WorldWideScience

Sample records for gross load capacities

  1. Gross Pollutant Traps: Wet Load Assessment at Sungai Kerayong, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Shah, M. R.; Zahari, N. M.; Said, N. F. Md; Sidek, L. M.; Basri, H.; Noor, M. S. F. Md; Husni, M. M. Mohammad; Jajarmizadeh, Milad; Roseli, ZA; Mohd. Dom, N.

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this project is to carry out assessment on the effectiveness and performance of Gross Pollutant Traps (GPTs) stormwater quality control in the urban areas. The study aims to provide a management and planning tool for effective management of the gross pollutants in the urban areas specifically in River of Life (ROL) project. ROL project is a Malaysian Government initiative under the Economic Transformation Program. One of the program in the greater Klang Valley is to transform Klang River into a vibrant and livable waterfront by the year 2020. The main river in ROL catchment is Sungai Klang (upper catchment), with main tributaries Sungai Gombak, Sungai Batu, Sungai Jinjang, Sungai Keroh, Sungai Bunus, Sungai Ampang and Sungai Kerayong. This paper objective is to study the gross pollutant wet load at Sungai Kerayong 1 and Sungai Kerayong 2 which is located at the downstream location of the ROL project. The result shows that Sungai Kerayong 2 produced higher gross pollutant wet load (8025.33 kg/ha/yr) than Sungai Kerayong 1 (4695.12 kg/ha/yr). This could be due to high contributions amounts of gross pollutant traps from residential area, the degree of develop area, and also the location of the river itself related to climate and rainfall.

  2. Longitudinal Association Between Gross Motor Capacity and Neuromusculoskeletal Function in Children and Youth With Cerebral Palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Rimke C.; Becher, Jules G.; Voorman, Jeanine M.; Gorter, Jan Willem; van Eck, Mirjam; van Meeteren, Jetty; Smits, Dirk Wouter; Twisk, Jos W.; Dallmeijer, Annet J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To examine associations over longitudinal measurements between neuromusculoskeletal function and gross motor capacity in children and youth with cerebral palsy (CP). Design: A prospective cohort study. Setting: Rehabilitation departments of university medical centers and rehabilitations c

  3. Longitudinal Association Between Gross Motor Capacity and Neuromusculoskeletal Function in Children and Youth With Cerebral Palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Rimke C.; Becher, Jules G.; Voorman, Jeanine M.; Gorter, Jan Willem; van Eck, Mirjam; van Meeteren, Jetty; Smits, Dirk Wouter; Twisk, Jos W.; Dallmeijer, Annet J.; van Schie, P. E M; Schuengel, C.; Ketelaar, M.; Lindeman, E.; Jongmans, M.; Roebroeck, M. E.; Tan, S. S.; Wiegerink, D. J H G; Reinders-Messelink, H. A.; Verheijden, J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine associations over longitudinal measurements between neuromusculoskeletal function and gross motor capacity in children and youth with cerebral palsy (CP). Design A prospective cohort study. Setting Rehabilitation departments of university medical centers and rehabilitations cent

  4. Longitudinal Association Between Gross Motor Capacity and Neuromusculoskeletal Function in Children and Youth With Cerebral Palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Rimke C.; Becher, Jules G.; Voorman, Jeanine M.; Gorter, Jan Willem; van Eck, Mirjam; van Meeteren, Jetty; Smits, Dirk Wouter; Twisk, Jos W.; Dallmeijer, Annet J.

    Objective: To examine associations over longitudinal measurements between neuromusculoskeletal function and gross motor capacity in children and youth with cerebral palsy (CP). Design: A prospective cohort study. Setting: Rehabilitation departments of university medical centers and rehabilitations

  5. Longitudinal Association Between Gross Motor Capacity and Neuromusculoskeletal Function in Children and Youth With Cerebral Palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Rimke C.; Becher, Jules G.; Voorman, Jeanine M.; Gorter, Jan Willem; van Eck, Mirjam; van Meeteren, Jetty; Smits, Dirk Wouter; Twisk, Jos W.; Dallmeijer, Annet J.; van Schie, P. E M; Schuengel, C.; Ketelaar, M.; Lindeman, E.; Jongmans, M.; Roebroeck, M. E.; Tan, S. S.; Wiegerink, D. J H G; Reinders-Messelink, H. A.; Verheijden, J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine associations over longitudinal measurements between neuromusculoskeletal function and gross motor capacity in children and youth with cerebral palsy (CP). Design A prospective cohort study. Setting Rehabilitation departments of university medical centers and rehabilitations

  6. Load profile impact on the gross energy requirement of stand-alone photovoltaic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiaux, Y.; Seigneurbieux, J.; Multon, B.; Ben Ahmed, H. [SATIE, ENS CACHAN Bretagne, CNRS, UEB, Avenue Robert Schuman, F-35170 Bruz (France)

    2010-03-15

    The sizing optimization of a Stand-Alone Photovoltaic system (SAPV) is a very complex issue. Therefore, a compromise solution must be made between having an acceptable energy and economic cost for the consumer, and a relatively correct energy supply quality. The Gross Energy Requirement (GER) of an SAPV system corresponds to the primary energy total amount required for the production, the maintenance and the recycling of this system. Reducing the GER is thus, an effective way to promote the development of SAPV systems. Therefore, the load profile management, in order to get closer to the ideal 'solar' consumer, allows the downsizing of the system. In this paper, a methodology for studying the impact of load profiles on GER is proposed. Two different modifications parameters have been considered theoretically on idealized load and production profiles: the load shifting which seems simpler to implement in the reality, and the amplitude modulation. Furthermore, the NSGA-II genetic algorithm has been used to confirm theoretical outcomes and to optimize SAPV system sizing for three realistic load profiles, with the aim of quantifying the GER reduction, by minimizing the storage capacity (taking into account the replacements due to cycling) which is one of the weak points of such a system, and by PV panels downsizing. (author)

  7. Pile Load Capacity – Calculation Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wrana Bogumił

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is a review of the current problems of the foundation pile capacity calculations. The article considers the main principles of pile capacity calculations presented in Eurocode 7 and other methods with adequate explanations. Two main methods are presented: α – method used to calculate the short-term load capacity of piles in cohesive soils and β – method used to calculate the long-term load capacity of piles in both cohesive and cohesionless soils. Moreover, methods based on cone CPTu result are presented as well as the pile capacity problem based on static tests.

  8. Assessment of leaching loss estimates and gross load of nitrogen from arable land in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, Markus (Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Soil Sciences)

    1999-01-01

    The focus of this thesis is on calculating N leaching loss estimates and gross loads of nitrogen. Calculations were done at two different scales, from field resolution in a small catchment to calculations at a large scale for the south and central part of Sweden. The latter study was initiated by Swedish commitments to international agreements concerning a decrease in N emissions to the Baltic Sea. Three of the papers deal with leaching of nitrogen in different periods: as it may have been in the 19[sup th] century, the current situation, and suggestions for a decrease with different countermeasures. The tools used in making these estimations were the SOIL/SOILN models. Calculations indicate that average N leaching was about the same in the 19[sup th] century as it is today at the end of the 20[sup th] century. The main reasons for high losses in the 19[sup th] century were high mineralisation rates in newly ploughed grassland, crop stress due to unfavourable conditions caused poor utilisation of N by crops, and large areas of bare fallow. N leaching was at its lowest in the 1930's due to larger N utilisation, a general termination of enhanced mineralisation and a large acreage of ley. Since then leaching has increased by on average about 60%, and more in the south of Sweden. Results also indicate that the draining of lakes has considerably decreased the retention capacity and is, along with the increase in gross load, one of the main causes of increased net load to the sea. A decrease in N leaching was estimated for the period 1985-1994. The decrease was mostly due to a smaller total area of arable land and an increase in the acreage of ley at the expense of cereals. The increase in the percentage of ley in the ten-year period (1985-1994) was the largest occurring in such a short time in the last 130 years in Sweden. Scenario calculations indicate that there is a potential for a decrease in the gross load of approximately 10 ktonnes from the current level of

  9. Load-Bearing Capacity of Roof Trusses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Damkilde, Lars; Munch-Andersen, J.

    2004-01-01

    systems such as roof trusses are established and statistical characteristics of the load bearing capacity are determined. The results show that there is a significant increase in the characteristic (nominal) value and a reduction in the coefficient of variation (COV) for typical loads such as permanent...

  10. Load-Bearing Capacity of Roof Trusses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Damkilde, Lars; Munch-Andersen, J.

    2004-01-01

    systems such as roof trusses are established and statistical characteristics of the load bearing capacity are determined. The results show that there is a significant increase in the characteristic (nominal) value and a reduction in the coefficient of variation (COV) for typical loads such as permanent......-sections with low strength and stiffness will generally not have large load effects. Further, there can be system effects due to non-linear material behavior. In this paper a stochastic model is established for the bending strength and stiffness of timber beams. Next, stochastic models for typical timber structural...

  11. Lightweight Aggregate Concrete Beams. Load-bearing Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henning; Goltermann, Per; Ingholt, N.U.

    1997-01-01

    This paper deals with the load-bearing capacity of reinforced beams made of lightweight aggregate concrete with open structure and documents formulas for the moment capacity as well as the shear force capacity.......This paper deals with the load-bearing capacity of reinforced beams made of lightweight aggregate concrete with open structure and documents formulas for the moment capacity as well as the shear force capacity....

  12. Lightweight Aggregate Concrete Components. Load-bearing Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henning; Ingholt, N.U.; Goltermann, Per

    1996-01-01

    The project presented here deals with the load-bearing capacity of reinforced beams made of lightweight aggregate concrete with open structure and documents expressions for the moment capacity as well as the shear force capacity......The project presented here deals with the load-bearing capacity of reinforced beams made of lightweight aggregate concrete with open structure and documents expressions for the moment capacity as well as the shear force capacity...

  13. Associations between Manual Abilities, Gross Motor Function, Epilepsy, and Mental Capacity in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa GAJEWSKA*

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: Gajewska E, Sobieska M, Samborski W. Associations between Manual Abilities, Gross Motor Function, Epilepsy, and Mental Capacity in Children with Cerebral Palsy. Iran J Child Neurol. 2014 Spring 8(2:45-52.ObjectiveThis study aimed to evaluate gross motor function and hand function in children with cerebral palsy to explore their association with epilepsy and mental capacity. Material & MethodsThe research investigating the association between gross and fine motor function and the presence of epilepsy and/or mental impairment was conducted on a group of 83 children (45 girls, 38 boys. Among them, 41 were diagnosedwith quadriplegia, 14 hemiplegia, 18 diplegia, 7 mixed form, and 3 athetosis.A neurologist assessed each child in terms of possible epilepsy and confirmed diagnosis in 35 children. A psychologist assessed the mental level (according toWechsler and found 13 children within intellectual norm, 3 children with mild mental impairment, 18 with moderate, 27 with severe, and 22 with profound.Children were then classified based on Gross Motor Function Classification System and Manual Ability Classification Scale.ResultsThe gross motor function and manual performance were analysed in relation to mental impairment and the presence of epilepsy. Epilepsy was found to disturb conscious motor functions, but also higher degree of mental impairment wasobserved in children with epilepsy.ConclusionThe occurrence of epilepsy in children with cerebral palsy is associated with worse manual function. The occurrence of epilepsy is associated with limitations in conscious motor functions. There is an association between epilepsy in children with cerebral palsy and the degree of mental impairment.The occurrence of epilepsy, mainly in children with hemiplegia and diplegia is associated with worse mental capacities.ReferencesRichards CL, Malouin F. Cerebral palsy: definition, assessment and rehabilitation. Handb Clin Neurol

  14. CAPACITY OF ROTARY LOADING MACHINE ON COAL STOCK FACILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Živković

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to reduce the cost of the stock facility, which might contain large coal masses (usually several hundreds of thousands of tons it is important to have the loading capacity adjusted to the transport and boiler capacity. In the case of either too small or too large capacity of loading machinery a technical incompatibility of the loading and transport system can occur, together with some unecessary investments in too large loading machines. This is why it is necessary to have an accurate determination of working conditions, specific for each stocking capacity (the paper is published in Croatian.

  15. Bearing Capacity of Foundations subjected to Impact Loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo; Jakobsen, Kim Parsberg

    1996-01-01

    In the design process for foundations, the bearing capacity calculations are normally restricted to monotonic loads. Even in cases where the impact load is of significance the dynamic aspects are neglected by use of a traditional deterministic ultimate limit state analysis. Nevertheless it is com......In the design process for foundations, the bearing capacity calculations are normally restricted to monotonic loads. Even in cases where the impact load is of significance the dynamic aspects are neglected by use of a traditional deterministic ultimate limit state analysis. Nevertheless...

  16. Increasing the load bearing capacity of barrel vaults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamerling, M.W.

    2011-01-01

    Just after World War II many barrel vaults and domes were built with a structural system, known as Fusée Ceramique. This paper analyses the load bearing capacity of these vaults. Schemes, theories, idealizations and assumptions are analysed, validated and discussed. Methods to increase the load bear

  17. Ultimate deformation capacity of reinforced concrete slabs underblast load

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doormaal, J.C.A.M. van; Weerheijm, J.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper a test method to determine the deformation capacity and the resistance-deformation curve of blast-loaded slabs is described. This method was developed at TNO-PML. The method has been used to determine the ultimate deformation capacity of some simply supported reinforced concrete slabs

  18. Ultimate deformation capacity of reinforced concrete slabs underblast load

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doormaal, J.C.A.M. van; Weerheijm, J.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper a test method to determine the deformation capacity and the resistance-deformation curve of blast-loaded slabs is described. This method was developed at TNO-PML. The method has been used to determine the ultimate deformation capacity of some simply supported reinforced concrete slabs

  19. Vertical load capacities of roof truss cross members

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gearhart David F.; Mohamed Khaled Morsy

    2016-01-01

    Trusses used for roof support in coal mines are constructed of two grouted bolts installed at opposing forty-five degree angles into the roof and a cross member that ties the angled bolts together. The load on the cross member is vertical, which is transverse to the longitudinal axis, and therefore the cross member is loaded in the weakest direction. Laboratory tests were conducted to determine the vertical load capacity and deflection of three different types of cross members. Single-point load tests, with the load applied in the center of the specimen and double-point load tests, with a span of 2.4 m, were con-ducted. For the single-point load configuration, the yield of the 25 mm solid bar cross member was nom-inally 98 kN of vertical load, achieved at 42 cm of deflection. For cable cross members, yield was not achieved even after 45 cm of deflection. Peak vertical loads were about 89 kN for 17 mm cables and 67 kN for the 15 mm cables. For the double-point load configurations, the 25 mm solid bar cross mem-bers yielded at 150 kN of vertical load and 25 cm of deflection. At 25 cm of deflection individual cable strands started breaking at 133 and 111 kN of vertical load for the 17 and 15 mm cable cross members respectively.

  20. Boundary slippage for generating hydrodynamic load-carrying capacity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yong-bin

    2008-01-01

    Boundary slippage is used to generate the load-carrying capacity of the hydrodynamic contact between two parallel plane surfaces.In the fluid inlet zone,the fluidcontact interfacial shear strength on a stationary surface is set at low to generate boundary slippage there,while in the fluid outlet zone the fluid-contact interfacial shear strength on the stationary surface is set at high enough to prevent the occurrence of boundary slippage.The fluid-contact interfacial shear strength on the entire moving surface is set at high enough to prevent boundary slippage on the moving surface.These hydrodynamic contact configurations are analyzed to generate the pronounced load-carrying capacity.The optimum ratio of the outlet zone width to the inlet zone width for the maximum load-carrying capacity of the whole contact is found to be 0.5.

  1. Determination of Loading Capacity of a Direct Solar Boiler Dryer

    OpenAIRE

    I.A. Ikem; D. Osim-Asu; O.E. Nyong; S.A. Takim

    2016-01-01

    Thermodynamic analysis of solar boiler natural convection dryer used for drying agricultural products was employed to dry restaurant wastes. Practical steps were taken to determine the loading capacity of the dryer. Replicas of the dryer (dimensions and materials) were selected and employed but with varying loads. This dryer is made up of glass flat-plate collector which serves as the drying chamber cover. Thermodynamic properties of the working fluid were measured at input and exit points...

  2. Micro-machined high capacity silicon load cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwijze, A.F.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the research presented in this thesis is to improve the performance of high capacity conventional load cells or force sensors by using silicon as the base material. Silicon is used because it offers the possibility of realising small, light, low cost and high performance mechanical sensor

  3. Processing Capacity under Perceptual and Cognitive Load: A Closer Look at Load Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitousi, Daniel; Wenger, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Variations in perceptual and cognitive demands (load) play a major role in determining the efficiency of selective attention. According to load theory (Lavie, Hirst, Fockert, & Viding, 2004) these factors (a) improve or hamper selectivity by altering the way resources (e.g., processing capacity) are allocated, and (b) tap resources rather than…

  4. Plug and Process Loads Capacity and Power Requirements Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheppy, M.; Gentile-Polese, L.

    2014-09-01

    This report addresses gaps in actionable knowledge that would help reduce the plug load capacities designed into buildings. Prospective building occupants and real estate brokers lack accurate references for plug and process load (PPL) capacity requirements, so they often request 5-10 W/ft2 in their lease agreements. Limited initial data, however, suggest that actual PPL densities in leased buildings are substantially lower. Overestimating PPL capacity leads designers to oversize electrical infrastructure and cooling systems. Better guidance will enable improved sizing and design of these systems, decrease upfront capital costs, and allow systems to operate more energy efficiently. The main focus of this report is to provide industry with reliable, objective third-party guidance to address the information gap in typical PPL densities for commercial building tenants. This could drive changes in negotiations about PPL energy demands.

  5. Vertical bearing capacity of pile based on load transfer model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Ming-hua; YANG Ming-hui; ZOU Xin-jun

    2005-01-01

    The load transfer analytical method is applied to study the bearing mechanism of piles with vertical load in this paper. According to the different hardening rules of soil or rock around the pile shaft, such as work-softening, ideal elasto-plastic and work-hardening, a universal tri-linear load transfer model is suggested for the development of side and tip resistance by various types of soil (rock) with the consideration of sediment at the bottom of the pile. Based on the model, a formula is derived for the relationship between the settlement and load on the pile top to determine the vertical bearing capacity, taking into account such factors as the characteristics of the stratum, the side resistance along the shaft, and tip resistance under the pile tip. A close agreement of the calculated results with the measured data from a field test pile lends confidence to the future application of the present approach in engineering practice.

  6. Residential Variable-Capacity Heat Pumps Sized to Heating Loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munk, Jeffrey D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jackson, Roderick K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Odukomaiya, Adewale [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Gehl, Anthony C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Variable capacity heat pumps are an emerging technology offering significant energy savings potential and improved efficiency. With conventional single-speed systems, it is important to appropriately size heat pumps for the cooling load as over-sizing would result in cycling and insufficient latent capacity required for humidity control. These appropriately sized systems are often under-sized for the heating load and require inefficient supplemental electric resistance heat to meet the heating demand. Variable capacity heat pumps address these shortcomings by providing an opportunity to intentionally size systems for the dominant heating season load without adverse effects of cycling or insufficient dehumidification in the cooling season. This intentionally-sized system could result in significant energy savings in the heating season, as the need for inefficient supplemental electric resistance heat is drastically reduced. This is a continuation of a study evaluating the energy consumption of variable capacity heat pumps installed in two unoccupied research homes in Farragut, a suburb of Knoxville, Tennessee. In this particular study, space conditioning systems are intentionally sized for the heating season loads to provide an opportunity to understand and evaluate the impact this would have on electric resistance heat use and dehumidification. The results and conclusions drawn through this research are valid and specific for portions of the Southeastern and Midwestern United States falling in the mixed-humid climate zone. While other regions in the U.S. do not experience this type of climate, this work provides a basis for, and can help understand the implications of other climate zones on residential space conditioning energy consumption. The data presented here will provide a framework for fine tuning residential building EnergyPlus models that are being developed.

  7. Residential Variable-Capacity Heat Pumps Sized to Heating Loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munk, Jeffrey D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jackson, Roderick K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Odukomaiya, Adewale [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Gehl, Anthony C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Variable capacity heat pumps are an emerging technology offering significant energy savings potential and improved efficiency. With conventional single-speed systems, it is important to appropriately size heat pumps for the cooling load as over-sizing would result in cycling and insufficient latent capacity required for humidity control. These appropriately sized systems are often under-sized for the heating load and require inefficient supplemental electric resistance heat to meet the heating demand. Variable capacity heat pumps address these shortcomings by providing an opportunity to intentionally size systems for the dominant heating season load without adverse effects of cycling or insufficient dehumidification in the cooling season. This intentionally-sized system could result in significant energy savings in the heating season, as the need for inefficient supplemental electric resistance heat is drastically reduced. This is a continuation of a study evaluating the energy consumption of variable capacity heat pumps installed in two unoccupied research homes in Farragut, a suburb of Knoxville, Tennessee. In this particular study, space conditioning systems are intentionally sized for the heating season loads to provide an opportunity to understand and evaluate the impact this would have on electric resistance heat use and dehumidification. The results and conclusions drawn through this research are valid and specific for portions of the Southeastern and Midwestern United States falling in the mixed-humid climate zone. While other regions in the U.S. do not experience this type of climate, this work provides a basis for, and can help understand the implications of other climate zones on residential space conditioning energy consumption. The data presented here will provide a framework for fine tuning residential building EnergyPlus models that are being developed.

  8. Load Management of Data Centers as Regulation Capacity in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Anders; Ghatikar, Girish; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2014-01-01

    based and by 2050 the goal is to have an energy production based entirely on renewable energy. Renewable energy such as solar and wind is subject to variations due to changing weather conditions. This requires additional balancing capacity and ancillary services in order to balance the grid...... are of special interest as they account for 500 GWh of consumption in Denmark or nearly 2% of the total electricity consumption. This paper performs an analysis on load management capabilities of data centers in Denmark based on the experiences in the U.S. We characterize the load management capabilities...... of the data centers based on their types, technology, and their application as grid management resources. Further, we identify demand-side entry barriers towards market participation. Our findings suggest that groups of data centers can offer dynamic load flexibility as virtual power plants, and thereby...

  9. Cognitive Load Imposed by Ultrasound-Facilitated Teaching Does Not Adversely Affect Gross Anatomy Learning Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamniczky, Heather A.; Cotton, Darrel; Paget, Michael; Ramji, Qahir; Lenz, Ryan; McLaughlin, Kevin; Coderre, Sylvain; Ma, Irene W. Y.

    2017-01-01

    Ultrasonography is increasingly used in medical education, but its impact on learning outcomes is unclear. Adding ultrasound may facilitate learning, but may also potentially overwhelm novice learners. Based upon the framework of cognitive load theory, this study seeks to evaluate the relationship between cognitive load associated with using…

  10. Potential for solar-powered base-load capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, Brady; Deinert, Mark

    2013-04-01

    In 2010 nuclear power accounted for 27% of electricity production in Japan. The March 2011 disaster at the Fukushima Daiichi power station resulted in the closure of all of Japans nuclear power plants and it remains an open question as to how many will reopen. Even before the loss of nuclear capacity there were efforts in Japan to foster the use of renewable energy, including large-scale solar power. Nuclear power plants in Japan operated beyond base load with excess energy being stored in large scale pumped hydroelectric storage systems. Here we show how coupling these storage systems to rooftop solar systems in Tokyo could compensate for the loss of nuclear power. Data from a study of rooftop space, and a 34-year data set of average daily irradiance in the Tokyo metropolitan area were used. If current generation PV systems were placed on the available rooftop space in greater Tokyo, this coupled system could provide for 20% of Toyo's nuclear capacity with a capacity factor of 0.99. Using pumped hydroelectric storage with six times this rooftop area could completely provide for TEPCO's nuclear capacity with a capacity factor of 0.98.

  11. Optimization of small portable hoist load-capacity model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yuanheng; Yin, Hao; Liang, Zuotang; Xu, Cheng

    2017-04-01

    Small Portable Hoist (SPH) is needed in many special occasions; the load-capacity (LC) is one of the most important metrics. There are few researches direct related on SPH and the LC is calculated by Euler's formula in most published related literatures. Because of the SPH's unique, experimental research is carried out on the LC, an optimization of Euler's formula is got by analyzing the effects of wrap angle φ, end tension FB, and relative size of r and R. This optimization is more accurate and it deepens the understanding of the friction between wheel and the bending rope.

  12. Dynamic Response of RPC-Filled Steel Tubular Columns with High Load Carrying Capacity Under Axial Impact Loading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Zhimin; WU Ping'an; JIA Jianwei

    2008-01-01

    Experimental investigation into impact-resistant behavior of reactive powder concrete (RPC)-filled steel tubular columns was conducted, and dynamic response of the columns under axial impact loading was studied by means of numerical simulation method.Increase coefficient of load carrying capacity and ratio of load carrying capacity between steel tube and RPC core of columns were obtained.

  13. Cognitive load imposed by ultrasound-facilitated teaching does not adversely affect gross anatomy learning outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamniczky, Heather A; Cotton, Darrel; Paget, Michael; Ramji, Qahir; Lenz, Ryan; McLaughlin, Kevin; Coderre, Sylvain; Ma, Irene W Y

    2017-03-01

    Ultrasonography is increasingly used in medical education, but its impact on learning outcomes is unclear. Adding ultrasound may facilitate learning, but may also potentially overwhelm novice learners. Based upon the framework of cognitive load theory, this study seeks to evaluate the relationship between cognitive load associated with using ultrasound and learning outcomes. The use of ultrasound was hypothesized to facilitate learning in anatomy for 161 novice first-year medical students. Using linear regression analyses, the relationship between reported cognitive load on using ultrasound and learning outcomes as measured by anatomy laboratory examination scores four weeks after ultrasound-guided anatomy training was evaluated in consenting students. Second anatomy examination scores of students who were taught anatomy with ultrasound were compared with historical controls (those not taught with ultrasound). Ultrasound's perceived utility for learning was measured on a five-point scale. Cognitive load on using ultrasound was measured on a nine-point scale. Primary outcome was the laboratory examination score (60 questions). Learners found ultrasound useful for learning. Weighted factor score on "image interpretation" was negatively, but insignificantly, associated with examination scores [F (1,135) = 0.28, beta = -0.22; P = 0.61]. Weighted factor score on "basic knobology" was positively and insignificantly associated with scores; [F (1,138) = 0.27, beta = 0.42; P = 0.60]. Cohorts exposed to ultrasound had significantly higher scores than historical controls (82.4% ± SD 8.6% vs. 78.8% ± 8.5%, Cohen's d = 0.41, P learning and may improve learning outcomes. Anat Sci Educ 10: 144-151. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.

  14. Load controller and method to enhance effective capacity of a photovotaic power supply using a dynamically determined expected peak loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Richard

    2003-04-01

    A load controller and method are provided for maximizing effective capacity of a non-controllable, renewable power supply coupled to a variable electrical load also coupled to a conventional power grid. Effective capacity is enhanced by monitoring power output of the renewable supply and loading, and comparing the loading against the power output and a load adjustment threshold determined from an expected peak loading. A value for a load adjustment parameter is calculated by subtracting the renewable supply output and the load adjustment parameter from the current load. This value is then employed to control the variable load in an amount proportional to the value of the load control parameter when the parameter is within a predefined range. By so controlling the load, the effective capacity of the non-controllable, renewable power supply is increased without any attempt at operational feedback control of the renewable supply. The expected peak loading of the variable load can be dynamically determined within a defined time interval with reference to variations in the variable load.

  15. The effect of loading rate on pile bearing capacity of saturated sand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Archeewa, E.

    2005-01-01

    Pile load tests are commonly used by engineers to determine its bearing capacity. At present, there are three methods of pile load tests: the static, the dynamic and the quasi-static test. The static pile load test is done by applying an axial load on the pile with a long duration. The dynamic and q

  16. The effect of loading rate on pile bearing capacity of saturated sand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Archeewa, E.

    2005-01-01

    Pile load tests are commonly used by engineers to determine its bearing capacity. At present, there are three methods of pile load tests: the static, the dynamic and the quasi-static test. The static pile load test is done by applying an axial load on the pile with a long duration. The dynamic and q

  17. Shear capacity of slabs under a combination of loads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lantsoght, E.O.L.; Van der Veen, C.; Walraven, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    Existing solid slab bridges under a combination of wheel loads and distributed traffic loads sometimes do not fulfil the code requirements for shear. However, reinforced concrete slabs loaded close to the support are subjected to shear stresses which might result in a failure mode of combined punchi

  18. Predicting physiological capacity of human load carriage - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drain, Jace; Billing, Daniel; Neesham-Smith, Daniel; Aisbett, Brad

    2016-01-01

    This review article aims to evaluate a proposed maximum acceptable work duration model for load carriage tasks. It is contended that this concept has particular relevance to physically demanding occupations such as military and firefighting. Personnel in these occupations are often required to perform very physically demanding tasks, over varying time periods, often involving load carriage. Previous research has investigated concepts related to physiological workload limits in occupational settings (e.g. industrial). Evidence suggests however, that existing (unloaded) workload guidelines are not appropriate for load carriage tasks. The utility of this model warrants further work to enable prediction of load carriage durations across a range of functional workloads for physically demanding occupations. If the maximum duration for which personnel can physiologically sustain a load carriage task could be accurately predicted, commanders and supervisors could better plan for and manage tasks to ensure operational imperatives were met whilst minimising health risks for their workers.

  19. Numerical prediction of the bearing capacity of plate anchors subjected to combined loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunhui ZHANG

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available To predict the bearing capacity of plate anchors subjected to combined loads, based on the assumption that there is no separation between the plate and soil, the numerical model of the motion and transformation of the plate anchor subjected to combined loads including the normal force, tangential force and bending moment loads in ABAQUS software is set up. The numerical model is proved by comparing the calculated bearing capacity with that of analytical solution. The numerical model is used to calculate the ultimate bearing capacity of the plate anchor subjected to the combined loads including the normal force, the tangential force and bending moment. The results show that murff model is used to preferably fit the ultimate bearing capacity envelope of plate anchors subjected to combined loads.

  20. Perceptual load effects on processing distractor faces indicate face-specific capacity limits

    OpenAIRE

    Thoma, Volker; Lavie, Nilli

    2013-01-01

    The claim that face perception is mediated by a specialized ‘face module’ that proceeds automatically, independently of attention (e.g., Kanwisher, 2000) can be reconciled with load theory claims that visual perception has limited capacity (e.g., Lavie, 1995) by hypothesizing that face perception has face-specific capacity limits. We tested this hypothesis by comparing the effects of face and non-face perceptual load on distractor face processing. Participants searched a central array of eith...

  1. Influence of load capacity on hydrostatic journal support deformation in finite element calculation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵俊鹏; 张艳芹; 李永海; 于晓东; 姜辉

    2008-01-01

    Based on the application of the four-oil-pad radial hydrostatic bearing in heavy equipments, the deformation of the four-oil-pad radial hydrostatic bearing was calculated by using the finite element method. The formula of film stiffness, film thickness and carrying capacity were established; the influence of the main parameters, such as load, load area and deformation on the supportability was analyzed; and the capacity of the two kinds of bearings was compared. The result shows that the carrying capacity of typeⅠ is prior to that of type Ⅱ . Calculations provide a theoretical basis for the bearing choosing and structure designing in the actual project.

  2. Impacts of Climate Change on Electric Transmission Capacity and Peak Electricity Load in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chester, M.; Bartos, M. D.; Eisenberg, D. A.; Gorman, B.; Johnson, N.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change may hinder future electricity reliability by reducing electric transmission capacity while simultaneously increasing electricity demand. This study estimates potential climate impacts to electric transmission capacity and peak electricity load in the United States. Electric power cables suffer decreased transmission capacity as they get hotter; similarly, during the summer peak period, electricity demand typically increases with hotter ambient air temperatures due to increased cooling loads. As atmospheric carbon concentrations increase, higher air temperatures may strain power infrastructure by reducing transmission capacity and increasing peak electricity loads. Taken together, these coincident impacts may have unpredictable consequences for electric power reliability. We estimate the effects of climate change on both the rated capacity of transmission infrastructure and expected electricity demand for 120 electrical utilities across the United States. We estimate climate-attributable capacity reductions to transmission lines by constructing thermal models of representative conductors, then forcing these models with downscaled CMIP5 temperature projections to determine the relative change in rated ampacity over the twenty-first century. Next, we assess the impact of climate change on electricity demand by using historical relationships between ambient temperature and utility-scale summertime peak load to estimate the extent to which climate change will incur additional peak load increases. We use downscaled temperature projections from 11 CMIP5 GCM models under 3 atmospheric carbon scenarios. We find that by mid-century (2040-2060), climate change may reduce average summertime transmission capacity by 4-6% relative to the 1990-2010 reference period. At the same time, peak summertime loads may rise by roughly 2-12% on average due to increases in daily maximum air temperature. In the absence of energy efficiency gains, demand-side management programs

  3. High-Temperature, High-Load-Capacity Radial Magnetic Bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provenza, Andrew; Montague, Gerald; Kascak, Albert; Palazzolo, Alan; Jansen, Ralph; Jansen, Mark; Ebihara, Ben

    2005-01-01

    A radial heteropolar magnetic bearing capable of operating at a temperature as high as 1,000 F (=540 C) has been developed. This is a prototype of bearings for use in gas turbine engines operating at temperatures and speeds much higher than can be withstood by lubricated rolling-element bearings. It is possible to increase the maximum allowable operating temperatures and speeds of rolling-element bearings by use of cooling-air systems, sophisticated lubrication systems, and rotor-vibration- damping systems that are subsystems of the lubrication systems, but such systems and subsystems are troublesome. In contrast, a properly designed radial magnetic bearing can suspend a rotor without contact, and, hence, without need for lubrication or for cooling. Moreover, a magnetic bearing eliminates the need for a separate damping system, inasmuch as a damping function is typically an integral part of the design of the control system of a magnetic bearing. The present high-temperature radial heteropolar magnetic bearing has a unique combination of four features that contribute to its suitability for the intended application: 1. The wires in its electromagnet coils are covered with an insulating material that does not undergo dielectric breakdown at high temperature and is pliable enough to enable the winding of the wires to small radii. 2. The processes used in winding and potting of the coils yields a packing factor close to 0.7 . a relatively high value that helps in maximizing the magnetic fields generated by the coils for a given supplied current. These processes also make the coils structurally robust. 3. The electromagnets are of a modular C-core design that enables replacement of components and semiautomated winding of coils. 4. The stator is mounted in such a manner as to provide stable support under radial and axial thermal expansion and under a load as large as 1,000 lb (.4.4 kN).

  4. LOADED AND UNLOADED SIT-TO-STAND STRENGTHENING EXERCISES EFFECT TO GROSS MOTOR FUNCTION MEASURE IN SPASTIC DIPLEGIA CEREBRAL PALSY PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Safei

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine sit-to-stand and loaded sit-to-stand exercises effect in standing, walking, and running dimensions of gross motor function measure (GMFM in spastic diplegia cerebral palsy (SDCP patients. Methods: This study was conducted in the period of May to October 2014 and included 24 children with SDCP as the subjects. The methods used in the study were interventional study with randomized controlled trial, and investigation of CP before and after the exercise intervention. The subjects were divided into two groups, sit-to-stand exercise group and loaded sit-to-stand exercise group. Results: The results showed that the increase of standing, walking, and running dimension scores of GMFM in the loaded group were higher (standing dimension score 12.00 vs 11.08 and walking and running dimensions 13.58 vs 13.42 compared to the unloaded group. Conclusions: Both sit-to-stand and loaded sit-to-stand exercise groups do not show significant differences in improving motor skills in standing, walking, and running dimensions of GMFM. Children with SDCP may receive the exercise to improve their motor skills in mobility aspects, such as standing, walking, and running.

  5. Algorithm developing of gross primary production from its capacity and a canopy conductance index using flux and global observing satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muramatsu, Kanako; Furumi, Shinobu; Daigo, Motomasa

    2015-10-01

    We plan to estimate gross primary production (GPP) using the SGLI sensor on-board the GCOM-C1 satellite after it is launched in 2017 by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, as we have developed a GPP estimation algorithm that uses SGLI sensor data. The characteristics of this GPP estimation method correspond to photosynthesis. The rate of plant photosynthesis depends on the plant's photosynthesis capacity and the degree to which photosynthesis is suppressed. The photosynthesis capacity depends on the chlorophyll content of leaves, which is a plant physiological parameter, and the degree of suppression of photosynthesis depends on weather conditions. The framework of the estimation method to determine the light-response curve parameters was developed using ux and satellite data in a previous study[1]. We estimated one of the light-response curve parameters based on the linear relationship between GPP capacity at 2000 (μmolm-2s-1) of photosynthetically active radiation and a chlorophyll index (CIgreen [2;3] ). The relationship was determined for seven plant functional types. Decreases in the photosynthetic rate are controlled by stomatal opening and closing. Leaf stomatal conductance is maximal during the morning and decreases in the afternoon. We focused on daily changes in leaf stomatal conductance. We used open shrub flux data and MODIS reflectance data to develop an algorithm for a canopy. We first evaluated the daily changes in GPP capacity estimated from CIgreen and photosynthesis active radiation using light response curves, and GPP observed during a flux experiment. Next, we estimated the canopy conductance using flux data and a big-leaf model using the Penman-Monteith equation[4]. We estimated GPP by multiplying GPP capacity by the normalized canopy conductance at 10:30, the time of satellite observations. The results showed that the estimated daily change in GPP was almost the same as the observed GPP. From this result, we defined a normalized canopy

  6. Better Building Alliance, Plug and Process Loads in Commercial Buildings: Capacity and Power Requirement Analysis (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-09-01

    This brochure addresses gaps in actionable knowledge that can help reduce the plug load capacities designed into buildings. Prospective building occupants and real estate brokers lack accurate references for plug and process load (PPL) capacity requirements, so they often request 5-10 W/ft2 in their lease agreements. This brochure should be used to make these decisions so systems can operate more energy efficiently; upfront capital costs will also decrease. This information can also be used to drive changes in negotiations about PPL energy demands. It should enable brokers and tenants to agree about lower PPL capacities. Owner-occupied buildings will also benefit. Overestimating PPL capacity leads designers to oversize electrical infrastructure and cooling systems.

  7. Bearing Capacity Factors for Eccentrically Loaded Strip Footings Using Variational Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinggao Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bearing capacity factors for eccentrically loaded strip smooth footings on homogenous cohesive frictional material are deduced by the variational limit equilibrium method and by assuming general shear failure along continuous curved slip surface. From the calculated results, the effective width rule suggested by Meyerhof for bearing capacity factors due to cohesion of soil is justified, and the superposition principle of bearing capacity for eccentrically loaded strip smooth footings is derived together with the bearing capacity factors for cohesion and unit weight of soil. The two factors are represented by soil strength parameters and eccentricity of load. The bearing capacity factor related to unit weight for cohesionless soil is less than that for cohesive frictional soil. The reason for this discrepancy lies in the existence of the soil cohesion, for the shape of the critical rupture surface of footing soil depends on both soil strength parameters rather than on friction angle alone in the previous limit equilibrium solutions. The contact between footing and soil is decided by both the load and the mechanical properties of soil. Under conditions of higher eccentricity and less strength properties of soil, part of the footing will separate from the underlying soil.

  8. A METHOD OF ADJUSTING BAR-LENGTH OF STATICALLY INDETERMINATE TRUSS FOR INCREASING ITS LOAD CAPACITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    隋允康; 邵建义

    2002-01-01

    Based on the character of the internal force distribution of the statically indeterminate truss, the elements stresses were changed by adjusting the length of bars to increase load capacity of structure. The efficiency of the method is illustrated by several examples.

  9. The Bearing Capacity of Strip Footings in Cohesionless Soil Subject to Eccentric and Inclined Loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krabbenhøft, Sven; Damkilde, Lars; Krabbenhøft, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    Lower bound calculations based on the finite element method is used to determine the bearing capacity of a strip foundation subjected to an inclined, eccentric load on cohesionless soil with varying surcharges and with friction angles 25, 30 and 35°. The soil is assumed perfectly plastic followin...

  10. Enhanced load-carrying capacity of hairy surfaces floating on water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yahui; Yuan, Huijing; Su, Weidong; Shi, Yipeng; Duan, Huiling

    2014-05-08

    Water repellency of hairy surfaces depends on the geometric arrangement of these hairs and enables different applications in both nature and engineering. We investigate the mechanism and optimization of a hairy surface floating on water to obtain its maximum load-carrying capacity by the free energy and force analyses. It is demonstrated that there is an optimum cylinder spacing, as a result of the compromise between the vertical capillary force and the gravity, so that the hairy surface has both high load-carrying capacity and mechanical stability. Our analysis makes it clear that the setae on water striders' legs or some insects' wings are in such an optimized geometry. Moreover, it is shown that surface hydrophobicity can further increase the capacity of a hairy surface with thick cylinders, while the influence is negligible when the cylinders are thin.

  11. Impact of pore characteristics of silica materials on loading capacity and release behavior of ibuprofen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Numpilai, Thanapha [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900 (Thailand); Muenmee, Suthaporn [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900 (Thailand); Center for Advanced Studies in Nanotechnology and Its Applications in Chemical Food and Agricultural Industries, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900 (Thailand); Witoon, Thongthai, E-mail: fengttwi@ku.ac.th [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900 (Thailand); Center for Advanced Studies in Nanotechnology and Its Applications in Chemical Food and Agricultural Industries, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900 (Thailand); NANOTEC-KU-Center of Excellence on Nanoscale Materials Design for Green Nanotechnology, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900 (Thailand)

    2016-02-01

    Impact of pore characteristics of porous silica supports on loading capacity and release behavior of ibuprofen was investigated. The porous silica materials and ibuprofen-loaded porous silica materials were thoroughly characterized by N{sub 2}-sorption, thermal gravimetric and derivative weight analyses (TG-DTW), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM) to determine the physical properties of materials, amount of ibuprofen adsorbed and position of ibuprofen. The detailed characterization reveals that the ibuprofen molecules adsorbed inside the mesopores. Increasing the mesopore size from 5 nm to 10 nm increased the ibuprofen loading from 0.74 to 0.85 mmol/g, respectively. Incorporation of macropore into the structure of porous silica materials enhanced the ibuprofen loading capacity of 11.8–20.3%. The ibuprofen-loaded bimodal meso-macroporous silica materials exhibited the highest dissolution of 92 wt.% within an hour. The ibuprofen particles deposited on the external surface of the porous silica materials showed a lower dissolution rate than the ibuprofen adsorbed inside the mesopores due to the formation of ibuprofen crystalline. - Highlights: • Impacts of pore characteristics of supports on adsorption and release of ibuprofen • Increasing mesopore size increased the ibuprofen loading and dissolution rate. • Macropores reduced the diffusion pathway of ibuprofen and dissolution medium.

  12. Analysis of Bearing Capacity of Suction Bucket Foundation Subjected to Horizontal and Moment Loadings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.U. Ke

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The suction bucket foundation is not only supporting the vertical loading such as the sea platform and weight itself, but also subjecting to horizontal and moment loading due to wind and wave. The response of bucket foundation to combined Horizontal (H and Moment (M loading has been studied using 3D finite element analysis Then the proposed method is numerically implemented in the framework of the general-purpose FEM software ABAQUS. Relationship curve between the coefficient of ultimate bearing capacity and displacement is obtained by the application of load-displacement controlled method in homogeneous soft foundation the failure envelope of foundation in the M-H is obtained by the application of swipe testing. The behavior is explained using upper bound plasticity mechanisms suggested by the soil deformation mechanisms observed in the finite element analysis. The numerical results computed by the proposed method will be helpful in engineering practices.

  13. BEARING CAPACITY OF A HORIZONTALLY LOADED SINGLE PILE SUPPORT WITH SLEEPERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buslov Anatoliy Semenovich

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The supports of a overhead wiring used in transport take up substantial loads both because of wires and constructions holding them and wind, dynamic and other extraordinary impacts. In case of using single-member piles a question about their stability appears. For this reason different sleepers constructions are used. In order to improve the bearing capacity of horizontally loaded single pile supports of the contact systems used in urban, road and rail transport, power lines, etc.., it is recommended to use sleepers as horizontally laid under the ground in the depth of support beams. The calculation methods for different support sleepers of different lengths and cross sections are not well investigated. The proposed calculation method allows determining the carrying capacity of horizontally loaded bearings with soil pieces of different structural dimensions and their location in the soil, which allows choosing the best option for cost and material consumption. The calculations offered by the authors prove the efficiency of sleepers use in order to increase the bearing capacity of horizontally loaded piles and the possibility to chose their size.

  14. Static Indentation Load Capacity of the Superelastic 60NiTi for Rolling Element Bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    DellaCorte, Christopher; Moore, Lewis E., III; Clifton, Joshua S.

    2012-01-01

    The nickel-rich, binary nickel-titanium alloys, such as 60NiTi (60Ni-40Ti by wt%), are emerging as viable materials for use in mechanical components like rolling element bearings and gears. 60NiTi is a superelastic material that simultaneously exhibits high hardness and a relatively low elastic modulus (approx.100 GPa). These properties result in the potential to endure extremely high indentation loads such as those encountered in bearings, gears and other mechanical components. In such applications, quantifying the load that results in permanent deformation that can affect component performance and life is important. In this paper, the static load capacity is measured by conducting indentation experiments in which 12.7 mm diameter balls made from the ceramic Si3N4 are pressed into highly polished, hardened 60NiTi flat plates. Hertz stress calculations are used to estimate contact stress. The results show that the 60NiTi surface can withstand an approximately 3400 kN load before significant denting (>0.6 microns deep) occurs. This load capacity is approximately twice that of high performance bearing steels suggesting that the potential exists to make highly resilient bearings and components from such materials.

  15. Lower-Bound Calculations of the Bearing Capacity of Eccentrically Loaded Footings in Cohesionless Soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krabbenhøft, Sven; Damkilde, Lars; Krabbenhøft, Kristian

    2012-01-01

    Lower-bound calculations based on the finite element method are used to determine the bearing capacity of a strip foundation subjected to a vertical, eccentric load on cohesionless soil with varying surcharges. The soil is assumed perfectly plastic following the Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion....... The results are reported as tables and graphs showing the bearing capacity as a function of the eccentricity and surcharge. Normalised interaction diagrams in the vertical force versus moment plane have been produced. The results from the analysis are in reasonable agreement with existing methods for smaller...

  16. Stålplader gav dobbelt bæreevne (Steel plates doubled the load bearing capacity)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jan Broch

    1999-01-01

    Abstract from an examination of motor road bridge beams reinforced with steel plates on the sides and bottom. The plates doubled the load bearing capacity of the beams.......Abstract from an examination of motor road bridge beams reinforced with steel plates on the sides and bottom. The plates doubled the load bearing capacity of the beams....

  17. Ultimate Load Capacity and Behavior of Thin-Walled Curved-Steel Square Struts, Subjected to Compressive Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Mohammad Reza Mortazavi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available There have been some experimental tests on hollow curved-steel struts with thin-walled square sections, in order to investigate their general behavior, particularly their capacity for bearing differing loads. One set of square tubes are cold-formed into segments of circular arcs with curvature radii, equal to 4000 mm. Different lengths of curved struts are fabricated so as to cover a practical range of slenderness ratios. The struts tests were pin-ended and had slenderness ratios, based on the straight length between ends ranging from 31-126. The cold-forming operation induces initial inelastic behavior and associated residual stresses. There is, therefore, an interaction among material effects, such as the strain hardening capacity, the Bauschinger effect, strain aging, and residual stresses, together with the significant geometrical effect of the initial curvature, caused by the cold-forming operation. Eventually the results from three series of tests, which are taken on fully-aged and stress-relief-annealed square curved struts, are compared. The variations in load carrying response are discussed.

