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Sample records for gross motor fine

  1. Fine and Gross Motor Ability in Males with ADHD

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    J Gordon Millichap

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Both fine and gross motor abilities were evaluated in 10-year-old males with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and compared to a group of control children at the School of Psychology, Curtin University of Technology, Perth, Australia.

  2. Divergence of fine and gross motor skills in prelingually deaf children: implications for cochlear implantation.

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    Horn, David L; Pisoni, David B; Miyamoto, Richard T

    2006-08-01

    The objective of this study was to assess relations between fine and gross motor development and spoken language processing skills in pediatric cochlear implant users. The authors conducted a retrospective analysis of longitudinal data. Prelingually deaf children who received a cochlear implant before age 5 and had no known developmental delay or cognitive impairment were included in the study. Fine and gross motor development were assessed before implantation using the Vineland Adaptive Behavioral Scales, a standardized parental report of adaptive behavior. Fine and gross motor scores reflected a given child's motor functioning with respect to a normative sample of typically developing, normal-hearing children. Relations between these preimplant scores and postimplant spoken language outcomes were assessed. In general, gross motor scores were found to be positively related to chronologic age, whereas the opposite trend was observed for fine motor scores. Fine motor scores were more strongly correlated with postimplant expressive and receptive language scores than gross motor scores. Our findings suggest a disassociation between fine and gross motor development in prelingually deaf children: fine motor skills, in contrast to gross motor skills, tend to be delayed as the prelingually deaf children get older. These findings provide new knowledge about the links between motor and spoken language development and suggest that auditory deprivation may lead to atypical development of certain motor and language skills that share common cortical processing resources.

  3. Neonatal Stroke Causes Poor Midline Motor Behaviors and Poor Fine and Gross Motor Skills during Early Infancy

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    Chen, Chao-Ying; Lo, Warren D.; Heathcock, Jill C.

    2013-01-01

    Upper extremity movements, midline behaviors, fine, and gross motor skills are frequently impaired in hemiparesis and cerebral palsy. We investigated midline toy exploration and fine and gross motor skills in infants at risk for hemiplegic cerebral palsy. Eight infants with neonatal stroke (NS) and thirteen infants with typical development (TD)…

  4. Neonatal stroke causes poor midline motor behaviors and poor fine and gross motor skills during early infancy.

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    Chen, Chao-Ying; Lo, Warren D; Heathcock, Jill C

    2013-03-01

    Upper extremity movements, midline behaviors, fine, and gross motor skills are frequently impaired in hemiparesis and cerebral palsy. We investigated midline toy exploration and fine and gross motor skills in infants at risk for hemiplegic cerebral palsy. Eight infants with neonatal stroke (NS) and thirteen infants with typical development (TD) were assessed from 2 to 7 months of age. The following variables were analyzed: percentage of time in midline and fine and gross motor scores on the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID-III). Infants with neonatal stroke demonstrated poor performance in midline behaviors and fine and gross motor scores on the BSID-III. These results suggest that infants with NS have poor midline behaviors and motor skill development early in infancy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Fine and gross motor skills differ between healthy-weight and obese children.

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    Gentier, Ilse; D'Hondt, Eva; Shultz, Sarah; Deforche, Benedicte; Augustijn, Mireille; Hoorne, Sofie; Verlaecke, Katja; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Lenoir, Matthieu

    2013-11-01

    Within the obesity literature, focus is put on the link between weight status and gross motor skills. However, research on fine motor skills in the obese (OB) childhood population is limited. Therefore, the present study focused on possible weight related differences in gross as well as fine motor skill tasks. Thirty-four OB children (12 ♀ and 22 ♂, aged 7-13 years) were recruited prior to participating in a multidisciplinary treatment program at the Zeepreventorium (De Haan, Belgium). Additionally, a control group of 34 age and gender-matched healthy-weight (HW) children was included in the study. Anthropometric measures were recorded and gross and fine motor skills were assessed using the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency, second edition (BOT-2). Results were analyzed by independent samples t-tests, multivariate analysis of variance, and a chi-squared test. Being OB was detrimental for all subtests evaluating gross motor skill performance (i.e., upper-limb coordination, bilateral coordination, balance, running speed and agility, and strength). Furthermore, OB children performed worse in fine motor precision and a manual dexterity task, when compared to their HW peers. No group differences existed for the fine motor integration task. Our study provides evidence that lower motor competence in OB children is not limited to gross motor skills alone; OB children are also affected by fine motor skill problems. Further investigation is warranted to provide possible explanations for these differences. It is tentatively suggested that OB children experience difficulties with the integration and processing of sensory information. Future research is needed to explore whether this assumption is correct and what the underlying mechanism(s) could be. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Fine and gross motor skills: The effects on skill-focused dual-tasks.

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    Raisbeck, Louisa D; Diekfuss, Jed A

    2015-10-01

    Dual-task methodology often directs participants' attention towards a gross motor skill involved in the execution of a skill, but researchers have not investigated the comparative effects of attention on fine motor skill tasks. Furthermore, there is limited information about participants' subjective perception of workload with respect to task performance. To examine this, the current study administered the NASA-Task Load Index following a simulated shooting dual-task. The task required participants to stand 15 feet from a projector screen which depicted virtual targets and fire a modified Glock 17 handgun equipped with an infrared laser. Participants performed the primary shooting task alone (control), or were also instructed to focus their attention on a gross motor skill relevant to task execution (gross skill-focused) and a fine motor skill relevant to task execution (fine skill-focused). Results revealed that workload was significantly greater during the fine skill-focused task for both skill levels, but performance was only affected for the lesser-skilled participants. Shooting performance for the lesser-skilled participants was greater during the gross skill-focused condition compared to the fine skill-focused condition. Correlational analyses also demonstrated a significant negative relationship between shooting performance and workload during the gross skill-focused task for the higher-skilled participants. A discussion of the relationship between skill type, workload, skill level, and performance in dual-task paradigms is presented. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Assessment of global motor performance and gross and fine motor skills of infants attending day care centers.

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    Souza, Carolina T; Santos, Denise C C; Tolocka, Rute E; Baltieri, Letícia; Gibim, Nathália C; Habechian, Fernanda A P

    2010-01-01

    To analyze the global motor performance and the gross and fine motor skills of infants attending two public child care centers full-time. This was a longitudinal study that included 30 infants assessed at 12 and 17 months of age with the Motor Scale of the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition (Bayley-III). This scale allows the analysis of global motor performance, fine and gross motor performance, and the discrepancy between them. The Wilcoxon test and Spearman's correlation coefficient were used. Most of the participants showed global motor performance within the normal range, but below the reference mean at 12 and 17 months, with 30% classified as having "suspected delays" in at least one of the assessments. Gross motor development was poorer than fine motor development at 12 and at 17 months of age, with great discrepancy between these two subtests in the second assessment. A clear individual variability was observed in fine motor skills, with weak linear correlation between the first and the second assessment of this subtest. A lower individual variability was found in the gross motor skills and global motor performance with positive moderate correlation between assessments. Considering both performance measurements obtained at 12 and 17 months of age, four infants were identified as having a "possible delay in motor development". The study showed the need for closer attention to the motor development of children who attend day care centers during the first 17 months of life, with special attention to gross motor skills (which are considered an integral part of the child's overall development) and to children with suspected delays in two consecutive assessments.

  8. Gross and fine motor function in fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome.

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    Rasouli, Omid; Fors, Egil A; Borchgrevink, Petter Chr; Öhberg, Fredrik; Stensdotter, Ann-Katrin

    2017-01-01

    This paper aimed to investigate motor proficiency in fine and gross motor function, with a focus on reaction time (RT) and movement skill, in patients with fibromyalgia (FM) and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) compared to healthy controls (HC). A total of 60 individuals (20 CFS, 20 FM, and 20 HC), age 19-49 years, participated in this study. Gross motor function in the lower extremity was assessed using a RT task during gait initiation in response to an auditory trigger. Fine motor function in the upper extremity was measured during a precision task (the Purdue Pegboard test) where the number of pins inserted within 30 s was counted. No significant differences were found between FM and CFS in any parameters. FM and CFS groups had significantly longer RT than HC in the gait initiation ( p =0.001, and p =0.004 respectively). In the Purdue Pegboard test, 20% in the FM group, 15% in the CFS groups, and 0% of HC group, scored below the threshold of the accepted performance. However, there were no significant differences between FM, CFS, and HC in this task ( p =0.12). Compared to controls, both CFS and FM groups displayed significantly longer RT in the gait initiation task. Generally, FM patients showed the worst results in both tests, although no group differences were found in fine motor control, according to the Purdue Pegboard test.

  9. Fine motor control

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    ... gross (large, general) motor control. An example of gross motor control is waving an arm in greeting. Problems ... out the child's developmental age. Children develop fine motor skills over time, by practicing and being taught. To ...

  10. Changes in gross grasp strength and fine motor skills in adolescents with pediatric multiple sclerosis.

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    Squillace, Mary; Ray, Sharon; Milazzo, Maria

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the gross grasp strength and fine motor dexterity of adolescents, who are diagnosed with multiple sclerosis (MS). A total sample size of 72 participants between the ages of 13 to 17 was studied. Thirty six with a diagnosis of pediatric relapse remitting MS and 36 matched control participants were selected from various local youth groups. Data on hand strength and dexterity was collected using a dynamometer, nine hole peg board and Purdue pegboard on both groups. Utilizing ANCOVA to describe the differences across the two groups by diagnosis, controlling for age and gender, it was found that the MS group demonstrated significantly decreased dexterity when compared to age and gender matched controls. There was no significant difference in gross grasp strength by diagnostic group. This preliminary study showed that children with a diagnosis of pediatric MS may have differences in fine motor dexterity, but not gross grasp strength from their peers who do not have the diagnosis. Further study is indicated to examine this phenomenon.

  11. Cognitive-motor interference during fine and gross motor tasks in children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD).

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    Schott, Nadja; El-Rajab, Inaam; Klotzbier, Thomas

    2016-10-01

    While typically developing children produce relatively automatized postural control processes, children with DCD seem to exhibit an automatization deficit. Dual tasks with various cognitive loads seem to be an effective way to assess the automatic deficit hypothesis. The aims of the study were: (1) to examine the effect of a concurrent cognitive task on fine and gross motor tasks in children with DCD, and (2) to determine whether the effect varied with different difficulty levels of the concurrent task. We examined dual-task performance (Trail-Making-Test, Trail-Walking-Test) in 20 children with DCD and 39 typically developing children. Based on the idea of the Trail-Making-Test, participants walked along a fixed pathway, following a prescribed path, delineated by target markers of (1) increasing sequential numbers, and (2) increasing sequential numbers and letters. The motor and cognitive dual-task effects (DTE) were calculated for each task. Regardless of the cognitive task, children with DCD performed equally well in fine and gross motor tasks, and were slower in the dual task conditions than under single task-conditions, compared with children without DCD. Increased cognitive task complexity resulted in slow trail walking as well as slower trail tracing. The motor interference for the gross motor tasks was least for the simplest conditions and greatest for the complex conditions and was more pronounced in children with DCD. Cognitive interference was low irrespective of the motor task. Children with DCD show a different approach to allocation of cognitive resources, and have difficulties making motor skills automatic. The latter notion is consistent with impaired cerebellar function and the "automatization deficit hypothesis", suggesting that any deficit in the automatization process will appear if conscious monitoring of the motor skill is made more difficult by integrating another task requiring attentional resources. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All

  12. Gross and fine motor skills in children treated for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.

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    De Luca, Cinzia R; McCarthy, Maria; Galvin, Jane; Green, Jessica L; Murphy, Alexandra; Knight, Sarah; Williams, Jacqueline

    2013-06-01

    Chemotherapy treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) may disrupt motor development, with suggestions that gross and fine motor deficits are different depending on time since treatment. Thirty-seven participants aged between 2.5 to 5 years at the time of diagnosis were assessed using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children, 2nd Edition (MABC-2) and the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency, 2nd Edition, Short Form (BOT-2 SF), and divided into groups (i.e., months-off-treatment): (1) 0-12, (2) 13-24, and (3) 25-60 for comparison. MABC-2 and BOT-2 SF mean total scores fell within the average range. Twenty-six percent of the sample performed in the impaired range on the MABC-2. Group 2 had significantly lower Manual Dexterity scores than the normative population and lower BOT-2 SF scores than Group 1. Most children treated for ALL display appropriate motor skills, yet around a quarter experience general motor difficulties. Time-off-treatment did not affect the prevalence of motor impairments on any measure.

  13. Gross and fine motor function in fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasouli O

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Omid Rasouli,1,2 Egil A Fors,3 Petter Chr Borchgrevink,4,5 Fredrik Öhberg,6 Ann-Katrin Stensdotter1 1Department of Neuromedicine and Movement Science, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway; 2Department of Public Health and Nursing, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway; 3Department of Public Health and Nursing, General Practice Research Unit, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway; 4Department of Circulation and Medical Imaging, Pain and Palliation Research Group, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway; 5National Competence Centre for Complex Symptom Disorders, St. Olav’s University Hospital, Trondheim, Norway; 6Department of Radiation Sciences, Biomedical Engineering, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden Purpose: This paper aimed to investigate motor proficiency in fine and gross motor function, with a focus on reaction time (RT and movement skill, in patients with fibromyalgia (FM and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS compared to healthy controls (HC.Methods: A total of 60 individuals (20 CFS, 20 FM, and 20 HC, age 19–49 years, participated in this study. Gross motor function in the lower extremity was assessed using a RT task during gait initiation in response to an auditory trigger. Fine motor function in the upper extremity was measured during a precision task (the Purdue Pegboard test where the number of pins inserted within 30 s was counted.Results: No significant differences were found between FM and CFS in any parameters. FM and CFS groups had significantly longer RT than HC in the gait initiation (p=0.001, and p=0.004 respectively. In the Purdue Pegboard test, 20% in the FM group, 15% in the CFS groups, and 0% of HC group, scored below the threshold of the accepted performance. However, there were no

  14. Analysis of an intervention directed to the development of balance and gross and fine motor coordination

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    Letícia Carrillo Maronesi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Children’s motor skills evolve according to age and the continuing influence of intrinsic and extrinsic factors that cause variations from one child to another; this makes the course of development unique in each child. Objective: To develop an intervention for a child with delays in fine motor coordination, gross motor coordination and balance and analyze its impact on the child’s development. Methods: Pre- and post-test quasi-experimental design. The instrument used was the Motor Development Scale applied to a 4 year old child. An intervention plan was developed based on the results obtained throught the tests. The plan consists of activities designed to stimulate the aforementioned acquisitions. The implementation of the intervention plan lasted two months. The child was tested at the beginning and at the end of the intervention to determine whether there was gain in the stimulated acquisitions. The JT method was adopted for data analysis and verification of occurrence of reliable and clinically relevant positive changes. Results: The results of this study demonstrate that reliable positive changes occurred with respect to the psychomotor items that underwent stimulation. Conclusion: It is possible to infer that this intervention had a positive effect on the child’s development . Hence, this study contributes to improve the care provided to children with delayed psychomotor development, illustrating possibilities of strategies and activities. It also allows the recognition of the action of occupational therapists as one of the professionals who compose the multidisciplinary team focused on early intervention.

  15. Development of the Correspondence between Real and Imagined Fine and Gross Motor Actions

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    Sachet, Alison B.; Frey, Scott H.; Jacobs, Stéphane; Taylor, Marjorie

    2016-01-01

    The development of the correspondence between real and imagined motor actions was investigated in 2 experiments. Experiment 1 evaluated whether children imagine body position judgments of fine motor actions in the same way as they perform them. Thirty-two 8-year-old children completed a task in which an object was presented in different…

  16. THE INFLUENCE OF THE EXERCISES OF GROSS AND FINE MOTOR SKILLS ON VISUO-MOTOR COORDINATION OF THE CEREBRAL PALSY CHILDREN

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    Almira Mujkić

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Visuomotor coordination is reffered to eye coordination and to various parts of the body in different activities and games. The aim of the research was to establish the influence of the exercises of gross and fine motor skills on visuomotor coordination of the cerebral palsy children. The sample was the case study where a male person of 3 and a half years old was an examinee. Measuring instrument used was the Test of visuomotor coordination of the gross motor skills of the dominant hand. Data were analyzed by t-test.

  17. Effect of Sensory Integration Therapy on Gross and Fine Motor Skills of 5-7 Years old Children with Down Syndrome

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    Hossein Sourtji

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Children with Down syndrome have sensory integration dysfunction, and a range of physical problems and difficulties that may affect their motor development. The aim of present study was to determine effectiveness of sensory integration therapy on gross and fine motor skills of 5-7 years old children with Down syndrome.  Materials & Methods: Sixty 5-7 years old children were diagnosed as having Down syndrome, were selected by randomized sampling and participated in this experimental study. Each participant was assessed by researcher, that the assessment used was Peabody Developmental Motor Scales. The children were randomly assigned to the intervention (sensory integration therapy and control groups. Sensory integration therapy was given to intervention group. Data were analyzed by Leven test, Independent T test and covariance analysis. Results: There was significant difference between pretest and post test scores of intervention and control groups in gross motor development (P<0.000, but in fine motor development there was significant difference between pretest and post test scores only in intervention group (P<0.001 and in control group it wasn’t significant (P=0.013. Also there was significant difference between two groups in gross and fine motor development (P<0.001. Conclusion: The results showed the sensory integration therapy were effective in gross and fine motor of children with Down syndrome. It was concluded that sensory integration therapy should be applied for children with Down syndrome who have gross and fine motor difficulties.

  18. Gross and fine motor skills of children with Hurler syndrome (MPS-IH) post umbilical cord blood transplantation: a case series report.

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    Dusing, Stacey C; Rosenberg, Angela; Hiemenz, Jennifer R; Piner, Shelley; Escolar, Maria

    2005-01-01

    Recent advancements in medical treatment of Hurler syndrome have resulted in longer life expectancies and a greater need for therapeutic services. The purpose of this case series is to provide recommendations for assessing children with Hurler syndrome after umbilical cord blood transplant (UCBT). CLINICAL DESCRIPTIONS: Two children with Hurler syndrome were seen for longitudinal assessments following an UCBT for Hurler syndrome. The raw scores and percentage of fine and gross motor items each child completed on the Motor Scale of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II (BSID-II) were reviewed. Both children gained new motor skills with each successive motor assessment. Both children were able to complete a higher percentage of fine motor skills than gross motor skills in the most advanced item set assessed. The children presented in these two case reports both had better fine motor skills than gross motor skills, which inflated their standard scores on the BSID-II. Clinicians assessing children with Hurler syndrome should use standardized assessments that allow for differentiation of fine and gross motor skills to prevent this situation.

  19. The Effects of an Intervention on the Gross and Fine Motor Skills of Hispanic Pre-K Children from Low SES Backgrounds

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    Hamilton, Michelle; Liu, Ting

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a motor skill intervention on gross and fine motor skill performance of Hispanic pre-K children from low SES backgrounds. One hundred and forty-nine pre-K children were randomly assigned to an intervention group (n = 74) and control group (n = 75). All children were assessed on fine and gross…

  20. Prospective associations between measures of gross and fine motor coordination in infants and objectively measured physical activity and sedentary behavior in childhood.

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    Sánchez, Guillermo F López; Williams, Genevieve; Aggio, Daniel; Vicinanza, Domenico; Stubbs, Brendon; Kerr, Catherine; Johnstone, James; Roberts, Justin; Smith, Lee

    2017-11-01

    One important determinant of childhood physical activity and sedentary behavior may be that of motor development in infancy. The present analyses aimed to investigate whether gross and fine motor delays in infants were associated with objective and self-reported activity in childhood. Data were from the UK Millennium Cohort Study, a prospective cohort study, involving UK children born on or around the millennium (September 2000 and January 2002). When children were 9 months old, parents reported children's fine and gross motor-coordination, and at 7 years, sports club attendance and daily TV viewing time. Children's physical activity was measured using accelerometers at 7 years. Adjusted regression models were used to examine associations between delayed motor development and accelerometry measured moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and sedentary behavior, and parent-reported sport club attendance and TV viewing time. In this sample (n = 13,021), gross motor delay in infancy was associated with less time in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (B -5.0 95% confidence interval [CI] -6.8, -3.2) and more time sedentary (B 13.5 95% CI 9.3, 17.8) in childhood. Gross and fine motor delays during infancy were associated with a reduced risk of having high attendance at sports clubs in childhood (both relative risk [RR] 0.7, 95% CI 0.6, 0.9). Fine motor delays, but not gross delays, were also associated with an increased risk of having high TV viewing time (RR 1.3 95% CI 1.0, 1.6). Findings from the present study suggest that delays in motor development in infancy are associated with physical activity and sedentary time in childhood.

  1. Fine and Gross Motor Task Performance When Using Computer-Based Video Models by Students with Autism and Moderate Intellectual Disability

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    Mechling, Linda C.; Swindle, Catherine O.

    2013-01-01

    This investigation examined the effects of video modeling on the fine and gross motor task performance by three students with a diagnosis of moderate intellectual disability (Group 1) and by three students with a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (Group 2). Using a multiple probe design across three sets of tasks, the study examined the…

  2. Associations between fine and gross motor skills, aerobic fitness, cognition and academic performance in 7-8 years old Danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Rune Rasmussen; Beck, Mikkel Malling; Geertsen, Svend Sparre

    Purpose: The current literature is concentrated around the positive effects of aerobic fitness (AF) on performance in cognitive tests (CP) and academic performance (AP) (reviewed in Hillman 2008). However, motor skills (MS) are often overlooked in this equation, and studies evaluating both AF......, phonological working-memory capacity (PWM), spatial working-memory capacity (SWM), math performance (MP) and fine- and gross-motor skill (FMS & GMS) assessed. Results: Significant associations were found between FMS and MP (P

  3. Assessment of Fine and Gross Motor Skills and Its Relationship with Some Anthropometric Indices and Environmental Factors among Preschool Children Aged in 3-6 in North of Tehran

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan Kordi

    2015-01-01

    Objective: One of the most important issues in the development of fundamental motor skills in the early years of life is development of fine and gross motor skills. The aim of this study was fine and gross motor skills assessment and the relationship between some anthropometric indices and environmental factors with the development of fine and gross motor skills in preschool children that aged 3-6 in north of Tehran,2014. Materials & Methods: The research society was Tehran’s first and se...

  4. Avaliação do desempenho motor global e em habilidades motoras axiais e apendiculares de lactentes frequentadores de creche Assessment of global motor performance and gross and fine motor skills of infants attending day care centers

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    Carolina T Souza

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar o desempenho motor global em habilidades motoras axiais e apendiculares de lactentes que frequentavam, em tempo integral, duas Escolas Municipais de Educação Infantil. MÉTODOS: Estudo longitudinal do qual participaram 30 lactentes avaliados aos 12 e 17 meses de vida com a escala motora das Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development-III, que possibilita a análise do desempenho motor global, apendicular e axial e a discrepância entre eles. Utilizaram-se o teste de Wilcoxon e o Coeficiente de Correlação de Spearman. RESULTADOS: A maioria dos participantes apresentou desempenho motor global dentro dos limites de normalidade, porém abaixo da média de referência aos 12 e 17 meses, com 30% classificados como suspeitos de atraso em pelo menos uma das avaliações. O desempenho motor axial foi inferior ao apendicular aos 12 e aos 17 meses, com grande discrepância entre eles especialmente na 2ª avaliação. Observou-se marcada variabilidade individual nas habilidades motoras apendiculares, com fraca correlação linear no desempenho entre a 1ª e a 2ª avaliações nesse domínio. Nas habilidades axiais e no desempenho motor global, encontrou-se menor variabilidade individual, com correlações moderadas e positivas entre a 1ª e a 2ª avaliações. Identificaram-se quatro lactentes com suspeita de atraso no desenvolvimento motor em ambas as avaliações. CONCLUSÕES: O estudo aponta necessidade de maior atenção ao desenvolvimento motor durante os primeiros 17 meses de crianças que frequentam creches, com especial vigilância à motricidade axial (considerando que ela é parte integrante do desenvolvimento global da criança e às crianças com desempenho suspeito de atraso em duas avaliações consecutivas.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the global motor performance and the gross and fine motor skills of infants attending two public child care centers full-time. METHODS: This was a longitudinal study that included 30 infants

  5. Assessment of Fine and Gross Motor Skills and Its Relationship with Some Anthropometric Indices and Environmental Factors among Preschool Children Aged in 3-6 in North of Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Kordi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: One of the most important issues in the development of fundamental motor skills in the early years of life is development of fine and gross motor skills. The aim of this study was fine and gross motor skills assessment and the relationship between some anthropometric indices and environmental factors with the development of fine and gross motor skills in preschool children that aged 3-6 in north of Tehran,2014. Materials & Methods: The research society was Tehran’s first and second areas preschools. Four preschools were selected based on availability and 206 children (girls and boys participated voluntary. Data were collected from the family information questionnaires and Denver development test type 2. Results: On average, only 56/06 percent of children in gross motor skills and 77/56 percent of children in fine motor skills were in normal and developed conditions. But 23/86 percent of children in gross motor skills and 14/9 percent of children in fine motor skills were at caution and 12/83 percent of children in gross motor skills and 7/56 percent of children in fine motor skills were exposed to delayed development delays in performance. There was a significant correlation among some of the anthropometric indices such as shoulder, hip and arm length, waist, chest circumference and the performance of some gross motor skills such as jumping, hoping, throwing. Among environmental factors, factors like watching television time and sleeping time affected children's kicking. Conclusion: A noticeable number of children who participated in this study had poor gross motor skills, thus strengthening and improving these skills required to specific attention and planning.

  6. Brief Assessment of Motor Function: Content Validity and Reliability of the Upper Extremity Gross Motor Scale

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    Cintas, Holly Lea; Parks, Rebecca; Don, Sarah; Gerber, Lynn

    2011-01-01

    Content validity and reliability of the Brief Assessment of Motor Function (BAMF) Upper Extremity Gross Motor Scale (UEGMS) were evaluated in this prospective, descriptive study. The UEGMS is one of five BAMF ordinal scales designed for quick documentation of gross, fine, and oral motor skill levels. Designed to be independent of age and…

  7. Development of fine motor skills in preterm infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Arend F.; Van Braeckel, Koenraad N. J. A.; Hitzert, Marrit M.; Tanis, Jozien C.; Roze, Elise

    2013-01-01

    Fine motor skills are related to functioning in daily life and at school. We reviewed the status of knowledge, in preterm children, on the development of fine motor skills, the relation with gross motor skills, and risk factors for impaired fine motor skills. We searched the past 15 years in PubMed,

  8. Validating the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Downs, Jenny; Stahlhut, Michelle; Wong, Kingsley

    2016-01-01

    .93-0.98). The standard error of measurement for the total score was 2 points and we would be 95% confident that a change 4 points in the 45-point scale would be greater than within-subject measurement error. The Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale could be an appropriate measure of gross motor skills in clinical practice......Rett syndrome is a pervasive neurodevelopmental disorder associated with a pathogenic mutation on the MECP2 gene. Impaired movement is a fundamental component and the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale was developed to measure gross motor abilities in this population. The current study investigated...... the validity and reliability of the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale. Video data showing gross motor abilities supplemented with parent report data was collected for 255 girls and women registered with the Australian Rett Syndrome Database, and the factor structure and relationships between motor scores, age...

  9. Validating the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Downs

    Full Text Available Rett syndrome is a pervasive neurodevelopmental disorder associated with a pathogenic mutation on the MECP2 gene. Impaired movement is a fundamental component and the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale was developed to measure gross motor abilities in this population. The current study investigated the validity and reliability of the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale. Video data showing gross motor abilities supplemented with parent report data was collected for 255 girls and women registered with the Australian Rett Syndrome Database, and the factor structure and relationships between motor scores, age and genotype were investigated. Clinical assessment scores for 38 girls and women with Rett syndrome who attended the Danish Center for Rett Syndrome were used to assess consistency of measurement. Principal components analysis enabled the calculation of three factor scores: Sitting, Standing and Walking, and Challenge. Motor scores were poorer with increasing age and those with the p.Arg133Cys, p.Arg294* or p.Arg306Cys mutation achieved higher scores than those with a large deletion. The repeatability of clinical assessment was excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient for total score 0.99, 95% CI 0.93-0.98. The standard error of measurement for the total score was 2 points and we would be 95% confident that a change 4 points in the 45-point scale would be greater than within-subject measurement error. The Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale could be an appropriate measure of gross motor skills in clinical practice and clinical trials.

  10. Validating the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Jenny; Stahlhut, Michelle; Wong, Kingsley; Syhler, Birgit; Bisgaard, Anne-Marie; Jacoby, Peter; Leonard, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Rett syndrome is a pervasive neurodevelopmental disorder associated with a pathogenic mutation on the MECP2 gene. Impaired movement is a fundamental component and the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale was developed to measure gross motor abilities in this population. The current study investigated the validity and reliability of the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale. Video data showing gross motor abilities supplemented with parent report data was collected for 255 girls and women registered with the Australian Rett Syndrome Database, and the factor structure and relationships between motor scores, age and genotype were investigated. Clinical assessment scores for 38 girls and women with Rett syndrome who attended the Danish Center for Rett Syndrome were used to assess consistency of measurement. Principal components analysis enabled the calculation of three factor scores: Sitting, Standing and Walking, and Challenge. Motor scores were poorer with increasing age and those with the p.Arg133Cys, p.Arg294* or p.Arg306Cys mutation achieved higher scores than those with a large deletion. The repeatability of clinical assessment was excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient for total score 0.99, 95% CI 0.93-0.98). The standard error of measurement for the total score was 2 points and we would be 95% confident that a change 4 points in the 45-point scale would be greater than within-subject measurement error. The Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale could be an appropriate measure of gross motor skills in clinical practice and clinical trials.

  11. Trained, generalized, and collateral behavior changes of preschool children receiving gross-motor skills training.

    OpenAIRE

    Kirby, K C; Holborn, S W

    1986-01-01

    Three preschool children participated in a behavioral training program to improve their gross-motor skills. Ten target behaviors were measured in the training setting to assess direct effects of the program. Generalization probes for two gross-motor behaviors, one fine-motor skill, and two social behaviors were conducted in other settings. Results indicated that the training program improved the gross-motor skills trained and that improvements sometimes generalized to other settings. Contrary...

  12. Trained, Generalized, and Collateral Behavior Changes of Preschool Children Receiving Gross-Motor Skills Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Kimberly C.; Holborn, Stephen W.

    1986-01-01

    Three preschool children participated in a behavioral training program to improve their gross-motor skills. Results indicated that the program improved the 10 targeted gross-motor skills and that improvements sometimes generalized to other settings. The program did not produce changes in fine-motor skills or social behaviors. Implications are…

  13. Avaliação da motricidade ampla e fina na Síndrome de Williams: relato de caso Findings of the gross and fine motor in the Syndrome William Case: case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Melo Almeida

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivo analisar os achados da motricidade ampla e fina de uma criança de 8 anos de idade portador da Síndrome de Williams. Foram coletados dados biológicos da criança e da mãe durante a gestação e história pré, peri e pós-natal da criança e suas condições clínicas. O desenvolvimento motor amplo e fino foi avaliado pelo Inventário Portage Operacionalizado. Os resultados demonstraram que a criança revelou maior dificuldade na motricidade fina em relação à ampla, apresentando dificuldades na escrita, em manipular objetos que necessite fazer movimento de pronação e supinação e dificuldade no movimento de pinça.This study aimed to analyze the findings of motor and fine of an 8 years old holder of Williams Syndrome. Data were collected biological child and mother during pregnancy and history of pre, peri and postnatal child and their clinical conditions. The development and fine motor function was assessed by Portage Guide. The results showed that children showed greater difficulty with fine motor skills in relation to gross skills, having difficulty in writing, to manipulate objects that need to make movement of pronation and supination and difficulty in of the pincer movement.

  14. Relations between Playing Activities and Fine Motor Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suggate, Sebastian; Stoeger, Heidrun; Pufke, Eva

    2017-01-01

    Children's fine motor skills (FMS) are being increasingly recognized as an important aspect of preschool development; yet, we know very little about the experiences that foster their development. We utilized a parent-administered children's fine and gross motor activities questionnaire (MAQ) to investigate links with FMS. We recruited a sample of…

  15. Development of fine motor skills in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Arend F; Van Braeckel, Koenraad N J A; Hitzert, Marrit M; Tanis, Jozien C; Roze, Elise

    2013-11-01

    Fine motor skills are related to functioning in daily life and at school. We reviewed the status of knowledge, in preterm children, on the development of fine motor skills, the relation with gross motor skills, and risk factors for impaired fine motor skills. We searched the past 15 years in PubMed, using ['motor skills' or 'fine motor function' and 'preterm infant'] as the search string. Impaired gross and fine motor skills are among the most frequently occurring problems encountered by preterm children who do not develop cerebral palsy. The prevalence is around 40% for mild to moderate impairment and 20% for moderate impairment. Fine motor skill scores on the Movement Assessment Battery for Children are about 0.62 of a standard deviation lower compared with term children. Risk factors for fine motor impairments include moderately preterm birth (odds ratio [OR] 2.0) and, among very preterm children (development of and recovery from brain injury could guide future intervention attempts aimed at improving fine motor skills of preterm children. © The Authors. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology © 2013 Mac Keith Press.

  16. The Gross Motor Skills of Children with Mild Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonis, Karen P.; Jernice, Tan Sing Yee

    2014-01-01

    Many international studies have examined the gross motor skills of children studying in special schools while local studies of such nature are limited. This study investigated the gross motor skills of children with Mild Learning Disabilities (MLD; n = 14, M age = 8.93 years, SD = 0.33) with the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (TGMD-2, Ulrich,…

  17. Programme to encourage the development of fine motor skills with a girl with developmental delay

    OpenAIRE

    Ivančič, Urška

    2017-01-01

    Movement plays an important role in the integral development of a child. Good motor skills facilitate learning and thus they consequently have a positive impact on improved learning success. The theoretical part presents the importance and role of gross motor skills and its relationship to the development of fine motor skills. More specifically, we have focused on the following: the course of development of fine motor skills, the impact fine motor skills have on the child and we have also loo...

  18. Handwriting and fine motor problems after treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinders-Messelink, H.A.; Schoemaker, M.M.; Goeken, L.N H; van den Briel, M.M.; Kamps, W.A; Simner, M L; Leedham, C G; Thomassen, A J W M

    1996-01-01

    Fine motor skills and handwriting performance were investigated in 17 children at least two years after treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. It was hypothesized that as a late effect of vincristine neuropathy, children would still have fine motor and/or handwriting problems. Gross and fine

  19. Psychiatric Symptoms in Children with Gross Motor Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emck, Claudia; Bosscher, Ruud J.; van Wieringen, Piet C. W.; Doreleijers, Theo; Beek, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Children with psychiatric disorders often demonstrate gross motor problems. This study investigates if the reverse also holds true by assessing psychiatric symptoms present in children with gross motor problems. Emotional, behavioral, and autism spectrum disorders (ASD), as well as psychosocial problems, were assessed in a sample of 40 children…

  20. Gross motor skill development of kindergarten children in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aye, Thanda; Kuramoto-Ahuja, Tsugumi; Sato, Tamae; Sadakiyo, Kaori; Watanabe, Miyoko; Maruyama, Hitoshi

    2018-05-01

    [Purpose] The purposes of this study were to assess and explore the gender-based differences in gross motor skill development of 5-year-old Japanese children. [Subjects and Methods] This cross-sectional study recruited 60 healthy 5-year-old (third-year kindergarten, i.e., nencho ) children (34 boys, 26 girls) from one local private kindergarten school in Otawara city, Tochigi Prefecture, Japan. Gross motor skills, including six locomotor and six object control skills, were assessed using the test of gross motor development, second edition (TGMD-2). All subjects performed two trials of each gross motor skill, and the performances were video-recorded and scored. Assessment procedures were performed according to the standardized guidelines of the TGMD-2. [Results] The majority of subjects had an average level of overall gross motor skills. Girls had significantly better locomotor skills. Boys had significantly better object control skills. [Conclusion] The gross motor skill development of 5-year-old Japanese children involves gender-based differences in locomotor and object control skills. This study provided valuable information that can be used to establish normative references for the gross motor skills of 5-year-old Japanese children.

  1. MOTORIC STIMULATION RELATED TO FINE MOTORIC DEVELOPMENT ON CHILD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira Triharini

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Motor developmental stimulation is an activity undertaken to stimulate the children basic skills and so they can grow and develop optimally. Children who obtain a direct stimulus will grow faster than who get less stimulus. Mother’s behavior of stimulation is very important for children, it is considering as the basic needs of children and it must be fulfilled. Providing good stimulation could optimize fine motor development in children. The purpose of this study was to analyze mother’s behavior about motor stimulation with fine motor development in toddler age 4-5 years old. Method: Design have been  used in this study was cross sectional. Population were mothers and their toddler in Group A of Dharma Wanita Persatuan Driyorejo Gresik Preschool. Sample were 51 respondents recruited by using purposive sampling technique according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. The independent variable was mother’s behavior about motor stimulation whereas dependent variable was fine motor development in toddler. The data were collected using questionnaire and conducting observation on fine motor development based on Denver Development Screening Test (DDST. Data then analyzed using Spearman Rho (r test to find relation between mother’s behaviors about stimulation motor on their toddler fine motor development. Result: Results  of this study showed that there were correlations between mother’s knowledge and fine motor development in toddler (p=0.000, between mother’s attitude and fine motor development in toddler (p=0.000, and between mother’s actions and fine motor development in toddler (p=0.000. Analysis: In sort study found that there were relation between fine motor development and mother’s behavior. Discussion: Therefore mother’s behavior needed to be improved. Further research about stimulation motor and fine motor development aspects in toddler is required.

  2. Fine Motor Skills and Executive Function Both Contribute to Kindergarten Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Claire E.; Brock, Laura L.; Murrah, William M.; Bell, Lindsay H.; Worzalla, Samantha L.; Grissmer, David; Morrison, Frederick J.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the contribution of executive function (EF) and multiple aspects of fine motor skills to achievement on 6 standardized assessments in a sample of middle-socioeconomic status kindergarteners. Three- and 4-year-olds' (n = 213) fine and gross motor skills were assessed in a home visit before kindergarten, EF was measured at fall…

  3. Interlimb Coordination: An Important Facet of Gross-Motor Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobbio, Tatiana; Gabbard, Carl; Cacola, Priscila

    2009-01-01

    Motor development attains landmark significance during early childhood. Although early childhood educators may be familiar with the gross-motor skill category, the subcategory of interlimb coordination needs greater attention than it typically receives from teachers of young children. Interlimb coordination primarily involves movements requiring…

  4. Assessing Gross Motor Skills of Kosovar Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shala, Merita

    2009-01-01

    In the light of the new developments in preschool education in Kosovo, this study attempts to carry out an assessment of the development of gross motor skills of preschool children attending institutional education. The emphasis is on creating a set of tests to measure the motor attainments of these children by conducting assessments of the…

  5. Gross Motor Skill Acquisition in Adolescents with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meegan, Sarah; Maraj, Brian K. V.; Weeks, Daniel; Chua, Romeo

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess whether verbal-motor performances deficits exhibited by individuals with Down syndrome limited their ability to acquire gross motor skills when given visual and verbal instruction together and then transferred to either a visual or verbal instructional mode to reproduce the movement. Nine individuals with…

  6. Gross Motor Profile and Its Association with Socialization Skills in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Hardiono D. Pusponegoro; Pustika Efar; Soedjatmiko; Amanda Soebadi; Agus Firmansyah; Hui-Ju Chen; Kun-Long Hung

    2016-01-01

    While social impairment is considered to be the core deficit in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a large proportion of these children have poor gross motor ability, and gross motor deficits may influence socialization skills in children with ASD. The objectives of this study were to compare gross motor skills in children with ASD to typically developing children, to describe gross motor problems in children with ASD, and to investigate associations between gross motor and sociali...

  7. Assessment of Preschoolers' Gross Motor Proficiency: Revisiting Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Hazel Mei Yung

    2011-01-01

    Literature reveals that there are very few validated motor proficiency tests for young children. According to Gallahue and Ozmun, the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency is a valid test. However, manipulative skills, which are classified as gross motor skills by most motor development specialists, are only tested in the Upper Limb…

  8. Awareness and use of Gross Motor Function Classification System ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction The degree of disability in children with Cerebral Palsy (CP) can be evaluated with the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS), a valid tool which was designed for such purposes. However, there appears to be paucity of data on the awareness and use of the GMFCS particularly in the ...

  9. School Physical Activity Programming and Gross Motor Skills in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Ryan D; Fu, You; Hannon, James C; Brusseau, Timothy A

    2017-09-01

    We examined the effect of a comprehensive school physical activity program (CSPAP) on gross motor skills in children. Participants were 959 children (1st-6th grade; Mean age = 9.1 ± 1.5 years; 406 girls, 553 boys) recruited from 5 low-income schools receiving a year-long CSPAP intervention. Data were collected at the beginning of the school year and at a 36-week follow-up. Gross motor skills were assessed using the Test for Gross Motor Development (3rd ed.) (TGMD-3) instrument. Multi-level mixed effects models were employed to examine the effect of CSPAP on TGMD-3 scores, testing age and sex as effect modifiers and adjusting for clustering of observations within the data structure. There were statistically significant coefficients for time (β = 8.1, 95% CI [3.9, 12.3], p skills and ball skills sub-test scores. Children showed improved gross motor skill scores at the end of the 36-week CSPAP that were modified by age, as younger children displayed greater improvements in TGMD-3 scores compared to older children.

  10. A Study on Gross Motor Skills of Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Joanne Hui-Tzu

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a creative movement program on gross motor skills of preschool children. Sixty children between the ages of 3 to 5 were drawn from the population of a preschool in Taichung, Taiwan. An experimental pretest-posttest control-group design was utilized. The children enrolled in the…

  11. The relationship between gross motor skills and visual perception of preschoolers

    OpenAIRE

    TEPELI, Kezban

    2014-01-01

    Answers were searched for these questions; “Is there a relationship between visual perceptions and gross motor skills of preschool children?”, “Are preschool children's visual perceptions predictors of their gross motor skills?”, “Is there any difference between visual perceptions of the children having low, average and high level of gross motor skills?” within this study where the relationship between preschool children's visual perceptions and their gross motor skills were compara...

  12. Fine motor skill proficiency in typically developing children: On or off the maturation track?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaul, David; Issartel, Johann

    2016-04-01

    Fine motor skill proficiency is an essential component of numerous daily living activities such as dressing, feeding or playing. Poor fine motor skills can lead to difficulties in academic achievement, increased anxiety and poor self-esteem. Recent findings have shown that children's gross motor skill proficiency tends to fall below established developmental norms. A question remains: do fine motor skill proficiency levels also fall below developmental norms? The aim of this study was to examine the current level of fine motor skill in Irish children. Children (N=253) from 2nd, 4th and 6th grades (mean age=7.12, 9.11 and 11.02 respectively) completed the Fine Motor Composite of the Bruininks Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency 2nd Edition (BOT-2). Analysis revealed that only 2nd grade children met the expected level of fine motor skill proficiency. It was also found that despite children's raw scores improving with age, children's fine motor skill proficiency was not progressing at the expected rate given by normative data. This leads us to question the role and impact of modern society on fine motor skills development over the past number of decades. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The Relationship between Gross Motor Skills and Academic Achievement in Children with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westendorp, Marieke; Hartman, Esther; Houwen, Suzanne; Smith, Joanne; Visscher, Chris

    2011-01-01

    The present study compared the gross motor skills of 7- to 12-year-old children with learning disabilities (n = 104) with those of age-matched typically developing children (n = 104) using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2. Additionally, the specific relationships between subsets of gross motor skills and academic performance in reading,…

  14. The relationship between gross motor skills and academic achievement in children with learning disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westendorp, Marieke; Hartman, Esther; Houwen, Suzanne; Smith, Joanne; Visscher, Chris

    2011-01-01

    The present study compared the gross motor skills of 7- to 12-year-old children with learning disabilities (n = 104) with those of age-matched typically developing children (n = 104) using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2. Additionally, the specific relationships between subsets of gross motor

  15. Association Between Gross-Motor and Executive Function Depends on Age and Motor Task Complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spedden, Meaghan E; Malling, Anne Sofie B; Andersen, Ken K

    2017-01-01

    The objective was to examine associations between motor and executive function across the adult lifespan and to investigate the role of motor complexity in these associations. Young, middle-aged and older adults (n = 82; 19-83y) performed two gross-motor tasks with different levels of complexity...... and a Stroop-like computer task. Performance was decreased in older adults. The association between motor and cognitive performance was significant for older adults in the complex motor task (p = 0.03, rs = -0.41), whereas no significant associations were found for young or middle-aged groups, suggesting...... that the link between gross-motor and executive function emerges with age and depends on motor complexity....

  16. To What Extent Can Motor Imagery Replace Motor Execution While Learning a Fine Motor Skill?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sobierajewicz, Jagna; Szarkiewicz, Sylwia; Prekoracka-Krawczyk, Anna; Jaskowski, Wojciech; van der Lubbe, Robert Henricus Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Motor imagery is generally thought to share common mechanisms with motor execution. In the present study, we examined to what extent learning a fine motor skill by motor imagery may substitute physical practice. Learning effects were assessed by manipulating the proportion of motor execution and

  17. Computer games and fine motor skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borecki, Lukasz; Tolstych, Katarzyna; Pokorski, Mieczyslaw

    2013-01-01

    The study seeks to determine the influence of computer games on fine motor skills in young adults, an area of incomplete understanding and verification. We hypothesized that computer gaming could have a positive influence on basic motor skills, such as precision, aiming, speed, dexterity, or tremor. We examined 30 habitual game users (F/M - 3/27; age range 20-25 years) of the highly interactive game Counter Strike, in which players impersonate soldiers on a battlefield, and 30 age- and gender-matched subjects who declared never to play games. Selected tests from the Vienna Test System were used to assess fine motor skills and tremor. The results demonstrate that the game users scored appreciably better than the control subjects in all tests employed. In particular, the players did significantly better in the precision of arm-hand movements, as expressed by a lower time of errors, 1.6 ± 0.6 vs. 2.8 ± 0.6 s, a lower error rate, 13.6 ± 0.3 vs. 20.4 ± 2.2, and a shorter total time of performing a task, 14.6 ± 2.9 vs. 32.1 ± 4.5 s in non-players, respectively; p computer games on psychomotor functioning. We submit that playing computer games may be a useful training tool to increase fine motor skills and movement coordination.

  18. Effect of hyperbaric environment on fine motor skills

    OpenAIRE

    Les, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Title: Effect of hyperbaric environment on fine motor skills Objectives: The aim of study is to assess the changes fine motor skills due to hyperbaric environment in preparation for selected tests of fine motor skills. Methods: The first method was used empirically - research. Then the method chosen of compilation of the information obtained. The basic method to work was the experimental measurement method specially constructed tests on fine motor skills. All measured values were statisticall...

  19. Gross Motor Profile and Its Association with Socialization Skills in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusponegoro, Hardiono D; Efar, Pustika; Soedjatmiko; Soebadi, Amanda; Firmansyah, Agus; Chen, Hui-Ju; Hung, Kun-Long

    2016-12-01

    While social impairment is considered to be the core deficit in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a large proportion of these children have poor gross motor ability, and gross motor deficits may influence socialization skills in children with ASD. The objectives of this study were to compare gross motor skills in children with ASD to typically developing children, to describe gross motor problems in children with ASD, and to investigate associations between gross motor and socialization skills in children with ASD. This was a cross-sectional study including 40 ASD children aged from 18 months to 6 years and 40 age-matched typically developing controls. Gross motor and socialization skills were scored using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, 2 nd edition (Vineland-II). Below average gross motor function was found in eight of 40 (20%) ASD children. The mean gross motor v-scale score in the ASD group was 15.1 [standard deviation (SD) 3.12], significantly lower than in the control group [18.7, SD 2.09, p = 0.0001; 95% confidence intervals (CI) from -4.725 to -2.525]. The differences were most prominent in ball throwing and catching, using stairs, jumping, and bicycling. The ASD children with gross motor impairments had a mean socialization domain score of 66.6 (SD 6.50) compared to 85.7 (SD 10.90) in those without gross motor impairments (p = 0.0001, 95% CI from -25.327 to -12.736). Children with ASD had lower gross motor skills compared to typically developing children. Gross motor impairments were found in 20% of the ASD children, and these children also had lower socialization skills than those without gross motor impairments. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Gross Motor Development of Malaysian Hearing Impaired Male Pre- and Early School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawi, Khairi; Lian, Denise Koh Choon; Abdullah, Rozlina Tan

    2014-01-01

    Acquisition of gross motor skill is a natural developmental process for children. This aspect of human development increases with one's chronological age, irrespective of any developmental conditions. The purpose of this study was to assess the level of gross motor skill development among pre- and early school-aged children with motor disability.…

  1. Fine motor skills and executive function both contribute to kindergarten achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Claire E.; Brock, Laura L.; Murrah, William M.; Bell, Lindsay H.; Worzalla, Samantha L.; Grissmer, David; Morrison, Frederick J.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the contribution of executive function (EF) and multiple aspects of fine motor skills to achievement on six standardized assessments in a sample of middle-SES kindergarteners. 3- and 4-year-olds’ (N=213) fine and gross motor skills were assessed in a home visit before kindergarten; EF was measured at fall of kindergarten; and Woodcock-Johnson III (WJ III) Tests of Academic Achievement were administered at fall and spring. Correlations indicated that EF and fine motor skills appeared distinct. Further, controlling for background variables, higher levels of both EF and fine motor skills, specifically design copy, predicted higher achievement on multiple subtests at kindergarten entry, as well as improvement from fall to spring. Implications for research on school readiness are discussed. PMID:22537276

  2. Fine motor skills and expressive language: a study with children with congenital hypotyreoidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frezzato, Renata Camargo; Santos, Denise Castilho Cabrera; Goto, Maura Mikie Fukujima; Ouro, Michelle Prado Cabral do; Santos, Carolina Taddeo Mendes Dos; Dutra, Vivian; Lima, Maria Cecília Marconi Pinheiro

    2017-03-09

    To screen the global development of children with and without congenital hypothyroidism and to investigate the association between fine motor skills and expressive language development in both groups. This is a prospective study of a cohort of children diagnosed with Congenital Hypothyroidism and monitored in a reference service for congenital hypothyroidism of a public hospital and of children without this disorder. The screening was performed using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development III in the cognitive, gross and fine motor skills, and receptive and expressive language domains. The children's performance was expressed in three categories: competent, and non-competent. We screened 117 children with average age of 21 months diagnosed with Congenital Hypothyroidism at birth, with the Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) level normalized during screening, and 51 children without the condition. The children with Congenital Hypothyroidism presented lower performance in gross and fine motor skills upon comparison between the two groups, and no differences were found in the cognitive and receptive and expressive language domains. The association between fine motor skills and language persisted in the group with Hypothyroidism, demonstrating that the interrelationship of skills is present in all individuals, although this group is two times more likely to present expressive language impairment when fine motor skills are already compromised. In the development process, both skills - motor and expressive language - might be associated and/or dependent on each other in the sample assessed.

  3. Fine motor skills in children with Down syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Memišević Haris; Mačak Amra

    2014-01-01

    Fine motor skills are very important for children's overall functioning. Their development is necessary for many everyday activities such as dressing, feeding, holding objects, etc. Moreover, fine motor skills are also correlated to the children's academic success at school. Recent research suggests a close relationship between motor skills and intelligence. Given the relative paucity of literature on fine motor skills in different etiological groups of children with intellectual disability (...

  4. MotorSense: Using Motion Tracking Technology to Support the Identification and Treatment of Gross-Motor Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnedillo-Sánchez, Inmaculada; Boyle, Bryan; Bossavit, Benoît

    2017-01-01

    MotorSense is a motion detection and tracking technology that can be implemented across a range of environments to assist in detecting delays in gross-motor skills development. The system utilises the motion tracking functionality of Microsoft's Kinect™. It features games that require children to perform graded gross-motor tasks matched with their chronological and developmental ages. This paper describes the rationale for MotorSense, provides an overview of the functionality of the system and illustrates sample activities.

  5. Gross motor performance and self-perceived motor competence in children with emotional, behavioural, and pervasive developmental disorders: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emck, C.; Bosscher, R.J.; Beek, P.J.; Doreleijers, T.A.H.

    2009-01-01

    Aims: Motor performance and self-perceived motor competence have a great impact on the psychosocial development of children in general. In this review, empirical studies of gross motor performance and self-perception of motor competence in children with emotional (depression and anxiety),

  6. Are gross motor skills and sports participation related in children with intellectual disabilities?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westendorp, Marieke; Houwen, Suzanne; Hartman, Esther; Visscher, Chris

    2011-01-01

    This study compared the specific gross motor skills of 156 children with intellectual disabilities (ID) (50 79) with that of 255 typically developing children, aged 7-12 years. Additionally, the relationship between the specific gross motor skills and organized sports participation was examined

  7. Are Gross Motor Skills and Sports Participation Related in Children with Intellectual Disabilities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westendorp, Marieke; Houwen, Suzanne; Hartman, Esther; Visscher, Chris

    2011-01-01

    This study compared the specific gross motor skills of 156 children with intellectual disabilities (ID) (50 less than or equal to IQ greater than or equal to 79) with that of 255 typically developing children, aged 7-12 years. Additionally, the relationship between the specific gross motor skills and organized sports participation was examined in…

  8. The Effects of Basketball Basic Skills Training on Gross Motor Skills Development of Female Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayazit, Betul

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of basketball basic skills training on gross motor skills development of female children in Turkey. For that purpose, 40 female children took part in the study voluntarily. Basketball basic skills test was used to improve the gross motor skills of the female children in the study. Also,…

  9. De Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM): een onderzoek naar de betrouwbaarheid van de Nederlandse vertaling.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenhof, C.; Ketelaar, M.; Petegem-van Beek, E. van

    2003-01-01

    This article is about the psychometric characteristics of the Dutch translation of the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM). It describes the reliability of the instrument. The article "Gross Motor Function Measure" (GMFM): a validity study of the Dutch translation focusses on the responsiveness of

  10. De Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM): een onderzoek naar de responsiviteit van de Nederlandse vertaling.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenhof, C.; Ketelaar, M.; Petegem-van Beek, E. van; Vermeer, A.

    2003-01-01

    This article is about the psychometric characteristics of the Dutch translation of the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM). It describes the responsiveness to change. The article "Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM): a reliability study of the Dutch translation" focuses on the reliability of the

  11. The Performance of Fundamental Gross Motor Skills by Children Enrolled in Head Start.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodard, Rebecca J.; Yun, Joonkoo

    2001-01-01

    This study sought to descriptively evaluate the performance of fundamental gross motor skills among Head Start children. Levels of performance were compared and contrasted with performance profiles of the Test of Gross Motor Development. Findings suggest that Head Start curriculum should focus on the importance of developing fundamental gross…

  12. Gross-Motor Skill Acquisition by Preschool Dance Students under Self-Instruction Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vintere, Parsla; Hemmes, Nancy S.; Brown, Bruce L.; Poulson, Claire L.

    2004-01-01

    The effects of two training procedures -- (a) modeling and praise and (b) self-instruction, modeling, and praise -- on complex gross-motor chain acquisition for preschool dance class students were evaluated. Six girls participated in the study. A multiple baseline design across six gross-motor chains with a secondary group comparison for treatment…

  13. Oropharyngeal dysphagia and gross motor skills in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benfer, Katherine A; Weir, Kelly A; Bell, Kristie L; Ware, Robert S; Davies, Peter S W; Boyd, Roslyn N

    2013-05-01

    To determine the prevalence of oropharyngeal dysphagia (OPD) and its subtypes (oral phase, pharyngeal phase, saliva control), and their relationship to gross motor functional skills in preschool children with cerebral palsy (CP). It was hypothesized that OPD would be present across all gross motor severity levels, and children with more severe gross motor function would have increased prevalence and severity of OPD. Children with a confirmed diagnosis of CP, 18 to 36 months corrected age, born in Queensland between 2006 and 2009, participated. Children with neurodegenerative conditions were excluded. This was a cross-sectional population-based study. Children were assessed by using 2 direct OPD measures (Schedule for Oral Motor Assessment; Dysphagia Disorders Survey), and observations of signs suggestive of pharyngeal phase impairment and impaired saliva control. Gross motor skills were described by using the Gross Motor Function Measure, Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS), Manual Ability Classification System, and motor type/ distribution. OPD was prevalent in 85% of children with CP, and there was a stepwise relationship between OPD and GMFCS level. There was a significant increase in odds of having OPD, or a subtype, for children who were nonambulant (GMFCS V) compared with those who were ambulant (GMFCS I) (odds ratio = 17.9, P = .036). OPD was present across all levels of gross motor severity using direct assessments. This highlights the need for proactive screening of all young children with CP, even those with mild impairments, to improve growth and nutritional outcomes and respiratory health.

  14. Structural equation modeling of motor impairment, gross motor function, and the functional outcome in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun-Young; Kim, Won-Ho

    2013-05-01

    Physical therapy intervention for children with cerebral palsy (CP) is focused on reducing neurological impairments, improving strength, and preventing the development of secondary impairments in order to improve functional outcomes. However, relationship between motor impairments and functional outcome has not been proved definitely. This study confirmed the construct of motor impairment and performed structural equation modeling (SEM) between motor impairment, gross motor function, and functional outcomes of regarding activities of daily living in children with CP. 98 children (59 boys, 39 girls) with CP participated in this cross-sectional study. Mean age was 11 y 5 mo (SD 1 y 9 mo). The Manual Muscle Test (MMT), the Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS), range of motion (ROM) measurement, and the selective motor control (SMC) scale were used to assess motor impairments. Gross motor function and functional outcomes were measured using the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) and the Functional Skills domain of the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI) respectively. Measurement of motor impairment was consisted of strength, spasticity, ROM, and SMC. The construct of motor impairment was confirmed though an examination of a measurement model. The proposed SEM model showed good fit indices. Motor impairment effected gross motor function (β=-.0869). Gross motor function and motor impairment affected functional outcomes directly (β=0.890) and indirectly (β=-0.773) respectively. We confirmed that the construct of motor impairment consist of strength, spasticity, ROM, and SMC and it was identified through measurement model analysis. Functional outcomes are best predicted by gross motor function and motor impairments have indirect effects on functional outcomes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. D-amphetamine improves cognitive deficits and physical therapy promotes fine motor rehabilitation in a rat embolic stroke model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Rune Skovgaard; Overgaard, K; Hildebrandt-Eriksen, E S

    2006-01-01

    regarding gross motor performance. CONCLUSIONS: After embolization, physical therapy improved fine motor performance and D-amph accelerated rehabilitation of cognitive performance as observed in the rats of the THERAPY and D-AMPH groups. As a result of the administration of a high dose of D-amph, the rats......BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of D-amphetamine (D-amph) and physical therapy separately or combined on fine motor performance, gross motor performance and cognition after middle cerebral artery thromboembolization in rats. METHODS: Seventy-four rats...... on days 21-28 after surgery, rats of the SHAM and THERAPY groups had better fine motor performance than those of the CONTROL (P cognitive performance than CONTROL rats (P

  16. Relationships Between Gross Motor Skills and Social Function in Young Boys With Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Jamie M; Long, Toby M; Biasini, Fred

    2018-05-02

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between gross motor skills and social function in young boys with autism spectrum disorder. Twenty-one children with autism spectrum disorder participated in the study. The Peabody Developmental Motor Scales Second Edition and the Miller Function and Participation Scales were used to assess gross motor skills. The Social Skills Improvement System Rating Scales was used to assess social function. Moderately high correlations were found between overall gross motor and social skills (r = 0.644) and between the core stability motor subtest and overall social skills (r = -0.672). Specific motor impairments in stability, motor accuracy, and object manipulation scores were predictive of social function. This study suggests that motor skills and social function are related in young boys with autism. Implications for physical therapy intervention are also discussed.

  17. Effects of Practical Life Materials on Kindergartners' Fine Motor Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rule, Audrey C.; Stewart, Roger A.

    2002-01-01

    A pretest-posttest control group design was used to measure the effect of practical life materials (e.g., tweezers, tongs, spoons) on kindergarten children's fine motor skill development. Experimental and control group teachers reported equal amounts of fine motor activity in their classrooms; however, significant interaction effects were found…

  18. Helping Preschoolers Prepare for Writing: Developing Fine Motor Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, J. Michelle; Fortenberry, Callie

    2011-01-01

    Early childhood is the most intensive period for the development of physical skills. Writing progress depends largely on the development of fine motor skills involving small muscle movements of the hand. Young children need to participate in a variety of developmentally appropriate activities intentionally designed to promote fine motor control.…

  19. Clubfoot Does Not Impair Gross Motor Development in 5-Year-Olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Karina A; Karol, Lori A; Jeans, Kelly A; Jo, Chan-Hee

    2018-04-01

    To evaluate the gross motor development of 5-year-olds using the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales, 2nd Edition (PDMS-2), test after initial nonoperative management of clubfoot as infants. The PDMS-2 Stationary, Locomotion, and Object Manipulation subtests were assessed on 128 children with idiopathic clubfeet at the age of 5 years. Children were categorized by their initial clubfoot severity as greater than 13, unilateral or bilateral involvement, and required surgery. Children with treated clubfeet had average gross motor scores (99 Gross Motor Quotient) compared with age-matched normative scores. Children with more severe clubfeet required surgery significantly more than children with less severe scores (P < .01). Peabody scores were not significantly different according to initial clubfoot severity, unilateral versus bilateral involvement, and surgical versus nonsurgical outcomes. Clubfoot does not significantly impair gross motor development in 5-year-olds.

