schizophrenia (153 ± 61, mean ± SD, p Conclusions Motor activity was significantly reduced in both schizophrenic and depressed patients. However, schizophrenic patients differed from both depressed patients and controls, demonstrating motor activity patterns marked by less complexity and more structured behaviour. These findings may indicate that disturbances in motor activity reflect different pathophysiological mechanisms in schizophrenia compared to major depression.

  15. Effects of Sensory Integration Training on children with delayed Gross Motor%发育落后儿童经感觉统合训练后的粗大运动能力变化的临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱晓芸; 李惠; 苏怡; 侯方华; 翟淳; 朱默

    2011-01-01

    目的:分析发育落后儿童经感觉统合训练后的粗大运动能力变化.方法:选择接受感觉统合训练的粗大运动发育落后儿童25例,训练期间接受过2次PDMS-GM评估,评估间隔6个月.用Peabody粗大运动发育评估(Peabody Development Measure Scale Gross Motor,PDMS-GM)的固定、移动和操作能区的原始得分进行分析.结果:PDMS-GM的固定能力分值和移动能力分值在两次评估结果间有显著性差异(P<0.001);而操作能力分值没有显著性差异(P>0.05).结论:经过6个月的感觉统合训练,粗大运动发育落后儿童固定和移动能力水平明显改善.

  16. Central generation of grooming motor patterns and interlimb coordination in locusts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, A; Laurent, G

    1996-12-15

    Coordinated bursts of leg motoneuron activity were evoked in locusts with deefferented legs by tactile stimulation of sites that evoke grooming behavior. This suggests that insect thoracic ganglia contain central pattern generators for directed leg movements. Motoneuron recordings were made from metathoracic and mesothoracic nerves, after eliminating all leg motor innervation, as well as all input from the brain, subesophageal ganglion, and prothoracic ganglion. Strong, brief trochanteral levator motoneuron bursts occurred, together with silence of the slow and fast trochanteral depressor motoneurons and activation of the common inhibitor motoneuron. The metathoracic slow tibial extensor motoneuron was active in a pattern distinct from its activity during walking or during rhythms evoked by the muscarinic agonist pilocarpine. Preparations in which the metathoracic ganglion was isolated from all other ganglia could still produce fictive motor patterns in response to tactile stimulation of metathoracic locations. Bursts of trochanteral levator and depressor motoneurons were clearly coordinated between the left and right metathoracic hemiganglia and also between the mesothoracic and the ipsilateral metathoracic ganglia. These data provide clear evidence for centrally generated interlimb coordination in an insect.

  17. Study on the effect of intelligence on the gross motor function of children with cerebral palsy%脑瘫患儿智力改善对粗大运动功能影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王立苹; 王丹; 孙奇峰; 李雪梅; 杨本利; 李晓捷

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To describe the effect of intelligence on the gross motor function of children with cerebral palsy.Methods:50 ca-ses of 4-6 years old, GMFCS II level, mild mental retardation children with spastic diplegia cerebral palsy , according to the random number table method were randomly divided into treatment group (n=25) and control group (n=25).The two groups were treated with conventional rehabilitation method of rehabilitation treatment, the treatment group with brain function biofeedback treatment.After 3 months, the intelligence quotient and GMFM88 were assessed again.The motor and intelligence ability were contrasted of treatment and control group.The differences were observed between treatment and control group.Results:The score of China Binet Intelligence Scales increased in treatment group.The score of dimension D and E increased after treatment in both treatment and control group.The improve-ment in treatment group was larger than control group.Conclusion:The improvement of intelligence can promote the ability of the gross motor.%目的:判断脑瘫患儿智力改善对粗大运动功能的影响. 方法:4 ~6 岁轻度智力落后、GMFCS II级痉挛型双瘫脑瘫患儿50例,按随机数表法随机分为治疗组(n=25)和对照组(n=25). 2组均采用常规康复方法进行康复治疗,治疗组加脑功能生物反馈治疗,治疗前和治疗3个月后分别评定中国比内智力量表、粗大运动功能,观测2组患儿智力水平、粗大运动功能量表( GMFM-88)之 D 区 、E 区分值及粗大运动功能评定分值改善程度以比较观察疗效. 结果: 治疗组智力水平较治疗前有改善( P<0 .05 ). 治疗后2组GMFM-88之D区和E区评分较治疗前有改善( P<0 .05 ) ,治疗组上述指标均比对照组显著提高(P<0.05). 治疗组粗大运动功能评定分值改善程度明显优于对照组. 结论:脑瘫患儿智力改善会促进粗大运动功能发育.

  18. Communication Deficits and the Motor System: Exploring Patterns of Associations in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mody, M.; Shui, A. M.; Nowinski, L. A.; Golas, S. B.; Ferrone, C.; O'Rourke, J. A.; McDougle, C. J.

    2017-01-01

    Many children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have notable difficulties in motor, speech and language domains. The connection between motor skills (oral-motor, manual-motor) and speech and language deficits reported in other developmental disorders raises important questions about a potential relationship between motor skills and…

  19. Endogenous rhythm and pattern-generating circuit interactions in cockroach motor centres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izhak David

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cockroaches are rapid and stable runners whose gaits emerge from the intricate, and not fully resolved, interplay between endogenous oscillatory pattern-generating networks and sensory feedback that shapes their rhythmic output. Here we studied the endogenous motor output of a brainless, deafferented preparation. We monitored the pilocarpine-induced rhythmic activity of levator and depressor motor neurons in the mesothoracic and metathoracic segments in order to reveal the oscillatory networks’ architecture and interactions. Data analyses included phase relations, latencies between and overlaps of rhythmic bursts, spike frequencies, and the dependence of these parameters on cycle frequency. We found that, overall, ipsilateral connections are stronger than contralateral ones. Our findings revealed asymmetries in connectivity among the different ganglia, in which meta-to-mesothoracic ascending coupling is stronger than meso-to-metathoracic descending coupling. Within-ganglion coupling between the metathoracic hemiganglia is stronger than that in the mesothoracic ganglion. We also report differences in the role and mode of operation of homologue network units (manifested by levator and depressor nerve activity. Many observed characteristics are similar to those exhibited by intact animals, suggesting a dominant role for feedforward control in cockroach locomotion. Based on these data we posit a connectivity scheme among components of the locomotion pattern generating system.

  20. Cardinality as a highly descriptive feature in myoelectric pattern recognition for decoding motor volition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Catalan, Max

    2015-01-01

    Accurate descriptors of muscular activity play an important role in clinical practice and rehabilitation research. Such descriptors are features of myoelectric signals extracted from sliding time windows. A wide variety of myoelectric features have been used as inputs to pattern recognition algorithms that aim to decode motor volition. The output of these algorithms can then be used to control limb prostheses, exoskeletons, and rehabilitation therapies. In the present study, cardinality is introduced and compared with traditional time-domain (Hudgins' set) and other recently proposed myoelectric features (for example, rough entropy). Cardinality was found to consistently outperform other features, including those that are more sophisticated and computationally expensive, despite variations in sampling frequency, time window length, contraction dynamics, type, and number of movements (single or simultaneous), and classification algorithms. Provided that the signal resolution is kept between 12 and 14 bits, cardinality improves myoelectric pattern recognition for the prediction of motion volition. This technology is instrumental for the rehabilitation of amputees and patients with motor impairments where myoelectric signals are viable. All code and data used in this work is available online within BioPatRec.

  1. Cardinality as a Highly Descriptive Feature in Myoelectric Pattern Recognition for Decoding Motor Volition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max eOrtiz-Catalan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Accurate descriptors of muscular activity play an important role in clinical practice and rehabilitation research. Such descriptors are features of myoelectric signals extracted from sliding time windows. A wide variety of myoelectric features have been used as inputs to pattern recognition algorithms that aim to decode motor volition. The output of these algorithms can then be used to control limb prostheses, exoskeletons, and rehabilitation therapies. In the present study, cardinality is introduced and compared with traditional time-domain (Hudgins’ set and other recently proposed myoelectric features (for example, rough entropy. Cardinality was found to consistently outperform other features, including those that are more sophisticated and computationally expensive, despite variations in sampling frequency, time window length, contraction dynamics, type and number of movements (single or simultaneous, and classification algorithms. Provided that the signal resolution is kept between 12 and 14 bits, cardinality improves myoelectric pattern recognition for the prediction of motion volition. This technology is instrumental for the rehabilitation of amputees and patients with motor impairments where myoelectric signals are viable. All code and data used in this work is available online within BioPatRec.

  2. Assessment of gross motor function development in children with cerebral palsy by nonlinear mixed effect model%非线性混合效应模型评估脑瘫患儿粗大运动功能发育进程

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史惟; 丁俊杰; 杨红; 廖元贵; 朱默; 侯方华; 王艺

    2012-01-01

    Objective To describe the patterns of gross motor development of children with cerebral palsy ( CP ) in each level of the Gross Motor Function Classification System ( GMFCS ) using nonlinear mixed effect model, as a basis for planning clinical management. Methods Patients with CP were enrolled from 7 rehabilitation centers in Shanghai form August 2000 to December 2007. Severity of CP was based solely on GMFCS level and motor function was assessed with Gross Motor Function Measure-66 ( GMFM-66 ). The stable limit model was used to make the gross motor development curve for children in each of the 5 GMFCS levels. The stable limit model has two parameters, corresponding to limit of motor function and the rate which can transforms to age-90. Age-90 means the age at which children are expected to achieve 90% of their predicted limit in GMFM-66. In addition, the results of our study were compared with those of Canada study. Results A total of 228 children ( 152 males, 76 females ) with CP were enrolled in the study. Types of CP in these children were spastic quadriplegia ( n = 63 ), spastic diplegia ( n = 87 ), spastic hemiplegia ( n = 48 ), athetotic ( n = 11 ), dystonia ( n = 4 ) and ataxic ( n = 11 ). Based on a total of 986 GMFM assessments ( 4. 32 assessments per child ), distinct motor development curves were constructed. The limit of GMFM-66 in GMFCS Ⅰ - Ⅴ level was 81.2, 62. 4, 52. 9, 40. 8 and 24. 4 scores, the corresponding age-90 was 3.8, 2. 7, 2. 1, 2. 0 and 1. 5 years respectively. GMFM-66 limit in GMFCS level I and II of our study was lower than that in Canada study, however GMFM-66 limit in GMFCS level Ⅲ — Ⅴ was closer to that in Canada study. Moreover, the corresponding age-90 in each 5 levels of GMFCS in our study was lower than that in Canada study. Conclusions The gross motor development more quickly reached its limit in GMFCS level Ⅰ and Ⅱ , however the limit of GMFM-66 was lower than that in Canada study. More attention should be paid

  3. Hotspots of gross emissions from the land use sector: patterns, uncertainties, and leading emission sources for the period 2000-2005 in the tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman-Cuesta, Rosa Maria; Rufino, Mariana C.; Herold, Martin; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus; Rosenstock, Todd S.; Herrero, Mario; Ogle, Stephen; Li, Changsheng; Poulter, Benjamin; Verchot, Louis; Martius, Christopher; Stuiver, John; de Bruin, Sytze

    2016-07-01

    According to the latest report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), emissions must be cut by 41-72 % below 2010 levels by 2050 for a likely chance of containing the global mean temperature increase to 2 °C. The AFOLU sector (Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use) contributes roughly a quarter ( ˜ 10-12 Pg CO2e yr-1) of the net anthropogenic GHG emissions mainly from deforestation, fire, wood harvesting, and agricultural emissions including croplands, paddy rice, and livestock. In spite of the importance of this sector, it is unclear where the regions with hotspots of AFOLU emissions are and how uncertain these emissions are. Here we present a novel, spatially comparable dataset containing annual mean estimates of gross AFOLU emissions (CO2, CH4, N2O), associated uncertainties, and leading emission sources, in a spatially disaggregated manner (0.5°) for the tropics for the period 2000-2005. Our data highlight the following: (i) the existence of AFOLU emissions hotspots on all continents, with particular importance of evergreen rainforest deforestation in Central and South America, fire in dry forests in Africa, and both peatland emissions and agriculture in Asia; (ii) a predominant contribution of forests and CO2 to the total AFOLU emissions (69 %) and to their uncertainties (98 %); (iii) higher gross fluxes from forests, which coincide with higher uncertainties, making agricultural hotspots appealing for effective mitigation action; and (iv) a lower contribution of non-CO2 agricultural emissions to the total gross emissions (ca. 25 %), with livestock (15.5 %) and rice (7 %) leading the emissions. Gross AFOLU tropical emissions of 8.0 (5.5-12.2) were in the range of other databases (8.4 and 8.0 Pg CO2e yr-1 in FAOSTAT and the Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR) respectively), but we offer a spatially detailed benchmark for monitoring progress in reducing emissions from the land sector in the tropics. The location of

  4. Loovkirjutamist õpetab Philip Gross

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    T.S. Elioti luulepreemia laureaat Philip Gross on Tallinna Ülikooli talvekooli rahvusvahelise kursuse "Poetry: A Conversation between Words and Silence" läbiviija. Oma seminarides keskendub ta lisaks loovkirjutamisele ka loova lugemise vajadusele

  5. Gross Sales Tax Collections

    Data.gov (United States)

    City of Jackson, Mississippi — This data is captured directly from the MS Department of Revenue and specific to the City of Jackson. It is compiled from Gross Sales Tax reported by taxpayers each...

  6. Rhythmic patterns evoked in locust leg motor neurons by the muscarinic agonist pilocarpine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryckebusch, S; Laurent, G

    1993-05-01

    1. When an isolated metathoracic ganglion of the locust was superfused with the muscarinic cholinergic agonist pilocarpine, rhythmic activity was induced in leg motor neurons. The frequency of this induced rhythm increased approximately linearly from 0 to 0.2 Hz with concentrations of pilocarpine from 10(-5) to 10(-4) M. Rhythmic activity evoked by pilocarpine could be completely and reversibly blocked by 3 x 10(-5) M atropine, but was unaffected by 10(-4) M d-tubocurarine. 2. For each hemiganglion, the observed rhythm was characterized by two main phases: a levator phase, during which the anterior coxal rotator, levators of the trochanter, flexors of the tibia, and common inhibitory motor neurons were active; and a depressor phase, during which depressors of the trochanter, extensors of the tibia, and depressors of the tarsus were active. Activity in depressors of the trochanter followed the activity of the levators of the trochanter with a short, constant interburst latency. Activity in the levator of the tarsus spanned both phases. 3. The levator phase was short compared with the period (0.5-2 s, or 10-20% of the period) and did not depend on the period. The interval between the end of a levator burst and the beginning of the following one thus increased with cycle period. The depressor phase was more variable, and was usually shorter than the interval between successive levator bursts. 4. Motor neurons in a same pool often received common discrete synaptic potentials (e.g., levators of trochanter or extensors of tibia), suggesting common drive during the rhythm. Coactive motor neurons on opposite sides (such as left trochanteral depressors and right trochanteral levators), however, did not share obvious common postsynaptic potentials. Depolarization of a pool of motor neurons during its phase of activity was generally accompanied by hyperpolarization of its antagonist(s) on the same side. 5. Rhythmic activity was generally evoked in both hemiganglia of the

  7. Consequences of comorbidity of developmental coordination disorders and learning disabilities for severity and pattern of perceptual-motor dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) have difficulty learning and performing age-appropriate perceptual-motor skills in the absence of diagnosable neurological disorders. Descriptive studies have shown that comorbidity of DCD exists with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and learning disabilities (LD). This study examined the consequences of the comorbidity of DCD and LD for the severity and pattern of perceptual-motor dysfunction. Compared to children with DC...

  8. Severe aberrant glenohumeral motor patterns in a young female rower: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGurk Neal

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This case features an 18-year-old female with glenohumeral dysrhythmia and subluxation-relocation patterns. This unusual case highlights the need for careful examination and consideration to the anatomical structures involved. Conventional approaches to shoulder examination include range of motion, orthopaedic tests and manual resistance tests. We also assessed the patient's cognitive ability to coordinate muscle function. With this type of assessment we found that co-contraction of local muscle groups seemed to initially improve the patients abnormal shoulder motion. With this information a rehabilitation method was instituted with a goal to maintain the improvement. Case presentation An 18-year-old female with no history of trauma, presented with painless kinesiopathology of the left shoulder (in abduction consisting of dysrhythmia of the glenohumeral joint and early lateral rotation of the scapula. Examination also showed associated muscle atrophy of the lower trapezius and surrounding general muscle weakness. We used an untested functional assessment method in addition to more conventional methods. Exercise rehabilitation interventions were subsequently prescribed and graduated in accordance with what is known as the General Physical Rehabilitation Pyramid. Conclusion This paper presents an unusual case of aberrant shoulder movement. It highlights the need for careful examination and thought regarding the anatomical structures and normal motor patterns associated with the manoeuvre being tested. It also emphasised the use of co-contraction during examination in an attempt to immediately improve a regional dysrythmia if there is suspicion of a regional aberrant motor pattern. Further research may be warranted to test this approach.

  9. Cellular basis for singing motor pattern generation in the field cricket (Gryllus bimaculatus DeGeer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöneich, Stefan; Hedwig, Berthold

    2012-01-01

    The singing behavior of male crickets allows analyzing a central pattern generator (CPG) that was shaped by sexual selection for reliable production of species-specific communication signals. After localizing the essential ganglia for singing in Gryllus bimaculatus, we now studied the calling song CPG at the cellular level. Fictive singing was initiated by pharmacological brain stimulation. The motor pattern underlying syllables and chirps was recorded as alternating spike bursts of wing-opener and wing-closer motoneurons in a truncated wing nerve; it precisely reflected the natural calling song. During fictive singing, we intracellularly recorded and stained interneurons in thoracic and abdominal ganglia and tested their impact on the song pattern by intracellular current injections. We identified three interneurons of the metathoracic and first unfused abdominal ganglion that rhythmically de- and hyperpolarized in phase with the syllable pattern and spiked strictly before the wing-opener motoneurons. Depolarizing current injection in two of these opener interneurons caused additional rhythmic singing activity, which reliably reset the ongoing chirp rhythm. The closely intermeshing arborizations of the singing interneurons revealed the dorsal midline neuropiles of the metathoracic and three most anterior abdominal neuromeres as the anatomical location of singing pattern generation. In the same neuropiles, we also recorded several closer interneurons that rhythmically hyper- and depolarized in the syllable rhythm and spiked strictly before the wing-closer motoneurons. Some of them received pronounced inhibition at the beginning of each chirp. Hyperpolarizing current injection in the dendrite revealed postinhibitory rebound depolarization as one functional mechanism of central pattern generation in singing crickets. PMID:23170234

  10. Vocal tract motor patterns and resonance during constant frequency song: the white-throated sparrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riede, Tobias; Suthers, Roderick A

    2009-02-01

    Bird song is a complex behavior that requires the coordination of several motor systems. Sound is produced in the syrinx and then modified by the upper vocal tract. Movements of the hyoid skeleton have been shown in the northern cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis) to be extensively involved in forming an oropharyngeal-esophageal cavity (OEC), which contributes a major resonance to the vocal tract transfer function. Here we report that a similar relationship exists between the volume of the OEC and the fundamental frequency in the white-throated sparrow (Zonotrichia albicollis) whose song, unlike that of the cardinal, consists of a series of almost constant frequency notes. Cineradiography of singing sparrows shows that the oropharyngeal cavity and cranial end of the esophagus expand abruptly at the start of each note and maintain a relatively constant volume until the end of the note. Computation of the vocal tract transfer function suggests a major resonance of the OEC follows the fundamental frequency, making sound transmission more efficient. The presence of similar prominent song-related vocal tract motor patterns in two Oscine families suggests that the active control of the vocal tract resonance by varying the volume of the OEC may be widespread in songbirds.

  11. Classifying single-trial EEG during motor imagery by iterative spatio-spectral patterns learning (ISSPL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Gao, Xiaorong; Hong, Bo; Gao, Shangkai

    2008-06-01

    In most current motor-imagery-based brain-computer interfaces (BCIs), machine learning is carried out in two consecutive stages: feature extraction and feature classification. Feature extraction has focused on automatic learning of spatial filters, with little or no attention being paid to optimization of parameters for temporal filters that still require time-consuming, ad hoc manual tuning. In this paper, we present a new algorithm termed iterative spatio-spectral patterns learning (ISSPL) that employs statistical learning theory to perform automatic learning of spatio-spectral filters. In ISSPL, spectral filters and the classifier are simultaneously parameterized for optimization to achieve good generalization performance. A detailed derivation and theoretical analysis of ISSPL are given. Experimental results on two datasets show that the proposed algorithm can correctly identify the discriminative frequency bands, demonstrating the algorithm's superiority over contemporary approaches in classification performance.

  12. Multisubject Learning for Common Spatial Patterns in Motor-Imagery BCI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieter Devlaminck

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Motor-imagery-based brain-computer interfaces (BCIs commonly use the common spatial pattern filter (CSP as preprocessing step before feature extraction and classification. The CSP method is a supervised algorithm and therefore needs subject-specific training data for calibration, which is very time consuming to collect. In order to reduce the amount of calibration data that is needed for a new subject, one can apply multitask (from now on called multisubject machine learning techniques to the preprocessing phase. Here, the goal of multisubject learning is to learn a spatial filter for a new subject based on its own data and that of other subjects. This paper outlines the details of the multitask CSP algorithm and shows results on two data sets. In certain subjects a clear improvement can be seen, especially when the number of training trials is relatively low.

  13. Effect of Grade of Gross Motor Function Classification System on Outcome of Selective Posterior Rhizotomy for Children with Ce- rebral Palsy%不同粗大运动功能分级脑性瘫痪患儿选择性脊神经后根切断术疗效分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张国勋; 李星; 成莲英; 舒鹏飞; 陶莹

    2014-01-01

    Objective To observe the outcome of selective posterior rhizotomy (SPR) for cerebral palsy children with different gross mo-tor function before operation. Methods 132 cases accepted SPR were grouped with their grades of Gross Motor Function Classification Sys-tem (GMFCS), and their outcomes were compared. Results The muscle tension, gross motor function and activities of daily living improved in all the groups after SPR (P<0.01). The muscle tone decreased the most in grade I (P<0.01). The gross motor ability improved the most in grade II(P<0.001). The activities of daily living improved the most in grades I and IV (P<0.05). Conclusion The outcome of SPR for chil-dren with cerebral palsy is various with the gross motor function before operation.%目的:比较不同粗大运动功能分级脑瘫患儿选择性脊神经后根切断术(SPR)的效果。方法对132例实行SPR手术治疗的患儿按粗大运动功能分级系统(GMFCS)分级,比较各组间疗效。结果不同GMFCS分级脑瘫患儿SPR术后肌张力、粗大运动功能及日常生活活动能力均有明显改善(P<0.01);GMFCSⅠ级者肌张力下降更为明显(P<0.01);GMFCSⅡ级者粗大运动功能改善更为显著(P<0.001);GMFCSⅠ级与GMFCSⅣ级者日常生活活动能力较其余各组改善更为明显(P<0.05),两组之间无显著差异性(P=0.067)。结论 SPR手术对于不同GMFCS分级脑瘫患儿的疗效存在差异。

  14. Effect of motor learning on gross motor function and banlanced function in children with spastic cerebral palsy%运动学习训练对痉挛型脑瘫患儿运动功能和平衡功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谷艳霞; 袁俊英

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To explore the impact of motor learning( ML) and neurodevelopment therapy( NDT) on spastic diplegia chil-dren with cerebral palsy about GMFM D、E regions,and Berg balance scale.Methods:The prospective randomized control trial was used , we stratified randomly 60 children diagnosed spastic diplegia cerebral palsy on the basis of GMFCS( gross motor function classification sys-tem) and ages into two groups,one group received ML,another received NDT.they all trained 12 weeks, the gross motor function measure D、E regions ,and Berg balance scale were seperatedly observed.Results:There were significant differeces in two groups about the pre-and post-treatment valuse of GMFM D、E regions and Berg balance scale (p>0.05).The values of post-training within two groups had significant differeces in GMFM E region and Berg balance scale(p0.05).Conclusion:The ol-der children with spastic diplegia in ML group had more effect than ones in NDT group in gross motor and banlance function .%目的:探讨运动学习训练及神经发育训练方法在脑性瘫痪儿童粗大运动功能及平衡功能的影响。方法:采用前瞻性随机对照研究,依据年龄和粗大运动功能分级分层,纳入60名痉挛型脑瘫患儿,层内随机分为运动学习组和神经发育组,分别经过12周训练,观察2种方法对粗大运动功能量表D区、E区分数以及Berg平衡量表测评的影响。结果:运动学习组和神经发育组均可以提高脑瘫患儿运动功能及平衡功能(训练前后,均有p<0.05);2组比较,训练后D区分数比较,t=1.858,p=0.068,尚不能说明2组有统计学差异;训练后E区分数比较,t=2.038,p=0.046,2组差异有统计学意义。训练后Berg评分比较,t=2.503,p=0.015,2组差异具有统计学意义。结论:对年龄较大的痉挛型脑性瘫痪儿童来说,运动学习组在粗大运动功能改善和平衡功能提高方面优于神经发育组。

  15. A study of the characteristics of and correlation between proprioception ability and gross motor development level of children aged 3 to 6%3~6岁幼儿本体感觉能力和粗大动作发展水平的特征及相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴升扣; 姜桂萍; 龚睿; 李林; 刘威彤

    2016-01-01

    采用X-SENS三维关节位置觉测量系统测试幼儿的膝关节本体感觉能力,采用粗大动作发展测试(TGMD-2)对受试者进行移动性动作和操作性动作测试,评估幼儿粗大动作发展水平.比较不同年龄幼儿本体感觉能力、粗大动作发展水平特点,并探讨二者的相关性.结果发现:(1)幼儿本体感觉能力存在显著的年龄差异,随着年龄的增加,幼儿本体感觉能力不断提高,3~6岁是本体感觉能力迅速发展的时期;(2)3~6岁是幼儿动作发展的关键时期,粗大动作发展水平存在显著的年龄差异.随着年龄增加,幼儿粗大动作发展水平不断提高,但尚未出现显著的性别差异;(3)幼儿的本体感觉能力与粗大动作发展水平之间有非常显著的正相关关系,幼儿的本体感觉越好,其粗大动作发展水平越高,而与幼儿身体质量指数之间没有显著的相关关系.人类动作的学习与发展离不开本体感觉,人们应该为幼儿提供更多的运动机会,让其在运动中体会丰富的本体感觉,学习多样的运动模式,获取全面的动作参数,从而帮助他们建立和完善动作基模.%The authors measured children's knee joint proprioception ability by using X-SENS 3D joint position sense measurement system, and the testees' moving actions and operating actions by using gross motor development test (TGMD-2), evaluated children's gross motor development level, compared the characteristics of proprioception ability and gross motor development level of children of different ages, probed into their correlation, and revealed the following findings: 1) children's proprioception ability is significantly age different, enhanced as their age increases, and constantly improved; ages 3 to 6 is a period when proprioception ability develops rapidly; 2) ages 3 to 6 is a critical period for children movement development, in which gross motor development level is significantly age different; as their age

  16. Dysphagia in Cerebral Palsy and the Relationship between Levels of Gross Motor Function Classification System%脑瘫患儿吞咽障碍及其与粗大运动功能分级的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜艳平; 侯梅; 窦坦凤; 李文妍; 杨会娟

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨脑瘫患儿吞咽障碍的特点及其与粗大运动功能分级的关系.方法 对2009年6月~2010年6月在本院脑瘫康复中心门诊及住院治疗的脑瘫患儿进行吞咽障碍调查、口运动评估和粗大运动功能评估,分析不同粗大运动功能分级的脑瘫患儿的吞咽问题.结果 105例脑瘫患儿中,58例(56.2%)存在吞咽障碍,其中21.9%为轻度吞咽困难,34.3%为中重度吞咽困难.不同粗大运动功能分级 (Gross Motor Function Classification System, GMFCS)的吞咽障碍调查(Dysphagia Disorders Survey, DDS)及口运动评分不同(P<0.001).DDS和口运动评分与GMFCS水平的相关系数分别为0.767和-0.504(P<0.01).不同GMFCS分级的吞咽障碍和口运动障碍不同(P<0.001),DSS分级、口运动障碍和GMFCS分级呈正相关关系(r=0.55, r=0.27).结论 脑瘫患儿吞咽障碍主要发生在口腔期,GMFCS水平越高,吞咽障碍和口运动障碍的比例越高,程度越重,GMFCS水平Ⅳ~Ⅴ级者吞咽障碍和口运动障碍更突出.

  17. Catchment disturbance and stream metabolism: Patterns in ecosystem respiration and gross primary production along a gradient of upland soil and vegetation disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houser, J.N.; Mulholland, P.J.; Maloney, K.O.

    2005-01-01

    Catchment characteristics determine the inputs of sediments and nutrients to streams. As a result, natural or anthropogenic disturbance of upland soil and vegetation can affect instream processes. The Fort Benning Military Installation (near Columbus, Georgia) exhibits a wide range of upland disturbance levels because of spatial variability in the intensity of military training. This gradient of disturbance was used to investigate the effect of upland soil and vegetation disturbance on rates of stream metabolism (ecosystem respiration rate [ER] and gross primary production rate [GPP]). Stream metabolism was measured using an open-system, single-station approach. All streams were net heterotrophic during all seasons. ER was highest in winter and spring and lowest in summer and autumn. ER was negatively correlated with catchment disturbance level in winter, spring, and summer, but not in autumn. ER was positively correlated with abundance of coarse woody debris, but not significantly related to % benthic organic matter. GPP was low in all streams and generally not significantly correlated with disturbance level. Our results suggest that the generally intact riparian zones of these streams were not sufficient to protect them from the effect of upland disturbance, and they emphasize the role of the entire catchment in determining stream structure and function. ?? 2005 by The North American Benthological Society.

  18. Association of selected primitive reflex patterns with motor development among Nigerian children with cerebral palsy (a hospital-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cozens Bankole Aiyejusunle

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The retention of primitive reflexes (PRs is considered to be one of the primary impairments associated with cerebral palsy (CP. However, little is known about the pattern of retention of PRs across the different classes of CP. Objectives: This study was undertaken to evaluate, identify, and describe selected PRs in children diagnosed with CP and to determine their association with motor development. Materials and Methods: This study was a cross-sectional analytical survey conducted in the physiotherapy departments of four conveniently selected public hospitals in Lagos metropolis. Thirty-one children diagnosed with CP aged between 18-84 months were recruited. A PR profile consisting of 15 PRs were evaluated. The World Health Organization (WHO windows of achievement for six key motor milestones were employed to explore their motor development. Results: The placing reflex presented the highest pattern of persistence (12.96% across all the classes of CP. Children with spastic CP had the highest mean sum of retained PRs (6.24 ± 2.36. There was no significant association between the sum of retained PRs and motor development (P > 0.05. In addition, there were characteristic patterns of responses for specific PRs. Conclusion: The pattern of retained PRs varies for the different classes of CP. There is no significant association between the retention of PRs and motor development for children with CP. There is a need for further, in-depth study of these reflexes, individually, to better understand how they influence the motor development of children with CP.

  19. Premotor spinal network with balanced excitation and inhibition during motor patterns has high resilience to structural division

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Peter C; Vestergaard, Mikkel; Reveles Jensen, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    Direct measurements of synaptic inhibition (I) and excitation (E) to spinal motoneurons can provide an important insight into the organization of premotor networks. Such measurements of flexor motoneurons participating in motor patterns in turtles have recently demonstrated strong concurrent E an...

  20. Effect of thyroid hypofunction on the masseter motor innervation pattern in developing rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Ganji

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The thyroid hormones have profound effects on the development of neuromuscular system. These hormones exert their influence on both muscle fibers and related motoneurons during development. The masseter is one of the most important muscles for mastication in mammals. We attempted to evaluate the effect of thyroid hormone deficiency on the morphological characteristics of masseteric motoneurons in the period of alteration from sucking to biting and chewing in the rat. Materials and Methods: To induce hypothyroidism, timed pregnant dams received 50 ppm antithyroid drug propylthiouracil (PTU in their drinking water and PTU was administered to the pups during suckling period. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP was injected into the masseter (0.5-5 μlit, 40% of normal and prenatal hypothyroid pups on postnatal days of 1, 7, 15, and 23 (n=24. After 24-48 hours, the 50 μm thick brainstem sections containing trigeminal motor nucleus were processed for TMB histochemical procedure and morphological characteristics of HRP labeled motoneurons and their HRP labeling intensity was evaluated. Student's t-test and two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA were used for statistical analysis. Results: No significant morphological differences were observed at the end of first week of life. On day 15, hypothyroid labeled masseteric motoneurons consisted of 70% small and 30% medium neurons versus 40% and 60% in normal pups respectively (p<0.05. At the time of weaning, the number of large motoneurons dropped to 30% of normal value (p<0.001 with few, short, and disoriented dendrites. Conclusion: The alteration in particular patterns of masseteric motoneuron morphology and a severe delay in size transition could affect the development and plasticity of oral motor behavior under congenital hypothyroidism.

