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Sample records for gross motor adaptive

  1. Gross motor control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross motor control is the ability to make large, general movements (such as waving an arm or lifting a leg). ... Gross motor control is a milestone in the development of an infant. Infants develop gross motor control before they develop ...

  2. Gross motor function in children with spastic cerebral palsy and cerebral visual impairment: A comparison between outcomes of the original and the Cerebral Visual Impairment adapted Gross Motor Function Measure-88 (GMFM-88-CVI)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salavati, M.; Rameckers, E.A.A.; Waninge, A.; Krijnen, W.P.; Steenbergen, B.; Schans, C.P. van der

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether the adapted version of the Gross Motor Function Measure-88 (GMFM-88) for children with Cerebral Palsy (CP) and Cerebral Visual Impairment (CVI) results in higher scores. This is most likely to be a reflection of their gross motor function, however it may be the result

  3. Gross motor function in children with spastic Cerebral Palsy and Cerebral Visual Impairment : A comparison between outcomes of the original and the Cerebral Visual Impairment adapted Gross Motor Function Measure-88 (GMFM-88-CVI)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salavati, M.; Rameckers, E. A. A.; Waninge, A.; Krijnen, W. P.; Steenbergen, B.; van der Schans, C. P.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether the adapted version of the Gross Motor Function Measure 88 (GMFM-88) for children with Cerebral Palsy (CP) and Cerebral Visual Impairment (CVI) results in higher scores. This is most likely to be a reflection of their gross motor function, however it may be the result

  4. Gross motor function in children with spastic cerebral palsy and cerebral visual impairment: A comparison between outcomes of the original and the Cerebral Visual Impairment adapted Gross Motor Function Measure-88 (GMFM-88-CVI)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salavati, M.; Rameckers, E.A.A.; Waninge, A.; Krijnen, W.P.; Steenbergen, B.; Schans, C.P. van der

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether the adapted version of the Gross Motor Function Measure-88 (GMFM-88) for children with Cerebral Palsy (CP) and Cerebral Visual Impairment (CVI) results in higher scores. This is most likely to be a reflection of their gross motor function, however it may be the result

  5. Gross motor function in children with spastic Cerebral Palsy and Cerebral Visual Impairment: A comparison between outcomes of the original and the Cerebral Visual Impairment adapted Gross Motor Function Measure-88 (GMFM-88-CVI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salavati, M; Rameckers, E A A; Waninge, A; Krijnen, W P; Steenbergen, B; van der Schans, C P

    2017-01-01

    To investigate whether the adapted version of the Gross Motor Function Measure-88 (GMFM-88) for children with Cerebral Palsy (CP) and Cerebral Visual Impairment (CVI) results in higher scores. This is most likely to be a reflection of their gross motor function, however it may be the result of a better comprehension of the instruction of the adapted version. The scores of the original and adapted GMFM-88 were compared in the same group of children (n=21 boys and n=16 girls), mean (SD) age 113 (30) months with CP and CVI, within a time span of two weeks. A paediatric physical therapist familiar with the child assessed both tests in random order. The GMFCS level, mental development and age at testing were also collected. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to compare two different measurements (the original and adapted GMFM-88) on a single sample, (the same child with CP and CVI; pvisual problems. On the basis of these findings, we recommend using the adapted GMFM-88 to measure gross motor functioning in children with CP and CVI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Validating the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Downs, Jenny; Stahlhut, Michelle; Wong, Kingsley;

    2016-01-01

    Rett syndrome is a pervasive neurodevelopmental disorder associated with a pathogenic mutation on the MECP2 gene. Impaired movement is a fundamental component and the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale was developed to measure gross motor abilities in this population. The current study investigated...... the validity and reliability of the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale. Video data showing gross motor abilities supplemented with parent report data was collected for 255 girls and women registered with the Australian Rett Syndrome Database, and the factor structure and relationships between motor scores, age...... and genotype were investigated. Clinical assessment scores for 38 girls and women with Rett syndrome who attended the Danish Center for Rett Syndrome were used to assess consistency of measurement. Principal components analysis enabled the calculation of three factor scores: Sitting, Standing and Walking...

  7. Validating the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Jenny; Stahlhut, Michelle; Wong, Kingsley; Syhler, Birgit; Bisgaard, Anne-Marie; Jacoby, Peter; Leonard, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Rett syndrome is a pervasive neurodevelopmental disorder associated with a pathogenic mutation on the MECP2 gene. Impaired movement is a fundamental component and the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale was developed to measure gross motor abilities in this population. The current study investigated the validity and reliability of the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale. Video data showing gross motor abilities supplemented with parent report data was collected for 255 girls and women registered with the Australian Rett Syndrome Database, and the factor structure and relationships between motor scores, age and genotype were investigated. Clinical assessment scores for 38 girls and women with Rett syndrome who attended the Danish Center for Rett Syndrome were used to assess consistency of measurement. Principal components analysis enabled the calculation of three factor scores: Sitting, Standing and Walking, and Challenge. Motor scores were poorer with increasing age and those with the p.Arg133Cys, p.Arg294* or p.Arg306Cys mutation achieved higher scores than those with a large deletion. The repeatability of clinical assessment was excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient for total score 0.99, 95% CI 0.93-0.98). The standard error of measurement for the total score was 2 points and we would be 95% confident that a change 4 points in the 45-point scale would be greater than within-subject measurement error. The Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale could be an appropriate measure of gross motor skills in clinical practice and clinical trials.

  8. Concurrent Validity of Preschooler Gross Motor Quality Scale with Test of Gross Motor Development-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shih-Heng; Sun, Hsiao-Ling; Zhu, Yi-Ching; Huang, Li-chi; Hsieh, Yueh-Ling

    2011-01-01

    Preschooler Gross Motor Quality Scale (PGMQ) was recently developed to evaluate motor skill quality of preschoolers. The purpose of this study was to establish the concurrent validity of PGMQ using Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (TGMD-2) as the gold standard. One hundred and thirty five preschool children aged from three to six years were…

  9. The Gross Motor Skills of Children with Mild Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonis, Karen P.; Jernice, Tan Sing Yee

    2014-01-01

    Many international studies have examined the gross motor skills of children studying in special schools while local studies of such nature are limited. This study investigated the gross motor skills of children with Mild Learning Disabilities (MLD; n = 14, M age = 8.93 years, SD = 0.33) with the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (TGMD-2, Ulrich,…

  10. Gross Motor Profile and Its Association with Socialization Skills in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusponegoro, Hardiono D; Efar, Pustika; Soedjatmiko; Soebadi, Amanda; Firmansyah, Agus; Chen, Hui-Ju; Hung, Kun-Long

    2016-12-01

    While social impairment is considered to be the core deficit in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a large proportion of these children have poor gross motor ability, and gross motor deficits may influence socialization skills in children with ASD. The objectives of this study were to compare gross motor skills in children with ASD to typically developing children, to describe gross motor problems in children with ASD, and to investigate associations between gross motor and socialization skills in children with ASD. This was a cross-sectional study including 40 ASD children aged from 18 months to 6 years and 40 age-matched typically developing controls. Gross motor and socialization skills were scored using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, 2(nd) edition (Vineland-II). Below average gross motor function was found in eight of 40 (20%) ASD children. The mean gross motor v-scale score in the ASD group was 15.1 [standard deviation (SD) 3.12], significantly lower than in the control group [18.7, SD 2.09, p = 0.0001; 95% confidence intervals (CI) from -4.725 to -2.525]. The differences were most prominent in ball throwing and catching, using stairs, jumping, and bicycling. The ASD children with gross motor impairments had a mean socialization domain score of 66.6 (SD 6.50) compared to 85.7 (SD 10.90) in those without gross motor impairments (p = 0.0001, 95% CI from -25.327 to -12.736). Children with ASD had lower gross motor skills compared to typically developing children. Gross motor impairments were found in 20% of the ASD children, and these children also had lower socialization skills than those without gross motor impairments. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Psychiatric Symptoms in Children with Gross Motor Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emck, Claudia; Bosscher, Ruud J.; van Wieringen, Piet C. W.; Doreleijers, Theo; Beek, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Children with psychiatric disorders often demonstrate gross motor problems. This study investigates if the reverse also holds true by assessing psychiatric symptoms present in children with gross motor problems. Emotional, behavioral, and autism spectrum disorders (ASD), as well as psychosocial problems, were assessed in a sample of 40 children…

  12. Gross Motor Profile and Its Association with Socialization Skills in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardiono D. Pusponegoro

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: Children with ASD had lower gross motor skills compared to typically developing children. Gross motor impairments were found in 20% of the ASD children, and these children also had lower socialization skills than those without gross motor impairments.

  13. Brief Assessment of Motor Function: Content Validity and Reliability of the Upper Extremity Gross Motor Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cintas, Holly Lea; Parks, Rebecca; Don, Sarah; Gerber, Lynn

    2011-01-01

    Content validity and reliability of the Brief Assessment of Motor Function (BAMF) Upper Extremity Gross Motor Scale (UEGMS) were evaluated in this prospective, descriptive study. The UEGMS is one of five BAMF ordinal scales designed for quick documentation of gross, fine, and oral motor skill levels. Designed to be independent of age and…

  14. Assessing Gross Motor Skills of Kosovar Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shala, Merita

    2009-01-01

    In the light of the new developments in preschool education in Kosovo, this study attempts to carry out an assessment of the development of gross motor skills of preschool children attending institutional education. The emphasis is on creating a set of tests to measure the motor attainments of these children by conducting assessments of the…

  15. Interlimb Coordination: An Important Facet of Gross-Motor Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobbio, Tatiana; Gabbard, Carl; Cacola, Priscila

    2009-01-01

    Motor development attains landmark significance during early childhood. Although early childhood educators may be familiar with the gross-motor skill category, the subcategory of interlimb coordination needs greater attention than it typically receives from teachers of young children. Interlimb coordination primarily involves movements requiring…

  16. Assessment of Preschoolers' Gross Motor Proficiency: Revisiting Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Hazel Mei Yung

    2011-01-01

    Literature reveals that there are very few validated motor proficiency tests for young children. According to Gallahue and Ozmun, the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency is a valid test. However, manipulative skills, which are classified as gross motor skills by most motor development specialists, are only tested in the Upper Limb…

  17. Improving gross motor function and postural control with hippotherapy in children with Down syndrome: case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champagne, Danielle; Dugas, Claude

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this case report is to describe the impact of an 11-week hippotherapy program on the gross motor functions of two children (respectively 28 and 37 months old) diagnosed with Down syndrome. Hippotherapy is a strategy that uses the horse's motion to stimulate and enhance muscle contraction and postural control. The children were assessed by the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) and accelerometry. The results indicate that both children improved on many dimensions of the GMFM. Power spectral analysis of the acceleration signals showed improvement in postural control of either the head or trunk, because the children adopted two different adaptative strategies to perturbation induced by the moving horse.

  18. Effective Collaboration among the Gross Motor Assessment Team Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menear, Kristi S.; Davis, Timothy D.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the gross motor assessment team (GMAT) members' roles and collaborative approach to making appropriate decisions and modifications when addressing the needs of individuals with disabilities in physical education. Case studies of students are used to demonstrate effective uses of the GMAT. The primary outcome of the GMAT's…

  19. Rubriek 'Meten in de praktijk': Gross Motor Function Measure.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenhof, C.; Ketelaar, M.

    2004-01-01

    De Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) is een instrument dat de grof-motorische vaardigheden meet van kinderen met cerebrale parese. De GMFM is expliciet ontwikkeld als evaluatief meetinstrument, wat betekent dat het bedoeld is om veranderingen over de tijd of verandering en die optreden na behandel

  20. Development of the Gross Motor Function Classification System (1997)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    To address the need for a standardized system to classify the gross motor function of children with cerebral palsy, the authors developed a five-level classification system analogous to the staging and grading systems used in medicine. Nominal group process and Delphi survey consensus methods were used to examine content validity and revise the…

  1. Effective Collaboration among the Gross Motor Assessment Team Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menear, Kristi S.; Davis, Timothy D.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the gross motor assessment team (GMAT) members' roles and collaborative approach to making appropriate decisions and modifications when addressing the needs of individuals with disabilities in physical education. Case studies of students are used to demonstrate effective uses of the GMAT. The primary outcome of the GMAT's…

  2. Fine and Gross Motor Ability in Males with ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Both fine and gross motor abilities were evaluated in 10-year-old males with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and compared to a group of control children at the School of Psychology, Curtin University of Technology, Perth, Australia.

  3. Gross Motor Development, Movement Abnormalities, and Early Identification of Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozonoff, Sally; Young, Gregory S.; Goldring, Stacy; Greiss-Hess, Laura; Herrera, Adriana M.; Steele, Joel; Macari, Suzanne; Hepburn, Susan; Rogers, Sally J.

    2008-01-01

    Gross motor development (supine, prone, rolling, sitting, crawling, walking) and movement abnormalities were examined in the home videos of infants later diagnosed with autism (regression and no regression subgroups), developmental delays (DD), or typical development. Group differences in maturity were found for walking, prone, and supine, with…

  4. Relationship Between Gross Motor Function and Daily Functional Skill in Children With Cerebral Palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Kwon, Tae Gun; Yi, Sook-Hee; Kim, Tae Won; Chang, Hyun Jung; Kwon, Jeong-Yi

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between gross motor function and daily functional skill in children with cerebral palsy (CP) and to explore how this relationship is moderated by the Gross Motor Function Classification System, Bimanual Fine Motor Function (BFMF), neuromotor types, and limb distribution of CP. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 112 children with CP (range, 4 years to 7 years and 7 months) was performed. Gross motor function was assessed with the Gross Motor Function ...

  5. The relationship between gross motor skills and academic achievement in children with learning disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westendorp, Marieke; Hartman, Esther; Houwen, Suzanne; Smith, Joanne; Visscher, Chris

    2011-01-01

    The present study compared the gross motor skills of 7- to 12-year-old children with learning disabilities (n = 104) with those of age-matched typically developing children (n = 104) using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2. Additionally, the specific relationships between subsets of gross motor

  6. The relationship between gross motor skills and academic achievement in children with learning disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westendorp, Marieke; Hartman, Esther; Houwen, Suzanne; Smith, Joanne; Visscher, Chris

    2011-01-01

    The present study compared the gross motor skills of 7- to 12-year-old children with learning disabilities (n = 104) with those of age-matched typically developing children (n = 104) using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2. Additionally, the specific relationships between subsets of gross motor

  7. Gross Motor Development of Malaysian Hearing Impaired Male Pre- and Early School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawi, Khairi; Lian, Denise Koh Choon; Abdullah, Rozlina Tan

    2014-01-01

    Acquisition of gross motor skill is a natural developmental process for children. This aspect of human development increases with one's chronological age, irrespective of any developmental conditions. The purpose of this study was to assess the level of gross motor skill development among pre- and early school-aged children with motor disability.…

  8. Effect of physical therapy frequency on gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun-Young

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] This study attempted to investigate the effect of physical therapy frequency based on neurodevelopmental therapy on gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy. [Subjects and Methods] The study sample included 161 children with cerebral palsy who attended a convalescent or rehabilitation center for disabled individuals or a special school for children with physical disabilities in South Korea. Gross Motor Function Measure data were collected according to physical therapy frequency based on neurodevelopmental therapy for a period of 1 year. [Results] The correlation between physical therapy frequency and Gross Motor Function Measure scores for crawling and kneeling, standing, walking, running and jumping, and rolling, and the Gross Motor Function Measure total score was significant. The differences in gross motor function according to physical therapy frequency were significant for crawling, kneeling, standing, and Gross Motor Function Measure total score. The differences in gross motor function according to frequency of physical therapy were significant for standing in Gross Motor Function Classification System Level V. [Conclusion] Intensive physical therapy was more effective for improving gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy. In particular, crawling and kneeling, and standing ability showed greater increases with intensive physical therapy.

  9. Effect of physical therapy frequency on gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun-Young

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study attempted to investigate the effect of physical therapy frequency based on neurodevelopmental therapy on gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy. [Subjects and Methods] The study sample included 161 children with cerebral palsy who attended a convalescent or rehabilitation center for disabled individuals or a special school for children with physical disabilities in South Korea. Gross Motor Function Measure data were collected according to physical therapy frequency based on neurodevelopmental therapy for a period of 1 year. [Results] The correlation between physical therapy frequency and Gross Motor Function Measure scores for crawling and kneeling, standing, walking, running and jumping, and rolling, and the Gross Motor Function Measure total score was significant. The differences in gross motor function according to physical therapy frequency were significant for crawling, kneeling, standing, and Gross Motor Function Measure total score. The differences in gross motor function according to frequency of physical therapy were significant for standing in Gross Motor Function Classification System Level V. [Conclusion] Intensive physical therapy was more effective for improving gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy. In particular, crawling and kneeling, and standing ability showed greater increases with intensive physical therapy. PMID:27390440

  10. Can Clinical Assessment of Locomotive Body Function Explain Gross Motor Environmental Performance in Cerebral Palsy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz Mengibar, Jose Manuel; Santonja-Medina, Fernando; Sanchez-de-Muniain, Paloma; Canteras-Jordana, Manuel

    2016-03-01

    Gross Motor Function Classification System has discriminative purposes but does not assess short-term therapy goals. Locomotion Stages (LS) classify postural body functions and independent activity components. Assessing the relation between Gross Motor Function Classification System level and Locomotion Stages will make us understand if clinical assessment can explain and predict motor environmental performance in cerebral palsy. A total of 462 children were assessed with both scales. High reliability and strong negative correlation (-0.908) for Gross Motor Function Classification System and Locomotion Stages at any age was found. Sensitivity was 83%, and specificity and positive predictive value were 100% within the same age range. Regression analysis showed detailed probabilities for the realization of the Gross Motor Function Classification System depending on the Locomotion Stages and the age group. Postural body function measure with Locomotion Stages is reliable, sensitive, and specific for gross motor function and able to predict environmental performance.

  11. Neonatal Stroke Causes Poor Midline Motor Behaviors and Poor Fine and Gross Motor Skills during Early Infancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao-Ying; Lo, Warren D.; Heathcock, Jill C.

    2013-01-01

    Upper extremity movements, midline behaviors, fine, and gross motor skills are frequently impaired in hemiparesis and cerebral palsy. We investigated midline toy exploration and fine and gross motor skills in infants at risk for hemiplegic cerebral palsy. Eight infants with neonatal stroke (NS) and thirteen infants with typical development (TD)…

  12. Gross Motor Performance and Self-Perceived Motor Competence in Children with Emotional, Behavioural, and Pervasive Developmental Disorders: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emck, Claudia; Bosscher, Ruud; Beek, Peter; Doreleijers, Theo

    2009-01-01

    Aims: Motor performance and self-perceived motor competence have a great impact on the psychosocial development of children in general. In this review, empirical studies of gross motor performance and self-perception of motor competence in children with emotional (depression and anxiety), behavioural, and pervasive developmental disorders are…

  13. De Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM): een onderzoek naar de responsiviteit van de Nederlandse vertaling.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenhof, C.; Ketelaar, M.; Petegem-van Beek, E. van; Vermeer, A.

    2003-01-01

    This article is about the psychometric characteristics of the Dutch translation of the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM). It describes the responsiveness to change. The article "Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM): a reliability study of the Dutch translation" focuses on the reliability of the GMF

  14. De Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM): een onderzoek naar de betrouwbaarheid van de Nederlandse vertaling.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenhof, C.; Ketelaar, M.; Petegem-van Beek, E. van

    2003-01-01

    This article is about the psychometric characteristics of the Dutch translation of the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM). It describes the reliability of the instrument. The article "Gross Motor Function Measure" (GMFM): a validity study of the Dutch translation focusses on the responsiveness of t

  15. The Effects of Basketball Basic Skills Training on Gross Motor Skills Development of Female Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayazit, Betul

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of basketball basic skills training on gross motor skills development of female children in Turkey. For that purpose, 40 female children took part in the study voluntarily. Basketball basic skills test was used to improve the gross motor skills of the female children in the study. Also,…

  16. The Effects of Basketball Basic Skills Training on Gross Motor Skills Development of Female Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayazit, Betul

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of basketball basic skills training on gross motor skills development of female children in Turkey. For that purpose, 40 female children took part in the study voluntarily. Basketball basic skills test was used to improve the gross motor skills of the female children in the study. Also,…

  17. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Test of Gross Motor Development-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ka Yee Allison; Cheung, Siu Yin

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the underlying structure of the second edition of the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (Ulrich, 2000) as applied to Chinese children. The Test of Gross Motor Development-2 was administered to 626 Hong Kong Chinese children. The outlier test with standard scoring was utilized. After data screening, a total…

  18. Developmental and physical-fitness associations with gross motor coordination problems in Peruvian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Chaves, Raquel Nichele; Bustamante Valdívia, Alcibíades; Nevill, Alan; Freitas, Duarte; Tani, Go; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Maia, José António Ribeiro

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this cross-sectional study were to examine the developmental characteristics (biological maturation and body size) associated with gross motor coordination problems in 5193 Peruvian children (2787 girls) aged 6-14 years from different geographical locations, and to investigate how the probability that children suffer with gross motor coordination problems varies with physical fitness. Children with gross motor coordination problems were more likely to have lower flexibility and explosive strength levels, having adjusted for age, sex, maturation and study site. Older children were more likely to suffer from gross motor coordination problems, as were those with greater body mass index. However, more mature children were less likely to have gross motor coordination problems, although children who live at sea level or at high altitude were more likely to suffer from gross motor coordination problems than children living in the jungle. Our results provide evidence that children and adolescents with lower physical fitness are more likely to have gross motor coordination difficulties. The identification of youths with gross motor coordination problems and providing them with effective intervention programs is an important priority in order to overcome such developmental problems, and help to improve their general health status.

  19. The relationship between spasticity and gross motor capability in nonambulatory children with spastic cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katusic, Ana; Alimovic, Sonja

    2013-09-01

    Spasticity has been considered as a major impairment in cerebral palsy (CP), but the relationship between this impairment and motor functions is still unclear, especially in the same group of patients with CP. The aim of this investigation is to determine the relationship between spasticity and gross motor capability in nonambulatory children with spastic CP. Seventy-one children (30 boys, 41 girls) with bilateral spastic cerebral palsy and with Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels IV (n=34) and V (n=37) were included in the study. The spasticity level in lower limbs was evaluated using the Modified Modified Ashworth Scale and the gross motor function with the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM-88). Spearman's correlation analysis was used to determine the nature and the strength of the relationship. The results showed a moderate correlation between spasticity and gross motor skills (ρ=0.52 for the GMFCS level; ρ=0.57 for the GMFM-88), accounting for less than 30% of the explained variance. It seems that spasticity is just one factor among many others that could interfere with gross motor skills, even in children with severe forms of spastic CP. Knowledge of the impact of spasticity on motor skills may be useful in the setting of adequate rehabilitation strategies for nonambulatory children with spastic CP.

  20. Longitudinal Association Between Gross Motor Capacity and Neuromusculoskeletal Function in Children and Youth With Cerebral Palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Rimke C.; Becher, Jules G.; Voorman, Jeanine M.; Gorter, Jan Willem; van Eck, Mirjam; van Meeteren, Jetty; Smits, Dirk Wouter; Twisk, Jos W.; Dallmeijer, Annet J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To examine associations over longitudinal measurements between neuromusculoskeletal function and gross motor capacity in children and youth with cerebral palsy (CP). Design: A prospective cohort study. Setting: Rehabilitation departments of university medical centers and rehabilitations c

  1. Longitudinal Association Between Gross Motor Capacity and Neuromusculoskeletal Function in Children and Youth With Cerebral Palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Rimke C.; Becher, Jules G.; Voorman, Jeanine M.; Gorter, Jan Willem; van Eck, Mirjam; van Meeteren, Jetty; Smits, Dirk Wouter; Twisk, Jos W.; Dallmeijer, Annet J.; van Schie, P. E M; Schuengel, C.; Ketelaar, M.; Lindeman, E.; Jongmans, M.; Roebroeck, M. E.; Tan, S. S.; Wiegerink, D. J H G; Reinders-Messelink, H. A.; Verheijden, J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine associations over longitudinal measurements between neuromusculoskeletal function and gross motor capacity in children and youth with cerebral palsy (CP). Design A prospective cohort study. Setting Rehabilitation departments of university medical centers and rehabilitations cent

  2. The central role of trunk control in the gross motor function of children with cerebral palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Curtis, Derek John; Butler, Penny; Saavedra, Sandy;

    2015-01-01

    Aim Improvement of gross motor function and mobility are primary goals of physical therapy in children with cerebral palsy (CP). The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between segmental control of the trunk and the corresponding gross motor function in children with CP....... Method This retrospective cross-sectional study was based on 92 consecutive referrals of children with CP in Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels I to V, 39 females, 53 males (median age 4y [range 1–14y]), and 77, 12, and 3 with spastic, dyskinetic, and ataxic CP respectively....... The participants were tested using the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM), the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI), and the Segmental Assessment of Trunk Control (SATCo). Results Linear regression analysis showed a positive relationship between the segmental level of trunk control and age...

  3. Longitudinal Association Between Gross Motor Capacity and Neuromusculoskeletal Function in Children and Youth With Cerebral Palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Rimke C.; Becher, Jules G.; Voorman, Jeanine M.; Gorter, Jan Willem; van Eck, Mirjam; van Meeteren, Jetty; Smits, Dirk Wouter; Twisk, Jos W.; Dallmeijer, Annet J.

    Objective: To examine associations over longitudinal measurements between neuromusculoskeletal function and gross motor capacity in children and youth with cerebral palsy (CP). Design: A prospective cohort study. Setting: Rehabilitation departments of university medical centers and rehabilitations

  4. Longitudinal Association Between Gross Motor Capacity and Neuromusculoskeletal Function in Children and Youth With Cerebral Palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Rimke C.; Becher, Jules G.; Voorman, Jeanine M.; Gorter, Jan Willem; van Eck, Mirjam; van Meeteren, Jetty; Smits, Dirk Wouter; Twisk, Jos W.; Dallmeijer, Annet J.; van Schie, P. E M; Schuengel, C.; Ketelaar, M.; Lindeman, E.; Jongmans, M.; Roebroeck, M. E.; Tan, S. S.; Wiegerink, D. J H G; Reinders-Messelink, H. A.; Verheijden, J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine associations over longitudinal measurements between neuromusculoskeletal function and gross motor capacity in children and youth with cerebral palsy (CP). Design A prospective cohort study. Setting Rehabilitation departments of university medical centers and rehabilitations

  5. Effect of physical therapy frequency on gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Eun-Young

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study attempted to investigate the effect of physical therapy frequency based on neurodevelopmental therapy on gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy. [Subjects and Methods] The study sample included 161 children with cerebral palsy who attended a convalescent or rehabilitation center for disabled individuals or a special school for children with physical disabilities in South Korea. Gross Motor Function Measure data were collected according to physical therapy fr...

  6. Reliability of the modified Gross Motor Function Measure-88 (GMFM-88) for children with both Spastic Cerebral Palsy and Cerebral Visual Impairment : A preliminary study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salavati, M.; Krijnen, W. P.; Rameckers, E. A. A.; Looijestijn, P. L.; Maathuis, C. G. B.; van der Schans, C. P.; Steenbergen, B.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The aims of this study were to adapt the Gross Motor Function Measure-88 (GMFM-88) for children with Cerebral Palsy (CP) and Cerebral Visual Impairment (CVI) and to determine the test-retest and interobserver reliability of the adapted version. Method: Sixteen paediatric physical therapists

  7. GENDER DIFFERENCES IN FINE AND GROSS MOTOR SKILLS OF NORMALLY DEVELOPING OVERWEIGHT AND OBESE ADOLESCENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şehmus ASLAN

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to compare girls’ and boys’ fine and gross motor skills in normally developing overweight and obese adolescents. 18 girls and 28 boys with 12-18 age range, in totally 46 overweight and obese adolecents participated in the study. Body mass index of participants were calculated. Fine and gross motor skills of adolescents were assessed by Short Form Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOT-2 SF. There was no differences between girls and boys for BOT-2 SF total scores (p>0.05, but it was found differences in several items of BOT-2 SF. Scores of test items for fine motor scores in the girls were higher than the boys (p0.05. Gross motor skill tests including jumping in place, dribling a ball, sit-ups, one- legged stationary hop test scores were higher in the boys, while tapping feet and fingers test score was higher in the girls (p<0.05. Our results suggested that there is differences between girls’ and boys’ fine and gross motor skills in normally developing overweight and obese adolescents. Girls have better fine motor skill performance while boys have better gross motor skill performance in overweight and obese adolescents.

  8. Gross Motor Function Measure Evolution Ratio: Use as a Control for Natural Progression in Cerebral Palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marois, Pierre; Marois, Mikael; Pouliot-Laforte, Annie; Vanasse, Michel; Lambert, Jean; Ballaz, Laurent

    2016-05-01

    To develop a new way to interpret Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM-66) score improvement in studies conducted without control groups in children with cerebral palsy (CP). The curves, which describe the pattern of motor development according to the children's Gross Motor Function Classification System level, were used as historical control to define the GMFM-66 expected natural evolution in children with CP. These curves have been modeled and generalized to fit the curve to particular children characteristics. Research center. Not applicable. Not applicable. Not applicable. Assuming that the GMFM-66 score evolution followed the shape of the Rosenbaum curves, by taking into account the age and GMFM-66 score of children, the expected natural evolution of the GMFM-66 score was predicted for any group of children with CP who were Motor Function Measure Evolution Ratio, was defined as follows: Gross Motor Function Measure Evolution Ratio=measured GMFM-66 score change/expected natural evolution. For practical or ethical reasons, it is almost impossible to use control groups in studies evaluating effectiveness of many therapeutic modalities. The Gross Motor Function Measure Evolution Ratio gives the opportunity to take into account the expected natural evolution of the gross motor function of children with CP, which is essential to accurately interpret the therapy effect on the GMFM-66. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of Spark Motor Program on the development of gross motor skills in intellectually disabled educable boys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashem Faal Moganloo

    2013-11-01

    Results: Spark Program caused significant changes in all the variables of the study, except speed and agility, in the experimental group after 24 sessions. The changes included: agility and speed (P=0.731, balance (P=0, strength (P=0.002, and bilateral coordination (P=0. Conclusion: Spark Motor Program can improve gross motor skills in intellectually disabled educable students.

  10. 75 FR 73998 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; New Pneumatic Tires for Motor Vehicles With a Gross...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ... Vehicle Safety Standards; New Pneumatic Tires for Motor Vehicles With a Gross Vehicle Weight Rating (GVWR... Federal motor vehicle safety standard (FMVSS) that applies to new pneumatic tires for use on vehicles with... (NPRM) proposing to upgrade FMVSS No. 119 (49 CFR 571.119), which applies to new pneumatic tires...

  11. The Effects of Modified Games on the Development of Gross Motor Skill in Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestari, Indah; Ratnaningsih, Tri

    2016-01-01

    Gross motor skills on children must be optimized much earlier since it plays important role not only on their interaction process but also in supporting other multiple developments. One of the means in developing child's motor skill is by providing innovative games i.e. modified games including game format, game timing, and game sequence. The…

  12. Association of therapeutic occasion, gross motor function grading and developmental level with gross motor functional recovery in children with cerebral palsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The abnormal posture and motor pattern have not stabilized in children with cerebral palsy at early period, thus timely treatment can establish normal postural reflex and motor pattern, and prevent complications of muscle contracture, ankylosis, skeletal deformity, etc. The clinical factors affecting the rehabilitative efficacy of gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy should be observed.OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of therapeutic occasion, grading of gross motor function and developmental level on the rehabilitative efficacy in children with cerebral palsy.DESIGN: A case-controlled analysis.SETTING: Qilu Children's Hospital of Shandong University.PARTICIPANTS: Totally 138 children with cerebral palsy, who were hospitalized for 12 months in the Rehabilitation Center of Qilu Children's Hospital, Shandong University, were selected from April 2004 to September 2006, and all the children were diagnosed to be accorded with the standard set by the national seminar on cerebral palsy in 2004. There were 97 males and 41 females, including 55 cases of 0 - 2 years old,47 cases of 2 - 4 years and 36 cases of 4 - 6 years. Informed contents were obtained from relatives of all the children.METHODS: ① Comprehensive rehabilitation treatment: Vojta method was to induce the children to turn over the body and crawl by stimulating reflective turn over and crawling on belly. Bobath method including trainings of head control, turning over body, keeping sitting position, keeping balance, crawling, keeping standing position, and walking, etc.; The children were massaged by using the maneuvers of push, press, rub,pull, wave, etc. according to the sites and types of palsy. Acupuncture was performed mainly at bilateral motor areas, the needle was retained for 1 hour per time, 6 days continuously every week, and followed by a 1-day interval. ② Prognosis assessment: The gross motor functional grading of the children with cerebral palsy at admission was

  13. Tracking of Gross Motor Coordination from Childhood into Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Rodrigo Antunes; Bugge, Anna; Pfeiffer, Karin Allor; Andersen, Lars Bo

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to analyze tracking and stability of motor coordination in children from age 6 years to ages 9 and 13 years. Method: Data were from the Copenhagen School Child Intervention Study. Motor coordination (MC) was measured using the körperkoordinationstest für Kinder (KTK) test. The crude performance score on every…

  14. The gross motor function measure is a valid and sensitive outcome measure for spinal muscular atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Leslie; Owens, Hollis; Hynan, Linda S; Iannaccone, Susan T

    2006-06-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy is a genetic disease of the anterior horn cell with high morbidity rate in childhood. Certain drugs may be of benefit and are in or under consideration for Phase II trials. Outcome measures that are age appropriate and representative of disease activity remain under study. Several have not yet been validated for spinal muscular atrophy. The Gross Motor Function Measure is a measure of motor function. We showed previously that the Gross Motor Function Measure is a reliable outcome measure to assess motor function in children with spinal muscular atrophy. By collating our data from 40 spinal muscular atrophy patients, ages 5 through 17 years, we now show the validity of the Gross Motor Function Measure when compared to Quantitative Muscle Testing and ambulatory status in children with spinal muscular atrophy. The median for Gross Motor Function Measure total scores for walkers was 237 (range: 197-261) and for non-walkers, 64 (range: 4-177; PGross Motor Function Measure is valid and sensitive as an outcome measure for clinical trials in pediatric spinal muscular atrophy.

  15. Associations between gross motor and communicative development in at-risk infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBarton, Eve Sauer; Iverson, Jana M

    2016-08-01

    Infants' advances in locomotion relate to advances in communicative development. However, little is known about these relations in infants at risk for delays in these domains and whether they may extend to earlier achievements in gross motor development in infancy. We examined whether advances in sitting and prone locomotion are related to communicative development in infants who have an older sibling with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and are at risk for motor and communication delays (heightened-risk; HR). We conducted a longitudinal study with 37 HR infants who did not receive an ASD diagnosis at 36 months. Infants were observed monthly between the ages of 5 and 14 months. We assessed gross motor development using the Alberta Infant Motor Scales (AIMS) and recorded ages of onset of verbal and nonverbal communicative behaviors. Results indicated increased presence of early gross motor delay from 5 to 10 months. In addition, there were positive relations between sitting and gesture and babble onset and between prone development and gesture onset. Thus, links between gross motor development and communication extend to at-risk development and provide a starting point for future research on potential cascading consequences of motor advances on communication development.

  16. The Natural History of Gross Motor Development in Children with Cerebral Palsy Aged 1 to 15 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckung, E.; Carlsson, G.; Carlsdotter, S.; Uvebrant, P.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore motor development in children with cerebral palsy (CP) using developmental curves for CP, subtypes, and the five severity levels of the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS). The Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) and the GMFCS were applied to 317 children (145 females, 172 males) with CP, aged…

  17. EFFECT OF SENSORY INTEGRATION THERAPY ON GROSS MOTOR FUNCTION IN CHILDREN WITH CEREBRAL PALSY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Shamsoddini

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveThe primary problem in children with cerebral palsy (CP, frequently referred for occupational therapy, is gross motor dysfunction. The current study was designed to investigate the effects of sensory integration therapy (SIT on gross motor skills in CP patients.Materials & MethodsTwenty-four children with diplegic spastic CP were randomly divided into two groups: First group (n=14,6 girls, 8 boys, age range 2 to 6 years, mean age 3.9 years; the second or control group (n=10, 5 girls, 5 boys, age range 2 to 6 years, mean age 3.4 years. SIT training was given to the first group and only the home program was given for the second group. All children were evaluated with gross motor function measurement (GMFM 88 for rolling, sitting, crawling, standing and walking position before and after intervention. Treatment duration for both groups was 1 hour, 5 days per week for a period of 12 weeks.ResultsGross motor function in children of the case group improved significantly better that in the control group, after intervention in sitting (P=0.02, crawling (P=0.001 and standing (P=0.03 positions; however no significant difference was seen in rolling (P=0.65 and walking (P=0.69 ability assessment.ConclusionThis study showed the beneficial effects of the SIT training program for children with CP; the SIT intervention had a significantly positive effect on gross motor function in the children with diplegic spastic CP. Moreover the results of the present study showed that sensory integration and vestibular stimulation were effective in children with cerebral palsy.Keywords:Cerebral palsy, Children, Gross motor, Occupational therapy, Sensory integration

  18. Effect of cerebrolysin on gross motor function of children with cerebral palsy: a clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasiri, Jafar; Safavifar, Faezeh

    2017-01-10

    Gross motor dysfunction is considered as the most challenging problem in cerebral palsy (CP). It is proven that improvement of gross motor function could reduce CP-related disabilities and provide better quality of life in this group of patients. Therefore, the aim of this trial is to evaluate the effectiveness of cerebrolysin (CBL) on gross motor function of children with CP who are undergoing treatment. In this clinical trial study, paediatric patients aged 18-75 months with spastic diplegic or quadriplegic cerebral palsy, who were under rehabilitation therapy, were selected and randomly allocated in control and CBL groups. Patients in CBL group underwent treatment with standard rehabilitation therapy plus CBL. The latter was administrated intramuscularly as a single daily dose of 0.1 cc/kg for 10 days and then continued weekly for 4 months. Gross motor function of participants in the two studied groups, before and after trial, was evaluated and compared using the validated Persian version of gross motor function classification system-expanded and revised (GMFCS-E&R). During this trial, 108 patients with CP were evaluated for eligibility. From these, 50 patients were enrolled and randomly allocated in the CBL and control groups. Four months after trial, the mean level of GMFCS decreased significantly in the two groups (P < 0.05). However, it was significantly lower in the CBL group than in the control group (2.1 vs. 3.16, P < 0.05). The results of this trial indicated that CBL could improve gross motor function in patients with CP. This finding is consistent with neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects of CBL, which have been reported in various clinical trials in other neurological disorders. Further studies are recommended to establish the value of continued neuroprotection and to determine the pharmacokinetics/dynamics of CBL in this group of patients.

  19. Effects of gross motor function and manual function levels on performance-based ADL motor skills of children with spastic cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Myoung-Ok

    2017-02-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine effects of Gross Motor Function Classification System and Manual Ability Classification System levels on performance-based motor skills of children with spastic cerebral palsy. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-three children with cerebral palsy were included. The Assessment of Motor and Process Skills was used to evaluate performance-based motor skills in daily life. Gross motor function was assessed using Gross Motor Function Classification Systems, and manual function was measured using the Manual Ability Classification System. [Results] Motor skills in daily activities were significantly different on Gross Motor Function Classification System level and Manual Ability Classification System level. According to the results of multiple regression analysis, children categorized as Gross Motor Function Classification System level III scored lower in terms of performance based motor skills than Gross Motor Function Classification System level I children. Also, when analyzed with respect to Manual Ability Classification System level, level II was lower than level I, and level III was lower than level II in terms of performance based motor skills. [Conclusion] The results of this study indicate that performance-based motor skills differ among children categorized based on Gross Motor Function Classification System and Manual Ability Classification System levels of cerebral palsy.

  20. Impact of a Community-Based Programme for Motor Development on Gross Motor Skills and Cognitive Function in Preschool Children from Disadvantaged Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, Catherine E.; Achmat, Masturah; Forbes, Jared; Lambert, Estelle V.

    2012-01-01

    The aims of the studies were to assess the impact of the Little Champs programme for motor development on (1) the gross motor skills, and (2) cognitive function of children in the programme. In study 1, 118 children from one Early Childhood Development Centre (ECDC) were tested using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2, and in study 2, 83…

  1. Gross motor ability predicts response to upper extremity rehabilitation in chronic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Sarah Hulbert; Rafiei, Mohammad Hossein; Borstad, Alexandra; Adeli, Hojjat; Gauthier, Lynne V

    2017-08-30

    The majority of rehabilitation research focuses on the comparative effectiveness of different interventions in groups of patients, while much less is currently known regarding individual factors that predict response to rehabilitation. In a recent article, the authors presented a prognostic model to identify the sensorimotor characteristics predictive of the extent of motor recovery after Constraint-Induced Movement (CI) therapy amongst individuals with chronic mild-to-moderate motor deficit using the enhanced probabilistic neural network (EPNN). This follow-up paper examines which participant characteristics are robust predictors of rehabilitation response irrespective of the training modality. To accomplish this, EPNN was first applied to predict treatment response amongst individuals who received a virtual-reality gaming intervention (utilizing the same enrollment criteria as the prior study). The combinations of predictors that yield high predictive validity for both therapies, using their respective datasets, were then identified. High predictive classification accuracy was achieved for both the gaming (94.7%) and combined datasets (94.5%). Though CI therapy employed primarily fine-motor training tasks and the gaming intervention emphasized gross-motor practice, larger improvements in gross motor function were observed within both datasets. Poorer gross motor ability at pre-treatment predicted better rehabilitation response in both the gaming and combined datasets. The conclusion of this research is that for individuals with chronic mild-to-moderate upper extremity hemiparesis, residual deficits in gross motor function are highly responsive to motor restorative interventions, irrespective of the modality of training. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Development of the Gross Motor Function Classification System for Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Peter L.; Palisano, Robert J.; Bartlett, Doreen J.; Galuppi, Barbara E.; Russell, Dianne J.

    2008-01-01

    The Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) for cerebral palsy has been widely used internationally for clinical, research, and administrative purposes. This paper recounts the ideas and work behind the creation of the GMFCS, reports on the lessons learned, and identifies some philosophical challenges inherent in trying to develop an…

  3. Gross motor skills and sports participation of children with visual impairments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwen, S; Visscher, C.; Hartman, E.; Lemmink, K.A.P.M.

    2007-01-01

    Gross motor skill performance of children with visual impairments and its association with the degree of visual impairment and sports participation was examined. Twenty children with visual impairments (M age = 9.2 years, SD =1.5) and 100 sighted children (M age = 9.1 years, SD = 1.5) from mainstrea

  4. Gross Motor Performance and Physical Fitness in Children with Psychiatric Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emck, Claudia; Bosscher, Ruud J.; van Wieringen, Piet C. W.; Doreleijers, Theo; Beek, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: Gross motor performance appears to be impaired in children with psychiatric disorders but little is known about which skill domains are affected in each disorder, nor about possible accompanying deficits in physical fitness. The present study has sought to provide information about these issues in children with emotional, behavioural, and…

  5. Self-Pacing a Gross Motor Skills Course: Crawler Tractor Operator, MOS 62E20.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Mark F.; Taylor, John E.

    As part of the Army's emphasis on performance-oriented instruction in training centers, a study was conducted to determine the feasibility of using self-paced instruction in a gross motor skills course. The Crawler Tractor Operator Course, a seven-week heavy equipment course conducted at Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri was selected for the study…

  6. A longitudinal study on gross motor development in children with learning disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westendorp, Marieke; Hartman, Esther; Houwen, Suzanne; Huijgen, Barbara C. H.; Smith, Joanne; Visscher, Chris

    This longitudinal study examined the development of gross motor skills, and sex-differences therein, in 7; to 11-years-old children with learning disorders (LD) and compared the results with typically developing children to determine the performance level of children with LD. In children with LD (n

  7. Gross motor skills and sports participation of children with visual impairments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwen, S; Visscher, C.; Hartman, E.; Lemmink, K.A.P.M.

    Gross motor skill performance of children with visual impairments and its association with the degree of visual impairment and sports participation was examined. Twenty children with visual impairments (M age = 9.2 years, SD =1.5) and 100 sighted children (M age = 9.1 years, SD = 1.5) from

  8. A longitudinal study on gross motor development in children with learning disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westendorp, Marieke; Hartman, Esther; Houwen, Suzanne; Huijgen, Barbara C. H.; Smith, Joanne; Visscher, Chris

    2014-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the development of gross motor skills, and sex-differences therein, in 7; to 11-years-old children with learning disorders (LD) and compared the results with typically developing children to determine the performance level of children with LD. In children with LD (n

  9. Effects of Aquatic Intervention on Gross Motor Skills in Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roostaei, Meysam; Baharlouei, Hamzeh; Azadi, Hamidreza; Fragala-Pinkham, Maria A

    2016-12-14

    To review the literature on the effects of aquatic intervention on gross motor skills for children with cerebral palsy (CP). Six databases were searched from inception to January 2016. Aquatic studies for children aged 1-21 years with any type or CP classification and at least one outcome measuring gross motor skills were included. Information was extracted on study design, outcomes, and aquatic program type, frequency, duration, and intensity. Quality was rated using the Centre of Evidence-Based Medicine: Levels of Evidence and the PEDro scale. Of the 11 studies which met inclusion criteria, only two used randomized control trial design, and the results were mixed. Quality of evidence was rated as moderate to high for only one study. Most studies used quasi-experimental designs and reported improvements in gross motor skills for within group analyses after aquatic programs were held for two to three times per week and lasting for 6-16 weeks. Participants were classified according to the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels I-V, and were aged 3-21 years. Mild to no adverse reactions were reported. Evidence on aquatic interventions for ambulatory children with CP is limited. Aquatic exercise is feasible and adverse effects are minimal; however, dosing parameters are unclear. Further research is needed to determine aquatic intervention effectiveness and exercise dosing across age categories and GMFCS levels.

  10. Gross Motor Performance and Physical Fitness in Children with Psychiatric Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emck, Claudia; Bosscher, Ruud J.; van Wieringen, Piet C. W.; Doreleijers, Theo; Beek, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: Gross motor performance appears to be impaired in children with psychiatric disorders but little is known about which skill domains are affected in each disorder, nor about possible accompanying deficits in physical fitness. The present study has sought to provide information about these issues in children with emotional, behavioural, and…

  11. Relation between hand function and gross motor function in full term infants aged 4 to 8 months

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Solange F.; Figueiredo, Elyonara M.; Gonçalves, Rejane V.; Mancini, Marisa C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: In children, reaching emerges around four months of age, which is followed by rapid changes in hand function and concomitant changes in gross motor function, including the acquisition of independent sitting. Although there is a close functional relationship between these domains, to date they have been investigated separately. Objective: To investigate the longitudinal profile of changes and the relationship between the development of hand function (i.e. reaching for and manipulating an object) and gross motor function in 13 normally developing children born at term who were evaluated every 15 days from 4 to 8 months of age. Method: The number of reaches and the period (i.e. time) of manipulation to an object were extracted from video synchronized with the Qualisys(r) movement analysis system. Gross motor function was measured using the Alberta Infant Motor Scale. ANOVA for repeated measures was used to test the effect of age on the number of reaches, the time of manipulation and gross motor function. Hierarchical regression models were used to test the associations of reaching and manipulation with gross motor function. Results: Results revealed a significant increase in the number of reaches (p<0.001), the time of manipulation (p<0.001) and gross motor function (p<0.001) over time, as well as associations between reaching and gross motor function (R2=0.84; p<0.001) and manipulation and gross motor function (R2=0.13; p=0.02) from 4 to 6 months of age. Associations from 6 to 8 months of age were not significant. Conclusion: The relationship between hand function and gross motor function was not constant, and the age span from 4 to 6 months was a critical period of interdependency of hand function and gross motor function development. PMID:25714437

  12. Effects of Motor Skill Intervention on Gross Motor Development, Creative Thinking and Academic Performance in Preschool Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Jiménez Díaz

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate how students (mean= 6.08±0.5 years benefit from a physical education program in motor performance, creative thinking and academic achievement. Students (n = 39 were randomly assigned to comparison group (6 boys and 7 girls who received the regular preschool program (which includes 1 session of 30 minutes per week; intervention group 1 (6 boys and 7 girls who received the regular preschool program plus 1 session of 30 minutes per week of the intervention program; or intervention group 2 (6 boys and 7 girls, who received the regular preschool program plus 1 session of 60 minutes per week of the intervention program; during 8 weeks. All participants performed the Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD-2 and the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking (TTCT before and after the study. The academic achievement score was given by the school. The ANOVA (Group x Gender x Time pre and post analysis revealed a significant triple interaction in the object control. Significant double interactions in the locomotor subscale and in the gross motor quotient were also found. After the post-hoc analysis, the results suggest that the physical education program benefits the gross motor performance and did not have an effect on the creative thinking or on the academic achievement.

  13. Gross motor skill performance in a sample of overweight and non-overweight preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morano, Milena; Colella, Dario; Caroli, Margherita

    2011-10-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the gross motor skill performance of overweight and non-overweight preschool children from South of Italy, and to investigate possible differences by gender. Participants were 38 boys and 42 girls (4.5 ± 0.5 yr) categorized as overweight (n = 38) and non-overweight (n = 42), according to the IOTF body mass index (BMI) cut-off points. The Test of Gross Motor Development was used to assess seven locomotor skills (run, gallop, hop, leap, horizontal jump, skip and slide) and five object-control skills (two-hand strike, stationary bounce, catch, kick and overhand throw). The raw, standard and percentile scores and the Gross Motor Development Quotient (GMDQ) were calculated for each participant. ANOVA 2 (gender) x 2 (group) was conducted on the subtest standard scores and the GMDQ. No differences in performance were found between boys and girls on the subscale standard scores and the GMDQ. Significant main effects (p overweight children reporting lower movement competence than their counterparts. Pearson's correlations revealed relationships (p Overweight participants showed poorer performance on locomotor and object-control tasks than their non-overweight peers. Interventions to promote physical activity in overweight children should be directed towards achieving a healthy weight and motor skill improvement.

  14. Physical fitness of primary school children in the reflection of different levels of gross motor coordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Ružbarská

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lower level of motor competences may result in unsuccessful engaging of children in physical activities as early as pre-school age and also prepubescent ages. This may subsequently lead to a spiral of forming negative attitudes towards an active lifestyle and may be accompanied by a negative trend in weight status and physical fitness outcomes. Objective: The aim of the study was to identify and analyze differences in physical fitness and somatic parameters of primary school-aged children according to level of their gross motor coordination. Methods:  A sample of 436 children aged 7 to 10 years, of which were 222 girls and 214 boys, performed physical fitness tests - Eurofit test battery. The level of motor coordination was assessed using the test battery Körperkoordination-Test-für-Kinder (KTK. The anthropometric data (body mass, body height, sum of five skinfolds were measured. The one-way ANOVA was used to assess differences in physical fitness test items and anthropometry parameters between children with normal motor quotient (MQ ≥ 86 and decreased levels of gross motor coordination (MQ ≤ 85. Results: Research findings indicate a strongly negative trend in physical development of children with motor deficits (MQ ≤ 85. The results of ANOVA revealed significantly less favourable level of most of the assessed physical fitness parameters in children with decreased level of motor coordination. Conclusions: The findings suggest that physical fitness outcomes of primary school-aged children are associated with a lower level of motor coordination. Motor coordination probably plays an important role in preventing, or moderating the so-called negative trajectory leading to childhood overweight or obesity.

  15. Reference Curves for the Gross Motor Function Measure: Percentiles for Clinical Description and Tracking Over Time Among Children With Cerebral Palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Hanna, Steven E.; Bartlett, Doreen J; Rivard, Lisa M; Russell, Dianne J

    2008-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Physical therapists frequently use the 66-item Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM-66) with the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) to examine gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Until now, reference percentiles for this measure were not available. The aim of this study was to improve the clinical utility of this gross motor measure by developing cross-sectional reference percentiles for the GMFM-66 within levels of the GMFCS.

  16. Hip displacement in relation to age and gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Larnert, Per; Risto, Olof; Hägglund, Gunnar; Wagner, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Hip dislocation in cerebral palsy (CP) is a serious complication. By radiographic screening and prophylactic surgery of children at risk most dislocations can be prevented. CPUP, the Swedish CP registry and follow-up program, includes annual radiographic examinations of children at Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels III–V. Data from CPUP were analysed to assess the risk of hip displacement in relation to GMFCS levels and age. Methods All children at GMFCS levels...

  17. The clinimetric properties of performance-based gross motor tests used for children with developmental coordination disorder: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Leanne M; Hillier, Susan L; Civetta, Lauren R

    2010-01-01

    Performance-based measures of gross motor skills are required for children with developmental coordination disorder to quantify motor ability and objectify change. Information related to psychometrics, clinical utility, feasibility, and client appropriateness and acceptability is needed so that clinicians and researchers are assured that they have chosen the most appropriate and robust tool. This review identified performance-based measures of gross motor skills for this population, and the research evidence for their clinimetric properties through a systematic literature search. Seven measures met the inclusion criteria and were appraised for their clinimetric properties. The Movement Assessment Battery for Children and the Test for Gross Motor Development (second version) scored highest on appraisal. The 2 highest scoring measures are recommended in the first instance for clinicians wishing to evaluate gross motor performance in children with developmental coordination disorder. However, both measures require further testing to increase confidence in their validity for this population.

  18. Gross and fine motor function in fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome

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    Rasouli, Omid; Fors, Egil A; Borchgrevink, Petter Chr; Öhberg, Fredrik; Stensdotter, Ann-Katrin

    2017-01-01

    Purpose This paper aimed to investigate motor proficiency in fine and gross motor function, with a focus on reaction time (RT) and movement skill, in patients with fibromyalgia (FM) and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) compared to healthy controls (HC). Methods A total of 60 individuals (20 CFS, 20 FM, and 20 HC), age 19–49 years, participated in this study. Gross motor function in the lower extremity was assessed using a RT task during gait initiation in response to an auditory trigger. Fine motor function in the upper extremity was measured during a precision task (the Purdue Pegboard test) where the number of pins inserted within 30 s was counted. Results No significant differences were found between FM and CFS in any parameters. FM and CFS groups had significantly longer RT than HC in the gait initiation (p=0.001, and p=0.004 respectively). In the Purdue Pegboard test, 20% in the FM group, 15% in the CFS groups, and 0% of HC group, scored below the threshold of the accepted performance. However, there were no significant differences between FM, CFS, and HC in this task (p=0.12). Conclusion Compared to controls, both CFS and FM groups displayed significantly longer RT in the gait initiation task. Generally, FM patients showed the worst results in both tests, although no group differences were found in fine motor control, according to the Purdue Pegboard test. PMID:28223840

  19. Adaptação transcultural para o Brasil do Sistema de Classificação da Função Motora Grossa (GMFCS Cross-cultural adaptation of the Gross Motor Function Classification System into Brazilian-Portuguese (GMFCS

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    Erika Hiratuka

    2010-12-01

    topography of the body distribution only, Canadian researchers have proposed the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS. Although this classification system has been largely used in Brazil, it has not been cross culturally adapted yet. OBJECTIVES: To perform the cross adaptation of the Gross Motor Function Classification System for the Cerebral Palsy (GMFCS into Brazilian-Portuguese and to verify the reliability among observers of the adapted instrument in Brazilian children. METHODS: This study was performed in two stages; the first stage was related to the process of cross-cultural adaptation and the second stage tested the instrument. Translation, back-translation, semantic and content analysis, back-translation of the final version and the approval of the authors were used for the cross-cultural adaptation. The test of the instrument was performed in 40 children with cerebral palsy, who were evaluated by two raters to verify the reliability among the observers. RESULTS: The results showed that the stages of translation and back-translation did not present any difficulties and the semantic and conceptual equivalence was achieved. The reliability among the observers showed that the evaluations do not differ and that there is an excellent correlation and internal consistency of the construct with an ICC of 0.945 (95% CI 0.861 to 0.979 and a Cronbach a of 0.972. CONCLUSIONS: The final version of the GMFCS showed good potential of applicability for undergraduate students and professionals of the neuropediatric area.

  20. The relationship between gross motor function and manual ability in cerebral palsy.

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    Oskoui, Maryam; Majnemer, Annette; Dagenais, Lynn; Shevell, Michael I

    2013-12-01

    A retrospective cohort study was conducted to describe the relationship between gross motor function and manual ability in children with cerebral palsy and explore differences between cerebral palsy subtypes and associated comorbidities. Children with cerebral palsy born between 1999 and 2008 were included from the Registre de la Paralyse Cérébrale de Québec identifying 332 children. The overall agreement between Gross Motor Function Classification System and Manual Ability Classification Scale Levels was moderate (kappa 0.457, standard error 0.034) with a strong positive correlation (Spearman rho of 0.820, standard error 0.023). This agreement was moderate among children with spastic quadriparesis and dysketic cerebral palsy, fair in children with spastic diplegia, and poor in children with spastic hemiplegia. Children with cognitive impairment showed a higher correlation than those without cognitive impairment. The correlation between gross motor function and manual ability in children with CP varies based on neurologic subtype and cognitive level.

  1. The clinical effect of hippotherapy on gross motor function of children with Cerebral Palsy

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    K Litlle

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cerebral palsy (CP is the most common cause of physical disability affecting gross motor function (GMF in early childhood. Hippotherapy is a treatment approach aimed at improving GMF in children with CP. Several systematic reviews have been published showing an improvement in Dimension E of the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM after hippotherapy. However, these reviews failed to evaluate the clinical effect of hippotherapy in improving GMF in children with CP.Objective: To critically appraise the evidence of hippotherapy to ascertain whether it is a clinically meaningful approach for children with CP.Methodology: Five computerised bibliographic databases were searched. Predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria were set. The PEDro scale was used to assess the quality of the studies. A revised JBI Data extraction tool was used to extract data from the selected articles. Revman© Review Manager Software was used to create forest plots for comparisons of results.Results: All studies used the GMFM as an outcome measure for gross motor function. The added benefit of hippotherapy is a minimum 1% and a maximum 7% increase on the GMFM scores. However, all 95% confidence intervals (CI around all the mean differences were insignificant.Conclusion: The clinical effect of hippotherapy on the GMF of children with CP is small. Larger studies are required to provide evidence of the effect of hippotherapy within this population.

  2. Effects of an aquatic program on gross motor function of children with spastic cerebral palsy

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    NIKOLAOS CHRYSAGIS; ANGELIKI DOUKA; MICHAIL NIKOPOULOS; FOTEINI APOSTOLOPOULOU; DIMITRA KOUTSOUKI

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of a 10-week aquatic program on the gross motor function, on the range of motion and on spasticity of childrenwith cerebral palsy (CP. Six students served as subjects for the experimental group and another 6 were assigned to the control group. The aquatic program was taking place twice a week and consisted of a warm up, the main training session and a cool down phase. Measuring instruments were the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM (dimensions D and E, a goniometer and the modified Ashworth Scale. Pre-test and Post-test were executed before and after the intervention program. Significant interaction effect was found with respect to: the active shoulder flexion (p=.052, the active shoulder abduction (p=.052, the passive hip abduction (p=.001 and the passive knee extension (p=.045. Interaction effect was found for spasticity of the hip adductors (p=.002 and knee flexors (p=.049. Results of the present study indicated that an aquatic program might have a positive effect in gross motor function as well as in range of motion and spasticity in students with spastic cerebral palsy.