  20. The relationship between spasticity and gross motor capability in nonambulatory children with spastic cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katusic, Ana; Alimovic, Sonja

    2013-09-01

    Spasticity has been considered as a major impairment in cerebral palsy (CP), but the relationship between this impairment and motor functions is still unclear, especially in the same group of patients with CP. The aim of this investigation is to determine the relationship between spasticity and gross motor capability in nonambulatory children with spastic CP. Seventy-one children (30 boys, 41 girls) with bilateral spastic cerebral palsy and with Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels IV (n=34) and V (n=37) were included in the study. The spasticity level in lower limbs was evaluated using the Modified Modified Ashworth Scale and the gross motor function with the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM-88). Spearman's correlation analysis was used to determine the nature and the strength of the relationship. The results showed a moderate correlation between spasticity and gross motor skills (ρ=0.52 for the GMFCS level; ρ=0.57 for the GMFM-88), accounting for less than 30% of the explained variance. It seems that spasticity is just one factor among many others that could interfere with gross motor skills, even in children with severe forms of spastic CP. Knowledge of the impact of spasticity on motor skills may be useful in the setting of adequate rehabilitation strategies for nonambulatory children with spastic CP.

  1. Attainment of gross motor milestones by preterm children with normal development upon school entry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dokkum, Nienke H; de Kroon, Marlou L A; Bos, Arend F; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; Kerstjens, Jorien M

    BACKGROUND: Little is known on the motor development of moderately preterm born (MPT) children, in comparison with early preterm born (EPT) children and fullterm born (FT), for children with normal motor outcomes at school entry. AIMS: To compare attainment rates of gross motor milestones reached

  2. The central role of trunk control in the gross motor function of children with cerebral palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Curtis, Derek John; Butler, Penny; Saavedra, Sandy

    2015-01-01

    . The participants were tested using the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM), the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI), and the Segmental Assessment of Trunk Control (SATCo). Results Linear regression analysis showed a positive relationship between the segmental level of trunk control and age......, with both gross motor function and mobility. Segmental trunk control measured using the SATCo could explain between 38% and 40% of variation in GMFM and between 32% and 37% of variation in PEDI. Interpretation This study suggests a strong association between segmental trunk postural control and gross motor...

  3. A preliminary investigation of the relationship between language and gross motor skills in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merriman, W J; Barnett, B E

    1995-12-01

    This study was undertaken to explore the relationship between language skills and gross-motor skills of 28 preschool children from two private preschools in New York City. Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients were calculated for language (revised Preschool Language Scale) and gross motor (Test of Gross Motor Development) scores. Locomotor skills were significantly related to both auditory comprehension and verbal ability while object control scores did not correlate significantly with either language score. These results were discussed in terms of previous research and with reference to dynamical systems theory. Suggestions for research were made.

  4. Effects of gross motor function and manual function levels on performance-based ADL motor skills of children with spastic cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Myoung-Ok

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine effects of Gross Motor Function Classification System and Manual Ability Classification System levels on performance-based motor skills of children with spastic cerebral palsy. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-three children with cerebral palsy were included. The Assessment of Motor and Process Skills was used to evaluate performance-based motor skills in daily life. Gross motor function was assessed using Gross Motor Function Classification S...

  5. Fine motor skills development of children with autism sepctrum disorder.

    OpenAIRE

    Marešová, Petra

    2010-01-01

    My diploma thesis topic is Fine motor skills development of children with autism spectrum disorder. The objective of this document is to create a well arranged group of exercises and structured tasks aimed to develop fine motor skills of children at pre-school age with autism spectrum disorder. Theoretical part of this diploma thesis contains basic information related to autism and various details about motor skills. Practical section describes individual jobs and structured tasks used for fi...

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF FINE MOTOR COORDINATION AND VISUAL-MOTOR INTEGRATION IN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    MEMISEVIC Haris; HADZIC Selmir

    2015-01-01

    Fine motor skills are prerequisite for many everyday activities and they are a good predictor of a child's later academic outcome. The goal of the present study was to assess the effects of age on the development of fine motor coordination and visual-motor integration in preschool children. The sample for this study consisted of 276 preschool children from Canton Sara­jevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina. We assessed children's motor skills with Beery Visual Motor Integration Test and Lafayette Pegbo...

  7. Associations between gross motor skills and physical activity in Australian toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldman, Sanne L C; Jones, Rachel A; Santos, Rute; Sousa-Sá, Eduarda; Pereira, João R; Zhang, Zhiguang; Okely, Anthony D

    2018-08-01

    Physical activity can be promoted by high levels of gross motor skills. A systematic review found a positive relationship in children (3-18 years) but only few studies examined this in younger children. The aim of this study was to examine the association between gross motor skills and physical activity in children aged 11-29 months. Cross-sectional study. This study involved 284 children from 30 childcare services in NSW, Australia (Mean age=19.77±4.18months, 53.2% boys). Physical activity was measured using accelerometers (Actigraph GT3X+). Gross motor skills were assessed using the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales Second Edition (PDMS-2). Multilevel linear regression analyses were computed to assess associations between gross motor skills and physical activity, adjusting for sex, age and BMI. Children spent 53.08% of their time in physical activity and 10.39% in moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Boys had higher total physical activity (pskills score was 96.16. Boys scored higher than girls in object manipulation (pskills and total physical activity or MVPA. Although gross motor skills were not associated with physical activity in this sample, stronger associations are apparent in older children. This study therefore highlights a potential important age to promote gross motor skills. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Longitudinal Association Between Gross Motor Capacity and Neuromusculoskeletal Function in Children and Youth With Cerebral Palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Rimke C.; Becher, Jules G.; Voorman, Jeanine M.; Gorter, Jan Willem; van Eck, Mirjam; van Meeteren, Jetty; Smits, Dirk Wouter; Twisk, Jos W.; Dallmeijer, Annet J.

    Objective: To examine associations over longitudinal measurements between neuromusculoskeletal function and gross motor capacity in children and youth with cerebral palsy (CP). Design: A prospective cohort study. Setting: Rehabilitation departments of university medical centers and rehabilitations

  9. Effect of physical therapy frequency on gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Eun-Young

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study attempted to investigate the effect of physical therapy frequency based on neurodevelopmental therapy on gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy. [Subjects and Methods] The study sample included 161 children with cerebral palsy who attended a convalescent or rehabilitation center for disabled individuals or a special school for children with physical disabilities in South Korea. Gross Motor Function Measure data were collected according to physical therapy fr...

  10. Gross motor skill development of 5-year-old Kindergarten children in Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aye, Thanda; Oo, Khin Saw; Khin, Myo Thuzar; Kuramoto-Ahuja, Tsugumi; Maruyama, Hitoshi

    2017-10-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the gross motor skill development of 5-year-old Kindergarten children in Myanmar. [Subjects and Methods] Total 472 healthy Kindergarten children (237 males, 235 females) of 2016-2017 academic year from four schools in urban area and four schools in rural area of Myanmar were recruited. The gross motor skill development of all subjects was assessed with the test of gross motor development second edition (TGMD-2). All subjects performed two trials for each gross motor skill and the performance was video recorded and scored. The assessment procedures were done according to the standardized guidelines of TGMD-2. [Results] The majority of subjects had average level of gross motor skill rank. The significant differences were found on the run and gallop of locomotor skills and the most of object control skills except the catch between males and females. The significant differences were also found between subjects from urban and rural areas. [Conclusion] Gross motor skill development of 5-year-old Kindergarten children in Myanmar had gender-based and region-based differences on both locomotor and object control skills. This study added a valuable information to the establishment of a normative reference of Kindergarten aged children for future studies.

  11. The relationship between gross motor skills and academic achievement in children with learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westendorp, Marieke; Hartman, Esther; Houwen, Suzanne; Smith, Joanne; Visscher, Chris

    2011-01-01

    The present study compared the gross motor skills of 7- to 12-year-old children with learning disabilities (n = 104) with those of age-matched typically developing children (n = 104) using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2. Additionally, the specific relationships between subsets of gross motor skills and academic performance in reading, spelling, and mathematics were examined in children with learning disabilities. As expected, the children with learning disabilities scored poorer on both the locomotor and object-control subtests than their typically developing peers. Furthermore, in children with learning disabilities a specific relationship was observed between reading and locomotor skills and a trend was found for a relationship between mathematics and object-control skills: the larger children's learning lag, the poorer their motor skill scores. This study stresses the importance of specific interventions facilitating both motor and academic abilities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Score of Fine Motor Skill in Children with Down Syndrome using Nintendo Wii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puspasari Sinaga

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Down syndrome occurs due to an extra chromosome 21, known as Trisomy 21. In addition to delayed cognitive and speech development, children with Down syndrome may also experience delayed gross and fine motor development. Virtual Reality Therapy, such as Nintendo Wii is a computer-based technology that allows users to interact with a virtual three-dimensional scenario and the most innovative physical rehabilitation method. High scores indicate that the player has a good motor skill. This study aimed to examine the difference between the score of fine motor skill in children with and without Down syndrome. Methods: An analytic cross-sectional study was conducted from August to November 2015 to 40 children aged between 9–12 years old who came from public primary schools and special needs schools in Bandung, West Java. They were divided into 2 groups using random gender and age pairing; one group was children with Down syndrome and another other group was normal children. The children’ scores of Nintendo Wii game were collected three times. The collected data were statistically analyzed by Chi-Square test. Results: The proportion of children with low-grade fine motor skill in Down syndrome group was larger than those with high-grade fine motor skill. In the other hand, in normal children group, the proportion was reversed compared to Down syndrome group. There was a significant difference in score of fine motor skill between children with Down syndrome and normal children (p=0.000. Conclusions: The fine motor skill of children with Down syndrome is poorer than normal children’s.

  13. The relationships between gross motor coordination and sport-specific skills in adolescent non-athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chagas Daniel V

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. While the usefulness of gross motor coordination score as predictor of sports performance in young athletes has been demonstrated, practical applications in the settings where the focus is not on elite performance is limited. Further, little is known about the extent to which gross motor coordination score is associated with sport-specific skills among adolescent nonathletes. The aim of this study was to analyse the relationship between the degree of gross motor coordination and execution in specific volleyball tests among adolescent non-athletes. Methods. The total of 34 students (27 females and 7 males aged 13-14 years who regularly participated in volleyball during physical education classes were randomly recruited. Gross motor coordination was assessed with the Körperkoordinationstest für Kinder. Motor performance on volley-specific skills was indicated by two product-oriented tasks: volleyball under service and service reception. Correlation and linear regression analyses were applied to examine the associations between motor coordination scores and motor performance in volley-specific skills. Results. Motor coordination score was positively correlated with motor performance on specific skills (r = 0.503, p = 0.02. Linear regression analysis revealed that motor coordination score accounted for 23% of the variance in the motor performance on volleyball skills (R2 = 0.253, R2 adjusted = 0.230, F = 10.836, p = 0.02. Conclusions. The degree of gross motor coordination seems to play a significant role in the execution of specific volleyball tasks.

  14. The effect of amblyopia on fine motor skills in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Ann L; Wood, Joanne M; Gole, Glen A; Brown, Brian

    2008-02-01

    In an investigation of the functional impact of amblyopia in children, the fine motor skills of amblyopes and age-matched control subjects were compared. The influence of visual factors that might predict any decrement in fine motor skills was also explored. Vision and fine motor skills were tested in a group of children (n = 82; mean age, 8.2 +/- 1.7 [SD] years) with amblyopia of different causes (infantile esotropia, n = 17; acquired strabismus, n = 28; anisometropia, n = 15; mixed, n = 13; and deprivation n = 9), and age-matched control children (n = 37; age 8.3 +/- 1.3 years). Visual motor control (VMC) and upper limb speed and dexterity (ULSD) items of the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency were assessed, and logMAR visual acuity (VA) and Randot stereopsis were measured. Multiple regression models were used to identify the visual determinants of fine motor skills performance. Amblyopes performed significantly poorer than control subjects on 9 of 16 fine motor skills subitems and for the overall age-standardized scores for both VMC and ULSD items (P multiple regression model that took into account the intercorrelation between visual characteristics, poorer fine motor skills performance was associated with strabismus (F(1,75) = 5.428; P = 0.022), but not with the level of binocular function, refractive error, or visual acuity in either eye. Fine motor skills were reduced in children with amblyopia, particularly those with strabismus, compared with control subjects. The deficits in motor performance were greatest on manual dexterity tasks requiring speed and accuracy.

  15. Effect of Spark Motor Program on the development of gross motor skills in intellectually disabled educable boys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashem Faal Moganloo

    2013-11-01

    Results: Spark Program caused significant changes in all the variables of the study, except speed and agility, in the experimental group after 24 sessions. The changes included: agility and speed (P=0.731, balance (P=0, strength (P=0.002, and bilateral coordination (P=0. Conclusion: Spark Motor Program can improve gross motor skills in intellectually disabled educable students.

  16. The influence of motor imagery on the learning of a fine hand motor skill

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sobierajewicz, Jagna; Przekoracka-Krawczyk, Anna; Jaśkowski, Wojciech; Verwey, Willem B.; van der Lubbe, Rob

    2017-01-01

    Motor imagery has been argued to affect the acquisition of motor skills. The present study examined the specificity of motor imagery on the learning of a fine hand motor skill by employing a modified discrete sequence production task: the Go/NoGo DSP task. After an informative cue, a response

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF FINE MOTOR COORDINATION AND VISUAL-MOTOR INTEGRATION IN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haris MEMISEVIC

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Fine motor skills are prerequisite for many everyday activities and they are a good predictor of a child's later academic outcome. The goal of the present study was to assess the effects of age on the development of fine motor coordination and visual-motor integration in preschool children. The sample for this study consisted of 276 preschool children from Canton Sara­jevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina. We assessed children's motor skills with Beery Visual Motor Integration Test and Lafayette Pegboard Test. Data were analyzed with one-way ANOVA, followed by planned com­parisons between the age groups. We also performed a regression analysis to assess the influence of age and motor coordination on visual-motor integration. The results showed that age has a great effect on the development of fine motor skills. Furthermore, the results indicated that there are possible sensitive periods at preschool age in which the development of fine motor skills is accelerated. Early intervention specialists should make a thorough evaluations of fine motor skills in preschool children and make motor (rehabilitation programs for children at risk of fine motor delays.

  18. The Effects of Modified Games on the Development of Gross Motor Skill in Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestari, Indah; Ratnaningsih, Tri

    2016-01-01

    Gross motor skills on children must be optimized much earlier since it plays important role not only on their interaction process but also in supporting other multiple developments. One of the means in developing child's motor skill is by providing innovative games i.e. modified games including game format, game timing, and game sequence. The…

  19. Divergent Development of Gross Motor Skills in Children Who Are Blind or Sighted

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brambring, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This empirical study compared the average ages at which four congenitally blind children acquired 29 gross motor skills with age norms for sighted children. The results indicated distinct developmental delays in the acquisition of motor skills and a high degree of variability in developmental delays within and across the six subdomains that were…

  20. Correlates of Gross Motor Competence in Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Lisa M; Lai, Samuel K; Veldman, Sanne L C; Hardy, Louise L; Cliff, Dylan P; Morgan, Philip J; Zask, Avigdor; Lubans, David R; Shultz, Sarah P; Ridgers, Nicola D; Rush, Elaine; Brown, Helen L; Okely, Anthony D

    2016-11-01

    Gross motor competence confers health benefits, but levels in children and adolescents are low. While interventions can improve gross motor competence, it remains unclear which correlates should be targeted to ensure interventions are most effective, and for whom targeted and tailored interventions should be developed. The aim of this systematic review was to identify the potential correlates of gross motor competence in typically developing children and adolescents (aged 3-18 years) using an ecological approach. Motor competence was defined as gross motor skill competency, encompassing fundamental movement skills and motor coordination, but excluding motor fitness. Studies needed to assess a summary score of at least one aspect of motor competence (i.e., object control, locomotor, stability, or motor coordination). A structured electronic literature search was conducted in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement. Six electronic databases (CINAHL Complete, ERIC, MEDLINE Complete, PsycINFO ® , Scopus and SPORTDiscus with Full Text) were searched from 1994 to 5 August 2014. Meta-analyses were conducted to determine the relationship between potential correlates and motor competency if at least three individual studies investigated the same correlate and also reported standardized regression coefficients. A total of 59 studies were identified from 22 different countries, published between 1995 and 2014. Studies reflected the full range of age groups. The most examined correlates were biological and demographic factors. Age (increasing) was a correlate of children's motor competence. Weight status (healthy), sex (male) and socioeconomic background (higher) were consistent correlates for certain aspects of motor competence only. Physical activity and sport participation constituted the majority of investigations in the behavioral attributes and skills category. Whilst we found physical activity to be a positive

  1. The effect of height, weight and head circumference on gross motor development in achondroplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, Penelope Jane; Ware, Robert S; Donaghey, Samantha; McGill, James; Zankl, Andreas; Pacey, Verity; Ault, Jenny; Savarirayan, Ravi; Sillence, David; Thompson, Elizabeth; Townshend, Sharron; Johnston, Leanne M

    2013-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether height, weight, head circumference and/or relationships between these factors are associated with gross motor milestone acquisition in children with achondroplasia. Population-based data regarding timing of major gross motor milestones up to 5 years were correlated with height, weight and head circumference at birth and 12 months in 48 children with achondroplasia born in Australia and New Zealand between 2000 and 2009. Although as a group children with achondroplasia showed delayed gross motor skill acquisition, within group differences in height, weight or head circumference did not appear to influence timing of gross motor skills before 5 years. The exception was lie to sit transitioning, which appears likely to occur earlier if the child is taller and heavier at 12 months, and later if the child has significant head-to-body disproportion. This is the first study to investigate the relationship between common musculoskeletal impairments associated with achondroplasia and timing of gross motor achievement. Identification of the musculoskeletal factors that exacerbate delays in transitioning from lying to sitting will assist clinicians to provide more proactive assessment, advice and intervention regarding motor skill acquisition for this population. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2013 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  2. Gross Motor Function Measure Evolution Ratio: Use as a Control for Natural Progression in Cerebral Palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marois, Pierre; Marois, Mikael; Pouliot-Laforte, Annie; Vanasse, Michel; Lambert, Jean; Ballaz, Laurent

    2016-05-01

    To develop a new way to interpret Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM-66) score improvement in studies conducted without control groups in children with cerebral palsy (CP). The curves, which describe the pattern of motor development according to the children's Gross Motor Function Classification System level, were used as historical control to define the GMFM-66 expected natural evolution in children with CP. These curves have been modeled and generalized to fit the curve to particular children characteristics. Research center. Not applicable. Not applicable. Not applicable. Assuming that the GMFM-66 score evolution followed the shape of the Rosenbaum curves, by taking into account the age and GMFM-66 score of children, the expected natural evolution of the GMFM-66 score was predicted for any group of children with CP who were Ratio, was defined as follows: Gross Motor Function Measure Evolution Ratio=measured GMFM-66 score change/expected natural evolution. For practical or ethical reasons, it is almost impossible to use control groups in studies evaluating effectiveness of many therapeutic modalities. The Gross Motor Function Measure Evolution Ratio gives the opportunity to take into account the expected natural evolution of the gross motor function of children with CP, which is essential to accurately interpret the therapy effect on the GMFM-66. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Are gross motor skills and sports participation related in children with intellectual disabilities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westendorp, Marieke; Houwen, Suzanne; Hartman, Esther; Visscher, Chris

    2011-01-01

    This study compared the specific gross motor skills of 156 children with intellectual disabilities (ID) (50 ≤ IQ ≥ 79) with that of 255 typically developing children, aged 7-12 years. Additionally, the relationship between the specific gross motor skills and organized sports participation was examined in both groups. The Test of Gross Motor Development-2 and a self-report measure were used to assess children's gross motor skills and sports participation, respectively. The children with ID scored significantly lower on almost all specific motor skill items than the typically developing children. Children with mild ID scored lower on the locomotor skills than children with borderline ID. Furthermore, we found in all groups that children with higher object-control scores participated more in organized sports than children with lower object-control scores. Our results support the importance of attention for well-developed gross motor skills in children with borderline and mild ID, especially to object-control skills, which might contribute positively to their sports participation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Fine Motor Development of Low Birth Weight Infants Corrected Aged 8 to 12 Months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepideh Nazi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the fine motor development between Low Birth Weight (LBW infants and Normal Birth Weight infants (NBW at the age of 8-12 months by using the Peabody Developmental Motor Scale-2 (PDMS-2 . Methods: This was a non experimental and cross sectional study which was conducted on the 18 LBW infants and 14 normal infants. By referring to the profile of infants in NICU of Aliasghar Hospital, those with defined inclusion criteria was recognized (case group. The normal weight infants, randomly selected from Health Center of that hospital, matched with case group for date of birth. After completing the questionnaire about demographic variables, their gross motor development was assessed with PDMS-2. Finally the scores of the motor quotient were analyzed by independent t-test statistical method. Results: There was a significant difference between Fine motor quotient of groups (P=0.007. Discussion: This study showed that LBW infants are significantly lower than normal weight infants in attaining Fine motor skills. It means that the LBW infants are more prone to developmental difficulties.

  5. Interventions to improve gross motor performance in children with neurodevelopmental disorders: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Barbara R; Elliott, Elizabeth J; Coggan, Sarah; Pinto, Rafael Z; Jirikowic, Tracy; McCoy, Sarah Westcott; Latimer, Jane

    2016-11-29

    Gross motor skills are fundamental to childhood development. The effectiveness of current physical therapy options for children with mild to moderate gross motor disorders is unknown. The aim of this study was to systematically review the literature to investigate the effectiveness of conservative interventions to improve gross motor performance in children with a range of neurodevelopmental disorders. A systematic review with meta-analysis was conducted. MEDLINE, EMBASE, AMED, CINAHL, PsycINFO, PEDro, Cochrane Collaboration, Google Scholar databases and clinical trial registries were searched. Published randomised controlled trials including children 3 to ≤18 years with (i) Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) or Cerebral Palsy (CP) (Gross Motor Function Classification System Level 1) or Developmental Delay or Minimal Acquired Brain Injury or Prematurity (gross motor outcomes obtained using a standardised assessment tool. Meta-analysis was performed to determine the pooled effect of intervention on gross motor function. Methodological quality and strength of meta-analysis recommendations were evaluated using PEDro and the GRADE approach respectively. Of 2513 papers, 9 met inclusion criteria including children with CP (n = 2) or DCD (n = 7) receiving 11 different interventions. Only two of 9 trials showed an effect for treatment. Using the least conservative trial outcomes a large beneficial effect of intervention was shown (SMD:-0.8; 95% CI:-1.1 to -0.5) with "very low quality" GRADE ratings. Using the most conservative trial outcomes there is no treatment effect (SMD:-0.1; 95% CI:-0.3 to 0.2) with "low quality" GRADE ratings. Study limitations included the small number and poor quality of the available trials. Although we found that some interventions with a task-orientated framework can improve gross motor outcomes in children with DCD or CP, these findings are limited by the very low quality of the available evidence. High quality intervention

  6. Do Fine Motor Skills Contribute to Early Reading Development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suggate, Sebastian; Pufke, Eva; Stoeger, Heidrun

    2018-01-01

    Background: Little is known about how fine motor skills (FMS) relate to early literacy skills, especially over and above cognitive variables. Moreover, a lack of distinction between FMS, grapho-motor and writing skills may have hampered previous work. Method: In Germany, kindergartners (n = 144, aged 6;1) were recruited before beginning formal…

  7. Fine motor skills in children with Down syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Memišević Haris

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fine motor skills are very important for children's overall functioning. Their development is necessary for many everyday activities such as dressing, feeding, holding objects, etc. Moreover, fine motor skills are also correlated to the children's academic success at school. Recent research suggests a close relationship between motor skills and intelligence. Given the relative paucity of literature on fine motor skills in different etiological groups of children with intellectual disability (ID, we examined these skills in children with Down syndrome. The sample for this study comprised 90 children with ID, aged 7-15, who were divided in three etiological groups: 1. Down syndrome, 2. Organic/other genetic cause of ID and 3. Unknown etiology of ID. Fine motor skills were assessed by the Purdue Pegboard Test. The results of this study indicate that children with Down syndrome did not differ statistically significantly from the other two etiological groups. On the other hand, children with unknown etiology of ID performed statistically better than children with organic/other genetic cause of ID. An additional goal was to examine fine motor skills in children with Down syndrome in relation to the child's sex. There were no statistically significant differences in fine motor skills between girls and boys with Down syndrome. It is important to provide children with Down syndrome, and all other children with ID, with early (rehabilitation programs for the improvement of their fine motor skills. Special educators and rehabilitators should play a crucial role in the assessment and in creating programs for the development of these skills.

  8. Gross Motor Skills in Children With Idiopathic Clubfoot and the Association Between Gross Motor Skills, Foot Involvement, Gait, and Foot Motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lööf, Elin; Andriesse, Hanneke; André, Marie; Böhm, Stephanie; Iversen, Maura D; Broström, Eva W

    2017-02-24

    Little is known regarding gross motor skills (GMS) in children with idiopathic clubfoot (IC). This study describes GMS, specifically foot involvement and asymmetries, and analyses the association between GMS, gait, and foot status in children with IC. Gross motor tasks and gait were analyzed in children with IC and typically developed (TD) children. GMS were assessed using videotapes and the Clubfoot Assessment Protocol (CAP). The Gait Deviation Index (GDI) and GDI-Kinetic were calculated from gait analyses. Children were divided into bilateral, unilateral clubfoot, or TD groups. To analyze asymmetries, feet within each group were further classified into superior or inferior foot, depending on their CAP scores. Correlations identified associations between CAP and GDI, GDI-Kinetic, passive foot motion, and Dimeglio Classification Scores at birth in the clubfeet. In total, 75 children (mean age, 5 years) were enrolled (bilateral n=22, unilateral clubfoot n=25, TD=28). Children with clubfeet demonstrated significantly lower GMS, gait, and foot motion compared with TD children. One leg standing and hopping deviated in 84% and 91%, respectively, in at least one foot in children with clubfoot. Gross motor asymmetries were evident in both children with bilateral and unilateral involvement. In children with unilateral clubfoot, contralateral feet showed few deviations in GMS compared with TD; however, differences existed in gait and foot motion. The association between GMS and gait, foot motion, and initial foot status varied between poor and moderate. Gross motor deficits and asymmetries are present in children with both bilateral and unilateral IC. Development of GMS of the contralateral foot mirrors that of TD children, but modifies to the clubfoot in gait and foot motion. The weak association with gait, foot motion, and initial clubfoot severity indicates that gross motor measurements represent a different outcome entity in clubfoot treatment. We therefore, recommend

  9. Fine motor assessment in chronic wrist pain: the role of adapted motor control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeulders, M. J.; Kreulen, M.; Bos, K. E.

    2001-01-01

    To show whether a difference in fine motor control exists between patients with chronic, undiagnosed wrist pain (CUWP) and healthy controls. Furthermore, a method to assess fine motor function of the wrist is evaluated. A case-control study. The Academic Medical Center in Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

  10. Development of a Computerized Adaptive Test of Children's Gross Motor Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chien-Yu; Tung, Li-Chen; Chou, Yeh-Tai; Wu, Hing-Man; Chen, Kuan-Lin; Hsieh, Ching-Lin

    2018-03-01

    To (1) develop a computerized adaptive test for gross motor skills (GM-CAT) as a diagnostic test and an outcome measure, using the gross motor skills subscale of the Comprehensive Developmental Inventory for Infants and Toddlers (CDIIT-GM) as the candidate item bank; and (2) examine the psychometric properties and the efficiency of the GM-CAT. Retrospective study. A developmental center of a medical center. Children with and without developmental delay (N=1738). Not applicable. The CDIIT-GM contains 56 universal items on gross motor skills assessing children's antigravity control, locomotion, and body movement coordination. The item bank of the GM-CAT had 44 items that met the dichotomous Rasch model's assumptions. High Rasch person reliabilities were found for each estimated gross motor skill for the GM-CAT (Rasch person reliabilities =.940-.995, SE=.68-2.43). For children aged 6 to 71 months, the GM-CAT had good concurrent validity (r values =.97-.98), adequate to excellent diagnostic accuracy (area under receiver operating characteristics curve =.80-.98), and moderate to large responsiveness (effect size =.65-5.82). The averages of items administered for the GM-CAT were 7 to 11, depending on the age group. The results of this study support the use of the GM-CAT as a diagnostic and outcome measure to estimate children's gross motor skills in both research and clinical settings. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Promoting gross motor skills and physical activity in childcare: A translational randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Rachel A; Okely, Anthony D; Hinkley, Trina; Batterham, Marijka; Burke, Claire

    2016-09-01

    Educator-led programs for physical activity and motor skill development show potential but few have been implemented and evaluated using a randomized controlled design. Furthermore, few educator-led programs have evaluated both gross motor skills and physical activity. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate a gross motor skill and physical activity program for preschool children which was facilitated solely by childcare educators. A six-month 2-arm randomized controlled trial was implemented between April and September 2012 in four early childhood centers in Tasmania, Australia. Educators participated in ongoing professional development sessions and children participated in structured physical activity lessons and unstructured physical activity sessions. In total, 150 children were recruited from four centers which were randomized to intervention or wait-list control group. Six early childhood educators from the intervention centers were trained to deliver the intervention. Gross motor skills were assessed using the Test of Gross Motor Development (2nd edition) and physical activity was measured objectively using GT3X+ Actigraph accelerometers. No statistically significant differences were identified. However, small to medium effect sizes, in favor of the intervention group, were evident for four of the five gross motor skills and the total gross motor skill score and small to medium effect sizes were reported for all physical activity outcomes. This study highlights the potential of educator-led physical activity interventions and supports the need for further translational trials within the early childhood sector. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Early gross motor skills predict the subsequent development of language in children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedford, Rachael; Pickles, Andrew; Lord, Catherine

    2016-09-01

    Motor milestones such as the onset of walking are important developmental markers, not only for later motor skills but also for more widespread social-cognitive development. The aim of the current study was to test whether gross motor abilities, specifically the onset of walking, predicted the subsequent rate of language development in a large cohort of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We ran growth curve models for expressive and receptive language measured at 2, 3, 5 and 9 years in 209 autistic children. Measures of gross motor, visual reception and autism symptoms were collected at the 2 year visit. In Model 1, walking onset was included as a predictor of the slope of language development. Model 2 included a measure of non-verbal IQ and autism symptom severity as covariates. The final model, Model 3, additionally covaried for gross motor ability. In the first model, parent-reported age of walking onset significantly predicted the subsequent rate of language development although the relationship became non-significant when gross motor skill, non-verbal ability and autism severity scores were included (Models 2 & 3). Gross motor score, however, did remain a significant predictor of both expressive and receptive language development. Taken together, the model results provide some evidence that early motor abilities in young children with ASD can have longitudinal cross-domain influences, potentially contributing, in part, to the linguistic difficulties that characterise ASD. Autism Res 2016, 9: 993-1001. © 2015 The Authors Autism Research published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Autism Research. © 2015 The Authors Autism Research published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Autism Research.

  13. Relationship between communication skills and gross motor function in preschool-aged children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Andrea; Weir, Kelly A; Ware, Robert S; Boyd, Roslyn N

    2013-11-01

    To explore the communication skills of children with cerebral palsy (CP) at 24 months' corrected age with reference to typically developing children, and to determine the relationship between communication ability, gross motor function, and other comorbidities associated with CP. Prospective, cross-sectional, population-based cohort study. General community. Children with CP (N=124; mean age, 24mo; functional severity on Gross Motor Function Classification System [GMFCS]: I=47, II=14, III=22, IV=19, V=22). Not applicable. Parents reported communication skills on the Communication and Symbolic Behavior Scales Developmental Profile (CSBS-DP) Infant-Toddler Checklist. Two independent physiotherapists classified motor type, distribution, and GMFCS. Data on comorbidities were obtained from parent interviews and medical records. Children with mild CP (GMFCS I/II) had mean CSBS-DP scores that were 0.5 to 0.6 SD below the mean for typically developing peers, while those with moderate-severe impairment (GMFCS III-V) were 1.4 to 2.6 SD below the mean. GMFCS was significantly associated with performance on the CSBS-DP (F=18.55, Pgross motor ability accounting for 38% of the variation in communication. Poorer communication was strongly associated with gross motor function and full-term birth. Preschool-aged children with CP, with more severe gross motor impairment, showed delayed communication, while children with mild motor impairment were less vulnerable. Term-born children had significantly poorer communication than those born prematurely. Because a portion of each gross motor functional severity level is at risk, this study reinforces the need for early monitoring of communication development for all children with CP. Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Gross Motor Skills and Cardiometabolic Risk in Children: A Mediation Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Ryan D; Brusseau, Timothy A; Fu, You; Hannon, James C

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the linear relationship between gross motor skills and cardiometabolic risk, with aerobic fitness as a mediator variable, in low-income children from the United States. Participants were a convenience sample of 224 children (mean ± SD age = 9.1 ± 1.1 yr; 129 girls and 95 boys) recruited from five low-income elementary schools from the Mountain West Region of the United States. Gross motor skills were assessed using the Test for Gross Motor Development, 3rd Edition. Gross motor skills were analyzed using a locomotor skill, a ball skill, and a total gross motor skill score. Aerobic fitness was assessed using the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run that was administered during physical education class. A continuous and age- and sex-adjusted metabolic syndrome score (MetS) was calculated from health and blood marker measurements collected in a fasted state before school hours. Total effects, average direct effects, and indirect effects (average causal mediation effect) were calculated using a bootstrap mediation analysis method via a linear regression algorithm. The average causal mediation effect of gross locomotor skills on MetS scores, using aerobic fitness as the mediator variable, was statistically significant (β = -0.055, 95% confidence interval = -0.097 to -0.021, P = 0.003). The model explained approximately 17.5% of the total variance in MetS with approximately 43.7% of the relationship between locomotor skills and MetS mediated through aerobic fitness. Ball skills did not significantly relate with cardiometabolic risk. There is a significant relationship between gross locomotor skills and cardiometabolic risk that is partially mediated through aerobic fitness in a sample of low-income children from the United States.

  15. Gross and fine dissection of inner ear sensory epithelia in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jin; Burgess, Shawn M

    2009-05-08

    Neurosensory epithelia in the inner ear are the crucial structures for hearing and balance functions. Therefore, it is important to understand the cellular and molecular features of the epithelia, which are mainly composed of two types of cells: hair cells (HCs) and supporting cells (SCs). Here we choose to study the inner ear sensory epithelia in adult zebrafish not only because the epithelial structures are highly conserved in all vertebrates studied, but also because the adult zebrafish is able to regenerate HCs, an ability that mammals lose shortly after birth. We use the inner ear of adult zebrafish as a model system to study the mechanisms of inner ear HC regeneration in adult vertebrates that could be helpful for clinical therapy of hearing/balance deficits in human as a result of HC loss. Here we demonstrate how to do gross and fine dissections of inner ear sensory epithelia in adult zebrafish. The gross dissection removes the tissues surrounding the inner ear and is helpful for preparing tissue sections, which allows us to examine the detailed structure of the sensory epithelia. The fine dissection cleans up the non-sensory-epithelial tissues of each individual epithelium and enables us to examine the heterogeneity of the whole epithelium easily in whole-mount epithelial samples.

  16. Threshold values of ankle dorsiflexion and gross motor function in 60 children with cerebral palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Helle M; Svensson, Joachim; Thorning, Maria

    2018-01-01

    Background and purpose - Threshold values defining 3 categories of passive range of motion are used in the Cerebral Palsy follow-Up Program to guide clinical decisions. The aim of this study was to investigate the threshold values by testing the hypothesis that passive range of motion in ankle...... dorsiflexion is associated with gross motor function and that function differs between the groups of participants in each category. Patients and methods - We analyzed data from 60 ambulatory children (aged 5-9 years) with spastic cerebral palsy. Outcomes were passive range of motion in ankle dorsiflexion...... with flexed and extended knee and gross motor function (Gait Deviation Index, Gait Variable Score of the ankle, peak dorsiflexion during gait, 1-minute walk, Gross Motor Function Measure, the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory Cerebral Palsy Module, and Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument). Results...

  17. Gross motor skill performance in children with and without visual impairments--research to practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Matthias O; Haibach, Pamela S; Lieberman, Lauren J

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to provide an empirical basis for teaching gross motor skills in children with visual impairments. For this purpose, gross motor skill performance of 23, 6-12 year old, boys and girls who are blind (ICD-10 H54.0) and 28 sighted controls with comparable age and gender characteristics was compared on six locomotor and six object control tasks using the Test of Gross Motor Development-Second Edition. Results indicate that children who are blind perform significantly (pskills, whereby running, leaping, kicking and catching are the most affected skills, and corresponding differences are related to most running, leaping, kicking and catching component. Practical implications are provided. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of gross motor function and manual function levels on performance-based ADL motor skills of children with spastic cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Myoung-Ok

    2017-02-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine effects of Gross Motor Function Classification System and Manual Ability Classification System levels on performance-based motor skills of children with spastic cerebral palsy. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-three children with cerebral palsy were included. The Assessment of Motor and Process Skills was used to evaluate performance-based motor skills in daily life. Gross motor function was assessed using Gross Motor Function Classification Systems, and manual function was measured using the Manual Ability Classification System. [Results] Motor skills in daily activities were significantly different on Gross Motor Function Classification System level and Manual Ability Classification System level. According to the results of multiple regression analysis, children categorized as Gross Motor Function Classification System level III scored lower in terms of performance based motor skills than Gross Motor Function Classification System level I children. Also, when analyzed with respect to Manual Ability Classification System level, level II was lower than level I, and level III was lower than level II in terms of performance based motor skills. [Conclusion] The results of this study indicate that performance-based motor skills differ among children categorized based on Gross Motor Function Classification System and Manual Ability Classification System levels of cerebral palsy.

  19. Impact of a Community-Based Programme for Motor Development on Gross Motor Skills and Cognitive Function in Preschool Children from Disadvantaged Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, Catherine E.; Achmat, Masturah; Forbes, Jared; Lambert, Estelle V.

    2012-01-01

    The aims of the studies were to assess the impact of the Little Champs programme for motor development on (1) the gross motor skills, and (2) cognitive function of children in the programme. In study 1, 118 children from one Early Childhood Development Centre (ECDC) were tested using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2, and in study 2, 83…

  20. Improving gross motor function and postural control with hippotherapy in children with Down syndrome: case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champagne, Danielle; Dugas, Claude

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this case report is to describe the impact of an 11-week hippotherapy program on the gross motor functions of two children (respectively 28 and 37 months old) diagnosed with Down syndrome. Hippotherapy is a strategy that uses the horse's motion to stimulate and enhance muscle contraction and postural control. The children were assessed by the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) and accelerometry. The results indicate that both children improved on many dimensions of the GMFM. Power spectral analysis of the acceleration signals showed improvement in postural control of either the head or trunk, because the children adopted two different adaptative strategies to perturbation induced by the moving horse.

  1. Deficits in fine motor skills in a genetic animal model of ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Yu

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In an attempt to model some behavioral aspects of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD, we examined whether an existing genetic animal model of ADHD is valid for investigating not only locomotor hyperactivity, but also more complex motor coordination problems displayed by the majority of children with ADHD. Methods We subjected young adolescent Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHRs, the most commonly used genetic animal model of ADHD, to a battery of tests for motor activity, gross motor coordination, and skilled reaching. Wistar (WIS rats were used as controls. Results Similar to children with ADHD, young adolescent SHRs displayed locomotor hyperactivity in a familiar, but not in a novel environment. They also had lower performance scores in a complex skilled reaching task when compared to WIS rats, especially in the most sensitive measure of skilled performance (i.e., single attempt success. In contrast, their gross motor performance on a Rota-Rod test was similar to that of WIS rats. Conclusion The results support the notion that the SHR strain is a useful animal model system to investigate potential molecular mechanisms underlying fine motor skill problems in children with ADHD.

  2. Individual differences in motor timing and its relation to cognitive and fine motor skills.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Håvard Lorås

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the relationship between individual differences in timing movements at the level of milliseconds and performance on selected cognitive and fine motor skills. For this purpose, young adult participants (N = 100 performed a repetitive movement task paced by an auditory metronome at different rates. Psychometric measures included the digit-span and symbol search subtasks from the Wechsler battery as well as the Raven SPM. Fine motor skills were assessed with the Purdue Pegboard test. Motor timing performance was significantly related (mean r = .3 to cognitive measures, and explained both unique and shared variance with information-processing speed of Raven's scores. No significant relations were found between motor timing measures and fine motor skills. These results show that individual differences in cognitive and motor timing performance is to some extent dependent upon shared processing not associated with individual differences in manual dexterity.

  3. Gross motor function in children with spastic Cerebral Palsy and Cerebral Visual Impairment : A comparison between outcomes of the original and the Cerebral Visual Impairment adapted Gross Motor Function Measure-88 (GMFM-88-CVI)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salavati, M.; Rameckers, E. A. A.; Waninge, A.; Krijnen, W. P.; Steenbergen, B.; van der Schans, C. P.

    Purpose: To investigate whether the adapted version of the Gross Motor Function Measure 88 (GMFM-88) for children with Cerebral Palsy (CP) and Cerebral Visual Impairment (CVI) results in higher scores. This is most likely to be a reflection of their gross motor function, however it may be the result

  4. Gross motor development and physical activity in kindergarten age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colella, Dario; Morano, Milena

    2011-10-01

    Physical activity in kindergarten is a fundamental part of the child's educational process. Body experience and physical activity contribute to the development of self-awareness and the learning of different modes of expression, as well as encouraging the acquisition of physically active lifestyles. Recent scientific evidence has confirmed the role of physical activity in disease prevention and quality of life improvement, and stressed the importance of integrated educational programmes promoting physical activity and healthy eating habits. A key priority of scientific research is to identify the opportunities and methods of motor learning and to increase the daily physical activity levels of children by reducing sedentary time and promoting active play and transport (i.e. walking, cycling). Family, school and community involvement are all needed to assure adherence to the official guidelines on how much physical activity children need to boost their health and stave off obesity.

  5. Effect of hippotherapy on gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jeong-Yi; Chang, Hyun Jung; Yi, Sook-Hee; Lee, Ji Young; Shin, Hye-Yeon; Kim, Yun-Hee

    2015-01-01

    To examine whether hippotherapy has a clinically significant effect on gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Randomized controlled trial. Outpatient therapy center. Ninety-two children with CP, aged 4-10 years, presenting variable function (Gross Motor Function Classification System [GMFCS] levels I-IV). Hippotherapy (30 minutes twice weekly for 8 consecutive weeks). Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM)-88, GMFM-66, and Pediatric Balance Scale. Pre- and post-treatment measures were completed by 91 children (45 in the intervention group and 46 in the control group). Differences in improvement on all three measures significantly differed between groups after the 8-week study period. Dimensions of GMFM-88 improved significantly after hippotherapy varied by GMFCS level: dimension E in level I, dimensions D and E in level II, dimensions C and D in level III, and dimensions B and C in level IV. Hippotherapy positively affects gross motor function and balance in children with CP of various functional levels.

  6. A longitudinal study on gross motor development in children with learning disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westendorp, Marieke; Hartman, Esther; Houwen, Suzanne; Huijgen, Barbara C. H.; Smith, Joanne; Visscher, Chris

    This longitudinal study examined the development of gross motor skills, and sex-differences therein, in 7; to 11-years-old children with learning disorders (LD) and compared the results with typically developing children to determine the performance level of children with LD. In children with LD (n

  7. Gross motor skills and sports participation of children with visual impairments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwen, S; Visscher, C.; Hartman, E.; Lemmink, K.A.P.M.

    Gross motor skill performance of children with visual impairments and its association with the degree of visual impairment and sports participation was examined. Twenty children with visual impairments (M age = 9.2 years, SD =1.5) and 100 sighted children (M age = 9.1 years, SD = 1.5) from

  8. Gross Motor Skills and Sports Participation of Children with Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houwen, Suzanne; Visscher, Chris; Hartman, Esther; Lemmink, Koen A. P. M.

    2007-01-01

    Gross motor skill performance of children with visual impairments and its association with the degree of visual impairment and sports participation was examined. Twenty children with visual impairments (M age = 9.2 years, SD = 1.5) and 100 sighted children (M age = 9.1 years, SD = 1.5) from mainstream schools participated. The results showed that…

  9. Effects of Aquatic Intervention on Gross Motor Skills in Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roostaei, Meysam; Baharlouei, Hamzeh; Azadi, Hamidreza; Fragala-Pinkham, Maria A

    2017-10-20

    To review the literature on the effects of aquatic intervention on gross motor skills for children with cerebral palsy (CP). Six databases were searched from inception to January 2016. Aquatic studies for children aged 1-21 years with any type or CP classification and at least one outcome measuring gross motor skills were included. Information was extracted on study design, outcomes, and aquatic program type, frequency, duration, and intensity. Quality was rated using the Centre of Evidence-Based Medicine: Levels of Evidence and the PEDro scale. Of the 11 studies which met inclusion criteria, only two used randomized control trial design, and the results were mixed. Quality of evidence was rated as moderate to high for only one study. Most studies used quasi-experimental designs and reported improvements in gross motor skills for within group analyses after aquatic programs were held for two to three times per week and lasting for 6-16 weeks. Participants were classified according to the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels I-V, and were aged 3-21 years. Mild to no adverse reactions were reported. Evidence on aquatic interventions for ambulatory children with CP is limited. Aquatic exercise is feasible and adverse effects are minimal; however, dosing parameters are unclear. Further research is needed to determine aquatic intervention effectiveness and exercise dosing across age categories and GMFCS levels.

  10. Gross Motor Performance and Physical Fitness in Children with Psychiatric Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emck, Claudia; Bosscher, Ruud J.; van Wieringen, Piet C. W.; Doreleijers, Theo; Beek, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: Gross motor performance appears to be impaired in children with psychiatric disorders but little is known about which skill domains are affected in each disorder, nor about possible accompanying deficits in physical fitness. The present study has sought to provide information about these issues in children with emotional, behavioural, and…

  11. Gross Motor Development in Children Aged 3-5 Years, United States 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kit, Brian K; Akinbami, Lara J; Isfahani, Neda Sarafrazi; Ulrich, Dale A

    2017-07-01

    Objective Gross motor development in early childhood is important in fostering greater interaction with the environment. The purpose of this study is to describe gross motor skills among US children aged 3-5 years using the Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD-2). Methods We used 2012 NHANES National Youth Fitness Survey (NNYFS) data, which included TGMD-2 scores obtained according to an established protocol. Outcome measures included locomotor and object control raw and age-standardized scores. Means and standard errors were calculated for demographic and weight status with SUDAAN using sample weights to calculate nationally representative estimates, and survey design variables to account for the complex sampling methods. Results The sample included 339 children aged 3-5 years. As expected, locomotor and object control raw scores increased with age. Overall mean standardized scores for locomotor and object control were similar to the mean value previously determined using a normative sample. Girls had a higher mean locomotor, but not mean object control, standardized score than boys (p  0.05). Conclusions In a nationally representative sample of US children aged 3-5 years, TGMD-2 mean locomotor and object control standardized scores were similar to the established mean. These results suggest that standardized gross motor development among young children generally did not differ by demographic or weight status.

  12. Get Kids Moving: Simple Activities To Build Gross-Motor Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Child Care, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Highlights the importance of activities to build gross motor skills and provides hints for encouraging such activities. Specific areas of activities presented are: (1) running and jumping; (2) music games; (3) action games; (4) races; (5) bed sheets or parachutes; (6) hula hoops; (7) balls; (8) batting; (9) balance; and (10) creative movement. (SD)

  13. Toddlers’ Fine Motor Milestone Achievement is Associated with Early Touchscreen Scrolling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachael Bedford

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Touchscreen technologies provide an intuitive and attractive source of sensory/cognitive stimulation for young children. Despite fears that usage may have a negative impact on toddlers’ cognitive development, empirical evidence is lacking. The current study presents results from the UK Toddler Attentional Behaviours and LEarning with Touchscreens (TABLET project, examining the association between toddlers’ touchscreen use and the attainment of developmental milestones. Data were gathered in an online survey of 715 parents of 6- to 36-month-olds to address two research questions: 1 How does touchscreen use change from 6 to 36 months? 2 In toddlers (19 to 36 months i.e., above the median age, n = 366, how does retrospectively reported age of first touchscreen usage relate to gross motor (i.e., walking, fine motor (i.e., stacking blocks and language (i.e., producing two-word utterances milestones? In our sample, the proportion of children using touchscreens, as well as the average daily usage time, increased with age (youngest quartile, 6-11 months: 51.22% users, 8.53 minutes per day; oldest quartile, 26-36 months: 92.05% users, average use of 43.95 minutes per day. In toddlers, aged 19-36 months, age of first touchscreen use was significantly associated with fine motor (stacking blocks, p = 0.03, after controlling for covariates age, sex, mother’s education (a proxy for SES as well as age of early fine motor milestone achievement (pincer grip. This effect was only present for active scrolling of the touchscreen p = 0.04, not for video watching. No significant relationships were found between touchscreen use and either gross motor or language milestones. Touchscreen use increases rapidly over the first three years of life. In the current study, we find no evidence to support a negative association between the age of first touchscreen usage and developmental milestones. Indeed, earlier touchscreen use, specifically scrolling of the screen, was

  14. Factors Associated with Enhanced Gross Motor Progress in Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Register-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Størvold, Gunfrid V; Jahnsen, Reidun B; Evensen, Kari Anne I; Romild, Ulla K; Bratberg, Grete H

    2018-05-01

    To examine associations between interventions and child characteristics; and enhanced gross motor progress in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Prospective cohort study based on 2048 assessments of 442 children (256 boys, 186 girls) aged 2-12 years registered in the Cerebral Palsy Follow-up Program and the Cerebral Palsy Register of Norway. Gross motor progress estimates were based on repeated measures of reference percentiles for the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM-66) in a linear mixed model. Mean follow-up time: 2.9 years. Intensive training was the only intervention factor associated with enhanced gross motor progress (mean 3.3 percentiles, 95% CI: 1.0, 5.5 per period of ≥3 sessions per week and/or participation in an intensive program). Gross motor function was on average 24.2 percentiles (95% CI: 15.2, 33.2) lower in children with intellectual disability compared with others. Except for eating problems (-10.5 percentiles 95% CI: -18.5, -2.4) and ankle contractures by age (-1.9 percentiles 95% CI: -3.6, -0.2) no other factors examined were associated with long-term gross motor progress. Intensive training was associated with enhanced gross motor progress over an average of 2.9 years in children with CP. Intellectual disability was a strong negative prognostic factor. Preventing ankle contractures appears important for gross motor progress.

  15. Relation between hand function and gross motor function in full term infants aged 4 to 8 months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange F. Nogueira

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: In children, reaching emerges around four months of age, which is followed by rapid changes in hand function and concomitant changes in gross motor function, including the acquisition of independent sitting. Although there is a close functional relationship between these domains, to date they have been investigated separately. Objective: To investigate the longitudinal profile of changes and the relationship between the development of hand function (i.e. reaching for and manipulating an object and gross motor function in 13 normally developing children born at term who were evaluated every 15 days from 4 to 8 months of age. Method: The number of reaches and the period (i.e. time of manipulation to an object were extracted from video synchronized with the Qualisys(r movement analysis system. Gross motor function was measured using the Alberta Infant Motor Scale. ANOVA for repeated measures was used to test the effect of age on the number of reaches, the time of manipulation and gross motor function. Hierarchical regression models were used to test the associations of reaching and manipulation with gross motor function. Results: Results revealed a significant increase in the number of reaches (p<0.001, the time of manipulation (p<0.001 and gross motor function (p<0.001 over time, as well as associations between reaching and gross motor function (R2=0.84; p<0.001 and manipulation and gross motor function (R2=0.13; p=0.02 from 4 to 6 months of age. Associations from 6 to 8 months of age were not significant. Conclusion: The relationship between hand function and gross motor function was not constant, and the age span from 4 to 6 months was a critical period of interdependency of hand function and gross motor function development.

  16. Balance, Proprioception, and Gross Motor Development of Chinese Children Aged 3 to 6 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Gui-Ping; Jiao, Xi-Bian; Wu, Sheng-Kou; Ji, Zhong-Qiu; Liu, Wei-Tong; Chen, Xi; Wang, Hui-Hui

    2018-01-01

    The authors' aim was to find the features of balance, proprioception, and gross motor development of Chinese children 3-6 years old and their correlations, provide theoretical support for promoting children's motor development, and enrich the world theoretical system of motor development. This study used a Tekscan foot pressure measurement instrument (Tekscan, Inc., Boston, MA), walking on a balance beam, Xsens 3-dimensional positional measuring system (Xsens Technologies, Enschede, the Netherlands), and Test of Gross Motor Development-2 to assess static balance, dynamic balance, knee proprioception, and levels of gross motor development (GMD) of 3- to 6-year-old children (n = 60) in Beijing. The results are as follows: children had significant age differences in static balance, dynamic balance, proprioception, and levels of GMD; children had significant gender differences in static balance, proprioception, and levels of GMD; children's static balance, dynamic balance, and proprioception had a very significant positive correlation with GMD (p < .01), but no significant correlation with body mass index.

  17. Laterality of cerebral hemispheres on CT scan and gross motor function in severely handicapped children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwasaki, Nobuaki; Hamano, Kenzo; Nakamoto, Natsue; Okada, Yusuke [Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan); Takeya, Toshiki

    1997-06-01

    The relation between brain damage and gross motor function in severely handicapped children (spastic type) was studied. The subjects were fifteen cases with laterality in their cerebral hemisphere CT scans (laterality group) and 28 cases with no laterality (control group). All cases were divided into four groups according to the level of gross motor function. The grade of brain damage was estimated based on CT scan analysis using the following parameters and index: maximum frontal extracerebral space (ES), maximum width of Sylvian fissure (SY), Evans` ratio, and cella media index. In the laterality group, the parameters and index were measured for both cerebral hemispheres, respectively. In the more severely disturbed hemisphere of the laterality group, ES and SY were significantly enlarged compared with those of the cases with the same level of motor function in the control group (p<0.01). In the less severely disturbed hemisphere of the laterality group, the ES, SY, Evans` ratio and cell media index were not significantly enlarged compared to cases with the same level of motor function as the control group. These findings may indicate that gross motor function of severely handicapped children is closely related to the less severely disturbed cerebral hemisphere. (author)

  18. Laterality of cerebral hemispheres on CT scan and gross motor function in severely handicapped children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasaki, Nobuaki; Hamano, Kenzo; Nakamoto, Natsue; Okada, Yusuke; Takeya, Toshiki.

    1997-01-01

    The relation between brain damage and gross motor function in severely handicapped children (spastic type) was studied. The subjects were fifteen cases with laterality in their cerebral hemisphere CT scans (laterality group) and 28 cases with no laterality (control group). All cases were divided into four groups according to the level of gross motor function. The grade of brain damage was estimated based on CT scan analysis using the following parameters and index: maximum frontal extracerebral space (ES), maximum width of Sylvian fissure (SY), Evans' ratio, and cella media index. In the laterality group, the parameters and index were measured for both cerebral hemispheres, respectively. In the more severely disturbed hemisphere of the laterality group, ES and SY were significantly enlarged compared with those of the cases with the same level of motor function in the control group (p<0.01). In the less severely disturbed hemisphere of the laterality group, the ES, SY, Evans' ratio and cell media index were not significantly enlarged compared to cases with the same level of motor function as the control group. These findings may indicate that gross motor function of severely handicapped children is closely related to the less severely disturbed cerebral hemisphere. (author)

  19. Screening preschool children for fine motor skills: environmental influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comuk-Balci, Nilay; Bayoglu, Birgul; Tekindal, Agah; Kerem-Gunel, Mintaze; Anlar, Banu

    2016-03-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of gender and family factors on performance in the fine motor domain of the Denver II developmental screening test. [Subjects and Methods] Data were obtained from 2038 healthy children, 999 boys (49%) and 1039 girls (51%) in four age groups: 0-24 months (57%), 25-40 months (21.1%), 41-56 months (10.4%), and 57-82 months (11.5%). [Results] Female gender, higher maternal age, especially in children older than 24 months, and higher maternal education were associated with earlier accomplishment of fine motor items. Higher socioeconomic status was correlated with fine motor skills more noticeably at young ages. [Conclusion] The results of this study support the role of environmental factors in the interpretation of fine motor test results and point to target groups for intervention, such as infants in the low socioeconomic group and preschool children of less educated mothers. Studies in different populations may reveal particular patterns that affect child development.

  20. Improving Fine Motor Skills in Young Children: An Intervention Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Carol G.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the Primary Movement programme on the fine motor skills of children in an early years setting in an area of high social disadvantage. Primary Movement is a programme which can be used as an early intervention technique to help children inhibit persistent primary reflexes that have been shown to…

  1. Fine-motor skills testing and prediction of endovascular performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Bo; Lönn, Lars; Schroeder, Torben V

    2013-01-01

    Performing endovascular procedures requires good control of fine-motor digital movements and hand-eye coordination. Objective assessment of such skills is difficult. Trainees acquire control of catheter/wire movements at various paces. However, little is known to what extent talent plays for novice...

  2. PROMOTING GROSS MOTOR SKILLS IN TODDLERS: THE ACTIVE BEGINNINGS PILOT CLUSTER RANDOMIZED TRIAL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldman, Sanne L C; Okely, Anthony D; Jones, Rachel A

    2015-12-01

    This study examined the feasibility, acceptability, and potential efficacy of a gross motor skill program for toddlers. An 8-wk. skills program in which children practiced three skills was implemented for 10 min. daily in two randomly designated childcare centers. Two other centers served as the control group. Recruitment and retention rates were collected for feasibility. Data on professional development, children's participation, program duration, and appropriateness of the lessons were collected for acceptability, and the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 and Get Skilled, Get Active (total of 28 points) were used to look at the potential efficacy. The participants were 60 toddlers (M age=2.5 yr., SD=0.4; n=29 boys), and the retention rate was 95%. Overall participation was 76%, and educators rated 98% of the lessons as appropriate. Compared with the control group, the intervention group showed significantly greater improvements in motor skills (pmotor skills among toddlers.

  3. Fine motor skills in children with prenatal alcohol exposure or fetal alcohol spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doney, Robyn; Lucas, Barbara R; Jones, Taryn; Howat, Peter; Sauer, Kay; Elliott, Elizabeth J

    2014-01-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) can cause fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) and associated neurodevelopmental impairments. It is uncertain which types of fine motor skills are most likely to be affected after PAE or which assessment tools are most appropriate to use in FASD diagnostic assessments. This systematic review examined which types of fine motor skills are impaired in children with PAE or FASD; which fine motor assessments are appropriate for FASD diagnosis; and whether fine motor impairments are evident at both "low" and "high" PAE levels. A systematic review of relevant databases was undertaken using key terms. Relevant studies were extracted using a standardized form, and methodological quality was rated using a critical appraisal tool. Twenty-four studies met inclusion criteria. Complex fine motor skills, such as visual-motor integration, were more frequently impaired than basic fine motor skills, such as grip strength. Assessment tools that specifically assessed fine motor skills more consistently identified impairments than those which assessed fine motor skills as part of a generalized neurodevelopmental assessment. Fine motor impairments were associated with "moderate" to "high" PAE levels. Few studies reported fine motor skills of children with "low" PAE levels, so the effect of lower PAE levels on fine motor skills remains uncertain. Comprehensive assessment of a range of fine motor skills in children with PAE is important to ensure an accurate FASD diagnosis and develop appropriate therapeutic interventions for children with PAE-related fine motor impairments.

  4. Factor analysis of the contextual fine motor questionnaire in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chin-Kai; Meng, Ling-Fu; Yu, Ya-Wen; Chen, Che-Kuo; Li, Kuan-Hua

    2014-02-01

    Most studies treat fine motor as one subscale in a developmental test, hence, further factor analysis of fine motor has not been conducted. In fact, fine motor has been treated as a multi-dimensional domain from both clinical and theoretical perspectives, and therefore to know its factors would be valuable. The aim of this study is to analyze the internal consistency and factor validity of the Contextual Fine Motor Questionnaire (CFMQ). Based on the ecological observation and literature, the Contextual Fine Motor Questionnaire (CFMQ) was developed and includes 5 subscales: Pen Control, Tool Use During Handicraft Activities, the Use of Dining Utensils, Connecting and Separating during Dressing and Undressing, and Opening Containers. The main purpose of this study is to establish the factorial validity of the CFMQ through conducting this factor analysis study. Among 1208 questionnaires, 904 were successfully completed. Data from the children's CFMQ submitted by primary care providers was analyzed, including 485 females (53.6%) and 419 males (46.4%) from grades 1 to 5, ranging in age from 82 to 167 months (M=113.9, SD=16.3). Cronbach's alpha was used to measure internal consistency and explorative factor analysis was applied to test the five factor structures within the CFMQ. Results showed that Cronbach's alpha coefficient of the CFMQ for 5 subscales ranged from .77 to .92 and all item-total correlations with corresponding subscales were larger than .4 except one item. The factor loading of almost all items classified to their factor was larger than .5 except 3 items. There were five factors, explaining a total of 62.59% variance for the CFMQ. In conclusion, the remaining 24 items in the 5 subscales of the CFMQ had appropriate internal consistency, test-retest reliability and construct validity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of Motor Skill Intervention on Gross Motor Development, Creative Thinking and Academic Performance in Preschool Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Jiménez Díaz

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate how students (mean= 6.08±0.5 years benefit from a physical education program in motor performance, creative thinking and academic achievement. Students (n = 39 were randomly assigned to comparison group (6 boys and 7 girls who received the regular preschool program (which includes 1 session of 30 minutes per week; intervention group 1 (6 boys and 7 girls who received the regular preschool program plus 1 session of 30 minutes per week of the intervention program; or intervention group 2 (6 boys and 7 girls, who received the regular preschool program plus 1 session of 60 minutes per week of the intervention program; during 8 weeks. All participants performed the Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD-2 and the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking (TTCT before and after the study. The academic achievement score was given by the school. The ANOVA (Group x Gender x Time pre and post analysis revealed a significant triple interaction in the object control. Significant double interactions in the locomotor subscale and in the gross motor quotient were also found. After the post-hoc analysis, the results suggest that the physical education program benefits the gross motor performance and did not have an effect on the creative thinking or on the academic achievement.