  1. Altered motor unit discharge patterns in paretic muscles of stroke survivors assessed using surface electromyography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaogang; Suresh, Aneesha K.; Rymer, William Z.; Suresh, Nina L.

    2016-08-01

    Objective. Hemispheric stroke survivors often show impairments in voluntary muscle activation. One potential source of these impairments could come from altered control of muscle, via disrupted motor unit (MU) firing patterns. In this study, we sought to determine whether MU firing patterns are modified on the affected side of stroke survivors, as compared with the analogous contralateral muscle. Approach. Using a novel surface electromyogram (EMG) sensor array, coupled with advanced template recognition software (dEMG) we recorded surface EMG signals over the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscle on both paretic and contralateral sides. Recordings were made as stroke survivors produced isometric index finger abductions over a large force range (20%-60% of maximum). Utilizing the dEMG algorithm, MU firing rates, recruitment thresholds, and action potential amplitudes were estimated for concurrently active MUs in each trial. Main results. Our results reveal significant changes in the firing rate patterns in paretic FDI muscle, in that the discharge rates, characterized in relation to recruitment force threshold and to MU size, were less clearly correlated with recruitment force than in contralateral FDI muscles. Firing rates in the affected muscle also did not modulate systematically with the level of voluntary muscle contraction, as would be expected in intact muscles. These disturbances in firing properties also correlated closely with the impairment of muscle force generation. Significance. Our results provide strong evidence of disruptions in MU firing behavior in paretic muscles after a hemispheric stroke, suggesting that modified control of the spinal motoneuron pool could be a contributing factor to muscular weakness in stroke survivors.

  2. Effects of excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission on motor patterns of human sigmoid colon in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulí, M; Martínez, E; Gallego, D; Opazo, A; Espín, F; Martí-Gallostra, M; Jiménez, M; Clavé, P

    2008-01-01

    Background and purpose: To characterize the in vitro motor patterns and the neurotransmitters released by enteric motor neurons (EMNs) in the human sigmoid colon. Experimental approach: Sigmoid circular strips were studied in organ baths. EMNs were stimulated by electrical field stimulation (EFS) and through nicotinic ACh receptors. Key results: Strips developed weak spontaneous rhythmic contractions (3.67±0.49 g, 2.54±0.15 min) unaffected by the neurotoxin tetrodotoxin (TTX; 1 μM). EFS induced strong contractions during (on, 56%) or after electrical stimulus (off, 44%), both abolished by TTX. Nicotine (1–100 μM) inhibited spontaneous contractions. Latency of off-contractions and nicotine responses were reduced by NG-nitro-L-arginine (1 mM) and blocked after further addition of apamin (1 μM) or the P2Y1 receptor antagonist MRS 2179 (10 μM) and were unaffected by the P2X antagonist NF279 (10 μM) or α-chymotrypsin (10 U mL−1). Amplitude of on- and off-contractions was reduced by atropine (1 μM) and the selective NK2 receptor antagonist Bz-Ala-Ala-D-Trp-Phe-D-Pro-Pro-Nle-NH2 (1 μM). MRS 2179 reduced the amplitude of EFS on- and off-contractions without altering direct muscular contractions induced by ACh (1 nM–1 mM) or substance P (1 nM–10 μM). Conclusions and implications: Latency of EFS-induced off-contractions and inhibition of spontaneous motility by nicotine are caused by stimulation of inhibitory EMNs coreleasing NO and a purine acting at muscular P2Y1 receptors through apamin-sensitive K+ channels. EFS-induced on- and off-contractions are caused by stimulation of excitatory EMNs coreleasing ACh and tachykinins acting on muscular muscarinic and NK2 receptors. Prejunctional P2Y1 receptors might modulate the activity of excitatory EMNs. P2Y1 and NK2 receptors might be therapeutic targets for colonic motor disorders. PMID:18846038

  3. Glial tumors in brodmann area 6: spread pattern and relationships to motor areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Komal B; Hayman, L Anne; Chavali, Lakshmi S; Hamilton, Jackson D; Prabhu, Sujit S; Wangaryattawanich, Pattana; Kumar, Vinodh A; Kumar, Ashok J

    2015-01-01

    The posterior frontal lobe of the brain houses Brodmann area 4, which is the primary motor cortex, and Brodmann area 6, which consists of the supplementary motor area on the medial portion of the hemisphere and the premotor cortex on the lateral portion. In this area, safe resection is dependent on accurate localization of the motor cortex and the central sulcus, which can usually be achieved by using thin-section imaging and confirmed by using other techniques. The most reliable anatomic landmarks are the "hand knob" area and the marginal ramus of the cingulate sulcus. Postoperatively, motor deficits can occur not only because of injury to primary motor cortex but also because of injury to the supplementary motor area. Unlike motor cortex injury, the supplementary motor area syndrome is transient, if it occurs at all. On the lateral hemisphere, motor and language deficits can also occur because of premotor cortex injury, but a dense motor deficit would indicate subcortical injury to the corticospinal tract. The close relationship of the subcortical motor fibers and premotor cortex is illustrated. In contrast to the more constant landmarks of the central sulcus and marginal ramus, which aid in preoperative localization, the variable interruptions in the precentral and cingulate sulci of the posterior frontal lobe seem to provide "cortical bridges" for spread of infiltrating gliomas. (©)RSNA, 2015.

  4. Sensory and motor responses to rectal distention vary according to rate and pattern of balloon inflation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, W M; Read, N W; Prior, A; Daly, J A; Cheah, S K; Grundy, D

    1990-10-01

    rectum is slowly filling. Rectal sensation and concomitant external anal sphincter activity was not associated with anal relaxation during ramp inflation; most subjects felt the sensation long after the pressure reached its lowest level. However, under all circumstances the onset of rectal sensation was associated with an increase of external anal sphincter electrical activity. In conclusion, the rectal sensory and anorectal motor responses to distention depend on the rate and pattern of distention, which may activate a different population of receptors. Results from different laboratories cannot be compared directly unless the pattern and rate of distension are the same.

  5. Motor skills related to body movement and dance. t-patterns detection Habilidades motrices en expresión corporal y danza. Detección de t-patterns

    OpenAIRE

    M. Dinušová; Torrents, C; M. Castañer; M. T. Anguera

    2010-01-01

    In the learning processes that promotes the generation of motor actions, teachers usually propose instructions based on kinetic models. The aim of this study is to observe what type of motor answers the subjects generate from kinesic models offered by the teachers. The motor answers to observe refer to the patterns of motor skills of stability, locomotion and manipulation, variations of body-space, time and interaction between participants. 12...

  6. Neuromolecular Imaging Shows Temporal Synchrony Patterns between Serotonin and Movement within Neuronal Motor Circuits in the Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia A. Broderick

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The present discourse links the electrical and chemical properties of the brain with neurotransmitters and movement behaviors to further elucidate strategies to diagnose and treat brain disease. Neuromolecular imaging (NMI, based on electrochemical principles, is used to detect serotonin in nerve terminals (dorsal and ventral striata and somatodendrites (ventral tegmentum of reward/motor mesocorticolimbic and nigrostriatal brain circuits. Neuronal release of serotonin is detected at the same time and in the same animal, freely moving and unrestrained, while open-field behaviors are monitored via infrared photobeams. The purpose is to emphasize the unique ability of NMI and the BRODERICK PROBE® biosensors to empirically image a pattern of temporal synchrony, previously reported, for example, in Aplysia using central pattern generators (CPGs, serotonin and cerebral peptide-2. Temporal synchrony is reviewed within the context of the literature on central pattern generators, neurotransmitters and movement disorders. Specifically, temporal synchrony data are derived from studies on psychostimulant behavior with and without cocaine while at the same time and continuously, serotonin release in motor neurons within basal ganglia, is detected. The results show that temporal synchrony between the neurotransmitter, serotonin and natural movement occurs when the brain is NOT injured via, e.g., trauma, addictive drugs or psychiatric illness. In striking contrast, in the case of serotonin and cocaine-induced psychostimulant behavior, a different form of synchrony and also asynchrony can occur. Thus, the known dysfunctional movement behavior produced by cocaine may well be related to the loss of temporal synchrony, the loss of the ability to match serotonin in brain with motor activity. The empirical study of temporal synchrony patterns in humans and animals may be more relevant to the dynamics of motor circuits and movement behaviors than are studies of

  7. Influence of motor skills training on children's development evaluated in the Motor skills in PreSchool (MiPS) study-DK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hestbaek, Lise; Andersen, Sarah Thurøe; Skovgaard, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    , a cohort will be established including all children attending preschools in the municipality with extensive baseline data collection: gross and fine motor skills; movement patterns; musculoskeletal complaints; physical activity; anthropometry; general wellbeing; cognitive abilities; language status......, ISRCTN23701994 . Registered on 13 October 2016....

  8. Relação entre índice de massa corporal e habilidade motora grossa em crianças de quatro a seis anos Relationship between body mass index and gross motor skill in four to six year-old children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Zandonadi Catenassi

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve por objetivo verificar a relação entre o desempenho em tarefas de habilidade motora grossa com o índice de massa corporal (IMC em meninos e meninas de quatro a seis anos de idade. Para tanto, foram analisadas 27 crianças, sendo 16 meninos e 11 meninas, com idade média de 5,64 ± 0,67 anos. As crianças foram submetidas ao Test of Gross Motor Development - Second Edition (TGMD-2, proposto por Ulrich (2000 e ao Körperkoordinations-test für Kinder (KTK, proposto por Kiphard e Schilling (1974. A pontuação obtida nos dois testes foi reduzida a uma escala comum a ambos. Foi verificada a correlação entre essa escala e o IMC das crianças por meio do teste de correlação de Spearman, com P This study had to aim to verify the relationship between performance in gross motor skill tasks and body mass index (BMI in four to six year-old boys and girls. 27 children were analyzed, 16 boys and 11 girls, mean age of 5.64 ± 0.67 years. The children were submitted to the Test of Gross Motor Development-Second Edition (TGMD-2, proposed by Ulrich (2000 and to the Körperkoordinations-test für Kinder (KTK, proposed by Kiphard and Schilling (1974. The punctuation obtained in the two tests was reduced to a scale common to both. The correlation between this scale and the BMI of the children was verified through the Spearman correlation test, with P < 0.05. No significant interaction was observed among variables when boys and girls were analyzed or when the analysis was conducted with gender distinction. Moreover, no interaction between the BMI and tasks which required higher demand of physical capacities was observed, which should be verified in further studies. It was possible to conclude from our results, that the performance of four to six year-old children in tasks which involved gross motor skill did not relate with BMI.

  9. The variability of co-activation pattern of antagonist muscles in human infant crawling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Qi L; Wu, Xiao Y; Nong Xiao; Zeng, Si Y; Zheng, Xiao L; Di Wu; Hou, Wen S

    2016-08-01

    Infant crawling is part of normal human gross motor development, and a 4-beat gait that involves rhythmical flexion and extension of limbs and the underlying muscle co-activation of antagonist muscle around the joint. However, detection the co-activation pattern of antagonist muscle are sparse due to the general difficulty of measuring locomotion in human infants. In this paper, sEMG of antagonist muscles and the corresponding kinematics data of limbs were collected when infants were crawling on hands and knees at their self-selected speed. The infant's gross motor developmental status was assessed by the global Gross Motor Function Measure Scale (GMFM-88) as well. The method based on EMG-EMG plots was used to quantify the variability of co-activation pattern of antagonist muscle. After that, we observed that antagonist muscles of upper limb (triceps brachii and biceps brachii) showed less variability of co-activation pattern of muscles than lower limb(quadriceps femoris and hamstrings) during crawling, and this variability was also varied in different crawling phases (stance and swing). Furthermore, we found some varied behaviors in the co-activation patterns of antagonist muscles when gross motor developmental level increased. The preliminary work suggests that such adaptive changes may be related to the adjustment of neuromuscular in the early stage of gross motor development.

  10. Two independent networks of interstitial cells of Cajal work cooperatively with the enteric nervous system to create colonic motor patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan D. Huizinga

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Normal motility of the colon is critical for quality of life and efforts to normalize abnormal colon function have had limited success. A better understanding of control systems of colonic motility is therefore essential. We report here a hypothesis with supporting experimental data to explain the origin of rhythmic propulsive colonic motor activity induced by general distention. The theory holds that both networks of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC, those associated with the submuscular plexus (ICC-SMP and those associated with the myenteric plexus (ICC-MP, orchestrate propagating contractions as pacemaker cells in concert with the enteric nervous system (ENS. ICC-SMP generate an omnipresent slow wave activity that causes propagating but non-propulsive contractions (rhythmic propagating ripples enhancing absorption. The ICC-MP generate stimulus-dependent cyclic depolarizations propagating anally and directing propulsive activity (rhythmic propulsive motor complexes. The ENS is not essential for both rhythmic motor patterns since distention and pharmacological means can produce the motor patterns after blocking neural activity, but it supplies the primary stimulus in vivo. Supporting data come from studies on segments of the rat colon, simultaneously measuring motility through spatiotemporal mapping of video recordings, intraluminal pressure and outflow measurements.

  11. Motor unit recruitment patterns 2: the influence of myoelectric intensity and muscle fascicle strain rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodson-Tole, Emma F; Wakeling, James M

    2008-06-01

    To effectively meet the force requirements of a given movement an appropriate number and combination of motor units must be recruited between and within muscles. Orderly recruitment of motor units has been shown to occur in a wide range of skeletal muscles, however, alternative strategies do occur. Faster motor units are better suited to developing force rapidly, and produce higher mechanical power with greater efficiency at faster shortening strain rates than slower motor units. As the frequency content of the myoelectric signal is related to the fibre type of the active motor units, we hypothesised that, in addition to an association between myoelectric frequency and intensity, there would be a significant association between muscle fascicle shortening strain rate and myoelectric frequency content. Myoelectric and sonomicrometric data were collected from the three ankle extensor muscles of the rat hind limb during walking and running. Myoelectric signals were analysed using wavelet transformation and principal component analysis to give a measure of the signal frequency content. Sonomicrometric signals were analysed to give measures of muscle fascicle strain and strain rate. The relationship between myoelectric frequency and both intensity and muscle fascicle strain rate was found to change across the time course of a stride, with differences also occurring in the strength of the associations between and within muscles. In addition to the orderly recruitment of motor units, a mechanical strategy of motor unit recruitment was therefore identified. Motor unit recruitment is therefore a multifactorial phenomenon, which is more complex than typically thought.

  12. Effects of iron deficiency in infancy on patterns of motor development over time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafir, Tal; Angulo-Barroso, Rosa; Calatroni, Agustin; Jimenez, Elias; Lozoff, Betsy

    2007-01-01

    This longitudinal study of the effects of iron deficiency in infancy assessed motor development over time in 185 healthy Costa Rican children who varied in iron status at 12–23 months. Longitudinal analyses (hierarchical linear modeling) used the Bayley Psychomotor Index before and both 1 week and 3 months after iron treatment in infancy and the Bruninks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency – long form at 5 years and short form at 11–14 years. Children with chronic severe iron deficiency in infancy had lower motor scores at the beginning of the study and a lower but parallel trajectory for motor scores through early adolescence. Thus, there was no evidence of catch-up in motor development, despite iron therapy in infancy that corrected iron deficiency anemia in all cases. PMID:17050023

  13. Fictive rhythmic motor patterns produced by the tail spinal cord in salamanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charrier, V; Cabelguen, J-M

    2013-01-01

    Most investigations into the role of the body axis in vertebrate locomotion have focused on the trunk, although in most tetrapods, the tail also plays an active role. In salamanders, the tail contributes to propulsion during swimming and to dynamic balance and maneuverability during terrestrial locomotion. The aim of the present study was to obtain information concerning the neural mechanisms that produce tail muscle contractions during locomotion in the salamander Pleurodeles waltlii. We recorded the ventral root activities in in vitro spinal cord preparations in which locomotor-like activity was induced via bath application of N-methyl-d-aspartate (20μM) and d-serine (10μM). Recordings showed that the tail spinal cord is capable of producing propagated waves of motor activity that alternate between the left and right sides. Lesion experiments further revealed that the tail rhythmogenic network is composed of a double chain of identical hemisegmental oscillators. Finally, using spinal cord preparations bathed in a chamber partitioned into two pools, we revealed efficient short-distance coupling between the trunk and tail networks. Together, our results demonstrate the existence of a pattern generator for rhythmic tail movements in the salamander and show that the global architecture of the tail network is similar to that previously proposed for the mid-trunk locomotor network in the salamander. Our findings further support the view that salamanders can control their trunk and tail independently during stepping movements. The relevance of our results in relation to the generation of tail muscle contractions in freely moving salamanders is discussed.

  14. Improved Discriminability of Spatiotemporal Neural Patterns in Rat Motor Cortical Areas as Directional Choice Learning Progresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwei eMao

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Animals learn to choose a proper action among alternatives to improve their odds of success in food foraging and other activities critical for survival. Through trial-and-error, they learn correct associations between their choices and external stimuli. While a neural network that underlies such learning process has been identified at a high level, it is still unclear how individual neurons and a neural ensemble adapt as learning progresses. In this study, we monitored the activity of single units in the rat medial and lateral agranular (AGm and AGl, respectively areas as rats learned to make a left or right side lever press in response to a left or right side light cue. We noticed that rat movement parameters during the performance of the directional choice task quickly became stereotyped during the first 2-3 days or sessions. But learning the directional choice problem took weeks to occur. Accompanying rats’ behavioral performance adaptation, we observed neural modulation by directional choice in recorded single units. Our analysis shows that ensemble mean firing rates in the cue-on period did not change significantly as learning progressed, and the ensemble mean rate difference between left and right side choices did not show a clear trend of change either. However, the spatiotemporal firing patterns of the neural ensemble exhibited improved discriminability between the two directional choices through learning. These results suggest a spatiotemporal neural coding scheme in a motor cortical neural ensemble that may be responsible for and contributing to learning the directional choice task.

  15. Activities of daffy living performance in children with cerebral palsy with different gross motor function%不同粗大运动功能脑性瘫痪患儿的日常生活活动能力分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史惟; 杨红; 黄华玉; 陈冬冬

    2009-01-01

    Objective To analyze the activities of daily living (ADL) performance in children with cerebral palsy (CP) with different gross motor function and the correlation between gross motor function and ADL perform-ance. Methods A total of 118 children (81 boys and 37 girls; mean age: 47.7 months, SD: 20.1 months, age range: 18-90 months) with CP were recruited from three different rehabilitation centers in Shanghai. Types of CP included hemiplegia (n = 27), spastic diplegia (n = 53), spastic quadriplegia(n = 29), athetoid (n = 4), dystonic (n = 4), ataxic (n = 1). Gross motor function classification system (GMFCS) and Gross motor function measure (GMFM) were adopted to assess and classify the gross motor function. Pediatric evaluation of disability inventory (PEDI) was adopted to assess ADL performance. Differences of PEDI scores were compared among different levels of GMFCS; and the correlation between GMFCS levels, GMFM scores and PEDI scores were analyzed. Resnlts PEDI scores showed significant differences among CP children with different levels of GMFCS. The PEDI score usually de-creased with the increase of the GMFCS level, and mobility ability was the lowest. Significant correlations were found between PEDI scaled scores and GMFCS (rs = 0.85~0. 50, P < 0.001). Various levels of correlations (r = 0. 85~ 0.54, P<0.001) were found between GMFM scores and PEDI scaled scores. Higher correlations were found between GMFCS levels, GMFM scores and mobility ability. Conclusion ADL performance was significantly different among CP children with different gross motor function. The higher the gross motor function, the better the performance of ADL. Mobility would be improved by promoting gross motor function in CP children. The training of self-care and so-cial communication ability should be emphasized.%目的 分析不同程度粗大运动功能脑瘫患儿的日常生活活动能力表现,明确脑瘫患儿粗大运动功能与日常生活活

  16. Repetition priming of motor activity mediated by a central pattern generator: the importance of extrinsic vs. intrinsic program initiators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siniscalchi, Michael J; Cropper, Elizabeth C; Jing, Jian; Weiss, Klaudiusz R

    2016-10-01

    Repetition priming is characterized by increased performance as a behavior is repeated. Although this phenomenon is ubiquitous, mediating mechanisms are poorly understood. We address this issue in a model system, the feeding network of Aplysia This network generates both ingestive and egestive motor programs. Previous data suggest a chemical coding model: ingestive and egestive inputs to the feeding central pattern generator (CPG) release different modulators, which act via different second messengers to prime motor activity in different ways. The ingestive input to the CPG (neuron CBI-2) releases the peptides feeding circuit activating peptide and cerebral peptide 2, which produce an ingestive pattern of activity. The egestive input to the CPG (the esophageal nerve) releases the peptide small cardioactive peptide. This model is based on research that focused on a single aspect of motor control (radula opening). Here we ask whether repetition priming is observed if activity is triggered with a neuron within the core CPG itself and demonstrate that it is not. Moreover, previous studies demonstrated that effects of modulatory neurotransmitters that induce repetition priming persist. This suggests that it should be possible to "prime" motor programs triggered from within the CPG by first stimulating extrinsic modulatory inputs. We demonstrate that programs triggered after ingestive input activation are ingestive and programs triggered after egestive input activation are egestive. We ask where this priming occurs and demonstrate modifications within the CPG itself. This arrangement is likely to have important consequences for "task" switching, i.e., the cessation of one type of motor activity and the initiation of another. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  17. Differences in movement-related cortical activation patterns underlying motor performance in children with and without developmental coordination disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pangelinan, Melissa M; Hatfield, Bradley D; Clark, Jane E

    2013-06-01

    Behavioral deficits in visuomotor planning and control exhibited by children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) have been extensively reported. Although these functional impairments are thought to result from "atypical brain development," very few studies to date have identified potential neurological mechanisms. To address this knowledge gap, electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded from 6- to 12-yr-old children with and without DCD (n = 14 and 20, respectively) during the performance of a visuomotor drawing task. With respect to motor performance, typically developing (TD) children exhibited age-related improvements in key aspects of motor planning and control. Although some children with DCD performed outside this TD landscape (i.e., age-related changes within the TD group), the group developmental trajectory of the children with DCD was similar to that of the TD children. Despite overall similarities in performance, engagement of cortical resources in the children with DCD was markedly different from that in their TD counterparts. While the patterns of activation are stable in TD children across the age range, the young children with DCD exhibited less engagement of motor cortical brain areas and the older children with DCD exhibited greater engagement of motor cortical brain areas than their TD peers. These results suggest that older children with DCD may employ a compensatory strategy in which increased engagement of relevant motor resources allows these children to perform comparably to their TD peers. Moreover, the magnitude of activation was related to several kinematic measures, particularly in children with DCD, suggesting that greater engagement in motor resources may underlie better behavioral performance.

  18. Emission Patterns under Alternative Congestion and Motor Vehicle Pollution Mitigation Policies in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Hongfeng; Li Fen; Li Xiangling

    2007-01-01

    As a megacity with thriving economy, Shanghai is experiencing rapid motorisation and confronted with traffic congestion problems despite its low car ownership. It is of value to look into the policies on emission control of motor vehicle and congestion reduction in such a city to explore how to reconcile mobility enhancement with the environment. Results of a dynamic simulation displayed time paths of emissions from motor vehicles in Shanghai over the period from 2000 to 2020. The simulation results showed that early policies on emission control of motor vehicle could bring about far-reaching effects on emission reduction, and take advantage of available low-polluting technologies and technical innovation over time. Travel demand management would play an important role in curbing congestion and reducing motor vehicle pollution by calming down car ownership rise and deterring inefficient trips as well as reducing fuel waste caused by congestion.

  19. Impact of cercal air currents on singing motor pattern generation in the cricket (Gryllus bimaculatus DeGeer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The cercal system of crickets detects low-frequency air currents produced by approaching predators and self-generated air currents during singing, which may provide sensory feedback to the singing motor network. We analyzed the effect of cercal stimulation on singing motor pattern generation to reveal the response of a singing interneuron to predator-like signals and to elucidate the possible role of self-generated air currents during singing. In fictive singing males, we recorded an interneuron of the singing network while applying air currents to the cerci; additionally, we analyzed the effect of abolishing the cercal system in freely singing males. In fictively singing crickets, the effect of short air stimuli is either to terminate prematurely or to lengthen the interchirp interval, depending on their phase in the chirp cycle. Within our stimulation paradigm, air stimuli of different velocities and durations always elicited an inhibitory postsynaptic potential in the singing interneuron. Current injection in the singing interneuron elicited singing motor activity, even during the air current-evoked inhibitory input from the cercal pathway. The disruptive effects of air stimuli on the fictive singing pattern and the inhibitory response of the singing interneuron point toward the cercal system being involved in initiating avoidance responses in singing crickets, according to the established role of cerci in a predator escape pathway. After abolishing the activity of the cercal system, the timing of natural singing activity was not significantly altered. Our study provides no evidence that self-generated cercal sensory activity has a feedback function for singing motor pattern generation. PMID:26334014

  20. Striatal dopamine release and biphasic pattern of locomotor and motor activity under gas narcosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balon, Norbert; Risso, Jean-Jacques; Blanc, François; Rostain, Jean-Claude; Weiss, Michel

    2003-05-02

    Inert gas narcosis is a neurological syndrome appearing when humans or animals are exposed to hyperbaric inert gases (nitrogen, argon) composed by motor and cognitive impairments. Inert gas narcosis induces a decrease of the dopamine release at the striatum level, structure involved in the regulation of the extrapyramidal motricity. We have investigated, in freely moving rats exposed to different narcotic conditions, the relationship between the locomotor and motor activity and the striatal dopamine release, using respectively a computerized device that enables a quantitative analysis of this behavioural disturbance and voltammetry. The use of 3 MPa of nitrogen, 2 MPa of argon and 0.1 MPa of nitrous oxide, revealed after a transient phase of hyperactivity, a lower level of the locomotor and motor activity, in relation with the decrease of the striatal dopamine release. It is concluded that the striatal dopamine decrease could be related to the decrease of the locomotor and motor hyperactivity, but that other(s) neurotransmitter(s) could be primarily involved in the behavioural motor disturbances induced by narcotics. This biphasic effect could be of major importance for future pharmacological investigations, and motor categorization, on the basic mechanisms of inert gas at pressure.

  1. Growth of primary motor neurons on horizontally aligned carbon nanotube thin films and striped patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Megan J.; Leach, Michelle K.; Bedewy, Mostafa; Meshot, Eric R.; Copic, Davor; Corey, Joseph M.; Hart, A. John

    2014-06-01

    Objective. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are attractive for use in peripheral nerve interfaces because of their unique combination of strength, flexibility, electrical conductivity and nanoscale surface texture. Here we investigated the growth of motor neurons on thin films of horizontally aligned CNTs (HACNTs). Approach. We cultured primary embryonic rat motor neurons on HACNTs and performed statistical analysis of the length and orientation of neurites. We next presented motor neurons with substrates of alternating stripes of HACNTs and SiO2. Main results. The neurons survived on HACNT substrates for up to eight days, which was the full duration of our experiments. Statistical analysis of the length and orientation of neurites indicated that the longest neurites on HACNTs tended to align with the CNT direction, although the average neurite length was similar between HACNTs and glass control substrates. We observed that when motor neurons were presented with alternating stripes of HACNTs and SiO2, the proportion of neurons on HACNTs increases over time, suggesting that neurons selectively migrate toward and adhere to the HACNT surface. Significance. The behavior of motor neurons on CNTs has not been previously investigated, and we show that aligned CNTs could provide a viable interface material to motor neurons. Combined with emerging techniques to build complex hierarchical structures of CNTs, our results suggest that organised CNTs could be incorporated into nerve grafts that use physical and electrical cues to guide regenerating axons.

  2. Gross decontamination experiment report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, R.; Kinney, K.; Dettorre, J.; Gilbert, V.

    1983-07-01

    A Gross Decontamination Experiment was conducted on various levels and surfaces of the TMI - Unit 2 reactor building in March 1982. The polar crane, D-rings, missile shields, refueling canals, refueling bridges, equipment, and elevations 305' and 347'-6'' were flushed with low pressure water. Additionally, floor surfaces on elevation 305' and floor surfaces and major pieces of equipment on elevation 347'-6'' were sprayed with high pressure water. Selective surfaces were decontaminated with a mechanical scrubber and chemicals. Strippable coating was tested and evaluated on equipment and floor surfaces. The effectiveness, efficiency, and safety of several decontamination techniques were established for the large, complex decontamination effort. Various decontamination equipment was evaluated and its effectiveness was documented. Decontamination training and procedures were documented and evaluated, as were the support system and organization for the experiment.

  3. 78 FR 26575 - Gross Combination Weight Rating; Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-07

    ... Weight Rating; Definition AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION... definition of ``gross combination weight rating'' (or GCWR) to clarify that a GCWR is the greater of: the....regulations.gov . Fax: 1-202-493-2251. Mail: Docket Management Facility (M-30), U.S. Department of...

  4. An Empirical Study on Promoting Gross Motor Skill of Preschoolers Aged 5 to 6 Through Functional Training%功能性训练促进5-6岁幼儿粗大动作发展的实证研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周喆啸; 孟欢欢; 赵焕彬; 白锐; 雷园园

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To discuss the influence of functional training on gross motor ability development of preschoolers aged 5 - 6. Methods:143 Preschoolers aged 5 - 6 who are chosen from government - funded kindergartens in Shijiazhuang,Capital of Hebei Province were divided into the experimental group (70 children)and control group (73 children). The experimental group received a functional training intervention program for 12 weeks, while the control group maintained the routine kindergarten by with the United States Test of Gross Motor Devel-opment - 2 physical activities. Before and after the intervention,preschoolers'gross motor ability was tested TG-MD - 2. Results:(1)the control group's total score of gross motor was 74. 65,among which the locomotor score was 39. 82 and the object - controlscore 34. 83. Compared with their pre - experiment scores in the three abili-ties,which were 74. 61,38. 86 and 35. 75 respectively,there was no significant increase (P > 0. 05). (2) The experimental group's total score of gross motor was 85. 74,among which the locomotor score was 44. 60, and the object - control score 41. 14. As compared with their pre - experiment scores in the three abilities, which was 74. 22,39. 62 and 34. 60 respectively,there was a significant increase (P < 0. 01). (3)The exper-imental group's post - experimentscores in gross motor,Locomotor and object - control were significantly higher than that of the control the group (P < 0. 01). Conclusion:The functional training designed specially for pre-schoolers can significantly increase the gross motor ability for children aged 5 to 6.%目的:探讨功能性训练对5-6岁幼儿粗大动作能力发展的影响。方法:随机抽取石家庄某公立幼儿园5-6岁幼儿143名为研究对象,将其分为实验组与对照组,实验组70人,对照组73人。实验组进行12周的功能性训练干预,对照组保持幼儿园原有体育活动内容,干预前后,通过美国大肌肉动作技能

  5. Neural correlates of motor dysfunction in children with traumatic brain injury: exploration of compensatory recruitment patterns.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caeyenberghs, K.; Wenderoth, N.; Smits-Engelsman, B.C.M.; Sunaert, S.; Swinnen, S.P.

    2009-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a common form of disability in children. Persistent deficits in motor control have been documented following TBI but there has been less emphasis on changes in functional cerebral activity. In the present study, children with moderate to severe TBI (n = 9) and control

  6. Circadian pancreatic enzyme pattern and relationship between secretory and motor activity in fasting humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Jutta; Layer, Peter

    2002-08-01

    It is unknown whether nonparallel pancreatic enzyme output occurs under basal conditions in humans. We aimed to determine whether the circadian or wake-sleep cycle influences the relationship among pancreatic enzymes or between pancreatic secretory and jejunal motor activity. Using orojejunal multilumen intubation, we measured enzyme outputs and proximal jejunal motility index during consecutive daytime and nighttime periods in each of seven fasting, healthy volunteers. Enzyme outputs were correlated tightly during daytime phases of wakefulness and nighttime phases of sleep (r > 0.72, P activity was directly correlated with jejunal motility index (r > 0.50, P enzymes dominates throughout the circadian cycle. Nonparallel secretion during nocturnal phases of wakefulness may be due to merely circadian effects or to the coupling of the wake-sleep and the circadian cycle. The association between fluctuations of secretory and motor activity appears to be particularly tight during the night.