  18. Capacidad de carga de las anclas de plataformas petroleras. // Load capacity of oil platforms anchors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. García de la Figal Costales

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Se determina la capacidad de carga de las anclas de solicitación vertical, empleadas en la fijación de las plataformasperforadoras de petróleo de aguas profundas. Para ello, se desarrollan varios modelos del proceso de retención del ancla enel fango del fondo marino por medio del método de los Elementos Finitos. Se analizan con ellos, la influencia de variosparámetros en la capacidad de carga.Palabras claves: ancla, petróleo, elementos finitos, plataformas petroleras._________________________________________________________________________________AbstractThe load capacity of anchors for vertical fixation used as petroleum perforators platforms on deep waters are determined.Several models of retention process of the anchor are developed by means of Finite Elements Method and the influence ofseveral parameters in the load capacity are analized.Key words: anchors, petroleum, Finite Elements Method (FEM.

  19. Poly(Ethylene Glycol-Based Backbones with High Peptide Loading Capacities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aoife O'Connor

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Polymer-peptide conjugates are a promising class of compounds, where polymers can be used to overcome some of the limitations associated with peptides intended for therapeutic and/or diagnostic applications. Linear polymers such as poly(ethylene glycol can be conjugated through terminal moieties and have therefore limited loading capacities. In this research, functionalised linear poly(ethylene glycols are utilised for peptide conjugation, to increase their potential loading capacities. These poly(ethylene glycol derivatives are conjugated to peptide sequences containing representative side-chain functionalised amino acids, using different conjugation chemistries, including copper-catalysed azide-alkyne cycloaddition, amide coupling and thiol-ene reactions. Conjugation of a sequence containing the RGD motif to poly(allyl glycidyl ether by the thiol-ene reaction, provided a conjugate which could be used in platelet adhesion studies.

  20. SN-38 loading capacity of hydrophobic polymer blend nanoparticles: formulation, optimization and efficacy evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimchevska, Simona; Geskovski, Nikola; Petruševski, Gjorgji; Chacorovska, Marina; Popeski-Dimovski, Riste; Ugarkovic, Sonja; Goracinova, Katerina

    2017-03-01

    One of the most important problems in nanoencapsulation of extremely hydrophobic drugs is poor drug loading due to rapid drug crystallization outside the polymer core. The effort to use nanoprecipitation, as a simple one-step procedure with good reproducibility and FDA approved polymers like Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and Polycaprolactone (PCL), will only potentiate this issue. Considering that drug loading is one of the key defining characteristics, in this study we attempted to examine whether the nanoparticle (NP) core composed of two hydrophobic polymers will provide increased drug loading for 7-Ethyl-10-hydroxy-camptothecin (SN-38), relative to NPs prepared using individual polymers. D-optimal design was applied to optimize PLGA/PCL ratio in the polymer blend and the mode of addition of the amphiphilic copolymer Lutrol(®)F127 in order to maximize SN-38 loading and obtain NPs with acceptable size for passive tumor targeting. Drug/polymer and polymer/polymer interaction analysis pointed to high degree of compatibility and miscibility among both hydrophobic polymers, providing core configuration with higher drug loading capacity. Toxicity studies outlined the biocompatibility of the blank NPs. Increased in vitro efficacy of drug-loaded NPs compared to the free drug was confirmed by growth inhibition studies using SW-480 cell line. Additionally, the optimized NP formulation showed very promising blood circulation profile with elimination half-time of 7.4 h.

  1. Seasonal dynamics in wheel load-carrying capacity of a loam soil in the Swiss Plateau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gut, S.; Chervet, A.; Stettler, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    ) is defined as the maximum wheel load for a specific tyre and inflation pressure that does not result in soil stress in excess of soil strength. The soil strength and hence WLCC is strongly influenced by soil matric potential (h). The aim of this study was to estimate the seasonal dynamics in WLCC based...... on in situ measurements of h, measurements of precompression stress at various h and simulations of soil stress. In this work, we concentrated on prevention of subsoil compaction. Calculations were made for different tyres (standard and low-pressure top tyres) and for soil under different tillage...... and cropping systems (mouldboard ploughing, direct drilling, permanent grassland), and the computed WLCC was compared with real wheel loads to obtain the number of trafficable days (NTD) for various agricultural machines. Wheel load-carrying capacity was higher for the top than the standard tyres...

  2. Load carrying capacity of RCC beams by replacing steel reinforcement bars with shape memory alloy bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajoria, Kamal M.; Kaduskar, Shreya S.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper the structural behavior of reinforced concrete (RC) beams with smart rebars under two point loading system has been numerically studied, using Finite Element Method. The material used in this study is Super-elastic Shape Memory Alloys (SE SMAs) which contains nickel and titanium. In this study, different quantities of steel and SMA rebars have been used for reinforcement and the behavior of these models under two point bending loading system is studied. A comparison of load carrying capacity for the model between steel reinforced concrete beam and the beam reinforced with S.M.A and steel are performed. The results show that RC beams reinforced with combination of shape memory alloy and steel show better performance.

  3. Microbial response and elimination capacity in biofilters subjected to high toluene loadings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, JiHyeon; Kinney, Kerry A

    2005-09-01

    Elimination capacity (EC) is frequently used as a performance and design criterion for vapor-phase biofilters without further verification of the microbial quantity and activity. This study was conducted to investigate how biofilters respond to high pollutant loadings and ultimately how this affects the EC of the biofilter. Two identical laboratory-scale biofilters were maintained at an initial toluene loading rate of 46 g m-3 h-1 for a period of 24 days. After the initial biofilm development stage, the loading rates were increased to 91 g m-3 h-1 and 137 g m-3 h-1, respectively. Following a short period of pseudo-steady state, toluene removal efficiencies rapidly declined in both biofilters, with a concurrent decline in both critical and maximum ECs. The decline was mainly due to deterioration in the biodegradation activity of the biofilm and a decline in the toluene-degrading bacterial population within the biofilm phase. The findings imply that high toluene loadings accelerated the deterioration in overall performance due to a rapid accumulation of inactive biomass. As a result, care must be used when relying on EC values for biofilter design and operational purposes, since the values do not appropriately reflect the temporal changes in biodegradation activity and active biomass quantities that can occur in biofilters subjected to high inlet loadings.

  4. Demand response modeling considering Interruptible/Curtailable loads and capacity market programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aalami, H.A.; Moghaddam, M. Parsa; Yousefi, G.R. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University (TMU), Tehran (Iran)

    2010-01-15

    Recently, a massive focus has been made on demand response (DR) programs, aimed to electricity price reduction, transmission lines congestion resolving, security enhancement and improvement of market liquidity. Basically, demand response programs are divided into two main categories namely, incentive-based programs and time-based programs. The focus of this paper is on Interruptible/Curtailable service (I/C) and capacity market programs (CAP), which are incentive-based demand response programs including penalties for customers in case of no responding to load reduction. First, by using the concept of price elasticity of demand and customer benefit function, economic model of above mentioned programs is developed. The proposed model helps the independent system operator (ISO) to identify and employ relevant DR program which both improves the characteristics of the load curve and also be welcome by customers. To evaluate the performance of the model, simulation study has been conducted using the load curve of the peak day of the Iranian power system grid in 2007. In the numerical study section, the impact of these programs on load shape and load level, and benefit of customers as well as reduction of energy consumption are shown. In addition, by using strategy success indices the results of simulation studies for different scenarios are analyzed and investigated for determination of the scenarios priority. (author)

  5. Assessment of the transportation route of oversize and excessive loads in relation to the load-bearing capacity of existing bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doležel, Jiří; Novák, Drahomír; Petrů, Jan

    2017-09-01

    Transportation routes of oversize and excessive loads are currently planned in relation to ensure the transit of a vehicle through critical points on the road. Critical points are level-intersection of roads, bridges etc. This article presents a comprehensive procedure to determine a reliability and a load-bearing capacity level of the existing bridges on highways and roads using the advanced methods of reliability analysis based on simulation techniques of Monte Carlo type in combination with nonlinear finite element method analysis. The safety index is considered as a main criterion of the reliability level of the existing construction structures and the index is described in current structural design standards, e.g. ISO and Eurocode. An example of a single-span slab bridge made of precast prestressed concrete girders of the 60 year current time and its load bearing capacity is set for the ultimate limit state and serviceability limit state. The structure’s design load capacity was estimated by the full probability nonlinear MKP analysis using a simulation technique Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS). Load-bearing capacity values based on a fully probabilistic analysis are compared with the load-bearing capacity levels which were estimated by deterministic methods of a critical section of the most loaded girders.

  6. The 2.5-minute loaded repeated jump test: evaluating anaerobic capacity in alpine ski racers with loaded countermovement jumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Carson; Raschner, Christian; Platzer, Hans-Peter

    2014-09-01

    The purposes of this study were to test the reproducibility of the 2.5-minute loaded repeated jump test (LRJT) and to test the effectiveness of general preparation period (GPP) training on anaerobic fitness of elite alpine ski racers with the LRJT. Thirteen male volunteers completed 2 LRJTs to examine reliability. Nine male Austrian elite junior racers were tested in June and October 2009. The LRJT consisted of 60 loaded countermovement jumps (LCMJs) with a loaded barbell equivalent to 40% bodyweight. Before the LRJT, the power (P) of a single LCMJ was determined. Power was calculated from ground reaction forces. The mean P was calculated for the complete test and for each 30-second interval. The interclass correlation coefficients (between 0.88 and 0.99) for main variables of the LRJT demonstrated a high reliability. A repeated-measures analysis of variance indicated that anaerobic capacity was significantly higher in October (p ≤ 0.05). The ski racers' single LCMJ P increased from 37.0 ± 1.2 W·kg to 39.0 ± 1.4 W·kg. The mean P of the total test improved from 33.6 ± 1.2 W·kg to 35.8 ± 1.3 W·kg, but relative effect of fatigue did not change. The GPP training improved the athletes' ability to produce and maintain muscular power. The LRJT is a reliable anaerobic test suitable for all alpine ski racing events because the 60 jumps simulate the approximate number of gates in slalom and giant slalom races and the 2.5 minutes is equivalent to the duration of the longest downhill race.

  7. The effect of manufacturing tolerances on the load carrying capacity of large diameter bearings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Starvin M S; Manisekar K

    2015-09-01

    This paper deals with simplified 3D finite element (FE) analysis on the effect of manufacturing tolerances on the load carrying capacity of large diameter bearings based on Hertz theory. The nonlinear connector elements are used to model the rolling elements. This model enables us to evaluate the contact load on the rolling elements with relatively reduced calculation time. FE study has been carried out by allocating tolerance on balls and raceways using Monte Carlo simulation technique. The variation in dimension on balls is taken as per IS 2898-1976. A coding has been developed and employed for Monte Carlo simulation. Using the results of Monte Carlo simulation, tolerance has been assigned to the elements of large diameter bearing. From the results of finite element analysis, it is identified that analysis of large diameter bearing with tolerance on ball and raceway will lead to safe design.

  8. Effect of lobe profile on the load capacity of 2-lobe journal bearing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stanislaw; STRZELECKI

    2001-01-01

    The rotors of turbogenerators operate in 2-lobe journal bearings. These bearings can bedesigned with the same or different profile of upper and bottom lobe, e.g. the upper lobe has cylin-drical and bottom one the offset profile. Shaping the bearing profile this way allows the variation ofstatic and dynamic characteristics of bearing. The static characteristics consist among others theload capacity of bearing which is very important parameter. The paper introduces the results ofcalculations of load capacity of 2-lobe journal bearing characterised by different profiles of upperand bottom lobe. The laminar, adiabatic oil flow in the bearing lubricating gap, parallel orientationof journal and bearing axis as well as the static equilibrium position of journal have been assumed.

  9. LOADING CAPACITY ANALYSIS OF THE MISALIGNED CONICAL-CYLINDRICAL BEARING WITH NON-NEWTONIAN LUBRICANTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Yongkuang; Yang Rongtai; Ho Minghsiung; Jheng Mingchang

    2004-01-01

    A novel numerical method to lubricate a conventional finite diameter conical(cylindrical bearing with a non-Newtonian lubricant, while adhering to the power-law model, is presented. The elastic deformation of bearing and varied viscosity of lubrication due to the pressure distribution of film thickness are also considered. Simulation results indicate that the normal load carrying capacity is more pronounced for higher values of flow behavior index n, higher eccentricity ratios and larger misalignment factors. It is found that the viscosity-pressure to the effect of lubricant viscosity is significant.

  10. Natural Airfield Pavements, Load-Carrying Capacities There Of, Principles Of Construction And Operational Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nita Piotr

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper has been intended to present analytically derived relationships for aircraft wheels that move through the soil medium. The analyses have been conducted for both the rigid wheel and the pneumatic whell. The most fundamental principles of constructing natural(soil and sod/grass airfield pavements have been diccussed. Characteristic of soils typical of such pavements /surfaces have been defined. Proped are criteria for the evaluation of load-carring capacities of such pavements. The most essential principles that goven the operational use there of follow.

  11. Drug-loading capacity and nuclear targeting of multiwalled carbon nanotubes grafted with anionic amphiphilic copolymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsai HC

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Hsieh-Chih Tsai,1,* Jeng-Yee Lin,2,* Faiza Maryani,1 Chun-Chiang Huang,1 Toyoko Imae1,31Graduate Institute of Applied Science and Technology, 2Division of Plastic Surgery, Department of Surgery, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei Medical University, 3Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei, Taiwan *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: In this study, three types of hybrid nanotubes (NTs, ie, oxidized multiwalled carbon NTs (COOH MWCNTs, heparin (Hep-conjugated MWCNTs (Hep MWCNTs, and diblock copolymer polyglycolic acid (PGA-co-heparin conjugated to MWCNTs (PGA MWCNTs, were synthesized with improved biocompatibility and drug-loading capacity. Hydrophilic Hep substituents on MWCNTs improved biocompatibility and acted as nucleus-sensitive segments on the CNT carrier, whereas the addition of PGA enhanced drug-loading capacity. In the PGA MWCNT system, the amphiphilic copolymer (PGA-Hep formed micelles on the side walls of CNTs, as confirmed by electron microscopy. The PGA system encapsulated the hydrophobic drug with high efficiency compared to the COOH MWCNT and Hep MWCNT systems. This is because the drug was loaded onto the PGA MWCNTs through hydrophobic forces and onto the CNTs by ∏–∏ stacking interactions. Additionally, most of the current drug-carrier designs that target cancer cells release the drug in the lysosome or cytoplasm. However, nuclear-targeted drug release is expected to kill cancer cells more directly and efficiently. In our study, PGA MWCNT carriers effectively delivered the active anticancer drug doxorubicin into targeted nuclei. This study may provide an effective strategy for the development of carbon-based drug carriers for nuclear-targeted drug delivery. Keywords: carbon nanotube, amphiphilic copolymer, drug loading, nucleus targeting, cancer therapy

  12. Relating Corroded Seven-Strand, Posttensioned Cable Cross-Sectional Properties to Load Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Haskins

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Multistrand anchors have seen widespread use, providing strength and stability at hydraulic Corps facilities. However, these steel tendons are subject to strength reduction as an effect of corrosion. Methods for evaluating the corroded cable strength do not exist to accurately estimate the time until tendon cables would have to be replaced (at great expense. The following five research tasks are used to address this deficiency: laboratory accelerated corrosion; pull-tests on pristine and laboratory corroded cables; optical scanning; data collection correlated with cross-sectional properties of cables; and development of a method to relate this data to the field. The pull-tests provide measured capacities for seven-strand, posttensioned (PT cables. An optical scan of the corroded cables provides cross-sectional properties of individual wires within the pulled cables. Trendlines are established for the related peak cable capacities and cross-sectional properties in an effort to determine their correlations. Trendlines for minimum wire area and second-moment short axis diameter are found with low error, making them good predictors of loaded cable capacity. This pull-test dataset has been related back to cable failure in the field, assuming a linear rate of corrosion loss for the cross-sectional properties and required PT capacity.

  13. The stiffness change and the increase in the ultimate capacity for a stiff pile resulting from a cyclic loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lada, Aleksandra; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Nicolai, Giulio

    In the paper the experimental results of small-scale tests on a stiff monopile are presented to outline the change in stiffness during the cyclic loading and the change in the ultimate pile capacity. The results confirm the increase of stiffness and the increase in bearing capacity resulting from...... cyclic loading. Performed analysis provides a better understanding of the problem and reveals some correlations that can be useful in the future design of stiff monopiles....

  14. Artificial neural network (ANN)-based prediction of depth filter loading capacity for filter sizing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Harshit; Rathore, Anurag S; Hadpe, Sandeep Ramesh; Alva, Solomon J

    2016-11-01

    This article presents an application of artificial neural network (ANN) modelling towards prediction of depth filter loading capacity for clarification of a monoclonal antibody (mAb) product during commercial manufacturing. The effect of operating parameters on filter loading capacity was evaluated based on the analysis of change in the differential pressure (DP) as a function of time. The proposed ANN model uses inlet stream properties (feed turbidity, feed cell count, feed cell viability), flux, and time to predict the corresponding DP. The ANN contained a single output layer with ten neurons in hidden layer and employed a sigmoidal activation function. This network was trained with 174 training points, 37 validation points, and 37 test points. Further, a pressure cut-off of 1.1 bar was used for sizing the filter area required under each operating condition. The modelling results showed that there was excellent agreement between the predicted and experimental data with a regression coefficient (R(2) ) of 0.98. The developed ANN model was used for performing variable depth filter sizing for different clarification lots. Monte-Carlo simulation was performed to estimate the cost savings by using different filter areas for different clarification lots rather than using the same filter area. A 10% saving in cost of goods was obtained for this operation. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:1436-1443, 2016.

  15. The Effect of Predeparture Training Loads on Posttour Physical Capacities in High-Performance Junior Tennis Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Alistair P; Duffield, Rob; Kellett, Aaron; Gescheit, Dani; Reid, Machar

    2015-11-01

    Difficulties in preserving physical capacities while on tennis tours necessitate targeted training prescription. This study analyzed training and match loads performed before and on tour for their relationship with posttour physical-capacity changes. A secondary aim was to determine whether the presence of a strength and conditioning (S&C) coach affected the type and volume of on-tour training load. The training and match loads of 30 high-performance junior tennis players were recorded over 8 wk: 4 wk before and 4 wk during an international tour. Fitness tests were conducted pretour and posttour, including double and single-leg (dominant and nondominant) countermovement jump, speed (5, 10, and 20 m), modified 5-0-5 agility, 10 × 20-m repeated-sprint ability, and multistage fitness tests. Tour training and match loads were categorized according to whether S&C support was present or absent. Total and tennis training loads were significantly greater on tour than pretour (P ≤ .05, d > 0.8). Increases in on-tour, on-court training loads were moderately correlated with decrements in speed and aerobic power (r = .31-.52). Finally, S&C presence on tour significantly increased total, on-court, and off-court training load completed (P ≤ .05, d > 0.8). Training loads should be carefully prescribed to ensure that sufficient total and tennis loads are completed pretour. Specifically, speed and aerobic capacities may regress with increased training on tour. Finally, a practical observation was that on-tour S&C support resulted in increased S&C training load (around match loads), potentially countering the observed regression of physical capacities. Such a finding has the capacity to alter current physical-preparation structures in high-performance tennis environments with finite resources.

  16. Load-bearing capacity of screw-retained CAD/CAM-produced titanium implant frameworks (I-Bridge®2 before and after cyclic mechanical loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Philipp Dittmer

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Implant-supported screw-retained fixed dental prostheses (FDPs produced by CAD/ CAM have been introduced in recent years for the rehabilitation of partial or total endentulous jaws. However, there is a lack of data about the long-term mechanical characteristics. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the failure mode and the influence of extended cyclic mechanical loading on the load-bearing capacity of these frameworks. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ten five-unit FDP frameworks simulating a free-end situation in the mandibular jaw were manufactured according to the I-Bridge®2-concept (I-Bridge®2, Biomain AB, Helsingborg, Sweden and each was screw-retained on three differently angulated Astra Tech implants (30º buccal angulation/0º angulation/30º lingual angulation. One half of the specimens was tested for static load-bearing capacity without any further treatment (control, whereas the other half underwent five million cycles of mechanical loading with 100 N as the upper load limit (test. All specimens were loaded until failure in a universal testing machine with an occlusal force applied at the pontics. Load-displacement curves were recorded and the failure mode was macro- and microscopically analyzed. The statistical analysis was performed using a t-test (p=0.05. RESULTS: All the specimens survived cyclic mechanical loading and no obvious failure could be observed. Due to the cyclic mechanical loading, the load-bearing capacity decreased from 8,496 N±196 N (control to 7,592 N±901 N (test. The cyclic mechanical loading did not significantly influence the load-bearing capacity (p=0.060. The failure mode was almost identical in all specimens: large deformations of the framework at the implant connection area were obvious. CONCLUSION: The load-bearing capacity of the I-Bridge®2 frameworks is much higher than the clinically relevant occlusal forces, even with considerably angulated implants. However, the performance under functional

  17. 49 CFR 571.120 - Tire selection and rims and motor home/recreation vehicle trailer load carrying capacity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... words “IMPORTANT—USE OF SPARE TIRE” in letters not less than 9 millimeters high. S8.2Supplementary... of on-board potable water must be treated as cargo. S10.4.3The RV load carrying capacity labels... belt equipped seating positions. (e) The statement: “CAUTION: A full load of water equals XXX kg or XXX...

  18. Bearing Capacity of High Density Polyethylene (HDPE Reinforced Sand Using Plate Load Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Er. Aly K

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The work presented here is a study to examine the improvement in bearing capacity of coastal sand of Trivandrum, Kerala, India using high density polyethylene (HDPE /woven fabric as reinforcement in discrete layers. The bearing capacity was evaluated using plate load test. The effect of reinforcement configurations like sheet reinforcement (sanded with adhesive, with adhesive and sheet alone and strip reinforcement (single and grid pattern are investigated. The test parameters chosen for the present study are, depth of topmost layer of reinforcement layer below footing, compacted density and number of layers of reinforcement etc. From the tests, it has been observed that sheet reinforcement is more effective than sheet sanded with adhesive and strip reinforcements. It is found that the synthetic adhesive gives no binding action at the interface of the reinforcement and soil. But it is to be noted that the sheet with adhesive dried has a marked influence on the bearing capacity especially at lower densities. The strip reinforcements in single pattern is considered to be a favorable choice for minimum reinforcement. The strip reinforcement in single or grid pattern gives sufficient improvement in strength.

  19. DESIGN OF STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS IN THE EVENT OF THE PRE-SET RELIABILITY, REGULAR LOAD AND BEARING CAPACITY DISTRIBUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamrazyan Ashot Georgievich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Accurate and adequate description of external influences and of the bearing capacity of the structural material requires the employment of the probability theory methods. In this regard, the characteristic that describes the probability of failure-free operation is required. The characteristic of reliability means that the maximum stress caused by the action of the load will not exceed the bearing capacity. In this paper, the author presents a solution to the problem of calculation of structures, namely, the identification of reliability of pre-set design parameters, in particular, cross-sectional dimensions. If the load distribution pattern is available, employment of the regularities of distributed functions make it possible to find the pattern of distribution of maximum stresses over the structure. Similarly, we can proceed to the design of structures of pre-set rigidity, reliability and stability in the case of regular load distribution. We consider the element of design (a monolithic concrete slab, maximum stress S which depends linearly on load q. Within a pre-set period of time, the probability will not exceed the values according to the Poisson law. The analysis demonstrates that the variability of the bearing capacity produces a stronger effect on relative sizes of cross sections of a slab than the variability of loads. It is therefore particularly important to reduce the coefficient of variation of the load capacity. One of the methods contemplates the truncation of the bearing capacity distribution by pre-culling the construction material.

  20. Gross motor control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross motor control is the ability to make large, general movements (such as waving an arm or lifting a leg). ... Gross motor control is a milestone in the development of an infant. Infants develop gross motor control before they develop ...

  1. Tank tests to determine the effect of varying design parameters of planing-tail hulls II : effect of varying depth of step, angle of after- body keel, length of afterbody chine, and gross load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, John R; Mckann, Robert; Hay, Elizabeth S

    1946-01-01

    The second part of a series of tests made in Langley tank no. 2 to determine the effect of varying design parameters of planing-tail hulls is presented. Results are given to show the effects on resistance characteristics of varying angle of afterbody keel, depth of step, and length of afterbody chine. The effect of varying the gross load is shown for one configuration. The resistance characteristics of planing-tail hulls are compared with those of a conventional flying-boat hull. The forces on the forebody and afterbody of one configuration are compared with the forces on a conventional hull. Increasing the angle of afterbody keel had small effect on hump resistance and no effect on high-speed resistance but increased free-to-trim resistance at intermediate speeds. Increasing the depth of step increased hump resistance, had little effect on high-speed resistance, and increased free-to-trim resistance at intermediate speeds. Omitting the chines on the forward 25 percent of the afterbody had no appreciable effect on resistance. Omitting 70 percent of the chine length had almost no effect on maximum resistance but broadened the hump and increased spray around the afterbody. Load-resistance ratio at the hump decreased more rapidly with increasing load coefficient for the planing-tail hull than for the representative conventional hull, although the load-resistance ratio at the hump was greater for the planing-tail hull than for the conventional hull throughout the range of loads tested. At speeds higher than hump speed, load-resistance ratio for the planing-tail hull was a maximum at a particular gross load and was slightly less at heavier and lighter gross loads. The planing-tail hull was found to have lower resistance than the conventional hull at both the hump and at high speeds, but at intermediate speeds there was little difference. The lower hump resistance of the planing-tail hull was attributed to the ability of the afterbody to carry a greater percentage of the

  2. Application of the simulation of a tank capacity proposal for loading and unloading process of bulk material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janka Šaderová

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available n this paper, the algorithm is given - how to design a tankfor bulk materials. An important part of the proposal is to setthe loading and unloading of a tank, which is also closely related to the proposal of its capacity and volume. Loading and unloadingprocess is dependent on several factors but the main are: method and speed of loading which represents the parameter - hour powerof loading device (e.g. continuous by a conveyor belt, method andspeed of unloading (continuousor at intervals and a typeand capacity of means of transport, in which the material loading (truck, rail car, conveyor belt system. The paper presents twomethods for determination of the loadingand unloading process - the graphic method and determination during the simulation -creating a simulation model.

  3. Simultaneous Optimization of Tooth Flank Form of Involute Helical Gears in Terms of Both Vibration and Load Carrying Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komori, Masaharu; Kubo, Aizoh; Suzuki, Yoshitomo

    The alignment condition of automotive gears changes considerably during operation due to the deformation of shafts, bearings, and gear box by transmission of load. Under such conditions, the gears are required to satisfy not only reliability in strength and durability under maximum loading conditions, but also low vibrational characteristics under light loading conditions during the cruising of a car. In this report, the characteristics of the optimum tooth flank form of gears in terms of both vibration and load carrying capacity are clarified. The local optimum tooth flank form appears in each excitation valley, where the vibrational excitation is low and the actual contact ratio takes a specific value. The influence of the choice of different local optimum solutions on the vibrational performance of the optimized gears is investigated. The practical design algorithm for the optimum tooth flank form of a gear set in terms of both vibration and load carrying capacity is then proposed and its result is evaluated by field experience.

  4. NEW APPROACHES FOR COMPUTING DYNAMIC LOAD-CARRYING CAPACITY OF MULTIPLE COOPERATING ROBOTIC MANIPULATORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    A novel unified method for computing the dynamic load-carrying capacity(DLCC) of multiple cooperating robotic manipulators is developed.In this method,the kinematic constraints and the governing dynamic equations of the multiple robot system are formulated in the joint space by using the method of transference of dependence from one set of generalized coordinates to another,and the virtual work principle,which includes the readily available dynamics and joint torques of individual manipulators,and the dynamic of payload.Based on this dynamic model,the upper limit of the DLCC at any points on a given trajectory is obtained by solving a small-size linear programming problem.This method is conceptually straightforward,and it is applicable also to the cases of multi-fingered robot hands and multi-legged walking machines.

  5. Inspiratory flow resistive loading improves respiratory muscle function and endurance capacity in recreational runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickleborough, T D; Nichols, T; Lindley, M R; Chatham, K; Ionescu, A A

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of inspiratory flow resistive loading (IFRL) on respiratory muscle function, exercise performance and cardiopulmonary and metabolic responses to exercise. Twenty-four recreational road runners (12 male) were randomly assigned from each gender into an IFRL group (n=8) and sham-IFRL group (n=8), which performed IFRL for 6 weeks, or a control group (n=8). Strength (+43.9%Delta), endurance (+26.6%Delta), maximum power output (+41.9%Delta) and work capacity (+38.5%Delta) of the inspiratory muscles were significantly increased (Pvolume (-16.0%Delta), heart rate (HR) (-13.1%Delta), blood lactate concentration (-38.9%Delta) and the perceptual response (-33.5%Delta) to constant workload exercise were significantly attenuated (Pimprovement (Pimprove endurance exercise performance in recreational runners.

  6. Adhesive-bonded double-lap joints. [analytical solutions for static load carrying capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart-Smith, L. J.

    1973-01-01

    Explicit analytical solutions are derived for the static load carrying capacity of double-lap adhesive-bonded joints. The analyses extend the elastic solution Volkersen and cover adhesive plasticity, adherend stiffness imbalance and thermal mismatch between the adherends. Both elastic-plastic and bi-elastic adhesive representations lead to the explicit result that the influence of the adhesive on the maximum potential bond strength is defined uniquely by the strain energy in shear per unit area of bond. Failures induced by peel stresses at the ends of the joint are examined. This failure mode is particularly important for composite adherends. The explicit solutions are sufficiently simple to be used for design purposes

  7. A Hybrid Quorum Protocol for Improved Availability, Capacity, Load and Reduced Overhead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Parul; Tripathi, Maheshwari

    2016-12-01

    Data replication is playing a vital role in the design of distributed information systems. This paper presents a novel and efficient distributed algorithm for managing replicated data and for better performance and availability. This paper presents an extension to existing wheel protocol for improved performance. Wheel protocol imposes a logical wheel structure on the set of copies of an object and gives smallest read quorum. In addition to small read quorum size for read intensive applications, it is necessary to have good write availability as well. This paper proposes two hybrid wheel protocols, which superimpose logarithmic and ring protocols on top of the wheel protocol. It shows that, both protocols help in improving write availability, read capacity, load and message overhead and also compare their performances with wheel and other protocols. Hybrid protocols expand usage of wheel protocol to different type of applications.

  8. How Sorbitan Monostearate Can Increase Drug-Loading Capacity of Lipid-Core Polymeric Nanocapsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poletto, Fernanda S; De Oliveira, Catiúscia P; Wender, Heberton; Regent, Dorothée; Donida, Bruna; Teixeira, Sérgio R; Guterres, Sílvia S; Rossi-Bergmann, Bartira; Pohlmann, Adriana R

    2015-01-01

    Lipid-core polymeric nanocapsules are innovative devices that present distinguished characteristics due to the presence of sorbitan monostearate into the oily-core. This component acted as low-molecular-mass organic gelator for the oil (medium chain triglycerides). The organogel-structured core influenced the polymeric wall characteristics disfavoring the formation of more stable polymer crystallites. This probably occurred due to interpenetration of these pseudo-phases. Sorbitan monostearate dispersed in the oily-core was also able to interact by non-covalent bonding with the drugs increasing the drug loading capacity more than 40 times compared to conventional nanocapsules. We demonstrated that the drug-models quercetin and quercetin pentaacetate stabilized the organogel network probably due to interactions of the drug molecules with the sorbitan monostearate headgroups by hydrogen bonding.

  9. Capacity determination of a battery energy storage system based on the control performance of load leveling and voltage control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru Akagi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a method to determine the combined energy (kWh and power (kW capacity of a battery energy storage system and power conditioning system capacity (kVA based on load leveling and voltage control performances. Through power flow calculations, a relationship between the capacity combination and the control performance is identified and evaluated. A tradeoff relationship between the capacity combination and control performance is confirmed, and the proper capacity combination for operation is determined based on the evaluated relationship. In addition, the control performance of the capacity combination is evaluated through the power flow calculation, confirming that the proposed method is effective for determining the optimized capacity combination.

  10. Short-Term Forecasting of Loads and Wind Power for Latvian Power System: Accuracy and Capacity of the Developed Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radziukynas V.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the performance results of the recently developed short-term forecasting suit for the Latvian power system. The system load and wind power are forecasted using ANN and ARIMA models, respectively, and the forecasting accuracy is evaluated in terms of errors, mean absolute errors and mean absolute percentage errors. The investigation of influence of additional input variables on load forecasting errors is performed. The interplay of hourly loads and wind power forecasting errors is also evaluated for the Latvian power system with historical loads (the year 2011 and planned wind power capacities (the year 2023.

  11. EFFECTS OF SODIUM PHOSPHATE LOADING ON AEROBIC POWER AND CAPACITY IN OFF ROAD CYCLISTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Woska

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this paper was to evaluate the effects of short- term (6 days phosphate loading, as well as prolonged (21 days intake of sodium phosphate on aerobic capacity in off-road cyclists. Nineteen well-trained cyclists were randomly divided into a supplemental (S and control group (C. Group S was supplemented for 6 days with tri-sodium phosphate, in a dose of 50 mg·kg-1 of FFM/d, while a placebo was provided for the C group. Additionally, group S was further subjected to a 3-week supplementation of 25 mg·kg-1 FFM/d, while group C received 2g of glucose. The results indicate a significant (p < 0.05 increase in VO2max, VEmax, and O2/HR, due to sodium phosphate intake over 6 days. Also a significant (p < 0.05 decrease in HRrest and HRmax occurred. The supplementation procedure caused a significant increase (p < 0.05 in Pmax and a shift of VAT towards higher loads. There were no significant changes in the concentration of 2,3-DPG, acid-base balance and lactate concentration, due to phosphate salt intake

  12. A power management circuit with 50% efficiency and large load capacity for triboelectric nanogenerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Dechun; Luo, Lichuan; Zhang, Zhaohua; Ren, Tianling

    2017-09-01

    Recently, triboelectric nanogenerators (TENGs), as a collection technology with characteristics of high reliability, high energy density and low cost, has attracted more and more attention. However, the energy coming from TENGs needs to be stored in a storage unit effectively due to its unstable ac output. The traditional energy storage circuit has an extremely low energy storage efficiency for TENGs because of their high internal impedance. This paper presents a new power management circuit used to optimize the energy using efficiency of TENGs, and realize large load capacity. The power management circuit mainly includes rectification storage circuit and DC–DC management circuit. A rotating TENG with maximal energy output of 106 mW at 170 rpm based on PCB is used for the experimental verification. Experimental results show that the power energy transforming to the storage capacitor reach up to 53 mW and the energy using efficiency is calculated as 50%. When different loading resistances range from 0.82 to 34.5 k {{Ω }} are connected to the storage capacitor in parallel, the power energy stored in the storage capacitor is all about 52.5 mW. Getting through the circuit, the power energy coming from the TENGs can be used to drive numerous conventional electronics, such as wearable watches.

  13. Direct FEM-computation of load carrying capacity of highly loaded passive components; Direkte FEM - Berechnung der Tragfaehigkeit hochbeanspruchter passiver Komponenten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staat, M.; Heitzer, M. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Sicherheitsforschung und Reaktortechnik

    1998-11-01

    Detailed, inelastic FEM analyses yield accurate information about the stresses and deformations in passive components. The local loading conditions, however, cannot be directly compared with a limit load in terms of structural mechanics. Concentration on the load carrying capacity is an approach simplifying the analysis. Based on the plasticity theory, limit and shakedown analyses calculate the load carrying capacities directly and exactly. The paper explains the implementation of the limit and shakedown data sets in a general FEM program and the direct calculation of the load carrying capacities of passive components. The concepts used are explained with respect to common structural analysis. Examples assuming high local stresses illustrate the application of FEM-based limit and shakedown analyses. The calculated interaction diagrams present a good insight into the applicable operational loads of individual passive components. The load carrying analysis also opens up a structure mechanics-based approach to assessing the load-to-collapse of cracked components made of highly ductile fracture-resistant material. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Genaue Kenntnis der Spannungen und Verformungen in passiven Komponenten gewinnt man mit detailierten inelastischen FEM Analysen. Die lokale Beanspruchung laesst sich aber nicht direkt mit einer Beanspruchbarkeit im strukturmechanischen Sinne vergleichen. Konzentriert man sich auf die Frage nach der Tragfaehigkeit, dann vereinfacht sich die Analyse. Im Rahmen der Plastizitaetstheorie berechnen Traglast- und Einspielanalyse die tragbaren Lasten direkt und exakt. In diesem Beitrag wird eine Implementierung der Traglast- und Einspielsaetze in ein allgemeines FEM Programm vorgestellt, mit der die Tragfaehigkeit passiver Komponenten direkt berechnet wird. Die benutzten Konzepte werden in Bezug auf die uebliche Strukturanalyse erlaeutert. Beispiele mit lokal hoher Beanspruchung verdeutlichen die Anwendung der FEM basierten Traglast- und

  14. Assessment of Load Capacity of the Airport Pavement Structure With the Use of the Acn-Pcn Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesołowski Mariusz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The structures of the airport pavements are designed for defined operational time, assuming the predicted intensity and structure of the air traffic. The safety of air operations conducted by aircrafts on airport pavements depends mostly on their load capacity and design. Therefore, the load capacity inspections should be performed periodically, as the information about the current operational condition of the airport pavement is the basis for decisions on types of aircrafts allowed for traffic, as well as traffic intensity and dates of renovation or modernization works.

  15. A Long-Term Memory Competitive Process Model of a Common Procedural Error. Part II: Working Memory Load and Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    A Long-Term Memory Competitive Process Model of a Common Procedural Error, Part II: Working Memory Load and Capacity Franklin P. Tamborello, II...00-00-2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A Long-Term Memory Competitive Process Model of a Common Procedural Error, Part II: Working Memory Load and...07370024.2011.601692 Tamborello, F. P., & Trafton, J. G. (2013). A long-term competitive process model of a common procedural error. In Proceedings of the 35th

  16. Experimental Study of Load Carrying Capacity of Point Contacts at Zero Entrainment Velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shogin, B. A.; Jones, W. R., Jr.; Kingsbury, E. P.; Jansen, M. J.; Prahl, J. M.

    1998-01-01

    A capacitance technique was used to monitor the film thickness separating two steel balls while subjecting the ball-ball contact to highly stressed, zero entrainment velocity conditions. Tests were performed in a nitrogen atmosphere and utilized 52100 steel balls and a polyalphaolefin lubricant. Capacitance to film thickness accuracy was verified under pure rolling conditions using established EHL theory. Zero entrainment velocity tests were performed at sliding speeds from 6.0 to 10.0 m/s and for sustained amounts of time to 28.8 min. The protective lubricant film separating the specimens at zero entrainment velocity had a film thickness between 0.10 to 0.14 microns (4 to 6 micro in.), which corresponded to a k value of 4. The formation of an immobile surface film formed by lubricant entrapment is discussed as an explanation of the load carrying capacity at zero entrainment velocity conditions, relevant to the ball-ball contacts occurring in retainerless ball bearings.

  17. Model for determining the load or carrying capacity of rivers and riverbanks for recreational use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otero, I.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to determine the load or functional carrying capacity for the assimilation and recovery of rivers and riverbanks by compiling information on the environment, and to assess the potential for recreation from the environmental and scenic point of view. We set out to find the most significant basis for analysing the pressures limiting carrying capacity and constraining the demand for recreational use. This methodology will help planners and legislators in their decision-making. We also propose a methodology for assessing the recreational use of riverbanks, tested in a number of sites in the Madrid Region, in terms of the satisfaction the activity produces in the users, and the load or carrying capacity of the surrounding environment. A pilot site assessment is presented as a validation of the proposed methodology.El objetivo de este artículo es, determinar la capacidad de carga o acogida funcional, de asimilación y de recuperación de los márgenes y los cursos fluviales mediante la recopilación de información del medio; el potencial recreativo se evalúa además desde un doble punto de vista: ecológico y paisajístico. La forma en que se enfoca el problema y se presenta la metodología y los resultados puede resultar de gran utilidad para planificadores y legisladores. La metodología propuesta para valorar el uso recreativo de los márgenes fluviales, se aplica a una serie de parcelas en la Comunidad de Madrid, teniendo en cuenta la satisfacción que la actividad produce en los usuarios, y la capacidad de carga o acogida del entorno en el que se desarrollan. Como resultado, se presenta la valoración de parcelas piloto, que servirían para validar la metodología propuesta. [fr] Le but de cet article est, déterminer la capacité de charge ou réception fonctionnelle, l’assimilation et rétablissement des marges et les cours de la rivière par le biais de la collecte d’informations de l’environnement: le

  18. A Study on Load Carrying Capacity of Fly Ash Based Polymer Concrete Columns Strengthened Using Double Layer GFRP Wrapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Nagan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the suitability of glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP sheets in strengthening of fly ash based polymer members under compression. Experimental results revealed that load carrying capacity of the confined columns increases with GFRP sheets wrapping. Altogether 18 specimens of M30 and G30 grade short columns were fabricated. The G30 specimens were prepared separately in 8 molarity and 12 molarity of sodium hydroxide concentration. Twelve specimens for low calcium fly ash based reinforced polymer concrete and six specimens of ordinary Portland cement reinforced concrete were cast. Three specimens from each molarity fly ash based reinforced polymer concrete and ordinary Portland cement reinforced concrete were wrapped with double layer of GFRP sheets. The load carrying capacity of fly ash based polymer concrete was tested and compared with control specimens. The results show increase in load carrying capacity and ductility index for all strengthened elements. The maximum increase in load carrying capacity was 68.53% and is observed in strengthened G30 specimens.

  19. Analysis of Load-Carrying Capacity for Redundant Free-Floating Space Manipulators in Trajectory Tracking Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingxuan Jia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze load-carrying capacity of redundant free-floating space manipulators (FFSM in trajectory tracking task. Combined with the analysis of influential factors in load-carrying process, evaluation of maximum load-carrying capacity (MLCC is described as multiconstrained nonlinear programming problem. An efficient algorithm based on repeated line search within discontinuous feasible region is presented to determine MLCC for a given trajectory of the end-effector and corresponding joint path. Then, considering the influence of MLCC caused by different initial configurations for the starting point of given trajectory, a kind of maximum payload initial configuration planning method is proposed by using PSO algorithm. Simulations are performed for a particular trajectory tracking task of the 7-DOF space manipulator, of which MLCC is evaluated quantitatively. By in-depth research of the simulation results, significant gap between the values of MLCC when using different initial configurations is analyzed, and the discontinuity of allowable load-carrying capacity is illustrated. The proposed analytical method can be taken as theoretical foundation of feasibility analysis, trajectory optimization, and optimal control of trajectory tracking task in on-orbit load-carrying operations.

  20. Experimental Study On Lateral Load Capacity of Bamboo RC Beam Column Joints Strengthened By Bamboo Mechanical Anchors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Umniati B.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the prospective of bamboos which available abundantly especially in Indonesia as rebars and mechanical anchors are studied. And also the endurance of the bamboos mechanical anchors to withstand cyclic loading were observed. Nine classes of bamboos bar were evaluated: consist of 3 different anchors (0, 4 and 8 anchors and 3 different compressive strength (19.19 MPa, 29.61 MPa and 37.96 MPa means 3 × 3 parameters. The results show that the lateral load capacity increased significantly with the present of bamboo anchors specimens: 26.04 % for 4 anchors specimens (C2 and 25 % for the 8 anchors specimens (C3 compared to zero anchor specimens (C1. On the other hand, the compressive strength of concrete have no significant effects to the lateral load capacity. Overall it can be concluded that, bamboo can be used as mechanical anchorage to strengthen beam column joint.

  1. Effects of reducing temperatures on the hydrogen storage capacity of double-walled carbon nanotubes with Pd loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Qu; Wu, Huimin; Wexler, David; Liu, Huakun

    2014-06-01

    The effects of different temperatures on the hydrogen sorption characteristics of double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs) with palladium loading have been investigated. When we use different temperatures, the particle sizes and specific surface areas of the samples are different, which affects the hydrogen storage capacity of the DWCNTs. In this work, the amount of hydrogen storage capacity was determined (by AMC Gas Reactor Controller) to be 1.70, 1.85, 2.00, and 1.93 wt% for pristine DWCNTS and for 2%Pd/DWCNTs-300 degrees C, 2%Pd/DWCNTs-400 degrees C, and 2%Pd/DWCNTs-500 degrees C, respectively. We found that the hydrogen storage capacity can be enhanced by loading with 2% Pd nanoparticles and selecting a suitable temperature. Furthermore, the sorption can be attributed to the chemical reaction between atomic hydrogen and the dangling bonds of the DWCNTs.

  2. NM Gross Receipts Baseline

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  3. Gross National Happiness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giri, Krishna Prasad; Kjær-Rasmussen, Lone Krogh

    This paper investigates practices related to the ideology of infusing Gross National Happiness (GNH) into school curriculum, the effectiveness of the meditation and mind training and the implication of GNH for school environment. It also explores how GNH ambience has been managed and practiced...... of Gross National Happiness and Educating for Gross National happiness....

  4. Approximate Solution of Oil Film Load-carrying Capacity of Turbulent Journal Bearing with Couple Stress Flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yongfang; WU Peng; GUO Bo; L Yanjun; LIU Fuxi; YU Yingtian

    2015-01-01

    The instability of the rotor dynamic system supported by oil journal bearing is encountered frequently, such as the half-speed whirl of the rotor, which is caused by oil film lubricant with nonlinearity. Currently, more attention is paid to the physical characteristics of oil film due to an oil-lubricated journal bearing being the important supporting component of the bearing-rotor systems and its nonlinear nature. In order to analyze the lubrication characteristics of journal bearings efficiently and save computational efforts, an approximate solution of nonlinear oil film forces of a finite length turbulent journal bearing with couple stress flow is proposed based on Sommerfeld and Ocvirk numbers. Reynolds equation in lubrication of a finite length turbulent journal bearing is solved based on multi-parametric principle. Load-carrying capacity of nonlinear oil film is obtained, and the results obtained by different methods are compared. The validation of the proposed method is verified, meanwhile, the relationships of load-carrying capacity versus eccentricity ratio and width-to-diameter ratio under turbulent and couple stress working conditions are analyzed. The numerical results show that both couple stress flow and eccentricity ratio have obvious influence on oil film pressure distribution, and the proposed method approximates the load-carrying capacity of turbulent journal bearings efficiently with various width-to-diameter ratios. This research proposes an approximate solution of oil film load-carrying capacity of turbulent journal bearings with different width-to-diameter ratios, which are suitable for high eccentricity ratios and heavy loads.