  6. Effect of Group Setting on Gross Motor Performance in Children 3-5 Years Old with Motor Delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, Deanne; Wilkinson, Tawna; Wagoner, Michelle; Brooks, Danna; Quinn, Lauren; Turnell, Andrea

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate differences in gross motor performance of children 3-5 years of age with motor delays when assessed individually compared to assessment in a group setting among peers with typical development (TD). Twenty children with motor delays and 42 children with TD were recruited from a preschool program. A within-subject repeated measures design was used; each child with delay was tested both in an individual setting and in a group setting with two to four peers with TD. Testing sessions were completed 4-8 days apart. Ten different motor skills from the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales-2 were administered. Performance of each item was videotaped and scored by a blinded researcher. Overall gross motor performance was significantly different (p < .05) between the two settings, with 14 of 20 children demonstrating better performance in the group setting. In particular, children performed better on locomotion items (p < .05). The higher scores for locomotion in the group setting may be due to the influence of competition, motivation, or modeling. Assessing a child in a group setting is recommended as part of the evaluation process.

  7. Can a virtual reality assessment of fine motor skill predict successful central line insertion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamadipanah, Hossein; Parthiban, Chembian; Nathwani, Jay; Rutherford, Drew; DiMarco, Shannon; Pugh, Carla

    2016-10-01

    Due to the increased use of peripherally inserted central catheter lines, central lines are not performed as frequently. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether a virtual reality (VR)-based assessment of fine motor skills can be used as a valid and objective assessment of central line skills. Surgical residents (N = 43) from 7 general surgery programs performed a subclavian central line in a simulated setting. Then, they participated in a force discrimination task in a VR environment. Hand movements from the subclavian central line simulation were tracked by electromagnetic sensors. Gross movements as monitored by the electromagnetic sensors were compared with the fine motor metrics calculated from the force discrimination tasks in the VR environment. Long periods of inactivity (idle time) during needle insertion and lack of smooth movements, as detected by the electromagnetic sensors, showed a significant correlation with poor force discrimination in the VR environment. Also, long periods of needle insertion time correlated to the poor performance in force discrimination in the VR environment. This study shows that force discrimination in a defined VR environment correlates to needle insertion time, idle time, and hand smoothness when performing subclavian central line placement. Fine motor force discrimination may serve as a valid and objective assessment of the skills required for successful needle insertion when placing central lines. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Longitudinal evaluation of fine motor skills in children with leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockenberry, Marilyn; Krull, Kevin; Moore, Ki; Gregurich, Mary Ann; Casey, Marissa E; Kaemingk, Kris

    2007-08-01

    Improved survival for children with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) has allowed investigators to focus on the adverse or side effects of treatment and to develop interventions that promote cure while decreasing the long-term effects of therapy. Although much attention has been given to the significant neurocognitive sequelae that can occur after ALL therapy, limited investigation is found addressing fine motor function in these children and motor function that may contribute to neurocognitive deficits in ALL survivors. Fine motor and sensory-perceptual performances were examined in 82 children with ALL within 6-months of diagnosis and annually for 2 years (year 1 and year 2, respectively) during therapy. Purdue Pegboard assessments indicated significant slowing of fine motor speed and dexterity for the dominant hand, nondominant hand, and both hands simultaneously for children in this study. Mean Visual-Motor Integration (VMI) scores for children with low-risk and high-risk ALL decreased from the first evaluation to year 1 and again at year 2. Mean VMI scores for children with standard risk ALL increased from the first evaluation to year 1 and then decreased at year 2. Significant positive correlations were found between the Purdue and the VMI at both year 1 and year 2, suggesting that the Pegboard performance consistently predicts the later decline in visual-motor integration. Significant correlations were found between the Purdue Pegboard at baseline and the Performance IQ during year 1, though less consistently during year 2. A similar pattern was also observed between the baseline Pegboard performance and performance on the Coding and Symbol Search subtests during year 1 and year 2. In this study, children with ALL experienced significant and persistent visual-motor problems throughout therapy. These problems continued during the first and second years of treatment. These basic processing skills are necessary to the development of higher-level cognitive

  9. Spontaneous movements of preterm infants is associated with outcome of gross motor development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyagishima, Saori; Asaka, Tadayoshi; Kamatsuka, Kaori; Kozuka, Naoki; Kobayashi, Masaki; Igarashi, Lisa; Hori, Tsukasa; Tsutsumi, Hiroyuki

    2018-04-30

    We conducted a longitudinal cohort study to analyze the relationship between outcome of gross motor development in preterm infants and factors that might affect their development. Preterm infants with a birth weight of antigravity limbs movements by 3D motion capture system at 3 months corrected age. Gross motor developmental outcomes at 6 and 12 months corrected age were evaluated using the Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS). Statistical analysis was carried out by canonical correlation analysis. Eighteen preterm infants were included. In the 6 months corrected age analysis, spontaneous movement had a major effect on Prone and Sitting at 6 months corrected age of AIMS. In the 12 months corrected age analysis, spontaneous movement had a major effect on Sitting and Standing at 12 months corrected age of AIMS. In preterm infants, better antigravity spontaneous movements at 3 months corrected age were significantly correlated with better gross motor development at 6 or 12 months corrected age. Copyright © 2018 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. A longitudinal study on gross motor development in children with learning disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westendorp, Marieke; Hartman, Esther; Houwen, Suzanne; Huijgen, Barbara C H; Smith, Joanne; Visscher, Chris

    2014-02-01

    This longitudinal study examined the development of gross motor skills, and sex-differences therein, in 7- to 11-years-old children with learning disorders (LD) and compared the results with typically developing children to determine the performance level of children with LD. In children with LD (n=56; 39 boys, 17 girls), gross motor skills were assessed with the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 and measured annually during a 3-year period. Motor scores of 253 typically developing children (125 boys, 112 girls) were collected for references values. The multilevel analyses showed that the ball skills of children with LD improved with age (p50). Boys had higher ball skill scores than girls (p=.002) and these differences were constant over time. Typically developing children outperformed the children with LD on the locomotor skills and ball skills at all ages, except the locomotor skills at age 7. Children with LD develop their ball skills later in the primary school-period compared to typically developing peers. However, 11 year-old children with LD had a lag in locomotor skills and ball skills of at least four and three years, respectively, compared to their peers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The impact of diurnal sleep on the consolidation of a complex gross motor adaptation task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoedlmoser, Kerstin; Birklbauer, Juergen; Schabus, Manuel; Eibenberger, Patrick; Rigler, Sandra; Mueller, Erich

    2015-01-01

    Diurnal sleep effects on consolidation of a complex, ecological valid gross motor adaptation task were examined using a bicycle with an inverse steering device. We tested 24 male subjects aged between 20 and 29 years using a between-subjects design. Participants were trained to adapt to the inverse steering bicycle during 45 min. Performance was tested before (TEST1) and after (TEST2) training, as well as after a 2 h retention interval (TEST3). During retention, participants either slept or remained awake. To assess gross motor performance, subjects had to ride the inverse steering bicycle 3 × 30 m straight-line and 3 × 30 m through a slalom. Beyond riding time, we sophisticatedly measured performance accuracy (standard deviation of steering angle) in both conditions using a rotatory potentiometer. A significant decrease of accuracy during straight-line riding after nap and wakefulness was shown. Accuracy during slalom riding remained stable after wakefulness but was reduced after sleep. We found that the duration of rapid eye movement sleep as well as sleep spindle activity are negatively related with gross motor performance changes over sleep. Together these findings suggest that the consolidation of adaptation to a new steering device does not benefit from a 2 h midday nap. We speculate that in case of strongly overlearned motor patterns such as normal cycling, diurnal sleep spindles and rapid eye movement sleep might even help to protect everyday needed skills, and to rapidly forget newly acquired, interfering and irrelevant material. PMID:25256866

  12. Clumsiness in fine motor tasks: evidence from the quantitative drawing evaluation of children with Down Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vimercati, S L; Galli, M; Stella, G; Caiazzo, G; Ancillao, A; Albertini, G

    2015-03-01

    Drawing tests are commonly used for the clinical evaluation of cognitive capabilities in children with learning disabilities. We analysed quantitatively the drawings of children with Down Syndrome (DS) and of healthy, mental age-matched controls to characterise the features of fine motor skills in DS during a drawing task, with particular attention to clumsiness, a well-known feature of DS gross movements. Twenty-three children with DS and 13 controls hand-copied the figures of a circle, a cross and a square on a sheet. An optoelectronic system allowed the acquisition of the three-dimensional track of the drawing. The participants' posture and upper limb movements were analysed as well. Results showed that the participants with DS tended to draw faster but with less accuracy than controls. While clumsiness in gross movements manifests mainly as slow, less efficient movements, it manifests as high velocity and inaccurate movements in fine motor tasks such as drawing. © 2014 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Physical fitness of primary school children in the reflection of different levels of gross motor coordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Ružbarská

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lower level of motor competences may result in unsuccessful engaging of children in physical activities as early as pre-school age and also prepubescent ages. This may subsequently lead to a spiral of forming negative attitudes towards an active lifestyle and may be accompanied by a negative trend in weight status and physical fitness outcomes. Objective: The aim of the study was to identify and analyze differences in physical fitness and somatic parameters of primary school-aged children according to level of their gross motor coordination. Methods:  A sample of 436 children aged 7 to 10 years, of which were 222 girls and 214 boys, performed physical fitness tests - Eurofit test battery. The level of motor coordination was assessed using the test battery Körperkoordination-Test-für-Kinder (KTK. The anthropometric data (body mass, body height, sum of five skinfolds were measured. The one-way ANOVA was used to assess differences in physical fitness test items and anthropometry parameters between children with normal motor quotient (MQ ≥ 86 and decreased levels of gross motor coordination (MQ ≤ 85. Results: Research findings indicate a strongly negative trend in physical development of children with motor deficits (MQ ≤ 85. The results of ANOVA revealed significantly less favourable level of most of the assessed physical fitness parameters in children with decreased level of motor coordination. Conclusions: The findings suggest that physical fitness outcomes of primary school-aged children are associated with a lower level of motor coordination. Motor coordination probably plays an important role in preventing, or moderating the so-called negative trajectory leading to childhood overweight or obesity.

  14. Does Parent Report Gross Motor Function Level of Cerebral Palsy Children Impact on the Quality of Life in these Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashmdarfard, Marzieh; Amini, Malek; Badv, Reza Shervin; Ghaffarzade Namazi, Narges; Rassafiani, Mehdi

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of parent report gross motor function level of cerebral palsy (CP) children on the parent report quality of life of CP children. Sampling of this cross-sectional study was done in occupational therapy clinics and CP children's schools in 2016 in Zanjan, Iran. Samples size was 60 CP children aged 6-12 yr and for sampling method, a non-probability convenience was used. For assessing the quality of life of CP children the cerebral palsy quality of life (CP QOL) questionnaire and for assessing the level of gross motor function of CP children the Gross Motor Function Classification System Family Report Questionnaire (GMFCSFRQ) were used. The average age of children (22 males and 30 females) was 8.92 yr old (minimum 6 yr and maximum 12 yr). The relationship between the level of gross motor function and participation and physical health was direct and significant (r=0.65). The relationship between functioning, access to services and family health with the level of gross motor function was direct but was not significant ( P >0.05) and the relationship between pain and impact of disability and emotional well-being with the level of gross motor function was significant ( P quality of life of children with cerebral palsy. It means that the level of gross motor function cannot be used as a predictor of quality of life for children with cerebral palsy alone.

  15. Impact of malnutrition on gastrointestinal disorders and gross motor abilities in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanozzi, Angelo; Capano, Guglielmo; Miele, Erasmo; Romano, Alfonso; Scuccimarra, Goffredo; Del Giudice, Ennio; Strisciuglio, Caterina; Militerni, Roberto; Staiano, Annamaria

    2007-01-01

    Children with cerebral palsy (CP) often demonstrate abnormal feeding behaviours, leading to reduced food consumption and malnutrition. Moreover, most of them present with gastrointestinal disorders, such as gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and/or chronic constipation (CC), and poor motor function rehabilitation. The aim of our study was to assess the possible relationship between malnutrition and gastrointestinal problems and to evaluate the role of nutrition on their gross motor abilities in a population of children with CP and mental retardation. Twenty-one consecutive children (10 boys; mean age: 5.8+/-4.7 years; range: 1-14 years) with CP and severe mental retardation. Nutritional assessment included the measurement of body mass index (BMI=W/H2), fat body mass (FBM) and fat free mass (FFM). Children with symptoms suggesting GERD underwent prolonged 24h intraesophageal pH monitoring and/or upper GI endoscopy with biopsies before and after a 6 months of pharmaceutical (omeprazole) and nutritional (20% increment of daily caloric intake) treatments. The motor function was evaluated by "The Gross Motor Function Measure" (GMFM) before and after the 6 months on nutritional rehabilitation. BMI for age was or=25 degrees percentile, five of nine (55.5%) patients had persistent GERD when they were taken off the medication. Malnutrition and gastrointestinal disorders are very common in children with cerebral palsy. Improved nutritional status, particularly fat free mass gain, appears to have an impact on motor function in children with CP.

  16. Effects of hippotherapy on gross motor function and functional performance of children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun Sook; Rha, Dong Wook; Shin, Jung Soon; Kim, Soohyeon; Jung, Soojin

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of our study was to investigate the effects of hippotherapy on gross motor function and functional performance in children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP). We recruited 34 children (M:F=15:19, age: 3-12 years) with spastic CP who underwent hippotherapy for 45 minutes twice a week for 8 weeks. Twenty-one children with spastic CP were recruited for control group. The distribution of gross motor function classification system level and mean age were not significantly different between the two groups. Outcome measures, including the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM)-66, GMFM-88 and the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory: Functional Skills Scale (PEDI-FSS), were assessed before therapy and after the 8-weeks intervention as outcome measures. There were no significant differences between intervention and control groups in mean baseline total scores of GMFM-66, GMFM-88 or PEDI-FSS. After the 8-weeks intervention, mean GMFM-66 and GMFM-88 scores were significantly improved in both groups. However, the hippotherapy group had significantly greater improvement in dimension E and GMFM-66 total score than the control group. The total PEDI-FSS score and the sub-scores of its 3 domains were significantly improved in the hippotherapy group, but not in the control group. The results of our study demonstrate the beneficial effects of hippotherapy on gross motor function and functional performance in children with CP compared to control group. The significant improvement in PEDI-FSS scores suggests that hippotherapy may be useful to maximize the functional performance of children with CP.

  17. The clinical effect of hippotherapy on gross motor function of children with Cerebral Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Litlle

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cerebral palsy (CP is the most common cause of physical disability affecting gross motor function (GMF in early childhood. Hippotherapy is a treatment approach aimed at improving GMF in children with CP. Several systematic reviews have been published showing an improvement in Dimension E of the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM after hippotherapy. However, these reviews failed to evaluate the clinical effect of hippotherapy in improving GMF in children with CP. Objective: To critically appraise the evidence of hippotherapy to ascertain whether it is a clinically meaningful approach for children with CP. Methodology: Five computerised bibliographic databases were searched. Predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria were set. The PEDro scale was used to assess the quality of the studies. A revised JBI Data extraction tool was used to extract data from the selected articles. Revman© Review Manager Software was used to create forest plots for comparisons of results. Results: All studies used the GMFM as an outcome measure for gross motor function. The added benefit of hippotherapy is a minimum 1% and a maximum 7% increase on the GMFM scores. However, all 95% confidence intervals (CI around all the mean differences were insignificant. Conclusion: The clinical effect of hippotherapy on the GMF of children with CP is small. Larger studies are required to provide evidence of the effect of hippotherapy within this population.

  18. Effect of a 12-Week Physical Activity Program on Gross Motor Skills in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Ryan D; Fu, You; Fang, Yi; Hannon, James C; Brusseau, Timothy A

    2017-12-01

    This study examined the effects of a 12-week Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program (CSPAP) on gross motor skill development in children from low-income families. Participants were 1,460 school-aged children (mean age = 8.4 ± 1.8 years; 730 girls, 730 boys) recruited from three schools receiving U.S. governmental financial assistance. Students were recruited from grades K-6. CSPAP was implemented over one semester during the 2014-2015 school year. Select gross motor skill items were assessed during each student's physical education class at baseline and at a 12-week follow-up using the Test for Gross Motor Development-2nd Edition (TGMD-2). Each student's TGMD-2 score was converted to a percentage of the total possible score. A 7 × 2 × 2 analysis of variance test with repeated measures was employed to examine the effects of age, sex, and time on TGMD-2 percent scores, adjusting for clustering within the data structure. There were greater TGMD-2 percent scores at follow-up compared with baseline (82.4% vs. 72.6%, mean difference = 9.8%, p < .001, Cohen's d = 0.67), and greater improvements were seen in younger children compared with older children (mean difference of change = 4.0%-7.5%, p < .01, Cohen's d = 0.30-0.55).

  19. Comparison the Impact of Spark Motor Program and Basketball Techniques on Improving Gross Motor Skills in Educable Intellectually Disabled Boys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashem Faal Moghanlo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives : Different types of practises are known for improving motor skills in intellectually disabled boys. The purpose of this study was to compar e the impact of spark motor program and basketball on improving of gross motor skills in this people.   Methods: In this semi-experimental study , from 98 educable intellectually disabled students who studied in special school in Urmia, 30 children ( age range of 9 to 13 years and IQ mean 64.4 were selected objectively and divided in three groups (2 experimental and 1 control based on pre - test. BOTMP was used as a measurement of motor ability. Selected motor program (Spark motor program including strengthening training, games, sports and basketball techniques was performed for 24 sessions. T-tests (dependent and co-variance were used to comparison of results.   Results: In Spark group after 24 sessions, there were significant effects on balance (p= 0.000, bilateral coordination (p=0.000 and strength (p=0.001. There was no significant effect in agility and speed (p= 0.343 in basketball techniques group after 24 sessions, there were significant effects in agility and speed (p= 0.001, balance (p= 0.000, bilateral coordination (p= 0.013 and strength (p= 0.007.   Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, it can be claimed that the Spark program and basketball techniques improve gross motor skills in educable intellectually disabled students. We also found a significant difference between the Spark program and basketball techniques efficacy on the improved skills. Furthermore, the efficacy of Spark program was significantly higher than basketball techniques (p<0.05.

  20. Relation between hand function and gross motor function in full term infants aged 4 to 8 months

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Solange F.; Figueiredo, Elyonara M.; Gonçalves, Rejane V.; Mancini, Marisa C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: In children, reaching emerges around four months of age, which is followed by rapid changes in hand function and concomitant changes in gross motor function, including the acquisition of independent sitting. Although there is a close functional relationship between these domains, to date they have been investigated separately. Objective: To investigate the longitudinal profile of changes and the relationship between the development of hand function (i.e. reaching for and manipulating an object) and gross motor function in 13 normally developing children born at term who were evaluated every 15 days from 4 to 8 months of age. Method: The number of reaches and the period (i.e. time) of manipulation to an object were extracted from video synchronized with the Qualisys(r) movement analysis system. Gross motor function was measured using the Alberta Infant Motor Scale. ANOVA for repeated measures was used to test the effect of age on the number of reaches, the time of manipulation and gross motor function. Hierarchical regression models were used to test the associations of reaching and manipulation with gross motor function. Results: Results revealed a significant increase in the number of reaches (pgross motor function (pgross motor function (R2=0.84; pgross motor function (R2=0.13; p=0.02) from 4 to 6 months of age. Associations from 6 to 8 months of age were not significant. Conclusion: The relationship between hand function and gross motor function was not constant, and the age span from 4 to 6 months was a critical period of interdependency of hand function and gross motor function development. PMID:25714437

  1. Improvement of gross motor and cognitive abilities by an exercise training program: three case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alesi M

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Marianna Alesi,1 Giuseppe Battaglia,2 Michele Roccella,1 Davide Testa,1 Antonio Palma,2 Annamaria Pepi1 1Department of Psychology, 2Department of Law, Social and Sport Science, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy Background: This work examined the efficacy of an integrated exercise training program (coach and family in three children with Down syndrome to improve their motor and cognitive abilities, in particular reaction time and working memory. Methods: The integrated exercise training program was used in three children with Down syndrome, comprising two boys (M1, with a chronological age of 10.3 years and a mental age of 4.7 years; M2, with a chronological age of 14.6 years and a mental age of less than 4 years and one girl (F1, chronological age 14.0 years and a mental age of less than 4 years. Results: Improvements in gross motor ability scores were seen after the training period. Greater improvements in task reaction time were noted for both evaluation parameters, ie, time and omissions. Conclusion: There is a close interrelationship between motor and cognitive domains in individuals with atypical development. There is a need to plan intervention programs based on the simultaneous involvement of child and parents and aimed at promoting an active lifestyle in individuals with Down syndrome. Keywords: disability, Down syndrome, gross motor abilities, cognitive abilities, physical activity

  2. Difference in children's gross motor skills between two types of preschools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Bik C; Louie, Lobo H T

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of preschool type (public vs private) on motor skill performance in 239 (121 boys, 118 girls) preschool children ages 3 to 6.5 yr. Preschoolers were tested on 12 fundamental motor skills from the Test of Gross Motor Development-Second Edition and 11 anthropometrics (body height, weight, Body Mass Index, waist and hip girths, and body segment lengths). Analysis of variance controlled for anthropometrics and age indicated that children from private preschools performed better on locomotor skills than those from public preschools. However, no difference was found in object control skills. The results suggest that performance of locomotor skills by preschool children is affected by their schools' physical environment.

  3. Gross motor skills in toddlers: Prevalence and socio-demographic differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldman, Sanne L C; Jones, Rachel A; Santos, Rute; Sousa-Sá, Eduarda; Okely, Anthony D

    2018-05-19

    Gross motor skills (GMS) are a vital component of a child's development. Monitoring levels and correlates of GMS is important to ensure appropriate strategies are put in place to promote these skills in young children. The aim of this study was to describe the current level of GMS development of children aged 11-29months and how these levels differ by age, sex, BMI and socio-economic status. Cross-sectional study. This study involved children from 30 childcare services in NSW, Australia. GMS were assessed using the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales Second Edition. Prevalence was reported using the gross motor quotient and both raw and standard scores for locomotor, object manipulation and stationary subtests. Socio-demographics were collected via parent questionnaires. Analyses included t-tests, chi-square tests, one-way ANOVA and linear regression models. This study included 335 children (mean age=19.80±4.08months, 53.9% boys). For the gross motor quotient, 23.3% of the children scored below average. For the GMS subtests, 34.3% of children scored below average for locomotion, 10.1% for object manipulation and 0.3% for stationary. Boys were more proficient in object manipulation than girls (p=0.001). GMS were negatively associated with age and a higher socio-economic status (all pstudy to show the prevalence of below average at locomotor skills in toddlers is higher than reported in normative samples. Early commencement of GMS promotion is recommended with a focus on locomotor skills and girls' object manipulation skills. Copyright © 2018 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Relationship between habitual physical activity and gross motor skills is multifaceted in 5- to 8-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laukkanen, A; Pesola, A; Havu, M; Sääkslahti, A; Finni, T

    2014-04-01

    Adequate motor skills are essential for children participating in age-related physical activities, and gross motor skills may play an important role for maintaining sufficient level of physical activity (PA) during life course. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between gross motor skills and PA in children when PA was analyzed by both metabolic- and neuromuscular-based methods. Gross motor skills (KTK--Körperkoordinationstest für Kinder and APM inventory--manipulative skill test) of 84 children aged 5-8 years (53 preschoolers, 28 girls; 31 primary schoolers, 18 girls) were measured, and accelerometer-derived PA was analyzed using in parallel metabolic counts and neuromuscular impact methods. The gross motor skills were associated with moderate-to-high neuromuscular impacts, PA of vigorous metabolic intensity, and mean level of PA in primary school girls (0.5 motor skills (0.4 motor skills and PA stressing both metabolic and neuromuscular systems in children. Furthermore, PA highly stressing neuromuscular system interacts with gross motor proficiency in girls especially. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Determinants of gross motor skill performance in children with visual impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haibach, Pamela S; Wagner, Matthias O; Lieberman, Lauren J

    2014-10-01

    Children with visual impairments (CWVI) generally perform poorer in gross motor skills when compared with their sighted peers. This study examined the influence of age, sex, and severity of visual impairment upon locomotor and object control skills in CWVI. Participants included 100 CWVI from across the United States who completed the Test of Gross Motor Development II (TGMD-II). The TGMD-II consists of 12 gross motor skills including 6 object control skills (catching, kicking, striking, dribbling, throwing, and rolling) and 6 locomotor skills (running, sliding, galloping, leaping, jumping, and hopping). The full range of visual impairments according to United States Association for Blind Athletes (USABA; B3=20/200-20/599, legally blind; B2=20/600 and up, travel vision; B1=totally blind) were assessed. The B1 group performed significantly worse than the B2 (0.000 ≤ p ≤ 0.049) or B3 groups (0.000 ≤ p ≤ 0.005); however, there were no significant differences between B2 and B3 except for the run (p=0.006), catch (p=0.000), and throw (p=0.012). Age and sex did not play an important role in most of the skills, with the exception of boys outperforming girls striking (p=0.009), dribbling (p=0.013), and throwing (p=0.000), and older children outperforming younger children in dribbling (p=0.002). The significant impact of the severity of visual impairment is likely due to decreased experiences and opportunities for children with more severe visual impairments. In addition, it is likely that these reduced experiences explain the lack of age-related differences in the CWVI. The large disparities in performance between children who are blind and their partially sighted peers give direction for instruction and future research. In addition, there is a critical need for intentional and specific instruction on motor skills at a younger age to enable CWVI to develop their gross motor skills. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The Development of Fine Motor Skills and its Relation to Cognitive Development in Young Children

    OpenAIRE

    Geng, Da; Zhang, Xingli; Shi, Jiannong

    2015-01-01

    Fine motor skills refer to any movement where an individual uses the small muscles or muscle areas of the hands and fingers; these movements serve to development of muscle while also improving the cognitive recognition of the object. Automatic fine motor skills can save limited attention resources for advanced cognition tasks as required by an individual; in the development of fine motor skills and cognition, the two abilities interact, some motor skills are the prerequisite for some cognitio...

  7. Fine motor deficiencies in children diagnosed as DCD based on poor grapho-motor ability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits-Engelsman, BCM; Niemeijer, AS; van Galen, GP

    A sample of 125 children from grades 4 and 5 of two normal Dutch primary schools were investigated regarding the incidence of handwriting problems and other fine motor disabilities. Handwriting quality was assessed with the concise assessment method for children's handwriting (BHK) and the school

  8. Does transcranial direct current stimulation affect the learning of a fine sequential hand motor skill with motor imagery?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sobierajewicz, Jagna; Jaskowski, Wojciech; van der Lubbe, Robert Henricus Johannes

    2017-01-01

    Learning a fine sequential hand motor skill, comparable to playing the piano or learning to type, improves not only due to physical practice, but also due to motor imagery. Previous studies revealed that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and motor imagery independently affect motor

  9. Longitudinal development of gross motor function among Dutch children and young adults with cerebral palsy: an investigation of motor growth curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, Dirk-Wouter; Gorter, Jan Willem; Hanna, Steven E; Dallmeijer, Annet J; van Eck, Mirjam; Roebroeck, Marij E; Vos, Rimke C; Ketelaar, Marjolijn

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to describe patterns for gross motor development by level of severity in a Dutch population of individuals with cerebral palsy (CP). This longitudinal study included 423 individuals (260 males, 163 females) with CP. The mean age at baseline was 9 years 6 months (SD 6y 2mo, range 1-22y). The level of severity of CP among participants, according to the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS), was 50% level I, 13% level II, 14% level III, 13% level IV, and 10% level V. Participants had been assessed up to four times with the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM-66) at 1- or 2-year intervals between 2002 and 2009. Data were analysed using non-linear mixed effects modelling. For each GMFCS level, patterns were created by contrasting a stable limit model (SLM) with a peak and decline model (PDM), followed by estimating limits and rates of gross motor development. The SLM showed a better fit for all GMFCS levels than the PDM. Within the SLM, significant differences between GMFCS levels were found for both the limits (higher values for lower GMFCS levels) and the rates (higher values for GMFCS levels I-II vs level IV and for GMFCS levels I-IV vs level V) of gross motor development. The results validate the existence of five distinct patterns for gross motor development by level of severity of CP. ©The Authors. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology © 2013 Mac Keith Press.

  10. Motor development in individuals with congenital adrenal hyperplasia: strength, targeting, and fine motor skill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collaer, Marcia L; Brook, Charles G D; Conway, Gerard S; Hindmarsh, Peter C; Hines, Melissa

    2009-02-01

    This study investigated early androgen influence on the development of human motor and visuomotor characteristics. Participants, ages 12-45 years, were individuals with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), a disorder causing increased adrenal androgen production before birth (40 females, 29 males) and their unaffected relatives (29 females, 30 males). We investigated grip strength and visuomotor targeting tasks on which males generally outperform females, and fine motor pegboard tasks on which females generally outperform males. Physical characteristics (height and weight) were measured to explore whether body parameters could explain differences in motor skills. Females with CAH were stronger and showed better targeting than unaffected females and showed reduced fine visuomotor skill on one pegboard measure, with no difference on the other. Males with CAH were weaker than unaffected males in grip strength but did not differ on the targeting or pegboard measures. Correction for body size could not explain the findings for females, but suggests that the reduced strength of males with CAH may relate to their smaller stature. Further, the targeting advantage in females with CAH persisted following adjustment for their greater strength. Results in females support the hypothesis that androgen may masculinize, or promote, certain motor characteristics at which males excel, and contribute to defeminization of certain fine motor characteristics at which females excel. Thus, these data suggest that organizational effects of androgens on behavior during prenatal life may extend to motor characteristics and may contribute to general sex differences in motor-related behaviors; however, alternative explanations based on activational influences of androgen or altered experiential factors cannot be excluded without further study.

  11. Development of Young Adults' Fine Motor Skills when Learning to Play Percussion Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gzibovskis, Talis; Marnauza, Mara

    2012-01-01

    When playing percussion instruments, the main activity is done with the help of a motion or motor skills; to perform it, developed fine motor skills are necessary: the speed and precision of fingers, hands and palms. The aim of the research was to study and test the development of young adults' fine motor skills while learning to play percussion…

  12. The relationship between body mass index and gross motor development in children aged 3 to 5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nervik, Deborah; Martin, Kathy; Rundquist, Peter; Cleland, Joshua

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between obesity and gross motor development in children who are developing typically and determine whether body mass index (BMI) predicts difficulty in gross motor skills. BMIs were calculated and gross motor skills examined in 50 children who were healthy aged 3 to 5 years using the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales, 2nd edition (PDMS-2). Pearson chi-square statistic and stepwise linear hierarchical regression were used for analysis. A total of 24% of the children were overweight/obese, whereas 76% were found not to be overweight/obese. Fifty-eight percent of the overweight/obese group scored below average on the PDMS-2 compared to 15% of the nonoverweight group. Association between BMI and gross motor quotients was identified with significance of less than 0.002. Regression results were nonsignificant with all 50 subjects, yet showed significance (P = 0.018) when an outlier was excluded. Children aged 3 to 5 years with high BMIs may have difficulty with their gross motor skills. Further research is needed.

  13. Sleep-related offline improvements in gross motor task performance occur under free recall requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas eMalangre

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Nocturnal sleep effects on memory consolidation following gross motor sequence learning were examined using a complex arm movement task. This task required participants to produce non-regular spatial patterns in the horizontal plane by successively fitting a small peg into different target-holes on an electronic pegboard. The respective reaching movements typically differed in amplitude and direction. Targets were visualized prior to each transport movement on a computer screen. With this task we tested 18 subjects (22.6 +/- 1.9 years; 8 female using a between-subjects design. Participants initially learned a 10-element arm movement sequence either in the morning or in the evening. Performance was retested under free recall requirements 15 minutes post training, as well as 12 hrs and 24 hrs later. Thus each group was provided with one sleep-filled and one wake retention interval. Dependent variables were error rate (number of erroneous sequences and average sequence execution time (correct sequences only. Performance improved during acquisition. Error rate remained stable across retention. Sequence execution time (inverse to execution speed significantly decreased again during the sleep-filled retention intervals, but remained stable during the respective wake intervals. These results corroborate recent findings on sleep-related enhancement consolidation in ecological valid, complex gross motor tasks. At the same time they suggest this effect to be truly memory-based and independent from repeated access to extrinsic sequence information during retests.

  14. Evaluation of gross motor function before and after virtual reality application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza da Silva Pereira Tannus

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Recently virtual reality has been aggregated to the therapeutic possibilities for patients who need functionality gains, such as individuals with cerebral palsy (CP. Aim: to evaluate the effects of virtual reality on the gross motor function of individuals with CP. Methods: longitudinal study, realized in a special education school, with five individuals with CP (7.4 years of age ± 1.14 of both sexes, evaluated using the B, D and E dimensions of the GMFM 88, before and after the application of three Wii Fit Plus(r console games: Hula Hoop, Slide Penguin and Soccer Heading. These games were applied for four minutes per game, at the beginner level, twice a week, for twelve consecutives weeks. The normality of the sample was evaluated through the Shapiro-Wilk's test. The results obtained before and after the Wii Fit(r application were compared using descriptive statistics. Results: all the individuals obtained improvements in the dimensions evaluated after the virtual reality application, with a 5.14% general improvement, varying between 1.9% and 9.6%. The standing (D and walking, running and jumping (E dimensions were the dimensions which obtained higher improvement percentages. Conclusion: considering the study limitations, the results obtained suggest that virtual reality can promote benefits in the gross motor function of individuals with cerebral palsy.

  15. Vitamin D levels are associated with gross motor function in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paganoni, Sabrina; Macklin, Eric A; Karam, Chafic; Yu, Hong; Gonterman, Fernando; Fetterman, K Ashley; Cudkowicz, Merit; Berry, James; Wills, Anne-Marie

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether serum vitamin D [25(OH)D] levels are associated with disease progression in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). 25(OH)D was measured in subjects enrolled in a multicenter study for validation of ALS biomarkers. Baseline 25(OH)D levels were correlated with baseline ALSFRS-R scores. Average 25(OH)D levels from baseline and month 6 visits (seasonally asynchronous) were used to predict subsequent rate of change in ALSFRS-R from month 6 to month 18. Most subjects had either insufficient or deficient 25(OH)D levels. Lower 25(OH)D was associated with lower ALSFRS-R gross motor scores, but not lower ALSFRS-R total scores at baseline. Levels of 25(OH)D were not predictive of disease progression over the next 12 months. 25(OH)D was associated with baseline gross motor ALSFRS-R scores but did not predict the rate of disease progression. Vitamin D levels may reflect poor mobility in patients with ALS. Muscle Nerve, 2017 Muscle Nerve 56: 726-731, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. The Effect of Resistance Training on Performance of Gross Motor Skills and Balance in Children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Ebrahim Zarrinkalam; Majid Ebadi Fara

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Cerebral palsy is the most common chronic motor disability in children and can have negative effect on motor functions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of eight weeks resistance training on gross motor ability, balance and walking speed in a group of such children. Methods: 21 cerebral palsy boys with spastic diplegia, aged between 12 and 16 years (mean, 13.66 years), participated in this study. A pre-test, involving walking, sitting, standing and walkin...

  17. Fine Motor Skills Predict Maths Ability Better than They Predict Reading Ability in the Early Primary School Years

    OpenAIRE

    Pitchford, Nicola J.; Papini, Chiara; Outhwaite, Laura A.; Gulliford, Anthea

    2016-01-01

    Fine motor skills have long been recognised as an important foundation for development in other domains. However, more precise insights into the role of fine motor skills, and their relationships to other skills in mediating early educational achievements, are needed to support the development of optimal educational interventions. We explored concurrent relationships between two components of fine motor skills, Fine Motor Precision and Fine Motor Integration, and early reading and maths devel...

  18. Reliability of the test of gross motor development second edition (TGMD-2) for Kindergarten children in Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aye, Thanda; Oo, Khin Saw; Khin, Myo Thuzar; Kuramoto-Ahuja, Tsugumi; Maruyama, Hitoshi

    2017-10-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate reliability of the test of gross motor development second edition (TGMD-2) for Kindergarten children in Myanmar. [Subjects and Methods] Fifty healthy Kindergarten children (23 males, 27 females) whose parents/guardians had given written consent were participated. The subjects were explained and demonstrated all 12 gross motor skills of TGMD-2 before the assessment. Each subject individually performed two trials for each gross motor skill and the performance was video recorded. Three raters separately watched the video recordings and rated for inter-rater reliability. The second assessment was done one month later with 25 out of 50 subjects for test-rest reliability. The video recordings of 12 subjects were randomly selected from the first 50 recordings for intra-rater reliability six weeks after the first assessment. The agreement on the locomotor and object control raw scores and the gross motor quotient (GMQ) were calculated. [Results] The findings of all the reliability coefficients for the locomotor and object control raw scores and the GMQ were interpreted as good and excellent reliability. [Conclusion] The results represented that TGMD-2 is a highly reliable and appropriate assessment tool for assessing gross motor skill development of Kindergarten children in Myanmar.

  19. The Effect of Resistance Training on Performance of Gross Motor Skills and Balance in Children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Zarrinkalam

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Cerebral palsy is the most common chronic motor disability in children and can have negative effect on motor functions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of eight weeks resistance training on gross motor ability, balance and walking speed in a group of such children. Methods: 21 cerebral palsy boys with spastic diplegia, aged between 12 and 16 years (mean, 13.66 years, participated in this study. A pre-test, involving walking, sitting, standing and walking up stairs. They were randomly divided into an experimental and control groups. Then, the experimental group participated in 8 weeks of resistance training.  The data was attained from a 10 meter walk test, Berg Balance Test, gross motor ability Section E, D and GMFCS tests.  Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, sample t-test were used for analyzing the data. Results: The results showed a significant improvement in the performance of experimental group in gross motor abilities section  E and D, balance and walking speed after 8 weeks of resistance training (P <0.05(. However, significant differences were not observed in the control group before and after the study (P <0.05.  Conclusion: The results showed that resistance training improves gross motor ability, balance and gait in children with cerebral palsy hence, it is recommended that resistance exercise be used as a therapeutic modality for children with cerebral palsy.

  20. Test of Gross Motor Development: expert validity, confirmatory validity and internal consistence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Cristina Valentini

    2008-01-01

    The Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD-2 is an instrument used to evaluate children’s level of motor development. The objective of this study was to translate and verify the clarity and pertinence of the TGMD-2 items by experts and the confirmatory factorial validity and the internal consistence by means of test-retest of the Portuguese TGMD-2. A cross-cultural translation was used to construct the Portuguese version. The participants of this study were 7 professionals and 587 children, from 27 schools (kindergarten and elementary from 3 to 10 years old (51.1% boys and 48.9% girls. Each child was videotaped performing the test twice. The videotaped tests were then scored. The results indicated that the Portuguese version of the TGMD-2 contains clear and pertinent motor items; demonstrated satisfactory indices of confirmatory factorial validity (÷2/gl = 3.38; Goodness-of-fit Index = 0.95; Adjusted Goodness-of-fit index = 0.92 and Tucker and Lewis’s Index of Fit = 0.83 and test-retest internal consistency (locomotion r = 0.82; control of object: r = 0.88. The Portuguese TGMD-2 demonstrated validity and reliability for the sample investigated.

  1. Associations of Gross Motor Delay, Behavior, and Quality of Life in Young Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedgecock, James B; Dannemiller, Lisa A; Shui, Amy M; Rapport, Mary Jane; Katz, Terry

    2018-04-01

    Young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often have gross motor delays that may accentuate problem daytime behavior and health-related quality of life (QoL). The objective of this study was to describe the degree of gross motor delays in young children with ASD and associations of gross motor delays with problem daytime behavior and QoL. The primary hypothesis was that Gross motor delays significantly modifies the associations between internalizing or externalizing problem daytime behavior and QoL. This study used a cross-sectional, retrospective analysis. Data from 3253 children who were 2 to 6 years old and who had ASD were obtained from the Autism Speaks Autism Treatment Network and analyzed using unadjusted and adjusted linear regression. Measures included the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, 2nd edition, gross motor v-scale score (VABS-GM) (for Gross motor delays), the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) (for Problem daytime behavior), and the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) (for QoL). The mean VABS-GM was 12.12 (SD = 2.2), representing performance at or below the 16th percentile. After adjustment for covariates, the internalizing CBCL t score decreased with increasing VABS-GM (β = - 0.64 SE = 0.12). Total and subscale PedsQL scores increased with increasing VABS-GM (for total score: β = 1.79 SE = 0.17; for subscale score: β = 0.9-2.66 SE = 0.17-0.25). CBCL internalizing and externalizing t scores decreased with increasing PedsQL total score (β = - 0.39 SE = 0.01; β = - 0.36 SE = 0.01). The associations between CBCL internalizing or externalizing t scores and PedsQL were significantly modified by VABSGM (β = - 0.026 SE = 0.005]; β = - 0.019 SE = 0.007). The study lacked ethnic and socioeconomic diversity. Measures were collected via parent report without accompanying clinical assessment. Cross motor delay was independently associated with Problem daytime behavior and QoL in children with ASD. Gross

  2. Capacity to improve fine motor skills in Williams syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berencsi, A; Gombos, F; Kovács, I

    2016-10-01

    Individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) are known to have difficulties in carrying out fine motor movements; however, a detailed behavioural profile of WS in this domain is still missing. It is also unknown how great the capacity to improve these skills with focused and extensive practice is. We studied initial performance and learning capacity in a sequential finger tapping (FT) task in WS and in typical development. Improvement in the FT task has been shown to be sleep dependent. WS subjects participating in the current study have also participated in earlier polysomnography studies, although not directly related to learning. WS participants presented with great individual variability. In addition to generally poor initial performance, learning capacity was also greatly limited in WS. We found indications that reduced sleep efficiency might contribute to this limitation. Estimating motor learning capacity and the depth of sleep disorder in a larger sample of WS individuals might reveal important relationships between sleep and learning, and contribute to efficient intervention methods improving skill acquisition in WS. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research published by MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. The development of a screening tool to evaluate gross motor function in HIV-infected infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilburn, Nicole; Potterton, Joanne; Stewart, Aimee; Becker, Piet

    2011-12-01

    Neurodevelopmental delay or HIV encephalopathy is a stage four disease indicator for paediatric HIV/AIDS according to the World Health Organisation (WHO), and may be used as a criterion for initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). To date, the only means of prevention of this condition is early initiation of HAART. Studies which have been carried out in South African clinics have revealed the high prevalence of this condition. In developing countries, commencement of HAART is based on declining virologic and immunologic status, as standardised neurodevelopmental assessment tools are not widely available. A standardised developmental screening tool which is suitable for use in a developing country is therefore necessary in order to screen for neurodevelopmental delay to allow for further assessment and referral to rehabilitation services, as well as providing an additional assessment criterion for initiation of HAART. The infant gross motor screening test (IGMST) was developed for this purpose. The standardisation sample of the IGMST consisted of 112 HIV-infected infants between six and 18 months of age. Item selection for the IGMST was based on the Gross Motor scale of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID)-III. Content validity was assessed by a panel of experts using a nominal group technique (NGT; agreement >80%). Concurrent validity (n=60) of the IGMST was carried out against the BSID-III, and agreement was excellent (K=0.85). The diagnostic properties of the IGMST were evaluated and revealed: sensitivity 97.4%, specificity 85.7%, positive predictive value (PPV) 92.7%, and negative predictive value (NPV) 94.7%. Reliability testing (n=30) revealed inter-rater reliability as: r=1, test-retest reliability: r=0.98 and intra-rater reliability: r=0.98. The results indicate that the statistical properties of the IGMST are excellent, and the tool is suitable for use within the paediatric HIV setting.

  4. Correlation between cognitive function, gross motor skills and health – Related quality of life in children with Down syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saly Said Abd El-Hady

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Children with Down syndrome (DS have delayed motor and cognitive development and have problems in health related quality of life (HRQOL. Purpose: To evaluate the correlation between cognitive function; attention/concentration, gross motor skills; standing and walking, running, jumping domains and HRQOL in children with DS. Subjects and methods: Seventy children with DS of both sexes (37 boys and 33 girls were selected from El Tarbia El Fekria School for children with Special Needs and Education and National Institute of neuro motor system. They were selected to be ranged in age from 8 to 12 years and to be free from visual, hearing or perceptual problems. They were divided into two age groups; group A (8–10 years, and group B (10–12 years. The Rehacom was used to evaluate the cognitive function (attention/concentration, the Gross Motor Function Measure-88 (GMFM-88 was used to evaluate the gross motor skills and the Pediatric quality of life inventory parent-proxy report (PedsQL TM was used to evaluate the HRQOL. Results: There was a weak to moderate correlation between the cognitive function, GMFM and HRQOL in both age groups. The level of difficulty of attention/concentration was moderate, positively and significantly correlated with GMFM; standing and walking, running, jumping domains in both age groups. There was a moderate, positive and significant correlation was found between the physical score of HRQOL and walking, running, jumping domain in age group B and between the psychosocial score of HRQOL and standing domain in age group A. Conclusion: The cognitive function and HRQOL should be considered in the evaluation of children with DS in addition to gross motor skills as there was a correlation between the cognitive function, HRQOL and GMFM. Keywords: Cognitive function, Gross motor skills, Health – related quality of life, Down syndrome children

  5. Research on the Boost of Development on Young Children's Fine Motor by Folk Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xia

    2016-01-01

    As Chinese traditional folk culture, folk games have unique educational value which can boost the development of young children's fine motor. Based on previous investigation of fine motor skill of children in Nanchong, Sichuan Province, the researcher chose a middle class in public city kindergarten A with lower survey score as the study object.…

  6. How Fine Motor Skills Influence the Assessment of High Abilities and Underachievement in Math

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Albert; Stoeger, Heidrun

    2010-01-01

    Previously, fine motor skills have been of little or no interest to giftedness research. New lines of thought have been advanced that imply that fine motor skills can be of significance in the identification of gifted persons as well as gifted underachievers. This would also have consequences for the diagnostic process underlying identification.…

  7. Improvement of Fine Motor Skills in Children with Visual Impairment: An Explorative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, A. M.; Cox, R. F. A.; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M. W. G.; Boonstra, F. N.

    2011-01-01

    In this study we analysed the potential spin-off of magnifier training on the fine-motor skills of visually impaired children. The fine-motor skills of 4- and 5-year-old visually impaired children were assessed using the manual skills test for children (6-12 years) with a visual impairment (ManuVis) and movement assessment for children (Movement…

  8. Concurrent Validity of Two Standardized Measures of Gross Motor Function in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Jamie M; Long, Toby; Biasini, Fred

    2018-04-02

    This study provides information on how two standardized measures based on different theoretical frameworks can be used in collecting information on motor development and performance in 4- and 5-year-olds with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The purpose of the study was to determine the concurrent validity of the Miller Function and Participation Scales (M-FUN) with the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales, Second Edition (PDMS-2) in young children with ASD. The gross motor sections of the PDMS-2 and the M-FUN were administered to 22 children with ASD between the ages of 48 and 71 months. Concurrent validity between overall motor scores and agreement in identification of motor delay were assessed. A very strong correlation (Pearson's r =.851) was found between the M-FUN scale scores and the PDMS-2 gross motor quotients (GMQs). Strong agreement in identification of children with average motor skills and delayed motor skills at 1.5 standard deviations below the mean was also found. This study supports the concurrent validity of the M-FUN with the PDMS-2 for young children with ASD. While both tests provide information regarding motor delay, the M-FUN may provide additional information regarding the neurological profile of the child.

  9. Test of Gross Motor Development : Expert Validity, confirmatory validity and internal consistence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Cristina Valentini

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD-2 is an instrument used to evaluate children’s level of motordevelopment. The objective of this study was to translate and verify the clarity and pertinence of the TGMD-2 items by expertsand the confirmatory factorial validity and the internal consistence by means of test-retest of the Portuguese TGMD-2. Across-cultural translation was used to construct the Portuguese version. The participants of this study were 7 professionalsand 587 children, from 27 schools (kindergarten and elementary from 3 to 10 years old (51.1% boys and 48.9% girls.Each child was videotaped performing the test twice. The videotaped tests were then scored. The results indicated thatthe Portuguese version of the TGMD-2 contains clear and pertinent motor items; demonstrated satisfactory indices ofconfirmatory factorial validity (χ2/gl = 3.38; Goodness-of-fit Index = 0.95; Adjusted Goodness-of-fit index = 0.92 and Tuckerand Lewis’s Index of Fit = 0.83 and test-retest internal consistency (locomotion r = 0.82; control of object: r = 0.88. ThePortuguese TGMD-2 demonstrated validity and reliability for the sample investigated.

  10. Early neuromotor development of high risk infants - Gross motor function in preterm and full-term born infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Haastert, I.C.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis is the result of 20 years follow-up of preterm and full-term born ‘graduates’ of the neonatal intensive care unit of the Wilhelmina Children’s Hospital, Utrecht. The aim was to answer questions that arose during admission and follow-up assessments. Typical gross motor development of

  11. Comparison of Effectiveness of Adeli Suit Therapy and Bobath Approach on Gross Motor Function Improvement in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Khayat-Zadeh-Mahani

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of Adeli Suit Therapy (AST and Bobath approach on improvement of gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy aged 4 to 11 years of old. Materials & Methods: In this experimental and randomized clinical trial study, 24 children with cerebral palsy were selected simply according to inclusive and exclusive criteria from patients referred to ValieAsr rehabilitation center and then assigned into two Adeli Suit Thrapy and Bobath groups by simple random method. Period of therapeutic intervention was 36 sessions, 3 times per week for both groups. Assessment tool was Gross Motor Function Measure test (GMFM–66. Data was analyzed by Kolmogroff Smirnoff, Independent T-test and ANOVA for repeated measurements. Results: After intervention, the gross motor function improved significantly in both groups (P<0.001. Follow up study revealed significant improvement of functions in Adeli Suit group (P=0.007 and significant regression of functions in Bobath group (P=0.004. There was no significant difference, just after the intervention, between two groups (P=0.598, but there was significant difference between two groups at follow up assessments (P=0.002. Conclusion: Both Adeli Suit and Bobath approaches are effective in improvement of gross motor functions in children with cerebral palsy during the therapeutic sessions. At follow up study, the Adeli Suit group, were still improving their function whereas the Bobath group regressed.

  12. Knee Muscle Strength at Varying Angular Velocities and Associations with Gross Motor Function in Ambulatory Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Wei-Hsien; Chen, Hseih-Ching; Shen, I-Hsuan; Chen, Chung-Yao; Chen, Chia-Ling; Chung, Chia-Ying

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationships of muscle strength at different angular velocities and gross motor functions in ambulatory children with cerebral palsy (CP). This study included 33 ambulatory children with spastic CP aged 6-15 years and 15 children with normal development. Children with CP were categorized into level I (n =…

  13. Gross motor development in full-term Greek infants assessed by the Alberta Infant Motor Scale: reference values and socioeconomic impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrengelas, Dimitrios; Kalampoki, Vassiliki; Kleisiouni, Paraskevi; Konstantinou, Dimitrios; Siahanidou, Tania

    2014-07-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate gross motor development in Greek infants and establish AIMS percentile curves and to examine possible association of AIMS scores with socioeconomic parameters. Mean AIMS scores of 1068 healthy Greek full-term infants were compared at monthly age level with the respective mean scores of the Canadian normative sample. In a subgroup of 345 study participants, parents provided, via interview, information about family socioeconomic status. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to evaluate the relationship of infant motor development with socioeconomic parameters. Mean AIMS scores did not differ significantly between Greek and Canadian infants in any of the 19 monthly levels of age. In multiple linear regression analysis, the educational level of the mother and also whether the infant was being raised by grandparents/babysitter were significantly associated with gross motor development (p=0.02 and psocioeconomic factors are associated with the infants' motor development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Weight loss and improved gross motor coordination in children as a result of multidisciplinary residential obesity treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Hondt, Eva; Gentier, Ilse; Deforche, Benedicte; Tanghe, Ann; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Lenoir, Matthieu

    2011-10-01

    This study evaluated the short-term effectiveness of a multidisciplinary residential obesity treatment program by describing changes in body weight, related measures, and gross motor co-ordination. Secondarily, it was examined to what extent the amount of relative weight loss achieved by overweight and obese (OW/OB) participants explained the projected improvement in gross motor co-ordination. Thirty-six OW/OB children (aged 10.5 ± 1.4 years, 12 girls and 24 boys) were recruited at the Zeepreventorium VZW (De Haan, Belgium), where they followed a specific program consisting of moderate dietary restriction, psychological support, and physical activity. For reference purposes, an additional group of 36 age- and gender-matched healthy-weight (HW) children was included in the study. Anthropometric measures were recorded and gross motor co-ordination was assessed using the Körperkoordinationstest für Kinder (KTK) on two occasions with an interval of 4 months. Regardless of the test moment, OW/OB participants displayed significantly poorer KTK performances (P motor co-ordination performance, with a greater increase in KTK score(s) from baseline to re-test as compared to HW peers (P motor co-ordination, which in turn may promote physical activity participation.

  15. The effect of aquatic intervention on the gross motor function and aquatic skills in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrijević, Lidija; Aleksandrović, Marko; Madić, Dejan; Okičić, Tomislav; Radovanović, Dragan; Daly, Daniel

    2012-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of an aquatic intervention on the gross motor function and aquatic skills of children with cerebral palsy (CP). Twenty-nine children with CP, aged 5 to 14, were recruited. Fourteen children completed an aquatic intervention (EG), and 13 children served as controls (CG). Two participants dropped out due to events (illness) unrelated to the intervention. The aquatic intervention lasted 6 weeks (2 sessions per week at 55 minutes per session) with a follow-up period of 3 weeks. The outcome measures were the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) for motor function and the Water Orientation Test Alyn 2 (WOTA 2) for aquatic skills assessment. A significant improvement was observed in the secondary assessment of GMFM and WOTA 2. In contrast to the aquatic skills improvement, the GMFM change was not maintained at follow-up. Our results indicate that children with CP can improve gross motor function on dry land and aquatic skills with a 6-week water intervention. The intervention period was too short for sustainable improvement in dry-land motor skills after intervention (follow-up), but time was sufficient to achieve sustainable improvements in aquatic skills.

  16. Impact of Vitamin D Supplementation on Gross Motor Development of Healthy Term Infants: A Randomized Dose-Response Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicklow, Brandy; Gallo, Sina; Majnemer, Annette; Vanstone, Catherine; Comeau, Kathryn; Jones, Glenville; L'Abbe, Mary; Khamessan, Ali; Sharma, Atul; Weiler, Hope; Rodd, Celia

    2016-08-01

    In addition to benefits for bone health, vitamin D is implicated in muscle function in children and adults. To determine if vitamin D dosage positively correlated with gross motor development at 3 and 6 months of age. We hypothesized that higher doses would be associated with higher scores for gross motor skills. A consecutive sample of 55 healthy, term, and breastfed infants from Montreal, Canada were recruited from a randomized trial of vitamin D supplementation between 2009 and 2012. Infants were randomized to 400 International Units (IU) (n = 19), 800 IU (n = 18) or 1,200 IU (n = 18) vitamin D3/day. Motor performance at 3 and 6 months was quantified by the Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS). Plasma vitamin D3 metabolites were measured by tandem mass spectrometry. AIMS scores did not differ at 3 months. However, total AIMS scores and sitting subscores were significantly higher at 6 months in infants receiving 400 IU/day compared to 800 IU/day and 1,200 IU/day groups (p gross motor achievements were significantly higher in infants receiving 400 IU/day vitamin D. Our findings also support longer infants being slightly delayed.

  17. Introduction of the gross motor function classification system in Venezuela--a model for knowledge dissemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löwing, Kristina; Arredondo, Ynes C; Tedroff, Marika; Tedroff, Kristina

    2015-09-04

    A current worldwide common goal is to optimize the health and well-being of children with cerebral palsy (CP). In order to reach that goal, for this heterogeneous group, a common language and classification systems are required to predict development and offer evidence based interventions. In most countries in Africa, South America, Asia and Eastern Europe the classification systems for CP are unfamiliar and rarely used. Education and implementation are required. The specific aims of this study were to examine a model in order to introduce the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS-E&R) in Venezuela, and to examine the validity and the reliability. Children with CP, registered at a National child rehabilitation centre in Venezuela, were invited to participate. The Spanish version of GMFCS-E&R was used. The Wilson mobility scale was translated and used to examine the concurrent validity. A structured questionnaire, comprising aspects of mobility and gross motor function, was constructed. In addition, each child was filmed. A paediatrician in Venezuela received supervised self-education in GMFCS-E&R and the Wilson mobility scale. A Swedish student was educated in GMFCS-E&R and the Wilson mobility scale prior to visiting Venezuela. In Venezuela, all children were classified and scored by the paediatrician and student independently. An experienced paediatric physiotherapist (PT) in Sweden made independent GMFCS-E&R classifications and Wilson mobility scale scorings, accomplished through merging data from the structured questionnaire with observations of the films. Descriptive statistics were used and reliability was presented with weighted Kappa (Kw). Spearman's correlation coefficient was calculated to explore the concurrent validity between GMFCS-E&R and Wilson mobility scale. Eighty-eight children (56 boys), mean age 10 years (3-18), with CP participated. The inter-rater reliability of GMFCS-E&R between; the paediatrician and the PT was Kw = 0.85 (95% CI

  18. Motor performance of pupils with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    OpenAIRE

    Otipková, Zuzana

    2012-01-01

    Title: Motor performance of pupils with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Objectives: The aim of the work was to determine the level of fine and gross motor skills of upper extremities of the pupils with diagnosis ADHD at schools specialized on these pupils and compare it with the fine and gross motor skills of upper extremities of children without this diagnosis at common elementary school. Further work objective was to determine the level of gross motor skills of lower limbs ...

  19. Fine motor skill predicts expressive language in infant siblings of children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBarton, Eve Sauer; Iverson, Jana M

    2013-11-01

    We investigated whether fine motor and expressive language skills are related in the later-born siblings of children with autism (heightened-risk, HR infants) who are at increased risk for language delays. We observed 34 HR infants longitudinally from 12 to 36 months. We used parent report and standardized observation measures to assess fine motor skill from 12 to 24 months in HR infants (Study 1) and its relation to later expressive vocabulary at 36 months in HR infants (Study 2). In Study 1, we also included 25 infants without a family history of autism to serve as a normative comparison group for a parent-report fine motor measure. We found that HR infants exhibited fine motor delays between 12 and 24 months and expressive vocabulary delays at 36 months. Further, fine motor skill significantly predicted expressive language at 36 months. Fine motor and expressive language skills are related early in development in HR infants, who, as a group, exhibit risk for delays in both. Our findings highlight the importance of considering fine motor skill in children at risk for language impairments and may have implications for early identification of expressive language difficulties. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Task-specific gross motor skills training for ambulant school-aged children with cerebral palsy: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toovey, Rachel; Bernie, Charmaine; Harvey, Adrienne R; McGinley, Jennifer L; Spittle, Alicia J

    2017-01-01

    The primary objective is to systematically evaluate the evidence for the effectiveness of task-specific training (TST) of gross motor skills for improving activity and/or participation outcomes in ambulant school-aged children with cerebral palsy (CP). The secondary objective is to identify motor learning strategies reported within TST and assess relationship to outcome. Systematic review. Relevant databases were searched for studies including: children with CP (mean age >4 years and >60% of the sample ambulant); TST targeting gross motor skills and activity (skill performance, gross motor function and functional skills) and/or participation-related outcomes. Quality of included studies was assessed using standardised tools for risk of bias, study design and quality of evidence across outcomes. Continuous data were summarised for each study using standardised mean difference (SMD) and 95% CIs. Thirteen studies met inclusion criteria: eight randomised controlled trials (RCTs), three comparative studies, one repeated-measures study and one single-subject design study. Risk of bias was moderate across studies. Components of TST varied and were often poorly reported. Within-group effects of TST were positive across all outcomes of interest in 11 studies. In RCTs, between-group effects were conflicting for skill performance and functional skills, positive for participation-related outcomes (one study: Life-HABITS performance SMD=1.19, 95% CI 0.3 to 2.07, pmotor function. The quality of evidence was low-to-moderate overall. Variability and poor reporting of motor learning strategies limited assessment of relationship to outcome. Limited evidence for TST for gross motor skills in ambulant children with CP exists for improving activity and participation-related outcomes and recommendations for use over other interventions are limited by poor study methodology and heterogeneous interventions. PROSPERO ID42016036727.

  1. Effects of occupational therapy services on fine motor and functional performance in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case-Smith, J

    2000-01-01

    This study examined how performance components and variables in intervention influenced fine motor and functional outcomes in preschool children. In a sample of 44 preschool-aged children with fine motor delays who received occupational therapy services, eight fine motor and functional performance assessments were administered at the beginning and end of the academic year. Data on the format and intervention activities of each occupational therapy session were recorded for 8 months. The children received a mean of 23 sessions, in both individual and group format. Most of the sessions (81%) used fine motor activities; 29% addressed peer interaction, and 16% addressed play skills. Visual motor outcomes were influenced by the number of intervention sessions and percent of sessions with play goals. Fine motor outcomes were most influenced by the therapists' emphasis on play and peer interaction goals; functional outcomes were influenced by number of sessions and percent of sessions that specifically addressed self-care goals. The influence of play on therapy outcomes suggests that a focus on play in intervention activities can enhance fine motor and visual motor performance.

  2. Relationships between Fine-Motor, Visual-Motor, and Visual Perception Scores and Handwriting Legibility and Speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Sheryl; Guiltner, Val; Sollereder, Patti; Cui, Ying

    2011-01-01

    Occupational therapists assess fine motor, visual motor, visual perception, and visual skill development, but knowledge of the relationships between scores on sensorimotor performance measures and handwriting legibility and speed is limited. Ninety-nine students in grades three to six with learning and/or behavior problems completed the Upper-Limb…

  3. Content validity and reliability of test of gross motor development in Chilean children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Cano-Cappellacci

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To validate a Spanish version of the Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD-2 for the Chilean population. METHODS Descriptive, transversal, non-experimental validity and reliability study. Four translators, three experts and 92 Chilean children, from five to 10 years, students from a primary school in Santiago, Chile, have participated. The Committee of Experts has carried out translation, back-translation and revision processes to determine the translinguistic equivalence and content validity of the test, using the content validity index in 2013. In addition, a pilot implementation was achieved to determine test reliability in Spanish, by using the intraclass correlation coefficient and Bland-Altman method. We evaluated whether the results presented significant differences by replacing the bat with a racket, using T-test. RESULTS We obtained a content validity index higher than 0.80 for language clarity and relevance of the TGMD-2 for children. There were significant differences in the object control subtest when comparing the results with bat and racket. The intraclass correlation coefficient for reliability inter-rater, intra-rater and test-retest reliability was greater than 0.80 in all cases. CONCLUSIONS The TGMD-2 has appropriate content validity to be applied in the Chilean population. The reliability of this test is within the appropriate parameters and its use could be recommended in this population after the establishment of normative data, setting a further precedent for the validation in other Latin American countries.