  7. Learning discriminative patterns for self-paced EEG-based motor imagery detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haihong eZhang

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Detecting motor imagery activities versus non-control in brain signals is the basis of self-paced brain-computer interfaces (BCIs, but also poses a considerable challenge to signal processing due to the complex and non-stationary characteristics of motor imagery as well as non-control. This paper presents a self-paced BCI based on a robust learning mechanism that extracts and selects spatio-spectral features for differentiating multiple EEG classes. It also employs a nonlinear regression and post-processing technique for predicting the time-series of class labels from the spatio-spectral features. The method was validated in the {BCI Competition IV} on {Dataset I} where it produced the lowest prediction error of class labels continuously. This report also presents and discusses analysis of the method using the competition data set.

  8. The effects of conductive education on gross motor function and Gesell development test results in children with cerebral palsy%引导式教育对脑瘫儿童粗大运动功能和Gesell发育测试结果的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁俊英; 朱登纳; 孙二亮; 谢晓明; 李萍; 魏春娜

    2014-01-01

    目的 探讨引导式教育对脑性瘫痪患儿粗大运动功能和Gesell发育是否有促进作用.方法 将138例脑瘫患儿按性别和粗大运动功能分级系统(GMFCS)分层随机分为引导式教育组和对照组,分别经过4个月的引导式教育加一般综合训练和单纯一般综合训练治疗,观察2种训练方法对两组患儿粗大运动功能和Gesell发育测试结果的影响.结果 粗大运动方面,粗大运动功能测试量表(GMFM)评估结果比较运用协方差分析(F =4.479,P<0.05),引导式教育组优于对照组;但两组在治疗前后比较,差异均有统计学意义,两组均可促进粗大运动功能的发育.Gesell发育测试结果比较(F=37.80,P<0.01),引导式教育组优于对照组;引导式教育组治疗前后比较(t=24.93,P<0.01),差异有统计学意义;对照组治疗前后比较(t=13.34,P>0.05),尚不能认为两组对照有统计学差异.结论 引导式教育可以促进脑瘫患儿粗大运动功能的提高及整体的发育.%Objective To observe the effects of conductive education on gross motor function and Gesell development test results in children with cerebral palsy.Methods One hundred and thirty-eight children with cerebral palsy were stratified randomly according to the gross motor function classification system (GMFCS) and sexes into two groups:the conductive education group received conductive education combined with general comprehensive rehabilitation,the control group received general comprehensive rehabilitation only.After 4 months of training,the results of both groups in terms of gross motor function and Gesell development test results were compared.Results The GMFCS evaluation results of the 2 groups were compared through covariance analysis (F =4.479,P =0.036 <0.05),the result of conductive education group was better than that of control group; in both groups the result after training was superior to that before training.For Gesell development test results

  9. The pattern of the electromagnetic field emitted by mobile phones in motor vehicle driving simulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Politański

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The paper reports the results of the determinations of UMTS EMF distributions in the driver's cab of motor vehicle simulators. The results will serve as the basis for future research on the influence of EMF emitted by mobile phones on driver physiology. Materials and Methods: Two motor vehicle driving simulators were monitored, while an EMF source was placed at the driver's head or on the dashboard of the motor vehicle driving simulator. For every applied configuration, the maximal electric field strength was measured, as were the values at 16 points corresponding to chosen locations on a driver's or passenger's body. Results: When the power was set for the maximum (49 mW, a value of 27 V/m was measured in the vicinity of the driver's head when the phone was close to the head. With the same power, when the phone was placed on the dashboard, the measured maximum was 15.2 V/m in the vicinity of the driver's foot. Similar results were obtained for the passenger. Significant perturbations in EMF distribution and an increase in electric field strength values in the motor vehicle driving simulator were also observed in comparison to free space measurements, and the electric field strength was up to 3 times higher inside the simulator. Conclusions: This study can act as the basis of future studies concerning the influence of the EMF emitted by mobile phones on the physiology of the driver. Additionally, the authors postulate that it is advisable to keep mobile phones at a distance from the head, i.e. use, whenever possible, hands-free kits to reduce EMF exposure, both for drivers and passengers.

  10. Vocal tract motor patterns and resonance during constant frequency song: the white-throated sparrow

    OpenAIRE

    Riede, Tobias; Suthers, Roderick A.

    2008-01-01

    Bird song is a complex behavior that requires the coordination of several motor systems. Sound is produced in the syrinx and then modified by the upper vocal tract. Movements of the hyoid skeleton have been shown in the northern cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis) to be extensively involved in forming an oropharyngeal–esophageal cavity (OEC), which contributes a major resonance to the vocal tract transfer function. Here we report that a similar relationship exists between the volume of the OEC a...

  11. Spinal motor neuron protein supersaturation patterns are associated with inclusion body formation in ALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciryam, Prajwal; Lambert-Smith, Isabella A; Bean, Daniel M; Freer, Rosie; Cid, Fernando; Tartaglia, Gian Gaetano; Saunders, Darren N; Wilson, Mark R; Oliver, Stephen G; Morimoto, Richard I; Dobson, Christopher M; Vendruscolo, Michele; Favrin, Giorgio; Yerbury, Justin J

    2017-05-16

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a heterogeneous degenerative motor neuron disease linked to numerous genetic mutations in apparently unrelated proteins. These proteins, including SOD1, TDP-43, and FUS, are highly aggregation-prone and form a variety of intracellular inclusion bodies that are characteristic of different neuropathological subtypes of the disease. Contained within these inclusions are a variety of proteins that do not share obvious characteristics other than coaggregation. However, recent evidence from other neurodegenerative disorders suggests that disease-affected biochemical pathways can be characterized by the presence of proteins that are supersaturated, with cellular concentrations significantly greater than their solubilities. Here, we show that the proteins that form inclusions of mutant SOD1, TDP-43, and FUS are not merely a subset of the native interaction partners of these three proteins, which are themselves supersaturated. To explain the presence of coaggregating proteins in inclusions in the brain and spinal cord, we observe that they have an average supersaturation even greater than the average supersaturation of the native interaction partners in motor neurons, but not when scores are generated from an average of other human tissues. These results suggest that inclusion bodies in various forms of ALS result from a set of proteins that are metastable in motor neurons, and thus prone to aggregation upon a disease-related progressive collapse of protein homeostasis in this specific setting.

  12. Recovery of post stroke proximal arm function, driven by complex neuroplastic bilateral brain activation patterns and predicted by baseline motor dysfunction severity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pundik, Svetlana; McCabe, Jessica P.; Hrovat, Ken; Fredrickson, Alice Erica; Tatsuoka, Curtis; Feng, I Jung; Daly, Janis J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Neuroplastic changes that drive recovery of shoulder/elbow function after stroke have been poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between neuroplastic brain changes related to shoulder/elbow movement control in response to treatment and recovery of arm motor function in chronic stroke survivors.Methods: Twenty-three chronic stroke survivors were treated with 12 weeks of arm rehabilitation. Outcome measures included functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) for the shoulder/elbow components of reach and a skilled motor function test (Arm Motor Abilities Test, AMAT), collected before and after treatment.Results: We observed two patterns of neuroplastic changes that were associated with gains in motor function: decreased or increased task-related brain activation. Those with significantly better motor function at baseline exhibited a decrease in brain activation in response to treatment, evident in the ipsilesional primary motor and contralesional supplementary motor regions; in contrast, those with greater baseline motor impairment, exhibited increased brain activation in response to treatment. There was a linear relationship between greater functional gain (AMAT) and increased activation in bilateral primary motor, contralesional primary and secondary sensory regions, and contralesional lateral premotor area, after adjusting for baseline AMAT, age, and time since stroke.Conclusions: Recovery of functional reach involves recruitment of several contralesional and bilateral primary motor regions. In response to intensive therapy, the direction of functional brain change (i.e., increase or decrease in task-related brain recruitment) for shoulder/elbow reach components depends on baseline level of motor function and may represent either different phases of recovery or different patterns of neuroplasticity that drive functional recovery. PMID:26257623

  13. By land or by sea: a modified C-start motor pattern drives the terrestrial tail-flip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlman, Benjamin M; Ashley-Ross, Miriam A

    2016-06-15

    Aquatic C-start escape responses in teleost fishes are driven by a well-studied network of reticulospinal neurons that produce a motor pattern of simultaneous contraction of axial muscle on the side of the body opposite the threatening stimulus, bending the fish into the characteristic C shape, followed by a traveling wave of muscle contraction on the contralateral side that moves the fish away from the threat. Superficially, the kinematics of the terrestrial tail-flip resemble the C-start, with the anterior body rolling up and over the tail into a tight C shape, followed by straightening as the fish launches off of the caudal peduncle into ballistic flight. We asked whether similar motor control is used for both behaviors in the amphibious mangrove rivulus, Kryptolebias marmoratus Fine-wire bipolar electrodes were percutaneously inserted into repeatable paired axial locations in five individual fish. Electromyograms synchronized with high-speed video were made of aquatic C-starts, immediately followed by terrestrial tail-flips. Tail-flips took longer to complete than aquatic escapes; correspondingly, muscles were activated for longer durations on land. In the tail-flip, activity was seen in contralateral posterior axial muscle for an extended period of time during the formation of the C shape, likely to press the caudal peduncle against the ground in preparation for launch. Tail-flips thus appear to be produced by modification of the motor pattern driving the aquatic C-start, with differences consistent with the additional requirement of overcoming gravity.

  14. The effect of involuntary motor activity on myoelectric pattern recognition: a case study with chronic stroke patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xu; Li, Yun; Chen, Xiang; Li, Guanglin; Zev Rymer, William; Zhou, Ping

    2013-08-01

    Objective. This study investigates the effect of the involuntary motor activity of paretic-spastic muscles on the classification of surface electromyography (EMG) signals. Approach. Two data collection sessions were designed for 8 stroke subjects to voluntarily perform 11 functional movements using their affected forearm and hand at relatively slow and fast speeds. For each stroke subject, the degree of involuntary motor activity present in the voluntary surface EMG recordings was qualitatively described from such slow and fast experimental protocols. Myoelectric pattern recognition analysis was performed using different combinations of voluntary surface EMG data recorded from the slow and fast sessions. Main results. Across all tested stroke subjects, our results revealed that when involuntary surface EMG is absent or present in both the training and testing datasets, high accuracies (>96%, >98%, respectively, averaged over all the subjects) can be achieved in the classification of different movements using surface EMG signals from paretic muscles. When involuntary surface EMG was solely involved in either the training or testing datasets, the classification accuracies were dramatically reduced (signals with the presence and absence of involuntary EMG interference, high accuracies were still achieved (>97%). Significance. The findings of this study can be used to guide the appropriate design and implementation of myoelectric pattern recognition based systems or devices toward promoting robot-aided therapy for stroke rehabilitation.

  15. Motor Neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounsgaard, Jorn

    2017-01-01

    Motor neurons translate synaptic input from widely distributed premotor networks into patterns of action potentials that orchestrate motor unit force and motor behavior. Intercalated between the CNS and muscles, motor neurons add to and adjust the final motor command. The identity and functional...... properties of this facility in the path from synaptic sites to the motor axon is reviewed with emphasis on voltage sensitive ion channels and regulatory metabotropic transmitter pathways. The catalog of the intrinsic response properties, their underlying mechanisms, and regulation obtained from motoneurons...... in in vitro preparations is far from complete. Nevertheless, a foundation has been provided for pursuing functional significance of intrinsic response properties in motoneurons in vivo during motor behavior at levels from molecules to systems....

  16. Effects of magnetic resonance imaging and developmental scale to predict gross motor outcomes in infants at high risk for cerebral palsy%磁共振成像及发育量表对脑瘫高危儿粗大运动发育的预测研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵晓科; 高修成; 肖农; 张跃; 吕静

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore and compare the predictive value of magnetic resonance imaging(MRI) and developmental scales for gross motor outcomes in infants at high risk for cerebral palsy.Method: Seventy-three high-risk preterm infants were examined with MRI to evaluate white matter abnormality (WMA) qualitatively at 3 months' corrected age, and had psychomotor development index(PDI) and mental development index(MDI) measures to assess global motor performance and intelligence level at the same time. The time of performing sitting balance and standing balance were followed up, and the associations between early assessments of WMA,PDI,MDI and measurements of sitting balance time as well as standing balance time were analyzed. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated for WMA, PDI, MDI to predict sitting balance time and standing balance time.Result: Significant associations between WMA, PDI, MDI and sitting balance time, standing balance time were noted, precedence ordering of correlation coefficient were WMA, PDI, MDI from higher to lower level, and the combination of WMA, PDI and MDI led to greater correlation with sitting balance time and standing balance time. WMA demonstrated the greatest specificity and sensitivity in predicting sitting and standing development delay than PDI and MDI.Conclusion: The severity of WMA and level of early global motor performance and intelligence correlated with performed time of gross motor significantly. The combination of predictor assessments (MRI and developmental scales) could improve predictive validity for gross motor outcomes in infants at high risk for cerebral palsy.%目的:分析并比较磁共振成像及发育量表对脑瘫高危儿粗大运动发育的预测作用.方法:73例有早产背景的脑瘫高危儿,在纠正胎龄3月时行头颅MRI检查,定性评价脑白质异常(WMA)程度,并同期应用婴幼儿发育量表中的精神运动发育指数(PDI)分值评定整体运动情况,智力发育指数(MDI)分值

  17. Gross job flows and firms

    OpenAIRE

    Scott Schuh; Robert K. Triest

    1999-01-01

    This paper extends the work of Dunne, Roberts, and Samuelson [3] and Davis, Haltiwanger, and Schuh [2] on gross job flows among manufacturing plants. Gross job creation, destruction, and reallocation have been shown to be important in understanding the birth, growth, and death of plants, and the relation of plant life cycles to the business cycle. However, little is known about job flows between firms or how job flows among plants occur within firms (corporate restructuring). We use informati...

  18. Discrimination of Motor Imagery-Induced EEG Patterns in Patients with Complete Spinal Cord Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Pfurtscheller

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available EEG-based discrimination between different motor imagery states has been subject of a number of studies in healthy subjects. We investigated the EEG of 15 patients with complete spinal cord injury during imagined right hand, left hand, and feet movements. In detail we studied pair-wise discrimination functions between the 3 types of motor imagery. The following classification accuracies (mean ± SD were obtained: left versus right hand 65.03% ± 8.52, left hand versus feet 68.19% ± 11.08, and right hand versus feet 65.05% ± 9.25. In 5 out of 8 paralegic patients, the discrimination accuracy was greater than 70% but in only 1 out of 7 tetraplagic patients. The present findings provide evidence that in the majority of paraplegic patients an EEG-based BCI could achieve satisfied results. In tetraplegic patients, however, it is expected that extensive training-sessions are necessary to achieve a good BCI performance at least in some subjects.

  19. Generation of complex motor patterns in american grasshopper via current-controlled thoracic electrical interfacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giampalmo, Susan L; Absher, Benjamin F; Bourne, W Tucker; Steves, Lida E; Vodenski, Vassil V; O'Donnell, Peter M; Erickson, Jonathan C

    2011-01-01

    Micro-air vehicles (MAVs) have attracted attention for their potential application to military applications, environmental sensing, and search and rescue missions. While progress is being made toward fabrication of a completely human-engineered MAV, another promising approach seeks to interface to, and take control of, an insect's nervous system. Cyborg insects take advantage of their innate exquisite loco-motor, navigation, and sensing abilities. Recently, several groups have demonstrated the feasibility of radio-controlled flight in the hawkmoth and beetle via electrical neural interfaces. Here, we report a method for eliciting the "jump" response in the American grasshopper (S. Americana). We found that stimulating the metathoracic T3 ganglion with constant-current square wave pulses with amplitude 186 ± 40 μA and frequency 190 ± 13 Hz reproducibly evoked (≥95% success rate) the desired motor activity in N=3 test subjects. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of an insect cyborg with a synchronous neuromuscular system.

  20. Recovery of post stroke proximal arm function, driven by complex neuroplastic bilateral brain activation patterns and predicted by baseline motor dysfunction severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana ePundik

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Neuroplastic changes that drive recovery of shoulder/elbow function after stoke have been poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between neuroplastic brain changes related to shoulder/elbow movement control in response to treatment and recovery of arm motor function in chronic stroke survivors. Methods: Twenty-three chronic stroke survivors were treated with 12 weeks of arm rehabilitation. Outcome measures included functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI for the shoulder/elbow components of reach and a skilled motor function test (Arm Motor Abilities Test (AMAT, collected before and after treatment.Results: We observed two patterns of neuroplastic changes that were associated with gains in motor function: decreased or increased task-related brain activation. Those with significantly better motor function at baseline exhibited a decrease in brain activation in response to treatment, evident in the ipsilesional primary motor and contralesional supplementary motor regions; in contrast, those with greater baseline motor impairment, exhibited increased brain activation in response to treatment. There was an linear relationship between greater functional gain (AMAT and increased activation in bilateral primary motor, contralesional primary and secondary sensory regions, and contralesional lateral premotor area, after adjusting for baseline AMAT, age, and time since stroke. Conclusions: Recovery of functional reach involves recruitment of several contralesional and bilateral primary motor regions. In response to intensive therapy, the direction of functional brain change (i.e. increase or decrease in task-related brain recruitment for shoulder/elbow reach components depends on baseline level of motor function and may represent either different phases or different strategies of neuroplasticity that drive functional recovery.

  1. Assessment of the Effect of Interactive Scalp Acupuncture on Gross Motor Function in Treating Infantile Spastic Cerebral Palsy%互动式头针治疗痉挛型小儿脑瘫粗大运动功能疗效评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴绪波; 张海蒙; 孙克兴

    2011-01-01

    目的 观察互动式头针治疗痉挛型小儿脑瘫的疗效.方法 将34例痉挛型小儿脑瘫患者按照年龄、瘫患部位和粗大运动功能分级系统(GMFCS)进行配对,治疗组采用互动式头针治疗,对照组采用头针加运动疗法治疗,治疗3个月后用粗大运动功能评定量表(GMFM-88)进行疗效比较.结果 对治疗组和对照组治疗后GMFM总百分比进行组间比较,治疗组疗效优于对照组(P<0.05);治疗组在反映走、跑、跳能力的能区(E区)百分比分值高于对照组(P<0.01).结论 头针与运动疗法结合可以改善痉挛型小儿脑瘫患者的运动功能,互动式头针在改善患者行走能力方面较常规头针加运动疗法有更好的疗效.%Objective To investigate the therapeutic effect of interactive scalp acupuncture on infantile spastic cerebral palsy.Methods Thirty-four children with spastic cerebral palsy were paired according to age, the affected part and the gross motor function classification system (GMFCS).The treatment group received interactive scalp acupuncture and the control group, scalp acupuncture plus kinesitherapy.After 3 months of treatment, the therapeutic effects were compared using the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM-88).Results A post-treatment comparison of the GMFM total percent scores between treatment and control groups showed that the therapeutic effect was better in the treatment group than in the control group (P<0.05).The percent score of GMFM domain E (walking, running and jumping) was higher in the treatment group than in the control group (P<0.01).Conclusion A combination of scalp acupuncture and kinesitherapy can improve motor function in children with spastic cerebral palsy.Interactive scalp acupuncture is better than scalp acupuncture plus kinesitherapy in improving the walking ability of the sick children.

  2. Flight and seizure motor patterns in Drosophila mutants: simultaneous acoustic and electrophysiological recordings of wing beats and flight muscle activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyengar, Atulya; Wu, Chun-Fang

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Tethered flies allow studies of biomechanics and electrophysiology of flight control. We performed microelectrode recordings of spikes in an indirect flight muscle (the dorsal longitudinal muscle, DLMa) coupled with acoustic analysis of wing beat frequency (WBF) via microphone signals. Simultaneous electrophysiological recording of direct and indirect flight muscles has been technically challenging; however, the WBF is thought to reflect in a one-to-one relationship with spiking activity in a subset of direct flight muscles, including muscle m1b. Therefore, our approach enables systematic mutational analysis for changes in temporal features of electrical activity of motor neurons innervating subsets of direct and indirect flight muscles. Here, we report the consequences of specific ion channel disruptions on the spiking activity of myogenic DLMs (firing at ∼5 Hz) and the corresponding WBF (∼200 Hz). We examined mutants of the genes enconding: 1) voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels (cacophony, cac), 2) Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels (slowpoke, slo), and 3) voltage-gated K(+) channels (Shaker, Sh) and their auxiliary subunits (Hyperkinetic, Hk and quiver, qvr). We found flight initiation in response to an air puff was severely disrupted in both cac and slo mutants. However, once initiated, slo flight was largely unaltered, whereas cac displayed disrupted DLM firing rates and WBF. Sh, Hk, and qvr mutants were able to maintain normal DLM firing rates, despite increased WBF. Notably, defects in the auxiliary subunits encoded by Hk and qvr could lead to distinct consequences, that is, disrupted DLM firing rhythmicity, not observed in Sh. Our mutant analysis of direct and indirect flight muscle activities indicates that the two motor activity patterns may be independently modified by specific ion channel mutations, and that this approach can be extended to other dipteran species and additional motor programs, such as electroconvulsive stimulation-induced seizures.

  3. Regulation of two motor patterns enables the gradual adjustment of locomotion strategy in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hums, Ingrid; Riedl, Julia; Mende, Fanny; Kato, Saul; Kaplan, Harris S; Latham, Richard; Sonntag, Michael; Traunmüller, Lisa; Zimmer, Manuel

    2016-05-25

    In animal locomotion a tradeoff exists between stereotypy and flexibility: fast long-distance travelling (LDT) requires coherent regular motions, while local sampling and area-restricted search (ARS) rely on flexible movements. We report here on a posture control system in C. elegans that coordinates these needs. Using quantitative posture analysis we explain worm locomotion as a composite of two modes: regular undulations versus flexible turning. Graded reciprocal regulation of both modes allows animals to flexibly adapt their locomotion strategy under sensory stimulation along a spectrum ranging from LDT to ARS. Using genetics and functional imaging of neural activity we characterize the counteracting interneurons AVK and DVA that utilize FLP-1 and NLP-12 neuropeptides to control both motor modes. Gradual regulation of behaviors via this system is required for spatial navigation during chemotaxis. This work shows how a nervous system controls simple elementary features of posture to generate complex movements for goal-directed locomotion strategies.

  4. Differential effects of main error correction versus secondary error correction on motor pattern of running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corte, Stefano; Cavedon, Valentina; Milanese, Chiara

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to gain a better understanding of how the run pattern varies as a consequence to main error correction versus secondary error correction. Twenty-two university students were randomly assigned to one of two training-conditions: 'main error' (ME) and 'secondary error' (SE) correction. The rear-foot strike at touchdown was hypothesized as the 'main error', whereas an incorrect shoulder position (i.e., behind the base of support) as the 'secondary error'. In order to evaluate any changes in run pattern at the foot touchdown instant, the ankle, knee and hip joint angles, the height of toe and heel (with respect to the ground), and the horizontal distance from the heel to the projected center of mass on the ground were measured. After the training-intervention, the ME group showed a significant improvement in the run pattern at the foot touchdown instant in all kinematic parameters, whereas no significant changes were found in the SE group. The results support the hypothesis that the main error can have a greater influence on the movement patterns than a secondary error. Furthermore, the findings highlight that a correct diagnosis and the correction of the 'main error' are fundamental for greater run pattern improvement.

  5. Dopamine activates the motor pattern for crawling in the medicinal leech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhl, Joshua G; Mesce, Karen A

    2008-04-16

    Locomotion in segmented animals is thought to be based on the coupling of "unit burst generators," but the biological nature of the unit burst generator has been revealed in only a few animal systems. We determined that dopamine (DA), a universal modulator of motor activity, is sufficient to activate fictive crawling in the medicinal leech, and can exert its actions within the smallest division of the animal's CNS, the segmental ganglion. In the entire isolated nerve cord or in the single ganglion, DA induced slow antiphasic bursting (approximately 15 s period) of motoneurons known to participate in the two-step elongation-contraction cycle underlying crawling behavior. During each cycle, the dorsal (DE-3) and ventral (VE-4) longitudinal excitor motoneurons fired approximately 180 degrees out of phase from the ventrolateral circular excitor motoneuron (CV), which marks the elongation phase. In many isolated whole nerve cords, DE-3 bursting progressed in an anterior to posterior direction with intersegmental phase delays appropriate for crawling. In the single ganglion, the dorsal (DI-1) and ventral (VI-2) inhibitory longitudinal motoneurons fired out of phase with each DE-3 burst, further confirming that the crawl unit burst generator exists in the single ganglion. All isolated ganglia of the CNS were competent to produce DA-induced robust fictive crawling, which typically lasted uninterrupted for 5-15 min. A quantitative analysis indicated that DA-induced crawling was not significantly different from electrically evoked or spontaneous crawling. We conclude that DA is sufficient to activate the full crawl motor program and that the kernel for crawling resides within each segmental ganglion.

  6. Do active video games benefit the motor skill development of non-typically developing children and adolescents: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Zoey E; Barrington, Stephanie; Edwards, Jacqueline; Barnett, Lisa M

    2017-05-18

    The use of interactive video gaming, known as 'exergames' or 'active video games (AVG)' may provide an opportunity for motor skill development. Youth with non-typical patterns of development may have deficits in gross motor skill capacities and are therefore an intervention target. The aim was to determine the effectiveness of AVG use on motor skill development in non-typically developing children and adolescents. Review article. The PRISMA protocol was used to conduct a systematic review of EBSCOhost, Embase, Gale Cengage, Informit, Ovid, ProQuest, PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science databases. A total of 19 articles met inclusion criteria (non-typically developing participants such as those with a learning or developmental delay aged 3-18, use of an AVG console, assessed one or more gross motor skills). Studies were excluded if gross motor skill outcomes encompassed fine motor skills or reflected mobility related to daily living. Interventions included children and adolescents with eight different conditions. The Nintendo Wii was the most utilised gaming platform (14/19 studies). Studies examined a combination of skills, with most examining balance (15/19), five studies examining ball skills, and other gross motor skills such as coordination (3 studies), running (3 studies) and jumping (3 studies). There was strong evidence that AVG's improved balance. AVG's also appeared to benefit participants with Cerebral Palsy. AVG's could be a valuable tool to improve gross motor skills of non-typically developing children. There is scope for further exploration, particularly of ball, coordination and locomotor skills and varying platforms to draw more conclusive evaluations. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Unstable patterns and robust synchronization in a model of motor pathway in birdsong

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moukam Kakmeni, F.M. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Buea, P.O. Box 63, Buea (Cameroon); Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy)], E-mail: fmoukam@uycdc.uninet.cm; Bowong, S. [Laboratory of Applied Mathematics, Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Faculty of Science, University of Douala, P.O. Box 24157, Douala (Cameroon); Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy)], E-mail: sbowong@uycdc.uninet.cm; Nana, L. [Laboratory of Applied Mathematics, Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Faculty of Science, University of Douala, P.O. Box 24157, Douala (Cameroon)], E-mail: Inana@uycdc.uninet.cm; Kofane, T.C. [Laboratoire de Mecanique, Faculte des Sciences, Universite de Yaounde I, B.P. 812 Yaounde (Cameroon); The Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy)], E-mail: tkofane@uycdc.uninet.cm

    2009-01-15

    This paper investigates the fundamental dynamical mechanism responsible for transition to chaos in periodically modulated Duffing-Van der Pol oscillator. It is shown that a modulationally unstable pattern appears into an initially stable motionless state. A further spatiotemporal transition occurs with a sharp interface from the selected stable pattern to a stabilized pattern or chaotic state. Also, the synchronization of the chaotic state of the model is investigated. The results are discussed in the context of generalized synchronization. The main idea is to construct an augmented dynamical system from the synchronization error system, which is itself uncertain. The advantage of this method over existing results is that the synchronization time is explicitly computed. Numerical simulations are provided to verify the operation of the proposed algorithm.

  8. Regulation of two motor patterns enables the gradual adjustment of locomotion strategy in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hums, Ingrid; Riedl, Julia; Mende, Fanny; Kato, Saul; Kaplan, Harris S; Latham, Richard; Sonntag, Michael; Traunmüller, Lisa; Zimmer, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    In animal locomotion a tradeoff exists between stereotypy and flexibility: fast long-distance travelling (LDT) requires coherent regular motions, while local sampling and area-restricted search (ARS) rely on flexible movements. We report here on a posture control system in C. elegans that coordinates these needs. Using quantitative posture analysis we explain worm locomotion as a composite of two modes: regular undulations versus flexible turning. Graded reciprocal regulation of both modes allows animals to flexibly adapt their locomotion strategy under sensory stimulation along a spectrum ranging from LDT to ARS. Using genetics and functional imaging of neural activity we characterize the counteracting interneurons AVK and DVA that utilize FLP-1 and NLP-12 neuropeptides to control both motor modes. Gradual regulation of behaviors via this system is required for spatial navigation during chemotaxis. This work shows how a nervous system controls simple elementary features of posture to generate complex movements for goal-directed locomotion strategies. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.14116.001 PMID:27222228

  9. Motor patterns associated with crawling in a soft-bodied arthropod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Michael A; Fusillo, Steven J; Colman, Kara; Trimmer, Barry A

    2010-07-01

    Soft-bodied animals lack distinct joints and levers, and so their locomotion is expected to be controlled differently from that of animals with stiff skeletons. Some invertebrates, such as the annelids, use functionally antagonistic muscles (circumferential and longitudinal) acting on constant-volume hydrostatics to produce extension and contraction. These processes form the basis for most theoretical considerations of hydrostatic locomotion in organisms including larval insects. However, caterpillars do not move in this way, and their powerful appendages provide grip independent of their dimensional changes. Here, we show that the anterograde wave of movement seen in the crawling tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta, is mediated by co-activation of dorsal and ventral muscles within a body segment, rather than by antiphasic activation, as previously believed. Furthermore, two or three abdominal segments are in swing phase simultaneously, and the activities of motor neurons controlling major longitudinal muscles overlap in more than four segments. Recordings of muscle activity during natural crawling show that some are activated during both their shortening and elongation. These results do not support the typical peristaltic model of crawling, but they do support a tension-based model of crawling, in which the substrate is utilized as an anchor to generate propulsion.

  10. Assessing altered motor unit recruitment patterns in paretic muscles of stroke survivors using surface electromyography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaogang; Suresh, Aneesha K.; Rymer, William Z.; Suresh, Nina L.

    2015-12-01

    Objective. The advancement of surface electromyogram (sEMG) recording and signal processing techniques has allowed us to characterize the recruitment properties of a substantial population of motor units (MUs) non-invasively. Here we seek to determine whether MU recruitment properties are modified in paretic muscles of hemispheric stroke survivors. Approach. Using an advanced EMG sensor array, we recorded sEMG during isometric contractions of the first dorsal interosseous muscle over a range of contraction levels, from 20% to 60% of maximum, in both paretic and contralateral muscles of stroke survivors. Using MU decomposition techniques, MU action potential amplitudes and recruitment thresholds were derived for simultaneously activated MUs in each isometric contraction. Main results. Our results show a significant disruption of recruitment organization in paretic muscles, in that the size principle describing recruitment rank order was materially distorted. MUs were recruited over a very narrow force range with increasing force output, generating a strong clustering effect, when referenced to recruitment force magnitude. Such disturbances in MU properties also correlated well with the impairment of voluntary force generation. Significance. Our findings provide direct evidence regarding MU recruitment modifications in paretic muscles of stroke survivors, and suggest that these modifications may contribute to weakness for voluntary contractions.

  11. 26 CFR 41.4482(b)-1 - Definition of taxable gross weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... oilfield machinery, etc.) mounted on the vehicle for use on construction jobs, in oilfield operations, etc...) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES EXCISE TAX ON USE OF CERTAIN HIGHWAY MOTOR VEHICLES Tax on Use of Certain Highway Motor Vehicles § 41.4482(b)-1 Definition of taxable gross weight. (a) Actual unloaded weight—(1)...