  3. Development and Initial Validation of the Preschooler Gross Motor Quality Scale

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    Sun, Shih-Heng; Zhu, Yi-Ching; Shih, Ching-Lin; Lin, Chien-Hui; Wu, Sheng K.

    2010-01-01

    Motor skills have great impact on children in adapting to an environment and developing interpersonal interaction, cognition, and social behavior. Understanding what children can do and how they perform it is essential. Most motor tests seldom contain quality evaluation in the items or criteria. The purpose of this study was to develop and…

  4. Comparison the Impact of Spark Motor Program and Basketball Techniques on Improving Gross Motor Skills in Educable Intellectually Disabled Boys

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    Hashem Faal Moghanlo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives : Different types of practises are known for improving motor skills in intellectually disabled boys. The purpose of this study was to compar e the impact of spark motor program and basketball on improving of gross motor skills in this people.   Methods: In this semi-experimental study , from 98 educable intellectually disabled students who studied in special school in Urmia, 30 children ( age range of 9 to 13 years and IQ mean 64.4 were selected objectively and divided in three groups (2 experimental and 1 control based on pre - test. BOTMP was used as a measurement of motor ability. Selected motor program (Spark motor program including strengthening training, games, sports and basketball techniques was performed for 24 sessions. T-tests (dependent and co-variance were used to comparison of results.   Results: In Spark group after 24 sessions, there were significant effects on balance (p= 0.000, bilateral coordination (p=0.000 and strength (p=0.001. There was no significant effect in agility and speed (p= 0.343 in basketball techniques group after 24 sessions, there were significant effects in agility and speed (p= 0.001, balance (p= 0.000, bilateral coordination (p= 0.013 and strength (p= 0.007.   Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, it can be claimed that the Spark program and basketball techniques improve gross motor skills in educable intellectually disabled students. We also found a significant difference between the Spark program and basketball techniques efficacy on the improved skills. Furthermore, the efficacy of Spark program was significantly higher than basketball techniques (p<0.05.

  5. Effects of Neurodevelopmental Therapy on Gross Motor Function in Children with Cerebral Palsy

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    Sina LABAF

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA How to Cite This Article: labaf S, Shamsoddini A, Hollisaz MT, Sobhani V, Shakibaee A . Effects of Neurodevelopmental Therapy on Gross Motor Function in Children with Cerebral Palsy. Iran J Child Neurol. Spring 2015;9(1:37-42.AbstractObjectiveNeurodevelopmental treatments are an advanced therapeutic approach practiced by experienced occupational therapists for the rehabilitation of children with cerebral palsy. The primary challenge in children with cerebral palsy is gross motor dysfunction. We studied the effects of neurodevelopmental therapy on gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy.Materials & MethodsIn a quasi-experimental design, 28 children with cerebral palsy were randomly divided into two groups. Neurodevelopmental therapy was given to a first group (n=15 with a mean age of 4.9 years; and a second group with a mean age 4.4 years (n=13 who were the control group. All children were evaluated with the Gross Motor Function Measure. Treatments were scheduled for three - one-hour sessions per week for 3 months.ResultsWe obtained statistically significant differences in the values between the baseline and post treatment in two groups. The groups were significantly different in laying and rolling (P=0.000, sitting (0.002, crawling and kneeling (0.004, and standing abilities (P=0.005. However, there were no significantdifferences in walking, running, and jumping abilities between the two groups (0.090.ConclusionWe concluded that the neurodevelopmental treatment improved gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy in four dimensions (laying and rolling, sitting, crawling and kneeling, and standing. However, walking, running, and jumping did not improve significantly. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso

  6. Influence of the environment on performance of gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy.

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    Fatudimu, Margaret Bukola

    2012-01-01

    Assessment and physiotherapy intervention for children with cerebral palsy (CP) are conventionally carried out in the hospital or clinic setting. However, the daily lives of these children include a variety of environmental settings in addition to the clinical setting. The objective of this study was therefore to explore the possible influence of the environment on motor function in children with CP. Purposively selected children with CP (n=107), ages 1 and 6 years with mean age of 2.1 years (SD 1.10 yrs), were involved in this study. The motor function of each child was assessed in the hospital and at their homes within a one-week interval, using the gross motor function measure (GMFM); this was done at the baseline and on a monthly basis for eight consecutive months. The paired t-test rank was computed to compare the overall GMFM score and each of the sub-domain scores measured in the clinic and at home. GMFM scores measured at home were significantly higher than those measured in the clinic and this pattern was also obtained for the sub-domains throughout the study period, suggesting that children performed gross motor functions better at their homes than in the clinic.

  7. Improvement of gross motor and cognitive abilities by an exercise training program: three case reports

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    Alesi M

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Marianna Alesi,1 Giuseppe Battaglia,2 Michele Roccella,1 Davide Testa,1 Antonio Palma,2 Annamaria Pepi1 1Department of Psychology, 2Department of Law, Social and Sport Science, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy Background: This work examined the efficacy of an integrated exercise training program (coach and family in three children with Down syndrome to improve their motor and cognitive abilities, in particular reaction time and working memory. Methods: The integrated exercise training program was used in three children with Down syndrome, comprising two boys (M1, with a chronological age of 10.3 years and a mental age of 4.7 years; M2, with a chronological age of 14.6 years and a mental age of less than 4 years and one girl (F1, chronological age 14.0 years and a mental age of less than 4 years. Results: Improvements in gross motor ability scores were seen after the training period. Greater improvements in task reaction time were noted for both evaluation parameters, ie, time and omissions. Conclusion: There is a close interrelationship between motor and cognitive domains in individuals with atypical development. There is a need to plan intervention programs based on the simultaneous involvement of child and parents and aimed at promoting an active lifestyle in individuals with Down syndrome. Keywords: disability, Down syndrome, gross motor abilities, cognitive abilities, physical activity

  8. Gross Motor Coincidence Timing by Children with Learning Difficulties and Children Matched on Mean Chronological and Mental Age.

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    Jacklin, Susan M.

    1987-01-01

    This study examines the learning of a gross motor coincidence timing task by children with learning difficulties, compared with that by children of average intelligence of an equivalent chronological age and mental age. Results are discussed. (Author/MT)

  9. Gross Motor Function Classification System used in adults with cerebral palsy: agreement of self-reported versus professional rating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahnsen, Reidun; Aamodt, Geir; Rosenbaum, Peter

    2006-09-01

    The present study investigated the reliability of self-reported rating of Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels compared with professional rating, and changes in gross motor function over time, in adults with cerebral palsy. Twenty-nine females and 33 males aged between 18 years 5 months and 62 years 11 months (mean age 34y 7mo [SD 10y 6mo]) participated in the study. Participants rated their current gross motor function using the GMFCS and reported their judgement of their gross motor function at age 10 to 12 years. The project leader, a physical therapist, also classified participants' current GMFCS levels and conducted a chart review on all accessible medical records of participants' gross motor function when they were 10 to 12 years old, rating the GMFCS level accordingly. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) between self-reported and professional ratings showed excellent agreement (ICC=0.93-0.95, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.89-0.97). More than half the participants experienced a stable gross motor function from the age of 10 to 12 years to the present. Those at GMFCS Levels II and III at the age of 10 to 12 years (according to the professional rating) had significant change for the worse in gross motor function over time, with odds ratios of 9.30 (95% CI 1.2-73.0, p=0.03) and 7.00 (95% CI 1.1-43.0, p=0.04) respectively. Interview data on circumstances regarding changes in gross motor function since childhood are also reported. Changes in GMFCS level were mostly associated with physical or social environmental factors.

  10. Correlation between the Gait Deviation Index and gross motor function (GMFCS level) in children with cerebral palsy

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    Malt, Merete A.; Aarli, Ånen; Bogen, Bård; Fevang, Jonas M

    2016-01-01

    Aim The Gait Deviation Index (GDI) is a score derived from three-dimensional gait analysis (3DGA). The GDI provides a numerical value that expresses overall gait pathology (ranging from 0 to 100, where 100 indicates the absence of gait pathology). The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the GDI and different levels of gross motor function [defined as the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS)] and to explore if age, height, weight, gender and cerebral pals...

  11. Gross Motor Function Classification System Expanded & Revised (GMFCS E & R): reliability between therapists and parents in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela B. R. Silva; Luzia I. Pfeifer; Carolina A. R. Funayama

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several studies have demonstrated the importance of using the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) to classify gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy, but the reliability of the expanded and revised version has not been examined in Brazil (GMFCS E & R). OBJECTIVE:: To determine the intra- and inter-rater reliability of the Portuguese-Brazil version of the GMFCS E & R applied by therapists and compare to classification provided by parents of children...

  12. Determinants of gross motor skill performance in children with visual impairments.

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    Haibach, Pamela S; Wagner, Matthias O; Lieberman, Lauren J

    2014-10-01

    Children with visual impairments (CWVI) generally perform poorer in gross motor skills when compared with their sighted peers. This study examined the influence of age, sex, and severity of visual impairment upon locomotor and object control skills in CWVI. Participants included 100 CWVI from across the United States who completed the Test of Gross Motor Development II (TGMD-II). The TGMD-II consists of 12 gross motor skills including 6 object control skills (catching, kicking, striking, dribbling, throwing, and rolling) and 6 locomotor skills (running, sliding, galloping, leaping, jumping, and hopping). The full range of visual impairments according to United States Association for Blind Athletes (USABA; B3=20/200-20/599, legally blind; B2=20/600 and up, travel vision; B1=totally blind) were assessed. The B1 group performed significantly worse than the B2 (0.000 ≤ p ≤ 0.049) or B3 groups (0.000 ≤ p ≤ 0.005); however, there were no significant differences between B2 and B3 except for the run (p=0.006), catch (p=0.000), and throw (p=0.012). Age and sex did not play an important role in most of the skills, with the exception of boys outperforming girls striking (p=0.009), dribbling (p=0.013), and throwing (p=0.000), and older children outperforming younger children in dribbling (p=0.002). The significant impact of the severity of visual impairment is likely due to decreased experiences and opportunities for children with more severe visual impairments. In addition, it is likely that these reduced experiences explain the lack of age-related differences in the CWVI. The large disparities in performance between children who are blind and their partially sighted peers give direction for instruction and future research. In addition, there is a critical need for intentional and specific instruction on motor skills at a younger age to enable CWVI to develop their gross motor skills.

  13. Neural Control Adaptation to Motor Noise Manipulation

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    Christopher J Hasson

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Antagonistic muscular co-activation can compensate for movement variability induced by motor noise at the expense of increased energetic costs. Greater antagonistic co-activation is commonly observed in older adults, which could be an adaptation to increased motor noise. The present study tested this hypothesis by manipulating motor noise in twelve young subjects while they practiced a goal-directed task using a myoelectric virtual arm, which was controlled by their biceps and triceps muscle activity. Motor noise was increased by increasing the coefficient of variation of the myoelectric signals. As hypothesized, subjects adapted by increasing antagonistic co-activation, and this was associated with reduced noise-induced performance decrements. A second hypothesis was that a virtual decrease in motor noise, achieved by smoothing the myoelectric signals, would have the opposite effect: co-activation would decrease and motor performance would improve. However, the results showed that a decrease in noise made performance worse instead of better, with no change in co-activation. Overall, these findings suggest that the nervous system adapts to virtual increases in motor noise by increasing antagonistic co-activation, and this preserves motor performance. Reducing noise may have failed to benefit performance due to characteristics of the filtering process itself, e.g. delays are introduced and muscle activity bursts are attenuated. The observed adaptations to increased noise may explain in part why older adults and many patient populations have greater antagonistic co-activation, which could represent an adaptation to increased motor noise, along with a desire for increased joint stability.

  14. Associations between gross motor coordination and academic achievement in elementary school children.

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    Lopes, Luís; Santos, Rute; Pereira, Beatriz; Lopes, Vítor P

    2013-02-01

    We aimed to evaluate the relationship between gross motor coordination (MC) and academic achievement (AA) in a sample of Portuguese children aged 9-12 years. The study took place during the 2009/2010 school year and involved 596 urban children (281 girls) from the north of Portugal. AA was assessed using the Portuguese Language and Mathematics National Exams. Gross MC was evaluated with the Körperkoordination Test für Kinder. Cardiorespiratory fitness was predicted by a maximal multistage 20-m shuttle-run test of the Fitnessgram Test Battery. Body weight and height were measured following standard procedures. Socio-economic status was based on annual family income. Logistic Regression was used to analyze the association of gross MC with AA. 51.6% of the sample exhibited MC disorders or MC insufficiency and none of the participants showed very good MC. In both genders, children with insufficient MC or MC disorders exhibited a higher probability of having low AA, compared with those with normal or good MC (pbody mass index and socio-economic status.

  15. Associations between Manual Abilities, Gross Motor Function, Epilepsy, and Mental Capacity in Children with Cerebral Palsy

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    Ewa GAJEWSKA*

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: Gajewska E, Sobieska M, Samborski W. Associations between Manual Abilities, Gross Motor Function, Epilepsy, and Mental Capacity in Children with Cerebral Palsy. Iran J Child Neurol. 2014 Spring 8(2:45-52.ObjectiveThis study aimed to evaluate gross motor function and hand function in children with cerebral palsy to explore their association with epilepsy and mental capacity. Material & MethodsThe research investigating the association between gross and fine motor function and the presence of epilepsy and/or mental impairment was conducted on a group of 83 children (45 girls, 38 boys. Among them, 41 were diagnosedwith quadriplegia, 14 hemiplegia, 18 diplegia, 7 mixed form, and 3 athetosis.A neurologist assessed each child in terms of possible epilepsy and confirmed diagnosis in 35 children. A psychologist assessed the mental level (according toWechsler and found 13 children within intellectual norm, 3 children with mild mental impairment, 18 with moderate, 27 with severe, and 22 with profound.Children were then classified based on Gross Motor Function Classification System and Manual Ability Classification Scale.ResultsThe gross motor function and manual performance were analysed in relation to mental impairment and the presence of epilepsy. Epilepsy was found to disturb conscious motor functions, but also higher degree of mental impairment wasobserved in children with epilepsy.ConclusionThe occurrence of epilepsy in children with cerebral palsy is associated with worse manual function. The occurrence of epilepsy is associated with limitations in conscious motor functions. There is an association between epilepsy in children with cerebral palsy and the degree of mental impairment.The occurrence of epilepsy, mainly in children with hemiplegia and diplegia is associated with worse mental capacities.ReferencesRichards CL, Malouin F. Cerebral palsy: definition, assessment and rehabilitation. Handb Clin Neurol

  16. Sleep-related offline improvements in gross motor task performance occur under free recall requirements

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    Andreas eMalangre

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Nocturnal sleep effects on memory consolidation following gross motor sequence learning were examined using a complex arm movement task. This task required participants to produce non-regular spatial patterns in the horizontal plane by successively fitting a small peg into different target-holes on an electronic pegboard. The respective reaching movements typically differed in amplitude and direction. Targets were visualized prior to each transport movement on a computer screen. With this task we tested 18 subjects (22.6 +/- 1.9 years; 8 female using a between-subjects design. Participants initially learned a 10-element arm movement sequence either in the morning or in the evening. Performance was retested under free recall requirements 15 minutes post training, as well as 12 hrs and 24 hrs later. Thus each group was provided with one sleep-filled and one wake retention interval. Dependent variables were error rate (number of erroneous sequences and average sequence execution time (correct sequences only. Performance improved during acquisition. Error rate remained stable across retention. Sequence execution time (inverse to execution speed significantly decreased again during the sleep-filled retention intervals, but remained stable during the respective wake intervals. These results corroborate recent findings on sleep-related enhancement consolidation in ecological valid, complex gross motor tasks. At the same time they suggest this effect to be truly memory-based and independent from repeated access to extrinsic sequence information during retests.

  17. Relationships between Gross Motor Abilities and Problematic Behaviors of Handicapped Children in Different Age Groups.

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    Uesugi, Masayuki; Araki, Tomoko; Fujii, Shun; Itotani, Keisuke; Otani, Yoshitaka; Seiichi, Takemasa

    2014-12-01

    [Purpose] In this study, we examined problematic behaviors of independent-walking and non-independent-walking handicapped children in the infant, school child and adolescent development phases, using the Japanese version of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC-J) to determine if such behaviors relate to their gross motor abilities. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 86 handicapped children who were receiving physical therapy. The subjects were classified into three groups by age. Using the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS), each group was further divided into an independent-walking group and non-independent-walking group. Thirteen physical therapists and 8 occupational therapists, who were treating the subject children, rated the subjects using the ABC-J. [Results] Significant differences were observed between the independent-walking and the non-independent-walking groups in the stereotypy and lethargy scores of infants. [Conclusion] For schoolchildren and adolescents, no significant differences were observed between the independent-walking and the non-independent-walking groups in their problematic behavior scores.

  18. The Effect of Resistance Training on Performance of Gross Motor Skills and Balance in Children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy

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    Ebrahim Zarrinkalam

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Cerebral palsy is the most common chronic motor disability in children and can have negative effect on motor functions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of eight weeks resistance training on gross motor ability, balance and walking speed in a group of such children. Methods: 21 cerebral palsy boys with spastic diplegia, aged between 12 and 16 years (mean, 13.66 years, participated in this study. A pre-test, involving walking, sitting, standing and walking up stairs. They were randomly divided into an experimental and control groups. Then, the experimental group participated in 8 weeks of resistance training.  The data was attained from a 10 meter walk test, Berg Balance Test, gross motor ability Section E, D and GMFCS tests.  Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, sample t-test were used for analyzing the data. Results: The results showed a significant improvement in the performance of experimental group in gross motor abilities section  E and D, balance and walking speed after 8 weeks of resistance training (P <0.05(. However, significant differences were not observed in the control group before and after the study (P <0.05.  Conclusion: The results showed that resistance training improves gross motor ability, balance and gait in children with cerebral palsy hence, it is recommended that resistance exercise be used as a therapeutic modality for children with cerebral palsy.

  19. The relationship between spasticity in young children (18 months of age with cerebral palsy and their gross motor function development

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    Verschuren Olaf

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is thought that spasticity has an influence on the development of functional motor abilities among children with cerebral palsy (CP. The extent to which spasticity is associated with the change in motor abilities in young children with CP has not been established. The objective of this study is to evaluate the relationship of initial spasticity in young children with CP and their gross motor function development over one year. Methods Fifty children with CP aged 18 months, GMFCS-levels I-V participated in a longitudinal observational study. Change in gross motor functioning (GMFM-66 was measured over one year. The level of spasticity measured at the first assessment was determined with the Modified Tardieu Scale in three muscle groups of the lower extremity (adductor muscles, the hamstrings and the m. gastrocnemius. The Spasticity Total Score per child was calculated with a maximum score of 12 points. Results Spearman's Rho Correlation (-0.28 revealed a statistically significant relationship (p Conclusion Our findings indicate that when measured over one year, spasticity is marginally related to gross motor function development in infants with CP. The initial level of spasticity is only one of the many child, environmental and family factors that determines gross motor development of a young child with CP.

  20. Motor adaptation training for faster relearning.

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    Malone, Laura A; Vasudevan, Erin V L; Bastian, Amy J

    2011-10-19

    Adaptation is an error-driven motor learning process that can account for predictable changes in the environment (e.g., walking on ice) or in ourselves (e.g., injury). Our ability to recall and build upon adapted motor patterns across days is essential to this learning process. We investigated how different training paradigms affect the day-to-day memory of an adapted walking pattern. Healthy human adults walked on a split-belt treadmill, and returned the following day to assess recall, relearning rate, and performance. In the first experiment, one group adapted and de-adapted (i.e., washed-out the learning) several times on day 1 to practice the initial stage of learning where errors are large; another group adapted only one time and then practiced in the adapted ("learned") state where errors were small. On day 2, they performed washout trials before readapting. The group that repeatedly practiced the initial portion of adaptation where errors are large showed the fastest relearning on the second day. In fact, the memory was nearly as strong as that of a third group that was left overnight in the adapted state and was not washed-out before reexposure on the second day. This demonstrates that alternating exposures to early adaptation and washout can enhance readaptation. In the second experiment, we tested whether the opposite split-belt pattern interferes with day 2 relearning. Surprisingly, it did not, and instead was similar to practicing in the adapted state. These results show that the structure of the initial phase of learning influences the ease of motor relearning.

  1. Relationship between time use in physical activity and gross motor performance of preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ling-Yi; Cherng, Rong-Ju; Chen, Yung-Jung

    2017-02-01

    Participation in physical activity is an important health concern for children in most Western communities, but little is known about Asian children's participation. The purpose of this study was to extend the current knowledge on how much time preschool children in Taiwan spend on physical activity, to examine its relationship with gross motor performance and to provide information on the establishment of physical activity guidelines for preschool children in Taiwan. Two hundred and sixty-four children between 36 and 71 months old were recruited from a university medical centre and from preschools in Taiwan. The primary outcomes were measured using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-Second Edition and the modified Preschool-aged Children's Physical Activity Questionnaire. 89.8% of our participants did not meet the recommendations from the National Association for Sport and Physical Education for time spent in physical activities. Participants spent an average of 155 minutes/week in low intensity physical activity. Children with motor difficulties tended to spend less time on physical activity than did typically developing children. The mother's level of education and whether the child was overweight or obese correlated with how much time the children spent on physical activity. We conclude that paediatric occupational therapists should explain to parents the relationship between physical activity and motor development and advocate for developmentally positive physical activities for preschool children. Physical activity guidelines for Taiwanese preschoolers should be established immediately. © 2016 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  2. Electroencephalographic identifiers of motor adaptation learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdenizci, Ozan; Yalçın, Mustafa; Erdoğan, Ahmetcan; Patoğlu, Volkan; Grosse-Wentrup, Moritz; Çetin, Müjdat

    2017-08-01

    Objective. Recent brain-computer interface (BCI) assisted stroke rehabilitation protocols tend to focus on sensorimotor activity of the brain. Relying on evidence claiming that a variety of brain rhythms beyond sensorimotor areas are related to the extent of motor deficits, we propose to identify neural correlates of motor learning beyond sensorimotor areas spatially and spectrally for further use in novel BCI-assisted neurorehabilitation settings. Approach. Electroencephalographic (EEG) data were recorded from healthy subjects participating in a physical force-field adaptation task involving reaching movements through a robotic handle. EEG activity recorded during rest prior to the experiment and during pre-trial movement preparation was used as features to predict motor adaptation learning performance across subjects. Main results. Subjects learned to perform straight movements under the force-field at different adaptation rates. Both resting-state and pre-trial EEG features were predictive of individual adaptation rates with relevance of a broad network of beta activity. Beyond sensorimotor regions, a parieto-occipital cortical component observed across subjects was involved strongly in predictions and a fronto-parietal cortical component showed significant decrease in pre-trial beta-powers for users with higher adaptation rates and increase in pre-trial beta-powers for users with lower adaptation rates. Significance. Including sensorimotor areas, a large-scale network of beta activity is presented as predictive of motor learning. Strength of resting-state parieto-occipital beta activity or pre-trial fronto-parietal beta activity can be considered in BCI-assisted stroke rehabilitation protocols with neurofeedback training or volitional control of neural activity for brain-robot interfaces to induce plasticity.

  3. THE INFLUENCE OF THE EXERCISES OF GROSS AND FINE MOTOR SKILLS ON VISUO-MOTOR COORDINATION OF THE CEREBRAL PALSY CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almira Mujkić

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Visuomotor coordination is reffered to eye coordination and to various parts of the body in different activities and games. The aim of the research was to establish the influence of the exercises of gross and fine motor skills on visuomotor coordination of the cerebral palsy children. The sample was the case study where a male person of 3 and a half years old was an examinee. Measuring instrument used was the Test of visuomotor coordination of the gross motor skills of the dominant hand. Data were analyzed by t-test.

  4. Effect of Upper Limb Deformities on Gross Motor and Upper Limb Functions in Children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun Sook; Sim, Eun Geol; Rha, Dong-wook

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the nature and extent of upper limb deformities via the use of various classifications, and to analyze the relationship between upper limb deformities and gross motor or upper limb functionality levels. Upper extremity data were collected from 234 children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP) who were…

  5. Stability and Decline in Gross Motor Function among Children and Youth with Cerebral Palsy Aged 2 to 21 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Steven E.; Rosenbaum, Peter L.; Bartlett, Doreen J.; Palisano, Robert J.; Walter, Stephen D.; Avery, Lisa; Russell, Dianne J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports the construction of gross motor development curves for children and youth with cerebral palsy (CP) in order to assess whether function is lost during adolescence. We followed children previously enrolled in a prospective longitudinal cohort study for an additional 4 years, as they entered adolescence and young adulthood. The…

  6. Early neuromotor development of high risk infants - Gross motor function in preterm and full-term born infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Haastert, I.C.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis is the result of 20 years follow-up of preterm and full-term born ‘graduates’ of the neonatal intensive care unit of the Wilhelmina Children’s Hospital, Utrecht. The aim was to answer questions that arose during admission and follow-up assessments. Typical gross motor development of pret

  7. Knee Muscle Strength at Varying Angular Velocities and Associations with Gross Motor Function in Ambulatory Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Wei-Hsien; Chen, Hseih-Ching; Shen, I-Hsuan; Chen, Chung-Yao; Chen, Chia-Ling; Chung, Chia-Ying

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationships of muscle strength at different angular velocities and gross motor functions in ambulatory children with cerebral palsy (CP). This study included 33 ambulatory children with spastic CP aged 6-15 years and 15 children with normal development. Children with CP were categorized into level I (n =…

  8. Effects of static bicycle training on gross motor function, muscle strength and spasticity of adolescents with spastic cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHRISTOS TSIGKANOS

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of an 8- week lower limb strengthening program on gross motor function, muscle strength and spasticity levels of both the quadriceps and hip adductors of adolescents 14 to 19 years of age with spastic cerebral palsy using a specific static bicycle (Thera-Vital exerciser. Eight students were assigned to the experimental group and another 8 to the control group. The strengthening program took place 3 times a week (6 sets of 10 to 15 full cycling circles. The Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM (dimensions D and E, an isometric hand-held dynamometer and Asworth scale were the measurement instruments used in the study. A multivariance analysis of variance (MANOVA was applied for identifying the statistical importance of the results of the intervention protocol. A statistically significant improvement in both gross motor function (p = 0.016 and muscle strength (p = 0.039 was found without a statistically significant alteration of the muscle tone of the quadriceps and hip adductors of the participants (p = 0.13 and p = 0.33. The results of the present study indicate that static bicycle is a safe and effective means of exercise since it improves the gross motor function of adolescents with cerebral palsy without increasing the muscle tone of the lower limb.

  9. Effects of age and timing of augmented feedback on learning muscle relaxation while performing a gross motor task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, H; Hermens, Hermanus J.

    Objective: To examine the combined effect of age and timing of augmented feedback on learning muscle relaxation. Performing a gross motor task, subjects had to lower their trapezius muscle activity using the electromyographic signal as visual myofeedback. Design: Healthy subjects (16 young adults:

  10. Intensification of the Learning Process: Gross Motor Performance Scale. A Series of Reports Designed for Classroom Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucks County Public Schools, Doylestown, PA.

    The Gross Motor Performance Screening Test was designed to aid the classroom teacher in obtaining specific information about the child's physical abilities. The test includes items which have been found to measure the various factors of physical fitness. It also includes items to measure skills important to the child and adult. Included also are…

  11. Knee Muscle Strength at Varying Angular Velocities and Associations with Gross Motor Function in Ambulatory Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Wei-Hsien; Chen, Hseih-Ching; Shen, I-Hsuan; Chen, Chung-Yao; Chen, Chia-Ling; Chung, Chia-Ying

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationships of muscle strength at different angular velocities and gross motor functions in ambulatory children with cerebral palsy (CP). This study included 33 ambulatory children with spastic CP aged 6-15 years and 15 children with normal development. Children with CP were categorized into level I (n =…

  12. Interobserver Agreement of the Gross Motor Function Classification System in an Ambulant Population of Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Brona C.; Kerr, Claire; Parkes, Jackie

    2007-01-01

    Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) level was reported by three independent assessors in a population of children with cerebral palsy (CP) aged between 4 and 18 years (n=184; 112 males, 72 females; mean age 10y 10mo [SD 3y 7mo]). A software algorithm also provided a computed GMFCS level from a regional CP registry. Participants had…

  13. Potential Predictors of Changes in Gross Motor Function during Various Tasks for Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Follow-Up Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chia-ling; Chen, Chung-yao; Chen, Hsieh-ching; Liu, Wen-yu; Shen, I-hsuan; Lin, Keh-chung

    2013-01-01

    Very few studies have investigated predictors of change in various gross motor outcomes in ambulatory children with cerebral palsy (CP). The aim of this study was to identify potential predictors for change in gross motor outcomes measured during various tasks in children with CP. A group of 45 children (age, 6-15 years) with CP and 7 potential…

  14. Does a physiotherapy programme of gross motor training influence motor function and activities of daily living in children presenting with developmental coordination disorder?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonill S. Maharaj

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD lack motor coordination and have difficulty performing motor skills and activities of daily living. Research shows these children do not outgrow their motor difficulties and without intervention do not improve. Physiotherapy is relevant for these children, but due to limited clinical protocols for DCD the aim of this study was to determine the effect of a gross motor training programme for 6–12-year-old children with DCD.Methods: This randomised pre-test, post-test study recruited 64 children with scores of 15th percentile or below using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC. The children were divided equally into an intervention group receiving 8 weeks of gross motor training for core stability, strengthening exercises, balance and coordination with task-specific activities for 30 min per week, while the control group continued with general therapy and activities of daily living. The M-ABC and Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire (DCDQ were used to assess each child before and after 8 weeks.Results: Sixty children completed the study, with 43 males and 17 females (mean age 10.02 years, SD = 2.10. There were no adverse reactions to the programme and M-ABC scores for the intervention programme improved by 6.46%, ball skills (3.54% and balance (4.80% compared with the control (0.17% and (0.15%, respectively. There were significant (p < 0.05 improvements in DCDQ scores, but teachers allocated lower scores than parents.Conclusion: This study supports 8 weeks of gross motor training which can be a beneficial intervention for physiotherapists to improve gross motor function for DCD.Keywords: Developmental, co-ordination, skills, motor

  15. The effect of aquatic intervention on the gross motor function and aquatic skills in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrijević, Lidija; Aleksandrović, Marko; Madić, Dejan; Okičić, Tomislav; Radovanović, Dragan; Daly, Daniel

    2012-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of an aquatic intervention on the gross motor function and aquatic skills of children with cerebral palsy (CP). Twenty-nine children with CP, aged 5 to 14, were recruited. Fourteen children completed an aquatic intervention (EG), and 13 children served as controls (CG). Two participants dropped out due to events (illness) unrelated to the intervention. The aquatic intervention lasted 6 weeks (2 sessions per week at 55 minutes per session) with a follow-up period of 3 weeks. The outcome measures were the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) for motor function and the Water Orientation Test Alyn 2 (WOTA 2) for aquatic skills assessment. A significant improvement was observed in the secondary assessment of GMFM and WOTA 2. In contrast to the aquatic skills improvement, the GMFM change was not maintained at follow-up. Our results indicate that children with CP can improve gross motor function on dry land and aquatic skills with a 6-week water intervention. The intervention period was too short for sustainable improvement in dry-land motor skills after intervention (follow-up), but time was sufficient to achieve sustainable improvements in aquatic skills.

  16. Motor adaptation as a process of reoptimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izawa, Jun; Rane, Tushar; Donchin, Opher; Shadmehr, Reza

    2008-03-12

    Adaptation is sometimes viewed as a process in which the nervous system learns to predict and cancel effects of a novel environment, returning movements to near baseline (unperturbed) conditions. An alternate view is that cancellation is not the goal of adaptation. Rather, the goal is to maximize performance in that environment. If performance criteria are well defined, theory allows one to predict the reoptimized trajectory. For example, if velocity-dependent forces perturb the hand perpendicular to the direction of a reaching movement, the best reach plan is not a straight line but a curved path that appears to overcompensate for the forces. If this environment is stochastic (changing from trial to trial), the reoptimized plan should take into account this uncertainty, removing the overcompensation. If the stochastic environment is zero-mean, peak velocities should increase to allow for more time to approach the target. Finally, if one is reaching through a via-point, the optimum plan in a zero-mean deterministic environment is a smooth movement but in a zero-mean stochastic environment is a segmented movement. We observed all of these tendencies in how people adapt to novel environments. Therefore, motor control in a novel environment is not a process of perturbation cancellation. Rather, the process resembles reoptimization: through practice in the novel environment, we learn internal models that predict sensory consequences of motor commands. Through reward-based optimization, we use the internal model to search for a better movement plan to minimize implicit motor costs and maximize rewards.

  17. Content validity and reliability of test of gross motor development in Chilean children

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    Marcelo Cano-Cappellacci

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To validate a Spanish version of the Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD-2 for the Chilean population. METHODS Descriptive, transversal, non-experimental validity and reliability study. Four translators, three experts and 92 Chilean children, from five to 10 years, students from a primary school in Santiago, Chile, have participated. The Committee of Experts has carried out translation, back-translation and revision processes to determine the translinguistic equivalence and content validity of the test, using the content validity index in 2013. In addition, a pilot implementation was achieved to determine test reliability in Spanish, by using the intraclass correlation coefficient and Bland-Altman method. We evaluated whether the results presented significant differences by replacing the bat with a racket, using T-test. RESULTS We obtained a content validity index higher than 0.80 for language clarity and relevance of the TGMD-2 for children. There were significant differences in the object control subtest when comparing the results with bat and racket. The intraclass correlation coefficient for reliability inter-rater, intra-rater and test-retest reliability was greater than 0.80 in all cases. CONCLUSIONS The TGMD-2 has appropriate content validity to be applied in the Chilean population. The reliability of this test is within the appropriate parameters and its use could be recommended in this population after the establishment of normative data, setting a further precedent for the validation in other Latin American countries.

  18. Test of gross motor development-2 for Filipino children with intellectual disability: validity and reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capio, Catherine M; Eguia, Kathlynne F; Simons, Johan

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to examine aspects of validity and reliability of the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (TGMD-2) in Filipino children with intellectual disability. Content and construct validity were verified, as well as inter-rater and intra-rater reliability. Two paediatric physiotherapists tested 81 children with intellectual disability (mean age = 9.29 ± 2.71 years) on locomotor and object control skills. Analysis of covariance, confirmatory factor analysis and analysis of variance were used to test validity, while Cronbach's alpha, intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) and Bland-Altman plots were used to examine reliability. Age was a significant predictor of locomotor and object control scores (P = 0.004). The data fit the hypothesised two-factor model with fit indices as follows: χ(2) = 33.525, DF = 34, P = 0.491, χ(2)/DF = 0.986. As hypothesised, gender was a significant predictor for object control skills (P = 0.038). Participants' mean scores were significantly below mastery (locomotor, P children with intellectual disability.

  19. Relation between hand function and gross motor function in full term infants aged 4 to 8 months

    OpenAIRE

    Nogueira, Solange F.; Figueiredo,Elyonara M.; Rejane V. Gonçalves; Marisa C. Mancini

    2015-01-01

    Background: In children, reaching emerges around four months of age, which is followed by rapid changes in hand function and concomitant changes in gross motor function, including the acquisition of independent sitting. Although there is a close functional relationship between these domains, to date they have been investigated separately. Objective: To investigate the longitudinal profile of changes and the relationship between the development of hand function (i.e. reaching for and manipulat...

  20. Differences of Respiratory Function According to Level of the Gross Motor Function Classification System in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Kwon, Yong Hyun; Lee, Hye Young

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The current study was designed to investigate the difference in lung capacity and muscle strengthening related to respiration depending on the level of the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) in children with cerebral palsy (CP) through tests of respiratory function and respiratory pressure. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 49 children with CP who were classified as below level III of the GMFCS were recruited for this study. They were divided into three groups (i.e.,...

  1. Effects of recombinant growth hormone replacement and physical rehabilitation in recovery of gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimunde, Pedro; Rodicio, Cristina; López, Natalia; Alonso, Alba; Devesa, Pablo; Devesa, Jesús

    2010-11-30

    Cerebral palsy is an important health issue that has a strong socioeconomic impact. There is no cure for cerebral palsy, and therapeutic approaches only report small benefits for affected people. In this study we assessed the effects of growth hormone treatment (0.3 μg/kg/day) combined with physical rehabilitation in the recovery of gross motor function in children with growth hormone deficiency and cerebral palsy (four males and six females, mean age 5.63 ± 2.32 years) as compared with that observed in a similar population of cerebral palsy children (five males, five females, mean age 5.9 ± 2.18 years) without growth hormone deficiency treated only with physical rehabilitation for two months. The Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM-88) and Modified Ashworth Scale were performed before commencing the treatment and after completion thereof. In children with cerebral palsy and growth hormone deficiency, Dimension A (P gross motor function in children with growth hormone deficiency and cerebral palsy.

  2. An Ad-Hoc Adaptive Pilot Model for Pitch Axis Gross Acquisition Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Curtis E.

    2012-01-01

    An ad-hoc algorithm is presented for real-time adaptation of the well-known crossover pilot model and applied to pitch axis gross acquisition tasks in a generic fighter aircraft. Off-line tuning of the crossover model to human pilot data gathered in a fixed-based high fidelity simulation is first accomplished for a series of changes in aircraft dynamics to provide expected values for model parameters. It is shown that in most cases, for this application, the traditional crossover model can be reduced to a gain and a time delay. The ad-hoc adaptive pilot gain algorithm is shown to have desirable convergence properties for most types of changes in aircraft dynamics.

  3. Effect of task-oriented training and high-variability practice on gross motor performance and activities of daily living in children with spastic diplegia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kwon, Hae-Yeon; Ahn, So-Yoon

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigates how a task-oriented training and high-variability practice program can affect the gross motor performance and activities of daily living for children with spastic diplegia...

  4. The impact of sensory integration therapy on gross motor function in children after prenatal exposure to alcohol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Wilczyński

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : In Poland there are 900 cases of full-blown foetal alcohol syndrome (FAS in neonates per year, and in 9000 children there are some symptoms of it. Aim of the research : To analyse the impact of sensory integration (SI therapy on gross motor skills function in children after prenatal exposure to alcohol. Material and methods: The study was conducted on a group of 20 children aged 4–5 years with information from an interview about prenatal exposure to alcohol. The diagnosis of sensory integration disorder consisted of two 60-minute diagnostics meetings. Twelve trials with clinical observations were performed by Ayres: finger to nose, cocontraction, prone extension posture, flexed position supine, asymmetrical tonic neck reflex (ATOS, symmetrical tonic neck reflex (STOS, muscle tension, Schilder test, dynamic balance, static balance, gravitational insecurity, and trunk stabilisation. The therapeutic program included: normalisation of the vestibular and proprioceptive system, normalisation of the touch system, strengthening muscle tension, development of motion planning, development of oculomotor performance, development of motor coordination, hand therapy, integration of ATOS, STOS, development of locomotion and balance functions, and improving efficiency of gross and small motor skills. Results and conclusions : High efficiency of SI therapy has been shown in children after prenatal exposure to alcohol on the example of gross motor skills. Positive effects of SI therapy have been shown for tests: finger to nose, in the erect position on the stomach, the flexural position on the back, ATOS, STOS, Schilder test, dynamic balance, static balance, and the uncertainty of gravity and trunk stabilisation. Only cocontraction and muscle tension tests showed no efficacy of SI therapy. The a-Cronbach position analysis showed high reliability of the performed tests both before and after the therapy. It is advisable to continue the study on a

  5. Gross Motor Function Classification System Expanded & Revised (GMFCS E & R: reliability between therapists and parents in Brazil

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    Daniela B. R. Silva

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several studies have demonstrated the importance of using the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS to classify gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy, but the reliability of the expanded and revised version has not been examined in Brazil (GMFCS E & R. OBJECTIVE:: To determine the intra- and inter-rater reliability of the Portuguese-Brazil version of the GMFCS E & R applied by therapists and compare to classification provided by parents of children with cerebral palsy. METHOD: Data were obtained from 90 children with cerebral palsy, aged 4 to 18 years old, attending the neurology or rehabilitation service of a Brazilian hospital. Therapists classified the children's motor function using the GMFCS E & R and parents used the Brazilian Portuguese version of the GMFCS Family Report Questionnaire. Intra- and inter-rater reliability was obtained through percentage agreement and Cohen's unweighted Kappa statistics (k. The Chi-square test was used to identify significant differences in the classification of parents and therapists. RESULTS: Almost perfect agreement was reached between the therapists [K=0.90 (95% confidence interval 0.83-0.97] and intra-raters (therapists with K=1.00 [95% confidence interval (1.00-1.00], p<0.001. Agreement between therapists and parents was substantial (k=0.716, confidence interval 0.596-0.836, though parents classify gross motor impairment more severely than therapists (p=0.04. CONCLUSIONS: The Portuguese version of the GMFCS E & R is reliable for use by parents and therapists. Parents tend to classify their children's limitations more severely, because they know their performance in different environments.

  6. Development and Pilot Testing of the Challenge Module: A Proposed Adjunct to the Gross Motor Function Measure for High-Functioning Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Ashlea; Kavanaugh, Abi; Moher, Rosemarie; McInroy, Megan; Gupta, Neena; Salbach, Nancy M.; Wright, F. Virginia

    2011-01-01

    The aim was to develop a Challenge Module (CM) as a proposed adjunct to the Gross Motor Function Measure for children with cerebral palsy who have high-level motor function. Items were generated in a physiotherapist (PT) focus group. Item reduction was based on PTs' ratings of item importance and safety via online surveys. The proposed CM items…

  7. Effect of strength training of ankle plantarflexors on selective voluntary motor control, gait parameters, and gross motor function of children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jee Woon; Her, Jin Gang; Ko, Jooyeon

    2013-10-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of ankle plantarflexor strength training on selective voluntary motor control, gait parameters, and gross motor function of children with cerebral palsy (CP), focusing on changes in the strength and muscle activity of the ankle plantarflexors. [Methods] Six children aged between 4 and 10 years with CP participated in a 6 week strengthening program. The subjects were evaluated before and after the intervention in terms of ankle plantarflexor strength, muscle activity, gait velocity, cadence, step length, and D (standing) and E (walking, running, and jumping) dimensions of the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM). The data were analyzed using the non-parametric Wilcoxon signed-rank test. [Results] The strength of the plantarflexors increased in the majority of subjects. Significant and clinically meaningful post-intervention improvements in subject's gait velocity, cadence, and step length were found. [Conclusion] The controlled ankle plantarflexor strengthening program may lead to improvements in strength and spatiotemporal gait parameters of children with CP.

  8. Infants with Down Syndrome: Percentage and Age for Acquisition of Gross Motor Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Karina; Basso, Renata Pedrolongo; Lindquist, Ana Raquel Rodrigues; da Silva, Louise Gracelli Pereira; Tudella, Eloisa

    2013-01-01

    The literature is bereft of information about the age at which infants with Down syndrome (DS) acquire motor skills and the percentage of infants that do so by the age of 12 months. Therefore, it is necessary to identify the difference in age, in relation to typical infants, at which motor skills were acquired and the percentage of infants with DS…

  9. Development of the Correspondence between Real and Imagined Fine and Gross Motor Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachet, Alison B.; Frey, Scott H.; Jacobs, Stéphane; Taylor, Marjorie

    2016-01-01

    The development of the correspondence between real and imagined motor actions was investigated in 2 experiments. Experiment 1 evaluated whether children imagine body position judgments of fine motor actions in the same way as they perform them. Thirty-two 8-year-old children completed a task in which an object was presented in different…

  10. Auditory-perceptual learning improves speech motor adaptation in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiller, Douglas M; Rochon, Marie-Lyne

    2014-08-01

    Auditory feedback plays an important role in children's speech development by providing the child with information about speech outcomes that is used to learn and fine-tune speech motor plans. The use of auditory feedback in speech motor learning has been extensively studied in adults by examining oral motor responses to manipulations of auditory feedback during speech production. Children are also capable of adapting speech motor patterns to perceived changes in auditory feedback; however, it is not known whether their capacity for motor learning is limited by immature auditory-perceptual abilities. Here, the link between speech perceptual ability and the capacity for motor learning was explored in two groups of 5- to 7-year-old children who underwent a period of auditory perceptual training followed by tests of speech motor adaptation to altered auditory feedback. One group received perceptual training on a speech acoustic property relevant to the motor task while a control group received perceptual training on an irrelevant speech contrast. Learned perceptual improvements led to an enhancement in speech motor adaptation (proportional to the perceptual change) only for the experimental group. The results indicate that children's ability to perceive relevant speech acoustic properties has a direct influence on their capacity for sensory-based speech motor adaptation.

  11. COMPARISON BETWEEN THE EFFECT OF NEURODEVELOPMENTAL TREATMENT AND SENSORY INTEGRATION THERAPY ON GROSS MOTOR FUNCTION IN CHILDREN WITH CEREBRAL PALSY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza SHAMSODDINI

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveThis study was planned to compare the effects of neurodevelopmental treatment and sensory integration therapy on gross motor function in children with cerebral palsyMaterials & MethodsTwenty two children with spastic CP were randomly divided into two groups. Sensory integrative therapy was given to the first group (n=11, and neurodevelopmental treatment was given to the second group (n=11. All children were evaluated with GMFM-88. Treatment was scheduled for three - one hour sessions per week for 3 months.ResultsTwenty two children with spastic CP (11 diplegia and 11 quadriplegia participated in this study. When two groups were compared, a significant difference was found in lying and rolling (P=0.003, sitting (0.009, crawling and kneeling (0.02 and standing ability (P=0.04. But there was no significant difference in walking, running, and jumping abilities between the two groups (0.417. Paired t-tests revealed a significant difference between pre and post test results, with increases in scores of lying and rolling, sitting, crawling and kneeling, standing in sensory integration therapy (SIT and neurodevelopmental treatment (NDT approaches.Conclusion Neurodevelopmental treatment and sensory integration therapy improved gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy in four dimensions (lying and rolling, sitting, crawling and kneeling, standing. However, walking, running and jumping did not significantly improve.

  12. Avaliação do desempenho motor global e em habilidades motoras axiais e apendiculares de lactentes frequentadores de creche Assessment of global motor performance and gross and fine motor skills of infants attending day care centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina T Souza

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar o desempenho motor global em habilidades motoras axiais e apendiculares de lactentes que frequentavam, em tempo integral, duas Escolas Municipais de Educação Infantil. MÉTODOS: Estudo longitudinal do qual participaram 30 lactentes avaliados aos 12 e 17 meses de vida com a escala motora das Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development-III, que possibilita a análise do desempenho motor global, apendicular e axial e a discrepância entre eles. Utilizaram-se o teste de Wilcoxon e o Coeficiente de Correlação de Spearman. RESULTADOS: A maioria dos participantes apresentou desempenho motor global dentro dos limites de normalidade, porém abaixo da média de referência aos 12 e 17 meses, com 30% classificados como suspeitos de atraso em pelo menos uma das avaliações. O desempenho motor axial foi inferior ao apendicular aos 12 e aos 17 meses, com grande discrepância entre eles especialmente na 2ª avaliação. Observou-se marcada variabilidade individual nas habilidades motoras apendiculares, com fraca correlação linear no desempenho entre a 1ª e a 2ª avaliações nesse domínio. Nas habilidades axiais e no desempenho motor global, encontrou-se menor variabilidade individual, com correlações moderadas e positivas entre a 1ª e a 2ª avaliações. Identificaram-se quatro lactentes com suspeita de atraso no desenvolvimento motor em ambas as avaliações. CONCLUSÕES: O estudo aponta necessidade de maior atenção ao desenvolvimento motor durante os primeiros 17 meses de crianças que frequentam creches, com especial vigilância à motricidade axial (considerando que ela é parte integrante do desenvolvimento global da criança e às crianças com desempenho suspeito de atraso em duas avaliações consecutivas.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the global motor performance and the gross and fine motor skills of infants attending two public child care centers full-time. METHODS: This was a longitudinal study that included 30 infants

  13. Association between gross motor function (GMFCS and manual ability (MACS in children with cerebral palsy. A population-based study of 359 children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arner Marianne

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS has become an important tool to describe motor function in children with Cerebral Palsy (CP. The Manual Ability Classification System (MACS was developed recently as a corresponding classification of manual ability. The aim of this study was to describe the association between gross motor function and manual ability in a total population of children with cerebral palsy. Methods 365 children, born 1992 to 2001, who were registered in a population-based health care programme (CPUP for children with CP living in the south of Sweden were included in the study. GMFCS was evaluated by the child's physiotherapist and MACS by the occupational therapist. CP diagnosis and subtype were determined by the neuropaediatrician at or after the age of four. Results GMFCS levels were available in all 365 children, MACS levels in 359 (98%. There was a poor overall correlation between gross motor function and manual ability. However, different associations between gross motor function and manual ability were found in the different diagnostic subtypes. Children with spastic hemiplegia generally had a lower level of manual ability than gross motor function (p Conclusion Gross motor function and manual ability are often discrepant in children with CP, and the patterns seem to vary across the different subgroups based on the predominant neurological findings. To give a complete clinical picture when evaluating these children, both aspects have to be described. The GMFCS and the MACS seem to work well in this context and seem very useful in population-based studies, in health care registers for children with CP, and in clinical practice.

  14. Structural Equation Modeling of Motor Impairment, Gross Motor Function, and the Functional Outcome in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun-Young; Kim, Won-Ho

    2013-01-01

    Physical therapy intervention for children with cerebral palsy (CP) is focused on reducing neurological impairments, improving strength, and preventing the development of secondary impairments in order to improve functional outcomes. However, relationship between motor impairments and functional outcome has not been proved definitely. This study…

  15. Reliability and validity of the test of gross motor development-II in Korean preschool children: applying AHP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chung-Il; Han, Dong-Wook; Park, Il-Hyeok

    2014-04-01

    The Test of Gross Motor Development-II (TGMD-II) is a frequently used assessment tool for measuring motor ability. The purpose of this study is to investigate the reliability and validity of TGMD-II's weighting scores (by comparing pre-weighted TGMD-II scores with post ones) as well as examine applicability of the TGMD-II on Korean preschool children. A total of 121 Korean children (three kindergartens) participated in this study. There were 65 preschoolers who were 5-years-old (37 boys and 28 girls) and 56 preschoolers who were 6-years-old (34 boys and 22 girls). For internal consistency, reliability, and construct validity, only one researcher evaluated all of the children using the TGMD-II in the following areas: running; galloping; sliding; hopping; leaping; horizontal jumping; overhand throwing; underhand rolling; striking a stationary ball; stationary dribbling; kicking; and catching. For concurrent validity, the evaluator measured physical fitness (strength, flexibility, power, agility, endurance, and balance). The key findings were as follows: first, the reliability coefficient and the validity coefficient between pre-weighted and post-weighted TGMD-II scores were quite similar. Second, the research showed adequate reliability and validity of the TGMD-II for Korean preschool children. The TGMD-II is a proper instrument to test Korean children's motor development. Yet, applying relative weighting on the TGMD-II should be a point of consideration.

  16. Effects of Individual and School-Level Characteristics on a Child’s Gross Motor Coordination Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Chaves

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify child and school-level characteristics that explained inter-individual differences in gross motor coordination (GMC. Participants (n = 390, recruited from 18 Portuguese primary schools, were aged 6 to 10 years of age. Birth weight, body fat (BF, physical activity (PA, physical fitness (PF and GMC were assessed. School size, setting, infrastructure and physical education classes were considered as school context markers. A multilevel modeling approach was used to identify hierarchical effects (child and school levels. It was found that children-level variables (sex, PF, and BF significantly explained 63% of the 90% variance fraction at the individual level; boys outperformed girls (p < 0.05, individuals with higher BF were less coordinated (p < 0.05, and those with higher PF were more coordinated (p < 0.05. School-variables (e.g. school size and playing surface explained 84% of the 10% variation fraction. These findings confirm the roles of sex, PFS and BF. Interestingly they also suggest that the school environment plays a minor but significant role in GMC development. However, it is important to stress that the school context and conditions can also play an important role in a child’s motor development, providing adequate and enriching motor opportunities.

  17. Effects of Individual and School-Level Characteristics on a Child’s Gross Motor Coordination Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Raquel; Baxter-Jones, Adam; Gomes, Thayse; Souza, Michele; Pereira, Sara; Maia, José

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify child and school-level characteristics that explained inter-individual differences in gross motor coordination (GMC). Participants (n = 390), recruited from 18 Portuguese primary schools, were aged 6 to 10 years of age. Birth weight, body fat (BF), physical activity (PA), physical fitness (PF) and GMC were assessed. School size, setting, infrastructure and physical education classes were considered as school context markers. A multilevel modeling approach was used to identify hierarchical effects (child and school levels). It was found that children-level variables (sex, PF, and BF) significantly explained 63% of the 90% variance fraction at the individual level; boys outperformed girls (p < 0.05), individuals with higher BF were less coordinated (p < 0.05), and those with higher PF were more coordinated (p < 0.05). School-variables (e.g. school size and playing surface) explained 84% of the 10% variation fraction. These findings confirm the roles of sex, PFS and BF. Interestingly they also suggest that the school environment plays a minor but significant role in GMC development. However, it is important to stress that the school context and conditions can also play an important role in a child’s motor development, providing adequate and enriching motor opportunities. PMID:26264007

  18. Maternal medical conditions during pregnancy and gross motor development up to age 24 months in the Upstate KIDS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghassabian, Akhgar; Sundaram, Rajeshwari; Wylie, Amanda; Bell, Erin; Bello, Scott C; Yeung, Edwina

    2016-07-01

    We examined whether children of mothers with a medical condition diagnosed before or during pregnancy took longer to achieve gross motor milestones up to age 24 months. We obtained information on medical conditions using self-reports, birth certificates, and hospital records in 4909 mothers participating in Upstate KIDS, a population-based birth cohort. Mothers reported on their children's motor milestone achievement at 4, 8, 12, 18, and 24 months of age. After adjustment for covariates (including pre-pregnancy body mass index), children of mothers with gestational diabetes took longer to achieve sitting without support (hazard ratio [HR]=0.84, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.75-0.93), walking with assistance (HR=0.88, 95% CI 0.77-0.98), and walking alone (HR=0.88, 95% CI 0.77-0.99) than children of females with no gestational diabetes. Similar findings emerged for maternal diabetes. Gestational hypertension was associated with a longer time to achieve walking with assistance. These associations did not change after adjustment for gestational age or birthweight. Severe hypertensive disorders of pregnancy were related to a longer time to achieve milestones, but not after adjustment for perinatal factors. Children exposed to maternal diabetes, gestational or pre-gestational, may take longer to achieve motor milestones than non-exposed children, independent of maternal obesity. © 2015 Mac Keith Press.

  19. Adaptive observer for speed sensorless PM motor control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik; Vadstrup, P.; Børsting, H.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents an adaptive observer for extimating the rotor position and speed of a permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSM). The observer compensates for voltage offsets and permanent magnet strength variations. The adaptation structure for estimating the strength of the permanent magnet...... is determined from a Lyapunov stability proof. The observer estimates the stator flux by integration of the measured BEMF signal. In order to verify the applicability of the method the observer has been implemented and tested on a 800 W motor....

  20. Adaptive observer for speed sensorless PM motor control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik; Vadstrup, P.; Børsting, H.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents an adaptive observer for extimating the rotor position and speed of a permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSM). The observer compensates for voltage offsets and permanent magnet strength variations. The adaptation structure for estimating the strength of the permanent magnet...... is determined from a Lyapunov stability proof. The observer estimates the stator flux by integration of the measured BEMF signal. In order to verify the applicability of the method the observer has been implemented and tested on a 800 W motor....

  1. Stability of Caregiver-Reported Manual Ability and Gross Motor Function Classifications of Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imms, Christine; Carlin, John; Eliasson, Ann-Christin

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To examine the stability of caregiver-reported classifications of function of children with cerebral palsy (CP) measured 12 months apart. Method: Participants were 86 children (50 males, 36 females) with CP of all motor types and severities who were recruited into a population-based longitudinal study. Children were aged 11 years 8 months (SD…

  2. Hippocampal EEG and behaviour in dog. I. Hippocampal EEG correlates of gross motor behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnolds, D.E.A.T.; Lopes da Silva, F.H.; Aitink, J.W.; Kamp, A.

    It was shown that rewarding spectral shifts (i.e. increase in amplitude or peak frequency of the hippocampal EEG) causes a solitary dog to show increased motor behaviour. Rewarded spectral shifts concurred with a variety of behavioural transitions. It was found that statistically significant

  3. Risk Factors for Gross Motor Dysfunction in Infants with Congenital Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Suzanne H.; Eldridge, Bev J.; Galea, Mary P.; Harris, Susan R.

    2011-01-01

    Infants with congenital heart disease (CHD) that is severe enough to require early surgery are at risk for cognitive and motor delays, as well as musculoskeletal impairments, and are best managed by an interdisciplinary team during their hospital stay and after discharge. The purpose of this article is to review some of the risk factors associated…

  4. Risk Factors for Gross Motor Dysfunction in Infants with Congenital Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Suzanne H.; Eldridge, Bev J.; Galea, Mary P.; Harris, Susan R.