  4. Test of gross motor development-2 for Filipino children with intellectual disability: validity and reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capio, Catherine M; Eguia, Kathlynne F; Simons, Johan

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to examine aspects of validity and reliability of the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (TGMD-2) in Filipino children with intellectual disability. Content and construct validity were verified, as well as inter-rater and intra-rater reliability. Two paediatric physiotherapists tested 81 children with intellectual disability (mean age = 9.29 ± 2.71 years) on locomotor and object control skills. Analysis of covariance, confirmatory factor analysis and analysis of variance were used to test validity, while Cronbach's alpha, intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) and Bland-Altman plots were used to examine reliability. Age was a significant predictor of locomotor and object control scores (P = 0.004). The data fit the hypothesised two-factor model with fit indices as follows: χ(2) = 33.525, DF = 34, P = 0.491, χ(2)/DF = 0.986. As hypothesised, gender was a significant predictor for object control skills (P = 0.038). Participants' mean scores were significantly below mastery (locomotor, P intellectual disability.

  5. Interrater reliability assessment using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Lisa M; Minto, Christine; Lander, Natalie; Hardy, Louise L

    2014-11-01

    The aim was to examine interrater reliability of the object control subtest from the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 by live observation in a school field setting. Reliability Study--cross sectional. Raters were rated on their ability to agree on (1) the raw total for the six object control skills; (2) each skill performance and (3) the skill components. Agreement for the object control subtest and the individual skills was assessed by an intraclass correlation (ICC) and a kappa statistic assessed for skill component agreement. A total of 37 children (65% girls) aged 4-8 years (M = 6.2, SD = 0.8) were assessed in six skills by two raters; equating to 222 skill tests. Interrater reliability was excellent for the object control subset (ICC = 0.93), and for individual skills, highest for the dribble (ICC = 0.94) followed by strike (ICC = 0.85), overhand throw (ICC = 0.84), underhand roll (ICC = 0.82), kick (ICC = 0.80) and the catch (ICC = 0.71). The strike and the throw had more components with less agreement. Even though the overall subtest score and individual skill agreement was good, some skill components had lower agreement, suggesting these may be more problematic to assess. This may mean some skill components need to be specified differently in order to improve component reliability. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Fine Motor Function Skills in Patients with Parkinson Disease with and without Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahdal, Philippe; Meyer, Antonia; Chaturvedi, Menorca; Nowak, Karolina; Roesch, Anne D; Fuhr, Peter; Gschwandtner, Ute

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relation between impaired fine motor skills in Parkinson disease (PD) patients and their cognitive status, and to determine whether fine motor skills are more impaired in PD patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) than in non-MCI patients. Twenty PD MCI and 31 PD non-MCI patients (mean age 66.7 years, range 50-84, 36 males/15 females), all right-handed, took part in a motor performance test battery. Steadiness, precision, dexterity, velocity of arm-hand movements, and velocity of wrist-finger movements were measured and compared across groups and analyzed for confounders (age, sex, education, severity of motor symptoms, and disease duration). Statistical analysis included t tests corrected for multiple testing, and a linear regression with stepwise elimination procedure was used to select significant predictors for fine motor function. PD MCI patients performed significantly worse in precision (p motor function skills were confounded by age. Fine motor skills in PD MCI patients are impaired compared to PD non-MCI patients. Investigating the relation between the fine motor performance and MCI in PD might be a relevant subject for future research. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. [Fine motor and self-development assessment of preschool children with epilepsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lendraĭtene, E B; Petrushiavichene, D P; Andronavichiute, Iu P; Vapzhaĭtite, L A; Krishchiunas, A I

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To assess fine motor and self-care skills in preschool children with epilepsy. Material and methods. The study included 22 children, 12 girls (54.5%) and 10 boys (45.5%), mean age 41.5±19.9 months. Children were tested with DISC and Munchen tests. Results and conclusion. Among preschool children with epilepsy, 50% have impaired and 22.7% - delayed development of fine motor skills. The mean coefficient of fine motor skills was 59.0±28.1. Among preschool children with epilepsy, 36.4% have impaired and 45.5% - delayed development of self-development skills. The coefficient of self-care skills was 57.8±26.1. DISC and Munchen tests for evaluation of small motor and self-care skills are equivalent for assessment in children with epilepsy (pskills were more often disturbed (pfine motor skills (p<0.05).

  8. The Effect of Physical Exercise on the Development of Gross Motor Skills in Children with Attention Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder

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    Saeed Kosari

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The study is about to examine the effect of the selective physical exercises on gross motor activities of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Materials and Methods: In this quasi-experimental study out of 120 students with ADHD who were studying under supervision of Tehran Department of Education of Exceptional Children, a number of 20 children (8.8±0.7 years old with ADHD were selected randomly and based on pre-test. The measuring tool was the Bruininks-Oseretsky test of motor proficiency. The selected motor program (SPARK physical education program including reinforcement activities, playing and sporting for children was repeated for 18 sessions by our subjects. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test (KS-test was used to check normal data distribution and the correlative t-test and independent t-test were used to compare mean values. Results: Eighteen sessions of the selected motor activities for the experiment group made significant differences in all variables of the study, but it was not the case for the control group. The experiment group’s differences were running speed and agility (p=0.001, balance (p=0.001, bilateral coordination (p=0.001 and strength (p=0.001.Conclusion: With regard to results of the study, it can be claimed that the selected physical education program which has been inspired by Spark physical education program is able to improve gross motor skills in children with ADHD.

  9. Relationships between Isometric Muscle Strength, Gait Parameters, and Gross Motor Function Measure in Patients with Cerebral Palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyung Ik; Sung, Ki Hyuk; Chung, Chin Youb; Lee, Kyoung Min; Lee, Seung Yeol; Lee, In Hyeok; Park, Moon Seok

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the correlation between isometric muscle strength, gross motor function, and gait parameters in patients with spastic cerebral palsy and to find which muscle groups play an important role for gait pattern in a flexed knee gait. Twenty-four ambulatory patients (mean age, 10.0 years) with spastic cerebral palsy who were scheduled for single event multilevel surgery, including distal hamstring lengthening, were included. Preoperatively, peak isometric muscle strength was measured for the hip flexor, hip extensor, knee flexor, and knee extensor muscle groups using a handheld dynamometer, and three-dimensional (3D) gait analysis and gross motor function measure (GMFM) scoring were also performed. Correlations between peak isometric strength and GMFM, gait kinematics, and gait kinetics were analyzed. Peak isometric muscle strength of all muscle groups was not related to the GMFM score and the gross motor function classification system level. Peak isometric strength of the hip extensor and knee extensor was significantly correlated with the mean pelvic tilt (r=-0.588, p=0.003 and r=-0.436, p=0.033) and maximum pelvic obliquity (r=-0.450, p=0.031 and r=-0.419, p=0.041). There were significant correlations between peak isometric strength of the knee extensor and peak knee extensor moment in early stance (r=0.467, p=0.021) and in terminal stance (r=0.416, p=0.043). There is no correlation between muscle strength and gross motor function. However, this study showed that muscle strength, especially of the extensor muscle group of the hip and knee joints, might play a critical role in gait by stabilizing pelvic motion and decreasing energy consumption in a flexed knee gait.

  10. Relationship between gross motor and intellectual function in children with cerebral palsy: a cross-sectional study.

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    Dalvand, Hamid; Dehghan, Leila; Hadian, Mohammad Reza; Feizy, Awat; Hosseini, Seyed Ali

    2012-03-01

    To explore the relationship between gross motor and intellectual function in children with cerebral palsy (CP). A cross-sectional study. Occupational therapy clinic. Children with CP (N=662; 281 girls, 381 boys; age range, 3-14y). Not applicable. Intelligence testing was carried out by means of the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised. Gross motor function level was determined by the Gross Motor Function Classification System Expanded and Revised (GMFCS E&R). Of the children, 10.4% were at level I of the GMFCS E&R, 38% at levels II and III, and 51.5% at levels IV and V. The lowest level of intelligence or profound intellectual disability was found in children with spastic quadriplegia (n=28, 62.2%). Children at the lowest levels (I-IV, GMFCS E&R) obtained higher ratings in terms of intelligence in comparison with children at level V. Based on the present results, the diagnosis was statistically related to the intellectual level as dependent variable (Pintelligence, respectively. Sex and age were not statistically related to the dependent variable. The study results demonstrated a significant association between GMFCS E&R and intellectual function. Therefore, we suggest that particular attention should be paid to the intellectual level in terms of evaluations of gross motor function. These results, in respect, might be interested for occupational and physical therapists who are involved in rehabilitation programs for these children. Copyright © 2012 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Early postoperative physical therapy for improving short-term gross motor outcome in infants with cyanotic and acyanotic congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haseba, Sumihito; Sakakima, Harutoshi; Nakao, Syuhei; Ohira, Misaki; Yanagi, Shigefumi; Imoto, Yutaka; Yoshida, Akira; Shimodozono, Megumi

    2018-07-01

    We analysed the gross motor recovery of infants and toddlers with cyanotic and acyanotic congenital heart disease (CHD) who received early postoperative physical therapy to see whether there was any difference in the duration to recovery. This study retrospectively evaluated the influence of early physical therapy on postoperative gross motor outcomes of patients with CHD. The gross motor ability of patients with cyanotic (n = 25, average age: 376.4 days) and acyanotic (n = 26, average age: 164.5 days) CHD was evaluated using our newly developed nine-grade mobility assessment scale. Physical therapy was started at an average of five days after surgery, during which each patient's gross motor ability was significantly decreased compared with the preoperative level. Patients (who received early postoperative physical therapy) with cyanotic (88.0%) and acyanotic CHD (96.2%) showed improved preoperative mobility grades by the time of hospital discharge. However, patients with cyanotic CHD had a significantly prolonged recovery period compared to those with acyanotic CHD (p congenital heart disease are likely at greater risk of gross motor delays and have a prolonged recovery period of gross motor ability compared to those with acyanotic congenital heart disease. Early postoperative physical therapy for patients with congenital heart disease after cardiac surgery promoted gross motor recovery. The postoperative recovery period to preoperative mobility grade was affected by pre-, intra-, and postoperative factors. Rehabilitation experts should consider the risk of gross motor delays of patients with congenital heart disease after cardiac surgery and the early postoperative physical therapy to promote their gross motor recovery.

  12. Functional Communication Profiles in Children with Cerebral Palsy in Relation to Gross Motor Function and Manual and Intellectual Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ja Young; Park, Jieun; Choi, Yoon Seong; Goh, Yu Ra; Park, Eun Sook

    2018-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate communication function using classification systems and its association with other functional profiles, including gross motor function, manual ability, intellectual functioning, and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics in children with cerebral palsy (CP). This study recruited 117 individuals with CP aged from 4 to 16 years. The Communication Function Classification System (CFCS), Viking Speech Scale (VSS), Speech Language Profile Groups (SLPG), Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS), Manual Ability Classification System (MACS), and intellectual functioning were assessed in the children along with brain MRI categorization. Very strong relationships were noted among the VSS, CFCS, and SLPG, although these three communication systems provide complementary information, especially for children with mid-range communication impairment. These three communication classification systems were strongly related with the MACS, but moderately related with the GMFCS. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that manual ability and intellectual functioning were significantly related with VSS and CFCS function, whereas only intellectual functioning was significantly related with SLPG functioning in children with CP. Communication function in children with a periventricular white matter lesion (PVWL) varied widely. In the cases with a PVWL, poor functioning was more common on the SLPG, compared to the VSS and CFCS. Very strong relationships were noted among three communication classification systems that are closely related with intellectual ability. Compared to gross motor function, manual ability seemed more closely related with communication function in these children. © Copyright: Yonsei University College of Medicine 2018.

  13. Fine Motor Skill Predicts Expressive Language in Infant Siblings of Children with Autism

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    LeBarton, Eve Sauer; Iverson, Jana M.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated whether fine motor and expressive language skills are related in the later-born siblings of children with autism (heightened-risk, HR infants) who are at increased risk for language delays. We observed 34 HR infants longitudinally from 12 to 36 months. We used parent report and standardized observation measures to assess fine motor…

  14. The Relationship Between Fine Motor Skills and Social Development and Maturation

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    Leila Dehghan

    2017-11-01

    Discussion: According to the results, there is a significant association between fine motor skills with respect to visual-motor skills of hands and social competence and maturity in children, and it can be used as impact factor for to improve in children’s social growth.

  15. JIGSAW PUZZLE IMPROVE FINE MOTOR ABILITIES OF UPPER EXTREMITIES IN POST-STROKE ISCHEMIC CLIENTS

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    Kusnanto Kusnanto

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Ischemic stroke is a disease caused by focal cerebral ischemia, where is a decline in blood flow that needed for neuronal metabolism, leading to neurologic deficit include motor deficit such as fine motor skills impairment. Therapy of fine motor skills disorders is to improve motor function, prevent contractures and complications. These study aimed to identify the effect of playing Jigsaw Puzzle on muscle strength, extensive motion, and upper extremity fine motor skills in patients with ischemic stroke at Dr. Moewardi Hospital, Surakarta. Methods: Experimental Quasi pre-posttest one group control. The number of samples were 34 respondents selected using purposive sampling technique. The samples were divided into intervention and control groups. The intervention group was 17 respondents who were given standard treatment hospital and played Jigsaw Puzzle 2 times a day for six days. Control group is one respondent given by hospital standard therapy without given additional Jigsaw Puzzle game. Evaluation of these research is done on the first and seventh day for those groups. Result: The results showed that muscle strength, the range of joint motion and fine motor skills of upper extremities increased (p = 0.001 significantly after being given the Jigsaw Puzzle games. These means playing Jigsaw Puzzle increase muscle strength, the range of joint motion and upper extremity fine motor skill of ischemic stroke patients. Discussion and conclusion: Jigsaw puzzle game administration as additional rehabilitation therapy in upper extremity fine motor to minimize the occurrence of contractures and motor disorders in patients with ischemic stroke. Jigsaw puzzle game therapy capable of creating repetitive motion as a key of neurological rehabilitation in Ischemic Stroke. This study recommends using jigsaw puzzle game as one of intervention in the nursing care of Ischemic Stroke patients.

  16. Impact of extrinsic factors on fine motor performance of children attending day care

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    Carolina Corsi

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To assess the impact of extrinsic factors on fine motor performance of children aged 2-years old. Methods: 73 children attending public and 21 private day care centers were assessed. Day care environment was evaluated using the Infant/Toddler Environment Rating Scale-Revised Edition (ITERS-R, fine motor performance was assessed through the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development-III (BSITD-III, socioeconomic data, maternal education and time of start at the day care were collected through interviews. Spearman's correlation coefficient was calculated to assess the association between the studied variables. Results: The time at the day care was positively correlated with the children's performance in some fine motor tasks of the BSITD-III, showing that the activities developed in day care centers were important for the refinement of specific motor skills, while the overall fine motor performance by the scale was associated with maternal education and the ITERS-R scale sub-item “language and understanding”. Conclusions: Extrinsic factors such as higher maternal education and quality of day care centers are associated with fine motor performance in children attending day care.

  17. Impact of extrinsic factors on fine motor performance of children attending day care.

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    Corsi, Carolina; Santos, Mariana Martins Dos; Marques, Luísa de Andrade Perez; Rocha, Nelci Adriana Cicuto Ferreira

    2016-12-01

    To assess the impact of extrinsic factors on fine motor performance of children aged two years old. 73 children attending public and 21 private day care centers were assessed. Day care environment was evaluated using the Infant/Toddler Environment Rating Scale - Revised Edition (ITERS-R), fine motor performance was assessed through the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development - III (BSITD-III), socioeconomic data, maternal education and time of start at the day care were collected through interviews. Spearman's correlation coefficient was calculated to assess the association between the studied variables. The time at the day care was positively correlated with the children's performance in some fine motor tasks of the BSITD-III, showing that the activities developed in day care centers were important for the refinement of specific motor skills, while the overall fine motor performance by the scale was associated with maternal education and the ITERS-R scale sub-item "language and understanding". Extrinsic factors such as higher maternal education and quality of day care centers are associated with fine motor performance in children attending day care. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  18. Gross Motor Function Classification System Expanded & Revised (GMFCS E & R: reliability between therapists and parents in Brazil

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    Daniela B. R. Silva

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several studies have demonstrated the importance of using the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS to classify gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy, but the reliability of the expanded and revised version has not been examined in Brazil (GMFCS E & R. OBJECTIVE:: To determine the intra- and inter-rater reliability of the Portuguese-Brazil version of the GMFCS E & R applied by therapists and compare to classification provided by parents of children with cerebral palsy. METHOD: Data were obtained from 90 children with cerebral palsy, aged 4 to 18 years old, attending the neurology or rehabilitation service of a Brazilian hospital. Therapists classified the children's motor function using the GMFCS E & R and parents used the Brazilian Portuguese version of the GMFCS Family Report Questionnaire. Intra- and inter-rater reliability was obtained through percentage agreement and Cohen's unweighted Kappa statistics (k. The Chi-square test was used to identify significant differences in the classification of parents and therapists. RESULTS: Almost perfect agreement was reached between the therapists [K=0.90 (95% confidence interval 0.83-0.97] and intra-raters (therapists with K=1.00 [95% confidence interval (1.00-1.00], p<0.001. Agreement between therapists and parents was substantial (k=0.716, confidence interval 0.596-0.836, though parents classify gross motor impairment more severely than therapists (p=0.04. CONCLUSIONS: The Portuguese version of the GMFCS E & R is reliable for use by parents and therapists. Parents tend to classify their children's limitations more severely, because they know their performance in different environments.

  19. Gross motor function in children with spastic Cerebral Palsy and Cerebral Visual Impairment: A comparison between outcomes of the original and the Cerebral Visual Impairment adapted Gross Motor Function Measure-88 (GMFM-88-CVI).

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    Salavati, M; Rameckers, E A A; Waninge, A; Krijnen, W P; Steenbergen, B; van der Schans, C P

    2017-01-01

    To investigate whether the adapted version of the Gross Motor Function Measure-88 (GMFM-88) for children with Cerebral Palsy (CP) and Cerebral Visual Impairment (CVI) results in higher scores. This is most likely to be a reflection of their gross motor function, however it may be the result of a better comprehension of the instruction of the adapted version. The scores of the original and adapted GMFM-88 were compared in the same group of children (n=21 boys and n=16 girls), mean (SD) age 113 (30) months with CP and CVI, within a time span of two weeks. A paediatric physical therapist familiar with the child assessed both tests in random order. The GMFCS level, mental development and age at testing were also collected. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to compare two different measurements (the original and adapted GMFM-88) on a single sample, (the same child with CP and CVI; pchildren with CP and CVI showed a positive difference in percentage score on at least one of the five dimensions and positive percentage scores for the two versions differed on all five dimensions for fourteen children. For six children a difference was seen in four dimensions and in 10 children difference was present in three dimensions (GMFM dimension A, B& C or C, D & E) (pchildren with CP and CVI that is not adversely impacted bytheir visual problems. On the basis of these findings, we recommend using the adapted GMFM-88 to measure gross motor functioning in children with CP and CVI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Characterization of fine motor development: dynamic analysis of children's drawing movements.

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    Lin, Qiushi; Luo, Jianfei; Wu, Zhongcheng; Shen, Fei; Sun, Zengwu

    2015-04-01

    In this study, we investigated children's fine motor development by analyzing drawing trajectories, kinematics and kinetics. Straight lines drawing task and circles drawing task were performed by using a force sensitive tablet. Forty right-handed and Chinese mother-tongue students aged 6-12, attending classes from grade 1 to 5, were engaged in the experiment. Three spatial parameters, namely cumulative trace length, vector length of straight line and vertical diameter of circle were determined. Drawing duration, mean drawing velocity, and number of peaks in stroke velocity profile (NPV) were derived as kinematic parameters. Besides mean normal force, two kinetic indices were proposed: normalized force angle regulation (NFR) and variation of fine motor control (VFC) for circles drawing task. The maturation and automation of fine motor ability were reflected by increased drawing velocity, reduced drawing duration, NPV and NFR, with decreased VFC in circles drawing task. Grade and task main effects as well as significant correlations between age and parameters suggest that factors such as schooling, age and task should be considered in the assessment of fine motor skills. Compared with kinematic parameters, findings of NFR and VFC revealed that kinetics is another important perspective in the analysis of fine motor movement. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The effect of fine motor skills on handwriting legibility in preschool age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Sang-Min

    2018-02-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effect that fine motor skills have on handwriting legibility in children of preschool age. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of this study were 52 children of normal growth and development. In order to ascertain handwriting legibility, a Korean alphabet writing assessment was used; to measure fine motor skills, fine motor precision and manual dexterity, sub-items of BOT-2 were measured. Furthermore, in order to measure in-hand manipulation skills, a Functional Dexterity Test was conducted. [Results] The results of the study showed a high level of correlation between fine motor skills and handwriting legibility. The study revealed that the accuracy of hand and in-hand manipulation skills is factors that have an effect on handwriting legibility. [Conclusion] Through the current research, occupational therapists can provide activities that aid the development of fine motor precision and in-hand manipulation skills for children during the instruction and treatment of handwriting to preschool age children, which helps to conduct better legibility in their handwriting.

  2. Gross and fine motor function in fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Rasouli, Omid; Fors, Egil Andreas; Borchgrevink, Petter Chr.; Öhberg, Fredrik; Stensdotter, Ann-Katrin

    2017-01-01

    Omid Rasouli,1,2 Egil A Fors,3 Petter Chr Borchgrevink,4,5 Fredrik Öhberg,6 Ann-Katrin Stensdotter1 1Department of Neuromedicine and Movement Science, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway; 2Department of Public Health and Nursing, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway; 3Department of Public Health and Nursing, General Practice Research Unit, Norwe...

  3. Motor skills of toddlers with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Meghann; MacDonald, Megan; Lord, Catherine

    2013-03-01

    With increased interest in the early diagnosis and treatment of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), more attention has been called to the motor skills of very young children with ASD. This study describes the gross and fine motor skills of a cross-sectional group of 162 children with ASD between the ages of 12 and 36 months, as well as a subset of 58 children followed longitudinally. Gross motor and fine motor age equivalent scores were obtained for all children. A 'motor difference' variable was calculated for each child's gross and fine motor skills by taking the absolute difference of the children's age equivalent motor score and their respective chronological age. In Study 1 (the cross-sectional analysis), ANCOVA (co-varied for nonverbal problem solving) revealed significant group differences in the gross motor and fine motor age difference variables. Post-hoc analysis revealed that gross motor and fine motor differences became significantly greater with each 6-month period of chronological age. In Study 2, 58 children were measured twice, an average of 12 months apart. Results indicate that the gross motor and fine motor difference scores significantly increased between the first and second measurements. The importance of addressing motor development in early intervention treatments is discussed.

  4. Fine motor skills in adult Tourette patients are task-dependent

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    Neuner Irene

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tourette syndrome is a neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by motor and phonic tics. Deficient motor inhibition underlying tics is one of the main hypotheses in its pathophysiology. Therefore the question arises whether this supposed deficient motor inhibition affects also voluntary movements. Despite severe motor tics, different personalities who suffer from Tourette perform successfully as neurosurgeon, pilot or professional basketball player. Methods For the investigation of fine motor skills we conducted a motor performance test battery in an adult Tourette sample and an age matched group of healthy controls. Results The Tourette patients showed a significant lower performance in the categories steadiness of both hands and aiming of the right hand in comparison to the healthy controls. A comparison of patients’ subgroup without comorbidities or medication and healthy controls revealed a significant difference in the category steadiness of the right hand. Conclusions Our results show that steadiness and visuomotor integration of fine motor skills are altered in our adult sample but not precision and speed of movements. This alteration pattern might be the clinical vignette of complex adaptations in the excitability of the motor system on the basis of altered cortical and subcortical components. The structurally and functionally altered neuronal components could encompass orbitofrontal, ventrolateral prefrontal and parietal cortices, the anterior cingulate, amygdala, primary motor and sensorimotor areas including altered corticospinal projections, the corpus callosum and the basal ganglia.

  5. Fine Motor Skills Predict Maths Ability Better than They Predict Reading Ability in the Early Primary School Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitchford, Nicola J.; Papini, Chiara; Outhwaite, Laura A.; Gulliford, Anthea

    2016-01-01

    Fine motor skills have long been recognized as an important foundation for development in other domains. However, more precise insights into the role of fine motor skills, and their relationships to other skills in mediating early educational achievements, are needed to support the development of optimal educational interventions. We explored concurrent relationships between two components of fine motor skills, Fine Motor Precision and Fine Motor Integration, and early reading and maths development in two studies with primary school children of low-to-mid socio-economic status in the UK. Two key findings were revealed. First, despite being in the first 2 years of primary school education, significantly better performance was found in reading compared to maths across both studies. This may reflect the protective effects of recent national-level interventions to promote early literacy skills in young children in the UK that have not been similarly promoted for maths. Second, fine motor skills were a better predictor of early maths ability than they were of early reading ability. Hierarchical multiple regression revealed that fine motor skills did not significantly predict reading ability when verbal short-term memory was taken into account. In contrast, Fine Motor Integration remained a significant predictor of maths ability, even after the influence of non-verbal IQ had been accounted for. These results suggest that fine motor skills should have a pivotal role in educational interventions designed to support the development of early mathematical skills. PMID:27303342

  6. Fine motor skills predict maths ability better than they predict reading ability in the early primary school years

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    Nicola J. Pitchford

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Fine motor skills have long been recognised as an important foundation for development in other domains. However, more precise insights into the role of fine motor skills, and their relationships to other skills in mediating early educational achievements, are needed to support the development of optimal educational interventions. We explored concurrent relationships between two components of fine motor skills, Fine Motor Precision and Fine Motor Integration, and early reading and maths development in two studies with primary school children of low-to-mid socio-economic status in the U.K. Two key findings were revealed. First, despite being in the first two years of primary school education, significantly better performance was found in reading compared to maths across both studies. This may reflect the protective effects of recent national-level interventions to promote early literacy skills in young children in the U.K. that have not been similarly promoted for maths. Second, fine motor skills were a better predictor of early maths ability than they were of early reading ability. Hierarchical multiple regression revealed that fine motor skills did not significantly predict reading ability when verbal short-term memory was taken into account. In contrast, Fine Motor Integration remained a significant predictor of maths ability, even after the influence of non-verbal IQ had been accounted for. These results suggest that fine motor skills should have a pivotal role in educational interventions designed to support the development of early mathematical skills.

  7. THE EFFECT OF EGGSHELL MOSAIC TRAINING TOWARD FINE MOTOR SKILLS OF CHILDREN WITH INTELLECTUAL AND DEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITY (IDD

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    Diadra Finalistiani

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to determine the effect of eggshell mosaic toward fine motor skills of children with intellectual and develompental disability. The data was collected with observation, and the analysis technique used analysis in condition and analysis between conditions. The conclusion of this research was eggshell mosaic gives effect toward the fine motor skills of the children, it was shown from fine motor skills of the children before eggshell mosaic treatment, during the treatment and after controlling, and the fine motor skills of the children was improved.

  8. Fine Motor Skills Predict Maths Ability Better than They Predict Reading Ability in the Early Primary School Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitchford, Nicola J; Papini, Chiara; Outhwaite, Laura A; Gulliford, Anthea

    2016-01-01

    Fine motor skills have long been recognized as an important foundation for development in other domains. However, more precise insights into the role of fine motor skills, and their relationships to other skills in mediating early educational achievements, are needed to support the development of optimal educational interventions. We explored concurrent relationships between two components of fine motor skills, Fine Motor Precision and Fine Motor Integration, and early reading and maths development in two studies with primary school children of low-to-mid socio-economic status in the UK. Two key findings were revealed. First, despite being in the first 2 years of primary school education, significantly better performance was found in reading compared to maths across both studies. This may reflect the protective effects of recent national-level interventions to promote early literacy skills in young children in the UK that have not been similarly promoted for maths. Second, fine motor skills were a better predictor of early maths ability than they were of early reading ability. Hierarchical multiple regression revealed that fine motor skills did not significantly predict reading ability when verbal short-term memory was taken into account. In contrast, Fine Motor Integration remained a significant predictor of maths ability, even after the influence of non-verbal IQ had been accounted for. These results suggest that fine motor skills should have a pivotal role in educational interventions designed to support the development of early mathematical skills.

  9. Infants with Down Syndrome: Percentage and Age for Acquisition of Gross Motor Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Karina; Basso, Renata Pedrolongo; Lindquist, Ana Raquel Rodrigues; da Silva, Louise Gracelli Pereira; Tudella, Eloisa

    2013-01-01

    The literature is bereft of information about the age at which infants with Down syndrome (DS) acquire motor skills and the percentage of infants that do so by the age of 12 months. Therefore, it is necessary to identify the difference in age, in relation to typical infants, at which motor skills were acquired and the percentage of infants with DS…

  10. Disentangling Fine Motor Skills' Relations to Academic Achievement: The Relative Contributions of Visual-Spatial Integration and Visual-Motor Coordination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Abby G.; Rowe, Ellen; Curby, Timothy W.

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has established a connection between children's fine motor skills and their academic performance. Previous research has focused on fine motor skills measured prior to elementary school, while the present sample included children ages 5-18 years old, making it possible to examine whether this link remains relevant throughout…

  11. A Study of Early Fine Motor Intervention in Down's Syndrome Children

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    Aparicio, Teresa Sanz; Balana, Javier Menendez

    2009-01-01

    The marked delay in acquisition of fine motor skills in trisomic-21/Down's syndrome children is undeniable. In this study, we began with an affirmation that the cause of this deficit could be found in a different environment for which early intervention is essential. A sample of 30 Down's syndrome children was used to study at different ages: six…

  12. Do Nimble Hands Make for Nimble Lexicons? Fine Motor Skills Predict Knowledge of Embodied Vocabulary Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suggate, Sebastian P.; Stoeger, Heidrun

    2014-01-01

    Theories and research in embodied cognition postulate that cognition grounded in action enjoys a processing advantage. Extending this theory to the study of how fine motor skills (FMS) link to vocabulary development in preschool children, the authors investigated FMS and vocabulary in 76 preschoolers. Building on previous research, they…

  13. SUPERVISED PHYSICAL TRAINING IMPROVES FINE MOTOR SKILLS OF 5-YEAR-OLD CHILDREN

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    Yugang Qi

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Fine motor skills are important for children not only in the activities of daily living, but also for learning activities. In the present study, the effects of supervised physical training were investigated in normal children. Objective: To evaluate the effects of supervised training by combining full-body exercise and the eye-hand coordination activities to improve fine motor skills in a group of five-year-old normal children. Methods: Fifty-two children were selected and randomized in exercise and control groups. The exercise group participated in three 30-minute training sessions per week for 24 weeks. Results: The fine motor skills and hand grip strength of the exercise group were significantly increased, while there was no significant change in the control group during the experimental period. Conclusion: The results indicate that the current exercise training program is effective and can be applied to 5-year-old normal children to improve their fine motor skills. In addition, this program has simple physical activities that are appropriate to the physical and mental level of child development. The 30-minute training session would be easily implemented in the kindergarten program. Level of Evidence I; High quality randomized trial with statistically significant difference or no statistically significant difference but narrow confidence intervals.

  14. The Effect of Fine Motor Skill Activities on Kindergarten Student Attention

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    Stewart, Roger A.; Rule, Audrey C.; Giordano, Debra A.

    2007-01-01

    This study explored the effect of fine motor skill activities on the development of attention in kindergarteners (n = 68) in five classes at a suburban public school in the Intermountain West through a pretest/posttest experimental group (n = 36) control group (n = 32) design. All children received the regular curriculum which included typical…

  15. Design challenges for stepper motor actuated microvalve based on fine and micro-machining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fazal, I.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    2007-01-01

    We present a normally open stepper motor actuated microvalve based on micro and fine-machining technique. In this paper, first we have described how the larger controllable flow range can be achieved with simple micromachining techniques and secondly we have presented the results which show how the

  16. Educational Gymnastics: The Effectiveness of Montessori Practical Life Activities in Developing Fine Motor Skills in Kindergartners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Punum; Davis, Alan; Shamas-Brandt, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: A quasi-experiment was undertaken to test the effect of Montessori practical life activities on kindergarten children's fine motor development and hand dominance over an 8-month period. Participants were 50 children age 5 in 4 Montessori schools and 50 students age 5 in a kindergarten program in a high-performing suburban…

  17. Deficits in Fine Motor Skills and Their Influence on Persistence among Gifted Elementary School Pupils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeger, Heidrun; Ziegler, Albert

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses the causes of underachievement in scholastic education. Whereas many studies have been able to show that motivational deficits provide an explanation for underachievement, little research has yet explored the possible influences of deficits in fine motor skills. The aim of our empirical study was, therefore, to investigate…

  18. Relations between fine motor skill and parental report of attention in young children with neurofibromatosis type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casnar, Christy L; Janke, Kelly M; van der Fluit, Faye; Brei, Natalie G; Klein-Tasman, Bonita P

    2014-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is one of the most common genetic disorders presenting in approximately 1 in 3,500 live births. NF1 is a highly variable condition with a large number of complications. A common complication is neuropsychological problems, including developmental delays and learning difficulties that affect as many as 60% of patients. Research has suggested that school-aged children with NF1 often have poorer fine motor skills and are at greater risk for attention difficulties than the general population. Thirty-eight children with NF1 and 23 unaffected children between the ages of 4 and 6 years, who are enrolled in a study of early development in NF1, were included in the present study. Varying levels of fine motor functioning were examined (simple to complex fine motor tasks). For children with NF1, significant difficulties were demonstrated on lab-based mid-level and complex fine motor tasks, even after controlling for nonverbal reasoning abilities, but not on simple fine motor tasks. Parental report also indicated difficulties in everyday adaptive fine motor functioning. No significant correlations were found between complex fine motor ability and attention difficulties. This study provides much needed descriptive data on the early emergence of fine motor difficulties and attention difficulties in young children with NF1.

  19. Examining the Potential of Web-Based Multimedia to Support Complex Fine Motor Skill Learning: An Empirical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papastergiou, Marina; Pollatou, Elisana; Theofylaktou, Ioannis; Karadimou, Konstantina

    2014-01-01

    Research on the utilization of the Web for complex fine motor skill learning that involves whole body movements is still scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the introduction of a multimedia web-based learning environment, which was targeted at a rhythmic gymnastics routine consisting of eight fine motor skills, into an…

  20. Associations between Low-Income Children's Fine Motor Skills in Preschool and Academic Performance in Second Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinehart, Laura; Manfra, Louis

    2013-01-01

    Research Findings: Given the growing literature pertaining to the importance of fine motor skills for later academic achievement (D. W. Grissmer, K. J. Grimm, S. M. Aiyer, W. M. Murrah, & J. S. Steele, 2010), the current study examines whether the fine motor skills of economically disadvantaged preschool students predict later academic…

  1. Evaluating fine motor coordination in children who are not ready for handwriting : which test should we take?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Liesbeth; van Hartingsveldt, Margo J.; Cup, Edith H.C.; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W.G.; de Groot, Imelda J.M.

    2015-01-01

    When children are not ready to write, assessment of fine motor coordination may be indicated. The purpose of this study was to evaluate which fine motor test, the Nine-Hole Peg Test (9-HPT) or the newly developed Timed Test of In-Hand Manipulation (Timed-TIHM), correlates best with handwriting

  2. Evaluating fine motor coordination in children who are not ready for handwriting: which test should we take?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, L. de; Hartingsveldt, M.J. van; Cup, E.H.C.; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M.W.G.; Groot, I.J.M. de

    2015-01-01

    When children are not ready to write, assessment of fine motor coordination may be indicated. The purpose of this study was to evaluate which fine motor test, the Nine-Hole Peg Test (9-HPT) or the newly developed Timed Test of In-Hand Manipulation (Timed-TIHM), correlates best with handwriting

  3. [Breastfeeding, gross motor development and obesity, is there any causal association?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisstaub N, Gerardo; Schonhaut B, Luisa; Salazar R, Gabriela

    2017-01-01

    Childhood obesity is the main nutritional and public health problem in Chile, being the principal causes, the increase in energy dense foods and the decline of physical activity. Interventions to prevent obesity at infancy are focused mainly in improving quality and quantity of dietary intake, without taking into account physical activity, which is expressed under two years of age, mainly by motor development. Some studies have proven that motor development at early age, may influence the ability to perform physical activity. Thus, infants scoring a lower motor development may have a greater risk of becoming obese. It isn’t know if childhood obesity causes lower motor development (given that children may have greater difficulty to move), or on the contrary, it is the lower ability to move, which increases the obesity risk. The objective of this manuscriptis analize the evidence regards the relation between breastfeeding, motor development and obesity in the childhood.To be able to understand this asocation and casual mecanism, it is important to develop stategys focused in early infancy to promote breastfeeding, healthy eating and early stimulation, starting in pediatric office.

  4. Attainment of gross motor milestones in children with Down syndrome in Kosovo - developmental perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beqaj, Samire; Jusaj, Njomza; Živković, Vujica

    2017-08-01

    Aim To investigate the age (in months) at which motor skills are developed in children with Down syndrome (DS), and compare it to the age of the development of the same skills in both, children with typical development (TD), and children with DS reported by four other studies. Methods Sixteen children (7 girls and 9 boys) were monthly assessed for the development of nineteen motor skills between 2008 and 2011. The mean ages when the skills were accomplished were presented using descriptive statistics. Independent T-samples test (significance skills. No significant difference was found between developmental age in children from the present study and children with DS from other studies. Conclusion The rate of attainment of motor skills is delayed in children with DS in comparison to children with TD, however, the developmental sequence is the same. The delayed development is more prominent in more complex skills. Copyright© by the Medical Assotiation of Zenica-Doboj Canton.

  5. Dietary restriction alters fine motor function in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lori K; Metz, Gerlinde A

    2005-08-07

    A number of standard behavioral tasks in animal research utilize food rewards for positive reinforcement. In order to enhance the motivation to participate in these tasks, animals are usually placed on a restricted diet. While dietary restriction (DR) has been shown to have beneficial effects on recovery after brain injury, life span and aging processes, it might also represent a stressor. Since stress can influence a broad range of behaviors, the purpose of this study was to assess whether DR may have similar effects on skilled movement. Adult male Long-Evans rats were trained and tested in a skilled reaching task both prior to and during a mild food restriction regimen that maintained their body weights at 90-95% of baseline weight for eight days. The observations revealed that DR decreased reaching success and increased the number of attempts to grasp a single food pellet. The animals appeared to be more frantic when attempting to reach for food pellets, and the time taken to reach for 20 pellets decreased following the onset of DR. A second experiment investigating behaviors that do not require food rewards, including a ladder rung walking task and an open field test, confirmed that rats on DR display deficits in skilled movements and are hyperactive. These findings suggest that results obtained in motor tasks using food rewards need to be interpreted with caution. The findings are discussed with respect to stress associated with DR.

  6. Effects of Individual and School-Level Characteristics on a Child’s Gross Motor Coordination Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Chaves

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify child and school-level characteristics that explained inter-individual differences in gross motor coordination (GMC. Participants (n = 390, recruited from 18 Portuguese primary schools, were aged 6 to 10 years of age. Birth weight, body fat (BF, physical activity (PA, physical fitness (PF and GMC were assessed. School size, setting, infrastructure and physical education classes were considered as school context markers. A multilevel modeling approach was used to identify hierarchical effects (child and school levels. It was found that children-level variables (sex, PF, and BF significantly explained 63% of the 90% variance fraction at the individual level; boys outperformed girls (p < 0.05, individuals with higher BF were less coordinated (p < 0.05, and those with higher PF were more coordinated (p < 0.05. School-variables (e.g. school size and playing surface explained 84% of the 10% variation fraction. These findings confirm the roles of sex, PFS and BF. Interestingly they also suggest that the school environment plays a minor but significant role in GMC development. However, it is important to stress that the school context and conditions can also play an important role in a child’s motor development, providing adequate and enriching motor opportunities.

  7. Hippocampal EEG and behaviour in dog. I. Hippocampal EEG correlates of gross motor behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnolds, D.E.A.T.; Lopes da Silva, F.H.; Aitink, J.W.; Kamp, A.

    It was shown that rewarding spectral shifts (i.e. increase in amplitude or peak frequency of the hippocampal EEG) causes a solitary dog to show increased motor behaviour. Rewarded spectral shifts concurred with a variety of behavioural transitions. It was found that statistically significant

  8. Sibling Relationships of Preschool-Aged Children in Gross Motor Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbaugh, Sarah J.; Clifton, Marguerite A.

    1984-01-01

    The behaviors and interactions of preschool-aged siblings in object-oriented and body-oriented conditions were observed to discover if the child's siblings significantly influenced motor skill development. This study focused on categories of sibling behaviors and interactions. (Author/DF)

  9. Risk Factors for Gross Motor Dysfunction in Infants with Congenital Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Suzanne H.; Eldridge, Bev J.; Galea, Mary P.; Harris, Susan R.

    2011-01-01

    Infants with congenital heart disease (CHD) that is severe enough to require early surgery are at risk for cognitive and motor delays, as well as musculoskeletal impairments, and are best managed by an interdisciplinary team during their hospital stay and after discharge. The purpose of this article is to review some of the risk factors associated…

  10. Working memory and fine motor skills predict early numeracy performance of children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Rooijen, Maaike; Verhoeven, Ludo; Steenbergen, Bert

    2016-01-01

    Early numeracy is an important precursor for arithmetic performance, academic proficiency, and work success. Besides their apparent motor difficulties, children with cerebral palsy (CP) often show additional cognitive disturbances. In this study, we examine whether working memory, non-verbal intelligence, linguistic skills, counting and fine motor skills are positively related to the early numeracy performance of 6-year-old children with CP. A total of 56 children (M = 6.0, SD = 0.61, 37 boys) from Dutch special education schools participated in this cross-sectional study. Of the total group, 81% of the children have the spastic type of CP (33% unilateral and 66% bilateral), 9% have been diagnosed as having diskinetic CP, 8% have been diagnosed as having spastic and diskinetic CP and 2% have been diagnosed as having a combination of diskinetic and atactic CP. The children completed standardized tests assessing early numeracy performance, working memory, non-verbal intelligence, sentence understanding and fine motor skills. In addition, an experimental task was administered to examine their basic counting performance. Structural equation modeling showed that working memory and fine motor skills were significantly related to the early numeracy performance of the children (β = .79 and p working memory and early numeracy (β = .57, p working memory for early numeracy performance in children with CP and they warrant further research into the efficacy of intervention programs aimed at working memory training.

  11. Reliability of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the Gross Motor Function Measure in children with cerebral palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Kênnea M.; Albuquerque, Karolina A.; Ferreira, Marina L.; Aguiar, Stéphany K. B.; Mancini, Marisa C.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test the intra- and interrater reliability of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the 66-item Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM-66). METHOD: The sample included 48 children with cerebral palsy (CP), ranging from 2-17 years old, classified at levels I to IV of the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) and four child rehabilitation examiners. A main examiner evaluated all children using the GMFM-66 and video-recorded the assessments. The other examiners watched the video recordings and scored them independently for the assessment of interrater reliability. For the intrarater reliability evaluation, the main examiner watched the video recordings one month after the evaluation and re-scored each child. We calculated reliability by using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) with their respective 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: Excellent test reliability was documented. The intrarater reliability of the total sample was ICC=0.99 (95% CI 0.98-0.99), and the interrater reliability was ICC=0.97 (95% CI 0.95-0.98). The reliability across GMFCS levels ranged from ICC=0.92 (95% CI 0.72-0.98) to ICC=0.99 (95% CI 0.99-0.99); the lowest value was the interrater reliability for the GMFCS IV group. Reliability in the five GMFM dimensions varied from ICC=0.95 (95% CI 0.93-0.97) to ICC=0.99 (95% CI 0.99-0.99). CONCLUSION: The Brazilian Portuguese version of the GMFM-66 showed excellent intra- and interrater reliability when used in Brazilian children with CP levels GMFCS I to IV. PMID:26786081

  12. Fine motor and self-care milestones for individuals with Down syndrome using a Retrospective Chart Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, K; Esbensen, A J

    2015-08-01

    Developmental milestone markers for fine motor and self-care skills among children with Down syndrome (DS) are either minimal, anecdotal or out-of date. Our goal was to produce normative expectations for the development of fine motor and self-care milestones specific to children with DS. A cross-sectional retrospective chart review was completed on 274 children with DS seen at a specialty clinic that ranged in age from 4 months to 18 years. Specific skills were assessed at occupational therapy assessments as either present or absent, including fine motor, handwriting, scissor usage, self-feeding and clothing management. Fine motor milestones describing when 10-30% ('early achievers') and 75-95% ('representative achievement') of children with DS had mastered each skill were developed based upon descriptive review. As the fine motor and self-care skills advanced in complexity, the range of ages for documented skill acquisition was observed to increase. Age ranges for the mastery of fine motor developmental milestones for early and representative achievement were developed based upon descriptive analysis of cross-sectional retrospective clinical chart reviews. That the age range for mastering fine motor and self-care skills broadens as children with DS get older is in agreement with what is identified in the DS behavioural phenotype with regard to variable motor skills overall. These fine motor and self-care developmental milestone markers contribute to the field by informing parents, caregivers and healthcare providers of potential fine motor and self-care outcomes and describing normative development for children with DS. © 2014 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. IQ discrepancy differentiates levels of fine motor skills and their relationship in children with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tzu-Ying; Chou, Willy; Chow, Julie Chi; Lin, Chien-Ho; Tung, Li-Chen; Chen, Kuan-Lin

    2018-01-01

    We investigated 1) the impact of differences in intelligence quotient discrepancy (IQD) on motor skills of preschool-aged children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD); 2) the relationships between IQD and motor skills in preschool-aged children with ASD. A total of 127 ASD preschool-aged children were divided into three groups according to the size of the IQD: IQD within 1 standard deviation (1SD; EVENIQ; n=81), discrepantly higher verbal intelligence quotient (VIQ; n=22; VIQ>performance intelligence quotient [PIQ] above 1SD [≥15 points]), and discrepantly higher PIQ (n=24; PIQ>VIQ above 1SD [≥15 points]). Children's IQD and motor skills were determined with the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence™ - Fourth Edition and the motor subtests of the Comprehensive Developmental Inventory for Infants and Toddlers (CDIIT), respectively. One-way analysis of variance revealed significant group differences for the fine motor domain of the CDIIT and the visual-motor coordination subtest ( F =3.37-4.38, p motor skills than were children with even IQD and those with discrepantly higher VIQ, and vice versa. IQD (PIQ - VIQ) had significant positive correlations with the fine motor domain and fine motor subtests of the CDIIT ( r =0.18-0.29, p motor skills in preschool-aged children with ASD. This study suggests important implications for clinicians, therapists, and researchers: discrepantly higher PIQ could be related to better visual-motor coordination, and discrepantly higher VIQ could be related to poor visual-motor coordination. Furthermore, the results support that when therapists are working with preschool-aged children with ASD who are developing fine motor skills or undertaking fine motor tasks related to visual-motor coordination, they may need to pay attention to the children's IQD.

  14. [Stimulation at home and motor development among 36-month-old Mexican children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, Erika; Torres-Sánchez, Luisa; Hernández, María Del Carmen; López-Carrillo, Lizbeth; Schnaas, Lourdes

    2010-01-01

    To identify the relationship between stimulation at home and motor development among 36 month-old children. The development of gross and fine motor skills of 169 infants (50.9% boys and 49.1% girls) was assessed at the age of 36 months with the Peabody Developmental Motor Scale. The quality of home stimulation was determined during a prior evaluation (at 30 months) by means of the HOME Scale. Total stimulation at home was significantly associated with better performance in the gross and fine motor areas. Particular aspects of this home stimulation were related to better gross and fine motor functions. Static balance and locomotion (gross motor skills) and grasping and visual-motor integration (fine motor skills) are associated with particular aspects of home stimulation, such as parent-child interaction, verbal reinforcement of the child's positive actions and providing the child with clear boundaries.

  15. Serious Games for Parkinson's Disease Fine Motor Skills Rehabilitation Using Natural Interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foletto, Antônio Augusto; Cordeiro d'Ornellas, Marcos; Cervi Prado, Ana Lucia

    2017-01-01

    Parkinson's Disease rehabilitation can be long and boring being difficult to maintain patient engagement on therapy programs. Novel technologies are allowing computer games to be played throught natural interfaces. This paper presents the development and assessment of a system of serious games for fine motor skills rehabilitation using natural interfaces. The games were assessed throught a questionnaire that evaluated the game experience through seven components: immersion, flow, competence, tension, challenge and positive and negative affect. In addition, a conceptual framework for development of serious games for fine motor skills rehabilitation was proposed. The results from the quantitative questionnaire suggested that the player experience was positive on all components assessed. Also, player experience between the three games was statistically the same, implying that the games can be used with consistency in a physical therapy rehabilitation program.

  16. Effect of task-oriented training and high-variability practice on gross motor performance and activities of daily living in children with spastic diplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hae-Yeon; Ahn, So-Yoon

    2016-10-01

    [Purpose] This study investigates how a task-oriented training and high-variability practice program can affect the gross motor performance and activities of daily living for children with spastic diplegia and provides an effective and reliable clinical database for future improvement of motor performances skills. [Subjects and Methods] This study randomly assigned seven children with spastic diplegia to each intervention group including that of a control group, task-oriented training group, and a high-variability practice group. The control group only received neurodevelopmental treatment for 40 minutes, while the other two intervention groups additionally implemented a task-oriented training and high-variability practice program for 8 weeks (twice a week, 60 min per session). To compare intra and inter-relationships of the three intervention groups, this study measured gross motor performance measure (GMPM) and functional independence measure for children (WeeFIM) before and after 8 weeks of training. [Results] There were statistically significant differences in the amount of change before and after the training among the three intervention groups for the gross motor performance measure and functional independence measure. [Conclusion] Applying high-variability practice in a task-oriented training course may be considered an efficient intervention method to improve motor performance skills that can tune to movement necessary for daily livelihood through motor experience and learning of new skills as well as change of tasks learned in a complex environment or similar situations to high-variability practice.

  17. The effects of shift work and time of day on fine motor control during handwriting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölzle, Patricia; Hermsdörfer, Joachim; Vetter, Céline

    2014-01-01

    Handwriting is an elaborate and highly automatised skill relying on fine motor control. In laboratory conditions handwriting kinematics are modulated by the time of day. This study investigated handwriting kinematics in a rotational shift system and assessed whether similar time of day fluctuations at the work place can be observed. Handwriting performance was measured in two tasks of different levels of complexity in 34 shift workers across morning (6:00-14:00), evening (14:00-22:00) and night shifts (22:00-6:00). Participants were tested during all three shifts in 2-h intervals with mobile testing devices. We calculated average velocity, script size and writing frequency to quantify handwriting kinematics and fluency. Average velocity and script size were significantly affected by the shift work schedule with the worst performance during morning shifts and the best performance during evening shifts. Our data are of high economic relevance as fine motor skills are indispensable for accurate and effective production at the work place. Handwriting is one of the most complex fine motor skills in humans, which is frequently performed in daily life. In this study, we tested handwriting repeatedly at the work place in a rotational shift system. We found slower handwriting velocity and reduced script size during morning shifts.

  18. Parental Writing Support and Preschoolers' Early Literacy, Language, and Fine Motor Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindman, Samantha W.; Skibbe, Lori E.; Hindman, Annemarie H.; Aram, Dorit; Morrison, Frederick J.

    2014-01-01

    The current study examines the nature and variability of parents' aid to preschoolers in the context of a shared writing task, as well as the relations between this support and children's literacy, vocabulary, and fine motor skills. In total, 135 preschool children (72 girls) and their parents (primarily mothers) in an ethnically diverse, middle-income community were observed while writing a semi-structured invitation for a pretend birthday party together. Children's phonological awareness, alphabet knowledge, word decoding, vocabulary, and fine motor skills were also assessed. Results revealed that parents provided variable, but generally low–level, support for children's approximation of sound-symbol correspondence in their writing (i.e., graphophonemic support), as well as for their production of letter forms (i.e., print support). Parents frequently accepted errors rather than asking for corrections (i.e., demand for precision). Further analysis of the parent-child dyads (n = 103) who wrote the child's name on the invitation showed that parents provided higher graphophonemic, but not print, support when writing the child's name than other words. Overall parental graphophonemic support was positively linked to children's decoding and fine motor skills, whereas print support and demand for precision were not related to any of the child outcomes. In sum, this study indicates that while parental support for preschoolers' writing may be minimal, it is uniquely linked to key literacy-related outcomes in preschool. PMID:25284957

  19. Infants with Down syndrome: percentage and age for acquisition of gross motor skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Karina; Basso, Renata Pedrolongo; Lindquist, Ana Raquel Rodrigues; da Silva, Louise Gracelli Pereira; Tudella, Eloisa

    2013-03-01

    The literature is bereft of information about the age at which infants with Down syndrome (DS) acquire motor skills and the percentage of infants that do so by the age of 12 months. Therefore, it is necessary to identify the difference in age, in relation to typical infants, at which motor skills were acquired and the percentage of infants with DS that acquire them in the first year of life. Infants with DS (N=20) and typical infants (N=25), both aged between 3 and 12 months, were evaluated monthly using the AIMS. In the prone position, a difference of up to 3 months was found for the acquisition of the 3rd to 16th skill. There was a difference in the percentage of infants with DS who acquired the 10th to 21st skill (from 71% to 7%). In the supine position, a difference of up to one month was found from the 3rd to 7th skill; however, 100% were able to perform these skills. In the sitting position, a difference of 1-4 months was found from the 1st to 12th skill, ranging from 69% to 29% from the 9th to 12th. In the upright position, the difference was 2-3 months from the 3rd to 8th skill. Only 13% acquired the 8th skill and no other skill was acquired up to the age of 12 months. The more complex the skills the greater the difference in age between typical infants and those with DS and the lower the percentage of DS individuals who performed the skills in the prone, sitting and upright positions. None of the DS infants were able to stand without support. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Systematic review and meta-analysis of the effect of equine assisted activities and therapies on gross motor outcome in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Sung-Hui; Chen, Hung-Chou; Tam, Ka-Wai

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the literature on the efficacy of equine assisted activities and therapies (EAAT) on gross motor outcomes representing the ICF component of body functions and activity in children with cerebral palsy (CP). We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials and observational studies of hippotherapy (HPOT) and therapeutic horseback riding (TR) for children with spastic CP. Gross motor outcomes, assessed via muscle activity and muscle tone, gait, posture and Gross Motor Function Measures (GMFM) were evaluated. Five TR studies and nine HPOT studies were included. Our meta-analysis indicated that short-term HPOT (total riding time 8-10 min) significantly reduced asymmetrical activity of the hip adductor muscles. HPOT could improve postural control in children with spastic CP, GMFCS level < 5. However, the evidence did not show a statistically significant effect on GMFM after long-term HPOT or TR (total riding time, 8-22 h) in children with spastic CP. This systematic review found insufficient evidence to support the claim that long-term TR or HPOT provide a significant benefit to children with spastic CP. We found no statistically significant evidence of either therapeutic effect or maintenance effects on the gross motor activity status in CP children.

  1. Test of Gross Motor Development-3 (TGMD-3) with the Use of Visual Supports for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Validity and Reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, K. A.; Bredero, B.; Van Damme, T.; Ulrich, D. A.; Simons, J.

    2017-01-01

    The validity and reliability of the Test of Gross Motor Development-3 (TGMD-3) were measured, taking into consideration the preference for visual learning of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The TGMD-3 was administered to 14 children with ASD (4-10 years) and 21 age-matched typically developing children under two conditions: TGMD-3…

  2. The Effect of Picture Task Cards on Performance of the Test of Gross Motor Development by Preschool-Aged Children: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslin, Casey M.; Robinson, Leah E.; Rudisill, Mary E.

    2013-01-01

    Performance on the Test of Gross Motor Development (Second Edition; TGMD-2) by children with autism spectrum disorders improves when picture task cards were implemented into the assessment protocol [Breslin, C.M., & Rudisill, M.E. (2011). "The effect of visual supports on performance of the TGMD-2 for children with autism spectrum…

  3. Short- and long-term effects of selective dorsal rhizotomy on gross motor function in ambulatory children with spastic diplegia Clinical article

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schie, P.E.M.; Schothorst, M.; Dallmeijer, A.J.; Vermeulen, R.J.; van Ouwerkerk, W.J.R.; Strijers, R.L.M.; Becher, J.G.

    2011-01-01

    Object. The primary aim of this prospective cohort study was to evaluate the short-term (1 year) and long-term (mean 6 years) effects of selective dorsal rhizotomy (SDR) on gross motor function and spasticity in ambulatory children with spastic diplegia. Secondary aims were to investigate side

  4. Exploring the Relationship between Participation in a Structured Sports Program and Development of Gross Motor Skills in Children Ages 3 to 6 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahagirdar, Ishanee; Venditti, Laura Anne; Duncan, Andrea; Reed, Nick; Fleming, Sean

    2017-01-01

    This study looked at the relationship between participation in a structured sports program and gross-motor-skills development in children aged 3 to 6 years. Twenty-seven children participated in the study, with 16 children receiving an eight-week sports program intervention. Children were assessed at pre- and postintervention using a modified…

  5. Gross motor function, functional skills and caregiver assistance in children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP) with and without cerebral visual impairment (CVI)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salavati, M.; Rameckers, E.A.A.; Steenbergen, B.; Schans, C.P. van der

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To determine whether the level of gross motor function and functional skills in children with cerebral palsy (CP) and cerebral visual impairment (CVI) as well as caregiver assistance are lower in comparison with the corresponding group of children experiencing CP without CVI. Method: Data

  6. Gross motor function, functional skills and caregiver assistance in children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP) with and without cerebral visual impairment (CVI)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salavati, Masoud; Rameckers, E.A.A.; Steenbergen, B.; van der Schans, Cees

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Aim: To determine whether the level of gross motor function and functional skills in children with cerebral palsy (CP) and cerebral visual impairment (CVI) as well as caregiver assistance are lower in comparison with the corresponding group of children experiencing CP without CVI. Method:

  7. The efficacy of GMFM-88 and GMFM-66 to detect changes in gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy (CP): a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alotaibi, Madawi; Long, Toby; Kennedy, Elizabeth; Bavishi, Siddhi

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to review published research on the use of the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM-88) and (GMFM-66) as outcome measures to determine if these tools detect changes in gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy (CP) undergoing interventions. A comprehensive literature search was conducted using Medline and PubMed to identify studies published from January 2000 through January 2011 that reported the accuracy of GMFM-88 and GMFM-66 to measure changes over time in children with CP undergoing interventions. The keywords used for the search were "GMFM" and "CP". Two of the authors (M.A. and S.B.) reviewed the titles and abstracts found in the databases. The methodological quality of the studies was assessed by using the Critical Review Form-Quantitative Studies. Of 62 papers initially identified, 21 studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. These articles consist of three longitudinal studies, six randomized controlled trials, four repeated measure design, six pre-post test design, a case series and one non-randomized prospective study. The included studies were generally of moderate to high methodological quality. The studies included children from a wide age range of 10 months to 16 years. According to the National Health and Medical Research Council, the study designs were level II, III-2, III-3 and IV. The review suggests that the GMFM-88 and GMFM-66 are useful as outcome measures to detect changes in gross motor function in children with CP undergoing interventions. Implications for Rehabilitation Accurate measurement of change in gross motor skill acquisition is important to determine effectiveness of intervention programs in children with cerebral palsy (CP). The Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM-88 and GMFM-66) are common tools used by rehabilitation specialists to measure gross motor function in children with CP. The GMFM appears to be an effective outcome tool for measuring change in gross motor function according to

  8. Difficulties with Fine Motor Skills and Cognitive Impairment in an Elderly Population: The Progetto Veneto Anziani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curreri, Chiara; Trevisan, Caterina; Carrer, Pamela; Facchini, Silvia; Giantin, Valter; Maggi, Stefania; Noale, Marianna; De Rui, Marina; Perissinotto, Egle; Zambon, Sabina; Crepaldi, Gaetano; Manzato, Enzo; Sergi, Giuseppe

    2018-02-01

    To investigate dysfunction in fine motor skills in a cohort of older Italian adults, identifying their prevalence and usefulness as indicators and predictors of cognitive impairment. Population-based longitudinal study with mean follow-up of 4.4 years. Community. Older men and women enrolled in the Progetto Veneto Anziani (Pro.V.A.) (N = 2,361); 1,243 subjects who were cognitively intact at baseline were selected for longitudinal analyses. Fine motor skills were assessed by measuring the time needed to successfully complete two functional tasks: putting on a shirt and a manual dexterity task. Cognitive impairment was defined as a Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score less than 24. On simple correlation, baseline MMSE score was significantly associated with the manual dexterity task (correlation coefficient (r) = -0.25, P motor tasks were significantly associated with changes in MMSE (putting on a shirt: β = 0.083, P = .003; manual dexterity task: β = 0.098, P motor skills are common in older adults, and assessing them may help to identify early signs of dementia, subjects at high risk to develop cognitive decline, and individuals who can be referred to specialists. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.