  12. Reorganization of finger coordination patterns through motor exploration in individuals after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganathan, Rajiv

    2017-09-11

    Impairment of hand and finger function after stroke is common and affects the ability to perform activities of daily living. Even though many of these coordination deficits such as finger individuation have been well characterized, it is critical to understand how stroke survivors learn to explore and reorganize their finger coordination patterns for optimizing rehabilitation. In this study, I examine the use of a body-machine interface to assess how participants explore their movement repertoire, and how this changes with continued practice. Ten participants with chronic stroke wore a data glove and the finger joint angles were mapped on to the position of a cursor on a screen. The task of the participants was to move the cursor back and forth between two specified targets on a screen. Critically, the map between the finger movements and cursor motion was altered so that participants sometimes had to generate coordination patterns that required finger individuation. There were two phases to the experiment - an initial assessment phase on day 1, followed by a learning phase (days 2-5) where participants trained to reorganize their coordination patterns. Participants showed difficulty in performing tasks which had maps that required finger individuation, and the degree to which they explored their movement repertoire was directly related to clinical tests of hand function. However, over four sessions of practice, participants were able to learn to reorganize their finger movement coordination pattern and improve their performance. Moreover, training also resulted in improvements in movement repertoire outside of the context of the specific task during free exploration. Stroke survivors show deficits in movement repertoire in their paretic hand, but facilitating movement exploration during training can increase the movement repertoire. This suggests that exploration may be an important element of rehabilitation to regain optimal function.

  13. On a question of Gross

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Abhijit

    2007-03-01

    Using the notion of weighted sharing of sets we prove two uniqueness theorems which improve the results proved by Fang and Qiu [H. Qiu, M. Fang, A unicity theorem for meromorphic functions, Bull. Malaysian Math. Sci. Soc. 25 (2002) 31-38], Lahiri and Banerjee [I. Lahiri, A. Banerjee, Uniqueness of meromorphic functions with deficient poles, Kyungpook Math. J. 44 (2004) 575-584] and Yi and Lin [H.X. Yi, W.C. Lin, Uniqueness theorems concerning a question of Gross, Proc. Japan Acad. Ser. A 80 (2004) 136-140] and thus provide an answer to the question of Gross [F. Gross, Factorization of meromorphic functions and some open problems, in: Proc. Conf. Univ. Kentucky, Lexington, KY, 1976, in: Lecture Notes in Math., vol. 599, Springer, Berlin, 1977, pp. 51-69], under a weaker hypothesis.

  14. Effects of motor patterns on water-soluble and membrane proteins and cholinesterase activity in subcellular fractions of rat brain tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pevzner, L. Z.; Venkov, L.; Cheresharov, L.

    1980-01-01

    Albino rats were kept for a year under conditions of daily motor load or constant hypokinesia. An increase in motor activity results in a rise in the acetylcholinesterase activity determined in the synaptosomal and purified mitochondrial fractions while hypokinesia induces a pronounced decrease in this enzyme activity. The butyrylcholinesterase activity somewhat decreases in the synaptosomal fraction after hypokinesia but does not change under the motor load pattern. Motor load causes an increase in the amount of synaptosomal water-soluble proteins possessing an intermediate electrophoretic mobility and seem to correspond to the brain-specific protein 14-3-2. In the synaptosomal fraction the amount of membrane proteins with a low electrophoretic mobility and with the cholinesterase activity rises. Hypokinesia, on the contrary, decreases the amount of these membrane proteins.

  15. Impact of the peripheral neurotomy method combined with rehabilitation exercise on gross motor function and balance function of children with cerebral palsy%周围神经缩窄术结合康复训练对痉挛型脑性瘫痪患儿运动功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁俊英; 董辉; 曾宪旭; 孙二亮; 王军

    2014-01-01

    目的 探讨周围神经缩窄术结合康复训练对痉挛型脑性瘫痪(脑瘫)患儿粗大运动功能和平衡功能的影响.方法 选取2011年5月至2013年10月30例住院的年龄>3岁且意识清楚需行周围神经缩窄术并结合康复训练的痉挛型脑瘫患儿为研究组;采用配对设计的方法选择同期住院30例年龄相近、性别相同,粗大运动功能分级(GMFCS)相同,功能相近行单纯综合康复训练的脑瘫患儿作为对照组.分别在训练开始后2周、4周、6周、8周、10周时记录2组患儿的改良Ashworth评分、粗大运动功能量表D、E区评分、医师等级评价量表评分结果,采用重复测量分差分析方法比较2组患儿改良Ashworth肌张力、粗大运动功能、平衡功能以及步态改善情况.结果 肌张力降低效果方面,研究组与对照组比较差异有统计学意义(F=8.177,P=0.006);在步态改善方面,研究组优于对照组(F=24.284,P=0.000);粗大运动功能量表D、E区评价中,研究组与对照组相比差异均无统计学意义(D:F=0.072,P=0.790;E:F =0.000,P=0.985);在平衡功能Berg量表评分方面,研究组与对照组相比差异亦无统计学意义(F=0.150,P=0.700).结论 周围神经缩窄术结合康复训练与单纯综合康复训练均可以提高痉挛型脑瘫患儿粗大运动功能和平衡功能,但在降低肌张力与改善步态方面周围神经缩窄术组明显好于单纯康复训练.%Objective To study the impact of the peripheral neurotomy method combined with rehabilitation exercise on gross motor function and balance function of children with cerebral palsy.Methods Matched pair design was used in the study.Thirty children with spastic cerebral palsy hospitalized from May 2011 to Nov.2013 suffering from peripheral neurotomy were assigned as study group,who were conscious and treated by peripheral neurotomy com bined with rehabilitation exercise.In the meanwhile,30 children inpatients at the same time were employed

  16. Motor patterns of the small intestine explained by phase-amplitude coupling of two pacemaker activities: the critical importance of propagation velocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huizinga, Jan D; Parsons, Sean P; Chen, Ji-Hong; Pawelka, Andrew; Pistilli, Marc; Li, Chunpei; Yu, Yuanjie; Ye, Pengfei; Liu, Qing; Tong, Mengting; Zhu, Yong Fang; Wei, Defei

    2015-09-15

    Phase-amplitude coupling of two pacemaker activities of the small intestine, the omnipresent slow wave activity generated by interstitial cells of Cajal of the myenteric plexus (ICC-MP) and the stimulus-dependent rhythmic transient depolarizations generated by ICC of the deep muscular plexus (ICC-DMP), was recently hypothesized to underlie the orchestration of the segmentation motor pattern. The aim of the present study was to increase our understanding of phase-amplitude coupling through modeling. In particular the importance of propagation velocity of the ICC-DMP component was investigated. The outcome of the modeling was compared with motor patterns recorded from the rat or mouse intestine from which propagation velocities within the different patterns were measured. The results show that the classical segmentation motor pattern occurs when the ICC-DMP component has a low propagation velocity (velocity in the same order of magnitude as that of the slow wave activity (∼1 cm/s), cluster type propulsive activity occurs which is in fact the dominant propulsive activity of the intestine. Hence, the only difference between the generation of propagating cluster contractions and the Cannon-type segmentation motor pattern is the propagation velocity of the low-frequency component, the rhythmic transient depolarizations originating from the ICC-DMP. Importantly, the proposed mechanism explains why both motor patterns have distinct rhythmic waxing and waning of the amplitude of contractions. The hypothesis is brought forward that the velocity is modulated by neural regulation of gap junction conductance within the ICC-DMP network.

  17. Two interconnected kernels of reciprocally inhibitory interneurons underlie alternating left-right swim motor pattern generation in the mollusk Melibe leonina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Akira; Gunaratne, Charuni A; Katz, Paul S

    2014-09-15

    The central pattern generator (CPG) underlying the rhythmic swimming behavior of the nudibranch Melibe leonina (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Heterobranchia) has been described as a simple half-center oscillator consisting of two reciprocally inhibitory pairs of interneurons called swim interneuron 1 (Si1) and swim interneuron 2 (Si2). In this study, we identified two additional pairs of interneurons that are part of the swim CPG: swim interneuron 3 (Si3) and swim interneuron 4 (Si4). The somata of Si3 and Si4 were both located in the pedal ganglion, near that of Si2, and both had axons that projected through the pedal commissure to the contralateral pedal ganglion. These neurons fulfilled the criteria for inclusion as members of the swim CPG: 1) they fired at a fixed phase in relation to Si1 and Si2, 2) brief changes in their activity reset the motor pattern, 3) prolonged changes in their activity altered the periodicity of the motor pattern, 4) they had monosynaptic connections with each other and with Si1 and Si2, and 5) their synaptic actions helped explain the phasing of the motor pattern. The results of this study show that the motor pattern has more complex internal dynamics than a simple left/right alternation of firing; the CPG circuit appears to be composed of two kernels of reciprocally inhibitory neurons, one consisting of Si1, Si2, and the contralateral Si4 and the other consisting of Si3. These two kernels interact with each other to produce a stable rhythmic motor pattern.

  18. 脑瘫粗大运动功能分级系统修订扩展版(中文版)的信度和效度研究%Reliability and Validity of Expanded and Revised Gross Motor Function Classification System(Chinese Version)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李初阳; 史惟; 周美琴; 朱默; 冉小华; 杨红; 梁琪

    2011-01-01

    目的 确定中文版脑瘫粗大运动功能分级系统修订扩展版(GMFCS E&R)的信度和效度.方法 来自广州和上海两家特殊教育学校的101名6~18岁学生参加此项研究.通过分析不同评价者间(康复医师、物理治疗师、文化教师、家长)的评价结果确定GMFCS E&R的评价者间信度;以粗大运动功能测试(GMFM)为效标确定GMFCS E&R的平行效度.结果 GMFCS E&R具有良好的评价者间信度(ICC=0.79~0.91); GMFCS E&R与GMFM各项分值之间Spearman相关系数为-0.46~-0.86.结论 中文版GMFCS E&R具有良好的信度和效度,适用于国内对脑瘫患儿进行功能分级.%Objective To identify the reliability and validity of Chinese version of expanded and revised Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS E&R). Methods 101 children with cerebral palsy aged 6~18 from 2 special schools in Shanghai and Guangzhou participated in this study. The interrater reliability was identified by analyzing the assessment results among different raters, including rehabilitation doctors, physical therapists, teachers and parents. Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) was used as the criterion to identify the parallel validity. Results GMFCS E&R had good interrater reliability (ICC=0.79~0.91) as well as the parallel validity (Spearman rank correlation coefficient is -0.46~-0.86). Conclusion Chinese version of GMFCS E&R has good reliability and validity. It is suitable for children with cerebral palsy as the tool of function classification in China.

  19. Community paediatricians' counseling patterns and knowledge of recommendations relating to child restraint use in motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenstein, J; Howard, A; Parkin, P; Khambalia, A; Macarthur, C

    2004-04-01

    Road traffic injury is the leading cause of death among Canadian children and youth. Transport Canada recommends four types of child restraint depending on the size of the child, and recent studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of recommended restraint use. To determine community paediatricians' knowledge of Transport Canada recommendations for child restraint use in vehicles, and to examine paediatricians' counseling patterns in relation to child passenger safety. A mailed questionnaire survey of all community paediatricians affiliated with the Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto was conducted. A 16 item questionnaire gathered information on knowledge of Transport Canada recommendations for child restraint use, general counseling patterns in relation to child passenger safety, and demographic information. In total, 60 community paediatricians in active practice were identified. Of these, 48 (80%) responded to the mailed questionnaire. Almost all paediatricians (92%) correctly identified the recommended weight for transition to a forward-facing car seat, whereas fewer paediatricians (63%) correctly identified the recommended weight for transition to a booster seat from a forward-facing car seat, and only one third of paediatricians correctly identified the recommended weight for transition from a booster seat to a seat belt. Community paediatricians' knowledge of Transport Canada recommendations for child restraint use in vehicles is incomplete. There is a need for such recommendations to be better disseminated to paediatricians and parents so that information on child restraint use is delivered in a clear and consistent manner.

  20. Association between patterns of jaw motor activity during sleep and clinical signs and symptoms of sleep bruxism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Yuya; Suganuma, Takeshi; Takaba, Masayuki; Ono, Yasuhiro; Abe, Yuka; Yoshizawa, Shuichiro; Sakai, Takuro; Yoshizawa, Ayako; Nakamura, Hirotaka; Kawana, Fusae; Baba, Kazuyoshi

    2016-12-20

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between patterns of jaw motor activity during sleep and clinical signs and symptoms of sleep bruxism. A total of 35 university students and staff members participated in this study after providing informed consent. All participants were divided into either a sleep bruxism group (n = 21) or a control group (n = 14), based on the following clinical diagnostic criteria: (1) reports of tooth-grinding sounds for at least two nights a week during the preceding 6 months by their sleep partner; (2) presence of tooth attrition with exposed dentin; (3) reports of morning masticatory muscle fatigue or tenderness; and (4) presence of masseter muscle hypertrophy. Video-polysomnography was performed in the sleep laboratory for two nights. Sleep bruxism episodes were measured using masseter electromyography, visually inspected and then categorized into phasic or tonic episodes. Phasic episodes were categorized further into episodes with or without grinding sounds as evaluated by audio signals. Sleep bruxism subjects with reported grinding sounds had a significantly higher total number of phasic episodes with grinding sounds than subjects without reported grinding sounds or controls (Kruskal-Wallis/Steel-Dwass tests; P < 0.05). Similarly, sleep bruxism subjects with tooth attrition exhibited significantly longer phasic burst durations than those without or controls (Kruskal-Wallis/Steel-Dwass tests; P < 0.05). Furthermore, sleep bruxism subjects with morning masticatory muscle fatigue or tenderness exhibited significantly longer tonic burst durations than those without or controls (Kruskal-Wallis/Steel-Dwass tests; P < 0.05). These results suggest that each clinical sign and symptom of sleep bruxism represents different aspects of jaw motor activity during sleep.

  1. Motor skills of toddlers with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Meghann; MacDonald, Megan; Lord, Catherine

    2013-03-01

    With increased interest in the early diagnosis and treatment of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), more attention has been called to the motor skills of very young children with ASD. This study describes the gross and fine motor skills of a cross-sectional group of 162 children with ASD between the ages of 12 and 36 months, as well as a subset of 58 children followed longitudinally. Gross motor and fine motor age equivalent scores were obtained for all children. A 'motor difference' variable was calculated for each child's gross and fine motor skills by taking the absolute difference of the children's age equivalent motor score and their respective chronological age. In Study 1 (the cross-sectional analysis), ANCOVA (co-varied for nonverbal problem solving) revealed significant group differences in the gross motor and fine motor age difference variables. Post-hoc analysis revealed that gross motor and fine motor differences became significantly greater with each 6-month period of chronological age. In Study 2, 58 children were measured twice, an average of 12 months apart. Results indicate that the gross motor and fine motor difference scores significantly increased between the first and second measurements. The importance of addressing motor development in early intervention treatments is discussed.

  2. Visually driven chaining of elementary swim patterns into a goal-directed motor sequence: a virtual reality study of zebrafish prey capture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chintan A Trivedi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Prey capture behavior critically depends on rapid processing of sensory input in order to track, approach and catch the target. When using vision, the nervous system faces the problem of extracting relevant information from a continuous stream of input in order to detect and categorize visible objects as potential prey and to select appropriate motor patterns for approach. For prey capture, many vertebrates exhibit intermittent locomotion, in which discrete motor patterns are chained into a sequence, interrupted by short periods of rest. Here, using high-speed recordings of full-length prey capture sequences performed by freely swimming zebrafish larvae in the presence of a single paramecium, we provide a detailed kinematic analysis of first and subsequent swim bouts during prey capture. Using Fourier analysis, we show that individual swim bouts represent an elementary motor pattern. Changes in orientation are directed towards the target on a graded scale and are implemented by an asymmetric tail bend component superimposed on this basic motor pattern. To further investigate the role of visual feedback on the efficiency and speed of this complex behavior, we developed a closed-loop virtual reality setup in which minimally restrained larvae recapitulated interconnected swim patterns closely resembling those observed during prey capture in freely moving fish. Systematic variation of stimulus properties showed that prey capture is initiated within a narrow range of stimulus size and velocity. Furthermore, variations in the delay and location of swim-triggered visual feedback showed that the reaction time of secondary and later swims is shorter for stimuli that appear within a narrow spatio-temporal window following a swim. This suggests that the larva may generate an expectation of stimulus position, which enables accelerated motor sequencing if the expectation is met by appropriate visual feedback.

  3. Visually driven chaining of elementary swim patterns into a goal-directed motor sequence: a virtual reality study of zebrafish prey capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Chintan A; Bollmann, Johann H

    2013-01-01

    Prey capture behavior critically depends on rapid processing of sensory input in order to track, approach, and catch the target. When using vision, the nervous system faces the problem of extracting relevant information from a continuous stream of input in order to detect and categorize visible objects as potential prey and to select appropriate motor patterns for approach. For prey capture, many vertebrates exhibit intermittent locomotion, in which discrete motor patterns are chained into a sequence, interrupted by short periods of rest. Here, using high-speed recordings of full-length prey capture sequences performed by freely swimming zebrafish larvae in the presence of a single paramecium, we provide a detailed kinematic analysis of first and subsequent swim bouts during prey capture. Using Fourier analysis, we show that individual swim bouts represent an elementary motor pattern. Changes in orientation are directed toward the target on a graded scale and are implemented by an asymmetric tail bend component superimposed on this basic motor pattern. To further investigate the role of visual feedback on the efficiency and speed of this complex behavior, we developed a closed-loop virtual reality setup in which minimally restrained larvae recapitulated interconnected swim patterns closely resembling those observed during prey capture in freely moving fish. Systematic variation of stimulus properties showed that prey capture is initiated within a narrow range of stimulus size and velocity. Furthermore, variations in the delay and location of swim triggered visual feedback showed that the reaction time of secondary and later swims is shorter for stimuli that appear within a narrow spatio-temporal window following a swim. This suggests that the larva may generate an expectation of stimulus position, which enables accelerated motor sequencing if the expectation is met by appropriate visual feedback.

  4. Variability in the effector-specific pattern of motor facilitation during the observation of everyday actions: implications for the clinical use of action observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hétu, S; Gagné, M; Jackson, P L; Mercier, C

    2010-10-13

    Action observation is increasingly considered as a rehabilitation tool as it can increase the cortical excitability of muscles involved in the observed movements and therefore produce effector-specific motor facilitation. In order to investigate the action observation mechanisms, simple single joint intransitive movements have commonly been used. Still, how the observation of everyday movements which often are the prime target of rehabilitation affects the observer cortical excitability remains unclear. Using transcranial magnetic stimulations, we aimed at verifying if the observation of everyday movements made by the proximal or distal upper-limb produces effector-specific motor facilitation in proximal (arm) and distal (hand) muscles of healthy subjects. Results suggest that, similar to simple intransitive movements, observation of more complex everyday movements involving mainly the proximal or distal part of upper limb induces different patterns of motor facilitation across upper limb muscles (P=0.02). However, we observed large inter-individual variability in the strength of the effector-specific motor facilitation induced by action observation. Yet, subjects had similar types of response (strong or weak effector-specific effects) when watching proximal or distal movements indicating that the facilitation pattern was highly consistent within subjects (r=0.83-0.88, Pobserved movements on their motor repertoire and that this type of response holds for various types of everyday actions. Copyright 2010 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Recovery pattern of motor reflex after a single bout of neuromuscular electrical stimulation session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurin, J; Dousset, E; Carrivale, R; Grélot, L; Decherchi, P

    2012-08-01

    We aimed at determining the recovery pattern of neural properties of soleus muscle after a single bout of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) session. Thirteen subjects performed an NMES exercise (75 Hz, 40 contractions, 6.25 s per contraction). Maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), H-reflex at rest and during voluntary contraction fixed at 60% of MVC (respectively, H(max) and H(sup) ) and volitional (V) wave were measured before and during the recovery period following this exercise [i.e., immediately after, 2 h (H2), 2 days (D2) and 7 days (D7)]. MVC exhibited an immediate and a delayed declines at 2 days (respectively, -29.8±4.6%, PMVC and V-wave occurred concomitantly with muscle soreness peak (PMVC without affecting resting and active H-reflex excitability. These results suggested that spinal circuitry function of larger motoneurons was inhibited by NMES (as indicated by the depressed V-wave responses) contrary to the smaller one (indicated by the unchanged H-reflex responses).

  6. A novel approach to locomotion learning: Actor-Critic architecture using central pattern generators and dynamic motor primitives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cai; Lowe, Robert; Ziemke, Tom

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we propose an architecture of a bio-inspired controller that addresses the problem of learning different locomotion gaits for different robot morphologies. The modeling objective is split into two: baseline motion modeling and dynamics adaptation. Baseline motion modeling aims to achieve fundamental functions of a certain type of locomotion and dynamics adaptation provides a "reshaping" function for adapting the baseline motion to desired motion. Based on this assumption, a three-layer architecture is developed using central pattern generators (CPGs, a bio-inspired locomotor center for the baseline motion) and dynamic motor primitives (DMPs, a model with universal "reshaping" functions). In this article, we use this architecture with the actor-critic algorithms for finding a good "reshaping" function. In order to demonstrate the learning power of the actor-critic based architecture, we tested it on two experiments: (1) learning to crawl on a humanoid and, (2) learning to gallop on a puppy robot. Two types of actor-critic algorithms (policy search and policy gradient) are compared in order to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of different actor-critic based learning algorithms for different morphologies. Finally, based on the analysis of the experimental results, a generic view/architecture for locomotion learning is discussed in the conclusion.

  7. A Novel Approach to Locomotion Learning: Actor-Critic Architecture using Central Pattern Generators and Dynamic Motor Primitives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai eLi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we propose an architecture of a bio-inspired controller that addresses the problem of learning different locomotion gaits for different robot morphologies. The modelling objective is split into two: baseline motion modelling and dynamics adaptation. Baseline motion modelling aims to achieve fundamental functions of a certain type of locomotion and dynamics adaptation provides a ``reshaping function for adapting the baseline motion to desired motion. Based on this assumption, a three-layer architecture is developed using central pattern generators (CPGs, a bio-inspired locomotor center for the the baseline motion and dynamic motor primitives (DMPs, a model with universal ``reshaping functions. In this article, we use this architecture with the actor-critic algorithms for finding a good ``reshaping function. In order to demonstrate the learning power of the actor-critic based architecture, we tested it on two experiments: 1 learning to crawl on a humanoid and, 2 learning to gallop on a puppy robot. Two types of actor-critic algorithms (policy search and policy gradient are compared in order to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of different actor-critic based learning algorithms for different morphologies. Finally, based on the analysis of the experimental results, a generic view/architecture for locomotion learning is discussed in the conclusion.

  8. Adaptação transcultural para o Brasil do Sistema de Classificação da Função Motora Grossa (GMFCS Cross-cultural adaptation of the Gross Motor Function Classification System into Brazilian-Portuguese (GMFCS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Hiratuka

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: Em função da complexidade das manifestações clínicas da paralisia cerebral (PC e das dificuldades na sua classificação baseada apenas nos tipos motores e topografia de distribuição corporal, estudiosos canadenses propuseram o Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS. Apesar de esse sistema de classificação estar sendo bastante utilizado no Brasil, ele ainda não havia sido adapatado transculturalmente para tal. OBJETIVOS: Realizar a adaptação transcultural para o Brasil do Sistema de Classificação da Função Motora Grossa (GMFCS para a PC e verificar a confiabilidade entre observadores do instrumento adaptado com crianças brasileiras. MÉTODOS: Este estudo consistiu em duas etapas, sendo a primeira relacionada com o processo de adaptação transcultural, e a segunda referente à testagem do instrumento. A adaptação transcultural do instrumento foi feita por meio da tradução, retrotradução, análise semântica, análise de conteúdo, retrotradução da versão final e aprovação dos autores do instrumento. A testagem do instrumento ocorreu junto a 40 crianças com PC, as quais foram avaliadas por dois examinadores para verificar a confiabilidade entre observadores. RESULTADOS: Os resultados demonstram que as etapas de tradução e retrotradução não apresentaram dificuldades, e a equivalência semântica e a conceitual foram obtidas. A confiabilidade entre examinadores demonstrou que as avaliações quase não diferiam e que havia excelente correlação e consistência interna do constructo, com coeficiente de correlação intraclasse (ICC de 0,945 (com intervalo de 0,861 a 0,979 e a de Cronbach de 0,972. CONCLUSÕES: A versão final do GMFCS mostrou bom potencial de aplicabilidade por graduandos e profissionais da área de neuropediatria.BACKGROUND: Due to the complexity of clinical symptoms of cerebral palsy and the difficulties in classifying it based upon the motor types and the

  9. Motor Development Programming in Trisomic-21 Babies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, Teresa; Menendez, Javier; Rosique, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    The present study contributes to the understanding of gross motor development in babies with Down's syndrome. Also, it facilitates the comprehension of the efficiency of the early motor stimulation as well as of beginning it as early as possible. We worked with two groups of babies with Down's syndrome, beginning the early motor training in each…

  10. Motor Development Programming in Trisomic-21 Babies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, Teresa; Menendez, Javier; Rosique, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    The present study contributes to the understanding of gross motor development in babies with Down's syndrome. Also, it facilitates the comprehension of the efficiency of the early motor stimulation as well as of beginning it as early as possible. We worked with two groups of babies with Down's syndrome, beginning the early motor training in each…

  11. Motor Development: Manual of Alternative Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, James E.

    The manual of alternative procedures for teaching handicapped children focuses on programming, planning, and implementing training in the gross motor (posture, limb control, locomotion) and fine motor (facial, digital) skills. The manual consists of the following sections: specific teaching tactics commonly used in motor training stiuations…

  12. Motor development in visually impaired children

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hallemans, Ann

    2016-01-01

    ..., a visual impairment affects their overall development, including their motor development and skill acquisition. Different studies report a delay in gross motor milestones such as head control, sitting, standing, crawling, and walking during the first year of life. Vision appears to be key to normal postural and motor development in infants. W...

  13. NM Gross Receipts July - December 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  14. NM Gross Receipts January - June 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  15. NM Gross Receipts January - June 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  16. NM Gross Receipts January - June 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  17. NM Gross Receipts January - June 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  18. NM Gross Receipts July - December 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  19. Patterns of motor signs in spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 at the start of follow-up in a reference unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulido-Valdeolivas, Irene; Gómez-Andrés, David; Sanz-Gallego, Irene; Rausell, Estrella; Arpa, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3) is a neurodegenerative disorder that affects the cerebellar system and other subcortical regions of the brain. As for other cerebellar diseases, the severity of this type of ataxia can be assessed with the Scale for Assessment and Rating of Ataxia (SARA) which gives a total score that reflects functional impairment out of 8 cerebellar function tests. SCA3 patients score profile is heterogeneous on at the start of follow up. This study investigates possible patterns in those profiles and analyses the impact of other usually concurrent signs of impairment of extracerebellar motor systems in that profile variability by means of multivariate statistical approaches. Seventeen patients with SCA3 underwent systematic anamnesis, neurological and SARA assessment, visual evaluation of (123)I-Ioflupane (DaTSCAN) single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging and electrophysiological studies (nerve conduction and electromyography). Patterns in the profiles of SARA item scores were investigated by hierarchical clustering after multivariate correspondence analysis. A network analysis was used to represent relationships between SARA item scores, clinical, genetic and neurological examination parameters as well as abnormalities of DaTSCAN SPECT imaging and electrophysiological studies. The most frequently altered SARA items in all patients are gait and stance, and three profiles of SCA3 patients can be distinguished depending mainly on their degree of impairment in those two items. Other SARA items like the score on heel-shin slide contribute less to the classification. Network analysis shows that SARA item scores configure a single domain that is independent of the size of the mutated expanded allele and age of onset, which are, in turn closely and inversely correlated. The severity of cerebellar dysfunction is correlated with longer disease duration, altered visual evaluation of DaTSCAN SPECT imaging and decreased patellar

  20. Spatial noise in coupling strength and natural frequency within a pacemaker network; consequences for development of intestinal motor patterns according to a weakly coupled phase oscillator model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean P Parsons

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Pacemaker activities generated by networks of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC, in conjunction with the enteric nervous system, orchestrate most motor patterns in the gastrointestinal tract. It was our objective to understand the role of network features of ICC associated with the myenteric plexus (ICC-MP in the shaping of motor patterns of the small intestine. To that end, a model of weakly coupled oscillators (oscillators influence each other's phase but not amplitude was created with most parameters derived from experimental data. The ICC network is a uniform two dimensional network coupled by gap junctions. All ICC generate pacemaker (slow wave activity with a frequency gradient in mice from 50/min at the proximal end of the intestine to 40/min at the distal end. Key features of motor patterns, directly related to the underlying pacemaker activity, are frequency steps and dislocations. These were accurately mimicked by reduction of coupling strength at a point in the chain of oscillators. When coupling strength was expressed as a product of gap junction density and conductance, and gap junction density was varied randomly along the chain (i.e. spatial noise with a long-tailed distribution, plateau steps occurred at points of low density. As gap junction conductance was decreased, the number of plateaus increased, mimicking the effect of the gap junction inhibitor carbenoxolone. When spatial noise was added to the natural interval gradient, as gap junction conductance decreased, the number of plateaus increased as before but in addition the phase waves frequently changed direction of apparent propagation, again mimicking the effect of carbenoxolone. In summary, key features of the motor patterns that are governed by pacemaker activity may be a direct consequence of biological noise, specifically spatial noise in gap junction coupling and pacemaker frequency.

  1. Spatial Noise in Coupling Strength and Natural Frequency within a Pacemaker Network; Consequences for Development of Intestinal Motor Patterns According to a Weakly Coupled Phase Oscillator Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Sean P.; Huizinga, Jan D.

    2016-01-01

    Pacemaker activities generated by networks of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC), in conjunction with the enteric nervous system, orchestrate most motor patterns in the gastrointestinal tract. It was our objective to understand the role of network features of ICC associated with the myenteric plexus (ICC-MP) in the shaping of motor patterns of the small intestine. To that end, a model of weakly coupled oscillators (oscillators influence each other's phase but not amplitude) was created with most parameters derived from experimental data. The ICC network is a uniform two dimensional network coupled by gap junctions. All ICC generate pacemaker (slow wave) activity with a frequency gradient in mice from 50/min at the proximal end of the intestine to 40/min at the distal end. Key features of motor patterns, directly related to the underlying pacemaker activity, are frequency steps and dislocations. These were accurately mimicked by reduction of coupling strength at a point in the chain of oscillators. When coupling strength was expressed as a product of gap junction density and conductance, and gap junction density was varied randomly along the chain (i.e., spatial noise) with a long-tailed distribution, plateau steps occurred at pointsof low density. As gap junction conductance was decreased, the number of plateaus increased, mimicking the effect of the gap junction inhibitor carbenoxolone. When spatial noise was added to the natural interval gradient, as gap junction conductance decreased, the number of plateaus increased as before but in addition the phase waves frequently changed direction of apparent propagation, again mimicking the effect of carbenoxolone. In summary, key features of the motor patterns that are governed by pacemaker activity may be a direct consequence of biological noise, specifically spatial noise in gap junction coupling and pacemaker frequency. PMID:26869875

  2. Spatial Noise in Coupling Strength and Natural Frequency within a Pacemaker Network; Consequences for Development of Intestinal Motor Patterns According to a Weakly Coupled Phase Oscillator Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Sean P; Huizinga, Jan D

    2016-01-01

    Pacemaker activities generated by networks of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC), in conjunction with the enteric nervous system, orchestrate most motor patterns in the gastrointestinal tract. It was our objective to understand the role of network features of ICC associated with the myenteric plexus (ICC-MP) in the shaping of motor patterns of the small intestine. To that end, a model of weakly coupled oscillators (oscillators influence each other's phase but not amplitude) was created with most parameters derived from experimental data. The ICC network is a uniform two dimensional network coupled by gap junctions. All ICC generate pacemaker (slow wave) activity with a frequency gradient in mice from 50/min at the proximal end of the intestine to 40/min at the distal end. Key features of motor patterns, directly related to the underlying pacemaker activity, are frequency steps and dislocations. These were accurately mimicked by reduction of coupling strength at a point in the chain of oscillators. When coupling strength was expressed as a product of gap junction density and conductance, and gap junction density was varied randomly along the chain (i.e., spatial noise) with a long-tailed distribution, plateau steps occurred at pointsof low density. As gap junction conductance was decreased, the number of plateaus increased, mimicking the effect of the gap junction inhibitor carbenoxolone. When spatial noise was added to the natural interval gradient, as gap junction conductance decreased, the number of plateaus increased as before but in addition the phase waves frequently changed direction of apparent propagation, again mimicking the effect of carbenoxolone. In summary, key features of the motor patterns that are governed by pacemaker activity may be a direct consequence of biological noise, specifically spatial noise in gap junction coupling and pacemaker frequency.