    2011-01-01

    Infants with congenital heart disease (CHD) that is severe enough to require early surgery are at risk for cognitive and motor delays, as well as musculoskeletal impairments, and are best managed by an interdisciplinary team during their hospital stay and after discharge. The purpose of this article is to review some of the risk factors associated…

  5. Prenatal Second-Hand Smoke Exposure Measured with Urine Cotinine May Reduce Gross Motor Development at 18 Months of Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evlampidou, Iro; Bagkeris, Manolis; Vardavas, Constantine; Koutra, Katerina; Patelarou, Evridiki; Koutis, Antonis; Chatzi, Leda; Kogevinas, Manolis

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the association of second-hand smoke exposure of pregnant mothers using urine cotinine with the neurodevelopment of their children at 18 months of age in the mother-child cohort in Crete (Rhea Study). Selected participants were Greek mothers with singleton pregnancies, had never smoked, and had available urine cotinine measurements in pregnancy, and their children for whom a neurodevelopmental assessment was completed. We performed face-to-face interviews twice during pregnancy and postnatally, and assessed children's neurodevelopment at 18 months of age using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition. We used linear regression and generalized additive models. Of 599 mothers, 175 (29%) met the inclusion criteria. Maternal urine cotinine levels were low (mean: 10.3 ng/mL, SD: 11.7 ng/mL). Reported passive smoking from different sources was strongly associated with urine cotinine levels. A negative association was observed between cotinine levels in pregnancy and child's gross motor function (beta = -3.22 per 10 ng/mL, 95% CI -5.09 to -1.34) after adjusting for factors potentially associated with neurodevelopment; results were similar in both sexes. A negative association was also observed for cognitive and receptive communication scales but the effect was small and not statistically significant. Maternal exposure during pregnancy to second-hand smoke measured through urine cotinine was associated with a decrease in gross motor function among 18-month-old children, even at low levels of exposure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Reliability of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the Gross Motor Function Measure in children with cerebral palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Kênnea M.; Albuquerque, Karolina A.; Ferreira, Marina L.; Aguiar, Stéphany K. B.; Mancini, Marisa C.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test the intra- and interrater reliability of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the 66-item Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM-66). METHOD: The sample included 48 children with cerebral palsy (CP), ranging from 2-17 years old, classified at levels I to IV of the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) and four child rehabilitation examiners. A main examiner evaluated all children using the GMFM-66 and video-recorded the assessments. The other examiners watched the video recordings and scored them independently for the assessment of interrater reliability. For the intrarater reliability evaluation, the main examiner watched the video recordings one month after the evaluation and re-scored each child. We calculated reliability by using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) with their respective 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: Excellent test reliability was documented. The intrarater reliability of the total sample was ICC=0.99 (95% CI 0.98-0.99), and the interrater reliability was ICC=0.97 (95% CI 0.95-0.98). The reliability across GMFCS levels ranged from ICC=0.92 (95% CI 0.72-0.98) to ICC=0.99 (95% CI 0.99-0.99); the lowest value was the interrater reliability for the GMFCS IV group. Reliability in the five GMFM dimensions varied from ICC=0.95 (95% CI 0.93-0.97) to ICC=0.99 (95% CI 0.99-0.99). CONCLUSION: The Brazilian Portuguese version of the GMFM-66 showed excellent intra- and interrater reliability when used in Brazilian children with CP levels GMFCS I to IV. PMID:26786081

  7. Reliability of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the Gross Motor Function Measure in children with cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kênnea M. Almeida

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To test the intra- and interrater reliability of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the 66-item Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM-66. METHOD: The sample included 48 children with cerebral palsy (CP, ranging from 2-17 years old, classified at levels I to IV of the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS and four child rehabilitation examiners. A main examiner evaluated all children using the GMFM-66 and video-recorded the assessments. The other examiners watched the video recordings and scored them independently for the assessment of interrater reliability. For the intrarater reliability evaluation, the main examiner watched the video recordings one month after the evaluation and re-scored each child. We calculated reliability by using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC with their respective 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: Excellent test reliability was documented. The intrarater reliability of the total sample was ICC=0.99 (95% CI 0.98-0.99, and the interrater reliability was ICC=0.97 (95% CI 0.95-0.98. The reliability across GMFCS levels ranged from ICC=0.92 (95% CI 0.72-0.98 to ICC=0.99 (95% CI 0.99-0.99; the lowest value was the interrater reliability for the GMFCS IV group. Reliability in the five GMFM dimensions varied from ICC=0.95 (95% CI 0.93-0.97 to ICC=0.99 (95% CI 0.99-0.99. CONCLUSION: The Brazilian Portuguese version of the GMFM-66 showed excellent intra- and interrater reliability when used in Brazilian children with CP levels GMFCS I to IV.

  8. Early onset of forced impaired forelimb use causes recovery of forelimb skilled motor function but no effect on gross sensory-motor function after capsular hemorrhage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Akimasa; Tamakoshi, Keigo; Hamakawa, Michiru; Shimada, Haruka; Nakashima, Hiroki; Masuda, Tadashi; Hida, Hideki; Ishida, Kazuto

    2011-11-20

    Intensive use of the impaired forelimb promotes behavioral recovery and induces plastic changes of the central nervous system after stroke. However, the optimal onset of intensive use treatment after stroke is controversial. In this study, we investigated whether early forced impaired limb use (FLU) initiated 24h after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) of the internal capsule affected behavioral recovery and histological damage. Rats were subjected to ICH via low-dose collagenase infusion or sham stroke. One day after surgery, the ipsilateral forelimbs of half of the ICH and sham rats were casted for a week to induce the use of their contralateral forelimbs. Behavioral assessments were performed on days 10-12 and 26-28 after the surgery and followed by histological assessments. Improvements in skilled reaching and coordinated stepping function were found in the FLU-treated group in comparison with the untreated group after ICH. Additionally, FLU-treated ICH animals showed more normal and precise reaching and stepping movements as compared with ICH control animals. In contrast, FLU did not have a significant impact on gross sensory-motor functions such as the motor deficit score, contact placing response and spontaneous usage of the impaired paw. The volume of tissue lost and the number of spared corticospinal neurons in lesioned motor cortex were not affected by early FLU after ICH. These findings demonstrate the efficacy of early focused use of an impaired limb after internal capsule hemorrhage.

  9. Caregiver-reported health-related quality of life of children with cerebral palsy and their families and its association with gross motor function: A South Indian study

    OpenAIRE

    Surender, S.; Gowda, Vykuntaraju K; Sanjay, K. S.; G V Basavaraja; Naveen Benakappa; Asha Benakappa

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: In children, health-related quality of life (HRQOL) includes parental impact and family functioning along with concepts of illness, functional status, mental health, and comfort. We are focusing on the impact of cerebral palsy (CP) on children's HRQOL and their families, and its relationship with gross motor dysfunction. Subjects and Methods: CP children aged 3–10 years under regular neurology follow-up were enrolled. The HRQOL and motor severity were prospectively assessed usin...

  10. Associations between fine and gross motor skills, aerobic fitness, cognition and academic performance in 7-8 years old Danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Rune Rasmussen; Beck, Mikkel Malling; Geertsen, Svend Sparre

    Purpose: The current literature is concentrated around the positive effects of aerobic fitness (AF) on performance in cognitive tests (CP) and academic performance (AP) (reviewed in Hillman 2008). However, motor skills (MS) are often overlooked in this equation, and studies evaluating both AF......, phonological working-memory capacity (PWM), spatial working-memory capacity (SWM), math performance (MP) and fine- and gross-motor skill (FMS & GMS) assessed. Results: Significant associations were found between FMS and MP (P

  11. Differences of respiratory function according to level of the gross motor function classification system in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Yong Hyun; Lee, Hye Young

    2014-03-01

    [Purpose] The current study was designed to investigate the difference in lung capacity and muscle strengthening related to respiration depending on the level of the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) in children with cerebral palsy (CP) through tests of respiratory function and respiratory pressure. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 49 children with CP who were classified as below level III of the GMFCS were recruited for this study. They were divided into three groups (i.e., GMFCS level I, GMFCS level II, and GMFCS level III). All children took the pulmonary function test (PFT) and underwent respiratory pressure testing for assessment of respiratory function in terms of lung capacity and respiratory muscle strength. [Results] The GMFCS level III group showed significantly lower scores for all tests of the PFT (i.e., forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume at one second (FEV1), and slow vital capacity (SVC)) and testing for respiratory pressures (maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP) and maximal expiratory pressure (MEP)) compared with the other two groups. The results of post hoc analysis indicated that the GMFCS level III group differed significantly from the other two groups in terms of FVC, FEV1, MIP, and MEP. In addition, a significant difference in SVC was observed between GMFCS level II and III. [Conclusion] Children with CP who had relatively low motor function showed poor pulmonary capacity and respiratory muscle weakness. Therefore, clinical manifestations regarding lung capacity and respiratory muscle will be required in children with CP who demonstrate poor physical activity.

  12. Quality of life in mothers of children with cerebral palsy: The role of children's gross motor function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghan, Leila; Dalvand, Hamid; Feizi, Awat; Samadi, Sayyed Ali; Hosseini, Seyed Ali

    2016-03-01

    Four hundred and twenty-four Iranian mothers of children with cerebral palsy (CP) were recruited using the convenience sampling approach in a cross-sectional study. The researchers assessed the quality of life (QOL) in mothers according to the gross motor function levels and types of CP. The evaluation was done using a well-validated Persian version of the 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) questionnaire. In 2012, demographic data and clinical relevant information were also collected in rehabilitation clinics affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences. The results indicated that the mean score for the study sample on physical component summary (PCS) and mental component summary (MCS) was 39.21 and 41.23, respectively. This suggests that participants considered themselves to have a low QOL (p motor function, and CP types (p < .05 and p < .01, respectively). The results indicate that mothers of children with CP suffer from poor physical and mental health. Therefore, particular attention should be paid to the QOL in mothers of children with CP, and rehabilitation professionals should offer supportive strategies to promote aspects of their QOL.

  13. Comparing children with and without dyslexia on the Movement Assessment Battery for Children and the Test of Gross Motor Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getchell, Nancy; Pabreja, Priya; Neeld, Kevin; Carrio, Victor

    2007-08-01

    Dyslexia is the most commonly occurring learning disability in the United States, characterized by difficulties with word recognition, spelling, and decoding. A growing body of literature suggests that deficits in motor skill performance exist in the dyslexic population. This study compared the performance of children with and without dyslexia on different subtests of the Test of Gross Motor Development and Movement Assessment Battery for Children and assessed whether there were developmental changes in the scores of the dyslexic group. Participants included 26 dyslexic children (19 boys and 7 girls; 9.5 yr. old, SD = 1.7) and 23 age- and sex-matched typically developing (17 boys and 6 girls; 9.9 yr. old, SD = 1.3) children as a control group. Mann-Whitney U tests indicated that the dyslexic group performed significantly lower than the control group only on the Total Balance subtest of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children. Additionally, the young dyslexic group performed significantly better on the Total Balance subtest, compared to the older dyslexic group. These results suggest that cerebellar dysfunction may account for differences in performance.

  14. Motor learning cannot explain stuttering adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatagiri, Horabail S; Nataraja, Nuggehalli P; Deepthi, M

    2013-08-01

    When persons who stutter (PWS) read a text repeatedly, there is a progressive reduction in stutter frequency over the course of three to five readings. Recently, this phenomenon has been attributed by some researchers to motor learning-the acquisition of relatively permanent motor skills that facilitate fluency through practice in producing words. The current study tested this explanation. 23 PWS read prose passages five times in succession. The number of 'new' and 'old' stutters during repeated readings (words stuttered in the current reading but spoken fluently in the previous reading and words stuttered also in the previous reading) were analyzed. If motor learning facilitated fluency during repeated readings in PWS, words read fluently in a reading should not be stuttered in a later reading in significant numbers. Contrary to this prediction, there was no statistical difference in the number of new words stuttered across five readings. A plausible alternative explanation, which requires further study to verify, is offered.

  15. Reliability of a Shuttle Run Test for Children with Cerebral Palsy Who Are Classified at Gross Motor Function Classification System Level III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verschuren, Olaf; Bosma, Liesbeth; Takken, Tim

    2011-01-01

    For children and adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP) classified as Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) level III there is no running-based field test available to assess their cardiorespiratory fitness. The current study investigated whether a shuttle run test can be reliably (test-retest) performed in a group of children with…

  16. Inter-Relationships of Functional Status in Cerebral Palsy: Analyzing Gross Motor Function, Manual Ability, and Communication Function Classification Systems in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidecker, Mary Jo Cooley; Ho, Nhan Thi; Dodge, Nancy; Hurvitz, Edward A.; Slaughter, Jaime; Workinger, Marilyn Seif; Kent, Ray D.; Rosenbaum, Peter; Lenski, Madeleine; Messaros, Bridget M.; Vanderbeek, Suzette B.; Deroos, Steven; Paneth, Nigel

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the relationships among the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS), Manual Ability Classification System (MACS), and Communication Function Classification System (CFCS) in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Method: Using questionnaires describing each scale, mothers reported GMFCS, MACS, and CFCS levels in 222…

  17. Gross motor function, functional skills and caregiver assistance in children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP) with and without cerebral visual impairment (CVI)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salavati, M.; Rameckers, E.A.A.; Steenbergen, B.; Schans, C.P. van der

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To determine whether the level of gross motor function and functional skills in children with cerebral palsy (CP) and cerebral visual impairment (CVI) as well as caregiver assistance are lower in comparison with the corresponding group of children experiencing CP without CVI. Method: Data aggre

  18. Differences in Gross Motor Achievements among Children of Four to Five Years of Age in Private and Public Institutions in Prishtine, Kosovo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shala, Merita; Bahtiri, Abedin

    2011-01-01

    This study was undertaken in order to examine differences in gross motor achievements among children of four to five years of age as the result of the development of physical education programmes offered by private and public institutions in Kosovo. Research was focused on 118 children, out of which 61 (27 girls, 34 boys) were from the public…

  19. The Effect of Picture Task Cards on Performance of the Test of Gross Motor Development by Preschool-Aged Children: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslin, Casey M.; Robinson, Leah E.; Rudisill, Mary E.

    2013-01-01

    Performance on the Test of Gross Motor Development (Second Edition; TGMD-2) by children with autism spectrum disorders improves when picture task cards were implemented into the assessment protocol [Breslin, C.M., & Rudisill, M.E. (2011). "The effect of visual supports on performance of the TGMD-2 for children with autism spectrum…

  20. Effects of concentric and eccentric control exercise on gross motor function and balance ability of paretic leg in children with spastic hemiplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Su-Ik; Kim, Mi-Sun; Choi, Jong-Duk

    2016-07-01

    [Purpose] This study examines the effect of concentric and eccentric control training of the paretic leg on balance and gross motor function in children with spastic hemiplegia. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty children with spastic hemiplegia were randomly divided into experimental and control groups. In the experimental group, 20 min of neurodevelopmental therapy and 20 min of concentric and eccentric control exercise were applied to the paretic leg. In the control group, 40 min of neurodevelopmental therapy was applied. The Pediatric Balance Scale test and standing and gait items of the Gross Motor Function Measure were evaluated before and after intervention. [Results] In the experimental group, Gross Motor Function Measure and Pediatric Balance Scale scores statistically significantly increased after the intervention. The control group showed no statistically significant difference in either score after the intervention. [Conclusion] Concentric and eccentric control exercise therapy in children with spastic hemiplegia can be effective in improving gross motor function and balance ability, and can be used to solve functional problems in a paretic leg.

  1. The Use of Music to Increase Task-Oriented Behaviors in Preschool Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders in a Gross Motor Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieringer, Shannon M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of music and music + instruction on task-oriented behaviors in preschool children with ASD within individual gross motor movement settings. Five preschool children (four boys; one girl) diagnosed with ASD attending a Midwestern private preschool for children with ASD served as participants. The…

  2. The Effect of Picture Task Cards on Performance of the Test of Gross Motor Development by Preschool-Aged Children: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslin, Casey M.; Robinson, Leah E.; Rudisill, Mary E.

    2013-01-01

    Performance on the Test of Gross Motor Development (Second Edition; TGMD-2) by children with autism spectrum disorders improves when picture task cards were implemented into the assessment protocol [Breslin, C.M., & Rudisill, M.E. (2011). "The effect of visual supports on performance of the TGMD-2 for children with autism spectrum disorder."…

  3. Gross motor function, functional skills and caregiver assistance in children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP) with and without cerebral visual impairment (CVI)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salavati, M.; Rameckers, E.A.A.; Steenbergen, B.; Schans, C.P. van der

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To determine whether the level of gross motor function and functional skills in children with cerebral palsy (CP) and cerebral visual impairment (CVI) as well as caregiver assistance are lower in comparison with the corresponding group of children experiencing CP without CVI. Method: Data

  4. Can a six-week exercise intervention improve gross motor function for non-ambulant children with cerebral palsy? A pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Elizabeth; Pountney, Terry; Williams, Heather; Edelman, Natalie

    2013-02-01

    To determine the effect of a six-week exercise intervention on gross motor function for non-ambulant children with cerebral palsy. A parallel arm randomized controlled trial. Four special schools. Thirty-five children aged 8-17 with bilateral cerebral palsy; Gross Motor Function Classification System levels IV-V. Participants were randomly allocated to a static bike group, a treadmill group or control group. Participants in the bike and treadmill groups received exercise training sessions, three times weekly for six weeks. The control group received their usual care. Blinded assessments were performed at baseline and six weeks and followed up at 12 and 18 weeks. Gross Motor Function Measures GMFM-66, GMFM-88D and GMFM-88E. At six weeks significant differences were found in GMFM-88D scores between the bike group and the control group, and the treadmill group and the control group (P exercise groups. The improvements observed declined during the follow-up period. This study provides preliminary evidence that exercising on a bike or treadmill may provide short-term improvements in gross motor function for non-ambulant children with cerebral palsy. This needs to be tested in a large-scale randomized trial.

  5. A Multivariate Model of Determinants of Change in Gross-Motor Abilities and Engagement in Self-Care and Play of Young Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarello, Lisa A.; Palisano, Robert J.; Bartlett, Doreen J.; McCoy, Sarah Westcott

    2011-01-01

    A multivariate model of determinants of change in gross-motor ability and engagement in self-care and play provides physical and occupational therapists a framework for decisions on interventions and supports for young children with cerebral palsy and their families. Aspects of the child, family ecology, and rehabilitation and community services…

  6. A Multivariate Model of Determinants of Change in Gross-Motor Abilities and Engagement in Self-Care and Play of Young Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarello, Lisa A.; Palisano, Robert J.; Bartlett, Doreen J.; McCoy, Sarah Westcott

    2011-01-01

    A multivariate model of determinants of change in gross-motor ability and engagement in self-care and play provides physical and occupational therapists a framework for decisions on interventions and supports for young children with cerebral palsy and their families. Aspects of the child, family ecology, and rehabilitation and community services…

  7. The effect of training in an interactive dynamic stander on ankle dorsiflexion and gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Curtis, Derek John; Bencke, Jesper; Mygind, Bente

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of active stretching of ankle plantarflexors using an interactive dynamic stander in children with cerebral palsy (CP). METHODS: Six children in Gross Motor Function Classification System classes I-III, aged 4-10 years, trained intensive active dorsiflexion...

  8. Fine and Gross Motor Task Performance When Using Computer-Based Video Models by Students with Autism and Moderate Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechling, Linda C.; Swindle, Catherine O.

    2013-01-01

    This investigation examined the effects of video modeling on the fine and gross motor task performance by three students with a diagnosis of moderate intellectual disability (Group 1) and by three students with a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (Group 2). Using a multiple probe design across three sets of tasks, the study examined the…

  9. Exploring the Relationship between Participation in a Structured Sports Program and Development of Gross Motor Skills in Children Ages 3 to 6 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahagirdar, Ishanee; Venditti, Laura Anne; Duncan, Andrea; Reed, Nick; Fleming, Sean

    2017-01-01

    This study looked at the relationship between participation in a structured sports program and gross-motor-skills development in children aged 3 to 6 years. Twenty-seven children participated in the study, with 16 children receiving an eight-week sports program intervention. Children were assessed at pre- and postintervention using a modified…

  10. Motor cortical adaptations to 2 weeks of lower limb immobilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Lundbye; Christensen, Mark Schram; Petersen, Tue Hvass

    It is well established that motor experience is associated with structural and functional plasticity within the central nervous system. It is less well investigated to which extent disuse relating to immobilization is also associated with plastic neuronal changes. The objective of this study was ...... following immobilization. Two weeks after cast removal virtually all measurements returned to preimmobilization levels.In conclusion 2 weeks of lower limb immobilization induces reversible adaptive changes in the motor cortex....

  11. Adaptive neuro-fuzzy controller of switched reluctance motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahour Ahmed

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an application of adaptive neuro-fuzzy (ANFIS control for switched reluctance motor (SRM speed. The ANFIS has the advantages of expert knowledge of the fuzzy inference system and the learning capability of neural networks. An adaptive neuro-fuzzy controller of the motor speed is then designed and simulated. Digital simulation results show that the designed ANFIS speed controller realizes a good dynamic behaviour of the motor, a perfect speed tracking with no overshoot and a good rejection of impact loads disturbance. The results of applying the adaptive neuro-fuzzy controller to a SRM give better performance and high robustness than those obtained by the application of a conventional controller (PI.

  12. Association between gross motor function and postural control in sitting in children with Cerebral Palsy: a correlational study in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero Mendoza, Sergio; Gómez-Conesa, Antonia; Hidalgo Montesinos, María Dolores

    2015-09-16

    Cerebral palsy (CP) is one of the causes of physical disability in children. Sitting abilities can be described using the Level of Sitting Scale (LSS) and the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS). There is growing interest in the sitting posture of children with CP owing to a stable sitting position allows for the development of eye-hand coordination, functions of the upper extremities and functional skills. Besides, in recent years researchers have tried to develop a new terminology to classify the CP as performed by the Surveillance of Cerebral Palsy in Europe (SCPE), in order to improve the monitoring of the frequency of the PC, providing a framework for research and service planning. The aim of this study was to analyse the relationship between GMFCS and LSS. The second purpose was to describe how the SCPE relates to sitting abilities with the GMFCS and LSS. The study involved 139 children with CP (range 3-18 years) from 24 educational centres. Age, gender, CP classification according to SCPE, GMFCS and LSS levels were recorded by an experienced physiotherapist. A significant inverse relationship between GMFCS and LSS score levels was found (rs = -0.86, p = 0.00). 45.3% of the children capable of leaning in any direction and of re-erecting the trunk (level VIII on the LSS) could walk without limitation (level I on the GMFCS). There were differences in the distribution of the GMFCS (χ(2)(4):50.78) and LSS (χ(2)(7): 37.15) levels and CP according to the distribution of the spasticity (p correlation between both scales and a relation between sitting ability and the capacity to walk with or without technical devices. GMFCS and the LSS are useful tools for describing the functional abilities and limitations of children with CP, specially sitting and mobility. Classification based on the distribution of spasticity and the gross motor function provides clinical information on the prognosis and development of children with CP.

  13. Longitudinal cohort protocol study of oropharyngeal dysphagia: relationships to gross motor attainment, growth and nutritional status in preschool children with cerebral palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benfer, Katherine A; Weir, Kelly A; Bell, Kristie L; Ware, Robert S; Davies, Peter S W; Boyd, Roslyn N

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The prevalence of oropharyngeal dysphagia (OPD) in children with cerebral palsy (CP) is estimated to be between 19% and 99%. OPD can impact on children's growth, nutrition and overall health. Despite the growing recognition of the extent and significance of health issues relating to OPD in children with CP, lack of knowledge of its profile in this subpopulation remains. This study aims to investigate the relationship between OPD, attainment of gross motor skills, growth and nutritional status in young children with CP at and between two crucial age points, 18–24 and 36 months, corrected age. Methods and analysis This prospective longitudinal population-based study aims to recruit a total of 200 children with CP born in Queensland, Australia between 1 September 2006 and 31 December 2009 (60 per birth-year). Outcomes include clinically assessed OPD (Schedule for Oral Motor Assessment, Dysphagia Disorders Survey, Pre-Speech Assessment Scale, signs suggestive of pharyngeal phase impairment, Thomas-Stonell and Greenberg Saliva Severity Scale), parent-reported OPD on a feeding questionnaire, gross motor skills (Gross Motor Function Measure, Gross Motor Function Classification System and motor type), growth and nutritional status (linear growth and body composition) and dietary intake (3 day food record). The strength of relationship between outcome and exposure variables will be analysed using regression modelling with ORs and relative risk ratios. Ethics and dissemination This protocol describes a study that provides the first large population-based study of OPD in a representative sample of preschool children with CP, using direct clinical assessment. Ethics has been obtained through the University of Queensland Medical Research Ethics Committee, the Children's Health Services District Ethics Committee, and at other regional and organisational ethics committees. Results are planned to be disseminated in six papers submitted to peer reviewed journals

  14. Human hyolaryngeal movements show adaptive motor learning during swallowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humbert, Ianessa A; Christopherson, Heather; Lokhande, Akshay; German, Rebecca; Gonzalez-Fernandez, Marlis; Celnik, Pablo

    2013-06-01

    The hyoid bone and larynx elevate to protect the airway during swallowing. However, it is unknown whether hyolaryngeal movements during swallowing can adjust and adapt to predict the presence of a persistent perturbation in a feed-forward manner (adaptive motor learning). We investigated adaptive motor learning in nine healthy adults. Electrical stimulation was administered to the anterior neck to reduce hyolaryngeal elevation, requiring more strength to swallow during the perturbation period of this study. We assessed peak hyoid bone and laryngeal movements using videofluoroscopy across thirty-five 5-ml water swallows. Evidence of adaptive motor learning of hyolaryngeal movements was found when (1) participants showed systematic gradual increases in elevation against the force of electrical stimulation and (2) hyolaryngeal elevation overshot the baseline (preperturbation) range of motion, showing behavioral aftereffects, when the perturbation was unexpectedly removed. Hyolaryngeal kinematics demonstrates adaptive, error-reducing movements in the presence of changing and unexpected demands. This is significant because individuals with dysphagia often aspirate due to disordered hyolaryngeal movements. Thus, if rapid motor learning is accessible during swallowing in healthy adults, patients may be taught to predict the presence of perturbations and reduce errors in swallowing before they occur.

  15. Brain-wide neuronal dynamics during motor adaptation in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Misha B; Li, Jennifer M; Orger, Michael B; Robson, Drew N; Schier, Alexander F; Engert, Florian; Portugues, Ruben

    2012-05-09

    A fundamental question in neuroscience is how entire neural circuits generate behaviour and adapt it to changes in sensory feedback. Here we use two-photon calcium imaging to record the activity of large populations of neurons at the cellular level, throughout the brain of larval zebrafish expressing a genetically encoded calcium sensor, while the paralysed animals interact fictively with a virtual environment and rapidly adapt their motor output to changes in visual feedback. We decompose the network dynamics involved in adaptive locomotion into four types of neuronal response properties, and provide anatomical maps of the corresponding sites. A subset of these signals occurred during behavioural adjustments and are candidates for the functional elements that drive motor learning. Lesions to the inferior olive indicate a specific functional role for olivocerebellar circuitry in adaptive locomotion. This study enables the analysis of brain-wide dynamics at single-cell resolution during behaviour.

  16. Non motor tasks improve adaptive brain-computer interface performance in users with severe motor impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef eFaller

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with severe motor impairment can use event-related desynchronization (ERD based BCIs as assistive technology. Auto-calibrating and adaptive ERD-based BCIs that users control with motor imagery tasks (SMR-AdBCI have proven effective for healthy users. We aim to find an improved configuration of such an adaptive ERD-based BCI for individuals with severe motor impairment as a result of spinal cord injury (SCI or stroke. We hypothesized that an adaptive ERD-based BCI, that automatically selects a user specific class-combination from motor-related and non motor-related mental tasks during initial auto-calibration (Auto-AdBCI could allow for higher control performance than a conventional SMR-AdBCI. To answer this question we performed offline analyses on two sessions (21 data sets total of cue-guided, five-class electroencephalography (EEG data recorded from individuals with SCI or stroke. On data from the twelve individuals in Session 1, we first identified three bipolar derivations for the SMR-AdBCI. In a similar way, we determined three bipolar derivations and four mental tasks for the Auto-AdBCI. We then simulated both, the SMR-AdBCI and the Auto-AdBCI configuration on the unseen data from the nine participants in Session 2 and compared the results. On the unseen data of Session 2 from individuals with SCI or stroke, we found that automatically selecting a user specific class-combination from motor-related and non motor-related mental tasks during initial auto-calibration (Auto-AdBCI significantly (p<0.01 improved classification performance compared to an adaptive ERD-based BCI that only used motor imagery tasks (SMR-AdBCI; average accuracy of 75.7 versus 66.3%.

  17. Hybrid Adaptive Observer for a Brushless DC Motor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemczyk, Piotr; Porchez, Thomas; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon

    2008-01-01

    A novel hybrid adaptive observer for Brushless DC Motors (BLDCM) is presented. It uses two current measurements of BLDCM phases to estimate the angle and the speed of the rotor. The observer is designed on the basis of a hybrid model, which is also presented in this paper. The parameters...

  18. Effects of bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells on gross motor function measure scores of children with cerebral palsy: a preliminary clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaodong; Cheng, Hongbin; Hua, Rongrong; Yang, Jing; Dai, Guanghui; Zhang, Zan; Wang, Renzhi; Qin, Chuan; An, Yihua

    2013-12-01

    Pre-clinical evidence indicates that autologous bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cell (BM-MSC) transplantation improves motor function in patients with central nervous system disorders. After providing informed consent, 52 patients with cerebral palsy (CP) who met the study criteria received BM-MSC transplantation. Gross motor function was assessed using the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM)-88 and GMFM-66 scales at baseline (before transplantation) and at 1 month, 6 months and 18 months post-transplantation. The participants completed the trial without visible side effects. The GMFM-66 percentile (motor growth curves) was used as the control index of motor function to exclude the interference of improvement with age. The score domains A, B, C and D and the total GMFM-88 and GMFM-66 scores in participants increased at 1 month, 6 months and 18 months post-transplantation compared with the baseline value (P cell transplantation. Autologous BM-MSC transplantation appears to be a feasible, safe and effective therapy for patients with CP. The treatment improved the development of children with CP with regard to motor function. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Mechanisms of motor adaptation in reactive balance control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torrence D J Welch

    Full Text Available Balance control must be rapidly modified to provide stability in the face of environmental challenges. Although changes in reactive balance over repeated perturbations have been observed previously, only anticipatory postural adjustments preceding voluntary movements have been studied in the framework of motor adaptation and learning theory. Here, we hypothesized that adaptation occurs in task-level balance control during responses to perturbations due to central changes in the control of both anticipatory and reactive components of balance. Our adaptation paradigm consisted of a Training set of forward support-surface perturbations, a Reversal set of novel countermanding perturbations that reversed direction, and a Washout set identical to the Training set. Adaptation was characterized by a change in a motor variable from the beginning to the end of each set, the presence of aftereffects at the beginning of the Washout set when the novel perturbations were removed, and a return of the variable at the end of the Washout to a level comparable to the end of the Training set. Task-level balance performance was characterized by peak center of mass (CoM excursion and velocity, which showed adaptive changes with repetitive trials. Only small changes in anticipatory postural control, characterized by body lean and background muscle activity were observed. Adaptation was found in the evoked long-latency muscular response, and also in the sensorimotor transformation mediating that response. Finally, in each set, temporal patterns of muscle activity converged towards an optimum predicted by a trade-off between maximizing motor performance and minimizing muscle activity. Our results suggest that adaptation in balance, as well as other motor tasks, is mediated by altering central sensitivity to perturbations and may be driven by energetic considerations.

  20. Motor adaptation and generalization of reaching movements using motor primitives based on spatial coordinates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hirokazu; Sejnowski, Terrence J

    2015-02-15

    The brain processes sensory and motor information in a wide range of coordinate systems, ranging from retinal coordinates in vision to body-centered coordinates in areas that control musculature. Here we focus on the coordinate system used in the motor cortex to guide actions and examine physiological and psychophysical evidence for an allocentric reference frame based on spatial coordinates. When the equations of motion governing reaching dynamics are expressed as spatial vectors, each term is a vector cross product between a limb-segment position and a velocity or acceleration. We extend this computational framework to motor adaptation, in which the cross-product terms form adaptive bases for canceling imposed perturbations. Coefficients of the velocity- and acceleration-dependent cross products are assumed to undergo plastic changes to compensate the force-field or visuomotor perturbations. Consistent with experimental findings, each of the cross products had a distinct reference frame, which predicted how an acquired remapping generalized to untrained location in the workspace. In response to force field or visual rotation, mainly the coefficients of the velocity- or acceleration-dependent cross products adapted, leading to transfer in an intrinsic or extrinsic reference frame, respectively. The model further predicted that remapping of visuomotor rotation should under- or overgeneralize in a distal or proximal workspace. The cross-product bases can explain the distinct patterns of generalization in visuomotor and force-field adaptation in a unified way, showing that kinematic and dynamic motor adaptation need not arise through separate neural substrates.

  1. Inverter and Motor Model Adaptation at Stand-Still Using Reference Voltages and Measured Currents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik; Tønnes, M.; Knudsen, Morten

    1995-01-01

    A model adaptation method for estimating the electrical parameters of an induction motor at stand-still is described.......A model adaptation method for estimating the electrical parameters of an induction motor at stand-still is described....

  2. Effects of concentric and eccentric control exercise on gross motor function and balance ability of paretic leg in children with spastic hemiplegia

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Su-Ik; Kim, Mi-sun; Choi, Jong-Duk

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study examines the effect of concentric and eccentric control training of the paretic leg on balance and gross motor function in children with spastic hemiplegia. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty children with spastic hemiplegia were randomly divided into experimental and control groups. In the experimental group, 20 min of neurodevelopmental therapy and 20 min of concentric and eccentric control exercise were applied to the paretic leg. In the control group, 40 min of neurodevelo...

  3. Longitudinal cohort protocol study of oropharyngeal dysphagia: relationships to gross motor attainment, growth and nutritional status in preschool children with cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Benfer, Katherine A; Weir, Kelly A; Bell, Kristie L.; Ware, Robert S; Davies, Peter S. W.; Boyd, Roslyn N.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The prevalence of oropharyngeal dysphagia (OPD) in children with cerebral palsy (CP) is estimated to be between 19% and 99%. OPD can impact on children's growth, nutrition and overall health. Despite the growing recognition of the extent and significance of health issues relating to OPD in children with CP, lack of knowledge of its profile in this subpopulation remains. This study aims to investigate the relationship between OPD, attainment of gross motor skills, growth and nutri...

  4. Leveling the Playing Field: Assessment of Gross Motor Skills in Low Socioeconomic Children to their Higher Socioeconomic Counterparts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan M. Adkins

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fundamental movements (FM of children influence the willingness to engage in physical activity (PA. Thus, proper FM skills are the foundation for a lifespan of PA. Objective: This study examined what factors may affect children’s PA in relation to FM pattern capabilities. Methods: The study examined the influence of SES when three low-income schools were provided additional PA opportunities on days PE was not taught. FM patterns in relation to object control (OC and locomotor skill (LC development were evaluated on K (n = 871, 1st (n = 893, and 2nd graders (n = 829 using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (TGMD-2 instrument (Ulrich, 2000. Schools were dichotomized and categorized as being low SES (n = 2008 and high SES (n = 578 status. Results: A significant relationship was revealed with LC (r = 0.264; p = 0.001, OC (r = 0.171; p = 0.001, and total TGMD-2 (r = 0.264; p = 0.001. Low and high SES schools significantly improved overall TGMD-2 scores. High SES schools children were significantly higher in LC [F, (2, 1272 = 29.31, p = 0.001], OC [F, (2, 1272 = 23.14, p = 0.001], and total TGMD-2 [F, (1, 1272 = 38.11, p = 0.001]. Conclusion: Low SES schools need to concentrate on PA-based activities to engage students in FM patterns, to help narrow the gap in FM capabilities. In addition, the increase in PA opportunities for lower SES schools could positively impact brain function, cardiovascular fitness, and overall well-being.

  5. An adaptive process model of motor learning: insights for the teaching of motor skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani, Go; Corrêa, Umberto Cesar; Basso, Luciano; Benda, Rodolfo Novellino; Ugrinowitsch, Herbert; Choshi, Koji

    2014-01-01

    This article presents an outline of a non-equilibrium model, in which motor learning is explained as a continuous process of stabilization and adaptation. The article also shows how propositions derived from this model have been tested, and discusses possible practical implications of some supporting evidence to the teaching of motor skills. The stabilization refers to a process of functional stabilization that is achieved through negative feedback mechanisms. Initially, inconsistent and incorrect responses are gradually reduced, leading to a spatial-temporal patterning of the action. The adaptation is one in which new skills are formed from the reorganization of those already acquired through the flexibility of the system, reorganization of the skill structure, or self-organization. In order to provide learners with competency for adaptation, teachers should (a) guide students to learn motor skills taking into account that the stabilization of performance is just a transitory state that must be dismantled to achieve higher levels of complexity; (b) be clear which parts (micro) compose the skills and how they interact in order to form the whole (macro); (c) manipulate the skills in terms of their temporal, spatial, and/or spatiotemporal dimensions; (d) organize practice initially in a constant way, and then in a varied regimen (random) when the motor skills involve requirements of time and force; and, inversely for motor skills with spatial demands; and (e), provide a moderate frequency of feedback.

  6. Correlation between the gross motor performance measurement and pediatric balance scale with respect to movement disorder in children with cerebral palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hae-Yeon; Ahn, So-Yoon

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To determine whether the Gross Motor Performance Measurement is useful in predicting the future score of the Pediatric Balance Scale, this study examined the correlation between the 2 measurement tools with respect to movement disorder in children with cerebral palsy. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 38 study subjects with cerebral palsy were divided into 3 groups (spastic, dyskinetic, and ataxic) by means of systematic proportional stratified sampling in accordance with the characteristics of their movement disorders. [Results] The spastic Pediatric Balance Scale had an intermediate level of positive correlation with dissociated movement (r=0.411), alignment (r=0.518), and weight shift (r=0.461). The dyskinetic Pediatric Balance Scale had a strong positive correlation with dissociated movement (r=0.905), coordination (r=0.882), alignment (r=0.930), and stability (r=0.924). The ataxic Pediatric Balance Scale had an intermediate level of positive correlation with the overall Gross Motor Performance Measurement (r=0.636), and a strong positive correlation with dissociated movement (r=0.866), coordination (r=0.871) and stability (r=0.984). [Conclusion] Gross Motor Performance Measurement is important in evaluating the quality of movement, and can be considered an excellent supplementary tool in predicting functional balance. PMID:27630414

  7. Correlation between the gross motor performance measurement and pediatric balance scale with respect to movement disorder in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hae-Yeon; Ahn, So-Yoon

    2016-08-01

    [Purpose] To determine whether the Gross Motor Performance Measurement is useful in predicting the future score of the Pediatric Balance Scale, this study examined the correlation between the 2 measurement tools with respect to movement disorder in children with cerebral palsy. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 38 study subjects with cerebral palsy were divided into 3 groups (spastic, dyskinetic, and ataxic) by means of systematic proportional stratified sampling in accordance with the characteristics of their movement disorders. [Results] The spastic Pediatric Balance Scale had an intermediate level of positive correlation with dissociated movement (r=0.411), alignment (r=0.518), and weight shift (r=0.461). The dyskinetic Pediatric Balance Scale had a strong positive correlation with dissociated movement (r=0.905), coordination (r=0.882), alignment (r=0.930), and stability (r=0.924). The ataxic Pediatric Balance Scale had an intermediate level of positive correlation with the overall Gross Motor Performance Measurement (r=0.636), and a strong positive correlation with dissociated movement (r=0.866), coordination (r=0.871) and stability (r=0.984). [Conclusion] Gross Motor Performance Measurement is important in evaluating the quality of movement, and can be considered an excellent supplementary tool in predicting functional balance.

  8. Context-aware adaptive spelling in motor imagery BCI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdikis, S.; Leeb, R.; Millán, J. d. R.

    2016-06-01

    Objective. This work presents a first motor imagery-based, adaptive brain-computer interface (BCI) speller, which is able to exploit application-derived context for improved, simultaneous classifier adaptation and spelling. Online spelling experiments with ten able-bodied users evaluate the ability of our scheme, first, to alleviate non-stationarity of brain signals for restoring the subject’s performances, second, to guide naive users into BCI control avoiding initial offline BCI calibration and, third, to outperform regular unsupervised adaptation. Approach. Our co-adaptive framework combines the BrainTree speller with smooth-batch linear discriminant analysis adaptation. The latter enjoys contextual assistance through BrainTree’s language model to improve online expectation-maximization maximum-likelihood estimation. Main results. Our results verify the possibility to restore single-sample classification and BCI command accuracy, as well as spelling speed for expert users. Most importantly, context-aware adaptation performs significantly better than its unsupervised equivalent and similar to the supervised one. Although no significant differences are found with respect to the state-of-the-art PMean approach, the proposed algorithm is shown to be advantageous for 30% of the users. Significance. We demonstrate the possibility to circumvent supervised BCI recalibration, saving time without compromising the adaptation quality. On the other hand, we show that this type of classifier adaptation is not as efficient for BCI training purposes.

  9. Myofascial Structural Integration Therapy on Gross Motor Function and Gait of Young Children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loi, Elizabeth C; Buysse, Christina A; Price, Karen S; Jaramillo, Theresa M; Pico, Elaine L; Hansen, Alexis B; Feldman, Heidi M

    2015-01-01

    Though the cause of motor abnormalities in cerebral palsy is injury to the brain, structural changes in muscle and fascia may add to stiffness and reduced function. This study examined whether myofascial structural integration therapy, a complementary treatment that manipulates muscle and fascia, would improve gross motor function and gait in children Gross Motor Function Measure-66 assessed at 3-month intervals. Gait (n = 8) was assessed using the GAITRite(®) electronic walkway. Parents completed a survey at study conclusion. Comparing Treatment (n = 15) and Waitlist-Control groups (n = 9), we found a significant main effect of time but no effect of group or time × group interaction. The pooled sample (n = 27) showed a main effect of time, but no significantly greater change after treatment than between other assessments. Foot length on the affected side increased significantly after treatment, likely indicating improvement in the children's ability to approach a heel strike. Parent surveys indicated satisfaction and improvements in the children's quality of movement. MSI did not increase the rate of motor skill development, but was associated with improvement in gait quality.

  10. Myofascial structural integration therapy on gross motor function and gait of young children with spastic cerebral palsy: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth C Loi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Though the cause of motor abnormalities in cerebral palsy is injury to the brain, structural changes in muscle and fascia may add to stiffness and reduced function. This study examined whether Myofascial Structural Integration therapy (MSI, a complementary treatment that manipulates muscle and fascia, would improve gross motor function and gait in children < 4 years with cerebral palsy. Participants (N=29 were enrolled in a randomized controlled trial (RCT: NCT01815814, https://goo.gl/TGxvwd or Open Label Extension. The main outcome was the Gross Motor Function Measure-66 assessed at 3-month intervals. Gait (n=8 was assessed using the GAITRite® electronic walkway. Parents completed a survey at study conclusion.Comparing Treatment (n=15 and Waitlist-Control Groups (n=9, we found a significant main effect of time but no effect of group or timeXgroup interaction. The pooled sample (n=27 showed a main effect of time, but no significantly greater change after treatment than between other assessments. Foot length on the affected side increased significantly after treatment, likely indicating improvement in the children’s ability to approach a heel strike. Parent surveys indicated satisfaction and improvements in the children's quality of movement. MSI did not increase the rate of motor skill development, but was associated with improvement in gait quality.

  11. Combined treatment using acupuncture and music therapy on children with cerebral palsy Gross motor function measure comparison In 60 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lixiong Wu; Haibo Yu; Yongfeng Liu

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The use of acupuncture has received recognition to effectively treat cerebral palsy. Moreover, music therapy can be used to modify treatment of cerebral palsy. OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of combined treatment using acupuncture and music therapy on gross motor function measure (GMFM) of children with cerebral palsy, compared with acupuncture treatment alone. DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: Randomized, controlled, clinical study. The experiment was conducted in Shenzhen Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine between January 2007 and September 2007. PARTICIPANTS: All children with cerebral palsy in the trial were from the outpatient department of Shenzhen Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine. The children were randomly divided into two groups: 30 children in Group B received acupuncture and music therapy, while 30 children in Group A received only acupuncture therapy. METHODS: Subjects in Groups A and B received acupuncture based on syndrome differentiation. The main acupoints were necessary for all participants. At first, flash needling was applied to the acupoints. For the remaining acupoints, the technique of transverse needling was applied to the head acupoints, and perpendicular needling was used for the other points. The inserted needles were twirled and then maintained for 30 minutes. The needle was twirled for one second every other 10 minutes, without reinforcing-reducing techniques. The therapy was performed every other day. The trial consisted of three periods each, and lasted for 84 days. Subjects in Group B received music therapy. They listened to music that they preferred while acupuncture was being performed. Following acupuncture, they were allowed to perform musical activities, such as percussion, singing, and dancing. The music therapy was scheduled for one hour, including listening to music for 30 minutes and music activities for 30 minutes. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The comprehensive functional evaluation scale of cerebral palsy and

  12. Radiological outcome of reconstructive hip surgery in children with gross motor function classification system IV and V cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shiran; Wilson, Nichola C; Mackey, Anna H; Stott, Ngaire Susan

    2014-09-01

    Hip subluxation is common in children with cerebral palsy (CP). The aim of this study was to describe the radiological outcome of reconstructive hip surgery in children with CP, gross motor function classification system (GMFCS) level IV and V, and determine whether the GMFCS level plays a predictive role in outcome. This was a retrospective cohort study conducted at a tertiary-level pediatric hospital with a CP hip surveillance program. Of 110 children with GMFCS IV and V CP registered for hip surveillance, 45 underwent reconstructive hip surgery between 1997 and 2009, defined as varus derotational proximal femoral osteotomy with or without additional pelvic osteotomy. Eleven children were excluded because of lack of 12-month follow-up (n=10) or missing clinical records (n=1). Thus, 21 GMFCS IV children (median age 6 years at surgery) and 13 GMFCS V children (median age 5 years at surgery), who underwent 58 index surgeries, were included in the study. Clinical records and radiology were reviewed. The two surgical groups were femoral osteotomy (varus derotational femoral osteotomy with an AO blade plate or femoral locking plate fixation), or femoral ostetotomy with additional pelvic osteotomy. Reimer's migration percentage (MP) was calculated from anteroposterior pelvis radiographs to determine the outcome for each hip independently. Failure was defined as MP of greater than 60% or further operation on the hip. Reconstructive surgeries were performed for 58 hips with a median preoperative MP of 55%. There were 15 failures at a median of 62 months, including nine failures in 35 GMFCS IV hips and six failures in 23 GMFCS V hips. Overall, GMFCS V hips tended to fail earlier, (hazard ratio 2.3) with a median time to failure of 78 and 39 months for GMFCS IV and V hips, respectively. Combined femoral and pelvic osteotomies had the lowest failure rates in both groups of patients. The GMFCS classification may have some predictive value for outcomes following reconstructive

  13. Does EMG control lead to distinct motor adaptation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reva E Johnson

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Powered prostheses are controlled using electromyographic (EMG signals, which may introduce high levels of uncertainty even for simple tasks. According to Bayesian theories, higher uncertainty should influence how the brain adapts motor commands in response to perceived errors. Such adaptation may critically influence how patients interact with their prosthetic devices; however, we do not yet understand adaptation behavior with EMG control. Models of adaptation can offer insights on movement planning and feedback correction, but we first need to establish their validity for EMG control interfaces. Here we created a simplified comparison of prosthesis and able-bodied control by studying adaptation with three control interfaces: joint angle, joint torque, and EMG. Subjects used each of the control interfaces to perform a target-directed task with random visual perturbations. We investigated how control interface and visual uncertainty affected trial-by-trial adaptation. As predicted by Bayesian models, increased errors and decreased visual uncertainty led to faster adaptation. The control interface had no significant effect beyond influencing error sizes. This result suggests that Bayesian models are useful for describing prosthesis control and could facilitate further investigation to characterize the uncertainty faced by prosthesis users. A better understanding of factors affecting movement uncertainty will guide sensory feedback strategies for powered prostheses and clarify what feedback information best improves control.

  14. Task dependency of motor adaptations to an acute noxious stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hug, François; Hodges, Paul W; Tucker, Kylie

    2014-06-01

    This study explored motor adaptations in response to an acute noxious stimulation during three tasks that differed in the number of available degrees of freedom. Fifteen participants performed three isometric force-matched tasks (single leg knee extension, single leg squat, and bilateral leg squat) in three conditions (Control, Pain, and Washout). Pain was induced by injection of hypertonic saline into the vastus medialis muscle (VM; left leg). Supersonic shear imaging was used to measure muscle shear elastic modulus as this is considered to be an index of muscle stress. Surface electromyography (EMG) was recorded bilaterally from six muscles to assess changes in neural strategies. During tasks with fewer degrees of freedom (knee extension and single leg squat task), there was no change in VM EMG amplitude or VM shear elastic modulus. In contrast, during the bilateral leg squat, VM (-32.9 ± 15.8%; P leg (-10.0 ± 10.2%; P = 0.046). This work provides evidence that when an obvious solution is available to decrease stress on painful tissue, this option is selected. It confirms the fundamental assumption that motor adaptations to pain aim to alter load on painful tissue to protect for further pain and/or injury. The lack of adaptation observed during force-matched tasks with fewer degrees of freedom might be explained by the limited potential to redistribute stress or a high cost induced by such a compensation.

  15. Association timed "up and go" test with respect to gross motor function classification system level in children diagnosed as cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjivani N Dhote; Suvarna S Ganvir

    2013-01-01

    Background: Timed "up and go" (TUG) test is a quick test, used in clinical practice as an outcome measure to assess functional ambulatory mobility or dynamic balance in adults. However, little information is available of TUG test used in cerebral palsy (CP). Hence, the purpose of our study was to find score of TUG with respect to gross motor function classification system (GMFCS) in CP children. Aims: To find the mean score of TUG test with respect to GMFCS level in children diagnosed as CP. ...

  16. Sensorless-adaptive DTC of double star induction motor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khedher, Adel, E-mail: Adel_kheder@yahoo.f [Institut Superieur des Sciences Appliquees et de Technologie, Cite Ibn.Khaldoun, 4003 Sousse (Tunisia); Unite de Recherche sur les Energies Renouvelables et les Vehicules Electriques (RELEV) (Tunisia); Faouzi Mimouni, Mohamed, E-mail: mfaouzi.mimouni@enim.rnu.t [Ecole Nationale d' Ingenieurs de Monastir, Cite Ibn Aljazzar, 5000 Monastir (Tunisia); Unite de Recherche sur les Reseaux et Machines Electriques (RME) (Tunisia)

    2010-12-15

    This paper presents a study of extension of the Direct Torque Control approach (DTC) developed by Takahashi for a double star induction motor (DSIM) and a new DTC-Space vector modulation (DTC-SVM) strategy around two dead-beat controllers. The suggested control is performed by using a sliding mode stator flux observer (SMSFO). This last allow to estimating the mechanical speed and the electromagnetic torque. To adapt in real time the rotor resistance variations according to temperature effect, the sensorless method is performed by using an adaptive algorithm which is based on the Lyapunov stability theory. Moreover, this paper treats the study of the system stability under the new suggested control. The simulation results for various scenarios operation show the high performances of the proposed control in terms of piloting effectiveness, precision, rapidity and stability for the high powers DSIM operating at variable speeds.

  17. Mediating effects of the ICF domain of function and the gross motor function measure on the ICF domains of activity, and participation in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byoung-Hee; Kim, Yu-Mi; Jeong, Goo-Churl

    2015-10-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to evaluate the mediating effect of gross motor function, measured using the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) and of general function, measured using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health-Child and Youth Check List (ICF-CY), on the ICF domains of activity and participation in children with cerebral palsy (CP). [Subjects] Ninety-five children with CP, from Seoul, Korea, participated in the study. [Methods] The GMFM was administered in its entirety to patients without orthoses or mobility aids. The ICF-CY was used to evaluate the degree of disability and health of subjects. [Results] GMFM score and ICF-CY function were negatively correlated to ICF-CY activity and participation. ICF-CY partially mediated the effects of the GMFM on activity and participation. [Conclusion] When establishing a treatment plan for a child with CP, limitations in activity and participation, as described by the ICF-CY, should be considered in addition to the child's physical abilities and development. In addition, the treatment plan should focus on increasing the child's activity and participation level, as well as his/her physical level.

  18. ADAPTIVE FLUX OBSERVER FOR PERMANENT MAGNET SYNCHRONOUS MOTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Bobtsov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the observer design problem for a flux in permanent magnet synchronous motors. It is assumed that some electrical parameters such as resistance and inductance are known numbers. But the flux, the angle and the speed of the rotor are unmeasurable. The new robust approach to design an adaptive flux observer is proposed that guarantees globally boundedness of all signals and, moreover, exponential convergence to zero of observer error between the true flux value and an estimate obtained from the adaptive observer. The problem of an adaptive flux observer design has been solved with using the trigonometrical properties and linear filtering which ensures cancellation of unknown terms arisen after mathematical calculations. The key idea is the new parameterization of the dynamical model containing unknown parameters and depending on measurable current and voltage in the motor. By applying the Pythagorean trigonometric identity the linear equation has found that does not contain any functions depending on angle or angular velocity of the rotor. Using dynamical first-order filters the standard regression model is obtained that consists of unknown constant parameters and measurable functions of time. Then the gradient-like estimator is designed to reconstruct unknown parameters, and it guarantees boundedness of all signals in the system. The proposition is proved that if the regressor satisfies the persistent excitation condition, meaning the “frequency-rich” signal, then all errors in observer exponentially converges to zero. It is shown that observer error for the flux explicitly depends on estimator errors. Exponential convergence of parameter estimation errors to zero yields exponential convergence of the flux observer error to zero. The numerical example is considered.

  19. Correlation Between Lower And Higher Order Sensory Functions And Fine And Gross Motor Function In Dominant And Non-Dominant Hand Of Patients With Choronic Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandehgary Najafabadi Mahbubeh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: To investigate the correlation between lower and higher order sensory functions and manual dexterity as well as Identify factors affecting upper extremity motor function(UEMF in subjects with chronic stroke. Methods: In this correlational study, seventy chronic stroke subjects (48 male and 22 female by mean age of 56.94 (±12.92 years and mean time after stroke of 3.01 (±2.64 years were selected by simple nonprobability method. Lower order sensory function (i.e., light touch threshold, higher order sensory functions (i.e., tactile acuity, weight and texture discrimination, haptic performance and wrist proprioception were measured by Weinstein enhanced sensory test, two point discrimination, wrist position sense test, hand active sensation test and haptic object test, respectively. The gross and fine manual dexterity were measured by Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT, Box and Block Test(BBT and Purdue Pegboard (PPB test. The step by step regression model was used to investigate the sensory determinants of motor function. Results: A weak to high significant correlation (r =0.25 to 0.80 was found between sensory predictors and motor outcomes. The regression models explained 19.8%, 30.3% and 52.3% of variancein motor function measures of the PPB, BBT and WMFT, respectively. The tactile threshold (p<0.001 was the most relevant predictor in all stepwise models for all motor outcomes in dominant or non-dominant hand , followed by tactile acuity, haptic performance and wrist proprioception (p< 0.05. The weight and texture discrimination was not included in any outcome models.  Conclusion: The results of present study showed that tactile threshold as lowr order sensory function is the most relevant predictor for UEMF in stroke. The results reinforce that rehabilitation interventions focused on tactile threshold may be best able to impact UEMF in stroke subjects.

  20. A Field-Based Testing Protocol for Assessing Gross Motor Skills in Preschool Children: The Children's Activity and Movement in Preschool Study Motor Skills Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Harriet G.; Pfeiffer, Karin A.; Dowda, Marsha; Jeter, Chevy; Jones, Shaverra; Pate, Russell R.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a valid and reliable tool for use in assessing motor skills in preschool children in field-based settings. The development of the Children's Activity and Movement in Preschool Study Motor Skills Protocol included evidence of its reliability and validity for use in field-based environments as part of large…

  1. The Comparison of School-Age Children's Performance on Two Motor Assessments: The Test of Gross Motor Development and the Movement Assessment Battery for Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Samuel W.; Robinson, Leah E.; Rudisill, Mary E.; Wadsworth, Danielle D.; Morera, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Background: Competence in the motor domain is associated with positive, health-related outcomes. Physical education teachers often administer assessments into their programs to measure motor competence for a variety of reasons. Recently, researchers have questioned the relatedness of performance on different assessments. Purpose: The purpose of…

  2. Adaptive coding of orofacial and speech actions in motor and somatosensory spaces with and without overt motor behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Marc; Vilain, Coriandre; Lamalle, Laurent; Grabski, Krystyna

    2015-02-01

    Studies of speech motor control suggest that articulatory and phonemic goals are defined in multidimensional motor, somatosensory, and auditory spaces. To test whether motor simulation might rely on sensory-motor coding common with those for motor execution, we used a repetition suppression (RS) paradigm while measuring neural activity with sparse sampling fMRI during repeated overt and covert orofacial and speech actions. RS refers to the phenomenon that repeated stimuli or motor acts lead to decreased activity in specific neural populations and are associated with enhanced adaptive learning related to the repeated stimulus attributes. Common suppressed neural responses were observed in motor and posterior parietal regions in the achievement of both repeated overt and covert orofacial and speech actions, including the left premotor cortex and inferior frontal gyrus, the superior parietal cortex and adjacent intraprietal sulcus, and the left IC and the SMA. Interestingly, reduced activity of the auditory cortex was observed during overt but not covert speech production, a finding likely reflecting a motor rather an auditory imagery strategy by the participants. By providing evidence for adaptive changes in premotor and associative somatosensory brain areas, the observed RS suggests online state coding of both orofacial and speech actions in somatosensory and motor spaces with and without motor behavior and sensory feedback.

  3. LOADED AND UNLOADED SIT-TO-STAND STRENGTHENING EXERCISES EFFECT TO GROSS MOTOR FUNCTION MEASURE IN SPASTIC DIPLEGIA CEREBRAL PALSY PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Safei

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine sit-to-stand and loaded sit-to-stand exercises effect in standing, walking, and running dimensions of gross motor function measure (GMFM in spastic diplegia cerebral palsy (SDCP patients. Methods: This study was conducted in the period of May to October 2014 and included 24 children with SDCP as the subjects. The methods used in the study were interventional study with randomized controlled trial, and investigation of CP before and after the exercise intervention. The subjects were divided into two groups, sit-to-stand exercise group and loaded sit-to-stand exercise group. Results: The results showed that the increase of standing, walking, and running dimension scores of GMFM in the loaded group were higher (standing dimension score 12.00 vs 11.08 and walking and running dimensions 13.58 vs 13.42 compared to the unloaded group. Conclusions: Both sit-to-stand and loaded sit-to-stand exercise groups do not show significant differences in improving motor skills in standing, walking, and running dimensions of GMFM. Children with SDCP may receive the exercise to improve their motor skills in mobility aspects, such as standing, walking, and running.

  4. Therapeutic Effects of Horseback Riding Therapy on Gross Motor Function in Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalen, Cara N.; Case-Smith, Jane

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This systematic review examined the efficacy of hippotherapy or therapeutic horseback riding (THR) on motor outcomes in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Methods: Databases were searched for clinical trials of hippotherapy or THR for children with CP. Results: Nine articles were included in this review. Although the current level of…

  5. Influence of aquatic physical therapy on gross motor skills in children under 5 years of age with cerebral palsy: Systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Latorre-García

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aquatic environment has been used and is used to perform physiotherapy treatments in different pathologies including cerebral palsy. No method has been proven more effective than the others. Aim: The objective of this article is to carry out a systematic review of the scientific literature on how physical exercise in water affects the gross motor skills and neurodevelopment of children with cerebral palsy. Methods: A systematic search was carried out using the PRISMA model. The search for articles in this review was done in the databases through Scopus and PubMed, as well as in the Web of Science (WOS platform and in official websites of international organizations, such as the World Health Organization (WHO. The review was carried out between the months of June and December of the year 2016. Results: Of the 8 studies that met the inclusion criteria, only two used randomized control trial design and the results were mixed. Most of the studies used quasi-experimental designs and reported improvements in gross motor skills, for group analyzes, after the aquatic programs were maintained from two to three sessions a week and lasted from 6 to 16 weeks. Participants were evaluated and classified according to the different development scales, and were less than 5 years old. Conclusions: Although the different studies have not demonstrated a greater efficacy of aquatic physiotherapy compared to other treatment concepts, neither has been less, so that the exercise in water increases the therapeutic possibilities to which the chronic nature of the Pathology must access the patient throughout his life. Aquatic exercise is feasible and adverse effects are minimal; but the dosage parameters are not clear. However, in order to promote the prescription by physicians of this type of therapy, it is necessary to carry out research studies that demonstrate in a quantitative way the efficacy of the method, with longer and longer samples.