  5. Hertzian Load-bearing Capacity of Hybrid and Nano-hybrid Resin Composites Stored Dry and Wet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farmani S

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Hertzian indentation test has been proven to be an efficient and reliable alternative upon Vickers hardness test. This method has been used to test dental ceramics, amalgams, glass ionomers and luting cements.There is limited published information about the load-bearing capacity of resin composites using Hertizian indentation test. Objectives: To investigate the load-bearing capacity of hybrid and nano-hybrid resin composites stored dry or wet up to 30 days, using Hertzian indentation test. Materials and Methods: Three resin composites were used: two nano-hybrids (Filtek Supreme, and Luna and one hybrid, (Rok. A total of 108 disc-shaped specimens (1mm thick x 10 mm diameter were prepared using polyethylene mould. The specimens of each material were randomly divided into 6 groups of 6 (n=6 and stored at 370C either in distilled water or dry for 1, 7 and 30 days. The specimens were tested using Hertzian jig aligned in the universal testing machine. The specimen was placed on the top of a disc-shaped substrate. The load was applied at the center of each specimen and the load at the first crack was recorded. Data were analyzed by ANOVA, Tukey’sand student’s t-test using SPSS version 18.0. Results: Three-way ANOVA showed a significant interaction between all the factors (p = .0001. The load bearing capacity of almost all materials reduced significantly in the wet condition in comparison with the dry condition (p = .0001. After seven days of immersion in distilled water, Filtek Supreme had significantly lower values than those of Rok and Luna, there was no significant differences between materials in the dry condition. Conclusions:In contrast to dry condition, the load-bearing capacity of specimens stored in distilled water decreased significantly over the 30 days of immersion. The load bearing capacity of nano-hybrid composites tested in this study was shown to be comparable with that of the hybrid composite.

  6. DISCUSSION ON LOADING CAPACITY OF LARGE HOLE STAKE%大孔桩承载力的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡华明; 晋国幸

    2001-01-01

    在许多应用场合,大孔桩具有明显的胜过其它桩基的优点。通过对大孔桩的承载机理的分析,探讨大孔桩在土层和岩石层的承载力。%The large hole stake gains prominent advantages over other stakes in many applications. The present paper deals with the loading capacity of the large hole stake on the earth and rock layer on the basis of analysis on the loading mechanism for the stake.

  7. Analysis of Bearing Capacity of Suction Bucket Foundation Subjected to Horizontal and Moment Loadings

    OpenAIRE

    W.U. Ke; M.A. Mingyue

    2013-01-01

    The suction bucket foundation is not only supporting the vertical loading such as the sea platform and weight itself, but also subjecting to horizontal and moment loading due to wind and wave. The response of bucket foundation to combined Horizontal (H) and Moment (M) loading has been studied using 3D finite element analysis Then the proposed method is numerically implemented in the framework of the general-purpose FEM software ABAQUS. Relationship curve between the coefficient of ultimate be...

  8. Progressive collapse resisting capacity of reinforced concrete load bearing wall structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alireza Rahai; Alireza Shahin; Farzad Hatami

    2015-01-01

    Reinforced concrete (RC) load bearing wall is widely used in high-rise and mid-rise buildings. Due to the number of walls in plan and reduction in lateral force portion, this system is not only stronger against earthquakes, but also more economical. The effect of progressive collapse caused by removal of load bearing elements, in various positions in plan and stories of the RC load bearing wall system was evaluated by nonlinear dynamic and static analyses. For this purpose, three-dimensional model of 10-story structure was selected. The analysis results indicated stability, strength and stiffness of the RC load-bearing wall system against progressive collapse. It was observed that the most critical condition for removal of load bearing walls was the instantaneous removal of the surrounding walls located at the corners of the building where the sections of the load bearing elements were changed. In this case, the maximum vertical displacement was limited to 6.3 mm and the structure failed after applying the load of 10 times the axial load bored by removed elements. Comparison between the results of the nonlinear dynamic and static analyses demonstrated that the “load factor” parameter was a reasonable criterion to evaluate the progressive collapse potential of the structure.

  9. Will we be heating with green electricity tomorrow? The large potential of load-variable private customer tariffs; Heizen wir kuenftig mit Oekostrom? Das grosse Potenzial lastvariabler Privatkundentarife

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zierdt, Tobias; Lang, Dirk [RWE Effizienz GmbH, Dortmund (Germany)

    2012-09-15

    Momentous changes loom ahead for Germany's energy supply system as a result of the energy turnaround. One central question is how load peaks from renewable energy plants can be conveniently accommodated on the demand side. Two research projects are currently being carried out to examine the acceptance of time-variable and load-variable tariffs for private households. First results show that using green electricity for heat generation is significantly more attractive for both customers and energy suppliers than using it to cover day-to-day electricity demand at a later time.

  10. Thermal shaft effects on load-carrying capacity of a fully coupled, variable-properties cryogenic journal bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, M. J.; Wheeler, R. L., III; Hendricks, R. C.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to perform a rather complete analysis for a cryogenic (oxygen) journal bearing. The Reynolds equation required coupling and simultaneous solution with the fluid energy equation. To correctly account for the changes in the fluid viscosity, the fluid energy equation was coupled with the shaft and bearing heat conduction energy equations. The effects of pressure and temperature on the density, viscosity, and load-carrying capacity were further discussed as analysis parameters, with respect to relative eccentricity and the angular velocity. The isothermal fluid case and the adiabatic fluid case represented the limiting boundaries. The discussion was further extrapolated to study the Sommerfeld number dependency on the fluid Nusselt number and its consequence on possible total loss of load-carrying capacity and/or seizure (catastrophic failure).

  11. Scale-Up Effects of CO2 Capture by Methyldiethanolamine (MDEA Solutions in Terms of Loading Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel P. Santos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, results from three different CO2 capture experimental scales (laboratory, pilot unit, and a larger pilot unit, using aqueous amine solutions of methyldiethanolamine (MDEA 20 wt %, are compared in terms of loading capacity. All three tested scales produced results regarding CO2 absorption using MDEA aqueous solutions, which were largely in accordance with the theoretical loading capacity of the used amine. Nevertheless, the observed differences between the theoretical and actual absorption behaviors of MDEA solutions for the different scales can be justified with the relative weight that process variables exhibit when the process is scaled up. Therefore, in order to achieve a correct scale-up of the process, simulations should be performed in order to define the best set of operational parameters in order to achieve high production yields and therefore more process profitability.

  12. Numerical Evaluation on the Different Shapes of Gravelly Sand Columns to Increase the Loading Capacity of Soft Clay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghzili Sif Allah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Improvement on soft clay by the installation of stone column is one of the most popular methods followed worldwide. Different analytical and numerical solutions have already been developed for understanding the load transfer mechanism of soft soil reinforced with stone column. This study investigated a bearing capacity of the gravelly sand column, installed in soft clay bed at 15kpa of undrained shear strength. The column variable of length and diameter ratio at 7, 8 and 9 were evaluated. On top of that, the combination of two diameters in single column was tested and the uniform diameter was used as a control. In the numerical analysis, Mohrcoulomb model was adopted in the idealization of the behaviour of the gravelly sand column and soft clay materials. The results revealed that the optimum design that gave the highest loading capacity of the combination 11=12 of column diameter was the length and diameter ratio of 8.

  13. Post-buckling capacity of bi-axially loaded rectangular steel plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Jeppe; Bondum, T. H.

    2012-01-01

    Results from a detailed numerical investigation of the post-buckling behaviour of rectangular simply supported steel plates subjected to biaxial in-plane loading are presented. The Steel plates are loaded through forced edge displacements. The effects of initial imperfections, aspect ratio, plate...

  14. Evaluation by respirometry of the loading capacity of a high rate vermicompost bed for treating sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, William P; Taylor, Michael; Cossins, Rowan

    2007-09-01

    This study examines high rate vermicomposting of sewage sludge using high stocking densities of earthworms. To examine the loading capacity, two vermicompost beds were established in identical 0.84 m diameter reactors, one loaded at an average rate of 10 kg-wet-sludge-mixture m(-2) day(-1) (0.5 kg-carbon m(-2) day(-1)), the other loaded at 20 kg-wet-sludge-mixture m(-2) day(-1) (1 kg-carbon m(-2) day(-1)). The sludge mixture was from a commercial vermicomposting company (Vermitech) and contained 80-90% sludge and 10-20% green waste and clay. The beds were operated in fed-batch mode for 38 days, and then monitored for a further 12 days without any further sludge loading. Earthworms (Eisenia fetida) were added once or twice weekly over the 38 days loading period to gradually decrease the ratio of sludge loading rate to total earthworm biomass. By adding earthworm incrementally, the feeding rate ranged from 3.9 to 1.25 kg-wet-sludge kg-earthworm(-1) day(-1) for the full load experiment and 2-0.62 kg-wet-sludge kg-earthworm(-1) day(-1) for the half load experiment. The extent of degradation was estimated by fitting a 1st order model to the CO2 production rate from the beds. Based on the 1st order model, 53+/-20% (95% CI) and 68+/-4% of the organic carbon was converted to CO2 -C in the full load and half load experiments respectively. The CO2 production rate in the half load experiment became stable and repeatable when the total earthworm biomass reached 5.4 kg, corresponding to a feed rate of 1.04 kg-wet-sludge-mixture kg-earthworm(-1) day(-1). In contrast, the rate of CO2 production was still climbing and traces of methane were evident in the full load experiment at the end of the 38 day loading period. The experiments indicate that high rate vermicomposting beds are sustainable providing the feeding rate does not exceed approximately 1 kg-wet-sludge kg-earthworm(-1) day(-1).

  15. RV Myocardial Strain During Pre-Load Augmentation Is Associated With Exercise Capacity in Patients With Chronic HF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusunose, Kenya; Yamada, Hirotsugu; Nishio, Susumu; Ishii, Ayumi; Hirata, Yukina; Seno, Hiromitsu; Saijo, Yoshihito; Ise, Takayuki; Yamaguchi, Koji; Yagi, Shusuke; Soeki, Takeshi; Wakatsuki, Tetsuzo; Sata, Masataka

    2017-07-13

    The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between right ventricular (RV) function during pre-load augmentation and exercise tolerance. Peak oxygen uptake (VO2) is a strong predictor of mortality in chronic heart failure. Cardiac function during pre-load augmentation is an important part of the phenomenon in the evaluation of exercise capacity. We prospectively performed echocardiographic studies in 68 chronic heart failure patients with cardiopulmonary exercise testing (mean age 60 ± 12 years; 69% male). After resting evaluations, echocardiographic parameters were repeated during leg positive pressure (LPP). Exercise capacity was assessed by peak VO2 in all patients (left ventricular ejection fraction: 43 ± 15%). Patients with severely reduced exercise capacity (peak VO2 <14 ml/kg/min) had significantly lower stroke volume index, left ventricular global longitudinal strain and RV strain and higher filling pressure (E/e' and pulmonary arterial systolic pressure) than the remainder. Stroke volume index (β = 0.49), global longitudinal strain (β = -0.61), E/e' (β = -0.32), pulmonary arterial systolic pressure (β = -0.57), and RV strain (β = -0.66) during LPP were independently correlated to peak VO2 (all p < 0.01). RV strain during LPP was the most powerful predictor in identifying patients with severely reduced exercise capacity (cut off value: -17%; sensitivity: 81%; specificity: 88%; areas under the curve: 0.88, p < 0.001) compared with other variables including resting parameters. RV strain during pre-load augmentation correlated independently to peak VO2 and was a powerful predictor in identifying patients with severely reduced exercise capacity. Copyright © 2017 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Lateral load-carrying capacity analyses of composite shear walls with double steel plates and filled concrete with binding bars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周德源; 刘凌飞; 朱立猛

    2016-01-01

    A method is developed to predict the lateral load-carrying capacity of composite shear walls with double steel plates and filled concrete with binding bars (SCBs). Nonlinear finite element models of SCBs were established by using the finite element tool, Abaqus. Tie constraints were used to connect the binding bars and the steel plates. Surface-to-surface contact provided by the Abaqus was used to simulate the interaction between the steel plate and the core concrete. The established models could predict the lateral load-carrying capacity of SCBs with a reasonable degree of accuracy. A calculation method was developed by superposition principle to predict the lateral load-carrying capacity of SCBs for the engineering application. The concrete confined by steel plates and binding bars is under multi-axial compression; therefore, its shear strength was calculated by using the Guo-Wang concrete failure criterion. The shear strength of the steel plates of SCBs was calculated by using the von Mises yielding criterion without considering buckling. Results of the developed method are in good agreement with the testing and finite element results.

  17. Simple Evaluation of Load-Carrying Capacity of Multi-Span Folding Bridges based on Floating Supports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Marszałek

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available [b]Abstract[/b]. The papers covers simple evaluation of load-carrying capacity of multi-span folding bridges based on floating supports. Combined bridges built in this approach, could be used as a temporary crossing. The methodology of this evaluation is shown graphically on the basis of designed nomograms for two existing bridge structures i.e. MS-54 and DMS-65, mounted on rigid and floating supports. These nomograms facilitate the simple and fast determination of the impact of changing fixed support into floating support with different bridge length spans on the carrying capacity of the bridge. The paper also presents the influence of long-term use (enlarging the mounting backlash in the joints of these structures on the carrying capacity of the bridge.[b]Keywords[/b]: building, folding bridges, nomograms, assembly clearances

  18. PLUTONIUM LOADING CAPACITY OF REILLEX HPQ ANION EXCHANGE COLUMN - AFS-2 PLUTONIUM FLOWSHEET FOR MOX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyser, E.; King, W.; O' Rourke, P.

    2012-07-26

    Radioactive plutonium (Pu) anion exchange column experiments using scaled HB-Line designs were performed to investigate the dependence of column loading performance on the feed composition in the H-Canyon dissolution process for plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}) product shipped to the Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF). These loading experiments show that a representative feed solution containing {approx}5 g Pu/L can be loaded onto Reillex{trademark} HPQ resin from solutions containing 8 M total nitrate and 0.1 M KF provided that the F is complexed with Al to an [Al]/[F] molar ratio range of 1.5-2.0. Lower concentrations of total nitrate and [Al]/[F] molar ratios may still have acceptable performance but were not tested in this study. Loading and washing Pu losses should be relatively low (<1%) for resin loading of up to 60 g Pu/L. Loading above 60 g Pu/L resin is possible, but Pu wash losses will increase such that 10-20% of the additional Pu fed may not be retained by the resin as the resin loading approaches 80 g Pu/L resin.

  19. The effect of short fiber composite base on microleakage and load-bearing capacity of posterior restorations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garoushi, Sufyan K.; Hatem, Marwa; Lassila, Lippo V. J.; Vallittu, Pekka K.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: To determine the marginal microleakage of Class II restorations made with different composite base materials and the static load-bearing capacity of direct composite onlay restorations. Methods: Class II cavities were prepared in 40 extracted molars. They were divided into five groups (n = 8/group) depending on composite base material used (everX Posterior, SDR, Tetric EvoFlow). After Class II restorations were completed, specimens were sectioned mid-sagitally. For each group, sectioned restorations were immersed in dye. Specimens were viewed under a stereo-microscope and the percentage of cavity leakage was calculated. Ten groups of onlay restorations were fabricated (n = 8/group); groups were made with composite base materials (everX Posterior, SDR, Tetric EvoFlow, Gradia Direct LoFlo) and covered by 1 mm layer of conventional (Tetric N-Ceram) or bulk fill (Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill) composites. Groups made only from conventional, bulk fill and short fiber composites were used as control. Specimens were statically loaded until fracture. Data were analyzed using ANOVA (p = 0.05). Results: Microleakage of restorations made of plain conventional composite or short fiber composite base material showed statistically (p onlay restorations made from short fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) as base or plain restoration had statistically significant higher load-bearing capacity (1593 N) (p < 0.05) than other restorations. Conclusion: Restorations combining base of short FRC and surface layer of conventional composite displayed promising performance related to microleakage and load-bearing capacity. PMID:28642894

  20. Psychophysical determination of load carrying capacity for a 1-h work period by Chinese males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, S P; Chen, C C

    2001-09-15

    This study used the psychophysical approach to examine the effects of container width, the presence or absence of container handles, and different load-carrying frequencies and distances on the maximum acceptable weight carried and the resulting response (heart rate and rating of perceived exertion) by well-conditioned males for a 1-h work period. After training, 12 male subjects performed a load-carrying task at knuckle height. Each subject performed 30 different carrying combinations. The conditions examined were container width, from 15.2 to 55.9 cm; carrying frequency, from 1 carry to 5 carries/min; and carrying distance from 1 to 6 m. The results were compared with prior studies and led to the following conclusions: (1) the use of container handles leads to the subjects carrying a significantly higher maximum acceptable weight than when containers do not have handles, which differs from the results of a previous study by Morrissey and Liou; (2) there were significant reductions in the maximum acceptable carrying weight with increases in container width, frequency and distance; (3) the presence or absence of container handles, different frequencies and load-carrying distances had significant effects on heart rate, although the effect of container width was not significant. In addition, the various frequencies and distances for load carrying had significant interaction effects on heart rate; (4) the effects of various frequencies and load-carrying distances on the rating of perceived exertion were statistically significant. The most stressed body parts were the wrists and arms.

  1. A new numerical method for determining collapse load-carrying capacity of structure made of elasto-plastic material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟志鹏; 任大龙; 万水

    2014-01-01

    Determination of collapse load-carrying capacity of elasto-plastic material is very important in designing structure. The problem is commonly solved by elasto-plastic finite element method (FEM). In order to deal with material nonlinear problem involving strain softening problem effectively, a new numerical method-damped Newton method was proposed. The iterative schemes are discussed in detail for pure equilibrium models. In the equilibrium model, the plasticity criterion and the compatibility of the strains are verified, and the strain increment and plastic factor are treated as independent unknowns. To avoid the stiffness matrix being singularity or condition of matrix being ill, a damping factor α was introduced to adjust the value of plastic consistent parameter automatically during the iterations. According to the algorithm, the nonlinear finite element program was complied and its numerical example was calculated. The numerical results indicate that this method converges very fast for both small load steps and large load steps. Compared with those results obtained by analysis and experiment, the predicted ultimate bearing capacity from the proposed method is identical.

  2. Influence of cyclic fatigue in water on the load-bearing capacity of dental bridges made of zirconia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohorst, Philipp; Dittmer, Marc Philipp; Borchers, Lothar; Stiesch-Scholz, Meike

    2008-09-01

    The humid atmosphere and permanent occurrence of chewing forces in the oral environment lead to degradation of ceramics used for prosthetic restorations. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the influence of artificial aging on the load-bearing capacity of four-unit bridges, with both undamaged and predamaged zirconia frameworks. Additionally, different parameters for chewing simulation have been investigated and a finite element analysis was made to predict the location of highest tensile stresses within the bridges. A total of 60 frameworks were milled from presintered zirconia and divided into six homogeneous groups. Prior to veneering, frameworks of two groups were "damaged" by a defined saw cut similar to an accidental flaw generated during shape cutting. After veneering, FPDs were subjected to thermal and mechanical cycling - with the exception of control groups. The load-bearing capacity of tested FPDs was significantly reduced by artificial aging. In comparison to unaged specimens, fracture resistance decreased by about 40%, whereas preliminary damage did not have a significant effect. Increasing number of cycles and increasing upper load limit failed to show any additional effect on fracture force. To predict the progression of degradation under the terms of in vitro simulation for even longer periods, further aging experiments are required.

  3. Analysis of Plug Load Capacities and Power Requirements in Commercial Buildings: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheppy, M.; Torcellini, P.; Gentile-Polese, L.

    2014-08-01

    Plug and process load power requirements are frequently overestimated because designers often use estimates based on 'nameplate' data, or design assumptions are high because information is not available. This generally results in oversized heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning systems; increased initial construction costs; and increased energy use caused by inefficiencies at low, part-load operation. Rightsizing of chillers in two buildings reduced whole-building energy use by 3%-4%. If an integrated design approach could enable 3% whole-building energy savings in all U.S. office buildings stock, it could save 34 TBtu of site energy per year.

  4. Ældre betonbroers bæreevne (Load bearing capacity of old concrete bridges)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders

    1999-01-01

    Two old bridges have been analysed in connection with their demolition. The first one is a pedestrian bridge, the Gefion bridge, from 1894. This is the first bridge of reinforced concrete in Denmark. Here the creep in the concrete severely have changed the way in which the load on the bridge was ...

  5. Highly loaded interactive mixtures for dry powder inhalers: prediction of the adhesion capacity using surface energy and solubility parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, K G; Dowe, U; Zadnik, J

    2005-05-01

    In order to correlate drug adhesion properties of a highly loaded interactive mixture for the use in dry powder inhalers with the surface energy and to establish a link to the solubility parameter, surface free energy was detected for micronized substances (salbutamol sulfate, salbutamol base, theophylline and alpha-lactose monohydrate) using inverse gas chromatography (IGC). Interactive mixtures with coarse crystalline alpha-lactose monohydrate as a carrier were prepared at loading levels from 7.5 to 20% (w/w) and analyzed with respect to their adhesion capacity (CA) using the air jet sieving method. Solubility parameters were taken from literature or calculated. As a result the CA was independent of the drug load and correlated linearly with volume specific surface energy interaction (SEIv) values of the adherents (R2 = 0.98498). A link between SEIv and the size normalized solubility parameter (delta(tot)/d50) was found. Consequently, plotting delta(tot)/d50 versus CA resulted also in a strong linear relationship (R2 = 0.99140). Overall a powerful tool was established to judge and quantify adhesion properties of highly loaded interactive mixtures even for estimates in early preformulation at a time where just the molecular structure of the active ingredient is known.

  6. Fabrication of functional hollow microspheres constructed from MOF shells: Promising drug delivery systems with high loading capacity and targeted transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xuechuan; Hai, Xiao; Baigude, Huricha; Guan, Weihua; Liu, Zhiliang

    2016-11-01

    An advanced multifunctional, hollow metal-organic framework (MOF) drug delivery system with a high drug loading level and targeted delivery was designed and fabricated for the first time and applied to inhibit tumour cell growth. This hollow MOF targeting drug delivery system was prepared via a simple post-synthetic surface modification procedure, starting from hollow ZIF-8 successfully obtained for the first time via a mild phase transformation under solvothermal conditions. As a result, the hollow ZIF-8 exhibits a higher loading capacity for the model anticancer drug 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). Subsequently, 5-FU-loaded ZIF-8 was encapsulated into polymer layers (FA-CHI-5-FAM) with three components: a chitosan (CHI) backbone, the imaging agent 5-carboxyfluorescein (5-FAM), and the targeting reagent folic acid (FA). Thus, an advanced drug delivery system, ZIF-8/5-FU@FA-CHI-5-FAM, was fabricated. A cell imaging assay demonstrated that ZIF-8/5-FU@FA-CHI-5-FAM could target and be taken up by MGC-803 cells. Furthermore, the as-prepared ZIF-8/5-FU@FA-CHI-5-FAM exhibited stronger cell growth inhibitory effects on MGC-803 cells because of the release of 5-FU, as confirmed by a cell viability assay. In addition, a drug release experiment in vitro indicated that ZIF-8/5-FU@FA-CHI-5-FAM exhibited high loading capacity (51%) and a sustained drug release behaviour. Therefore, ZIF-8/5-FU@FA-CHI-5-FAM could provide targeted drug transportation, imaging tracking and localized sustained release.

  7. Influence of Butyrate Loaded Clinoptilolite Dietary Supplementation on Growth Performance, Development of Intestine and Antioxidant Capacity in Broiler Chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yanan; Zhou, Yanmin; Lu, Changhui; Ahmad, Hussain; Zhang, Hao; He, Jintian; Zhang, Lili; Wang, Tian

    2016-01-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary butyrate loaded clinoptilolite (CLI-B) on growth performance, pancreatic digestive enzymes, intestinal development and histomorphology, as well as antioxidant capacity of serum and intestinal mucosal in chickens. Two hundred forty 1-day-old commercial Arbor Acres broilers were randomly assigned to 4 groups: CON group (fed basal diets), SB group (fed basal diet with 0.05% sodium butyrate), CLI group (fed basal diet with 1% clinoptilolite), and CLI-B group (fed basal diet with 1% CLI-B). The results showed that supplementation of CLI-B significantly decreased (P < 0.05) feed conservation ratio at both 21 and 42 days of age, improved the pancreatic digestive enzymes activities (P < 0.05), increased the villus length and villus/crypt ratio (P < 0.05), and decreased the crypt depth of intestine (P < 0.05) as compared to the other experimental groups. Furthermore, the CLI-B environment improved the antioxidant capacity by increasing the antioxidant enzyme activities (P < 0.05) in intestine mucosal, and decreasing the NO content and iNOS activity (P < 0.05) in serum. In addition, CLI-B supplementation had improved the development of intestine and antioxidant capacity of broilers than supplementation with either clinoptilolite or butyrate sodium alone. In conclusion, 1% CLI-B supplementation improved the health status, intestine development and antioxidant capacity in broiler chickens, thus appearing as an important feed additive for the poultry industry.

  8. Load Carriage Capacity of the Dismounted Combatant - A Commanders’ Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    carriage. Personnel may therefore require supplementation (e.g. emergency ration chocolate bars) to meet energy requirements under such conditions...2010 31-38 Pal, M. S., et al. (2009) Optimum load for carriage by soldiers at two walking speeds on level ground. International Journal of Industrial ...Health Risk. Industrial Health 43 (3) 361-377 Seidel, H. and Griffin, M. J. (2001) Modelling the response of the spinal system to whole- body

  9. Load-carrying capacity test of a long-span timber truss

    OpenAIRE

    Branco, Jorge M.; Varum, Humberto; Ramisote, Vitor; Costa, Aníbal

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the behavior of existing timber trusses in order to improve the knowledge that may support engineers in the definition of more adequate restoration interventions in old buildings, particularly of long-span timber structures, as industrial or monumental constructions. For this purpose, a cyclic load-carrying test was carried out on a full-scale timber planar truss rescued from an old industrial roof structure. Before the tests, an accurate geometrical characte...

  10. Load Carrying Capacity of Keyed Joints Reinforced with High Strength Wire Rope Loops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henrik Brøner; Hoang, Linh Cao

    Vertical shear connections between precast concrete wall elements are usually made as keyed joints reinforced with overlapping U-bars. The overlapping U-bars form a cylindrical core in which the locking bar is placed and the connection is subsequently grouted with mortar. A more construction...... friendly shear connection can be obtained by replacing the U-bars with high strength looped wire ropes. The wire ropes have the advantage of being flexible (they have virtually no bending stiffness) which makes installation of wall elements much easier. The looped wire ropes are usually pre-installed in so...... the shear capacity of wire loop connections. Tests have shown that the shear capacity of such joints – due to the relatively high tensile strength of the wire ropes - is more prone to be governed by fracture of the joint mortar in combination with yielding of the locking bar. To model this type of failure...

  11. THE INFLUENCE OF AGE HENS ON THE INTENSITY LOAD CAPACITY FROM DIFFERENT WEIGHT GROUPS EGGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Pandurević

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of age of hens on the intensity of load from different weight groups eggs. This paper presents the correlation connection, meaning and significance of differences connection for two weight classes (M - 53 to 63g and L – 63g to 73g, which make up the largest part of the total number of eggs produced during the entire production cycle, as well as for all of the eggs produced, as compared to age-laying hens. Between age and intensity of load to 53 weeks of age hens (SN53/34, there is a strong positive, medium and slight correlation coefficients determined and phenotypic correlation are statistically confirmed at the level of P <0.01 and P <0.05. From 53 weeks of age until the end of exploitation of laying hens (SN72/53 the correlation strength of the association was weaker and weaker, and in the last eight weeks passed in the negative, ie. Fortified negative phenotypic correlation coefficients, but were not statistically significant (P> 0.05. Between the age of hens and intensity of load hardest groups (classes eggs (L there is a complete and very strong connections and established correlation coefficients were statistically significant at P <0.001.

  12. Shock Load Capacity of Concrete Expansion Anchoring Systems in Uncracked Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-01

    footprints overlap or infringe upon a concrete boundary, as in Fig. 2, Eq. (3) governs their perfor- mance. Eq. (3) represents the governing CCO edge effect strength...Fig. 2. Concrete capacity design method edge effect strength reduction cases ---------------------~,,-----------------~!· 1208 I JOURNAL OF...the connection. An=net area shown shaded in Fig 2. Edge effect strength reduction factors hinge on three main case criteria as shown in Fig. 2. For

  13. Experimental Determination of Load Carrying Capacity of Point Contacts at Zero Entrainment Velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shogrin, Bradley A.; Jones, William R., Jr.; Kingsbury, Edward P.; Prahl, Joseph M.

    1999-01-01

    A capacitance technique was used to monitor the film thickness separating two steel balls of a unique tribometer while subjecting the ball-ball contact to highly stressed, zero entrainment velocity (ZEV) conditions. All tests were performed under a N2 purge (R.H. carrying capacity at these zero entrainment velocity conditions, relevant to the ball-ball contact application in retainerless ball bearings.

  14. Load-carrying capacity of lightly reinforced, prefabricated walls of lightweight aggregate concrete with open structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goltermann, Per

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents and evaluates the results of a coordinated testing of prefabricated, lightly reinforced walls of lightweight aggregate concrete with open structure. The coordinated testing covers all wall productions in Denmark and will therefore provide a representative assessment of the qual...... of the quality actually produced. Existing and new formulas for the capacity are evaluated by comparison to the test results and a new model with a good correlation with the test results is presented....

  15. Capacity and failure mechanism of laterally loaded jet-grouting reinforced piles: Field and numerical investigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Ben; WANG LiZhong; HONG Yi

    2016-01-01

    This study presents the results of field and numerical investigations of lateral stiffness,capacity,and failure mechanisms for plain piles and reinforced concrete piles in soft clay.A plastic-damage model is used to simulate concrete piles and jet-grouting in the numerical analyses.The field study and numerical investigations show that by applying jet-grouting surrounding the upper 7.5D (D =pile diameter) of a pile,lateral stiffness and bearing capacity of the pile are increased by about 110% and 100%,respectively.This is partially because the jet-grouting increases the apparent diameter of the pile,so as to enlarge the extent of failure wedge and hence passive resistance in front of the reinforced pile.Moreover,the jet-grouting provides a circumferential confinement to the concrete pile,which suppresses development of tensile stress in the pile.Correspondingly,tension-induced plastic damage in the concrete pile is reduced,causing less degradation of stiffness and strength of the pile than that of a plain pile.Effectiveness of the circumferential confinement provided by the jet-grouting,however,diminishes once the grouting cracks because of the significant vertical and circumferential tensile stress near its mid-depth.The lateral capacity of the jet-grouting reinforced pile is,therefore,governed by mobilized passive resistance of soil and plastic damage of jet-grouting.

  16. Capacity fade modelling of lithium-ion battery under cyclic loading conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwin, T. R.; Chung, Yongmann M.; Wang, Jihong

    2016-10-01

    A pseudo two-dimensional (P2D) electro-chemical lithium-ion battery model is presented in this paper to study the capacity fade under cyclic charge-discharge conditions. The Newman model [1,2] has been modified to include a continuous solvent reduction reaction responsible for the capacity fade and power fade. The temperature variation inside the cell is accurately predicted using a distributed thermal model coupled with the internal chemical heat generation. The model is further improved by linking the porosity variation with the electrolyte partial molar concentration, thereby proving a stronger coupling between the battery performance and the chemical properties of electrolyte. The solid electrolyte interface (SEI) layer growth is estimated for different cut-off voltages and charging current rates. The results show that the convective heat transfer coefficient as well as the porosity variation influences the SEI layer growth and the battery life significantly. The choice of an electrolyte decides the conductivity and partial molar concentration, which is found to have a strong influence on the capacity fade of the battery. The present battery model integrates all essential electro-chemical processes inside a lithium-ion battery under a strong implicit algorithm, proving a useful tool for computationally fast battery monitoring system.

  17. ULTIMATE LOAD-BEARING CAPACITY OF CYLINDER DERIVED FROM AUTOFRETTAGE UNDER IDEAL CONDITION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Ruilin

    2008-01-01

    According to the basic theory on autofrettage and according to the 4th strength theory, several parameters and their relations are studied under ideal condition, including σej/σy, the equivalent stress of total stresses at elastoplastic juncture; σei/σy, the equivalent stress of total stresses at inside surface; σej′/σy, the equivalent stress of residual stresses at elastoplastic juncture; σei′/σy, the equivalent stress of residual stresses at inside surface; and p/σy, load-bearing capaciσy of an autofrettaged σylinder. σy theoretical stuσy on relations between the parameters, noticeable results and laws are achieved: to satisσy |σei′|=σy, the relation between kj and k is, k2lnkj2-k2-kj2+2=0, when k→∞, 1.648 72, as based on the 3rd strength theoσy, where k is the outside/inside radius ratio of a σylinder, kj is the ratio of elastoplastic juncture radius to inside radius of a σylinder; If the plastic region covers the whole wall of a σylinder, for compressiveσyield not to occur after removing autofrettage pressure, the ultimate k is k=2.218 46 as based on the 3rd strength theoσy; With k=2.218 46, a σylinder's ultimate load-bearing capaciσy equals its entireσyield pressure, or p/σy=2lnk/; The maximum and optimum load-bearing capaciσy of an autofrettaged σylinder is just 2 times the loading which an unautofrettaged σylinder can bear elasticalσy, or p/σy=2(k2-1)/k2, and the limit of the load-bearing capaciσy of an autofrettaged σylinder is also just 2 times that of an unautofrettaged σylinder. The conclusions are the same as based on the 3rd strength theoσy, but some equations are different from each other.

  18. Buckling Capacity Curves for Steel Spherical Shells Loaded by the External Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Błażejewski Paweł

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of buckling resistance of pressurised spherical cap is not an easy task. There exist two different approaches which allow to achieve this goal. The first approach involves performing advanced numerical analyses in which material and geometrical nonlinearities would be taken into account as well as considering the worst imperfections of the defined amplitude. This kind of analysis is customarily called GMNIA and is carried out by means of the computer software based on FEM. The other, comparatively easier approach, relies on the utilisation of earlier prepared procedures which enable determination of the critical resistance pRcr, the plastic resistance pRpl and buckling parameters a, b, h, l 0 needed to the definition of the standard buckling resistance curve. The determination of the buckling capacity curve for the particular class of spherical caps is the principal goal of this work. The method of determination of the critical pressure and the plastic resistance were described by the authors in [1] whereas the worst imperfection mode for the considered class of spherical shells was found in [2]. The determination of buckling parameters defining the buckling capacity curve for the whole class of shells is more complicated task. For this reason the authors focused their attention on spherical steel caps with the radius to thickness ratio of R/t = 500, the semi angle j = 30o and the boundary condition BC2 (the clamped supporting edge. Taking into account all imperfection forms considered in [2] and different amplitudes expressed by the multiple of the shell thickness, sets of buckling parameters defining the capacity curve were determined. These parameters were determined by the methods proposed by Rotter in [3] and [4] where the method of determination of the exponent h by means of additional parameter k was presented. As a result of the performed analyses the standard capacity curves for all considered imperfection modes and

  19. Loovkirjutamist õpetab Philip Gross

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    T.S. Elioti luulepreemia laureaat Philip Gross on Tallinna Ülikooli talvekooli rahvusvahelise kursuse "Poetry: A Conversation between Words and Silence" läbiviija. Oma seminarides keskendub ta lisaks loovkirjutamisele ka loova lugemise vajadusele

  20. Gross Sales Tax Collections

    Data.gov (United States)

    City of Jackson, Mississippi — This data is captured directly from the MS Department of Revenue and specific to the City of Jackson. It is compiled from Gross Sales Tax reported by taxpayers each...

  1. Total Antioxidant Capacity and Total Oxidant Status in Saliva of Periodontitis Patients in Relation to Bacterial Load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Taowen; Andrukhov, Oleh; Haririan, Hady; Müller-Kern, Michael; Liu, Shutai; Liu, Zhonghao; Rausch-Fan, Xiaohui

    2015-01-01

    The detection of salivary biomarkers has a potential application in early diagnosis and monitoring of periodontal inflammation. However, searching sensitive salivary biomarkers for periodontitis is still ongoing. Oxidative stress is supposed to play an important role in periodontitis progression and tissue destruction. In this cross-sectional study, we investigated total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and total oxidant status (TOS) in saliva of periodontitis patients compared to healthy controls and their relationship with periodontopathic bacteria and periodontal disease severity. Unstimulated saliva was collected from 45 patients with generalized severe periodontitis and 37 healthy individuals and the TAC/TOS were measured. In addition, salivary levels of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, Treponema denticola, and Fusobacterium nucleatum in saliva were measured. Salivary TAC was lower in periodontitis patients compared to healthy controls. Moreover, a significant negative correlation of salivary TAC with clinical attachment loss was observed in periodontitis patients. No significant difference in the salivary TOS was observed between periodontitis patients and healthy controls. Bacterial load was enhanced in periodontitis patients and exhibited correlation with periodontal disease severity but not with salivary TAC/TOS. Our data suggest that changes in antioxidant capacity in periodontitis patients are not associated with increased bacterial load and are probably due to a dysregulated immune response.

  2. Effect of Shear Resistance on Flexural Debonding Load-Carrying Capacity of RC Beams Strengthened with Externally Bonded FRP Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guibing Li

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Debonding failure is the main failure mode in flexurally strengthened reinforced concrete beams by externally bonded or near surface mounted fibre reinforced polymer (FRP composites. It is believed that FRP debonding will be initiated if the shear stress on the concrete-FRP interface reaches the tensile strength of concrete. However, it was found through experimental and analytical studies that the debonding mechanism of FRP composites has the potential of shear failure in combination with debonding failure. Moreover, the shear failure probably influences the debonding failure. Presently, there are very little experimental and analytical studies to investigate the influence of shear resistance of reinforced concrete (RC beam on FRP debonding failure. The current study investigates and analyzes the effect of shear resistance on FRP debonding failure based on test results. The analytical results show that the shear resistance of RC beam has a great effect on flexural debonding load-carrying capacity of FRP-strengthened RC beam. The influence of shear resistance on flexural debonding load-carrying capacity must be fully considered in flexural strengthening design of RC beams.

  3. Total antioxidant capacity and total oxidant status in saliva of periodontitis patients in relation to bacterial load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taowen eZhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The detection of salivary biomarkers has a potential application in early diagnosis and monitoring of periodontal inflammation. However, searching sensitive salivary biomarkers for periodontitis is still ongoing. Oxidative stress is supposed to play an important role in periodontitis progression and tissue destruction. In this cross-sectional study, we investigated total antioxidant capacity (TAC and total oxidant status (TOS in saliva of periodontitis patients compared to healthy controls and their relationship with periodontopathic bacteria and periodontal disease severity. Unstimulated saliva was collected from 45 patients with generalized severe periodontitis and 37 healthy individuals and the TAC/TOS were measured. In addition, salivary levels of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, Treponema denticola, and Fusobacterium nucleatum in saliva were measured. Salivary TAC was lower in periodontitis patients compared to healthy controls. Moreover, a significant negative correlation of salivary TAC with clinical attachment loss was observed in periodontitis patients. No significant difference in the salivary TOS was observed between periodontitis patients and healthy controls. Bacterial load was enhanced in periodontitis patients and exhibited correlation with periodontal disease severity but not with salivary TAC/TOS. Our data suggest that changes in antioxidant capacity in periodontitis patients are not associated with increased bacterial load and are probably due to a dysregulated immune response.

  4. A Node Model Capturing Turning Lane Capacity and Physical Queuing for the Dynamic Network Loading Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingxia Gao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An analytical dynamic node-based model is proposed to represent flows on a traffic network and to be utilized as an integral part of a dynamic network loading (DNL process by solving a continuous DNL problem. The proposed model formulation has an integrate base to be structured with a link load computing component, where physical queuing and its influence were explicitly taken into account by dividing a link into two parts: running part and queuing part. The solution to the model is obtained by a hybridization algorithm of simulation and analytical approach, where an iteration process is conducted to update time-dependent network flow conditions after a reasonable discretization of the problem. The performance of the proposed model, as a DNL model, is tested on a sample network. It is seen that the proposed model provides consistent approximations to link flow dynamics. The dynamic node model proposed in this paper is unique in that it explicitly models directional queue in each turning lane and the First-In-First-Out (FIFO rule at lane level rather than link level is pursued.

  5. Simulation of water environmental capacity and pollution load reduction using QUAL2K for water environmental management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruibin; Qian, Xin; Yuan, Xingcheng; Ye, Rui; Xia, Bisheng; Wang, Yulei

    2012-12-07

    In recent years, water quality degradation associated with rapid socio-economic development in the Taihu Lake Basin, China, has attracted increasing attention from both the public and the Chinese government. The primary sources of pollution in Taihu Lake are its inflow rivers and their tributaries. Effective water environmental management strategies need to be implemented in these rivers to improve the water quality of Taihu Lake, and to ensure sustainable development in the region. The aim of this study was to provide a basis for water environmental management decision-making. In this study, the QUAL2K model for river and stream water quality was applied to predict the water quality and environmental capacity of the Hongqi River, which is a polluted tributary in the Taihu Lake Basin. The model parameters were calibrated by trial and error until the simulated results agreed well with the observed data. The calibrated QUAL2K model was used to calculate the water environmental capacity of the Hongqi River, and the water environmental capacities of COD(Cr) NH(3)-N, TN, and TP were 17.51 t, 1.52 t, 2.74 t and 0.37 t, respectively. The results showed that the NH(3)-N, TN, and TP pollution loads of the studied river need to be reduced by 50.96%, 44.11%, and 22.92%, respectively to satisfy the water quality objectives. Thus, additional water pollution control measures are needed to control and reduce the pollution loads in the Hongqi River watershed. The method applied in this study should provide a basis for water environmental management decision-making.

  6. Simulation of Water Environmental Capacity and Pollution Load Reduction Using QUAL2K for Water Environmental Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruibin; Qian, Xin; Yuan, Xingcheng; Ye, Rui; Xia, Bisheng; Wang, Yulei

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, water quality degradation associated with rapid socio-economic development in the Taihu Lake Basin, China, has attracted increasing attention from both the public and the Chinese government. The primary sources of pollution in Taihu Lake are its inflow rivers and their tributaries. Effective water environmental management strategies need to be implemented in these rivers to improve the water quality of Taihu Lake, and to ensure sustainable development in the region. The aim of this study was to provide a basis for water environmental management decision-making. In this study, the QUAL2K model for river and stream water quality was applied to predict the water quality and environmental capacity of the Hongqi River, which is a polluted tributary in the Taihu Lake Basin. The model parameters were calibrated by trial and error until the simulated results agreed well with the observed data. The calibrated QUAL2K model was used to calculate the water environmental capacity of the Hongqi River, and the water environmental capacities of CODCr NH3-N, TN, and TP were 17.51 t, 1.52 t, 2.74 t and 0.37 t, respectively. The results showed that the NH3-N, TN, and TP pollution loads of the studied river need to be reduced by 50.96%, 44.11%, and 22.92%, respectively to satisfy the water quality objectives. Thus, additional water pollution control measures are needed to control and reduce the pollution loads in the Hongqi River watershed. The method applied in this study should provide a basis for water environmental management decision-making. PMID:23222206

  7. Nonlocal axial load-bearing capacity of two neighboring perpendicular single-walled carbon nanotubes accounting for shear deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiani, Keivan

    2015-11-01

    This study is devoted to examine load-bearing capacity of a nanosystem composed of two adjacent perpendicular single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) which are embedded in an elastic matrix. Accounting for the nonlocality and the intertube van der Waals forces, the governing equations are established based on the nonlocal Euler-Bernoulli, Timoshenko, and higher-order beam theories. These are sets of coupled integro-ordinary differential equations whose analytical solutions are unavailable. Hence, an efficient meshless methodology is proposed and the discrete governing equations are obtained via Galerkin approach. By solving the resulting set of eigenvalue equations, the axial buckling load of the elastically embedded nanosystem is evaluated. The roles of the radius and slenderness ratio of the constitutive SWCNTs, free distance between two tubes, small-scale parameter, aspect ratio, transverse and rotational stiffness of the surrounding matrix on the axial buckling load of the nanosystem are comprehensively addressed. The obtained results can be regarded as a pivotal step for better understanding the mechanism of elastic buckling of more complex systems such as elastically embedded-orthogonal membranes or even forests of SWCNTs.

  8. Gelatin-loaded p(HEMA-GMA) cryogel for high-capacity immobilization of horseradish peroxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soomro, Rabel; Perçin, Işık; Memon, Najma; Iqbal Bhanger, Muhammad; Denizli, Adil

    2016-11-01

    Poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-glycidyl methacrylate) [p(HEMA-GMA)] cryogel discs were prepared under sub-zero temperatures. Gelatin was attached covalently on the p(HEMA-GMA) cryogel discs and reversible immobilization of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was performed. The p(HEMA-GMA) cryogel discs were characterized by swelling tests, scanning electron microscopy, and surface area measurements. HRP immobilization capacity of p(HEMA-GMA)/gelatin cryogel discs was 24.8 mg/g. Removal of phenol from aqueous solutions was performed using HRP immobilized p(HEMA-GMA)/gelatin cryogel. It was observed that within 2 h of contact time, the percentage of phenol removal reaches up to 91% in the presence of H2O2.

  9. Bearing Capacity of Floating Ice Sheets under Short-Term Loads: Over-Sea-Ice Traverse from McMurdo Station to Marble Point

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    ER D C/ CR RE L TR -1 5- 1 Engineering for Polar Operations, Logistics, and Research (EPOLAR) Bearing Capacity of Floating Ice Sheets...Operations, Logistics, and Research (EPOLAR) ERDC/CRREL TR-15-1 January 2015 Bearing Capacity of Floating Ice Sheets under Short-Term Loads Over-Sea-Ice... capacity for a single axle load of 66,000 lb; and the main beams have a minimum yield stress of 36 ksi.* The rounded ends of each girder reduce

  10. Capacidad de carga de las transmisiones por tornillo sinfín y corona. // Load capacity of worm gears transmissions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Rivero Llerena

    2003-01-01

    on worm gears load capacity. It consists in a procedure forcalculating the gear‘s tooth active surface and a mathematic expression to predict the load capacity according to contactrequisites for specific preciseness.Key words: Load capacity, contact impression, worm gear.