  9. Fine motor deficits in reading disability and language impairment: same or different?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie Brookman

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have found evidence of motor deficits in poor readers. There is no obvious reason for motor and literacy skills to go together, and it has been suggested that both deficits could be indicative of an underlying problem with cerebellar function and/or procedural learning. However, the picture is complicated by the fact that reading problems often co-occur with oral language impairments, which have also been linked with motor deficits. This raises the question of whether motor deficits characterise poor readers when language impairment has been accounted for – and vice versa. We considered these questions by assessing motor deficits associated with reading disability (RD and language impairment (LI. A large community sample provided a subset of 9- to 10-year-olds, selected to oversample children with reading and/or language difficulties, to give 37 children with comorbid LI + RD, 67 children with RD only, 32 children with LI only, and 117 typically-developing (TD children with neither type of difficulty. These children were given four motor tasks that taxed speed, sequence, and imitation abilities to differing extents. Different patterns of results were found for the four motor tasks. There was no effect of RD or LI on two speeded fingertip tapping tasks, one of which involved sequencing of movements. LI, but not RD, was associated with problems in imitating hand positions and slowed performance on a speeded peg-moving task that required a precision grip. Fine motor deficits in poor readers may be more a function of language impairment than literacy problems.

  10. Non-invasive brain stimulation for fine motor improvement after stroke: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, A T; Bertolucci, F; Torrealba-Acosta, G; Huerta, R; Fregni, F; Thibaut, A

    2018-05-09

    The aim of this study was to determine whether non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) techniques improve fine motor performance in stroke. We searched PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, SciELO and OpenGrey for randomized clinical trials on NIBS for fine motor performance in stroke patients and healthy participants. We computed Hedges' g for active and sham groups, pooled data as random-effects models and performed sensitivity analysis on chronicity, montage, frequency of stimulation and risk of bias. Twenty-nine studies (351 patients and 152 healthy subjects) were reviewed. Effect sizes in stroke populations for transcranial direct current stimulation and repeated transcranial magnetic stimulation were 0.31 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.08-0.55; P = 0.010; Tau 2 , 0.09; I 2 , 34%; Q, 18.23; P = 0.110] and 0.46 (95% CI, 0.00-0.92; P = 0.05; Tau 2 , 0.38; I 2 , 67%; Q, 30.45; P = 0.007). The effect size of non-dominant healthy hemisphere transcranial direct current stimulation on non-dominant hand function was 1.25 (95% CI, 0.09-2.41; P = 0.04; Tau 2 , 1.26; I 2 , 93%; Q, 40.27; P < 0.001). Our results show that NIBS is associated with gains in fine motor performance in chronic stroke patients and healthy subjects. This supports the effects of NIBS on motor learning and encourages investigation to optimize their effects in clinical and research settings. © 2018 EAN.

  11. Relationship between postural control and fine motor skills in preterm infants at 6 and 12 months adjusted age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tien-Ni; Howe, Tsu-Hsin; Hinojosa, Jim; Weinberg, Sharon L

    2011-01-01

    We examined the relationship between postural control and fine motor skills of preterm infants at 6 and 12 mo adjusted age. The Alberta Infant Motor Scale was used to measure postural control, and the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales II was used to measure fine motor skills. The data analyzed were taken from 105 medical records from a preterm infant follow-up clinic at an urban academic medical center in south Taiwan. Using multiple regression analyses, we found that the development of postural control is related to the development of fine motor skills, especially in the group of preterm infants with delayed postural control. This finding supports the theoretical assumption of proximal-distal development used by many occupational therapists to guide intervention. Further research is suggested to corroborate findings.

  12. Longitudinal cohort protocol study of oropharyngeal dysphagia: relationships to gross motor attainment, growth and nutritional status in preschool children with cerebral palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benfer, Katherine A; Weir, Kelly A; Bell, Kristie L; Ware, Robert S; Davies, Peter S W; Boyd, Roslyn N

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The prevalence of oropharyngeal dysphagia (OPD) in children with cerebral palsy (CP) is estimated to be between 19% and 99%. OPD can impact on children's growth, nutrition and overall health. Despite the growing recognition of the extent and significance of health issues relating to OPD in children with CP, lack of knowledge of its profile in this subpopulation remains. This study aims to investigate the relationship between OPD, attainment of gross motor skills, growth and nutritional status in young children with CP at and between two crucial age points, 18–24 and 36 months, corrected age. Methods and analysis This prospective longitudinal population-based study aims to recruit a total of 200 children with CP born in Queensland, Australia between 1 September 2006 and 31 December 2009 (60 per birth-year). Outcomes include clinically assessed OPD (Schedule for Oral Motor Assessment, Dysphagia Disorders Survey, Pre-Speech Assessment Scale, signs suggestive of pharyngeal phase impairment, Thomas-Stonell and Greenberg Saliva Severity Scale), parent-reported OPD on a feeding questionnaire, gross motor skills (Gross Motor Function Measure, Gross Motor Function Classification System and motor type), growth and nutritional status (linear growth and body composition) and dietary intake (3 day food record). The strength of relationship between outcome and exposure variables will be analysed using regression modelling with ORs and relative risk ratios. Ethics and dissemination This protocol describes a study that provides the first large population-based study of OPD in a representative sample of preschool children with CP, using direct clinical assessment. Ethics has been obtained through the University of Queensland Medical Research Ethics Committee, the Children's Health Services District Ethics Committee, and at other regional and organisational ethics committees. Results are planned to be disseminated in six papers submitted to peer reviewed journals

  13. Assessment of Psychophysiological Response and Specific Fine Motor Skills in Combat Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Molina, Joaquín; Robles-Pérez, José J; Clemente-Suárez, Vicente J

    2018-03-02

    Soldiers´ training and experience can influence the outcome of the missions, as well as their own physical integrity. The objective of this research was to analyze the psycho-physiological response and specific motor skills in an urban combat simulation with two units of infantry with different training and experience. psychophysiological parameters -Heart Rate, blood oxygen saturation, glucose and blood lactate, cortical activation, anxiety and heart rate variability-, as well as fine motor skills were analyzed in 31 male soldiers of the Spanish Army, 19 belonging to the Light Infantry Brigade, and 12 to the Heavy Forces Infantry Brigade, before and after an urban combat simulation. A combat simulation provokes an alteration of the psycho-physiological basal state in soldiers and a great unbalance in the sympathetic-vagal interaction. The specific training of Light Infantry unit involves lower metabolic, cardiovascular, and anxiogenic response not only previous, but mainly after a combat maneuver, than Heavy Infantry unit's. No differences were found in relation with fine motor skills, improving in both cases after the maneuver. This fact should be taken into account for betterment units´ deployment preparation in current theaters of operations.

  14. Fine finger motor skill training with exoskeleton robotic hand in chronic stroke: stroke rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ockenfeld, Corinna; Tong, Raymond K Y; Susanto, Evan A; Ho, Sze-Kit; Hu, Xiao-ling

    2013-06-01

    Background and Purpose. Stroke survivors often show a limited recovery in the hand function to perform delicate motions, such as full hand grasping, finger pinching and individual finger movement. The purpose of this study is to describe the implementation of an exoskeleton robotic hand together with fine finger motor skill training on 2 chronic stroke patients. Case Descriptions. Two post-stroke patients participated in a 20-session training program by integrating 10 minutes physical therapy, 20 minutes robotic hand training and 15 minutes functional training tasks with delicate objects(card, pen and coin). These two patients (A and B) had cerebrovascular accident at 6 months and 11 months respectively when enrolled in this study. Outcomes. The results showed that both patients had improvements in Fugl-Meyer assessment (FM), Action Research Arm Test (ARAT). Patients had better isolation of the individual finger flexion and extension based on the reduced muscle co-contraction from the electromyographic(EMG) signals and finger extension force after 20 sessions of training. Discussion. This preliminary study showed that by focusing on the fine finger motor skills together with the exoskeleton robotic hand, it could improve the motor recovery of the upper extremity in the fingers and hand function, which were showed in the ARAT. Future randomized controlled trials are needed to evaluate the clinical effectiveness.

  15. Effect of a new physiotherapy concept on bone mineral density, muscle force and gross motor function in children with bilateral cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, C; Nikopoulou-Smyrni, P; Stabrey, A; Semler, O; Schoenau, E

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a new physiotherapy concept on bone density, muscle force and motor function in bilateral spastic cerebral palsy children. In a retrospective data analysis 78 children were analysed. The concept included whole body vibration, physiotherapy, resistance training and treadmill training. The concept is structured in two in-patient stays and two periods of three months home-based vibration training. Outcome measures were dual-energy x-ray absorption (DXA), Leonardo Tilt Table and a modified Gross Motor Function Measure before and after six months of training. Percent changes were highly significant for bone mineral density, -content, muscle mass and significant for angle of verticalisation, muscle force and modified Gross Motor Function Measure after six months training. The new physiotherapy concept had a significant effect on bone mineral density, muscle force and gross motor function in bilateral spastic cerebral palsy children. This implicates an amelioration in all International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health levels. The study serves as a basis for future research on evidence based paediatric physiotherapy taking into account developmental implications.

  16. Fine motor skills disorders in the course of Wilson′s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunther Peter

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : Fine motor skills disorders belong to the neurological manifestation of Wilson′s disease. The aim of this study is to investigate if fine motor performance changes during the course of the disease and with therapy. Methods : In 15 neurological patients with Wilson′s disease, severity of neurological symptoms was assessed with a neurology score. A test battery consisting of the hand writing of a test sentence, lines of "double-l" and retracing a circle was carried out for analysis. By means of a computer-aided analysis of the patient`s handwriting, 10 kinematic parameters of the writing trace were calculated. These parameters were determined once at the very beginning of the study and then again after 7 years. Results : Improvement of clinical symptoms was observed after onset of therapy only within the first 2 years. In contrast to the standard population, a reduced degree of automation could be detected both at the beginning and at the end of the 7-year interval. There was no significant change in 8 out of the 10 kinematic parameters during the observation period, 2 deteriorated. Discussion : The absence of a significant increase in fine motor disturbances proves, on the one hand, the efficacy of the therapy regime applied. On the other hand, the end point of a possible reversibility had been reached. A computer-aided analysis of the patient`s handwriting allows for a sensitive detection of the "functional scar" in the extrapyramidal control and can subsequently prompt a timely correction of therapy in case of progression.

  17. Analysis of the effects of hospitalization on fine hand functions compared to gross grip in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep Tuna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Hospitalization process causes a variety of physical problems. The decrease of hand use in daily life during hospitalization brings hand dysfunction to mind in inpatients. The aim of this study is to compare the hand functions of hospitalized patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA to outpatients in detail. Methods: Grip and pinch strengths of both hospitalized patients in rheumatology service and outpatients on the routine control day were measured. In addition, 9-Hole Peg Test was performed and the disability level was determined by the Turkish version of Michigan Hand Outcomes Questionnaire (MHOQ. Results: While grip strength and MHOQ scores were similar (p>0.05 in both groups, all three pinch strengths (lateral, bipod, tripod and 9HPT scores were lower (p<0.05 in hospitalized patients. Conclusion: Consequently, besides disease activity, hospitalization process also impairs fine hand functions in rheumatological patients. Evaluation of fine hand functions and appropriate rehabilitative interventions may prevent further disability in hospitalized patients. J Clin Exp Invest 2015; 6 (3: 228-232

  18. Association between fine motor skills and binocular visual function in children with reading difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niechwiej-Szwedo, Ewa; Alramis, Fatimah; Christian, Lisa W

    2017-12-01

    Performance of fine motor skills (FMS) assessed by a clinical test battery has been associated with reading achievement in school-age children. However, the nature of this association remains to be established. The aim of this study was to assess FMS in children with reading difficulties using two experimental tasks, and to determine if performance is associated with reduced binocular function. We hypothesized that in comparison to an age- and sex-matched control group, children identified with reading difficulties will perform worse only on a motor task that has been shown to rely on binocular input. To test this hypothesis, motor performance was assessed using two tasks: bead-threading and peg-board in 19 children who were reading below expected grade and age-level. Binocular vision assessment included tests for stereoacuity, fusional vergence, amplitude of accommodation, and accommodative facility. In comparison to the control group, children with reading difficulties performed significantly worse on the bead-threading task. In contrast, performance on the peg-board task was similar in both groups. Accommodative facility was the only measure of binocular function significantly associated with motor performance. Findings from our exploratory study suggest that normal binocular vision may provide an important sensory input for the optimal development of FMS and reading. Given the small sample size tested in the current study, further investigation to assess the contribution of binocular vision to the development and performance of FMS and reading is warranted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Patterned-string tasks: relation between fine motor skills and visual-spatial abilities in parrots.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Krasheninnikova

    Full Text Available String-pulling and patterned-string tasks are often used to analyse perceptual and cognitive abilities in animals. In addition, the paradigm can be used to test the interrelation between visual-spatial and motor performance. Two Australian parrot species, the galah (Eolophus roseicapilla and the cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus, forage on the ground, but only the galah uses its feet to manipulate food. I used a set of string pulling and patterned-string tasks to test whether usage of the feet during foraging is a prerequisite for solving the vertical string pulling problem. Indeed, the two species used techniques that clearly differed in the extent of beak-foot coordination but did not differ in terms of their success in solving the string pulling task. However, when the visual-spatial skills of the subjects were tested, the galahs outperformed the cockatiels. This supports the hypothesis that the fine motor skills needed for advanced beak-foot coordination may be interrelated with certain visual-spatial abilities needed for solving patterned-string tasks. This pattern was also found within each of the two species on the individual level: higher motor abilities positively correlated with performance in patterned-string tasks. This is the first evidence of an interrelation between visual-spatial and motor abilities in non-mammalian animals.

  20. Influence of Fine Motor Skill on Accuracy of Measurements Using a Handheld Sliding Caliper at Adolescents Group Aged 19-20

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brychta, Petr; Hojk, Vladimír; Hrubý, Jiří; Pilc, Jozef

    2017-10-01

    This innovate ve interdisciplinary study deals with influence of fine motor skill level (finger dexterity) of individual on his measurement results in metrology practice. The main objective of this study was determinate fine motor skill level of individuals using a motor test. Further determinate the potential effect of different fine motor skill levels on accuracy of measuring using a mechanical handheld sliding caliper. Fine motor skill test and metrological test were implemented. Pursuant the results of fine motor skill test were probands divided into 2 groups. The groups are significantly different on accuracy of measurement (p=0,006). Pearson coefficient shows a significant correlation r = - 0.66 between the Purdue Pegboard test and a measurement error. Results confirmed that the fine motor skill of the upper limbs (especially finger coordination) significantly influence accuracy of measurement using a mechanical handheld sliding caliper.

  1. Improving the utility of the fine motor skills subscale of the comprehensive developmental inventory for infants and toddlers: a computerized adaptive test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chien-Yu; Tung, Li-Chen; Chou, Yeh-Tai; Chou, Willy; Chen, Kuan-Lin; Hsieh, Ching-Lin

    2017-07-27

    This study aimed at improving the utility of the fine motor subscale of the comprehensive developmental inventory for infants and toddlers (CDIIT) by developing a computerized adaptive test of fine motor skills. We built an item bank for the computerized adaptive test of fine motor skills using the fine motor subscale of the CDIIT items fitting the Rasch model. We also examined the psychometric properties and efficiency of the computerized adaptive test of fine motor skills with simulated computerized adaptive tests. Data from 1742 children with suspected developmental delays were retrieved. The mean scores of the fine motor subscale of the CDIIT increased along with age groups (mean scores = 1.36-36.97). The computerized adaptive test of fine motor skills contains 31 items meeting the Rasch model's assumptions (infit mean square = 0.57-1.21, outfit mean square = 0.11-1.17). For children of 6-71 months, the computerized adaptive test of fine motor skills had high Rasch person reliability (average reliability >0.90), high concurrent validity (rs = 0.67-0.99), adequate to excellent diagnostic accuracy (area under receiver operating characteristic = 0.71-1.00), and large responsiveness (effect size = 1.05-3.93). The computerized adaptive test of fine motor skills used 48-84% fewer items than the fine motor subscale of the CDIIT. The computerized adaptive test of fine motor skills used fewer items for assessment but was as reliable and valid as the fine motor subscale of the CDIIT. Implications for Rehabilitation We developed a computerized adaptive test based on the comprehensive developmental inventory for infants and toddlers (CDIIT) for assessing fine motor skills. The computerized adaptive test has been shown to be efficient because it uses fewer items than the original measure and automatically presents the results right after the test is completed. The computerized adaptive test is as reliable and valid as the CDIIT.

  2. Evaluation of the reliability and construct validity of test of gross motor development-2 (Ulrich 2 in children of Semnan province

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    Mohammad Ali Soltanian

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this study was to assess the validity and reliability of the second edition of test of gross motor development (TGMD-2; Ulrich in 7-11 aged children of Semnan province, Iran.Materials and Methods: TGMD-2 measures 12 fundamental movement skills divided evenly into locomotor and object control subtests. 1277 children (651 girls and 626 boys aged from seven to eleven years were participated.Results: Cronbach's alpha coefficients for the two subtests were ranged from 0.60 to 0.78, and test-retest reliability was from 0.86 to 0.89. Two-factor structure of TGMD-2 and proper assignment of skills to locomotor and object control factors were supported for our population.Conclusion: Based on our findings, we conclude that the TGMD-2 is an appropriate tool to examine the gross motor skills in this population

  3. The effect of training in an interactive dynamic stander on ankle dorsiflexion and gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Curtis, Derek John; Bencke, Jesper; Mygind, Bente

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of active stretching of ankle plantarflexors using an interactive dynamic stander in children with cerebral palsy (CP). METHODS: Six children in Gross Motor Function Classification System classes I-III, aged 4-10 years, trained intensive active dorsiflexion...... in an interactive dynamic stander using ankle movement to play custom computer games following a 10-week control period. Gross Motor Function Measure Item Set, gait performance and passive and active dorsiflexion with extended and flexed knee were chosen as outcome parameters. RESULTS: Median active and passive......, these results may indicate that intensive active stretching in an interactive dynamic stander could be an effective new conservative clinical treatment of ankle plantarflexor contracture in children with CP....

  4. Leveling the Playing Field: Assessment of Gross Motor Skills in Low Socioeconomic Children to their Higher Socioeconomic Counterparts

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    Megan M. Adkins

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fundamental movements (FM of children influence the willingness to engage in physical activity (PA. Thus, proper FM skills are the foundation for a lifespan of PA. Objective: This study examined what factors may affect children’s PA in relation to FM pattern capabilities. Methods: The study examined the influence of SES when three low-income schools were provided additional PA opportunities on days PE was not taught. FM patterns in relation to object control (OC and locomotor skill (LC development were evaluated on K (n = 871, 1st (n = 893, and 2nd graders (n = 829 using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (TGMD-2 instrument (Ulrich, 2000. Schools were dichotomized and categorized as being low SES (n = 2008 and high SES (n = 578 status. Results: A significant relationship was revealed with LC (r = 0.264; p = 0.001, OC (r = 0.171; p = 0.001, and total TGMD-2 (r = 0.264; p = 0.001. Low and high SES schools significantly improved overall TGMD-2 scores. High SES schools children were significantly higher in LC [F, (2, 1272 = 29.31, p = 0.001], OC [F, (2, 1272 = 23.14, p = 0.001], and total TGMD-2 [F, (1, 1272 = 38.11, p = 0.001]. Conclusion: Low SES schools need to concentrate on PA-based activities to engage students in FM patterns, to help narrow the gap in FM capabilities. In addition, the increase in PA opportunities for lower SES schools could positively impact brain function, cardiovascular fitness, and overall well-being.

  5. Counting on fine motor skills: links between preschool finger dexterity and numerical skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Ursula; Suggate, Sebastian P; Schmirl, Judith; Stoeger, Heidrun

    2017-10-26

    Finger counting is widely considered an important step in children's early mathematical development. Presumably, children's ability to move their fingers during early counting experiences to aid number representation depends in part on their early fine motor skills (FMS). Specifically, FMS should link to children's procedural counting skills through consistent repetition of finger-counting procedures. Accordingly, we hypothesized that (a) FMS are linked to early counting skills, and (b) greater FMS relate to conceptual counting knowledge (e.g., cardinality, abstraction, order irrelevance) via procedural counting skills (i.e., one-one correspondence and correctness of verbal counting). Preschool children (N = 177) were administered measures of procedural counting skills, conceptual counting knowledge, FMS, and general cognitive skills along with parent questionnaires on home mathematics and fine motor environment. FMS correlated with procedural counting skills and conceptual counting knowledge after controlling for cognitive skills, chronological age, home mathematics and FMS environments. Moreover, the relationship between FMS and conceptual counting knowledge was mediated by procedural counting skills. Findings suggest that FMS play a role in early counting and therewith conceptual counting knowledge. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Flying the Needles: Flight Deck Automation Erodes Fine-Motor Flying Skills Among Airline Pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslbeck, Andreas; Hoermann, Hans-Juergen

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of practice and training on fine-motor flying skills during a manual instrument landing system (ILS) approach. There is an ongoing debate that manual flying skills of long-haul crews suffer from a lack of flight practice due to conducting only a few flights per month and the intensive use of automation. However, objective evidence is rare. One hundred twenty-six randomly selected airline pilots had to perform a manual flight scenario with a raw data precision approach. Pilots were assigned to four equal groups according to their level of practice and training by fleet (short-haul, long-haul) and rank (first officer, captain). Average ILS deviation scores differed significantly in relation to the group assignments. The strongest predictor variable was fleet, indicating degraded performance among long-haul pilots. Manual flying skills are subject to erosion due to a lack of practice on long-haul fleets: All results support the conclusion that recent flight practice is a significantly stronger predictor for fine-motor flying performance than the time period since flight school or even the total or type-specific flight experience. Long-haul crews have to be supported in a timely manner by adequate training tailored to address manual skills or by operational provisions like mixed-fleet flying or more frequent transitions between short-haul and long-haul operation. © 2016, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  7. The Effect of Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation on Learning Fine Motor Skills: A Preliminary Study

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    Mohammad Reza Shahabi Kaseb

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Preparation of neuromuscular system prior to performing motor skills affects the learning of motor skills. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF on limb coordination and accuracy in dart throwing skill. Methods: Thirty two male students were randomly selected as study sample. Based on the pretest scores, the participants were divided into three groups: experimental (proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation, first control (without warm-up, and second control (specific warm-up. During the acquisition phase, the participants first performed the preparation training related to their own group, then all groups performed the exercise program of dart throwing consisting of 6 blocks of 9 trials in 4 training sessions. Finally, 20 days following the last exercise session, the subjects took the retention and transfer tests. Results: The results of one-way ANOVA test for coordination variable in acquisition test showed no significant difference between the groups, while there was a statistically significant difference between groups regarding coordination variable in retention and transfer tests. Furthermore, the results of one-way ANOVA for the accuracy variable in acquisition and retention tests showed no statistically significant difference between the three groups, while there was a statistically significant difference between groups for accuracy variable in transfer test. Conclusion: It seems that proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation, as a preparation method before performance, can enhance the efficacy of training to better learn the coordination pattern of fine motor skills.

  8. Combined treatment using acupuncture and music therapy on children with cerebral palsy Gross motor function measure comparison In 60 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lixiong Wu; Haibo Yu; Yongfeng Liu

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The use of acupuncture has received recognition to effectively treat cerebral palsy. Moreover, music therapy can be used to modify treatment of cerebral palsy. OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of combined treatment using acupuncture and music therapy on gross motor function measure (GMFM) of children with cerebral palsy, compared with acupuncture treatment alone. DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: Randomized, controlled, clinical study. The experiment was conducted in Shenzhen Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine between January 2007 and September 2007. PARTICIPANTS: All children with cerebral palsy in the trial were from the outpatient department of Shenzhen Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine. The children were randomly divided into two groups: 30 children in Group B received acupuncture and music therapy, while 30 children in Group A received only acupuncture therapy. METHODS: Subjects in Groups A and B received acupuncture based on syndrome differentiation. The main acupoints were necessary for all participants. At first, flash needling was applied to the acupoints. For the remaining acupoints, the technique of transverse needling was applied to the head acupoints, and perpendicular needling was used for the other points. The inserted needles were twirled and then maintained for 30 minutes. The needle was twirled for one second every other 10 minutes, without reinforcing-reducing techniques. The therapy was performed every other day. The trial consisted of three periods each, and lasted for 84 days. Subjects in Group B received music therapy. They listened to music that they preferred while acupuncture was being performed. Following acupuncture, they were allowed to perform musical activities, such as percussion, singing, and dancing. The music therapy was scheduled for one hour, including listening to music for 30 minutes and music activities for 30 minutes. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The comprehensive functional evaluation scale of cerebral palsy and

  9. Finger-Based Numerical Skills Link Fine Motor Skills to Numerical Development in Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suggate, Sebastian; Stoeger, Heidrun; Fischer, Ursula

    2017-12-01

    Previous studies investigating the association between fine-motor skills (FMS) and mathematical skills have lacked specificity. In this study, we test whether an FMS link to numerical skills is due to the involvement of finger representations in early mathematics. We gave 81 pre-schoolers (mean age of 4 years, 9 months) a set of FMS measures and numerical tasks with and without a specific finger focus. Additionally, we used receptive vocabulary and chronological age as control measures. FMS linked more closely to finger-based than to nonfinger-based numerical skills even after accounting for the control variables. Moreover, the relationship between FMS and numerical skill was entirely mediated by finger-based numerical skills. We concluded that FMS are closely related to early numerical skill development through finger-based numerical counting that aids the acquisition of mathematical mental representations.

  10. IQ discrepancy differentiates levels of fine motor skills and their relationship in children with autism spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu TY

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Tzu-Ying Yu,1 Willy Chou,2,3 Julie Chi Chow,4 Chien-Ho Lin,5 Li-Chen Tung,2,6 Kuan-Lin Chen7,8 1Department of Occupational Therapy, College of Medicine, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung, 2Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Chi-Mei Medical Center, 3Department of Recreation and Health Care Management, Cha Nan University of Pharmacy and Science, 4Department of Pediatrics, 5Department of Psychiatry, Chi Mei Medical Center, Tainan, 6Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Da Chien General Hospital, Miaoli, 7Department of Occupational Therapy, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, 8Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, National Cheng Kung University Hospital, Tainan, Taiwan Purpose: We investigated 1 the impact of differences in intelligence quotient discrepancy (IQD on motor skills of preschool-aged children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD; 2 the relationships between IQD and motor skills in preschool-aged children with ASD. Methods: A total of 127 ASD preschool-aged children were divided into three groups according to the size of the IQD: IQD within 1 standard deviation (1SD; EVENIQ; n=81, discrepantly higher verbal intelligence quotient (VIQ; n=22; VIQ>performance intelligence quotient [PIQ] above 1SD [≥15 points], and discrepantly higher PIQ (n=24; PIQ>VIQ above 1SD [≥15 points]. Children’s IQD and motor skills were determined with the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence™ – Fourth Edition and the motor subtests of the Comprehensive Developmental Inventory for Infants and Toddlers (CDIIT, respectively. Results: One-way analysis of variance revealed significant group differences for the fine motor domain of the CDIIT and the visual–motor coordination subtest (F=3.37–4.38, p<0.05. Children with discrepantly higher PIQ were associated with better fine motor skills than were children with even IQD and those with discrepantly higher VIQ, and vice versa. IQD (PIQ

  11. Individual Differences in Language Development: Relationship with Motor Skill at 21 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcock, Katherine J.; Krawczyk, Kirsty

    2010-01-01

    Language development has long been associated with motor development, particularly manual gesture. We examined a variety of motor abilities--manual gesture including symbolic, meaningless and sequential memory, oral motor control, gross and fine motor control--in 129 children aged 21 months. Language abilities were assessed and cognitive and…

  12. Relationship between reaction time, fine motor control, and visual-spatial perception on vigilance and visual-motor tasks in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Howley, Sarah A

    2012-10-15

    22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11DS) is a common microdeletion disorder associated with mild to moderate intellectual disability and specific neurocognitive deficits, particularly in visual-motor and attentional abilities. Currently there is evidence that the visual-motor profile of 22q11DS is not entirely mediated by intellectual disability and that these individuals have specific deficits in visual-motor integration. However, the extent to which attentional deficits, such as vigilance, influence impairments on visual motor tasks in 22q11DS is unclear. This study examines visual-motor abilities and reaction time using a range of standardised tests in 35 children with 22q11DS, 26 age-matched typically developing (TD) sibling controls and 17 low-IQ community controls. Statistically significant deficits were observed in the 22q11DS group compared to both low-IQ and TD control groups on a timed fine motor control and accuracy task. The 22q11DS group performed significantly better than the low-IQ control group on an untimed drawing task and were equivalent to the TD control group on point accuracy and simple reaction time tests. Results suggest that visual motor deficits in 22q11DS are primarily attributable to deficits in psychomotor speed which becomes apparent when tasks are timed versus untimed. Moreover, the integration of visual and motor information may be intact and, indeed, represent a relative strength in 22q11DS when there are no time constraints imposed. While this may have significant implications for cognitive remediation strategies for children with 22q11DS, the relationship between reaction time, visual reasoning, cognitive complexity, fine motor speed and accuracy, and graphomotor ability on visual-motor tasks is still unclear.

  13. Digital Trainer for the Development of the Fine Motor Ability in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berrezueta-Guzmán Jonnathan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The leading cause of disability in Ecuadorian children is cerebral palsy, this disorder in most cases produces a deficiency of the ability to move fingers, hands and wrists at various levels, this happens too with the intellect of the patient. Many of the treatments and therapies are seeking that the patient can develop all of your motor ability and intellectual skills, using activities that involve the part Intellectual and practicality of their extremities. Today technology gives us the opportunity to manage devices of aid and assistance that not only complement the daily activities that are performed during the therapies in the help centers, they need to give results that show leaps and bounds in the progress that you want to get. The purpose of this project is to make a device that helps a patient to develop their fine motor ability to the patient can use their hands, fingers and wrists movements in various ways in coordination with their vision in conjunction with occipital lobe causing that brain activity in the patient, present alterations of amplitude in the beta waves in the hemispheres of the brain that allow move muscles, with only maneuver a fully digital device and low cost. These brain and muscles signals will be analyzed in this project, to test the efficiency of this project.

  14. The effect of fine and grapho-motor skill demands on preschoolers' decoding skill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suggate, Sebastian; Pufke, Eva; Stoeger, Heidrun

    2016-01-01

    Previous correlational research has found indications that fine motor skills (FMS) link to early reading development, but the work has not demonstrated causality. We manipulated 51 preschoolers' FMS while children learned to decode letters and nonsense words in a within-participants, randomized, and counterbalanced single-factor design with pre- and posttesting. In two conditions, children wrote with a pencil that had a conical shape fitted to the end filled with either steel (impaired writing condition) or polystyrene (normal writing condition). In a third control condition, children simply pointed at the letters with the light pencil as they learned to read the words (pointing condition). Results indicate that children learned the most decoding skills in the normal writing condition, followed by the pointing and impaired writing conditions. In addition, working memory, phonemic awareness, and grapho-motor skills were generally predictors of decoding skill development. The findings provide experimental evidence that having lower FMS is disadvantageous for reading development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Anthropometric and motor development profiles of street children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With regard to the gross motor development, deficits were found with regard to running speed and agility, bilateral coordination and strength. Fine motor deficits were found in upper limb speed and dexterity, response speed and visual motor control. The neuromotor development of street children also showed deficits, ...

  16. Relations among motor, social, and cognitive skills in pre-kindergarten children with developmental disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Helyn; Carlson, Abby G; Curby, Timothy W; Winsler, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Despite the comorbidity between motor difficulties and certain disabilities, limited research has examined links between early motor, cognitive, and social skills in preschool-aged children with developmental disabilities. The present study examined the relative contributions of gross motor and fine motor skills to the prediction of improvements in children's cognitive and social skills among 2,027 pre-kindergarten children with developmental disabilities, including specific learning disorder, speech/language impairment, intellectual disability, and autism spectrum disorder. Results indicated that for pre-kindergarten children with developmental disabilities, fine motor skills, but not gross motor skills, were predictive of improvements in cognitive and social skills, even after controlling for demographic information and initial skill levels. Moreover, depending on the type of developmental disability, the pattern of prediction of gross motor and fine motor skills to improvements in children's cognitive and social skills differed. Implications are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Relationship between motor proficiency and body composition in 6- to 10-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmeleira, José; Veiga, Guida; Cansado, Hugo; Raimundo, Armando

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between motor skill competence and body composition of 6- to 10-year-old children. Seventy girls and 86 boys participated. Body composition was measured by body mass index and skinfold thickness. Motor proficiency was evaluated through the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency-Short Form, which included measures of gross motor skills and fine motor skills. Significant associations were found for both sexes between the percentage of body fat and (i) the performance in each gross motor task, (ii) the composite score for gross motor skills and (iii) the motor proficiency score. The percentage of body fat was not significantly associated with the majority of the fine motor skills items and with the respective composite score. Considering body weigh categories, children with normal weight had significantly higher scores than their peers with overweight or with obesity in gross motor skills and in overall motor proficiency. Children's motor proficiency is negatively associated with body fat, and normal weight children show better motor competence than those who are overweight or obese. The negative impact of excessive body weight is stronger for gross motor skills that involve dynamic body movements than for stationary object control skills; fine motor skills appear to be relatively independent of the constraints imposed by excessive body weight. © 2017 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  18. Fine-Motor Skill Deficits in Childhood Predict Adulthood Tic Severity and Global Psychosocial Functioning in Tourette's Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Michael H.; Sukhodolsky, Denis G.; Leckman, James F.; Schultz, Robert T.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Most children with Tourette's syndrome (TS) experience a significant decline in tic symptoms during adolescence. Currently no clinical measures have been identified that can predict whose tic symptoms will persist into adulthood. Patients with TS have deficits on neuropsychological tests involving fine-motor coordination and…

  19. Validity of the Fine Motor Area of the 12-Month Ages and Stages Questionnaire in Infants Following Major Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Cally; Wallen, Margaret; Walker, Karen; Bundy, Anita; Rolinson, Rachel; Badawi, Nadia

    2012-01-01

    The Ages and Stages Questionnaires (ASQ) are parent-report screening tools to identify infants at risk of developmental difficulties. The purpose of this study was to examine validity and internal reliability of the fine motor developmental area of the ASQ, 2nd edition (ASQ2-FM) for screening 12-month-old infants following major surgery. The…

  20. Effect of body-weight suspension training versus treadmill training on gross motor abilities of children with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emara, Hatem A; El-Gohary, Tarek M; Al-Johany, Ahmed A

    2016-06-01

    Suspension training and treadmill training are commonly used for promoting functional gross motor skills in children with cerebral palsy. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of body-weight suspension training versus treadmill training on gross motor functional skills. Assessor-blinded, randomized, controlled intervention study. Outpatient rehabilitation facility. Twenty children with spastic diplegia (7 boys and 13 girls) in the age ranged from 6 to 8 years old were randomly allocated into two equal groups. All children were assessed at baseline, after 18-session and after 36-session. During the twelve-week outpatient rehabilitation program, both groups received traditional therapeutic exercises. Additionally, one group received locomotor training using the treadmill while the other group received locomotor training using body-weight suspension through the dynamic spider cage. Assessment included dimensions "D" standing and "E" walking of the gross motor function measure, in addition to the 10-m Walking Test and the five times sit to stand test. Training was applied three times per week for twelve consecutive weeks. No significant difference was found in standing or walking ability for measurements taken at baseline or after 18-session of therapy. Measurements taken at 36-session showed that suspension training achieved significantly (Ptraining for dimension D as well as for dimension E. No significant difference was found between suspension training and treadmill training regarding walking speed or sit to stand transitional skills. Body-weight suspension training is effective in improving walking and locomotor capabilities in children with spastic diplegia. After three month suspension training was superior to treadmill training. Body-weight suspension training promotes adequate postural stability, good balance control, and less exertion which facilitates efficient and safe gait.

  1. The swimming program effects on the gross motor function, mental adjustment to the aquatic environment, and swimming skills in children with cerebral palsy: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorgić Bojan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to determine the swimming program effects on the gross motor function, mental adjustment to the aquatic environment and the ability to move in the water and swim in children with cerebral palsy. The sample consisted of seven children (4 boys and 3 girls with spastic cerebral palsy and an average age of 9y 5mo ± 1y 3 mo. The swimming program lasted 6 weeks, with two swimming sessions per week. Each session lasted 45 minutes. The swimming program included the application of the Halliwick Method and swimming exercises which are used in a healthy population. The GMFM test was used for the assessment of gross motor functions. The WOTA2 test was applied to assess mental adjustment and swimming skills. The Wilcoxon matched pairs test was used to determine the statistically significant differences between the initial and final measuring. The results have indicated that there was statistically significant differences in the E dimension (p=0.04 and the total score T (p=0.03 of the GMFM test, then for mental adjustment to the aquatic environment WMA (p=0.02, ability to move in water andswimming skills WSW (p=0.03 and the overall result WTO (p=0.02 of the WOTA2 test. The applied swimming program had a statistically significant effect on the improvement in walking, running and jumping as well as the overall gross motor functions of children with cerebral palsy. The applied program also contributed to a statistically significant influence on the increase in mental adjustment to the aquatic environment and the ability to move in water and swim.

  2. Trends in physical activity, health-related fitness, and gross motor skills in children during a two-year comprehensive school physical activity program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusseau, Timothy A; Hannon, James C; Fu, You; Fang, Yi; Nam, Kahyun; Goodrum, Sara; Burns, Ryan D

    2018-01-06

    The purpose of this study was to examine the trends in school-day step counts, health-related fitness, and gross motor skills during a two-year Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program (CSPAP) in children. Longitudinal trend analysis. Participants were a sample of children (N=240; mean age=7.9±1.2 years; 125 girls, 115 boys) enrolled in five low-income schools. Outcome variables consisted of school day step counts, Body Mass Index (BMI), estimated VO 2 Peak , and gross motor skill scores assessed using the Test of Gross Motor Development-3rd Edition (TGMD-3). Measures were collected over a two-year CSPAP including a baseline and several follow-up time-points. Multi-level mixed effects models were employed to examine time trends on each continuous outcome variable. Markov-chain transition models were employed to examine time trends for derived binary variables for school day steps, BMI, and estimated VO 2 Peak . There were statistically significant time coefficients for estimated VO 2 Peak (b=1.10mL/kg/min, 95% C.I. [0.35mL/kg/min-2.53mL/kg/min], p=0.009) and TGMD-3 scores (b=7.8, 95% C.I. [6.2-9.3], p<0.001). There were no significant changes over time for school-day step counts or BMI. Boys had greater change in odds of achieving a step count associating with 30min of school day MVPA (OR=1.25, 95% C.I. [1.02-1.48], p=0.044). A two-year CSPAP related to increases in cardio-respiratory endurance and TGMD-3 scores. School day steps and BMI were primarily stable across the two-year intervention. Copyright © 2018 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Longitudinal motor development of "apparently normal" high-risk infants at 18 months, 3 and 5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyen, Traci Anne; Lui, Kei

    2002-12-01

    Motor development appears to be more affected by premature birth than other developmental domains, however few studies have specifically investigated the development of gross and fine motor skills in this population. To examine longitudinal motor development in a group of "apparently normal" high-risk infants. Developmental follow-up clinic in a perinatal centre. Longitudinal observational cohort study. Fifty-eight infants born less than 29 weeks gestation and/or 1000 g and without disabilities detected at 12 months. Longitudinal gross and fine motor skills at 18 months, 3 and 5 years using the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales. The HOME scale provided information of the home environment as a stimulus for development. A large proportion (54% at 18 months, 47% at 3 years and 64% at 5 years) of children continued to have fine motor deficits from 18 months to 5 years. The proportion of infants with gross motor deficits significantly increased over this period (14%, 33% and 81%, pmotor development was positively influenced by the quality of the home environment. A large proportion of high-risk infants continued to have fine motor deficits, reflecting an underlying problem with fine motor skills. The proportion of infants with gross motor deficits significantly increased, as test demands became more challenging. In addition, the development of gross and fine motor skills appears to be influenced differently by the home environment.

  4. Effects of home-based locomotor treadmill training on gross motor function in young children with cerebral palsy: a quasi-randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattern-Baxter, Katrin; McNeil, Stefani; Mansoor, Jim K

    2013-11-01

    To examine the effects of an intensive home-based program of treadmill training on motor skills related to walking in preambulatory children with cerebral palsy (CP). Quasi-randomized controlled trial. Homes of the participants. Children with CP (N=12) with Gross Motor Function Classification System levels I and II were assigned to the intervention group (n=6; mean age ± SD, 21.76±6.50mo) and control group (n=6; 21.25±6.07mo). All children were tested preintervention, postintervention, at a 1-month follow-up, and at a 4-month follow-up. All children received their weekly scheduled physical therapy sessions at their homes. In addition, children in the intervention group walked on a portable treadmill in their homes 6 times per week, twice daily for 10- to 20-minute sessions, for 6 weeks. The intervention was carried out by the children's parents with weekly supervision by a physical therapist. Gross Motor Function Measure-66 Dimensions D/E, Peabody Developmental Motor Scales-2 (PDMS-2), Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI), timed 10-m walk test (10MWT), and Functional Mobility Scale (FMS). The Friedman test and Mann-Whitney U test were conducted for within-group and between-group differences, respectively. There was a significant between-group treatment effect for the PDMS-2 at posttest (P=.01) and 1-month postintervention follow-up (P=.09), as well as for the PEDI at posttest (P=.01), the 1-month postintervention follow-up (P=.009), and the 4-month postintervention follow-up (P=.04). The FMS was significant at the posttest (P=.04). Home-based treadmill training accelerates the attainment of walking skills and decreases the amount of support used for walking in young children with CP. Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Fine motor skills in a population of children in remote Australia with high levels of prenatal alcohol exposure and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doney, Robyn; Lucas, Barbara R; Watkins, Rochelle E; Tsang, Tracey W; Sauer, Kay; Howat, Peter; Latimer, Jane; Fitzpatrick, James P; Oscar, June; Carter, Maureen; Elliott, Elizabeth J

    2017-11-21

    Many children in the remote Fitzroy Valley region of Western Australia have prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE). Individuals with PAE can have neurodevelopmental impairments and be diagnosed with one of several types of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD). Fine motor skills can be impaired by PAE, but no studies have developed a comprehensive profile of fine motor skills in a population-based cohort of children with FASD. We aimed to develop a comprehensive profile of fine motor skills in a cohort of Western Australian children; determine whether these differed in children with PAE or FASD; and establish the prevalence of impairment. Children (n = 108, 7 to 9 years) were participants in a population-prevalence study of FASD in Western Australia. Fine motor skills were assessed using the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency, which provided a Fine Motor Composite score, and evaluated Fine Manual Control (Fine Motor Precision; Fine Motor Integration) and Manual Coordination (Manual Dexterity; Upper-Limb Coordination). Descriptive statistics were reported for the overall cohort; and comparisons made between children with and without PAE and/or FASD. The prevalence of severe (≤ 2nd percentile) and moderate (≤16th percentile) impairments was determined. Overall, Fine Motor Composite scores were 'average' (M = 48.6 ± 7.4), as were Manual Coordination (M = 55.7 ± 7.9) and Fine Manual Control scores (M = 42.5 ± 6.2). Children with FASD had significantly lower Fine Motor Composite (M = 45.2 ± 7.7 p = 0.046) and Manual Coordination scores (M = 51.8 ± 7.3, p = 0.027) than children without PAE (Fine Motor Composite M = 49.8 ± 7.2; Manual Coordination M = 57.0 ± 7.7). Few children had severe impairment, but rates of moderate impairment were very high. Different types of fine motor skills should be evaluated in children with PAE or FASD. The high prevalence of fine motor impairment in our

  6. Vitamin B12 and Folic Acid Improve Gross Motor and Problem-Solving Skills in Young North Indian Children: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvestad, Ingrid; Taneja, Sunita; Kumar, Tivendra; Hysing, Mari; Refsum, Helga; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S; Bhandari, Nita; Strand, Tor A

    2015-01-01

    Deficiencies of vitamin B12 and folate are associated with delayed development and neurological manifestations. The objective of this study was to measure the effect of daily supplementation of vitamin B12 and/or folic acid on development in young North Indian children. In a randomized, double blind trial, children aged six to 30 months, received supplement with placebo or vitamin B12 and/or folic acid for six months. Children were allocated in a 1:1:1:1 ratio in a factorial design and in blocks of 16. We measured development in 422 children by the Ages and Stages Questionnaire 3rd ed. at the end of the intervention. Compared to placebo, children who received both vitamin B12 and folic acid had 0.45 (95% CI 0.19, 0.73) and 0.28 (95% CI 0.02, 0.54) higher SD-units in the domains of gross motor and problem solving functioning, respectively. The effect was highest in susceptible subgroups consisting of stunted children, those with high plasma homocysteine (> 10 μmol/L) or in those who were younger than 24 at end study. With the exception of a significant improvement on gross motor scores by vitamin B12 alone, supplementation of either vitamin alone had no effect on any of the outcomes. Our findings suggest that supplementation of vitamin B12 and folic acid benefit development in North Indian Children. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00717730.

  7. Motor skills in kindergarten: Internal structure, cognitive correlates and relationships to background variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberer, Nicole; Gashaj, Venera; Roebers, Claudia M

    2017-04-01

    The present study aimed to contribute to the discussion about the relation between motor coordination and executive functions in preschool children. Specifically, the relation between gross and fine motor skills and executive functions as well as the relation to possible background variables (SES, physical activity) were investigated. Based on the data of N=156 kindergarten children the internal structure of motor skills was investigated and confirmed the theoretically assumed subdivision of gross and fine motor skills. Both, gross and fine motor skills correlated significantly with executive functions, whereas the background variables seemed to have no significant impact on the executive functions and motor skills. Higher order control processes are discussed as an explanation of the relation between executive functions and motor skills. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Development and validation of a fine-motor assessment tool for use with young children in a Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Andrew M H; Lai, Cynthia Y Y; Chiu, Amy S M; Yip, Calvin C K

    2011-01-01

    Most of the fine-motor assessment tools used in Hong Kong have been designed in Western countries, so there is a need to develop a standardized assessment which is relevant to the culture and daily living tasks of the local (that is, Chinese) population. This study aimed to (1) develop a fine-motor assessment tool (the Hong Kong Preschool Fine-Motor Developmental Assessment [HK-PFMDA]) for use with young children in a Chinese population and (2) examine the HK-PFMDA's psychometric properties. The HK-PFMDA was developed by a group of occupational therapists specializing in the area of developmental disabilities in Hong Kong. A panel of 21 experts reviewed the content validity of the instrument. Rasch item analysis was used to examine the model fit of items against the rating scale model, and to explore the dimensionality of the test. Intra- and interrater reliability, convergent validity, and criterion-related validity were examined. The participants included 783 children without disabilities, 45 with autistic spectrum disorder, and 35 with developmental delay. The Rasch analysis suggested that the 87-item HK-PFMDA had a unidimensional structure, as the items explained most (91.6%) of the variance. The HK-PFMDA demonstrated excellent intra- (ICC = .99) and interrater reliability (ICC = .99), and internal consistency (α ranging from .83 to .92). In terms of validity, the HK-PFMDA had significant positive correlations with both age and the convergent measures of the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales (PDMS-2). A set of normative data for local children aged from birth to 6 years was established. The HK-PFMDA has shown excellent psychometric properties and is suitable for clinical application by occupational therapists in the assessment of fine-motor skills development of young children in Chinese populations. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A Field-Based Testing Protocol for Assessing Gross Motor Skills in Preschool Children: The Children's Activity and Movement in Preschool Study Motor Skills Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Harriet G.; Pfeiffer, Karin A.; Dowda, Marsha; Jeter, Chevy; Jones, Shaverra; Pate, Russell R.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a valid and reliable tool for use in assessing motor skills in preschool children in field-based settings. The development of the Children's Activity and Movement in Preschool Study Motor Skills Protocol included evidence of its reliability and validity for use in field-based environments as part of large…

  10. Motor skills of children with autistic spectrum disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zikl Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The contribution contains results of a research of motor skills of children with autistic spectrum disorder. The group of children represents besides major triad of symptoms, also described difficulties in the field of motor skills. Our aim to find out what motor skills of these children are in comparison with intact population and what differences are found in individual motor items, i.e. in fine motor skills, gross motor skills and in balance. The data was gained with the use of standardized Movement Assessment Battery test for Children 2 (MABC-2. Objective testing of this group of children is relatively difficult. There were successfully tested 36 children with ASD during this phase of research. The research demonstrated evident motor disorder at 86% of children in the observed sample. Statistically significant were worse results in the field of fine motor skills compared to the results in gross motor skills and balance.

  11. A study on fine motor skills of Iranian children with attention deficit/hyper activity disorder aged from 6 to 11 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavasani, Negar Miri; Stagnitti, Karen

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the fine motor skills of two groups of Iranian children. Of the 55 male Tehranian children aged 6 to 10 years, 29 children were typically developing and 26 were identified as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder. All children were assessed using the Raven Intelligence Test and nine fine motor tasks. There were no significant differences between the groups based on intelligence. In eight of the fine motor tasks, there was a significant difference between the groups. These tasks were cutting, placing dots in a grid pattern without direction, threading beads, drawing a line within 1 and 2 minutes, finger movements and Purdue pegboard. Boys who have been identified as ADHD have poorer fine motor skills compared to typically developing boys of the same age. Children aged 6 to 10 years who have been identified as ADHD will require more attention to their fine motor skill performance to enable greater participation in daily living tasks in Tehran such as writing, fine arts and dressing which require fast and quick hand motor skills. There are still limitations in this area; therefore, research in fine motor skills and ADHD children are recommended for future research. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Assessment of gross motor skills and phenotype profile in children 9-11 years of age in survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Mario; Viret, Pierre; Bui, Hung Tien; Laverdière, Caroline; Kalinova, Émilia; Comtois, Alain-Steve

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of a new gross motor skill test battery in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) children who have been off therapy for at least 1 year and to assess its discriminatory power (discriminant analysis) from healthy children. Twenty children (10 males and 10 females) 9-11 years of age (median age = 10.6 years) were assessed by the UQAC-UQAM test battery and then compared to recent provincial norms. This pilot study was also an opportunity to validate this test battery as a reliable tool for clinical or research purposes in the area of chronic or disabling diseases in children. Eleven motor skill variables grouped into five factors have been measured (speed, agility, balance, coordination, and reaction time). Scores from 10 of the 11 motor skill tests showed significant differences when compared to the control group (P ≤ 0.05). Nearly 50% of patients obtained an average score below the 15th percentile. Furthermore, stepwise discriminant analysis allowed classifying successfully 88.4% of children in the correct group (ALL or Control). The normal development of GMS among children affected by ALL appears to have been compromised. The UQAC-UQAM test battery seems to be sensitive enough to quantify with precision the extent of the motor impairment in these children. The UQAC-UQAM test battery appears to be a useful tool to evaluate the extent to which ALL survivors are affected. Early motor intervention should be considered for those patients even during the treatment periods. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Decline in measured glomerular filtration rate is associated with a decrease in endurance, strength, balance and fine motor skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellberg, Matthias; Höglund, Peter; Svensson, Philippa; Abdulahi, Huda; Clyne, Naomi

    2017-07-01

    Physical performance in chronic kidney disease affects morbidity and mortality. The aim was to find out which measures of physical performance are important in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and if there are associations with declining measured glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Endurance was assessed by 6 min walk test (6-MWT) and stair climbing, muscular endurance by 30 s sit to stand, heel rises and toe lifts, strength by quadriceps- and handgrip-strength, balance by functional reach and Berg's balance scale, and fine motor skills by Moberg's picking-up test. GFR was measured by Iohexol clearance. The study comprised 101 patients with CKD 3b-5 not started dialysis, 40 women and 61 men, with a mean age of 67 ± 13 (range: 22 - 87) years. All measures of physical performance were impaired. A decrease in GFR of 10 mL/min per 1.73 m 2 corresponded to a 35 metre shorter walking distance in the 6-MWT. Multivariable linear regression analysis showed significant relationships between decline in GFR and the 6-MWT (P = 0.04), isometric quadriceps strength left (P = 0.04), balance measured as functional reach (P = 0.02) and fine motor skills in the left hand as measured by Moberg's picking-up test (P = 0.01), respectively, after sex, age, comorbidity and the interaction between sex and age had been taken into account. Endurance, muscular endurance, strength, balance and fine motor skills were impaired in patients with CKD 3b-5. Walking capacity, isometric quadriceps strength, balance, and fine motor skills were associated with declining GFR. The left extremities were more susceptible to GFR, ageing and comorbidities and seem thus to be more sensitive. © 2016 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  14. Accuracy of the Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS) to detect developmental delay of gross motor skills in preterm infants: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Albuquerque, Plínio Luna; Lemos, Andrea; Guerra, Miriam Queiroz de Farias; Eickmann, Sophie Helena

    2015-02-01

    To assess, through a systematic review, the ability of Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS) to diagnose delayed motor development in preterm infants. Systematic searches identified five studies meeting inclusion criteria. These studies were evaluated in terms of: participants' characteristics, main results and risk of bias. The risk of bias was assessed with the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies--second edition (QUADAS-2). All five studies included a high risk of bias in at least one of the assessed fields. The most frequent biases included were presented in patient selection and lost follow up. All studies used the Pearson correlation coefficient to assess the diagnostic capability of the Alberta Infant Motor Scale. None of the assessed studies used psychometric measures to analyze the data. Given the evidence, the research supporting the ability of Alberta Infant Motor Scale to diagnose delayed motor development in preterm infants presents limitations. Further studies are suggested in order to avoid the above-mentioned biases to assess the Alberta Infant Motor Scale accuracy in preterm babies.

  15. Therapeutic Effects of Horseback Riding Therapy on Gross Motor Function in Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalen, Cara N.; Case-Smith, Jane

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This systematic review examined the efficacy of hippotherapy or therapeutic horseback riding (THR) on motor outcomes in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Methods: Databases were searched for clinical trials of hippotherapy or THR for children with CP. Results: Nine articles were included in this review. Although the current level of…

  16. Systematic review of physiotherapy interventions to improve gross motor capacity and performance in children and adolescents with an acquired brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baque, Emmah; Sakzewski, Leanne; Barber, Lee; Boyd, Roslyn N

    2016-01-01

    To systematically review the efficacy of physiotherapy interventions to improve gross motor capacity, performance and societal participation in children aged 5-17 years with an acquired brain injury (ABI). Randomized and non-randomized controlled trials, cohort, case series, case-control and case studies were included and classified according to grades of evidence. Methodological quality of studies was assessed using the Downs and Black (D&B) scale and quantitative data was analysed using effect sizes. Two home-based studies investigated functional strength training (one randomized controlled trial, n = 20, level 2b, D&B = 16/32 and one non-randomized self-control study, n = 19, level 4, D&B = 15/32). Four studies evaluated virtual reality including: one pilot study, n = 50, level 4, D&B = 22/32; one single-subject, non-concurrent, randomized multiple baseline study, n = 3, level 4, D&B = 15/32; one case series study, n = 2, level 4, D&B = 15/32; one case study, n = 1, level 4, D&B = 15/32. Effect sizes for the randomized controlled trial ranged between 0.30-1.29 for the Functional Reach and Timed Up and Go outcome measures. There is preliminary evidence to support the efficacy of physiotherapy interventions to improve gross motor outcomes in children with an ABI. Both functional strength training and virtual-reality based therapy are potential treatment options for clinicians to prescribe in either home or clinical settings.

  17. Influence of aquatic physical therapy on gross motor skills in children under 5 years of age with cerebral palsy: Systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Latorre-García

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aquatic environment has been used and is used to perform physiotherapy treatments in different pathologies including cerebral palsy. No method has been proven more effective than the others. Aim: The objective of this article is to carry out a systematic review of the scientific literature on how physical exercise in water affects the gross motor skills and neurodevelopment of children with cerebral palsy. Methods: A systematic search was carried out using the PRISMA model. The search for articles in this review was done in the databases through Scopus and PubMed, as well as in the Web of Science (WOS platform and in official websites of international organizations, such as the World Health Organization (WHO. The review was carried out between the months of June and December of the year 2016. Results: Of the 8 studies that met the inclusion criteria, only two used randomized control trial design and the results were mixed. Most of the studies used quasi-experimental designs and reported improvements in gross motor skills, for group analyzes, after the aquatic programs were maintained from two to three sessions a week and lasted from 6 to 16 weeks. Participants were evaluated and classified according to the different development scales, and were less than 5 years old. Conclusions: Although the different studies have not demonstrated a greater efficacy of aquatic physiotherapy compared to other treatment concepts, neither has been less, so that the exercise in water increases the therapeutic possibilities to which the chronic nature of the Pathology must access the patient throughout his life. Aquatic exercise is feasible and adverse effects are minimal; but the dosage parameters are not clear. However, in order to promote the prescription by physicians of this type of therapy, it is necessary to carry out research studies that demonstrate in a quantitative way the efficacy of the method, with longer and longer samples.

  18. Self-care and mobility skills in children with cerebral palsy, related to their manual ability and gross motor function classifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öhrvall, Ann-Marie; Eliasson, Ann-Christin; Löwing, Kristina; Ödman, Pia; Krumlinde-Sundholm, Lena

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the acquisition of self-care and mobility skills in children with cerebral palsy (CP) in relation to their manual ability and gross motor function. Data from the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI) self-care and mobility functional skill scales, the Manual Ability Classification System (MACS), and the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) were collected from 195 children with CP (73 females, 122 males; mean age 8 y 1 mo; SD 3 y 11 mo; range 3-15 y); 51% had spastic bilateral CP, 36% spastic unilateral CP, 8% dyskinetic CP, and 3% ataxic CP. The percentage of children classified as MACS levels I to V was 28%, 34%, 17%, 7%, and 14% respectively, and classified as GMFCS levels I to V was 46%, 16%, 15%, 11%, and 12% respectively. Children classified as MACS and GMFCS levels I or II scored higher than children in MACS and GMFCS levels III to V on both the self-care and mobility domains of the PEDI, with significant differences between all classification levels (pskills (66%) and that GMFCS was the strongest predictor of mobility skills (76%). A strong correlation between age and self-care ability was found among children classified as MACS level I or II and between age and mobility among children classified as GMFCS level I. Many of these children achieved independence, but at a later age than typically developing children. Children at other MACS and GMFCS levels demonstrated minimal progress with age. Knowledge of a child's MACS and GMFCS level can be useful when discussing expectations of, and goals for, the development of functional skills. © The Authors. Journal compilation © Mac Keith Press 2010.

  19. Strength and fine dexterity recovery profiles after a primary motor cortex insult and effect of a neuronal cell graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaysse, Laurence; Conchou, Fabrice; Demain, Boris; Davoust, Carole; Plas, Benjamin; Ruggieri, Cyrielle; Benkaddour, Mehdi; Simonetta-Moreau, Marion; Loubinoux, Isabelle

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to set up (a) a large primary motor cortex (M1) lesion in rodent and (b) the conditions for evaluating a long-lasting motor deficit in order to propose a valid model to test neuronal replacement therapies aimed at improving motor deficit recovery. A mitochondrial toxin, malonate, was injected to induce extensive destruction of the forelimb M1 cortex. Three key motor functions that are usually evaluated following cerebral lesion in the clinic-strength, target reaching, and fine dexterity-were assessed in rats by 2 tests, a forelimb grip strength test and a skilled reaching task (staircase) for reaching and dexterity. The potential enhancement of postlesion recovery induced by a neuronal cell transplantation was then explored and confirmed by histological analyses. Both tests showed a severe functional impairment 2 days post lesion, however, reaching remained intact. Deficits in forelimb strength were long lasting (up to 3 months) but spontaneously recovered despite the extensive lesion size. This natural grip strength recovery could be enhanced by cell therapy. Histological analyses confirmed the presence of grafted cells 3 months postgraft and showed partial tissue reconstruction with some living neuronal cells in the graft. In contrast, fine dexterity never recovered in the staircase test even after grafting. These results suggest that cell replacement was only partially effective and that the forelimb M1 area may be a node of the sensorimotor network, where compensation from secondary pathways could account for strength recovery but recovery of forelimb fine dexterity requires extensive tissue reconstruction. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. The Level of motor Skills of the First Grade Pupils

    OpenAIRE

    HEJLOVÁ, Kateřina

    2011-01-01

    The thesis focuses on motor abilities of children from birth to the age of eight years. It outlines the development of gross motor skills, fine motor skills and micromotor skills, and methods how to help children develop these particular areas. The level of motor skills is determined by method of testing in first graders from Stonařov, Pavlov, Třešť and České Budějovice.

  1. Visual–motor integration and fine motor skills at 6½ years of age and associations with neonatal brain volumes in children born extremely preterm in Sweden: a population-based cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Nelly; Forsman, Lea; Broström, Lina; Hellgren, Kerstin; Åden, Ulrika

    2018-01-01

    Objectives This exploratory study aimed to investigate associations between neonatal brain volumes and visual–motor integration (VMI) and fine motor skills in children born extremely preterm (EPT) when they reached 6½ years of age. Setting Prospective population-based cohort study in Stockholm, Sweden, during 3 years. Participants All children born before gestational age, 27 weeks, during 2004–2007 in Stockholm, without major morbidities and impairments, and who underwent MRI at term-equivalent age. Main outcome measures Brain volumes were calculated using morphometric analyses in regions known to be involved in VMI and fine motor functions. VMI was assessed with The Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual–Motor Integration—sixth edition and fine motor skills were assessed with the manual dexterity subtest from the Movement Assessment Battery for Children—second edition, at 6½ years. Associations between the brain volumes and VMI and fine motor skills were evaluated using partial correlation, adjusted for total cerebral parenchyma and sex. Results Out of 107 children born at gestational age motor skills (r=0.54, P=0.01). Associations were also seen between fine motor skills and the volume of the cerebellum (r=0.42, P=0.02), brainstem (r=0.47, P=0.008) and grey matter (r=−0.38, P=0.04). Conclusions Neonatal brain volumes in areas known to be involved in VMI and fine motor skills were associated with scores for these two functions when children born EPT without major brain lesions or cerebral palsy were evaluated at 6½ years of age. Establishing clear associations between early brain volume alterations and later VMI and/or fine motor skills could make early interventions possible. PMID:29455171

  2. Development of Child and Family-Centered Engagement Guidelines for Clinical Administration of the Challenge to Measure Advanced Gross Motor Skills: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Barbara E; Mistry, Bhavnita; Wright, F Virginia

    2017-07-28

    This article describes a qualitative study aimed at producing child-centered guidelines for the administration of a measure of children's advanced gross motor skills, the Challenge. The purpose of the guidelines is to promote collaborative interpretation and application of results. The study was conducted in three Canadian cities and included 31 children with cerebral palsy (GMFCS Level I or II) ages 8 to 18 and one parent/caregiver per child (N = 62 participants). Following Challenge administration, each child and one of their caregivers took part in separate qualitative interviews. Analyses were oriented to exploring understandings of the purposes of testing, impressions of the child's performance, and perceptions of how results might inform activity choices and interventions. Three themes were generated: investments in doing well; I know my child/myself; and caregivers' interpretations of child's performance. Themes were then integrated with principles of child and family-centered care to develop The Challenge Engagement Guidelines directed at reducing test anxiety and enhancing shared decision making. The Guidelines are the first of their kind to integrate child and family-centered principles into the administration protocol of a motor measure. Although developed for the Challenge, the principles have applicability to other rehabilitation measures.