  6. Backstepping Adaptive Controller of Electro-Hydraulic Servo System of Continuous Rotary Motor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XiaoJing Wang; ChangFu Xian; CaoLei Wan; JinBao Zhao; LiWei Xiu; AnCai Yu

    2014-01-01

    In order to consider the influence of the continuous rotary motor electro-hydraulic servo system parameters change on its performance, the design method of backstepping adaptive controller is put forward. The mathematical model of electro-hydraulic servo system of continuous rotary motor is established, and the whole system is decomposed into several lower order subsystems, and the virtual control signal is designed for each subsystem from the final subsystem with motor angular displacement to the subsystem with system control input voltage. Based on Lyapunov method and the backstepping theory, an adaptive backstepping controller is designed with the changed parameters adaptive law. It is proved that the system reaches the global asymptotic stability, and the system tracking error asymptotically tends to zero. The simulation results show that the backstepping adaptive controller based on the adaptive law of the changed parameters can improve the performance of continuous rotary motor, and the proposed control strategy is feasible.

  7. Neural correlates of the age-related changes in motor sequence learning and motor adaptation in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley R King

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available As the world’s population ages, a deeper understanding of the relationship between aging and motor learning will become increasingly relevant in basic research and applied settings. In this context, this review aims to address the effects of age on motor sequence learning (MSL and motor adaptation (MA with respect to behavioral, neurological and neuroimaging findings. Previous behavioral research investigating the influence of aging on motor learning has consistently reported the following results. First, the initial acquisition of motor sequences is not altered, except under conditions of increased task complexity. Second, older adults demonstrate deficits in motor sequence memory consolidation. And, third, although older adults demonstrate deficits during the exposure phase of MA paradigms, the aftereffects following removal of the sensorimotor perturbation are similar to young adults, suggesting that the adaptive ability of older adults is relatively intact. This paper will review the potential neural underpinnings of these behavioral results, with a particular emphasis on the influence of age-related dysfunctions in the cortico-striatal system on motor learning.

  8. Impact of clinical types and involved sites on the recovery of gross motor function after interventions in children with cerebral palsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongying Li; Huafeng Yu; Yan Huang; Lin Sang; Haixia Ha

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND:The recovery of gross motor function is the basis for the improvement of other abilities.It is helpful for judging the rehabilitative effect and prognosis of children with cerebral palsy to analyze the effect of different clinical types on the gross motor ability. OBJECTIVE:To investigate the influence of different clinical types and different involved sites of limbs of cerebral palsy on the effect of rehabilitative interventions on gross motor function.DESIGN:A controlled observation before and after treatment.SETTING:Rehabilitation Center of Qilu Children's Hospital,Shandong University.PARTICIPANTS:Totally 138 children with cerebral palsy having complete data,who were hospitalized for 12 months in the Rehabilitation Center of Qilu Children's Hospital,Shandong University,were selected from April 2004 to September 2006,including 97 males and 41 females;55 cases were younger than 2 years old.47 cases younger than 4 years and 36 cases younger than 6 years;76 cases of spasm type,30 cases of involuntary movement and 32 cases of mixed type(mixture of spasm and involuntary movement);64 cases of diplegia.46 cases of tetraplegia and 28 cases of hemiplegia.All the children and their relatives were informed and agreed to cooperate with the experiments.METHODS:All the 138 children with cerebral palsy were given comprehensive rehabilitative treatment:The assessment of comprehensive ability was conducted to all the children with cerebral palsy by the rehabilitative group before rehabilitation treatment,the rehabilitative objective was established according to the results of the assessment,then feasible rehabilitative training plan was made up.The comprehensive rehabilitative treatment was conducted as planned afterwards:①Physical therapy:The Bobath method was used.and motor development was promoted by proprioceptive hand technique.②Traditional Chinese medicine therapy:Massage:The children were massaged by using the maneuvers of push

  9. Speed Estimators Using Stator Resistance Adaptation for Sensorless Induction Motor Drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hau Huu Vo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes speed estimators for a speed sensorless induction motor drive with the direct torque and flux control. However, the accuracy of the direct torque control depends on the correct information of the stator resistance, because its value varies with working conditions of the induction motor. Hence, a stator resistance adaptation is necessary. Two techniques were developed for solving this problem: model reference adaptive system based scheme and artificial neural network based scheme. At first, the sensorless control structures of the induction motor drive were implemented in Matlab-Simulink environment. Then, a comparison is done by evaluating the rotor speed difference. The simulation results confirm that speed estimators and adaptation techniques are simple to simulate and experiment. By comparison of both speed estimators and both adaptation techniques, the current based model reference adaptive system estimator with the artificial neural network based adaptation technique gives higher accuracy of the speed estimation.

  10. Closed Loop Speed Control of a BLDC Motor Drive Using Adaptive Fuzzy Tuned PI Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Latha Eti

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Brushless DC Motors are widely used for many industrial applications because of their high efficiency, high torque and low volume. This paper proposed an improved Adaptive Fuzzy PI controller to control the speed of BLDC motor. This paper provides an overview of different tuning methods of PID Controller applied to control the speed of the transfer function model of the BLDC motor drive and then to the mathematical model of the BLDC motor drive. It is difficult to tune the parameters and get satisfied control characteristics by using normal conventional PI controller. The experimental results verify that Adaptive Fuzzy PI controller has better control performance than the conventional PI controller. The modeling, control and simulation of the BLDC motor have been done using the MATLAB/SIMULINK software. Also, the dynamic characteristics of the BLDC motor (i.e. speed and torque as well as currents and voltages of the inverter components are observed by using the developed model.

  11. The Neural Mechanism Exploration of Adaptive Motor Control: Dynamical Economic Cell Allocation in the Primary Motor Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Guo, Yangyang; Fan, Jing; Ma, Chaolin; Ma, Xuan; Chen, Xi; He, Jiping

    2017-05-01

    Adaptive flexibility is of significance for the smooth and efficient movements in goal attainment. However, the underlying work mechanism of the cerebral cortex in adaptive motor control still remains unclear. How does the cerebral cortex organize and coordinate the activity of a large population of cells in the implementation of various motor strategies? To explore this issue, single-unit activities from the M1 region and kinematic data were recorded simultaneously in monkeys performing 3D reach-to-grasp tasks with different perturbations. Varying motor control strategies were employed and achieved in different perturbed tasks, via the dynamic allocation of cells to modulate specific movement parameters. An economic principle was proposed for the first time to describe a basic rule for cell allocation in the primary motor cortex. This principle, defined as the Dynamic Economic Cell Allocation Mechanism (DECAM), guarantees benefit maximization in cell allocation under limited neuronal resources, and avoids committing resources to uneconomic investments for unreliable factors with no or little revenue. That is to say, the cells recruited are always preferentially allocated to those factors with reliable return; otherwise, the cells are dispatched to respond to other factors about task. The findings of this study might partially reveal the working mechanisms underlying the role of the cerebral cortex in adaptive motor control, wherein is also of significance for the design of future intelligent brain-machine interfaces and rehabilitation device.

  12. Older adults learn less, but still reduce metabolic cost, during motor adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Helen J.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to learn new movements and dynamics is important for maintaining independence with advancing age. Age-related sensorimotor changes and increased muscle coactivation likely alter the trial-and-error-based process of adapting to new movement demands (motor adaptation). Here, we asked, to what extent is motor adaptation to novel dynamics maintained in older adults (≥65 yr)? We hypothesized that older adults would adapt to the novel dynamics less well than young adults. Because older adults often use muscle coactivation, we expected older adults to use greater muscle coactivation during motor adaptation than young adults. Nevertheless, we predicted that older adults would reduce muscle activity and metabolic cost with motor adaptation, similar to young adults. Seated older (n = 11, 73.8 ± 5.6 yr) and young (n = 15, 23.8 ± 4.7 yr) adults made targeted reaching movements while grasping a robotic arm. We measured their metabolic rate continuously via expired gas analysis. A force field was used to add novel dynamics. Older adults had greater movement deviations and compensated for just 65% of the novel dynamics compared with 84% in young adults. As expected, older adults used greater muscle coactivation than young adults. Last, older adults reduced muscle activity with motor adaptation and had consistent reductions in metabolic cost later during motor adaptation, similar to young adults. These results suggest that despite increased muscle coactivation, older adults can adapt to the novel dynamics, albeit less accurately. These results also suggest that reductions in metabolic cost may be a fundamental feature of motor adaptation. PMID:24133222

  13. Robust Adaptive Fault-Tolerant Tracking Control of Three-Phase Induction Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Tohidi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the problem of induction motor tracking control against actuator faults and external disturbances using the linear matrix inequalities (LMIs method and the adaptive method. A direct adaptive fault-tolerant tracking controller design method is developed based on Lyapunov stability theory and a constructive algorithm based on linear matrix inequalities for online tuning of adaptive and state feedback gains to stabilize the closed-loop system in order to reduce the fault effect with disturbance attenuation. Simulation results reveal the merits of proposed robust adaptive fault-tolerant tracking control scheme on an induction motor subjected to actuator faults.

  14. Estimation of Stator Winding Faults in Induction Motors using an Adaptive Observer Scheme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallesøe, C. S.; Vadstrup, P.; Rasmussen, Henrik

    2004-01-01

    This paper addresses the subject of inter-turn short circuit estimation in the stator of an induction motor. In the paper an adaptive observer scheme is proposed. The proposed observer is capable of simultaneously estimating the speed of the motor, the amount turns involved in the short circuit a...

  15. Primary Motor Cortex Involvement in Initial Learning during Visuomotor Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riek, Stephan; Hinder, Mark R.; Carson, Richard G.

    2012-01-01

    Human motor behaviour is continually modified on the basis of errors between desired and actual movement outcomes. It is emerging that the role played by the primary motor cortex (M1) in this process is contingent upon a variety of factors, including the nature of the task being performed, and the stage of learning. Here we used repetitive TMS to…

  16. Association timed "up and go" test with respect to gross motor function classification system level in children diagnosed as cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjivani N Dhote

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Timed "up and go" (TUG test is a quick test, used in clinical practice as an outcome measure to assess functional ambulatory mobility or dynamic balance in adults. However, little information is available of TUG test used in cerebral palsy (CP. Hence, the purpose of our study was to find score of TUG with respect to gross motor function classification system (GMFCS in CP children. Aims: To find the mean score of TUG test with respect to GMFCS level in children diagnosed as CP. Materials and Methods: It was a cross-sectional observational study conducted in neuro rehabilitation unit and included 30 CP children of 4-12 years, those within GMFCS level I, II, III, and IQ ≥50. The sampling technique used was purposive sampling excluding children with cognitive deficit. Subjects performed on TUG on three occasions: Initial assessment (time 1; 30 min after initial assessment (time 2; 1 week after initial assessment (time 3. Three trials were conducted for each of the three occasions. A mean score of three trials was documented as final score. The mean of scores of TUG test of all the subjects within the particular GMFCS levels was calculated. Results: Significant variation was seen in the TUG score for three levels of GMFCS. Conclusions: Significant variation was seen as GMFCS levels get increases time duration of TUG also increases.

  17. Age-dependent effects of chronic intermittent ethanol treatment: Gross motor behavior and body weight in aged, adult and adolescent rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Douglas B; Mittleman, Guy

    2017-09-14

    The proportion of people in the population who are elderly is rapidly increasing. In addition, dangerous alcohol consumption in this demographic is rising. Approximately 33% of all people with an alcohol use disorder are diagnosed with late onset alcoholism. However, few suitable animal models for late onset alcoholism exist, making it difficult to investigate the impact of alcoholism later in life. The current study investigated if chronic intermittent ethanol exposure via intraperitoneal injections every other day for 20days in aged, adult and adolescent male rats differentially alters body weight and impairs gross motor behavior as measured by the aerial righting reflex. The body weight of aged and adult rats were significantly decreased by chronic intermittent ethanol exposure while the body weight of adolescent rats was not impacted. In addition, the aerial righting reflex of aged rats was significantly more impaired by alcohol exposure than the aerial righting reflex of adult or adolescent animals. Chronic intermittent ethanol exposure did not produce tolerance in the aerial righting reflex for any of the three age groups. The differential age sensitivity in the aerial righting reflex was not due to differential blood ethanol concentrations. The current work demonstrates the risk factors of chronic alcohol use in the elderly and highlights the need for additional study in this vulnerable demographic. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Speed Estimation of Induction Motor Using Model Reference Adaptive System with Kalman Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Brandstetter

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with a speed estimation of the induction motor using observer with Model Reference Adaptive System and Kalman Filter. For simulation, Hardware in Loop Simulation method is used. The first part of the paper includes the mathematical description of the observer for the speed estimation of the induction motor. The second part describes Kalman filter. The third part describes Hardware in Loop Simulation method and its realization using multifunction card MF 624. In the last section of the paper, simulation results are shown for different changes of the induction motor speed which confirm high dynamic properties of the induction motor drive with sensorless control.

  19. Age-related variations of visuo-motor adaptation beyond explicit knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbert eHeuer

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Visuo-motor adaptation suffers at older working age. The age-related decline of behavioural adjustments is accompanied by reduced explicit knowledge of the visuo-motor transformation. It disappears when explicit knowledge is kept constant across the age range, except for particularly high levels of explicit knowledge. According to these findings, at older adult age both the acquisition of explicit knowledge and its application for strategic corrections become poorer. Recently it has been posited that visuo-motor adaptation can involve model-free reinforcement mechanisms of learning in addition to model-based mechanisms. We tested whether age-related declines of reinforcement learning can also contribute to the age-related changes of visuo-motor adaptation. Therefore we enhanced the contribution of reinforcement learning to visuo-motor adaptation by way of introducing salient markers of success and failure during practice. With such modified practice conditions, there were residual age-related variations of behavioural adjustments at all levels of explicit knowledge, even when explicit knowledge was absent. The residual age-related variations were observed for practiced target directions only, but not for new target directions. These findings are consistent with an age-related decline of model-free reinforcement learning as a third factor in the age-related decline of visuo-motor adaptation. Under practice conditions, which spur model-free reward-based learning, this factor adds to the decrements of the acquisition of explicit knowledge and its use for strategic corrections.

  20. Estimation of Stator winding faults in induction motors using an adaptive observer scheme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallesøe, C. S.; Vadstrup, P.; Rasmussen, Henrik;

    2004-01-01

    This paper addresses the subject of inter-turn short circuit estimation in the stator of an induction motor. In the paper an adaptive observer scheme is proposed. The proposed observer is capable of simultaneously estimating the speed of the motor, the amount turns involved in the short circuit...... and an expression of the current in the short circuit. Moreover the states of the motor are estimated, meaning that the magnetizing currents are made available even though a fault has happened in the motor. To be able to develop this observer, a model particular suitable for the chosen observer design, is also...... derived. The efficiency of the proposed observer is demonstrated by tests performed on a test setup with a customized designed induction motor. With this motor it is possible to simulate inter-turn short circuit faults....

  1. Functional classifications for cerebral palsy: correlations between the gross motor function classification system (GMFCS), the manual ability classification system (MACS) and the communication function classification system (CFCS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compagnone, Eliana; Maniglio, Jlenia; Camposeo, Serena; Vespino, Teresa; Losito, Luciana; De Rinaldis, Marta; Gennaro, Leonarda; Trabacca, Antonio

    2014-11-01

    This study aimed to investigate a possible correlation between the gross motor function classification system-expanded and revised (GMFCS-E&R), the manual abilities classification system (MACS) and the communication function classification system (CFCS) functional levels in children with cerebral palsy (CP) by CP subtype. It was also geared to verify whether there is a correlation between these classification systems and intellectual functioning (IF) and parental socio-economic status (SES). A total of 87 children (47 males and 40 females, age range 4-18 years, mean age 8.9±4.2) were included in the study. A strong correlation was found between the three classifications: Level V of the GMFCS-E&R corresponds to Level V of the MACS (rs=0.67, p=0.001); the same relationship was found for the CFCS and the MACS (rs=0.73, pfunctional disability profile were strong or moderate (GMFCS and IQ: rs=0.66, p=0.001; MACS and IQ: rs=0.58, p=0.001; CFCS and MACS: rs=0.65, p=0.001). The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to determine if there were differences between the GMFCS-E&R, the CFCS and the MACS by CP type. CP types showed different scores for the IQ level (Chi-square=8.59, df=2, p=0.014), the GMFCS-E&R (Chi-square=36.46, df=2, pfunctional classifications (GMFCS-E&R, CFCS and MACS) complement each other to provide a better description of the functional profile of CP. The systematic evaluation of the IQ can provide useful information about a possible future outcome for every functional level. The SES does not appear to affect functional profiles.

  2. Strain Mediated Adaptation Is Key for Myosin Mechanochemistry: Discovering General Rules for Motor Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana, Biman; Onuchic, José N

    2016-08-01

    A structure-based model of myosin motor is built in the same spirit of our early work for kinesin-1 and Ncd towards physical understanding of its mechanochemical cycle. We find a structural adaptation of the motor head domain in post-powerstroke state that signals faster ADP release from it compared to the same from the motor head in the pre-powerstroke state. For dimeric myosin, an additional forward strain on the trailing head, originating from the postponed powerstroke state of the leading head in the waiting state of myosin, further increases the rate of ADP release. This coordination between the two heads is the essence of the processivity of the cycle. Our model provides a structural description of the powerstroke step of the cycle as an allosteric transition of the converter domain in response to the Pi release. Additionally, the variation in structural elements peripheral to catalytic motor domain is the deciding factor behind diverse directionalities of myosin motors (myosin V & VI). Finally, we observe that there are general rules for functional molecular motors across the different families. Allosteric structural adaptation of the catalytic motor head in different nucleotide states is crucial for mechanochemistry. Strain-mediated coordination between motor heads is essential for processivity and the variation of peripheral structural elements is essential for their diverse functionalities.

  3. Interacting adaptive processes with different timescales underlie short-term motor learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurice A Smith

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Multiple processes may contribute to motor skill acquisition, but it is thought that many of these processes require sleep or the passage of long periods of time ranging from several hours to many days or weeks. Here we demonstrate that within a timescale of minutes, two distinct fast-acting processes drive motor adaptation. One process responds weakly to error but retains information well, whereas the other responds strongly but has poor retention. This two-state learning system makes the surprising prediction of spontaneous recovery (or adaptation rebound if error feedback is clamped at zero following an adaptation-extinction training episode. We used a novel paradigm to experimentally confirm this prediction in human motor learning of reaching, and we show that the interaction between the learning processes in this simple two-state system provides a unifying explanation for several different, apparently unrelated, phenomena in motor adaptation including savings, anterograde interference, spontaneous recovery, and rapid unlearning. Our results suggest that motor adaptation depends on at least two distinct neural systems that have different sensitivity to error and retain information at different rates.

  4. Speed tracking and synchronization of multiple motors using ring coupling control and adaptive sliding mode control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Le-Bao; Sun, Ling-Ling; Zhang, Sheng-Zhou; Yang, Qing-Quan

    2015-09-01

    A new control approach for speed tracking and synchronization of multiple motors is developed, by incorporating an adaptive sliding mode control (ASMC) technique into a ring coupling synchronization control structure. This control approach can stabilize speed tracking of each motor and synchronize its motion with other motors' motion so that speed tracking errors and synchronization errors converge to zero. Moreover, an adaptive law is exploited to estimate the unknown bound of uncertainty, which is obtained in the sense of Lyapunov stability theorem to minimize the control effort and attenuate chattering. Performance comparisons with parallel control, relative coupling control and conventional PI control are investigated on a four-motor synchronization control system. Extensive simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme.

  5. Neural adaptive sliding mode speed tracking control of a DC motor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘子龙; 刘国忠; 刘洁

    2004-01-01

    We propose a BPNN based adaptive sliding mode control scheme for speed tracking of a DC motor with unknown system nonlinearities. The input-output linearization technique is used to cancel the nonlinearities, and output of the BPNN is incorporated into the controller in the proposed scheme. It is shown that the rotor speed of a DC motor can follow any arbitrarily selected trajectories under variable load torque. Then the application of the approach is tested via some simulations.

  6. Adaptive Input-Output Linearization Technique for Robust Speed Control of Brush less DC Motor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyeong Hwa; Baik, In Cheol; Kim, Hyun Soo; Youn, Myung Joong [Korea Advance Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-06-01

    An adaptive input-output linearization technique for a robust speed control of a brush less DC (BLDC) motor is presented. By using this technique, the nonlinear motor model can be effectively linearized in Brunovski canonical form, and the desired speed dynamics can be obtained based on the linearized model. This control technique, however, gives an undesirable output performance under the mismatch of the system parameters and load conditions caused by the incomplete linearization. For the robust output response, the controller parameters will be estimated by a model reference adaptive technique where the disturbance torque and flux linkage are estimated. The adaptation laws are derived by the Popov`s hyper stability theory and positivity concept. The proposed control scheme is implemented on a BLDC motor using the software of DSP TMS320C30 and the effectiveness is verified through the comparative simulations and experiments. (author). 14 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Correlation Analysis of Gross Motor Function Classification and Core Strength of Children with Cerebral Palsy%脑瘫患儿粗大运动功能分级与核心肌力的相关性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王刚; 李莉; 支世保

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨痉挛型四肢瘫患儿核心肌力状况及其与粗大运动功能的关系.方法:选取痉挛型四肢瘫患儿70例,采用徒手肌力检查法(manual muscle test,MMT)对其核心肌群进行肌力评估,采用粗大运动功能分级系统(Gross Motor Function Classification System,GMFCS)对其粗大运动功能进行评估,并探讨两者相关性.结果:MMT测试结果显示,受试70例痉挛型四肢瘫患儿的核心肌群肌力均减低;GMFCS测试显示,I级10例,II级28例,III级18例,IV级2例,V级12例;Pearson相关分析结果显示,受试患儿GMFCS与核心肌群肌力均呈显著负相关(P<0.01).结论:痉挛型四肢瘫患儿核心肌力减低,核心肌力与粗大运动功能分级相关.%Objective:To investigate the relationship between core strength and gross motor function of children with spastic quadriplegia. Methods:70 cases of children with spastic quadriplegia were selected, whose myodynamia of core muscles was evaluated with manual muscle test (MMT), and gross motor function was evaluated with gross motor function classification system (GMFCS), as well as the correlation between them. Results:MMT showed that core muscle strength of 70 children with spastic quadriplegia decreased;according to GMFCS there were 10 cases of grade I, 28 cases of grade II, 18 cases of grade III, 2 cases of grade IV and 12 cases of grade V;Pearson correlation analysis showed that there was significantly negative correlation between GMFCS and core muscle strength (P<0.01). Conclusion:core muscle strength of children with spastic quadriplegia de-creases, core muscle strength and gross motor function classification are relative.

  8. Somatosensory-motor adaptation of orofacial actions in posterior parietal and ventral premotor cortices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Grabski

    Full Text Available Recent studies have provided evidence for sensory-motor adaptive changes and action goal coding of visually guided manual action in premotor and posterior parietal cortices. To extend these results to orofacial actions, devoid of auditory and visual feedback, we used a repetition suppression paradigm while measuring neural activity with functional magnetic resonance imaging during repeated intransitive and silent lip, jaw and tongue movements. In the motor domain, this paradigm refers to decreased activity in specific neural populations due to repeated motor acts and has been proposed to reflect sensory-motor adaptation. Orofacial movements activated a set of largely overlapping, common brain areas forming a core neural network classically involved in orofacial motor control. Crucially, suppressed neural responses during repeated orofacial actions were specifically observed in the left ventral premotor cortex, the intraparietal sulcus, the inferior parietal lobule and the superior parietal lobule. Since no visual and auditory feedback were provided during orofacial actions, these results suggest somatosensory-motor adaptive control of intransitive and silent orofacial actions in these premotor and parietal regions.

  9. OPPORTUNITIES FOR PSYCHO-MOTOR SKILLS DEVELOPMENT IN CHILDREN WITH DOWN SYNDROME - ADAPTED SWIMMING -

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chera-Ferrario B.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Sport activities have a beneficial effect on the mind and body of any type of person. The benefits of sport are even more evident in children with Down Syndrome, who exhibit a general delay in neuro-motor structures. Our aim was to develop the psycho-motor skills in children with Down Syndrome through adapted swimming exercises. We believe that our involvement in adapted swimming for children with Down Syndrome may help develop certain aspects of psycho-motor abilities. The swimming took place with 6 Down Syndrome children from the Special Needs School in Targoviste, for a period of six months and the children being assisted by volunteer students from the Valahia University Department of Sport in Targoviste.The most important result was the children's delight in coming to the pool and taking part in the swimming lessons. Through the methods and exercises used and the devoted involvement of the volunteers, the children developed great levels of trust and courage and learned to swim using only aids. After performing motor skill tests on the children, we observed a general growth in the motor skills monitored.Continuation of the adapted swimming is very important in order to mobilize the skills obtained and continue development of psycho-motor abilities.

  10. Sensorless Monitoring of a Motor-Drive Machanical System Based on Adaptive Signal Decomposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Qing-feng; JIAO Li-cheng

    2006-01-01

    A method for estimating current harmonics of an induction motor is introduced which is used for sensorless monitoring of a mechanical system driven by the motor. The method is based on an adaptive signal representation and is proposed to extract weak harmonics from a noisy current signal, especially in the presence of additive interference caused by transient modulation waves. As an application, a rotor unbalance experiment of rotating machinery driven by an induction motor is carried out. The result shows that the eccentricity harmonic magnitude of a current signal obtained by the method represents the rotor unbalance conditions sensitively. Vibration analysis is used to validate the proposed method.

  11. Fast but fleeting: adaptive motor learning processes associated with aging and cognitive decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trewartha, Kevin M; Garcia, Angeles; Wolpert, Daniel M; Flanagan, J Randall

    2014-10-01

    Motor learning has been shown to depend on multiple interacting learning processes. For example, learning to adapt when moving grasped objects with novel dynamics involves a fast process that adapts and decays quickly-and that has been linked to explicit memory-and a slower process that adapts and decays more gradually. Each process is characterized by a learning rate that controls how strongly motor memory is updated based on experienced errors and a retention factor determining the movement-to-movement decay in motor memory. Here we examined whether fast and slow motor learning processes involved in learning novel dynamics differ between younger and older adults. In addition, we investigated how age-related decline in explicit memory performance influences learning and retention parameters. Although the groups adapted equally well, they did so with markedly different underlying processes. Whereas the groups had similar fast processes, they had different slow processes. Specifically, the older adults exhibited decreased retention in their slow process compared with younger adults. Within the older group, who exhibited considerable variation in explicit memory performance, we found that poor explicit memory was associated with reduced retention in the fast process, as well as the slow process. These findings suggest that explicit memory resources are a determining factor in impairments in the both the fast and slow processes for motor learning but that aging effects on the slow process are independent of explicit memory declines.

  12. Motor adaptation with passive machines: a first study on the effect of real and virtual stiffness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tommasino, P; Melendez-Calderon, A; Burdet, E; Campolo, D

    2014-09-01

    Motor adaptation to novel force fields is considered as a key mechanism not only for the understanding of skills learning in healthy subjects but also for rehabilitation of neurological subjects. Several studies conducted over the last two decades used active robotic manipulanda to generate force fields capable of perturbing the baseline trajectories of both healthy and impaired subjects. Recent studies showed how motor adaptation to novel force fields can be induced also via virtual environments, whereas the effects of the force are projected onto a virtual hand, while the real hand remains constrained within a channel. This has great potentials of being translated into passive devices, rather than robotic ones, with clear benefits in terms of costs and availability of the devices. However, passive devices and virtual environments have received much less attention at least with regard to motor adaptation. This paper investigates the effects of both the real and virtual stiffness on motor adaptation. In particular, we tested 20 healthy subjects under two different real stiffness conditions (Stiff Channel vs Compliant Channel) and two different virtual conditions (Viscous vs Springy). Our main finding is that compliance of the channel favours a better adaptation featured with less lateral errors and longer retention of the after-effect. We posit that the physical compliance of the channel induces a proprioceptive feedback which is otherwise absent in a stiff condition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Classification of cerebral palsy: association between gender, age, motor type, topography and Gross Motor Function Classificação da paralisia cerebral: associação entre gênero, idade, tipo motor, topografia e Função Motora Grossa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luzia Iara Pfeifer

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to assess the relation between gender, age, motor type, topography and gross motor function, based on the Gross Motor Function System of children with cerebral palsy. Trunk control, postural changes and gait of one hundred children between 5 months and 12 years old, were evaluated. There were no significant differences between gender and age groups (p=0.887 or between gender and motor type (p=0.731. In relation to body topography most children (88% were spastic quadriplegic. Most hemiplegics children were rated in motor level I, children with diplegia were rated in motor level III, and quadriplegic children were rated in motor level V. Functional classification is necessary to understand the differences in cerebral palsy and to have the best therapeutic planning since it is a complex disease which depends on several factors.Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a relação entre gênero, idade, tipo motor, topografia e Função Motora Grossa, baseado no Sistema de Função Motora Grossa em crianças com paralisia cerebral. Participaram desta pesquisa 100 crianças com idade entre 5 meses a 12 anos que foram observadas em relação ao controle de tronco, trocas posturais e marcha. Não houve diferenças significativas entre gêneros e grupos etários (p=0,887 e entre gênero e tipo motor (p=0,731. Em relação à topografia corporal, houve predomínio de crianças com quadriplegia, sendo que a maioria (88% era do tipo espástico. Quanto ao nível motor, as crianças hemiplégicas pertenciam em sua maioria ao nível I, as diplégicas ao nível III e as quadriplégicas ao nível V. Sendo a paralisia cerebral uma condição complexa que depende de diversos fatores, beneficia-se de classificações funcionais para compreensão da diversidade e melhor planejamento terapêutico.

  14. The effect of visuomotor adaptation on proprioceptive localization: the contributions of perceptual and motor changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Holly A; Cressman, Erin K; Henriques, Denise Y P

    2014-07-01

    Reaching movements are rapidly adapted following training with rotated visual feedback of the hand (motor recalibration). Our laboratory has also found that visuomotor adaptation results in changes in estimates of felt hand position (proprioceptive recalibration) in the direction of the visuomotor distortion (Cressman and Henriques 2009, 2010; Cressman et al. 2010). In the present study, we included an additional method for measuring hand proprioception [specifically, proprioceptive-guided reaches of the unadapted (left) hand to the robot-guided adapted (right) hand-target] and compared this with our original perceptual task (estimating the felt hand position of the adapted hand relative to visual reference markers/the body midline), as well as to no-cursor reaches with the adapted hand (reaching to visual and midline-targets), to better identify whether changes in reaching following adaptation to a 50° rightward-rotated cursor reflect sensory or motor processes. Results for the proprioceptive estimation task were consistent with previous findings; subjects felt their hand to be aligned with a reference marker when it was shifted approximately 4° more in the direction of the visuomotor distortion following adaptation compared with baseline conditions. Moreover, we found similar changes in the proprioceptive-guided reaching task such that subjects misreached 5° in the direction of the cursor rotation. However, these results were true only for proprioceptive-guided reaches to the adapted hand, as reaches to the body midline were not affected by adaptation. This suggests that proprioceptive recalibration is restricted to the adapted hand and does not generalize to the rest of the body; this truly reflects a change in the sensory representation of the hand rather than changes in the motor program. This is in contrast to no-cursor reaches made with the adapted hand, which show reach after-effects for both visual targets and the midline, suggesting that reaches with

  15. Adaptive Controllers for Permanent Magnet Brushless DC Motor Drive System using Adaptive-Network-based Fuzzy Interference System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Varatharaju

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The tuning methodology for the parameters of adaptive speed controller causes a transient deviation of the response from the set reference following variation in load torque in a permanent-magnet brushless DC (BLDC motor drive system. Approach: This study develops a mathematical model of the BLDC drive system, firstly. Secondly, discusses a design of the closed loop drive system employing the Adaptive-Network-based Fuzzy Interference System (ANFIS. The nonlinear simulation model of the BLDC motors drive system with ANFIS control based is simulated in the MATLAB/SIMULINK platform. Results: The necessitated data for training the ANFIS control is generated by simulation of the system with conventional PI controller. Conclusion: The simulated electromagnetic torque and rotor speed signify the superiority of the proposed technique over the classical method.

  16. Uncertainty of feedback and state estimation determines the speed of motor adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunlin Wei

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Humans can adapt their motor behaviors to deal with ongoing changes. To achieve this, the nervous system needs to estimate central variables for our movement based on past knowledge and new feedback, both of which are uncertain. In the Bayesian framework, rates of adaptation characterize how noisy feedback is in comparison to the uncertainty of the state estimate. The predictions of Bayesian models are intuitive: the nervous system should adapt slower when sensory feedback is more noisy and faster when its state estimate is more uncertain. Here we want to quantitatively understand how uncertainty in these two factors affects motor adaptation. In a hand reaching experiment we measured trial-by-trial adaptation to a randomly changing visual perturbation to characterize the way the nervous system handles uncertainty in state estimation and feedback. We found both qualitative predictions of Bayesian models confirmed. Our study provides evidence that the nervous system represents and uses uncertainty in state estimate and feedback during motor adaptation.

  17. High-performance adaptive intelligent Direct Torque Control schemes for induction motor drives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasudevan M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a detailed comparison between viable adaptive intelligent torque control strategies of induction motor, emphasizing advantages and disadvantages. The scope of this paper is to choose an adaptive intelligent controller for induction motor drive proposed for high performance applications. Induction motors are characterized by complex, highly non-linear, time varying dynamics, inaccessibility of some states and output for measurements and hence can be considered as a challenging engineering problem. The advent of torque and flux control techniques have partially solved induction motor control problems, because they are sensitive to drive parameter variations and performance may deteriorate if conventional controllers are used. Intelligent controllers are considered as potential candidates for such an application. In this paper, the performance of the various sensor less intelligent Direct Torque Control (DTC techniques of Induction motor such as neural network, fuzzy and genetic algorithm based torque controllers are evaluated. Adaptive intelligent techniques are applied to achieve high performance decoupled flux and torque control. This paper contributes: i Development of Neural network algorithm for state selection in DTC; ii Development of new algorithm for state selection using Genetic algorithm principle; and iii Development of Fuzzy based DTC. Simulations have been performed using the trained state selector neural network instead of conventional DTC and Fuzzy controller instead of conventional DTC controller. The results show agreement with those of the conventional DTC.

  18. Robust Adaptive Speed Control of Induction Motor Drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bidstrup, N.

    This thesis concerns speed control of current vector controlled induction motor drives (CVC drives). The CVC drive is an existing prototype drive developed by Danfoss A/S, Transmission Division. Practical tests have revealed that the open loop dynamical properties of the CVC drive are highly...... dependent of the operating point, which is characterised by the speed and load. If the requirements to the controller performance is large, then it is difficult to maintain specified controller performance with a fixed controller, because of the open loop variations. An auto-tuner based on least squares......, (LS) identification and generalized predictive control (GPC) has been implemented and tested on the CVC drive. Allthough GPC is a robust control method, it was not possible to maintain specified controller performance in the entire operating range. This was the main reason for investigating truly...

  19. Robust Adaptive Speed Control of Induction Motor Drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bidstrup, N.

    This thesis concerns speed control of current vector controlled induction motor drives (CVC drives). The CVC drive is an existing prototype drive developed by Danfoss A/S, Transmission Division. Practical tests have revealed that the open loop dynamical properties of the CVC drive are highly...... dependent of the operating point, which is characterised by the speed and load. If the requirements to the controller performance is large, then it is difficult to maintain specified controller performance with a fixed controller, because of the open loop variations. An auto-tuner based on least squares......, (LS) identification and generalized predictive control (GPC) has been implemented and tested on the CVC drive. Allthough GPC is a robust control method, it was not possible to maintain specified controller performance in the entire operating range. This was the main reason for investigating truly...

  20. Mean deviation coupling synchronous control for multiple motors via second-order adaptive sliding mode control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lebao; Sun, Lingling; Zhang, Shengzhou

    2016-05-01

    A new mean deviation coupling synchronization control strategy is developed for multiple motor control systems, which can guarantee the synchronization performance of multiple motor control systems and reduce complexity of the control structure with the increasing number of motors. The mean deviation coupling synchronization control architecture combining second-order adaptive sliding mode control (SOASMC) approach is proposed, which can improve synchronization control precision of multiple motor control systems and make speed tracking errors, mean speed errors of each motor and speed synchronization errors converge to zero rapidly. The proposed control scheme is robustness to parameter variations and random external disturbances and can alleviate the chattering phenomena. Moreover, an adaptive law is employed to estimate the unknown bound of uncertainty, which is obtained in the sense of Lyapunov stability theorem to minimize the control effort. Performance comparisons with master-slave control, relative coupling control, ring coupling control, conventional PI control and SMC are investigated on a four-motor synchronization control system. Extensive comparative results are given to shown the good performance of the proposed control scheme.

  1. Transcranial magnetic stimulation and motor plasticity in human lateral cerebellum : Dual effect on saccadic adaptation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panouilleres, Muriel; Neggers, Sebastiaan F. W.; Gutteling, Tjerk P.; Salemme, Romeo; van der Stigchel, Stefan; van der Geest, Josef N.; Frens, Maarten A.; Pelisson, Denis

    2012-01-01

    The cerebellum is a key area for movement control and sensory-motor plasticity. Its medial part is considered as the exclusive cerebellar center controlling the accuracy and adaptive calibration of saccadic eye movements. However, the contribution of other zones situated in its lateral part is unkno

  2. Daytime sleep has no effect on the time course of motor sequence and visuomotor adaptation learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backhaus, Winifried; Braaß, Hanna; Renné, Thomas; Krüger, Christian; Gerloff, Christian; Hummel, Friedhelm C

    2016-05-01

    Sleep has previously been claimed to be essential for the continued learning processes of declarative information as well as procedural learning. This study was conducted to examine the importance of sleep, especially the effects of midday naps, on motor sequence and visuomotor adaptation learning. Thirty-five (27 females) healthy, young adults aged between 18 and 30years of age participated in the current study. Addressing potential differences in explicit sequence and motor adaptation learning participants were asked to learn both, a nine-element explicit sequence and a motor adaptation task, in a crossover fashion on two consecutive days. Both tasks were performed with their non-dominant left hand. Prior to learning, each participant was randomized to one of three interventions; (1) power nap: 10-20min sleep, (2) long nap: 50-80min sleep or (3) a 45-min wake-condition. Performance of the motor learning task took place prior to and after a midday rest period, as well as after a night of sleep. Both sleep conditions were dominated by Stage N2 sleep with embedded sleep spindles, which have been described to be associated with enhancement of motor performance. Significant performance changes were observed in both tasks across all interventions (sleep and wake) confirming that learning took place. In the present setup, the magnitude of motor learning was not sleep-dependent in young adults - no differences between the intervention groups (short nap, long nap, no nap) could be found. The effect of the following night of sleep was not influenced by the previous midday rest or sleep period. This finding may be related to the selectiveness of the human brain enhancing especially memory being thought of as important in the future. Previous findings on motor learning enhancing effects of sleep, especially of daytime sleep, are challenged.

  3. The Association of Intelligence, Visual-Motor Functioning, and Personality Characteristics With Adaptive Behavior in Individuals With Williams Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Trista J; Lincoln, Alan J; Bellugi, Ursula; Searcy, Yvonne M

    2015-07-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is associated with deficits in adaptive behavior and an uneven adaptive profile. This study investigated the association of intelligence, visual-motor functioning, and personality characteristics with the adaptive behavior in individuals with WS. One hundred individuals with WS and 25 individuals with developmental disabilities of other etiologies were included in this study. This study found that IQ and visual-motor functioning significantly predicted adaptive behavior in individuals of WS. Visual-motor functioning especially predicted the most amount of unique variance in overall adaptive behavior and contributed to the variance above and beyond that of IQ. Present study highlights the need for interventions that address visual-motor and motor functioning in individuals with WS.

  4. Adaptive Sliding Mode Control of Chaos in Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor via Fuzzy Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tat-Bao-Thien Nguyen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, based on fuzzy neural networks, we develop an adaptive sliding mode controller for chaos suppression and tracking control in a chaotic permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM drive system. The proposed controller consists of two parts. The first is an adaptive sliding mode controller which employs a fuzzy neural network to estimate the unknown nonlinear models for constructing the sliding mode controller. The second is a compensational controller which adaptively compensates estimation errors. For stability analysis, the Lyapunov synthesis approach is used to ensure the stability of controlled systems. Finally, simulation results are provided to verify the validity and superiority of the proposed method.

  5. ADAPTIVE CONTROL OF FLEXIBLE BEAM WITH UNKNOWN DEAD-ZONE IN THE DRIVING MOTOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xingsong; Hong Henry; Su Chunyi

    2004-01-01

    Adaptive control of a flexible beam system preceded by an unknown dead-zone in the driving motor is investigated in state space form. By introducing an important lemma for simplifying error equation between the flexible beam model and the matching reference model, a robust adaptive control scheme is developed by involving the dead-zone inverse terms. The new adaptive control law ensures global stability of the entire system and achieves desired tracking precision even when the slopes of the dead-zone are not equal. Simulations performed on a typical flexible beam system illustrate and clarify the validity of this approach.

  6. Children with Autism and Attention Difficulties: A Pilot Study of the Association between Sensory, Motor, and Adaptive Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattard-Labrecque, Carolanne; Ben Amor, Leila; Couture, Mélanie M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This pilot study aimed to compare sensory processing, motor skills and adaptive behaviors in children with a double diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) (ASD+ADHD) with children with ADHD alone and to examine the association of sensory processing and motor skills with adaptive behaviors (self-care). Method: Thirty children aged 5–14 years diagnosed with ASD+ADHD (n = 13) or ADHD (n = 17) were evaluated on their sensory processing and motor skills and adaptive behaviors. Analysis of covariance compared the groups on these dimensions. Correlation analyses examined the association between sensory processing and motor skills and adaptive behaviors. Results: Compared to children with ADHD alone, children with ASD+ADHD had poorer skills in sensory processing (p < 0.001), motor (p = 0.001) and adaptive behaviors (p < 0.001). For all children, increased autonomy in self-care was correlated with better sensory processing (p < 0.001) and motor skills (p = 0.002). Conclusion: Children with ASD+ADHD have poorer sensory processing, motor and adaptive skills than those with ADHD alone. Sensory processing and motor deficits were negatively associated with autonomy in self-care. Interventions aiming to improve sensory processing and motor skills and autonomy in self-care should become important targets for these children. PMID:23667360

  7. Octopus arm movements under constrained conditions: adaptation, modification and plasticity of motor primitives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Jonas N; Hochner, Binyamin; Kuba, Michael J

    2015-04-01

    The motor control of the eight highly flexible arms of the common octopus (Octopus vulgaris) has been the focus of several recent studies. Our study is the first to manage to introduce a physical constraint to an octopus arm and investigate the adaptability of stereotypical bend propagation in reaching movements and the pseudo-limb articulation during fetching. Subjects (N=6) were placed inside a transparent Perspex box with a hole at the center that allowed the insertion of a single arm. Animals had to reach out through the hole toward a target, to retrieve a food reward and fetch it. All subjects successfully adjusted their movements to the constraint without an adaptation phase. During reaching tasks, the animals showed two movement strategies: stereotypical bend propagation reachings, which were established at the hole of the Perspex box and variant waving-like movements that showed no bend propagations. During fetching movements, no complete pseudo-joint fetching was observed outside the box and subjects pulled their arms through the hole in a pull-in like movement. Our findings show that there is some flexibility in the octopus motor system to adapt to a novel situation. However, at present, it seems that these changes are more an effect of random choices between different alternative motor programs, without showing clear learning effects in the choice between the alternatives. Interestingly, animals were able to adapt the fetching movements to the physical constraint, or as an alternative explanation, they could switch the motor primitive fetching to a different motor primitive 'arm pulling'.

  8. Adaptive Variable Structure Controller Application to Induction Motor Drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad. Ch,

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Variable structure control is an adaptive control that gives robust performance of a drive with parameter variation and load torque disturbance. Variable control structure is a robust control scheme based on the concept of changing the structure of the controller in response to the changing state of the system in order to obtain a desired response. The control is nonlinear and can be applied to the linear or nonlinear plant. A high speed switching control action is used to switch between different structures of the controller and the trajectory of the system is forced to move along a chosen switching manifold in the state space. The controller detects the deviation of the actual trajectory from the reference trajectory and corresponding changes the switching strategy to restore the tracking. Prominent characteristics such as invariance, robustness, order reduction, and control chattering are discussed in detail. Methods for coping with chattering are presented. Both linear and nonlinear systems are considered. By using Variable structure controller to control the step change in reference speed and drive system under load torque variations.

  9. Discordant tasks and motor adjustments affect interactions between adaptations to altered kinematics and dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fritzie Arce

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Motor control and adaptation are multi-determinate processes with complex interactions. This is reflected for example in the ambiguous nature of interactions during sequential adaptation of reaching under kinematics and dynamics perturbations. It has been suggested that perturbations based on the same kinematic parameter interfere. Others posited that opposing motor adjustments underlie interference. Here, we examined the influence of discordances in task and in motor adjustments on sequential adaptations to visuomotor rotation and viscous force field perturbations. These two factors – perturbation direction and task discordance – have been examined separately by previous studies, thus the inherent difficulty to identify the roots of interference. Forty-eight human subjects adapted sequentially to one or two types of perturbations, of matched or conflicting directions. We found a gradient of interaction effects based on perturbation direction and task discordance. Perturbations of matched directions showed facilitation while perturbations of opposite directions, which required opposing motor adjustments, interfered with each other. Further, interaction effects increased with greater task discordance. We also found that force field and visuomotor rotation had mutual anterograde and retrograde effects. However, we found independence between anterograde and retrograde interferences between similar tasks. The results suggest that the newly acquired internal models of kinematic and dynamic perturbations are not independent but they share common neuronal resources and interact between them. Such overlap does not necessarily imply competition of resources. Rather, our results point to an additional principle of sensorimotor adaptation allowing the system to tap or harness common features across diverse sensory inputs and task contexts whenever available.

  10. 脑瘫患儿智力与粗大运动发育的关系分析%Correlation analysis between intelligence and gross motor development of children with cerebral palsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨敏; 周光辉; 董宏珅

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze correlation between intelligence and gross motor development of children with cere-bral palsy. Methods 56 children with cerebral palsy were treated in our hospital from January 2011 to January 2013. After intelligence assessment,the children of 50 to 60 score were selected as group A (n=30),and the children of 90 to 100 score were classified into group B (n=26).The conventional rehabilitation therapy was provided in two groups.Motor function of children were evaluated by gross motor function measure-88 (GMFM-88) after half a year. Results After treatment,GMFM-88 score of d zone and e zone in two groups was higher than that before treatment respectively,im-provement amplitude in group B was even greater,with statistical difference(P<0.05). Conclusion The motor function in children with cerebral palsy has correlation with their intelligence.On the basis of receiving same rehabilitation,children with a higher intelligence have a higher improvement in gross motor function.%目的:分析脑瘫患儿智力与粗大运动发育的关系。方法本院2011年1月~2013年1月共收治56例脑瘫患儿,经过智商评估,将评分为50~60分者划分为A组(30例),将评分为90~100分划分为B组(26例)。两组患儿都接受常规康复治疗,半年后经粗大运动功能量表88项(GMFM-88)评估患儿的运动功能。结果治疗后,两组患儿d、e区的GMFM-88评分均较治疗前提高,B组的提高幅度更大,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论脑瘫患儿的运动功能与其智力有关,在接受同等康复治疗的基础上,智力较高患儿的粗大运动功能改善程度更高。

  11. A speed estimation unit for induction motors based on adaptive linear combiner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marei, Mostafa I.; Shaaban, Mostafa F.; El-Sattar, Ahmed A. [Department of Electrical Power and Machines, Faculty of Engineering, Ain Shams University, Cairo 11517 (Egypt)

    2009-07-15

    This paper presents a new induction motor speed estimation technique, which can estimate the rotor resistance as well, from the measured voltage and current signals. Moreover, the paper utilizes a novel adaptive linear combiner (ADALINE) structure for speed and rotor resistance estimations. This structure can deal with the multi-output systems and it is called MO-ADALINE. The model of the induction motor is arranged in a linear form, in the stationary reference frame, to cope with the proposed speed estimator. There are many advantages of the proposed unit such as wide speed range capability, immunity against harmonics of measured waveforms, and precise estimation of the speed and the rotor resistance at different dynamic changes. Different types of induction motor drive systems are used to evaluate the dynamic performance and to examine the accuracy of the proposed unit for speed and rotor resistance estimation. (author)

  12. The adaptive control using BP networks for a nonlinear servo-motor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinliang ZHANG; Yonghong TAN

    2008-01-01

    The servo-motor possesses a strongly nonlinear property due to the effect of the stimulating input voltageload-torque and environmental operating conditions.So it is rather diffcult to derive a traditional mathematical model which is capable of expressing both its dynamics and steady-state characteristics.A neural network-based adaptive control strategy is proposed in this paper.In this method,two neural networks have been adopted for system identification(NNI)and control(NNC),respectively.Then,the commonly-used specialized learning has been modified,by taking the NNI output as the approximation output of the servo-motor during the weights training to get sensitivity information.Moreover,the rule for choosing the learning rate is given on the basis of the analysis of Lyapunov stability.Finally,an example of applying the proposed control strategy on a servo-motor is presented to show its effectiveness.

  13. German translation of the caregiver priorities and child health index of life with disabilities questionnaire: test-retest reliability and correlation with gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Nikolai H; Brix, Olga; Bernius, Peter; Schroeder, A Sebastian; Kluger, Gerhard J; Beyerlein, Andreas; Weir, Shannon; von Kries, Rudiger; Narayanan, Unni G; Mall, Volker; Berweck, Steffen

    2014-10-01

    We aimed to translate the Caregiver Priorities and Child Health Index of Life with Disabilities (CPCHILD) questionnaire into German and to evaluate its reliability and validity by studying the association between CPCHILD scores and gross motor function as measured by the gross motor function classification system (GMFCS) in children with cerebral palsy (CP). The original CPCHILD questionnaire and manual were translated and back translated. It was administered to primary caregivers of persons with CP (GMFCS levels III-V) and was completed a second time 2 weeks after the first to measure test-retest reliability (n = 17). Primary caregivers of 68 children with CP; GMFCS level III (n = 14), level IV (n = 28), and level V (n = 26) completed the questionnaire. Mean total CPCHILD scores across GMFCS levels were 67.1 ± 14.9 for GMFCS level III, 56.6 ± 11.8 for level IV, and 44.3 ± 12.9 for level V. Good correlation (r =  - 0.56) was observed between GMFCS and total scores test-retest reliability showed intraclass correlation coefficients between 0.4 and 0.9. The German CPCHILD yielded similar test-retest reliability and score distributions across the GMFCS level as the original version. The best correlations were observed for domains that are close to the functional deficits.

  14. Speed Sensorless Vector Control of Unbalanced Three-Phase Induction Motor with Adaptive Sliding Mode Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Jannati

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a technique for speed sensorless Rotor Flux Oriented Control (RFOC of 3-phase Induction Motor (IM under open-phase fault (unbalanced or faulty IM. The presented RFOC strategy is based on rotational transformation. An adaptive sliding mode control system with an adaptive switching gain is proposed instead of the speed PI controller. Using an adaptive sliding mode control causes the proposed speed sensorless RFOC drive system to become insensitive to uncertainties such as load disturbances and parameter variations. Moreover, with adaptation of the sliding switching gain, calculation of the system uncertainties upper bound is not needed. Finally, simulation results have been presented to confirm the good performance of the proposed method.

  15. Adaptive H∞ nonlinear velocity tracking using RBFNN for linear DC brushless motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ching-Chih; Chan, Cheng-Kain; Li, Yi Yu

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an adaptive H ∞ nonlinear velocity control for a linear DC brushless motor. A simplified model of this motor with friction is briefly recalled. The friction dynamics is described by the Lu Gre model and the online tuning radial basis function neural network (RBFNN) is used to parameterise the nonlinear friction function and un-modelled errors. An adaptive nonlinear H ∞ control method is then proposed to achieve velocity tracking, by assuming that the upper bounds of the ripple force, the changeable load and the nonlinear friction can be learned by the RBFNN. The closed-loop system is proven to be uniformly bounded using the Lyapunov stability theory. The feasibility and the efficacy of the proposed control are exemplified by conducting two velocity tracking experiments.

  16. The impact of augmented information on visuo-motor adaptation in younger and older adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Hegele

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adjustment to a visuo-motor rotation is known to be affected by ageing. According to previous studies, the age-related differences primarily pertain to the use of strategic corrections and the generation of explicit knowledge on which strategic corrections are based, whereas the acquisition of an (implicit internal model of the novel visuo-motor transformation is unaffected. The present study aimed to assess the impact of augmented information on the age-related variation of visuo-motor adjustments. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Participants performed aiming movements controlling a cursor on a computer screen. Visual feedback of direction of cursor motion was rotated 75 degrees relative to the direction of hand motion. Participants had to adjust to this rotation in the presence and absence of an additional hand-movement target that explicitly depicted the input-output relations of the visuo-motor transformation. An extensive set of tests was employed in order to disentangle the contributions of different processes to visuo-motor adjustment. Results show that the augmented information failed to affect the age-related variations of explicit knowledge, adaptive shifts, and aftereffects in a substantial way, whereas it clearly affected initial direction errors during practice and proprioceptive realignment. CONCLUSIONS: Contrary to expectations, older participants apparently made no use of the augmented information, whereas younger participants used the additional movement target to reduce initial direction errors early during practice. However, after a first block of trials errors increased, indicating a neglect of the augmented information, and only slowly declined thereafter. A hypothetical dual-task account of these findings is discussed. The use of the augmented information also led to a selective impairment of proprioceptive realignment in the younger group. The mere finding of proprioceptive realignment in adaptation to a visuo-motor

  17. Motor learning and cross-limb transfer rely upon distinct neural adaptation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöckel, Tino; Carroll, Timothy J; Summers, Jeffery J; Hinder, Mark R

    2016-08-01

    Performance benefits conferred in the untrained limb after unilateral motor practice are termed cross-limb transfer. Although the effect is robust, the neural mechanisms remain incompletely understood. In this study we used noninvasive brain stimulation to reveal that the neural adaptations that mediate motor learning in the trained limb are distinct from those that underlie cross-limb transfer to the opposite limb. Thirty-six participants practiced a ballistic motor task with their right index finger (150 trials), followed by intermittent theta-burst stimulation (iTBS) applied to the trained (contralateral) primary motor cortex (cM1 group), the untrained (ipsilateral) M1 (iM1 group), or the vertex (sham group). After stimulation, another 150 training trials were undertaken. Motor performance and corticospinal excitability were assessed before motor training, pre- and post-iTBS, and after the second training bout. For all groups, training significantly increased performance and excitability of the trained hand, and performance, but not excitability, of the untrained hand, indicating transfer at the level of task performance. The typical facilitatory effect of iTBS on MEPs was reversed for cM1, suggesting homeostatic metaplasticity, and prior performance gains in the trained hand were degraded, suggesting that iTBS interfered with learning. In stark contrast, iM1 iTBS facilitated both performance and excitability for the untrained hand. Importantly, the effects of cM1 and iM1 iTBS on behavior were exclusive to the hand contralateral to stimulation, suggesting that adaptations within the untrained M1 contribute to cross-limb transfer. However, the neural processes that mediate learning in the trained hemisphere vs. transfer in the untrained hemisphere appear distinct.

  18. Position Control of Synchronous Motor Drive by Modified Adaptive Two-phase Sliding Mode Controller

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohamed Said Sayed Ahmed; Ping Zhang; Yun-Jie Wu

    2008-01-01

    A modified adaptive two-phase sliding mode controller for the synchronous motor drive that is highly robust to uncertain-ties and external disturbances is proposed in this paper. The proposed controller uses two-phase sliding mode control (SMC) where the 1st phase mainly controls the system in steady states and disturbed states-it is a smoothing phase. The 2nd phase is used mainly in the case of disturbed states. Also, it is an autotuning phase and uses a simple adaptive algorithm to tune the gain of conventional variable structure control (VSC). The modified controller is useful in position control of a permanent magnet synchronous drive.

  19. Adaptive Backstepping design of an Observer for the Rotor Speed and Field of an Induction Motor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik

    2001-01-01

    is de-veloped. The resulting scheme leads to a nonlinear full order observer for the rotor field. The rotor speed and the stator resis-tance are estimated by adaptive backstepping. Assuming motor parameters known the design achieves stability with guaran-teed region of attraction. The adaptive......High performance operation of speed controlled AC drives without mechanical speed/position sensors rely on the dynamic models for estimation of flux and speed. Using backstepping, which is a recursive nonlinear design method, a new approach for the design of observers for speed sensorless control...

  20. Fluency adaptation in speakers with Parkinson disease: a motor learning perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, Jason A; Delong, Catharine; Goberman, Alexander M; Blomgren, Michael

    2017-06-30

    Fluency adaptation is characterised by a reduction in stuttering-like behaviours over successive readings of the same speech material and is an effect that is typically observed in developmental stuttering. Prominent theories suggest that short-term motor learning associated with practice explain, in part, fluency adaptation. The current investigation examined the fluency adaptation effect in a group of speakers with Parkinson disease (PD) who exhibited stuttering-like disfluencies. Individuals with PD (n = 21) and neurologically healthy controls (n = 19) read a passage five times. Per cent syllables stuttered was measured and calculated for each reading passage. Participants in the PD group exhibited significantly more stuttering-like disfluencies than control speakers. Twelve individuals in the PD group exhibited at least three per cent syllable stuttered on at least one reading. Statistical trends revealed that the subgroup of individuals with PD who stuttered exhibited a significant reduction in stuttering moments over the five successive readings. A significant fluency adaptation effect was observed for the group of speakers with PD who exhibited stuttering-like disfluencies. Results of the current study are discussed within the framework of the motor learning hypothesis of fluency adaptation.