  3. Gross anatomy of network security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Thomas J.

    2002-01-01

    Information security involves many branches of effort, including information assurance, host level security, physical security, and network security. Computer network security methods and implementations are given a top-down description to permit a medically focused audience to anchor this information to their daily practice. The depth of detail of network functionality and security measures, like that of the study of human anatomy, can be highly involved. Presented at the level of major gross anatomical systems, this paper will focus on network backbone implementation and perimeter defenses, then diagnostic tools, and finally the user practices (the human element). Physical security measures, though significant, have been defined as beyond the scope of this presentation.

  4. Methylphenidate improves motor functions in children diagnosed with Hyperkinetic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stray, Liv Larsen; Stray, Torstein; Iversen, Synnøve; Ruud, Anne; Ellertsen, Bjørn

    2009-01-01

    Background A previous study showed that a high percentage of children diagnosed with Hyperkinetic Disorder (HKD) displayed a consistent pattern of motor function problems. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of methylphenidate (MPH) on such motor performance in children with HKD Methods 25 drug-naïve boys, aged 8–12 yr with a HKD-F90.0 diagnosis, were randomly assigned into two groups within a double blind cross-over design, and tested with a motor assessment instrument, during MPH and placebo conditions. Results The percentage of MFNU scores in the sample indicating 'severe motor problems' ranged from 44–84%, typically over 60%. Highly significant improvements in motor performance were observed with MPH compared to baseline ratings on all the 17 subtests of the MFNU 1–2 hr after administration of MPH. There were no significant placebo effects. The motor improvement was consistent with improvement of clinical symptoms. Conclusion The study confirmed our prior clinical observations showing that children with ADHD typically demonstrate marked improvements of motor functions after a single dose of 10 mg MPH. The most pronounced positive MPH response was seen in subtests measuring either neuromotor inhibition, or heightened muscular tone in the gross movement muscles involved in maintaining the alignment and balance of the body. Introduction of MPH generally led to improved balance and a generally more coordinated and controlled body movement. PMID:19439096

  5. Methylphenidate improves motor functions in children diagnosed with Hyperkinetic Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iversen Synnøve

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A previous study showed that a high percentage of children diagnosed with Hyperkinetic Disorder (HKD displayed a consistent pattern of motor function problems. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of methylphenidate (MPH on such motor performance in children with HKD Methods 25 drug-naïve boys, aged 8–12 yr with a HKD-F90.0 diagnosis, were randomly assigned into two groups within a double blind cross-over design, and tested with a motor assessment instrument, during MPH and placebo conditions. Results The percentage of MFNU scores in the sample indicating 'severe motor problems' ranged from 44–84%, typically over 60%. Highly significant improvements in motor performance were observed with MPH compared to baseline ratings on all the 17 subtests of the MFNU 1–2 hr after administration of MPH. There were no significant placebo effects. The motor improvement was consistent with improvement of clinical symptoms. Conclusion The study confirmed our prior clinical observations showing that children with ADHD typically demonstrate marked improvements of motor functions after a single dose of 10 mg MPH. The most pronounced positive MPH response was seen in subtests measuring either neuromotor inhibition, or heightened muscular tone in the gross movement muscles involved in maintaining the alignment and balance of the body. Introduction of MPH generally led to improved balance and a generally more coordinated and controlled body movement.

  6. Age-related changes in motor unit firing pattern of vastus lateralis muscle during low-moderate contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kohei; Holobar, Aleš; Kouzaki, Motoki; Ogawa, Madoka; Akima, Hiroshi; Moritani, Toshio

    2016-06-01

    Age-related changes in motor unit activation properties remain unclear for locomotor muscles such as quadriceps muscles, although these muscles are preferentially atrophied with aging and play important roles in daily living movements. The present study investigated and compared detailed motor unit firing characteristics for the vastus lateralis muscle during isometric contraction at low to moderate force levels in the elderly and young. Fourteen healthy elderly men and 15 healthy young men performed isometric ramp-up contraction to 70 % of the maximal voluntary contractions (MVC) during knee extension. Multichannel surface electromyograms were recorded from the vastus lateralis muscle using a two-dimensional grid of 64 electrodes and decomposed with the convolution kernel compensation technique to extract individual motor units. Motor unit firing rates in the young were significantly higher (~+29.7 %) than in the elderly (p  0.05). Firing rates at 60 % of the MVC force level for the motor units recruited at MVC were significantly correlated with MVC force in the elderly (r = 0.885, p  0.05). These results suggest that the motor unit firing rate in the vastus lateralis muscle is affected by aging and muscle strength in the elderly and/or age-related strength loss is related to motor unit firing/recruitment properties.

  7. 46 CFR 169.675 - Generators and motors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Generators and motors. 169.675 Section 169.675 Shipping... Less Than 100 Gross Tons § 169.675 Generators and motors. (a) Each generator and motor must be fitted... applicable. (10) Type of winding (for direct-current motors). (b) Each vessel of more than 65 feet in...

  8. Development of fine motor skills in preterm infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Arend F.; Van Braeckel, Koenraad N. J. A.; Hitzert, Marrit M.; Tanis, Jozien C.; Roze, Elise

    2013-01-01

    Fine motor skills are related to functioning in daily life and at school. We reviewed the status of knowledge, in preterm children, on the development of fine motor skills, the relation with gross motor skills, and risk factors for impaired fine motor skills. We searched the past 15 years in PubMed,

  9. Consequences of comorbidity of developmental coordination disorders and learning disabilities for severity and pattern of perceptual-motor dysfunction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongmans, MJ; Smits-Engelsman, BCM; Schoemaker, MM

    2003-01-01

    Children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) have difficulty learning and performing age-appropriate perceptual-motor skills in the absence of diagnosable neurological disorders. Descriptive studies have shown that comorbidity of DCD exists with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

  10. Network properties of interstitial cells of Cajal affect intestinal pacemaker activity and motor patterns, according to a mathematical model of weakly coupled oscillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ruihan; Parsons, Sean P; Huizinga, Jan D

    2017-03-01

    What is the central question of this study? What are the effects of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) network perturbations on intestinal pacemaker activity and motor patterns? What is the main finding and its importance? Two-dimensional modelling of the ICC pacemaker activity according to a phase model of weakly coupled oscillators showed that network properties (coupling strength between oscillators, frequency gradient and frequency noise) strongly influence pacemaker network activity and subsequent motor patterns. The model explains motor patterns observed in physiological conditions and provides predictions and testable hypotheses for effects of ICC loss and frequency modulation on the motor patterns. Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) are the pacemaker cells of gut motility and are associated with motility disorders. Interstitial cells of Cajal form a network, but the contributions of its network properties to gut physiology and dysfunction are poorly understood. We modelled an ICC network as a two-dimensional network of weakly coupled oscillators with a frequency gradient and showed changes over time in video and graphical formats. Model parameters were obtained from slow-wave-driven contraction patterns in the mouse intestine and pacemaker slow-wave activities from the cat intestine. Marked changes in propagating oscillation patterns (including changes from propagation to non-propagating) were observed by changing network parameters (coupling strength between oscillators, the frequency gradient and frequency noise), which affected synchronization, propagation velocity and occurrence of dislocations (termination of an oscillation). Complete uncoupling of a circumferential ring of oscillators caused the proximal and distal section to desynchronize, but complete synchronization was maintained with only a single oscillator connecting the sections with high enough coupling. The network of oscillators could withstand loss; even with 40% of oscillators lost randomly

  11. Eccentric muscle damage has variable effects on motor unit recruitment thresholds and discharge patterns in elbow flexor muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dartnall, Tamara J; Rogasch, Nigel C; Nordstrom, Michael A; Semmler, John G

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of eccentric muscle damage on recruitment threshold force and repetitive discharge properties of low-threshold motor units. Ten subjects performed four tasks involving isometric contraction of elbow flexors while electromyographic (EMG) data were recorded from human biceps brachii and brachialis muscles. Tasks were 1) maximum voluntary contraction (MVC); 2) constant-force contraction at various submaximal targets; 3) motor unit recruitment threshold task; and 4) minimum motor unit discharge rate task. These tasks were performed on three separate days before, immediately after, and 24 h after eccentric exercise of elbow flexor muscles. MVC force declined (42%) immediately after exercise and remained depressed (29%) 24 h later, indicative of muscle damage. Mean motor unit recruitment threshold for biceps brachii was 8.4+/-4.2% MVC, (n=34) before eccentric exercise, and was reduced by 41% (5.0+/-3.0% MVC, n=34) immediately after and by 39% (5.2+/-2.5% MVC, n=34) 24 h after exercise. No significant changes in motor unit recruitment threshold were observed in the brachialis muscle. However, for the minimum tonic discharge rate task, motor units in both muscles discharged 11% faster (10.8+/-2.0 vs. 9.7+/-1.7 Hz) immediately after (n=29) exercise compared with that before (n=32). The minimum discharge rate variability was greater in brachialis muscle immediately after exercise (13.8+/-3.1%) compared with that before (11.9+/-3.1%) and 24 h after exercise (11.7+/-2.4%). No significant changes in minimum discharge rate variability were observed in the biceps brachii motor units after exercise. These results indicate that muscle damage from eccentric exercise alters motor unit recruitment thresholds for >or=24 h, but the effect is not the same in the different elbow flexor muscles.

  12. Responsiveness of the Test of Basic Motor Skills of Children with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Heuvel, Marieke E.; de Jong, Inge; Lauteslager, Peter E. M.; Volman, M. J. M.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the responsiveness of the Test of Basic Motor Skills for Children with Down Syndrome (BMS). Forty-one children with Down Syndrome, 3 to 36 months of age, participated in the study. Gross motor skills were assessed three times using the BMS and the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) before and after a baseline…

  13. Electromyographic identification of spinal oscillator patterns and recouplings in a patient with incomplete spinal cord lesion: oscillator formation training as a method to improve motor activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalow, G; Blanc, Y; Jeltsch, W; Zäch, G A

    1996-08-01

    A patient with a strongly lesioned spinal cord, sub C5, relearned running, besides improving other movements, by an oscillator formation training (rhythmic, dynamic, stereotyped exercise). After 45 days of jumping on a springboard and other rhythm trainings, the patient was able to run 90 m in 41 s (7.9 km/h) (even 9.3 km/h 3 years after the lesion) besides marching (5.7 km/h), cycling, playing tennis and skiing. FF-type (alpha 1) (f = 8.3-11.4 Hz) and FR-type (alpha 2) (f = 6.7 Hz) motor unit firings were identified by electromyography (EMG) with surface electrodes by their oscillatory firing patterns in this patient. In EMG literature, the alpha 2-oscillatory firing is called "myokymic discharging". Alternating long and short oscillation periods were measured in FF-type motor units, with changing focus (change from long/short to short/long oscillation periods). The alternating mean period durations differed by approximately 10 ms. Transient synchronization of oscillatory firing FF-type motor units was observed with up to two phase relations per oscillation cycle. In recumbent position, the phase change in synchronization of two oscillatory firing motor units in the soleus muscle of one leg correlated with the change from alternating to symmetrical oscillatory firing of a third motor unit in the soleus muscle of the other leg. This measurement indicates that the alternating oscillatory firing of premotor neuronal networks is correlated with synchronization of oscillatory firing neuronal subnetworks, i.e., with coupling changes of oscillators, and is not due to reciprocal inhibition of half-centre oscillators as suggested by the change from alternating to symmetrical oscillatory firing. Coupling changes of oscillatory firing subnetworks to generate macroscopic (integrative) network functions are therefore a general organization form of the central nervous system (CNS), and are not related to rhythmic movements like walking or running only. It is proposed that

  14. Differential neural activation patterns in patients with Parkinson's disease and freezing of gait in response to concurrent cognitive and motor load.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James M Shine

    Full Text Available Freezing of gait is a devastating symptom of Parkinson's disease (PD that is exacerbated by the processing of cognitive information whilst walking. To date, no studies have explored the neural correlates associated with increases in cognitive load whilst performing a motor task in patients with freezing. In this experiment, 14 PD patients with and 15 PD patients without freezing of gait underwent 3T fMRI while performing a virtual reality gait task. Directions to walk and stop were presented on the viewing screen as either direct cues or as more cognitively indirect pre-learned cues. Both groups showed a consistent pattern of BOLD response within the Cognitive Control Network during performance of the paradigm. However, a between group comparison revealed that those PD patients with freezing of gait were less able to recruit the bilateral anterior insula, ventral striatum and the pre-supplementary motor area, as well as the left subthalamic nucleus when responding to indirect cognitive cues whilst maintaining a motor output. These results suggest that PD patients with freezing of gait are unable to properly recruit specific cortical and subcortical regions within the Cognitive Control Network during the performance of simultaneous motor and cognitive functions.

  15. Differential Neural Activation Patterns in Patients with Parkinson's Disease and Freezing of Gait in Response to Concurrent Cognitive and Motor Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shine, James M.; Matar, Elie; Ward, Philip B.; Bolitho, Samuel J.; Pearson, Mark; Naismith, Sharon L.; Lewis, Simon J. G.

    2013-01-01

    Freezing of gait is a devastating symptom of Parkinson's disease (PD) that is exacerbated by the processing of cognitive information whilst walking. To date, no studies have explored the neural correlates associated with increases in cognitive load whilst performing a motor task in patients with freezing. In this experiment, 14 PD patients with and 15 PD patients without freezing of gait underwent 3T fMRI while performing a virtual reality gait task. Directions to walk and stop were presented on the viewing screen as either direct cues or as more cognitively indirect pre-learned cues. Both groups showed a consistent pattern of BOLD response within the Cognitive Control Network during performance of the paradigm. However, a between group comparison revealed that those PD patients with freezing of gait were less able to recruit the bilateral anterior insula, ventral striatum and the pre-supplementary motor area, as well as the left subthalamic nucleus when responding to indirect cognitive cues whilst maintaining a motor output. These results suggest that PD patients with freezing of gait are unable to properly recruit specific cortical and subcortical regions within the Cognitive Control Network during the performance of simultaneous motor and cognitive functions. PMID:23382821

  16. Investigation of children's deciduous teeth erupt,fontanel closure and language,gross motor development in Zhengzhou%河南省郑州市儿童出牙、前囟闭合时间和语言、大运动发育情况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘慧娟

    2015-01-01

    目的:了解郑州市儿童的乳牙萌出、前囟闭合及语言、大动作发育的长期变化情况。方法采取随机抽样的方法,抽取郑州市3家医院儿保门诊的所有儿童系统管理资料,回顾性分析自2001-2010年10年间出生健康儿童的0~3岁体检资料,进入该研究的男女儿童共4230例,其中男2141例,女2089例。调查自出生至3岁期间的出生情况、动态体格发育及乳牙萌出、语言及大运动发育、前囟闭合情况。结果(1)10年来郑州市儿童体质量、身长呈持续和显著地增长。(2)男女童之间乳牙萌出时间及前囟闭合时间差异有统计学意义。(3)随着年代的推移,婴儿大运动发育及囟门闭合时间略有提前。结论郑州市儿童的体质量、身高的增长呈现生长发育的长期趋势,儿童神经心理发育状况正常,并呈现略为提前的趋势。%Objective To understand the children′s development status of deciduous teeth erupt,fontanel closure,expressive language and gross motor in Zhengzhou.Methods According to random cluster sampling,the children health care clinic in three hospitals in Zhengzhou were investigated,all the data was gathered from the chil-dren health care management information system.4 230 healthy children aged 0-3 years old birth from 2000 to 2010 were investigated(2 141 boys and 2 089 girls),We collected the following information about birth situation,the dynamic physical growth,deciduous tooth occurrence,language and motor development.Results (1 )The children's weight,height has been persistent and significantly improved during the past 10 years in Zhengzhou.(2)There was a significant difference between the sexes in deciduous teeth erupt and the fontanel closure time.(3 )With the time, infant motor development and fontanelle closed slightly ahead of time.Conclusion The children's weight,height growth shows a long-term trend in Zhengzhou,with normal condition in

  17. Evaluation of gross radioactivity in foodstuffs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zorer, Oezlem Selcuk; Oeter, Cigdem [Yuzuncu Yil Univ., Van (Turkey). Dept. of Chemistry

    2015-05-15

    The paper presents the results of radiological investigations of food products sampled in the summer and fall of 2011 and 2012 in different parts of Van, Turkey. Gross radioactivity measurements in food products were evaluated. Food items were divided into eight groups: (1) water, (2) fish, (3) cheese products, (4) fruits, (5) vegetables, (6) herbs, (7) walnut and (8) rock salt. The levels of the gross alpha and gross beta radioactivity in all food samples varied widely ranging from 0.070 to 10.885 Bq/g and from 0.132 to 48.285 Bq/g on dry mass basis, respectively. In one sample, gross alpha and gross beta activity concentrations were found to be relatively high according to the other samples and in all samples, the gross alpha radioactivity was measured lower than the gross beta radioactivity. The gross α and gross β activities were measured by using α/β counter of the multi-detector low background system (PIC MPC-9604).

  18. Motor skills related to body movement and dance. t-patterns detection Habilidades motrices en expresión corporal y danza. Detección de t-patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dinušová

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available

    In the learning processes that promotes the generation of motor actions, teachers usually propose instructions based on kinetic models. The aim of this study is to observe what type of motor answers the subjects generate from kinesic models offered by the teachers. The motor answers to observe refer to the patterns of motor skills of stability, locomotion and manipulation, variations of body-space, time and interaction between participants. 12 Phsysical Activity and Sports Science students without experience in dance participated in the study. 8 sessions were observed focused on space, time, energy and body contact. A specific instrument was created, the observational system of motor skills OSMOS (Castañer, Torrents, Anguera y Dinusôva, 2008,. It was codified with ThemeCoder  (Pattern Vision, 2001 and SDIS-GSEQ   (Bakeman &  Quera, 1996 and THEME (Magnusson, 2000 were used for the reliability and detection of T-patterns .
    Key Words:  Motor Skills, Field Format, Body expression and dance, Motor T-Patterns detection, Kinesic's Model.

    En todo proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje que promueva la generación de acciones motrices, la elección de los modelos que usan los docentes es una decisión pedagógica de mayor importancia de la que se le suele otorgar.  El objetivo de la investigación es el de observar y constatar qué tipo de respuestas motrices generan los discentes a partir de los modelos de tipo cinésico ofrecidos por los docentes. Las respuestas motrices a observar se refieren a los patrones de habilidades motrices, las variaciones de cuerpo-espacio y tiempo así como de interacción entre los participantes. Han participado en el estudio 12 estudiantes de primer ciclo en Ciencias de la Actividad Física y el deporte con alto bagaje deportivo pero sin experiencia en danza y expresión corporal (EC. Se observaron 8 sesiones

  19. Consequences of comorbidity of developmental coordination disorders and learning disabilities for severity and pattern of perceptual-motor dysfunction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongmans, MJ; Smits-Engelsman, BCM; Schoemaker, MM

    2003-01-01

    Children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) have difficulty learning and performing age-appropriate perceptual-motor skills in the absence of diagnosable neurological disorders. Descriptive studies have shown that comorbidity of DCD exists with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (A

  20. Study on reliability and validity of the Chinese version of the gross motor function classification system for cerebral palsy%中文版脑瘫患儿粗大运动功能分级系统的信度和效度研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史惟; 王素娟; 杨红; 朱默; 王艺

    2006-01-01

    目的确定中文版脑瘫患儿粗大运动功能分级系统(Gross Motor Function Classification System,GMFCS)的信度和效度.方法共有来自上海3家康复机构91例0~12岁脑瘫患儿参加了此项研究,其中35例测定GMFCS的重测信度;66例测定GMFCS的评价者间信度;分别以88例脑瘫患儿的粗大运动功能评估量表(GMFM)和54例脑瘫患儿的Peabody粗大运动发育量表(PDMS-GM)的各项测试结果为效标确定GMFCS的平行效度;对88例同时接受GMFCS和GMFM评价的患儿的测试结果进行结构效度检测,以GMFCS为应变量,GMFM 5个功能区的百分比为自变量进行多元逐步回归分析,判断粗大运动中5个分区功能对GMFCS的影响程度.结果GMFCS具有良好的重测信度(等级间相关系数为0.99),同时具有良好的评估者间信度(等级间相关系数为0.95~0.98);GMFCS与GMFM和PDMS-GM各项分值之间有良好的平行效度,Spearman r为-0.57~-0.84;粗大运动功能中的坐位能力和行走能力是影响GMFCS的主要因素,校正决定系数为0.709(P<0.001).结论中文版GMFCS具有良好的信度和效度,适用于国内对脑瘫患儿进行功能分级.

  1. Measures of Gross National Happiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruut Veenhoven

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Happiness is rising on the political agenda and this calls for measures of how well nations perform in creating great happiness for a great number, analogous to measures of success in creating wealth, such as GDP. Happiness is defined as subjective enjoyment of one’s life as-a-whole and this can be measured using self-reports. Question on happiness are currently used in large scale surveys of the general population in nations. As a result we have now comparable data on happiness in 144 contemporary nations and time-series of 25 years and longer on 11 developed nations. These data can be aggregated in different ways: If the aim is simply greater happiness for a greater number of citizens, Average happiness (AH is an appropriate measure. If the focus is on enduring happiness, it is better to combine average happiness with longevity in an index of Happy Life Years (HLY. If the aim is to reduce disparity among citizens a relevant indicator is the Inequality of Happiness (IH in the nations as measured with the standard deviation. Average and dispersion can also be combined in an index of Inequality-Adjusted Happiness (IAH. Comparison across nations shows sizable differences on all these measures of gross national happiness and these differences correspond with societal characteristics that can be influenced by policy makers, such as freedom and justice. Comparison over time shows major improvement during the last decade.

  2. Olhares distintos sobre a noção de estabilidade e mudança no desempenho da coordenação motora grossa Ángulos diferentes sobre el concepto de estabilidad y cambio en el rendimiento de la coordinación motora gruesa Distinct views on the notion of stability and change in the performance of gross motor coordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Basso

    2012-09-01

    discuten en términos de diferentes trayectorias de desarrollo de la CMG.Studies about gross motor coordination in children (GMC focus on the description of normative values derived from age and sex, and few analyzed the dynamics of change of each child within its group. The goal of the present study is estimate the stability of intra-individual change over inter-individual differences over eighteen months. One hundred and twenty students with seven years old in the city of Muzambinho - MG participated in the study. Data was collected four times, with a six-month interval between each assessment. GMC was evaluated through KTK test battery. Mean values for all tests increased over time, with differences between sex for equilibrium test. The correlation values between initial performance and improvements over eighteen months indicated high heterogeneity. Results of stability estimates were weak for tests. These results were discussed about different trajectories in the development of motor coordination.

  3. The Mechanics of Gross Moist Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeljka Fuchs

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The gross moist stability relates the net lateral outflow of moist entropy or moist static energy from an atmospheric convective region to some measure of the strength of the convection in that region. If the gross moist stability can be predicted as a function of the local environmental conditions, then it becomes the key element in understanding how convection is controlled by the large-scale flow. This paper provides a guide to the various ways in which the gross moist stability is defined and the subtleties of its calculation from observations and models. Various theories for the determination of the gross moist stability are presented and its roles in current conceptual models for the tropical atmospheric circulation are analyzed. The possible effect of negative gross moist stability on the development and dynamics of tropical disturbances is currently of great interest.

  4. Fasciculation and guidance of spinal motor axons in the absence of FGFR2 signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa-Eva Huettl

    Full Text Available During development, fibroblast growth factors (FGF are essential for early patterning events along the anterior-posterior axis, conferring positional identity to spinal motor neurons by activation of different Hox codes. In the periphery, signaling through one of four fibroblast growth factor receptors supports the development of the skeleton, as well as induction and maintenance of extremities. In previous studies, FGF receptor 2 (FGFR2 was found to interact with axon bound molecules involved in axon fasciculation and extension, thus rendering this receptor an interesting candidate for the promotion of proper peripheral innervation. However, while the involvement of FGFR2 in limb bud induction has been extensively studied, its role during axon elongation and formation of distinct nervous projections has not been addressed so far. We show here that motor neurons in the spinal cord express FGFR2 and other family members during the establishment of motor connections to the forelimb and axial musculature. Employing a conditional genetic approach to selectively ablate FGFR2 from motor neurons we found that the patterning of motor columns and the expression patterns of other FGF receptors and Sema3A in the motor columns of mutant embryos are not altered. In the absence of FGFR2 signaling, pathfinding of motor axons is intact, and also fasciculation, distal advancement of motor nerves and gross morphology and positioning of axonal projections are not altered. Our findings therefore show that FGFR2 is not required cell-autonomously in motor neurons during the formation of initial motor projections towards limb and axial musculature.

  5. Brain-Computer Interface Therapy after Stroke Affects Patterns of Brain-Behavior Relationships in Corticospinal Motor Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittany Mei Young

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Brain-computer interface (BCI devices are being investigated for their application in stroke rehabilitation, but little is known about how structural changes in the motor system relate to behavioral measures with the use of these systems. Objective. This study examined relationships among diffusion tensor imaging (DTI-derived metrics and with behavioral changes in stroke patients with and without BCI training. Methods. Stroke patients (n=19 with upper extremity motor impairment were assessed using Stroke Impact Scale (SIS, Action Research Arm Test (ARAT, Nine-Hole Peg Test (9-HPT, and DTI scans. Ten subjects completed four assessments over a control period during which no training was administered. Seventeen subjects, including eight who completed the control period, completed four assessments over an experimental period during which subjects received interventional BCI training. Fractional anisotropy (FA values were extracted from each corticospinal tract (CST and transcallosal motor fibers for each scan. Results. No significant group by time interactions were identified at the group level in DTI or behavioral measures. During the control period, increases in contralesional CST FA and in asymmetric FA (aFA correlated with poorer scores on SIS and 9-HPT. During the experimental period (with BCI training, increases in contralesional CST FA were correlated with improvements in 9-HPT while increases in aFA correlated with improvements in ARAT but with worsening 9-HPT performance; changes in transcallosal motor fibers positively correlated with those in the contralesional CST. All correlations p<0.05 corrected. Conclusions. These findings suggest that the integrity of the contralesional CST may be used to track individual behavioral changes observed with BCI training after stroke.

  6. An early role for WNT signaling in specifying neural patterns of Cdx and Hox gene expression and motor neuron subtype identity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrika Nordström

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The link between extrinsic signaling, progenitor cell specification and neuronal subtype identity is central to the developmental organization of the vertebrate central nervous system. In the hindbrain and spinal cord, distinctions in the rostrocaudal identity of progenitor cells are associated with the generation of different motor neuron subtypes. Two fundamental classes of motor neurons, those with dorsal (dMN and ventral (vMN exit points, are generated over largely non-overlapping rostrocaudal domains of the caudal neural tube. Cdx and Hox genes are important determinants of the rostrocaudal identity of neural progenitor cells, but the link between early patterning signals, neural Cdx and Hox gene expression, and the generation of dMN and vMN subtypes, is unclear. Using an in vitro assay of neural differentiation, we provide evidence that an early Wnt-based program is required to interact with a later retinoic acid- and fibroblast growth factor-mediated mechanism to generate a pattern of Cdx and Hox profiles characteristic of hindbrain and spinal cord progenitor cells that prefigure the generation of vMNs and dMNs.

  7. The Effect of Additional Tactile Stimulation in a Perceptual-Motor Treatment Program for School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKibbin, Elsie H.

    1973-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the value of a perceptual-motor program using predominantly gross motor activities for children with developmental apraxia and deficits in tactile perception. (Author)

  8. The Effect of Additional Tactile Stimulation in a Perceptual-Motor Treatment Program for School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKibbin, Elsie H.

    1973-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the value of a perceptual-motor program using predominantly gross motor activities for children with developmental apraxia and deficits in tactile perception. (Author)

  9. 46 CFR 169.666 - Generators and motors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Generators and motors. 169.666 Section 169.666 Shipping... of Less Than 100 Gross Tons § 169.666 Generators and motors. (a) Each vessel of more than 65 feet in...) Each generator and motor must be in a location that is accessible, adequately ventilated, and as dry...

  10. Limb distribution, motor impairment, and functional classification of cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Gorter; P.L. Rosenbaum

    2004-01-01

    This study explored the relationships between the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS), limb distribution, and type of motor impairment. Data used were collected in the Ontario Motor Growth study, a longitudinal cohort study with a population-based sample of children with cerebral pals

  11. The future of gross anatomy teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malamed, S; Seiden, D

    1995-01-01

    A survey of U.S. departments of anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry shows that 39% of the respondent anatomy departments reported declines in the numbers of graduate students taking the human gross anatomy course. Similarly, 42% of the departments reported decreases in the numbers of graduate students teaching human gross anatomy. These decreases were greater in anatomy than in physiology and in biochemistry. The percentages of departments reporting increases in students taking or teaching their courses was 6% for human gross anatomy and 0% to 19% for physiology and biochemistry courses. To reverse this trend the establishment of specific programs for the training of gross anatomy teachers is advocated. These new teachers will be available as the need for them is increasingly recognized in the future.

  12. FUZZY ECCENTRICITY AND GROSS ERROR IDENTIFICATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The dominant and recessive effect made by exceptional interferer is analyzed in measurement system based on responsive character, and the gross error model of fuzzy clustering based on fuzzy relation and fuzzy equipollence relation is built. The concept and calculate formula of fuzzy eccentricity are defined to deduce the evaluation rule and function of gross error, on the base of them, a fuzzy clustering method of separating and discriminating the gross error is found. Utilized in the dynamic circular division measurement system, the method can identify and eliminate gross error in measured data, and reduce measured data dispersity. Experimental results indicate that the use of the method and model enables repetitive precision of the system to improve 80% higher than the foregoing system, to reach 3.5 s, and angle measurement error is less than 7 s.

  13. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia presenting with gross hematuria

    OpenAIRE

    Kalbani, Naifain Al; Weitzman, Sheila; Abdelhaleem, Mohamed; Carcao, Manuel; Abla, Oussama

    2007-01-01

    A case of a six-year-old boy presenting with gross hematuria is reported. Investigations revealed the etiology of the hematuria to be thrombocytopenia in the setting of newly diagnosed acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The diagnosis of leukemia was confirmed by bone marrow examination. The patient’s hematuria completely resolved with platelet transfusions. Although thrombocytopenia is a very common presenting feature of acute lymphoblastic leukemia, gross hematuria is exceedingly rare. Thus, thro...

  14. 脑瘫共患病及其与脑瘫类型和粗大运动功能分级的关系%Comorbidities in patients with cerebral palsy and their relationship with neurologic subtypes and Gross Motor Function Classification System levels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯梅; 孙殿荣; 单若冰; 王珂; 于荣; 赵建慧; 姜艳平

    2010-01-01

    subtype and the gross motor function levels. Clinicians should have a full recognition of these comorbidities, and we should have a cooperation between the different subjects to have an overall evaluation and rehabilitation and to improve the prognosis.