  11. Investigating the influence of working memory capacity when driving behavior is combined with cognitive load: An LCT study of young novice drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Veerle; Jongen, Ellen M M; Wang, Weixin; Brijs, Tom; Brijs, Kris; Ruiter, Robert A C; Wets, Geert

    2014-01-01

    Distracted driving has received increasing attention in the literature due to potential adverse safety outcomes. An often posed solution to alleviate distraction while driving is hands-free technology. Interference by distraction can occur however at the sensory input (e.g., visual) level, but also at the cognitive level where hands-free technology induces working memory (WM) load. Active maintenance of goal-directed behavior in the presence of distraction depends on WM capacity (i.e., Lavie's Load theory) which implies that people with higher WM capacity are less susceptible to distractor interference. This study investigated the interaction between verbal WM load and WM capacity on driving performance to determine whether individuals with higher WM capacity were less affected by verbal WM load, leading to a smaller deterioration of driving performance. Driving performance of 46 young novice drivers (17-25 years-old) was measured with the lane change task (LCT). Participants drove without and with verbal WM load of increasing complexity (auditory-verbal response N-back task). Both visuospatial and verbal WM capacity were investigated. Dependent measures were mean deviation in the lane change path (MDEV), lane change initiation (LCI) and percentage of correct lane changes (PCL). Driving experience was included as a covariate. Performance on each dependent measure deteriorated with increasing verbal WM load. Meanwhile, higher WM capacity related to better LCT performance. Finally, for LCI and PCL, participants with higher verbal WM capacity were influenced less by verbal WM load. These findings entail that completely eliminating distraction is necessary to minimize crash risks among young novice drivers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Loaded treadmill walking and cycle ergometry to assess work capacity: a retrospective comparison in 424 firefighters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlén, Anna; Åström Aneq, Meriam; Nylander, Eva; Gustafsson, Mikael

    2017-01-01

    The fitness of firefighters is regularly evaluated using exercise tests. We aimed to compare, with respect to age and body composition, two test modalities for the assessment work capacity. A total of 424 Swedish firefighters with cycle ergometer (CE) and treadmill (TM) tests available from Jan 2004 to Dec 2010 were included. We compared results from CE (6 min at 200 W, 250 W or incremental ramp exercise) with TM (6 min at 8° inclination, 4·5 km h(-1) or faster, wearing 24-kg protective equipment). Oxygen requirements were estimated by prediction equations. It was more common to pass the TM test and fail the supposedly equivalent CE test (20%), than vice versa (0·5%), P<0·001. Low age and tall stature were significant predictors of passing both CE and TM tests (P<0·05), while low body mass predicted accomplishment of TM test only (P = 0·006). Firefighters who passed the TM but failed the supposedly equivalent CE test within 12 months had significantly lower body mass, lower BMI, lower BSA and shorter stature than did those who passed both tests. Calculated oxygen uptake was higher in TM tests compared with corresponding CE tests (P<0·001). Body constitution affected approval differently depending on the test modality. A higher approval rate in TM testing suggests lower cardiorespiratory requirements compared with CE testing, even though estimated oxygen uptake was higher during TM testing. The relevance of our findings in relation to the occupational demands needs reconsidering.

  13. Spatial Variation of Phosphorous Retention Capacity in Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetlands: Effect of Wetland Type and Inflow Loading.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangwei Yu

    Full Text Available For verification of spatial distribution of phosphorous retention capacity in constructed wetlands systems(CWs, two horizontal subsurface flow(HSSF CWs and two vertical subsurface flow(VSSF CWs, using sand as substrate and Typha latifolia as wetland plants, were constructed and put into use for synthetic wastewater treatment. Five months later, significant spatial variations of TP and inorganic phosphorus(Ca-P, Fe-P and Al-P were observed, which were found to be greatly affected by CWs type and hydraulic loading. The results revealed that though spatial distribution of Fe-P and Al-P displayed a similar order of substrate content as "rhizosphere" > "near-rhizosphere" > "non-rhizosphere" and "inflow section" > "outflow section" regardless of types and loading, the distribution of Ca-P was positively correlated to that of Fe-P and Al-P in HSSF CWs, while negative correlation was shown in VSSF CWs. As a result, TP spatial distribution in HSSF CWs demonstrated a greater dissimilarity than that in VSSF CWs. For HSSF CWs with low hydraulic loading, the lowest TP content was found in non-rhizosphere substrate of outflow section, while the highest one was discovered in rhizonsphere substrate of inflow section. The values in 6 parts of areas ranged from 0.138 g·kg-1 to 2.710 g·kg-1, which also were from -33.5% to 1209% compared to the control value. On contrast, spatial difference of TP content in substrates of VSSF CWs was insignificant, with a variation ranging from 0.776 g·kg-1 to 1.080 g·kg-1, that was 275% to 421% higher than the control value. In addition, when hydraulic loading was increased, TP content in VSSF CWs sharply decreased, ranging from 0.210 g·kg-1 to 0.634 g·kg-1. Meanwhile, dissimilarity of TP spatial distribution in HSSF CWs was reduced, with TP content ranging from 0.258 g·kg-1 to 2.237 g·kg-1. The results suggested that P spatial distribution should be taken into account for CWs design and operation.

  14. Spatial Variation of Phosphorous Retention Capacity in Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetlands: Effect of Wetland Type and Inflow Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Guangwei; Tan, Meijuan; Chong, Yunxiao; Long, Xinxian

    2015-01-01

    For verification of spatial distribution of phosphorous retention capacity in constructed wetlands systems(CWs), two horizontal subsurface flow(HSSF) CWs and two vertical subsurface flow(VSSF) CWs, using sand as substrate and Typha latifolia as wetland plants, were constructed and put into use for synthetic wastewater treatment. Five months later, significant spatial variations of TP and inorganic phosphorus(Ca-P, Fe-P and Al-P) were observed, which were found to be greatly affected by CWs type and hydraulic loading. The results revealed that though spatial distribution of Fe-P and Al-P displayed a similar order of substrate content as "rhizosphere" > "near-rhizosphere" > "non-rhizosphere" and "inflow section" > "outflow section" regardless of types and loading, the distribution of Ca-P was positively correlated to that of Fe-P and Al-P in HSSF CWs, while negative correlation was shown in VSSF CWs. As a result, TP spatial distribution in HSSF CWs demonstrated a greater dissimilarity than that in VSSF CWs. For HSSF CWs with low hydraulic loading, the lowest TP content was found in non-rhizosphere substrate of outflow section, while the highest one was discovered in rhizonsphere substrate of inflow section. The values in 6 parts of areas ranged from 0.138 g·kg-1 to 2.710 g·kg-1, which also were from -33.5% to 1209% compared to the control value. On contrast, spatial difference of TP content in substrates of VSSF CWs was insignificant, with a variation ranging from 0.776 g·kg-1 to 1.080 g·kg-1, that was 275% to 421% higher than the control value. In addition, when hydraulic loading was increased, TP content in VSSF CWs sharply decreased, ranging from 0.210 g·kg-1 to 0.634 g·kg-1. Meanwhile, dissimilarity of TP spatial distribution in HSSF CWs was reduced, with TP content ranging from 0.258 g·kg-1 to 2.237 g·kg-1. The results suggested that P spatial distribution should be taken into account for CWs design and operation. PMID:26218872

  15. Spatial Variation of Phosphorous Retention Capacity in Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetlands: Effect of Wetland Type and Inflow Loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Guangwei; Tan, Meijuan; Chong, Yunxiao; Long, Xinxian

    2015-01-01

    For verification of spatial distribution of phosphorous retention capacity in constructed wetlands systems(CWs), two horizontal subsurface flow(HSSF) CWs and two vertical subsurface flow(VSSF) CWs, using sand as substrate and Typha latifolia as wetland plants, were constructed and put into use for synthetic wastewater treatment. Five months later, significant spatial variations of TP and inorganic phosphorus(Ca-P, Fe-P and Al-P) were observed, which were found to be greatly affected by CWs type and hydraulic loading. The results revealed that though spatial distribution of Fe-P and Al-P displayed a similar order of substrate content as "rhizosphere" > "near-rhizosphere" > "non-rhizosphere" and "inflow section" > "outflow section" regardless of types and loading, the distribution of Ca-P was positively correlated to that of Fe-P and Al-P in HSSF CWs, while negative correlation was shown in VSSF CWs. As a result, TP spatial distribution in HSSF CWs demonstrated a greater dissimilarity than that in VSSF CWs. For HSSF CWs with low hydraulic loading, the lowest TP content was found in non-rhizosphere substrate of outflow section, while the highest one was discovered in rhizonsphere substrate of inflow section. The values in 6 parts of areas ranged from 0.138 g·kg-1 to 2.710 g·kg-1, which also were from -33.5% to 1209% compared to the control value. On contrast, spatial difference of TP content in substrates of VSSF CWs was insignificant, with a variation ranging from 0.776 g·kg-1 to 1.080 g·kg-1, that was 275% to 421% higher than the control value. In addition, when hydraulic loading was increased, TP content in VSSF CWs sharply decreased, ranging from 0.210 g·kg-1 to 0.634 g·kg-1. Meanwhile, dissimilarity of TP spatial distribution in HSSF CWs was reduced, with TP content ranging from 0.258 g·kg-1 to 2.237 g·kg-1. The results suggested that P spatial distribution should be taken into account for CWs design and operation.

  16. BOREAS HYD-8 Gross Precipitation Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Richard; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Knapp, David E. (Editor); Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Hydrology (HYD)-08 team made measurements of surface hydrological processes at the Southern Study Area-Old Black Spruce (SSA-OBS) Tower Flux site to support its research into point hydrological processes and the spatial variation of these processes. Data collected may be useful in characterizing canopy interception, drip, throughfall, moss interception, drainage, evaporation, and capacity during the growing season at daily temporal resolution. This particular data set contains the gross precipitation measurements for July to August 1996. Gross precipitation is the precipitation that falls that is not intercepted by tree canopies. These data are stored in ASCII text files. The HYD-08 gross precipitation data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  17. An Improved Model for Headway-Based Bus Service Unreliability Prevention with Vehicle Load Capacity Constraint at Bus Stops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiya Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an improved model for improving headway-based bus route service reliability at bus stops using real-time preventive operation control, taking into account dynamic interaction among random passenger demand, stochastic driving conditions of route segments, and vehicle load capacity constraint. In this model, the real-time information of passenger demand and vehicle operation is involved to predict the imminent unacceptable headway deviation, in the case of which some in-time preventive control strategies are deployed according to the given control rules. As a case study, a single fixed bus route with high-frequency services was simulated and different scenarios of real-time preventive operation control were performed. Headway adherence and average passenger wait time were used to measure bus service reliability. The results show that the improved model is closer to the real bus route service, and using real-time information to predict potential service unreliability and trigger in-time preventive control can reduce bus bunching and avoid big gap.

  18. Membrane Bioreactor-Based Wastewater Treatment Plant in Saudi Arabia: Reduction of Viral Diversity, Load, and Infectious Capacity

    KAUST Repository

    Jumat, Muhammad

    2017-07-18

    A membrane bioreactor (MBR)-based wastewater treatment plant in Saudi Arabia was assessed over a nine-month period for virus removal efficiency. Viral diversity was detected using omics-based approaches. Log reduction values (LRV) of Adenoviruses (AdV) and Enteroviruses (EV) were enumerated using digital polymerase chain reaction (dPCR) and assessed for infectivity using fluorescence-based infection assays. MBR treatment was successful in reducing viral diversity. Plant viruses remained abundant in the treated effluent. Human enteric viruses were present in lower abundance than plant viruses, and were reduced by MBR at varying LRV. AdV copy numbers were reduced by 3.7-log. Infectious AdV was not detected in the effluent. EV copy numbers were reduced by 1.7-log post MBR and infectious EV decreased by an average of 2.0-log. Infectious EV was detected in the chlorinated effluent, occasionally in concentrations that approximate to its 50% infectious dose. Overall, results indicated that a MBR-based wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effectively reduces viral diversity, viral load, and infectious capacity by up to 4-logs. These findings suggest potential concerns associated with plant and human enteric viruses for reuse events in this country. Local guidelines for assessment of treated water quality should take into consideration both infectious viral concentration and LRV.

  19. Assessing the pollution risk of soil Chromium based on loading capacity of paddy soil at a regional scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Mingkai; Li, Weidong; Zhang, Chuanrong; Huang, Biao; Zhao, Yongcun

    2015-12-17

    The accumulation of a trace metal in rice grain is not only affected by the total concentration of the soil trace metal, but also by crop variety and related soil properties, such as soil pH, soil organic matter (SOM) and so on. However, these factors were seldom considered in previous studies on mapping the pollution risk of trace metals in paddy soil at a regional scale. In this study, the spatial nonstationary relationships between rice-Cr and a set of perceived soil properties (soil-Cr, soil pH and SOM) were explored using geographically weighted regression; and the relationships were then used for calculating the critical threshold (CT) of soil-Cr concentration that may ensure the concentration of rice-Cr being below the permissible limit. The concept of "loading capacity" (LC) for Cr in paddy soil was then defined as the difference between the CT and the real concentration of Cr in paddy soil, so as to map the pollution risk of soil-Cr to rice grain and assess the risk areas in Jiaxing city, China. Compared with the information of the concentration of the total soil-Cr, such results are more valuable for spatial decision making in reducing the accumulation of rice-Cr at a regional scale.

  20. Load-bearing capacity of all-ceramic posterior four-unit fixed partial dentures with different zirconia frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohorst, Philipp; Herzog, Timo J; Borchers, Lothar; Stiesch-Scholz, Meike

    2007-04-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to compare the load-bearing capacity of posterior four-unit fixed partial dentures (FPDs) produced with two different yttria-stabilized polycrystalline tetragonal zirconia (Y-TZP) ceramics, one being a presintered material, the other a fully sintered, hot isostatically pressed material. Additionally, as a novel approach, the influence of preliminary mechanical damage upon the fracture force of an FPD has been investigated. A total of 20 frameworks each were milled from presintered zirconia and from fully sintered zirconia. Prior to veneering, 10 frameworks of each material were 'damaged' by a defined saw cut similar to an accidental flaw generated during shape cutting. Before fracture testing, all FPDs were subjected to thermal and mechanical cycling. Additionally, scanning electron microscopy was used to investigate fracture surfaces. Statistical analysis showed that FPDs milled from fully sintered zirconia had a significantly higher fracture resistance compared with specimens made from presintered material, whereas preliminary damage did not have a significant effect. After aging, FPDs made from both materials were capable of withstanding occlusal forces reported in the literature. Therefore, both types of Y-TZP may be suitable for posterior four-unit all-ceramic FPDs, although further prolonged aging experiments and prospective clinical trials are required to prove their fitness for clinical use.

  1. A New Methodology for Solving Trajectory Planning and Dynamic Load-Carrying Capacity of a Robot Manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanjin Guo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A new methodology using a direct method for obtaining the best found trajectory planning and maximum dynamic load-carrying capacity (DLCC is presented for a 5-degree of freedom (DOF hybrid robot manipulator. A nonlinear constrained multiobjective optimization problem is formulated with four objective functions, namely, travel time, total energy involved in the motion, joint jerks, and joint acceleration. The vector of decision variables is defined by the sequence of the time-interval lengths associated with each two consecutive via-points on the desired trajectory of the 5-DOF robot generalized coordinates. Then this vector of decision variables is computed in order to minimize the cost function (which is the weighted sum of these four objective functions subject to constraints on joint positions, velocities, acceleration, jerks, forces/torques, and payload mass. Two separate approaches are proposed to deal with the trajectory planning problem and the maximum DLCC calculation for the 5-DOF robot manipulator using an evolutionary optimization technique. The adopted evolutionary algorithm is the elitist nondominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II. A numerical application is performed for obtaining best found solutions of trajectory planning and maximum DLCC calculation for the 5-DOF hybrid robot manipulator.

  2. Preparation and characterization of doxorubicin-containing liposomes. II. Loading capacity, long-term stability and doxorubicin-bilayer interaction mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crommelin, D.J.A.; Bloois, L. van

    1984-01-01

    Doxorubicin loading capacity was determined for negative (phosphatidylcholine-cholesterol-phosphatidylserine, 10:4:1) and positive (phosphatidylcholine-cholesterol-stearylamine 10:4:3) liposomes prepared according to the “film” method with doxorubicin added to the phospholipids before film

  3. The influence of framework design on the load-bearing capacity of laboratory-made inlay-retained fibre-reinforced composite fixed dental prostheses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Keulemans; L.V.J. Lassilla; S. Garoushi; P.K. Vallittu; C.J. Kleverlaan; A.J. Feilzer

    2009-01-01

    Delamination of the veneering composite is frequently encountered with fibre-reinforced composite (FRC) fixed dental prosthesis (FDPs). The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of framework design on the load-bearing capacity of laboratory-made three-unit inlay-retained FRC-FDPs. Inlay-ret

  4. Interlayer design for the graphite-like carbon film with high load-bearing capacity under sliding-friction condition in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongxin; Pu, Jibin; Wang, Jiafan; Li, Jinlong; Chen, Jianmin; Xue, Qunji

    2014-08-01

    GLC films with single Ti interlayer, single Cr interlayer, thickness gradient Cr/C interlayer and composition gradient Cr/C interlayer were fabricated by magnetron sputtering technique. The microstructures, mechanical properties and tribological performance under sliding friction in distilled water and seawater of the as-deposited GLC films were investigated. Results showed that the adhesion strength and the load-bearing capacity under sliding-friction condition in water of GLC film could be improved effectively by interlayer design. GLC film with composition gradient Cr/C interlayer exhibited highest adhesion strength and load-bearing capacity under sliding-friction conditions in water, which was closely related to nano-interlocked microstructure and hard carbide phase formations inside the interlayer. The adhesion strength in scratch test and the critical bearing load under sliding-friction in water of the GLC film with composition gradient Cr/C interlayer exceeded 50 N and 2.73 GPa, respectively.

  5. Influence of particles on the loading capacity and the temperature rise of water film in Ultra-high speed hybrid bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Aibin; Li, Pei; Zhang, Yefan; Chen, Wei; Yuan, Xiaoyang

    2015-04-01

    Ultra-high speed machining technology enables high efficiency, high precision and high integrity of machined surface. Previous researches of hybrid bearing rarely consider influences of solid particles in lubricant and ultra-high speed of hybrid bearing, which cannot be ignored under the high speed and micro-space conditions of ultra-high speed water-lubricated hybrid bearing. Considering the impact of solid particles in lubricant, turbulence and temperature viscosity effects of lubricant, the influences of particles on pressure distribution, loading capacity and the temperature rise of the lubricant film with four-step-cavity ultra-high speed water-lubricated hybrid bearing are presented in the paper. The results show that loading capacity of the hybrid bearing can be affected by changing the viscosity of the lubricant, and large particles can improve the bearing loading capacity higher. The impact of water film temperature rise produced by solid particles in lubricant is related with particle diameter and minimum film thickness. Compared with the soft particles, hard particles cause the more increasing of water film temperature rise and loading capacity. When the speed of hybrid bearing increases, the impact of solid particles on hybrid bearing becomes increasingly apparent, especially for ultra-high speed water-lubricated hybrid bearing. This research presents influences of solid particles on the loading capacity and the temperature rise of water film in ultra-high speed hybrid bearings, the research conclusions provide a new method to evaluate the influence of solid particles in lubricant of ultra-high speed water-lubricated hybrid bearing, which is important to performance calculation of ultra-high speed hybrid bearings, design of filtration system, and safe operation of ultra-high speed hybrid bearings.

  6. Influence of Particles on the Loading Capacity and the Temperature Rise of Water Film in Ultra-high Speed Hybrid Bearing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Aibin; LI Pei; ZHANG Yefan; CHEN Wei; YUAN Xiaoyang

    2015-01-01

    Ultra-high speed machining technology enables high efficiency, high precision and high integrity of machined surface. Previous researches of hybrid bearing rarely consider influences of solid particles in lubricant and ultra-high speed of hybrid bearing, which cannot be ignored under the high speed and micro-space conditions of ultra-high speed water-lubricated hybrid bearing. Considering the impact of solid particles in lubricant, turbulence and temperature viscosity effects of lubricant, the influences of particles on pressure distribution, loading capacity and the temperature rise of the lubricant film with four-step-cavity ultra-high speed water-lubricated hybrid bearing are presented in the paper. The results show that loading capacity of the hybrid bearing can be affected by changing the viscosity of the lubricant, and large particles can improve the bearing loading capacity higher. The impact of water film temperature rise produced by solid particles in lubricant is related with particle diameter and minimum film thickness. Compared with the soft particles, hard particles cause the more increasing of water film temperature rise and loading capacity. When the speed of hybrid bearing increases, the impact of solid particles on hybrid bearing becomes increasingly apparent, especially for ultra-high speed water-lubricated hybrid bearing. This research presents influences of solid particles on the loading capacity and the temperature rise of water film in ultra-high speed hybrid bearings, the research conclusions provide a new method to evaluate the influence of solid particles in lubricant of ultra-high speed water-lubricated hybrid bearing, which is important to performance calculation of ultra-high speed hybrid bearings, design of filtration system, and safe operation of ultra-high speed hybrid bearings.

  7. Gross decontamination experiment report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, R.; Kinney, K.; Dettorre, J.; Gilbert, V.

    1983-07-01

    A Gross Decontamination Experiment was conducted on various levels and surfaces of the TMI - Unit 2 reactor building in March 1982. The polar crane, D-rings, missile shields, refueling canals, refueling bridges, equipment, and elevations 305' and 347'-6'' were flushed with low pressure water. Additionally, floor surfaces on elevation 305' and floor surfaces and major pieces of equipment on elevation 347'-6'' were sprayed with high pressure water. Selective surfaces were decontaminated with a mechanical scrubber and chemicals. Strippable coating was tested and evaluated on equipment and floor surfaces. The effectiveness, efficiency, and safety of several decontamination techniques were established for the large, complex decontamination effort. Various decontamination equipment was evaluated and its effectiveness was documented. Decontamination training and procedures were documented and evaluated, as were the support system and organization for the experiment.

  8. ULTIMATE LOAD-CAPACITY ANALYSIS OF LIGHT-WEIGHT STEEL PORTAL FRAMES UNDER WIND AND SNOW LOADING%风雪荷载下轻钢门式刚架极限承载力分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李勰; 陈水福

    2013-01-01

    Nonlinear ultimate limit state analysis was performed to a typical frame of an existing light-weight steel portal frame industrial building located at the coastal region of China using the refined finite element method. The wind and snow load combinations were determined from the current load code of China, and the corresponding wind-resistant and snow-resistant load-capacity redundant factors of the frame were then found through the analysis. The obtained results indicate that although the load-capacities of the frame under the two load combinations meet the current code requirement, the load-capacity redundant factors are relatively low if initial imperfections of the frame are considered. Furthermore the failure mode of the frame would change from a material yielding format to a local buckling format under consideration of initial imperfections.%以我国沿海一既有门式刚架轻钢厂房为例,按现行规范取用风荷载组合和雪荷载组合,采用精细有限元方法对厂房中的典型刚架进行了非线性的极限承载力分析,获得了刚架抗风与抗雪的承载力冗余系数以及达到极限状态时的破坏模式.结果表明,刚架在不同荷载组合下的承载力虽能满足规范要求,但当考虑初始缺陷时,其承载力冗余系数偏低,且失效模式由无缺陷时的材料屈服模式转变为局部屈曲模式.

  9. Increasing working memory load reduces processing of cross-modal task-irrelevant stimuli even after controlling for task difficulty and executive capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Sanz Simon

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The classic account of the Load Theory (LT of attention suggests that increasing cognitive load leads to greater processing of task-irrelevant stimuli due to competition for limited executive resource that reduces the ability to actively maintain current processing priorities. Studies testing this hypothesis have yielded widely divergent outcomes. The inconsistent results may, in part, be related to variability in executive capacity (EC and task difficulty across subjects in different studies. Here, we used a cross-modal paradigm to investigate whether augmented working memory (WM load leads to increased early distracter processing, and controlled for the potential confounders of EC and task difficulty. Twenty-three young subjects were engaged in a primary visual WM task, under high and low load conditions, while instructed to ignore irrelevant auditory stimuli. Demands of the high load condition were individually titrated to make task difficulty comparable across subjects with differing EC. Event-related potentials (ERPs were used to measure neural activity in response to stimuli presented in both the task relevant modality (visual and task-irrelevant modality (auditory. Behavioral results indicate that the load manipulation and titration procedure of the primary visual task were successful. ERPs demonstrated that in response to visual target stimuli, there was a load-related increase in the posterior slow wave, an index of sustained attention and effort. Importantly, under high load, there was a decrease of the auditory N1 in response to distracters, a marker of early auditory processing. These results suggest that increased WM load is associated with enhanced attentional engagement and protection from distraction in a cross-modal setting, even after controlling for task difficulty and EC. Our findings challenge the classic LT and offer support for alternative models.

  10. Least Limiting Water Range and Load Bearing Capacity of Soil under Types of Tractor-Trailers for Mechanical Harvesting of Green Sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Higino Frederico Pereira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The expansion of the sugarcane industry in Brazil has intensified the mechanization of agriculture and caused effects on the soil physical quality. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the limiting water range and soil bearing capacity of a Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico típico (Rhodic Hapludox under the influence of different tractor-trailers used in mechanical sugarcane harvesting. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design with five replications. The treatments consisted of green sugarcane harvesting with: harvester without trailer (T1; harvester with two trailers with a capacity of 10 Mg each (T2; harvester with trailer with a capacity of 20 Mg (T3 and harvester and truck with trailer with a capacity of 20 Mg (10 Mg per compartment (T4. The least limiting water range and soil bearing capacity were evaluated. The transport equipment to remove the harvested sugarcane from the field (trailer at harvest decreased the least limiting water range, reducing the structural soil quality. The truck trailer caused the greatest impact on the soil physical properties studied. The soil load bearing capacity was unaffected by the treatments, since the pressure of the harvester (T1 exceeded the pre-consolidation pressure of the soil.

  11. The Effect of Indenter Ball Radius on the Static Load Capacity of the Superelastic 60NiTi for Rolling Element Bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    DellaCorte, Christopher; Moore, Lewis E., III; Clifton, Joshua S.

    2014-01-01

    Static load capacity is a critical design parameter for rolling element bearings used in space mechanisms because of the potential for Brinell (surface dent) damage due to shock and vibration loading events during rocket launch. Brinell damage to bearing raceways can lead to torque variations (noise) and reduced bearing life. The growing use of ceramic rolling elements with high stiffness in hybrid bearings exacerbates the situation. A new family of hard yet resilient materials based upon nickel-titanium is emerging to address such bearing challenges. 60NiTi is a superelastic material that simultaneously exhibits high hardness and a relatively low elastic modulus (approx. 100 GigaPascals) and has been shown to endure higher indentation loads than conventional and high performance steel. Indentation load capacity has been reported for relatively large (12.7 millimeters diameter) ceramic (Si3N4) indenter balls pressed against flat plates of 60NiTi. In order to develop damage load threshold criteria applicable to a wide range of bearing designs and sizes, the effects of indenter ball radius and the accuracy of interpolation of the Hertz contact stress relations for 60NiTi must be ascertained. In this paper, results of indentation tests involving ceramic balls ranging from 6.4 to 12.7 mm in diameter and highly polished 60NiTi flat plates are presented. When the resulting dent depth data for all the indenter ball sizes are normalized using the Hertz equations, the data (dent depth versus stress) are comparable. Thus when designing bearings made from 60NiTi, the Hertz stress relations can be applied with relative confidence over a range of rolling element sizes and internal geometries.

  12. Association of Methotrexate with Native and PEGylated PAMAM-G4 Dendrimers: Effect of the PEGylation Degree on the Drug-Loading Capacity and Preferential Binding Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraza, Luis F; Jiménez, Verónica A; Alderete, Joel B

    2017-01-12

    PEGylated PAMAM dendrimers (PEG-PAMAM) have been extensively studied as versatile vehicles for drug delivery. Nevertheless, little information has been reported regarding the effect of the PEGylation degree on the drug-loading properties of these systems, aimed at maximizing their performance as drug carrier nanocarrriers. In this work, fully atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were employed to examine the association of methotrexate (MTX) with native and diversely PEGylated PAMAM-G4 dendrimers, using 2 kDa PEG chains with substitution degrees from 25 to 100% and 100:1 drug:dendrimer ratios to mimic experimental conditions of drug excess in saturated solution. MD results regarding complex stoichiometries and preferential binding sites were compared to experimental data retrieved from aqueous solubility profiles and 2D-NOESY experiments showing an outstanding level of agreement. The maximum theoretical drug loading capacity was achieved by the system with 34% PEGylation (42:1) through the simultaneous complexation of MTX within internal PAMAM-G4 branches and external PEG chains. On the other hand, higher PEGylation degrees were found to be detrimental for drug complexation due to PEG chains crowding on the dendrimer surface. These results provide valuable information to design more efficient PAMAM-based drug nanocarriers and explain the positive effect that partial PEGylation exerts on the drug-loading capacity of PAMAM-G4 over native and fully PEGylated systems.

  13. NUMERICAL ANALYSIS AND EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF DISK SPRING CONFIGURATIONS WITH REGARD TO LOAD CAPACITY OF SAFETY PROGRESSIVE GEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł LONKWIC

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the effect of various disk spring package configurations on brake load of safety progressive gears. The numerical analysis is performed using the Abaqus/CAE software and the designed 3D models. The numerical results are then verified in experimental tests. The tests also examine the effect of lubrication on brake load of spring packages. In addition, the paper investigates the work conditions of safety progressive gears at emergency braking. The experimental results show agreement with the numerical results.

  14. A load-displacement based approach to assess the bearing capacity and deformations of mono-bucket foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vahdatirad, Mohammadjavad; Diaz, Alberto Troya; Nielsen, Søren

    2016-01-01

    It is now accepted that a larger effort must be made in order to optimize the design so that offshore wind turbines can be competitive with the other energy resources. In this regard, mono-buckets are known as a cost-effective offshore foundation solution. In the current study, a load...

  15. Scaling the Information Load of Occupations: Preliminary Findings of the Fit between Individual Capacities and Environmental Demands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, Richard F.; Ferreira, Joaquim Armando G. A.; Santos, Eduardo J. R.; Aguayo, Gina M.; Fallon, Melissa M.

    2008-01-01

    Person-Environment (P-E) fit models provide a conceptually powerful way to think about career development, vocational choice, and occupational success. The work reported here focuses on yet another pair of P-E criteria: self-reported individual capacity for information processing (the ability to tolerate information overload from a variety of…

  16. Gross job flows and firms

    OpenAIRE

    Scott Schuh; Robert K. Triest

    1999-01-01

    This paper extends the work of Dunne, Roberts, and Samuelson [3] and Davis, Haltiwanger, and Schuh [2] on gross job flows among manufacturing plants. Gross job creation, destruction, and reallocation have been shown to be important in understanding the birth, growth, and death of plants, and the relation of plant life cycles to the business cycle. However, little is known about job flows between firms or how job flows among plants occur within firms (corporate restructuring). We use informati...

  17. Calculation of permissible load capacity and establishment of total amount control in the Wujin River Catchment--a tributary of Taihu Lake, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruibin; Gao, Hailong; Zhu, Wenting; Hu, Wei; Ye, Rui

    2015-08-01

    The deterioration of water quality in Taihu Lake, China, has caused widespread concern in recent years. The primary pollution sources of Taihu Lake are its inflow rivers. Effective environmental water management strategies need to be implemented in these rivers to improve the water quality of Taihu Lake and to promote sustainable development in the region. In this study, the QUAL2K model is used in conjunction with the trial and error approach to assess permissible load capacities for the Wujin River (a major tributary of Taihu Lake) in terms of COD, NH3-N, TN, and TP. Results show that permissible annual loads for these pollutants are 5216.31, 491.71, 948.53, and 104.38 t, respectively. This suggests that COD, NH3-N, TN, and TP loads in the Wujin River catchment need to be reduced by 13.35, 27.26, 47.75, and 37.08 %, respectively, to satisfy national water quality objectives. Total amount control measures are proposed to control and reduce pollution loads of the Wujin River catchment. The method applied in this study should provide a sound basis for water environmental management decision-making.

  18. Impact of the mechanical loading on the electrochemical capacity of carbon fibres for use in energy storage composite materials

    OpenAIRE

    Eric, Jacques; Kjell, Maria; Zenkert, Dan; Lindbergh, Göran; Behm, Mårten

    2011-01-01

    Reducing system mass for improvements in system performance has become a priority for future applications such as mobile phones or electric vehicles which require load bearing components and electrical energy storage devices. Structure and energy storage are usually subsystems with the highest mass contributions but energy storage components are structurally parasitic. A novel solution is a multifunctional lightweight design combining these two functions in a single material entity able to si...

  19. Total antioxidant capacity and total oxidant status in saliva of periodontitis patients in relation to bacterial load

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The detection of salivary biomarkers has a potential application in early diagnosis and monitoring of periodontal inflammation. However, searching sensitive salivary biomarkers for periodontitis is still ongoing. Oxidative stress is supposed to play an important role in periodontitis progression and tissue destruction. In this cross-sectional study, we investigated total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and total oxidant status (TOS) in saliva of periodontitis patients compared to healthy controls ...

  20. Optimal policies for simultaneous energy consumption and ancillary service provision for flexible loads under stochastic prices and no capacity reservation constraint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kefayati, Mahdi; Baldick, Ross

    2015-07-01

    Flexible loads, i.e. the loads whose power trajectory is not bound to a specific one, constitute a sizable portion of current and future electric demand. This flexibility can be used to improve the performance of the grid, should the right incentives be in place. In this paper, we consider the optimal decision making problem faced by a flexible load, demanding a certain amount of energy over its availability period, subject to rate constraints. The load is also capable of providing ancillary services (AS) by decreasing or increasing its consumption in response to signals from the independent system operator (ISO). Under arbitrarily distributed and correlated Markovian energy and AS prices, we obtain the optimal policy for minimising expected total cost, which includes cost of energy and benefits from AS provision, assuming no capacity reservation requirement for AS provision. We also prove that the optimal policy has a multi-threshold form and can be computed, stored and operated efficiently. We further study the effectiveness of our proposed optimal policy and its impact on the grid. We show that, while optimal simultaneous consumption and AS provision under real-time stochastic prices are achievable with acceptable computational burden, the impact of adopting such real-time pricing schemes on the network might not be as good as suggested by the majority of the existing literature. In fact, we show that such price responsive loads are likely to induce peak-to-average ratios much more than what is observed in the current distribution networks and adversely affect the grid.

  1. A load-displacement based approach to assess the bearing capacity and deformations of mono-bucket foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vahdatirad, Mohammadjavad; Diaz, Alberto Troya; Nielsen, Søren

    2016-01-01

    It is now accepted that a larger effort must be made in order to optimize the design so that offshore wind turbines can be competitive with the other energy resources. In this regard, mono-buckets are known as a cost-effective offshore foundation solution. In the current study, a load–displacemen......It is now accepted that a larger effort must be made in order to optimize the design so that offshore wind turbines can be competitive with the other energy resources. In this regard, mono-buckets are known as a cost-effective offshore foundation solution. In the current study, a load...

  2. Moderate-Load Muscular Endurance Strength Training Did Not Improve Peak Power or Functional Capacity in Older Men and Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Walker

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study determined the effects of muscular endurance strength training on maximum strength and power, functional capacity, muscle activation and hypertrophy in older men and women. Eighty-one men and women acted as an intervention group while 22 acted as non-training controls (age range 64–75 y. Intervention training included super-sets (i.e., paired exercises, immediately performing the second exercises following completion of the first with short rest intervals (30–60 s between sets at an intensity of 50–60% one-repetition maximum (1-RM for 15–20 repetitions. Concentric leg press actions measured maximum strength (1-RM and concentric peak power. Functional capacity was assessed by maximum speed walking tests (i.e., forward walk, backward walk, timed-up-and-go, and stair climb tests. Quadriceps muscle activation was assessed by surface electromyogram and twitch interpolation technique. Vastus lateralis cross-sectional area was measured by panoramic ultrasound. Compared to control, the intervention groups increased maximum strength (1-RM; men: 10 ± 7% vs. 2 ± 3%, women: 14 ± 9% vs. 1 ± 6% both P < 0.01 and vastus lateralis cross-sectional area (men: 6 ± 7% vs. −3 ± 6%, women: 10 ± 10% vs. 0 ± 4% both P < 0.05. But there were no between-group differences in peak power, muscle activation or functional capacity (e.g., stair climb; men: −5 ± 7% vs. −4 ± 3%, women: −5 ± 6% vs. −2 ± 5% both P > 0.05. While benefits occurred during muscular endurance strength training, specific stimuli are probably needed to target all aspects of age-related health.

  3. 46 CFR 169.689 - Demand loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Electrical Electrical Installations on Vessels of 100 Gross Tons and Over § 169.689 Demand loads. Demand loads must meet § 111.60-7 of this chapter except that smaller demand loads for motor feeders...

  4. Numerical Analyses of Bearing Capacity of Deep-Embedded Large-Diameter Cylindrical Structure on Soft Ground Against Lateral Loads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUAN Mao-tian; FAN Qing-lai

    2006-01-01

    Presented in this paper is a three-dimensional plastic limit analysis method of bearing capacity of the deeply-embedded large-diameter cylindrical structure in the cross-anisotropic soft ground. The most likely failure mechanism is assumed to be of a composite rupture surface which is composed of an individual wedge in the passive zone or two wedges in both active and passive zones near the mudline, depending on the separation or bonding state at the interface between the cylindrical structure and neighboring soils in the active wedge, and a truncated spherical slip surface at the base of the cylinder when the structure tends to overturn around a point located on the symmetry axis of the structure. The cylindrical structure and soil interaction system under consideration is also numerically analyzed by the finite element method by virtue of the general-purpose FEM software ABAQUS, in which the soil is assumed to obey tie Hill's criterion of yield. Both the failure mechanism assumed and the plastic limit analysis predictions are validated by numerical computations based on FEM. For the K0-consolidated ground of clays typically with anisotropic undrained strength property, it is indicated through a parametric study that limit analysis without consideration of anisotropy of soil overestimates the lateral ultimate bearing capacity of a deeply-embedded cylindrical structure in soft ground in a certain condition.

  5. On a question of Gross

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Abhijit

    2007-03-01

    Using the notion of weighted sharing of sets we prove two uniqueness theorems which improve the results proved by Fang and Qiu [H. Qiu, M. Fang, A unicity theorem for meromorphic functions, Bull. Malaysian Math. Sci. Soc. 25 (2002) 31-38], Lahiri and Banerjee [I. Lahiri, A. Banerjee, Uniqueness of meromorphic functions with deficient poles, Kyungpook Math. J. 44 (2004) 575-584] and Yi and Lin [H.X. Yi, W.C. Lin, Uniqueness theorems concerning a question of Gross, Proc. Japan Acad. Ser. A 80 (2004) 136-140] and thus provide an answer to the question of Gross [F. Gross, Factorization of meromorphic functions and some open problems, in: Proc. Conf. Univ. Kentucky, Lexington, KY, 1976, in: Lecture Notes in Math., vol. 599, Springer, Berlin, 1977, pp. 51-69], under a weaker hypothesis.

  6. Photovoltaic array capacity determined by considering the environmental factors for load patterns; Fuka pattern ni taisuru kankyo inshi wo koryoshita taiyo denchi array yoryo no kettei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kameyama, N.; Higuchi, T.; Yamagami, Y.; Tani, T. [Science University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-01-30

    Effectiveness of the spectral method was confirmed for system interconnection type photovoltaic (PV) power generation systems, and PV array capacity determined in harmony with the power load was investigated. In this study, system interconnection type PV power generation systems with polycrystalline Si and amorphous Si PV cell modules were discussed. The output electric energy evaluated by the spectral method was compared with that evaluated by the conventional method only considering the cell temperature. Obtained results are as follows. For the polycrystalline Si, the differences between solar supply rates in summer evaluated by the both methods and measured value were less than 2%, which resulted in the accurate determination. For the amorphous Si, however, the difference less than 3% was obtained by the spectral method and that less than 11% was obtained by the conventional method. The spectral method provided higher accuracy. When constructing a system with large array capacity, it was found that the optimum design of PV power generation system can be performed using the spectral method with less array capacity than using the conventional method. 4 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Photovoltaic array capacity determined by considering the environmental factors for load patterns; Fuka pattern ni taisuru kankyo inshi wo koryoshita taiyo denchi array yoryo no kettei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kameyama, N.; Higuchi, T.; Yamagami, Y.; Tani, T. [Science University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-01-30

    Effectiveness of the spectral method was confirmed for system interconnection type photovoltaic (PV) power generation systems, and PV array capacity determined in harmony with the power load was investigated. In this study, system interconnection type PV power generation systems with polycrystalline Si and amorphous Si PV cell modules were discussed. The output electric energy evaluated by the spectral method was compared with that evaluated by the conventional method only considering the cell temperature. Obtained results are as follows. For the polycrystalline Si, the differences between solar supply rates in summer evaluated by the both methods and measured value were less than 2%, which resulted in the accurate determination. For the amorphous Si, however, the difference less than 3% was obtained by the spectral method and that less than 11% was obtained by the conventional method. The spectral method provided higher accuracy. When constructing a system with large array capacity, it was found that the optimum design of PV power generation system can be performed using the spectral method with less array capacity than using the conventional method. 4 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Isolating Age-Group Differences in Working Memory Load-Related Neural Activity: Assessing the Contribution of Working Memory Capacity Using a Partial-Trial fMRI Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Ilana J.; Rivera, Hannah G.; Rypma, Bart

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies examining age-group differences in working memory load-related neural activity have yielded mixed results. When present, age-group differences in working memory capacity are frequently proposed to underlie these neural effects. However, direct relationships between working memory capacity and working memory load-related activity have only been observed in younger adults. These relationships remain untested in healthy aging. Therefore, the present study examined patterns of working memory load-related activity in 22 younger and 20 older adults and assessed the contribution of working memory capacity to these load-related effects. Participants performed a partial-trial delayed response item recognition task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. In this task, participants encoded either 2 or 6 letters, maintained them during a delay, and then indicated whether a probe was present in the memory set. Behavioral results revealed faster and more accurate responses to load 2 versus 6, with age-group differences in this load condition effect for the accuracy measure. Neuroimaging results revealed one region (medial superior frontal gyrus) that showed age-group differences in load-related activity during the retrieval period, with less (greater) neural activity for the low versus high load condition in younger (older) adults. Furthermore, for older adults, load-related activity did not vary as a function of working memory capacity. Thus, working memory-related activity varies with healthy aging, but these patterns are not due solely to working memory capacity. Neurocognitive aging theories that feature capacity will need to account for these results. PMID:23357076

  9. Influence of Axial Force in The Intermediate Shaft on the Load Capacity of the Paired Cardan Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branimir Pavić

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The design of intermediate shaft with axially movablesplined joint must be adapted to the variable position of theshaft axis, i.e. to the change of the joint angle during operation.This design is also used for the reduction of axial forces whichare caused by inaccuracy in the production and assembling ofC(ll·dan mechanisms. The axial force which is generated by frictionof contact swfaces in the splined joint is the function of themagnitude of the transfeJTed torsion moments, splined dimensions,lubrication conditions, and materials used for contactswfaces. It will cause additional bearing loads at cross journalsand in the shaft supports, as well as unallowed vibrations andnoise during operation, thus affecting the safety and lifetime ofthe Cardan mechanism. The theoretical and empirical analysisof Cm·dan mechanisms, which have been studied with andwithout axial forces in the splinedjoint and its effect on durabilityof mechanism elements have been presented.

  10. Testing a capacity-load model for hypertension: disentangling early and late growth effects on childhood blood pressure in a prospective birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grijalva-Eternod, Carlos S; Lawlor, Debbie A; Wells, Jonathan C K

    2013-01-01

    In 2005, it was estimated that hypertension affected 26.4% of the adult population worldwide. By 2025, it is predicted that it will affect about 60% of adults, a total of 1.56 billion. Both pre- and postnatal growth patterns have been associated with later blood pressure (BP), but in contrasting directions. These inconsistent associations of growth during different developmental periods merit elucidation. We tested a theoretical model treating birth weight as a marker of homeostatic metabolic capacity, and childhood height, lean mass and fat mass as independent indices of metabolic load. We predicted that decreased capacity and increased load would be independently associated with increased BP. Data from the ALSPAC cohort on growth from birth to 7 years, and body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and BP at 9 years, were analysed (n = 6579). Data were expressed as standard deviation scores (SDS) or standardised regression residuals (SRR). BP was independently and positively associated with each of height, lean mass and fat mass. In a joint model systolic BP was positively associated with conditional weight velocity [males 0.40 (95%CI: 0.37-0.44) & females 0.44 (95%CI: 0.40-0.47) SDS/SRR], but not birth weight [0.00 (95%CI: -0.03-0.04) & 0.03 (95%CI: -0.01-0.07) SDS/SDS]. Adjusting for height, lean mass and fat mass, the association of systolic BP and conditional weight velocity attenuated [0.00(95%CI: -0.09-0.08) & -0.06(95%CI: -0.14-0.03) SDS/SRR], whereas that with birth weight became negative [-0.10 (95%CI: -0.14-0.06) & -0.09 (95%CI: -0.13-0.05) SDS/SDS]. Similar results were obtained for diastolic BP and pulse pressure. Consistent with our theoretical model, high metabolic load relative to metabolic capacity is associated with increased BP. Our data demonstrate the contribution of different growth and body composition components to BP variance, and clarify the developmental aetiology of hypertension.

  11. Testing a capacity-load model for hypertension: disentangling early and late growth effects on childhood blood pressure in a prospective birth cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos S Grijalva-Eternod

    Full Text Available In 2005, it was estimated that hypertension affected 26.4% of the adult population worldwide. By 2025, it is predicted that it will affect about 60% of adults, a total of 1.56 billion. Both pre- and postnatal growth patterns have been associated with later blood pressure (BP, but in contrasting directions. These inconsistent associations of growth during different developmental periods merit elucidation. We tested a theoretical model treating birth weight as a marker of homeostatic metabolic capacity, and childhood height, lean mass and fat mass as independent indices of metabolic load. We predicted that decreased capacity and increased load would be independently associated with increased BP.Data from the ALSPAC cohort on growth from birth to 7 years, and body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and BP at 9 years, were analysed (n = 6579. Data were expressed as standard deviation scores (SDS or standardised regression residuals (SRR. BP was independently and positively associated with each of height, lean mass and fat mass. In a joint model systolic BP was positively associated with conditional weight velocity [males 0.40 (95%CI: 0.37-0.44 & females 0.44 (95%CI: 0.40-0.47 SDS/SRR], but not birth weight [0.00 (95%CI: -0.03-0.04 & 0.03 (95%CI: -0.01-0.07 SDS/SDS]. Adjusting for height, lean mass and fat mass, the association of systolic BP and conditional weight velocity attenuated [0.00(95%CI: -0.09-0.08 & -0.06(95%CI: -0.14-0.03 SDS/SRR], whereas that with birth weight became negative [-0.10 (95%CI: -0.14-0.06 & -0.09 (95%CI: -0.13-0.05 SDS/SDS]. Similar results were obtained for diastolic BP and pulse pressure.Consistent with our theoretical model, high metabolic load relative to metabolic capacity is associated with increased BP. Our data demonstrate the contribution of different growth and body composition components to BP variance, and clarify the developmental aetiology of hypertension.

  12. Assessing the pollution risk of soil Chromium based on loading capacity of paddy soil at a regional scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Mingkai; Li, Weidong; Zhang, Chuanrong; Huang, Biao; Zhao, Yongcun

    2015-12-01

    The accumulation of a trace metal in rice grain is not only affected by the total concentration of the soil trace metal, but also by crop variety and related soil properties, such as soil pH, soil organic matter (SOM) and so on. However, these factors were seldom considered in previous studies on mapping the pollution risk of trace metals in paddy soil at a regional scale. In this study, the spatial nonstationary relationships between rice-Cr and a set of perceived soil properties (soil-Cr, soil pH and SOM) were explored using geographically weighted regression; and the relationships were then used for calculating the critical threshold (CT) of soil-Cr concentration that may ensure the concentration of rice-Cr being below the permissible limit. The concept of “loading capacity” (LC) for Cr in paddy soil was then defined as the difference between the CT and the real concentration of Cr in paddy soil, so as to map the pollution risk of soil-Cr to rice grain and assess the risk areas in Jiaxing city, China. Compared with the information of the concentration of the total soil-Cr, such results are more valuable for spatial decision making in reducing the accumulation of rice-Cr at a regional scale.