  1. Identification and adaptive neural network control of a DC motor system with dead-zone characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jinzhu; Dubay, Rickey

    2011-10-01

    In this paper, an adaptive control approach based on the neural networks is presented to control a DC motor system with dead-zone characteristics (DZC), where two neural networks are proposed to formulate the traditional identification and control approaches. First, a Wiener-type neural network (WNN) is proposed to identify the motor DZC, which formulates the Wiener model with a linear dynamic block in cascade with a nonlinear static gain. Second, a feedforward neural network is proposed to formulate the traditional PID controller, termed as PID-type neural network (PIDNN), which is then used to control and compensate for the DZC. In this way, the DC motor system with DZC is identified by the WNN identifier, which provides model information to the PIDNN controller in order to make it adaptive. Back-propagation algorithms are used to train both neural networks. Also, stability and convergence analysis are conducted using the Lyapunov theorem. Finally, experiments on the DC motor system demonstrated accurate identification and good compensation for dead-zone with improved control performance over the conventional PID control.

  2. Avaliação da motricidade ampla e fina na Síndrome de Williams: relato de caso Findings of the gross and fine motor in the Syndrome William Case: case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Melo Almeida

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivo analisar os achados da motricidade ampla e fina de uma criança de 8 anos de idade portador da Síndrome de Williams. Foram coletados dados biológicos da criança e da mãe durante a gestação e história pré, peri e pós-natal da criança e suas condições clínicas. O desenvolvimento motor amplo e fino foi avaliado pelo Inventário Portage Operacionalizado. Os resultados demonstraram que a criança revelou maior dificuldade na motricidade fina em relação à ampla, apresentando dificuldades na escrita, em manipular objetos que necessite fazer movimento de pronação e supinação e dificuldade no movimento de pinça.This study aimed to analyze the findings of motor and fine of an 8 years old holder of Williams Syndrome. Data were collected biological child and mother during pregnancy and history of pre, peri and postnatal child and their clinical conditions. The development and fine motor function was assessed by Portage Guide. The results showed that children showed greater difficulty with fine motor skills in relation to gross skills, having difficulty in writing, to manipulate objects that need to make movement of pronation and supination and difficulty in of the pincer movement.

  3. Adaptive intermittent control: A computational model explaining motor intermittency observed in human behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Yutaka; Tanaka, Masato; Inoue, Yasuyuki

    2015-07-01

    It is a fundamental question how our brain performs a given motor task in a real-time fashion with the slow sensorimotor system. Computational theory proposed an influential idea of feed-forward control, but it has mainly treated the case that the movement is ballistic (such as reaching) because the motor commands should be calculated in advance of movement execution. As a possible mechanism for operating feed-forward control in continuous motor tasks (such as target tracking), we propose a control model called "adaptive intermittent control" or "segmented control," that brain adaptively divides the continuous time axis into discrete segments and executes feed-forward control in each segment. The idea of intermittent control has been proposed in the fields of control theory, biological modeling and nonlinear dynamical system. Compared with these previous models, the key of the proposed model is that the system speculatively determines the segmentation based on the future prediction and its uncertainty. The result of computer simulation showed that the proposed model realized faithful visuo-manual tracking with realistic sensorimotor delays and with less computational costs (i.e., with fewer number of segments). Furthermore, it replicated "motor intermittency", that is, intermittent discontinuities commonly observed in human movement trajectories. We discuss that the temporally segmented control is an inevitable strategy for brain which has to achieve a given task with small computational (or cognitive) cost, using a slow control system in an uncertain variable environment, and the motor intermittency is the side-effect of this strategy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Adaptive spline autoregression threshold method in forecasting Mitsubishi car sales volume at PT Srikandi Diamond Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susanti, D.; Hartini, E.; Permana, A.

    2017-01-01

    Sale and purchase of the growing competition between companies in Indonesian, make every company should have a proper planning in order to win the competition with other companies. One of the things that can be done to design the plan is to make car sales forecast for the next few periods, it’s required that the amount of inventory of cars that will be sold in proportion to the number of cars needed. While to get the correct forecasting, on of the methods that can be used is the method of Adaptive Spline Threshold Autoregression (ASTAR). Therefore, this time the discussion will focus on the use of Adaptive Spline Threshold Autoregression (ASTAR) method in forecasting the volume of car sales in PT.Srikandi Diamond Motors using time series data.In the discussion of this research, forecasting using the method of forecasting value Adaptive Spline Threshold Autoregression (ASTAR) produce approximately correct.

  5. Neuromusculoskeletal models based on the muscle synergy hypothesis for the investigation of adaptive motor control in locomotion via sensory-motor coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoi, Shinya; Funato, Tetsuro

    2016-03-01

    Humans and animals walk adaptively in diverse situations by skillfully manipulating their complicated and redundant musculoskeletal systems. From an analysis of measured electromyographic (EMG) data, it appears that despite complicated spatiotemporal properties, muscle activation patterns can be explained by a low dimensional spatiotemporal structure. More specifically, they can be accounted for by the combination of a small number of basic activation patterns. The basic patterns and distribution weights indicate temporal and spatial structures, respectively, and the weights show the muscle sets that are activated synchronously. In addition, various locomotor behaviors have similar low dimensional structures and major differences appear in the basic patterns. These analysis results suggest that neural systems use muscle group combinations to solve motor control redundancy problems (muscle synergy hypothesis) and manipulate those basic patterns to create various locomotor functions. However, it remains unclear how the neural system controls such muscle groups and basic patterns through neuromechanical interactions in order to achieve adaptive locomotor behavior. This paper reviews simulation studies that explored adaptive motor control in locomotion via sensory-motor coordination using neuromusculoskeletal models based on the muscle synergy hypothesis. Herein, the neural mechanism in motor control related to the muscle synergy for adaptive locomotion and a potential muscle synergy analysis method including neuromusculoskeletal modeling for motor impairments and rehabilitation are discussed. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Adaptive Stacked Generalization for Multiclass Motor Imagery-Based Brain Computer Interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas-Alonso, Luis F; Corralejo, Rebeca; Gomez-Pilar, Javier; Álvarez, Daniel; Hornero, Roberto

    2015-07-01

    Practical motor imagery-based brain computer interface (MI-BCI) applications are limited by the difficult to decode brain signals in a reliable way. In this paper, we propose a processing framework to address non-stationarity, as well as handle spectral, temporal, and spatial characteristics associated with execution of motor tasks. Stacked generalization is used to exploit the power of classifier ensembles for combining information coming from multiple sources and reducing the existing uncertainty in EEG signals. The outputs of several regularized linear discriminant analysis (RLDA) models are combined to account for temporal, spatial, and spectral information. The resultant algorithm is called stacked RLDA (SRLDA). Additionally, an adaptive processing stage is introduced before classification to reduce the harmful effect of intersession non-stationarity. The benefits of the proposed method are evaluated on the BCI Competition IV dataset 2a. We demonstrate its effectiveness in binary and multiclass settings with four different motor imagery tasks: left-hand, right-hand, both feet, and tongue movements. The results show that adaptive SRLDA outperforms the winner of the competition and other approaches tested on this multiclass dataset.

  7. Anxiety dissociates the adaptive functions of sensory and motor response enhancements to social threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Zein, Marwa; Wyart, Valentin; Grèzes, Julie

    2015-12-29

    Efficient detection and reaction to negative signals in the environment is essential for survival. In social situations, these signals are often ambiguous and can imply different levels of threat for the observer, thereby making their recognition susceptible to contextual cues - such as gaze direction when judging facial displays of emotion. However, the mechanisms underlying such contextual effects remain poorly understood. By computational modeling of human behavior and electrical brain activity, we demonstrate that gaze direction enhances the perceptual sensitivity to threat-signaling emotions - anger paired with direct gaze, and fear paired with averted gaze. This effect arises simultaneously in ventral face-selective and dorsal motor cortices at 200 ms following face presentation, dissociates across individuals as a function of anxiety, and does not reflect increased attention to threat-signaling emotions. These findings reveal that threat tunes neural processing in fast, selective, yet attention-independent fashion in sensory and motor systems, for different adaptive purposes.

  8. Incremental Embodied Chaotic Exploration of Self Organised Motor Behaviours with Proprioceptor Adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phil eHusbands

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a general and fully dynamic embodied neural system, which incrementallyexplores and learns motor behaviours through an integrated combination of chaotic search andreflex learning. The former uses adaptive bifurcation to exploit the intrinsic chaotic dynamicsarising from neuro-body-environment interactions, while the latter is based around proprioceptoradaptation. The architecture developed here allows realtime goal-directed exploration andlearning of the possible motor patterns (e.g. for locomotion of embodied systems of arbitrarymorphology. Examples of its successful application to a simple biomechanical model and asimulated 3D swimming robot are given. The tractability of the biomechanical systems allowsdetailed analysis of the overall dynamics of the search process. This analysis points out strongparallels with evolutionary search.

  9. Speed Estimation of Adaptive Fuzzy-Controlled Piezo-Electric Motor using MLP-Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shebel ALSABBAH

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The speed of ultrasonic motor of piezo-electric type is usually measured using mechanical sensors such as pulse encoders. However, these sensors are costly and bulky. In this paper, a numerical speed estimation approach of a piezo-electric motor (PEM is implemented using multi-layer perception neural network (MLP-NN. The proposed model evaluates rotational speed and load torque based on the amplitude and driving frequency of the terminal voltage, considering the temperature variation. The estimated speed is employed to enhance the performance of the adaptive-fuzzy based speed control system. The model is validated and examined to achieve a minimized relative error in speed estimation approaches.

  10. Trial-by-Trial Motor Cortical Correlates of a Rapidly Adapting Visuomotor Internal Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavisky, Sergey D; Kao, Jonathan C; Ryu, Stephen I; Shenoy, Krishna V

    2017-02-15

    Accurate motor control is mediated by internal models of how neural activity generates movement. We examined neural correlates of an adapting internal model of visuomotor gain in motor cortex while two macaques performed a reaching task in which the gain scaling between the hand and a presented cursor was varied. Previous studies of cortical changes during visuomotor adaptation focused on preparatory and perimovement epochs and analyzed trial-averaged neural data. Here, we recorded simultaneous neural population activity using multielectrode arrays and focused our analysis on neural differences in the period before the target appeared. We found that we could estimate the monkey's internal model of the gain using the neural population state during this pretarget epoch. This neural correlate depended on the gain experienced during recent trials and it predicted the speed of the subsequent reach. To explore the utility of this internal model estimate for brain-machine interfaces, we performed an offline analysis showing that it can be used to compensate for upcoming reach extent errors. Together, these results demonstrate that pretarget neural activity in motor cortex reflects the monkey's internal model of visuomotor gain on single trials and can potentially be used to improve neural prostheses.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT When generating movement commands, the brain is believed to use internal models of the relationship between neural activity and the body's movement. Visuomotor adaptation tasks have revealed neural correlates of these computations in multiple brain areas during movement preparation and execution. Here, we describe motor cortical changes in a visuomotor gain change task even before a specific movement is cued. We were able to estimate the gain internal model from these pretarget neural correlates and relate it to single-trial behavior. This is an important step toward understanding the sensorimotor system's algorithms for updating its internal models

  11. Desempenho motor grosso e sua associação com fatores neonatais, familiares e de exposição à creche em crianças até três anos de idade Gross motor performance and its association with neonatal and familial factors and day care exposure among children up to three years old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DCC Santos

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar o desempenho motor grosso e sua associação com fatores neonatais, familiares e de exposição à creche em crianças com até três anos de idade, frequentadoras de creches públicas. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal no qual foram avaliadas 145 crianças (58 com idade entre 6-11 meses, 54 entre 12-23 meses e 33 entre 24-38 meses frequentadoras de seis creches públicas de Piracicaba (SP. O teste Peabody Developmental Motor Scale-2 foi utilizado para avaliação do desempenho motor grosso global e subtestes motores que compõem a escala (Reflexos, Habilidades Estacionárias, Habilidades de Locomoção e Manipulação de Objetos. Foram coletados dados neonatais, familiares e de exposição à creche e pesquisada a associação desses ao desempenho motor suspeito de atraso. RESULTADOS:A prevalência de suspeita de atraso no desempenho motor grosso foi de 17%, com desvantagens em crianças menores de 24 meses e em Habilidades de Locomoção; encontrada associação de risco de desempenho motor grosso suspeito de atraso e renda familiar, e suspeita de atraso em Habilidades de Locomoção e escolaridade paterna. Crianças cujas famílias tinham renda mensal até R$700,00 estavam 2,81 vezes mais expostas a apresentar desempenho motor grosso suspeito de atraso. Crianças cujos pais tinham até oito anos de escolaridade apresentaram risco 4,63 vezes maior de atraso em Habilidades de Locomoção. Não foi encontrada associação de risco com as demais variáveis. CONCLUSÃO:Os resultados apontam maior atenção ao desenvolvimento motor durante os primeiros 24 meses de crianças que frequentam creches, especialmente as inseridas em famílias com menor renda mensal e cujos pais têm menos escolaridade.OBJECTIVE: To analyze gross motor performance and its association with neonatal and familial factors and day care exposure among children up to three years of age attending public day care centers. METHODS:This was a cross-sectional study that

  12. Fuzzy Adaptive Model Following Speed Control for Vector Controlled Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baghdad BELABES

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a hybrid controller combining a linear model following controller (LMFC and fuzzy logic control (FLC for speed vector controlled permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM is described on this study. The FLC is introduced at the adaptive mechanism level. First, an LMFC system is designed to allow the plant states to be controlled to follow the states produced by a reference model. In the nominal conditions, the model following is perfect and the adaptive mechanism based on the fuzzy logic is idle. Secondly, when parameter variations or external disturbances occur, an augmented signal will be generated by FLC mechanism to preserve the desired model following control performance. The effectiveness and robustness of the proposed controller is demonstrated by some simulation results.

  13. Adaptive Fuzzy Integral Sliding-Mode Regulator for Induction Motor Using Nonlinear Sliding Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Kun Lu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available An adaptive fuzzy integral sliding-mode controller using nonlinear sliding surface is designed for the speed regulator of a field-oriented induction motor drive in this paper. Combining the conventional integral sliding surface with fractional-order integral, a nonlinear sliding surface is proposed for the integral sliding-mode speed control, which can overcome the windup problem and the convergence speed problem. An adaptive fuzzy control term is utilized to approximate the uncertainty. The stability of the controller is analyzed by Lyapunov stability theory. The effectiveness of the proposed speed regulator is demonstrated by the simulation results in comparison with the conventional integral sliding-mode controller based on boundary layer.

  14. NM Gross Receipts Baseline

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  15. Gross National Happiness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giri, Krishna Prasad; Kjær-Rasmussen, Lone Krogh

    This paper investigates practices related to the ideology of infusing Gross National Happiness (GNH) into school curriculum, the effectiveness of the meditation and mind training and the implication of GNH for school environment. It also explores how GNH ambience has been managed and practiced...... of Gross National Happiness and Educating for Gross National happiness....

  16. Study on Adaptive Slid Mode Controller for Improving Handling Stability of Motorized Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LiQiang Jin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An adaptive slid mode controller was established for improving the handling stability of motorized electric vehicle (MEV. First and foremost, the structure and advantages of electric vehicle driven by in-wheel motors will be provided. Then, an ideal cornering model of vehicles will be brought and analyzed, after which a method to estimate side-slip angle was also proposed and three typical sensors were used in the theory. Besides, an idea for the recognition of road adhesion coefficient was derived based on MEV platform, which will be helpful for better control performances. Finally, the scheme of control method was given and some typical tests for observing handling properties were implemented based on Simulink and Carsim software. With the outcomes from the experiments, which vividly showed the merits of the controller, one can come to a conclusion that MEV that equips with the adaptive slid mode controller always enjoys better handling performances than the one without control. Furthermore, the controller researched is friendly to the real-time working conditions, which will hold practical values in the future.

  17. Effects of retinal position on the visuo-motor adaptation of visual stability in a virtual environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitazaki, Michiteru

    2013-01-01

    Although the retinal image changes a great deal with the movement of our head or eyes, we perceive a stable world (a phenomenon known as visual stability or position constancy). Visual stability adaptively changes for each new combination of vision and head motion, or to compensate for manipulated visuo-motor gain. This study aims to investigate the effects of retinal positions on visuo-motor adaptation and to discuss the neural mechanisms involved. I found that visuo-motor adaptation occurred, and was transferable from right to left visual fields (Experiment 1), between the upper and lower visual fields (Experiment 2), and between the central and peripheral visual fields (Experiment 4), and that for the left visual field (Experiment 1) and the large visual field (Experiment 3) visuo-motor adaptations were effective. The dominance of the central vision was found in Experiment 3 but not found in Experiment 4. These results suggest that the visuo-motor adaptation of visual stability was not specific to the retinal location, but is processed by a relatively high level of the perceptual system. PMID:24349685

  18. Effects of Retinal Position on the Visuo-Motor Adaptation of Visual Stability in a Virtual Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiteru Kitazaki

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Although the retinal image changes a great deal with the movement of our head or eyes, we perceive a stable world (a phenomenon known as visual stability or position constancy. Visual stability adaptively changes for each new combination of vision and head motion, or to compensate for manipulated visuo-motor gain. This study aims to investigate the effects of retinal positions on visuo-motor adaptation and to discuss the neural mechanisms involved. I found that visuo-motor adaptation occurred, and was transferable from right to left visual fields (Experiment 1, between the upper and lower visual fields (Experiment 2, and between the central and peripheral visual fields (Experiment 4, and that for the left visual field (Experiment 1 and the large visual field (Experiment 3 visuo-motor adaptations were effective. The dominance of the central vision was found in Experiment 3 but not found in Experiment 4. These results suggest that the visuo-motor adaptation of visual stability was not specific to the retinal location, but is processed by a relatively high level of the perceptual system.

  19. Ganzfeld stimulation or sleep enhance long term motor memory consolidation compared to normal viewing in saccadic adaptation paradigm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Voges

    Full Text Available Adaptation of saccade amplitude in response to intra-saccadic target displacement is a type of implicit motor learning which is required to compensate for physiological changes in saccade performance. Once established trials without intra-saccadic target displacement lead to de-adaptation or extinction, which has been attributed either to extra-retinal mechanisms of spatial constancy or to the influence of the stable visual surroundings. Therefore we investigated whether visual deprivation ("Ganzfeld"-stimulation or sleep can partially maintain this motor learning compared to free viewing of the natural surroundings. Thirty-five healthy volunteers performed two adaptation blocks of 100 inward adaptation trials - interspersed by an extinction block - which were followed by a two-hour break with or without visual deprivation (VD. Using additional adaptation and extinction blocks short and long (4 weeks term memory of this implicit motor learning were tested. In the short term, motor memory tested immediately after free viewing was superior to adaptation performance after VD. In the long run, however, effects were opposite: motor memory and relearning of adaptation was superior in the VD conditions. This could imply independent mechanisms that underlie the short-term ability of retrieving learned saccadic gain and its long term consolidation. We suggest that subjects mainly rely on visual cues (i.e., retinal error in the free viewing condition which makes them prone to changes of the visual stimulus in the extinction block. This indicates the role of a stable visual array for resetting adapted saccade amplitudes. In contrast, visual deprivation (GS and sleep, might train subjects to rely on extra-retinal cues, e.g., efference copy or prediction to remap their internal representations of saccade targets, thus leading to better consolidation of saccadic adaptation.

  20. Improving the utility of the fine motor skills subscale of the comprehensive developmental inventory for infants and toddlers: a computerized adaptive test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chien-Yu; Tung, Li-Chen; Chou, Yeh-Tai; Chou, Willy; Chen, Kuan-Lin; Hsieh, Ching-Lin

    2017-07-27

    This study aimed at improving the utility of the fine motor subscale of the comprehensive developmental inventory for infants and toddlers (CDIIT) by developing a computerized adaptive test of fine motor skills. We built an item bank for the computerized adaptive test of fine motor skills using the fine motor subscale of the CDIIT items fitting the Rasch model. We also examined the psychometric properties and efficiency of the computerized adaptive test of fine motor skills with simulated computerized adaptive tests. Data from 1742 children with suspected developmental delays were retrieved. The mean scores of the fine motor subscale of the CDIIT increased along with age groups (mean scores = 1.36-36.97). The computerized adaptive test of fine motor skills contains 31 items meeting the Rasch model's assumptions (infit mean square = 0.57-1.21, outfit mean square = 0.11-1.17). For children of 6-71 months, the computerized adaptive test of fine motor skills had high Rasch person reliability (average reliability >0.90), high concurrent validity (rs = 0.67-0.99), adequate to excellent diagnostic accuracy (area under receiver operating characteristic = 0.71-1.00), and large responsiveness (effect size = 1.05-3.93). The computerized adaptive test of fine motor skills used 48-84% fewer items than the fine motor subscale of the CDIIT. The computerized adaptive test of fine motor skills used fewer items for assessment but was as reliable and valid as the fine motor subscale of the CDIIT. Implications for Rehabilitation We developed a computerized adaptive test based on the comprehensive developmental inventory for infants and toddlers (CDIIT) for assessing fine motor skills. The computerized adaptive test has been shown to be efficient because it uses fewer items than the original measure and automatically presents the results right after the test is completed. The computerized adaptive test is as reliable and valid as the CDIIT.

  1. Feedback of mechanical effectiveness induces adaptations in motor modules during cycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano eDe Marchis

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have reported evidence that the motor system may rely on a modular organization, even if this behavior has yet to be confirmed during motor adaptation. The aim of the present study is to investigate the modular motor control mechanisms underlying the execution of pedaling by untrained subjects in different biomechanical conditions. We use the muscle synergies framework to characterize the muscle coordination of 11 subjects pedaling under two different conditions. The first one consists of a pedaling exercise with a strategy freely chosen by the subjects (Preferred Pedaling Technique,PPT, while the second condition constrains the gesture by means of a real time visual feedback of mechanical effectiveness (Effective Pedaling Technique,EPT. Pedal forces, recorded using a pair of instrumented pedals, were used to calculate the Index of Effectiveness, IE. EMG signals were recorded from 8 muscles of the dominant leg and Nonnegative Matrix Factorization was applied for the extraction of muscle synergies. All the synergy vectors, extracted cycle by cycle for each subject, were pooled across subjects and conditions and underwent a 2-dimensional Sammon's non-linear mapping. 7 representative clusters were identified on the Sammon's projection, and the corresponding 8-dimensional synergy vectors were used to reconstruct the repertoire of muscle activation for all subjects and all pedaling conditions (VAF > 0.8 for each individual muscle pattern. Only 5 out of the 7 identified modules were used by the subjects during the PPT pedaling condition, while 2 additional modules were found specific for the pedaling condition EPT. The temporal recruitment of three identified modules was highly correlated with IE. The structure of the identified modules was found similar to that extracted in other studies of human walking, partly confirming the existence of shared and task specific muscle synergies, and providing further evidence on the modularity of

  2. Feedback of mechanical effectiveness induces adaptations in motor modules during cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marchis, Cristiano; Schmid, Maurizio; Bibbo, Daniele; Castronovo, Anna Margherita; D'Alessio, Tommaso; Conforto, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have reported evidence that the motor system may rely on a modular organization, even if this behavior has yet to be confirmed during motor adaptation. The aim of the present study is to investigate the modular motor control mechanisms underlying the execution of pedaling by untrained subjects in different biomechanical conditions. We use the muscle synergies framework to characterize the muscle coordination of 11 subjects pedaling under two different conditions. The first one consists of a pedaling exercise with a strategy freely chosen by the subjects (Preferred Pedaling Technique, PPT), while the second condition constrains the gesture by means of a real time visual feedback of mechanical effectiveness (Effective Pedaling Technique, EPT). Pedal forces, recorded using a pair of instrumented pedals, were used to calculate the Index of Effectiveness (IE). EMG signals were recorded from eight muscles of the dominant leg and Non-negative Matrix Factorization (NMF) was applied for the extraction of muscle synergies. All the synergy vectors, extracted cycle by cycle for each subject, were pooled across subjects and conditions and underwent a 2-dimensional Sammon's non-linear mapping. Seven representative clusters were identified on the Sammon's projection, and the corresponding eight-dimensional synergy vectors were used to reconstruct the repertoire of muscle activation for all subjects and all pedaling conditions (VAF > 0.8 for each individual muscle pattern). Only 5 out of the 7 identified modules were used by the subjects during the PPT pedaling condition, while 2 additional modules were found specific for the pedaling condition EPT. The temporal recruitment of three identified modules was highly correlated with IE. The structure of the identified modules was found similar to that extracted in other studies of human walking, partly confirming the existence of shared and task specific muscle synergies, and providing further evidence on the modularity

  3. Motor adaptation in complex sports - the influence of visual context information on the adaptation of the three-point shot to altered task demands in expert basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöckel, Tino; Fries, Udo

    2013-01-01

    We examined the influence of visual context information on skilled motor behaviour and motor adaptation in basketball. The rules of basketball in Europe have recently changed, such that that the distance for three-point shots increased from 6.25 m to 6.75 m. As such, we tested the extent to which basketball experts can adapt to the longer distance when a) only the unfamiliar, new three-point line was provided as floor markings (NL group), or b) the familiar, old three-point line was provided in addition to the new floor markings (OL group). In the present study 20 expert basketball players performed 40 three-point shots from 6.25 m and 40 shots from 6.75 m. We assessed the percentage of hits and analysed the landing position of the ball. Results showed better adaptation of throwing performance to the longer distance when the old three-point line was provided as a visual landmark, compared to when only the new three-point line was provided. We hypothesise that the three-point line delivered relevant information needed to successfully adapt to the greater distance in the OL group, whereas it disturbed performance and ability to adapt in the NL group. The importance of visual landmarks on motor adaptation in basketball throwing is discussed relative to the influence of other information sources (i.e. angle of elevation relative to the basket) and sport practice.

  4. Adaptation of motor imagery EEG classification model based on tensor decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinyang; Guan, Cuntai; Zhang, Haihong; Keng Ang, Kai; Ong, Sim Heng

    2014-10-01

    Objective. Session-to-session nonstationarity is inherent in brain-computer interfaces based on electroencephalography. The objective of this paper is to quantify the mismatch between the training model and test data caused by nonstationarity and to adapt the model towards minimizing the mismatch. Approach. We employ a tensor model to estimate the mismatch in a semi-supervised manner, and the estimate is regularized in the discriminative objective function. Main results. The performance of the proposed adaptation method was evaluated on a dataset recorded from 16 subjects performing motor imagery tasks on different days. The classification results validated the advantage of the proposed method in comparison with other regularization-based or spatial filter adaptation approaches. Experimental results also showed that there is a significant correlation between the quantified mismatch and the classification accuracy. Significance. The proposed method approached the nonstationarity issue from the perspective of data-model mismatch, which is more direct than data variation measurement. The results also demonstrated that the proposed method is effective in enhancing the performance of the feature extraction model.

  5. Design and FPGA-implementation of an improved adaptive fuzzy logic controller for DC motor speed control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Ramadan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an improved adaptive fuzzy logic speed controller for a DC motor, based on field programmable gate array (FPGA hardware implementation. The developed controller includes an adaptive fuzzy logic control (AFLC algorithm, which is designed and verified with a nonlinear model of DC motor. Then, it has been synthesised, functionally verified and implemented using Xilinx Integrated Software Environment (ISE and Spartan-3E FPGA. The performance of this controller has been successfully validated with good tracking results under different operating conditions.

  6. A co-adaptive brain-computer interface for end users with severe motor impairment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Faller

    Full Text Available Co-adaptive training paradigms for event-related desynchronization (ERD based brain-computer interfaces (BCI have proven effective for healthy users. As of yet, it is not clear whether co-adaptive training paradigms can also benefit users with severe motor impairment. The primary goal of our paper was to evaluate a novel cue-guided, co-adaptive BCI training paradigm with severely impaired volunteers. The co-adaptive BCI supports a non-control state, which is an important step toward intuitive, self-paced control. A secondary aim was to have the same participants operate a specifically designed self-paced BCI training paradigm based on the auto-calibrated classifier. The co-adaptive BCI analyzed the electroencephalogram from three bipolar derivations (C3, Cz, and C4 online, while the 22 end users alternately performed right hand movement imagery (MI, left hand MI and relax with eyes open (non-control state. After less than five minutes, the BCI auto-calibrated and proceeded to provide visual feedback for the MI task that could be classified better against the non-control state. The BCI continued to regularly recalibrate. In every calibration step, the system performed trial-based outlier rejection and trained a linear discriminant analysis classifier based on one auto-selected logarithmic band-power feature. In 24 minutes of training, the co-adaptive BCI worked significantly (p = 0.01 better than chance for 18 of 22 end users. The self-paced BCI training paradigm worked significantly (p = 0.01 better than chance in 11 of 20 end users. The presented co-adaptive BCI complements existing approaches in that it supports a non-control state, requires very little setup time, requires no BCI expert and works online based on only two electrodes. The preliminary results from the self-paced BCI paradigm compare favorably to previous studies and the collected data will allow to further improve self-paced BCI systems for disabled users.

  7. Adaptive fuzzy dynamic surface control for the chaotic permanent magnet synchronous motor using Nussbaum gain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Shaohua [School of Automation, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044, China and College of Mechanical Engineering, Hunan University of Arts and Science, Hunan 415000 (China)

    2014-09-01

    This paper is concerned with the problem of adaptive fuzzy dynamic surface control (DSC) for the permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) system with chaotic behavior, disturbance and unknown control gain and parameters. Nussbaum gain is adopted to cope with the situation that the control gain is unknown. And the unknown items can be estimated by fuzzy logic system. The proposed controller guarantees that all the signals in the closed-loop system are bounded and the system output eventually converges to a small neighborhood of the desired reference signal. Finally, the numerical simulations indicate that the proposed scheme can suppress the chaos of PMSM and show the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method.

  8. Adaptive Command-Filtered Backstepping Control for Linear Induction Motor via Projection Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenxu Yan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A theoretical framework of the position control for linear induction motors (LIM has been proposed. First, indirect field-oriented control of LIM is described. Then, the backstepping approach is used to ensure the convergence and robustness of the proposed control scheme against the external time-varying disturbances via Lyapunov stability theory. At the same time, in order to solve the differential expansion and the control saturation problems in the traditional backstepping, command filter is designed in the control and compensating signals are presented to eliminate the influence of the errors caused by command filters. Next, unknown total mass of the mover, viscous friction, and load disturbances are estimated by the projection-based adaptive law which bounds the estimated function and simultaneously guarantees the robustness of the proposed controller against the parameter uncertainties. Finally, simulation results are given to illustrate the validity and potential of the designed control scheme.

  9. Position control of linear induction motor using an adaptive fuzzy integral: Back stepping controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bousserhane I.K.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the position control of a linear induction motor using adaptive fuzzy back stepping design with integral action is proposed. First, the indirect field oriented control for LIM is derived. Then, an integral back stepping design for indirect field oriented control of LIM is proposed to compensate the uncertainties which occur in the control. Finally, the fuzzy integral-back stepping controller is investigated, where a simple fuzzy inference mechanism is used to achieve a position tracking objective under the mechanical parameters uncertainties. The effectiveness of the proposed control scheme is verified by numerical simulation. The numerical validation results of the proposed scheme have presented good performances compared to the conventional integral back stepping control.

  10. Translocation of double-stranded DNA through membrane-adapted phi29 motor protein nanopores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendell, David; Jing, Peng; Geng, Jia; Subramaniam, Varuni; Lee, Tae Jin; Montemagno, Carlo; Guo, Peixuan

    2009-11-01

    Biological pores have been used to study the transport of DNA and other molecules, but most pores have channels that allow only the movement of small molecules and single-stranded DNA and RNA. The bacteriophage phi29 DNA-packaging motor, which allows double-stranded DNA to enter the virus during maturation and exit during an infection, contains a connector protein with a channel that is between 3.6 and 6 nm wide. Here we show that a modified version of this connector protein, when reconstituted into liposomes and inserted into planar lipid bilayers, allows the translocation of double-stranded DNA. The measured conductance of a single connector channel was 4.8 nS in 1 M KCl. This engineered and membrane-adapted phage connector is expected to have applications in microelectromechanical sensing, microreactors, gene delivery, drug loading and DNA sequencing.

  11. Adaptive fuzzy dynamic surface control for the chaotic permanent magnet synchronous motor using Nussbaum gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Shaohua

    2014-09-01

    This paper is concerned with the problem of adaptive fuzzy dynamic surface control (DSC) for the permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) system with chaotic behavior, disturbance and unknown control gain and parameters. Nussbaum gain is adopted to cope with the situation that the control gain is unknown. And the unknown items can be estimated by fuzzy logic system. The proposed controller guarantees that all the signals in the closed-loop system are bounded and the system output eventually converges to a small neighborhood of the desired reference signal. Finally, the numerical simulations indicate that the proposed scheme can suppress the chaos of PMSM and show the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method.

  12. Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Controller Experimental Design for DC Motor Connected to Unbalanced Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Nejati

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available In two recent decades, fuzzy controllers have been used in controlling different systems successfully. In this article, a new method is given for controlling of permanent magnetic DC motor connected to unbalanced load. Imbalance of load leads to machine vibrations, fluctuation of power, making exhaustion in machine shaft, and equipment depreciation. In this article neuro-fuzzy controllers are used for controlling unbalanced load. Because of non-linear nature of load and machine, machine fluctuations are different in various speeds. For making controller adaptive with machine, using an artificial neural network, the input-output coefficients are be updated in any speed. Optimized coefficients obtained by using of direct search method, and with these coefficients, artificial neural network trained with Lauvenberg-Marcoardet method. Operational results obtained from developed system, shows the efficiency of given method.

  13. Motor adaptations to unilateral quadriceps fatigue during a bilateral pedaling task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brøchner Nielsen, N-P; Hug, F; Guével, A; Fohanno, V; Lardy, J; Dorel, S

    2016-12-20

    This study was designed to investigate how motor coordination adapts to unilateral fatigue of the quadriceps during a constant-load bilateral pedaling task. We first hypothesized that this local fatigue would not be compensated within the fatigued muscles leading to a decreased knee extension power. Then, we aimed to determine whether this decrease would be compensated by between-joints compensations within the ipsilateral leg and/or an increased contribution of the contralateral leg. Fifteen healthy volunteers were tested during pedaling at 350 W before and after a fatigue protocol consisting of 15 minutes of electromyostimulation on the quadriceps muscle. Motor coordination was assessed from myoelectrical activity (22 muscles) and joint powers calculated through inverse dynamics. Maximal knee extension torque decreased by 28.3%±6.8% (P<.0005) immediately after electromyostimulation. A decreased knee extension power produced by the ipsilateral leg was observed during pedaling (-22.8±12.3 W, -17.0%±9.4%; P<.0005). To maintain the task goal, participants primarily increased the power produced by the non-fatigued contralateral leg during the flexion phase. This was achieved by an increase in hip flexion power confirmed by a higher activation of the tensor fascia latae. These results suggest no adjustment of neural drive to the fatigued muscles and demonstrate no concurrent ipsilateral compensation by the non-fatigued muscles involved in the extension pedaling phase. Although interindividual variability was observed, findings provide evidence that participants predominantly adapted by compensating with the contralateral leg during its flexion phase. Both neural (between legs) and mechanical (between pedals) couplings and the minimization of cost functions might explain these results.

  14. 77 FR 51706 - Gross Combination Weight Rating (GCWR); Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration 49 CFR Parts 383 and 390 RIN 2126-AB53 Gross Combination Weight Rating (GCWR); Definition AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Direct final rule; request for comments. SUMMARY: The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration...

  15. Rethinking motor learning and savings in adaptation paradigms: model-free memory for successful actions combines with internal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Vincent S; Haith, Adrian; Mazzoni, Pietro; Krakauer, John W

    2011-05-26

    Although motor learning is likely to involve multiple processes, phenomena observed in error-based motor learning paradigms tend to be conceptualized in terms of only a single process: adaptation, which occurs through updating an internal model. Here we argue that fundamental phenomena like movement direction biases, savings (faster relearning), and interference do not relate to adaptation but instead are attributable to two additional learning processes that can be characterized as model-free: use-dependent plasticity and operant reinforcement. Although usually "hidden" behind adaptation, we demonstrate, with modified visuomotor rotation paradigms, that these distinct model-based and model-free processes combine to learn an error-based motor task. (1) Adaptation of an internal model channels movements toward successful error reduction in visual space. (2) Repetition of the newly adapted movement induces directional biases toward the repeated movement. (3) Operant reinforcement through association of the adapted movement with successful error reduction is responsible for savings. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Relationship between motor abilities and severity of autism spectrum disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Cvijetić Marija; Gagić Sanja

    2017-01-01

    According to the findings in literature, motor skills of children with autism spectrum disorders generally differ from age expectations and are increasingly being associated with speech and language and social development, and adaptive behavior. The aim of the research was to determine the relationship between the development level of fine and gross motor skills and autism severity of children with autism spectrum disorder. The sample included 30 children with autism spectrum disorder and ass...

  17. Klinefelter syndrome has increased brain responses to auditory stimuli and motor output, but not to visual stimuli or Stroop adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallentin, Mikkel; Skakkebæk, Anne; Bojesen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    with the widespread dyslexia in the group. No neural differences were found in inhibitory control (Stroop) or in adaptation to differences in stimulus frequencies. Across groups we found a strong positive correlation between age and BOLD response in the brain’s motor network with no difference between groups...

  18. Klinefelter syndrome has increased brain responses to auditory stimuli and motor output, but not to visual stimuli or Stroop adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallentin, Mikkel; Skakkebæk, Anne; Bojesen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    with the widespread dyslexia in the group. No neural differences were found in inhibitory control (Stroop) or in adaptation to differences in stimulus frequencies. Across groups we found a strong positive correlation between age and BOLD response in the brain's motor network with no difference between groups...

  19. Effects of Sensory Integration Training on children with delayed Gross Motor%发育落后儿童经感觉统合训练后的粗大运动能力变化的临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱晓芸; 李惠; 苏怡; 侯方华; 翟淳; 朱默

    2011-01-01

    目的:分析发育落后儿童经感觉统合训练后的粗大运动能力变化.方法:选择接受感觉统合训练的粗大运动发育落后儿童25例,训练期间接受过2次PDMS-GM评估,评估间隔6个月.用Peabody粗大运动发育评估(Peabody Development Measure Scale Gross Motor,PDMS-GM)的固定、移动和操作能区的原始得分进行分析.结果:PDMS-GM的固定能力分值和移动能力分值在两次评估结果间有显著性差异(P<0.001);而操作能力分值没有显著性差异(P>0.05).结论:经过6个月的感觉统合训练,粗大运动发育落后儿童固定和移动能力水平明显改善.

  20. Real time implementation of adaptive sliding mode observer based speed sensor less vector control of induction motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negadi Karim

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sensor less induction motor drives are widely used in industry for their reliability and flexibility. However, rotor flux and speed sensors are required for vector control of induction motor. These sensors are sources of trouble, mainly in hostile environments, and their application reduces the drive robustness. The cost of the sensors is not also negligible. All the reasons lead to development of different sensor less methods for rotor flux and mechanical speed estimation in electrical drives. The paper deals with the speed estimators for applications in sensor less induction motor drive with vector control, which are based on application of model adaptive, based sliding mode observer methods. This paper presents the development and DSP implementation of the speed estimators for applications in sensor less drives with induction motor.

  1. Study on the effect of intelligence on the gross motor function of children with cerebral palsy%脑瘫患儿智力改善对粗大运动功能影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王立苹; 王丹; 孙奇峰; 李雪梅; 杨本利; 李晓捷

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To describe the effect of intelligence on the gross motor function of children with cerebral palsy.Methods:50 ca-ses of 4-6 years old, GMFCS II level, mild mental retardation children with spastic diplegia cerebral palsy , according to the random number table method were randomly divided into treatment group (n=25) and control group (n=25).The two groups were treated with conventional rehabilitation method of rehabilitation treatment, the treatment group with brain function biofeedback treatment.After 3 months, the intelligence quotient and GMFM88 were assessed again.The motor and intelligence ability were contrasted of treatment and control group.The differences were observed between treatment and control group.Results:The score of China Binet Intelligence Scales increased in treatment group.The score of dimension D and E increased after treatment in both treatment and control group.The improve-ment in treatment group was larger than control group.Conclusion:The improvement of intelligence can promote the ability of the gross motor.%目的:判断脑瘫患儿智力改善对粗大运动功能的影响. 方法:4 ~6 岁轻度智力落后、GMFCS II级痉挛型双瘫脑瘫患儿50例,按随机数表法随机分为治疗组(n=25)和对照组(n=25). 2组均采用常规康复方法进行康复治疗,治疗组加脑功能生物反馈治疗,治疗前和治疗3个月后分别评定中国比内智力量表、粗大运动功能,观测2组患儿智力水平、粗大运动功能量表( GMFM-88)之 D 区 、E 区分值及粗大运动功能评定分值改善程度以比较观察疗效. 结果: 治疗组智力水平较治疗前有改善( P<0 .05 ). 治疗后2组GMFM-88之D区和E区评分较治疗前有改善( P<0 .05 ) ,治疗组上述指标均比对照组显著提高(P<0.05). 治疗组粗大运动功能评定分值改善程度明显优于对照组. 结论:脑瘫患儿智力改善会促进粗大运动功能发育.

  2. The influence of catch trials on the consolidation of motor memory in force field adaptation tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne eFocke

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In computational neuroscience it is generally accepted that human motor memory contains neural representations of the physics of the musculoskeletal system and the objects in the environment. These representations are called internal models. Force field studies, in which subjects have to adapt to dynamic perturbations induced by a robotic manipulandum, are an established tool to analyze the characteristics of such internal models. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether catch trials during force field learning could influence the consolidation of motor memory in more complex tasks. Thereby, the force field was more than double the force field of previous studies (35 Ns/m. Moreover, the arm of the subjects was not supported. A total of forty-six subjects participated in this study and performed center-out movements at a robotic manipulandum in two different force fields. Two control groups learned force field A on day 1 and were retested in the same force field on day 3 (AA. Two test groups additionally learned an interfering force field B (=-A on day 2 (ABA. The difference between the two test and control groups, respectively, was the absence (0% or presence (19% of catch trials, in which the force field was turned off suddenly. The results showed consolidation of force field A on day 3 for both control groups. Test groups showed no consolidation of force field A (19% catch trials and even poorer performance on day 3 (0% catch trials. In conclusion, it can be stated that catch trials seem to have a positive effect on the performance on day 3 but do not trigger a consolidation process as shown in previous studies that used a lower force field viscosity with supported arm. These findings indicate that the results of previous studies in which less complex tasks were analyzed, cannot be fully transferred to more complex tasks. Moreover, the effects of catch trials in these situations are insufficiently understood and further research

  3. Loovkirjutamist õpetab Philip Gross

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    T.S. Elioti luulepreemia laureaat Philip Gross on Tallinna Ülikooli talvekooli rahvusvahelise kursuse "Poetry: A Conversation between Words and Silence" läbiviija. Oma seminarides keskendub ta lisaks loovkirjutamisele ka loova lugemise vajadusele

  4. Gross Sales Tax Collections

    Data.gov (United States)

    City of Jackson, Mississippi — This data is captured directly from the MS Department of Revenue and specific to the City of Jackson. It is compiled from Gross Sales Tax reported by taxpayers each...

  5. Adaptive timing of motor output in the mouse: the role of movement oscillations in eyelid conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selmaan N Chettih

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available To survive, animals must learn to control their movements with millisecond-level precision, and adjust the kinematics if conditions, or task requirements, change. Here, we examine adaptive timing of motor output in mice, using a simple eyelid conditioning task. Mice were trained to blink in response to a light stimulus that was always followed by a corneal air-puff at a constant time interval. Different mice were trained with different intervals of time separating the onset of the light and the air-puff. As in previous work in other animal species, mice learned to control the speed of the blink, such that maximum eyelid closure occurred at the interval used during training. Despite this, we found that maximum eyelid speed always occurred in the first 100 ms of the movement, indicating that speed is not uniformly adjusted throughout the duration of the blink. A new analysis, specifically designed to examine the kinematics of blinks in single trials, revealed the nature of the underlying control signal: the learned blinks are made up of oscillatory eyelid movements that are time-locked to the light stimulus at the beginning of the blink, becoming desynchronized later on. Furthermore, mice learn to blink at different speeds and time the movement appropriately by adjusting the amplitude, but not the frequency of the underlying eyelid oscillation.

  6. Klinefelter syndrome has increased brain responses to auditory stimuli and motor output, but not to visual stimuli or Stroop adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallentin, Mikkel; Skakkebæk, Anne; Bojesen, Anders; Fedder, Jens; Laurberg, Peter; Østergaard, John R; Hertz, Jens Michael; Pedersen, Anders Degn; Gravholt, Claus Højbjerg

    2016-01-01

    Klinefelter syndrome (47, XXY) (KS) is a genetic syndrome characterized by the presence of an extra X chromosome and low level of testosterone, resulting in a number of neurocognitive abnormalities, yet little is known about brain function. This study investigated the fMRI-BOLD response from KS relative to a group of Controls to basic motor, perceptual, executive and adaptation tasks. Participants (N: KS = 49; Controls = 49) responded to whether the words "GREEN" or "RED" were displayed in green or red (incongruent versus congruent colors). One of the colors was presented three times as often as the other, making it possible to study both congruency and adaptation effects independently. Auditory stimuli saying "GREEN" or "RED" had the same distribution, making it possible to study effects of perceptual modality as well as Frequency effects across modalities. We found that KS had an increased response to motor output in primary motor cortex and an increased response to auditory stimuli in auditory cortices, but no difference in primary visual cortices. KS displayed a diminished response to written visual stimuli in secondary visual regions near the Visual Word Form Area, consistent with the widespread dyslexia in the group. No neural differences were found in inhibitory control (Stroop) or in adaptation to differences in stimulus frequencies. Across groups we found a strong positive correlation between age and BOLD response in the brain's motor network with no difference between groups. No effects of testosterone level or brain volume were found. In sum, the present findings suggest that auditory and motor systems in KS are selectively affected, perhaps as a compensatory strategy, and that this is not a systemic effect as it is not seen in the visual system.

  7. Klinefelter syndrome has increased brain responses to auditory stimuli and motor output, but not to visual stimuli or Stroop adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikkel Wallentin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Klinefelter syndrome (47, XXY (KS is a genetic syndrome characterized by the presence of an extra X chromosome and low level of testosterone, resulting in a number of neurocognitive abnormalities, yet little is known about brain function. This study investigated the fMRI-BOLD response from KS relative to a group of Controls to basic motor, perceptual, executive and adaptation tasks. Participants (N: KS = 49; Controls = 49 responded to whether the words “GREEN” or “RED” were displayed in green or red (incongruent versus congruent colors. One of the colors was presented three times as often as the other, making it possible to study both congruency and adaptation effects independently. Auditory stimuli saying “GREEN” or “RED” had the same distribution, making it possible to study effects of perceptual modality as well as Frequency effects across modalities. We found that KS had an increased response to motor output in primary motor cortex and an increased response to auditory stimuli in auditory cortices, but no difference in primary visual cortices. KS displayed a diminished response to written visual stimuli in secondary visual regions near the Visual Word Form Area, consistent with the widespread dyslexia in the group. No neural differences were found in inhibitory control (Stroop or in adaptation to differences in stimulus frequencies. Across groups we found a strong positive correlation between age and BOLD response in the brain's motor network with no difference between groups. No effects of testosterone level or brain volume were found. In sum, the present findings suggest that auditory and motor systems in KS are selectively affected, perhaps as a compensatory strategy, and that this is not a systemic effect as it is not seen in the visual system.

  8. An Adaptive Supervisory Sliding Fuzzy Cerebellar Model Articulation Controller for Sensorless Vector-Controlled Induction Motor Drive Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shun-Yuan Wang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the implementation of an adaptive supervisory sliding fuzzy cerebellar model articulation controller (FCMAC in the speed sensorless vector control of an induction motor (IM drive system. The proposed adaptive supervisory sliding FCMAC comprised a supervisory controller, integral sliding surface, and an adaptive FCMAC. The integral sliding surface was employed to eliminate steady-state errors and enhance the responsiveness of the system. The adaptive FCMAC incorporated an FCMAC with a compensating controller to perform a desired control action. The proposed controller was derived using the Lyapunov approach, which guarantees learning-error convergence. The implementation of three intelligent control schemes—the adaptive supervisory sliding FCMAC, adaptive sliding FCMAC, and adaptive sliding CMAC—were experimentally investigated under various conditions in a realistic sensorless vector-controlled IM drive system. The root mean square error (RMSE was used as a performance index to evaluate the experimental results of each control scheme. The analysis results indicated that the proposed adaptive supervisory sliding FCMAC substantially improved the system performance compared with the other control schemes.

  9. Output Feedback Adaptive Dynamic Surface Control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor with Uncertain Time Delays via RBFNN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaohua Luo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on an adaptive dynamic surface control based on the Radial Basis Function Neural Network for a fourth-order permanent magnet synchronous motor system wherein the unknown parameters, disturbances, chaos, and uncertain time delays are presented. Neural Network systems are used to approximate the nonlinearities and an adaptive law is employed to estimate accurate parameters. Then, a simple and effective controller has been obtained by introducing dynamic surface control technique on the basis of first-order filters. Asymptotically tracking stability in the sense of uniformly ultimate boundedness is achieved in a short time. Finally, the performance of the proposed control has been illustrated through simulation results.

  10. Adaptive Speed Control Design for Brushed Permanent Magnet DC Motor Based on Worst-Case Analysis Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Zeng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the adaptive controller design for brushed permanent magnet DC motor used in velocity-tracking applications based on worst-case approach. We first formulate the robust adaptive control problem as a nonlinear H∞-control problem under imperfect state measurement, and then solve it using game-theoretic approach. The controller guarantees the boundedness of closed-loop signals with bounded exogenous disturbances, and achieves desired disturbance attenuation level with respect to the unmeasured exogenous disturbance inputs and the measured disturbance inputs. The strong robustness properties are illustrated by a simulation example.

  11. MRAS speed estimator with fuzzy and PI stator resistance adaptation for sensorless induction motor drives using RT-lab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mohan Krishna

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a real-time simulation study of Model Reference Adaptive System based rotor speed estimator with parallel stator resistance adaptation mechanism for speed sensorless induction motor drive. Both, the traditional Proportional Integral and Fuzzy logic based control mechanisms are utilised for stator resistance adaptation, while, the rotor speed is estimated parallely by means of Proportional Integral based mechanism. The estimator's response to dynamic changes in Load perturbation and doubling of the nominal value of the actual stator resistance of the motor is observed. The superiority of the fuzzy based stator resistance adaptation in the Model Reference Adaptive System estimator is proved through results validated in real-time. The purpose of employing a fairly new real-time platform is to reduce the test and prototype time. The model is initially built using Matlab/Simulink blocksets and the results are validated in real time using RT-Lab. The RT-lab blocksets are integrated into the Simulink model and then executed in real-time using the OP-4500 target developed by Opal-RT. The real-time simulation results are observed in the workstation.

  12. Effect of Grade of Gross Motor Function Classification System on Outcome of Selective Posterior Rhizotomy for Children with Ce- rebral Palsy%不同粗大运动功能分级脑性瘫痪患儿选择性脊神经后根切断术疗效分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张国勋; 李星; 成莲英; 舒鹏飞; 陶莹

    2014-01-01

    Objective To observe the outcome of selective posterior rhizotomy (SPR) for cerebral palsy children with different gross mo-tor function before operation. Methods 132 cases accepted SPR were grouped with their grades of Gross Motor Function Classification Sys-tem (GMFCS), and their outcomes were compared. Results The muscle tension, gross motor function and activities of daily living improved in all the groups after SPR (P<0.01). The muscle tone decreased the most in grade I (P<0.01). The gross motor ability improved the most in grade II(P<0.001). The activities of daily living improved the most in grades I and IV (P<0.05). Conclusion The outcome of SPR for chil-dren with cerebral palsy is various with the gross motor function before operation.%目的:比较不同粗大运动功能分级脑瘫患儿选择性脊神经后根切断术(SPR)的效果。方法对132例实行SPR手术治疗的患儿按粗大运动功能分级系统(GMFCS)分级,比较各组间疗效。结果不同GMFCS分级脑瘫患儿SPR术后肌张力、粗大运动功能及日常生活活动能力均有明显改善(P<0.01);GMFCSⅠ级者肌张力下降更为明显(P<0.01);GMFCSⅡ级者粗大运动功能改善更为显著(P<0.001);GMFCSⅠ级与GMFCSⅣ级者日常生活活动能力较其余各组改善更为明显(P<0.05),两组之间无显著差异性(P=0.067)。结论 SPR手术对于不同GMFCS分级脑瘫患儿的疗效存在差异。

  13. Adaptation and psychometric properties of the Italian version of the Non-Motor Symptoms Questionnaire for Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cova, I; Di Battista, M E; Vanacore, N; Papi, C P; Alampi, G; Rubino, A; Valente, M; Meco, G; Contri, P; Di Pucchio, A; Lacorte, E; Priori, A; Mariani, C; Pomati, S

    2017-04-01

    Although non-motor symptoms (NMS) of Parkinson's disease (PD) are very common also in early stages of the disease, they are still under-recognized. Screening tools for non-motor symptoms, such as non-motor symptoms questionnaire (NMSQuest), help clinicians to recognize NMS and to evaluate if patients could require further assessment or specific treatments. To validate an adapted Italian version of NMSQuest and study its psychometric properties, Italian PD patients self-completed Italian NMSQuest, and then underwent a standard clinical evaluation including motor assessment (by Hoehn and Yahr staging, unified Parkinson's disease rating scale part III) and non-motor assessment (by Montreal cognitive assessment, Beck depression inventory, neuropsychiatric inventory, Epworth sleepiness scale, scale for outcomes in Parkinson's disease-Autonomic and movement disorder society-sponsored revision of the unified Parkinson's disease rating scale part I). Somatic comorbidities were quantified using the modified cumulative illness rating scale (CIRS). Seventy-one subjects were assessed (mean age years 69.8 ± 9.6 SD; 31% women; mean duration of disease 6.3 ± 4.6 years; H&Y median 2). Italian NMSQuest showed adequate satisfactory clinimetrics in terms of data quality, precision, acceptability, internal consistency and reliability. A significant correlation was found between NMSQuest and most of non-motor assessment scales, while no significant correlation appeared with motor severity as well as with age of patients, disease duration, levodopa equivalent daily dose, L-DOPA/dopamine agonists assumption and CIRS total score. The Italian version of the NMSQuest resulted as a reliable instrument for screening NMS in Italian PD patients.

  14. The Adaptive Physical Education Program: Its Design and Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henn, Joan M.

    The booklet describes a program designed to improve the play skills of seriously disturbed, multiply handicapped children (5 to 13 years old) through gross motor skill development. A six step process is described for the adaptive physical education program: assessment, development of interdisciplinary goals, interventions, development of goals for…

  15. Motor adaptations to local muscle pain during a bilateral cyclic task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brøchner Nielsen, Niels-Peter; Tucker, Kylie; Dorel, Sylvain; Guével, Arnaud; Hug, François

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine how unilateral pain, induced in two knee extensor muscles, affects muscle coordination during a bilateral pedaling task. Fifteen participants performed a 4-min pedaling task at 130 W in two conditions (Baseline and Pain). Pain was induced by injection of hypertonic saline into the vastus medialis (VM) and vastus lateralis (VL) muscles of one leg. Force applied throughout the pedaling cycle was measured using an instrumented pedal and used to calculate pedal power. Surface electromyography (EMG) was recorded bilaterally from eight muscles to assess changes in muscle activation strategies. Compared to Baseline, during the Pain condition, EMG amplitude of muscles of the painful leg (VL and VM-the painful muscles, and RF-another quadriceps muscle with no pain) was lower during the extension phase [(mean ± SD): VL: -22.5 ± 18.9%; P < 0.001; VM: -28.8 ± 19.9%; P < 0.001, RF: -20.2 ± 13.9%; P < 0.001]. Consistent with this, pedal power applied by the painful leg was also lower during the extension phase (-16.8 ± 14.2 W, P = 0.001) during Pain compared to Baseline. This decrease was compensated for by an 11.3 ± 8.1 W increase in pedal power applied by the non-painful leg during its extension phase (P = 0.04). These results support pain adaptation theories, which suggest that when there is a clear opportunity to compensate, motor adaptations to pain occur to decrease load within the painful tissue. Although the pedaling task offered numerous possibilities for compensation, only between-leg compensations were systematically observed. This finding is discussed in relation to the mechanical and neural constraints of the pedaling task.

  16. Effect of motor learning on gross motor function and banlanced function in children with spastic cerebral palsy%运动学习训练对痉挛型脑瘫患儿运动功能和平衡功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谷艳霞; 袁俊英

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To explore the impact of motor learning( ML) and neurodevelopment therapy( NDT) on spastic diplegia chil-dren with cerebral palsy about GMFM D、E regions,and Berg balance scale.Methods:The prospective randomized control trial was used , we stratified randomly 60 children diagnosed spastic diplegia cerebral palsy on the basis of GMFCS( gross motor function classification sys-tem) and ages into two groups,one group received ML,another received NDT.they all trained 12 weeks, the gross motor function measure D、E regions ,and Berg balance scale were seperatedly observed.Results:There were significant differeces in two groups about the pre-and post-treatment valuse of GMFM D、E regions and Berg balance scale (p>0.05).The values of post-training within two groups had significant differeces in GMFM E region and Berg balance scale(p0.05).Conclusion:The ol-der children with spastic diplegia in ML group had more effect than ones in NDT group in gross motor and banlance function .%目的:探讨运动学习训练及神经发育训练方法在脑性瘫痪儿童粗大运动功能及平衡功能的影响。方法:采用前瞻性随机对照研究,依据年龄和粗大运动功能分级分层,纳入60名痉挛型脑瘫患儿,层内随机分为运动学习组和神经发育组,分别经过12周训练,观察2种方法对粗大运动功能量表D区、E区分数以及Berg平衡量表测评的影响。结果:运动学习组和神经发育组均可以提高脑瘫患儿运动功能及平衡功能(训练前后,均有p<0.05);2组比较,训练后D区分数比较,t=1.858,p=0.068,尚不能说明2组有统计学差异;训练后E区分数比较,t=2.038,p=0.046,2组差异有统计学意义。训练后Berg评分比较,t=2.503,p=0.015,2组差异具有统计学意义。结论:对年龄较大的痉挛型脑性瘫痪儿童来说,运动学习组在粗大运动功能改善和平衡功能提高方面优于神经发育组。

  17. A study of the characteristics of and correlation between proprioception ability and gross motor development level of children aged 3 to 6%3~6岁幼儿本体感觉能力和粗大动作发展水平的特征及相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴升扣; 姜桂萍; 龚睿; 李林; 刘威彤

    2016-01-01

    采用X-SENS三维关节位置觉测量系统测试幼儿的膝关节本体感觉能力,采用粗大动作发展测试(TGMD-2)对受试者进行移动性动作和操作性动作测试,评估幼儿粗大动作发展水平.比较不同年龄幼儿本体感觉能力、粗大动作发展水平特点,并探讨二者的相关性.结果发现:(1)幼儿本体感觉能力存在显著的年龄差异,随着年龄的增加,幼儿本体感觉能力不断提高,3~6岁是本体感觉能力迅速发展的时期;(2)3~6岁是幼儿动作发展的关键时期,粗大动作发展水平存在显著的年龄差异.随着年龄增加,幼儿粗大动作发展水平不断提高,但尚未出现显著的性别差异;(3)幼儿的本体感觉能力与粗大动作发展水平之间有非常显著的正相关关系,幼儿的本体感觉越好,其粗大动作发展水平越高,而与幼儿身体质量指数之间没有显著的相关关系.人类动作的学习与发展离不开本体感觉,人们应该为幼儿提供更多的运动机会,让其在运动中体会丰富的本体感觉,学习多样的运动模式,获取全面的动作参数,从而帮助他们建立和完善动作基模.%The authors measured children's knee joint proprioception ability by using X-SENS 3D joint position sense measurement system, and the testees' moving actions and operating actions by using gross motor development test (TGMD-2), evaluated children's gross motor development level, compared the characteristics of proprioception ability and gross motor development level of children of different ages, probed into their correlation, and revealed the following findings: 1) children's proprioception ability is significantly age different, enhanced as their age increases, and constantly improved; ages 3 to 6 is a period when proprioception ability develops rapidly; 2) ages 3 to 6 is a critical period for children movement development, in which gross motor development level is significantly age different; as their age

  18. Disruption of locomotor adaptation with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation over the motor cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Julia Tsok Lam; Bouyer, Laurent J; Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2015-01-01

    Locomotor patterns are adapted on a trial-and-error basis to account for predictable dynamics. Once a walking pattern is adapted, the new calibration is stored and must be actively de-adapted. Here, we tested the hypothesis that storage of newly acquired ankle adaptation in walking is dependent o...