  3. The effects of 12 weeks exercise program on the level of gross motor skill of the children with Atypical autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ersin Arslan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was conducted to determine the effects of the 12- weeks-exercise program on the level of grossmotor skills of children with Atypical Autism. Material and Method: 14 male children, who were diagnosed with Atypical Autism, were recruitted for the study (Mean Age was 10.07±0.25 years, weight 24.97±0.64kg, length was126.79±1.33cm. They were divided into two groups. 1st group was defined as Autistic Exercise Group (AEG, n= 7, 2nd group was defined as Autistic Control Group (ACG, n=7. In this study, the tests related with running speed and fleetness, balance, bilateral coordination and strength of the parameters of Bruininks-Oseretsky Rough Motor Sufficiency Test (BOT2 were applied. Exercise program was applied to the children in exercise group for 12 weeks’ period, 60 minutes each day and three days a week, conducting a teaching technique based on reduction of the clues gradually. Data were analyzed by Paired Sample Wilcoxon test and Mann-Whitney U test was used. The significance level of p 0.05. Besides, no difference was seen at the statistical comparison of the data of pre and final tests for the control group (p>0.05. Conclusion: In conclusion it can be emphasized that exercises, which are done regularly, can have important contributions on the developments of parameters of rough motor skills of children with Atypical Autistism

  4. Prenatal exposure to low-level methylmercury alters the child's fine motor skills at the age of 18 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prpić, Igor; Milardović, Ana; Vlašić-Cicvarić, Inge; Špiric, Zdravko; Radić Nišević, Jelena; Vukelić, Petar; Snoj Tratnik, Janja; Mazej, Darja; Horvat, Milena

    2017-01-01

    To compare motor, cognitive and language characteristics in children aged 18 months who were prenatally exposed to low-level methyl-mercury (MeHg), and to analyze the eventual differences in these characteristics in relation to cord blood THg concentration. The total number of 205 child-mother pairs was included in the study, and total cord blood mercury was measured in 198 of them. Out of the 198 already measured samples, 47 of them have also been tested for methyl-mercury in cord blood. Data regarding the 47 samples of MeHg levels has been used for calculating the correlation between cord blood THg and cord blood MeHg. MeHg and THg showed a significant correlation (r=0.95, pmotor, cognitive and language skills were conducted on 168 children using The Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition (BSID-III). Regarding the cord blood THg concentration, 135 children were divided in 4 quartile groups. Their neurodevelopmental characteristics have been compared. The cord blood THg concentration median and inter-quartile range was 2.98ng/g (1.41-5.61ng/g). There was a negative correlation between cord blood THg concentration and fine motor skills (rho=-0.22, p=0.01). It is evident that children grouped in 2nd ,3rd and 4th quartile had statistically significant lower fine motor skills assessment related to those grouped in 1st quartile (2nd quartile -1.24, p=0.03; 3rd quartile -1.28, p=0.03; 4th quartile -1.45, p=0.01). The differences in fine motor skills assessments between children in 2nd and 3rd and 3rd and 4th quartile were not statistically significant. Intrauterine exposure to low-level THg (MeHg) is associated with alterations in fine motor skills at the age of 18 months. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Motor Skills of Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Meghann; MacDonald, Megan; Lord, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    With increased interest in the early diagnosis and treatment of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), more attention has been called to the motor skills of very young children with ASD. This study describes the gross and fine motor skills of a cross-sectional group of 162 children with ASD between the ages of 12 and 36 months, as well as…

  6. The impact of cerebellar transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on learning fine-motor sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Renee E; Wu, Allan D; Samra, Jasmine K; Knowlton, Barbara J

    2017-01-05

    The cerebellum has been shown to be important for skill learning, including the learning of motor sequences. We investigated whether cerebellar transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) would enhance learning of fine motor sequences. Because the ability to generalize or transfer to novel task variations or circumstances is a crucial goal of real world training, we also examined the effect of tDCS on performance of novel sequences after training. In Study 1, participants received either anodal, cathodal or sham stimulation while simultaneously practising three eight-element key press sequences in a non-repeating, interleaved order. Immediately after sequence practice with concurrent tDCS, a transfer session was given in which participants practised three interleaved novel sequences. No stimulation was given during transfer. An inhibitory effect of cathodal tDCS was found during practice, such that the rate of learning was slowed in comparison to the anodal and sham groups. In Study 2, participants received anodal or sham stimulation and a 24 h delay was added between the practice and transfer sessions to reduce mental fatigue. Although this consolidation period benefitted subsequent transfer for both tDCS groups, anodal tDCS enhanced transfer performance. Together, these studies demonstrate polarity-specific effects on fine motor sequence learning and generalization.This article is part of the themed issue 'New frontiers for statistical learning in the cognitive sciences'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  7. Effects of Maternal Handling Training at Home, on Development of Fine Motor Skills in the Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johari, Sahar; Rassafiani, Mehdi; Dalvand, Hamid; Ahmadi Kahjoogh, Mina; Daemi, Mostafa

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral palsy (CP) is the most common physical disability in children. These children require long-term therapy for achieving better motor function. It seems that treatment and training at home is necessary. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of handling training of mothers at home on fine motor skill development of children…

  8. Visual-motor integration and fine motor skills at 6½ years of age and associations with neonatal brain volumes in children born extremely preterm in Sweden: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolk, Jenny; Padilla, Nelly; Forsman, Lea; Broström, Lina; Hellgren, Kerstin; Åden, Ulrika

    2018-02-17

    This exploratory study aimed to investigate associations between neonatal brain volumes and visual-motor integration (VMI) and fine motor skills in children born extremely preterm (EPT) when they reached 6½ years of age. Prospective population-based cohort study in Stockholm, Sweden, during 3 years. All children born before gestational age, 27 weeks, during 2004-2007 in Stockholm, without major morbidities and impairments, and who underwent MRI at term-equivalent age. Brain volumes were calculated using morphometric analyses in regions known to be involved in VMI and fine motor functions. VMI was assessed with The Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration-sixth edition and fine motor skills were assessed with the manual dexterity subtest from the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-second edition, at 6½ years. Associations between the brain volumes and VMI and fine motor skills were evaluated using partial correlation, adjusted for total cerebral parenchyma and sex. Out of 107 children born at gestational age skills (r=0.54, P=0.01). Associations were also seen between fine motor skills and the volume of the cerebellum (r=0.42, P=0.02), brainstem (r=0.47, P=0.008) and grey matter (r=-0.38, P=0.04). Neonatal brain volumes in areas known to be involved in VMI and fine motor skills were associated with scores for these two functions when children born EPT without major brain lesions or cerebral palsy were evaluated at 6½ years of age. Establishing clear associations between early brain volume alterations and later VMI and/or fine motor skills could make early interventions possible. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. ‎ Late Recovery from Stuttering: The Role of Hand ‎Dominancy, Fine Motor and ‎Inhibition Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiwa Mohammadi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: There are controversial reports about factors that affect recovery from stuttering. In the ‎present study, the effect of hand dominancy, fine motor and inhibition control on late ‎recovery from stuttering was investigated among a group of Kurdish-Persian children who ‎stuttered in Iran.‎Method: Twenty-two Kurdish-Persian children aged 7-14 years who stuttered were followed for 6 ‎years. Based on the evaluation of three experienced speech therapists and parental judgments, ‎these children were classified into recovered or persistent groups. Data about fine motor ‎control of hand and inhibition control were obtained, using Purdue Pegboard and Victoria ‎Strop Color Word Tests, respectively. Risk factors including sex, age, and family history of ‎stuttering, handedness, inhibitory control and fine motor control of hand were compared ‎between the groups and modeled to predict recovery from stuttering using logistic regression.‎Results: From the 22 participants, 5 (22.7% recovered from stuttering. The recovered and persistent ‎groups did not show significant differences in the interference effect. By dividing the scores ‎of the Purdue Pegboard tests to the right and left hand, we created a new Handedness Index ‎‎(HI. HI was significantly higher in the recovered group. The score of right hand was higher ‎than the left in the recovered group, but no difference was found between the two hands in ‎the persistent group. Among the investigated risk factors, only HI could predict the recovery ‎from or persistency of stuttering with 94% sensitivity and 84% specificity.‎Conclusion: Handedness Index can predict the recovery from stuttering significantly among children who ‎stutter.‎

  10. Motor Skill Abilities in Toddlers with Autistic Disorder, Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified, and Atypical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Johnny L.; Mahan, Sara; Fodstad, Jill C.; Hess, Julie A.; Neal, Daniene

    2010-01-01

    Motor skills were assessed in 397 toddlers, and it was demonstrated that atypically developing toddlers exhibited significantly greater motor skill abilities than toddlers with autistic disorder. No significant difference on gross or fine motor skill abilities were found between atypically developing toddlers and toddlers with pervasive…

  11. Physical therapy interventions for gross motor skills in people with an intellectual disability aged 6 years and over: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocking, Judith; McNeil, Julian; Campbell, Jared

    2016-12-01

    The systematic review was undertaken to investigate the effectiveness of physical therapy interventions for improving gross motor skills (GMSs) in people with an intellectual disability aged 6 years and older. There is a lack of physical therapy research for GMSs in this population, and no prior systematic review. People with an intellectual disability may require specific teaching approaches within therapy interventions to accommodate their cognitive and learning needs. People with an intellectual disability who suffer from GMS deficits can benefit from physical therapy to help improve their GMSs. Data sources were PubMed, CINAHL, Embase, and ProQuest. Reference lists of relevant identified articles were also hand searched. Papers published in English from 1 January 2008 to 22 October 2014 were considered for inclusion. This start date was chosen to reflect the tenets of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities which was ratified in 2008.Eligible study designs for inclusion were randomized controlled trial (RCT), pseudo-RCT, repeated measures, and case report. Overall, 887 potential articles were identified, of which 42 were retrieved for full-text review, and seven were finally included. Critical appraisal was independently conducted by two reviewers using the Joanna Briggs Institute appraisal checklists; no articles were excluded following critical appraisal. Data extraction was performed using Joanna Briggs Institute Meta-Analysis of Statistics Assessment and Review Instrument data extraction instruments. High heterogeneity between the studies precluded meta-analysis of the results; a narrative synthesis was completed instead. Two RCTs, two pseudo-RCTs, two repeated measures studies, and one case report were included. Studies varied in regard to participants' intellectual disability, and the clinical interventions used. Interventions were well tolerated with negligible adverse effects. Significant improvements were reported for

  12. Change in mobility function and its causes in adults with cerebral palsy by Gross Motor Function Classification System level: A cross-sectional questionnaire study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himuro, Nobuaki; Mishima, Reiko; Seshimo, Takashi; Morishima, Toshibumi; Kosaki, Keisuke; Ibe, Shigeharu; Asagai, Yoshimi; Minematsu, Koji; Kurita, Kazuhiro; Okayasu, Tsutomu; Shimura, Tsukasa; Hoshino, Kotaro; Suzuki, Toshiro; Yanagizono, Taiichiro

    2018-04-07

    The prognosis for mobility function by Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) level is vital as a guide to rehabilitation for people with cerebral palsy. This study sought to investigate change in mobility function and its causes in adults with cerebral palsy by GMFCS level. We conducted a cross-sectional questionnaire study. A total of 386 participants (26 y 8 m, SD 5 y 10 m) with cerebral palsy were analyzed. Participant numbers by GMFCS level were: I (53), II (139), III (74) and IV (120). The median age of participants with peak mobility function in GMFCS level III was younger than that in the other levels. 48% had experienced a decline in mobility. A Kaplan-Meier plot showed the risk of mobility decline increased in GMFCS level III; the hazard ratio was 1.97 (95% CI, 1.20-3.23) compared with level I. The frequently reported causes of mobility decline were changes in environment, and illness and injury in GMFCS level III, stiffness and deformity in level IV, and reduced physical activity in level II and III. Peak mobility function and mobility decline occurred at a younger age in GMFCS level III, with the cause of mobility decline differing by GMFCS level.

  13. The Comparison of Neurodevelopmental-Bobath Approach with Occupational Therapy Home Program on Gross Motor Function of Children with Cerebral Palsy

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    Faranak Behzadi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Traditional Bobath approach (TBA is one of the several methods which is used for the treatment of children with cerebral palsy (CP who are referred to occupational therapy settings. In this study the effect of TBA on the gross motor function (GMF of children with CP was compared with that of the Home Program Bobath approach (HPBA. Methods: Thirty children with CP participated in this study. They were randomly assigned in two groups. Control group received Bobath traditional services for 12 sessions. In the intervention group, along with these services, parents participated in training program and followed the exercises. Scale was used to assess GMF before and after intervention. Results: Participants of this study consisted of 9 girls and 6 boys in traditional group and 10 girls and 5 boys in home-based group. The mean age of homebased group was 19.53±3.35 months and traditional group was 17.20±6.80. GMF increased significantly in both groups. In addition, differences between the two groups were significant (P=0.007. Conclusion: the results of this study showed that TBA with HPBA was more effective than the traditional ones.

  14. Burke-Fahn-Marsden dystonia severity, Gross Motor, Manual Ability, and Communication Function Classification scales in childhood hyperkinetic movement disorders including cerebral palsy: a 'Rosetta Stone' study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elze, Markus C; Gimeno, Hortensia; Tustin, Kylee; Baker, Lesley; Lumsden, Daniel E; Hutton, Jane L; Lin, Jean-Pierre S-M

    2016-02-01

    Hyperkinetic movement disorders (HMDs) can be assessed using impairment-based scales or functional classifications. The Burke-Fahn-Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale-movement (BFM-M) evaluates dystonia impairment, but may not reflect functional ability. The Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS), Manual Ability Classification System (MACS), and Communication Function Classification System (CFCS) are widely used in the literature on cerebral palsy to classify functional ability, but not in childhood movement disorders. We explore the concordance of these three functional scales in a large sample of paediatric HMDs and the impact of dystonia severity on these scales. Children with HMDs (n=161; median age 10y 3mo, range 2y 6mo-21y) were assessed using the BFM-M, GMFCS, MACS, and CFCS from 2007 to 2013. This cross-sectional study contrasts the information provided by these scales. All four scales were strongly associated (all Spearman's rank correlation coefficient rs >0.72, pdisorders including cerebral palsy can be effectively evaluated using these scales. © 2015 Mac Keith Press.

  15. Desempenho motor fino e funcionalidade em crianças com síndrome de Down Fine motor performance and functionality in children with Down syndrome

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    Aline Cirelli Coppede

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi comparar crianças com síndrome de Down (SD e crianças típicas quanto ao desempenho motor fino, avaliado pela Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development - Third Edition (BSITD-III, e o desempenho em autocuidado segundo o Inventário Pediátrico de Avaliação de Incapacidade (PEDI; e investigar associação entre ambos os domínios. Participaram 12 crianças típicas e 12 crianças com SD, avaliadas na idade de 2 anos. As crianças com SD apresentaram desempenho motor fino e funcionalidade inferior às crianças típicas, possivelmente por dificuldades em desempenhar tarefas que exijam destreza e coordenação manual, como as que compõem a BSITD-III. Apesar disso, sua pontuação em autocuidado foi adequada para a faixa etária, possivelmente porque as habilidades funcionais exigidas nesse período, como retirar calçados/vestimenta, impõem menor demanda motora fina do que tarefas da BSITD-III. Esse fato pode ter contribuído para o bom desempenho funcional das crianças com SD, e para a ausência de associação entre os domínios. Fatores como os cuidados oferecidos à criança pelos cuidadores, bem como ambientes estimuladores provavelmente também contribuíram para os resultados.The aim of study was to compare typically-developing children and children with Down syndrome (DS for their fine motor performance, measured by the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development - Third Edition (BSITD-III, and for their functional performance in self-care, measured by the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI. Associations between these areas were also investigated. Twelve typically-developing children and 12 children with DS were assessed at the age of 2 years. The children with DS performed poorly in fine motor skills when compared with typical children, which may be explained by the complex motor skills involved in the BSITD-III's tasks. Their self-care scores were also lower in comparison with the

  16. Motor-enriched learning activities can improve mathematical performance in preadolescent children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck, Mikkel Malling; Lind, Rune Rasmussen; Geertsen, Svend Sparre

    2016-01-01

    Objective: An emerging field of research indicates that physical activity can benefit cognitive functions and academic achievements in children. However, less is known about how academic achievements can benefit from specific types of motor activities (e.g., fine and gross) integrated into learning......-enriched mathematical teaching in Danish preadolescent children (n = 165, age = 7.5 ± 0.02 years). Three groups were included: a control group (CON), which received non-motor enriched conventional mathematical teaching, a fine motor math group (FMM) and a gross motor math group (GMM), which received mathematical.......73 correct answers (p = 0.04) and FMM 2.14 ± 0.72 correct answers (p = 0.008). These effects were not observed in low math-performers. The effects were partly accounted for by visuo-spatial short-term memory and gross motor skills. Conclusion: The study demonstrates that motor enriched learning activities...

  17. Short-term immobilization influences use-dependent cortical plasticity and fine motor performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opie, George M; Evans, Alexandra; Ridding, Michael C; Semmler, John G

    2016-08-25

    Short-term immobilization that reduces muscle use for 8-10h is known to influence cortical excitability and motor performance. However, the mechanisms through which this is achieved, and whether these changes can be used to modify cortical plasticity and motor skill learning, are not known. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of short-term immobilization on use-dependent cortical plasticity, motor learning and retention. Twenty-one adults were divided into control and immobilized groups, both of which underwent two experimental sessions on consecutive days. Within each session, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was used to assess motor-evoked potential (MEP) amplitudes, short- (SICI) and long-interval intracortical inhibition (LICI), and intracortical facilitation (ICF) before and after a grooved pegboard task. Prior to the second training session, the immobilized group underwent 8h of left hand immobilization targeting the index finger, while control subjects were allowed normal limb use. Immobilization produced a reduction in MEP amplitudes, but no change in SICI, LICI or ICF. While motor performance improved for both groups in each session, the level of performance was greater 24-h later in control, but not immobilized subjects. Furthermore, training-related MEP facilitation was greater after, compared with before, immobilization. These results indicate that immobilization can modulate use-dependent plasticity and the retention of motor skills. They also suggest that changes in intracortical excitability are unlikely to contribute to the immobilization-induced modification of cortical excitability. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Associations of vitamin D status, bone health and anthropometry, with gross motor development and performance of school-aged Indian children who were born at term with low birth weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filteau, Suzanne; Rehman, Andrea M; Yousafzai, Aisha; Chugh, Reema; Kaur, Manpreet; Sachdev, H P S; Trilok-Kumar, Geeta

    2016-01-01

    Objectives There is little information regarding motor development of children born at term with low birth weight (LBW), a group that constitutes a large proportion of children in South Asia. We used data from infancy and at school age from a LBW cohort to investigate children's motor performance using causal inference. Design Cross-sectional follow-up study. Setting Delhi, India. Participants We recruited 912 children aged 5 years who had participated in a trial of vitamin D for term LBW infants in the first 6 months of life. Outcome measures We focused on gross motor development, using the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) gross motor scale and several measures of motor performance. We examined the effects on these of current anthropometry, vitamin D status and bone health, controlling for age, sex, season of interview, socioeconomic variables, early growth, recent morbidity, sun exposure and animal food intake. Results In adjusted analyses, stunted children (height-for-age Z (HAZ) squats in 15 s. Poorer vitamin D status was associated with the ability to perform more stands and squats. Lower tibia ultrasound Z score was associated with greater hand grip strength. Early growth and current body mass index had no associations with motor outcomes. Conclusions Current HAZ and arm muscle area showed the strongest associations with gross motor outcomes, likely due to a combination of simple physics and factors associated with stunting. The counterintuitive inverse associations of tibia health and vitamin D status with outcomes may require further research. PMID:26747034

  19. Autism spectrum disorders and motor skills: the effect on socialization as measured by the Baby And Infant Screen For Children with aUtIsm Traits (BISCUIT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipes, Megan; Matson, Johnny L; Horovitz, Max

    2011-01-01

    To examine the effects of ASD diagnosis and motor skills on socialization in young children. Two samples were used: gross motor skills sample (n = 408) and fine motor skills sample (n = 402). The Battelle Developmental Inventory-Second Edition assessed motor skills, while the Baby and Infant Screen for Children with aUtIsm Traits, Part 1 assessed socialization. A main effect of diagnosis was found for both samples on socialization such that those with autism exhibited the most severe deficits followed by those with PDD-NOS and then atypically developing children. There was a main effect for gross motor skills, with high gross motor skills showing less social impairment. The interaction term was only significant in regards to fine motor skills. The individual effects of ASD diagnosis and motor impairment as well as the interaction have implications for the assessment and treatment in these individuals.

  20. Fine Motor Control Is Related to Cognitive Control in Adolescents with Down Syndrome

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    Chen, Chih-Chia; Ringenbach, Shannon D. R.; Albert, Andrew; Semken, Keith

    2014-01-01

    The connection between human cognitive development and motor functioning has been systematically examined in many typical and atypical populations; however, only a few studies focus on people with Down syndrome (DS). Twelve adolescents with DS participated and their cognitive control, measured by the Corsi-Block tapping test (e.g., visual working…

  1. The relationship of motor skills and adaptive behavior skills in young children with autism spectrum disorders.

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    MacDonald, Megan; Lord, Catherine; Ulrich, Dale

    2013-11-01

    To determine the relationship of motor skills and the core behaviors of young children with autism, social affective skills and repetitive behaviors, as indicated through the calibrated autism severity scores. The univariate GLM tested the relationship of gross and fine motor skills measured by the gross motor scale and the fine motor scale of the MSEL with autism symptomology as measured by calibrated autism severity scores. Majority of the data collected took place in an autism clinic. A cohort of 159 young children with ASD (n=110), PDD-NOS (n=26) and non-ASD (developmental delay, n=23) between the ages of 12-33 months were recruited from early intervention studies and clinical referrals. Children with non-ASD (developmental delay) were included in this study to provide a range of scores indicted through calibrated autism severity. Not applicable. The primary outcome measures in this study were calibrated autism severity scores. Fine motor skills and gross motor skills significantly predicted calibrated autism severity (p motor skills displayed higher levels of calibrated autism severity. The fine and gross motor skills are significantly related to autism symptomology. There is more to focus on and new avenues to explore in the realm of discovering how to implement early intervention and rehabilitation for young children with autism and motor skills need to be a part of the discussion.

  2. Predicting Motor Skills from Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire Scores, Language Ability, and Other Features of New Zealand Children Entering Primary School

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    Sargisson, Rebecca J.; Powell, Cheniel; Stanley, Peter; de Candole, Rosalind

    2014-01-01

    The motor and language skills, emotional and behavioural problems of 245 children were measured at school entry. Fine motor scores were significantly predicted by hyperactivity, phonetic awareness, prosocial behaviour, and the presence of medical problems. Gross motor scores were significantly predicted by the presence of medical problems. The…

  3. Development of fine motor skills is associated with expressive language outcomes in infants at high and low risk for autism spectrum disorder.

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    Choi, Boin; Leech, Kathryn A; Tager-Flusberg, Helen; Nelson, Charles A

    2018-04-12

    A growing body of research suggests that fine motor abilities are associated with skills in a variety of domains in both typical and atypical development. In this study, we investigated developmental trajectories of fine motor skills between 6 and 24 months in relation to expressive language outcomes at 36 months in infants at high and low familial risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Participants included 71 high-risk infants without ASD diagnoses, 30 high-risk infants later diagnosed with ASD, and 69 low-risk infants without ASD diagnoses. As part of a prospective, longitudinal study, fine motor skills were assessed at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months of age and expressive language outcomes at 36 months using the Mullen Scales of Early Learning. Diagnosis of ASD was determined at the infant's last visit to the lab (18, 24, or 36 months) using the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule. Hierarchical linear modeling revealed that high-risk infants who later developed ASD showed significantly slower growth in fine motor skills between 6 and 24 months, compared to their typically developing peers. In contrast to group differences in growth from age 6 months, cross-sectional group differences emerged only in the second year of life. Also, fine motor skills at 6 months predicted expressive language outcomes at 3 years of age. These results highlight the importance of utilizing longitudinal approaches in measuring early fine motor skills to reveal subtle group differences in infancy between ASD high-risk and low-risk infant populations and to predict their subsequent language outcomes.

  4. JNK1 Controls Dendritic Field Size in L2/3 and L5 of the Motor Cortex, Constrains Soma Size and Influences Fine Motor Coordination

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    Emilia eKomulainen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Genetic anomalies on the JNK pathway confer susceptibility to autism spectrum disorders, schizophrenia and intellectual disability. The mechanism whereby a gain or loss of function in JNK signaling predisposes to these prevalent dendrite disorders, with associated motor dysfunction, remains unclear. Here we find that JNK1 regulates the dendritic field of L2/3 and L5 pyramidal neurons of the mouse motor cortex (M1, the main excitatory pathway controlling voluntary movement. In Jnk1-/- mice, basal dendrite branching of L5 pyramidal neurons is increased in M1, as is cell soma size, whereas in L2/3, dendritic arborization is decreased. We show that JNK1 phosphorylates rat HMW-MAP2 on T1619, T1622 and T1625 (Uniprot P15146 corresponding to mouse T1617, T1620, T1623, to create a binding motif, that is critical for MAP2 interaction with and stabilization of microtubules, and dendrite growth control. Targeted expression in M1 of GFP-HMW-MAP2 that is pseudo-phosphorylated on T1619, T1622 and T1625 increases dendrite complexity in L2/3 indicating that JNK1 phosphorylation of HMW-MAP2 regulates the dendritic field. Consistent with the morphological changes observed in L2/3 and L5, Jnk1-/- mice exhibit deficits in limb placement and motor coordination, while stride length is reduced in older animals. In summary, JNK1 phosphorylates HMW-MAP2 to increase its stabilization of microtubules while at the same time controlling dendritic fields in the main excitatory pathway of M1. Moreover, JNK1 contributes to normal functioning of fine motor coordination. We report for the first time, a quantitative sholl analysis of dendrite architecture, and of motor behavior in Jnk1-/- mice. Our results illustrate the molecular and behavioral consequences of interrupted JNK1 signaling and provide new ground for mechanistic understanding of those prevalent neuropyschiatric disorders where genetic disruption of the JNK pathway is central.

  5. Motor Skill Development in Italian Pre-School Children Induced by Structured Activities in a Specific Playground.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Tortella

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects and specificity of structured and unstructured activities played at the playground Primo Sport 0246 in Northern Italy on motor skill competence in five years old children. The playground was specifically designed to promote gross motor skills in preschool children; in this study 71 children from local kindergartens came to the park once a week for ten consecutive weeks and were exposed to 30 minutes of free play and 30 minutes of structured activities. Before and after the ten visits, each child completed nine tests to assess levels of motor skills, three for fine-motor skills and six for gross-motor skills. As control, motor skills were also assessed on 39 children from different kindergartens who did not come to the park. The results show that the experimental group who practiced gross-motor activities in the playground for 1 hour a week for 10 weeks improved significantly in 4 out of the 6 gross motor tasks and in none of the fine motor tasks. The data indicate that limited transfer occurred between tasks referring to different domains of motor competences while suggesting cross feeding for improvement of gross-motor skills between different exercises when domains related to physical fitness and strength of specific muscle groups are involved. These results are relevant to the issue of condition(s appropriate for maintaining and developing motor skills in this age group as well as for the planning, organization and implementation of play and physical activities in kindergartens.

  6. Motor Skill Development in Italian Pre-School Children Induced by Structured Activities in a Specific Playground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortella, Patrizia; Haga, Monika; Loras, Håvard; Sigmundsson, Hermundur; Fumagalli, Guido

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects and specificity of structured and unstructured activities played at the playground Primo Sport 0246 in Northern Italy on motor skill competence in five years old children. The playground was specifically designed to promote gross motor skills in preschool children; in this study 71 children from local kindergartens came to the park once a week for ten consecutive weeks and were exposed to 30 minutes of free play and 30 minutes of structured activities. Before and after the ten visits, each child completed nine tests to assess levels of motor skills, three for fine-motor skills and six for gross-motor skills. As control, motor skills were also assessed on 39 children from different kindergartens who did not come to the park. The results show that the experimental group who practiced gross-motor activities in the playground for 1 hour a week for 10 weeks improved significantly in 4 out of the 6 gross motor tasks and in none of the fine motor tasks. The data indicate that limited transfer occurred between tasks referring to different domains of motor competences while suggesting cross feeding for improvement of gross-motor skills between different exercises when domains related to physical fitness and strength of specific muscle groups are involved. These results are relevant to the issue of condition(s) appropriate for maintaining and developing motor skills in this age group as well as for the planning, organization and implementation of play and physical activities in kindergartens.

  7. Motor Skill Development in Italian Pre-School Children Induced by Structured Activities in a Specific Playground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortella, Patrizia; Haga, Monika; Loras, Håvard

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects and specificity of structured and unstructured activities played at the playground Primo Sport 0246 in Northern Italy on motor skill competence in five years old children. The playground was specifically designed to promote gross motor skills in preschool children; in this study 71 children from local kindergartens came to the park once a week for ten consecutive weeks and were exposed to 30 minutes of free play and 30 minutes of structured activities. Before and after the ten visits, each child completed nine tests to assess levels of motor skills, three for fine-motor skills and six for gross-motor skills. As control, motor skills were also assessed on 39 children from different kindergartens who did not come to the park. The results show that the experimental group who practiced gross-motor activities in the playground for 1 hour a week for 10 weeks improved significantly in 4 out of the 6 gross motor tasks and in none of the fine motor tasks. The data indicate that limited transfer occurred between tasks referring to different domains of motor competences while suggesting cross feeding for improvement of gross-motor skills between different exercises when domains related to physical fitness and strength of specific muscle groups are involved. These results are relevant to the issue of condition(s) appropriate for maintaining and developing motor skills in this age group as well as for the planning, organization and implementation of play and physical activities in kindergartens. PMID:27462985

  8. Generalized motor abilities and timing behavior in children with specific language impairment.

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    Zelaznik, Howard N; Goffman, Lisa

    2010-04-01

    To examine whether children with specific language impairment (SLI) differ from normally developing peers in motor skills, especially those skills related to timing. Standard measures of gross and fine motor development were obtained. Furthermore, finger and hand movements were recorded while children engaged in 4 different timing tasks, including tapping and drawing circles in time with a metronome or a visual target. Fourteen children with SLI (age 6 to 8 years) and 14 age-matched peers who were typically developing participated. As expected, children with SLI showed poorer performance on a standardized test of gross and fine motor skill than did their normally developing peers. However, timing skill in the manual domain was equivalent to that seen in typically developing children. Consistent with earlier findings, relatively poor gross and fine motor performance is observed in children with SLI. Surprisingly, rhythmic timing is spared.

  9. Abnormal lateralization of fine motor actions in Tourette syndrome persists into adulthood.

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    D Martino

    Full Text Available Youth with Tourette syndrome (TS exhibit, compared to healthy, abnormal ability to lateralize digital sequential tasks. It is unknown whether this trait is related to inter-hemispheric connections, and whether it is preserved or lost in patients with TS persisting through adult life. We studied 13 adult TS patients and 15 age-matched healthy volunteers. All participants undertook: 1 a finger opposition task, performed with the right hand (RH only or with both hands, using a sensor-engineered glove in synchrony with a metronome at 2 Hz; we calculated a lateralization index [(single RH-bimanual RH/single RH X 100 for percentage of correct movements (%CORR; 2 MRI-based diffusion tensor imaging and probabilistic tractography of inter-hemispheric corpus callosum (CC connections between supplementary motor areas (SMA and primary motor cortices (M1. We confirmed a significant increase in the %CORR in RH in the bimanual vs. single task in TS patients (p<0.001, coupled to an abnormal ability to lateralize finger movements (significantly lower lateralization index for %CORR in TS patients, p = 0.04. The %CORR lateralization index correlated positively with tic severity measured with the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (R = 0.55;p = 0.04. We detected a significantly higher fractional anisotropy (FA in both the M1-M1 (p = 0.036 and the SMA-SMA (p = 0.018 callosal fibre tracts in TS patients. In healthy subjects, the %CORR lateralization index correlated positively with fractional anisotropy of SMA-SMA fibre tracts (R = 0.63, p = 0.02; this correlation was not significant in TS patients. TS patients exhibited an abnormal ability to lateralize finger movements in sequential tasks, which increased in accuracy when the task was performed bimanually. This abnormality persists throughout different age periods and appears dissociated from the transcallosal connectivity of motor cortical regions. The altered interhemispheric transfer of motor abilities in TS may be

  10. Reliability of the modified Gross Motor Function Measure-88 (GMFM-88) for children with both Spastic Cerebral Palsy and Cerebral Visual Impairment: A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salavati, M; Krijnen, W P; Rameckers, E A A; Looijestijn, P L; Maathuis, C G B; van der Schans, C P; Steenbergen, B

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to adapt the Gross Motor Function Measure-88 (GMFM-88) for children with Cerebral Palsy (CP) and Cerebral Visual Impairment (CVI) and to determine the test-retest and interobserver reliability of the adapted version. Sixteen paediatric physical therapists familiar with CVI participated in the adaptation process. The Delphi method was used to gain consensus among a panel of experts. Seventy-seven children with CP and CVI (44 boys and 33 girls, aged between 50 and 144 months) participated in this study. To assess test-retest and interobserver reliability, the GMFM-88 was administered twice within three weeks (Mean=9 days, SD=6 days) by trained paediatric physical therapists, one of whom was familiar with the child and one who wasn't. Percentages of identical scores, Cronbach's alphas and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were computed for each dimension level. All experts agreed on the proposed adaptations of the GMFM-88 for children with CP and CVI. Test-retest reliability ICCs for dimension scores were between 0.94 and 1.00, mean percentages of identical scores between 29 and 71, and interobserver reliability ICCs of the adapted GMFM-88 were 0.99-1.00 for dimension scores. Mean percentages of identical scores varied between 53 and 91. Test-retest and interobserver reliability of the GMFM-88-CVI for children with CP and CVI was excellent. Internal consistency of dimension scores lay between 0.97 and 1.00. The psychometric properties of the adapted GMFM-88 for children with CP and CVI are reliable and comparable to the original GMFM-88. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Generalized Motor Abilities and Timing Behavior in Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelaznik, Howard N.; Goffman, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To examine whether children with specific language impairment (SLI) differ from normally developing peers in motor skills, especially those skills related to timing. Method: Standard measures of gross and fine motor development were obtained. Furthermore, finger and hand movements were recorded while children engaged in 4 different timing…

  12. Interaction of Language Processing and Motor Skill in Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiDonato Brumbach, Andrea C.; Goffman, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To examine how language production interacts with speech motor and gross and fine motor skill in children with specific language impairment (SLI). Method: Eleven children with SLI and 12 age-matched peers (4-6 years) produced structurally primed sentences containing particles and prepositions. Utterances were analyzed for errors and for…

  13. Relationship between Motor Skill and Body Mass Index in 5- to 10-Year-Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Hondt, Eva; Deforche, Benedicte; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Lenoir, Matthieu

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate gross and fine motor skill in overweight and obese children compared with normal-weight peers. According to international cut-off points for Body Mass Index (BMI) from Cole et al. (2000), all 117 participants (5-10 year) were classified as being normal-weight, overweight, or obese. Level of motor skill…

  14. Touchscreen typing-pattern analysis for detecting fine motor skills decline in early-stage Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iakovakis, Dimitrios; Hadjidimitriou, Stelios; Charisis, Vasileios; Bostantzopoulou, Sevasti; Katsarou, Zoe; Hadjileontiadis, Leontios J

    2018-05-16

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a degenerative movement disorder causing progressive disability that severely affects patients' quality of life. While early treatment can produce significant benefits for patients, the mildness of many early signs combined with the lack of accessible high-frequency monitoring tools may delay clinical diagnosis. To meet this need, user interaction data from consumer technologies have recently been exploited towards unsupervised screening for PD symptoms in daily life. Similarly, this work proposes a method for detecting fine motor skills decline in early PD patients via analysis of patterns emerging from finger interaction with touchscreen smartphones during natural typing. Our approach relies on low-/higher-order statistical features of keystrokes timing and pressure variables, computed from short typing sessions. Features are fed into a two-stage multi-model classification pipeline that reaches a decision on the subject's status (PD patient/control) by gradually fusing prediction probabilities obtained for individual typing sessions and keystroke variables. This method achieved an AUC = 0.92 and 0.82/0.81 sensitivity/specificity (matched groups of 18 early PD patients/15 controls) with discriminant features plausibly correlating with clinical scores of relevant PD motor symptoms. These findings suggest an improvement over similar approaches, thereby constituting a further step towards unobtrusive early PD detection from routine activities.

  15. Dual Task of Fine Motor Skill and Problem Solving in Individuals With Multiple Sclerosis: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goverover, Y; Sandroff, B M; DeLuca, J

    2018-04-01

    To (1) examine and compare dual-task performance in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and healthy controls (HCs) using mathematical problem-solving questions that included an everyday competence component while performing an upper extremity fine motor task; and (2) examine whether difficulties in dual-task performance are associated with problems in performing an everyday internet task. Pilot study, mixed-design with both a within and between subjects' factor. A nonprofit rehabilitation research institution and the community. Participants (N=38) included persons with MS (n=19) and HCs (n=19) who were recruited from a nonprofit rehabilitation research institution and from the community. Not applicable. Participant were presented with 2 testing conditions: (1) solving mathematical everyday problems or placing bolts into divots (single-task condition); and (2) solving problems while putting bolts into divots (dual-task condition). Additionally, participants were required to perform a test of everyday internet competence. As expected, dual-task performance was significantly worse than either of the single-task tasks (ie, number of bolts into divots or correct answers, and time to answer the questions). Cognitive but not motor dual-task cost was associated with worse performance in activities of everyday internet tasks. Cognitive dual-task cost is significantly associated with worse performance of everyday technology. This was not observed in the motor dual-task cost. The implications of dual-task costs on everyday activity are discussed. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Comprehension of handwriting development: Pen-grip kinetics in handwriting tasks and its relation to fine motor skills among school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Chen; Chao, Yen-Li; Wu, Shyi-Kuen; Lin, Ho-Hsio; Hsu, Chieh-Hsiang; Hsu, Hsiao-Man; Kuo, Li-Chieh

    2017-10-01

    Numerous tools have been developed to evaluate handwriting performances by analysing written products. However, few studies have directly investigated kinetic performances of digits when holding a pen. This study thus attempts to investigate pen-grip kinetics during writing tasks of school-age children and explore the relationship between the kinetic factors and fine motor skills. This study recruited 181 children aged from 5 to 12 years old and investigated the effects of age on handwriting kinetics and the relationship between these and fine motor skills. The forces applied from the digits and pen-tip were measured during writing tasks via a force acquisition pen, and the children's fine motor performances were also evaluated. The results indicate that peak force and average force might not be direct indicators of handwriting performance for normally developing children at this age. Younger children showed larger force variation and lower adjustment frequency during writing, which might indicate they had poorer force control than the older children. Force control when handling a pen is significantly correlated with fine motor performance, especially in relation to the manual dexterity. A novel system is proposed for analysing school-age children's force control while handwriting. We observed the development of force control in relation to pen grip among the children with different ages in this study. The findings suggested that manipulation skill may be crucial when children are establishing their handwriting capabilities. © 2017 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  17. Motor skills and calibrated autism severity in young children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Megan; Lord, Catherine; Ulrich, Dale A

    2014-04-01

    In addition to the core characteristics of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), motor skill deficits are present, persistent, and pervasive across age. Although motor skill deficits have been indicated in young children with autism, they have not been included in the primary discussion of early intervention content. One hundred fifty-nine young children with a confirmed diagnosis of ASD (n = 110), PDD-NOS (n = 26), and non-ASD (n = 23) between the ages of 14-33 months participated in this study.1 The univariate general linear model tested the relationship of fine and gross motor skills and social communicative skills (using calibrated autism severity scores). Fine motor and gross motor skills significantly predicted calibrated autism severity (p motor skills have greater social communicative skill deficits. Future directions and the role of motor skills in early intervention are discussed.

  18. Classification of cerebral palsy: association between gender, age, motor type, topography and Gross Motor Function Classificação da paralisia cerebral: associação entre gênero, idade, tipo motor, topografia e Função Motora Grossa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luzia Iara Pfeifer

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to assess the relation between gender, age, motor type, topography and gross motor function, based on the Gross Motor Function System of children with cerebral palsy. Trunk control, postural changes and gait of one hundred children between 5 months and 12 years old, were evaluated. There were no significant differences between gender and age groups (p=0.887 or between gender and motor type (p=0.731. In relation to body topography most children (88% were spastic quadriplegic. Most hemiplegics children were rated in motor level I, children with diplegia were rated in motor level III, and quadriplegic children were rated in motor level V. Functional classification is necessary to understand the differences in cerebral palsy and to have the best therapeutic planning since it is a complex disease which depends on several factors.Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a relação entre gênero, idade, tipo motor, topografia e Função Motora Grossa, baseado no Sistema de Função Motora Grossa em crianças com paralisia cerebral. Participaram desta pesquisa 100 crianças com idade entre 5 meses a 12 anos que foram observadas em relação ao controle de tronco, trocas posturais e marcha. Não houve diferenças significativas entre gêneros e grupos etários (p=0,887 e entre gênero e tipo motor (p=0,731. Em relação à topografia corporal, houve predomínio de crianças com quadriplegia, sendo que a maioria (88% era do tipo espástico. Quanto ao nível motor, as crianças hemiplégicas pertenciam em sua maioria ao nível I, as diplégicas ao nível III e as quadriplégicas ao nível V. Sendo a paralisia cerebral uma condição complexa que depende de diversos fatores, beneficia-se de classificações funcionais para compreensão da diversidade e melhor planejamento terapêutico.

  19. Functional classifications for cerebral palsy: correlations between the gross motor function classification system (GMFCS), the manual ability classification system (MACS) and the communication function classification system (CFCS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compagnone, Eliana; Maniglio, Jlenia; Camposeo, Serena; Vespino, Teresa; Losito, Luciana; De Rinaldis, Marta; Gennaro, Leonarda; Trabacca, Antonio

    2014-11-01

    This study aimed to investigate a possible correlation between the gross motor function classification system-expanded and revised (GMFCS-E&R), the manual abilities classification system (MACS) and the communication function classification system (CFCS) functional levels in children with cerebral palsy (CP) by CP subtype. It was also geared to verify whether there is a correlation between these classification systems and intellectual functioning (IF) and parental socio-economic status (SES). A total of 87 children (47 males and 40 females, age range 4-18 years, mean age 8.9±4.2) were included in the study. A strong correlation was found between the three classifications: Level V of the GMFCS-E&R corresponds to Level V of the MACS (rs=0.67, p=0.001); the same relationship was found for the CFCS and the MACS (rs=0.73, p<0.001) and for the GMFCS-E&R and the CFCS (rs=0.61, p=0.001). The correlations between the IQ and the global functional disability profile were strong or moderate (GMFCS and IQ: rs=0.66, p=0.001; MACS and IQ: rs=0.58, p=0.001; CFCS and MACS: rs=0.65, p=0.001). The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to determine if there were differences between the GMFCS-E&R, the CFCS and the MACS by CP type. CP types showed different scores for the IQ level (Chi-square=8.59, df=2, p=0.014), the GMFCS-E&R (Chi-square=36.46, df=2, p<0.001), the CFCS (Chi-square=12.87, df=2, p=0.002), and the MACS Level (Chi-square=13.96, df=2, p<0.001) but no significant differences emerged for the SES (Chi-square=1.19, df=2, p=0.554). This study shows how the three functional classifications (GMFCS-E&R, CFCS and MACS) complement each other to provide a better description of the functional profile of CP. The systematic evaluation of the IQ can provide useful information about a possible future outcome for every functional level. The SES does not appear to affect functional profiles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Proximal Femoral Varus Derotation Osteotomy in Children with Cerebral Palsy: The Effect of Age, Gross Motor Function Classification System Level, and Surgeon Volume on Surgical Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore, Benjamin J; Zurakowski, David; Dufreny, Chantal; Powell, Dustin; Matheney, Travis H; Snyder, Brian D

    2015-12-16

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate mid-term results of proximal femoral varus derotation osteotomy (VDRO) in children with cerebral palsy and determine what effect age, Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) level, and surgeon volume had on surgical success. We analyzed a cohort of children with cerebral palsy who underwent VDRO for hip displacement at a tertiary-level pediatric hospital between 1994 and 2007. Age, sex, GMFCS level, preoperative radiographic parameters, previous botulinum toxin administration or soft-tissue release, adjunctive pelvic osteotomy, the performance of bilateral surgery at the index VDRO, and surgeon volume (the number of procedures performed) were recorded. Results were analyzed via univariate and multivariate analyses for association with the need for revision hip surgery. Kaplan-Meier survivorship curves were generated, determining the time from index surgery to failure (defined as the need for subsequent surgical procedures on the hip and/or pelvis, or a hip migration percentage of >50% at the time of final follow-up), and were further stratified according to osseous versus soft-tissue revision. A total of 567 VDROs were performed in 320 children (mean age [and standard deviation], 8.2 ± 3.8 years). The mean follow-up was 8.3 years (range, three to eighteen years). Of the initial 320 patients, 117 (37%) were considered to have had failure. Multivariate Cox regression analysis confirmed that younger age at surgery (p < 0.001), increased GMFCS level (p = 0.01), and lower annual surgical hip volume (p = 0.02) were significant independent predictors of any type of surgical revision. Furthermore, soft-tissue release at VDRO was protective against revision (p = 0.02). Five-year survivorship analysis revealed a 92% success rate for children classified as GMFCS levels I and II compared with a 76% success rate for those of GMFCS level V (p < 0.01). This study demonstrated a 37% failure rate after VDRO in children with

  1. Fine motor movements while drawing during the encoding phase of a serial verbal recall task reduce working memory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tindle, Richard; Longstaff, Mitchell G

    2016-02-01

    The time-based resource-sharing (TBRS) model of working memory indicates that secondary tasks that capture attention for relatively long periods can result in the interference of working memory processing and maintenance. The current study investigates if discrete and continuous movements have differing effects on a concurrent, verbal serial recall task. In the listening condition, participants were asked to recall spoken words presented in lists of six. In the drawing conditions, participants performed the same task while producing discrete (star) or continuous (circle) movements. As hypothesised, participants recalled more words overall in the listening condition compared to the combined drawing conditions. The prediction that the continuous movement condition would reduce recall compared to listening was also supported. Fine-grained analysis at each serial position revealed significantly more words were recalled at mid serial positions in the listening condition, with worst recall for the continuous condition at position 5 compared to the listening and discrete conditions. Kinematic analysis showed that participants increased the size and speed of the continuous movements resulting in a similar duration and number of strokes for each condition. The duration of brief pauses in the discrete condition was associated with the number of words recalled. The results indicate that fine motor movements reduced working memory performance; however, it was not merely performing a movement but the type of the movement that determined how resources were diverted. In the context of the TBRS, continuous movements could be capturing attention for longer periods relative to discrete movements, reducing verbal serial recall. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Effectiveness of commercial video gaming on fine motor control in chronic stroke within community-level rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquin, Kate; Ali, Suzanne; Carr, Kelly; Crawley, Jamie; McGowan, Cheri; Horton, Sean

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of commercial gaming as an intervention for fine motor recovery in chronic stroke. Ten chronic phase post-stroke participants (mean time since CVA = 39 mos; mean age = 72 yrs) completed a 16-session program using the Nintendo Wii for 15 min two times per week with their more affected hand (10 right handed). Functional recovery (Jebsen Hand Function Test (JHFT), Box and Block Test (BBT), Nine Hole Peg Test (NHPT)), and quality of life (QOL; Stroke Impact Scale (SIS)) were measured at baseline (pre-testing), after 8 sessions (mid-testing) and after 16 sessions (post-testing). Significant improvements were found with the JHFT, BBT and NHPT from pre-testing to post-testing (p = 0.03, p = 0.03, p = 0.01, respectively). As well, there was an increase in perceived QOL from pre-testing to post-testing, as determined by the SIS (p = 0.009). Commercial gaming may be a viable resource for those with chronic stroke. Future research should examine the feasibility of this as a rehabilitation tool for this population. Stroke survivors often live with lasting effects from their injury, however, those with chronic stroke generally receive little to no rehabilitation due to a perceived motor recovery plateau. Virtual reality in the form of commercial gaming is a novel and motivating way for clients to complete rehabilitation. The Nintendo Wii may be a feasible device to improve both functional ability and perceived quality of life in chronic stroke survivors.

  3. Training finger individuation with a mechatronic-virtual reality system leads to improved fine motor control post-stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thielbar, Kelly O; Lord, Thomas J; Fischer, Heidi C; Lazzaro, Emily C; Barth, Kristin C; Stoykov, Mary E; Triandafilou, Kristen M; Kamper, Derek G

    2014-12-26

    Dexterous manipulation of the hand, one of the features of human motor control, is often compromised after stroke, to the detriment of basic functions. Despite the importance of independent movement of the digits to activities of daily living, relatively few studies have assessed the impact of specifically targeting individuated movements of the digits on hand rehabilitation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of such finger individuation training, by means of a novel mechatronic-virtual reality system, on fine motor control after stroke. An actuated virtual keypad (AVK) system was developed in which the impaired hand controls a virtual hand playing a set of keys. Creation of individuated digit movements is assisted by a pneumatically actuated glove, the PneuGlove. A study examining efficacy of the AVK system was subsequently performed. Participants had chronic, moderate hand impairment resulting from a single stroke incurred at least 6 months prior. Each subject underwent 18 hour-long sessions of extensive therapy (3x per week for 6 weeks) targeted at finger individuation. Subjects were randomly divided into two groups: the first group (Keypad: N = 7) utilized the AVK system while the other group (OT: N = 7) received a similarly intensive dose of occupational therapy; both groups worked directly with a licensed occupational therapist. Outcome measures such as the Jebsen-Taylor Hand Function Test (JTHFT), Action research Arm Test (ARAT), Fugl-Meyer Upper Extremity Motor Assessment/Hand subcomponent (FMUE/FMH), grip and pinch strengths were collected at baseline, post-treatment and one-month post-treatment. While both groups exhibited some signs of change after the training sessions, only the Keypad group displayed statistically significant improvement both for measures of impairment (FMH: p = 0.048) and measures of task performance (JTHFT: p = 0.021). Additionally, the finger individuation index - a measure of finger

  4. Fine motor skills enhance lexical processing of embodied vocabulary: A test of the nimble-hands, nimble-minds hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suggate, Sebastian; Stoeger, Heidrun

    2017-10-01

    Research suggests that fine motor skills (FMS) are linked to aspects of cognitive development in children. Additionally, lexical processing advantages exist for words implying a high body-object interaction (BOI), with initial findings indicating that such words in turn link to children's FMS-for which we propose and evaluate four competing hypotheses. First, a maturational account argues that any links between FMS and lexical processing should not exist once developmental variables are controlled for. Second, functionalism posits that any link between FMS and lexical processing arises due to environmental interactions. Third, the semantic richness hypothesis argues that sensorimotor input improves lexical processing, but predicts no links between FMS and lexical processing. A fourth account, the nimble-hands, nimble minds (NHNM) hypothesis, proposes that having greater FMS improves lexical processing for high-BOI words. In two experiments, the response latencies of preschool children (n = 90, n = 76, ages = 5;1) to 45 lexical items encompassing high-BOI, low-BOI, and less imageable words were measured, alongside measures of FMS, reasoning, and general receptive/expressive vocabulary. High-BOI words appeared to show unique links to FMS, which remained after accounting for low-BOI and less imageable words, general vocabulary, reasoning, and chronological age. Although further work is needed, the findings provide initial support for the NHNM hypothesis.

  5. Poor fine-motor and visuospatial skills predict persistence of pediatric-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder into adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Michael H; Sukhodolsky, Denis G; Dombrowski, Philip A; Panza, Kaitlyn E; Craiglow, Brittany G; Landeros-Weisenberger, Angeli; Leckman, James F; Peterson, Bradley S; Schultz, Robert T

    2011-09-01

    Half of pediatric-onset OCD cases remit by adulthood. Studies have demonstrated that initial response to pharmacotherapy, age of onset, prominent hoarding symptoms, and the presence of comorbid tic disorders are associated with long-term outcome. Our goal was to examine the association between childhood performance on neuropsychological testing and persistence of OCD into adulthood. Twenty-four children with OCD were followed for an average of 7.5 years into early adulthood. Neuropsychological performance in childhood (childhood performance on the Purdue pegboard task and the block design subscale of WISC-III was associated with persistence of OCD symptoms into adulthood. IQ, VMI, and nonverbal memory performance did not predict significantly the persistence of OCD. These results suggest that visuospatial and fine-motor skill deficits are predictive of poor long-term outcome in pediatric-onset OCD. Future longitudinal studies are needed to chart the course of these deficits relative to the course of symptoms in OCD and to determine whether the association of these neuropsychiatric deficits with long-term outcome is specific to pediatric-onset OCD or generalizes to other psychiatric disorders. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2011 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  6. Obesity leads to declines in motor skills across childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, J; East, P; Blanco, E; Sim, E Kang; Castillo, M; Lozoff, B; Gahagan, S

    2016-05-01

    Poor motor skills have been consistently linked with a higher body weight in childhood, but the causal direction of this association is not fully understood. This study investigated the temporal ordering between children's motor skills and weight status at 5 and 10 years. Participants were 668 children (54% male) who were studied from infancy as part of an iron deficiency anaemia preventive trial and follow-up study in Santiago, Chile. All were healthy, full-term and weighing 3 kg or more at birth. Cross-lagged panel modelling was conducted to understand the temporal precedence between children's weight status and motor proficiency. Analyses also examined differences in gross and fine motor skills among healthy weight, overweight, and obese children. A higher BMI at 5 years contributed to declines in motor proficiency from 5 to 10 years. There was no support for the reverse, that is, poor motor skills at 5 years did not predict increases in relative weight from 5 to 10 years. Obesity at 5 years also predicted declines in motor proficiency. When compared with normal weight children, obese children had significantly poorer total and gross motor skills at both 5 and 10 years. Overweight children had poorer total and gross motor skills at 10 years only. The differences in total and gross motor skills among normal weight, overweight and obese children appear to increase with age. There were small differences in fine motor skill between obese and non-obese children at 5 years only. Obesity preceded declines in motor skills and not the reverse. Study findings suggest that early childhood obesity intervention efforts might help prevent declines in motor proficiency that, in turn, may positively impact children's physical activity and overall fitness levels. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Association between Body Composition and Motor Performance in Preschool Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja H. Kakebeeke

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Being overweight makes physical movement more difficult. Our aim was to investigate the association between body composition and motor performance in preschool children. Methods: A total of 476 predominantly normal-weight preschool children (age 3.9 ± 0.7 years; m/f: 251/225; BMI 16.0 ± 1.4 kg/m2 participated in the Swiss Preschoolers' Health Study (SPLASHY. Body composition assessments included skinfold thickness, waist circumference (WC, and BMI. The Zurich Neuromotor Assessment (ZNA was used to assess gross and fine motor tasks. Results: After adjustment for age, sex, socioeconomic status, sociocultural characteristics, and physical activity (assessed with accelerometers, skinfold thickness and WC were both inversely correlated with jumping sideward (gross motor task β-coefficient -1.92, p = 0.027; and -3.34, p = 0.014, respectively, while BMI was positively correlated with running performance (gross motor task β-coefficient 9.12, p = 0.001. No significant associations were found between body composition measures and fine motor tasks. Conclusion: The inverse associations between skinfold thickness or WC and jumping sideward indicates that children with high fat mass may be less proficient in certain gross motor tasks. The positive association between BMI and running suggests that BMI might be an indicator of fat-free (i.e., muscle mass in predominately normal-weight preschool children.

  8. Motor Performance in Relation with Sustained Attention in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solmaz Solouki

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Present study compares relationship between motor performance, sustained attention and impulse control in children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and normal children. Materials & Methods: In this descriptive-analytic study, 21 boys with ADHD and 21 normal boys in the age range of 7- 10 years old were participated. Motor performance by using Bruininks Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency and sustained attention and impulse control by using Continuous Performance Test were evaluated. Results: Analysis by T-Test and Mann-Whitney revealed significant difference between ADHD group and normal group in gross, fine and battery motor performance also sustained attention and impulse control (P<0.0001. Analysis by Z-Fisher test indicated no significant difference between Correlation Coefficient of inattention and gross motor performance in two groups (P=0.276 but significant difference between Correlation Coefficient of inattention and fine (P<0.0001 and battery (P<0.0001 motor performance were shown. Correlation Coefficient impulsivity and gross (P=0.379, fine (P=0.92 and battery (P=0.562 motor performance shown no significant difference between two groups. Conclusion: According to study results there was a positive relation between sustained attention and impulse control and most of motor performance in both groups. Therefore these findings help Occupational Therapist to determine rehabilitation priorities and to use exact strategies in order to enhance motor performance in children.

  9. Reading, Mathematics and Fine Motor Skills at 5 Years of Age in US Children who were Extremely Premature at Birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Miryoung; Pascoe, John M; McNicholas, Caroline I

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The prevalence of extreme prematurity at birth has increased, but little research has examined its impact on developmental outcomes in large representative samples within the United States. This study examined the association of extreme prematurity with kindergarteners' reading skills, mathematics skills and fine motor skills. Methods The early childhood longitudinal study-birth cohort, a representative sample of the US children born in 2001 was analyzed for this study. Early reading and mathematics skills and fine motor skills were compared among 200 extremely premature children (EPC) (gestational age motor performance of PC (failed to build a gate, 1.3[95 % CI 1.0-1.7]; failed to draw all four shapes, 1.1[95 % CI 0.8-1.6]) was not significantly different from TC. Mean early reading scale score (36.8[SE:1.3]) of EPC was 4.0 points lower than TC (p value motor delays at age 5 years. This suggests that based on a nationally representative sample of infants, the biological risk of extreme prematurity persists after adjusting for other factors related to development.

  10. Fine motor skills in South African children with symptoms of ADHD: influence of subtype, gender, age, and hand dominance

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, Anneke; Sagvolden, Terje

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Motor problems, often characterised as clumsiness or poor motor coordination, have been associated with ADHD in addition to the main symptom groups of inattention, impulsiveness, and overactivity. The problems addressed in this study were: (1) Are motor problems associated with ADHD symptoms, also in African cultures? (2) Are there differences in motor skills among the subtypes with ADHD symptoms? (3) Are there gender differences? (4) Is there an effect of age? (5) Are the...

  11. Motor development in 9-month-old infants in relation to cultural differences and iron status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo-Barroso, Rosa M; Schapiro, Lauren; Liang, Weilang; Rodrigues, Onike; Shafir, Tal; Kaciroti, Niko; Jacobson, Sandra W; Lozoff, Betsy

    2011-03-01

    Motor development, which allows infants to explore their environment, promoting cognitive, social, and perceptual development, can be influenced by cultural practices and nutritional factors, such as iron deficiency. This study compared fine and gross motor development in 209 9-month-old infants from urban areas of China, Ghana, and USA (African-Americans) and considered effects of iron status. Iron deficiency anemia was most common in the Ghana sample (55%) followed by USA and China samples. Controlling for iron status, Ghanaian infants displayed precocity in gross motor development and most fine-motor reach-and-grasp tasks. US African-Americans performed the poorest in all tasks except bimanual coordination and the large ball. Controlling for cultural site, iron status showed linear trends for gross motor milestones and fine motor skills with small objects. Our findings add to the sparse literature on infant fine motor development across cultures. The results also indicate the need to consider nutritional factors when examining cultural differences in infant development. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Comparison of motor and cognitive performance of children attending public and private day care centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana M. Santos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Given that environmental factors, such as the school environment, can influence child development, more attention should be paid to the development of children attending day care centers. OBJECTIVE: Todetermine whether there are differences in the gross motor, fine motor, or cognitive performances of children between 1 and3 years-old of similar socioeconomic status attending public and private day care centers full time. METHOD: Participants were divided into 2 groups, 1 of children attending public day care centers (69 children and another of children attending private day care centers (47 children. All children were healthy and regularly attended day care full time for over 4 months. To assess cognitive, gross and fine motor performance, the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development III was used. The Mann-Whitney test was used for comparative analyses between groups of children between 13 and 24 months, 25 and 41 months, and 13 and 41 months. RESULTS: Children in public day care centers exhibited lower scores on the cognitive development scale beginning at 13 months old. The fine and gross motor performance scores were lower in children over the age of 25 months attending public centers. Maternal education was not related to the performance of children in either group. CONCLUSION: The scores of cognitive performance as well as fine and gross motor performance of children of similar socioeconomic status who attend public day care centers are lower than children attending private daycare centers.

  13. Instructional Package of Development of Skill in Using Fine Motor of Children for Children with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangsawang, T.