  13. Study on the Static Load Capacity and Synthetic Vector Direct Torque Control of Brushless Doubly Fed Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaoying Xia

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Compared to the doubly fed machine, the brushless doubly fed machine (BDFM has high reliability and low maintenance requirements. First, by taking the negative conjugation of the control motor variables in rotor reference frame, a state-space model of BDFM is derived. It is then transformed into synchronous reference frame, called synchronous reference frame state-space model (SSSM. In this way, all the variables of the SSSM are DC under the static state. Second, on the basis of the analysis of static equations, the possible output torque limits are obtained. Third, the causes of losing control are analyzed by the flux and the torque derivatives. A new control strategy called synthetic vector direct torque control (SVDTC is proposed to solve the losing control problems of the conventional direct torque control (DTC. Finally, the correctness of the results of this paper is verified by calculation examples and simulation results, the losing control problems can be solved, and the theoretical output capacity limits can be reached using SVDTC.

  14. May through July 2015 storm event effects on suspended-sediment loads, sediment trapping efficiency, and storage capacity of John Redmond Reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Guy M.; King, Lindsey R.

    2016-06-20

    The Neosho River and its primary tributary, the Cottonwood River, are the main sources of inflow to John Redmond Reservoir in east-central Kansas. Storm events during May through July 2015 caused large inflows of water and sediment into the reservoir. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Kansas Water Office, and funded in part through the Kansas State Water Plan Fund, computed the suspended-sediment inflows to, and trapping efficiency of, John Redmond Reservoir during May through July 2015. This fact sheet summarizes the quantification of suspended-sediment loads to and from the reservoir during May through July 2015 storm events and describes reservoir sediment trapping efficiency and effects on water-storage capacity.

  15. Characterizing rapid capacity fade and impedance evolution in high rate pulsed discharged lithium iron phosphate cells for complex, high power loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Derek N.; Wetz, David A.; Heinzel, John M.; Mansour, Azzam N.

    2016-10-01

    Three 26650 LiFePO4 (LFP) cells are cycled using a 40 A pulsed charge/discharge profile to study their performance in high rate pulsed applications. This profile is used to simulate naval pulsed power loads planned for deployment aboard future vessels. The LFP cells studied experienced an exponential drop in their usable high-rate recharge capacity within sixty cycles due to a rapid rise in their internal resistance. Differential capacitance shows that the voltage window for charge storage is pushed outside of the recommended voltage cutoff limits. Investigation into the state of health of the electrodes shows minimal loss of active material from the cathode to side reactions. Post-mortem examination of the anodic surface films reveals a large increase in the concentration of reduced salt compounds indicating that the pulsed profile creates highly favorable conditions for LiPF6 salt to break down into LiF. This film slows the ionic movement at the interface, affecting transfer kinetics, resulting in charge buildup in the bulk anode without successful energy storage. The results indicate that the use of these cells as a power supply for high pulsed power loads is hindered because of ionically resistant film development and not by an increasing rate of active material loss.

  16. Layered Double Hydroxide Assemblies with Controllable Drug Loading Capacity and Release Behavior as well as Stabilized Layer-by-Layer Polymer Multilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Fengzhu; Xu, Linan; Zhang, Yihe; Meng, Zilin

    2015-09-02

    A stable drug release system with magnetic targeting is essential in a drug delivery system. In the present work, layered double hydroxide assemblies stabilized by layer-by-layer polymer multilayers were prepared by alternative deposition of poly(allylamine hydrochloride) and poly(acrylic acid) species on composite particles of Fe3O4 and ZnAl-LDH and then covalent cross-linkage of the polymer multilayers by photosensitive cross-linker. The successful fabrication was recorded by Zeta potential and Fourier transform infrared spectrum measurements. The formed assemblies were stable in high pH solutions (pH > 7). The drug loading capacity and release behavior of the assemblies could be controlled by treatment with appropriate acidic solution, and were confirmed by loading and release of a simulated drug, methylene blue. The formed assemblies possessed enough saturated magnetic strength and were sensitive to external magnetic field which was essential for targeting drug delivery. The formed assemblies were multifunctional assemblies with great potential as drug delivery system.

  17. Bone-Forming Capacity and Biodistribution of Bone Marrow-Derived Stromal Cells Directly Loaded Into Scaffolds: A Novel and Easy Approach for Clinical Application of Bone Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léotot, Julie; Lebouvier, Angélique; Hernigou, Philippe; Bierling, Philippe; Rouard, Hélène; Chevallier, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    In the context of clinical applications of bone regeneration, cell seeding into scaffolds needs to be safe and easy. Moreover, cell density also plays a crucial role in the development of efficient bone tissue engineering constructs. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a simple and rapid cell seeding procedure on hydroxyapatite/β-tricalcium phosphate (HA/βTCP), as well as define optimal cell density and control the biodistribution of grafted cells. To this end, human bone marrow-derived stromal cells (hBMSCs) were seeded on HA/βTCP scaffolds, and we have compared bone formation using an ectopic model. Our results demonstrated a significantly higher bone-forming capacity of hBMSCs directly loaded on HA/βTCP during surgery compared to hBMSCs preseeded for 7 days in vitro on HA/βTCP before ectopic implantation. The extent of new bone formation increases with increasing hBMSC densities quantitatively, qualitatively, and in frequency. Also, this study showed that grafted hBMSCs remained confined to the implantation site and did not spread toward other tissues, such as liver, spleen, lungs, heart, and kidneys. In conclusion, direct cell loading into a scaffold during surgery is more efficient for bone regeneration, as well as quick and safe. Therefore direct cell loading is suitable for clinical requirements and cell production control, making it a promising approach for orthopedic applications. Moreover, our results have provided evidence that the formation of a mature bone organ containing hematopoietic islets needs a sufficiently high local density of grafted hBMSCs, which should guide the optimal dose of cells for clinical use.

  18. 水平荷载作用下高承台管桩的荷载传递性状及承载力研究%Load Transfer and Bearing Capacity of High-Cap Pipe Piles under Horizontal Load

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷华阳; 刘利霞; 霍海峰; 陆培毅; 付瑞清; 付海峰

    2012-01-01

    土地资源紧缺使得在地基回填基料缺乏的天津沿海港区建设中,首次采用了部分桩体“悬空”的高承台管桩基础,如何确定这些悬空管桩的水平抗力特性是工程实践应用中的难题之一.针对天津东疆保税港区物流加工区二期工程所采用的高承台管桩基础,运用有限元分析软件ABAQUS对水平荷载作用下高承台管桩的受力性状进行模拟.分析了不同桩长、不同桩径、不同桩身弹性模量、不同土质条件下以及不同悬空高度下高承台管桩的荷载传递性状及承载力的变化规律,并与低承台管桩受力性状进行比较.有限元分析结果表明,当悬空高度不大于1.7m时,高承台管桩水平极限承载力变化不大,而当悬空高度超过1.7m时,其承载力迅速减小.增加土体强度、桩身模量和桩径有助于提高高承台管桩水平极限承载力,桩长对其影响不大.%High cap pipe piles partly exposed in the air were firstly used in the construction of Tianjin coastal port, where the short of land resources made backfill soils in short supply. How to ascertain the horizontal resistance characteristic of these pipe piles was a challenge in engineering practice. Given the strong correlation between the structural design and the lateral load transfer properties, as well as foundation anti-bending capacity and the overall Stability, the force character research on high cap pipe piles under lateral load, which are firstly used in the second phase project of Tianjin Baoshui Port district, is presented through ABAQUS in this paper. The numerical simulation analysis of high cap pipe piles under lateral load in different pile lengths, diameters, elastic modules, sorts of soils and different exposing heights, is carried out firstly, then this result is compared with low cap pipe piles. Eventually, the force characters of high cap pipe piles under lateral load are obtained through the numerical analysis. When the

  19. Experimental Methods of Load Bearing Capacity Under High Temperature in Aerospace Composite Materials%航天用复合材料结构高温极限承载能力试验方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢睿; 范新中; 王世勋; 王婧超

    2012-01-01

    Countering the flight character of astronautical flight vehicle, two experimental methods of load bearing capacity were summarized, in order to obtain the structural load bearing capacity under different flight temperature and different flight duration. It was able to express the high temperature load bearing capacity of the material in the process of heat transfer, reducing the weight of structural heat resistance.%针对航天飞行器飞行特点,本文给出两种基于破坏时间的承载能力试验方法,可以获得结构在不同飞行温度和时间下的承载能力.能够充分发挥材料在传热过程中的高温承载能力,降低结构防热质量.

  20. NM Gross Receipts July - December 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  1. NM Gross Receipts January - June 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  2. NM Gross Receipts January - June 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  3. NM Gross Receipts January - June 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  4. NM Gross Receipts January - June 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  5. NM Gross Receipts July - December 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  6. Finite element analysis of steel bar truss slab load-carrying capacity%钢筋桁架楼板承载力有限元分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵建忠; 孙磊; 王干

    2015-01-01

    钢筋桁架楼板在工程中的应用日益广泛,深入研究该楼板的受力性能有利于指导实际工程应用。文章采用有限元分析软件ANSYS对钢筋桁架楼板进行单调静力加载模拟,通过正交试验的方法对剪跨比、底部压型钢板、腹杆等影响因素进行研究。结果表明:楼板进入弹塑性阶段以后,试验中的4块带钢板的桁架楼板极限弯矩可提高30%左右,同时斜腹杆以及楼板的剪跨比对承载力也有较大的影响。对钢筋桁架楼板正截面受弯承载力计算公式进行补充和修改,达到了减轻结构自重、降低工程造价的目的。%In order to make a deep research on the structural behavior of steel bar truss slab,the FEM ANSYS was used to simulate monotonic static loading process of the slab. Through the analysis of different value of parameters of shear-span ratio,steel sheeting,diagonal web member,the same conclusion with the influence pattern of rigidity was achieved as well as the test. According to the results of the test,the formula of load-carrying capacity is advanced for future reference. Also,the shear-span ratio and diagonal web member will impact the capacity. Due to the beneficial effects of steel slabs were not considered,the suggestion was put forward to improve the correlation formulasto ease the weight of the structure and reduce the construction cost.

  7. 煤炭集运站到发线能力计算方法探析%Study on Calculating Siding Capacity of Coal Loading Station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴琪

    2015-01-01

    With reference to a tandem coal loading station and on the basis of the analysis of its operations, such three methods as Task Hours Count, Gantt Chart and Full-day Task Drawing are employed to calculate the siding capacity of the coal loading station. The results show that Task Hours Count is a rough method, which is proposed to calculate the siding scale in planning and scheme studying , while the calculations conducted with Gantt Chart and Full-Day Task Drawing are authentic and reliable, thus these two should be applied in preliminary design to calculate the siding scale.%以某纵列式集运站为例,在分析其作业流程基础上,采用作业时分法、甘特图法、全日作业图法等方法对煤炭集运站到发线能力进行计算。研究结果表明,作业时分法是一种较为粗放式的计算方法,建议用于规划阶段及方案研究阶段车站到发线规模的核定;甘特图法和全日作业图法,能力计算结果更为真实可靠,在进入初步设计阶段(实质性工程设计阶段),应采用甘特图法和全日作业图法确定车站到发线规模。

  8. Wing loading and extra loading capacity of adults of the Chinese citrus fruit fly, Bactrocera (Tetradacus) minax ( Diptera: Tephritidae)%柑橘大实蝇成虫的翅载和额外负载能力

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄秀琴; 李正跃; 李传仁; Gilles BOITEAU; 桂连友

    2012-01-01

    Effective management of the Chinese citrus fruit fly, Bactrocera ( Tetradacus) minax (Enderlein) ( Diptera: Tephritidae) , is hindered by a lack of knowledge about its movements. By measuring the wing loading and extra loading capacity of adults of the Chinese citrus fruit fly, we determined the effect of weight of extra loading electronic tags on the ratio of upward to downward flights of flies, in order to provide technical parameters for making the feasibility of electronic tag for tracking natural movement of B. minax using harmonic radar technology. The wing loading of the Chinese citrus fruit fly was found not to decrease with increasing size over a wide range of individual sizes and independent of sex. The results indicate that an average wing loading of adults of Chinese citrus fruit fly is about 11 mg after normal food uptake alternated with food deprivation (only water is supplied). It is estimated from our results in a large screened cage that 7. 3 mg ( representing about 23% of adult' s weight) extra loading for the technique has no or minimal impact on the number of upward flights of adults of Chinese citrus fruit fly. The results further suggest that when we determine the feasibility of tags for the tracking of natural movement of B. minax using harmonic radar technology, the weight of electronic tags should be no more than 7. 3 mg.%对柑橘大实蝇Bactrocera(Tetradacus)minax (Enderlein)的有效管理受阻于对其成虫运动行为的较少的认识.通过测定其成虫翅载能力和忍受额外负载重量的能力,从而确定其成虫所携带不同的额外负载的电子标签重量对其正常起飞的影响程度,为制作合适的昆虫谐波雷达的电子标签提供技术参数.其雌雄成虫的翅载能力并没有随着成虫个体重量增加而降低,也没有因为性别不同而存在差异.成虫经过正常取食和饥饿(只喂清水)变化处理,其成虫平均净载重量约为11 mg.来自网室成虫忍受额外负载

  9. Gross anatomy of network security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Thomas J.

    2002-01-01

    Information security involves many branches of effort, including information assurance, host level security, physical security, and network security. Computer network security methods and implementations are given a top-down description to permit a medically focused audience to anchor this information to their daily practice. The depth of detail of network functionality and security measures, like that of the study of human anatomy, can be highly involved. Presented at the level of major gross anatomical systems, this paper will focus on network backbone implementation and perimeter defenses, then diagnostic tools, and finally the user practices (the human element). Physical security measures, though significant, have been defined as beyond the scope of this presentation.

  10. A framework and a set of tools called Nutting models to estimate retention capacities and loads of nitrogen and phosphorus in rivers at catchment and national level (France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legeay, Pierre-Louis; Moatar, Florentina; Dupas, Rémi; Gascuel-Odoux, Chantal

    2016-04-01

    The Nutting-N and Nutting-P models (Dupas et al., 2013, 2015) have been developed to estimate Nitrogen and Phosphorus nonpoint-source emissions to surface water, using readily available data. These models were inspired from US model SPARROW (Smith al., 1997) and European model GREEN (Grizzetti et al., 2008), i.e. statistical approaches consisting of linking nitrogen and phosphorus surplus to catchment's land and rivers characteristics to find the catchment relative retention capacities. The nutrient load (L) at the outlet of each catchment is expressed as: L=R*(B*DS+PS) [1] where DS is diffuse sources (i.e. surplus in kg.ha-1/yr-1 for N, P storage in soil for P), PS is point sources from domestic and industrial origin (kg.ha-1.yr-1), R and B are the river system and basin reduction factor, respectively and they combine observed variables and calibrated parameters. The model was calibrated on independent catchments for the 2005-2009 and 2008-2012 periods. Variables were selected according to Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) in order to optimize the predictive performance of the models. From these basic models, different improvements have been realized to build a framework and a set of tools: 1) a routing module has been added in order to improve estimations on 4 or 5 stream order, i.e. upscaling the basic Nutting approach; 2) a territorial module, in order to test the models at local scale (from 500 to 5000 km²); 3) a seasonal estimation has been investigated. The basic approach as well territorial application will be illustrated. These tools allow water manager to identify areas at risk where high nutrients loads are estimated, as well areas where retention is potentially high and can buffer high nutrient sources. References Dupas R., Curie F., Gascuel-Odoux C., Moatar F., Delmas M., Parnaudeau, V., Durand P., 2013. Assessing N emissions in surface water at the national level: Comparison of country-wide vs. regionalized models. Science of the Total Environment

  11. Effects of May through July 2015 storm events on suspended sediment loads, sediment trapping efficiency, and storage capacity of John Redmond Reservoir, east-central Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Guy M.

    2016-06-20

    The Neosho River and its primary tributary, the Cottonwood River, are the main sources of inflow to John Redmond Reservoir in east-central Kansas. Storage loss in the reservoir resulting from sedimentation has been estimated to be 765 acre-feet per year for 1964–2014. The 1964–2014 sedimentation rate was almost 90 percent larger than the projected design sedimentation rate of 404 acre-feet per year, and resulted in a loss of about 40 percent of the original (1964) conservation (multi-purpose) pool storage capacity. To help maintain storage in the reservoir, the Kansas Water Office has implemented more than two dozen stream bank erosion control projects to reduce the annual sediment load entering the reservoir and initiated a dredging project to restore nearly 2,000 acre-feet of storage near the dam to provide additional water supply to downstream water users. Storm events during May through July 2015 caused large inflows of water and sediment into the reservoir. Initially, flood waters were held back in the reservoir in order to decrease downstream flooding in Oklahoma. Later, retained reservoir flood waters were released at high rates (up to 25,400 acre-feet per day, the maximum allowed for the reservoir) for extended periods.

  12. Samuel D. Gross: the nestor of American surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo-Pereyra, Luis H

    2006-01-01

    Samuel David Gross (1805-1884) represented the most notable surgeon of his generation and was honored with the title of "The Nestor of American Surgeon" by surgeon biographer Isaac Minis Hays. Of Pennsylvania Dutch stock, he was born on the family farm near Easton, Pennsylvania. He attended Wilkebarré Academy and Lawrenceville High School, noted private institutions of the day. He apprenticed under Doctor Joseph K. Swift of Easton and later with Professor George McClellan while in Philadelphia. In 1828, he graduated from Jefferson Medical College and remained for a short time in Philadelphia. Professor Gross focused his professional pursuits in the cities of Easton (1830-1833), Cincinnati (1833-1840), Louisville (1840-1856), and Philadelphia (1856-1882). He retired from Jefferson Medical College two years before his death in 1884. Samuel D. Gross' contributions to surgery were numerous and diverse. He was recognized as a prolific author of classic texts of pathology, surgery, and history, an educator, a leader, a surgical researcher, and a pioneer surgeon practitioner. His influence in national affairs was immense, and his recognition as a respected surgeon was unmatched. He remains the most distinguished surgeon of his times. History values him as a hard working, honest, highly competent, and committed individual. His capacity for work and his dedication to a single cause were unrivaled. Doctor Gross integrated the best that surgery could give to future generations of surgical professionals.

  13. Simulation of PV/FC power hybrid system. Change of system capacity with load form factor; Taiyoko hatsuden nenryo denchi hybrid system no simulation. Fuka keijoritsu ni yoru system yoryo no henka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekiguchi, N.; Tani, T. [Science University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    Study is conducted of a photovoltaic/fuel-cell hybrid system whose power storage is a hydrogen storage that uses a hydrogen absorbing alloy. In a simulation in this research, the solar cell conversion efficiency is changed from 15.0% to 21.0% and the fuel cell power conversion efficiency from 40.0% to 50.0%, and the resultant changes in the capacity and operation rate are investigated for each of the devices in the system. The findings follow. A 1.0% change in the solar cell conversion efficiency results in a 4.8kW change in the solar cell capacity and a 1.6-ton change in the hydrogen storage capacity. With a 1.0% change in the fuel cell power conversion efficiency, there is a 14.7kW change in the solar cell capacity and a 5.3-ton change in the hydrogen storage capacity. The fuel cell capacity is not dependent on the solar cell conversion efficiency or fuel cell power conversion efficiency but on the maximum load in each of the load form factors. The rate of occurrence of an operation rate of less than 30% is 54.7% both in DC/DC converter and hydrogen generator, 24.6% in fuel cells, and 16.7% in the DC/DC inverter. 7 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Taking a Load Off.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, John

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the snow -load capacity of school roofs and how understanding this data aids in planning preventive measures and easing fear of roof collapse. Describes how to determine snow-load capacity, and explains the load-bearing behavior of flat versus sloped roofs. Collapse prevention measures are highlighted. (GR)

  15. Evaluation of gross radioactivity in foodstuffs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zorer, Oezlem Selcuk; Oeter, Cigdem [Yuzuncu Yil Univ., Van (Turkey). Dept. of Chemistry

    2015-05-15

    The paper presents the results of radiological investigations of food products sampled in the summer and fall of 2011 and 2012 in different parts of Van, Turkey. Gross radioactivity measurements in food products were evaluated. Food items were divided into eight groups: (1) water, (2) fish, (3) cheese products, (4) fruits, (5) vegetables, (6) herbs, (7) walnut and (8) rock salt. The levels of the gross alpha and gross beta radioactivity in all food samples varied widely ranging from 0.070 to 10.885 Bq/g and from 0.132 to 48.285 Bq/g on dry mass basis, respectively. In one sample, gross alpha and gross beta activity concentrations were found to be relatively high according to the other samples and in all samples, the gross alpha radioactivity was measured lower than the gross beta radioactivity. The gross α and gross β activities were measured by using α/β counter of the multi-detector low background system (PIC MPC-9604).

  16. On numeric simulation of composite foundation loading capacity of vibro replacement stone column and its experimental analysis%振冲碎石桩复合地基承载力数值仿真与试验分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋涛; 韦红梅

    2012-01-01

    According to the loading capacity requirements of the upper structure of some power plant in Xinjiang, the study points out the stone column composite foundation consolidation scheme, points out the comprehensive scheme of the composite foundation loading capacity feature value based on the numeric simulation and field loading experiments, and solves the defects of the common methods for identifying the feature value of the stone column composite foundation loading capacity, so as to provide the reference for similar projects.%针对新疆某电厂上部结构地基承载力要求,提出碎石桩复合地基加固方案,提出基于数值仿真和现场荷载试验综合确定复合地基承载力特征值的综合方案,解决了确定碎石桩复合地基承载力特征值常用方法的弊端,为类似的工程提供依据。

  17. Measures of Gross National Happiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruut Veenhoven

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Happiness is rising on the political agenda and this calls for measures of how well nations perform in creating great happiness for a great number, analogous to measures of success in creating wealth, such as GDP. Happiness is defined as subjective enjoyment of one’s life as-a-whole and this can be measured using self-reports. Question on happiness are currently used in large scale surveys of the general population in nations. As a result we have now comparable data on happiness in 144 contemporary nations and time-series of 25 years and longer on 11 developed nations. These data can be aggregated in different ways: If the aim is simply greater happiness for a greater number of citizens, Average happiness (AH is an appropriate measure. If the focus is on enduring happiness, it is better to combine average happiness with longevity in an index of Happy Life Years (HLY. If the aim is to reduce disparity among citizens a relevant indicator is the Inequality of Happiness (IH in the nations as measured with the standard deviation. Average and dispersion can also be combined in an index of Inequality-Adjusted Happiness (IAH. Comparison across nations shows sizable differences on all these measures of gross national happiness and these differences correspond with societal characteristics that can be influenced by policy makers, such as freedom and justice. Comparison over time shows major improvement during the last decade.

  18. The Mechanics of Gross Moist Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeljka Fuchs

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The gross moist stability relates the net lateral outflow of moist entropy or moist static energy from an atmospheric convective region to some measure of the strength of the convection in that region. If the gross moist stability can be predicted as a function of the local environmental conditions, then it becomes the key element in understanding how convection is controlled by the large-scale flow. This paper provides a guide to the various ways in which the gross moist stability is defined and the subtleties of its calculation from observations and models. Various theories for the determination of the gross moist stability are presented and its roles in current conceptual models for the tropical atmospheric circulation are analyzed. The possible effect of negative gross moist stability on the development and dynamics of tropical disturbances is currently of great interest.

  19. 热模锻传动轴滑动轴承承载力分析%Analysis on the Load Capacity of Slip Bearing for Cardan Shaft of Hot Die Forging Press

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏田华; 殷文齐; 杜建伟

    2015-01-01

    The essay introduces the Reynolds equation used to calculate the load capacity of oil film of slip bearing which is in dynamic pressure and radial type for the cardan shaft of the hot die forging press. The key dimension of the bearing is designed by Reynolds model. The finite element model is created based upon such dynamic pressure and radial slip bearing, the result of which analyse the pressure distribution on the oil film and variation of load capacity under different minimum oil film thickness. It concludes the maximum load capacity and the corresponding different minimum oil film thickness.%介绍用于动压径向滑动轴承油膜承载能力计算的雷诺方程。根据雷诺计算模型确定某热模锻压机传动轴滑动轴承的关键尺寸,并以该动压径向滑动轴承为基础,建立有限元模型,分析在不同最小油膜厚度下油膜上的压力分布和承载力变化,分析得出滑动轴承的最大承载能力及其所对应的最小油膜厚度。

  20. The future of gross anatomy teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malamed, S; Seiden, D

    1995-01-01

    A survey of U.S. departments of anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry shows that 39% of the respondent anatomy departments reported declines in the numbers of graduate students taking the human gross anatomy course. Similarly, 42% of the departments reported decreases in the numbers of graduate students teaching human gross anatomy. These decreases were greater in anatomy than in physiology and in biochemistry. The percentages of departments reporting increases in students taking or teaching their courses was 6% for human gross anatomy and 0% to 19% for physiology and biochemistry courses. To reverse this trend the establishment of specific programs for the training of gross anatomy teachers is advocated. These new teachers will be available as the need for them is increasingly recognized in the future.

  1. FUZZY ECCENTRICITY AND GROSS ERROR IDENTIFICATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The dominant and recessive effect made by exceptional interferer is analyzed in measurement system based on responsive character, and the gross error model of fuzzy clustering based on fuzzy relation and fuzzy equipollence relation is built. The concept and calculate formula of fuzzy eccentricity are defined to deduce the evaluation rule and function of gross error, on the base of them, a fuzzy clustering method of separating and discriminating the gross error is found. Utilized in the dynamic circular division measurement system, the method can identify and eliminate gross error in measured data, and reduce measured data dispersity. Experimental results indicate that the use of the method and model enables repetitive precision of the system to improve 80% higher than the foregoing system, to reach 3.5 s, and angle measurement error is less than 7 s.

  2. Validating the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Downs, Jenny; Stahlhut, Michelle; Wong, Kingsley;

    2016-01-01

    Rett syndrome is a pervasive neurodevelopmental disorder associated with a pathogenic mutation on the MECP2 gene. Impaired movement is a fundamental component and the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale was developed to measure gross motor abilities in this population. The current study investigated...... the validity and reliability of the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale. Video data showing gross motor abilities supplemented with parent report data was collected for 255 girls and women registered with the Australian Rett Syndrome Database, and the factor structure and relationships between motor scores, age...... and genotype were investigated. Clinical assessment scores for 38 girls and women with Rett syndrome who attended the Danish Center for Rett Syndrome were used to assess consistency of measurement. Principal components analysis enabled the calculation of three factor scores: Sitting, Standing and Walking...

  3. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia presenting with gross hematuria

    OpenAIRE

    Kalbani, Naifain Al; Weitzman, Sheila; Abdelhaleem, Mohamed; Carcao, Manuel; Abla, Oussama

    2007-01-01

    A case of a six-year-old boy presenting with gross hematuria is reported. Investigations revealed the etiology of the hematuria to be thrombocytopenia in the setting of newly diagnosed acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The diagnosis of leukemia was confirmed by bone marrow examination. The patient’s hematuria completely resolved with platelet transfusions. Although thrombocytopenia is a very common presenting feature of acute lymphoblastic leukemia, gross hematuria is exceedingly rare. Thus, thro...

  4. Validating the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Jenny; Stahlhut, Michelle; Wong, Kingsley; Syhler, Birgit; Bisgaard, Anne-Marie; Jacoby, Peter; Leonard, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Rett syndrome is a pervasive neurodevelopmental disorder associated with a pathogenic mutation on the MECP2 gene. Impaired movement is a fundamental component and the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale was developed to measure gross motor abilities in this population. The current study investigated the validity and reliability of the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale. Video data showing gross motor abilities supplemented with parent report data was collected for 255 girls and women registered with the Australian Rett Syndrome Database, and the factor structure and relationships between motor scores, age and genotype were investigated. Clinical assessment scores for 38 girls and women with Rett syndrome who attended the Danish Center for Rett Syndrome were used to assess consistency of measurement. Principal components analysis enabled the calculation of three factor scores: Sitting, Standing and Walking, and Challenge. Motor scores were poorer with increasing age and those with the p.Arg133Cys, p.Arg294* or p.Arg306Cys mutation achieved higher scores than those with a large deletion. The repeatability of clinical assessment was excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient for total score 0.99, 95% CI 0.93-0.98). The standard error of measurement for the total score was 2 points and we would be 95% confident that a change 4 points in the 45-point scale would be greater than within-subject measurement error. The Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale could be an appropriate measure of gross motor skills in clinical practice and clinical trials.

  5. 支撑负荷价值最大化的孤岛有源配电网储能容量的配置%Capacity Allocation of Energy Storage Considering Maximization of Island Load Value in Active Distribution Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏炜; 陈嘉; 罗凤章

    2016-01-01

    In the distribution network island due to faults,in order to improve the power supply capability of intermit⁃tent power generation for important load,some energy storage system with reasonable power path for load is a solution. This paper proposes an optimal capacity allocation method for energy storage based on island searching strategy. The performance of traditional searching method is improved,which is employed to maximize the load value and obtain the sets of all best power paths in the island structure. In the capacity allocation of energy storage,this paper maximizes the power supply efficiency of energy storage by referring to the sets of best power paths. Moreover,the probability distribu⁃tion of load value supported by energy storage is also determined according to the power output duration curve. The sim⁃ulation example verifies that the proposed method can effectively determine the optimal energy storage capacity when the energy storage capacity per unit supports the maximum load value.%在配电网因故障出现的孤岛内,为提高间歇性电源对重要负荷的供电能力,配置一定容量的储能系统并选择合理的供电路径支撑负荷。该文提出了基于孤岛搜索的有源配电网储能容量优化配置方法。在孤岛搜索中对常规方法改进,求得孤岛拓扑约束下所有使得支撑负荷价值最大的供电路径集合,在储能容量优化配置中结合供电路径最大化储能支撑效果,依据电源出力持续曲线确定储能支撑负荷价值的概率分布。仿真算例验证所提方法能有效确定单位储能出力支撑负荷价值最大时的最佳储能容量。

  6. Moment Contribution Capacity of Tendon Prestressed Partial on Concrete Beam-column Joint Interior According to Provisions ACI 318-2008 Chapter 21.5.2.5(c Due to Cyclic Lateral Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astawa Made Dharma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This research designed a partial prestressed concrete beam-column with reinforced concrete interior joint, using square columns of 400/400 mm, reinforcement 6 D16 + 4D13, section beam 250/400 mm, tensile reinforcement 5 D13, compression reinforcement 3 D13 + 2 strand tendon D12,7 mm , and joint without plastic hinge, then tested in laboratory with lateral cyclic loads on peak column, static axial load 1120 kN on the centre column, to get the tendon capacity to assume positive and negative bending moments due to lateral load, according to provisions of ACI 318-2008 part 21.5.2.5 (c. Test results showed that the moment tendon contribution on beam section, in the tensile area, the positive and negative moment both on the left side or the right side column are all qualified ( 25 %. As for the negative moment, either left or right side column are all qualified (4.0. Although the contribution of positive moment capacity tendon in compression areas does not qualify, in overall, the reliability and ductility of the structure qualify.

  7. 高强度钢柱高温下承载力数值计算方法%Numerical Method for Load Bearing Capacity of High Strength Steel Columns at Elevated Temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王卫永; 李国强

    2011-01-01

    In order to make fire resistance design of high strength steel columns in building structures, the numerical calculation method on load bearing capacity of high strength steel columns at elevated temperature was investigated. By taking the mechanical property of high strength steel at elevated temperature into consideration, extension was made on the inverse calculation segment length method and the program to compute the load bearing capacity of high strength steel columns at elevated temperature was performed. The program was adopted to compute the load bearing capacity. The results obtained by the program and the finite element analysis were compared and good agreement had been found. The influence of magnitude, distribution mode of residual stress and initial geometry imperfection on ultimate load bearing capacity was analyzed by employing the program. It is shown that the extended method can be is shown used to calculate the load bearing capacity of high strength steel columns at elevated temperature; the magnitude and distribution mode of residual stress had little influence but the geometry imperfection have significant influence on ultimate load bearing capacity.%为了对建筑结构中的高强度钢柱进行抗火设计和验算,研究了高强度钢柱在高温下的极限承载力数值计算方法.考虑温度对高强度钢材力学性能的影响,对常温下钢柱极限承载力计算的逆算单元长度法进行了延伸,编制了高温下高强度钢柱极限承载力计算程序.采用编制的程序对高强度钢柱在高温下的极限承载力进行了计算,将计算结果与有限元分析结果进行了比较,发现吻合较好.分析了高强度钢柱截面上残余应力的分布模式,残余应力大小和柱的初始几何缺陷对极限承载力的影响.研究表明:延伸的逆算单元长度法可以用于高强度钢柱高温下极限承载力计算,残余应力的分布模式和大小对高温下高强度钢柱的极限承载

  8. [Biomechanical aspects of load-bearing capacity after total endoprosthesis replacement of the hip joint. An evaluation of current knowledge and review of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirtz, D C; Heller, K D; Niethard, F U

    1998-01-01

    Purpose of the study was to summarize the current scientific knowledge of the interaction between rehabilitative procedures and the periprosthetic bone remodeling processes in the early postoperative phase of total hip arthroplasties. In a comprehensive review of the international literature we analysed the interdependence between osseointegration, primary implant stability, relative micromotion of implant versus bone, and joint loading forces during mobilisation or physiotherapy. Accordingly, guidelines for the rehabilitation of cemented as well as cementless hip arthroplasties were established in order to eliminate factors disturbing prosthetic integration and hence provide for the best long-term stability of the implanted prosthesis possible. Osseointegration of cementless implants is impossible if relative micromotions exceed > 150 microns. Furthermore, torsional stresses (i.e. alternate climbing of stairs, rising from seated position without arm support) will destabilize uncemented femoral shaft implants. Cemented prostheses may be loaded with full body weight. Uncemented implants should be loaded only partially for at least 6 weeks. Loadings of the hip joint with more than twice the body-weight (i.e. walking without crutches, physical exercise against high resistances or long levers) are to be avoided for 3 months. The transition from the three-points walking to the two-points walking technique depends particularly on the conditions of the muscles stabilizing the hip joint. The rehabilitation of patients after total hip arthroplasty has to be brought into line with the changed biomechanical situation, the particulars of the implants and the individual requirements of the patients.

  9. Landscape History of Grosses Moos, NW Swiss Alpine Foreland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joanna Heer, Aleksandra; Adamiec, Grzegorz; Veit, Heinz; May, Jan-Hendrik; Novenko, Elena; Hajdas, Irka

    2017-04-01

    The western Swiss Plateau with Lake Neuchâtel is part of the alpine foreland and among the key areas for the reconstruction of environmental changes since the last postglacial. This study was carried out in a landscape located NE of the lake and called Grosses Moos (The Large Fen) - currently designated the Swiss largest, continuous farming area, after the fen was drained in course of landscape engineering projects performed in Switzerland at the end of the 19th century. The study contributes new results from nine excavations of littoral ridges identified in Grosses Moos, and integrates sedimentology, paleo-environmental analysis and three independent chronological methods. Radiocarbon dating, pollen analysis and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) were applied to the sediments. While pollen and radiocarbon follow the standard procedures, the evaluation of the luminescence age estimates demanded adjustment according to the physical and microdosimetric properties of the alpine quartz, and consideration of the peculiarities of the changing littoral environments of Grosses Moos. The Grosses Moos landscape developed on the temporary surface of the post-Last Glacial sedimentary infill of the over-deepened glacial Aare valley. In this study the landscape history has been fitted into the existing supraregional time scales of NGRIP, the Swiss bio-zones system and the human history based on archaeological and historic records and covers a time span of up to 15'000 yr b2k. The wide-ranging suite of geomorphic features and sedimentary sequences, including littoral lake sediments, beach ridges, dunes, palaeo-channels, peat and colluvial deposits, enable the extensive reconstruction of spatially and temporally variable natural shaping processes. In addition, our results indicate remobilization of soil, colluvium, and sediment due to human settlement activities since the Neolithic - with an important increase in sediment load and spatial variability since the Bronze Age

  10. Thermical Load Calculation and Capacity of Cooling and Venting Equipment of a Diesel Engine Emissions Study Bench; Calculo de Cargas Termicas y Capacidad de los Equipos de Refrigeracion y Ventilacion de un Banco de Estudio de Emisiones de Motores Diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas Garcia, E.; Fonseca Gonzalez, N. A.

    2005-07-01

    The present report tries to develop the calculation of thermical loads and to define the capacity of the equipments of cooling and ventilation that should have the engines test bench that is being ensemble in the installation of the CIEMAT named {sup D}iesel engine emissions study bench (E65-P0). The test bench is formed essentially by a dynamometrical brake and an engine connected at previous one, both of them inside a cabin of isolation acoustic. The thermical loads to be dissipated will be calculated for all the elements that compose the bench and considering his maximum values, to determine the suitable system of cooling air - water of the devices and ventilation in the cabin. (Author) 2 refs.

  11. 轴向荷载对斜桩水平承载特性影响试验及理论研究%Test and theoretical research on influence of axial load on lateral bearing capacity of batter piles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

      斜群桩受水平荷载作用时,群桩中的基桩受到径向荷载、轴向荷载和弯矩的共同作用。为研究轴向荷载对斜桩水平承载特性的影响,完成了3根单桩以及1组1×2斜桩的大尺寸模型试验。试验结果表明:轴向拉力作用会降低斜桩的水平刚度和极限承载力;而轴向压力作用则会使其水平刚度和极限承载力提高。基于桩侧浅层土体楔形破坏假定,推导了考虑轴向荷载影响的斜桩水平极限土抗力计算公式,提出了桩侧土抗力的p-y曲线方法,并通过模型试验及现场试验验证其合理性。%When batter pile group are under lateral load, the foundation piles in pile group are subjected to radial load, axial load and bending moment. In order to study the influence of axial load on lateral bearing capacity of batter piles, large-scale model tests of three single piles and a 1×2 batter pile group have been conducted in a larger soil tank. It is found that the upward axial force on the pile top decreases the lateral stiffness and the lateral ultimate bearing capacity of batter pile; while the downward axial force enhances the horizontal stiffness and the lateral ultimate bearing capacity of batter pile. Based on the assumption of wedge failure of the shallow soil around piles, considering the influence of axial load on piles, a formula for calculating the lateral ultimate resistance force of soil is deduced. Then, a p-y curve method for resistance force of soil around piles is proposed. Finally, the formula and the proposed p-y curve method for batter pile are verified by model tests and field tests.

  12. Optimization of Energy Storage System Capacity for Relaxing Peak Load Regulation Bottlenecks%用于松弛调峰瓶颈的储能系统容量配置方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严干贵; 冯晓东; 李军徽; 穆钢; 谢国强; 董效辰; 王芝茗; 杨凯

    2012-01-01

    利用大规模电池储能系统对电网负荷“削峰填谷”,减少日负荷波动幅度,可以缓解发电机组对负荷追踪调控负担,使电网具备更多向下调节容量来接纳风电.基于给定的负荷特性,分析储能系统配置容量与其改善负荷波动水平之间的关系,以储能系统投资成本、经济效益为约束,以综合效益最大为目标,提出一种用于松弛调峰瓶颈的大规模储能系统容量优化配置方法.针对2010年某省电网接纳风电受限现状,利用该方法对其进行改善,分析了储能系统运行年限、投资成本对其容量配置的影响,算例结果验证了所提出方法的可行性.%Using large-scale battery energy storage systems for load shifting and peak smoothing can decrease the fluctuation of daily load and reduce load tracking regulation burden of generator units, and enlarge down-regulate space to accommodate wind power. Based on a given load characteristics, the relationship between the energy storage system allocation capacity and improvement of load fluctuations was analyzed. By making energy storage system's investment costs and economic benefits as constraints, and by maximizing the comprehensive benefits as the object, an optimal capacity-allocation method was proposed for large-scale energy storage systems to relax peak-regulation bottleneck. For the limitation of wind power accommodation of a province in China in 2010, the method was applied to improve the situation and the impact of the life cycle and investment cost of the energy storage system on its capacity configuration. Case study results verified the feasibility of the proposed method.

  13. Concurrent Validity of Preschooler Gross Motor Quality Scale with Test of Gross Motor Development-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shih-Heng; Sun, Hsiao-Ling; Zhu, Yi-Ching; Huang, Li-chi; Hsieh, Yueh-Ling

    2011-01-01

    Preschooler Gross Motor Quality Scale (PGMQ) was recently developed to evaluate motor skill quality of preschoolers. The purpose of this study was to establish the concurrent validity of PGMQ using Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (TGMD-2) as the gold standard. One hundred and thirty five preschool children aged from three to six years were…

  14. 7 CFR 1424.7 - Gross payable units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Biodiesel producers will be eligible for payments on gross payable units for all biodiesel production from... rates. Unless otherwise determined by CCC, gross payable units for biodiesel production from eligible... biodiesel production gross payable units. (3) Adding the APP and BPP to determine biodiesel gross...

  15. Multiregional estimation of gross internal migration flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot, D K; Milne, W J

    1989-01-01

    "A multiregional model of gross internal migration flows is presented in this article. The interdependence of economic factors across all regions is recognized by imposing a non-stochastic adding-up constraint that requires total inmigration to equal total outmigration in each time period. An iterated system estimation technique is used to obtain asymptotically consistent and efficient parameter estimates. The model is estimated for gross migration flows among the Canadian provinces over the period 1962-86 and then is used to examine the likelihood of a wash-out effect in net migration models. The results indicate that previous approaches that use net migration equations may not always be empirically justified."

  16. The Gross conjecture over rational function fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OUYANG; Yi

    2005-01-01

    We study the Gross conjecture for the cyclotomic function field extension k(∧f)/k where k = Fq(t) is the rational function field and f is a monic polynomial in Fq[t].We prove the conjecture in the Fermat curve case(i.e., when f = t(t - 1)) by a direct calculation. We also prove the case when f is irreducible, which is analogous to the Weil reciprocity law. In the general case, we manage to show the weak version of the Gross conjecture here.

  17. Distribution transformer capacity optimization and allocation based on optimum allocated load rate%基于最佳配置负载率的配电变压器容量优化与配置

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷德聪; 许跃进; 吴昊; 杨建

    2012-01-01

    It is very important to select distribution transformer capacity for power grid. It can optimize the allocation of transformer capacity and enhance the economical efficiency of distribution power grid. Using the idea of economic current density during the choice of wire, a new approach was proposed based on optimum allocated load rate to select distribution transformer capacity. First, a model of transformer capacity optimum allocation was established by using the new method, it not only contained investment, operation and maintenance fees and lost expenses, but also included the economic losses caused by transformer outage. Then, each cost model was constructed scientifically. All these were to achieve the target of minimum annual integrated cost. After optimization and calculation, recommended values of optimum allocated load rate for selecting one, two and three distribution transformers were obtained. Using the recommended values to select distribution transformer capacity is simple and feasible, economical and reasonable. Also, a technical support is provided for selecting distribution transformer capacity in power grid construction.%为实现配电变压器容量的最佳配置以及配电网的经济运行,配电变压器的容量选择研究具有重要意义.该文借鉴选择导线时经济电流密度的思想,提出了基于最佳配置负载率的配电变压器容量优化配置方法.利用该方法对变压器容量的优化配置进行建模,并以年综合费用最小为目标,模型中不仅考虑投资、运行维护费和损耗费用,还计入了变压器停运造成的经济损失.经优化计算,得出选择1台、2台及3台配电变压器时的最佳配置负载率推荐值.利用此推荐值选择配电变压器容量简便可行、可为电网建设中配电变压器容量的选择提供技术支持.

  18. Some pollinators are more equal than others: Factors influencing pollen loads and seed set capacity of two actively and passively pollinating fig wasps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjellberg, Finn; Suleman, Nazia; Raja, Shazia; Tayou, Abelouahad; Hossaert-McKey, Martine; Compton, Stephen G.

    2014-05-01

    The nursery pollination system of fig trees (Ficus) results in the plants providing resources for pollinator fig wasp larvae as part of their male reproductive investment, with selection determining relative investment into pollinating wasps and the pollen they carry. The small size of Ficus pollen suggests that the quantities of pollen transported by individual wasps often limits male reproductive success. We assessed variation in fig wasp pollen loads and its influence on seed production in actively pollinated (Ficus montana) and passively pollinated (Ficus carica) dioecious fig trees.

  19. Gross Revenue risk in Swiss dairy farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benni, El N.; Finger, R.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated how agricultural policy reforms, including market liberalization and market deregulation, have influenced gross revenue risk of Swiss dairy producers using farm-level panel data between 1990 and 2009. Based on detrended data, variance decomposition was applied to assess how o

  20. Gross Revenue risk in Swiss dairy farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benni, El N.; Finger, R.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated how agricultural policy reforms, including market liberalization and market deregulation, have influenced gross revenue risk of Swiss dairy producers using farm-level panel data between 1990 and 2009. Based on detrended data, variance decomposition was applied to assess how

  1. 实货制条件下货运站装卸能力适应性研究%Study on Adaptability of Cargo Terminal Loading/unloading Capacity under Cargo Registration System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程堪弟; 殷勇

    2016-01-01

    随着“实货制”货运站装卸作业方式的转变,货运站如何实现白货的装卸、配载是个棘手问题,加上我国铁路现有的货运装卸方法存在一定的不适应性等问题,导致货运站装卸能力严重紧张不足。结合我国货物运输组织改革及主要货运站能力现状,确定影响货运站装卸效率主要因素,进一步提出改进实货制条件下货运站装卸能力适应性的保障措施。%The implementation of the cargo registration system has transformed the activity mode of the cargo terminals and moreover the loading/unloading process of the railway system in China is still misaligned with the cargo registration system, leading to severe shortage of the loading/unloading capacity of the cargo terminals. In this paper, in view of the reform initiative of the cargo transportation organizations in China and the current status of the capacity of the major cargo terminals, we determined the major factors affecting the loading/unloading efficiency of the cargo terminals and then further proposed the measures to improve the adaptability of the cargo terminals with the cargo registration system.

  2. Effect of ZnO loading technique on textural characteristic and methyl blue removal capacity of exfoliated graphite/ZnO composites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Xueqing Yue; Wenyan Duan; Yan Lu; Fucheng Zhang; Ruijun Zhang

    2011-12-01

    Two exfoliated graphite/ZnO composites, marked as EG/ZnO-1 and EG/ZnO-2, were prepared by heating a mixture of expandable graphite and Zn(OH)2 or a mixture of expanded graphite (EG) and Zn(OH)2, respectively. The composites were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and nitrogen adsorption. Under UV irradiation, the composites were used for removing methyl blue (MB) from aqueous solution. For the composites made from expandable graphite (EG/ZnO-1), the micronsized ZnO particle agglomerates (1–20 m) heterogeneously distributed at the surface of graphite flakes, while for the composites made from EG (EG/ZnO-2), the submicron-sized ZnO particle masses (0.2–0.5 m) almost homogeneously located both at the surface and interior of graphite flakes. In the presence of UV irradiation, the composites had the adsorption capacity of EG and the photocatalysis capacity of ZnO at the same time. Compared with EG/ZnO-1, EG/ZnO-2 was more effective in removing MB. After 2 h of UV irradiation, MB could be completely removed by using the EG/ZnO-2 containing 45% ZnO, and the decomposition efficiency of the ZnO was the primary cause for the removal of MB.