  19. IMITATING THE MODEL OF THE FREQUENCY CONVERTER - INDUCTION MOTOR OF A PUMP WATER SYSTEM WITH ADAPTIVE CONTROL ALGORITHM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taranov D. M.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents main water supply systems and justifies the choice of direct flow of water supply system in the application of regulation of electric drive for pumps, which doesn’t have any tanks to create pressures required for fire-governmental purposes. This avoids interruption in the supply of reserve while water freezing. In the article the substantiation of the necessity of implementation of adaptive algorithm in modern-WIDE frequency converters by a substantiation of the number of stages of ratio control of voltage-frequency mains. It was revealed that the number of degrees of regulation of 10-12 gives optimum. Modern frequency converters allow you to change the regulation law, establishing 3-5 points of regulation. Therefore, the introduction of adaptive algorithm will reduce the power consumption of the electric drive of the pump of the water supply system. The article shows the simulation model of the "the converter frequency-induction motor," plots of the stator current of mains frequency and active power, surface speed and phase current when changing the voltage and frequency of the mains. These dependences confirm to have applicability of adaptive algorithm in the regulation of modern frequency converters with the skalar administration. Simulation model confirms the sub-physical experiments on a real motor and frequency converter with adaptive control algorithm. As a result of the selection of the parameters, we obtain the voltage reduction of the phase current, and reduce electricity consumption by 5-7%

  20. Dysphagia in Cerebral Palsy and the Relationship between Levels of Gross Motor Function Classification System%脑瘫患儿吞咽障碍及其与粗大运动功能分级的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜艳平; 侯梅; 窦坦凤; 李文妍; 杨会娟

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨脑瘫患儿吞咽障碍的特点及其与粗大运动功能分级的关系.方法 对2009年6月~2010年6月在本院脑瘫康复中心门诊及住院治疗的脑瘫患儿进行吞咽障碍调查、口运动评估和粗大运动功能评估,分析不同粗大运动功能分级的脑瘫患儿的吞咽问题.结果 105例脑瘫患儿中,58例(56.2%)存在吞咽障碍,其中21.9%为轻度吞咽困难,34.3%为中重度吞咽困难.不同粗大运动功能分级 (Gross Motor Function Classification System, GMFCS)的吞咽障碍调查(Dysphagia Disorders Survey, DDS)及口运动评分不同(P<0.001).DDS和口运动评分与GMFCS水平的相关系数分别为0.767和-0.504(P<0.01).不同GMFCS分级的吞咽障碍和口运动障碍不同(P<0.001),DSS分级、口运动障碍和GMFCS分级呈正相关关系(r=0.55, r=0.27).结论 脑瘫患儿吞咽障碍主要发生在口腔期,GMFCS水平越高,吞咽障碍和口运动障碍的比例越高,程度越重,GMFCS水平Ⅳ~Ⅴ级者吞咽障碍和口运动障碍更突出.

  1. Adaptive current compensation with nonlinear disturbance observer for single-sided linear induction motor considering dynamic eddy-effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Jiang-ming; CHEN Te-fang; CHEN Chun-yang

    2015-01-01

    An adaptive current compensation control for a single-sided linear induction motor (SLIM) with nonlinear disturbance observer was developed. First, to maintaint-axis secondary component flux constant with consideration of the specially dynamic eddy-effect (DEE) of the SLIM, a instantaneously tracing compensation ofm-axis current component was analyzed. Second, adaptive current compensation based on Taylor-discretization algorithm was proposed. Third, an effective kind of nonlinear disturbance observer (NDOB) was employed to estimate and compensate the undesired load vibrations, then the robustness of the control system could be guaranteed. Experimental verification of the feasibility of the proposed method for an SLIM control system was performed, and it showed that the proposed adaptive compensation scheme with NDOB could significantly promote speed dynamical response and minimize speed ripple under the conditions of external load coupled vibrations and unavoidable feedback control variables measured errors, i.e., current and speed.

  2. Mixed eccentricity diagnosis in Inverter-Fed Induction Motors via the Adaptive Slope Transform of transient stator currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons-Llinares, J.; Antonino-Daviu, J.; Roger-Folch, J.; Moríñigo-Sotelo, D.; Duque-Pérez, O.

    2014-10-01

    This paper researches the detection of mixed eccentricity in Inverter-Fed Induction Motors. The classic FFT method cannot be applied when the stator current captured is not in steady state, which is very common in these motors. Therefore, a transform able to detect the time-frequency evolutions of the components present in the transient signal captured must be applied. In order to optimize the result, a method to calculate the theoretical time-frequency evolution of the stator current components is presented, using only the captured current. This previously obtained information enables the use of the proposed transform: the Adaptive Slope Transform, based on appropriately choosing the atom slope in each point analyzed. Thanks to its adaptive characteristics, the time-frequency evolution of the main components in a stator transient current is traced precisely and with high detail in the 2D time-frequency plot obtained. As a consequence, the time-frequency plane characteristic patterns produced by the Eccentricity Related Harmonics are easily and clearly identified enabling a reliable diagnosis. Moreover, the problem of quantifying the presence of the fault is solved presenting a simple and easy to apply method. The transform capabilities have been shown successfully diagnosing an Inverter-Fed Induction Motor with mixed eccentricity during a startup, a decrease in the assigned frequency, and a load variation with and without slip compensation.

  3. Dynamic Harmonic and Reactive Power Compensation with an Adaptive Shunt Active Filter for Variable Speed Induction Motor Drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sindhu M R

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Variable speed drives are mostly preferred in industries, while considering energy saving, smooth control, flexible operation and fast response. On the other hand, this equipment generates dynamic harmonic distortions in source currents and draws variable reactive power demand depending on variation in load condition. These distortions propagate throughout the system and affect all the loads connected to the point of common coupling. Hence a dynamic harmonic and reactive compensator is necessary to enhance power quality to meet current and voltage distortion limits at point of common coupling as per IEEE standard. The most common choice for adjustable speed drives in industries is three phase voltage source inverter based induction motor drives which uses PWM technique for voltage, frequency and current control. This paper presents harmonic analysis of an induction motor drive in an industrial plant and development of adaptive dynamic harmonic and reactive compensator to improve power quality. A digital controller which is programmed with adaptive Artificial Neural Network (ANN based control algorithm is used for controlling shunt active filter. The simulation and experimental results show that the adaptive shunt active filter provides effective harmonic and reactive compensation in the system under steady state and dynamic load conditions.

  4. An adaptive role for BDNF Val66Met polymorphism in motor recovery in chronic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Luye; Jing, Deqiang; Parauda, Sarah; Carmel, Jason; Ratan, Rajiv R; Lee, Francis S; Cho, Sunghee

    2014-02-12

    Little is known about the influence of genetic diversity on stroke recovery. One exception is the polymorphism in brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a critical neurotrophin for brain repair and plasticity. Humans have a high-frequency single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the prodomain of the BDNF gene. Previous studies show that the BDNF Val66Met variant negatively affects motor learning and severity of acute stroke. To investigate the impact of this common BDNF SNP on stroke recovery, we used a mouse model that contains the human BDNF Val66Met variant in both alleles (BDNF(M/M)). Male BDNF(+/+) and BDNF(M/M) littermates received sham or transient middle cerebral artery occlusion. We assessed motor function regularly for 6 months after stroke and then performed anatomical analyses. Despite reported negative association of the SNP with motor learning and acute deficits, we unexpectedly found that BDNF(M/M) mice displayed significantly enhanced motor/kinematic performance in the chronic phase of motor recovery, especially in ipsilesional hindlimb. The enhanced recovery was associated with significant increases in striatum volume, dendritic arbor, and elevated excitatory synaptic markers in the contralesional striatum. Transient inactivation of the contralateral striatum during recovery transiently abolished the enhanced function. This study showed an unexpected benefit of the BDNFVal66Met carriers for functional recovery, involving structural and molecular plasticity in the nonstroked hemisphere. Clinically, this study suggests a role for BDNF genotype in predicting stroke recovery and identifies a novel systems-level mechanism for enhanced motor recovery.

  5. DSP-based adaptive backstepping using the tracking errors for high-performance sensorless speed control of induction motor drive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaafouri, Abderrahmen; Ben Regaya, Chiheb; Ben Azza, Hechmi; Châari, Abdelkader

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a modified structure of the backstepping nonlinear control of the induction motor (IM) fitted with an adaptive backstepping speed observer. The control design is based on the backstepping technique complemented by the introduction of integral tracking errors action to improve its robustness. Unlike other research performed on backstepping control with integral action, the control law developed in this paper does not propose the increase of the number of system state so as not increase the complexity of differential equations resolution. The digital simulation and experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed control compared to the conventional PI control. The results analysis shows the characteristic robustness of the adaptive control to disturbances of the load, the speed variation and low speed.

  6. DSP-based Robust Nonlinear Speed Control of PM Synchronous Motor Using Adaptive and Sliding Mode Control Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baik, I.C.; Kim, K.H.; Cho, K.Y.; Youn, M.J. [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-04-01

    A DSP-based robust nonlinear speed control of a permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) which is robust to unknown parameter variations and speed measurement error is presented. The model reference adaptive system (MRAS) based adaptation mechanisms for the estimation of slowly varying parameters are derived using the Lyapunov stability theory. For the disturbances or quickly varying parameters, a quasi-linearized and decoupled model including the influence of parameter variations and speed measurement error on the nonlinear speed control of a PMSM is derived. Based on this model, a boundary layer integral sliding mode controller to improve the robustness and performance of the nonlinear speed control of a PMSM is designed and compared with the conventional controller. To show the validity of the proposed control scheme, simulations and experimental works are carried out and compared with the conventional control scheme. (author). 19 refs., 14 figs., 6 tabs.

  7. Relação entre índice de massa corporal e habilidade motora grossa em crianças de quatro a seis anos Relationship between body mass index and gross motor skill in four to six year-old children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Zandonadi Catenassi

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve por objetivo verificar a relação entre o desempenho em tarefas de habilidade motora grossa com o índice de massa corporal (IMC em meninos e meninas de quatro a seis anos de idade. Para tanto, foram analisadas 27 crianças, sendo 16 meninos e 11 meninas, com idade média de 5,64 ± 0,67 anos. As crianças foram submetidas ao Test of Gross Motor Development - Second Edition (TGMD-2, proposto por Ulrich (2000 e ao Körperkoordinations-test für Kinder (KTK, proposto por Kiphard e Schilling (1974. A pontuação obtida nos dois testes foi reduzida a uma escala comum a ambos. Foi verificada a correlação entre essa escala e o IMC das crianças por meio do teste de correlação de Spearman, com P This study had to aim to verify the relationship between performance in gross motor skill tasks and body mass index (BMI in four to six year-old boys and girls. 27 children were analyzed, 16 boys and 11 girls, mean age of 5.64 ± 0.67 years. The children were submitted to the Test of Gross Motor Development-Second Edition (TGMD-2, proposed by Ulrich (2000 and to the Körperkoordinations-test für Kinder (KTK, proposed by Kiphard and Schilling (1974. The punctuation obtained in the two tests was reduced to a scale common to both. The correlation between this scale and the BMI of the children was verified through the Spearman correlation test, with P < 0.05. No significant interaction was observed among variables when boys and girls were analyzed or when the analysis was conducted with gender distinction. Moreover, no interaction between the BMI and tasks which required higher demand of physical capacities was observed, which should be verified in further studies. It was possible to conclude from our results, that the performance of four to six year-old children in tasks which involved gross motor skill did not relate with BMI.

  8. Adaptation of postural control to perturbations--a process that initiates long-term motor memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjernström, F; Fransson, P-A; Hafström, A; Magnusson, M

    2002-02-01

    The objective was to investigate postural control adaptation during daily repeated posturography with vibratory calf stimulation. The posturography was performed with eyes open and closed daily for 5 days and after 90 days on 12 healthy subjects. The postural control adaptation could be described as two separate processes, a rapid adaptation during the test progress and a long-term habituation between consecutive test days. The adaptive improvements gained during the 5 days consecutive testing, largely remained 90 days later but seemed restricted to the same test situation. The findings suggest that balance rehabilitation should include a variety of repeated exercises, which are sufficiently long to induce habituation.

  9. Induction motor control and speed estimation via adaptive and artificial intelligence method

    OpenAIRE

    Kamenko, Ilija; Nikolić, Perica; Matić, Dragan; Bugarski, Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    This paper shows the optimization of the parameters of PI controllers in the application of vector control of a three-phase induction motor by genetic algorithm for the set optimality criterion. There is also the projecting procedure as well as the comparative analysis of the performances of speed estimator based on MRAS observer and speed estimator based on ANN. The basis of the research is a mathematical model of vector control of a three-phase induction motor, which was developed in MATLAB...

  10. Adaptive Quasi-Sliding Mode Control for Permanent Magnet DC Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredy E. Hoyos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The motor speed of a buck power converter and DC motor coupled system is controlled by means of a quasi-sliding scheme. The fixed point inducting control technique and the zero average dynamics strategy are used in the controller design. To estimate the load and friction torques an online estimator, computed by the least mean squares method, is used. The control scheme is tested in a rapid control prototyping system which is based on digital signal processing for a dSPACE platform. The closed loop system exhibits adequate performance, and experimental and simulation results match.

  11. Rotor Position Sensorless Control and Its Parameter Sensitivity of Permanent Magnet Motor Based on Model Reference Adaptive System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohara, Masaki; Noguchi, Toshihiko

    This paper describes a new method for a rotor position sensorless control of a surface permanent magnet synchronous motor based on a model reference adaptive system (MRAS). This method features the MRAS in a current control loop to estimate a rotor speed and position by using only current sensors. This method as well as almost all the conventional methods incorporates a mathematical model of the motor, which consists of parameters such as winding resistances, inductances, and an induced voltage constant. Hence, the important thing is to investigate how the deviation of these parameters affects the estimated rotor position. First, this paper proposes a structure of the sensorless control applied in the current control loop. Next, it proves the stability of the proposed method when motor parameters deviate from the nominal values, and derives the relationship between the estimated position and the deviation of the parameters in a steady state. Finally, some experimental results are presented to show performance and effectiveness of the proposed method.

  12. Active Vibration Suppression of a Motor-Driven Piezoelectric Smart Structure Using Adaptive Fuzzy Sliding Mode Control and Repetitive Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Ying Lin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we report on the use of piezoelectric sensors and actuators for the active suppression of vibrations associated with the motor-driven rotation of thin flexible plate held vertically. Motor-driven flexible structures are multi-input multi-output systems. The design of active vibration-suppression controllers for these systems is far more challenging than for flexible structures with a fixed end, due to the effects of coupling and nonlinear vibration behavior generated in structures with poor damping. To simplify the design of the controller and achieve satisfactory vibration suppression, we treated the coupling of vibrations caused by the rotary motion of the thin flexible plate as external disturbances and system uncertainties. We employed an adaptive fuzzy sliding mode control algorithm in the design of a single-input–single-output controller for the suppression of vibrations using piezoelectric sensors and actuators. We also used a repetitive control system to reduce periodic vibrations associated with the repetitive motions induced by the motor. Experimental results demonstrate that the hybrid intelligent control approach proposed in this study can suppress complex vibrations caused by modal excitation, coupling effects, and periodic external disturbances.

  13. Effects of the amount and schedule of varied practice after constant practice on the adaptive process of motor learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umberto Cesar Corrêa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of different amounts and schedules of varied practice, after constant practice, on the adaptive process of motor learning. Participants were one hundred and seven children with a mean age of 11.1 ± 0.9 years. Three experiments were carried out using a complex anticipatory timing task manipulating the following components in the varied practice: visual stimulus speed (experiment 1; sequential response pattern (experiment 2; and visual stimulus speed plus sequential response pattern (experiment 3. In all experiments the design involved three amounts (18, 36, and 63 trials, and two schedules (random and blocked of varied practice. The experiments also involved two learning phases: stabilization and adaptation. The dependent variables were the absolute, variable, and constant errors related to the task goal, and the relative timing of the sequential response. Results showed that all groups worsened the performances in the adaptation phase, and no difference was observed between them. Altogether, the results of the three experiments allow the conclusion that the amounts of trials manipulated in the random and blocked practices did not promote the diversification of the skill since no adaptation was observed.

  14. High-Frequency Intermuscular Coherence between Arm Muscles during Robot-Mediated Motor Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzamiglio, Sara; De Lillo, Martina; Naeem, Usman; Abdalla, Hassan; Turner, Duncan L.

    2017-01-01

    Adaptation of arm reaching in a novel force field involves co-contraction of upper limb muscles, but it is not known how the co-ordination of multiple muscle activation is orchestrated. We have used intermuscular coherence (IMC) to test whether a coherent intermuscular coupling between muscle pairs is responsible for novel patterns of activation during adaptation of reaching in a force field. Subjects (N = 16) performed reaching trials during a null force field, then during a velocity-dependent force field and then again during a null force field. Reaching trajectory error increased during early adaptation to the force-field and subsequently decreased during later adaptation. Co-contraction in the majority of all possible muscle pairs also increased during early adaptation and decreased during later adaptation. In contrast, IMC increased during later adaptation and only in a subset of muscle pairs. IMC consistently occurred in frequencies between ~40–100 Hz and during the period of arm movement, suggesting that a coherent intermuscular coupling between those muscles contributing to adaptation enable a reduction in wasteful co-contraction and energetic cost during reaching. PMID:28119620

  15. Paired-Pulse Parietal-Motor Stimulation Differentially Modulates Corticospinal Excitability across Hemispheres When Combined with Prism Adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schintu, Selene; Martín-Arévalo, Elisa; Vesia, Michael; Rossetti, Yves; Salemme, Romeo; Pisella, Laure; Farnè, Alessandro; Reilly, Karen T

    2016-01-01

    Rightward prism adaptation ameliorates neglect symptoms while leftward prism adaptation (LPA) induces neglect-like biases in healthy individuals. Similarly, inhibitory repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on the right posterior parietal cortex (PPC) induces neglect-like behavior, whereas on the left PPC it ameliorates neglect symptoms and normalizes hyperexcitability of left hemisphere parietal-motor (PPC-M1) connectivity. Based on this analogy we hypothesized that LPA increases PPC-M1 excitability in the left hemisphere and decreases it in the right one. In an attempt to shed some light on the mechanisms underlying LPA's effects on cognition, we investigated this hypothesis in healthy individuals measuring PPC-M1 excitability with dual-site paired-pulse TMS (ppTMS). We found a left hemisphere increase and a right hemisphere decrease in the amplitude of motor evoked potentials elicited by paired as well as single pulses on M1. While this could indicate that LPA biases interhemispheric connectivity, it contradicts previous evidence that M1-only MEPs are unchanged after LPA. A control experiment showed that input-output curves were not affected by LPA per se. We conclude that LPA combined with ppTMS on PPC-M1 differentially alters the excitability of the left and right M1.

  16. The combined effects of action observation and passive proprioceptive training on adaptive motor learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Yuming; Bao, Shancheng; Wang, Jinsung

    2016-09-01

    Sensorimotor adaptation can be induced by action observation, and also by passive training. Here, we investigated the effect of a protocol that combined action observation and passive training on visuomotor adaptation, by comparing it with the effect of action observation or passive training alone. Subjects were divided into five conditions during the training session: (1) action observation, in which the subjects watched a video of a model who adapted to a novel visuomotor rotation; (2) proprioceptive training, in which the subject's arm was moved passively to target locations that were associated with desired trajectories; (3) combined training, in which the subjects watched the video of a model during a half of the session and experienced passive movements during the other half; (4) active training, in which the subjects adapted actively to the rotation; and (5) a control condition, in which the subjects did not perform any task. Following that session, all subjects adapted to the same visuomotor rotation. Results showed that the subjects in the combined training condition adapted to the rotation significantly better than those in the observation or proprioceptive training condition, although their performance was not as good as that of those who adapted actively. These findings suggest that although a protocol that combines action observation and passive training consists of all the processes involved in active training (error detection and correction, effector-specific and proprioceptively based reaching movements), these processes in that protocol may work differently as compared to a protocol in which the same processes are engaged actively.

  17. Topology optimization of adaptive fluid-actuated cellular structures with arbitrary polygonal motor cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Jun; Tang, Liang; Li, Wenbo; Liu, Lei; Zhang, Hongwu

    2016-05-01

    This paper mainly focuses on the fast and efficient design method for plant bioinspired fluidic cellular materials and structures composed of polygonal motor cells. Here we developed a novel structural optimization method with arbitrary polygonal coarse-grid elements based on multiscale finite element frameworks. The fluidic cellular structures are meshed with irregular polygonal coarse-grid elements according to their natural size and the shape of the imbedded motor cells. The multiscale base functions of solid displacement and hydraulic pressure are then constructed to bring the small-scale information of the irregular motor cells to the large-scale simulations on the polygonal coarse-grid elements. On this basis, a new topology optimization method based on the resulting polygonal coarse-grid elements is proposed to determine the optimal distributions or number of motor cells in the smart cellular structures. Three types of optimization problems are solved according to the usages of the fluidic cellular structures. Firstly, the proposed optimization method is utilized to minimize the system compliance of the load-bearing fluidic cellular structures. Second, the method is further extended to design biomimetic compliant actuators of the fluidic cellular materials due to the fact that non-uniform volume expansions of fluid in the cells can induce elastic action. Third, the optimization problem focuses on the weight minimization of the cellular structure under the constraints for the compliance of the whole system. Several representative examples are investigated to validate the effectiveness of the proposed polygon-based topology optimization method of the smart materials.

  18. Activities of daffy living performance in children with cerebral palsy with different gross motor function%不同粗大运动功能脑性瘫痪患儿的日常生活活动能力分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史惟; 杨红; 黄华玉; 陈冬冬

    2009-01-01

    Objective To analyze the activities of daily living (ADL) performance in children with cerebral palsy (CP) with different gross motor function and the correlation between gross motor function and ADL perform-ance. Methods A total of 118 children (81 boys and 37 girls; mean age: 47.7 months, SD: 20.1 months, age range: 18-90 months) with CP were recruited from three different rehabilitation centers in Shanghai. Types of CP included hemiplegia (n = 27), spastic diplegia (n = 53), spastic quadriplegia(n = 29), athetoid (n = 4), dystonic (n = 4), ataxic (n = 1). Gross motor function classification system (GMFCS) and Gross motor function measure (GMFM) were adopted to assess and classify the gross motor function. Pediatric evaluation of disability inventory (PEDI) was adopted to assess ADL performance. Differences of PEDI scores were compared among different levels of GMFCS; and the correlation between GMFCS levels, GMFM scores and PEDI scores were analyzed. Resnlts PEDI scores showed significant differences among CP children with different levels of GMFCS. The PEDI score usually de-creased with the increase of the GMFCS level, and mobility ability was the lowest. Significant correlations were found between PEDI scaled scores and GMFCS (rs = 0.85~0. 50, P < 0.001). Various levels of correlations (r = 0. 85~ 0.54, P<0.001) were found between GMFM scores and PEDI scaled scores. Higher correlations were found between GMFCS levels, GMFM scores and mobility ability. Conclusion ADL performance was significantly different among CP children with different gross motor function. The higher the gross motor function, the better the performance of ADL. Mobility would be improved by promoting gross motor function in CP children. The training of self-care and so-cial communication ability should be emphasized.%目的 分析不同程度粗大运动功能脑瘫患儿的日常生活活动能力表现,明确脑瘫患儿粗大运动功能与日常生活活

  19. Therapist-Designed Adaptive Riding in Children With Cerebral Palsy : Results of a Feasibility Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Angsupaisal, Mattana; Visser, Baudina; Alkema, Anne; Meinsma-van der Tuin, Marja; Maathuis, Carel G. B.; Reinders-Messelink, Heleen; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2015-01-01

    Background. It is debatable whether adaptive riding (AR) in children with cerebral palsy (CP) improves postural control and gross motor development. Objective. The study aim was to explore the feasibility of an extensive assessment protocol for a randomized controlled trial of therapist-designed ada

  20. Adaptive control schemes for improving dynamic performance of efficiency-optimized induction motor drives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Navneet; Raj Chelliah, Thanga; Srivastava, S P

    2015-07-01

    Model Based Control (MBC) is one of the energy optimal controllers used in vector-controlled Induction Motor (IM) for controlling the excitation of motor in accordance with torque and speed. MBC offers energy conservation especially at part-load operation, but it creates ripples in torque and speed during load transition, leading to poor dynamic performance of the drive. This study investigates the opportunity for improving dynamic performance of a three-phase IM operating with MBC and proposes three control schemes: (i) MBC with a low pass filter (ii) torque producing current (iqs) injection in the output of speed controller (iii) Variable Structure Speed Controller (VSSC). The pre and post operation of MBC during load transition is also analyzed. The dynamic performance of a 1-hp, three-phase squirrel-cage IM with mine-hoist load diagram is tested. Test results are provided for the conventional field-oriented (constant flux) control and MBC (adjustable excitation) with proposed schemes. The effectiveness of proposed schemes is also illustrated for parametric variations. The test results and subsequent analysis confer that the motor dynamics improves significantly with all three proposed schemes in terms of overshoot/undershoot peak amplitude of torque and DC link power in addition to energy saving during load transitions.

  1. Speed tracking control of pneumatic motor servo systems using observation-based adaptive dynamic sliding-mode control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Syuan-Yi; Gong, Sheng-Sian

    2017-09-01

    This study aims to develop an adaptive high-precision control system for controlling the speed of a vane-type air motor (VAM) pneumatic servo system. In practice, the rotor speed of a VAM depends on the input mass air flow, which can be controlled by the effective orifice area (EOA) of an electronic throttle valve (ETV). As the control variable of a second-order pneumatic system is the integral of the EOA, an observation-based adaptive dynamic sliding-mode control (ADSMC) system is proposed to derive the differential of the control variable, namely, the EOA control signal. In the ADSMC system, a proportional-integral-derivative fuzzy neural network (PIDFNN) observer is used to achieve an ideal dynamic sliding-mode control (DSMC), and a supervisor compensator is designed to eliminate the approximation error. As a result, the ADSMC incorporates the robustness of a DSMC and the online learning ability of a PIDFNN. To ensure the convergence of the tracking error, a Lyapunov-based analytical method is employed to obtain the adaptive algorithms required to tune the control parameters of the online ADSMC system. Finally, our experimental results demonstrate the precision and robustness of the ADSMC system for highly nonlinear and time-varying VAM pneumatic servo systems.

  2. Fuzzy Adaptive Repetitive Control for Periodic Disturbance with Its Application to High Performance Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor Speed Servo Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junxiao Wang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available For reducing the steady state speed ripple, especially in high performance speed servo system applications, the steady state precision is more and more important for real servo systems. This paper investigates the steady state speed ripple periodic disturbance problem for a permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM servo system; a fuzzy adaptive repetitive controller is designed in the speed loop based on repetitive control and fuzzy information theory for reducing periodic disturbance. Firstly, the various sources of the PMSM speed ripple problem are described and analyzed. Then, the mathematical model of PMSM is given. Subsequently, a fuzzy adaptive repetitive controller based on repetitive control and fuzzy logic control is designed for the PMSM speed servo system. In addition, the system stability analysis is also deduced. Finally, the simulation and experiment implementation are respectively based on the MATLAB/Simulink and TMS320F2808 of Texas instrument company, DSP (digital signal processor hardware platform. Comparing to the proportional integral (PI controller, simulation and experimental results show that the proposed fuzzy adaptive repetitive controller has better periodic disturbance rejection ability and higher steady state precision.

  3. New insight into motor adaptation to pain revealed by a combination of modelling and empirical approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, P W; Coppieters, M W; MacDonald, D; Cholewicki, J

    2013-09-01

    Movement changes in pain. Unlike the somewhat stereotypical response of limb muscles to pain, trunk muscle responses are highly variable when challenged by pain in that region. This has led many to question the existence of a common underlying theory to explain the adaptation. Here, we tested the hypotheses that (1) adaptation in muscle activation in acute pain leads to enhanced spine stability, despite variation in the pattern of muscle activation changes; and (2) individuals would use a similar 'signature' pattern for tasks with different mechanical demands. In 17 healthy individuals, electromyography recordings were made from a broad array of anterior and posterior trunk muscles while participants moved slowly between trunk flexion and extension with and without experimentally induced back pain. Hypotheses were tested by estimating spine stability (Stability Index) with an electromyography-driven spine model and analysis of individual and overall (net) adaptations in muscle activation. The Stability Index (P muscle activity (P muscle activity. For most, the adaptation was similar between movement directions despite opposite movement demands. These data provide the first empirical confirmation that, in most individuals, acute back pain leads to increased spinal stability and that the pattern of muscle activity is not stereotypical, but instead involves an individual-specific response to pain. This adaptation is likely to provide short-term benefit to enhance spinal protection, but could have long-term consequences for spinal health. © 2013 European Federation of International Association for the Study of Pain Chapters.

  4. Gross decontamination experiment report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, R.; Kinney, K.; Dettorre, J.; Gilbert, V.

    1983-07-01

    A Gross Decontamination Experiment was conducted on various levels and surfaces of the TMI - Unit 2 reactor building in March 1982. The polar crane, D-rings, missile shields, refueling canals, refueling bridges, equipment, and elevations 305' and 347'-6'' were flushed with low pressure water. Additionally, floor surfaces on elevation 305' and floor surfaces and major pieces of equipment on elevation 347'-6'' were sprayed with high pressure water. Selective surfaces were decontaminated with a mechanical scrubber and chemicals. Strippable coating was tested and evaluated on equipment and floor surfaces. The effectiveness, efficiency, and safety of several decontamination techniques were established for the large, complex decontamination effort. Various decontamination equipment was evaluated and its effectiveness was documented. Decontamination training and procedures were documented and evaluated, as were the support system and organization for the experiment.

  5. Adaptive sensorless field oriented control of PM motors including zero speed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik; Vadstrup, P.; Børsting, H.

    2004-01-01

    for voltage offsets and permanent magnet strength variations. The adaption structure for estimating the strength of the permanent magnet is determined from a Lyapunov stability proof. The control method is made robust at zero and low speed by changing the direct vector current component to a value different...

  6. A New Adaptive Self-Tuning Fourier Coefficients Algorithm for Periodic Torque Ripple Minimization in Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors (PMSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Herrera-Ruíz

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A New Adaptive Self-Tuning Fourier Coefficients Algorithm for Periodic Torque Ripple Minimization in Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors (PMSM Torque ripple occurs in Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors (PMSMs due to the non-sinusoidal flux density distribution around the air-gap and variable magnetic reluctance of the air-gap due to the stator slots distribution. These torque ripples change periodically with rotor position and are apparent as speed variations, which degrade the PMSM drive performance, particularly at low speeds, because of low inertial filtering. In this paper, a new self-tuning algorithm is developed for determining the Fourier Series Controller coefficients with the aim of reducing the torque ripple in a PMSM, thus allowing for a smoother operation. This algorithm adjusts the controller parameters based on the component’s harmonic distortion in time domain of the compensation signal. Experimental evaluation is performed on a DSP-controlled PMSM evaluation platform. Test results obtained validate the effectiveness of the proposed self-tuning algorithm, with the Fourier series expansion scheme, in reducing the torque ripple.

  7. A new adaptive self-tuning Fourier coefficients algorithm for periodic torque ripple minimization in permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Espinosa, Alfonso; Hernández-Guzmán, Víctor M; Bandala-Sánchez, Manuel; Jiménez-Hernández, Hugo; Rivas-Araiza, Edgar A; Rodríguez-Reséndiz, Juvenal; Herrera-Ruíz, Gilberto

    2013-03-19

    A New Adaptive Self-Tuning Fourier Coefficients Algorithm for Periodic Torque Ripple Minimization in Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors (PMSM) Torque ripple occurs in Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors (PMSMs) due to the non-sinusoidal flux density distribution around the air-gap and variable magnetic reluctance of the air-gap due to the stator slots distribution. These torque ripples change periodically with rotor position and are apparent as speed variations, which degrade the PMSM drive performance, particularly at low speeds, because of low inertial filtering. In this paper, a new self-tuning algorithm is developed for determining the Fourier Series Controller coefficients with the aim of reducing the torque ripple in a PMSM, thus allowing for a smoother operation. This algorithm adjusts the controller parameters based on the component's harmonic distortion in time domain of the compensation signal. Experimental evaluation is performed on a DSP-controlled PMSM evaluation platform. Test results obtained validate the effectiveness of the proposed self-tuning algorithm, with the Fourier series expansion scheme, in reducing the torque ripple.

  8. 78 FR 26575 - Gross Combination Weight Rating; Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-07

    ... Weight Rating; Definition AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION... definition of ``gross combination weight rating'' (or GCWR) to clarify that a GCWR is the greater of: the....regulations.gov . Fax: 1-202-493-2251. Mail: Docket Management Facility (M-30), U.S. Department of...

  9. An Empirical Study on Promoting Gross Motor Skill of Preschoolers Aged 5 to 6 Through Functional Training%功能性训练促进5-6岁幼儿粗大动作发展的实证研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周喆啸; 孟欢欢; 赵焕彬; 白锐; 雷园园

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To discuss the influence of functional training on gross motor ability development of preschoolers aged 5 - 6. Methods:143 Preschoolers aged 5 - 6 who are chosen from government - funded kindergartens in Shijiazhuang,Capital of Hebei Province were divided into the experimental group (70 children)and control group (73 children). The experimental group received a functional training intervention program for 12 weeks, while the control group maintained the routine kindergarten by with the United States Test of Gross Motor Devel-opment - 2 physical activities. Before and after the intervention,preschoolers'gross motor ability was tested TG-MD - 2. Results:(1)the control group's total score of gross motor was 74. 65,among which the locomotor score was 39. 82 and the object - controlscore 34. 83. Compared with their pre - experiment scores in the three abili-ties,which were 74. 61,38. 86 and 35. 75 respectively,there was no significant increase (P > 0. 05). (2) The experimental group's total score of gross motor was 85. 74,among which the locomotor score was 44. 60, and the object - control score 41. 14. As compared with their pre - experiment scores in the three abilities, which was 74. 22,39. 62 and 34. 60 respectively,there was a significant increase (P < 0. 01). (3)The exper-imental group's post - experimentscores in gross motor,Locomotor and object - control were significantly higher than that of the control the group (P < 0. 01). Conclusion:The functional training designed specially for pre-schoolers can significantly increase the gross motor ability for children aged 5 to 6.%目的:探讨功能性训练对5-6岁幼儿粗大动作能力发展的影响。方法:随机抽取石家庄某公立幼儿园5-6岁幼儿143名为研究对象,将其分为实验组与对照组,实验组70人,对照组73人。实验组进行12周的功能性训练干预,对照组保持幼儿园原有体育活动内容,干预前后,通过美国大肌肉动作技能

  10. Remote Adaptive Motor Resistance Training Exercise Apparatus and Method of Use Thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Alton (Inventor); Shaw, James (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    The invention comprises a method and/or an apparatus using a computer configured exercise system equipped with an electric motor to provide physical resistance to user motion in conjunction with means for sharing exercise system related data and/or user performance data with a secondary user, such as a medical professional, a physical therapist, a trainer, a computer generated competitor, and/or a human competitor. For example, the exercise system is used with a remote trainer to enhance exercise performance, with a remote medical professional for rehabilitation, and/or with a competitor in a competition, such as in a power/weightlifting competition or in a video game. The exercise system is optionally configured with an intelligent software assistant and knowledge navigator functioning as a personal assistant application.

  11. Investigation of the Association Between Motor Stereotypy Behavior With Fundamental Movement Skills, Adaptive Functioning, and Autistic Spectrum Disorder Symptomology in Children With Intellectual Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Joanne L; Pringle, Lydia; Greig, Matt

    2017-02-01

    Motor stereotypy behaviors are patterned, coordinated, repetitive behaviors that are particularly evident in those with an autistic spectrum disorder and intellectual disabilities. The extent to which motor stereotypy behavior severity is associated with motor skills and maladaptive behavior, measures of adaptive functioning, along with fundamental movement skills and degree of autistic spectrum disorder symptomology is assessed in this preliminary report. Twelve participants, aged 7 to 16 years, with a reported motor stereotypy behavior and either mild or severe intellectual disability comprising developmental or global delay took part in the study. Spearman rho correlational analysis showed that severity of motor stereotypy behavior was significantly positively correlated with autistic spectrum disorder symptomology ( P = .008) and maladaptive behavior ( P = .008) but not fundamental movement skills ( P > .05). An increase in fundamental movement skills score was associated with a decrease in autistic spectrum disorder symptomology ( P = .01) and an increase in motor skills ( P = .002). This study provides evidence showing a significant relationship between motor stereotypy behavior severity with degree of autistic spectrum disorder symptomology and maladaptive behavior.

  12. Bio-inspired adaptive feedback error learning architecture for motor control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolu, Silvia; Vanegas, Mauricio; Luque, Niceto R; Garrido, Jesús A; Ros, Eduardo

    2012-10-01

    This study proposes an adaptive control architecture based on an accurate regression method called Locally Weighted Projection Regression (LWPR) and on a bio-inspired module, such as a cerebellar-like engine. This hybrid architecture takes full advantage of the machine learning module (LWPR kernel) to abstract an optimized representation of the sensorimotor space while the cerebellar component integrates this to generate corrective terms in the framework of a control task. Furthermore, we illustrate how the use of a simple adaptive error feedback term allows to use the proposed architecture even in the absence of an accurate analytic reference model. The presented approach achieves an accurate control with low gain corrective terms (for compliant control schemes). We evaluate the contribution of the different components of the proposed scheme comparing the obtained performance with alternative approaches. Then, we show that the presented architecture can be used for accurate manipulation of different objects when their physical properties are not directly known by the controller. We evaluate how the scheme scales for simulated plants of high Degrees of Freedom (7-DOFs).

  13. Sensorless control for permanent magnet synchronous motor using a neural network based adaptive estimator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Chung-Jin; Kim, Sung-Joong; Han, Woo-Young; Min, Won-Kyoung

    2005-12-01

    The rotor position and speed estimation of permanent-magnet synchronous motor(PMSM) was dealt with. By measuring the phase voltages and currents of the PMSM drive, two diagonally recurrent neural network(DRNN) based observers, a neural current observer and a neural velocity observer were developed. DRNN which has self-feedback of the hidden neurons ensures that the outputs of DRNN contain the whole past information of the system even if the inputs of DRNN are only the present states and inputs of the system. Thus the structure of DRNN may be simpler than that of feedforward and fully recurrent neural networks. If the backpropagation method was used for the training of the DRNN the problem of slow convergence arise. In order to reduce this problem, recursive prediction error(RPE) based learning method for the DRNN was presented. The simulation results show that the proposed approach gives a good estimation of rotor speed and position, and RPE based training has requires a shorter computation time compared to backpropagation based training.

  14. Adaptation of task difficulty in rehabilitation exercises based on the user's motor performance and physiological responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirzad, Navid; Van der Loos, H F Machiel

    2013-06-01

    Although robot-assisted rehabilitation regimens are as effective, functionally, as conventional therapies, they still lack features to increase patients' engagement in the regimen. Providing rehabilitation tasks at a "desirable difficulty" is one of the ways to address this issue and increase the motivation of a patient to continue with the therapy program. Then the problem is to design a system that is capable of estimating the user's desirable difficulty, and ultimately, modifying the task based on this prediction. In this paper we compared the performance of three machine learning algorithms in predicting a user's desirable difficulty during a typical reaching motion rehabilitation task. Different levels of error amplification were used as different levels of task difficulty. We explored the usefulness of using participants' motor performance and physiological signals during the reaching task in prediction of their desirable difficulties. Results showed that a Neural Network approach gives higher prediction accuracy in comparison with models based on k-Nearest Neighbor and Discriminant Analysis methods.

  15. Different Faces of Variability in the Adaptive Process of Motor Skill Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa, Umberto Cesar; Benda, Rodolfo Novelino; de Oliveira, Dalton Lustosa; Ugrinowitsch, Herbert; Freudenheim, Andrea Michele; Tani, Go

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the variability by considering an action programme as hierarchically organized, which reconciles invariant and variant features of motor skills at the macro- and microstructural level of analysis. It was assumed that invariant aspects of skilled actions express the macrostructure and therefore measures of sequencing, relative size, relative timing, relative force and relative pause time. The microstructure was related to the variant aspects so that total size, total movement time, total force, and total pause time were selected as its measures. These propositions were tested in an experimental design comprised by three learning phases: a stabilisation phase that entailed a given number of trials to achieve the functional stabilization on a graphic task, followed by transfer and retention phases. In the transfer phase, the graphic task was modified to yield different demands upon skill reorganization. Two such modifications demanded parametric changes (i.e. microstructure changes), in which graphic size and drawing speed were altered. Another modification demanded structural alterations (i.e. macrostructure change), in which drawing was changed. Overall, results supported the main predictions by showing that parametric changes in the task affected the microstructure, but did not affect the macrostructure consistently. Furthermore, a structural change affected both macro- and microstructure.

  16. Motor, linguistic, personal and social aspects of children with Down syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Tragueta FERREIRA-VASQUES

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractA global developmental delay is expected from Down syndrome, affecting motor, cognitive, linguistic and personal-social skills. However, not always these delays are proportional; different conditions occur due to several intrinsic and extrinsic variables that must be controlled to form groups of greater homogeneity.Objective To enhance personal-social, fine motor-adaptive, gross motor and linguistic skills among children with Down syndrome and compare them with typically developing children, matched for gender, socioeconomic status and mental age, while controlling some variables that interfere with the global development.Methods The ethical aspects were fulfilled (Case No. 040/2009. The following inclusion criteria were considered: participants without a history of prematurity, very low birth weight, congenital hypothyroidism, significant hearing and vision problems, and signs of Autism Spectrum Disorder. After the inclusion criteria were considered, 40 children participated in the study, of which 20 had Down syndrome (experimental group - EG, these being of both genders and with chronological ages ranging from 38 to 63 months, and the other 20 being typically developing children (control group - CG, matching the EG in terms of gender, socioeconomic status and mental age, with this age ranging from 13 to 50 months. The evaluation consisted in applying the Denver Developmental Screening Test II, a test that assesses areas such as personal-social, fine motor-adaptive, linguistic and gross motor development. The results were subjected to statistical analysis using Student’s t-test.Results A statistically significant difference was verified between the groups for the language and fine motor-adaptive areas.Conclusion Children with Down syndrome showed lower performance in language and fine motor skills when compared with typically developing children. There was no statistically significant difference in gross motor and personal

  17. The effects of conductive education on gross motor function and Gesell development test results in children with cerebral palsy%引导式教育对脑瘫儿童粗大运动功能和Gesell发育测试结果的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁俊英; 朱登纳; 孙二亮; 谢晓明; 李萍; 魏春娜

    2014-01-01

    目的 探讨引导式教育对脑性瘫痪患儿粗大运动功能和Gesell发育是否有促进作用.方法 将138例脑瘫患儿按性别和粗大运动功能分级系统(GMFCS)分层随机分为引导式教育组和对照组,分别经过4个月的引导式教育加一般综合训练和单纯一般综合训练治疗,观察2种训练方法对两组患儿粗大运动功能和Gesell发育测试结果的影响.结果 粗大运动方面,粗大运动功能测试量表(GMFM)评估结果比较运用协方差分析(F =4.479,P<0.05),引导式教育组优于对照组;但两组在治疗前后比较,差异均有统计学意义,两组均可促进粗大运动功能的发育.Gesell发育测试结果比较(F=37.80,P<0.01),引导式教育组优于对照组;引导式教育组治疗前后比较(t=24.93,P<0.01),差异有统计学意义;对照组治疗前后比较(t=13.34,P>0.05),尚不能认为两组对照有统计学差异.结论 引导式教育可以促进脑瘫患儿粗大运动功能的提高及整体的发育.%Objective To observe the effects of conductive education on gross motor function and Gesell development test results in children with cerebral palsy.Methods One hundred and thirty-eight children with cerebral palsy were stratified randomly according to the gross motor function classification system (GMFCS) and sexes into two groups:the conductive education group received conductive education combined with general comprehensive rehabilitation,the control group received general comprehensive rehabilitation only.After 4 months of training,the results of both groups in terms of gross motor function and Gesell development test results were compared.Results The GMFCS evaluation results of the 2 groups were compared through covariance analysis (F =4.479,P =0.036 <0.05),the result of conductive education group was better than that of control group; in both groups the result after training was superior to that before training.For Gesell development test results

  18. Train the Brain: Novel Electroencephalography Data Indicate Links between Motor Learning and Brain Adaptations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer, Adam W; Gualberto Cremades, J; Myer, Gregory D

    2014-04-01

    EEG differences were examined between part and whole practice in the learning of a novel motor task. Recording was done at 4 sites (i.e., O1, O2, C3, and C4) on 30 participants who performed a novel mirror star tracer task. Individuals were randomly assigned to 3 groups: whole practice, part practice, and control (no practice). Whole practice is defined as practicing a skill in its entirety. Part practice is defined as practicing separate, independent parts of the skill, and gradually combining those parts with parts that are dependent on one another. Each group was assessed during a pretest and posttest. EEG data was analyzed using a 2×2×2×3 (trials×hemisphere×site×practice) repeated measures mixed model ANOVA for each of the wave bands (lower alpha, upper alpha, lower beta, upper beta). All participants performed the task faster as no practice effect was found across the three groups; however the part practice group exhibited a significant decrease in errors. Reduced activation in the occipital and central sites was observed for lower alpha in the posttest compared to the pretest, for all participants. Hemispheric differences were present for all wavebands, with greater activation in the left hemisphere independent of practice type. The results of our study indicate that task learning was likely associated with the observed changes in the lower alpha waveband. Further, a concomitant behavior between the hemispheric lateralization of alpha and beta waveforms was observed. These results have implications for athlete training and rehabilitation. They indicate the utility of EEG for learning assessment in athletes. They also indicate learning strategies with a partial movement focus may be a beneficial strategy to support the development of complex sport skills training and rehabilitation strategies focused on reacquisition of skills prior to sport reintegration.

  19. Effects of magnetic resonance imaging and developmental scale to predict gross motor outcomes in infants at high risk for cerebral palsy%磁共振成像及发育量表对脑瘫高危儿粗大运动发育的预测研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵晓科; 高修成; 肖农; 张跃; 吕静

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore and compare the predictive value of magnetic resonance imaging(MRI) and developmental scales for gross motor outcomes in infants at high risk for cerebral palsy.Method: Seventy-three high-risk preterm infants were examined with MRI to evaluate white matter abnormality (WMA) qualitatively at 3 months' corrected age, and had psychomotor development index(PDI) and mental development index(MDI) measures to assess global motor performance and intelligence level at the same time. The time of performing sitting balance and standing balance were followed up, and the associations between early assessments of WMA,PDI,MDI and measurements of sitting balance time as well as standing balance time were analyzed. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated for WMA, PDI, MDI to predict sitting balance time and standing balance time.Result: Significant associations between WMA, PDI, MDI and sitting balance time, standing balance time were noted, precedence ordering of correlation coefficient were WMA, PDI, MDI from higher to lower level, and the combination of WMA, PDI and MDI led to greater correlation with sitting balance time and standing balance time. WMA demonstrated the greatest specificity and sensitivity in predicting sitting and standing development delay than PDI and MDI.Conclusion: The severity of WMA and level of early global motor performance and intelligence correlated with performed time of gross motor significantly. The combination of predictor assessments (MRI and developmental scales) could improve predictive validity for gross motor outcomes in infants at high risk for cerebral palsy.%目的:分析并比较磁共振成像及发育量表对脑瘫高危儿粗大运动发育的预测作用.方法:73例有早产背景的脑瘫高危儿,在纠正胎龄3月时行头颅MRI检查,定性评价脑白质异常(WMA)程度,并同期应用婴幼儿发育量表中的精神运动发育指数(PDI)分值评定整体运动情况,智力发育指数(MDI)分值

  20. Chaos control for the output-constrained system by using adaptive dynamic surface technology and application to the brushless DC motor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Shaohua, E-mail: hua66com@163.com [The Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Huaiyin Institute of Technology, Huai’an 223003 (China); School of Automation, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Hou, Zhiwei; Chen, Zhong [The Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Huaiyin Institute of Technology, Huai’an 223003 (China)

    2015-12-15

    In this paper, chaos control is proposed for the output- constrained system with uncertain control gain and time delay and is applied to the brushless DC motor. Using the dynamic surface technology, the controller overcomes the repetitive differentiation of backstepping and boundedness hypothesis of pre-determined control gain by incorporating radial basis function neural network and adaptive technology. The tangent barrier Lyapunov function is employed for time-delay chaotic system to prevent constraint violation. It is proved that the proposed control approach can guarantee asymptotically stable in the sense of uniformly ultimate boundedness without constraint violation. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed approach is demonstrated on the brushless DC motor example.

  1. Chaos control for the output-constrained system by using adaptive dynamic surface technology and application to the brushless DC motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Shaohua; Hou, Zhiwei; Chen, Zhong

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, chaos control is proposed for the output- constrained system with uncertain control gain and time delay and is applied to the brushless DC motor. Using the dynamic surface technology, the controller overcomes the repetitive differentiation of backstepping and boundedness hypothesis of pre-determined control gain by incorporating radial basis function neural network and adaptive technology. The tangent barrier Lyapunov function is employed for time-delay chaotic system to prevent constraint violation. It is proved that the proposed control approach can guarantee asymptotically stable in the sense of uniformly ultimate boundedness without constraint violation. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed approach is demonstrated on the brushless DC motor example.

  2. Motor learning in common marmosets: vestibulo-ocular reflex adaptation and its sensitivity to inhibitors of Purkinje cell long-term depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzai, Mari; Nagao, Soich

    2014-06-01

    Adaptation of the horizontal vestibulo-ocular reflex (HVOR) provides an experimental model for cerebellum-dependent motor learning. We developed an eye movement measuring system and a paradigm for induction of HVOR adaptation for the common marmoset. The HVOR gain in dark measured by 10° (peak-to-peak amplitude) and 0.11-0.5Hz turntable oscillation was around unity. The gain-up and gain-down HVOR adaptation was induced by 1h of sustained out-of-phase and in-phase 10°-0.33Hz combined turntable-screen oscillation in the light, respectively. To examine the role of long-term depression (LTD) of parallel fiber-Purkinje cell synapses, we intraperitonially applied T-588 or nimesulide, which block the induction of LTD in vitro or in vivo preparations, 1h before the test of HVOR adaptation. T-588 (3 and 5mg/kg body weight) did not affect nonadapted HVOR gains, and impaired both gain-up and gain-down HVOR adaptation. Nimesulide (3 and 6mg/kg) did not affect nonadapted HVOR gains, and impaired gain-up HVOR adaptation dose-dependently; however, it very little affected gain-down HVOR adaptation. These findings are consistent with the results of our study of nimesulide on the adaptation of horizontal optokinetic response in mice (Le et al., 2010), and support the view that LTD underlies HVOR adaptation.

  3. Gross job flows and firms

    OpenAIRE

    Scott Schuh; Robert K. Triest

    1999-01-01

    This paper extends the work of Dunne, Roberts, and Samuelson [3] and Davis, Haltiwanger, and Schuh [2] on gross job flows among manufacturing plants. Gross job creation, destruction, and reallocation have been shown to be important in understanding the birth, growth, and death of plants, and the relation of plant life cycles to the business cycle. However, little is known about job flows between firms or how job flows among plants occur within firms (corporate restructuring). We use informati...

  4. Adaptive two-degree-of-freedom PI for speed control of permanent magnet synchronous motor based on fractional order GPC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Wenjun; Tang, Xiaoqi; Zheng, Shiqi; Xie, Yuanlong; Song, Bao

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, an adaptive two-degree-of-freedom (2Dof) proportional-integral (PI) controller is proposed for the speed control of permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM). Firstly, an enhanced just-in-time learning technique consisting of two novel searching engines is presented to identify the model of the speed control system in a real-time manner. Secondly, a general formula is given to predict the future speed reference which is unavailable at the interval of two bus-communication cycles. Thirdly, the fractional order generalized predictive control (FOGPC) is introduced to improve the control performance of the servo drive system. Based on the identified model parameters and predicted speed reference, the optimal control law of FOGPC is derived. Finally, the designed 2Dof PI controller is auto-tuned by matching with the optimal control law. Simulations and real-time experimental results on the servo drive system of PMSM are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed strategy.

  5. Design and evaluation of a quasi-passive knee exoskeleton for investigation of motor adaptation in lower extremity joints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamaei, Kamran; Cenciarini, Massimo; Adams, Albert A; Gregorczyk, Karen N; Schiffman, Jeffrey M; Dollar, Aaron M

    2014-06-01

    In this study, we describe the mechanical design and control scheme of a quasi-passive knee exoskeleton intended to investigate the biomechanical behavior of the knee joint during interaction with externally applied impedances. As the human knee behaves much like a linear spring during the stance phase of normal walking gait, the exoskeleton implements a spring across the knee in the weight acceptance (WA) phase of the gait while allowing free motion throughout the rest of the gait cycle, accomplished via an electromechanical clutch. The stiffness of the device is able to be varied by swapping springs, and the timing of engagement/disengagement changed to accommodate different loading profiles. After describing the design and control, we validate the mechanical performance and reliability of the exoskeleton through cyclic testing on a mechanical knee simulator. We then describe a preliminary experiment on three healthy adults to evaluate the functionality of the device on both left and right legs. The kinetic and kinematic analyses of these subjects show that the exoskeleton assistance can partially/fully replace the function of the knee joint and obtain nearly invariant moment and angle profiles for the hip and ankle joints, and the overall knee joint and exoskeleton complex under the applied moments of the exoskeleton versus the control condition, implying that the subjects undergo a considerable amount of motor adaptation in their lower extremities to the exoskeletal impedances, and encouraging more in-depth future experiments with the device.

  6. Assessment of the Effect of Interactive Scalp Acupuncture on Gross Motor Function in Treating Infantile Spastic Cerebral Palsy%互动式头针治疗痉挛型小儿脑瘫粗大运动功能疗效评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴绪波; 张海蒙; 孙克兴

    2011-01-01

    目的 观察互动式头针治疗痉挛型小儿脑瘫的疗效.方法 将34例痉挛型小儿脑瘫患者按照年龄、瘫患部位和粗大运动功能分级系统(GMFCS)进行配对,治疗组采用互动式头针治疗,对照组采用头针加运动疗法治疗,治疗3个月后用粗大运动功能评定量表(GMFM-88)进行疗效比较.结果 对治疗组和对照组治疗后GMFM总百分比进行组间比较,治疗组疗效优于对照组(P<0.05);治疗组在反映走、跑、跳能力的能区(E区)百分比分值高于对照组(P<0.01).结论 头针与运动疗法结合可以改善痉挛型小儿脑瘫患者的运动功能,互动式头针在改善患者行走能力方面较常规头针加运动疗法有更好的疗效.%Objective To investigate the therapeutic effect of interactive scalp acupuncture on infantile spastic cerebral palsy.Methods Thirty-four children with spastic cerebral palsy were paired according to age, the affected part and the gross motor function classification system (GMFCS).The treatment group received interactive scalp acupuncture and the control group, scalp acupuncture plus kinesitherapy.After 3 months of treatment, the therapeutic effects were compared using the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM-88).Results A post-treatment comparison of the GMFM total percent scores between treatment and control groups showed that the therapeutic effect was better in the treatment group than in the control group (P<0.05).The percent score of GMFM domain E (walking, running and jumping) was higher in the treatment group than in the control group (P<0.01).Conclusion A combination of scalp acupuncture and kinesitherapy can improve motor function in children with spastic cerebral palsy.Interactive scalp acupuncture is better than scalp acupuncture plus kinesitherapy in improving the walking ability of the sick children.

  7. Start-up current adaptive control for sensorless high-speed brushless DC motors based on inverse system method and internal mode controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanzhao He

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The start-up current control of the high-speed brushless DC (HS-BLDC motor is a challenging research topic. To effectively control the start-up current of the sensorless HS-BLDC motor, an adaptive control method is proposed based on the adaptive neural network (ANN inverse system and the two degrees of freedom (2-DOF internal model controller (IMC. The HS-BLDC motor is identified by the online least squares support vector machine (OLS-SVM algorithm to regulate the ANN inverse controller parameters in real time. A pseudo linear system is developed by introducing the constructed real-time inverse system into the original HS-BLDC motor system. Based on the characteristics of the pseudo linear system, an extra closed-loop feedback control strategy based on the 2-DOF IMC is proposed to improve the transient response performance and enhance the stability of the control system. The simulation and experimental results show that the proposed control method is effective and perfect start-up current tracking performance is achieved.

  8. Relationship between motor abilities and severity of autism spectrum disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvijetić Marija

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the findings in literature, motor skills of children with autism spectrum disorders generally differ from age expectations and are increasingly being associated with speech and language and social development, and adaptive behavior. The aim of the research was to determine the relationship between the development level of fine and gross motor skills and autism severity of children with autism spectrum disorder. The sample included 30 children with autism spectrum disorder and associated intellectual disability, seven to 19 years of age (M=11.97; SD=3.70. The assessment was conducted using the Peabody Motor Development Scale, the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale, and the criteria for describing the level of severity of autism spectrum disorder (APA, 2013. The results have shown that participants' motor skills significantly correlate with social communication (Peabody fine motor skills r=-0.452; p=0.012; Vineland fine motor skills r=-0.511; p=0.004; Vineland total r=-0.391; p=0.032 and restricted, repetitive behaviors (Peabody fine motor skills r=-0.383; p=0.037; Vineland fine motor skills r=-0.433; p=0.017; Vineland total r=-0.371; p=0.044. Lower level of autistic symptomatology is associated with higher motor achievements. It is necessary to pay more attention to the assessment and treatment of motor skills in children with autism spectrum disorder, given the established delay in the development of these skills, and bearing in mind their relationship with the severity of the symptoms of autism spectrum disorder. Timely identification of motor disorders would allow the use of early treatment and potentially lead to better results, compared to later inclusion in intervention programs.