    2018-02-01

    This research has the following purposes: 1) to find the efficiency of the self-learning activity set on development of skill in using fine motor of children with intellectual disabilities., 2) to compare the abilities to use the small muscles after the study more than before the study of children with intellectual disabilities, who made study with the self-learning activity on development of small muscles use., 3) to study the satisfaction of the children with intellectual disabilities using the self-learning activity on development of small muscles use. The sample groups on the research are the children with intellectual disabilities of the special education Maha Chakri Sirindhorn Provincial Nakhon Nayok Center in the school year 2016, for 7 children. The tools used on the research consist of the self-learning activity on development of small muscles use for the children with intellectual disabilities of the special, the observation form of abilities of small muscles before and after using the activity set and the observation form of satisfaction of the children with intellectual disabilities of the special towards the self-learning activity set on development of small muscles for the children with intellectual disabilities of the special. The statistics used on the research include the percentage, mean value, standard deviation and the t-test for dependent sample. From the research, it was found that the self-learning activity set on development of small muscles use for children with intellectual disabilities of the special is efficient based on the criteria in average equal to 77.78/76.51, the educational coefficient of the student after the study higher than before the study with average points before the study equal to 55.14 and S.D. value equal to 3.72. The average points after the study equal to 68.86, S.D. value equal to 2.73, t-test value before and after the study equal to 7.94, which are different significantly on statistics at the level 0.05 and the

  14. What is the evidence of impaired motor skills and motor control among children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)? Systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, M-L; Schoemaker, M M; Albaret, J-M; Geuze, R H

    2014-11-06

    This article presents a review of the studies that have analysed the motor skills of ADHD children without medication and the influence of medication on their motor skills. The following two questions guided the study: What is the evidence of impairment of motor skills and aspects of motor control among children with ADHD aged between 6 and 16 years? What are the effects of ADHD medication on motor skills and motor control? The following keywords were introduced in the main databases: attention disorder and/or ADHD, motor skills and/or handwriting, children, medication. Of the 45 articles retrieved, 30 described motor skills of children with ADHD and 15 articles analysed the influence of ADHD medication on motor skills and motor control. More than half of the children with ADHD have difficulties with gross and fine motor skills. The children with ADHD inattentive subtype seem to present more impairment of fine motor skills, slow reaction time, and online motor control during complex tasks. The proportion of children with ADHD who improved their motor skills to the normal range by using medication varied from 28% to 67% between studies. The children who still show motor deficit while on medication might meet the diagnostic criteria of developmental coordination disorder (DCD). It is important to assess motor skills among children with ADHD because of the risk of reduced participation in activities of daily living that require motor coordination and attention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparison of Motor Skills in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder and Normal Peers

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    Sahel Hemmati

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD is a motor skill disorder which impacts upon a child, s ability to perform age-appropriate activity of daily living and academic performance. They have problems in gross & fine motors, their upper limb coordination are impaired, too. In this way, we decided to compare motors skills with BOTMP test in children with DCD and their normal peers. Methods: In this study 30 children with DCD (age range is 6/5-8/5 have studied and compared with their normal peers. Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOTMP was used. Results: The study showed Motor skills in DCD children are significantly poorer than their normal peers. (P<0/001 Gross motor, Fine motor skills and the upper limb coordination are significant impaired in DCD children. Discussion: In the process of evaluation Children with DCD, standard instrument, like BOTMP can be used.BOTMP detected deficiency in gross & fine motor and other area like, upper limb coordination. We need accurate in formations for better treatment. BOTMP can be used in the process of evaluation for every DCD child, after that goals of treatment will be clearer.

  16. Motor skills in Czech children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and their neurotypical counterparts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharoun, S M; Bryden, P J; Otipkova, Z; Musalek, M; Lejcarova, A

    2013-11-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most commonly diagnosed neurobehavioural disorder. Characterized by recurring problems with impulsiveness and inattention in combination with hyperactivity, motor impairments have also been well documented in the literature. The aim of this study was to compare the fine and gross motor skills of male and female children with ADHD and their neurotypical counterparts within seven skill assessments. This included three fine motor tasks: (1) spiral tracing, (2) dot filling, (3) tweezers and beads; and four gross motor tasks: (1) twistbox, (2) foot tapping, (3) small plate finger tapping, and (4) large plate finger tapping. It was hypothesized that children with ADHD would display poorer motor skills in comparison to neurotypical controls in both fine and gross motor assessments. However, statistically significant differences between the groups only emerged in four of the seven tasks (spiral tracing, dot filling, tweezers and beads and foot tapping). In line with previous findings, the complexity underlying upper limb tasks solidified the divide in performance between children with ADHD and their neurotypical counterparts. In light of similar research, impairments in lower limb motor skill were also observed. Future research is required to further delineate trends in motor difficulties in ADHD, while further investigating the underlying mechanisms of impairment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Interaction of language processing and motor skill in children with specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiDonato Brumbach, Andrea C; Goffman, Lisa

    2014-02-01

    To examine how language production interacts with speech motor and gross and fine motor skill in children with specific language impairment (SLI). Eleven children with SLI and 12 age-matched peers (4-6 years) produced structurally primed sentences containing particles and prepositions. Utterances were analyzed for errors and for articulatory duration and variability. Standard measures of motor, language, and articulation skill were also obtained. Sentences containing particles, as compared with prepositions, were less likely to be produced in a priming task and were longer in duration, suggesting increased difficulty with this syntactic structure. Children with SLI demonstrated higher articulatory variability and poorer gross and fine motor skills compared with aged-matched controls. Articulatory variability was correlated with generalized gross and fine motor performance. Children with SLI show co-occurring speech motor and generalized motor deficits. Current theories do not fully account for the present findings, though the procedural deficit hypothesis provides a framework for interpreting overlap among language and motor domains.

  18. Multiple roads lead to Rome: combined high-intensity aerobic and strength training vs. gross motor activities leads to equivalent improvement in executive functions in a cohort of healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, Nicolas; Bherer, Louis; Nadeau, Sylvie; Lauzière, Séléna; Lehr, Lora; Bobeuf, Florian; Lussier, Maxime; Kergoat, Marie Jeanne; Vu, Thien Tuong Minh; Bosquet, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    The effects of physical activity on cognition in older adults have been extensively investigated in the last decade. Different interventions such as aerobic, strength, and gross motor training programs have resulted in improvements in cognitive functions. However, the mechanisms underlying the relationship between physical activity and cognition are still poorly understood. Recently, it was shown that acute bouts of exercise resulted in reduced executive control at higher relative exercise intensities. Considering that aging is characterized by a reduction in potential energy ([Formula: see text] max - energy cost of walking), which leads to higher relative walking intensity for the same absolute speed, it could be argued that any intervention aimed at reducing the relative intensity of the locomotive task would improve executive control while walking. The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of a short-term (8 weeks) high-intensity strength and aerobic training program on executive functions (single and dual task) in a cohort of healthy older adults. Fifty-one participants were included and 47 (age, 70.7 ± 5.6) completed the study which compared the effects of three interventions: lower body strength + aerobic training (LBS-A), upper body strength + aerobic training (UBS-A), and gross motor activities (GMA). Training sessions were held 3 times every week. Both physical fitness (aerobic, neuromuscular, and body composition) and cognitive functions (RNG) during a dual task were assessed before and after the intervention. Even though the LBS-A and UBS-A interventions increased potential energy to a higher level (Effect size: LBS-A-moderate, UBS-A-small, GMA-trivial), all groups showed equivalent improvement in cognitive function, with inhibition being more sensitive to the intervention. These findings suggest that different exercise programs targeting physical fitness and/or gross motor skills may lead to equivalent improvement in

  19. Comparing motor performance, praxis, coordination, and interpersonal synchrony between children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Maninderjit; M Srinivasan, Sudha; N Bhat, Anjana

    2018-01-01

    Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) have basic motor impairments in balance, gait, and coordination as well as autism-specific impairments in praxis/motor planning and interpersonal synchrony. Majority of the current literature focuses on isolated motor behaviors or domains. Additionally, the relationship between cognition, symptom severity, and motor performance in ASD is unclear. We used a comprehensive set of measures to compare gross and fine motor, praxis/imitation, motor coordination, and interpersonal synchrony skills across three groups of children between 5 and 12 years of age: children with ASD with high IQ (HASD), children with ASD with low IQ (LASD), and typically developing (TD) children. We used the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency and the Bilateral Motor Coordination subtest of the Sensory Integration and Praxis Tests to assess motor performance and praxis skills respectively. Children were also examined while performing simple and complex rhythmic upper and lower limb actions on their own (solo context) and with a social partner (social context). Both ASD groups had lower gross and fine motor scores, greater praxis errors in total and within various error types, lower movement rates, greater movement variability, and weaker interpersonal synchrony compared to the TD group. In addition, the LASD group had lower gross motor scores and greater mirroring errors compared to the HASD group. Overall, a variety of motor impairments are present across the entire spectrum of children with ASD, regardless of their IQ scores. Both, fine and gross motor performance significantly correlated with IQ but not with autism severity; however, praxis errors (mainly, total, overflow, and rhythmicity) strongly correlated with autism severity and not IQ. Our study findings highlight the need for clinicians and therapists to include motor evaluations and interventions in the standard-of-care of children with ASD and for the broader autism community to

  20. The effect of acute exercise and psychosocial stress on fine motor skills and testosterone concentration in the saliva of high school students.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Wegner

    Full Text Available Little is known about the influence of different stressors on fine motor skills, the concentration of testosterone (T, and their interaction in adolescents. Therefore, 62 high school students aged 14-15 years were randomly assigned to two experimental groups (exercise, psychosocial stress and a control group. Exercise stress was induced at 65-75% of the maximum heart rate by running for 15 minutes (n = 24. Psychosocial stress was generated by an intelligence test (HAWIK-IV, which was uncontrollable and characterized by social-evaluative-threat to the students (n = 21. The control group followed was part of a regular school lesson with the same duration (n = 28. Saliva was collected after a normal school lesson (pre-test as well as after the intervention/control period (post-test and was analyzed for testosterone. Fine motor skills were assessed pre- and post-intervention using a manual dexterity test (Flower Trail from the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2. A repeated measure ANCOVA including gender as a covariate revealed a significant group by test interaction, indicating an increase in manual dexterity only for the psychosocial stress group. Correlation analysis of all students shows that the change of testosterone from pre- to post-test was directly linked (r = -.31, p = .01 to the changes in manual dexterity performance. Participants showing high increases in testosterone from pre- to post-test made fewer mistakes in the fine motor skills task. Findings suggest that manual dexterity increases when psychosocial stress is induced and that improvement of manual dexterity performance corresponds with the increase of testosterone.

  1. Bilateral deficits in fine motor control and pinch grip force are not associated with electrodiagnostic findings in women with carpal tunnel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Llave-Rincón, Ana Isabel; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César; Pérez-de-Heredia-Torres, Marta; Martínez-Perez, Almudena; Valenza, Marie Carmen; Pareja, Juan A

    2011-06-01

    : The aim of this study was to analyze the differences in deficits in fine motor control and pinch grip force between patients with minimal, moderate/mild, or severe carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) and healthy age- and hand dominance-matched controls. : A case-control study was conducted. The subtests of the Purdue Pegboard Test (one-hand and bilateral pin placements and assemblies) and pinch grip force between the thumb and the remaining four fingers of the hand were bilaterally evaluated in 66 women with minimal (n = 16), moderate (n = 16), or severe (n = 34) CTS and in 20 age- and hand-matched healthy women. The differences among the groups were analyzed using different mixed models of analysis of variance. : A two-way mixed analysis of variance revealed significant differences between groups, not depending on the presence of unilateral or bilateral symptoms (side), for the one-hand pin placement subtest: patients showed bilateral lower scores compared with controls (P < 0.001), without differences among those with minimal, moderate, or severe CTS (P = 0.946). The patients also exhibited lower scores in bilateral pin placement (P < 0.001) and assembly (P < 0.001) subtests, without differences among them. The three-way analysis of variance revealed significant differences among groups (P < 0.001) and fingers (P < 0.001), not depending on the presence of unilateral/bilateral symptoms (P = 0.684), for pinch grip force: patients showed bilateral lower pinch grip force in all fingers compared with healthy controls, without differences among those with minimal, moderate, or severe CTS. : The current study revealed similar bilateral deficits in fine motor control and pinch grip force in patients with minimal, moderate, or severe CTS, supporting that fine motor control deficits are a common feature of CTS not associated with electrodiagnostic findings.

  2. Desempenho motor grosso e sua associação com fatores neonatais, familiares e de exposição à creche em crianças até três anos de idade Gross motor performance and its association with neonatal and familial factors and day care exposure among children up to three years old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DCC Santos

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar o desempenho motor grosso e sua associação com fatores neonatais, familiares e de exposição à creche em crianças com até três anos de idade, frequentadoras de creches públicas. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal no qual foram avaliadas 145 crianças (58 com idade entre 6-11 meses, 54 entre 12-23 meses e 33 entre 24-38 meses frequentadoras de seis creches públicas de Piracicaba (SP. O teste Peabody Developmental Motor Scale-2 foi utilizado para avaliação do desempenho motor grosso global e subtestes motores que compõem a escala (Reflexos, Habilidades Estacionárias, Habilidades de Locomoção e Manipulação de Objetos. Foram coletados dados neonatais, familiares e de exposição à creche e pesquisada a associação desses ao desempenho motor suspeito de atraso. RESULTADOS:A prevalência de suspeita de atraso no desempenho motor grosso foi de 17%, com desvantagens em crianças menores de 24 meses e em Habilidades de Locomoção; encontrada associação de risco de desempenho motor grosso suspeito de atraso e renda familiar, e suspeita de atraso em Habilidades de Locomoção e escolaridade paterna. Crianças cujas famílias tinham renda mensal até R$700,00 estavam 2,81 vezes mais expostas a apresentar desempenho motor grosso suspeito de atraso. Crianças cujos pais tinham até oito anos de escolaridade apresentaram risco 4,63 vezes maior de atraso em Habilidades de Locomoção. Não foi encontrada associação de risco com as demais variáveis. CONCLUSÃO:Os resultados apontam maior atenção ao desenvolvimento motor durante os primeiros 24 meses de crianças que frequentam creches, especialmente as inseridas em famílias com menor renda mensal e cujos pais têm menos escolaridade.OBJECTIVE: To analyze gross motor performance and its association with neonatal and familial factors and day care exposure among children up to three years of age attending public day care centers. METHODS:This was a cross-sectional study that

  3. Effect of Hippotherapy on Motor Proficiency and Function in Children with Cerebral Palsy Who Walk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champagne, Danielle; Corriveau, Hélène; Dugas, Claude

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate the effects of hippotherapy on physical capacities of children with cerebral palsy. Thirteen children (4-12 years old) with cerebral palsy classified in Gross Motor Function Classification System Level I or II were included in this prospective quasi-experimental ABA design study. Participants received 10 weeks of hippotherapy (30 min per week). Gross motor function and proficiency were measured with the Bruininks-Oseretski Motor Proficiency short form [BOT2-SF]) and the Gross Motor Function Measure-88 [GMFM-88] (Dimension D and E) twice before the program (T1 and T1'), immediately after (T2), and 10 weeks following the end of the program (T3). Mean scores for dimensions D and E of the GMFM-88 Dimension scores (p = .005) and three out of the eight items of the BOT2-SF (fine motor precision (p = .013), balance (p = .025), and strength (p = .012) improved between baseline and immediately after intervention; mean scores immediately following and 10 weeks following intervention did not differ. Hippotherapy provided by a trained therapist who applies an intense and graded session for 10 weeks can improve body functions and performance of gross motor and fine motor activities in children with cerebral palsy.

  4. THE INFLUENCE OF A WEATHERED TRAINING PROGRAM OF 20 WEEKS IN FINE MOTRICITY, GLOBAL MOTRICITY AND BALANCE IN OLDER

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    Matheus Henrique de Abreu Araújo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the motor development of active older women, the Open University The Third Aged, ESEFFEGO, Goiânia, GO, before and after the intervention of a resistance exercise program for 20 weeks. Especially the skills of fine motor skills, gross and balance. Methods: The group consisted of 60 elderly with aged 60 and 75 years. To evaluate the group was used EMTI protocol Rosa Neto (2009. Results: The overall motor fitness achieved a significant increase after the interventions, as well as all the surveyed motor skills. Conclusions: interventions were beneficial for the elderly.

  5. Fine motor skills in South African children with symptoms of ADHD: influence of subtype, gender, age, and hand dominance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyer Anneke

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Motor problems, often characterised as clumsiness or poor motor coordination, have been associated with ADHD in addition to the main symptom groups of inattention, impulsiveness, and overactivity. The problems addressed in this study were: (1 Are motor problems associated with ADHD symptoms, also in African cultures? (2 Are there differences in motor skills among the subtypes with ADHD symptoms? (3 Are there gender differences? (4 Is there an effect of age? (5 Are there differences in performance between the dominant and non-dominant hand? Method A total of 528 children (264 classified as having symptoms of ADHD and 264 matched comparisons of both genders and from seven different South African ethnic groups participated in the study. They were assessed with three simple, easy to administer instruments which measure various functions of motor speed and eye-hand coordination: The Grooved Pegboard, the Maze Coordination Task, and the Finger Tapping Test. The results were analysed as a function of subtype, gender, age, and hand dominance. Results The findings indicate that children with symptoms of ADHD performed significantly poorer on the Grooved Pegboard and Motor Coordination Task, but not on the Finger Tapping Test than their comparisons without ADHD symptoms. The impairment was most severe for the subtype with symptoms of ADHD-C (combined and less severe for the subtypes with symptoms of ADHD-PI (predominantly inattentive and ADHD-HI (predominantly hyperactive/impulsive. With few exceptions, both genders were equally affected while there were only slight differences in performance between the dominant and non-dominant hand. The deficiencies in motor control were mainly confined to the younger age group (6 – 9 yr. Conclusion An association between the symptoms of ADHD and motor problems was demonstrated in terms of accuracy and speed in fairly complex tasks, but not in simple motor tests of speed. This deficiency is found

  6. Limited Fine Motor and Grasping Skills in Six-month-old Infants at High Risk for Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libertus, Klaus; Sheperd, Kelly A.; Ross, Samuel W.; Landa, Rebecca J.

    2014-01-01

    Atypical motor behaviors are common among children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). However, little is known about onset and functional implications of differences in early motor development among infants later diagnosed with ASD. Two prospective experiments were conducted to investigate motor skills among six-month-olds at increased risk (high-risk) for ASD (N1 = 129; N2 = 46). Infants were assessed using the Mullen Scales of Early Learning (MSEL) and during toy play. Across both experiments, high-risk infants exhibited less mature object manipulation in a highly structured (MSEL) context and reduced grasping activity in an unstructured (free play) context than infants with no family history of ASD. Longitudinal assessments suggest that between six and ten months, grasping activity increases in high-risk infants. PMID:24978128

  7. Limited fine motor and grasping skills in 6-month-old infants at high risk for autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libertus, Klaus; Sheperd, Kelly A; Ross, Samuel W; Landa, Rebecca J

    2014-01-01

    Atypical motor behaviors are common among children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, little is known about onset and functional implications of differences in early motor development among infants later diagnosed with ASD. Two prospective experiments were conducted to investigate motor skills among 6-month-olds at increased risk (high risk) for ASD (N1  = 129; N2  = 46). Infants were assessed using the Mullen Scales of Early Learning (MSEL) and during toy play. Across both experiments, high-risk infants exhibited less mature object manipulation in a highly structured (MSEL) context and reduced grasping activity in an unstructured (free-play) context than infants with no family history of ASD. Longitudinal assessments suggest that between 6 and 10 months, grasping activity increases in high-risk infants. © 2014 The Authors. Child Development © 2014 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  8. [Hand fine motor skills and use of both hand and arm in subjects after a stroke: a systematic review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostolaza, M; Abudarham, J; Dilascio, S; Drault-Boedo, E; Gallo, S; Garcete, A; Kramer, M; Maiaru, M; Mendelevich, A; Modica, M; Peralta, F; Sanchez-Correa, C

    2017-04-01

    In clinical practice it is important to be able to assess the function of the upper limb of the patient who has suffered a stroke. There is currently no systemic review that could identify assessment tools for the 'fine use of the hand' and 'use of both hand and arm'. Primary, to identify observational tools which can assess the fine use of the hand and the use of both hand and arm in patients with stroke sequels. Secondary, to analyze the bias risk in the included articles, describing and categorizing the clinical utility, validity and reliability. A search was carried in Medline, LILACS, SciELO and Open Grey, which included articles published until October 2015. Studies that validate assessing tools of the upper limb in subjects with a stroke sequel which evaluate the fine use of the hand and the use of both hand and arm were included. Eleven tools in evaluate observational haven been selected, which assess the fine use of the hand and the use of hand and arm. In every case both validity and reliability have been reported, but clinical utility has been less considered for assessment. The studies that researched these tools showed a high risk of bias in their development. ARAT-19 showed a lower bias risk, but when it has to do with applicability and the reference trial is taken into account, the level of concern is high.

  9. NM Gross Receipts Baseline

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  10. Gross National Happiness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giri, Krishna Prasad; Kjær-Rasmussen, Lone Krogh

    This paper investigates practices related to the ideology of infusing Gross National Happiness (GNH) into school curriculum, the effectiveness of the meditation and mind training and the implication of GNH for school environment. It also explores how GNH ambience has been managed and practiced...... of Gross National Happiness and Educating for Gross National happiness....

  11. The relationship of gross upper and lower limb motor competence to measures of health and fitness in adolescents aged 13-14 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weedon, Benjamin David; Liu, Francesca; Mahmoud, Wala; Metz, Renske; Beunder, Kyle; Delextrat, Anne; Morris, Martyn G; Esser, Patrick; Collett, Johnny; Meaney, Andy; Howells, Ken; Dawes, Helen

    2018-01-01

    Motor competence (MC) is an important factor in the development of health and fitness in adolescence. This cross-sectional study aims to explore the distribution of MC across school students aged 13-14 years old and the extent of the relationship of MC to measures of health and fitness across genders. A total of 718 participants were tested from three different schools in the UK, 311 girls and 407 boys (aged 13-14 years), pairwise deletion for correlation variables reduced this to 555 (245 girls, 310 boys). Assessments consisted of body mass index, aerobic capacity, anaerobic power, and upper limb and lower limb MC. The distribution of MC and the strength of the relationships between MC and health/fitness measures were explored. Girls performed lower for MC and health/fitness measures compared with boys. Both measures of MC showed a normal distribution and a significant linear relationship of MC to all health and fitness measures for boys, girls and combined genders. A stronger relationship was reported for upper limb MC and aerobic capacity when compared with lower limb MC and aerobic capacity in boys (t=-2.21, degrees of freedom=307, P=0.03, 95% CI -0.253 to -0.011). Normally distributed measures of upper and lower limb MC are linearly related to health and fitness measures in adolescents in a UK sample. NCT02517333.

  12. The relationship of gross upper and lower limb motor competence to measures of health and fitness in adolescents aged 13–14 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Francesca; Mahmoud, Wala; Metz, Renske; Beunder, Kyle; Delextrat, Anne; Morris, Martyn G; Esser, Patrick; Collett, Johnny; Meaney, Andy; Howells, Ken; Dawes, Helen

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Motor competence (MC) is an important factor in the development of health and fitness in adolescence. Aims This cross-sectional study aims to explore the distribution of MC across school students aged 13–14 years old and the extent of the relationship of MC to measures of health and fitness across genders. Methods A total of 718 participants were tested from three different schools in the UK, 311 girls and 407 boys (aged 13–14 years), pairwise deletion for correlation variables reduced this to 555 (245 girls, 310 boys). Assessments consisted of body mass index, aerobic capacity, anaerobic power, and upper limb and lower limb MC. The distribution of MC and the strength of the relationships between MC and health/fitness measures were explored. Results Girls performed lower for MC and health/fitness measures compared with boys. Both measures of MC showed a normal distribution and a significant linear relationship of MC to all health and fitness measures for boys, girls and combined genders. A stronger relationship was reported for upper limb MC and aerobic capacity when compared with lower limb MC and aerobic capacity in boys (t=−2.21, degrees of freedom=307, P=0.03, 95% CI −0.253 to –0.011). Conclusion Normally distributed measures of upper and lower limb MC are linearly related to health and fitness measures in adolescents in a UK sample. Trial registration number NCT02517333. PMID:29629179

  13. Relationship between motor abilities and severity of autism spectrum disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvijetić Marija

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the findings in literature, motor skills of children with autism spectrum disorders generally differ from age expectations and are increasingly being associated with speech and language and social development, and adaptive behavior. The aim of the research was to determine the relationship between the development level of fine and gross motor skills and autism severity of children with autism spectrum disorder. The sample included 30 children with autism spectrum disorder and associated intellectual disability, seven to 19 years of age (M=11.97; SD=3.70. The assessment was conducted using the Peabody Motor Development Scale, the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale, and the criteria for describing the level of severity of autism spectrum disorder (APA, 2013. The results have shown that participants' motor skills significantly correlate with social communication (Peabody fine motor skills r=-0.452; p=0.012; Vineland fine motor skills r=-0.511; p=0.004; Vineland total r=-0.391; p=0.032 and restricted, repetitive behaviors (Peabody fine motor skills r=-0.383; p=0.037; Vineland fine motor skills r=-0.433; p=0.017; Vineland total r=-0.371; p=0.044. Lower level of autistic symptomatology is associated with higher motor achievements. It is necessary to pay more attention to the assessment and treatment of motor skills in children with autism spectrum disorder, given the established delay in the development of these skills, and bearing in mind their relationship with the severity of the symptoms of autism spectrum disorder. Timely identification of motor disorders would allow the use of early treatment and potentially lead to better results, compared to later inclusion in intervention programs.

  14. Effects of short-term training on behavioral learning and skill acquisition during intraoral fine motor task

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Abhishek; Grigoriadis, Joannis; Trulsson, Mats

    2015-01-01

    Sensory information from the orofacial mechanoreceptors are used by the nervous system to optimize the positioning of food, determine the force levels, and force vectors involved in biting of food morsels. Moreover, practice resulting from repetition could be a key to learning and acquiring a motor...... movements. Thirty healthy volunteers were asked to intraorally manipulate and split a chocolate candy, into two equal halves. The participants performed three series (with ten 10 trials) of the task before and after a short-term (approximately 30min) training. The accuracy of the split and vertical jaw...... task induces behavior learning, skill acquisition and optimization of jaw movements in terms of better performance and reduction in the duration of jaw movements, during the task. The finding of the present study provides insights on into how humans learn oral motor behaviors or the kind of adaptation...

  15. The Influence of Motor Skills on Measurement Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brychta, Petr; Sadílek, Marek; Brychta, Josef

    2016-10-01

    This innovative study trying to do interdisciplinary interface at first view different ways fields: kinantropology and mechanical engineering. A motor skill is described as an action which involves the movement of muscles in a body. Gross motor skills permit functions as a running, jumping, walking, punching, lifting and throwing a ball, maintaining a body balance, coordinating etc. Fine motor skills captures smaller neuromuscular actions, such as holding an object between the thumb and a finger. In mechanical inspection, the accuracy of measurement is most important aspect. The accuracy of measurement to some extent is also dependent upon the sense of sight or sense of touch associated with fine motor skills. It is therefore clear that the level of motor skills will affect the precision and accuracy of measurement in metrology. Aim of this study is literature review to find out fine motor skills level of individuals and determine the potential effect of different fine motor skill performance on precision and accuracy of mechanical engineering measuring.

  16. Associations of Motor Developmental Risks with the Socioeconomic Status of Preschool Children in North-Eastern Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika Gottschling-Lang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. The study is part of the pilot project “children in preschools” and aims to detect developmental risks of preschool children in the context of their socioeconomic status (SES as a base to initiate individual intervention strategies. Methods. The “Dortmund Developmental Screening for the Kindergarten” was used in 12 preschools in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania (MWP to detect early developmental risks in children aged 3 to 6 years (n=870. Socioeconomic data from n=530 parents were collected by a standardised questionnaire. Results. Significant differences between the SES groups were identified especially in the field of fine motor skills (P<0.05. In gross motor development differences were not statistically significant. Prevalence rate of fine motor developmental risks ranges from 1.7% to 20.9%; the rate of gross motor developmental risks tops out at 14.4%. The prevalence rates are associated with age and sex. Conclusions. Fine motor skills in 3–6 years old preschool children are significantly associated with the socioeconomic status. In gross motor skills an association could not be identified. In this study, motor development was more affected by sex than by SES.

  17. Motor skills at 23 years of age in young adults born preterm with very low birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husby, Ingrid Marie; Skranes, Jon; Olsen, Alexander; Brubakk, Ann-Mari; Evensen, Kari Anne I

    2013-09-01

    Motor skills have previously not been reported in young adults born with very low birth weight (VLBW), although they are commonly reported in children and adolescents. To compare fine and gross motor skills in VLBW young adults with matched term-born controls, and to study longitudinal changes in the VLBW group. A geographically based follow-up study of a VLBW group and a control group. Thirty-six VLBW (birth weight ≤ 1500 g) young adults, including four participants with cerebral palsy (CP), and 37 matched controls (birth weight ≥ 10th centile) were examined at 14 and 23 years of age. Fine and gross motor skills were assessed using Grooved Pegboard test (GP), Trail Making Test-5 (TMT-5), Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2 (Movement ABC-2) and High-level Mobility Assessment Tool (HiMAT). VLBW young adults were slower than controls on GP (p = 0.026) and TMT-5 (p motor skills in the VLBW group. The proportion of participants with motor problems did not change between age 14 and 23. After exclusion of participants with CP, scores were essentially the same. VLBW young adults had overall poorer fine and gross motor skills compared with controls. Reduced speed seemed to be an underlying problem. Longitudinal findings indicate that VLBW children have not outgrown their motor problems when entering adulthood. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Developing an eBook-Integrated High-Fidelity Mobile App Prototype for Promoting Child Motor Skills and Taxonomically Assessing Children's Emotional Responses Using Face and Sound Topology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, William; Liu, Connie; John, Rita Marie; Ford, Phoebe

    2014-01-01

    Developing gross and fine motor skills and expressing complex emotion is critical for child development. We introduce "StorySense", an eBook-integrated mobile app prototype that can sense face and sound topologies and identify movement and expression to promote children's motor skills and emotional developmental. Currently, most interactive eBooks on mobile devices only leverage "low-motor" interaction (i.e. tapping or swiping). Our app senses a greater breath of motion (e.g. clapping, snapping, and face tracking), and dynamically alters the storyline according to physical responses in ways that encourage the performance of predetermined motor skills ideal for a child's gross and fine motor development. In addition, our app can capture changes in facial topology, which can later be mapped using the Facial Action Coding System (FACS) for later interpretation of emotion. StorySense expands the human computer interaction vocabulary for mobile devices. Potential clinical applications include child development, physical therapy, and autism.

  19. Evaluation of motor development in children with learning disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiane Medina-Papst

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine whether children with learning disabilities present any impairment in the components of motor development. Thirty children (21 boys and 9 girls, aged 8 to 10 years, with learning difficulties in school were studied. The Motor Development Scale was used to evaluate the development of the children in terms of fine motor control, gross motor control, balance, body scheme, spatial organization, and temporal organization. A deficit in the development of the body scheme component was observed for all three age groups, as well as a delayed motor development in terms of balance and gross motor control. No significant differences in general motor age were observed between (age groups. In conclusion, the children studied, especially older ones, presented motor deficits in most of the components evaluated. The inclusion of tasks that assist in the development of motor components, in addition to regular school tasks, is recommended to improve the process of learning in these children..

  20. Motor-Enriched Learning Activities Can Improve Mathematical Performance in Preadolescent Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Mikkel M.; Lind, Rune R.; Geertsen, Svend S.; Ritz, Christian; Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper; Wienecke, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    Objective: An emerging field of research indicates that physical activity can benefit cognitive functions and academic achievements in children. However, less is known about how academic achievements can benefit from specific types of motor activities (e.g., fine and gross) integrated into learning activities. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate whether fine or gross motor activity integrated into math lessons (i.e., motor-enrichment) could improve children's mathematical performance. Methods: A 6-week within school cluster-randomized intervention study investigated the effects of motor-enriched mathematical teaching in Danish preadolescent children (n = 165, age = 7.5 ± 0.02 years). Three groups were included: a control group (CON), which received non-motor enriched conventional mathematical teaching, a fine motor math group (FMM) and a gross motor math group (GMM), which received mathematical teaching enriched with fine and gross motor activity, respectively. The children were tested before (T0), immediately after (T1) and 8 weeks after the intervention (T2). A standardized mathematical test (50 tasks) was used to evaluate mathematical performance. Furthermore, it was investigated whether motor-enriched math was accompanied by different effects in low and normal math performers. Additionally, the study investigated the potential contribution of cognitive functions and motor skills on mathematical performance. Results: All groups improved their mathematical performance from T0 to T1. However, from T0 to T1, the improvement was significantly greater in GMM compared to FMM (1.87 ± 0.71 correct answers) (p = 0.02). At T2 no significant differences in mathematical performance were observed. A subgroup analysis revealed that normal math-performers benefitted from GMM compared to both CON 1.78 ± 0.73 correct answers (p = 0.04) and FMM 2.14 ± 0.72 correct answers (p = 0.008). These effects were not observed in low math-performers. The effects were partly

  1. Interactive metronome training for a 9-year-old boy with attention and motor coordination difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartscherer, Melinda L; Dole, Robin L

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this case report is to describe a new intervention, the Interactive Metronome, for improving timing and coordination. A nine-year-old boy, with difficulties in attention and developmental delay of unspecified origin underwent a seven-week training program with the Interactive Metronome. Before, during, and after training timing, accuracy was assessed with testing procedures consistent with the Interactive Metronome training protocol. Before and after training, his gross and fine motor skills were examined with the Bruininiks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOTMP). The child exhibited marked change in scores on both timing accuracy and several BOTMP subtests. Additionally his mother relayed anecdotal reports of changes in behavior at home. This child's participation in a new intervention for improving timing and coordination was associated with changes in timing accuracy, gross and fine motor abilities, and parent reported behaviors. These findings warrant further study.

  2. Research Review: Do motor deficits during development represent an endophenotype for schizophrenia?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burton, Birgitte Klee; Hjorthøj, Carsten; Jepsen, Jens Richardt M.

    2016-01-01

    to youth from families with other psychiatric disorders, the FDR group was distinguished by poorer gross and fine motor skills (k = 2, n = 275, g = 0.847, CI = [0.393, 1.300], p ...-analysis was conducted comparing individuals ≤21 years old with affected first-degree relatives (FDR) with (1) individuals from unaffected families (controls), or (2) individuals with FDR having other psychiatric disorders. Studies were classified by motor outcome and separate meta-analyses were performed across six...... correlated domains, with available N varying by domain. RESULTS: Inclusion criteria were met by k = 23 independent studies with a total N = 18,582, and N across domains varying from 167 to 8619. The youth from affected families had delays in gross and fine motor development in infancy (k = 3, n = 167, Hedges...

  3. Desempenho motor de lactentes frequentadores de berçários em creches públicas Motor performance of infants attending the nurseries of public day care centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Baltieri

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar o desempenho motor axial, apendicular e global e sua correlação com as características neonatais, familiares e de tempo de exposição à creche em crianças com idade entre 12-24 meses, frequentadoras de creches públicas. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal com 40 lactentes (idade média 14,3±2,4 meses frequentadores de creches públicas. Os participantes foram avaliados quanto ao desempenho motor com a Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development-III, a qual possibilita análise do desempenho motor e comparação dos domínios motores axial e apendicular. Foram coletados dados neonatais, familiares e de exposição à creche e pesquisou-se a correlação destes fatores ao desempenho motor. Foi utilizado o teste t pareado para comparar médias e a correlação de Pearson. RESULTADOS: O desempenho motor do grupo esteve, em média, abaixo da referência, com 22,5% das crianças classificadas como suspeitas de atraso nos desempenhos axial e global, contrastando com nenhuma no domínio apendicular. A comparação axial e apendicular apontou diferença significativa, com desempenho axial aquém do apendicular, além de 35% do grupo ter apresentado discrepância significativa entre esses domínios. Não foi encontrada correlação linear entre os domínios motores avaliados e as variáveis neonatais, familiares e de exposição à creche. CONCLUSÕES: O desempenho motor global do grupo esteve abaixo da média de referência, com desempenho motor axial inferior ao apendicular e importante discrepância entre esses. Recomenda-se atenção às habilidades motoras axiais e às oportunidades de exploração que o ambiente em creches pode propiciar, especialmente no decorrer dos dois primeiros anos de vida.OBJECTIVE: To analyze gross, fine and global motor performance and its correlation with neonatal and familial variables and day care exposure among children between 12-24 months of age attending public day care centers. METHODS: This

  4. Motor, linguistic, personal and social aspects of children with Down syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Tragueta FERREIRA-VASQUES

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractA global developmental delay is expected from Down syndrome, affecting motor, cognitive, linguistic and personal-social skills. However, not always these delays are proportional; different conditions occur due to several intrinsic and extrinsic variables that must be controlled to form groups of greater homogeneity.Objective To enhance personal-social, fine motor-adaptive, gross motor and linguistic skills among children with Down syndrome and compare them with typically developing children, matched for gender, socioeconomic status and mental age, while controlling some variables that interfere with the global development.Methods The ethical aspects were fulfilled (Case No. 040/2009. The following inclusion criteria were considered: participants without a history of prematurity, very low birth weight, congenital hypothyroidism, significant hearing and vision problems, and signs of Autism Spectrum Disorder. After the inclusion criteria were considered, 40 children participated in the study, of which 20 had Down syndrome (experimental group - EG, these being of both genders and with chronological ages ranging from 38 to 63 months, and the other 20 being typically developing children (control group - CG, matching the EG in terms of gender, socioeconomic status and mental age, with this age ranging from 13 to 50 months. The evaluation consisted in applying the Denver Developmental Screening Test II, a test that assesses areas such as personal-social, fine motor-adaptive, linguistic and gross motor development. The results were subjected to statistical analysis using Student’s t-test.Results A statistically significant difference was verified between the groups for the language and fine motor-adaptive areas.Conclusion Children with Down syndrome showed lower performance in language and fine motor skills when compared with typically developing children. There was no statistically significant difference in gross motor and personal

  5. The effects of "Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy" on fine motor skills in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abootalebi Sh

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Constraint-Induced movement therapy (CIMT is a promising treatment for improving upper limb function in adults after stroke and traumatic brain injury. It involves constraint of the less affected limb and intensive practice with the more affected limb. The purpose of this study on children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy (CP was to evaluate the effects of CIMT on upper extremity and to make a comparison with conventional treatment."n"nMethods: I a randomized clinical trial twelve children (seven females, five males; aged between 48 and 72 months with mean±standard deviation of 59.91±9.15mo were randomly assigned in two groups. An intensive occupational therapy program including five hours per day for 21 consecutive days was performed for all of them, while less affected limbs were placed in sling for immobilization. Before and after intervention, upper extremity function, spasticity, and motor neuron excitation were evaluated by means of peabody developmental motor scales, modified Ashworth scale, and H reflex and H/M ratio, respectively."n"nResults: The children who received CIMT did not improved their ability to use their hemiplegic hand significantly more than the children in the control group (p>0

  6. Coordenação motora fina de escolares com dislexia e transtorno do déficit de atenção e hiperatividade Fine motor coordination of students with dyslexia and attention deficit disorder with hiperactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Matiko Martins Okuda

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: descrever e comparar o desempenho da coordenação motora fina em escolares com dislexia e com transtorno do déficit de atenção e hiperatividade utilizando parâmetros de desempenho motor e idade cronológica da Escala de Desenvolvimento Motor. MÉTODO: participaram 22 escolaresdo ensino fundamental, de ambos os gêneros, na faixa etária de 6 a 11 anos de idade distribuídos em: GI: 11 escolares com transtorno do déficit de atenção e hiperatividade e GII: 11 com dislexia. Como procedimento, provas de motricidade fina da Escala de Desenvolvimento Motor foram aplicadas. RESULTADOS: os resultados revelaram diferença estatisticamente significante entre a idade motora fina e a idade cronológica de GI e GII. Conforme a classificação da Escala do Desenvolvimento Motor, 90% dos escolares de GI e GII apresentaram desenvolvimento motor fino muito inferior ao esperado para a idade e 10% dos escolares com dislexia apresentam desenvolvimento normal baixo ao esperado para a idade e 10% dos escolares com transtorno do déficit de atenção e hiperatividade apresentaram desenvolvimento inferior ao esperado para a idade. CONCLUSÃO: concluímos que tanto os escolares com dislexia como os com TDAH deste estudo apresentam atrasos na coordenação motora fina, demonstrando que os participantes desta pesquisa apresentam dificuldades em atividades que exijam destreza, quadro característico do transtorno do desenvolvimento da coordenação. Estudos complementares estão sendo conduzidos pelos autores deste estudo para poder verificar e comprovar se o perfil motor fino dos escolares encontrados neste estudo se assemelham ou se diferem de acordo com o quadro apresentado pelos mesmos.PURPOSE: to describe and compare the fine motor coordination performance of students with dyslexia and with Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder. METHOD: the study included 22 elementary school students of both genders, aged from 6 to 11-year old, divided into

  7. Effects of fluoxetine on fine motor performance in dysthymia: an 8-week, nonrandomized, open-label study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrijvers, Didier; Maas, Yvonne J; Sabbe, Bernard G C

    2009-01-01

    Present findings on psychomotor retardation in dysthymia are inconsistent and changes in psychomotor performance during antidepressant treatment have not been investigated in this population to date. The present study aims to explore the psychomotor effects of an 8-week regimen of fluoxetine in dysthymic patients. Dysthymic patients (both inpatients and outpatients of the Psychiatric Hospital Sint-Norbertus, Duffel, Belgium), presenting over a period of 2 years, meeting the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision criteria for dysthymia, and having Hamilton Depression Rating Scale scores of > or = 12 were enrolled. During 8 weeks of treatment with fluoxetine 20 mg/d, depression severity and graphic motor activity were assessed 4 times by recording the time (a reaction time [RT] and a movement time [MT]) participants needed to copy single lines and simple and complex figures. The patients' outcomes were compared with those of untreated, healthy controls, matched for sex and comparable age and education. The assessors were masked to treatment and group. Eighteen dysthymic patients (mean age, 40 years; male/female ratio, 4/14; mean weight, 70 kg; all white) were treated; 18 healthy controls (mean age, 40 years; male/female ratio, 4/14; mean weight, 72 kg; all white) were used as comparison. The overall patient group experienced significant psychomotor changes only in association with the complex figure-copying task (RT: F = 5.67, P 40% decrease in severity scores), significant improvements were observed only for the RT of the line- (F = 4.75, P dysthymia.

  8. Effects of 6 weeks motor-enrichment-intervention to improve math performance in preadolescent children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wienecke, Jacob; Beck, Mikkel Malling; Lind, Rune Rasmussen

    al., 2015). We conducted a six-week cluster-randomized intervention study of motor-enriched mathematics for Danish schoolchildren (n= 148, age= 7.5 ± 0.02). We investigated whether low intensity motor activity congruently integrated during solving of math problems could enhance math performance....... Three groups were included: 1) Control group with normal math teaching, CON (used pencil, paper but refrained from additional motor activity). 2) Fine-motor-enriched-group, FM (motor-manipulating LEGO bricks integrated in the lessons). 3) Gross-motor-enriched-group, GM (full-body movements integrated...... in the lessons). In FM and GM, all math classes (six lessons pr. week) had motor activity integrated in the math lessons and the teachers of all groups followed a detailed description for the conduction of the lessons. This aimed at ensuring homogeneity between groups concerning the taught themes. The children...

  9. Comparison of motor delays in young children with fetal alcohol syndrome to those with prenatal alcohol exposure and with no prenatal alcohol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalberg, Wendy O; Provost, Beth; Tollison, Sean J; Tabachnick, Barbara G; Robinson, Luther K; Eugene Hoyme, H; Trujillo, Phyllis M; Buckley, David; Aragon, Alfredo S; May, Philip A

    2006-12-01

    Researchers are increasingly considering the importance of motor functioning of children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). The purpose of this study was to assess the motor development of young children with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) to determine the presence and degree of delay in their motor skills and to compare their motor development with that of matched children without FAS. The motor development of 14 children ages 20 to 68 months identified with FAS was assessed using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS). In addition, 2 comparison groups were utilized. Eleven of the children with FAS were matched for chronological age, gender, ethnicity, and communication age to: (1) 11 children with prenatal alcohol exposure who did not have FAS and (2) 11 matched children without any reported prenatal alcohol exposure. The motor scores on the VABS were compared among the 3 groups. Most of the young children with FAS in this study showed clinically important delays in their motor development as measured on the VABS Motor Domain, and their fine motor skills were significantly more delayed than their gross motor skills. In the group comparisons, the young children with FAS had significantly lower Motor Domain standard (MotorSS) scores than the children not exposed to alcohol prenatally. They also had significantly lower Fine Motor Developmental Quotients than the children in both the other groups. No significant group differences were found in gross motor scores. For MotorSS scores and Fine Motor Developmental Quotients, the means and standard errors indicated a continuum in the scores from FAS to prenatal alcohol exposure to nonexposure. These findings strongly suggest that all young children with FAS should receive complete developmental evaluations that include assessment of their motor functioning, to identify problem areas and provide access to developmental intervention programs that target deficit areas such as fine motor skills. Fine motor

  10. Using 2D: 4D digit ratios to determine motor skills in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y; Wang, H-L; Li, Y-H; Zhu, F-L; Li, S-J; Ni, H

    2016-03-01

    In past few decades, there has an outburst of research surrounding second to fourth finger digit ratio (2D:4D) and its relation to prenatal sex steroids including both testosterone and estrogen. In utero, testosterone and estrogen are responsible for the differences in digit ratio between the genders. Recent research has tried to extend past the influence of steroids and look at the potential effect of digit ratios on fine and gross motor skills in children. We compiled the current understanding of the connection between sex hormones and the development of the 2D:4D ratio as well as the effect the ratio has on motor skills. There seems to be a significant positive correlation between 2D:4D digit ratio and precision of fine motor skill. In addition, there is a negative correlation between 2D:4D ratio and speed of fine motor activity. In this review, we will outline the use of 2D:4D ratio as a biomarker for prenatal sex steroids and through that, a proxy marker for fine and gross motor skills.

  11. Gross Sales Tax Collections

    Data.gov (United States)

    City of Jackson, Mississippi — This data is captured directly from the MS Department of Revenue and specific to the City of Jackson. It is compiled from Gross Sales Tax reported by taxpayers each...

  12. Loovkirjutamist õpetab Philip Gross

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    T.S. Elioti luulepreemia laureaat Philip Gross on Tallinna Ülikooli talvekooli rahvusvahelise kursuse "Poetry: A Conversation between Words and Silence" läbiviija. Oma seminarides keskendub ta lisaks loovkirjutamisele ka loova lugemise vajadusele

  13. Motor training and physical activity among preschoolers with cerebral palsy: a survey of parents' experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrhaug, Hilde Tinderholt; Østensjø, Sigrid

    2014-05-01

    To describe motor training and physical activity among preschoolers with cerebral palsy (CP) in Norway, and assess associations between child, parent, and motor intervention characteristics, and parent-reported child benefits from interventions. Survey of 360 parents and data from the Norwegian CP follow-up program. The response rate was 34%. During the six months preceding the time of the survey, 75% of the children performed gross-motor training, 73% fine-motor training, 80% manual stretching, and 67% participated regularly in physical activities. The training was highly goal-directed, intensive, frequently incorporated in daily routines, and often with a high level of parental involvement. The use of goals was associated with higher parent-reported child benefits for all types of interventions. Moreover, the positive relationship, which was indicated between frequency of training, parent education, and parent-reported child benefits of gross-motor training, was not seen for fine-motor training. Parent-reported child benefits support goal-directed motor interventions, and the use of everyday activities to increase practice of motor skills.

  14. Motor Skills and Exercise Capacity Are Associated with Objective Measures of Cognitive Functions and Academic Performance in Preadolescent Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Richard; Larsen, Malte Nejst; Dahn, Ida Marie; Andersen, Josefine Needham; Krause-Jensen, Matilde; Korup, Vibeke; Nielsen, Claus Malta; Wienecke, Jacob; Ritz, Christian; Krustrup, Peter; Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate associations between motor skills, exercise capacity and cognitive functions, and evaluate how they correlate to academic performance in mathematics and reading comprehension using standardised, objective tests. Methods This cross-sectional study included 423 Danish children (age: 9.29±0.35 years, 209 girls). Fine and gross motor skills were evaluated in a visuomotor accuracy-tracking task, and a whole-body coordination task, respectively. Exercise capacity was estimated from the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 1 children's test (YYIR1C). Selected tests from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) were used to assess different domains of cognitive functions, including sustained attention, spatial working memory, episodic and semantic memory, and processing speed. Linear mixed-effects models were used to investigate associations between these measures and the relationship with standard tests of academic performance in mathematics and reading comprehension. Results Both fine and gross motor skills were associated with better performance in all five tested cognitive domains (all Pperformance in mathematics and reading comprehension. Conclusions The data demonstrate that fine and gross motor skills are positively correlated with several aspects of cognitive functions and with academic performance in both mathematics and reading comprehension. Moreover, exercise capacity was associated with academic performance and performance in some cognitive domains. Future interventions should investigate associations between changes in motor skills, exercise capacity, cognitive functions, and academic performance to elucidate the causality of these associations. PMID:27560512

  15. Motor competence assessment in children: convergent and discriminant validity between the BOT-2 Short Form and KTK testing batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fransen, Job; D'Hondt, Eva; Bourgois, Jan; Vaeyens, Roel; Philippaerts, Renaat M; Lenoir, Matthieu

    2014-06-01

    This study investigated convergent and discriminant validity between two motor competence assessment instruments in 2485 Flemish children: the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency 2 Short Form (BOT-2 Short Form) and the KörperKoördinationsTest für Kinder (KTK). A Pearson correlation assessed the relationship between BOT-2 Short Form total, gross and fine motor composite scores and KTK Motor Quotient in three age cohorts (6-7, 8-9, 10-11 years). Crosstabs were used to measure agreement in classification in children scoring below percentile 5 and 15 and above percentile 85 and 95. Moderately strong positive (r=0.44-0.64) associations between BOT-2 total and gross motor composite scores and KTK Motor Quotient and weak positive correlations between BOT-2 Short Form fine motor composite and KTK Motor Quotient scores (r=0.25-0.37) were found. Levels of agreement were fair to moderate. Therefore, some proof of convergent and discriminant validity between BOT-2 Short Form and KTK was established in this study, underlining the notion that the evaluation of motor competence should not be based upon a single assessment instrument. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Motor Skills and Exercise Capacity Are Associated with Objective Measures of Cognitive Functions and Academic Performance in Preadolescent Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svend Sparre Geertsen

    Full Text Available To investigate associations between motor skills, exercise capacity and cognitive functions, and evaluate how they correlate to academic performance in mathematics and reading comprehension using standardised, objective tests.This cross-sectional study included 423 Danish children (age: 9.29±0.35 years, 209 girls. Fine and gross motor skills were evaluated in a visuomotor accuracy-tracking task, and a whole-body coordination task, respectively. Exercise capacity was estimated from the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 1 children's test (YYIR1C. Selected tests from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB were used to assess different domains of cognitive functions, including sustained attention, spatial working memory, episodic and semantic memory, and processing speed. Linear mixed-effects models were used to investigate associations between these measures and the relationship with standard tests of academic performance in mathematics and reading comprehension.Both fine and gross motor skills were associated with better performance in all five tested cognitive domains (all P<0.001, whereas exercise capacity was only associated with better sustained attention (P<0.046 and spatial working memory (P<0.038. Fine and gross motor skills (all P<0.001, exercise capacity and cognitive functions such as working memory, episodic memory, sustained attention and processing speed were all associated with better performance in mathematics and reading comprehension.The data demonstrate that fine and gross motor skills are positively correlated with several aspects of cognitive functions and with academic performance in both mathematics and reading comprehension. Moreover, exercise capacity was associated with academic performance and performance in some cognitive domains. Future interventions should investigate associations between changes in motor skills, exercise capacity, cognitive functions, and academic performance to elucidate the

  17. Promoting physical activity, healthy eating and gross motor skills development among preschoolers attending childcare centers: Process evaluation of the Healthy Start-Départ Santé intervention using the RE-AIM framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Stéphanie; Chow, Amanda Froehlich; Humbert, M Louise; Bélanger, Mathieu; Muhajarine, Nazeem; Vatanparast, Hassan; Leis, Anne

    2018-06-01

    The Healthy Start-Départ Santé intervention was developed to promote physical activity, gross motor skills and healthy eating among preschoolers attending childcare centers. This process evaluation aimed to report the reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation and maintenance of the Healthy Start-Départ Santé intervention. The RE-AIM framework was used to guide this process evaluation. Data were collected across 140 childcare centers who received the Healthy Start-Départ Santé intervention in the provinces of Saskatchewan and New Brunswick, Canada. Quantitative data were collected through director questionnaires at 10 months and 2 years after the initial training and analyzed using descriptive statistics. Qualitative data were collected throughout the intervention. The intervention was successful in reaching a large number of childcare centres and engaging both rural and urban communities across Saskatchewan and New Brunswick. Centres reported increasing opportunities for physical activity and healthy eating, which were generally low-cost, easy and quick to implement. However, these changes were rarely transformed into formal written policies. A total of 87% of centers reported using the physical activity resource and 68% using the nutrition resource on a weekly basis. Implementation fidelity of the initial training was high. Of those centers who received the initial training, 75% participated in the mid-point booster session training. Two year post-implementation questionnaires indicated that 47% of centers were still using the Active Play Equipment kit, while 42% were still using the physical activity resource and 37% were still using the nutrition resource. Key challenges to implementation and sustainability identified during the evaluation were consistent among all of the REAIM elements. These challenges included lack of time, lack of support from childcare staff and low parental engagement. Findings from this study suggest the implementation of

  18. Screening accuracy of the parent-completed Ages and Stages Questionnaires - second edition as a broadband screener for motor problems in preschoolers with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanvuchelen, Marleen; Van Schuerbeeck, Lise; Braeken, Marijke Aka

    2017-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorders are at risk for motor problems. However, this area is often overlooked in the developmental evaluation in autism diagnostic clinics. An alternative can be to identify children who should receive intensive motor assessment by using a parent-based screener. The aim of this study was to examine whether the Ages and Stages Questionnaires - second edition may be used to identify gross and fine motor problems in children. High-functioning children with autism spectrum disorder (n = 43, 22-54 m) participated in this study. Sensitivity, specificity, predictive values and areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve were calculated by comparing the Ages and Stages Questionnaires - second edition scores to the developmental evaluation of the Peabody Developmental Motor Scale - second edition. The results revealed that both the Ages and Stages Questionnaires - second edition gross and fine motor domain may be used to identify children without motor problems. In contrast, sensitivity analyses revealed the likelihood of under screening motor problems in this population. The Ages and Stages Questionnaires - second edition met only the criteria of a fair to good accuracy to identify poor gross motor (sensitivity = 100%) and below-average fine motor development (sensitivity = 71%) in this sample. Hence, the capacity of the Ages and Stages Questionnaires - second edition to identify motor problems in preschoolers with autism spectrum disorder appears to be limited. It is recommended to include a formal standardized motor test in the diagnostic procedure for all children with autism spectrum disorder. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. Obesity and motor skills among 4 to 6-year-old children in the united states: nationally-representative surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Few population-based studies have assessed relationships between body weight and motor skills in young children. Our objective was to estimate the association between obesity and motor skills at 4 years and 5-6 years of age in the United States. We used repeated cross-sectional assessments of the national sample from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey-Birth Cohort (ECLS-B) of preschool 4-year-old children (2005-2006; n = 5 100) and 5-6-year-old kindergarteners (2006-2007; n = 4 700). Height, weight, and fine and gross motor skills were assessed objectively via direct standardized procedures. We used categorical and continuous measures of body weight status, including obesity (Body Mass Index (BMI) ≥ 95th percentile) and BMI z-scores. Multivariate logistic and linear models estimated the association between obesity and gross and fine motor skills in very young children adjusting for individual, social, and economic characteristics and parental involvement. Results The prevalence of obesity was about 15%. The relationship between motor skills and obesity varied across types of skills. For hopping, obese boys and girls had significantly lower scores, 20% lower in obese preschoolers and 10% lower in obese kindergarteners than normal weight counterparts, p motor skills and fine motor skills of young children were not consistently related to BMI z-scores and obesity. Conclusions Based on objective assessment of children's motor skills and body weight and a full adjustment for confounding covariates, we find no reduction in overall coordination and fine motor skills in obese young children. Motor skills are adversely associated with childhood obesity only for skills most directly related to body weight. PMID:22420636

  20. Obesity and motor skills among 4 to 6-year-old children in the United States: nationally-representative surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castetbon, Katia; Andreyeva, Tatiana

    2012-03-15

    Few population-based studies have assessed relationships between body weight and motor skills in young children. Our objective was to estimate the association between obesity and motor skills at 4 years and 5-6 years of age in the United States. We used repeated cross-sectional assessments of the national sample from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey-Birth Cohort (ECLS-B) of preschool 4-year-old children (2005-2006; n = 5 100) and 5-6-year-old kindergarteners (2006-2007; n = 4 700). Height, weight, and fine and gross motor skills were assessed objectively via direct standardized procedures. We used categorical and continuous measures of body weight status, including obesity (Body Mass Index (BMI) ≥ 95th percentile) and BMI z-scores. Multivariate logistic and linear models estimated the association between obesity and gross and fine motor skills in very young children adjusting for individual, social, and economic characteristics and parental involvement. The prevalence of obesity was about 15%. The relationship between motor skills and obesity varied across types of skills. For hopping, obese boys and girls had significantly lower scores, 20% lower in obese preschoolers and 10% lower in obese kindergarteners than normal weight counterparts, p Obese girls could jump 1.6-1.7 inches shorter than normal weight peers (p motor skills and fine motor skills of young children were not consistently related to BMI z-scores and obesity. Based on objective assessment of children's motor skills and body weight and a full adjustment for confounding covariates, we find no reduction in overall coordination and fine motor skills in obese young children. Motor skills are adversely associated with childhood obesity only for skills most directly related to body weight.

  1. 26 CFR 41.4482(b)-1 - Definition of taxable gross weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Motor Vehicles § 41.4482(b)-1 Definition of taxable gross weight. (a) Actual unloaded weight—(1) In... general. The taxable gross weight of a highway motor vehicle is the sum of the actual unloaded weight of the vehicle fully equipped for service, the actual unloaded weight of any semitrailers or trailers...

  2. Estimulación en el hogar y desarrollo motor en niños mexicanos de 36 meses Stimulation at home and motor development among 36 month-old Mexican children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Osorio

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar la relación entre la estimulación en el hogar y el desarrollo motor en niños de 36 meses de edad. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se evaluó el desarrollo motor grueso y fino de 169 infantes (50.9% varones mediante la Escala de Desarrollo Motor de Peabody y se determinó la calidad de estimulación en el hogar en una evaluación previa con la Escala HOME a los 30 meses de edad. RESULTADOS: La estimulación total en el hogar se asoció significativamente con un mejor desempeño en las áreas motora gruesa y fina. Aspectos particulares de esta estimulación se relacionaron con una mejor motricidad gruesa y fina. CONCLUSIÓN: Equilibrio y locomoción en la motricidad gruesa y agarre e integración visomotora en la motricidad fina son los componentes motores asociados a aspectos particulares de la estimulación como la interacción madre-hijo, el reforzamiento de acciones positivas en forma verbal y la presencia de límites claros.OBJECTIVE: To identify the relationship between stimulation at home and motor development among 36 month-old children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The development of gross and fine motor skills of 169 infants (50.9% boys and 49.1% girls was assessed at the age of 36 months with the Peabody Developmental Motor Scale. The quality of home stimulation was determined during a prior evaluation (at 30 months by means of the HOME Scale. RESULTS: Total stimulation at home was significantly associated with better performance in the gross and fine motor areas. Particular aspects of this home stimulation were related to better gross and fine motor functions. CONCLUSION: Static balance and locomotion (gross motor skills and grasping and visual-motor integration (fine motor skills are associated with particular aspects of home stimulation, such as parent-child interaction, verbal reinforcement of the child's positive actions and providing the child with clear boundaries.

  3. Relationship of ocular accommodation and motor skills performance in developmental coordination disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafique, Sara A; Northway, Nadia

    2015-08-01

    Ocular accommodation provides a well-focussed image, feedback for accurate eye movement control, and cues for depth perception. To accurately perform visually guided motor tasks, integration of ocular motor systems is essential. Children with motor coordination impairment are established to be at higher risk of accommodation anomalies. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between ocular accommodation and motor tasks, which are often overlooked, in order to better understand the problems experienced by children with motor coordination impairment. Visual function, gross and fine motor skills were assessed in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and typically developing control children. Children with DCD had significantly poorer accommodation facility and amplitude dynamics compared to controls. Results indicate a relationship between impaired accommodation and motor skills. Specifically, accommodation anomalies correlated with visual motor, upper limb and fine dexterity task performance. Consequently, we argue accommodation anomalies influence the ineffective coordination of action and perception in DCD. Furthermore, reading disabilities were related to poorer motor performance. We postulate the role of the fastigial nucleus as a common pathway for accommodation and motor deficits. Implications of the findings and recommended visual screening protocols are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Age-related changes in the effects of stress in pregnancy on infant motor development by maternal report: The Queensland Flood Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simcock, Gabrielle; Kildea, Sue; Elgbeili, Guillaume; Laplante, David P; Stapleton, Helen; Cobham, Vanessa; King, Suzanne

    2016-07-01

    The current study examined the effects of a natural disaster (a sudden onset flood) as a stressor in pregnancy on infant fine and gross motor development at 2, 6, and 16 months of age. Whether the timing of the stressor in pregnancy or sex of the infant moderated the impact of the prenatal maternal stress on motor development was also explored. Mothers' objective experiences of the flood, emotional reactions and distress, and their cognitive appraisal of the event were assessed retrospectively. Infants' fine and gross motor skills were assessed with the Ages and Stages Questionnaire, and results showed age-related changes in the effects of prenatal maternal stress on these domains. At 2 months, higher levels of prenatal maternal stress was positively related to infant motor development, yet at 6 and 16 months of age there was a negative association, particularly if flood exposure occurred later in pregnancy and if mothers had negative cognitive appraisals of the event. Results also showed differential effects of the maternal stress responses to the floods on infants' fine and gross motor development at each age and that infant sex did not buffer these effects. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 58: 640-659, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Relação entre índice de massa corporal e habilidade motora grossa em crianças de quatro a seis anos Relationship between body mass index and gross motor skill in four to six year-old children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Zandonadi Catenassi

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve por objetivo verificar a relação entre o desempenho em tarefas de habilidade motora grossa com o índice de massa corporal (IMC em meninos e meninas de quatro a seis anos de idade. Para tanto, foram analisadas 27 crianças, sendo 16 meninos e 11 meninas, com idade média de 5,64 ± 0,67 anos. As crianças foram submetidas ao Test of Gross Motor Development - Second Edition (TGMD-2, proposto por Ulrich (2000 e ao Körperkoordinations-test für Kinder (KTK, proposto por Kiphard e Schilling (1974. A pontuação obtida nos dois testes foi reduzida a uma escala comum a ambos. Foi verificada a correlação entre essa escala e o IMC das crianças por meio do teste de correlação de Spearman, com P This study had to aim to verify the relationship between performance in gross motor skill tasks and body mass index (BMI in four to six year-old boys and girls. 27 children were analyzed, 16 boys and 11 girls, mean age of 5.64 ± 0.67 years. The children were submitted to the Test of Gross Motor Development-Second Edition (TGMD-2, proposed by Ulrich (2000 and to the Körperkoordinations-test für Kinder (KTK, proposed by Kiphard and Schilling (1974. The punctuation obtained in the two tests was reduced to a scale common to both. The correlation between this scale and the BMI of the children was verified through the Spearman correlation test, with P < 0.05. No significant interaction was observed among variables when boys and girls were analyzed or when the analysis was conducted with gender distinction. Moreover, no interaction between the BMI and tasks which required higher demand of physical capacities was observed, which should be verified in further studies. It was possible to conclude from our results, that the performance of four to six year-old children in tasks which involved gross motor skill did not relate with BMI.