  15. 生长激素/胰岛素样生长因子-1轴与脑瘫儿童认知、大运动功能的关系%Relationship of GH/IGF-1 axis with gross motor and cognitive development in cerebral palsy toddlers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴至凤; 赵聪敏; 廖伟; 张雨平; 王丽雁; 何菲; 冯雪菲; 李胤颖; 余秀梅

    2016-01-01

    目的 评估GH/IGF-1轴与幼龄脑瘫儿童粗大运动功能与认知发育的关系.方法 纳入2012年1月至2014年12月新桥医院儿科住院的1~4岁脑瘫儿童71例作为脑瘫组,按体格发育落后与否划分为脑瘫伴发育迟滞组(cerebral palsy with retardation,CP-R)50例及脑瘫发育正常组(cerebral palsy with normal growth,CP-N)21例;按粗大运动功能分类系统(gross motor function classification system, GMFCS)划分为Ⅰ~Ⅱ级组20例(CP-GMFCS Ⅰ~Ⅱ),Ⅲ~V级组51例(CP-GMFCSⅢ~V);按Bayley评分划分智力发育指数(mental development index,MDI)≥70组15例(CP-MDI≥70),MDI< 70组56例(CP-MDI< 70).健康对照组为同期体检的健康儿童15例.观察上述儿童的血浆GH基础值及激发值、胰岛素样生长因子-1(insulin-like growth factor Ⅰ,IGF-1)、类胰岛素生长因子结合蛋白3(insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 3,IGFBP-3)水平作对照研究.结果 ①CP-R组较CP-N组GH峰值显著降低,上述2组均较健康对照组GH峰值和IGF-1值显著降低(P<0.05).②CP-GMFCS Ⅰ~Ⅱ组和CP-GMFCSⅢ~V组较健康对照组GH峰值和IGF-1值显著降低,CP-GMFCSⅢ~V组较CP-GMFCS Ⅰ~Ⅱ组GH峰值和IGF-1值显著降低(P<0.05).③CP-MDI< 70组和CP-MDI≥70组较健康对照组GH峰值显著降低(P<0.05);CP-MDI< 70组较CP-MDI≥70组和健康对照组IGF-1值显著降低(P<0.05).结论 脑瘫伴体格发育迟缓、重度粗大运动功能障碍及明显MDI指数落后的儿童存在GH/IGF-1轴受损,提示GH、IGF-1低下可能是脑瘫儿童运动伴认知水平低下的原因之一.

  16. Effect of botulinum toxin A combined with plaster cast on gross motor function of spasmodic double paralysis%A 型肉毒毒素联合石膏固定对痉挛型双瘫患儿粗大运动功能影响的疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡慧强; 彭桂兰; 胡恕香; 蔡淑英

    2016-01-01

    目的:观察 A 型肉毒毒素联合石膏固定对痉挛型双瘫患儿粗大运动功能的影响。方法2013年1月至2014年10月厦门市妇幼保健院儿童神经康复科收治住院的痉挛型双瘫患儿40例,随机分为观察组和对照组各20例。对照组单纯采用 A 型肉毒毒素注射后进行康复训练;观察组采用 A 型肉毒毒素注射联合石膏固定3周,拆除石膏后进行康复训练,分别于治疗前及治疗后1、3、6个月采用粗大运动功能量表(GMFM-88)D 区和 E 区进行评估。结果观察组治疗后1、3、6个月 GMFM-88 D 区、E 区与治疗前比较差异有统计学意义(P <0.01)。对照组治疗后3、6个月 GMFM-88 D 区、E 区与治疗前比较差异有统计学意义(P <0.01)。观察组治疗后1、3、6个月 GMFM-88 D 区、E 区与对照组比较差异有统计学意义(P <0.01)。结论A 型肉毒毒素注射联合石膏固定治疗痉挛型双瘫患儿尖足畸形,可降低肌张力,改善运动功能,有效提高粗大运动功能,比单纯采用 A 型肉毒毒素治疗疗效更好。%Objective To explore the effect of botulinum toxin A combined with plaster cast on the gross motor function of spasmodic double paralysis.Methods A total of 40 children with spasmodic double paralysis hospitalized in Xiamen Maternal and Child Healthcare Hospital from Jan.2013 to Oct.2014 were included in the study,and they were randomly divided into two groups:observation group(20 cases)and control group(20 cases).Control group was treated only with botulinum toxin A injection followed by reha-bilitation training.Observation group was given with botulinum toxin A combined with 3 weeks of plaster cast,and then rehabilitation training was carried out after removing the plaster.GMFM-88 was used to make evaluation of zone D and zone E before treatment and 1,3 and 6 months after treatment.Results Zone D and E was different 1,3 and 6 months after treatment by GMFM-88 in the observation group

  17. Three-dimensional knee kinematics by conventional gait analysis for eleven motor tasks of daily living: typical patterns and repeatability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheys, Lennart; Leardini, Alberto; Wong, Pius D; Van Camp, Laurent; Callewaert, Barbara; Bellemans, Johan; Desloovere, Kaat

    2013-04-01

    The availability of detailed knee kinematic data during various activities can facilitate clinical studies of this joint. To describe in detail normal knee joint rotations in all three anatomical planes, 25 healthy subjects (aged 22-49 years) performed eleven motor tasks, including walking, step ascent and descent, each with and without sidestep or crossover turns, chair rise, mild and deep squats, and forward lunge. Kinematic data were obtained with a conventional lower-body gait analysis protocol over three trials per task. To assess the repeatability with standard indices, a representative subset of 10 subjects underwent three repetitions of the entire motion capture session. Extracted parameters with good repeatability included maximum and minimum axial rotation during turning, local extremes of the flexion curves during gait tasks, and stride times. These specific repeatable parameters can be used for task selection or power analysis when planning future clinical studies.

  18. The cephalic and pharyngeal sense organs of Calliphora vicina 3rd instar larvae are mechanosensitive but have no profound effect on ongoing feeding related motor patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hückesfeld, Sebastian; Niederegger, Senta; Heinzel, H-G; Spiess, Roland

    2010-11-01

    The anterior segments of cyclorraphous Diptera larvae bear various sense organs: the dorsal- and terminal organ located on the cephalic lobes, the ventral- and labial organs associated with the mouthplate and the internal labral organ which lies on the dorsal surface of the esophagus. The sense organs are connected to the brain via the antennal nerve (dorsal- and labral organ) or the maxillary nerve (terminal-, ventral-, labial organ). Although their ultrastructure suggests also a mechanosensory function only their response to olfactory and gustatory stimuli has been investigated electrophysiologically. Here we stimulated the individual organs with step-, ramp-, and sinusoidal stimuli of different amplitude while extracellulary recording their afferents from the respective nerves. The external organs show a threshold of approximately 2 microm. All organs responded phasically and did not habituate to repetitive stimuli. The low threshold of the external organs combined with their rhythmically exposure to the substrate suggested a putative role in the temporal coordination of feeding. We therefore repetitively stimulated individual organs while simultaneously monitoring the centrally generated motor pattern for food ingestion. Neither the dorsal-, terminal- or ventral organ afferents had an obvious effect on the ongoing motor rhythm. Various reasons explaining these results are discussed.

  19. GROWTH AND MOTOR DEVELOPMENT IN FETUSES OF WOMEN WITH TYPE-1 DIABETES .2. EMERGENCE OF SPECIFIC MOVEMENT PATTERNS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MULDER, EJH; VISSER, GHA

    1991-01-01

    In 20 women with type-1 diabetes, the emergence of fetal movement patterns was studied using real-time ultrasound. One-hour recordings were made once a week between the 7th and 17th week of gestation. Data were compared to those obtained in uncomplicated pregnancy. The diabetic women were being trea

  20. GROWTH AND MOTOR DEVELOPMENT IN FETUSES OF WOMEN WITH TYPE-1 DIABETES .2. EMERGENCE OF SPECIFIC MOVEMENT PATTERNS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MULDER, EJH; VISSER, GHA

    1991-01-01

    In 20 women with type-1 diabetes, the emergence of fetal movement patterns was studied using real-time ultrasound. One-hour recordings were made once a week between the 7th and 17th week of gestation. Data were compared to those obtained in uncomplicated pregnancy. The diabetic women were being trea

  1. Complex Motor Learning in Four-Year-Olds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leithwood, K. A.; Fowler, W.

    1971-01-01

    The effects of 4 months of gymnostic training upon complex and simple gross motor abilities and general cognitive and psychosocial functioning in 4-year-olds were compared with the effects of music training and no treatment. (WY)

  2. Correlation between diffusion tensor imaging parameters and classification of gross motor function in infants of periventricular leucomalacia with cerebral palsy%脑室周围白质软化症合并脑瘫患儿的扩散张量成像参量与粗大运动功能评分的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋昊翔; 孙亲利; 李贤军; 张育苗; 李彦彦; 宋旸; 刘黎明; 张增俊; 杨健

    2014-01-01

    0.514,P值均<0.05).结论 DTI联合TBSS可用于精确评估PVL患儿脑白质损伤范围,运动功能障碍与部分投射纤维(皮质脊髓束、内囊和丘脑后辐射)、连合纤维(胼胝体压部)及联络纤维(上纵束)损伤相关.%Objective To assess white matter (WM) injury regions in infants of periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) with cerebral palsy (CP) by using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) analyzed with tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS),and to observe the correlation between DTI parameters and clinical motor function.Methods Twenty-two patients with PVL and CP and 22 normal infants matched in terms of age and gender underwent conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and DTI.The gross motor function classification system (GMFCS) was applied to evaluate motor function in patients with PVL.The distribution of GMFCS levels was as follows:level Ⅰ,5; level Ⅱ,5; level Ⅲ,3; level Ⅳ,7; and level V,2.Two-sample t-test was performed to compare the difference in the values of fractional anisotropy (FA),axial diffusivity (AD),and radial diffusivity (RD) in WM regions between patients group and controls group.Spearman relativity analysis was performed to assess correlation between DTI parameters in different WM fiber bundles and GMFCS in patients.Results In comparison to the control group,the WM FA values in the patient group decreased.There were significant differences between two groups in bilateral corticospinal tract (CST) (patients group:left 0.34 ±0.09,right 0.34±0.06; controls group:left 0.38 ± 0.04,right 0.37 ± 0.04); bilateral posterior limb internal capsule (PLIC)(patients group:left 0.53 ±.097,right 0.56±0.09;controls group:left 0.62 ± 0.04,right 0.63 ± 0.04); bilateral anterior limb internal capsule (ALIC) (patients group:left 0.31±0.05,right 0.32±0.05; controls group:left 0.36±0.04,right0.38±0.04); bilateral posterior thalamic radiation (PTR)(patients group:left 0.32±0.07,right 0.33±0.07; controls group:left 0.40

  3. Individual Differences in Language Development: Relationship with Motor Skill at 21 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcock, Katherine J.; Krawczyk, Kirsty

    2010-01-01

    Language development has long been associated with motor development, particularly manual gesture. We examined a variety of motor abilities--manual gesture including symbolic, meaningless and sequential memory, oral motor control, gross and fine motor control--in 129 children aged 21 months. Language abilities were assessed and cognitive and…

  4. Characterizing the development of sectoral gross domestic product composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Raphael; Spies, Michael; Reusser, Dominik E; Kropp, Jürgen P; Rybski, Diego

    2013-07-01

    We consider the sectoral composition of a country's gross domestic product (GDP), i.e., the partitioning into agrarian, industrial, and service sectors. Exploring a simple system of differential equations, we characterize the transfer of GDP shares between the sectors in the course of economic development. The model fits for the majority of countries providing four country-specific parameters. Relating the agrarian with the industrial sector, a data collapse over all countries and all years supports the applicability of our approach. Depending on the parameter ranges, country development exhibits different transfer properties. Most countries follow three of eight characteristic paths. The types are not random but show distinct geographic and development patterns.

  5. BOREAS HYD-8 Gross Precipitation Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Richard; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Knapp, David E. (Editor); Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Hydrology (HYD)-08 team made measurements of surface hydrological processes at the Southern Study Area-Old Black Spruce (SSA-OBS) Tower Flux site to support its research into point hydrological processes and the spatial variation of these processes. Data collected may be useful in characterizing canopy interception, drip, throughfall, moss interception, drainage, evaporation, and capacity during the growing season at daily temporal resolution. This particular data set contains the gross precipitation measurements for July to August 1996. Gross precipitation is the precipitation that falls that is not intercepted by tree canopies. These data are stored in ASCII text files. The HYD-08 gross precipitation data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  6. Effects of Chronic Sleep Restriction during Early Adolescence on the Adult Pattern of Connectivity of Mouse Secondary Motor Cortex123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billeh, Yazan N.; Bernard, Amy; de Vivo, Luisa; Honjoh, Sakiko; Mihalas, Stefan; Ng, Lydia; Koch, Christof

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Cortical circuits mature in stages, from early synaptogenesis and synaptic pruning to late synaptic refinement, resulting in the adult anatomical connection matrix. Because the mature matrix is largely fixed, genetic or environmental factors interfering with its establishment can have irreversible effects. Sleep disruption is rarely considered among those factors, and previous studies have focused on very young animals and the acute effects of sleep deprivation on neuronal morphology and cortical plasticity. Adolescence is a sensitive time for brain remodeling, yet whether chronic sleep restriction (CSR) during adolescence has long-term effects on brain connectivity remains unclear. We used viral-mediated axonal labeling and serial two-photon tomography to measure brain-wide projections from secondary motor cortex (MOs), a high-order area with diffuse projections. For each MOs target, we calculated the projection fraction, a combined measure of passing fibers and axonal terminals normalized for the size of each target. We found no homogeneous differences in MOs projection fraction between mice subjected to 5 days of CSR during early adolescence (P25–P30, ≥50% decrease in daily sleep, n=14) and siblings that slept undisturbed (n=14). Machine learning algorithms, however, classified animals at significantly above chance levels, indicating that differences between the two groups exist, but are subtle and heterogeneous. Thus, sleep disruption in early adolescence may affect adult brain connectivity. However, because our method relies on a global measure of projection density and was not previously used to measure connectivity changes due to behavioral manipulations, definitive conclusions on the long-term structural effects of early CSR require additional experiments. PMID:27351022

  7. 7 CFR 1424.7 - Gross payable units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Biodiesel producers will be eligible for payments on gross payable units for all biodiesel production from... rates. Unless otherwise determined by CCC, gross payable units for biodiesel production from eligible... biodiesel production gross payable units. (3) Adding the APP and BPP to determine biodiesel gross...

  8. Characterization of a cerebral palsy-like model in rats: Analysis of gait pattern and of brain and spinal cord motor areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Adriana Souza; de Almeida, Wellington; Popik, Bruno; Sbardelotto, Bruno Marques; Torrejais, Márcia Miranda; de Souza, Marcelo Alves; Centenaro, Lígia Aline

    2017-08-01

    In an attempt to propose an animal model that reproduces in rats the phenotype of cerebral palsy, this study evaluated the effects of maternal exposure to bacterial endotoxin associated with perinatal asphyxia and sensorimotor restriction on gait pattern, brain and spinal cord morphology. Two experimental groups were used: Control Group (CTG) - offspring of rats injected with saline during pregnancy and Cerebral Palsy Group (CPG) - offspring of rats injected with lipopolysaccharide during pregnancy, submitted to perinatal asphyxia and sensorimotor restriction for 30days. At 29days of age, the CPG exhibited coordination between limbs, weight-supported dorsal steps or weight-supported plantar steps with paw rotation. At 45days of age, CPG exhibited plantar stepping with the paw rotated in the balance phase. An increase in the number of glial cells in the primary somatosensory cortex and dorsal striatum were observed in the CPG, but the corpus callosum thickness and cross-sectional area of lateral ventricle were similar between studied groups. No changes were found in the number of motoneurons, glial cells and soma area of the motoneurons in the ventral horn of spinal cord. The combination of insults in the pre, peri and postnatal periods produced changes in hindlimbs gait pattern of animals similar to those observed in diplegic patients, but motor impairments were attenuated over time. Besides, the greater number of glial cells observed seems to be related to the formation of a glial scar in important sensorimotor brain areas. Copyright © 2017 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Multiregional estimation of gross internal migration flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot, D K; Milne, W J

    1989-01-01

    "A multiregional model of gross internal migration flows is presented in this article. The interdependence of economic factors across all regions is recognized by imposing a non-stochastic adding-up constraint that requires total inmigration to equal total outmigration in each time period. An iterated system estimation technique is used to obtain asymptotically consistent and efficient parameter estimates. The model is estimated for gross migration flows among the Canadian provinces over the period 1962-86 and then is used to examine the likelihood of a wash-out effect in net migration models. The results indicate that previous approaches that use net migration equations may not always be empirically justified."

  10. The Gross conjecture over rational function fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OUYANG; Yi

    2005-01-01

    We study the Gross conjecture for the cyclotomic function field extension k(∧f)/k where k = Fq(t) is the rational function field and f is a monic polynomial in Fq[t].We prove the conjecture in the Fermat curve case(i.e., when f = t(t - 1)) by a direct calculation. We also prove the case when f is irreducible, which is analogous to the Weil reciprocity law. In the general case, we manage to show the weak version of the Gross conjecture here.

  11. Motor imagery-induced EEG patterns in individuals with spinal cord injury and their impact on brain-computer interface accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Putz, G. R.; Daly, I.; Kaiser, V.

    2014-06-01

    Objective. Assimilating the diagnosis complete spinal cord injury (SCI) takes time and is not easy, as patients know that there is no ‘cure' at the present time. Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) can facilitate daily living. However, inter-subject variability demands measurements with potential user groups and an understanding of how they differ to healthy users BCIs are more commonly tested with. Thus, a three-class motor imagery (MI) screening (left hand, right hand, feet) was performed with a group of 10 able-bodied and 16 complete spinal-cord-injured people (paraplegics, tetraplegics) with the objective of determining what differences were present between the user groups and how they would impact upon the ability of these user groups to interact with a BCI. Approach. Electrophysiological differences between patient groups and healthy users are measured in terms of sensorimotor rhythm deflections from baseline during MI, electroencephalogram microstate scalp maps and strengths of inter-channel phase synchronization. Additionally, using a common spatial pattern algorithm and a linear discriminant analysis classifier, the classification accuracy was calculated and compared between groups. Main results. It is seen that both patient groups (tetraplegic and paraplegic) have some significant differences in event-related desynchronization strengths, exhibit significant increases in synchronization and reach significantly lower accuracies (mean (M) = 66.1%) than the group of healthy subjects (M = 85.1%). Significance. The results demonstrate significant differences in electrophysiological correlates of motor control between healthy individuals and those individuals who stand to benefit most from BCI technology (individuals with SCI). They highlight the difficulty in directly translating results from healthy subjects to participants with SCI and the challenges that, therefore, arise in providing BCIs to such individuals.

  12. Firing patterns and functional roles of different classes of spinal afferents in rectal nerves during colonic migrating motor complexes in mouse colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagorodnyuk, Vladimir P; Kyloh, Melinda; Brookes, Simon J; Nicholas, Sarah J; Spencer, Nick J

    2012-08-01

    The functional role of the different classes of visceral afferents that innervate the large intestine is poorly understood. Recent evidence suggests that low-threshold, wide-dynamic-range rectal afferents play an important role in the detection and transmission of visceral pain induced by noxious colorectal distension in mice. However, it is not clear which classes of spinal afferents are activated during naturally occurring colonic motor patterns or during intense contractions of the gut smooth muscle. We developed an in vitro colorectum preparation to test how the major classes of rectal afferents are activated during spontaneous colonic migrating motor complex (CMMC) or pharmacologically induced contraction. During CMMCs, circular muscle contractions increased firing in low-threshold, wide-dynamic-range muscular afferents and muscular-mucosal afferents, which generated a mean firing rate of 1.53 ± 0.23 Hz (n = 8) under isotonic conditions and 2.52 ± 0.36 Hz (n = 17) under isometric conditions. These low-threshold rectal afferents were reliably activated by low levels of circumferential stretch induced by increases in length (1-2 mm) or load (1-3 g). In a small proportion of cases (5 of 34 units), some low-threshold muscular and muscular-mucosal afferents decreased their firing rate during the peak of the CMMC contractions. High-threshold afferents were never activated during spontaneous CMMC contractions or tonic contractions induced by bethanechol (100 μM). High-threshold rectal afferents were only activated by intense levels of circumferential stretch (10-20 g). These results show that, in the rectal nerves of mice, low-threshold, wide-dynamic-range muscular and muscular-mucosal afferents are excited during contraction of the circular muscle that occurs during spontaneous CMMCs. No activation of high-threshold rectal afferents was detected during CMMCs or intense contractile activity in naïve mouse colorectum.

  13. Gross Revenue risk in Swiss dairy farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benni, El N.; Finger, R.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated how agricultural policy reforms, including market liberalization and market deregulation, have influenced gross revenue risk of Swiss dairy producers using farm-level panel data between 1990 and 2009. Based on detrended data, variance decomposition was applied to assess how o

  14. Gross Revenue risk in Swiss dairy farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benni, El N.; Finger, R.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated how agricultural policy reforms, including market liberalization and market deregulation, have influenced gross revenue risk of Swiss dairy producers using farm-level panel data between 1990 and 2009. Based on detrended data, variance decomposition was applied to assess how

  15. Exercises for the torso performed in a standing posture: spine and hip motion and motor patterns and spine load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Stuart M; Karpowicz, Amy; Fenwick, Chad M J; Brown, Stephen H M

    2009-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to document the muscle activity, spine motion, spine load, and stiffness during several movement-based or "functional" exercises and to assess the effect of technique change. Eight subjects, all healthy men from a university population, were instrumented to obtain surface electromyography of selected trunk and hip muscles, together with video analysis and electromagnetic lumbar spine position sensor to track spine posture. Exercises included a walkout in the sagittal plane that compared an upright form against a wall with those performed on the floor, overhead cable pushes, lateral cable walkouts, the good morning exercise, and the bowler's squat. Generally, muscle activation levels were quite modest even though the tasks were quite strenuous in many cases. Even though similar joint moments were required in different exercises, the pattern of activity between muscles was different. Abdominal bracing increased spine stiffness at the expense of more spine load. Thus, muscle activity seems to be constrained in "functional" exercises. There are several possible reasons for this. Single muscles cannot be activated to 100% of the maximum voluntary contraction in functional exercises because this would upset the balance of moments about the 3 orthopedic axes of the spine, or it would upset the balance of stiffening muscles around the spine required to ensure stability of the spinal column. The one exception was the floor walkout, which resulted in full activation of the rectus abdominis; however, this was a sagittal plane task without the joint moment constraints of multiplanar exercise. Therefore, maximal muscle activity is observed during single-plane tasks, but muscle activation levels were constrained during functional tasks. Thus, strength training muscles may not help in "functional multiplanar" tasks. These data can be used to assist decisions regarding the selection of exercises, specifically choices regarding the starting challenge

  16. Assessment of Motor Competence Across the Life Span

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermundur Sigmundsson

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the psychometric properties of a new test battery aimed at quantifying motor competence across the life span are explored. The battery was designed to be quantitative, simple to administer, applicable for large-group testing, and reliably to monitor life span motor development. A total of 638 participants between 5 and 83 years of age completed assessment of four different motor tasks (two fine and two gross motor tasks, enabling us to investigate its feasibility, internal consistency, construct validity, and test–retest reliability. Feasibility: Overall pattern of results suggest that the test battery for motor competence presented here is applicable for the age-span studied (5-83. Important consideration in this regard is that the same tasks are applied for all ages. A u-shaped curve between age and total test score indicate the adequate sensitivity of the test battery for the age range examined. Internal consistency: All individual test item scores correlated positively with the total test score with correlations ranging from .48 to .64. Correlations between scores on individual test items were moderate to high (.31-.69. The Cronbach’s alpha value for the standardized items was .79. Construct validity: Pearson correlation coefficient between total score Test of Motor Competence (TMC and Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC were .47 for 7- to 8-years-old children (n = 70 and .45 for 15- to 16-years-old (n = 101. Test-retest reliability: Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs between test and retest scores ranged from .75 to .94, and test–retest coefficient for the total score was .87.

  17. Association between Community Ambulation Walking Patterns and Cognitive Function in Patients with Parkinson’s Disease: Further Insights into Motor-Cognitive Links

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aner Weiss

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cognitive function is generally evaluated based on testing in the clinic, but this may not always reflect real-life function. We tested whether parameters derived from long-term, continuous monitoring of gait are associated with cognitive function in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD. Methods. 107 patients with PD (age: 64.9 ± 9.3 yrs; UPDRS motor sum “off”: 40.4 ± 13.2; 25.23% women wore a 3D accelerometer on their lower back for 3 days. Computerized measures of global cognitive function, executive function, attention, and nonverbal memory were assessed. Three-day acceleration derived measures included cadence, variability, bilateral coordination, and dynamic postural control. Associations between the acceleration derived measures and cognitive function were determined. Results. Linear regression showed associations between vertical gait variability and cadence and between global cognitive score, attention, and executive function (p≤0.048. Dynamic postural control was associated with global cognitive score and attention (p≤0.027. Nonverbal memory was not associated with the acceleration-derived measures. Conclusions. These findings suggest that metrics derived from a 3-day worn body-fixed sensor reflect cognitive function, further supporting the idea that the gait pattern may be altered as cognition declines and that gait provides a window into cognitive function in patients with PD.

  18. The effects of viscosity on the axial motor pattern and kinematics of the African lungfish (Protopterus annectens) during lateral undulatory swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Angela M; Jayne, Bruce C

    2008-05-01

    Separate studies of terrestrial and aquatic locomotion are abundant, but research addressing locomotion in transitional environments (e.g. mud) is scant. The African lungfish (Protopterus annectens) moves in a gradation of water to mud conditions during seasonal droughts, and breathes air. Thus, the lungfish was an ideal organism for our study to determine the effects of a wide range of viscosities on lateral undulatory swimming and to simulate some of the muddy conditions early tetrapods may have encountered. Regardless of viscosity, several aspects of lungfish swimming were similar to those of other swimming vertebrates including: posteriorly propagated muscle activity that was unilateral and alternated between the left and right sides at each longitudinal location, and posterior increases in the amount of bending, the amplitude of muscle activity and the timing differences between muscle activity and bending. With increased viscosity (1-1000 cSt), significant increases occurred in the amount of lateral bending of the vertebral column and the amplitude of muscle activity, particularly in the most anterior sites, but the distance the fish traveled per tail beat decreased. The magnitude of the phase shift between EMG onset relative to bending increased by as much as 13% of a cycle with increased viscosity, so that the muscles were increasingly active during lengthening rather than shortening. Therefore, with increased viscosity the relationship between axial muscle activity and bending in the lungfish became more dissimilar rather than converging on the motor pattern used by other ectothermic vertebrates when undulating in fully terrestrial environments.

  19. The Schroedinger functional for Gross-Neveu models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leder, B.

    2007-04-18

    Gross-Neveu type models with a finite number of fermion flavours are studied on a two-dimensional Euclidean space-time lattice. The models are asymptotically free and are invariant under a chiral symmetry. These similarities to QCD make them perfect benchmark systems for fermion actions used in large scale lattice QCD computations. The Schroedinger functional for the Gross-Neveu models is defined for both, Wilson and Ginsparg-Wilson fermions, and shown to be renormalisable in 1-loop lattice perturbation theory. In two dimensions four fermion interactions of the Gross-Neveu models have dimensionless coupling constants. The symmetry properties of the four fermion interaction terms and the relations among them are discussed. For Wilson fermions chiral symmetry is explicitly broken and additional terms must be included in the action. Chiral symmetry is restored up to cut-off effects by tuning the bare mass and one of the couplings. The critical mass and the symmetry restoring coupling are computed to second order in lattice perturbation theory. This result is used in the 1-loop computation of the renormalised couplings and the associated beta-functions. The renormalised couplings are defined in terms of suitable boundary-to-boundary correlation functions. In the computation the known first order coefficients of the beta-functions are reproduced. One of the couplings is found to have a vanishing betafunction. The calculation is repeated for the recently proposed Schroedinger functional with exact chiral symmetry, i.e. Ginsparg-Wilson fermions. The renormalisation pattern is found to be the same as in the Wilson case. Using the regularisation dependent finite part of the renormalised couplings, the ratio of the Lambda-parameters is computed. (orig.)

  20. Activity level of gross α and gross β in airborne aerosol samples around the Qinshan NPP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Bin; YE Jida; CHEN Qianyuan; WU Xiaofei; SONG Weili; WANG Hongfeng

    2007-01-01

    The monitoring results of gross α and gross β activity from 2001 to 2005 for environmental airborne aerosol samples around the Qinshan NPP base are presented in this paper. A total of 170 aerosol samples were collected from monitoring sites of Caichenmen village, Qinlian village, Xiajiawan village and Yangliucun village around the Qinshan NPP base. The measured specific activity of gross α and gross β are in the range of 0.02 ~ 0.38 mBq/m3 and 0.10 ~ 1.81 mBq/m3, respectively, with an average of 0.11 mBq/m3 and 0.45mBq/m3, respectively. They are lower than the average of 0.15 mBq/m3 and 0.52mBq/m3, of reference site at Hangzhou City. It is indicated that the specific activity of gross α and gross β for environmental aerosol samples around the Qinshan NPP base had not been increased in normal operating conditions of the NPP.

  1. Noncommutative complex Grosse-Wulkenhaar model

    CERN Document Server

    Hounkonnou, Mahouton Norbert

    2012-01-01

    This paper stands for an application of the noncommutative (NC) Noether theorem, given in our previous work [AIP Proc 956 (2007) 55-60], for the NC complex Grosse-Wulkenhaar model. It provides with an extension of a recent work [Physics Letters B 653 (2007) 343-345]. The local conservation of energy-momentum tensors (EMTs) is recovered using improvement procedures based on Moyal algebraic techniques. Broken dilatation symmetry is discussed. NC gauge currents are also explicitly computed.

  2. Motor Skills of Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Meghann; MacDonald, Megan; Lord, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    With increased interest in the early diagnosis and treatment of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), more attention has been called to the motor skills of very young children with ASD. This study describes the gross and fine motor skills of a cross-sectional group of 162 children with ASD between the ages of 12 and 36 months, as well as…

  3. 78 FR 2236 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; New Pneumatic Tires for Motor Vehicles With a GVWR of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-10

    ... Standards; New Pneumatic Tires for Motor Vehicles With a GVWR of More Than 4,536 Kilograms (10,000 Pounds... Standard (FMVSS) No. 119, New pneumatic tires for motor vehicles with a gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR... first issued in 1973 until it was inadvertently omitted in 2003. The breaking energy requirement...

  4. Sensory Pattern Contributions to Developmental Performance in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomchek, Scott D; Little, Lauren M; Dunn, Winnie

    2015-01-01

    Sensory processing differences in preschool-age children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) affect their engagement in everyday activities, thereby influencing opportunities to practice and develop skills such as social communication and adaptive behavior. The purpose of this study was to investigate the extent to which specific sensory processing patterns relate to aspects of development (i.e., adaptive behavior, expressive and receptive language, fine and gross motor skills, social behavior) in a sample of preschool-age children with ASD (N=400). A retrospective chart review was used to gather clinical data. Results suggest that sensory processing patterns differentially affect children's developmental skills and adaptive behavior. Certain sensory processing patterns predicted children's development of language, motor, and adaptive skills. These findings have clear implications for occupational therapy practice with young children with ASD. Practitioners should consider how sensory processing in ASD both supports and limits children's ability to engage in social communication and learning opportunities.

  5. Motor skills in kindergarten: Internal structure, cognitive correlates and relationships to background variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberer, Nicole; Gashaj, Venera; Roebers, Claudia M

    2017-04-01

    The present study aimed to contribute to the discussion about the relation between motor coordination and executive functions in preschool children. Specifically, the relation between gross and fine motor skills and executive functions as well as the relation to possible background variables (SES, physical activity) were investigated. Based on the data of N=156 kindergarten children the internal structure of motor skills was investigated and confirmed the theoretically assumed subdivision of gross and fine motor skills. Both, gross and fine motor skills correlated significantly with executive functions, whereas the background variables seemed to have no significant impact on the executive functions and motor skills. Higher order control processes are discussed as an explanation of the relation between executive functions and motor skills. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Injury pattern, injury severity, and mortality in 33,495 hospital-admitted victims of motorized two-wheeled vehicle crashes in The Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijdesdorff, H.A. Siegerink, B. Sier, C.F. Reurings, M.C. & Schipper, I.B.

    2012-01-01

    Road traffic accidents involving motorized two-wheeled vehicle (MTV) riders often result in severe morbidity and mortality. The aim of this nationwide study is to describe the influence of the type of motorized two-wheeled vehicle on the patient injury severity and mortality on hospitalization, afte

  7. 7 CFR 1410.44 - Average adjusted gross income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Average adjusted gross income. 1410.44 Section 1410... Average adjusted gross income. (a) Benefits under this part will not be available to persons or legal entities whose average adjusted gross income exceeds $1,000,000 or as further specified in part...

  8. 7 CFR 701.17 - Average adjusted gross income limitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9003), each applicant must meet the provisions of the Adjusted Gross Income Limitations at 7 CFR part... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Average adjusted gross income limitation. 701.17... RELATED PROGRAMS PREVIOUSLY ADMINISTERED UNDER THIS PART § 701.17 Average adjusted gross income...