  9. 26 CFR 41.4482(b)-1 - Definition of taxable gross weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... oilfield machinery, etc.) mounted on the vehicle for use on construction jobs, in oilfield operations, etc...) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES EXCISE TAX ON USE OF CERTAIN HIGHWAY MOTOR VEHICLES Tax on Use of Certain Highway Motor Vehicles § 41.4482(b)-1 Definition of taxable gross weight. (a) Actual unloaded weight—(1)...

  10. Construction of 2-dimensional Grosse-Wulkenhaar Model

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Zhituo

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we construct the noncommutative Grosse-Wulkenhaar model on 2-dimensional Moyal plane with the method of loop vertex expansion. We treat renormalization with this new tool, adapt Nelson's argument and prove Borel summability of the perturbation series. This is the first non-commutative quantum field theory model to be built in a non-perturbative sense.

  11. On a question of Gross

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Abhijit

    2007-03-01

    Using the notion of weighted sharing of sets we prove two uniqueness theorems which improve the results proved by Fang and Qiu [H. Qiu, M. Fang, A unicity theorem for meromorphic functions, Bull. Malaysian Math. Sci. Soc. 25 (2002) 31-38], Lahiri and Banerjee [I. Lahiri, A. Banerjee, Uniqueness of meromorphic functions with deficient poles, Kyungpook Math. J. 44 (2004) 575-584] and Yi and Lin [H.X. Yi, W.C. Lin, Uniqueness theorems concerning a question of Gross, Proc. Japan Acad. Ser. A 80 (2004) 136-140] and thus provide an answer to the question of Gross [F. Gross, Factorization of meromorphic functions and some open problems, in: Proc. Conf. Univ. Kentucky, Lexington, KY, 1976, in: Lecture Notes in Math., vol. 599, Springer, Berlin, 1977, pp. 51-69], under a weaker hypothesis.

  12. Assessment of gross motor function development in children with cerebral palsy by nonlinear mixed effect model%非线性混合效应模型评估脑瘫患儿粗大运动功能发育进程

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史惟; 丁俊杰; 杨红; 廖元贵; 朱默; 侯方华; 王艺

    2012-01-01

    Objective To describe the patterns of gross motor development of children with cerebral palsy ( CP ) in each level of the Gross Motor Function Classification System ( GMFCS ) using nonlinear mixed effect model, as a basis for planning clinical management. Methods Patients with CP were enrolled from 7 rehabilitation centers in Shanghai form August 2000 to December 2007. Severity of CP was based solely on GMFCS level and motor function was assessed with Gross Motor Function Measure-66 ( GMFM-66 ). The stable limit model was used to make the gross motor development curve for children in each of the 5 GMFCS levels. The stable limit model has two parameters, corresponding to limit of motor function and the rate which can transforms to age-90. Age-90 means the age at which children are expected to achieve 90% of their predicted limit in GMFM-66. In addition, the results of our study were compared with those of Canada study. Results A total of 228 children ( 152 males, 76 females ) with CP were enrolled in the study. Types of CP in these children were spastic quadriplegia ( n = 63 ), spastic diplegia ( n = 87 ), spastic hemiplegia ( n = 48 ), athetotic ( n = 11 ), dystonia ( n = 4 ) and ataxic ( n = 11 ). Based on a total of 986 GMFM assessments ( 4. 32 assessments per child ), distinct motor development curves were constructed. The limit of GMFM-66 in GMFCS Ⅰ - Ⅴ level was 81.2, 62. 4, 52. 9, 40. 8 and 24. 4 scores, the corresponding age-90 was 3.8, 2. 7, 2. 1, 2. 0 and 1. 5 years respectively. GMFM-66 limit in GMFCS level I and II of our study was lower than that in Canada study, however GMFM-66 limit in GMFCS level Ⅲ — Ⅴ was closer to that in Canada study. Moreover, the corresponding age-90 in each 5 levels of GMFCS in our study was lower than that in Canada study. Conclusions The gross motor development more quickly reached its limit in GMFCS level Ⅰ and Ⅱ , however the limit of GMFM-66 was lower than that in Canada study. More attention should be paid

  13. Impact of the peripheral neurotomy method combined with rehabilitation exercise on gross motor function and balance function of children with cerebral palsy%周围神经缩窄术结合康复训练对痉挛型脑性瘫痪患儿运动功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁俊英; 董辉; 曾宪旭; 孙二亮; 王军

    2014-01-01

    目的 探讨周围神经缩窄术结合康复训练对痉挛型脑性瘫痪(脑瘫)患儿粗大运动功能和平衡功能的影响.方法 选取2011年5月至2013年10月30例住院的年龄>3岁且意识清楚需行周围神经缩窄术并结合康复训练的痉挛型脑瘫患儿为研究组;采用配对设计的方法选择同期住院30例年龄相近、性别相同,粗大运动功能分级(GMFCS)相同,功能相近行单纯综合康复训练的脑瘫患儿作为对照组.分别在训练开始后2周、4周、6周、8周、10周时记录2组患儿的改良Ashworth评分、粗大运动功能量表D、E区评分、医师等级评价量表评分结果,采用重复测量分差分析方法比较2组患儿改良Ashworth肌张力、粗大运动功能、平衡功能以及步态改善情况.结果 肌张力降低效果方面,研究组与对照组比较差异有统计学意义(F=8.177,P=0.006);在步态改善方面,研究组优于对照组(F=24.284,P=0.000);粗大运动功能量表D、E区评价中,研究组与对照组相比差异均无统计学意义(D:F=0.072,P=0.790;E:F =0.000,P=0.985);在平衡功能Berg量表评分方面,研究组与对照组相比差异亦无统计学意义(F=0.150,P=0.700).结论 周围神经缩窄术结合康复训练与单纯综合康复训练均可以提高痉挛型脑瘫患儿粗大运动功能和平衡功能,但在降低肌张力与改善步态方面周围神经缩窄术组明显好于单纯康复训练.%Objective To study the impact of the peripheral neurotomy method combined with rehabilitation exercise on gross motor function and balance function of children with cerebral palsy.Methods Matched pair design was used in the study.Thirty children with spastic cerebral palsy hospitalized from May 2011 to Nov.2013 suffering from peripheral neurotomy were assigned as study group,who were conscious and treated by peripheral neurotomy com bined with rehabilitation exercise.In the meanwhile,30 children inpatients at the same time were employed

  14. Model-free Adaptive Control With Tight Format of Linear Motor%直线电机的紧格式无模型自适应控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李萍; 曹健

    2014-01-01

    将基于紧格式线性化的非线性系统无模型自适应控制方法应用于直线电机的控制中畅利用伪偏导数和伪阶数的概念,用紧格式动态线性时变模型替代直线电机非线性系统模型畅根据直线电机运动模型的输入输出数据在线估计系统的伪偏导数。仿真实验表明,紧格式无模型自适应控制器对电机这种具有不确知动态的非线性系统有较强的自适应性、抗干扰性、稳定性和鲁棒性,解决了直线电机非线性和不确定性的控制问题。%The model-free adaptive control ( MFAC) approach of nonlinear systems based on linearization of tight format was applied to control of the linear motor.Used the concept of pseudo partial derivative and pseudo order , nonlinear system model of linear motor was replaced with tight format dynamic linear time-var-ying model.According to the linear motor motion model of input and output data online estimation of pseudo partial derivative.The simulation results show that tight format model-free controller has a strong adaptive , anti-interference , stable and robustness for motor with vaguely known dynamic nonlinear systems , solved the problem of controlling the nonlinear and uncertainty of linear motor.

  15. Prediction of motor and functional outcomes in infants born preterm assessed at term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snider, Laurie; Majnemer, Annette; Mazer, Barbara; Campbell, Suzann; Bos, Arend F

    2009-01-01

    To compare 3 different assessment approaches at term to infants born preterm to predict motor and functional outcomes at 12 months adjusted age. Infants (n = 100) born at less than 32 weeks postconceptional age were assessed at term using the General Movements Assessment, Einstein Neonatal Neurobehavioral Assessment Scales, Test of Infant Motor Performance, and at 12 months adjusted age using the Alberta Infant Motor Scales, Peabody Developmental Motor Scales-2, Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-Daily Living Skills, and Battelle Developmental Inventory. The General Movements Assessment (r2 = 0.04; p = 0.05) and the Test of Infant Motor Performance (r2 = 0.05; p = 0.04) predicted outcomes on the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales-2. The Test of Infant Motor Performance predicted outcomes on the Alberta Infant Motor Scales (r2 = 0.05; p = 0.04) and Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-Daily Living Skills (odds ratio: 0.93). Delays in functional performance were found. Neonatal tests at term explained a small but significant proportion of the variance in gross motor and daily living skills at 12 months adjusted age.

  16. Brushless DC Motor Self-Adaption Fuzzy PID Control System%无刷直流电机自适应模糊PID控制系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王国玲; 李振宇; 范自道

    2013-01-01

      针对无刷直流电机传统PID控制存在精度低、抗干扰能力差及模糊控制稳态精度不高等问题,研究了一种自适应模糊PID控制方法。论文分析了直流无刷电机的工作原理,建立了直流无刷电机自适应模糊PID控制系统的计算机仿真数学模型,设计了系统速度环的模糊PID控制器,仿真结果表明,与传统PID控制相比,自适应模糊PID控制的BLDCM系统具有更高的稳定性和控制精度、更快的动态响应速度。%For the lower precision,bad anti-interference capability of traditional PID control and lower stable precision of fuzzy control for brushless DC motor,an adaptive fuzzy-PID control was deeply investigated in this paper. Working theory of brushless DC motor was analyzed,the simulated mathematical model of adaptive fuzzy-PID control for brushless DC motor was established,and the fuzzy-PID controller of speed regulator was designed. The results of simulation verified the better stability,the faster dynamic speed of adaptive fuzzy-PID control for brushless DC motor compared to traditional PID control.

  17. 脑瘫粗大运动功能分级系统修订扩展版(中文版)的信度和效度研究%Reliability and Validity of Expanded and Revised Gross Motor Function Classification System(Chinese Version)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李初阳; 史惟; 周美琴; 朱默; 冉小华; 杨红; 梁琪

    2011-01-01

    目的 确定中文版脑瘫粗大运动功能分级系统修订扩展版(GMFCS E&R)的信度和效度.方法 来自广州和上海两家特殊教育学校的101名6~18岁学生参加此项研究.通过分析不同评价者间(康复医师、物理治疗师、文化教师、家长)的评价结果确定GMFCS E&R的评价者间信度;以粗大运动功能测试(GMFM)为效标确定GMFCS E&R的平行效度.结果 GMFCS E&R具有良好的评价者间信度(ICC=0.79~0.91); GMFCS E&R与GMFM各项分值之间Spearman相关系数为-0.46~-0.86.结论 中文版GMFCS E&R具有良好的信度和效度,适用于国内对脑瘫患儿进行功能分级.%Objective To identify the reliability and validity of Chinese version of expanded and revised Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS E&R). Methods 101 children with cerebral palsy aged 6~18 from 2 special schools in Shanghai and Guangzhou participated in this study. The interrater reliability was identified by analyzing the assessment results among different raters, including rehabilitation doctors, physical therapists, teachers and parents. Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) was used as the criterion to identify the parallel validity. Results GMFCS E&R had good interrater reliability (ICC=0.79~0.91) as well as the parallel validity (Spearman rank correlation coefficient is -0.46~-0.86). Conclusion Chinese version of GMFCS E&R has good reliability and validity. It is suitable for children with cerebral palsy as the tool of function classification in China.

  18. Chaos control of the brushless direct current motor using adaptive dynamic surface control based on neural network with the minimum weights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Shaohua [School of Automation, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Chongqing Aerospace Polytechnic, Chongqing, 400021 (China); Wu, Songli [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Chongqing Aerospace Polytechnic, Chongqing, 400021 (China); Gao, Ruizhen [School of Automation, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)

    2015-07-15

    This paper investigates chaos control for the brushless DC motor (BLDCM) system by adaptive dynamic surface approach based on neural network with the minimum weights. The BLDCM system contains parameter perturbation, chaotic behavior, and uncertainty. With the help of radial basis function (RBF) neural network to approximate the unknown nonlinear functions, the adaptive law is established to overcome uncertainty of the control gain. By introducing the RBF neural network and adaptive technology into the dynamic surface control design, a robust chaos control scheme is developed. It is proved that the proposed control approach can guarantee that all signals in the closed-loop system are globally uniformly bounded, and the tracking error converges to a small neighborhood of the origin. Simulation results are provided to show that the proposed approach works well in suppressing chaos and parameter perturbation.

  19. Chaos control of the brushless direct current motor using adaptive dynamic surface control based on neural network with the minimum weights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Shaohua; Wu, Songli; Gao, Ruizhen

    2015-07-01

    This paper investigates chaos control for the brushless DC motor (BLDCM) system by adaptive dynamic surface approach based on neural network with the minimum weights. The BLDCM system contains parameter perturbation, chaotic behavior, and uncertainty. With the help of radial basis function (RBF) neural network to approximate the unknown nonlinear functions, the adaptive law is established to overcome uncertainty of the control gain. By introducing the RBF neural network and adaptive technology into the dynamic surface control design, a robust chaos control scheme is developed. It is proved that the proposed control approach can guarantee that all signals in the closed-loop system are globally uniformly bounded, and the tracking error converges to a small neighborhood of the origin. Simulation results are provided to show that the proposed approach works well in suppressing chaos and parameter perturbation.

  20. Motor skills of toddlers with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Meghann; MacDonald, Megan; Lord, Catherine

    2013-03-01

    With increased interest in the early diagnosis and treatment of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), more attention has been called to the motor skills of very young children with ASD. This study describes the gross and fine motor skills of a cross-sectional group of 162 children with ASD between the ages of 12 and 36 months, as well as a subset of 58 children followed longitudinally. Gross motor and fine motor age equivalent scores were obtained for all children. A 'motor difference' variable was calculated for each child's gross and fine motor skills by taking the absolute difference of the children's age equivalent motor score and their respective chronological age. In Study 1 (the cross-sectional analysis), ANCOVA (co-varied for nonverbal problem solving) revealed significant group differences in the gross motor and fine motor age difference variables. Post-hoc analysis revealed that gross motor and fine motor differences became significantly greater with each 6-month period of chronological age. In Study 2, 58 children were measured twice, an average of 12 months apart. Results indicate that the gross motor and fine motor difference scores significantly increased between the first and second measurements. The importance of addressing motor development in early intervention treatments is discussed.

  1. MIT Model Reference Adaptive Speed Control of Ultrasonic Motor%超声波电动机MIT模型参考自适应转速控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈晓茜; 史敬灼

    2013-01-01

    The cost of ultrasonic motor control system including the driving circuit can be reduced by using a relatively simple motion control algorithm,so as to promote the mass production of ultrasonic motor.Aiming at this purpose,a simple model reference adaptive control strategy used to control speed of ultrasonic motor was proposed.This strategy has a small amount of calculation and moderate capacity of adaptive.Therefore,the performance-to-price ratio of the system can be increased.%采用相对简单的运动控制算法,有助于降低包含驱动控制电路在内的超声波电动机系统的成本,从而推动其产业化.基于这一目的,给出一种模型参考自适应控制策略用于超声波电动机转速控制.该策略计算量小,并具有一定程度的自适应能力,提高了系统性价比.

  2. Motor Learning Abilities Are Similar in Hemiplegic Cerebral Palsy Compared to Controls as Assessed by Adaptation to Unilateral Leg-Weighting during Gait: Part I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiano, Diane L.; Stanley, Christopher J.; Bulea, Thomas C.; Park, Hyung Soon

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Individuals with cerebral palsy (CP) demonstrate high response variability to motor training insufficiently accounted for by age or severity. We propose here that differences in the inherent ability to learn new motor tasks may explain some of this variability. Damage to motor pathways involving the cerebellum, which may be a direct or indirect effect of the brain injury for many with CP, has been shown to adversely affect the ability to learn new motor tasks and may be a potential explanation. Classic adaptation paradigms that evaluate cerebellar integrity have been utilized to assess adaptation to gait perturbations in adults with stroke, traumatic brain injury and other neurological injuries but not in children with CP. Materials and Methods: A case-control study of 10 participants with and 10 without hemiplegic CP within the age range of 5–20 years was conducted. Mean age of participants in the CP group was slightly but not significantly higher than controls. Step length and swing time adaptation, defined as gradual accommodation to a perturbation, and aftereffects, or maintenance of the accommodation upon removal of the perturbation, to unilateral leg weighing during treadmill gait were quantified to assess group differences in learning. Results: Adaptation and aftereffects were demonstrated in step length across groups with no main effect for group. In CP, the dominant leg had a greater response when either leg was weighted. Swing time accommodated immediately (no adaptation) in the weighted leg only, with the non-dominant leg instead showing a more pronounced response in CP. Discussion: This group of participants with unilateral CP did not demonstrate poorer learning or retention similar to reported results in adult stroke. Deficits, while not found here, may become evident in those with other etiologies or greater severity of CP. Our data further corroborate an observation from the stroke literature that repeated practice of exaggerating the

  3. MOTIVATION IN ADAPTED SPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Torralba

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the motivation for practice of sport of people with disabilities that form part to a federated sport.The sample was composed of 134 athletes of both genders and different disabilities.The “Participation Motivation Inventory Questionnaire” by Gill, Gross and Huddleston was used. The instrument was adapted to Paralympic sport and describes the main reasons that encourage the sports activity practice. The results haven´t found significant difference between men´s and women´s or between blind - visually impaired physical and motor disabilities. About the motivation of the practice of sport, worth highlighting the importance given to factors of fitness and health, like sport practice, improve the level, to compete, feel good and have fun, well above being popular, influenced by coaches or satisfy to parents.

  4. Chaos control for the output-constrained system by using adaptive dynamic surface technology and application to the brushless DC motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaohua Luo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, chaos control is proposed for the output- constrained system with uncertain control gain and time delay and is applied to the brushless DC motor. Using the dynamic surface technology, the controller overcomes the repetitive differentiation of backstepping and boundedness hypothesis of pre-determined control gain by incorporating radial basis function neural network and adaptive technology. The tangent barrier Lyapunov function is employed for time-delay chaotic system to prevent constraint violation. It is proved that the proposed control approach can guarantee asymptotically stable in the sense of uniformly ultimate boundedness without constraint violation. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed approach is demonstrated on the brushless DC motor example.

  5. Research of soft startup control system for induction motor based on fuzzy adaptive control%感应电动机智能软启动器研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛晓; 李昊伦

    2012-01-01

    In order to solve the large startup current of induction motors, a fuzzy adaptive control soft start system is presented in this paper. It can control startup current and avoid the inrush of the current for smooth running. According to the characteristic of induction motor, taking current error and error change rate as input quantity and the control angle of thyristor as output quantity, the fuzzy A-daptive control algorithm for the soft startup of induction motors was designed by using fuzzy logical toolbox in Matlab software. In comparison with the traditional PID and traditional fuzzy control methods, the self-adaptive fuzzy control method is more superior.%为了解决三相异步电动机起动电流较大的问题,采用了一种软起动模糊自适应控制器.据其起动特性,将电流误差和误差的变化率作为输入量,晶闸管的控制角作为输出量,设计出一种自调整比例因子的模糊自适应控制算法.随后做了Matlab环境下的仿真实验,并且与常规的PID控制方法和常规模糊控制方法进行比较,得到了模糊自适应控制算法具有优越性的结论.

  6. Motor Development Programming in Trisomic-21 Babies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, Teresa; Menendez, Javier; Rosique, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    The present study contributes to the understanding of gross motor development in babies with Down's syndrome. Also, it facilitates the comprehension of the efficiency of the early motor stimulation as well as of beginning it as early as possible. We worked with two groups of babies with Down's syndrome, beginning the early motor training in each…

  7. Motor Development Programming in Trisomic-21 Babies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, Teresa; Menendez, Javier; Rosique, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    The present study contributes to the understanding of gross motor development in babies with Down's syndrome. Also, it facilitates the comprehension of the efficiency of the early motor stimulation as well as of beginning it as early as possible. We worked with two groups of babies with Down's syndrome, beginning the early motor training in each…

  8. Motor Development: Manual of Alternative Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, James E.

    The manual of alternative procedures for teaching handicapped children focuses on programming, planning, and implementing training in the gross motor (posture, limb control, locomotion) and fine motor (facial, digital) skills. The manual consists of the following sections: specific teaching tactics commonly used in motor training stiuations…

  9. Motor development in visually impaired children

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hallemans, Ann

    2016-01-01

    ..., a visual impairment affects their overall development, including their motor development and skill acquisition. Different studies report a delay in gross motor milestones such as head control, sitting, standing, crawling, and walking during the first year of life. Vision appears to be key to normal postural and motor development in infants. W...

  10. NM Gross Receipts July - December 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  11. NM Gross Receipts January - June 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  12. NM Gross Receipts January - June 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  13. NM Gross Receipts January - June 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  14. NM Gross Receipts January - June 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  15. NM Gross Receipts July - December 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  16. submitter Estimation of stepping motor current from long distances through cable-length-adaptive piecewise affine virtual sensor

    CERN Document Server

    Oliveri, Alberto; Masi, Alessandro; Storace, Marco

    2015-01-01

    In this paper a piecewise affine virtual sensor is used for the estimation of the motor-side current of hybrid stepper motors, which actuate the LHC (Large Hadron Collider) collimators at CERN. The estimation is performed starting from measurements of the current in the driver, which is connected to the motor by a long cable (up to 720 m). The measured current is therefore affected by noise and ringing phenomena. The proposed method does not require a model of the cable, since it is only based on measured data and can be used with cables of different length. A circuit architecture suitable for FPGA implementation has been designed and the effects of fixed point representation of data are analyzed.

  17. Sliding mode controller gain adaptation and chattering reduction techniques for DSP-based PM DC motor drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dal, Mehmet; Teodorescu, Remus

    2011-01-01

    simulations. To demonstrate the effectiveness of each method, several experiments were performed on a DSP-based PM DC motor drive system. Then, the newly proposed combinations of these methods were implemented. The hardware implementation results are comparatively presented and discussed....

  18. Robust Sensorless Control for Induction Motor Drives Fed by a Matrix Converter with Variable Structure Model Reference Adaptive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Won-Sang; Lee, Kyo-Beum; Huh, Sunghoi;

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a new robust sensorless control system for high performance induction motor drives fed by a matrix converter with variable structure. The lumped disturbances such as parameter variation and load disturbance of the system are estimated by a variable structure approach based...

  19. Gross anatomy of network security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Thomas J.

    2002-01-01

    Information security involves many branches of effort, including information assurance, host level security, physical security, and network security. Computer network security methods and implementations are given a top-down description to permit a medically focused audience to anchor this information to their daily practice. The depth of detail of network functionality and security measures, like that of the study of human anatomy, can be highly involved. Presented at the level of major gross anatomical systems, this paper will focus on network backbone implementation and perimeter defenses, then diagnostic tools, and finally the user practices (the human element). Physical security measures, though significant, have been defined as beyond the scope of this presentation.

  20. EEG Theta Dynamics within Frontal and Parietal Cortices for Error Processing during Reaching Movements in a Prism Adaptation Study Altering Visuo-Motor Predictive Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrighi, Pieranna; Bonfiglio, Luca; Minichilli, Fabrizio; Cantore, Nicoletta; Carboncini, Maria Chiara; Piccotti, Emily; Rossi, Bruno; Andre, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Modulation of frontal midline theta (fmθ) is observed during error commission, but little is known about the role of theta oscillations in correcting motor behaviours. We investigate EEG activity of healthy partipants executing a reaching task under variable degrees of prism-induced visuo-motor distortion and visual occlusion of the initial arm trajectory. This task introduces directional errors of different magnitudes. The discrepancy between predicted and actual movement directions (i.e. the error), at the time when visual feedback (hand appearance) became available, elicits a signal that triggers on-line movement correction. Analysis were performed on 25 EEG channels. For each participant, the median value of the angular error of all reaching trials was used to partition the EEG epochs into high- and low-error conditions. We computed event-related spectral perturbations (ERSP) time-locked either to visual feedback or to the onset of movement correction. ERSP time-locked to the onset of visual feedback showed that fmθ increased in the high- but not in the low-error condition with an approximate time lag of 200 ms. Moreover, when single epochs were sorted by the degree of motor error, fmθ started to increase when a certain level of error was exceeded and, then, scaled with error magnitude. When ERSP were time-locked to the onset of movement correction, the fmθ increase anticipated this event with an approximate time lead of 50 ms. During successive trials, an error reduction was observed which was associated with indices of adaptations (i.e., aftereffects) suggesting the need to explore if theta oscillations may facilitate learning. To our knowledge this is the first study where the EEG signal recorded during reaching movements was time-locked to the onset of the error visual feedback. This allowed us to conclude that theta oscillations putatively generated by anterior cingulate cortex activation are implicated in error processing in semi-naturalistic motor

  1. Constructive Renormalization of 2-dimensional Grosse-Wulkenhaar Model

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Zhituo

    2012-01-01

    In this talk we briefly report the recent work on the construction of the 2-dimensional Grosse-Wulkenhaar model with the method of loop vertex expansion. We treat renormalization with this new tool, adapt Nelson's argument and prove Borel summability of the perturbation series. This is the first non-commutative quantum field theory model to be built in a non-perturbative sense.

  2. 46 CFR 169.675 - Generators and motors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Generators and motors. 169.675 Section 169.675 Shipping... Less Than 100 Gross Tons § 169.675 Generators and motors. (a) Each generator and motor must be fitted... applicable. (10) Type of winding (for direct-current motors). (b) Each vessel of more than 65 feet in...

  3. Development of fine motor skills in preterm infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Arend F.; Van Braeckel, Koenraad N. J. A.; Hitzert, Marrit M.; Tanis, Jozien C.; Roze, Elise

    2013-01-01

    Fine motor skills are related to functioning in daily life and at school. We reviewed the status of knowledge, in preterm children, on the development of fine motor skills, the relation with gross motor skills, and risk factors for impaired fine motor skills. We searched the past 15 years in PubMed,

  4. Fuzzy Adaptive Repetitive Control for Periodic Disturbance with Its Application to High Performance Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor Speed Servo Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Junxiao Wang

    2016-01-01

    .... Then, the mathematical model of PMSM is given. Subsequently, a fuzzy adaptive repetitive controller based on repetitive control and fuzzy logic control is designed for the PMSM speed servo system...

  5. Klinefelter syndrome has increased brain responses to auditory stimuli and motor output, but not to visual stimuli or Stroop adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallentin, Mikkel; Skakkebæk, Anne; Bojesen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Klinefelter syndrome (47, XXY) (KS) is a genetic syndrome characterized by the presence of an extra X chromosome and low level of testosterone, resulting in a number of neurocognitive abnormalities, yet little is known about brain function. This study investigated the fMRI-BOLD response from KS r....... No effects of testosterone level or brain volume were found. In sum, the present findings suggest that auditory and motor systems in KS are selectively affected, perhaps as a compensatory strategy, and that this is not a systemic effect as it is not seen in the visual system.......Klinefelter syndrome (47, XXY) (KS) is a genetic syndrome characterized by the presence of an extra X chromosome and low level of testosterone, resulting in a number of neurocognitive abnormalities, yet little is known about brain function. This study investigated the fMRI-BOLD response from KS...... response to motor output in primary motor cortex and an increased response to auditory stimuli in auditory cortices, but no difference in primary visual cortices. KS displayed a diminished response to written visual stimuli in secondary visual regions near the Visual Word Form Area, consistent...

  6. Responsiveness of the Test of Basic Motor Skills of Children with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Heuvel, Marieke E.; de Jong, Inge; Lauteslager, Peter E. M.; Volman, M. J. M.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the responsiveness of the Test of Basic Motor Skills for Children with Down Syndrome (BMS). Forty-one children with Down Syndrome, 3 to 36 months of age, participated in the study. Gross motor skills were assessed three times using the BMS and the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) before and after a baseline…

  7. Investigation of children's deciduous teeth erupt,fontanel closure and language,gross motor development in Zhengzhou%河南省郑州市儿童出牙、前囟闭合时间和语言、大运动发育情况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘慧娟

    2015-01-01

    目的:了解郑州市儿童的乳牙萌出、前囟闭合及语言、大动作发育的长期变化情况。方法采取随机抽样的方法,抽取郑州市3家医院儿保门诊的所有儿童系统管理资料,回顾性分析自2001-2010年10年间出生健康儿童的0~3岁体检资料,进入该研究的男女儿童共4230例,其中男2141例,女2089例。调查自出生至3岁期间的出生情况、动态体格发育及乳牙萌出、语言及大运动发育、前囟闭合情况。结果(1)10年来郑州市儿童体质量、身长呈持续和显著地增长。(2)男女童之间乳牙萌出时间及前囟闭合时间差异有统计学意义。(3)随着年代的推移,婴儿大运动发育及囟门闭合时间略有提前。结论郑州市儿童的体质量、身高的增长呈现生长发育的长期趋势,儿童神经心理发育状况正常,并呈现略为提前的趋势。%Objective To understand the children′s development status of deciduous teeth erupt,fontanel closure,expressive language and gross motor in Zhengzhou.Methods According to random cluster sampling,the children health care clinic in three hospitals in Zhengzhou were investigated,all the data was gathered from the chil-dren health care management information system.4 230 healthy children aged 0-3 years old birth from 2000 to 2010 were investigated(2 141 boys and 2 089 girls),We collected the following information about birth situation,the dynamic physical growth,deciduous tooth occurrence,language and motor development.Results (1 )The children's weight,height has been persistent and significantly improved during the past 10 years in Zhengzhou.(2)There was a significant difference between the sexes in deciduous teeth erupt and the fontanel closure time.(3 )With the time, infant motor development and fontanelle closed slightly ahead of time.Conclusion The children's weight,height growth shows a long-term trend in Zhengzhou,with normal condition in

  8. Sliding mode controller gain adaptation and chattering reduction techniques for DSP-based PM DC motor drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dal, Mehmet; Teodorescu, Remus

    2011-01-01

    In order to achieve and maintain the prospective benefits of sliding mode control (SMC) methodology, the phenomenon known as “chattering”, the main obstacle encountered in real-time applications, has to be suppressed. In this study, two promising switching control gain adaptation and chattering...... in order to find the best solution for chattering reduction. To find a practical solution a tunable low-pass filter (LPF) was used to average the discontinuous control term. The validity of the existing conditions for the gain adaptation methods are examined and observer gain value was determined through...

  9. Comparison of motor delays in young children with fetal alcohol syndrome to those with prenatal alcohol exposure and with no prenatal alcohol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalberg, Wendy O; Provost, Beth; Tollison, Sean J; Tabachnick, Barbara G; Robinson, Luther K; Eugene Hoyme, H; Trujillo, Phyllis M; Buckley, David; Aragon, Alfredo S; May, Philip A

    2006-12-01

    Researchers are increasingly considering the importance of motor functioning of children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). The purpose of this study was to assess the motor development of young children with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) to determine the presence and degree of delay in their motor skills and to compare their motor development with that of matched children without FAS. The motor development of 14 children ages 20 to 68 months identified with FAS was assessed using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS). In addition, 2 comparison groups were utilized. Eleven of the children with FAS were matched for chronological age, gender, ethnicity, and communication age to: (1) 11 children with prenatal alcohol exposure who did not have FAS and (2) 11 matched children without any reported prenatal alcohol exposure. The motor scores on the VABS were compared among the 3 groups. Most of the young children with FAS in this study showed clinically important delays in their motor development as measured on the VABS Motor Domain, and their fine motor skills were significantly more delayed than their gross motor skills. In the group comparisons, the young children with FAS had significantly lower Motor Domain standard (MotorSS) scores than the children not exposed to alcohol prenatally. They also had significantly lower Fine Motor Developmental Quotients than the children in both the other groups. No significant group differences were found in gross motor scores. For MotorSS scores and Fine Motor Developmental Quotients, the means and standard errors indicated a continuum in the scores from FAS to prenatal alcohol exposure to nonexposure. These findings strongly suggest that all young children with FAS should receive complete developmental evaluations that include assessment of their motor functioning, to identify problem areas and provide access to developmental intervention programs that target deficit areas such as fine motor skills. Fine motor

  10. A comparative study of field-oriented control and direct-torque control of induction motors using an adaptive flux observer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chikhi Abdesselam

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparative study of field-oriented control (IFOC and direct-torque control (DTC of induction motors using an adaptive flux observer. The main characteristics of field-oriented control and direct torque control schemes are studied by simulation, emphasizing their advantages and disadvantages. The performances of the two control schemes are evaluated in terms of torque, current ripples and transient responses to load toque variations. We can nevertheless observe a slight advance of DTC scheme compared to FOC scheme regarding the dynamic flux control performance and the implementation complexity. Consequently, the choice of one or the other scheme will depend mainly on specific requirements of the application.

  11. 潜油电机建模与无模型自适应控制应用%Electric Submersible Motor Modeling and Model Free Adaptive Control Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王通; 赖浩喆; 高宪文

    2015-01-01

    Electric submersible motor system based on the open-loop V/F control method is widely used. With the transformation of traditional mining methods to the refinement of production, the existing production systems need to be upgraded for the new manufacturing requirement. Motor model of rotor field-oriented is proposed and combined with the model free adaptive control method. With this method, the submersible motor speed control system achieves high performance and reduces the impact of stator resistance varying with temperature. The experiment results show that the closed-loop system can be controlled steadily and speed-regulating performances can be greatly improved.%潜油电机采油系统控制方式多采用变压变频开环控制。但随着传统开采方式向精细化生产转型,需要进行升级改造以满足新的技术要求。建立了潜油电机基于恒转子磁场控制的系统数学模型,并采用无模型自适应控制方法,构建闭环控制系统,实现潜油电机恒压频比调速系统的高性能控制。使在不更换现有设备的前提下,减小电机定转子电阻因温度变化对系统性能的影响。实验结果证明了无模型控制方法的可行性并具有优良的控制效果。

  12. Posterior medial frontal cortex activity predicts post-error adaptations in task-related visual and motor areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Danielmeier, C.; Eichele, T.; Forstmann, B.U.; Tittgemeyer, M.; Ullsperger, M.

    2011-01-01

    As Seneca the Younger put it, "To err is human, but to persist is diabolical." To prevent repetition of errors, human performance monitoring often triggers adaptations such as general slowing and/or attentional focusing. The posterior medial frontal cortex (pMFC) is assumed to monitor performance pr

  13. Evaluation of gross radioactivity in foodstuffs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zorer, Oezlem Selcuk; Oeter, Cigdem [Yuzuncu Yil Univ., Van (Turkey). Dept. of Chemistry

    2015-05-15

    The paper presents the results of radiological investigations of food products sampled in the summer and fall of 2011 and 2012 in different parts of Van, Turkey. Gross radioactivity measurements in food products were evaluated. Food items were divided into eight groups: (1) water, (2) fish, (3) cheese products, (4) fruits, (5) vegetables, (6) herbs, (7) walnut and (8) rock salt. The levels of the gross alpha and gross beta radioactivity in all food samples varied widely ranging from 0.070 to 10.885 Bq/g and from 0.132 to 48.285 Bq/g on dry mass basis, respectively. In one sample, gross alpha and gross beta activity concentrations were found to be relatively high according to the other samples and in all samples, the gross alpha radioactivity was measured lower than the gross beta radioactivity. The gross α and gross β activities were measured by using α/β counter of the multi-detector low background system (PIC MPC-9604).

  14. Induction motor control design

    CERN Document Server

    Marino, Riccardo; Verrelli, Cristiano M

    2010-01-01

    ""Nonlinear and Adaptive Control Design for Induction Motors"" is a unified exposition of the most important steps and concerns in the design of estimation and control algorithms for induction motors. A single notation and modern nonlinear control terminology is used to make the book accessible to readers who are not experts in electric motors at the same time as giving a more theoretical control viewpoint to those who are. In order to increase readability, the book concentrates on the induction motor, eschewing the much more complex and less-well-understood control of asynchronous motors. The

  15. Effect of Acupuncture on Gross Motor Function and Adaptive Development in Children with Cerebral Palsy%针刺治疗对脑性瘫痪患儿运动功能和智力发育的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵兵; 袁嫣然; 王高峰

    2010-01-01

    目的 观察针刺治疗对脑性瘫痪患儿的临床治疗作用.方法 90例符合入选标准的脑性瘫痪患儿按就诊时间、性别分为观察组(针刺加综合康复治疗)和对照组(综合康复治疗),连续治疗3个月.治疗前和治疗结束后分别进行粗大运动功能量表评估和Gesell智力测试.结果 针刺观察组总有效率95%,优于对照组80%(P<0.01).观察组粗大运动功能量表评分及Gesell智力测试之适应性项发育商(DQ)均明显高于对照组(P<0.01).结论 针刺能促进脑性瘫痪患儿功能恢复.

  16. Study on reliability and validity of the Chinese version of the gross motor function classification system for cerebral palsy%中文版脑瘫患儿粗大运动功能分级系统的信度和效度研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史惟; 王素娟; 杨红; 朱默; 王艺

    2006-01-01

    目的确定中文版脑瘫患儿粗大运动功能分级系统(Gross Motor Function Classification System,GMFCS)的信度和效度.方法共有来自上海3家康复机构91例0~12岁脑瘫患儿参加了此项研究,其中35例测定GMFCS的重测信度;66例测定GMFCS的评价者间信度;分别以88例脑瘫患儿的粗大运动功能评估量表(GMFM)和54例脑瘫患儿的Peabody粗大运动发育量表(PDMS-GM)的各项测试结果为效标确定GMFCS的平行效度;对88例同时接受GMFCS和GMFM评价的患儿的测试结果进行结构效度检测,以GMFCS为应变量,GMFM 5个功能区的百分比为自变量进行多元逐步回归分析,判断粗大运动中5个分区功能对GMFCS的影响程度.结果GMFCS具有良好的重测信度(等级间相关系数为0.99),同时具有良好的评估者间信度(等级间相关系数为0.95~0.98);GMFCS与GMFM和PDMS-GM各项分值之间有良好的平行效度,Spearman r为-0.57~-0.84;粗大运动功能中的坐位能力和行走能力是影响GMFCS的主要因素,校正决定系数为0.709(P<0.001).结论中文版GMFCS具有良好的信度和效度,适用于国内对脑瘫患儿进行功能分级.

  17. EEG Theta Dynamics within Frontal and Parietal Cortices for Error Processing during Reaching Movements in a Prism Adaptation Study Altering Visuo-Motor Predictive Planning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieranna Arrighi

    Full Text Available Modulation of frontal midline theta (fmθ is observed during error commission, but little is known about the role of theta oscillations in correcting motor behaviours. We investigate EEG activity of healthy partipants executing a reaching task under variable degrees of prism-induced visuo-motor distortion and visual occlusion of the initial arm trajectory. This task introduces directional errors of different magnitudes. The discrepancy between predicted and actual movement directions (i.e. the error, at the time when visual feedback (hand appearance became available, elicits a signal that triggers on-line movement correction. Analysis were performed on 25 EEG channels. For each participant, the median value of the angular error of all reaching trials was used to partition the EEG epochs into high- and low-error conditions. We computed event-related spectral perturbations (ERSP time-locked either to visual feedback or to the onset of movement correction. ERSP time-locked to the onset of visual feedback showed that fmθ increased in the high- but not in the low-error condition with an approximate time lag of 200 ms. Moreover, when single epochs were sorted by the degree of motor error, fmθ started to increase when a certain level of error was exceeded and, then, scaled with error magnitude. When ERSP were time-locked to the onset of movement correction, the fmθ increase anticipated this event with an approximate time lead of 50 ms. During successive trials, an error reduction was observed which was associated with indices of adaptations (i.e., aftereffects suggesting the need to explore if theta oscillations may facilitate learning. To our knowledge this is the first study where the EEG signal recorded during reaching movements was time-locked to the onset of the error visual feedback. This allowed us to conclude that theta oscillations putatively generated by anterior cingulate cortex activation are implicated in error processing in semi

  18. Measures of Gross National Happiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruut Veenhoven

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Happiness is rising on the political agenda and this calls for measures of how well nations perform in creating great happiness for a great number, analogous to measures of success in creating wealth, such as GDP. Happiness is defined as subjective enjoyment of one’s life as-a-whole and this can be measured using self-reports. Question on happiness are currently used in large scale surveys of the general population in nations. As a result we have now comparable data on happiness in 144 contemporary nations and time-series of 25 years and longer on 11 developed nations. These data can be aggregated in different ways: If the aim is simply greater happiness for a greater number of citizens, Average happiness (AH is an appropriate measure. If the focus is on enduring happiness, it is better to combine average happiness with longevity in an index of Happy Life Years (HLY. If the aim is to reduce disparity among citizens a relevant indicator is the Inequality of Happiness (IH in the nations as measured with the standard deviation. Average and dispersion can also be combined in an index of Inequality-Adjusted Happiness (IAH. Comparison across nations shows sizable differences on all these measures of gross national happiness and these differences correspond with societal characteristics that can be influenced by policy makers, such as freedom and justice. Comparison over time shows major improvement during the last decade.

  19. Validation and adaptation of rapid neurodevelopmental assessment instrument for infants in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, L; Peñaloza, R A; Stormfields, K; Kooistra, R; Valencia-Moscoso, G; Muslima, H; Khan, N Z

    2015-11-01

    Timely detection of neurodevelopmental impairments in children can prompt referral for critical services that may prevent permanent disability. However, screening of impairments is a significant challenge in low-resource countries. We adapted and validated the rapid neurodevelopmental assessment (RNDA) instrument developed in Bangladesh to assess impairment in nine domains: primitive reflexes, gross and fine motor development, vision, hearing, speech, cognition, behaviour and seizures. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 77 infants (0-12 months) in rural Guatemala in July 2012 and July 2013. We assessed inter-rater reliability and predictive validity between the 27-item RNDA and the 325-item Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition (BSID-III) and concurrent validity based on chronic malnutrition, a condition associated with neurodevelopmental impairments. For both RNDA and BSID-III, standardized scores below 80 were defined as borderline impairment. Children came from rural households (92%), were born to indigenous women of Mayan descent (73%) and had moderate or severe growth stunting (43%). Inter-rater reliability for eight RNDA domains was of moderate to high reliability (weighted κ coefficients, 0.49-0.99). Children screened positive for impairment in fine motor (17%) and gross motor (14%) domains using the RNDA. The RNDA had good concurrent ability; infants who were growth stunted had higher mean levels of impairment in gross motor, speech and cognition domains (all p neurodevelopmental impairment. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Application of Induced Containment Therapy with adapted protocol for home care and its contributions to the motor condition and patient rehabilitation after encephalic vascular accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Tonús

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Encephalic Vascular Accident (EVA is among the most important diseases that cause physical and functional limitations. Hemiplegia is the most common physical changes post-EVA, as compromises the upper and lower limbs at the same side of the body, characterized by a rigid pattern of the flexor muscles of the upper limb and the extensor muscles of the lower limb. The Induced Containment Therapy has been a major rehabilitation technique recently aiming to promote functional improvement of the hemiplegic limb of those who suffered EVA and enable performance and quality of life of the individual. Objective: This study aimed to identify the possible contributions of Induced Containment Therapy using a protocol adapted to technique application to the hemiplegic limb. Moreover, this research points out the influence of the environment interventions, which on the present study, occurred in the participant’s home. Method: this is a case study with exploratory feature. Results and Conclusion: The results indicated improvements in functional ability at the time of execution of the tasks and increased use of hemiplegic limb, increasing motor performance after applying the Induced Containment Therapy adapted protocol compared to the start of treatment

  1. Olhares distintos sobre a noção de estabilidade e mudança no desempenho da coordenação motora grossa Ángulos diferentes sobre el concepto de estabilidad y cambio en el rendimiento de la coordinación motora gruesa Distinct views on the notion of stability and change in the performance of gross motor coordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Basso

    2012-09-01

    discuten en términos de diferentes trayectorias de desarrollo de la CMG.Studies about gross motor coordination in children (GMC focus on the description of normative values derived from age and sex, and few analyzed the dynamics of change of each child within its group. The goal of the present study is estimate the stability of intra-individual change over inter-individual differences over eighteen months. One hundred and twenty students with seven years old in the city of Muzambinho - MG participated in the study. Data was collected four times, with a six-month interval between each assessment. GMC was evaluated through KTK test battery. Mean values for all tests increased over time, with differences between sex for equilibrium test. The correlation values between initial performance and improvements over eighteen months indicated high heterogeneity. Results of stability estimates were weak for tests. These results were discussed about different trajectories in the development of motor coordination.

  2. The Mechanics of Gross Moist Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeljka Fuchs

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The gross moist stability relates the net lateral outflow of moist entropy or moist static energy from an atmospheric convective region to some measure of the strength of the convection in that region. If the gross moist stability can be predicted as a function of the local environmental conditions, then it becomes the key element in understanding how convection is controlled by the large-scale flow. This paper provides a guide to the various ways in which the gross moist stability is defined and the subtleties of its calculation from observations and models. Various theories for the determination of the gross moist stability are presented and its roles in current conceptual models for the tropical atmospheric circulation are analyzed. The possible effect of negative gross moist stability on the development and dynamics of tropical disturbances is currently of great interest.

  3. Adaptive weighted least square support vector machine regression with gross error detection and its application to estimate kinetic parameters for industrial oxidation of p-xylene%基于粗差判别的参数优化自适应加权最小二乘支持向量机在PX氧化过程参数估计中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶莉莉; 钟伟民; 罗娜; 钱锋

    2012-01-01

    针对软测量建模过程中数据可能存在粗大误差以及粗差数据对模型的性能产生的影响,提出了一种基于粗差判别的自适应加权最小二乘支持向量机回归方法(WLS-SVM).该方法首先根据3δ法则检测出样本中的显著误差并加以剔除,然后根据样本误差的大小自适应地调整权值,使得非显著误差对模型性能的影响大大降低.另外,由于最小二乘支持向量机的正则化参数和核宽度参数对模型的拟合精度和泛化能力有较大的影响,一般依靠经验和试算的方法进行估计,耗时且不准确,本文将模型的参数作为进化算法的优化问题,应用自适应免疫算法(AIGA)对参数进行优化选择.仿真实验表明,该方法对非线性系统的建模具有很好的效果.同时,将该方法应用于工业PX氧化建模过程中动力学参数的估计中,结果表明,基于粗差判别的参数优化自适应最小二乘支持向量机预测精度高,取得了较好的效果.%The presence of gross errors can corrupt a model's performance,giving undesirable results. A novel weighted least square support vector machine regression (WLS-SVM) is proposed,which combines gross error detection and adaptive weight value for the training sample. First,the 3δ principle is applied to detect the gross error. Second,the initial weight is obtained according to the fitting error of each sample. Then,an adaptive immune algorithm (AIGA) is applied to obtain the optimal parameters of the WLS-SVM. To illustrate the performance of the WLS-SVM,simulation experiment is designed to produce the training sample. The results showed that the predicting performance of AIGA-WLS-SVM is the best. Furthermore,the AIGA-WLS-SVM method was applied to estimate the rate constants of an industrial p-xylene oxidation model,and the satisfactory result was obtained.

  4. Motor function at school age in children with a preschool diagnosis of developmental language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Richard I; Majnemer, Annette; Platt, Robert W; Shevell, Michael I

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate fine motor (FM) and gross motor (GM) function shortly after school entry in children with a preschool diagnosis of developmental language impairment (DLI). A cohort of children (n = 70) diagnosed at pre-school age with DLI was reevaluated in elementary school. Language, cognitive, and motor outcomes were assessed through the use of the Battelle Developmental Inventory (BDI). Language was further assessed through the use of the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale, Peabody Picture Vocabulary, and Expressive One Word Picture Vocabulary Tests. Performance below -1.5 SD of the normative mean on any test was considered to represent impairment. Forty-three children (mean age, 7.4 +/- 0.7 years) underwent reassessment at a mean of 3.8 +/- 0.7 years after initial preschool assessment. Mean scores for BDI motor domains (FM, 78.3 +/- 11.4; GM, 84.9 +/- 13.3) fell below normative values. Twenty-two children (52%) had motor impairment (FM, 17 of 42; GM, 15 of 42); 35 of 43 (81%) continued to have language impairment. BDI communication raw scores correlated most strongly with FM (rho = 0.73, P < .001) and GM (rho = 0.58, P = .003) raw scores but showed only moderate correlations with cognitive raw scores (rho = 0.41, P = .05). Impaired motor function is an important comorbidity in DLI. Factors critical to motor performance may also contribute to language deficits in DLI.

  5. Contribution of night and day sleep vs. simple passage of time to the consolidation of motor sequence and visuomotor adaptation learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyon, Julien; Korman, Maria; Morin, Amélie; Dostie, Valérie; Hadj Tahar, Abdallah; Benali, Habib; Karni, Avi; Ungerleider, Leslie G; Carrier, Julie

    2009-05-01

    There is increasing evidence supporting the notion that the contribution of sleep to consolidation of motor skills depends on the nature of the task used in practice. We compared the role of three post-training conditions in the expression of delayed gains on two different motor skill learning tasks: finger tapping sequence learning (FTSL) and visuomotor adaptation (VMA). Subjects in the DaySleep and ImmDaySleep conditions were trained in the morning and at noon, respectively, afforded a 90-min nap early in the afternoon and were re-tested 12 h post-training. In the NightSleep condition, subjects were trained in the evening on either of the two learning paradigms and re-tested 12 h later following sleep, while subjects in the NoSleep condition underwent their training session in the morning and were re-tested 12 h later without any intervening sleep. The results of the FTSL task revealed that post-training sleep (day-time nap or night-time sleep) significantly promoted the expression of delayed gains at 12 h post-training, especially if sleep was afforded immediately after training. In the VMA task, however, there were no significant differences in the gains expressed at 12 h post-training in the three conditions. These findings suggest that "off-line" performance gains reflecting consolidation processes in the FTSL task benefit from sleep, even a short nap, while the simple passage of time is as effective as time in sleep for consolidation of VMA to occur. They also imply that procedural memory consolidation processes differ depending on the nature of task demands.

  6. The Effect of Additional Tactile Stimulation in a Perceptual-Motor Treatment Program for School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKibbin, Elsie H.

    1973-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the value of a perceptual-motor program using predominantly gross motor activities for children with developmental apraxia and deficits in tactile perception. (Author)

  7. The Effect of Additional Tactile Stimulation in a Perceptual-Motor Treatment Program for School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKibbin, Elsie H.

    1973-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the value of a perceptual-motor program using predominantly gross motor activities for children with developmental apraxia and deficits in tactile perception. (Author)

  8. Using an Adaptative Fuzzy-Logic System to Optimize the Performances and the Reduction of Chattering Phenomenon in the Control of Induction Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Krishan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Neural networks and fuzzy inference systems are becoming well-recognized tools of designing an identifier/controller capable of perceiving the operating environment and imitating a human operator with high performance. Also, by combining these two features, more versatile and robust models, called neuro-fuzzy architectures have been developed. The mo Approach: Motivation behind the use of neuro-fuzzy approaches was based on the complexity of real life systems, ambiguities on sensory information or time-varying nature of the system under investigation. In this way, the present contribution concerns the application of neuro-fuzzy approach in order to perform the responses of the speed regulation, ensure more robustness of the overall system and to reduce the chattering phenomenon introduced by sliding mode control which is very harmful to the actuators in our case and may excite the unmodeled dynamics of the system. Results: In fact, the aim of such a research consists first in simplifying the control of the motor by decoupling between two principles variables which provoque the torque in the motor by using the feedback linearization method. Then, using sliding mode controllers to give our process more robustness towards the variation of different parameters of the motor. However, the latter technique of control called sliding mode control caused an indesirable phenomenon which harmful and could leads to the deterioration of the inverters components called chattering. So, here the authors propose to use neuro-fuzzy systems to reduce this phenomenon and perform the performances of the adopted control process. The type of the neuro-fuzzy system used here is called: Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS. This neuro-fuzzy is destined to replace the speed fuzzy sliding mode controller after its training process. Conclusion: Therefore, from a control design consideration, the adopted neuro-fuzzy system has opened up a new

  9. 46 CFR 169.666 - Generators and motors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Generators and motors. 169.666 Section 169.666 Shipping... of Less Than 100 Gross Tons § 169.666 Generators and motors. (a) Each vessel of more than 65 feet in...) Each generator and motor must be in a location that is accessible, adequately ventilated, and as dry...

  10. Limb distribution, motor impairment, and functional classification of cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Gorter; P.L. Rosenbaum

    2004-01-01

    This study explored the relationships between the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS), limb distribution, and type of motor impairment. Data used were collected in the Ontario Motor Growth study, a longitudinal cohort study with a population-based sample of children with cerebral pals

  11. The future of gross anatomy teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malamed, S; Seiden, D

    1995-01-01

    A survey of U.S. departments of anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry shows that 39% of the respondent anatomy departments reported declines in the numbers of graduate students taking the human gross anatomy course. Similarly, 42% of the departments reported decreases in the numbers of graduate students teaching human gross anatomy. These decreases were greater in anatomy than in physiology and in biochemistry. The percentages of departments reporting increases in students taking or teaching their courses was 6% for human gross anatomy and 0% to 19% for physiology and biochemistry courses. To reverse this trend the establishment of specific programs for the training of gross anatomy teachers is advocated. These new teachers will be available as the need for them is increasingly recognized in the future.

  12. FUZZY ECCENTRICITY AND GROSS ERROR IDENTIFICATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The dominant and recessive effect made by exceptional interferer is analyzed in measurement system based on responsive character, and the gross error model of fuzzy clustering based on fuzzy relation and fuzzy equipollence relation is built. The concept and calculate formula of fuzzy eccentricity are defined to deduce the evaluation rule and function of gross error, on the base of them, a fuzzy clustering method of separating and discriminating the gross error is found. Utilized in the dynamic circular division measurement system, the method can identify and eliminate gross error in measured data, and reduce measured data dispersity. Experimental results indicate that the use of the method and model enables repetitive precision of the system to improve 80% higher than the foregoing system, to reach 3.5 s, and angle measurement error is less than 7 s.

  13. Modularity for Motor Control and Motor Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Avella, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    How the central nervous system (CNS) overcomes the complexity of multi-joint and multi-muscle control and how it acquires or adapts motor skills are fundamental and open questions in neuroscience. A modular architecture may simplify control by embedding features of both the dynamic behavior of the musculoskeletal system and of the task into a small number of modules and by directly mapping task goals into module combination parameters. Several studies of the electromyographic (EMG) activity recorded from many muscles during the performance of different tasks have shown that motor commands are generated by the combination of a small number of muscle synergies, coordinated recruitment of groups of muscles with specific amplitude balances or activation waveforms, thus supporting a modular organization of motor control. Modularity may also help understanding motor learning. In a modular architecture, acquisition of a new motor skill or adaptation of an existing skill after a perturbation may occur at the level of modules or at the level of module combinations. As learning or adapting an existing skill through recombination of modules is likely faster than learning or adapting a skill by acquiring new modules, compatibility with the modules predicts learning difficulty. A recent study in which human subjects used myoelectric control to move a mass in a virtual environment has tested this prediction. By altering the mapping between recorded muscle activity and simulated force applied on the mass, as in a complex surgical rearrangement of the tendons, it has been possible to show that it is easier to adapt to a perturbation that is compatible with the muscle synergies used to generate hand force than to a similar but incompatible perturbation. This result provides direct support for a modular organization of motor control and motor learning.

  14. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia presenting with gross hematuria

    OpenAIRE

    Kalbani, Naifain Al; Weitzman, Sheila; Abdelhaleem, Mohamed; Carcao, Manuel; Abla, Oussama

    2007-01-01

    A case of a six-year-old boy presenting with gross hematuria is reported. Investigations revealed the etiology of the hematuria to be thrombocytopenia in the setting of newly diagnosed acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The diagnosis of leukemia was confirmed by bone marrow examination. The patient’s hematuria completely resolved with platelet transfusions. Although thrombocytopenia is a very common presenting feature of acute lymphoblastic leukemia, gross hematuria is exceedingly rare. Thus, thro...

  15. 脑瘫共患病及其与脑瘫类型和粗大运动功能分级的关系%Comorbidities in patients with cerebral palsy and their relationship with neurologic subtypes and Gross Motor Function Classification System levels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯梅; 孙殿荣; 单若冰; 王珂; 于荣; 赵建慧; 姜艳平

    2010-01-01

    subtype and the gross motor function levels. Clinicians should have a full recognition of these comorbidities, and we should have a cooperation between the different subjects to have an overall evaluation and rehabilitation and to improve the prognosis.

  16. 生长激素/胰岛素样生长因子-1轴与脑瘫儿童认知、大运动功能的关系%Relationship of GH/IGF-1 axis with gross motor and cognitive development in cerebral palsy toddlers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴至凤; 赵聪敏; 廖伟; 张雨平; 王丽雁; 何菲; 冯雪菲; 李胤颖; 余秀梅

    2016-01-01

    目的 评估GH/IGF-1轴与幼龄脑瘫儿童粗大运动功能与认知发育的关系.方法 纳入2012年1月至2014年12月新桥医院儿科住院的1~4岁脑瘫儿童71例作为脑瘫组,按体格发育落后与否划分为脑瘫伴发育迟滞组(cerebral palsy with retardation,CP-R)50例及脑瘫发育正常组(cerebral palsy with normal growth,CP-N)21例;按粗大运动功能分类系统(gross motor function classification system, GMFCS)划分为Ⅰ~Ⅱ级组20例(CP-GMFCS Ⅰ~Ⅱ),Ⅲ~V级组51例(CP-GMFCSⅢ~V);按Bayley评分划分智力发育指数(mental development index,MDI)≥70组15例(CP-MDI≥70),MDI< 70组56例(CP-MDI< 70).健康对照组为同期体检的健康儿童15例.观察上述儿童的血浆GH基础值及激发值、胰岛素样生长因子-1(insulin-like growth factor Ⅰ,IGF-1)、类胰岛素生长因子结合蛋白3(insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 3,IGFBP-3)水平作对照研究.结果 ①CP-R组较CP-N组GH峰值显著降低,上述2组均较健康对照组GH峰值和IGF-1值显著降低(P<0.05).②CP-GMFCS Ⅰ~Ⅱ组和CP-GMFCSⅢ~V组较健康对照组GH峰值和IGF-1值显著降低,CP-GMFCSⅢ~V组较CP-GMFCS Ⅰ~Ⅱ组GH峰值和IGF-1值显著降低(P<0.05).③CP-MDI< 70组和CP-MDI≥70组较健康对照组GH峰值显著降低(P<0.05);CP-MDI< 70组较CP-MDI≥70组和健康对照组IGF-1值显著降低(P<0.05).结论 脑瘫伴体格发育迟缓、重度粗大运动功能障碍及明显MDI指数落后的儿童存在GH/IGF-1轴受损,提示GH、IGF-1低下可能是脑瘫儿童运动伴认知水平低下的原因之一.