  6. Caracterization of the motor profile of students with autistic disorder

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    Paola Matiko Okuda

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Thematic focus: The motor abnormalities may be part of so-called comorbidities that can coexist with autistic disorder. Objective: To characterize the motor profile of students with autistic disorder. Method: the study included six children with autistic disorder in elementary school, male, aged 5 years and 5 months and 10 years and 9 months. After signing the consent form by parents or guardians, the students were submitted to the Motor Development Scale for assessment of fine motor, gross motor performance, balance, body scheme, spatial organization, temporal organization and laterality. Results: The results revealed a significant difference between the motor age and chronological age. According to the classification of the Scale of Motor Development, students in this study showed motor development lower than expected for age. Conclusion: The students with autistic disorder in this study presented a profile of Developmental Coordination Disorder in comorbidity, showing that participants of this research presented difficulties in activities that required skills such as handwriting. Thus, motor and psychomotor needs of these students were focused on educational and clinical environment to reduce the impact of behavioral and social manifestations.

  7. The Effect of Sport Activities on Perceptual-motor Skills among Obese Children with Down Syndrome

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    Abdollah Ghasemi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of eight weeks selected sport trainings on perceptual- motor skills among typical obese girls and girls with Down syndrome (aged 7-13. Materials & Methods: In this quasi-experimental study with control group, 22 obese children with Down syndrome and 22 typical obese children who were selected purposefully participated in 24 purposeful sport training sessions. All groups were assessed with Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency before and after training sessions. Results: The findings showed that both groups of participants significantly developed in their gross motor skills (P<0.05 but not in fine skills. Also, the results indicated that obese children with Down syndrome had significantly (P<0.05 higher progress in both gross and fine motor skills than typical children. Conclusion: Despite of the variety of influential genetic and environmental constraints on obese children with Down syndrome they can develop their perceptual-motor skills via purposeful sport trainings such as play and leisure. Necessity of early perceptual-motor training is discussed.

  8. Do active video games benefit the motor skill development of non-typically developing children and adolescents: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Zoey E; Barrington, Stephanie; Edwards, Jacqueline; Barnett, Lisa M

    2017-12-01

    The use of interactive video gaming, known as 'exergames' or 'active video games (AVG)' may provide an opportunity for motor skill development. Youth with non-typical patterns of development may have deficits in gross motor skill capacities and are therefore an intervention target. The aim was to determine the effectiveness of AVG use on motor skill development in non-typically developing children and adolescents. Review article. The PRISMA protocol was used to conduct a systematic review of EBSCOhost, Embase, Gale Cengage, Informit, Ovid, ProQuest, PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science databases. A total of 19 articles met inclusion criteria (non-typically developing participants such as those with a learning or developmental delay aged 3-18, use of an AVG console, assessed one or more gross motor skills). Studies were excluded if gross motor skill outcomes encompassed fine motor skills or reflected mobility related to daily living. Interventions included children and adolescents with eight different conditions. The Nintendo Wii was the most utilised gaming platform (14/19 studies). Studies examined a combination of skills, with most examining balance (15/19), five studies examining ball skills, and other gross motor skills such as coordination (3 studies), running (3 studies) and jumping (3 studies). There was strong evidence that AVG's improved balance. AVG's also appeared to benefit participants with Cerebral Palsy. AVG's could be a valuable tool to improve gross motor skills of non-typically developing children. There is scope for further exploration, particularly of ball, coordination and locomotor skills and varying platforms to draw more conclusive evaluations. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The influence of a real job on upper limb performance in motor skill tests: which abilities are transferred?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giangiardi, Vivian Farahte; Alouche, Sandra Regina; de Freitas, Sandra Maria Sbeghen Ferreira; Pires, Raquel Simoni; Padula, Rosimeire Simprini

    2018-06-01

    To investigate whether the specificities of real jobs create distinctions in the performance of workers in different motor tests for the upper limbs, 24 participants were divided into two groups according to their specific job: fine and repetitive tasks and general tasks. Both groups reproduced tasks related to aiming movements, handling and strength of the upper limbs. There were no significant differences between groups in the dexterity and performance of aiming movements. However, the general tasks group had higher grip strength than the repetitive tasks group, demonstrating differences according to job specificity. The results suggest that a particular motor skill in a specific job cannot improve performance in other tasks with the same motor requirements. The transfer of the fine and gross motor skills from previous experience in a job-specific task is the basis for allocating training and guidance to workers.

  10. Concurrent validity between instruments of assessment of motor development in infants exposed to HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegle, Cristhina Bonilha Huster; Dos Santos Cardoso de Sá, Cristina

    2018-02-01

    Exposure to HIV during pregnancy is a risks to development. Exposed child should have assessed its development since birth. Alberta Infant Motor Scale is a tool which assess gross motor skills, with easy application and low cost. Up to now, this scale had not proven its validity for the population exposed to HIV. It's necessary to compare its with a gold standard tool, Bayley scale, which assess gross and fine motor skills, has a high cost and longer application time required. Studies compare results of Alberta with Bayley's total motor score (gross + fine). However, it's also necessary to compare Alberta's result with only Bayley's gross motor result, because it's what both evaluate in common. to verify the concurrent validity of AIMS in infants exposed to HIV; to verify the correlation of AIMS and BSITD III for this population and to compare if these coefficients differ in the central age groups and extremities of the AIMS. 82 infants exposed to HIV evaluated in 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 8th, 12th, 15th, 16th, 17th and 18th months, with Alberta Infant Motor Scale and Bayley Scale (motor subscale). For analysis of concurrent validity, results of raw scores of the scales were compared with the correlation analysis. First analysis: Alberta's score with Bayley's total (gross + fine) motor score. Second analysis: Alberta's score with Bayley's gross motor score. In the first correlation analysis, results were: r = 0.62 in 1 st month, r = 0.64 in 2nd month, r = 0.08 in 3rd month, r = 0.45 in 4th month; r = 0.62 in 8th month, r = 0.60 in the 12th month. In the second correlation analysis, results were: r = 0.69 in 1 st month; r = 0.58 in 2nd month; r = 0.25 in 3rd month; r = 0.45 in the 4th month; r = 0.77 in 8th month; r = 0.73 in 12th month. Analyzes of the 15th, 16th, 17th and 18th months couldn't be performed because at these ages all the children had already reached the maximum score in the AIMS. Results were

  11. White matter alterations and their associations with motor function in young adults born preterm with very low birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Marie Husby Hollund

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Very low birth weight (VLBW: ≤1500 g individuals have an increased risk of white matter alterations and neurodevelopmental problems, including fine and gross motor problems. In this hospital-based follow-up study, the main aim was to examine white matter microstructure and its relationship to fine and gross motor function in 31 VLBW young adults without cerebral palsy compared with 31 term-born controls, at mean age 22.6 ± 0.7 years. The participants were examined with tests of fine and gross motor function (Trail Making Test-5: TMT-5, Grooved Pegboard, Triangle from Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2: MABC-2 and High-level Mobility Assessment Tool: HiMAT and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI. Probabilistic tractography of motor pathways of the corticospinal tract (CST and corpus callosum (CC was performed. Fractional anisotropy (FA was calculated in non-crossing (capsula interna in CST, body of CC and crossing (centrum semiovale fibre regions along the tracts and examined for group differences. Associations between motor test scores and FA in the CST and CC were investigated with linear regression. Tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS was used to examine group differences in DTI metrics in all major white matter tracts. The VLBW group had lower scores on all motor tests compared with controls, however, only statistically significant for TMT-5. Based on tractography, FA in the VLBW group was lower in non-crossing fibre regions and higher in crossing fibre regions of the CST compared with controls. Within the VLBW group, poorer fine motor function was associated with higher FA in crossing fibre regions of the CST, and poorer bimanual coordination was additionally associated with lower FA in crossing fibre regions of the CC. Poorer gross motor function was associated with lower FA in crossing fibre regions of the CST and CC. There were no associations between motor function and FA in non-crossing fibre regions of the CST and CC within

  12. White matter alterations and their associations with motor function in young adults born preterm with very low birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollund, Ingrid Marie Husby; Olsen, Alexander; Skranes, Jon; Brubakk, Ann-Mari; Håberg, Asta K; Eikenes, Live; Evensen, Kari Anne I

    2018-01-01

    Very low birth weight (VLBW: ≤ 1500 g) individuals have an increased risk of white matter alterations and neurodevelopmental problems, including fine and gross motor problems. In this hospital-based follow-up study, the main aim was to examine white matter microstructure and its relationship to fine and gross motor function in 31 VLBW young adults without cerebral palsy compared with 31 term-born controls, at mean age 22.6 ± 0.7 years. The participants were examined with tests of fine and gross motor function (Trail Making Test-5: TMT-5, Grooved Pegboard, Triangle from Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2: MABC-2 and High-level Mobility Assessment Tool: HiMAT) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Probabilistic tractography of motor pathways of the corticospinal tract (CST) and corpus callosum (CC) was performed. Fractional anisotropy (FA) was calculated in non-crossing (capsula interna in CST, body of CC) and crossing (centrum semiovale) fibre regions along the tracts and examined for group differences. Associations between motor test scores and FA in the CST and CC were investigated with linear regression. Tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) was used to examine group differences in DTI metrics in all major white matter tracts. The VLBW group had lower scores on all motor tests compared with controls, however, only statistically significant for TMT-5. Based on tractography, FA in the VLBW group was lower in non-crossing fibre regions and higher in crossing fibre regions of the CST compared with controls. Within the VLBW group, poorer fine motor function was associated with higher FA in crossing fibre regions of the CST, and poorer bimanual coordination was additionally associated with lower FA in crossing fibre regions of the CC. Poorer gross motor function was associated with lower FA in crossing fibre regions of the CST and CC. There were no associations between motor function and FA in non-crossing fibre regions of the CST and CC within the VLBW

  13. Factors affecting development of motor skills in extremely low birth weight children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Anna R; Birch, Eileen E; Spencer, Rand

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the impact of ophthalmic and neonatal factors on motor development in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) children. Sixty-four ELBW children at least 3 years of age were recruited. Visual acuity (VA) was assessed using the Teller acuity cards (TACs) and a letter test, if possible. A validated questionnaire assessing 25 fine (part A) and 20 gross motor (part B) skills was administered to the parents. Data were collected on retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) zone, intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH), length of stay in hospital, and number of days on oxygen. Abnormal TAC acuity was associated with significantly lower scores on both parts A and B (part A: 21.5 versus 11.8, p development, particularly fine motor development.

  14. Bayley-III motor scale and neurological examination at 2 years do not predict motor skills at 4.5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burakevych, Nataliia; Mckinlay, Christopher Joel Dorman; Alsweiler, Jane Marie; Wouldes, Trecia Ann; Harding, Jane Elizabeth

    2017-02-01

    To determine whether Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (3rd edition) (Bayley-III) motor scores and neurological examination at 2 years corrected age predict motor difficulties at 4.5 years corrected age. A prospective cohort study of children born at risk of neonatal hypoglycaemia in Waikato Hospital, Hamilton, New Zealand. Assessment at 2 years was performed using the Bayley-III motor scale and neurological examination, and at 4.5 years using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (2nd edition) (MABC-2). Of 333 children, 8 (2%) had Bayley-III motor scores below 85, and 50 (15%) had minor deficits on neurological assessment at 2 years; 89 (27%) scored less than or equal to the 15th centile, and 54 (16%) less than or equal to the 5th centile on MABC-2 at 4.5 years. Motor score, fine and gross motor subtest scores, and neurological assessments at 2 years were poorly predictive of motor difficulties at 4.5 years, explaining 0 to 7% of variance in MABC-2 scores. A Bayley-III motor score below 85 predicted MABC-2 scores less than or equal to the 15th centile with a positive predictive value of 30% and a negative predictive value of 74% (7% sensitivity and 94% specificity). Bayley-III motor scale and neurological examination at 2 years were poorly predictive of motor difficulties at 4.5 years. © 2016 Mac Keith Press.

  15. Gross decontamination experiment report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, R.; Kinney, K.; Dettorre, J.; Gilbert, V.

    1983-07-01

    A Gross Decontamination Experiment was conducted on various levels and surfaces of the TMI - Unit 2 reactor building in March 1982. The polar crane, D-rings, missile shields, refueling canals, refueling bridges, equipment, and elevations 305' and 347'-6'' were flushed with low pressure water. Additionally, floor surfaces on elevation 305' and floor surfaces and major pieces of equipment on elevation 347'-6'' were sprayed with high pressure water. Selective surfaces were decontaminated with a mechanical scrubber and chemicals. Strippable coating was tested and evaluated on equipment and floor surfaces. The effectiveness, efficiency, and safety of several decontamination techniques were established for the large, complex decontamination effort. Various decontamination equipment was evaluated and its effectiveness was documented. Decontamination training and procedures were documented and evaluated, as were the support system and organization for the experiment

  16. Gross xenon stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewins, J.D.; Wilson, P.P.H.

    1997-01-01

    The effect of xenon in thermal reactors on steady operation is generally destabilizing. Illustrating this involves the study of appropriate transfer functions, which may be conveniently displayed in three ways: as Bode, Nyquist, and root-locus diagrams. The three forms allow different aspects to be highlighted. These are illustrated for the effect of xenon with allowance not only for the stabilizing effect of the direct yield in fission but also to show the consequences of neglecting the time dependence due to the thermal capacity of the reactor. With careful interpretation, all these forms give an interpretation of stability that is consistent with direct evaluation and promote the understanding of the onset of gross oscillations in power

  17. Gross decontamination experiment report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, R.; Kinney, K.; Dettorre, J.; Gilbert, V.

    1983-07-01

    A Gross Decontamination Experiment was conducted on various levels and surfaces of the TMI - Unit 2 reactor building in March 1982. The polar crane, D-rings, missile shields, refueling canals, refueling bridges, equipment, and elevations 305' and 347'-6'' were flushed with low pressure water. Additionally, floor surfaces on elevation 305' and floor surfaces and major pieces of equipment on elevation 347'-6'' were sprayed with high pressure water. Selective surfaces were decontaminated with a mechanical scrubber and chemicals. Strippable coating was tested and evaluated on equipment and floor surfaces. The effectiveness, efficiency, and safety of several decontamination techniques were established for the large, complex decontamination effort. Various decontamination equipment was evaluated and its effectiveness was documented. Decontamination training and procedures were documented and evaluated, as were the support system and organization for the experiment.

  18. Oral motor deficits in speech-impaired children with autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmonte, Matthew K.; Saxena-Chandhok, Tanushree; Cherian, Ruth; Muneer, Reema; George, Lisa; Karanth, Prathibha

    2013-01-01

    Absence of communicative speech in autism has been presumed to reflect a fundamental deficit in the use of language, but at least in a subpopulation may instead stem from motor and oral motor issues. Clinical reports of disparity between receptive vs. expressive speech/language abilities reinforce this hypothesis. Our early-intervention clinic develops skills prerequisite to learning and communication, including sitting, attending, and pointing or reference, in children below 6 years of age. In a cohort of 31 children, gross and fine motor skills and activities of daily living as well as receptive and expressive speech were assessed at intake and after 6 and 10 months of intervention. Oral motor skills were evaluated separately within the first 5 months of the child's enrolment in the intervention programme and again at 10 months of intervention. Assessment used a clinician-rated structured report, normed against samples of 360 (for motor and speech skills) and 90 (for oral motor skills) typically developing children matched for age, cultural environment and socio-economic status. In the full sample, oral and other motor skills correlated with receptive and expressive language both in terms of pre-intervention measures and in terms of learning rates during the intervention. A motor-impaired group comprising a third of the sample was discriminated by an uneven profile of skills with oral motor and expressive language deficits out of proportion to the receptive language deficit. This group learnt language more slowly, and ended intervention lagging in oral motor skills. In individuals incapable of the degree of motor sequencing and timing necessary for speech movements, receptive language may outstrip expressive speech. Our data suggest that autistic motor difficulties could range from more basic skills such as pointing to more refined skills such as articulation, and need to be assessed and addressed across this entire range in each individual. PMID:23847480

  19. Oral Motor Deficits in Speech-Impaired Children with Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew K Belmonte

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Absence of communicative speech in autism has been presumed to reflect a fundamental deficit in the use of language, but at least in a subpopulation may instead stem from motor and oral motor issues. Clinical reports of disparity between receptive versus expressive speech / language abilities reinforce this hypothesis. Our early-intervention clinic develops skills prerequisite to learning and communication, including sitting, attending, and pointing or reference, in children below 6 years of age. In a cohort of 31 children, gross and fine motor skills and activities of daily living as well as receptive and expressive speech were assessed at intake and after 6 and 10 months of intervention. Oral motor skills were evaluated separately within the first 5 months of the child's enrolment in the intervention programme and again at 10 months of intervention. Assessment used a clinician-rated structured report, normed against samples of 360 (for motor and speech skills and 90 (for oral motor skills typically developing children matched for age, cultural environment and socio-economic status. In the full sample, oral and other motor skills correlated with receptive and expressive language both in terms of pre-intervention measures and in terms of learning rates during the intervention. A motor-impaired group comprising a third of the sample was discriminated by an uneven profile of skills with oral motor and expressive language deficits out of proportion to the receptive language deficit. This group learnt language more slowly, and ended intervention lagging in oral motor skills. In individuals incapable of the degree of motor sequencing and timing necessary for speech movements, receptive language may outstrip expressive speech. Our data suggest that autistic motor difficulties could range from more basic skills such as pointing to more refined skills such as articulation, and need to be assessed and addressed across this entire range in each individual.

  20. Avaliação e intervenção no desenvolvimento motor de uma criança com Síndrome de Down Assessment and intervention in the motor development of a child with Down Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Maurilia dos Santos

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available o objetivo deste estudo foi analisar o desenvolvimento motor de uma criança com síndrome de Down e verificar os efeitos de um programa de intervenção motora específica. Trata-se de uma pesquisa descritiva do tipo estudo de caso. Para a avaliação do desenvolvimento motor foram utilizados os testes da Escala de Desenvolvimento Motor - EDM que analisa as áreas da motricidade fina e global, equilíbrio, esquema corporal, organização espacial e temporal/linguagem, e lateralidade. Essa criança participou, respectivamente, de avaliação motora, intervenção motora (32 sessões, 2 vezes semanais e reavaliação motora. As intervenções motoras mostraram avanços positivos nas áreas da motricidade global, equilíbrio e organização espacial. A motricidade fina, esquema corporal e a organização temporal /linguagem não apresentaram avanços. Verificou-se que a linguagem foi a área de maior prejuízo. O quociente motor em todos os itens foi classificado como muito inferior, o que se caracteriza como déficit motor. Esses dados justificam a relevância de programas de intervenção motora para essa população.the objective of this study was to analyze the motor development of a child with Down syndrome and to verify the effect of a specific motor intervention program. This is a descriptive research case study. Motor development was evaluated using the Motor Development Scale - MDS, which analyzes both fine and gross motor skills as well as balance, body schema, spatial and temporal organization, language, and laterality. This child participated, respectively, of the motor assessment, motor intervention (32 sessions, twice weekly and motor reevaluation. Gains were demonstrated in motor intervention in the areas of the gross motor skills, balance and spatial organization. No improvement was shown in fine motor skills, body schema and temporal organization/ language. Language was found to be the area of lowest achievement. The motor

  1. Early motor development and later language and reading skills in children at risk of familial dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viholainen, Helena; Ahonen, Timo; Lyytinen, Paula; Cantell, Marja; Tolvanen, Asko; Lyytinen, Heikki

    2006-05-01

    Relationships between early motor development and language and reading skills were studied in 154 children, of whom 75 had familial risk of dyslexia (37 females, 38 males; at-risk group) and 79 constituted a control group (32 females, 47 males). Motor development was assessed by a structured parental questionnaire during the child's first year of life. Vocabulary and inflectional morphology skills were used as early indicators of language skills at 3 years 6 months and 5 years or 5 years 6 months of age, and reading speed was used as a later indicator of reading skills at 7 years of age. The same subgroups as in our earlier study (in which the cluster analysis was described) were used in this study. The three subgroups of the control group were 'fast motor development', 'slow fine motor development', and 'slow gross motor development', and the two subgroups of the at-risk group were 'slow motor development' and 'fast motor development'. A significant difference was found between the development of expressive language skills. Children with familial risk of dyslexia and slow motor development had a smaller vocabulary with poorer inflectional skills than the other children. They were also slower in their reading speed at the end of the first grade at the age of 7 years. Two different associations are discussed, namely the connection between early motor development and language development, and the connection between early motor development and reading speed.

  2. Deficits in Lower Limb Muscle Reflex Contraction Latency and Peak Force Are Associated With Impairments in Postural Control and Gross Motor Skills of Children With Developmental Coordination Disorder: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Shirley S M; Ng, Shamay S M; Guo, X; Wang, Yuling; Chung, Raymond C K; Stat, Grad; Ki, W Y; Macfarlane, Duncan J

    2015-10-01

    This cross-sectional, exploratory study aimed to compare neuromuscular performance, balance and motor skills proficiencies of typically developing children and those with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and to determine associations of these neuromuscular factors with balance and motor skills performances in children with DCD.One hundred thirty children with DCD and 117 typically developing children participated in the study. Medial hamstring and gastrocnemius muscle activation onset latencies in response to an unexpected posterior-to-anterior trunk perturbation were assessed by electromyography and accelerometer. Hamstring and gastrocnemius muscle peak force and time to peak force were quantified by dynamometer, and balance and motor skills performances were evaluated with the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC).Independent t tests revealed that children with DCD had longer hamstring and gastrocnemius muscle activation onset latencies (P  0.025), than the controls. Multiple regression analysis accounting for basic demographics showed that gastrocnemius peak force was independently associated with the MABC balance subscore and ball skills subscore, accounting for 5.7% (P = 0.003) and 8.5% (P = 0.001) of the variance, respectively. Gastrocnemius muscle activation onset latency also explained 11.4% (P skills subscore.Children with DCD had delayed leg muscle activation onset times and lower isometric peak forces. Gastrocnemius peak force was associated with balance and ball skills performances, whereas timing of gastrocnemius muscle activation was a determinant of ball skill performance in the DCD population.

  3. Obesity and motor skills among 4 to 6-year-old children in the united states: nationally-representative surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castetbon Katia

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few population-based studies have assessed relationships between body weight and motor skills in young children. Our objective was to estimate the association between obesity and motor skills at 4 years and 5-6 years of age in the United States. We used repeated cross-sectional assessments of the national sample from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey-Birth Cohort (ECLS-B of preschool 4-year-old children (2005-2006; n = 5 100 and 5-6-year-old kindergarteners (2006-2007; n = 4 700. Height, weight, and fine and gross motor skills were assessed objectively via direct standardized procedures. We used categorical and continuous measures of body weight status, including obesity (Body Mass Index (BMI ≥ 95th percentile and BMI z-scores. Multivariate logistic and linear models estimated the association between obesity and gross and fine motor skills in very young children adjusting for individual, social, and economic characteristics and parental involvement. Results The prevalence of obesity was about 15%. The relationship between motor skills and obesity varied across types of skills. For hopping, obese boys and girls had significantly lower scores, 20% lower in obese preschoolers and 10% lower in obese kindergarteners than normal weight counterparts, p p Conclusions Based on objective assessment of children's motor skills and body weight and a full adjustment for confounding covariates, we find no reduction in overall coordination and fine motor skills in obese young children. Motor skills are adversely associated with childhood obesity only for skills most directly related to body weight.

  4. Motor Development Skills of 1- to 4-Year-Old Iranian Children with Early Treated Phenylketonuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firouzeh Sajedi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To gauge the gross and fine motor development of early treated phenylketonuria (ETPKU in children in the age range of 1–4 years. Materials & Methods: A cross-sectional analytic study was conducted in PKU clinics (reference clinics for PKU follow-up, Tehran, Iran. Seventy children with ETPKU were selected as the case group for the study. ETPKU children were those with early and continuous treatment with a phenylalaninerestricted diet (the mean of blood phenylalanine level during the recent 6 months was 2–6 mg/dL or 120–360 mmol/L. Also, 100 healthy and normal children matched with the ETPKU group for age were randomly selected from 4 kindergartens in four parts of Tehran as a control group. The measurements consisted of a demographic questionnaire, Peabody Developmental Motor Scale-2 (PDMS-2, and pediatrician assessment. Motor quotients were determined by PDMS-2 and then compared in both groups by two independent samples t-test. Results: The mean ages in case and control group were 28.5 (±11.6 and 29.7 (±11.3 months, respectively. Comparison of the mean fine, gross, and total developmental motor quotients (DMQs showed statistically significant differences between the two groups (P<0.05. The fine and total DMQs of ETPKU children were also correlated with age. In addition, there was a negative correlation between the phenylalanine level and fine (P<0.001 and total (P=0.001 DMQs. Conclusion: It seems that ETPKU Iranian children, regardless of following a phenylalanine-restricted diet or not, have lower motor development. It is recommended to plan programs for early detection and intervention of developmental delays in these children.

  5. Motor development skills of 1- to 4-year-old Iranian children with early treated phenylketonuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazi, Sepideh; Rohani, Farzaneh; Sajedi, Firoozeh; Biglarian, Akbar; Setoodeh, Arya

    2014-01-01

    Objective : To gauge the gross and fine motor development of early treated phenylketonuria (ETPKU) in children in the age range of 1-4 years. Methods : A cross-sectional analytic study was conducted in PKU clinics (reference clinics for PKU follow-up), Tehran, Iran. Seventy children with ETPKU were selected as the case group for the study. ETPKU children were those with early and continuous treatment with a phenylalanine-restricted diet (the mean of blood phenylalanine level during the recent 6 months was 2-6 mg/dL or 120-360 μmol/L). Also, 100 healthy and normal children matched with the ETPKU group for age were randomly selected from 4 kindergartens in four parts of Tehran as a control group. The measurements consisted of a demographic questionnaire, Peabody Developmental Motor Scale-2 (PDMS-2), and pediatrician assessment. Motor quotients were determined by PDMS-2 and then compared in both groups by two independent samples t-test. Results : The mean ages in case and control group were 28.5 (± 11.6) and 29.7 (± 11.3) months, respectively. Comparison of the mean fine, gross, and total developmental motor quotients (DMQs) showed statistically significant differences between the two groups (p fine and total DMQs of ETPKU children were also correlated with age. In addition, there was a negative correlation between the phenylalanine level and fine (p motor development. It is recommended to plan programs for early detection and intervention of developmental delays in these children.

  6. Can short-term oral fine motor training affect precision of task performance and induce cortical plasticity of the jaw muscles?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hong, Zhang; Kumar, Abhishek; Kothari, Mohit

    2016-01-01

    The aim was to test the hypothesis that short-term oral sensorimotor training of the jaw muscles would increase the precision of task performance and induce neuroplastic changes in the corticomotor pathways, related to the masseter muscle. Fifteen healthy volunteers performed six series with ten...... trials of an oral sensorimotor task. The task was to manipulate and position a spherical chocolate candy in between the anterior teeth and split it into two equal halves. The precision of the task performance was evaluated by comparing the ratio between the two split halves. A series of "hold......-and-split" tasks was also performed before and after the training. The hold force and split force along with the electromyographic (EMG) activity of jaw muscles were recorded. Motor-evoked potentials and cortical motor maps of the right masseter muscle were evoked by transcranial magnetic stimulation...

  7. Infant motor and cognitive abilities and subsequent executive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Meng; Liang, Xi; Lu, Shan; Wang, Zhengyan

    2017-11-01

    Although executive function (EF) is widely considered crucial to several aspects of life, the mechanisms underlying EF development remain largely unexplored, especially for infants. From a behavioral or neurodevelopmental perspective, motor and general cognitive abilities are linked with EF. EF development is a multistage process that starts with sensorimotor interactive behaviors, which become basic cognitive abilities and, in turn, mature EF. This study aims to examine how infant motor and general cognitive abilities are linked with their EF at 3 years of age. This work also aims to explore the potential processes of EF development from early movement. A longitudinal study was conducted with 96 infants (55 girls and 41 boys). The infants' motor and general cognitive abilities were assessed at 1 and 2 years of age with Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Second and Third Editions, respectively. Infants' EFs were assessed at 3 years of age with Working Memory Span task, Day-Night task, Wrapped Gift task, and modified Gift-in-Bag task. Children with higher scores for cognitive ability at 2 years of age performed better in working memory, and children with higher scores for gross motor ability at 2 years performed better in cognitive inhibitory control (IC). Motor ability at 1 year and fine/gross motor ability at 2 years indirectly affected cognitive IC via general cognitive ability at 2 years and working memory. EF development is a multistage process that originates from physical movement to simple cognitive function, and then to complex cognitive function. Infants and toddlers can undergo targeted motor training to promote EF development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Pricing, renegotiation and gross inequities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkham, J.S. (Van Cott, Bagley, Cornwall McCarthy, Salt Lake City, UT (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Reviews pricing, renegotiation and gross inequity provisions of coal supply agreements in order to provide practical assistance to an attorney called upon to draft in written form the intent of buyer and seller. 26 refs.

  9. Prenatal naled and chlorpyrifos exposure is associated with deficits in infant motor function in a cohort of Chinese infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Monica K; Shao, Jie; Zhu, Binquan; Chen, Minjian; Xia, Yankai; Kaciroti, Niko; Lozoff, Betsy; Meeker, John D

    2017-09-01

    Organophosphate insecticides (OPs) are used worldwide, yet despite nearly ubiquitous exposure in the general population, few have been studied outside the laboratory. Fetal brains undergo rapid growth and development, leaving them susceptible to long-term effects of neurotoxic OPs. The objective here was to investigate the extent to which prenatal exposure to OPs affects infant motor development. 30 OPs were measured in umbilical cord blood using gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry in a cohort of Chinese infants. Motor function was assessed at 6-weeks and 9-months using Peabody Developmental Motor Scales 2nd edition (PDMS-2) (n=199). Outcomes included subtest scores: reflexes, stationary, locomotion, grasping, visual-motor integration (V-M), composite scores: gross (GM), fine (FM), total motor (TM), and standardized motor quotients: gross (GMQ), fine (FMQ), total motor (TMQ). Naled, methamidophos, trichlorfon, chlorpyrifos, and phorate were detected in ≥10% of samples. Prenatal naled and chlorpyrifos were associated with decreased 9-month motor function. Scores were 0.55, 0.85, and 0.90 points lower per 1ng/mL increase in log-naled, for V-M (p=0.04), FM (p=0.04), and FMQ (p=0.08), respectively. For chlorpyrifos, scores were 0.50, 1.98, 0.80, 1.91, 3.49, 2.71, 6.29, 2.56, 2.04, and 2.59 points lower for exposed versus unexposed infants, for reflexes (p=0.04), locomotion (p=0.02), grasping (p=0.05), V-M (pchlorpyrifos. Naled is being aerially sprayed to combat mosquitoes carrying Zika virus, yet this is the first non-occupational human study of its health effects. Delays in early-motor skill acquisition may be detrimental for downstream development and cognition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Preconception Micronutrient Supplementation with Iron and Folic Acid Compared with Folic Acid Alone Affects Linear Growth and Fine Motor Development at 2 Years of Age: A Randomized Controlled Trial in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Phuong H; Gonzalez-Casanova, Ines; Young, Melissa F; Truong, Truong Viet; Hoang, Hue; Nguyen, Huong; Nguyen, Son; DiGirolamo, Ann M; Martorell, Reynaldo; Ramakrishnan, Usha

    2017-08-01

    Background: Maternal health and nutrition play a crucial role in early child growth and development. However, little is known about the benefits of preconception micronutrient interventions beyond the role of folic acid (FA) and neural tube defects. Objective: We evaluated the impact of weekly preconception multiple micronutrient (MM) or iron and folic acid (IFA) supplementation on child growth and development through the age of 2 y compared with FA alone. Methods: We followed 1599 offspring born to women who participated in a randomized controlled trial of preconception supplementation in Vietnam. Women received weekly supplements that contained either 2800 μg FA, 60 mg Fe and 2800 μg FA, or 15 MMs including IFA, from baseline until conception followed by daily prenatal IFA supplements until delivery. Child anthropometry was measured at birth and at 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 mo. Child development was measured with the use of the Bayley Scales for Infant Development III at 24 mo. Results: The groups were similar for baseline maternal and offspring birth characteristics. At 24 mo of age, the offspring in the IFA group had significantly higher length-for-age z scores (LAZs) (0.14; 95% CI: 0.03, 0.26), reduced risk of being stunted (0.87; 95% CI: 0.76, 0.99), and smaller yearly decline in LAZs (0.10; 95% CI: 0.04, 0.15) than the offspring in the FA group. Similar trends were found for the offspring in the MM group compared with the FA group for LAZs (0.10; 95% CI: -0.02, 0.22) and the risk of being stunted (0.88; 95% CI: 0.77, 1.01). Offspring in the IFA group had improved motor development ( P = 0.03), especially fine motor development (0.41; 95% CI: 0.05, 0.77), at the age of 24 mo, but there were no differences for measures of cognition or language. Conclusions: Preconception supplementation with IFA improved linear growth and fine motor development at 2 y of age compared with FA. Future studies should examine whether these effects persist and improve child health and

  11. Family socioeconomic status and the provision of motor affordances in the home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa C. B. Freitas

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Socioeconomic status (SES and stimulation provided in the home environment are influential factors in aspects of child well-being including motor development. Little is known regarding the influence of SES on specific aspects of the home environment. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the availability of affordances in the home to promote infant motor development and family SES. METHOD : The sample consisted of 300 families with infants aged 3 to 18 months. SES was assessed according to family socioeconomic class, income and parental level of education. To evaluate motor affordances found at home, the Affordances in the Home Environment for Motor Development-Infant Scale (AHEMD-IS was used. The AHEMD-IS was designed to assess dimensions of the home environment including Physical Space (outside and inside space, Daily Activities and Play Materials (fine-motor and gross-motor toys. RESULTS: SES indicators significantly influenced the availability of Physical Space and Play Materials. The Physical Space dimension was influenced by family economic class and income. The Play Materials dimension was influenced by all SES indicators. Daily Activities were not influenced by any of the SES indicators. Daily activities and play material were influenced by the infant's age. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that SES indicators are influential with regard to the provision of motor affordances in the home environment for infants. However, daily activities, which represent an aspect of the environment that is highly dependent on parental generation of situations that are conducive to motor skill development, are independent of family SES.

  12. Influence of Affordances in the Home Environment on Motor Development of Young Children in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiro Mori

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous research indicates that the home environment is a significant factor in early child development. The present study examined influence of the multidimensional home environment on young Japanese children’s motor development. A Japanese translation of the Affordances in the Home Environment for Motor Development-Self Report (AHEMD-SR was used to assess home motor affordances in 262 families. Motor ability was assessed by parental report using the Enjoji Infant Analytic Developmental Test. We also asked parents to rate their own physical activity in terms of level and years of experience. As results, we found that the home environment in Japan was generally sufficient for children’s motor development and that children’s access to Fine Motor Toys (FMT and Gross Motor Toys (GMT had the strongest influence on their development. Analysis also indicated that AHEMD-SR scores were higher for children of parents who had some level of physical activity experience compared to children whose parents indicated no physical activity experience. Parents’ self-reported activity level was correlated with higher scores for the subscales FMT and GMT and for total AHEMD-SR score. These results indicate that both the physical and social-psychological environments (parental experience and views of the home influenced children’s motor development.

  13. From Children to Adults: Motor Performance across the Life-Span

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leversen, Jonas S. R.; Haga, Monika; Sigmundsson, Hermundur

    2012-01-01

    The life-span approach to development provides a theoretical framework to examine the general principles of life-long development. This study aims to investigate motor performance across the life span. It also aims to investigate if the correlations between motor tasks increase with aging. A cross-sectional design was used to describe the effects of aging on motor performance across age groups representing individuals from childhood to young adult to old age. Five different motor tasks were used to study changes in motor performance within 338 participants (7–79 yrs). Results showed that motor performance increases from childhood (7–9) to young adulthood (19–25) and decreases from young adulthood (19–25) to old age (66–80). These results are mirroring results from cognitive research. Correlation increased with increasing age between two fine motor tasks and two gross motor tasks. We suggest that the findings might be explained, in part, by the structural changes that have been reported to occur in the developing and aging brain and that the theory of Neural Darwinism can be used as a framework to explain why these changes occur. PMID:22719958

  14. The interrelationships between motor, cognitive, and language development in children with and without intellectual and developmental disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houwen, Suzanne; Visser, Linda; van der Putten, Annette; Vlaskamp, Carla

    2016-01-01

    It is generally agreed that cognitive and language development are dependent on the emergence of motor skills. As the literature on this issue concerning children with developmental disabilities is scarce, we examined the interrelationships between motor, cognitive, and language development in children with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) and compared them to those in children without IDD. In addition, we investigated whether these relationships differ between children with different levels of cognitive delay. Seventy-seven children with IDD (calendar age between 1;0 and 9;10 years; mean developmental age: 1;8 years) and 130 typically developing children (calendar age between 0;3 and 3;6 years; mean developmental age: 1;10 years) were tested with the Dutch Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition, which assesses development across three domains using five subscales: fine motor development, gross motor development (motor), cognition (cognitive), receptive communication, and expressive communication (language). Results showed that correlations between the motor, cognitive, and language domains were strong, namely .61 to .94 in children with IDD and weak to strong, namely .24 to .56 in children without IDD. Furthermore, the correlations showed a tendency to increase with the severity of IDD. It can be concluded that both fine and gross motor development are more strongly associated with cognition, and consequently language, in children with IDD than in children without IDD. The findings of this study emphasize the importance of early interventions that boost both motor and cognitive development, and suggest that such interventions will also enhance language development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Motor Skills and Exercise Capacity Are Associated with Objective Measures of Cognitive Functions and Academic Performance in Preadolescent Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geertsen, Svend Sparre; Thomas, Richard; Larsen, Malte Nejst; Dahn, Ida Marie; Andersen, Josefine Needham; Krause-Jensen, Matilde; Korup, Vibeke; Nielsen, Claus Malta; Wienecke, Jacob; Ritz, Christian; Krustrup, Peter; Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    To investigate associations between motor skills, exercise capacity and cognitive functions, and evaluate how they correlate to academic performance in mathematics and reading comprehension using standardised, objective tests. This cross-sectional study included 423 Danish children (age: 9.29±0.35 years, 209 girls). Fine and gross motor skills were evaluated in a visuomotor accuracy-tracking task, and a whole-body coordination task, respectively. Exercise capacity was estimated from the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 1 children's test (YYIR1C). Selected tests from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) were used to assess different domains of cognitive functions, including sustained attention, spatial working memory, episodic and semantic memory, and processing speed. Linear mixed-effects models were used to investigate associations between these measures and the relationship with standard tests of academic performance in mathematics and reading comprehension. Both fine and gross motor skills were associated with better performance in all five tested cognitive domains (all Pmotor skills (all Pmotor skills are positively correlated with several aspects of cognitive functions and with academic performance in both mathematics and reading comprehension. Moreover, exercise capacity was associated with academic performance and performance in some cognitive domains. Future interventions should investigate associations between changes in motor skills, exercise capacity, cognitive functions, and academic performance to elucidate the causality of these associations.

  16. Getting to the Root of Fine Motor Skill Performance in Dentistry: Brain Activity During Dental Tasks in a Virtual Reality Haptic Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Suzanne; Bridges, Susan M; Zhu, Frank; Leung, W Keung; Burrow, Michael F; Poolton, Jamie; Masters, Rich Sw

    2017-12-12

    There is little evidence considering the relationship between movement-specific reinvestment (a dimension of personality which refers to the propensity for individuals to consciously monitor and control their movements) and working memory during motor skill performance. Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) measuring oxyhemoglobin demands in the frontal cortex during performance of virtual reality (VR) psychomotor tasks can be used to examine this research gap. The aim of this study was to determine the potential relationship between the propensity to reinvest and blood flow to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortices of the brain. A secondary aim was to determine the propensity to reinvest and performance during 2 dental tasks carried out using haptic VR simulators. We used fNIRS to assess oxygen demands in 24 undergraduate dental students during 2 dental tasks (clinical, nonclinical) on a VR haptic simulator. We used the Movement-Specific Reinvestment Scale questionnaire to assess the students' propensity to reinvest. Students with a high propensity for movement-specific reinvestment displayed significantly greater oxyhemoglobin demands in an area associated with working memory during the nonclinical task (Spearman correlation, r s =.49, P=.03). This small-scale study suggests that neurophysiological differences are evident between high and low reinvesters during a dental VR task in terms of oxyhemoglobin demands in an area associated with working memory. ©Suzanne Perry, Susan M Bridges, Frank Zhu, W Keung Leung, Michael F Burrow, Jamie Poolton, Rich SW Masters. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 12.12.2017.

  17. Spectra and gross features of vertical temperature and salinity profiles off the central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varkey, M.J.; Nagarajan, R.

    Continuous vertical profiles of temperature and salinity recorded by a CTD-system from the continental slope and the continental rise off Goa, west coast of India, were used for delineating the gross statistical features of the fine structure...

  18. A study of the effect of training pregnant women about attachment skills on infants’ motor development indices at birth to four months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Dokuhaki

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. During pregnancy fetus-maternal attachment can improve maternal-fetal attachment, and have positive effects on the infant’s growth and development. Objectives. This study aimed to investigate the effect of training pregnant mothers about attachment skills on infants’ motor development indices at birth to four months. Material and methods. This study is a clinical trial with convenient sampling on 190 pregnant women in Hafez hospital. They were randomly divided into two groups: intervention and control. There were 94 and 96 patients in the control and intervention groups, respectively. In the intervention group, 6 sessions of 90-minute educational classes were held. After birth, the infants were compared, in both groups, in terms of motor status using the Denver questionnaire at birth to the age of 4 months. Results . In the intervention group, educating the women on fetal-maternal attachment skills was associated with infants’ earlier achievement age in terms of some gross motor, all fields of speech-language, and one item of fine-adaptive motor realms. In addition, the infants’ age was significantly reduced in achieving some personal-social items, as well as gross-fine scope at one and three months. Conclusions . Training the mothers in attachment skills increased fetal-maternal attachment and improved the motor development indicators in infants aged up to four months. Therefore, training in attachment skills is recommended to be given as a component of routine pregnancy care.

  19. Acoustic Characterization of a Stationary Field Synchronous Motor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Woodward, E

    2001-01-01

    .... We investigate the gross acoustic signature of a notional stationary field synchronous motor utilized as a marine propulsion motor in a naval combatant using the following methodology: (1) model the forces...

  20. Motor Development Programming in Trisomic-21 Babies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, Teresa; Menendez, Javier; Rosique, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    The present study contributes to the understanding of gross motor development in babies with Down's syndrome. Also, it facilitates the comprehension of the efficiency of the early motor stimulation as well as of beginning it as early as possible. We worked with two groups of babies with Down's syndrome, beginning the early motor training in each…

  1. Anne Fine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Gaydon

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available An interview with Anne Fine with an introduction and aside on the role of children’s literature in our lives and development, and our adult perceptions of the suitability of childhood reading material. Since graduating from Warwick in 1968 with a BA in Politics and History, Anne Fine has written over fifty books for children and eight for adults, won the Carnegie Medal twice (for Goggle-Eyes in 1989 and Flour Babies in 1992, been a highly commended runner-up three times (for Bill’s New Frock in 1989, The Tulip Touch in 1996, and Up on Cloud Nine in 2002, been shortlisted for the Hans Christian Andersen Award (the highest recognition available to a writer or illustrator of children’s books, 1998, undertaken the positon of Children’s Laureate (2001-2003, and been awarded an OBE for her services to literature (2003. Warwick presented Fine with an Honorary Doctorate in 2005. Philip Gaydon’s interview with Anne Fine was recorded as part of the ‘Voices of the University’ oral history project, co-ordinated by Warwick’s Institute of Advanced Study.

  2. Motor Deficits of Girls with Down Syndrome in Comparing with Girls with Intellectual Disability in the School Ages Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Daftari-Anbardan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Motor function in children with Down syndrome is similar to mentally retarded children. But the movements are slower and have lower quality. The purpose of this study was to identify weaknesses in motor function in children with Down syndrome, by using Bruininks Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOTMP. Materials & Methods: In this cross-sectional study, thirty six children with intellectual disability, 18 girls with Down syndrome and 18 girls without Down syndrome, with chronological aged 8-13 years were investigated. The subjects of Down syndrome were selected by available sampling. The subjects of intellectual disability were selected by simple random sampling. Two groups of participants were matched for chronological age and IQ level. The measurement was BOTMP. Statistical analysis was performed using the Mann-Whitney U rank sum test and t-test. Results: The children with Down syndrome scored significantly lower than the mentally retarded children in the areas of gross motor skill composite (P<0.014 balance (P<0.029, response time (P<0.034 and visual motor control (P<0.048, but the fine motor and overlay motor skill composite, and subtests of bilateral coordination, strength, upper limb coordination scores were no significantly different between two groups. Conclusion: Motor rehabilitation is appropriate for children with intellectual disability, especially for children with Down syndrome, in throughout their adolescence. Key words: Motor skill/ Intellectual Disability/ Down syndrome/ BOTMP

  3. Motor impairment in children with Neurofibromatosis type 1: Effect of the comorbidity with language disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannuzzi, Stéphanie; Albaret, Jean-Michel; Chignac, Céline; Faure-Marie, Nathalie; Barry, Isabelle; Karsenty, Caroline; Chaix, Yves

    2016-02-01

    There is a body of evidence demonstrating comorbidity of motor and cognitive deficit in «idiopathic» developmental disorders. These associations are also found in developmental disorders secondary to monogenic disorders as in Neurofibromatosis type 1 for which the principal complication during childhood is learning disabilities. The comparison of motor impairment between developmental disorders either idiopathic or secondary as in NF1 could help us to better understand the cause of the combined language/motor deficit in these populations. The aim of this current study was to investigate motor impairment in children with NF1 for which oral language had been specified and then to compare the motors skills of the NF1 group to motor performance of children with Specific Language Disorder (SLD). Two groups of 49 children between 5 and 12years old were included and compared, the NF1 group and the SLD (Specific Language Disorder) group. Each child completed evaluation involving cognitive, language and motor assessment. In NF1 group, motor impairment was more frequent and more severe and concerned specifically balance rather than manual dexterity or ball skills, compared to a group of children with SLD. This motor impairment was independent of language status in the NF1 group. These results as well as other studies on the same topic could suggest that in NF1 children, fine motor skills impairment would be dependent on the existence of comorbidity with language disorders. Also, that gross motor skills impairment, and more precisely the balance deficit would be characteristic of NF1. This issue encourages studies of procedural learning that can involve the fronto-striatal or the fronto-cerebellar loops according to the type of motor tasks and the stage of learning. Copyright © 2015 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Zebrafish embryos exposed to alcohol undergo abnormal development of motor neurons and muscle fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvain, Nicole J; Brewster, Daniel L; Ali, Declan W

    2010-01-01

    Children exposed to alcohol in utero have significantly delayed gross and fine motor skills, as well as deficiencies in reflex development. The reasons that underlie the motor deficits caused by ethanol (EtOH) exposure remain to be fully elucidated. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of embryonic alcohol exposure (1.5%, 2% and 2.5% EtOH) on motor neuron and muscle fiber morphology in 3 days post fertilization (dpf) larval zebrafish. EtOH treated fish exhibited morphological deformities and fewer bouts of swimming in response to touch, compared with untreated fish. Immunolabelling with anti-acetylated tubulin indicated that fish exposed to 2.5% EtOH had significantly higher rates of motor neuron axon defects. Immunolabelling of primary and secondary motor neurons, using znp-1 and zn-8, revealed that fish exposed to 2% and 2.5% EtOH exhibited significantly higher rates of primary and secondary motor neuron axon defects compared to controls. Examination of red and white muscle fibers revealed that fish exposed to EtOH had significantly smaller fibers compared with controls. These findings indicate that motor neuron and muscle fiber morphology is affected by early alcohol exposure in zebrafish embryos, and that this may be related to deficits in locomotion. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Limitations of the Neurological Evolutional Exam (ENE) as a motor assessment for first graders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caçola, Priscila M; Bobbio, Tatiana G; Arias, Amabile V; Gonçalves, Vanda G; Gabbard, Carl

    2010-01-01

    many clinicians and researchers in Brazil consider the Neurological Developmental Exam (NDE), a valid and reliable assessment for Brazilian school-aged children. However, since its inception, several tests have emerged that, according to some researchers, provide more in-depth evaluation of motor ability and go beyond the detection of general motor status (soft neurological signs). to highlight the limitations of the NDE as a motor skill assessment for first graders. thirty-five children were compared on seven selected items of the NDE, seven of the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test (BOT), and seven of the Visual-Motor Integration test (VMI). Participants received a "pass" or "fail" score for each item, as prescribed by the respective test manual. chi-square and ANOVA results indicated that the vast majority of children (74%) passed the NDE items, whereas values for the other tests were 29% (BOT) and 20% (VMI). Analysis of specific categories (e.g. visual, fine, and gross motor coordination) revealed a similar outcome. our data suggest that while the NDE may be a valid and reliable test for the detection of general motor status, its use as a diagnostic/remedial tool for identifying motor ability is questionable. One of our recommendations is the consideration of a revised NDE in light of the current needs of clinicians and researchers.

  6. Quantum Gross-Pitaevskii Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jutho Haegeman, Damian Draxler, Vid Stojevic, J. Ignacio Cirac, Tobias J. Osborne, Frank Verstraete

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a non-commutative generalization of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation for one-dimensional quantum gasses and quantum liquids. This generalization is obtained by applying the time-dependent variational principle to the variational manifold of continuous matrix product states. This allows for a full quantum description of many body system ---including entanglement and correlations--- and thus extends significantly beyond the usual mean-field description of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation, which is known to fail for (quasi one-dimensional systems. By linearizing around a stationary solution, we furthermore derive an associated generalization of the Bogoliubov -- de Gennes equations. This framework is applied to compute the steady state response amplitude to a periodic perturbation of the potential.

  7. NM Gross Receipts January - June 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  8. NM Gross Receipts July - December 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  9. NM Gross Receipts January - June 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  10. NM Gross Receipts July - December 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  11. NM Gross Receipts January - June 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  12. NM Gross Receipts January - June 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  13. Tracking of Gross Motor Coordination From Childhood Into Adolescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lima, Rodrigo Antunes; Bugge, Anna; Pfeiffer, Karin Allor

    2017-01-01

    classified as low (MQ score 115). Pearson correlation was used to calculate the tracking coefficients of each KTK element and MQ score, and weighted kappa was used to analyze maintenance in MC classification groups. Mixed-effects logistic regression...

  14. Correlation between cognitive function, gross motor skills and health â

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Saly Said Abd El-Hady

    and health – Related quality of life in children with Down syndrome. Saly Said Abd El-Hady ... knowledge. It is a general term involving multiple classes of mental capacities. ..... organizations that can inappropriately influence this work. .... skills, cognitive development and balance functions of children with Down · syndrome.

  15. Correlation between cognitive function, gross motor skills and health â

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Saly Said Abd El-Hady

    ... attention and concentration, learning, memory and language that can result in mild to profound ... adulthood and affect health related quality of life (HRQOL) and wellbeing in ... investigate the correlation between cognitive function; attention/-.

  16. Prediction of kindergarteners' behavior on Metropolitan Readiness Tests from preschool perceptual and perceptual-motor performances: a validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belka, D E

    1981-06-01

    Multiple regression equations were generated to predict cognitive achievement for 40 children (ages 57 to 68 mo.) 1 yr. after administration of a battery of 6 perceptual and perceptual-motor tests to determine if previous results from Toledo could be replicated. Regression equations generated from maximum R2 improvement techniques indicated that performance at prekindergarten is useful for prediction of cognitive performance (total score and total score without the copying subtest on the Metropolitan Readiness Tests) 1 yr. later at the end of kindergarten. The optimal battery included scores on auditory perception, fine perceptual-motor, and gross perceptual-motor tasks. The moderate predictive power of the equations obtained was compared with high predictive power generated in the Toledo study.

  17. The involvement of audio-motor coupling in the music-supported therapy applied to stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni; Rojo, Nuria; Amengual, Julià L; Ripollés, Pablo; Altenmüller, Eckart; Münte, Thomas F

    2012-04-01

    Music-supported therapy (MST) has been developed recently to improve the use of the affected upper extremity after stroke. MST uses musical instruments, an electronic piano and an electronic drum set emitting piano sounds, to retrain fine and gross movements of the paretic upper extremity. In this paper, we first describe the rationale underlying MST, and we review the previous studies conducted on acute and chronic stroke patients using this new neurorehabilitation approach. Second, we address the neural mechanisms involved in the motor movement improvements observed in acute and chronic stroke patients. Third, we provide some recent studies on the involvement of auditory-motor coupling in the MST in chronic stroke patients using functional neuroimaging. Finally, these ideas are discussed and focused on understanding the dynamics involved in the neural circuit underlying audio-motor coupling and how functional connectivity could help to explain the neuroplastic changes observed after therapy in stroke patients. © 2012 New York Academy of Sciences.

  18. Motor and cognitive performance of overweight preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krombholz, Heinz

    2013-02-01

    Gross and fine motor skills and cognitive performance in obese and overweight children were compared to healthy weight children. Participants were 1,543 children (797 boys and 746 girls) ages 43 to 84 months, attending childcare centers in Munich, Germany. According to German Body Mass Index (BMI) standards for age and sex, 4.6% of the children were classified as obese (percentile greater or equal 97), 6.8% as overweight (percentile greater or equal 90 and less than 97), 5.9% as underweight (percentile less than 10), and 83.1% as being of healthy weight. Dependent variables were physical characteristics (height, weight, skinfold thickness), physical fitness (standing broad jump, shuttle run, hanging), body coordination (balancing forward, balancing backward, lateral jump, hopping), manual dexterity (right and left hand), and cognitive performance (intelligence, verbal ability, concentration). Higher proportions of children from lower socioeconomic and immigrant backgrounds were overweight. There was no association between weight and sex. Overweight children showed lower performance on gross motor skills (coordination and fitness), manual dexterity, and intelligence compared to healthy weight children, even after controlling for the effects of social class and immigration status.

  19. Responsiveness of the Test of Basic Motor Skills of Children with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Heuvel, Marieke E.; de Jong, Inge; Lauteslager, Peter E. M.; Volman, M. J. M.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the responsiveness of the Test of Basic Motor Skills for Children with Down Syndrome (BMS). Forty-one children with Down Syndrome, 3 to 36 months of age, participated in the study. Gross motor skills were assessed three times using the BMS and the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) before and after a baseline…

  20. Gross anatomy of network security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Thomas J.

    2002-01-01

    Information security involves many branches of effort, including information assurance, host level security, physical security, and network security. Computer network security methods and implementations are given a top-down description to permit a medically focused audience to anchor this information to their daily practice. The depth of detail of network functionality and security measures, like that of the study of human anatomy, can be highly involved. Presented at the level of major gross anatomical systems, this paper will focus on network backbone implementation and perimeter defenses, then diagnostic tools, and finally the user practices (the human element). Physical security measures, though significant, have been defined as beyond the scope of this presentation.

  1. Fine chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laszlo, P.

    1988-01-01

    The 1988 progress report of the Fine Chemistry laboratory (Polytechnic School, France) is presented. The research programs are centered on the renewal of the organic chemistry most important reactions and on the invention of new, highly efficient and highly selective reactions, by applying low cost reagents and solvents. An important research domain concerns the study and fabrication of new catalysts. They are obtained by means of the reactive sputtering of the metals and metal oxydes thin films. The Monte Carlo simulations of the long-range electrostatic interaction in a clay and the obtention of acrylamides from anhydrous or acrylic ester are summarized. Moreover, the results obtained in the field of catalysis are also given. The published papers and the congress communications are included [fr

  2. Motor skill delays in pre-school children with leukemia one year after treatment: Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation therapy as an important risk factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taverna, Livia; Tremolada, Marta; Bonichini, Sabrina; Tosetto, Barbara; Basso, Giuseppe; Messina, Chiara; Pillon, Marta

    2017-01-01

    CNS-directed therapies for the treatment of leukemia can adversely affect the acquisition of new skills, such as reading/writing and math. Two years after the end of treatments, children show gross and fine motor skill delays that may persist even when patients are considered healed. The goal of the present study was to assess motor skills difficulties in pre-school children with leukemia one year after treatment. Particular attention has been paid to those patients who had undergone Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HSCT) and to the relationship between motor delays and age bands. Participants were 60 children (median age of 5; inter quartile range: 3.07-5.76), including 31 females and 29 males, 91.7% of them were affected by acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), and 8.3% by acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Five children had undergone HCST. Parents were interviewed by Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS) on children's motor skills and filled in the Italian Temperament Questionnaire (QUIT). VABS's total scores were converted into equivalent mental age scores (EMA). A score difference of at least three months between current age and equivalent mental age was considered a developmental delay. Non-parametric analyses were run to understand if HSCT treatment and a specific age band influence children's motor skills. Significant delays were found in global motor skills (56.7%) as well as in fine and gross motor domains. Mann Whitney U tests showed that children with HSCT were reported to have lower gross motor mean ranks (U = 62; p = 0.004; Mean rank = 15.40) than peers without HSCT (Mean rank = 31.87) and lower mean rank values on motor temperament scale (U = 9; p = 0.003; HSCT Mean rank = 4.75 versus no HSCT Mean rank = 27.81). Kruskal Wallis' tests identified the high risk treatment showing that HSCT experience negatively impacted the motor skills and temperamental motor activity of pre-school children one year after the diagnosis of leukemia.

  3. Motor skill delays in pre-school children with leukemia one year after treatment: Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation therapy as an important risk factor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Taverna

    Full Text Available CNS-directed therapies for the treatment of leukemia can adversely affect the acquisition of new skills, such as reading/writing and math. Two years after the end of treatments, children show gross and fine motor skill delays that may persist even when patients are considered healed. The goal of the present study was to assess motor skills difficulties in pre-school children with leukemia one year after treatment. Particular attention has been paid to those patients who had undergone Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HSCT and to the relationship between motor delays and age bands. Participants were 60 children (median age of 5; inter quartile range: 3.07-5.76, including 31 females and 29 males, 91.7% of them were affected by acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL, and 8.3% by acute myeloid leukemia (AML. Five children had undergone HCST. Parents were interviewed by Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS on children's motor skills and filled in the Italian Temperament Questionnaire (QUIT. VABS's total scores were converted into equivalent mental age scores (EMA. A score difference of at least three months between current age and equivalent mental age was considered a developmental delay. Non-parametric analyses were run to understand if HSCT treatment and a specific age band influence children's motor skills. Significant delays were found in global motor skills (56.7% as well as in fine and gross motor domains. Mann Whitney U tests showed that children with HSCT were reported to have lower gross motor mean ranks (U = 62; p = 0.004; Mean rank = 15.40 than peers without HSCT (Mean rank = 31.87 and lower mean rank values on motor temperament scale (U = 9; p = 0.003; HSCT Mean rank = 4.75 versus no HSCT Mean rank = 27.81. Kruskal Wallis' tests identified the high risk treatment showing that HSCT experience negatively impacted the motor skills and temperamental motor activity of pre-school children one year after the diagnosis of leukemia.

  4. Motor skill delays in pre-school children with leukemia one year after treatment: Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation therapy as an important risk factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonichini, Sabrina; Tosetto, Barbara; Basso, Giuseppe; Messina, Chiara; Pillon, Marta

    2017-01-01

    CNS-directed therapies for the treatment of leukemia can adversely affect the acquisition of new skills, such as reading/writing and math. Two years after the end of treatments, children show gross and fine motor skill delays that may persist even when patients are considered healed. The goal of the present study was to assess motor skills difficulties in pre-school children with leukemia one year after treatment. Particular attention has been paid to those patients who had undergone Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HSCT) and to the relationship between motor delays and age bands. Participants were 60 children (median age of 5; inter quartile range: 3.07–5.76), including 31 females and 29 males, 91.7% of them were affected by acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), and 8.3% by acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Five children had undergone HCST. Parents were interviewed by Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS) on children’s motor skills and filled in the Italian Temperament Questionnaire (QUIT). VABS’s total scores were converted into equivalent mental age scores (EMA). A score difference of at least three months between current age and equivalent mental age was considered a developmental delay. Non-parametric analyses were run to understand if HSCT treatment and a specific age band influence children’s motor skills. Significant delays were found in global