  3. Lightening the Load

    OpenAIRE

    Remington, Anna M.; Swettenham, John G.; Lavie, Nilli

    2012-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) research portrays a mixed picture of attentional abilities with demonstrations of enhancements (e.g., superior visual search) and deficits (e.g., higher distractibility). Here we test a potential resolution derived from the Load Theory of Attention (e.g., Lavie, 2005). In Load Theory, distractor processing depends on the perceptual load of the task and as such can only be eliminated under high load that engages full capacity. We hypothesize that ASD involves enh...

  4. Prefrontal Lobe Brain Reserve Capacity with Resistance to Higher Global Amyloid Load and White Matter Hyperintensity Burden in Mild Stage Alzheimer's Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Ting Chang

    Full Text Available Amyloid deposition and white matter lesions (WMLs in Alzheimer's disease (AD are both considered clinically significant while a larger brain volume is thought to provide greater brain reserve (BR against these pathological effects. This study identified the topography showing BR in patients with mild AD and explored the clinical balances among BR, amyloid, and WMLs burden.Thirty patients with AD were enrolled, and AV-45 positron emission tomography was conducted to measure the regional standardized uptake value ratio (SUVr in 8 cortical volumes-of- interests (VOIs. The quantitative WMLs burden was measured from magnetic resonance imaging while the normalized VOIs volumes represented BR in this study. The cognitive test represented major clinical correlates.Significant correlations between the prefrontal volume and global (r = 0.470, p = 0.024, but not regional (r = 0.264, p = 0.223 AV-45 SUVr were found. AD patients having larger regional volume in the superior- (r = 0.572, p = 0.004, superior medial- (r = 0.443, p = 0.034, and middle-prefrontal (r = 0.448, p = 0.032 regions had higher global AV-45 SUVr. For global WML loads, the prefrontal (r = -0.458, p = 0.019 and hippocampal volume (r = -0.469, p = 0.016 showed significant correlations while the prefrontal (r = -0.417, p = 0.043 or hippocampal volume (r = -0.422, p = 0.04 also predicted better composite memory scores. There were no interactions between amyloid SUVr and WML loads on the prefrontal volume.BR of the prefrontal region might modulate the adverse global pathological burden caused by amyloid deposition. While prefrontal volume positively associated with hippocampal volume, WMLs had an adverse impact on the hippocampal volume that predicts memory performance in mild stage AD.

  5. 基于供电能力分析的高压配电线路容量优化方法%Capacity Optimization of HV Distribution Lines Based on Load Supply Capability Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛少云; 郭寅昌; 刘洪

    2014-01-01

    To reasonably choose current-carrying capacities of HV distribution lines to implement refined planning and intensive construction to select benefiting conductors to reduce invest and increase utilization of supplying equipment, a method to optimize capacity of HV distribution line based on load supply capability analysis is proposed. Firstly, the concepts of power supplying route matrix and operation/wheeling mode vector of main transformer are defined to describe the information of the wireframe of HV distribution network; then based on the analysis of load supply capability of distribution network the minimized demand on capacity of HV distribution line, which makes the load supplying capability of distribution network reaching its limit, is taken as the objective and the constraints are determined through the analysis on normal operation of HV distribution wireframe and N-1 contingency as well as the analysis on operation/wheeling mode and the loop closing of wheeling mode, and then a mathematical model is formed;finally, a modified genetic algorithm is presented and used to solve the proposed optimization model. The effectiveness and practicality of the proposed method are verified by the calculation of a certain urban distribution network.%为合理选择高压配电线路载流量以实现高压配电网精细化规划和集约型建设,提出一种基于供电能力分析的高压配电线路容量优化方法。首先定义供电路径矩阵和运行/转供方式向量来描述高压配电网网架信息;然后基于配电网供电能力分析,以使配电网供电能力达到极限的最小高压配电线路容量需求为目标,通过配电网高压网架正常运行分析、高压配电线路N-1校验分析以及高压网架运行/转供方式和转供方式的合环情况分析建立约束,最终形成数学模型;最后提出一种改进的遗传算法对模型进行求解。通过某城区电网实例计算证明了算法的有效性和实用性。

  6. 水平荷载作用下裙式吸力基础承载性能研究%Bearing capacity of skirted suction caisson in sand under horizontal monotonic/cyclic loading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李大勇; 曹立雪; 高盟; 刘炜炜

    2013-01-01

    Traditional suction caisson is an upside down bucket-shaped structure, which is widely used as an alternative to support offshore platforms and mooring floating structures. It currently acts extensively as the foundation of offshore wind turbines. Its lateral bearing capacity plays an important role in the design. To increase the lateral bearing capacity, a new type of suction caisson, the skirted suction caisson, is presented. The skirted suction caisson in sand is investigated in comparison with the traditional suction caisson by u-sing the finite element method under the monotonic and cyclic loading. The corresponding load-deformation curves are obtained. The results show that the horizontal bearing capacity is significantly enhanced to resist the static and cyclic loads due to the additional structure of the skirt.%传统吸力基础是一个单桶结构,被广泛作为海洋平台、漂浮结构的基础,近年来也被推广到海上风电塔架.作为风电塔架基础,要充分提高其水平承载能力.为此,提出一种改进的基础形式一裙式吸力基础.采用Z_SOIL有限元软件,针对砂土地基,从水平单调加载和循环加载两个方面,对传统单桶吸力基础和裙式吸力基础进行了承载性能对比研究,得到了相应的荷载-位移曲线.研究结果表明,裙式吸力基础由于设置了“裙”结构,显著提高了其抵抗水平静载和循环水平动力荷载的能力,并能有效控制基础的水平位移,是值得推广应用的一种新型海洋工程基础形式.

  7. Activity level of gross α and gross β in airborne aerosol samples around the Qinshan NPP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Bin; YE Jida; CHEN Qianyuan; WU Xiaofei; SONG Weili; WANG Hongfeng

    2007-01-01

    The monitoring results of gross α and gross β activity from 2001 to 2005 for environmental airborne aerosol samples around the Qinshan NPP base are presented in this paper. A total of 170 aerosol samples were collected from monitoring sites of Caichenmen village, Qinlian village, Xiajiawan village and Yangliucun village around the Qinshan NPP base. The measured specific activity of gross α and gross β are in the range of 0.02 ~ 0.38 mBq/m3 and 0.10 ~ 1.81 mBq/m3, respectively, with an average of 0.11 mBq/m3 and 0.45mBq/m3, respectively. They are lower than the average of 0.15 mBq/m3 and 0.52mBq/m3, of reference site at Hangzhou City. It is indicated that the specific activity of gross α and gross β for environmental aerosol samples around the Qinshan NPP base had not been increased in normal operating conditions of the NPP.

  8. Implementation of a model for the reduction of latent capacity of an air-conditioner at part-load conditions with continuous fan operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddad, K.H.; Blake, J. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Energy Technology Centre

    2004-07-01

    The performance of air-conditioners and their moisture removal effectiveness is degraded when the indoor circulation fan is in continuous mode and the compressor is off. Early experiments have shown that when the compressor is off, the cooling coil acts as an evaporative cooler and vapour condensates on its surface. This vapour goes back into the air stream and back to the conditioned space, resulting in higher humidity levels. A model has been developed by previous examiners to predict the degradation of the performance of the air-conditioner. The model accounts for the conditions of the air entering the coil, thermostat cycling rate, air-conditioner transient performance, and the moisture-retaining characteristics of the cooling coil. However, this model has not been used within a building energy simulation program. This paper demonstrates how the model can be used as part of an air-conditioning model in the ESP-r/HOT3000 building energy analysis program. Within ESP-r/HOT3000, the model can determine the effect of moisture evaporation from the coil, during compressor off-cycle within continuous fan operation. It can also examine the effect on temperature and relative humidity inside a residential building during the cooling season. The model can also determine the effect of equipment latent capacity degradation on electricity use by air conditioners. The study identifies the problems associated with an over-sized air conditioner. 5 refs., 3 tabs., 7 figs.

  9. 薄膜承载力及其对日光温室结构稳定性能的影响%Load-bearing capacity of films and its effect on structure stability of Chinese solar greenhouse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁敏; 施旭栋; 李密密; 剧锦三; 蒋秀根

    2013-01-01

    of film thickness, film span, film pre-tension and load on load-bearing capacity of the single film was analyzed. At the same time, three computation models of solar greenhouse structures, including single hinged arch structure, whole frame structure without film, and whole frame structure with film, were made. The overall failure process and space coefficient of solar greenhouse structure were obtained. The effect of tensioned film on the solar greenhouse structure stability was discussed with parameters such as film thickness, film elastic modulus and film pre-tension changing. The results showed that film dimension and thickness are the main factors affecting its load-bearing properties, and the ratio of film length to film width should also be considered appropriately. Film at 0.2mm thick can prevent disaster caused by extra heavy hail. Tension film was used in favor of wind resistance for solar greenhouse structures, but is not effective for snow resistance. The space coefficient of solar greenhouse structures is least effected by film elastic modulus in all analyzed parameters. The ultimate bearing capacity of the whole frame structure without film is higher than that of the single hinged arch structure under wind and snow loads. The reason is that the stiffness out of plane is enhanced by purelines. Film also plays an important role on improving the ultimate load bearing capacity of greenhouse structures. The fruits are useful to the wind, snow and hail resistant design of solar greenhouse structure covered film.

  10. Noncommutative complex Grosse-Wulkenhaar model

    CERN Document Server

    Hounkonnou, Mahouton Norbert

    2012-01-01

    This paper stands for an application of the noncommutative (NC) Noether theorem, given in our previous work [AIP Proc 956 (2007) 55-60], for the NC complex Grosse-Wulkenhaar model. It provides with an extension of a recent work [Physics Letters B 653 (2007) 343-345]. The local conservation of energy-momentum tensors (EMTs) is recovered using improvement procedures based on Moyal algebraic techniques. Broken dilatation symmetry is discussed. NC gauge currents are also explicitly computed.

  11. Analysis on factors of having influences on the pile quality and loading capacity of the bored pile%影响钻孔灌注桩桩身质量和承载力的因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁亦垅

    2009-01-01

    结合工程实践,对影响钻孔灌注桩柱身质量和承载力的因素进行了分析,从成孔和成桩两方面提出了确保钻孔灌注桩桩身质量的方法,以积累钻孔灌注桩施工经验,推广钻孔灌注桩在工程中的应用.%Combining with project practice, the author analyzes the factors of having influences on the pile quality and loading capacity of the bored pile, provides methods of ensuring the pile quality of the bored pile from two aspects of hole forming and pile forming, so as to accumulate the constructionm experiences of the bored pile, improving the application of the bored pile on project.

  12. There Transformer Fault-oriented Security Research Technology Transfer Capacity Load%有载调容变压器故障导向安全技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗伟彬; 范伟波

    2014-01-01

    In view of the current load capacity of transformer operation tone lack of adequate security measures, will users of electrical equipment and electrical safety threat, and product applications, adversely affect the promotion of practical problems were the fault-oriented security technology research, specifically from security, advanced, practical point of view are discussed.%针对目前有载调容变压器运行中缺乏足够的安全保护措施,会对用户用电设备和用电安全造成威胁,并对产品的应用、推广产生不良影响的现实问题,进行了故障导向安全技术的研究,具体从安全性、先进性、实用性角度进行了探讨。

  13. 冲击荷载下颗粒物质缓冲性能的试验研究%Experiments on shock-absorbing capacity of granular matter under impact load

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季顺迎; 李鹏飞; 陈晓东

    2012-01-01

    Granular matter is a complex energy dissipation system. The friction and the viscous contacts among particles can dissipate effectively the system energy caused by external impact load. The force chain structure in granular system can extend the local impact in spatial dimension and expand the instantaneous impact in temporal dimension, thus to obtain the effective shock-absorbing effect. To investigate the absorbing capacity of granular matter under an impact load, in the present study, we develop an experimental system, in which a rock ball impacts granular matter in a cylinder under gravity, and the impact force on the cylinder bottom is measured with three load cells. The influences of particle size, material propery, thickness of granular matter on shock-absorbing capacity are discussed. The results show that irregular particles have more shock absorbing capacity, while the large-size particles have a slightly higher shock absorbing capability than the small-size particles. The thickness of granular matter, H, is a key parameter to affect the shock-absorbing. Critical thickness, He, is obtained in the experiments. The shock-absorbing capacity of granular matter is enhanced with H increasing when H 〈 He, while H has little influence on shock-absorbing when H 〉/arc. The resutls above are obtained with constant impact energy. Critical thickness Hc should be a function of impact energy and will be determined in the next study. With the experiments on shock-absorbing capacity of granular matter, it can reveal basic mechanical behaviors of granular materials and be applied in mechanical vibration absorptions.%颗粒物质是一种复杂的能量耗散体系.颗粒问的摩擦和黏滞作用可使冲击荷载引起的能量有效衰减,颗粒间的力链结构又可将瞬时局部冲击荷载进行空间扩展和时间延长,达到良好的缓冲效果.为研究颗粒物质对冲击荷载的缓冲性能,本文采用重力作用下球体冲击筒内颗

  14. 工业缝纫机气浮旋梭轴承气膜承载特性分析%Analysis on Load Capacity Properties of Gas Film for Air -Floating Hook Bearings in Industrial Sewing Machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴昱桦; 李军宁; 卢志伟; 刘波; 张君安

    2016-01-01

    Based on analysis of overall mechanism for industrial sewing machine,the surface fitting of gas film height of air -floating hook bearings is carried out through establishment of physical model under eccentric hook shafting.The gas film pressure distribution is obtained based on finite difference method.The change rule of load capacity and gas consumption of air -floating hook bearings is analyzed under different eccentricity,rotational speed and the distance from supply hole to end face.The results show that the gas pressure is same,the eccentricity of the hook shaft is grea-ter,the rotational speed is faster,and the distance from supply hole to end face of bearing is farther with the increase of load capacity and gas consumption.%在对工业缝纫机整体机构分析的基础上,建立了旋梭轴系偏心下的物理模型,对气浮旋梭轴承气膜高度进行曲面拟合,并基于有限差分法获得气膜压力分布。利用气体流量平衡方程及承载力方程求得旋梭轴在不同偏心距、转速、供气孔距轴承端面距离等工况下,气浮旋梭轴承的承载力、耗气量的变化规律。结果表明:在同一供气压力下,旋梭轴偏心距越大、转速越快、供气孔距轴承端面距离越远,承载力越大,耗气量也越大。

  15. Load-bearing capacity of indirect inlay-retained fixed dental prostheses made of particulate filler composite alone or reinforced with E-glass fibers impregnated with various monomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özcan, Mutlu; Koekoek, Winand; Pekkan, Gurel

    2012-08-01

    The load-bearing capacity and failure types of indirect inlay-retained fixed dental prostheses (FDP), made of particulate filler composite (PFC) (Estenia) alone or reinforced with E-glass fibers impregnated with various monomers were evaluated. Indirect inlay-retained FDPs were made between first premolars and first molars (N=30, 10/per group). The inlay parts of the specimens were silica coated and silanized and the specimens were cemented with dual-polymerized resin cement under ultrasonic vibrations. The experimental groups were as follows: Group 1: FRC1 (BR-100, UTMA) + PFC; Group 2: FRC2 (everStick C&B, Bis-GMA/PMMA) + PFC; Group 3: PFC only. The specimens were kept in distilled water at 37 °C for one month and then subjected to fracture strength test. No significant difference was found between the Group 1 and Group 2 FDPs (1357±301 N and 1213±316 N, respectively) (p>0.05) (ANOVA). Group 3 (856±299 N) showed significantly lower results than those of FRC reinforced groups (pinlay cavities. FDPs made of PFC only showed mainly catastrophic fracture of the pontic. In the FRC reinforced groups, predominantly delamination of the veneering was observed. The use of silica coating and silanization in combination with the dual-polymerized resin cement used; under ultrasonic cementation procedure provided sufficient adhesion to withstand static loading forces at the cementation interface, since the failures were predominantly delamination of the veneering in the FRC reinforced groups.

  16. The Gross Motor Skills of Children with Mild Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonis, Karen P.; Jernice, Tan Sing Yee

    2014-01-01

    Many international studies have examined the gross motor skills of children studying in special schools while local studies of such nature are limited. This study investigated the gross motor skills of children with Mild Learning Disabilities (MLD; n = 14, M age = 8.93 years, SD = 0.33) with the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (TGMD-2, Ulrich,…

  17. 7 CFR 1410.44 - Average adjusted gross income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Average adjusted gross income. 1410.44 Section 1410... Average adjusted gross income. (a) Benefits under this part will not be available to persons or legal entities whose average adjusted gross income exceeds $1,000,000 or as further specified in part...

  18. 7 CFR 701.17 - Average adjusted gross income limitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9003), each applicant must meet the provisions of the Adjusted Gross Income Limitations at 7 CFR part... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Average adjusted gross income limitation. 701.17... RELATED PROGRAMS PREVIOUSLY ADMINISTERED UNDER THIS PART § 701.17 Average adjusted gross income...

  19. Roles of nonpolar and polar intermolecular interactions in the improvement of the drug loading capacity of PEO-b-PCL with increasing PCL content for two hydrophobic Cucurbitacin drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sarthak K; Lavasanifar, Afsaneh; Choi, Phillip

    2009-09-14

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation was used to study the roles of nonpolar and polar intermolecular interactions in the improvement of the drug loading capacity of poly(ethylene oxide)-b-poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PEO-b-PCL) with increasing PCL content for two water insoluble anticancer drugs: Cucurbitacin B (CuB) and Cucurbitacin I (CuI). In particular, random binary mixture models containing 10-12 wt % drug and remaining PEO-b-PCL with three different PCL/PEO (w/w) ratios (0.5, 1, and 2) were used to calculate their Flory-Huggins interaction parameters (chi). The MD simulation results show that, for both CuB and CuI, the computed chi decreases (i.e., affinity increases) with increasing PCL/PEO ratio. Such results are consistent with our experimental observation that increasing the PCL/PEO (w/w) ratio from 1 to 4.8 significantly increases the drug loading capacity of micelles formed by PEO-b-PCL for both drugs. Analysis of the energy data shows that increasing affinity (loading) at higher PCL/PEO ratio is attributed to the increase in favorable polar interactions and to the formation of additional hydrogen bonds (H-bonds) between the drugs and the PCL block rather than to the increase in the hydrophobic characteristics of the diblock copolymer as one would normally expect. In fact, the nonpolar intermolecular interactions became more unfavorable at higher PCL/PEO ratio. Analysis of the radial distribution functions of the model mixtures indicates that at high PCL/PEO ratio, multiple H-bond sites on the PCL block interacted with single H-bond sites on the drug molecules. However, at low PCL/PEO ratio, only single H-bonds formed between various H-bond sites on the drug molecules and those of the PCL and PEO blocks. It seems that formation of H-bonds between multiple H-bond sites on the PCL block and single H-bond sites on the drug molecules is responsible for inducing drug/PEO-b-PCL affinity. The finding also explains the experimental observation that release rates

  20. 考虑后屈曲的复合材料加筋壁板承载能力分析%Load Carrying Capacity Analysis of Stiffened Composite Panel Considering Post-buckling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张国凡; 孙侠生; 孙中雷

    2015-01-01

    The load carrying capacity prediction of stiffened composite structure is an important part of air-craft designing,and the key problem is post-buckling analysis taken material failure into account.A con-cise progressive damage analysis methodology considering intralaminar failure,delamination and stiffness degradation was established based on cohesive elements and Hashin damage criteria subjected to the post-buckling analysis beared compressive loading,and UMAT subroutines of ABAQUS were developed.The comparison indicates that the load carrying capacity,failure mode and strain analysis results of this paper agree well with test results,and the relative error is less than 10% which proves the effectiveness of the present methodology.%复合材料加筋结构的承载能力预估是飞机设计中的重要内容,其关键问题就是考虑材料失效的后屈曲分析。针对复合材料加筋壁板承受压缩载荷的后屈曲承载能力预估问题,考虑层内损伤、层间分层以及刚度退化,基于内聚力单元与Hashin损伤准则,建立了一种简洁的渐进损伤分析方法,编制了相应的ABAQUS UMAT子程序,并利用复合材料加筋结构破坏试验进行了验证。验证结果表明,预估的承载能力、破坏模式和结构应力状态与物理试验结果符合得很好,承载能力误差在10%以内,证明了方法的准确性和工程实用性。

  1. Station Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex

    2011-01-01

    Stations are often limiting the capacity of railway networks. This is due to extra need of tracks when trains stand still, trains turning around, and conflicting train routes. Although stations are often the capacity bottlenecks, most capacity analysis methods focus on open line capacity. Therefore......, this paper presents methods to analyze station capacity. Four methods to analyze station capacity are developed. The first method is an adapted UIC 406 capacity method that can be used to analyze switch zones and platform tracks at stations that are not too complex. The second method examines the need...... the probability of conflicts and the minimum headway times into account. The last method analyzes how optimal platform tracks are used by examining the arrival and departure pattern of the trains. The developed methods can either be used separately to analyze specific characteristics of the capacity of a station...

  2. Baryons in Massive Gross-Neveu Models

    CERN Document Server

    Thies, M; Thies, Michael; Urlichs, Konrad

    2005-01-01

    Baryons in the large N limit of (1+1)-dimensional Gross-Neveu models with either discrete or continuous chiral symmetry have long been known. We generalize their construction to the case where the symmetry is explicitly broken by a bare mass term in the Lagrangian. In the discrete symmetry case, the exact solution is found for arbitrary bare fermion mass, using the Hartree-Fock approach. In the continuous symmetry case, a derivative expansion allows us to rederive a formerly proposed Skyrme-type model and to compute systematically corrections to the leading order description based on an effective sine-Gordon theory.

  3. Station Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex

    2011-01-01

    Stations are often limiting the capacity of railway networks. This is due to extra need of tracks when trains stand still, trains turning around, and conflicting train routes. Although stations are often the capacity bottlenecks, most capacity analysis methods focus on open line capacity. Therefore......, this paper presents methods to analyze station capacity. Four methods to analyze station capacity are developed. The first method is an adapted UIC 406 capacity method that can be used to analyze switch zones and platform tracks at stations that are not too complex. The second method examines the need...... for platform tracks and the probability that arriving trains will not get a platform track immediately at arrival. The third method is a scalable method that analyzes the conflicts in the switch zone(s). In its simplest stage, the method just analyzes the track layout while the more advanced stages also take...

  4. 温度和支座沉降对将台花园拱壳杂交钢结构承载性能的影响分析%Analysis on Effect of Temperature Loads and Support Settlements on Load Capacity of Arch-Reticulated Shell Hybrid Steel Structure of Beijing Jiangtai Winter Garden

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石永久; 高阳; 王元清; 施刚; 卢凯

    2012-01-01

    To large span spatial structures, the displacement and internal force caused by temperature loads and support settlements can not be ignored, Beijing Jiangtai Winter Garden mainly consists of reticulated shell and glass curtain wall. The reticulated shell is composed of 9 spatial arches and other common frames, thus it can be considered as arch-reticulated shell hybrid structure- The two ends of the arches are supported at the top of steel columns and concrete walls respectively. The glass curtain wall is fixed to vertical cables. This paper chooses several load cases including temperature loads and support settlements, and uses the software of ANSYS to analyze the static response of the structure under such load combinations. The comparative results show that temperature loads have more effect on the structure's load capacity than support settlements. And the superiority of hybrid structures is fully embodied in the conclusions of this paper.%对于大跨度空间结构而言,温度荷载和支座沉降在结构中引起的变形和内力不可忽略.北京将台冬季花园主要包括屋面钢网壳和立面玻璃幕墙.其中网壳部分由九榀空间钢拱和普通壳体杆件组成,可以看作拱壳杂交结构.钢拱两端分别支撑于钢柱和混凝土墙体顶端,玻璃幕墙固定于竖向拉索.本文选取了包含温度荷载和支座沉降的部分工况,运用ANSYS有限元软件对结构进行了静力分析.对比分析结果表明,与支座沉降相比,温度荷载对结构的承载性能有更大影响.同时本文的分析结果也充分体现了杂交结构性能的优越性.

  5. Séverisation de l'essai de capacité de charge des lubrifiants sur machine a engrenages FZG Obtaining Greater Severity for the Load-Carrying Capacity Test for Lubricants with the Fzg Gear Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayel J.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available La machine à engrenages FZG reste l'appareil de laboratoire le plus utilisé pour l'évaluation de la capacité de charge des lubrifiants pour engrenages et transmissions. Mais, les différentes méthodes normalisées actuellement utilisées ne sont pas assez sévères pour bien discriminer les huiles extrême-pression actuelles en ce qui concerne leur capacité de charge. L'institut Français du Pétrole a développé une méthode beaucoup plus sévère, tout en restant aussi répétable que les méthodes classiques, sans modification de la machine ou des engrenages et, par conséquent, aisément utilisable dans tous les laboratoires. Cette nouvelle procédure est applicable à vitesse double de la vitesse normale sans accroissement de l'état des contraintes des dentures. L'utilisation de cette méthode devrait rendre de grands services aux formulateurs d'huiles et aux fabricants d'additifs pour la mise au point de leurs produits. The FZG gear machine is still the most widely used laboratory device for assessing the load-carrying capacity of lubricants for gears and transmissions. But various standardized methods currently used are not severe enough to effectively discriminate present extreme- pressure oils with regard to their load-carrying capacity. The Institut Français du Pétrole has developed a much more severe method that remains just as repeatable as conventional methods, without modifying the machine or the gears, and hence that can easily be used in all laboratories. This new procedure can be implemented at twice normal speed without any increase in the state of stresses on teeth. The use of this method should be of great service to oil formulators and additive manufacturers in the development of their products.

  6. Optimisation of load control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koponen, P. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-08-01

    Electricity cannot be stored in large quantities. That is why the electricity supply and consumption are always almost equal in large power supply systems. If this balance were disturbed beyond stability, the system or a part of it would collapse until a new stable equilibrium is reached. The balance between supply and consumption is mainly maintained by controlling the power production, but also the electricity consumption or, in other words, the load is controlled. Controlling the load of the power supply system is important, if easily controllable power production capacity is limited. Temporary shortage of capacity causes high peaks in the energy price in the electricity market. Load control either reduces the electricity consumption during peak consumption and peak price or moves electricity consumption to some other time. The project Optimisation of Load Control is a part of the EDISON research program for distribution automation. The following areas were studied: Optimization of space heating and ventilation, when electricity price is time variable, load control model in power purchase optimization, optimization of direct load control sequences, interaction between load control optimization and power purchase optimization, literature on load control, optimization methods and field tests and response models of direct load control and the effects of the electricity market deregulation on load control. An overview of the main results is given in this chapter

  7. 轴压加筋壁板承载能力计算方法探讨%Investigation of the Computing Methods to Calculate Load-carrying Capacity of Stiffened Panels under Axial Compression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海燕; 童贤鑫

    2012-01-01

    Currently, engineering method is usually used to compute the load carrying capacity of the panels in a design process. In this paper, three major engineering methods are briefly described and investigated. These methods are evaluated through the comparison of calculated results and test data, for the stiffed panels of the central wing and fuselage of an aircraft. It is shown that the results from ultimate load method are safer and more consistent with the experimental data. The reasonable allowable stress for central wing of the aircraft is specified according to the previous comparisons and analysis. Finally, eleven types of stiffened panels under axi- al compression of the aircraft fuselage are calculated by using ultimate load method. The results agree well with the experimental data. It is approved that this method can meet the requirement more accurately and utility in engineering design.%目前飞机设计中主要采用工程方法计算加筋壁板的承载能力。本文介绍并评述了分段处理法、John-son法和极限载荷法三种常用的工程方法,为了探讨哪种方法能更加满足工程需要,采用这三种方法对某型飞机中央翼加筋壁板及其试验件分别进行计算,表明其中极限载荷法的计算结果偏于安全,与试验结果吻合较好,并采用此法确定了中央翼加筋壁板的承载能力。最后采用极限载荷法进一步计算该型飞机机身11种构型加筋壁板轴压试验件,破坏载荷计算值与试验结果相当吻合,从而证实了极限载荷法是一种计算轴压加筋壁板承载能力更准确、实用的工程方法。

  8. [Gross anatomy dissection and the legal control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashina, Shohei; Shibata, Yosaburo

    2010-12-01

    In Japan, dissection of human body is generally prohibited by the Penal Code, i.e. the criminal law. However, the Postmortem Examination and Corpse Preservation Act allows for the dissection of the body in very limited situations, that include gross anatomy dissection and pathological and forensic autopsy in medical and dental schools. Growing numbers of co-medical schools have been founded more recently in Japan, and not a small number of co-medical schools try to adopt human body dissection in the course of anatomy education. The present short communication reminds us of the ways of thinking of the Postmortem Examination and Corpse Preservation Act and the Act on Body Donation for Medical and Dental Education in order that anatomy education in medical as well as co-medical schools takes place under the regulation by these two laws.

  9. 贝克曼梁法测试水泥砼路面弯沉及路面持荷能力评价%Backman Beam Method Test of Cement Concrete Pavement Deflection and Pavement Loading Capacity Evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    Backman beam method for detection of the cement concrete pavement is widely used at home and abroad, and it is the main method of cement concrete pavement strength of our survey, there are a lot of the joint of cement concrete pavement, in the long-term running effect and infiltration of rainwater ef-fect, very easy to cause the void beneath slab. According to the Backman beam method detection deflection data, this paper pr-oposes treatment scheme on the plate considering the road blo-ck bearing capacity, load transfer capability, and verifies.%  贝克曼梁法检测水泥混凝土路面板底脱空是国内外广泛使用的方法,也是我国水泥混凝土路面路面强度调查的主要方法,水泥混凝土路面有很多接缝,在长期行车作用及雨水渗入作用下,很容易造成板底脱空。本文根据贝克曼梁法检测的弯沉数据,在综合考虑路面板块承载能力、传荷能力的情况对板块提出了处理方案,并进行了实例验证。

  10. 基于负荷分析与优化控制的微网容量配置方案%Microgrid Capacity Allocation Scheme Based on Load Analysis and Optimization Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨万清; 李春平; 栾敬钊; 张葆刚

    2014-01-01

    The annual electricity consumption condition has been obtained based on the load analysis by using simula-tion method of Homer. Considering local climate conditions combined with wind,light,optimal allocation of storage capacity,the microgrid parallel operation and the control of islanding strategy have been put forward in this paper so as to improve the reliability of the micro grid operation and economy.%文章在进行负荷分析的基础上,采用 Homer 进行仿真方法,得出全年用电情况。统筹考虑当地气候条件,协调风、光、储容量优化配置,进一步提出微电网并网运行及孤岛运行的控制策略。从而提高了微电网运行的可靠性及经济性。

  11. Carrying Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroll, Henning; Andersen, Jan; Kjærgård, Bente

    2012-01-01

    A spatial planning act was introduced inIndonesia 1992 and renewed in 2008. It emphasised the planning role of decentralised authorities. The spatial planning act covers both spatial and environmental issues. It defines the concept of carrying capacity and includes definitions of supportive...... carrying capacity (SCC) and assimilative carrying capacity (ACC). The act mandates that the latter two aspects must be taken into consideration in the local spatial plans. The present study aimed at developing a background for a national guideline for carrying capacity in Indonesian provinces and districts...... standard or governmental political objective exists. In most cases it was possible to select a set of indicators, including thresholds that are workable in a carrying capacity planning at the local administrative levels. Not all relevant sectors at the decentralized level were included. Indicators of SCC...

  12. Robust Principal Component Test in Gross Error Detection and Identification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Principle component analysis (PCA) based chi-square test is more sensitive to subtle gross errors and has greater power to correctly detect gross errors than classical chi-square test. However, classical principal component test (PCT) is non-robust and can be very sensitive to one or more outliers. In this paper, a Huber function liked robust weight factor was added in the collective chi-square test to eliminate the influence of gross errors on the PCT. Meanwhile, robust chi-square test was applied to modified simultaneous estimation of gross error (MSEGE) strategy to detect and identify multiple gross errors. Simulation results show that the proposed robust test can reduce the possibility of type Ⅱ errors effectively. Adding robust chi-square test into MSEGE does not obviously improve the power of multiple gross error identification, the proposed approach considers the influence of outliers on hypothesis statistic test and is more reasonable.

  13. Effect of temperate climate tree species on gross ammonification, gross nitrification and N2O formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüggemann, N.; Rosenkranz, P.; Papen, H.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.

    2003-04-01

    Microbial nitrogen turnover processes in the soil, like ammonification, nitrification and denitrification, play an important role in the formation of nitrous oxide (N2O): (i) ammonification, because it releases nitrogen from organic material in the form of ammonium (NH4+), which in turn can serve as substrate for nitrification; (ii) nitrification itself (i.e. the turnover of NH4+ to nitrate, NO3-), during which nitric oxide (NO) and N2O can be released as by-products at varying ratios; (iii) denitrification, in which NO3- serves as electron acceptor and is converted to molecular nitrogen (N2) via NO and N2O as intermediates, that can also be partially lost to the atmosphere. Temperate forest soils are a substantial source of atmospheric N2O contributing up to 10% to the total atmospheric N2O budget. However, this figure is afflicted with a huge uncertainty due to a number of factors governing the soil N2O formation, consumption, release and uptake, which are not fully understood at present. To one of these factors belongs the influence of the tree species on nitrogen turnover processes in the soil and the formation of N trace gases related with them. The aim of the present work was to analyse this tree species effect for the temperate climate region. For this purpose the effect of five different temperate tree species, having the same age and growing on the same soil in direct vicinity to each other, on gross ammonification and gross nitrification as well as on N2O formation was investigated. The trees (common beech, Fagus sylvatica; pedunculate oak, Quercus robur; Norway spruce, Picea abies; Japanese larch, Larix leptolepis; mountain pine, Pinus mugo) were part of a species trial in Western Jutland, Denmark, established in 1965 on a former sandy heathland. Samples from the soil under these five tree species were taken in spring and in summer 2002, respectively, differentiating between organic layer and mineral soil. The gross rates of ammonification as well of

  14. TERATOGENIC EFFECTS OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES: GROSS ANOMALIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Prakash

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available BACK GROUND: Prenatal exposure of AgNPs can induces devastative and detrimental effect in the organogenesis period of the developing embryos and foetuses. Organogenesis period is highly condemnatory and persuadable. Any injury to embryo during this period leads to dysmorphogenesis or even death AIM: The present study means to evaluate the gross anomalies on developing f o etus subsequent to silver nanoparticle ingestion during the gestational period. MATERIAL & METHOD: Random selections of pregnant Swiss albino mice were selected. AgNPs, of 20 - 100 nm size ra nge, were administered to pregnant mice by repeated oral gavages at concentra tions of 0.5, 1, 5, 10, 15 & 20 mg/kg/day during 4 - 17 gestational day. All dams were subjected to exteriorization on GD 18. The fetuses were evaluated for body malformation effects . RESULTS: Repeated oral gavages treatment with AgNPs at a concentration of 0.5mg/kg/day caused resorption (4.61% and intra uterine growth retardation (7.69% with no gross morphology alteration. 1 mg/kg/day caused resorption (9.23% and intra uterine growth retardation (10.76% with a rare case of haemorrhagic conception (1.53%, 5mg/kg/day caused limb malformation (7.01% resorption (17.54% and intra uterine growth retardation (17.54%, closed type Neural tube deformity (5.26%, 10mg/kg/day caused 20 % of limb malformation including Amelia, foot and tail vein hemorrhages and simple tail vein haemorrhage (3.50% each, resorption (22.80%, intra uterine growth retardation (29.82%, 15mg/kg/day caused severe hemorrhage within the entire body (22.80%, lim b anomaly including syndactyly and oligodactyly (8.77%, resorption (42.10%, intra uterine growth retardation (45.61%, 20mg/kg/day caused Omphalocele (3.27%, Bidiscoidal placental anomaly (9.83%, resorption (29.50% and intra uterine growth retardation (62.29%. CONCLUSION: The results show that a repeated oral dose of AgNPs during pregnancy caused fetal body dysmorphogenesis which is dose

  15. Carrying Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroll, Henning; Andersen, Jan; Kjærgård, Bente

    2012-01-01

    A spatial planning act was introduced inIndonesia 1992 and renewed in 2008. It emphasised the planning role of decentralised authorities. The spatial planning act covers both spatial and environmental issues. It defines the concept of carrying capacity and includes definitions of supportive...... and ACC may increase the political focus on resources and environmental issues and may help to move local authorities towards a more holistic spatial planning approach. A carrying capacity approach could be an inspiration for local spatial planning in developing countries. A spatial planning act...... was introduced inIndonesia 1992 and renewed in 2008. It emphasised the planning role of decentralised authorities. The spatial planning act covers both spatial and environmental issues. It defines the concept of carrying capacity and includes definitions of supportive carrying capacity (SCC) and assimilative...

  16. Gross revenue risk in Swiss dairy farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Benni, N; Finger, R

    2013-02-01

    This study investigated how agricultural policy reforms, including market liberalization and market deregulation, have influenced gross revenue risk of Swiss dairy producers using farm-level panel data between 1990 and 2009. Based on detrended data, variance decomposition was applied to assess how output prices and yields contributed to revenue risk over 3 different periods: the whole period (1990-2009), the first decade (1990-1999), and the second decade (1999-2009). In addition, the effect of expected changes in animal-based support for roughage-consuming cattle and price volatility on revenue risk was evaluated using a simulation model. Prices were the main contributor to revenue risk, even if the importance of yield risk increased over time. Swiss dairy producers can profit from natural hedge but market deregulation and market liberalization have reduced the natural hedge at the farm level. An increase in price volatility would substantially increase revenue risk and would, together with the abandonment of direct payments, reduce the comparative advantage of dairy production for risk-averse decision makers. Depending on other available risk management strategies, price risk management instruments might be a valuable solution for Swiss dairy producers in the future.

  17. 碳纤维加固钢-混凝土组合梁承载力极限状态计算%Analysis of Ultimate Load-carrying Capacity of Strengthening Steel-concrete Composite Beam Using Carbon Fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    荣学亮; 黄侨

    2011-01-01

    Carbon fiber is a kind of optimal materials for bridge maintenance and reinforcement. Design method of strengthening steel-concrete composite bridges using carbon fiber was studied. Characteristic of bridge reinforce-ment under load and phasing of stress features were considered, and calculation method of ultimate limit state was suitable for existing bridge design code . Ultimate strain of carbon fiber in ultimate limit state is firstly established based on plane-section assumption and strain-lag of carbon fiber. Then computational scheme and calculation meth-od of flexural capacity in positive moment area and negative moment area for strengthening steel-concrete composite beam using carbon fiber are established respectively, which is reference for design of bridge strengthening.%碳纤维复合材料是进行桥梁维修和加固的理想材料.对采用碳纤维复合材料加固钢-混凝土组合梁桥的设计方法进行了分析.考虑桥梁结构带载加固分阶段受力的特点,与现行桥梁设计规范中承载能力极限状态计算方法相适应.首先基于平截面假设和碳纤维应变滞后的特点,确定承载能力极限状态下碳纤维片材的极限应变值.然后分别建立了碳纤维片材加固钢-混凝土组合梁在正弯矩区和负弯矩区抗弯承载力的计算图式和计算方法,可供桥梁加固工程设计参考.

  18. Guidelines for Standard Photography in Gross and Clinical Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barut, Cagatay; Ertilav, Hakan

    2011-01-01

    Photography has a widespread usage in medicine and anatomy. In this review, authors focused on the usage of photography in gross and clinical anatomy. Photography in gross and clinical anatomy is not only essential for accurate documentation of morphological findings but also important in sharing knowledge and experience. Photographs of cadavers…

  19. 26 CFR 1.61-4 - Gross income of farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Gross income of farmers. (a) Farmers using the cash method of accounting. A farmer using the cash receipts and disbursements method of accounting shall include in his gross income for the taxable year— (1) The amount of cash and the value of merchandise or other property received during the taxable...

  20. Guidelines for Standard Photography in Gross and Clinical Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barut, Cagatay; Ertilav, Hakan

    2011-01-01

    Photography has a widespread usage in medicine and anatomy. In this review, authors focused on the usage of photography in gross and clinical anatomy. Photography in gross and clinical anatomy is not only essential for accurate documentation of morphological findings but also important in sharing knowledge and experience. Photographs of cadavers…

  1. Psychiatric Symptoms in Children with Gross Motor Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emck, Claudia; Bosscher, Ruud J.; van Wieringen, Piet C. W.; Doreleijers, Theo; Beek, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Children with psychiatric disorders often demonstrate gross motor problems. This study investigates if the reverse also holds true by assessing psychiatric symptoms present in children with gross motor problems. Emotional, behavioral, and autism spectrum disorders (ASD), as well as psychosocial problems, were assessed in a sample of 40 children…

  2. The Gross Anatomy Course: An Analysis of Its Importance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockers, Anja; Jerg-Bretzke, Lucia; Lamp, Christoph; Brinkmann, Anke; Traue, Harald C.; Bockers, Tobias M.

    2010-01-01

    The gross anatomy dissection course is a cost-intensive piece of undergraduate medical education that students and professionals alike describe as very important within the overall medical curriculum. We sought to understand more explicitly students' valuation of gross anatomy as an "important" course and so developed a quantitative…

  3. Improving Log Loading Efficiency for Improved Sustainable Transport within the Irish Forest and Biomass Sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Sosa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In Ireland, timber and biomass haulage faces the challenge of transporting enough material within strict legal dimensions and gross vehicle weights restrictions for trucks and trailers. The objective of this study was to develop a method to control payload weight by knowing the moisture content of the wood. Weights, volumes, and moisture content were gathered from 100 truckloads of Sitka spruce pulpwood. Truck volume and weight utilization patterns were analyzed based on stacked volume, truck volume, and weights recorded from the weighbridge. Solid/bulk volume conversion factors for the truckloads were estimated indicating the truck’s solid volume capacity to be filled. Trucks were grouped into five conditions based on their configuration—volume capacity and legal maximum payload. A loaded volume fraction was estimated to assess the optimal volume capacity and stanchion height at which the trucks should be loaded. Results showed that 100% of the trucks presented volume underutilization, with a maximum of 27.5 m3 (only 39.85% volume capacity. In contrast, 67% of trucks were overweight while the remaining 33% were under the legal maximum weight. The average solid/bulk volume conversion factor was 0.66 ± 0.013 at 95% confidence level. Depending on the conditions, trucks can be filled to 100% of their volume capacity with wood at an MC from 29% to 55%. The minimum truck volume capacity utilization was 45%. This methodology can be used by truck hauliers, enabling them to determine in-forest the optimum volume and weight of wood to be transported by knowing the moisture content (MC, the wood specie, and using the height of the stanchions of the trailer as reference when loading the truck.

  4. Developments of regional gross domestic product and the unemployment rate in Romania during 2000 - 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schonauer (Sacală Corina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Economic development of territorial units can be characterized by measuring the ability of producing goods and services and by measuring labor force in the area. The capacity of producing goods and services is measured by calculating the gross domestic product indicator. This article presents a comparative analysis of the evolution of regional GDP and the ILO unemployment rate at the level of the eight regions in Romania for a period of 13 years. The presented data come from the National Institute of Statistics of Romania.

  5. Extreme events in gross primary production: a characterization across continents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Zscheischler

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate extremes can affect the functioning of terrestrial ecosystems, for instance via a reduction of the photosynthetic capacity or alterations of respiratory processes. Yet the dominant regional and seasonal effects of hydrometeorological extremes are still not well documented. Here we quantify and characterize the role of large spatiotemporal extreme events in gross primary production (GPP as triggers of continental anomalies. We also investigate seasonal dynamics of extreme impacts on continental GPP anomalies. We find that the 50 largest positive (increase in uptake and negative extremes (decrease in uptake on each continent can explain most of the continental variation in GPP, which is in line with previous results obtained at the global scale. We show that negative extremes are larger than positive ones and demonstrate that this asymmetry is particularly strong in South America and Europe. Most extremes in GPP start in early summer. Our analysis indicates that the overall impacts and the spatial extents of GPP extremes are power law distributed with exponents that vary little across continents. Moreover, we show that on all continents and for all data sets the spatial extents play a more important role than durations or maximal GPP anomaly when it comes to the overall impact of GPP extremes. An analysis of possible causes implies that across continents most extremes in GPP can best be explained by water scarcity rather than by extreme temperatures. However, for Europe, South America and Oceania we identify also fire as an important driver. Our findings are consistent with remote sensing products. An independent validation against a literature survey on specific extreme events supports our results to a large extent.

  6. Estimating the gross moist stability in shallow and deep convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C. A.; Jong, B. T.; Chou, C.

    2015-12-01

    Gross moist stability has been used to study the link between tropical deep convection and large scale circulation in a moist static energy (MSE) budget. Here we aim to calculate the gross moist stability from more realistic profiles of vertical velocity and extend it beyond deep convection, adding shallow convection. Based on a principal component analysis, we were able to decompose the vertical velocity into two leading modes, which are dominated by deep and shallow convection, respectively. According to the deep and shallow modes, we calculate the gross moist stability for these two modes and discuss the roles of deep and shallow convection in the MSE budget. The gross moist stability of deep convection tends to be positive in the tropics, while that of shallow convection is negative over most areas of the tropics. This implies that deep convection exports MSE to stabilize the atmosphere and shallow convection imports MSE to enhance deep convection and destabilize the atmosphere. Based on the spatial distribution, moisture tends to reduce the gross moist stability of deep convection, while dry static energy has little impact. Deeper deep convection tends to have greater gross moist stability. For shallow convection, on the other hand, the gross moist stability is affected not only by low-level moisture but also mid-level moisture. Both moister low-level and drier mid-level moisture reduce the gross moist stability of shallow convection. Greater low-level dry static energy, which is associated with warmer sea surface temperature, also tends to reduce gross moist stability.

  7. Model tests on bearing capacities of suction anchors with taut mooring systems under combined static and cyclic loads%静荷载与循环荷载作用下张紧式吸力锚承载特性的模型试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建华; 刘晶磊; 周扬锐

    2012-01-01

    Load-controlled model tests are conducted to study the bearing capacities of suction anchors with taut mooring systems under combined static and cyclic loads at the optimal loading point using an electric servo loading apparatus developed by the authors. Failure modes of anchors, effects of static loads on cyclic bearing capacities and variations of cyclic bearing capacities with the number of cycles to failure are analyzed based on test results. The following conclusions are drawn. Failure of anchors is the translational failure mode of pullout from the soft stratum if the vertical ultimate resistance acting on anchors is less than the lateral one acting on anchors under combined static and cyclic loads. The displacement along the mooring direction at the loading point is about 0.6 times the anchor diameter when anchors are in the ultimate states under static loads. The cyclic bearing capacity of anchors increases with the increase of static load ratios and the cyclic load withstood by anchors also depends on static load ratio for a specified number of cycles to failure. The cyclic load withstood by anchors is the maximum when the static load ratio is about 0.5. Cyclic bearing capacities of anchors decrease with the increase of the number of cycles to failure for a specified static load ratio. The effect of loading directions on the variation of the cyclic bearing capacity with the number of cycles to failure is not obvious when the loading direction varies from 30 to 40 degrees for a specified static load ratio. The cyclic bearing capacity of anchors is not less than 75% of the static bearing capacity if the static load ratio is greater than 0.5 and the number of cycles to failure is less than 1000.%利用自行开发的电动伺服加载装置,在荷载控制方式下,进行了张紧式吸力锚在最佳系泊点受静荷载作用、受静荷载与循环荷载共同作用时的承载力模型试验。依据试验结果,分析了锚的破坏模式、加载

  8. Sectoral contributions to Nigerian gross domestic product using a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences ... This study analyzed sectoral contributions to Gross Domestic Product by Agriculture, Industry and services ... KEYWORDS: Granger causality, Unit root, VAR model and sectoral contribution ...