  17. Effect of botulinum toxin A combined with plaster cast on gross motor function of spasmodic double paralysis%A 型肉毒毒素联合石膏固定对痉挛型双瘫患儿粗大运动功能影响的疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡慧强; 彭桂兰; 胡恕香; 蔡淑英

    2016-01-01

    目的:观察 A 型肉毒毒素联合石膏固定对痉挛型双瘫患儿粗大运动功能的影响。方法2013年1月至2014年10月厦门市妇幼保健院儿童神经康复科收治住院的痉挛型双瘫患儿40例,随机分为观察组和对照组各20例。对照组单纯采用 A 型肉毒毒素注射后进行康复训练;观察组采用 A 型肉毒毒素注射联合石膏固定3周,拆除石膏后进行康复训练,分别于治疗前及治疗后1、3、6个月采用粗大运动功能量表(GMFM-88)D 区和 E 区进行评估。结果观察组治疗后1、3、6个月 GMFM-88 D 区、E 区与治疗前比较差异有统计学意义(P <0.01)。对照组治疗后3、6个月 GMFM-88 D 区、E 区与治疗前比较差异有统计学意义(P <0.01)。观察组治疗后1、3、6个月 GMFM-88 D 区、E 区与对照组比较差异有统计学意义(P <0.01)。结论A 型肉毒毒素注射联合石膏固定治疗痉挛型双瘫患儿尖足畸形,可降低肌张力,改善运动功能,有效提高粗大运动功能,比单纯采用 A 型肉毒毒素治疗疗效更好。%Objective To explore the effect of botulinum toxin A combined with plaster cast on the gross motor function of spasmodic double paralysis.Methods A total of 40 children with spasmodic double paralysis hospitalized in Xiamen Maternal and Child Healthcare Hospital from Jan.2013 to Oct.2014 were included in the study,and they were randomly divided into two groups:observation group(20 cases)and control group(20 cases).Control group was treated only with botulinum toxin A injection followed by reha-bilitation training.Observation group was given with botulinum toxin A combined with 3 weeks of plaster cast,and then rehabilitation training was carried out after removing the plaster.GMFM-88 was used to make evaluation of zone D and zone E before treatment and 1,3 and 6 months after treatment.Results Zone D and E was different 1,3 and 6 months after treatment by GMFM-88 in the observation group

  18. Longitudinal Development of Manual Motor Ability in Autism Spectrum Disorder from Childhood to Mid-Adulthood Relates to Adaptive Daily Living Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travers, Brittany G.; Bigler, Erin D.; Duffield, Tyler C.; Prigge, Molly D. B.; Froehlich, Alyson L.; Lange, Nicholas; Alexander, Andrew L.; Lainhart, Janet E.

    2017-01-01

    Many individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) exhibit motor difficulties, but it is unknown whether manual motor skills improve, plateau, or decline in ASD in the transition from childhood into adulthood. Atypical development of manual motor skills could impact the ability to learn and perform daily activities across the life span. This…

  19. Application of adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system in motor soft start%自适应神经模糊推理系统在电动机软启动中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李冬辉; 王莹莹; 马禹新

    2012-01-01

    Aimed at addressing serious grid impact entirely due to the impact of electricity resulting from direct start of induction motor,this paper introduces the application of the adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system to the control of motor soft start.The method renders it possible to give a fuller play to the ability of adaptive learning of neural networks and fuzzy inference without the need to master the exact model of the object,and finally achieve the intelligent control of motor.The method consists of using the relationship of motor speed,load torque and the firing angle as training samples,and applying the hybrid learning algorithm to adjust the premise parameters and conclusion parameters,generating the fuzzy rules automatically and building the adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system,and generating the appropriate thyristor trigger angle according to the given motor speed and torque.The simulation analysis shows that,the adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system after training can afford a better control of motor speed,and thus promises to make possible the soft start of fan or pump load motor.%异步电动机直接启动产生的冲击电流会造成严重的电网冲击,因此提出将自适应神经模糊推理系统应用到电动机软启动控制中,充分发挥神经网络自适应学习和模糊推理不要求掌握被控对象精确模型处理结构化知识的能力,实现电动机软启动的智能控制。利用电机转速、负载转矩、触发角的对应关系作为训练样本,采用混合学习算法调整前提参数和结论参数,自动产生模糊规则,构建自适应神经模糊推理系统,根据给定的电机转速和转矩产生合适的晶闸管触发角。经仿真分析,结果表明:训练构建的自适应神经模糊推理系统能够很好地进行电机的速度控制,可以实现风机或泵类负载电动机的软启动。

  20. 紧格式无模型自适应控制在直线电机中的仿真%Simulation of Model-free Adaptive Control with Strict Format in Linear Motor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李萍; 赵铭扬

    2014-01-01

    The model-free adaptive control (MFAC)approach of nonlinear systems based on linearization of strict format is applied to motion control of the linear motor.The strict format dynamic linear time-varying model is used to replace nonlinear system model of linear motor.Pseudo partial derivative is estimated online by the input and output data of motion model of linear motor.The simulation results show that tight format model-free controller has a strong adaptive,anti-interference,stable and robustness for motor with vaguely known dynamic nonlinear systems.%将基于紧格式线性化的非线性系统无模型自适应控制方法应用于直线电机的运动控制中。用紧格式动态线性时变模型替代直线电机非线性系统模型,根据直线电机运动模型的输入输出数据在线估计系统的伪偏导数。仿真实验表明,紧格式无模型自适应控制方法对电机这种具有不确定动态的非线性系统有较强的自适应性、抗干扰性、稳定性和鲁棒性。

  1. Complex Motor Learning in Four-Year-Olds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leithwood, K. A.; Fowler, W.

    1971-01-01

    The effects of 4 months of gymnostic training upon complex and simple gross motor abilities and general cognitive and psychosocial functioning in 4-year-olds were compared with the effects of music training and no treatment. (WY)

  2. Correlation between diffusion tensor imaging parameters and classification of gross motor function in infants of periventricular leucomalacia with cerebral palsy%脑室周围白质软化症合并脑瘫患儿的扩散张量成像参量与粗大运动功能评分的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋昊翔; 孙亲利; 李贤军; 张育苗; 李彦彦; 宋旸; 刘黎明; 张增俊; 杨健

    2014-01-01

    0.514,P值均<0.05).结论 DTI联合TBSS可用于精确评估PVL患儿脑白质损伤范围,运动功能障碍与部分投射纤维(皮质脊髓束、内囊和丘脑后辐射)、连合纤维(胼胝体压部)及联络纤维(上纵束)损伤相关.%Objective To assess white matter (WM) injury regions in infants of periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) with cerebral palsy (CP) by using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) analyzed with tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS),and to observe the correlation between DTI parameters and clinical motor function.Methods Twenty-two patients with PVL and CP and 22 normal infants matched in terms of age and gender underwent conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and DTI.The gross motor function classification system (GMFCS) was applied to evaluate motor function in patients with PVL.The distribution of GMFCS levels was as follows:level Ⅰ,5; level Ⅱ,5; level Ⅲ,3; level Ⅳ,7; and level V,2.Two-sample t-test was performed to compare the difference in the values of fractional anisotropy (FA),axial diffusivity (AD),and radial diffusivity (RD) in WM regions between patients group and controls group.Spearman relativity analysis was performed to assess correlation between DTI parameters in different WM fiber bundles and GMFCS in patients.Results In comparison to the control group,the WM FA values in the patient group decreased.There were significant differences between two groups in bilateral corticospinal tract (CST) (patients group:left 0.34 ±0.09,right 0.34±0.06; controls group:left 0.38 ± 0.04,right 0.37 ± 0.04); bilateral posterior limb internal capsule (PLIC)(patients group:left 0.53 ±.097,right 0.56±0.09;controls group:left 0.62 ± 0.04,right 0.63 ± 0.04); bilateral anterior limb internal capsule (ALIC) (patients group:left 0.31±0.05,right 0.32±0.05; controls group:left 0.36±0.04,right0.38±0.04); bilateral posterior thalamic radiation (PTR)(patients group:left 0.32±0.07,right 0.33±0.07; controls group:left 0.40

  3. Individual Differences in Language Development: Relationship with Motor Skill at 21 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcock, Katherine J.; Krawczyk, Kirsty

    2010-01-01

    Language development has long been associated with motor development, particularly manual gesture. We examined a variety of motor abilities--manual gesture including symbolic, meaningless and sequential memory, oral motor control, gross and fine motor control--in 129 children aged 21 months. Language abilities were assessed and cognitive and…

  4. Self-adaptive RBF Neural Network Control Theory of Switched Reluctance Motor%开关磁阻电机自适应RBF神经网络控制方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡益春; 王立标

    2012-01-01

    Switched reluctance motor doubly salient structure and magnetic circuit of the motor flux is highly saturated highly nonlinear, leading to classical PID control can not get higher control precision. Designing of feed-forward and feedback controller based on self-adaptive RBF neural network for SRM, the simulation results show that, this method can improve the precision of motor speed, torque pulsation, thereby optimizing the motor operat-ing performance.%开关磁阻电机(switched reluctance motor,SRM)双凸极结构和磁路高度饱和使得电机磁链呈高度非线性,导致经典PID控制不能得到较高的控制精度.设计了基于自适应RBF(radial basis function)神经网络的SRM前馈+反馈控制器,对电机实行自适应控制.仿真结果表明,该方法能提高电机转速精度,降低转矩脉动,从而优化电机的运行性能.

  5. BOREAS HYD-8 Gross Precipitation Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Richard; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Knapp, David E. (Editor); Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Hydrology (HYD)-08 team made measurements of surface hydrological processes at the Southern Study Area-Old Black Spruce (SSA-OBS) Tower Flux site to support its research into point hydrological processes and the spatial variation of these processes. Data collected may be useful in characterizing canopy interception, drip, throughfall, moss interception, drainage, evaporation, and capacity during the growing season at daily temporal resolution. This particular data set contains the gross precipitation measurements for July to August 1996. Gross precipitation is the precipitation that falls that is not intercepted by tree canopies. These data are stored in ASCII text files. The HYD-08 gross precipitation data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  6. 7 CFR 1424.7 - Gross payable units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Biodiesel producers will be eligible for payments on gross payable units for all biodiesel production from... rates. Unless otherwise determined by CCC, gross payable units for biodiesel production from eligible... biodiesel production gross payable units. (3) Adding the APP and BPP to determine biodiesel gross...

  7. Multiregional estimation of gross internal migration flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot, D K; Milne, W J

    1989-01-01

    "A multiregional model of gross internal migration flows is presented in this article. The interdependence of economic factors across all regions is recognized by imposing a non-stochastic adding-up constraint that requires total inmigration to equal total outmigration in each time period. An iterated system estimation technique is used to obtain asymptotically consistent and efficient parameter estimates. The model is estimated for gross migration flows among the Canadian provinces over the period 1962-86 and then is used to examine the likelihood of a wash-out effect in net migration models. The results indicate that previous approaches that use net migration equations may not always be empirically justified."

  8. The Gross conjecture over rational function fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OUYANG; Yi

    2005-01-01

    We study the Gross conjecture for the cyclotomic function field extension k(∧f)/k where k = Fq(t) is the rational function field and f is a monic polynomial in Fq[t].We prove the conjecture in the Fermat curve case(i.e., when f = t(t - 1)) by a direct calculation. We also prove the case when f is irreducible, which is analogous to the Weil reciprocity law. In the general case, we manage to show the weak version of the Gross conjecture here.

  9. Adaptive GA-ADRC in Torque Ripple Reduction of Brushless DC Motor%自适应GA-ADRC在无刷直流电机转矩脉动抑制中的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘慧博; 王静

    2012-01-01

    提出一种新型的无刷直流电机电磁转矩脉动抑制方法,该方法通过控制无刷直流电机导通相线电流跟踪给定电流来抑制电机的电磁转矩脉动.首先分析无刷直流电机数学模型,建立基于自适应遗传算法的无刷直流电机控制系统模型,由于自适应GA-ADRC控制器不需要无刷直流电机模型参数就可以实现干扰补偿,因此可以独立设计自适应GA-ADRC控制器.对文中所提出自适应GA-ADRC控制算法与经典PID控制算法的控制效果对比分析,控制效果明显优于传统PID控制效果.%The traditional PID control algorithm cannot satisfy the performance index of the brushless DC motor system because of the disadvantages of electromagnetic torque ripple, high complexity of detection method and control algorithm, and higher cost of current brushless DC motor. A novel electromagnet torque ripple suppression method of brushless DC motor was proposed in this paper. By virtue of controlling the conduction phase current of the brushless DC motor to track the given current, the motor electromagnet torque ripple was suppressed. The mathematical model of the motor was analyzed and a control system model of the brushless DC motor based on adaptive genetic algorithm was established. Since the adaptive GA-ADRC controller can realize disturbance compensation without model parameters of brushless DC motor, the GA-ADRC controller was independently designed. The comparative analysis shows that the proposed GA-ADRC control algorithm is obviously superior to that of the classical PID control algorithm.

  10. The nociceptive withdrawal reflex does not adapt to joint position change and short-term motor practice [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/2lr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Eckert

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The nociceptive withdrawal reflex is a protective mechanism to mediate interactions within a potentially dangerous environment. The reflex is formed by action-based sensory encoding during the early post-natal developmental period, and it is unknown if the protective motor function of the nociceptive withdrawal reflex in the human upper-limb is adaptable based on the configuration of the arm or if it can be modified by short-term practice of a similar or opposing motor action. In the present study, nociceptive withdrawal reflexes were evoked by a brief train of electrical stimuli applied to digit II, 1 in five different static arm positions and, 2 before and after motor practice that was opposite (EXT or similar (FLEX to the stereotyped withdrawal response, in 10 individuals. Withdrawal responses were quantified by the electromyography (EMG reflex response in several upper limb muscles, and by the forces and moments recorded at the wrist. EMG onset latencies and response amplitudes were not significantly different across the arm positions or between the EXT and FLEX practice conditions, and the general direction of the withdrawal response was similar across arm positions. In addition, the force vectors were not different after practice in either the practice condition or between EXT and FLEX conditions. We conclude the withdrawal response is insensitive to changes in elbow or shoulder joint angles as well as remaining resistant to short-term adaptations from the practice of motor actions, resulting in a generalized limb withdrawal in each case. It is further hypothesized that the multisensory feedback is weighted differently in each arm position, but integrated to achieve a similar withdrawal response to safeguard against erroneous motor responses that could cause further harm. The results remain consistent with the concept that nociceptive withdrawal reflexes are shaped through long-term and not short-term action based sensory encoding.

  11. Gross Revenue risk in Swiss dairy farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benni, El N.; Finger, R.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated how agricultural policy reforms, including market liberalization and market deregulation, have influenced gross revenue risk of Swiss dairy producers using farm-level panel data between 1990 and 2009. Based on detrended data, variance decomposition was applied to assess how o

  12. Gross Revenue risk in Swiss dairy farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benni, El N.; Finger, R.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated how agricultural policy reforms, including market liberalization and market deregulation, have influenced gross revenue risk of Swiss dairy producers using farm-level panel data between 1990 and 2009. Based on detrended data, variance decomposition was applied to assess how

  13. Relations among motor, social, and cognitive skills in pre-kindergarten children with developmental disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Helyn; Carlson, Abby G; Curby, Timothy W; Winsler, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Despite the comorbidity between motor difficulties and certain disabilities, limited research has examined links between early motor, cognitive, and social skills in preschool-aged children with developmental disabilities. The present study examined the relative contributions of gross motor and fine motor skills to the prediction of improvements in children's cognitive and social skills among 2,027 pre-kindergarten children with developmental disabilities, including specific learning disorder, speech/language impairment, intellectual disability, and autism spectrum disorder. Results indicated that for pre-kindergarten children with developmental disabilities, fine motor skills, but not gross motor skills, were predictive of improvements in cognitive and social skills, even after controlling for demographic information and initial skill levels. Moreover, depending on the type of developmental disability, the pattern of prediction of gross motor and fine motor skills to improvements in children's cognitive and social skills differed. Implications are discussed.

  14. 无轴承异步电机非线性滤波器自适应逆解耦控制%Adaptive inverse decoupling control for bearingless induction motors based on nonlinear filter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙宇新; 杨玉伟

    2016-01-01

    For agricultural motor drive applications, reliability and stability are very significant, and even under disturbance condition, stable drive operation is essential. In view of the characteristics of the bearingless induction motor, which includes multi -variables, nonlinearity and high coupling, an adaptive inverse decoupling control strategy for the bearingless induction motor based on the nonlinear adaptive filter was proposed to improve the efficiency and reliability of the motor drives. First, the mathematical model of a bearingless induction motor was deduced through analyzing the generation mechanism of a bearingless induction motor’s radial levitation force. By adopting the control theory of an adaptive inverse control system and the principle of a nonlinear adaptive filter, the model and inverse model of the torque system and levitation system were established respectively, including the option of the structure of nonlinear adaptive filter and the adaptive algorithm. Based on the inverse model, the adaptive inverse controller which cascaded in front of the corresponding system was designed by making use of the algorithm of variable step size least mean square (LMS) to adjust the weighting factors online. The difference between the given input signal and the system output signal was used as the error signal of the adaptive algorithm of variable step size LMS. In addition, compared to the traditional field oriented control method, this method did not need to rely on torque system to transfer flux information, which avoided the mutual restriction among the control strategies, and solved the coupling problem between the variables in the modeling process. Then, aiming at the performances of rotor flux, speed, torque and levitation response, the simulation and analysis of the adaptive inverse control system for the bearingless induction motor wew carried out on the basis of MATLAB/Simulink simulation platform. Moreover, the initial given value of motor speed

  15. Optimal current waveforms for brushless permanent magnet motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moehle, Nicholas; Boyd, Stephen

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we give energy-optimal current waveforms for a permanent magnet synchronous motor that result in a desired average torque. Our formulation generalises previous work by including a general back-electromotive force (EMF) wave shape, voltage and current limits, an arbitrary phase winding connection, a simple eddy current loss model, and a trade-off between power loss and torque ripple. Determining the optimal current waveforms requires solving a small convex optimisation problem. We show how to use the alternating direction method of multipliers to find the optimal current in milliseconds or hundreds of microseconds, depending on the processor used, which allows the possibility of generating optimal waveforms in real time. This allows us to adapt in real time to changes in the operating requirements or in the model, such as a change in resistance with winding temperature, or even gross changes like the failure of one winding. Suboptimal waveforms are available in tens or hundreds of microseconds, allowing for quick response after abrupt changes in the desired torque. We demonstrate our approach on a simple numerical example, in which we give the optimal waveforms for a motor with a sinusoidal back-EMF, and for a motor with a more complicated, nonsinusoidal waveform, in both the constant-torque region and constant-power region.

  16. Activity level of gross α and gross β in airborne aerosol samples around the Qinshan NPP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Bin; YE Jida; CHEN Qianyuan; WU Xiaofei; SONG Weili; WANG Hongfeng

    2007-01-01

    The monitoring results of gross α and gross β activity from 2001 to 2005 for environmental airborne aerosol samples around the Qinshan NPP base are presented in this paper. A total of 170 aerosol samples were collected from monitoring sites of Caichenmen village, Qinlian village, Xiajiawan village and Yangliucun village around the Qinshan NPP base. The measured specific activity of gross α and gross β are in the range of 0.02 ~ 0.38 mBq/m3 and 0.10 ~ 1.81 mBq/m3, respectively, with an average of 0.11 mBq/m3 and 0.45mBq/m3, respectively. They are lower than the average of 0.15 mBq/m3 and 0.52mBq/m3, of reference site at Hangzhou City. It is indicated that the specific activity of gross α and gross β for environmental aerosol samples around the Qinshan NPP base had not been increased in normal operating conditions of the NPP.

  17. An Adaptive Observer Design for Sensorless Control of Induction Motors%感应电机无速度传感器控制的降阶观测器设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张可畏; 徐传芳

    2012-01-01

    A simple design method of an adaptive observer for sensorless control of induction motors is proposed . The current and voltage models are combined into a general reduced-order observer in which a flux error is used for corrective feedback. By linearizing both the induction motor model and the adaptive observer,an observer gain providing asymptotically stable and well damped induction motor control system is selected based on the Routh-Hurwitz stability criterion and the pole placement method. Simulation results are presented to validate the use and applicability of the induction motor control system.%提出了一种简单的用于感应电机无速度传感器控制的自适应观测器设计方法.该方法以磁链误差作为校正反馈项,利用电流和电压模型组合成一个降阶观测器.在将电机模型和观测器进行线性化的基础上,利用劳斯-赫尔维茨稳定判据和极点配置方法得到了观测器增益,该增益能够保证获得一个全局渐近稳定许具有良好阻尼的感应电机控制系统.数字仿真试验结果进一步验证了所提出的自适应观测器的有效性.

  18. Noncommutative complex Grosse-Wulkenhaar model

    CERN Document Server

    Hounkonnou, Mahouton Norbert

    2012-01-01

    This paper stands for an application of the noncommutative (NC) Noether theorem, given in our previous work [AIP Proc 956 (2007) 55-60], for the NC complex Grosse-Wulkenhaar model. It provides with an extension of a recent work [Physics Letters B 653 (2007) 343-345]. The local conservation of energy-momentum tensors (EMTs) is recovered using improvement procedures based on Moyal algebraic techniques. Broken dilatation symmetry is discussed. NC gauge currents are also explicitly computed.

  19. Motor Skills of Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Meghann; MacDonald, Megan; Lord, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    With increased interest in the early diagnosis and treatment of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), more attention has been called to the motor skills of very young children with ASD. This study describes the gross and fine motor skills of a cross-sectional group of 162 children with ASD between the ages of 12 and 36 months, as well as…

  20. 78 FR 2236 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; New Pneumatic Tires for Motor Vehicles With a GVWR of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-10

    ... Standards; New Pneumatic Tires for Motor Vehicles With a GVWR of More Than 4,536 Kilograms (10,000 Pounds... Standard (FMVSS) No. 119, New pneumatic tires for motor vehicles with a gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR... first issued in 1973 until it was inadvertently omitted in 2003. The breaking energy requirement...

  1. Motor skills in kindergarten: Internal structure, cognitive correlates and relationships to background variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberer, Nicole; Gashaj, Venera; Roebers, Claudia M

    2017-04-01

    The present study aimed to contribute to the discussion about the relation between motor coordination and executive functions in preschool children. Specifically, the relation between gross and fine motor skills and executive functions as well as the relation to possible background variables (SES, physical activity) were investigated. Based on the data of N=156 kindergarten children the internal structure of motor skills was investigated and confirmed the theoretically assumed subdivision of gross and fine motor skills. Both, gross and fine motor skills correlated significantly with executive functions, whereas the background variables seemed to have no significant impact on the executive functions and motor skills. Higher order control processes are discussed as an explanation of the relation between executive functions and motor skills. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. 7 CFR 1410.44 - Average adjusted gross income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Average adjusted gross income. 1410.44 Section 1410... Average adjusted gross income. (a) Benefits under this part will not be available to persons or legal entities whose average adjusted gross income exceeds $1,000,000 or as further specified in part...

  3. 7 CFR 701.17 - Average adjusted gross income limitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9003), each applicant must meet the provisions of the Adjusted Gross Income Limitations at 7 CFR part... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Average adjusted gross income limitation. 701.17... RELATED PROGRAMS PREVIOUSLY ADMINISTERED UNDER THIS PART § 701.17 Average adjusted gross income...

  4. 永磁直线同步电机无模型自适应直接推力控制%Direct Trust Control of Permanent Magnet Linear Synchronous Motor Based on Model-free Adaptive Control Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔皆凡; 闫红; 单宝钰

    2013-01-01

    For the characteristics of external disturbances and uncertain variable model parameters in permanent magnet linear synchronous motor,model-free adaptive control was firstly applied into the direct trust control of permanent magnet linear synchronous motor With this method,the differential equation between the electromagnetic force and speed was fitted in real time during the operation,and the given electromagnetic force was caculated through control law function,ultimately,direct trust control of permanent magnet linear synchronous motor based on model-free adaptive control method could be achieved.Compared with PI control,model-free adaptive control could not only eliminate the need for adjusting PI controller parameters,but also reduce the speed and force ripples caused by parameter variations and load disturbance in motor control system.,the stability of control system was ensured and robustness to internal disturbances and external disturbances was improved.%针对永磁直线同步电机模型参数不确定且时变并且在运行过程中容易受外部扰动影响的特点,首次将无模型自适应控制理论应用到永磁直线同步电机直接推力控制中.采用无模型自适应方法,实时拟合出永磁直线同步电机运行过程中电磁推力和速度之间的时变差分方程,通过控制率函数推算出给定电磁推力,实现永磁直线同步电机无模型自适应直接推力控制.与传统的PI控制相比,无模型自适应直接推力控制算法既不需要调节PI参数,又明显减少了由于电机控制系统参数变化和负载扰动引起的速度和推力脉动,在保证了系统稳定运行情况下提高了电机控制系统对内部和外部干扰的鲁棒性.

  5. Baryons in Massive Gross-Neveu Models

    CERN Document Server

    Thies, M; Thies, Michael; Urlichs, Konrad

    2005-01-01

    Baryons in the large N limit of (1+1)-dimensional Gross-Neveu models with either discrete or continuous chiral symmetry have long been known. We generalize their construction to the case where the symmetry is explicitly broken by a bare mass term in the Lagrangian. In the discrete symmetry case, the exact solution is found for arbitrary bare fermion mass, using the Hartree-Fock approach. In the continuous symmetry case, a derivative expansion allows us to rederive a formerly proposed Skyrme-type model and to compute systematically corrections to the leading order description based on an effective sine-Gordon theory.

  6. Movement adaptations in 7-to 10-year-old typically developing children : Evidence for a transition in feedback-based motor control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Braeckel, Koenraad; Butcher, Phillipa R.; Geuze, Reint H.; Stremmelaar, Elisabeth F.; Bouma, Anke

    2007-01-01

    We used a modified double-step pointing task to study movement adaptations in 7- to 10-year-old typically developing children. We found that the majority (63%) were able to optimally adapt fast, goal-directed visually-guided movements to a late change in target location meeting the requirements of

  7. Motor Skill Development in Italian Pre-School Children Induced by Structured Activities in a Specific Playground.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Tortella

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects and specificity of structured and unstructured activities played at the playground Primo Sport 0246 in Northern Italy on motor skill competence in five years old children. The playground was specifically designed to promote gross motor skills in preschool children; in this study 71 children from local kindergartens came to the park once a week for ten consecutive weeks and were exposed to 30 minutes of free play and 30 minutes of structured activities. Before and after the ten visits, each child completed nine tests to assess levels of motor skills, three for fine-motor skills and six for gross-motor skills. As control, motor skills were also assessed on 39 children from different kindergartens who did not come to the park. The results show that the experimental group who practiced gross-motor activities in the playground for 1 hour a week for 10 weeks improved significantly in 4 out of the 6 gross motor tasks and in none of the fine motor tasks. The data indicate that limited transfer occurred between tasks referring to different domains of motor competences while suggesting cross feeding for improvement of gross-motor skills between different exercises when domains related to physical fitness and strength of specific muscle groups are involved. These results are relevant to the issue of condition(s appropriate for maintaining and developing motor skills in this age group as well as for the planning, organization and implementation of play and physical activities in kindergartens.

  8. Motor Skill Development in Italian Pre-School Children Induced by Structured Activities in a Specific Playground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortella, Patrizia; Haga, Monika; Loras, Håvard; Sigmundsson, Hermundur; Fumagalli, Guido

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects and specificity of structured and unstructured activities played at the playground Primo Sport 0246 in Northern Italy on motor skill competence in five years old children. The playground was specifically designed to promote gross motor skills in preschool children; in this study 71 children from local kindergartens came to the park once a week for ten consecutive weeks and were exposed to 30 minutes of free play and 30 minutes of structured activities. Before and after the ten visits, each child completed nine tests to assess levels of motor skills, three for fine-motor skills and six for gross-motor skills. As control, motor skills were also assessed on 39 children from different kindergartens who did not come to the park. The results show that the experimental group who practiced gross-motor activities in the playground for 1 hour a week for 10 weeks improved significantly in 4 out of the 6 gross motor tasks and in none of the fine motor tasks. The data indicate that limited transfer occurred between tasks referring to different domains of motor competences while suggesting cross feeding for improvement of gross-motor skills between different exercises when domains related to physical fitness and strength of specific muscle groups are involved. These results are relevant to the issue of condition(s) appropriate for maintaining and developing motor skills in this age group as well as for the planning, organization and implementation of play and physical activities in kindergartens.

  9. Study of Fuzzy Adaptive PID Control of Brushless DC Motor%无刷直流电机模糊自适应PID控制的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘晓磊; 赵川; 吕海立

    2016-01-01

    为了提高无刷直流电机控制系统的动、静态性能,将模糊控制结合PID控制算法应用到无刷直流电机速度控制系统中。在分析了无刷直流电机速度控制系统的基础上,利用PSIM与MATLAB/Simulink共同建立了无刷直流电动机模糊自适应PID控制的仿真模型,充分发挥了PSIM和MATLAB/Simulink各自在仿真方面的优势,简化了建立仿真模型的过程。仿真结果表明,采用模糊PID集成控制算法能够使无刷直流电机速度控制系统具有更快的响应速度和更强的抗干扰能力,对无刷直流电机控制系统的设计具有一定的指导意义。%In order to improve the static and dynamic performance of brushless DC motor control system, fuzzy control combined with PID control algorithm is applied to the brushless DC motor speed control system, the integration of fuzzy PID control algorithm. On the analysis of the brushless dc motor speed control system, using the MATLAB/Simulink to establish brushless DC motor speed control system simulation model. Among them, the control system of brushless DC motor drive model and control algorithm were established in PSIM and MATLAB/Simulink environment, give full play to their advantages, the PSIM and MATLAB simplifies the process of establishing simulation model. The simulation results show that the integration of fuzzy PID control algorithm can make the brushless DC motor speed control system has better dynamic and static performance and strong anti-jamming capability, the design of brushless DC motor control system has a certain guiding significance.

  10. 无刷直流电机单神经元自适应智能调速系统%Single Neuron Self-adaptive Intelligent Speed Control System of Brushless DC Motor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏巍

    2014-01-01

    本文针对无刷直流电机设计了一种可在线学习的单神经元自适应PID智能控制器,通过有监督的Hebb学习规则来调整权值,每一次采样都直接根据反馈误差对神经元权值进行调整,实现PID三个参数的自适应,采用分段线性化方法建立无刷直流电机反电动势梯形波,采用滞环电流控制器实现电流调节,并在Matlab/Simulink仿真平台上搭建仿真模型,结果表明智能PID控制效果和鲁棒性都优于常规PID,大大提高了系统的跟随性,能满足无刷电机系统对实时性的要求。%According to brushless DC motor, this paper designed a kind of single neuron self-adaptive PID intelligent controller which can be learned online, the weights can be adjusted by supervised Hebb learning rule, the neuron weights are adjusted according feedback error in every sampling, so as to realize the self-adaptation of three PID parameters. Brushless DC motor back EMF wave was built by using piecewise linearization method, the current regulation was realized by using hysteresis current controller and simulation model was structured based on Matlab / Simulink simulation platform. The results show that the intelligent PID control effect and robustness are better than the conventional PID, so it greatly improved the following characteristic of the system, and it can satisfy the real-time requirements of the brushless motor system.

  11. Estrutura de prática e validade ecológica no processo adaptativo de aprendizagem motora Practice schedule and ecological validity in the adaptive process of motor learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Massigli

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse estudo foi investigar o efeito da estrutura de prática no processo adaptativo de aprendizagem motora em função da validade ecológica da situação experimental. Participaram do estudo 104 crianças distribuídas em oito grupos experimentais (dois níveis de validade ecológica x quatro estruturas de prática. A tarefa consistiu em rebater uma bola de tênis de mesa lançada por um equipamento ou pelo experimentador, com o objetivo de acertar um alvo localizado no lado oposto da mesa. O estudo envolveu duas fases: estabilização e adaptação. O desempenho foi analisado por meio da soma dos pontos obtidos em blocos de 10 tentativas. Os resultados mostraram que os efeitos das práticas constante, aleatória, constante-aleatória e aleatória-constante no processo adaptativo de aprendizagem motora foram similares em ambos os níveis de validade ecológica; a prática constante foi a estrutura menos efetiva no processo adaptativo de aprendizagem motora em ambas as situações experimentais.The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different practice schedules in the adaptive process of motor learning in function of the ecological validity of the experimental situation. Participants were 104 children distributed in eight experimental groups (2 levels of ecological validity x 4 practice schedules. The task was to hit a table tennis ball thrown by equipment or experimenter, aiming to hit a target located on the opposite side of the table. The study was carried out in two phases: stabilization and adaptation. Performance was analyzed through the sum of the points achieved in ten trial blocks. Results showed that the effects of constant, random, constant-random and random-constant practice on the adaptive process of motor learning were similar in both levels of ecological validity; constant practice was the less effective schedule on the adaptive process of motor learning in both experimental situations.

  12. Maternal pre-pregnancy obesity and achievement of infant motor developmental milestones in the Upstate KIDS Study

    OpenAIRE

    Wylie, Amanda; Sundaram, Rajeshwari; Kus, Christopher; Ghassabian, Akhgar; Yeung, Edwina H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Maternal pre-pregnancy obesity is associated with several poor infant health outcomes; however studies that investigated motor development have been inconsistent. Thus, we examined maternal pre-pregnancy weight status and infants’ gross motor development. Design and Methods Participants consisted of 4,901 mother-infant pairs from the Upstate KIDS study, a longitudinal cohort in New York. Mothers indicated dates when infants achieved each of six gross motor milestones when infants we...

  13. Motor-enriched learning activities can improve mathematical performance in preadolescent children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck, Mikkel Malling; Lind, Rune Rasmussen; Geertsen, Svend Sparre;

    2016-01-01

    -enriched mathematical teaching in Danish preadolescent children (n = 165, age = 7.5 ± 0.02 years). Three groups were included: a control group (CON), which received non-motor enriched conventional mathematical teaching, a fine motor math group (FMM) and a gross motor math group (GMM), which received mathematical...... teaching enriched with fine and gross motor activity, respectively. The children were tested before (T0), immediately after (T1) and 8 weeks after the intervention (T2). A standardized mathematical test (50 tasks) was used to evaluate mathematical performance. Furthermore, it was investigated whether motor......Objective: An emerging field of research indicates that physical activity can benefit cognitive functions and academic achievements in children. However, less is known about how academic achievements can benefit from specific types of motor activities (e.g., fine and gross) integrated into learning...

  14. Motor Neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounsgaard, Jorn

    2017-01-01

    Motor neurons translate synaptic input from widely distributed premotor networks into patterns of action potentials that orchestrate motor unit force and motor behavior. Intercalated between the CNS and muscles, motor neurons add to and adjust the final motor command. The identity and functional...... properties of this facility in the path from synaptic sites to the motor axon is reviewed with emphasis on voltage sensitive ion channels and regulatory metabotropic transmitter pathways. The catalog of the intrinsic response properties, their underlying mechanisms, and regulation obtained from motoneurons...... in in vitro preparations is far from complete. Nevertheless, a foundation has been provided for pursuing functional significance of intrinsic response properties in motoneurons in vivo during motor behavior at levels from molecules to systems....

  15. [Gross anatomy dissection and the legal control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashina, Shohei; Shibata, Yosaburo

    2010-12-01

    In Japan, dissection of human body is generally prohibited by the Penal Code, i.e. the criminal law. However, the Postmortem Examination and Corpse Preservation Act allows for the dissection of the body in very limited situations, that include gross anatomy dissection and pathological and forensic autopsy in medical and dental schools. Growing numbers of co-medical schools have been founded more recently in Japan, and not a small number of co-medical schools try to adopt human body dissection in the course of anatomy education. The present short communication reminds us of the ways of thinking of the Postmortem Examination and Corpse Preservation Act and the Act on Body Donation for Medical and Dental Education in order that anatomy education in medical as well as co-medical schools takes place under the regulation by these two laws.

  16. 自适应滑模观测器的永磁同步电机无位置传感器控制%Adaptive Slidingmode Observer for Position Sensorless Control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李雪恺; 陈勇; 张鑫彬; 鲜亚平

    2016-01-01

    为准确获取永磁同步电机转速与转子的位置信息,提出一种自适应滑模观测器对电机的转子位置和速度进行估算。通过对自适应切换函数、自适应低通滤波器、转子角度估算误差补偿等改进滑模观测器。仿真分析表明:该方法能快速和准确地跟踪电机转子的位置和速度,系统性能良好。%To accurately obtain the speed and rotor position of permanent magnet synchronous motor, an adaptive sliding mode observer for rotor position and speed estimating is proposed. The sliding mode observer is improved by using adaptively switching function, adaptive low-pass filter, the rotor angle estimation error compensation. Simulation results show that the proposed method can both quickly and accurately track rotor position and speed, have good system performance.

  17. Robust Principal Component Test in Gross Error Detection and Identification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Principle component analysis (PCA) based chi-square test is more sensitive to subtle gross errors and has greater power to correctly detect gross errors than classical chi-square test. However, classical principal component test (PCT) is non-robust and can be very sensitive to one or more outliers. In this paper, a Huber function liked robust weight factor was added in the collective chi-square test to eliminate the influence of gross errors on the PCT. Meanwhile, robust chi-square test was applied to modified simultaneous estimation of gross error (MSEGE) strategy to detect and identify multiple gross errors. Simulation results show that the proposed robust test can reduce the possibility of type Ⅱ errors effectively. Adding robust chi-square test into MSEGE does not obviously improve the power of multiple gross error identification, the proposed approach considers the influence of outliers on hypothesis statistic test and is more reasonable.

  18. Etiology-specific differences in motor function after hemispherectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kolk, Nicolien M; Boshuisen, Kim; van Empelen, Ron; Koudijs, Suzanne M; Staudt, Martin; van Rijen, Peter C; van Nieuwenhuizen, Onno; Braun, Kees P J

    2013-02-01

    Prediction of functional motor outcome after hemispherectomy is difficult due to the heterogeneity of motor outcomes observed. We hypothesize that this might be related to differences in plasticity during the onset of the underlying epileptogenic disorder or lesion and try to identify predictors of motor outcome after hemispherectomy. Thirty-five children with different etiologies (developmental, stable acquired or progressive) underwent functional hemispherectomy and motor function assessment before hemispherectomy and 24 months after hemispherectomy. Preoperatively, children with developmental etiologies performed better in terms of distal arm strength and hand function, but not on gross motor function tests. Postoperatively, the three etiology groups performed equally poor in muscle strength and hand function, but gross motor function improved in those with acquired and progressive etiologies. Loss of voluntary hand function and distal arm strength after surgery was associated with etiology, intact insular cortex and intact structural integrity of the ipsilesional corticospinal tract on presurgical MRI scans. In conclusion, postoperative motor function can be predicted more precisely based on etiology and on preoperative MRI. Children with developmental etiology more often lose distal arm strength and hand function and show less improvement in gross motor function, compared to those with acquired pathology.

  19. Effect of temperate climate tree species on gross ammonification, gross nitrification and N2O formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüggemann, N.; Rosenkranz, P.; Papen, H.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.

    2003-04-01

    Microbial nitrogen turnover processes in the soil, like ammonification, nitrification and denitrification, play an important role in the formation of nitrous oxide (N2O): (i) ammonification, because it releases nitrogen from organic material in the form of ammonium (NH4+), which in turn can serve as substrate for nitrification; (ii) nitrification itself (i.e. the turnover of NH4+ to nitrate, NO3-), during which nitric oxide (NO) and N2O can be released as by-products at varying ratios; (iii) denitrification, in which NO3- serves as electron acceptor and is converted to molecular nitrogen (N2) via NO and N2O as intermediates, that can also be partially lost to the atmosphere. Temperate forest soils are a substantial source of atmospheric N2O contributing up to 10% to the total atmospheric N2O budget. However, this figure is afflicted with a huge uncertainty due to a number of factors governing the soil N2O formation, consumption, release and uptake, which are not fully understood at present. To one of these factors belongs the influence of the tree species on nitrogen turnover processes in the soil and the formation of N trace gases related with them. The aim of the present work was to analyse this tree species effect for the temperate climate region. For this purpose the effect of five different temperate tree species, having the same age and growing on the same soil in direct vicinity to each other, on gross ammonification and gross nitrification as well as on N2O formation was investigated. The trees (common beech, Fagus sylvatica; pedunculate oak, Quercus robur; Norway spruce, Picea abies; Japanese larch, Larix leptolepis; mountain pine, Pinus mugo) were part of a species trial in Western Jutland, Denmark, established in 1965 on a former sandy heathland. Samples from the soil under these five tree species were taken in spring and in summer 2002, respectively, differentiating between organic layer and mineral soil. The gross rates of ammonification as well of

  20. Motor syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corea, Francesco; Micheli, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Motor disturbances alone or associated with other focal deficits are the most common symptoms suggesting a neurovascular event. An appropriate clinical assessment of these signs and symptoms may help physicians to better diagnose and to both better treat and predict outcome. In this paper the main clinical features of motor deficit are described together with other motor-related events such as ataxia and movement disturbances.

  1. Opposable spines facilitate fine and gross object manipulation in fire ants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassill, Deby; Greco, Anthony; Silwal, Rajesh; Wang, Xuefeng

    2007-04-01

    Ants inhabit diverse terrestrial biomes from the Sahara Desert to the Arctic tundra. One factor contributing to the ants’ successful colonization of diverse geographical regions is their ability to manipulate objects when excavating nests, capturing, transporting and rendering prey or grooming, feeding and transporting helpless brood. This paper is the first to report the form and function of opposable spines on the foretarsi of queens and workers used during fine motor and gross motor object manipulation in the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta. In conjunction with their mandibles, queens and workers used their foretarsi to grasp and rotate eggs, push or pull thread-like objects out of their way or push excavated soil pellets behind them for disposal by other workers. Opposable spines were found on the foretarsi of workers from seven of eight other ant species suggesting that they might be a common feature in the Formicidae.

  2. 自适应模糊滑模变结构在永磁同步电动机的应用%Adaptive Fuzzy Sliding mode Control into Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

      针对永磁同步电动机存在参数时变、多变量耦合、负载扰动以及非线性等不确定因素,提出一种新颖的、带有扩展反馈和切换增益的自适应模糊滑模变结构控制方法。%Against the indefinite factors of the time variation of parameters, multivariable coupling, load distur-bances and nonlinear of the permanent magnet synchronous motor, an innovative approach to adaptive fuzzy sliding mode control with a new type of extended feedback and switching gains was introduced.

  3. Sport expert's motor imagery: functional imaging of professional motor skills and simple motor skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Gaoxia; Luo, Jing

    2010-06-23

    Numerous studies provide evidence that motor skill acquisition is associated with dynamic changes in cortical and subcortical regions. Athletes are a professional population who are engaged in extensive motor training for long periods. However, the neural substrates of extreme level motor performance have not been clarified. We used kinesthetic imagery task to induce the mental representation of sport expert's extraordinary performance in view of the shared substrates of executing movement and motor imagery. For the first time, we compared, through functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), the pattern of cerebral activations in 12 professional divers and 12 normal people without extensive training, during imagery of professional skills and imagery of simple motor skills. The sport experts showed significant activation in the parahippocampus during imagery of professional skills relative to the novices, which might reflect the representation adapted to experience-related motor tasks. No significant difference was found between experts and novices when they imagined simple motor skills. These results indicated the experts might utilize their kinesthetic imagery more efficiently than novices, but only for the activity in which they had expertise. The sport experts also demonstrated more focused activation patterns in prefrontal areas in both of imagery tasks, which may be relevant to higher order of motor control during motor imagery. Moreover, this study suggested that the brains of sport experts could be regarded as the ideal subjects to explore the relationship between cerebral plasticity and learning of complex motor skills.

  4. Phase and speed synchronization control of four eccentric rotors driven by induction motors in a linear vibratory feeder with unknown time-varying load torques using adaptive sliding mode control algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiangxi; Zhang, Xueliang; Chen, Xiaozhe; Wen, Bangchun; Wang, Bo

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, phase and speed synchronization control of four eccentric rotors (ERs) driven by induction motors in a linear vibratory feeder with unknown time-varying load torques is studied. Firstly, the electromechanical coupling model of the linear vibratory feeder is established by associating induction motor's model with the dynamic model of the system, which is a typical under actuated model. According to the characteristics of the linear vibratory feeder, the complex control problem of the under actuated electromechanical coupling model converts to phase and speed synchronization control of four ERs. In order to keep the four ERs operating synchronously with zero phase differences, phase and speed synchronization controllers are designed by employing adaptive sliding mode control (ASMC) algorithm via a modified master-slave structure. The stability of the controllers is proved by Lyapunov stability theorem. The proposed controllers are verified by simulation via Matlab/Simulink program and compared with the conventional sliding mode control (SMC) algorithm. The results show the proposed controllers can reject the time-varying load torques effectively and four ERs can operate synchronously with zero phase differences. Moreover, the control performance is better than the conventional SMC algorithm and the chattering phenomenon is attenuated. Furthermore, the effects of reference speed and parametric perturbations are discussed to show the strong robustness of the proposed controllers. Finally, experiments on a simple vibratory test bench are operated by using the proposed controllers and without control, respectively, to validate the effectiveness of the proposed controllers further.

  5. Trunk and shoulder kinematic and kinetic and electromyographic adaptations to slope increase during motorized treadmill propulsion among manual wheelchair users with a spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Dany; Babineau, Annie-Claude; Champagne, Audrey; Desroches, Guillaume; Aissaoui, Rachid

    2015-01-01

    The main objective was to quantify the effects of five different slopes on trunk and shoulder kinematics as well as shoulder kinetic and muscular demands during manual wheelchair (MWC) propulsion on a motorized treadmill. Eighteen participants with spinal cord injury propelled their MWC at a self-selected constant speed on a motorized treadmill set at different slopes (0°, 2.7°, 3.6°, 4.8°, and 7.1°). Trunk and upper limb movements were recorded with a motion analysis system. Net shoulder joint moments were computed with the forces applied to the handrims measured with an instrumented wheel. To quantify muscular demand, the electromyographic activity (EMG) of the pectoralis major (clavicular and sternal portions) and deltoid (anterior and posterior fibers) was recorded during the experimental tasks and normalized against maximum EMG values obtained during static contractions. Overall, forward trunk flexion and shoulder flexion increased as the slope became steeper, whereas shoulder flexion, adduction, and internal rotation moments along with the muscular demand also increased as the slope became steeper. The results confirm that forward trunk flexion and shoulder flexion movement amplitudes, along with shoulder mechanical and muscular demands, generally increase when the slope of the treadmill increases despite some similarities between the 2.7° to 3.6° and 3.6° to 4.8° slope increments.

  6. Trunk and Shoulder Kinematic and Kinetic and Electromyographic Adaptations to Slope Increase during Motorized Treadmill Propulsion among Manual Wheelchair Users with a Spinal Cord Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dany Gagnon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective was to quantify the effects of five different slopes on trunk and shoulder kinematics as well as shoulder kinetic and muscular demands during manual wheelchair (MWC propulsion on a motorized treadmill. Eighteen participants with spinal cord injury propelled their MWC at a self-selected constant speed on a motorized treadmill set at different slopes (0°, 2.7°, 3.6°, 4.8°, and 7.1°. Trunk and upper limb movements were recorded with a motion analysis system. Net shoulder joint moments were computed with the forces applied to the handrims measured with an instrumented wheel. To quantify muscular demand, the electromyographic activity (EMG of the pectoralis major (clavicular and sternal portions and deltoid (anterior and posterior fibers was recorded during the experimental tasks and normalized against maximum EMG values obtained during static contractions. Overall, forward trunk flexion and shoulder flexion increased as the slope became steeper, whereas shoulder flexion, adduction, and internal rotation moments along with the muscular demand also increased as the slope became steeper. The results confirm that forward trunk flexion and shoulder flexion movement amplitudes, along with shoulder mechanical and muscular demands, generally increase when the slope of the treadmill increases despite some similarities between the 2.7° to 3.6° and 3.6° to 4.8° slope increments.

  7. TERATOGENIC EFFECTS OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES: GROSS ANOMALIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Prakash

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available BACK GROUND: Prenatal exposure of AgNPs can induces devastative and detrimental effect in the organogenesis period of the developing embryos and foetuses. Organogenesis period is highly condemnatory and persuadable. Any injury to embryo during this period leads to dysmorphogenesis or even death AIM: The present study means to evaluate the gross anomalies on developing f o etus subsequent to silver nanoparticle ingestion during the gestational period. MATERIAL & METHOD: Random selections of pregnant Swiss albino mice were selected. AgNPs, of 20 - 100 nm size ra nge, were administered to pregnant mice by repeated oral gavages at concentra tions of 0.5, 1, 5, 10, 15 & 20 mg/kg/day during 4 - 17 gestational day. All dams were subjected to exteriorization on GD 18. The fetuses were evaluated for body malformation effects . RESULTS: Repeated oral gavages treatment with AgNPs at a concentration of 0.5mg/kg/day caused resorption (4.61% and intra uterine growth retardation (7.69% with no gross morphology alteration. 1 mg/kg/day caused resorption (9.23% and intra uterine growth retardation (10.76% with a rare case of haemorrhagic conception (1.53%, 5mg/kg/day caused limb malformation (7.01% resorption (17.54% and intra uterine growth retardation (17.54%, closed type Neural tube deformity (5.26%, 10mg/kg/day caused 20 % of limb malformation including Amelia, foot and tail vein hemorrhages and simple tail vein haemorrhage (3.50% each, resorption (22.80%, intra uterine growth retardation (29.82%, 15mg/kg/day caused severe hemorrhage within the entire body (22.80%, lim b anomaly including syndactyly and oligodactyly (8.77%, resorption (42.10%, intra uterine growth retardation (45.61%, 20mg/kg/day caused Omphalocele (3.27%, Bidiscoidal placental anomaly (9.83%, resorption (29.50% and intra uterine growth retardation (62.29%. CONCLUSION: The results show that a repeated oral dose of AgNPs during pregnancy caused fetal body dysmorphogenesis which is dose

  8. Research on the Control of AC Servo Motor Based on Narendra Adaptive Controller%基于 Narendra稳定自适应控制器交流伺服电机的控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖辉; 黄崇林; 黄永生

    2014-01-01

    交流伺服电机在实际运行的过程中负载的变化,负载的变化导致控制系统参数发生改变,如系统的频率、阻尼等。针对这些本身参数发生的变化系统,变化较小时,简单的控制器对控制结果影响不大,但控制很难对其变化进行调节控制,人工智能控制器可自动适应负载的变化,而神经网络、模糊控制等,但这些控制器存在结构复杂,调整时间长等,实际应用中得不到很好的应用。利用自适应控制设计方法,将系统转换成线性的可控系统,并引入不确定参数构造控制器的自适应估计律,实时对未知参数进行调整,保证整个闭环系统的动态品质。为提高系统的动态控制品质,引入Narendra稳定自适应控制器对交流伺服电机控制进行控制,利用不同的输入信号对控制进行测试,结果表明,Narendra稳定自适应控制器对交流伺服电机控制系统具有良好的控制性能。%The load in AC servo motor will be fluctuated in actual operation process, and then the change of loads would cause the change of control system parameters, such as the system frequency, damping, etc.Changes of these parameters of the sys-tem have little effect on the control results, such as the simple controller PI, however, it is difficult to adjust the change in controlprocess ;the artificial intelligent controller can automatically adapt to the changes of load, but the controllers, like the neural network, fuzzy control, have complex structure, and need long adjustment time, thus it cannot greatly used in practical application.In this paper, the system is converted into a controllable linear system by using the adaptive control method, and the self-adaptive estimation law with uncertain parameters is introduced to the system in order to adjust the unknown parame-ters in real time, and guarantee the dynamic quality of the whole closed loop system.To improve the quality of

  9. Neurodevelopmental Outcome of ECMO Survivors at Five Years of Age: The Potential for Academic and Motor Difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenbacher, Deborah; Nield, Toni; Poulsen, Marie Kanne

    2001-01-01

    This study examined the cognitive and motor functioning of 52 survivors of neonatal extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) at age 5. Ten percent were diagnosed with mental retardation, while an additional 12 percent presented other disabilities. A common pattern of specific vulnerabilities in cognitive, gross motor, fine motor, and motor…

  10. The Relationship between Motor Abilities and Early Social Development in a Preschool Cohort of Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittingham, Koa; Fahey, Michael; Rawicki, Barry; Boyd, Roslyn

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the relationship between motor ability and early social development in a cohort of preschool children with cerebral palsy (CP). Design: Population-based cohort study. Methods: Participants were 122 children with CP assessed at 18, 24 and 30 months, corrected age (ca). Motor ability was measured by the Gross Motor Function…

  11. Gross revenue risk in Swiss dairy farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Benni, N; Finger, R

    2013-02-01

    This study investigated how agricultural policy reforms, including market liberalization and market deregulation, have influenced gross revenue risk of Swiss dairy producers using farm-level panel data between 1990 and 2009. Based on detrended data, variance decomposition was applied to assess how output prices and yields contributed to revenue risk over 3 different periods: the whole period (1990-2009), the first decade (1990-1999), and the second decade (1999-2009). In addition, the effect of expected changes in animal-based support for roughage-consuming cattle and price volatility on revenue risk was evaluated using a simulation model. Prices were the main contributor to revenue risk, even if the importance of yield risk increased over time. Swiss dairy producers can profit from natural hedge but market deregulation and market liberalization have reduced the natural hedge at the farm level. An increase in price volatility would substantially increase revenue risk and would, together with the abandonment of direct payments, reduce the comparative advantage of dairy production for risk-averse decision makers. Depending on other available risk management strategies, price risk management instruments might be a valuable solution for Swiss dairy producers in the future.

  12. Remote control for motor vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Dale R. (Inventor); Ciciora, John A. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A remote controller is disclosed for controlling the throttle, brake and steering mechanism of a conventional motor vehicle, with the remote controller being particularly advantageous for use by severely handicapped individuals. The controller includes a remote manipulator which controls a plurality of actuators through interfacing electronics. The remote manipulator is a two-axis joystick which controls a pair of linear actuators and a rotary actuator, with the actuators being powered by electric motors to effect throttle, brake and steering control of a motor vehicle adapted to include the controller. The controller enables the driver to control the adapted vehicle from anywhere in the vehicle with one hand with minimal control force and range of motion. In addition, even though a conventional vehicle is adapted for use with the remote controller, the vehicle may still be operated in the normal manner.

  13. Guidelines for Standard Photography in Gross and Clinical Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barut, Cagatay; Ertilav, Hakan

    2011-01-01

    Photography has a widespread usage in medicine and anatomy. In this review, authors focused on the usage of photography in gross and clinical anatomy. Photography in gross and clinical anatomy is not only essential for accurate documentation of morphological findings but also important in sharing knowledge and experience. Photographs of cadavers…

  14. 26 CFR 1.61-4 - Gross income of farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Gross income of farmers. (a) Farmers using the cash method of accounting. A farmer using the cash receipts and disbursements method of accounting shall include in his gross income for the taxable year— (1) The amount of cash and the value of merchandise or other property received during the taxable...

  15. Guidelines for Standard Photography in Gross and Clinical Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barut, Cagatay; Ertilav, Hakan

    2011-01-01

    Photography has a widespread usage in medicine and anatomy. In this review, authors focused on the usage of photography in gross and clinical anatomy. Photography in gross and clinical anatomy is not only essential for accurate documentation of morphological findings but also important in sharing knowledge and experience. Photographs of cadavers…

  16. The Gross Anatomy Course: An Analysis of Its Importance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockers, Anja; Jerg-Bretzke, Lucia; Lamp, Christoph; Brinkmann, Anke; Traue, Harald C.; Bockers, Tobias M.

    2010-01-01

    The gross anatomy dissection course is a cost-intensive piece of undergraduate medical education that students and professionals alike describe as very important within the overall medical curriculum. We sought to understand more explicitly students' valuation of gross anatomy as an "important" course and so developed a quantitative…

  17. Application of fuzzy self-adaption PI control on brushless DC motor speed regulating system%模糊自适应PI控制在直流无刷电动机调速系统的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡发焕; 唐军; 邱小童

    2012-01-01

    在分析直流无刷电动机的工作原理和数学模型的基础上,提出基于速度环和电流环的双环控制模式,在速度环中采用模糊自适应PI控制方式,在电流环中采用传统的PID控制方式.实验表明,与传统PID控制方式相比,采用模糊自适应PI控制,在负载或参数发生变化时,具有转速波动更小、鲁棒性更强的特点,是一种更优越的控制方法.%Based on analyzing the principle and mathematical model of the brushless DC motor, the paper proposes a control model on the basis of speed loop and current loop, self-adaption fuzzy PI control model is a-dopted in the speed loop, and traditional PID control model is used in the current loop. It is showed that when the load or parameters vary, comparing to traditional PID control model, the self-adaption fuzzy PI control model gets less fluctuation and better robustness.

  18. Cerebellum to motor cortex paired associative stimulation induces bidirectional STDP-like plasticity in human motor cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Ming-Kuei; Tsai, Chon-Haw; Ziemann, Ulf

    2012-01-01

    The cerebellum is crucially important for motor control and adaptation. Recent non-invasive brain stimulation studies have indicated the possibility to alter the excitability of the cerebellum and its projections to the contralateral motor cortex, with behavioral consequences on motor control and adaptation. Here we sought to induce bidirectional spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP)-like modifications of motor cortex (M1) excitability by application of paired associative stimulation (PAS)...

  19. Motor homopolar

    OpenAIRE

    Agustín Martín Muñoz

    2007-01-01

    Mostramos la construcción de un modelo de motor homopolar, uno de los más antiguos tipos de motores eléctricos. Se caracterizan porque el campo magnético del imán mantiene siempre la misma polaridad (de ahí su nombre, del griego homos, igual), de modo que, cuando una corriente eléctrica atraviesa el campo magnético, aparece una fuerza que hace girar los elementos no fijados mecánicamente. En el sencillísimo motor homopolar colgado (Schlichting y Ucke 2004), el imán puede girar ...

  20. Qigong massage for motor skills in young children with cerebral palsy and Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Louisa M T; Schalock, Mark; Garberg, Jodi; Smith, Cynthia Lammers

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we present a small randomized controlled study evaluating the effect of a dual parent- and trainer-delivered qigong massage methodology on motor skills and sensory responses in 28 children under age 4 with developmental delay and motor tone abnormalities. Fourteen children had high motor tone as a result of cerebral palsy (CP), and 14 children had low motor tone as a result of Down syndrome. Multivariate analysis and post hoc analysis of variance showed large effect-size improvements in Peabody Gross Motor Scale (PGMS) Object Manipulation scores (p qigong massage as a promising avenue for research to improve motor skills in young children with CP and Down syndrome.