  9. The effects of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation and patterned electrical stimulation on spinal inhibitory interneurons and motor function in patients with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Tomofumi; Fujiwara, Toshiyuki; Tsai, Yun-An; Tang, Shuen-Chang; Kawakami, Michiyuki; Mizuno, Katsuhiro; Kodama, Mitsuhiko; Masakado, Yoshihisa; Liu, Meigen

    2016-06-01

    Supraspinal excitability and sensory input may play an important role for the modulation of spinal inhibitory interneurons and functional recovery among patients with incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI). Here, we investigated the effects of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) combined with patterned electrical stimulation (PES) on spinal inhibitory interneurons in patients with chronic incomplete SCI and in healthy individuals. Eleven patients with incomplete SCI and ten healthy adults participated in a single-masked, sham-controlled crossover study. PES involved stimulating the common peroneal nerve with a train of ten 100 Hz pulses every 2 s for 20 min. Anodal tDCS (1 mA) was simultaneously applied to the primary motor cortex that controls the tibialis anterior muscle. We measured reciprocal inhibition and presynaptic inhibition of a soleus H-reflex by stimulating the common peroneal nerve prior to tibial nerve stimulation, which elicits the H-reflex. The inhibition was assessed before, immediately after, 10 min after and 20 min after the stimulation. Compared with baseline, simultaneous application of anodal tDCS with PES significantly increased changes in disynaptic reciprocal inhibition and long-latency presynaptic inhibition in both healthy and SCI groups for at least 20 min after the stimulation (all, p stimulation (p = 0.004). In conclusion, anodal tDCS combined with PES could induce spinal plasticity and improve ankle movement in patients with incomplete SCI.

  10. Incidence and pattern of traumatic spinal fractures and associated spinal cord injury resulting from motor vehicle collisions in China over 11 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongwei; Liu, Xinwei; Zhao, Yiwen; Ou, Lan; Zhou, Yue; Li, Changqing; Liu, Jun; Chen, Yu; Yu, Hailong; Wang, Qi; Han, Jianda; Xiang, Liangbi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To investigate the incidence and pattern of traumatic spinal fractures (TSFs) and associated spinal cord injury (SCI) resulting from motor vehicle collisions (MVCs). This was a cross-sectional study. We retrospectively reviewed 698 patients with TSFs resulting from MVCs admitted to our university-affiliated hospitals from 2001 to 2011. The incidence and pattern were summarized with respect to different age groups, fracture levels, and the role of patients. There were 464 males (66.5%) and 234 females (33.5%) aged 40.5 ± 13.8 years old. The most common roles of patients in MVCs were car drivers (189, 27.1%), pedestrians hurt by a car (155, 22.2%), and car passengers (145, 20.8%). The most common fracture levels were L1 (n = 198, 19.2%) and T12 (n = 116, 11.3%), followed by C2 (n = 86, 8.3%). A total of 298 (42.7%) patients suffered a spinal cord injury. The frequencies of SCIs decreased from 53.1% to 24.6% with increasing age. The patients in the 20 to 39 age group (45.3% of all patients) had the largest sex ratio (2.4) and highest frequency of complete SCIs (19.3%) and complications (3.2%). Motorcycle drivers had the youngest mean age (35.7 ± 10.2), largest sex ratio (10.4), and highest frequency of SCIs (56.0%) and complications (4.4%). Motorcycle passengers had the highest frequency of complete SCI (22.7%) and ASOIs (45.5%) and the largest mean injury severity scoring (ISS) (18.9 ± 9.6). The most common fracture levels of motorcycle drivers were C3–C7, while that of others were T11–L2. The most common role of patients who sustained TSFs were car drivers who were 20 to 39 years old. Motorcycle drivers had the highest frequency of SCIs and complications. Motorcycle passengers had the highest frequency of complete SCIs and ASOIs and the largest ISS. Therefore, we should pay more attention to MVC patients, especially car drivers and motorcycle drivers and passengers. PMID:27787384

  11. 运动意识任务的模式识别方法研究%Pattern recognition method of motor imagery tasks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐宝国; 宋爱国; 费树岷

    2011-01-01

    针对脑机接口研究中运动想象脑电信号的模式识别问题,提出了一种基于离散小波变换和AR双谱的特征提取方法.该方法首先利用Daubechies类小波函数对二路脑电信号进行3层分解,抽取小波系数的均值、能量均值、均方差三个特征;然后,采用5阶AR模型进行双谱估计,抽取双谱切片特征;最后,将这两类特征进行组合后使用马氏距离线性判别进行分类.利用BCI2003竞赛的标准数据,该方法使得EEG的识别正确率达到92.86%,与竞赛的最好结果(89.29%)相比提高了3.57%,为BCI研究中脑电信号的模式识别提供了有效的手段.%Aiming at the issue of motor imagery electroencephalography (EEG) pattern recognition in the research of brain-computer interface (BCI) , a novel feature extraction method based on discrete wavelet transform (DWT) and autoregressive (AR) bispectrum is proposed. Firstly, two-channel EEG signals are decomposed to three levels using Daubechies wavelet function. Secondly, the mean, average power and standard deviation of the wavelet coefficients are computed. Thirdly, bispectrum is estimated using fifth-order AR model and diagonal slice characteristic of the bispectrum is extracted. Finally, the above two kinds of features are combined, and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) based on Mahalanobis distance is utilized to classify the combined feature. This method is applied to the standard dataset of BCI Competition 2003 , and experimental results show that the recognition rate reaches 92.86%,which is 3.57% higher than the best result ( 89.29% ) of the competition. This technology provides an effective approach to EEG pattern recognition in BCI research.

  12. Baryons in Massive Gross-Neveu Models

    CERN Document Server

    Thies, M; Thies, Michael; Urlichs, Konrad

    2005-01-01

    Baryons in the large N limit of (1+1)-dimensional Gross-Neveu models with either discrete or continuous chiral symmetry have long been known. We generalize their construction to the case where the symmetry is explicitly broken by a bare mass term in the Lagrangian. In the discrete symmetry case, the exact solution is found for arbitrary bare fermion mass, using the Hartree-Fock approach. In the continuous symmetry case, a derivative expansion allows us to rederive a formerly proposed Skyrme-type model and to compute systematically corrections to the leading order description based on an effective sine-Gordon theory.

  13. Motor Skill Development in Italian Pre-School Children Induced by Structured Activities in a Specific Playground.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Tortella

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects and specificity of structured and unstructured activities played at the playground Primo Sport 0246 in Northern Italy on motor skill competence in five years old children. The playground was specifically designed to promote gross motor skills in preschool children; in this study 71 children from local kindergartens came to the park once a week for ten consecutive weeks and were exposed to 30 minutes of free play and 30 minutes of structured activities. Before and after the ten visits, each child completed nine tests to assess levels of motor skills, three for fine-motor skills and six for gross-motor skills. As control, motor skills were also assessed on 39 children from different kindergartens who did not come to the park. The results show that the experimental group who practiced gross-motor activities in the playground for 1 hour a week for 10 weeks improved significantly in 4 out of the 6 gross motor tasks and in none of the fine motor tasks. The data indicate that limited transfer occurred between tasks referring to different domains of motor competences while suggesting cross feeding for improvement of gross-motor skills between different exercises when domains related to physical fitness and strength of specific muscle groups are involved. These results are relevant to the issue of condition(s appropriate for maintaining and developing motor skills in this age group as well as for the planning, organization and implementation of play and physical activities in kindergartens.

  14. Motor Skill Development in Italian Pre-School Children Induced by Structured Activities in a Specific Playground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortella, Patrizia; Haga, Monika; Loras, Håvard; Sigmundsson, Hermundur; Fumagalli, Guido

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects and specificity of structured and unstructured activities played at the playground Primo Sport 0246 in Northern Italy on motor skill competence in five years old children. The playground was specifically designed to promote gross motor skills in preschool children; in this study 71 children from local kindergartens came to the park once a week for ten consecutive weeks and were exposed to 30 minutes of free play and 30 minutes of structured activities. Before and after the ten visits, each child completed nine tests to assess levels of motor skills, three for fine-motor skills and six for gross-motor skills. As control, motor skills were also assessed on 39 children from different kindergartens who did not come to the park. The results show that the experimental group who practiced gross-motor activities in the playground for 1 hour a week for 10 weeks improved significantly in 4 out of the 6 gross motor tasks and in none of the fine motor tasks. The data indicate that limited transfer occurred between tasks referring to different domains of motor competences while suggesting cross feeding for improvement of gross-motor skills between different exercises when domains related to physical fitness and strength of specific muscle groups are involved. These results are relevant to the issue of condition(s) appropriate for maintaining and developing motor skills in this age group as well as for the planning, organization and implementation of play and physical activities in kindergartens.

  15. 76 FR 32390 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-06

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Motor Carrier Safety Advisory... MCSAC will complete action on Task 11-01, regarding Patterns of Safety Violations by Motor...

  16. Maternal pre-pregnancy obesity and achievement of infant motor developmental milestones in the Upstate KIDS Study

    OpenAIRE

    Wylie, Amanda; Sundaram, Rajeshwari; Kus, Christopher; Ghassabian, Akhgar; Yeung, Edwina H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Maternal pre-pregnancy obesity is associated with several poor infant health outcomes; however studies that investigated motor development have been inconsistent. Thus, we examined maternal pre-pregnancy weight status and infants’ gross motor development. Design and Methods Participants consisted of 4,901 mother-infant pairs from the Upstate KIDS study, a longitudinal cohort in New York. Mothers indicated dates when infants achieved each of six gross motor milestones when infants we...

  17. Injury pattern, injury severity, and mortality in 33,495 hospital-admitted victims of motorized two-wheeled vehicle crashes in The Netherlands.

    OpenAIRE

    Leijdesdorff, H.A. Siegerink, B. Sier, C.F. Reurings, M.C. & Schipper, I.B.

    2012-01-01

    Road traffic accidents involving motorized two-wheeled vehicle (MTV) riders often result in severe morbidity and mortality. The aim of this nationwide study is to describe the influence of the type of motorized two-wheeled vehicle on the patient injury severity and mortality on hospitalization, after MTV accidents in The Netherlands. Data from the Institute for Road Safety Research and the Hospital Trauma Databases were analyzed. All MTV crash victims admitted to Dutch hospitals from 1993 to ...

  18. Motor-enriched learning activities can improve mathematical performance in preadolescent children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck, Mikkel Malling; Lind, Rune Rasmussen; Geertsen, Svend Sparre;

    2016-01-01

    -enriched mathematical teaching in Danish preadolescent children (n = 165, age = 7.5 ± 0.02 years). Three groups were included: a control group (CON), which received non-motor enriched conventional mathematical teaching, a fine motor math group (FMM) and a gross motor math group (GMM), which received mathematical...... teaching enriched with fine and gross motor activity, respectively. The children were tested before (T0), immediately after (T1) and 8 weeks after the intervention (T2). A standardized mathematical test (50 tasks) was used to evaluate mathematical performance. Furthermore, it was investigated whether motor......Objective: An emerging field of research indicates that physical activity can benefit cognitive functions and academic achievements in children. However, less is known about how academic achievements can benefit from specific types of motor activities (e.g., fine and gross) integrated into learning...

  19. Human spinal motor control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2016-01-01

    interneurons and exert a direct (willful) muscle control with the aid of a context-dependent integration of somatosensory and visual information at cortical level. However, spinal networks also play an important role. Sensory feedback through spinal circuitries is integrated with central motor commands...... the central motor command by opening or closing sensory feedback pathways. In the future, human studies of spinal motor control, in close collaboration with animal studies on the molecular biology of the spinal cord, will continue to document the neural basis for human behavior. Expected final online...... and contributes importantly to the muscle activity underlying voluntary movements. Regulation of spinal interneurons is used to switch between motor states such as locomotion (reciprocal innervation) and stance (coactivation pattern). Cortical regulation of presynaptic inhibition of sensory afferents may focus...

  20. Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy Combined with Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation over Premotor Cortex Improves Motor Function in Severe Stroke: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Larissa M.; Nogueira, Lídia L. R. F.; de Oliveira, Eliane A.; de Carvalho, Antonio G. C.; Lima, Soriano S.; Santana, Jordânia R. M.; de Lima, Emerson C. C.; Fernández-Calvo, Bernardino

    2017-01-01

    Objective. We compared the effects of transcranial direct current stimulation at different cortical sites (premotor and motor primary cortex) combined with constraint-induced movement therapy for treatment of stroke patients. Design. Sixty patients were randomly distributed into 3 groups: Group A, anodal stimulation on premotor cortex and constraint-induced movement therapy; Group B, anodal stimulation on primary motor cortex and constraint-induced movement therapy; Group C, sham stimulation and constraint-induced movement therapy. Evaluations involved analysis of functional independence, motor recovery, spasticity, gross motor function, and muscle strength. Results. A significant improvement in primary outcome (functional independence) after treatment in the premotor group followed by primary motor group and sham group was observed. The same pattern of improvement was highlighted among all secondary outcome measures regarding the superior performance of the premotor group over primary motor and sham groups. Conclusions. Premotor cortex can contribute to motor function in patients with severe functional disabilities in early stages of stroke. This study was registered in ClinicalTrials.gov database (NCT 02628561). PMID:28250992

  1. Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy Combined with Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation over Premotor Cortex Improves Motor Function in Severe Stroke: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Suellen M; Batista, Larissa M; Nogueira, Lídia L R F; de Oliveira, Eliane A; de Carvalho, Antonio G C; Lima, Soriano S; Santana, Jordânia R M; de Lima, Emerson C C; Fernández-Calvo, Bernardino

    2017-01-01

    Objective. We compared the effects of transcranial direct current stimulation at different cortical sites (premotor and motor primary cortex) combined with constraint-induced movement therapy for treatment of stroke patients. Design. Sixty patients were randomly distributed into 3 groups: Group A, anodal stimulation on premotor cortex and constraint-induced movement therapy; Group B, anodal stimulation on primary motor cortex and constraint-induced movement therapy; Group C, sham stimulation and constraint-induced movement therapy. Evaluations involved analysis of functional independence, motor recovery, spasticity, gross motor function, and muscle strength. Results. A significant improvement in primary outcome (functional independence) after treatment in the premotor group followed by primary motor group and sham group was observed. The same pattern of improvement was highlighted among all secondary outcome measures regarding the superior performance of the premotor group over primary motor and sham groups. Conclusions. Premotor cortex can contribute to motor function in patients with severe functional disabilities in early stages of stroke. This study was registered in ClinicalTrials.gov database (NCT 02628561).

  2. Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy Combined with Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation over Premotor Cortex Improves Motor Function in Severe Stroke: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suellen M. Andrade

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. We compared the effects of transcranial direct current stimulation at different cortical sites (premotor and motor primary cortex combined with constraint-induced movement therapy for treatment of stroke patients. Design. Sixty patients were randomly distributed into 3 groups: Group A, anodal stimulation on premotor cortex and constraint-induced movement therapy; Group B, anodal stimulation on primary motor cortex and constraint-induced movement therapy; Group C, sham stimulation and constraint-induced movement therapy. Evaluations involved analysis of functional independence, motor recovery, spasticity, gross motor function, and muscle strength. Results. A significant improvement in primary outcome (functional independence after treatment in the premotor group followed by primary motor group and sham group was observed. The same pattern of improvement was highlighted among all secondary outcome measures regarding the superior performance of the premotor group over primary motor and sham groups. Conclusions. Premotor cortex can contribute to motor function in patients with severe functional disabilities in early stages of stroke. This study was registered in ClinicalTrials.gov database (NCT 02628561.

  3. Dopamine modulates two potassium currents and inhibits the intrinsic firing properties of an identified motor neuron in a central pattern generator network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloppenburg, P; Levini, R M; Harris-Warrick, R M

    1999-01-01

    The two pyloric dilator (PD) neurons are components [along with the anterior burster (AB) neuron] of the pacemaker group of the pyloric network in the stomatogastric ganglion of the spiny lobster Panulirus interruptus. Dopamine (DA) modifies the motor pattern generated by the pyloric network, in part by exciting or inhibiting different neurons. DA inhibits the PD neuron by hyperpolarizing it and reducing its rate of firing action potentials, which leads to a phase delay of PD relative to the electrically coupled AB and a reduction in the pyloric cycle frequency. In synaptically isolated PD neurons, DA slows the rate of recovery to spike after hyperpolarization. The latency from a hyperpolarizing prestep to the first action potential is increased, and the action potential frequency as well as the total number of action potentials are decreased. When a brief (1 s) puff of DA is applied to a synaptically isolated, voltage-clamped PD neuron, a small voltage-dependent outward current is evoked, accompanied by an increase in membrane conductance. These responses are occluded by the combined presence of the potassium channel blockers 4-aminopyridine and tetraethylammonium. In voltage-clamped PD neurons, DA enhances the maximal conductance of a voltage-sensitive transient potassium current (IA) and shifts its Vact to more negative potentials without affecting its Vinact. This enlarges the "window current" between the voltage activation and inactivation curves, increasing the tonically active IA near the resting potential and causing the cell to hyperpolarize. Thus DA's effect is to enhance both the transient and resting K+ currents by modulating the same channels. In addition, DA enhances the amplitude of a calcium-dependent potassium current (IO(Ca)), but has no effect on a sustained potassium current (IK(V)). These results suggest that DA hyperpolarizes and phase delays the activity of the PD neurons at least in part by modulating their intrinsic postinhibitory recovery

  4. [Gross anatomy dissection and the legal control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashina, Shohei; Shibata, Yosaburo

    2010-12-01

    In Japan, dissection of human body is generally prohibited by the Penal Code, i.e. the criminal law. However, the Postmortem Examination and Corpse Preservation Act allows for the dissection of the body in very limited situations, that include gross anatomy dissection and pathological and forensic autopsy in medical and dental schools. Growing numbers of co-medical schools have been founded more recently in Japan, and not a small number of co-medical schools try to adopt human body dissection in the course of anatomy education. The present short communication reminds us of the ways of thinking of the Postmortem Examination and Corpse Preservation Act and the Act on Body Donation for Medical and Dental Education in order that anatomy education in medical as well as co-medical schools takes place under the regulation by these two laws.

  5. Sport expert's motor imagery: functional imaging of professional motor skills and simple motor skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Gaoxia; Luo, Jing

    2010-06-23

    Numerous studies provide evidence that motor skill acquisition is associated with dynamic changes in cortical and subcortical regions. Athletes are a professional population who are engaged in extensive motor training for long periods. However, the neural substrates of extreme level motor performance have not been clarified. We used kinesthetic imagery task to induce the mental representation of sport expert's extraordinary performance in view of the shared substrates of executing movement and motor imagery. For the first time, we compared, through functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), the pattern of cerebral activations in 12 professional divers and 12 normal people without extensive training, during imagery of professional skills and imagery of simple motor skills. The sport experts showed significant activation in the parahippocampus during imagery of professional skills relative to the novices, which might reflect the representation adapted to experience-related motor tasks. No significant difference was found between experts and novices when they imagined simple motor skills. These results indicated the experts might utilize their kinesthetic imagery more efficiently than novices, but only for the activity in which they had expertise. The sport experts also demonstrated more focused activation patterns in prefrontal areas in both of imagery tasks, which may be relevant to higher order of motor control during motor imagery. Moreover, this study suggested that the brains of sport experts could be regarded as the ideal subjects to explore the relationship between cerebral plasticity and learning of complex motor skills.

  6. Robust Principal Component Test in Gross Error Detection and Identification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Principle component analysis (PCA) based chi-square test is more sensitive to subtle gross errors and has greater power to correctly detect gross errors than classical chi-square test. However, classical principal component test (PCT) is non-robust and can be very sensitive to one or more outliers. In this paper, a Huber function liked robust weight factor was added in the collective chi-square test to eliminate the influence of gross errors on the PCT. Meanwhile, robust chi-square test was applied to modified simultaneous estimation of gross error (MSEGE) strategy to detect and identify multiple gross errors. Simulation results show that the proposed robust test can reduce the possibility of type Ⅱ errors effectively. Adding robust chi-square test into MSEGE does not obviously improve the power of multiple gross error identification, the proposed approach considers the influence of outliers on hypothesis statistic test and is more reasonable.

  7. Etiology-specific differences in motor function after hemispherectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kolk, Nicolien M; Boshuisen, Kim; van Empelen, Ron; Koudijs, Suzanne M; Staudt, Martin; van Rijen, Peter C; van Nieuwenhuizen, Onno; Braun, Kees P J

    2013-02-01

    Prediction of functional motor outcome after hemispherectomy is difficult due to the heterogeneity of motor outcomes observed. We hypothesize that this might be related to differences in plasticity during the onset of the underlying epileptogenic disorder or lesion and try to identify predictors of motor outcome after hemispherectomy. Thirty-five children with different etiologies (developmental, stable acquired or progressive) underwent functional hemispherectomy and motor function assessment before hemispherectomy and 24 months after hemispherectomy. Preoperatively, children with developmental etiologies performed better in terms of distal arm strength and hand function, but not on gross motor function tests. Postoperatively, the three etiology groups performed equally poor in muscle strength and hand function, but gross motor function improved in those with acquired and progressive etiologies. Loss of voluntary hand function and distal arm strength after surgery was associated with etiology, intact insular cortex and intact structural integrity of the ipsilesional corticospinal tract on presurgical MRI scans. In conclusion, postoperative motor function can be predicted more precisely based on etiology and on preoperative MRI. Children with developmental etiology more often lose distal arm strength and hand function and show less improvement in gross motor function, compared to those with acquired pathology.

  8. Monitoring of spatiotemporal patterns of Net and Gross Primary Productivity (NPP & GPP) and their ratios (NPP/GPP) derived from MODIS data: assessment natural drivers and their effects on NDVI anomalies in arid and semi-arid zones of Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aralova, Dildora; Jarihani, Ben; Khujanazarov, Timur; Toderich, Kristina; Gafurov, Dilshod; Gismatulina, Liliya

    2017-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that precipitation anomalies and raising of temperature trends were deteriorate affected on large-scale of vegetation surveys in Central Asia (CA). Nowadays, remote sensing techniques can provide estimation of Net and Gross Primary Productivity (NPP & GPP) for regional and global scales, and selected zones in CA (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan) dominated by C4 plants (biomes) what it reveals more accurately simulate C4 carbon. The estimation of NPP & GPP from source (MOD17A2/A3) would be beneficial to determine natural driver factors, whether on rangeland ecosystem is a carbon sink or source, such as a vast area of the selected zones incorporates exacerbate regional drought-risk factors nowadays. Generally, we have combined last available NPP & GPP (2000-2015) with 1 km resolution from MODIS, with investigation of long-term vegetation patterns under Normalized Difference Vegetation Indices (NDVI) with 8 km resolution from AVHRR-GIMMS 3g sources (2001-2015) within aim to estimate potential values of rangeland ecosystems. Interaction ratios of NPP/GPP are integrating more accurately describe carbon sink process under natural or anthropogenic factors, specifically last results of NDVI trends were described as decreasing trends due to climate anomalies, besides the eastern and northern parts of CA (mostly boreal forest zones) where accumulated or indicated of raising trends of NDVI in last three years (2012-2015). Results revealed that, in CA were averaged annually value NDVI ranges from 0.19-0.21; (Kyrgyzstan: 0.23-0.26; Kazakhstan: 0.21-0.24; Tajikistan: 0.19-0.21); and resting countries as low NDVI accumulated areas were Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan ranges 0.13-0.16; Comparing datasets of GPP given the response dynamic change structures of NDVI values and explicit carbon uptake (CO2) in arid ecosystems and average GPPyearlyin CA ranges 2.42 kg C/m2; including to Tajikistan, Uzbekistan (3.09 kg C/m2) and

  9. Effect of temperate climate tree species on gross ammonification, gross nitrification and N2O formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüggemann, N.; Rosenkranz, P.; Papen, H.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.

    2003-04-01

    Microbial nitrogen turnover processes in the soil, like ammonification, nitrification and denitrification, play an important role in the formation of nitrous oxide (N2O): (i) ammonification, because it releases nitrogen from organic material in the form of ammonium (NH4+), which in turn can serve as substrate for nitrification; (ii) nitrification itself (i.e. the turnover of NH4+ to nitrate, NO3-), during which nitric oxide (NO) and N2O can be released as by-products at varying ratios; (iii) denitrification, in which NO3- serves as electron acceptor and is converted to molecular nitrogen (N2) via NO and N2O as intermediates, that can also be partially lost to the atmosphere. Temperate forest soils are a substantial source of atmospheric N2O contributing up to 10% to the total atmospheric N2O budget. However, this figure is afflicted with a huge uncertainty due to a number of factors governing the soil N2O formation, consumption, release and uptake, which are not fully understood at present. To one of these factors belongs the influence of the tree species on nitrogen turnover processes in the soil and the formation of N trace gases related with them. The aim of the present work was to analyse this tree species effect for the temperate climate region. For this purpose the effect of five different temperate tree species, having the same age and growing on the same soil in direct vicinity to each other, on gross ammonification and gross nitrification as well as on N2O formation was investigated. The trees (common beech, Fagus sylvatica; pedunculate oak, Quercus robur; Norway spruce, Picea abies; Japanese larch, Larix leptolepis; mountain pine, Pinus mugo) were part of a species trial in Western Jutland, Denmark, established in 1965 on a former sandy heathland. Samples from the soil under these five tree species were taken in spring and in summer 2002, respectively, differentiating between organic layer and mineral soil. The gross rates of ammonification as well of

  10. Motor syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corea, Francesco; Micheli, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Motor disturbances alone or associated with other focal deficits are the most common symptoms suggesting a neurovascular event. An appropriate clinical assessment of these signs and symptoms may help physicians to better diagnose and to both better treat and predict outcome. In this paper the main clinical features of motor deficit are described together with other motor-related events such as ataxia and movement disturbances.

  11. Opposable spines facilitate fine and gross object manipulation in fire ants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassill, Deby; Greco, Anthony; Silwal, Rajesh; Wang, Xuefeng

    2007-04-01

    Ants inhabit diverse terrestrial biomes from the Sahara Desert to the Arctic tundra. One factor contributing to the ants’ successful colonization of diverse geographical regions is their ability to manipulate objects when excavating nests, capturing, transporting and rendering prey or grooming, feeding and transporting helpless brood. This paper is the first to report the form and function of opposable spines on the foretarsi of queens and workers used during fine motor and gross motor object manipulation in the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta. In conjunction with their mandibles, queens and workers used their foretarsi to grasp and rotate eggs, push or pull thread-like objects out of their way or push excavated soil pellets behind them for disposal by other workers. Opposable spines were found on the foretarsi of workers from seven of eight other ant species suggesting that they might be a common feature in the Formicidae.

  12. TERATOGENIC EFFECTS OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES: GROSS ANOMALIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Prakash

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available BACK GROUND: Prenatal exposure of AgNPs can induces devastative and detrimental effect in the organogenesis period of the developing embryos and foetuses. Organogenesis period is highly condemnatory and persuadable. Any injury to embryo during this period leads to dysmorphogenesis or even death AIM: The present study means to evaluate the gross anomalies on developing f o etus subsequent to silver nanoparticle ingestion during the gestational period. MATERIAL & METHOD: Random selections of pregnant Swiss albino mice were selected. AgNPs, of 20 - 100 nm size ra nge, were administered to pregnant mice by repeated oral gavages at concentra tions of 0.5, 1, 5, 10, 15 & 20 mg/kg/day during 4 - 17 gestational day. All dams were subjected to exteriorization on GD 18. The fetuses were evaluated for body malformation effects . RESULTS: Repeated oral gavages treatment with AgNPs at a concentration of 0.5mg/kg/day caused resorption (4.61% and intra uterine growth retardation (7.69% with no gross morphology alteration. 1 mg/kg/day caused resorption (9.23% and intra uterine growth retardation (10.76% with a rare case of haemorrhagic conception (1.53%, 5mg/kg/day caused limb malformation (7.01% resorption (17.54% and intra uterine growth retardation (17.54%, closed type Neural tube deformity (5.26%, 10mg/kg/day caused 20 % of limb malformation including Amelia, foot and tail vein hemorrhages and simple tail vein haemorrhage (3.50% each, resorption (22.80%, intra uterine growth retardation (29.82%, 15mg/kg/day caused severe hemorrhage within the entire body (22.80%, lim b anomaly including syndactyly and oligodactyly (8.77%, resorption (42.10%, intra uterine growth retardation (45.61%, 20mg/kg/day caused Omphalocele (3.27%, Bidiscoidal placental anomaly (9.83%, resorption (29.50% and intra uterine growth retardation (62.29%. CONCLUSION: The results show that a repeated oral dose of AgNPs during pregnancy caused fetal body dysmorphogenesis which is dose

  13. The Relationship between Motor Abilities and Early Social Development in a Preschool Cohort of Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittingham, Koa; Fahey, Michael; Rawicki, Barry; Boyd, Roslyn

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the relationship between motor ability and early social development in a cohort of preschool children with cerebral palsy (CP). Design: Population-based cohort study. Methods: Participants were 122 children with CP assessed at 18, 24 and 30 months, corrected age (ca). Motor ability was measured by the Gross Motor Function…

  14. Gross revenue risk in Swiss dairy farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Benni, N; Finger, R

    2013-02-01

    This study investigated how agricultural policy reforms, including market liberalization and market deregulation, have influenced gross revenue risk of Swiss dairy producers using farm-level panel data between 1990 and 2009. Based on detrended data, variance decomposition was applied to assess how output prices and yields contributed to revenue risk over 3 different periods: the whole period (1990-2009), the first decade (1990-1999), and the second decade (1999-2009). In addition, the effect of expected changes in animal-based support for roughage-consuming cattle and price volatility on revenue risk was evaluated using a simulation model. Prices were the main contributor to revenue risk, even if the importance of yield risk increased over time. Swiss dairy producers can profit from natural hedge but market deregulation and market liberalization have reduced the natural hedge at the farm level. An increase in price volatility would substantially increase revenue risk and would, together with the abandonment of direct payments, reduce the comparative advantage of dairy production for risk-averse decision makers. Depending on other available risk management strategies, price risk management instruments might be a valuable solution for Swiss dairy producers in the future.

  15. Guidelines for Standard Photography in Gross and Clinical Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barut, Cagatay; Ertilav, Hakan

    2011-01-01

    Photography has a widespread usage in medicine and anatomy. In this review, authors focused on the usage of photography in gross and clinical anatomy. Photography in gross and clinical anatomy is not only essential for accurate documentation of morphological findings but also important in sharing knowledge and experience. Photographs of cadavers…

  16. 26 CFR 1.61-4 - Gross income of farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Gross income of farmers. (a) Farmers using the cash method of accounting. A farmer using the cash receipts and disbursements method of accounting shall include in his gross income for the taxable year— (1) The amount of cash and the value of merchandise or other property received during the taxable...

  17. Guidelines for Standard Photography in Gross and Clinical Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barut, Cagatay; Ertilav, Hakan

    2011-01-01

    Photography has a widespread usage in medicine and anatomy. In this review, authors focused on the usage of photography in gross and clinical anatomy. Photography in gross and clinical anatomy is not only essential for accurate documentation of morphological findings but also important in sharing knowledge and experience. Photographs of cadavers…

  18. The Gross Anatomy Course: An Analysis of Its Importance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockers, Anja; Jerg-Bretzke, Lucia; Lamp, Christoph; Brinkmann, Anke; Traue, Harald C.; Bockers, Tobias M.