  9. Competence building capacity shortage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doorman, Gerard; Wangensteen, Ivar; Bakken, Bjoern

    2005-02-01

    The objective of the project 'Competence Building Capacity Shortage' has been 'to increase knowledge about central approaches aimed at solving the peaking capacity problem in restructured power systems'. With respect to reserve markets, a model was developed in the project to analyze the relations between reserve requirements and prices in the spot and reserve markets respectively. A mathematical model was also developed and implemented, which also includes the balance market, and has a good ability to predict the relations between these markets under various assumptions. With some further development, this model can be used fore realistic analyses of these markets in a Nordic context. It was also concluded that certain system requirements with respect to frequency and time deviation can be relaxed without adverse effects. However, the requirements to system bias, Frequency Activated Operating Reserves and Frequency Activated Contingency Reserves cannot be relaxed, the latter because they must cover the dimensioning fault in the system. On the other hand, Fast Contingency Reserves can be reduced by removing requirements to national balances. Costs can furthermore be reduced by increasingly adapting a Nordic as opposed to national approach. A model for stepwise power flow was developed in the project, which is especially useful to analyze slow power system dynamics. This is relevant when analysing the effects of reserve requirements. A model for the analysis of the capacity balance in Norway and Sweden was also developed. This model is useful for looking at the future balance under various assumptions regarding e.g. weather conditions, demand growth and the development of the generation system. With respect to the present situation, if there is some price flexibility on the demand side and system operators are able to use reserves from the demand side, the probability for load shedding during the peak load hour is close to zero under the weather

  10. Demand Response Load Following of Source and Load Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Jianqiang; Cao, Jinde; Yong, Taiyou

    2017-01-01

    capacities and regulation rates of aggregators. Based on the evaluation results, the dispatch center optimizes the real time load following trajectories for the generating units and the flexible load agents via look-ahead optimization by considering the injection of renewable power. Furthermore, we mainly...

  11. Premedical anatomy experience and student performance in medical gross anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondrashov, Peter; McDaniel, Dalton J; Jordan, Rebecca M

    2017-04-01

    Gross anatomy is considered one of the most important basic science courses in medical education, yet few medical schools require its completion prior to matriculation. The effect of taking anatomy courses before entering medical school on performance in medical gross anatomy has been previously studied with inconsistent results. The effect of premedical anatomy coursework on performance in medical gross anatomy, overall medical school grade point average (GPA), and Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing Examination Level 1 (COMLEX 1) score was evaluated in 456 first-year osteopathic medical students along with a survey on its perceived benefits on success in medical gross anatomy course. No significant differences were found in gross anatomy grade, GPA, or COMLEX 1 score between students with premedical anatomy coursework and those without. However, significant differences and higher scores were observed in students who had taken three or more undergraduate anatomy courses including at least one with cadaveric laboratory. There was significantly lower perceived benefit for academic success in the medical gross anatomy course (P<.001) from those students who had taken premedical anatomy courses (5.9 of 10) compared with those who had not (8.2 of 10). Results suggest that requiring any anatomy course as a prerequisite for medical school would not have significant effect on student performance in the medical gross anatomy course. However, requiring more specific anatomy coursework including taking three or more undergraduate anatomy courses, one with cadaveric laboratory component, may result in higher medical gross anatomy grades, medical school GPA, and COMLEX 1 scores. Clin. Anat. 30:303-311, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Gross Motor Profile and Its Association with Socialization Skills in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardiono D. Pusponegoro

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: Children with ASD had lower gross motor skills compared to typically developing children. Gross motor impairments were found in 20% of the ASD children, and these children also had lower socialization skills than those without gross motor impairments.

  13. Differences of Respiratory Function According to Level of the Gross Motor Function Classification System in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Kwon, Yong Hyun; Lee, Hye Young

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The current study was designed to investigate the difference in lung capacity and muscle strengthening related to respiration depending on the level of the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) in children with cerebral palsy (CP) through tests of respiratory function and respiratory pressure. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 49 children with CP who were classified as below level III of the GMFCS were recruited for this study. They were divided into three groups (i.e.,...

  14. Capacity and Capacity Utilization in Fishing Industries

    OpenAIRE

    Kirkley, James E; Squires, Dale

    1999-01-01

    Excess capacity of fishing fleets is one of the most pressing problems facing the world's fisheries and the sustainable harvesting of resource stocks. Considerable confusion persists over the definition and measurement of capacity and capacity utilization in fishing. Fishing capacity and capacity utilization, rather than capital (or effort) utilization, provide the appropriate framework. This paper provides both technological-economic and economic definitions of capacity and excess capacity i...

  15. Study on Bearing Capacity of Circular Tubular T-Joints with Collar-Plate Reinforcement Loaded by In-Plane Bending Load%平面内弯矩作用下环口板加强T型圆钢管节点的承载力分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈德胜; 杨冬平; 蔡艳青; 龙凤乐; 牛更奇; 邵永波

    2014-01-01

    环口板加固管节点是一种比较新颖的加固方法,施工方便快捷而且加固效果显著。运用有限元方法对平面内弯矩作用下的环口板加固 T 型圆钢管节点的极限承载力进行了研究。对环口板加固 T 型圆钢管节点的面内弯曲承载力进行了参数分析,参数包括支管直径与主管直径比β,主管直径与2倍主管壁厚的比γ,环口板厚度与主管管壁厚之比τc 和环口板长度与支管直径之比 lc/d1等计算。结果表明,采用适当尺寸的环口板加固后的 T 型管节点的承载力相对于未加固 T 型管节点的承载力得到显著提高。改变环口板的厚度相对于改变环口板的长度对静力强度的提高更有效。最后,在参数分析的基础上提出了环口板加强型 T 型圆钢管节点在平面内弯矩作用下的承载力计算公式。%Collar plate reinforcement is a new method for reinforcing tubular joints, and it is of fast fabrication and effective. Finite element method is used to investigate the static strength of collar plate reinforced circular hollow section (CHS) T-joints subjected to in-plane bending load. A study is conducted to analyze the effect of geometrical parameters, i.e. brace-to-chord diameter ratio β, collar-plate to chord wall thickness ratio τc, and collar-plate length to brace diameter ratio lc/d1, on the static strength of tubular T-joints. It is found that significant strength enhancement can be achieved for a collar plate reinforced tubular joint through suitable size design comparing with the un-reinforced one. Compared to the length of the collar plate, the thicknesses of the collar plate is more effective for improving the static strength of the T-joints. Finally, a parametric equation for predicting the load bearing capacity of circular tubular T-joints with collar plate reinforcement subjected to in-plane bending load is presented.

  16. Evaluation of the load-carrying capacity of hard coatings deposited onto a 7075-T6 aluminium alloy; Evaluacion de la capacidad de soporte de carga de recubrimientos duros depositados sobre la aleacion de aluminio 7075-T6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, E. T.; Santana, Y. Y.; Castro, A. C.; Puchi-Cabrera, E. S.; Staia, M. H.

    2007-07-01

    In the present work, the effect of the thickness of an electroless NiP load-support interlayer coating, on the initiation and development of plastic deformation in a 7075-T6 aluminium alloy substrate coated with a duplex coatings has been investigated. The duplex system has been obtained by means of the deposition of an electroless Ni-11 wt.% P (EN) onto the aluminium alloy substrate, followed by the deposition of a ZrN film (PVD) on top of the EN coating. The duplex systems that were investigated involved two different EN deposits, with thicknesses of 30 and 60 mm, respectively. The coatings were characterized regarding their morphology, thickness and absolute hardness. Indentation tests with spherical ind enters were performed employing 6 mm diameter WC-6Co balls and normal loads of 10,15, 25,50 and 75 N. All the indentations were modeled by means of the Elastic 2.1. code, in order to determine the through-thickness von Misses effective stress profile of the samples and the critical load for the initiation of the plastic deformation of the aluminium alloy substrate. the experimental results have been validate by means of such a theoretical analysis. it has been determined that the duplex system with an EN interlayer of 30 mm does not constitute a satisfactory load-support interlayer, for the load values employed in the tests. However, for the coated system with an EN interlayer of 60 mm, the critical load for the initiation of plastic deformation in the aluminium alloy substrate was found to be{approx}16N, which indicates that such a load-support interlayer avoids the plastic deformation of the substrate at normal loads less than {approx} 15 N. (Author) 21 refs.

  17. Load Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kock, Carsten Weber; Vesth, Allan

    The report describes Load measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The aim of the measurement program regarding the loads on the turbine is to verify the basic characteristics of the wind turbine and loads on the blades, the rotor and the tower, using [Ref 1], [Ref2] and [Ref 3]. Regarding...... the fatigue loads, the rotor, blades and tower moments are presented. The fatigue loads are evaluated using rainflow counting described in detail in Ref. [1]. The 1Hz equivalent load ranges are calculated at different wind speeds. All information regarding the instrumentation is collected in [ref 4] and [ref...

  18. Estimation of Tax Capacity and Effort and Oil Revenue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Rabiei

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the tax capacity and effort and its relationship with oil revenue of 6 selected countries member in OPEC such as Iran, Kuwait, United Arab Emirates, Venezuela, Algeria and Saudi Arabia are considered. The study has been applied by panel data within 1990-2008. According to the results of Husman test, fixed effects method was confirmed for estimation of panel data. Therefore, tax capacity model was compiled and estimated via fixed effects method. The variables affecting the tax capacity including per capita income, open economics (import and export ratio to the gross domestic product and oil revenue ratio to gross domestic product and tax capacity with one lag were considered. The summary of the analysis indicated that the relationship between the per capita income, oil revenue to gross domestic product ratio and tax capacity with one lag and dependent variable is positive and significant. Whilst the open economics grade in the oil countries has negative and significant relationship with the tax capacity. At the next stage, the tax effort was computed for the studied countries according to the results of tax capacity model estimation. The results of this study indicated that the tax effort in Iran is placed in lower ranks than Venezuela, Algeria and with a inconsiderable difference to Saudi Arabia in the fourth rank out of six studied countries.

  19. Associations between fine and gross motor skills, aerobic fitness, cognition and academic performance in 7-8 years old Danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Rune Rasmussen; Beck, Mikkel Malling; Geertsen, Svend Sparre

    Purpose: The current literature is concentrated around the positive effects of aerobic fitness (AF) on performance in cognitive tests (CP) and academic performance (AP) (reviewed in Hillman 2008). However, motor skills (MS) are often overlooked in this equation, and studies evaluating both AF......, phonological working-memory capacity (PWM), spatial working-memory capacity (SWM), math performance (MP) and fine- and gross-motor skill (FMS & GMS) assessed. Results: Significant associations were found between FMS and MP (P

  20. Gross efficiency during rowing is not affected by stroke rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmijster, Mathijs J; Van Soest, Arthur J; De Koning, Jos J

    2009-05-01

    It has been suggested that the optimal stroke rate in rowing is partly determined by the stroke-rate dependence of internal power losses. This should be reflected in a stroke-rate dependency of gross efficiency (e(gross)). The purpose of this study was to investigate if e(gross) is affected by stroke rate. A second aim was to determine whether internal power losses can be estimated by the negative power output during the stroke cycle (P(negative)). Seventeen well-trained female rowers participated in this study. They rowed three trials on a modified rowing ergometer on slides at a submaximal intensity, with a respiratory exchange ratio of 1 or close to 1. Stroke rates were 28, 34, and 40 strokes per minute. The trials were fully randomized. Power transfer to the flywheel was kept constant whereas e(gross) was determined during each trial. No significant differences in e(gross) were found between conditions. This finding suggests that in rowing internal power losses are not influenced by stroke rate. Furthermore, although P(negative) increased at increasing stroke rate (P measure to estimate internal power losses. This study shows that within the range of stroke rates applied in competitive rowing, internal power losses are unrelated to rowing cycle frequency.

  1. 20051655 - Petronas, Capacity of Driven Piles Offshore Malaysia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Augustesen, Anders; Andersen, Lars

    This document is the third of four notes concerning the vertical capacity of piles. It includes an assessment of the effect of previous static load testing upon the measured capacity, i.e. preshearing effects.......This document is the third of four notes concerning the vertical capacity of piles. It includes an assessment of the effect of previous static load testing upon the measured capacity, i.e. preshearing effects....

  2. Load Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesth, Allan; Kock, Carsten Weber

    The report describes Load measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The aim of the measurement program regarding the loads on the turbine is to verify the basic characteristics of the wind turbine and loads on the blades, the rotor and the tower, using [Ref 1], [Ref2] and [Ref 3]. Regardi...

  3. Load Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kock, Carsten Weber; Vesth, Allan

    The report describes Load measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The aim of the measurement program regarding the loads on the turbine is to verify the basic characteristics of the wind turbine and loads on the blades, the rotor and the tower, using [Ref 1], [Ref2] and [Ref 3]. Regarding...

  4. 高强冷弯薄壁型钢抱合箱形截面受压构件承载力试验研究%Load-carrying capacity of 550MPa high-strength cold-formed thin-walled steel built-up box section columns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李元齐; 姚行友; 沈祖炎; 王树坤; 刘翔

    2011-01-01

    由两个槽形截面构成的抱合箱形截面在超薄壁冷弯型钢结构中应用广泛,但关于其承载力的计算只是将单个构件的承载力简单地数学叠加,并没有相应公式来考虑单个槽形截面构件之间的相互加强.对40根高强冷弯薄壁型钢抱合箱形截面受压构件进行试验研究,考察其受力特性及破坏特征,包括轴压构件21个,绕弱轴偏心和绕强轴偏心构件共19个.试验研究结果表明:抱合箱形截面构件由于两个槽形截面试件的相互约束作用,实测承载力比按单根构件计算承载力叠加结果提高10%~20%左右.最后,在试验和理论分析的基础上,针对高强冷弯薄壁型钢抱合箱形截面受压构件极限承载力提出了一种建议计算方法,依照建议计算方法所得结果与试验结果吻合较好,且偏于安全,可供实际设计参考.%Built-up box section columns by two lipped channel sections are widely used in super thin-walled cold-formed steel structures.However, for their load-carrying capacities of built-up box section columns, usually a mathematical sum according to the load-carrying capacities of each channel section involved is utilized without any further consideration on the reinforcement between single channel sections.Load-carrying capacities and failure modes of 40 high-strength cold-formed thin-walled steel built-up box section columns have been studied, including 21 axially-compressed columns and 19 eccentrically-compressed columns subjected to bending moments along the weak axis and the strong axis respectively.The results show that, due to the interaction between two lipped channel columns connected by self-drilling screws, the ultimate load-carrying capacity of a built-up box section column is 10% to 20% higher than the sum of the ultimate load-carrying capacity of two single lipped channels loaded in the same way independently.Based on the tests and theoretical analysis, a proposed method to estimate

  5. Aerobic capacity in children and adolescents with cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschuren, Olaf; Takken, Tim

    2010-01-01

    This study described the aerobic capacity [VO(2peak) (ml/kg/min)] in contemporary children and adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP) using a maximal exercise test protocol. Twenty-four children and adolescents with CP classified at Gross Motor Functional Classification Scale (GMFCS) level I or level

  6. Aerobic Capacity in Children and Adolescents with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verschuren, Olaf; Takken, Tim

    2010-01-01

    This study described the aerobic capacity [VO[subscript 2peak] (ml/kg/min)] in contemporary children and adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP) using a maximal exercise test protocol. Twenty-four children and adolescents with CP classified at Gross Motor Functional Classification Scale (GMFCS) level I or level II and 336 typically developing…

  7. Aerobic Capacity in Children and Adolescents with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verschuren, Olaf; Takken, Tim

    2010-01-01

    This study described the aerobic capacity [VO[subscript 2peak] (ml/kg/min)] in contemporary children and adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP) using a maximal exercise test protocol. Twenty-four children and adolescents with CP classified at Gross Motor Functional Classification Scale (GMFCS) level I or level II and 336 typically developing…

  8. Aerobic capacity in children and adolescents with cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschuren, Olaf; Takken, Tim

    2010-01-01

    This study described the aerobic capacity [VO(2peak) (ml/kg/min)] in contemporary children and adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP) using a maximal exercise test protocol. Twenty-four children and adolescents with CP classified at Gross Motor Functional Classification Scale (GMFCS) level I or level

  9. Gross municipal product: the design procedure and application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Vasilevich Kolechkov

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the actual problem to find the adequate methods to assess the economic performance of municipalities conditioned by their growing independence and role in the development of regional economy. Nowadays many researchers are working on the practical application and testing of various approaches to assessing theterritory economicresults based on thecalculation of gross municipal product (GМP. However, the development of methodological reasonable calculation tools is still at an early stage. In this article presents a simplified method of calculating the gross municipal product, an analysis of the dynamics and territorialindustrial structure GМP, implemented in terms of grouping areas GМP methods hierarchical cluster analysis of the economic characteristics of the obtained clustersbased on systematic occurring in the economic literature, methodological developments in the calculation of gross municipal product, determination of strengths and weaknesses of different methodological approaches

  10. Anatomy of the Gross Intestine of the Capybara (Hydrochoerus Hydrochaeris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelia Vazquez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The anatomy of the gross intestine and its mesentery of the capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris have not been described completely. Approach: In the present study, eight adult capybaras were studied using gross dissection. Results: The cecum was the largest part of the intestine and was divided into base, body and apex. The cecocolic fold joined the cecum to the full extent of the proximal loop of ascending colon. The ascending colon was divided into two ansae, one proximal and one distal or spiral. The distal ansa had a spiral arrangement and was placed cranially to the right, covered ventrally by the apex of the cecum. This ansa had a centripetal gyrus to the left, a central flexure and a centrifugal gyrus turning to the right that was continuous with the transverse colon in the right colic flexure. Conclusion: The gross intestine of the capybara was different to other previously studied rodents.

  11. Potato production in Europe - a gross margin analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren Marcus; Bizik, Jan; Costa, Luisa Dalla;

    The purpose of this paper is to examine different cropping practices, cost structures and gross margins for producing conventional table potatoes in 6 different regions within the European Union: Czech Republic, Denmark, Italy, Poland, Portugal and Slovakia. Findings from this study show that pot......The purpose of this paper is to examine different cropping practices, cost structures and gross margins for producing conventional table potatoes in 6 different regions within the European Union: Czech Republic, Denmark, Italy, Poland, Portugal and Slovakia. Findings from this study show...... that potato cropping practices varies signifi-cantly between these countries with major differences in yields and costs. Italy and Denmark are the two regions with highest gross margins due to high yields and reve-nues. Poland is by far the largest potato producing country among the 6 countries ex...

  12. Laterally loaded masonry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raun Gottfredsen, F.

    In this thesis results from experiments on mortar joints and masonry as well as methods of calculation of strength and deformation of laterally loaded masonry are presented. The strength and deformation capacity of mortar joints have been determined from experiments involving a constant compressive...... stress and increasing shear. The results show a transition to pure friction as the cohesion is gradually destroyed. An interface model of a mortar joint that can take into account this aspect has been developed. Laterally loaded masonry panels have also been tested and it is found to be characteristic...

  13. A Capacity Supply Model for Virtualized Servers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander PINNOW

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with determining the capacity supply for virtualized servers. First, a server is modeled as a queue based on a Markov chain. Then, the effect of server virtualization on the capacity supply will be analyzed with the distribution function of the server load.

  14. A survey of gross alpha and gross beta activity in soil samples in Kinta District, Perak, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Siak Kuan; Wagiran, Husin; Ramli, Ahmad Termizi

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the gross alpha and gross beta activity concentrations from the different soil types found in the Kinta District, Perak, Malaysia. A total of 128 soil samples were collected and their dose rates were measured 1 m above the ground. Gross alpha and gross beta activity measurements were carried out using gas flow proportional counter, Tennelec Series 5 LB5500 Automatic Low Background Counting System. The alpha activity concentration ranged from 15 to 9634 Bq kg(-1) with a mean value of 1558±121 Bq kg(-1). The beta activity concentration ranged from 142 to 6173 Bq kg(-1) with a mean value of 1112±32 Bq kg(-1). High alpha and beta activity concentrations are from the same soil type. The results of the analysis show a strong correlation between the gross alpha activity concentration and dose rate (R = 0.92). The data obtained can be used as a database for each soil type.

  15. Ludwik Gross, Sarah Stewart, and the 1950s discoveries of Gross murine leukemia virus and polyoma virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Gregory J

    2014-12-01

    The Polish-American scientist Ludwik Gross made two important discoveries in the early 1950s. He showed that two viruses - murine leukemia virus and parotid tumor virus - could cause cancer when they were injected into susceptible animals. At first, Gross's discoveries were greeted with skepticism: it seemed implausible that viruses could cause a disease as complex as cancer. Inspired by Gross's initial experiments, similar results were obtained by Sarah Stewart and Bernice Eddy who later renamed the parotid tumor virus SE polyoma virus after finding it could cause many different types of tumors in mice, hamsters, and rats. Eventually the "SE" was dropped and virologists adopted the name "polyoma virus." After Gross's work was published, additional viruses capable of causing solid tumors or blood-borne tumors in mice were described by Arnold Graffi, Charlotte Friend, John Moloney and others. By 1961, sufficient data had been accumulated for Gross to confidently publish an extensive monograph--Oncogenic Viruses--the first history of tumor virology, which became a standard reference work and marked the emergence of tumor virology as a distinct, legitimate field of study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Crank inertial load affects freely chosen pedal rate during cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Ernst Albin; Jørgensen, Lars Vincents; Jensen, Kurt; Fregly, Benjamin Jon; Sjøgaard, Gisela

    2002-02-01

    Cyclists seek to maximize performance during competition, and gross efficiency is an important factor affecting performance. Gross efficiency is itself affected by pedal rate. Thus, it is important to understand factors that affect freely chosen pedal rate. Crank inertial load varies greatly during road cycling based on the selected gear ratio. Nevertheless, the possible influence of crank inertial load on freely chosen pedal rate and gross efficiency has never been investigated. This study tested the hypotheses that during cycling with sub-maximal work rates, a considerable increase in crank inertial load would cause (1) freely chosen pedal rate to increase, and as a consequence, (2) gross efficiency to decrease. Furthermore, that it would cause (3) peak crank torque to increase if a constant pedal rate was maintained. Subjects cycled on a treadmill at 150 and 250W, with low and high crank inertial load, and with preset and freely chosen pedal rate. Freely chosen pedal rate was higher at high compared with low crank inertial load. Notably, the change in crank inertial load affected the freely chosen pedal rate as much as did the 100W increase in work rate. Along with freely chosen pedal rate being higher, gross efficiency at 250W was lower during cycling with high compared with low crank inertial load. Peak crank torque was higher during cycling at 90rpm with high compared with low crank inertial load. Possibly, the subjects increased the pedal rate to compensate for the higher peak crank torque accompanying cycling with high compared with low crank inertial load.

  17. Numerical simulation for the Gross-Pitaevskii equation based on the lattice Boltzmann method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huimin

    2017-09-01

    A lattice Boltzmann model for the Gross-Pitaevskii equation is proposed in this paper. Some numerical tests for one- and two-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation have been conducted. The waves of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation are simulated. Numerical results show that the lattice Boltzmann method is an effective method for the wave of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation.

  18. 29 CFR 779.259 - What is included in annual gross volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is included in annual gross volume. 779.259 Section... Coverage Annual Gross Volume of Sales Made Or Business Done § 779.259 What is included in annual gross volume. (a) The annual gross volume of sales made or business done of an enterprise consists of its...

  19. 29 CFR 794.122 - Ascertainment of “annual” gross sales volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ascertainment of âannualâ gross sales volume. 794.122... Annual Gross Volume of Sales § 794.122 Ascertainment of “annual” gross sales volume. The annual gross volume of sales of an enterprise engaged in the wholesale or bulk distribution of petroleum...

  20. Happy Life Years: a measure of Gross National Happiness

    OpenAIRE

    Veenhoven, Ruut

    2004-01-01

    textabstractHappiness is defined as the degree to which a person enjoys his or her life-as-a-whole. Accordingly ‘Gross National Happiness’ is defined as the degree to which citizens in a country enjoy the life they live. Individual happiness can be measured by self-report on a single standard question. Hence Gross National Happiness can be measured by the average response to such questions in general populations surveys. Survey data on average self-report of happiness can be combined with est...

  1. The Impact of Investments and Gross Value Added upon Earnings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa APARASCHIVEI

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we tried to capture the impact of investments and gross value added, but also the impact of the employment on the average wage. The analysis refers to the period 1998- 2008 and we are using data on the activities of the Romanian economy. The results of this study confirm the negative influence of the employment, being consistent with the theory. Also, the impact of investments and that of gross value added came out to be positive and significant.

  2. Revised Phase Diagram of the Gross-Neveu Model

    CERN Document Server

    Thies, M; Thies, Michael; Urlichs, Konrad

    2003-01-01

    We confirm earlier hints that the conventional phase diagram of the discrete chiral Gross-Neveu model in the large N limit is deficient at non-zero chemical potential. We present the corrected phase diagram constructed in mean field theory. It has three different phases, including a kink-antikink crystal phase. All transitions are second order. The driving mechanism for the new structure of baryonic matter in the Gross-Neveu model is an Overhauser type instability with gap formation at the Fermi surface.

  3. Effect of practice on perceptual load

    OpenAIRE

    Mejia-Ramirez, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Within attention studies, Lavie's load theory (Lavie & Tsal, 1994; Lavie, Hirst, de Fockert, & Viding, 2004) presented an account that could settle the question whether attention selects stimuli to be processed at an early or late stage of cognitive processing. This theory relied on the concepts of "perceptual load" and "attentional capacity", proposing that attentional resources are automatically allocated to stimuli, but when the perceptual load of the stimuli exceeds person's capacity, tas...

  4. Grouted Pile and Its Bearing Capacity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The grouting method applied in bored pile is an improvement to the conventional bored pile. Load tests have proved that grouting under the bored pile tip is an effective method to enhance the bearing capacity of the pile and to reduce the pile settlement. In this paper, the grouting technology is described and pile-load test results are discussed. In order to put the grouting method into design practice, the authors analyze the working mechanism of soil compaction. And, based on the theory of cavities expansion in soil mass, approximate formulae are proposed for estimating the bearing capacity of the grouted pile. The theoretical prediction agrees well with the load test results.

  5. Research on load-carrying capacity of 2-DOF RR&PRR decoupled spherical parallel mechanisms based on performance atlas%基于性能图谱的2自由度RR&PRR解耦球面并联机构承载能力研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲云霞; 李为民; 高瑞廷; 范顺成

    2012-01-01

    2自由度解耦球面并联机构动平台通过两条支链与静平台连接,第1条支链由两个转动副(R)组成,第2条支链由1个移动副(P)、2个转动副(R)组成.在机构设计无量纲法建立2自由度解耦球面并联机构空间模型的基础上,对该机构的承载能力性能指标进行系统的分析,提出了应用性能指标均值及其波动情况描述机构承载能力性能的新方法,以等值线的形式绘制了该机构的承载能力性能图谱.%The moving platform of a 2-DOF RR&PRR decou-pled spherical parallel mechanism is connected with static platform by two legs in parallel. The first leg is composed of two revolute joints (R). The second leg is composed of one prismatic pair (P) and two revolute joints ( R). Based on the spatial model of RR&PRR mechanism established by employing the non-dimensional method, the performance indexes of load-carrying capacity for this mechanism were analyzed systematically. A novel method to de-scribe the mechanisms load-carrying capacity performances by using the mean value of performance indexes and its fluctuation was pro-posed was proposed. The performance atlas of load-carrying capaci-ty was drawn in the form of contour series.

  6. Fundamentos para la determinación de la capacidad de carga de un remolque cañero durante su proceso de diseño // Basics for the determination of load capacity of a sugar cane trailer during its design process.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Álvarez-Sánchez

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se muestra como determinar el valor racional de la capacidad de carga de unremolque cañero durante su proceso de diseño, de modo que en el momento de su explotación losgastos de la actividad de transporte tiendan a un mínimo.El principio que se ha seguido para ello es el de modelar matemáticamente su requerimientofuncional fundamental, capacidad de carga, en función de los gastos de explotación con los que sevincula, que son los costos del combustible y los gastos de amortización.Como restricciones del modelo se analizaron: La potencia efectiva del motor (Ne, el tiemposumario de traslado (Ttras y la fuerza tangencial de tracción máxima (Pφ.Palabras claves: diseño, remolque cañero, eficiencia, capacidad de carga, costos mínimos._____________________________________________________________________________AbstractIn this work it is shown how to determine the rational value of load capacity in a CANE trolleyduring its design process, so at the exploitation moment the transportation costs are minimized.The principle followed in this research was the mathematical modeling of their fundamentalfunctional requirement (load capacity as a function of the exploitation and other related expenses.For the restrictions of the model the following aspects were considered: The effective power of theengine (Ne, the summary time of transfer of the sugar cane (Ttras and the maximum tangentialforce of traction (Pφ.Key words: design, sugar cane trolley, efficiency, load capacity, minimum costs

  7. Monitoring of gross alpha, gross beta and actinides activities in exhaust air released from the waste isolation pilot plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thakur, P., E-mail: pthakur@cemrc.org [Carlsbad Environmental Monitoring and Research Center, 1400 University Drive, Carlsbad, New Mexico 88220 (United States); Mulholland, G.P. [Carlsbad Environmental Monitoring and Research Center, 1400 University Drive, Carlsbad, New Mexico 88220 (United States)

    2011-09-15

    The simultaneous measurements of gross alpha and beta activities is one of the simplest radioanalytical technique used as a method for screening samples of both high and low activities of alpha and beta emitting radionuclides in environmental and bioassay samples. Such measurements are of great interest from both a radiological, waste disposal viewpoint, and to establish a trend of radioactivity based on long term monitoring. At the WIPP (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant) site, unfiltered exhaust air from the underground repository is the most important effluent. As part of its monitoring program, the particulates from WIPP exhaust air are collected everyday at a location typically called the Fixed Air Sampler (FAS) site or Station A, this site is located at the release point for aerosol effluents from the underground to the environment. The measurements of gross alpha and beta activity on air filter samples were performed using an ultra low level counter, PIC-MPC 9604-{alpha}/{beta}, from Protean Instrument Corporation. The high sensitivity of the gross alpha and beta instrument enables detection of low value activity from the air filters. In 2009, the values of gross alpha and beta activity concentrations ranged from Simultaneous measurements of gross alpha and gross beta activities in the particulates from WIPP exhaust air were performed. > Ultra low level counter, PIC-MPC 9604-{alpha}/{beta} counter was used for the measurements. > Values of gross alpha activity concentrations ranged from Values of gross beta activity concentrations ranged from

  8. Thermal load capacity analysis on small lakes utilized as heat source-sink of surface water heat pump systems%小型湖泊应用于地表水源热泵时的热承载能力分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓; 林汉柱; 林宣军; 李明

    2011-01-01

    Two thermal load capacity calculation methods including the water surface temperature method and the uniform mixing method for small lakes utilized as heat source-sink of surface water heat pump systems were introduced. The calculation results of the Hangzhou City indicate that the water surface temperature method is more convincing because it objectively reflects the process of discharge-mixing and water temperature recovering. Thermal load capacity calculations of small lakes in seven representative cities were performed. The results show that the thermal load capacity in summer varies from 23,4W/m2 to 29.5W/m2, and that in winter varies from 31.6W/m2 to 45.7W/m2. The key issue for the design of such surface water heat pump systems is to satisfy the constraint of thermal load capacity in summer.%分析了小型湖泊应用于地表水源热泵时的两种热承载能力计算方法——水面温度法和均匀混合法,并采用其计算了杭州小型湖泊应用于地表水源热泵时的热承载能力。计算结果表明:水面温度法较客观地反映了实际的排水混合及水温恢复过程,可信度更高。用水面温度法对7个代表性城市小型湖泊热承载能力进行分析的结果表明:夏季热承载能力在23-4—29.5W/m2之间,冬季热承载能力在31.6~45.7W/m2之间;设计这类系统的关键在于满足夏季热承载能力的约束。

  9. 土壤重金属污染防治的有效措施:土壤负载容量管控法--献给2015“国际土壤年”%Effective Measures to Prevent Heavy Metal Pollution:Management and Control Methods Based Loading Capacity of Soil:To International Year of Soils, IYS 2015

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉军; 陈能场; 刘存; 王兴祥; 周东美; 王慎强; 陈怀满

    2015-01-01

    We would like to dedicate this paper to 2015 the International Year of Soil. Monitoring and control methods for the quality and the safety of soil environment and agricultural products based on loading capacity of soil for heavy metals were essentially a set of measures of cleaner production during entire process of farmland management. The method can reduce or avoid the negative effects of heavy metals on soil and crops. This article focuses on the necessity and possibility of the monitoring and control methods based loading capacity of soil for pollu-tion management and control, emphasizing the importance of the legal backing, namely the legitimacy of the method. The differences between the loading capacity-based methods and the traditional management approaches based on environmental standards are(1)The environmen-tal standard-based management only controls a single numerical endpoint;the loading capacity control method is three-dimensional, control-ling the full range of processes.(2)The environmental standard-based management is concentration control;the loading capacity-based method is total amount control of pollutants.(3)The subject of liability in the environmental standard-based management is not clarified, led to great passive dependence on the authorities;the loading capacity-based method takes the initiative for differentiating the main responsibility will not affect the prevention and control of heavy metal pollutions whether the uniform criteria established or not.(4)The environmental standard-based management may cause inadequate control or over-protection in certain circumstances;the loading capacity-based method adopts the essence of"Land Suitability Science"and fully utilizes the soil productivity.(5)The criteria assignment of heavy metals in the environmental standard-based management is too "unified", without considering the specialities of regional environments; the loading capacity-based method supplies the critical levels for each particular

  10. 26 CFR 1.555-2 - Additions to gross income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Corporation sells 90percent of its stock in the Y Corporation and thus is a minority shareholder in the Y... on which the required United States group exists, and (2) Such foreign corporation is a shareholder... the gross income of its shareholders, whether United States shareholders or other foreign...

  11. Comments on the research article by Gross et al. (2012)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guntur, Srinivas; Sørensen, Niels N.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this Letter to the Editor is to present a discussion on the physics of rotational augmentation based on existing work. One of the latest works by Gross et al. (2012) is highlighted here, and its conclusions are discussed. Based on the existing understanding of rotational augmentati...

  12. Effective Collaboration among the Gross Motor Assessment Team Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menear, Kristi S.; Davis, Timothy D.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the gross motor assessment team (GMAT) members' roles and collaborative approach to making appropriate decisions and modifications when addressing the needs of individuals with disabilities in physical education. Case studies of students are used to demonstrate effective uses of the GMAT. The primary outcome of the GMAT's…

  13. 40 CFR 403.15 - Net/Gross calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... STANDARDS GENERAL PRE-TREAT-MENT REGULATIONS FOR EXIST-ING AND NEW SOURCES OF POLLUTION § 403.15 Net/Gross... pollutants in the Industrial User's intake water in accordance with this section. Any Industrial User wishing... of the Industrial User, the applicable Standard will be calculated on a “net” basis (i.e., adjusted...

  14. Rubriek 'Meten in de praktijk': Gross Motor Function Measure.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenhof, C.; Ketelaar, M.

    2004-01-01

    De Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) is een instrument dat de grof-motorische vaardigheden meet van kinderen met cerebrale parese. De GMFM is expliciet ontwikkeld als evaluatief meetinstrument, wat betekent dat het bedoeld is om veranderingen over de tijd of verandering en die optreden na behandel

  15. Development of the Gross Motor Function Classification System (1997)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    To address the need for a standardized system to classify the gross motor function of children with cerebral palsy, the authors developed a five-level classification system analogous to the staging and grading systems used in medicine. Nominal group process and Delphi survey consensus methods were used to examine content validity and revise the…

  16. Effective Collaboration among the Gross Motor Assessment Team Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menear, Kristi S.; Davis, Timothy D.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the gross motor assessment team (GMAT) members' roles and collaborative approach to making appropriate decisions and modifications when addressing the needs of individuals with disabilities in physical education. Case studies of students are used to demonstrate effective uses of the GMAT. The primary outcome of the GMAT's…

  17. Assessing Gross Motor Skills of Kosovar Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shala, Merita

    2009-01-01

    In the light of the new developments in preschool education in Kosovo, this study attempts to carry out an assessment of the development of gross motor skills of preschool children attending institutional education. The emphasis is on creating a set of tests to measure the motor attainments of these children by conducting assessments of the…

  18. 78 FR 26575 - Gross Combination Weight Rating; Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-07

    ... Weight Rating; Definition AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION... definition of ``gross combination weight rating'' (or GCWR) to clarify that a GCWR is the greater of: the....regulations.gov . Fax: 1-202-493-2251. Mail: Docket Management Facility (M-30), U.S. Department of...

  19. Gross and Microscopic Lesions in Corals from Micronesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, T M; Aeby, G S; Hughen, K A

    2016-01-01

    The authors documented gross and microscopic morphology of lesions in corals on 7 islands spanning western, southern, and eastern Micronesia, sampling 76 colonies comprising 30 species of corals among 18 genera, with Acropora, Porites, and Montipora dominating. Tissue loss comprised the majority of gross lesions sampled (41%), followed by discoloration (30%) and growth anomaly (29%). Of 31 cases of tissue loss, most lesions were subacute (48%), followed by acute and chronic (26% each). Of 23 samples with discoloration, most were dark discoloration (40%), with bleaching and other discoloration each constituting 30%. Of 22 growth anomalies, umbonate growth anomalies composed half, with exophytic, nodular, and rugose growth anomalies composing the remainder. On histopathology, for 9 cases of dark discoloration, fungal infections predominated (77%); for 7 bleached corals, depletion of zooxanthellae from the gastrodermis made up a majority of microscopic diagnoses (57%); and for growth anomalies other than umbonate, hyperplasia of the basal body wall was the most common microscopic finding (63%). For the remainder of the gross lesions, no single microscopic finding constituted >50% of the total. Host response varied with the agent present on histology. Fragmentation of tissues was most often associated with algae (60%), whereas necrosis dominated (53%) for fungi. Two newly documented potentially symbiotic tissue-associated metazoans were seen in Porites and Montipora. Findings of multiple potential etiologies for a given gross lesion highlight the importance of incorporating histopathology in coral disease surveys. This study also expands the range of corals infected with cell-associated microbial aggregates.

  20. Gross and microscopic lesions in corals from Micronesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, Thierry M.; Aeby, Greta S.; Hughen, Konrad A.

    2015-01-01

    The authors documented gross and microscopic morphology of lesions in corals on 7 islands spanning western, southern, and eastern Micronesia, sampling 76 colonies comprising 30 species of corals among 18 genera, with Acropora, Porites, and Montipora dominating. Tissue loss comprised the majority of gross lesions sampled (41%), followed by discoloration (30%) and growth anomaly (29%). Of 31 cases of tissue loss, most lesions were subacute (48%), followed by acute and chronic (26% each). Of 23 samples with discoloration, most were dark discoloration (40%), with bleaching and other discoloration each constituting 30%. Of 22 growth anomalies, umbonate growth anomalies composed half, with exophytic, nodular, and rugose growth anomalies composing the remainder. On histopathology, for 9 cases of dark discoloration, fungal infections predominated (77%); for 7 bleached corals, depletion of zooxanthellae from the gastrodermis made up a majority of microscopic diagnoses (57%); and for growth anomalies other than umbonate, hyperplasia of the basal body wall was the most common microscopic finding (63%). For the remainder of the gross lesions, no single microscopic finding constituted >50% of the total. Host response varied with the agent present on histology. Fragmentation of tissues was most often associated with algae (60%), whereas necrosis dominated (53%) for fungi. Two newly documented potentially symbiotic tissue-associated metazoans were seen in Porites and Montipora. Findings of multiple potential etiologies for a given gross lesion highlight the importance of incorporating histopathology in coral disease surveys. This study also expands the range of corals infected with cell-associated microbial aggregates.

  1. Happy Life Years: a measure of Gross National Happiness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractHappiness is defined as the degree to which a person enjoys his or her life-as-a-whole. Accordingly ‘Gross National Happiness’ is defined as the degree to which citizens in a country enjoy the life they live. Individual happiness can be measured by self-report on a single standard

  2. 77 FR 51706 - Gross Combination Weight Rating (GCWR); Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration 49 CFR Parts 383 and 390 RIN 2126-AB53 Gross Combination Weight Rating (GCWR); Definition AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Direct final rule; request for comments. SUMMARY: The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration...

  3. Strategic improvements for gross anatomy web-based teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marker, David R; Juluru, Krishna; Long, Chris; Magid, Donna

    2012-01-01

    Current generations of graduate students have been immersed in technology from their early school years and have high expectations regarding digital resources. To better meet the expectations of Gross Anatomy students at our institution, electronic radiology teaching files for first-year coursework were organized into a web site. The web site was custom designed to provide material that directly correlated to the Gross Anatomy dissection and lectures. Quick links provided sets of images grouped by anatomic location. Additionally, Lab and Study Companions provided specific material for the students to review prior to and after lectures and gross dissections. Student opinions of this education resource were compared to student opinions of the prior year's digital teaching files. The new content was ranked as more user friendly (3.1 points versus 2.3 points) and more useful for learning anatomy (3.3 points versus 2.6 points). Many students reported that using the web portal was critical in helping them to better understand relationships of anatomical structures. These findings suggest that a well-organized web portal can provide a user-friendly, valuable educational resource for medical students who are studying Gross Anatomy.

  4. Fine and Gross Motor Ability in Males with ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Both fine and gross motor abilities were evaluated in 10-year-old males with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and compared to a group of control children at the School of Psychology, Curtin University of Technology, Perth, Australia.

  5. Construction of 2-dimensional Grosse-Wulkenhaar Model

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Zhituo

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we construct the noncommutative Grosse-Wulkenhaar model on 2-dimensional Moyal plane with the method of loop vertex expansion. We treat renormalization with this new tool, adapt Nelson's argument and prove Borel summability of the perturbation series. This is the first non-commutative quantum field theory model to be built in a non-perturbative sense.

  6. Monopol suretab kohaliku loomakasvataja / Oleg Gross ; interv . Illar Mõttus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Gross, Oleg, 1952-

    2005-01-01

    Väike-Maarja jäätmetehase monopoolse seisundi vastu sõna võtnud OG Elektra omanik Oleg Gross on kindel, et jäätmetehasega suretatakse kohalikud väiksemad lihatootjad välja. Kommenteerivad talupidaja Jüri Järvet ja Rakvere Lihakombinaadi direktor Olle Horm

  7. ɛ-expansion in the Gross-Neveu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, Avinash

    2016-10-01

    We use the recently developed CFT techniques of Rychkov and Tan to compute anomalous dimensions in the O( N ) Gross-Neveu model in d = 2 + ɛ dimensions. To do this, we extend the "cowpie contraction" algorithm of arXiv:1506.06616 to theories with fermions. Our results match perfectly with Feynman diagram computations.

  8. Barn music at St Donat's castle / Philip Gross

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Gross, Philip, 1952-

    2011-01-01

    Muusikafestivalist "Vale of Glamorgan", mis oli 2010. a. pühendatud Arvo Pärdile. Eesti kammermuusikaansambli Resonabilis kavas oli ka festivali tellimusel valminud uelsi helilooja Gareth Peredur Churchilli "Vocable", mille teksti kirjutas Philip Gross. Festivalikontsertide muljeid leiab Grossi luuletsüklis "Barn music" (avaldatud samas ajakirjanumbris, lk. 42-43)

  9. Attitudes of Healthcare Students on Gross Anatomy Laboratory Sessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashiro, Yukiko; Anahara, Reiko; Kohno, Toshihiko; Mori, Chisato; Matsuno, Yoshiharu

    2009-01-01

    At Chiba University, gross anatomy laboratory sessions ("laboratories") are required for physical therapy students. Though most physical therapy schools require their students to participate in laboratories so that they will better understand the structure of the human body, few data exist on the value of these laboratories specifically…

  10. Uniqueness of Meromorphic Functions and Question of Gross

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仪洪勋

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, we deal with the problem of uniqueness of meromorphic functions. It is shown that there exist two finite sets Sj (j=1, 2) such that any two nonconstant meromorphic functions f and g satisfying Ef(Sj)=Eg(Sj) for j = 1,2 must be identical, which answers a question posed by Gross.

  11. Interlimb Coordination: An Important Facet of Gross-Motor Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobbio, Tatiana; Gabbard, Carl; Cacola, Priscila

    2009-01-01

    Motor development attains landmark significance during early childhood. Although early childhood educators may be familiar with the gross-motor skill category, the subcategory of interlimb coordination needs greater attention than it typically receives from teachers of young children. Interlimb coordination primarily involves movements requiring…

  12. Barn music at St Donat's castle / Philip Gross

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Gross, Philip, 1952-

    2011-01-01

    Muusikafestivalist "Vale of Glamorgan", mis oli 2010. a. pühendatud Arvo Pärdile. Eesti kammermuusikaansambli Resonabilis kavas oli ka festivali tellimusel valminud uelsi helilooja Gareth Peredur Churchilli "Vocable", mille teksti kirjutas Philip Gross. Festivalikontsertide muljeid leiab Grossi luuletsüklis "Barn music" (avaldatud samas ajakirjanumbris, lk. 42-43)

  13. 75 FR 15610 - Exclusions From Gross Income of Foreign Corporations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 Exclusions From Gross Income of Foreign Corporations CFR Correction In Title 26 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 1 (Sec. Sec. 1.851 to 1.907), revised as...

  14. Gross Motor Development, Movement Abnormalities, and Early Identification of Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozonoff, Sally; Young, Gregory S.; Goldring, Stacy; Greiss-Hess, Laura; Herrera, Adriana M.; Steele, Joel; Macari, Suzanne; Hepburn, Susan; Rogers, Sally J.

    2008-01-01

    Gross motor development (supine, prone, rolling, sitting, crawling, walking) and movement abnormalities were examined in the home videos of infants later diagnosed with autism (regression and no regression subgroups), developmental delays (DD), or typical development. Group differences in maturity were found for walking, prone, and supine, with…

  15. Outcomes of a Rotational Dissection System in Gross Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshak, David W.; Oakes, Joanne; Hsieh, Pei-Hsuan; Chuang, Alice Z.; Cleary, Leonard J.