    2010-01-01

    The gross anatomy dissection course is a cost-intensive piece of undergraduate medical education that students and professionals alike describe as very important within the overall medical curriculum. We sought to understand more explicitly students' valuation of gross anatomy as an "important" course and so developed a quantitative…

  19. Australian Cerebral Palsy Child Study: protocol of a prospective population based study of motor and brain development of preschool aged children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Roslyn N; Jordan, Rachel; Pareezer, Laura; Moodie, Anne; Finn, Christine; Luther, Belinda; Arnfield, Evyn; Pym, Aaron; Craven, Alex; Beall, Paula; Weir, Kelly; Kentish, Megan; Wynter, Meredith; Ware, Robert; Fahey, Michael; Rawicki, Barry; McKinlay, Lynne; Guzzetta, Andrea

    2013-06-11

    Cerebral palsy (CP) results from a static brain lesion during pregnancy or early life and remains the most common cause of physical disability in children (1 in 500). While the brain lesion is static, the physical manifestations and medical issues may progress resulting in altered motor patterns. To date, there are no prospective longitudinal studies of CP that follow a birth cohort to track early gross and fine motor development and use Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) to determine the anatomical pattern and likely timing of the brain lesion. Existing studies do not consider treatment costs and outcomes. This study aims to determine the pathway(s) to motor outcome from diagnosis at 18 months corrected age (c.a.) to outcome at 5 years in relation to the nature of the brain lesion (using structural MRI). This prospective cohort study aims to recruit a total of 240 children diagnosed with CP born in Victoria (birth years 2004 and 2005) and Queensland (birth years 2006-2009). Children can enter the study at any time between 18 months to 5 years of age and will be assessed at 18, 24, 30, 36, 48 and 60 months c.a. Outcomes include gross motor function (GMFM-66 & GMFM-88), Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS); musculoskeletal development (hip displacement, spasticity, muscle contracture), upper limb function (Manual Ability Classification System), communication difficulties using Communication and Symbolic Behaviour Scales-Developmental Profile (CSBS-DP), participation using the Paediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI), parent reported quality of life and classification of medical and allied health resource use and determination of the aetiology of CP using clinical evaluation combined with MRI. The relationship between the pathways to motor outcome and the nature of the brain lesion will be analysed using multiple methods including non-linear modelling, multilevel mixed-effects models and generalised estimating equations. This protocol

  20. The Effect of Body Weight Support Treadmill Training on Gait Recovery, Proximal Lower Limb Motor Pattern, and Balance in Patients with Subacute Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Rong Mao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Gait performance is an indicator of mobility impairment after stroke. This study evaluated changes in balance, lower extremity motor function, and spatiotemporal gait parameters after receiving body weight supported treadmill training (BWSTT and conventional overground walking training (CT in patients with subacute stroke using 3D motion analysis. Setting. Inpatient department of rehabilitation medicine at a university-affiliated hospital. Participants. 24 subjects with unilateral hemiplegia in the subacute stage were randomized to the BWSTT (n=12 and CT (n=12 groups. Parameters were compared between the two groups. Data from twelve age matched healthy subjects were recorded as reference. Interventions. Patients received gait training with BWSTT or CT for an average of 30 minutes/day, 5 days/week, for 3 weeks. Main Outcome Measures. Balance was measured by the Brunel balance assessment. Lower extremity motor function was evaluated by the Fugl-Meyer assessment scale. Kinematic data were collected and analyzed using a gait capture system before and after the interventions. Results. Both groups improved on balance and lower extremity motor function measures (P<0.05, with no significant difference between the two groups after intervention. However, kinematic data were significantly improved (P<0.05 after BWSTT but not after CT. Maximum hip extension and flexion angles were significantly improved (P<0.05 for the BWSTT group during the stance and swing phases compared to baseline. Conclusion. In subacute patients with stroke, BWSTT can lead to improved gait quality when compared with conventional gait training. Both methods can improve balance and motor function.

  1. The Effect of Body Weight Support Treadmill Training on Gait Recovery, Proximal Lower Limb Motor Pattern, and Balance in Patients with Subacute Stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Yu-Rong Mao; Wai Leung Lo; Qiang Lin; Le Li; Xiang Xiao; Preeti Raghavan; Dong-Feng Huang

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Gait performance is an indicator of mobility impairment after stroke. This study evaluated changes in balance, lower extremity motor function, and spatiotemporal gait parameters after receiving body weight supported treadmill training (BWSTT) and conventional overground walking training (CT) in patients with subacute stroke using 3D motion analysis. Setting. Inpatient department of rehabilitation medicine at a university-affiliated hospital. Participants. 24 subjects with unilatera...

  2. Detailed Analysis of Motor Unit Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolic, Mile; Sørensen, John Aasted; Dahl, Kristian

    1997-01-01

    System for decomposition of EMG signals intotheir constituent motor unit potentials and their firing patterns.The aim of the system is detailed analysis ofmotor unit variability.......System for decomposition of EMG signals intotheir constituent motor unit potentials and their firing patterns.The aim of the system is detailed analysis ofmotor unit variability....

  3. Detailed Analysis of Motor Unit Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolic, Mile; Sørensen, John Aasted; Dahl, Kristian

    1997-01-01

    System for decomposition of EMG signals intotheir constituent motor unit potentials and their firing patterns.The aim of the system is detailed analysis ofmotor unit variability.......System for decomposition of EMG signals intotheir constituent motor unit potentials and their firing patterns.The aim of the system is detailed analysis ofmotor unit variability....

  4. Motor homopolar

    OpenAIRE

    Agustín Martín Muñoz

    2007-01-01

    Mostramos la construcción de un modelo de motor homopolar, uno de los más antiguos tipos de motores eléctricos. Se caracterizan porque el campo magnético del imán mantiene siempre la misma polaridad (de ahí su nombre, del griego homos, igual), de modo que, cuando una corriente eléctrica atraviesa el campo magnético, aparece una fuerza que hace girar los elementos no fijados mecánicamente. En el sencillísimo motor homopolar colgado (Schlichting y Ucke 2004), el imán puede girar ...

  5. Qigong massage for motor skills in young children with cerebral palsy and Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Louisa M T; Schalock, Mark; Garberg, Jodi; Smith, Cynthia Lammers

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we present a small randomized controlled study evaluating the effect of a dual parent- and trainer-delivered qigong massage methodology on motor skills and sensory responses in 28 children under age 4 with developmental delay and motor tone abnormalities. Fourteen children had high motor tone as a result of cerebral palsy (CP), and 14 children had low motor tone as a result of Down syndrome. Multivariate analysis and post hoc analysis of variance showed large effect-size improvements in Peabody Gross Motor Scale (PGMS) Object Manipulation scores (p qigong massage as a promising avenue for research to improve motor skills in young children with CP and Down syndrome.

  6. An Eight-Year Study of Online Lecture Use in a Medical Gross Anatomy and Embryology Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieder, Gary L.; Borges, Nicole J.

    2012-01-01

    Online lectures have been used in lieu of live lectures in our gross anatomy and embryology course for the past eight years. We examined patterns of online lecture use by our students and related that use to academic entry measures, gender and examination performance. Detailed access records identified by student were available from server logs.…

  7. An Eight-Year Study of Online Lecture Use in a Medical Gross Anatomy and Embryology Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieder, Gary L.; Borges, Nicole J.

    2012-01-01

    Online lectures have been used in lieu of live lectures in our gross anatomy and embryology course for the past eight years. We examined patterns of online lecture use by our students and related that use to academic entry measures, gender and examination performance. Detailed access records identified by student were available from server logs.…

  8. GROSS ANATOMY AND BLOOD SUPPLY OF SMALL INTESTINE IN FOETUSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwer Unisa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM OF STUDY: To develop charts of length and width of small intestine, origin, length and branching pattern of celiac trunk and Superior mesenteric artery. This will help us to know any congenital anomaly in the small intestine, and abnormal origin, length, variation i n the branching pattern. MATERIALS AND METHOD S: The material used for the present study of 100 foetuses of different stages of gestation collected from Government maternity Hospital, Hanamkonda, ChandaKantha Memorial Hospital Warangal and private nursing h omes of Warangal D istrict of Andhra Pradesh within 10 hours of death. The dead foetuses were preserved in the hospital in 10% formalin. The foetuses were embalmed by injecting with 20 cc to 100 cc 10% formalin in to the cranial cavity and trunk depending o n the stage of gestation. Foetuses were dissected to expose small intestine and the blood vessels which supply it systematically in the following manner. OBSERVATIONS: The present study conducted has shown that length, width of small intestine was found to be increasing with foetal age. The length of celiac trunk, the length of superior mesenteric artery was found to increase proportionality with the foetal age. The causes of death in foetuses related to small intestine are intussusceptions intestional malr otation such as ladd’s bands, volvulus, cystic fibrosis, intestional infections and necrotizing enterocolitis. Knowledge related to gross anatomy and blood supply of small intestine is important because of these causes which may lead to death in foetus e s. In the present study no anomalies related to small intestine are found.

  9. GROWTH AND MOTOR DEVELOPMENT IN FETUSES OF WOMEN WITH TYPE-1 DIABETES .3. 1ST TRIMESTER QUANTITY OF FETAL MOVEMENT PATTERNS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MULDER, EJH; VISSER, GHA; MORSSINK, LP; DEVRIES, JIP

    1991-01-01

    Delayed emergence of movement patterns and disturbances in the development of behavioural states are often observed in the fetuses of diabetic women. The developmental course of specific fetal movement patterns was studied in 20 women with type-1 diabetes during the first trimester of pregnancy. The

  10. Ultrasonic Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-06-01

    and T. Higuchi, "Cylindrical Micro Ultrasonic Motor Utilizing Bulk Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT)," Japanese Journal of Applied Physics Part 1-Regular Papers Short Notes & Review Papers, vol. 38, pp. 3347-3350, 1999.

  11. Estimating the gross moist stability in shallow and deep convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C. A.; Jong, B. T.; Chou, C.

    2015-12-01

    Gross moist stability has been used to study the link between tropical deep convection and large scale circulation in a moist static energy (MSE) budget. Here we aim to calculate the gross moist stability from more realistic profiles of vertical velocity and extend it beyond deep convection, adding shallow convection. Based on a principal component analysis, we were able to decompose the vertical velocity into two leading modes, which are dominated by deep and shallow convection, respectively. According to the deep and shallow modes, we calculate the gross moist stability for these two modes and discuss the roles of deep and shallow convection in the MSE budget. The gross moist stability of deep convection tends to be positive in the tropics, while that of shallow convection is negative over most areas of the tropics. This implies that deep convection exports MSE to stabilize the atmosphere and shallow convection imports MSE to enhance deep convection and destabilize the atmosphere. Based on the spatial distribution, moisture tends to reduce the gross moist stability of deep convection, while dry static energy has little impact. Deeper deep convection tends to have greater gross moist stability. For shallow convection, on the other hand, the gross moist stability is affected not only by low-level moisture but also mid-level moisture. Both moister low-level and drier mid-level moisture reduce the gross moist stability of shallow convection. Greater low-level dry static energy, which is associated with warmer sea surface temperature, also tends to reduce gross moist stability.

  12. Relationship between motor abilities and severity of autism spectrum disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Cvijetić Marija; Gagić Sanja

    2017-01-01

    According to the findings in literature, motor skills of children with autism spectrum disorders generally differ from age expectations and are increasingly being associated with speech and language and social development, and adaptive behavior. The aim of the research was to determine the relationship between the development level of fine and gross motor skills and autism severity of children with autism spectrum disorder. The sample included 30 children with autism spectrum disorder and ass...

  13. Children with low motor ability have lower visual-motor integration ability but unaffected perceptual skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifacci, Paola

    2004-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine perceptual, visual-motor abilities and intellectual skills in children with low, average and above average motor abilities. The participants were 144 children (aged 6-10 years) attending elementary school. Three groups of children were identified on the basis of their performance at the TGMD (Test of Gross Motor Development; [Ulrich, D.A. (1985). TGMD, Test of Gross Motor Development. Austin, Texas: PRO-ED. Edizione Italiana a cura di D. Ianes, TEST TGM. Test di valutazione delle abilita grosso-motorie. 1994, Trento: Edizioni Centro Studi Erickson]). Each child received an intelligence test (K-BIT; [Kaufman, A.S., & Kaufman, N.L. (1990). K-BIT. Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service]) and was evaluated for perceptual and visual-motor integration abilities (DTVP; [Hammill, D.D., Pearson, N.A., & Voress, J.K. (1993). Developmental Test of Visual Perception (2nd ed.). Austin, Texas: PRO-ED. Edizione Italiana a cura di D. Ianes, TEST TPV. Test di percezione visiva e integrazione visuo-motoria. Trento: Edizioni Centro Studi Erickson]). Results highlight a significant difference in visual-motor integration between children with high and low gross-motor abilities, in the absence of significant differences in perceptual skills or intellectual ability. The findings are discussed with reference to the concept of atypical brain development [Gilger, J.W., & Kaplan, B.J. (2001). Atypical brain development: A conceptual framework for understanding developmental learning disabilities. Developmental Neuropsychology, 20, 465].

  14. Sexual affordances, perceptual-motor invariance extraction and intentional nonlinear dynamics: sexually deviant and non-deviant patterns in male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaud, Patrice; Goyette, Mathieu; Chartier, Sylvain; Zhornitski, Simon; Trottier, Dominique; Rouleau, Joanne-L; Proulx, Jean; Fedoroff, Paul; Bradford, John-P; Dassylva, Benoit; Bouchard, Stephane

    2010-10-01

    Sexual arousal and gaze behavior dynamics are used to characterize deviant sexual interests in male subjects. Pedophile patients and non-deviant subjects are immersed with virtual characters depicting relevant sexual features. Gaze behavior dynamics as indexed from correlation dimensions (D2) appears to be fractal in nature and significantly different from colored noise (surrogate data tests and recurrence plot analyses were performed). This perceptual-motor fractal dynamics parallels sexual arousal and differs from pedophiles to non-deviant subjects when critical sexual information is processed. Results are interpreted in terms of sexual affordance, perceptual invariance extraction and intentional nonlinear dynamics.

  15. Relationship between Motor Skill and Body Mass Index in 5- to 10-Year-Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Hondt, Eva; Deforche, Benedicte; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Lenoir, Matthieu

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate gross and fine motor skill in overweight and obese children compared with normal-weight peers. According to international cut-off points for Body Mass Index (BMI) from Cole et al. (2000), all 117 participants (5-10 year) were classified as being normal-weight, overweight, or obese. Level of motor skill…

  16. Fine Motor Skills and Executive Function Both Contribute to Kindergarten Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Claire E.; Brock, Laura L.; Murrah, William M.; Bell, Lindsay H.; Worzalla, Samantha L.; Grissmer, David; Morrison, Frederick J.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the contribution of executive function (EF) and multiple aspects of fine motor skills to achievement on 6 standardized assessments in a sample of middle-socioeconomic status kindergarteners. Three- and 4-year-olds' (n = 213) fine and gross motor skills were assessed in a home visit before kindergarten, EF was measured at fall…

  17. Spatial Concept Learning in Preschool Children: Motoric Experiences and Verbal Repetition as Adjuncts to Passive Listening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    And Others; Worthington, R. Kirby

    1980-01-01

    Thirty-two preschool children were matched by age, sex, and pretest scores on spatial concept knowledge. Four groups were (1) instruction (see and hear) only, (2) verbal repetition, (3) fine motor treatment (hand manipulation), and (4) gross motor treatment (body movement). There was no difference in performance between groups given instruction…

  18. Development and face validity of a cerebral visual impairment motor questionnaire for children with cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salavati, M.; Waninge, A.; Rameckers, E. A. A.; van der Steen, J.; Krijnen, W. P.; van der Schans, C. P.; Steenbergen, B.

    2017-01-01

    Aim The objectives of this study were (i) to develop two cerebral visual impairment motor questionnaires (CVI-MQ's) for children with cerebral palsy (CP): one for children with Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels I, II and III and one for children with GMFCS levels IV and V; (i

  19. Lumbosacral motor polyneuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Malmberg

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The case of lumbosacral motor neuropathy (LSMN in 15-yers old patient with diabetes mellitus (type I is presented. Clinical and electromyographical patterns are considered and effectiveness of corticosteroid therapy is estimated. The differential features and taxonomic position of LSMN and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP are discussed. The necessity of some liberalization of CIDP diagnostic criteria is demonstrated.

  20. 矫正偏瘫下肢异常运动模式的方法及临床效果观察%Research on the effectiveness of the training method and device for lower limb motor pattern remodeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵海红; 霍剑菲; 王峥; 孙爱萍; 张学敏; 曹效; 苏洪泉; 赵博; 赵文汝

    2013-01-01

    目的 研究矫正偏瘫下肢异常运动模式的方法并观察临床效果.方法 选择30例经传统方法训练后下肢运动模式仍异常的患者,对其进行运动模式重塑训练60次,训练前后自身对照研究,分别进行功能评定,数据采用SPSS 12.0统计软件进行分析.结果 功能性步行分级,下肢Fugl-Meyer,屈髋肌徒手肌力,屈髋肌、伸膝和足背屈表面肌电信号的强度和比例,屈髋、伸膝和足背屈自主关节活动度,日常生活能力评估指标,训练前后均有明显改善(3.7±1.4比0.3±0.9;30±9比15±25;3.6±1.3比1.4±0.9;111±18比58±35;161±4比111±13;15 ±7比4±6;79±12比56±25),差异均有统计学意义(均P<0.01).结论 下肢运动模式重塑训练方式及其装置能够有效限制下肢运动中不需要的关节活动,能有效重塑下肢正常运动模式.%Objective To make a device that can valid inhibit the unwanted joint motion in the movement of the lower extremity,in order to ensure the patient walking in normal gait.After the training using this method and device,the normal gait can be remodeled.Another purpose of this research is to observe its effectiveness.Methods The lower extremity motor pattern remodeling device was made,according to the figure of the lower trunk and the lower limb of the patient,by using the parts as follows:①the artificial aluminium-alloy joint hip,knee and ankle,which was the initial flexion angle of the joint that could be adjusted.The motion angle of those artificial joint could be adjusted.②The aluminium-alloy aid raddle and the waisdine made of lukewarm thermoplast board; Also those artificial joint could only be allowed to act on the direction of frontal axis moving forward and backward,in order to ensure the patient walking in normal gait.The clinical trail of the lower limb gait motor pattern remodeling was done by own control study in 30 hemiplegic patients who had gait training using commonly used method and who

  1. Sectoral contributions to Nigerian gross domestic product using a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences ... This study analyzed sectoral contributions to Gross Domestic Product by Agriculture, Industry and services ... KEYWORDS: Granger causality, Unit root, VAR model and sectoral contribution ...

  2. Motor Improvement Using Motion Sensing Game Devices for Cerebral Palsy Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camara Machado, Fabiana Rita; Antunes, Priscilla Pereira; Souza, Jandara De Moura; Santos, Antônio Cardoso Dos; Levandowski, Daniela Centenaro; Oliveira, Alcyr Alves De

    2016-09-03

    The authors aimed to investigate the effects of an intervention based on interactive game set with the movement sensor Kinect on children with cerebral palsy (CP). Twenty-eight participants were recruited. Their age was between 3 and 12 years old, and rated as level I, II, or III on the Gross Motor Function Classification System. They played two games from the Xbox 360 Kinect system and were evaluated using the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) after a period of 8 weeks. The intervention led to significant motor function improvement as increase of the global scores on the GMFM (p games may represent useful tools for children with CP.

  3. Speech and Oral Motor Profile after Childhood Hemispherectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liegeois, Frederique; Morgan, Angela T.; Stewart, Lorna H.; Cross, J. Helen; Vogel, Adam P.; Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh

    2010-01-01

    Hemispherectomy (disconnection or removal of an entire cerebral hemisphere) is a rare surgical procedure used for the relief of drug-resistant epilepsy in children. After hemispherectomy, contralateral hemiplegia persists whereas gross expressive and receptive language functions can be remarkably spared. Motor speech deficits have rarely been…

  4. Perceptual-Motor Attributes of Mentally Retarded Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cratty, Bryant J.

    To evaluate six perceptual-motor attributes of trainable and educable mentally retarded children, a battery of tests was constructed which included body perception, gross agility, balance, locomotor ability, throwing, and tracking; 83 retarded subjects provided reliability data, and their scores, with those of 120 additional subjects, provided…

  5. Speech and Oral Motor Profile after Childhood Hemispherectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liegeois, Frederique; Morgan, Angela T.; Stewart, Lorna H.; Cross, J. Helen; Vogel, Adam P.; Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh

    2010-01-01

    Hemispherectomy (disconnection or removal of an entire cerebral hemisphere) is a rare surgical procedure used for the relief of drug-resistant epilepsy in children. After hemispherectomy, contralateral hemiplegia persists whereas gross expressive and receptive language functions can be remarkably spared. Motor speech deficits have rarely been…

  6. Abnormal motor phenotype at adult stages in mice lacking type 2 deiodinase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soledad Bárez-López

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Thyroid hormones have a key role in both the developing and adult central nervous system and skeletal muscle. The thyroid gland produces mainly thyroxine (T4 but the intracellular concentrations of 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3; the transcriptionally active hormone in the central nervous system and skeletal muscle are modulated by the activity of type 2 deiodinase (D2. To date no neurological syndrome has been associated with mutations in the DIO2 gene and previous studies in young and juvenile D2-knockout mice (D2KO did not find gross neurological alterations, possibly due to compensatory mechanisms. AIM: This study aims to analyze the motor phenotype of 3-and-6-month-old D2KO mice to evaluate the role of D2 on the motor system at adult stages in which compensatory mechanisms could have failed. RESULTS: Motor abilities were explored by validated tests. In the footprint test, D2KO showed an altered global gait pattern (mice walked slower, with shorter strides and with a hindlimb wider base of support than wild-type mice. No differences were detected in the balance beam test. However, a reduced latency to fall was found in the rotarod, coat-hanger and four limb hanging wire tests indicating impairment on coordination and prehensile reflex and a reduction of muscle strength. In histological analyses of cerebellum and skeletal muscle, D2KO mice did not present gross structural abnormalities. Thyroid hormones levels and deiodinases activities were also determined. In D2KO mice, despite euthyroid T3 and high T4 plasma levels, T3 levels were significantly reduced in cerebral cortex (48% reduction and skeletal muscle (33% reduction, but not in the cerebellum where other deiodinase (type 1 is expressed. CONCLUSIONS: The motor alterations observed in D2KO mice indicate an important role for D2 in T3 availability to maintain motor function and muscle strength. Our results suggest a possible implication of D2 in motor disorders.

  7. Premedical anatomy experience and student performance in medical gross anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondrashov, Peter; McDaniel, Dalton J; Jordan, Rebecca M

    2017-04-01

    Gross anatomy is considered one of the most important basic science courses in medical education, yet few medical schools require its completion prior to matriculation. The effect of taking anatomy courses before entering medical school on performance in medical gross anatomy has been previously studied with inconsistent results. The effect of premedical anatomy coursework on performance in medical gross anatomy, overall medical school grade point average (GPA), and Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing Examination Level 1 (COMLEX 1) score was evaluated in 456 first-year osteopathic medical students along with a survey on its perceived benefits on success in medical gross anatomy course. No significant differences were found in gross anatomy grade, GPA, or COMLEX 1 score between students with premedical anatomy coursework and those without. However, significant differences and higher scores were observed in students who had taken three or more undergraduate anatomy courses including at least one with cadaveric laboratory. There was significantly lower perceived benefit for academic success in the medical gross anatomy course (P<.001) from those students who had taken premedical anatomy courses (5.9 of 10) compared with those who had not (8.2 of 10). Results suggest that requiring any anatomy course as a prerequisite for medical school would not have significant effect on student performance in the medical gross anatomy course. However, requiring more specific anatomy coursework including taking three or more undergraduate anatomy courses, one with cadaveric laboratory component, may result in higher medical gross anatomy grades, medical school GPA, and COMLEX 1 scores. Clin. Anat. 30:303-311, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Motor Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Aaron L; Haith, Adrian M; Krakauer, John W

    2015-08-01

    Motor planning colloquially refers to any process related to the preparation of a movement that occurs during the reaction time prior to movement onset. However, this broad definition encompasses processes that are not strictly motor-related, such as decision-making about the identity of task-relevant stimuli in the environment. Furthermore, the assumption that all motor-planning processes require processing time, and can therefore be studied behaviorally by measuring changes in the reaction time, needs to be reexamined. In this review, we take a critical look at the processes leading from perception to action and suggest a definition of motor planning that encompasses only those processes necessary for a movement to be executed-that is, processes that are strictly movement related. These processes resolve the ambiguity inherent in an abstract goal by defining a specific movement to achieve it. We propose that the majority of processes that meet this definition can be completed nearly instantaneously, which means that motor planning itself in fact consumes only a small fraction of the reaction time. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Arteriovenous Patterns in Beaked Whales

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Arteriovenous patterns in beaked whales Alexander M...picture of the vascular anatomy in beaked whale heads that will enhance our understanding of the basic biology of beaked whales and act as a baseline...The objective was to describe and better understand the gross morphology of the blood vessels in the heads of beaked whales . Gross anatomical

  10. THE ANALYSIS OF THE MAIN CHARACTERISTICS CONSIDERED FOR THE GROUPING EU MEMBER STATES ACCORDING TO GROSS INLAND ENERGY CONSUMPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POPESCU Catalin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Gross inland energy consumption represents the quantity of energy necessary to satisfy inland consumption of the geographical entity under consideration. It describes the total energy needs of a country. According to some Eurostat reports from 2013 and 2014, over the last two decades, gross inland energy consumption in the EU28, as can be noted, has changed pretty much: in 1990 cumulated 1670 million tonnes of oil equivalent (Mtoe, rose to a peak of 1830 Mtoe in 2006 and then decreased to 1680 Mtoe in 2012. These contradictory values required a comprehensive analysis and therefore, present paper describes the main characteristics related to the grouping EU Member States according to gross inland energy consumption in order to discover some common patterns among EU member states.

  11. Children with special health care needs: patterns of safety restraint use, seating position, and risk of injury in motor vehicle crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Patty; Kallan, Michael J; O'Neil, Joseph; Bull, Marilyn J; Blum, Nathan J; Durbin, Dennis R

    2009-02-01

    Special health care needs associated with behavioral conditions may influence a child's safety in motor vehicle crashes. The aim of this study was to describe and compare variation in restraint use, seating position, and injury risk in motor vehicle crashes among children with and without special health care needs likely to affect behavior. This study uses data collected between December 1, 1998, and November 30, 2002, in a cross-sectional study of children vehicles in 15 states. Parent reports via a validated telephone survey were used to define precrash special health care needs, restraint status, seating position, and the occurrence of clinically significant injuries by using a previously validated survey instrument. Complete data were collected for 14654 children aged 4 to 15 years, representing 171633 children in crashes. Of these, 152 children were reported to have a special need likely to affect behavior, representing 1883 children. A greater proportion of children with special needs likely to affect behavior were appropriately restrained, particularly among children aged 4 to 8 years. Drivers of children with special needs likely to affect behavior were more often restrained and more often were the child passenger's parent. There were no differences in the rates of front-row seating. There was no significant association between the presence of a special need likely to affect behavior and risk of injury, after adjustment for child/driver characteristics and crash severity. Despite a greater proportion of children with special needs likely to affect behavior using proper vehicle restraint, their injury risk was similar to that of children without these special needs. Primary care pediatricians providing best practices for vehicle safety should consider the unique riding experience and risk of injury among children with special health care needs likely to affect behavior.

  12. Climate change amplifies gross nitrogen turnover in montane grasslands of Central Europe both in summer and winter seasons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhe; Wang, Changhui; Unteregelsbacher, Sebastian; Lu, Haiyan; Gschwendtner, Silvia; Gasche, Rainer; Kolar, Allison; Schloter, Michael; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus; Dannenmann, Michael

    2016-04-01

    The carbon and nitrogen rich soils of montane grasslands are exposed to above average warming and to altered precipitation patterns as a result of global change. In order to investigate the consequences of climatic change for soil nitrogen turnover, we translocated intact plant-soil mesocosms along an elevational gradient. Following three years of equilibration, we monitored the dynamics of gross nitrogen turnover and ammonia oxidizing microbes over an entire year. Gross nitrogen turnover and gene levels of ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and archaea (AOA) showed pronounced seasonal dynamics. While both summer and winter periods equally contributed to cumulative annual N turnover, the highest gross N turnover and abundance of ammonia oxidizers were observed in frozen soil of climate change sites due to physical liberation of organic substrates and their rapid turnover in the unfrozen soil water film. The control site never experienced soil freezing due to a significant insulating snowpack. Climate change conditions accelerated gross N mineralization by 250% on average. The AOB community benefited more from increased soil ammonium production under climate change conditions than the AOA community and thus accounted for a significant increase in gross nitrification rates. Climate change impacts were restricted to the 2-6 cm topsoil and rarely occurred at 12-16 cm depth, where generally much lower N turnover was observed. Mineralization pulses in a changing climate may result in soil organic matter loss with their associated negative impacts on key soil functions. In this context, N cycling processes in frozen soil can be a hot spot for gross N turnover and thus be of paramount importance for understanding seasonal patterns, annual sum of N turnover and possible climate change feedbacks.

  13. CNS expression pattern of Lmx1b and coexpression with Ptx genes suggest functional cooperativity in the development of forebrain motor control systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asbreuk, CHJ; Vogelaar, CF; Hellemons, A; Smidt, MP; Burbach, JPH

    2002-01-01

    In the central nervous system, acquisition of regional specification is an important developmental process. The regional specification is reflected by restricted and overlapping expression of homeobox genes, which are regulators of this event. Here, we detail the expression pattern of Lmx1b during l

  14. Neuronal control of turtle hindlimb motor rhythms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, P S G

    2005-03-01

    The turtle, Trachemys scripta elegans, uses its hindlimb during the rhythmic motor behaviors of walking, swimming, and scratching. For some tasks, one or more motor strategies or forms may be produced, e.g., forward swimming or backpaddling. This review discusses experiments that reveal characteristics of the spinal neuronal networks producing these motor behaviors. Limb-movement studies show shared properties such as rhythmic alternation between hip flexion and hip extension, as well as variable properties such as the timing of knee extension in the cycle of hip movements. Motor-pattern studies show shared properties such as rhythmic alternation between hip flexor and hip extensor motor activities, as well as variable properties such as modifiable timing of knee extensor motor activity in the cycle of hip motor activity. Motor patterns also display variations such as the hip-extensor deletion of rostral scratching. Neuronal-network studies reveal mechanisms responsible for movement and motor-pattern properties. Some interneurons in the spinal cord have shared activities, e.g., each unit is active during more than one behavior, and have distinct characteristics, e.g., each unit is most excited during a specific behavior. Interneuronal recordings during variations support the concept of modular organization of central pattern generators in the spinal cord.

  15. THE MOTOR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard Nielsen, Anders

    2011-01-01

    MOTOR is the first assignment that students at Unit 1a of the School of Architecture are introduced to. The purpose of the assignment is to shake up the students and their preconceptions of what architec- ture is. This is done by introducing them to a working method that al- lows them to develop...

  16. THE MOTOR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard Nielsen, Anders

    2011-01-01

    MOTOR is the first assignment that students at Unit 1a of the School of Architecture are introduced to. The purpose of the assignment is to shake up the students and their preconceptions of what architec- ture is. This is done by introducing them to a working method that al- lows them to develop...

  17. Increased Intensity of Physical Therapy for a Child with Gross Motor Developmental Delay: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Joe

    2004-01-01

    Background and Purpose: The intensity of physical therapy provided for children in early intervention (EI) programs may be influenced by a number of factors. In an individualized program, however, some children and families may benefit from an increased frequency of services. The purpose of this case report was to systematically document and…

  18. Effects of early regular physical therapy treatment on gross motor function of children with cerebral palsy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Murvanidze Eliso

    2017-01-01

    .... The objective of our research was measuring effectiveness of physical therapy treatment in cases of cerebral palsy, and defining the influence of correct and targeted physical therapy treatment...

  19. Introduction of the gross motor function classification system in Venezuela - a model for knowledge dissemination

    OpenAIRE

    Löwing, Kristina; Arredondo, Ynes C.; Tedroff, Marika; Tedroff, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Background A current worldwide common goal is to optimize the health and well-being of children with cerebral palsy (CP). In order to reach that goal, for this heterogeneous group, a common language and classification systems are required to predict development and offer evidence based interventions. In most countries in Africa, South America, Asia and Eastern Europe the classification systems for CP are unfamiliar and rarely used. Education and implementation are required. The specific aims ...

  20. Acute infantile motor unit disorder. Infantile botulism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, S A; Ramseyer, J C; Fishman, L S; Sedgwick, R P

    1977-04-01

    Eight infants with an acute reversible motor unit disorder are described, including two infants from whom Clostridum botulinum type A was isolated from stool specimens. The clinical spectrum includes constipation, cranial nerve deficits, pupillary involvement, and generalized hypotonic weakness. There were no deaths, and all infants have had complete clinical recovery. A characteristic electromyographic (EMG) pattern was present in part until clinical recovery. This distinctive pattern consisted of brief, small, abundant for power exerted motor unit potentials. This EMG pattern in the context of the clinical syndrome may well be diagnostic for acute infantile motor unit disorder.