    2015-01-01

    At the University of Texas Houston Medical School, a rotational dissection system was introduced to improve coordination between the Gross Anatomy and the Introduction to Clinical Medicine (ICM) courses. Six students were assigned to each cadaver and divided into two teams. For each laboratory, one team was assigned to dissect and the other to…

  16. Strategic Improvements for Gross Anatomy Web-Based Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Marker

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Current generations of graduate students have been immersed in technology from their early school years and have high expectations regarding digital resources. To better meet the expectations of Gross Anatomy students at our institution, electronic radiology teaching files for first-year coursework were organized into a web site. The web site was custom designed to provide material that directly correlated to the Gross Anatomy dissection and lectures. Quick links provided sets of images grouped by anatomic location. Additionally, Lab and Study Companions provided specific material for the students to review prior to and after lectures and gross dissections. Student opinions of this education resource were compared to student opinions of the prior year’s digital teaching files. The new content was ranked as more user friendly (3.1 points versus 2.3 points and more useful for learning anatomy (3.3 points versus 2.6 points. Many students reported that using the web portal was critical in helping them to better understand relationships of anatomical structures. These findings suggest that a well-organized web portal can provide a user-friendly, valuable educational resource for medical students who are studying Gross Anatomy.

  17. 不同强度运动负荷测定老年人心脏功能能力研究%Research of Different Ways of Testing Exercise Load Capacity of the Cardiac Function of Elderly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯立; 赵琪; 陆一帆

    2012-01-01

    为了比较不同运动负荷试验对测定老年人身体机能水平的差别,并获得老年人合理的运动负荷方式,对205名城市老年人(男60-70岁,女55-65岁)进行了功率车递增负荷试验和二次台阶试验,并对其中的13名老人进行了跑台递增负荷试验,旨在通过比较几种运动负荷试验,找到适用于老年人的简单易行、安全性和准确性较高的一种或几种方法。结果发现,除了功率车和跑台递增负荷试验可以直接测出心脏功能能力外,功率车、跑台和台阶的二次试验都可以用于推测心脏功能能力,但其预测最大心率的方法又有特异性,不可一概而论。%In order to compare different impact of exercise load tests on measuring the elderly physical functional level,and get rational exercise load mode of the elderly,205 urban senior citizens(male 60-70 years old,female 55-65 years) taken power car incremental load tests and two step test,and 13 of them taken the treadmill incremental load test for comparing several exercise load tests to find a simple,safe and accurate methods for the senior citizens.It found that in addition to power car and treadmill incremental load test which can be measured directly in F.C.,the second test of power car,treadmill and bench test can be used to predict the F.C,but its predicted maximum heart rate method has its specificity,and they may be treated as the same.

  18. High-performance HVDC transmission over long distances; Hochleistungsuebertragung ueber grosse Entfernungen mit hochgespanntem Gleichstrom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radtke, U. [PreussenElektra AG, Hannover (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    High-voltage DC transmission is a world-wide established technology for low-cost transmission of large amounts of electricity over long distances. Thanks to HVDC transmission, large amounts of electricity can now for the first time also be transmitted over long distances via ocean cable, something that cannot be done with AC power cables. HVDC transmission is independent of grid frequencies and can link grids of different frequency and different quality of frequency. Interconnected grids coupled via DC circuits can exploit additional technical and economic advantages such as mutual supply of power reserves, balancing of peak load, and modulation of active and reactive power. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Hochspannungs-Gleichstromuebertragung (HGUe) ist eine weltweit etablierte Technik zur kostenguenstigen Uebertragung grosser elektrischer Leistungen ueber grosse Entfernungen. Sie schafft erstmals die Moeglichkeit, auch mittels Seekabel grosse Leistungen ueber Entfernungen zu uebertragen, die mit der Drehstromtechnik nicht moeglich sind. HGUeist unabhaengig von den Netzfrequenzen und kann Netze unterschiedlicher Frequenz und Frequenzguete miteinander verbinden. Ueber Gleichstromkreise gekuppelte Verbundnetze koennen zusaetzliche technische und wirtschaftliche Vorteile wie gegenseitige Bereitstellung von Kraftwerksreserven, Spitzenlastausgleich sowie Wirk- und Blindleistungsmodulation nutzt. (orig.)

  19. Rapid determination of gross alpha/beta activity in milk using liquid scintilation counter technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sas Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid determination of gross alpha and beta emitters in milk by liquid scintillation counter is discussed. This method is based on direct addition of different types of milk into scintillation cocktail and therefore it is very promising for fast determination of alpha/beta activity due to direct alpha and beta separation, measurement in close 4p geometry and without sample treatment. The selected group of radionuclides was chosen with the respect to military significance, radio-toxicity, and possibility of potential misuse. As model radionuclides 241Am, 239Pu, and 90Sr were selected. The Liquid Scintilation Counter Hidex 300 SL equipped with triple-double-coincidence-ratio technique was used for sample measurement. The aim of the work was focused on comparison of different cocktails produced by Hidex and Perkin Elmer, choosing the best cocktail based on our measurement results and adjustment of its appropriate volume. Furthermore, the optimization of ratio between the volume of scintillation cocktail and the volume of urine was investigated with the respect to the model radionuclides. According to the obtained results, the efficiency for alpha emitters was greater than 85% and for beta, greater than 95%. The obtained results allowed this method to be used for rapid determination of gross alpha/beta activity in cases where time is an essence, such as first responders or mass-scale samples, where ordinary means suffer from lack of capacity or simply collapse under the onslaught.

  20. Using Stochastic Ray Tracing to Simulate a Dense Time Series of Gross Primary Productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin van Leeuwen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Eddy-covariance carbon dioxide flux measurement is an established method to estimate primary productivity at the forest stand level (typically 10 ha. To validate eddy-covariance estimates, researchers rely on extensive time-series analysis and an assessment of flux contributions made by various ecosystem components at spatial scales much finer than the eddy-covariance footprint. Scaling these contributions to the stand level requires a consideration of the heterogeneity in the canopy radiation field. This paper presents a stochastic ray tracing approach to predict the probabilities of light absorption from over a thousand hemispherical directions by thousands of individual scene elements. Once a look-up table of absorption probabilities is computed, dynamic illumination conditions can be simulated in a computationally realistic time, from which stand-level gross primary productivity can be obtained by integrating photosynthetic assimilation over the scene. We demonstrate the method by inverting a leaf-level photosynthesis model with eddy-covariance and meteorological data. Optimized leaf photosynthesis parameters and canopy structure were able to explain 75% of variation in eddy-covariance gross primary productivity estimates, and commonly used parameters, including photosynthetic capacity and quantum yield, fell within reported ranges. Remaining challenges are discussed including the need to address the distribution of radiation within shoots and needles.

  1. 浅析挤扩多盘桩单桩竖向抗拔承载力%ANALYSISON THE PUSH-EXTEND MULTI-UNDER-REAMED PILE BEARING CAPACITY OF SINGLE PILE PULLED ON VERTICAL LOADS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任佳佳; 钱永梅; 尹新生

    2012-01-01

    通过研究挤扩多盘桩的现有抗拔承载力计算方法,提出利用传统模式来计算挤扩多盘桩的抗拔承载力的不足之处,并根据挤扩多盘桩在竖向拔力作用下的土体的破坏特征和桩的受力机理,提出最新的挤扩多盘桩抗拔承载力的计算模式,为该型桩的设计应用提供可靠的理论依据。%By studying the existing calculation method of pulled out of the bearing capacity of the push-extend multi-under- reamed pile, this article put forward deficiencies of the traditional mode to calculate the bearing capacity of the push-extend multi-under-reamed pile, and according to the push-extend multi-under-reamed pile under vertical pull force the characteristics of the soil destruction and working mechanism of pile, put forward the newest calculation method of pulled out of the bearing capacity of the push-extend multi-under-reamed pile, the reliable theory basis will influence the application of the expansion multiple disk pile.

  2. 钢管混凝土板柱结点抗侧移性能%Studies on the Lateral Load-Drift Capacity of Steel Pipe Column-Slab Connection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志民; 段珊

    2014-01-01

    对新型钢管混凝土板柱节点的抗侧移性能进行了研究。结果表明,节点不论是在强弯弱冲还是在强冲弱弯的条件下节点的侧移能力均可以达到2%,节点有着良好的抗侧移能力,主要取决于托板的变形能力。节点附加弯矩小,节点按照铰接设计是成立的,其构造形式优于传统节点。%The load-drift functions of a new kind of slab-column connection were studied. The results show that the displacement of the joint can achieve 2% in conditions while shear strength or bending resistance is dominated. Its lateral displacement mainly depends on the deformability of the pallet. This kind of joint benefits in load transfer and its additional moment flexion is low. The structural forms are better than the traditional ones.

  3. Vast Portfolio Selection with Gross-exposure Constraints*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jianqing; Zhang, Jingjin; Yu, Ke

    2012-01-01

    We introduce the large portfolio selection using gross-exposure constraints. We show that with gross-exposure constraint the empirically selected optimal portfolios based on estimated covariance matrices have similar performance to the theoretical optimal ones and there is no error accumulation effect from estimation of vast covariance matrices. This gives theoretical justification to the empirical results in Jagannathan and Ma (2003). We also show that the no-short-sale portfolio can be improved by allowing some short positions. The applications to portfolio selection, tracking, and improvements are also addressed. The utility of our new approach is illustrated by simulation and empirical studies on the 100 Fama-French industrial portfolios and the 600 stocks randomly selected from Russell 3000. PMID:23293404

  4. Vast Portfolio Selection with Gross-exposure Constraints().

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jianqing; Zhang, Jingjin; Yu, Ke

    2012-01-01

    We introduce the large portfolio selection using gross-exposure constraints. We show that with gross-exposure constraint the empirically selected optimal portfolios based on estimated covariance matrices have similar performance to the theoretical optimal ones and there is no error accumulation effect from estimation of vast covariance matrices. This gives theoretical justification to the empirical results in Jagannathan and Ma (2003). We also show that the no-short-sale portfolio can be improved by allowing some short positions. The applications to portfolio selection, tracking, and improvements are also addressed. The utility of our new approach is illustrated by simulation and empirical studies on the 100 Fama-French industrial portfolios and the 600 stocks randomly selected from Russell 3000.

  5. Gross-Pitaevski map as a chaotic dynamical system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarneri, Italo

    2017-03-01

    The Gross-Pitaevski map is a discrete time, split-operator version of the Gross-Pitaevski dynamics in the circle, for which exponential instability has been recently reported. Here it is studied as a classical dynamical system in its own right. A systematic analysis of Lyapunov exponents exposes strongly chaotic behavior. Exponential growth of energy is then shown to be a direct consequence of rotational invariance and for stationary solutions the full spectrum of Lyapunov exponents is analytically computed. The present analysis includes the "resonant" case, when the free rotation period is commensurate to 2 π , and the map has countably many constants of the motion. Except for lowest-order resonances, this case exhibits an integrable-chaotic transition.

  6. The San Andreas fault experiment. [gross tectonic plates relative velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D. E.; Vonbun, F. O.

    1973-01-01

    A plan was developed during 1971 to determine gross tectonic plate motions along the San Andreas Fault System in California. Knowledge of the gross motion along the total fault system is an essential component in the construction of realistic deformation models of fault regions. Such mathematical models will be used in the future for studies which will eventually lead to prediction of major earthquakes. The main purpose of the experiment described is the determination of the relative velocity of the North American and the Pacific Plates. This motion being so extremely small, cannot be measured directly but can be deduced from distance measurements between points on opposite sites of the plate boundary taken over a number of years.

  7. GLOBALIZATION AND GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT CONSTRUCTION IN ASEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Sri Wahyudi Suliswanto

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available There is no more doubt about the importance of economic growth, which can be calculated fromGross Domestic Product (GDP. This research analyzes the role of globalization on GDP inASEAN-5 by estimating panel data. It uses a fixed effect approach to accommodate various characteristicsin the countries. To accommodate such variation, it assumes that the intercepts variesacross these countries, while the slopes remain similar. Based on the estimation result, it suggeststhat net export and foreign direct investment represent the globalization process. Both have positiveand significant influences on GDP in the corresponding countries.Keywords: Globalization, international trade, foreign direct investment, gross domestic productJEL classification numbers: E01, F51, F43

  8. PREDICTION OF GROSS FEED EFFICIENCY IN ITALIAN HOLSTEIN FRIESIAN BULLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaella Finocchiaro

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to predict gross feed efficiency of Italian Holstein Friesian bulls selected for production, functional and type traits. A total of 12,238 bulls, from the April 2015 genetic evaluation, were used. Predicted daily gross feed efficiency (pFE was obtained as ratio between milk yield (MY and predicted dry matter intake (pDMI. Phenotypic trend for MY, predicted body weight (pBW and pFE were calculated by the bull birth year. The results suggest that pFE can be successfully selected to increase profitability of dairy cattle using the current milk recording system. Direct measurements on DMI should be considered to confirm results of pFE obtained in the present study.

  9. Gross efficiency and energy expenditure in kayak ergometer exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, B B; Mourão, L; Massart, A; Figueiredo, P; Vilas-Boas, J P; Santos, A M C; Fernandes, R J

    2012-08-01

    We purposed to study energy expenditure, power output and gross efficiency during kayak ergometer exercise in 12 elite sprint kayakers. 6 males (age 24.2±4.8 years, height 180.4±4.8 cm, body mass 79.7±8.5 kg) and 6 females (age 24.3±4.5 years, height 164.5±3.9 cm, body mass 65.4±3.5 kg), performed an incremental intermittent protocol on kayak ergometer with VO2 and blood lactate concentration assessment, a non-linear increase between power output and energy expenditure being observed. Paddling power output, energy expenditure and gross efficiency corresponding to VO2max averaged 199.92±50.41 W, 75.27±6.30 ml.kg - 1.min - 1, and 10.10±1.08%. Male kayakers presented higher VO2max, power output and gross efficiency at the VO2max, and lower heart rate and maximal lactate concentration than females, but no differences were found between genders regarding energy expenditure at VO2max. Aerobic and anaerobic components of energy expenditure evidenced a significant contribution of anaerobic energy sources in sprint kayak performance. Results also suggested the dependence of the gross efficiency on the changes in the amount of the aerobic and anaerobic contributions, at heavy and severe intensities. The inter-individual variance of the relationship between energy expenditure and the corresponding paddling power output revealed a relevant tracking for females (FDγ=0.73±0.06), conversely to the male group (FDγ=0.27±0.08), supporting that some male kayakers are more skilled in some paddling intensities than others.

  10. Constructive Renormalization of 2-dimensional Grosse-Wulkenhaar Model

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Zhituo

    2012-01-01

    In this talk we briefly report the recent work on the construction of the 2-dimensional Grosse-Wulkenhaar model with the method of loop vertex expansion. We treat renormalization with this new tool, adapt Nelson's argument and prove Borel summability of the perturbation series. This is the first non-commutative quantum field theory model to be built in a non-perturbative sense.

  11. 长桁与蒙皮脱粘对复合材料加筋板承载能力影响分析%Influence analysis of stringer-skin debonding on load-bearing capacity of stiffened composite panel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张阿盈; 邓凡尘; 于飞; 袁菲

    2014-01-01

    复合材料结构在制造和使用过程中,难免产生分层损伤,这些损伤都会在不同程度上影响结构的承载能力。针对复合材料加筋板,采用有限元动态显式分析方法,分析长桁与蒙皮脱粘面积对加筋壁板结构屈曲和后屈曲承载能力的影响。在ABAQUS商业化有限元分析软件及其二次开发平台上,利用用户自定义材料(VUMAT)的方法对材料性能进行连续衰减,实现加筋板轴压载荷作用下的渐进式失效分析。建立了脱粘面积与结构承载能力之间的关系,研究结果可为合理制定复合材料构件缺陷验收标准和结构修理容限提供分析依据。%Composite structure is prone to damage in the process of manufactory and service. This damage can influence the load-bearing capability of the structure. In this paper, stiffened composite panel with stringer-skin debonding was studied using finite element dynamic explicit analysis technique. The VUMAT subroutine was adopt to degrade material stiffness consecutively while damage occurred. The progressive analysis of panel under axial compressive load was conducted. Parameter analysis of debonding area was done. The relationship between failure load and debonding size was built. The study of this paper can provide analytic basis for establishing standards of eligibility and repair tolerance for composite structure.

  12. Photovoltaics effective capacity: Interim final report 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, R.; Seals, R. [State Univ. of New York, Albany, NY (United States). Atmospheric Sciences Research Center

    1997-11-01

    The authors provide solid evidence, based on more than 8 million data points, that regional photovoltaic (PV) effective capacity is largely unrelated to the region`s solar resource. They confirm, however, that effective capacity is strongly related to load-shape characteristics. The load-shape effective-capacity relationship appears to be valid for end-use loads as small as 100 kW, except possibly in the case of electrically heated buildings. This relationship was used as a tool to produce a US map of PV`s effective capacity. The regions of highest effective capacities include (1) the central US from the northern Great Plains to the metropolitan areas of Chicago and Detroit, down to the lower Mississippi Valley, (2) California and western Arizona, and (3) the northeast metropolitan corridor. The features of this map are considerably different from the traditional solar resource maps. They tend to reflect the socio-economic and climatic factors that indirectly drive PV`s effective capacity: e.g., commercial air-conditioning, little use of electric heat, and strong summer heat waves. The map provides a new and significant insight to a comprehensive valuation of the PV resource. The authors assembled preliminary evidence showing that end-use load type may be related to PV`s effective capacity. Highest effective capacities were found for (nonelectrically heated) office buildings, followed by hospitals. Lowest capacities were found for airports and residences. Many more data points are needed, however, to ascertain and characterize these preliminary findings.

  13. Photovoltaics effective capacity: Interim final report 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, R.; Seals, R. [State Univ. of New York, Albany, NY (United States). Atmospheric Sciences Research Center

    1997-11-01

    The authors provide solid evidence, based on more than 8 million data points, that regional photovoltaic (PV) effective capacity is largely unrelated to the region`s solar resource. They confirm, however, that effective capacity is strongly related to load-shape characteristics. The load-shape effective-capacity relationship appears to be valid for end-use loads as small as 100 kW, except possibly in the case of electrically heated buildings. This relationship was used as a tool to produce a US map of PV`s effective capacity. The regions of highest effective capacities include (1) the central US from the northern Great Plains to the metropolitan areas of Chicago and Detroit, down to the lower Mississippi Valley, (2) California and western Arizona, and (3) the northeast metropolitan corridor. The features of this map are considerably different from the traditional solar resource maps. They tend to reflect the socio-economic and climatic factors that indirectly drive PV`s effective capacity: e.g., commercial air-conditioning, little use of electric heat, and strong summer heat waves. The map provides a new and significant insight to a comprehensive valuation of the PV resource. The authors assembled preliminary evidence showing that end-use load type may be related to PV`s effective capacity. Highest effective capacities were found for (nonelectrically heated) office buildings, followed by hospitals. Lowest capacities were found for airports and residences. Many more data points are needed, however, to ascertain and characterize these preliminary findings.

  14. 30 CFR 75.1401 - Hoists; rated capacities; indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Hoists; rated capacities; indicators. Hoists shall have rated capacities consistent with the loads handled. An accurate and reliable indicator of the position of the cage, platform, skip, bucket, or cars... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hoists; rated capacities; indicators. 75.1401...

  15. Iron load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Cassarà

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent research addressed the main role of hepcidin in the regulation of iron metabolism. However, while this mechanism could be relevant in causing iron load in Thalassemia Intermedia and Sickle-Cell Anemia, its role in Thalassemia Major (TM is marginal. This is mainly due to the high impact of transfusional requirement into the severe increase of body iron. Moreover, the damage of iron load may be worsened by infections, as HCV hepatitis, or liver and endocrinological damage. One of the most relevant associations was found between splenectomy and increase of risk for mortality due,probably, to more severe iron load. These issues suggest as morbidity and mortality of this group of patients they do not depend only by our ability in controlling heart damage but even in preventing or treating particular infections and complications. This finding is supported by the impairment of survival curves in patients with complications different from heart damage. However, because, during recent years different direct and indirect methods to detect iron overload in patients affected by secondary hemochromatosis have been implemented, our ability to maintain under control iron load is significantly improved. Anyway, the future in iron load management remains to be able to have an iron load map of our body for targeting chelation and other medical treatment according to the single organ damage.

  16. On deflection of consolidation of sandwich structure with carbon fiber and its loading capacity%碳纤维加固建筑夹芯板的挠度及承载力分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙雪萍

    2015-01-01

    采用有限元软件ANSYS模拟计算,通过修正剪力分配系数,主要对比研究普通夹芯板和碳纤维加固夹芯板的挠度计算公式和受弯承载力,为以后的设计工作提供了理论基础。%The paper adopts the finite element software, ANSYS, to simulate the calculation, and undertakes the comparative research on the de-flection formulation and flexural capacity between common sandwich structure and consolidated sandwich structure with carbon fiber by modifying the shear distribution coefficiency, so as to lay the theoretic foundation for following design.

  17. Comparison of field and laboratory models of the load bearing capacity in coffee plantations Comparação de modelos de capacidade de suporte de carga do solo de campo e laboratório em plantações de café

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piero Iori

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Precompression stress is an important property for assessment of tropical soil structure sustainability and is often determined in laboratory tests. The objective of this study was to compare the load bearing capacity models obtained with controlled moisture in laboratory and those obtained with natural field moistures determined a long one year. The evaluation of soil structural sustainability follows four distinct steps: soil sampling in the field, uniaxial compression test of the samples in the laboratory, determination of precompression stress and estimation of the load bearing capacity models. Laboratory estimates of precompression stress were obtained from moisture controlled in laboratory and from natural moisture determined in a field a long one year. In this process, the soil samples were saturated by capillarity with distilled water in laboratory, and after 48 hours, the samples were air dried to obtain the different moisture contents. Then, the precompression stress was determined for this both conditions. To verify if the load bearing capacity models obtained with controlled moisture in laboratory may represent the load bearing models obtained with natural field moisture, these models were compared using the homogeneity test procedure. It was observed that 75% of field models analyzed were similar to the laboratory models. Thus, due to the similarity on the load-bearing capacity models obtained using natural (field or controlled (laboratory moisture contents, the assessment of the soil structure sustainability can be done using both methods.Pressão de pré-consolidação é uma importante propriedade na avaliação da sustentabilidade estrutural do solo e é determinada em testes de laboratório. Neste estudo, objetivou-se comparar modelos de capacidade de suporte de carga obtidos com umidade controlada em laboratório e com umidade natural de campo ao longo de um ano. A avaliação da sustentabilidade estrutural do solo ocorreu em

  18. Differences of respiratory function according to level of the gross motor function classification system in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Yong Hyun; Lee, Hye Young

    2014-03-01

    [Purpose] The current study was designed to investigate the difference in lung capacity and muscle strengthening related to respiration depending on the level of the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) in children with cerebral palsy (CP) through tests of respiratory function and respiratory pressure. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 49 children with CP who were classified as below level III of the GMFCS were recruited for this study. They were divided into three groups (i.e., GMFCS level I, GMFCS level II, and GMFCS level III). All children took the pulmonary function test (PFT) and underwent respiratory pressure testing for assessment of respiratory function in terms of lung capacity and respiratory muscle strength. [Results] The GMFCS level III group showed significantly lower scores for all tests of the PFT (i.e., forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume at one second (FEV1), and slow vital capacity (SVC)) and testing for respiratory pressures (maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP) and maximal expiratory pressure (MEP)) compared with the other two groups. The results of post hoc analysis indicated that the GMFCS level III group differed significantly from the other two groups in terms of FVC, FEV1, MIP, and MEP. In addition, a significant difference in SVC was observed between GMFCS level II and III. [Conclusion] Children with CP who had relatively low motor function showed poor pulmonary capacity and respiratory muscle weakness. Therefore, clinical manifestations regarding lung capacity and respiratory muscle will be required in children with CP who demonstrate poor physical activity.

  19. Transient Monotonic and Cyclic Load Effects on Mono Bucket Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Dam

    and when hitting the foundation they induce high impact loads with a short duration. It is important that the foundation is able to resists these huge loads. Fortunately, the conducted research showed that the capacity of the mono bucket foundation is high to impact loads. When exposed to a huge wave load...

  20. Relationship Between Gross Motor Function and Daily Functional Skill in Children With Cerebral Palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Kwon, Tae Gun; Yi, Sook-Hee; Kim, Tae Won; Chang, Hyun Jung; Kwon, Jeong-Yi

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between gross motor function and daily functional skill in children with cerebral palsy (CP) and to explore how this relationship is moderated by the Gross Motor Function Classification System, Bimanual Fine Motor Function (BFMF), neuromotor types, and limb distribution of CP. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 112 children with CP (range, 4 years to 7 years and 7 months) was performed. Gross motor function was assessed with the Gross Motor Function ...

  1. Wind load reduction for heliostats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterka, J.A.; Hosoya, N.; Bienkiewicz, B.; Cermak, J.E.

    1986-05-01

    This report presents the results of wind-tunnel tests supported through the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) by the Office of Solar Thermal Technology of the US Department of Energy as part of the SERI research effort on innovative concentrators. As gravity loads on drive mechanisms are reduced through stretched-membrane technology, the wind-load contribution of the required drive capacity increases in percentage. Reduction of wind loads can provide economy in support structure and heliostat drive. Wind-tunnel tests have been directed at finding methods to reduce wind loads on heliostats. The tests investigated primarily the mean forces, moments, and the possibility of measuring fluctuating forces in anticipation of reducing those forces. A significant increase in ability to predict heliostat wind loads and their reduction within a heliostat field was achieved.

  2. 大容量核电机组接入川渝电网适应性及参与系统调峰研究%Adaptability of large-capacity nuclear power plants accessing Sichuan and Chongqing grids and ability of participating in system peak-load regulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈汉雄; 郑勇

    2011-01-01

    The grid adaptability after access of large capacity nuclear power plants in Sichuan-Chongqing grid is analyzed.The study focuses on problems in terms of load flow distribution,delivery line model selection,grid stability level, short circuit level and the ability to participate in system peak load regulation.The study results show that the reasonable accessing plan for large capacity nuclear power plant can satisfy the need for nuclear power delivery and control the system short circuit level.The large capacity nuclear power plant also has the ability to participate in system peak load regulation when needed,which reduces the quantity of abandoning energy in high flow period.It can also help Sichuan-Chongqing grid to improve comprehensive benefits on economic,social and environment aspects.%结合四川、重庆电网的实际系统,重点从电网的潮流分布、送出线路选型、电网稳定校核、短路电流水平计算以及是否参与系统调峰运行等多方面,研究分析2020年大容量核电机组(2x175万kW)接人川渝主干电网后对川渝电网的可能影响.研究表明:大容量核电机组较为合理的接人系统方案,既能满足核电送出需要,又可以控制系统短路电流水平,远景规划年份川渝主干电网总体上能适应大容量核电机组的接人系统;同时.大容量核电机组根据电网需要实时承担系统部分调峰任务后,可实现减少川渝电网丰期调峰弃水和节约燃煤的节能减排的经济、社会和环保等多方面综合效益.

  3. 26 CFR 1.927(b)-1T - Temporary regulations; Definition of gross receipts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Temporary regulations; Definition of gross...(b)-1T Temporary regulations; Definition of gross receipts. (a) General rule. Under section 927(b.... The FSC's gross receipts for purposes of computing its profit under the administrative pricing...

  4. The relationship between gross motor skills and academic achievement in children with learning disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westendorp, Marieke; Hartman, Esther; Houwen, Suzanne; Smith, Joanne; Visscher, Chris

    2011-01-01

    The present study compared the gross motor skills of 7- to 12-year-old children with learning disabilities (n = 104) with those of age-matched typically developing children (n = 104) using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2. Additionally, the specific relationships between subsets of gross motor

  5. 46 CFR 130.110 - Internal communications on OSVs of less than 100 gross tons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Internal communications on OSVs of less than 100 gross... Internal communications on OSVs of less than 100 gross tons. Each vessel of less than 100 gross tons... have a fixed means of communication between the pilothouse and the place where the auxiliary means...

  6. The relationship between gross motor skills and academic achievement in children with learning disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westendorp, Marieke; Hartman, Esther; Houwen, Suzanne; Smith, Joanne; Visscher, Chris

    2011-01-01

    The present study compared the gross motor skills of 7- to 12-year-old children with learning disabilities (n = 104) with those of age-matched typically developing children (n = 104) using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2. Additionally, the specific relationships between subsets of gross motor

  7. 26 CFR 1.872-1 - Gross income of nonresident alien individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gross income of nonresident alien individuals. 1...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Nonresident Aliens and Foreign Corporations § 1.872-1 Gross income of nonresident alien individuals. (a) In general—(1) Inclusions. The gross income of a nonresident...

  8. 26 CFR 20.2031-1 - Definition of gross estate; valuation of property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., except that if the executor elects the alternate valuation method under section 2032, it is the fair... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definition of gross estate; valuation of... § 20.2031-1 Definition of gross estate; valuation of property. (a) Definition of gross estate. Except...

  9. 26 CFR 1.924(a)-1T - Temporary regulations; definition of foreign trading gross receipts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... trading gross receipts. 1.924(a)-1T Section 1.924(a)-1T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... United States § 1.924(a)-1T Temporary regulations; definition of foreign trading gross receipts. (a) In general. The term “foreign trading gross receipts” means any of the five amounts described in...

  10. Bearing capacity of thin-walled steel tube short columns filled with lightweight aggregate concrete under axial load%薄壁钢管轻骨料混凝土轴压短柱承载力分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖海兵; 赵均海; 孙楚平; 彭宁; 孙珊珊

    2012-01-01

    Based on the unified strength theory, considering the effects of the intermediate principal stress and the differences of the multi-axial strength criterion for the lightweight aggregate concrete and common concrete, by introducing parameter αu and/βu, loop tensile stress σθ , longitudinal compressive stress σ, and radial compressiye stress σ of the thin- walled steel tube in ultimate bearing condition were obtained. Thus the calculation formula of ultimate bearing capacity of thin-walled steel tube short columns filled with lightweight aggregate concrete was deduced, and the influence complication was analyzed. Compared with the obtained solution and the test results in reference, good agreement can be found. The results indicate that the unified strength theory has the good applicability in the calculation of ultimate bearing capacity of thin-walled steel tube short columns filled with lightweight aggregate concrete. The results can provide theoretical foundation for the design of thin-walled steel tube filled with lightweight aggregate concrete.%运用统一强度理论,考虑中间主应力的影响,引入参数αu,βu确定薄壁钢管在极限荷载时的环向拉应力σθ、纵向压应力σz和径向压应力σr,并考虑轻骨料混凝土与普通混凝土多轴强度准则差异的影响,推导出薄壁钢管轻骨料混凝土轴压短柱的极限承载力公式,并对影响因素进行了分析。将本文计算结果与文献试验数据进行比较,结果吻合良好,表明将统一强度理论运用于薄壁钢管轻骨料混凝土轴压短柱承载力计算是可行的。该结果为薄壁钢管轻骨料混凝土的优化设计提供了一定的理论依据。

  11. 基于地震波孔压静力触探(SCPTU)刚性桩承载力预测及荷载响应分析%The capacity prediction and load response analysis of the rigid pile based on seismic piezocone penetration test (SCPTU)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗永红; 蔡国军; 刘松玉

    2011-01-01

    基于地震波孔压静力触探(SCPTU)资料对桩侧摩阻力和桩端承载力进行预测,同时提供了土层剖面特征.应用弹性理论通过实测的剪切波速估算初始桩土刚度.提出了修正双曲线法应用于弹性模量随着轴向荷栽增大的非线性响应,实现了对刚性桩的荷载-沉降-承载力分析.结合不同土质条件工程实例分析,并通过统计和现场载荷试验验证了此方法的有效性和准确性.结果表明:考虑孔压修正的承载力估算法完全满足工程要求,新方法略微低估了承载力,可视为安全储备:新方法累计概率图平缓、离散性小,接近对数正态分布,具有更高可靠性;利用修正双曲线模量衰减法进行荷栽响应分析具有较强的实用性.%Based on the seismic piezocone penetration test (SCPTU), pile side friction and base capacity were predicted and soil profile characteristics were also provided. According to the elastic theory, initial stiffness was estimated by the measured shear wave velocity. The modified hyperbola method was applied in axial load increases with the nonlinear responses, the rigid pile load-settlement-capacity was analyzed. In different soil conditions, the rigid piles case histories were conducted, also the effectiveness and accuracy of the method were verified by statistics and load tests. It is concluded that the new method based on revised pore pressure can completely satisfy the requirements, and it can be regarded as safety. The new method has small discrete, whose cumulative probability graph is fiat, close to the lognormal distribution and higher reliability. Modified hyperbolic decay modulus method is useful for load response analysis.

  12. 42CrMo钢渗碳淬火齿轮弯曲疲劳极限快速测定%Rapid Assay Analysis of Bending Load Capacity Limit on 42CrMo Carburized-quenched Gear

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵富强; 王铁

    2011-01-01

    针对42CrMo钢生产新齿轮的需要,进行了齿轮弯曲疲劳强度试验.在对该材料进行化学成分分析和硬度检测后,提出基于LOCATI方法进行双齿脉动加载试验.根据试验所得数据,按统计学原理,拟合出S-N曲线,并获得置信度为95%、可靠度为95%的弯曲疲劳极限应力值.为该材料齿轮的弯曲疲劳可靠性设计、有限寿命设计提供了真实的试验依据.%In order to decide whether 42CrMo steel could be selected as gear-material, tests on the bending fatigue strength of gears are analyzed. After taking chemical composition analysis and hardness test of 42CrMo steel, the pulsating loading test based on the Locati method is proposed. Then in terms of the principle of statistics, a fitted N-S curve is obtained by processing the data gained from the test and the bending fatigue limit is achieved with a 95% of both confidence and reliability. They provide the experimental basic data for the gear's reliability design and limited life design.

  13. 热轧高强度钢压杆的承载能力分析%Analysis of the Load-Carrying Capacity of Hot-Rolled High-Strength Steel Struts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈绍蕃; 申红侠

    2011-01-01

    现行钢结构设计规范的一些规定不利于充分发挥高强度钢压杆的潜力.热轧型钢的残余应力和钢材的强度等级无关,因而它对高强度钢压杆的不利效应低于Q235钢.本文基于这一认知进行了承载力分析,提出了改进稳定系数取值的两种方案,可使高强度钢压杆设计得更为合理.%Some provisions of the current Code for Design of Steel Structures are unfavourable for high-strength steel struts to fully develop their inherent potential. The magnitude of residual stress in hot-rolled shapes is independent of the strength grade of the steel. So, its detrimental effect is smaller to high-strength struts than to Q235 ones. Based on this knowledge, analysis of bearing capacity has been performed and two approaches of improving the stability strength coefficient are presented which may lead to more rational design of high-strength steel struts.

  14. Joint control of terrestrial gross primary productivity by plant phenology and physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jianyang; Niu, Shuli; Ciais, Philippe; Janssens, Ivan A; Chen, Jiquan; Ammann, Christof; Arain, Altaf; Blanken, Peter D; Cescatti, Alessandro; Bonal, Damien; Buchmann, Nina; Curtis, Peter S; Chen, Shiping; Dong, Jinwei; Flanagan, Lawrence B; Frankenberg, Christian; Georgiadis, Teodoro; Gough, Christopher M; Hui, Dafeng; Kiely, Gerard; Li, Jianwei; Lund, Magnus; Magliulo, Vincenzo; Marcolla, Barbara; Merbold, Lutz; Montagnani, Leonardo; Moors, Eddy J; Olesen, Jørgen E; Piao, Shilong; Raschi, Antonio; Roupsard, Olivier; Suyker, Andrew E; Urbaniak, Marek; Vaccari, Francesco P; Varlagin, Andrej; Vesala, Timo; Wilkinson, Matthew; Weng, Ensheng; Wohlfahrt, Georg; Yan, Liming; Luo, Yiqi

    2015-03-03

    Terrestrial gross primary productivity (GPP) varies greatly over time and space. A better understanding of this variability is necessary for more accurate predictions of the future climate-carbon cycle feedback. Recent studies have suggested that variability in GPP is driven by a broad range of biotic and abiotic factors operating mainly through changes in vegetation phenology and physiological processes. However, it is still unclear how plant phenology and physiology can be integrated to explain the spatiotemporal variability of terrestrial GPP. Based on analyses of eddy-covariance and satellite-derived data, we decomposed annual terrestrial GPP into the length of the CO2 uptake period (CUP) and the seasonal maximal capacity of CO2 uptake (GPPmax). The product of CUP and GPPmax explained >90% of the temporal GPP variability in most areas of North America during 2000-2010 and the spatial GPP variation among globally distributed eddy flux tower sites. It also explained GPP response to the European heatwave in 2003 (r(2) = 0.90) and GPP recovery after a fire disturbance in South Dakota (r(2) = 0.88). Additional analysis of the eddy-covariance flux data shows that the interbiome variation in annual GPP is better explained by that in GPPmax than CUP. These findings indicate that terrestrial GPP is jointly controlled by ecosystem-level plant phenology and photosynthetic capacity, and greater understanding of GPPmax and CUP responses to environmental and biological variations will, thus, improve predictions of GPP over time and space.

  15. Maximum holding endurance time: Effects of load and load's center of gravity height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tzu-Hsien

    2015-01-01

    Manual holding task is a potential risk to the development of musculoskeletal injuries since it is prone to induce localized muscle fatigue. Maximum holding endurance time is a significant parameter for the design of manual holding task. This study aimed to examine the effects of load and load's COG height on maximum holding endurance time. Fifteen young and healthy males were recruited as participants. A factorial design was used to examine the effects of load and load's COG height on maximum holding endurance time. Four levels of load (15% , 30% , 45% and 60% of the participant's maximum holding capacity) and two levels of load's COG height in box (0 cm and 40 cm high from the handle position) were examined. Maximum holding endurance time decreased with increasing load and/or increasing load's COG height. The effect of load's COG height on maximum holding endurance time decreased with increasing load. Load, load's COG height, and the interaction of load and load's COG height significantly affected maximum holding endurance time. Practitioners should realize the effects of load, load's COG height, and the interaction of load and load's COG height on maximum holding endurance time when setting the working conditions of holding tasks.

  16. Beam loading

    CERN Document Server

    Gamp, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    We begin by giving a description of the radio-frequency generator-cavity-beam coupled system in terms of basic quantities. Taking beam loading and cavity detuning into account, expressions for the cavity impedance as seen by the generator and as seen by the beam are derived. Subsequently methods of beam-loading compensation by cavity detuning, radio-frequency feedback and feedforward are described. Examples of digital radio-frequency phase and amplitude control for the special case of superconducting cavities are also given. Finally, a dedicated phase loop for damping synchrotron oscillations is discussed.

  17. The response of gross nitrogen mineralization to labile carbon inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtson, Per

    2014-05-01

    Input of labile carbon sources to forest soils commonly result in priming, i.e. an increase in the microbial decomposition of soil organic matter. Efforts aimed at quantifying the extent of priming have, to date, largely focused on soil organic matter decomposition manifested as soil respiration. Less is known about how gross nitrogen mineralization responds to input of labile carbon. It is often assumed that increased priming results in decreased soil carbon stocks. However, microbial mineralization of organic nitrogen into plant available forms is a major factor limiting primary production in forests. If increased decomposition of soil organic matter in response to labile carbon is accompanied by a concurrent increased nitrogen mineralization, this could result in elevated primary production and higher rates of plant derived organic matter input to soils. Therefore, in order to fully understand the effect of priming on net ecosystem exchange and soil carbon stocks, it is vital to consider if increased decomposition of soil organic matter caused by priming also results in increased nitrogen mineralization. Here I present the results from a series of experiments aimed at determining if, and to which extent, gross nitrogen mineralization is stimulated by input of labile carbon. The results suggest that it is by no means uncommon to find an increase in gross N mineralization rates in response to labile carbon inputs. The magnitude of the increase seems dependent on the nitrogen status of the soil, as well as the concentration and rate of labile carbon inputs. However, continuous input of labile carbon sources that also contains nitrogen, e.g. amino acids, seems to inhibit rather than increase the mineralization of organic nitrogen. These findings suggest that there is a potential for a positive feedback between priming and primary production that needs to be considered in order to fully understand the influence of priming on net ecosystem exchange and soil carbon

  18. The Schroedinger functional for Gross-Neveu models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leder, B.

    2007-04-18

    Gross-Neveu type models with a finite number of fermion flavours are studied on a two-dimensional Euclidean space-time lattice. The models are asymptotically free and are invariant under a chiral symmetry. These similarities to QCD make them perfect benchmark systems for fermion actions used in large scale lattice QCD computations. The Schroedinger functional for the Gross-Neveu models is defined for both, Wilson and Ginsparg-Wilson fermions, and shown to be renormalisable in 1-loop lattice perturbation theory. In two dimensions four fermion interactions of the Gross-Neveu models have dimensionless coupling constants. The symmetry properties of the four fermion interaction terms and the relations among them are discussed. For Wilson fermions chiral symmetry is explicitly broken and additional terms must be included in the action. Chiral symmetry is restored up to cut-off effects by tuning the bare mass and one of the couplings. The critical mass and the symmetry restoring coupling are computed to second order in lattice perturbation theory. This result is used in the 1-loop computation of the renormalised couplings and the associated beta-functions. The renormalised couplings are defined in terms of suitable boundary-to-boundary correlation functions. In the computation the known first order coefficients of the beta-functions are reproduced. One of the couplings is found to have a vanishing betafunction. The calculation is repeated for the recently proposed Schroedinger functional with exact chiral symmetry, i.e. Ginsparg-Wilson fermions. The renormalisation pattern is found to be the same as in the Wilson case. Using the regularisation dependent finite part of the renormalised couplings, the ratio of the Lambda-parameters is computed. (orig.)

  19. Verbal priming and taste sensitivity make moral transgressions gross.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herz, Rachel S

    2014-02-01

    The aims of the present study were to assess whether: (a) visceral and moral disgust share a common oral origin (taste); (b) moral transgressions that are also viscerally involving are evaluated accordingly as a function of individual differences in taste sensitivity; (c) verbal priming interacts with taste sensitivity to alter how disgust is experienced in moral transgressions; and (d) whether gender moderates these effects. Standard tests of disgust sensitivity, a questionnaire developed for this research assessing different types of moral transgressions (nonvisceral, implied-visceral, visceral) with the terms "angry" and "grossed-out," and a taste sensitivity test of 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) were administered to 102 participants. Results confirmed past findings that the more sensitive to PROP a participant was the more disgusted they were by visceral, but not moral, disgust elicitors. Importantly, the findings newly revealed that taste sensitivity had no bearing on evaluations of moral transgressions, regardless of their visceral nature, when "angry" was the emotion primed. However, when "grossed-out" was primed for evaluating moral violations, the more intense PROP tasted to a participant the more "grossed-out" they were by all transgressions. Women were generally more disgust sensitive and morally condemning than men, but disgust test, transgression type, and priming scale modulated these effects. The present findings support the proposition that moral and visceral disgust do not share a common oral origin, but show that linguistic priming can transform a moral transgression into a viscerally repulsive event and that susceptibility to this priming varies as a function of an individual's sensitivity to the origins of visceral disgust-bitter taste.

  20. Complex saddles in the Gross-Witten-Wadia matrix model

    CERN Document Server

    Álvarez, Gabriel; Medina, Elena

    2016-01-01

    We give an exhaustive characterization of the complex saddle point configurations of the Gross-Witten-Wadia matrix model in the large-N limit. In particular, we characterize the cases in which the saddles accumulate in one, two, or three arcs, in terms of the values of the coupling constant and of the fraction of the total unit density that is supported in one of the arcs, and derive an explicit condition for gap closing associated to nonvacuum saddles. By applying the idea of large-N instanton we also give direct analytic derivations of the weak-coupling and strong-coupling instanton actions.

  1. Pathology Gross Photography: The Beginning of Digital Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampy, B Alan; Glassy, Eric F

    2015-06-01

    The underutilized practice of photographing anatomic pathology specimens from surgical pathology and autopsies is an invaluable benefit to patients, clinicians, pathologists, and students. Photographic documentation of clinical specimens is essential for the effective practice of pathology. When considering what specimens to photograph, all grossly evident pathology, absent yet expected pathologic features, and gross-only specimens should be thoroughly documented. Specimen preparation prior to photography includes proper lighting and background, wiping surfaces of blood, removing material such as tubes or bandages, orienting the specimen in a logical fashion, framing the specimen to fill the screen, positioning of probes, and using the right-sized scale.

  2. Four loop renormalization of the Gross-Neveu model

    CERN Document Server

    Gracey, J A; Schroder, Y

    2016-01-01

    We renormalize the SU(N) Gross-Neveu model in the modified minimal subtraction (MSbar) scheme at four loops and determine the beta-function at this order. The theory ceases to be multiplicatively renormalizable when dimensionally regularized due to the generation of evanescent 4-fermi operators. The first of these appears at three loops and we correctly take their effect into account in deriving the renormalization group functions. We use the results to provide estimates of critical exponents relevant to phase transitions in graphene.

  3. Gross shell structure at high spin in heavy nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Deleplanque, M A; Pashkevich, V V; Chu, S Y; Unzhakova, A

    2004-01-01

    Experimental nuclear moments of inertia at high spins along the yrast line have been determined systematically and found to differ from the rigid-body values. The difference is attributed to shell effects and these have been calculated microscopically. The data and quantal calculations are interpreted by means of the semiclassical Periodic Orbit Theory. From this new perspective, features in the moments of inertia as a function of neutron number and spin, as well as their relation to the shell energies can be understood. Gross shell effects persist up to the highest angular momenta observed.

  4. Labor Absorption and Its Impact on Gross Regional Domestic Product

    OpenAIRE

    Made Ika Prastyadewi; Agus Suman; Devanto Shasta Pratomo

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the determinants of labor absorption in the trade, hotel and restaurant sector and its impact on Gross Regional Domestic Product/GRDP at Bali Province. This study is important due to the fact that the GRDP in this sector is the highest compared to other sector but the labor absorption is lower than the agriculture sector. This study used panel data comprising 9 regencies/cities at Bali Province in the period 2003-2009 including fixed effect model and ...

  5. Characterizing the development of sectoral gross domestic product composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Raphael; Spies, Michael; Reusser, Dominik E; Kropp, Jürgen P; Rybski, Diego

    2013-07-01

    We consider the sectoral composition of a country's gross domestic product (GDP), i.e., the partitioning into agrarian, industrial, and service sectors. Exploring a simple system of differential equations, we characterize the transfer of GDP shares between the sectors in the course of economic development. The model fits for the majority of countries providing four country-specific parameters. Relating the agrarian with the industrial sector, a data collapse over all countries and all years supports the applicability of our approach. Depending on the parameter ranges, country development exhibits different transfer properties. Most countries follow three of eight characteristic paths. The types are not random but show distinct geographic and development patterns.

  6. Gross shell structure at high spin in heavy nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deleplanque, Marie-Agnes; Frauendorf, Stefan; Pashkevich, Vitaly V.; Chu, S.Y.; Unzhakova, Anja

    2003-10-07

    Experimental nuclear moments of inertia at high spins along the yrast line have been determined systematically and found to differ from the rigid-body values. The difference is attributed to shell effect and these have been calculated microscopically. The data and quantal calculations are interpreted by means of the semiclassical Periodic Orbit Theory. From this new perspective, features in the moments of inertia as a function of neutron number and spin, as well as their relation to the shell energies can be understood. Gross shell effects persist up to the highest angular momenta observed.

  7. Capacity Statement for Railways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex

    2007-01-01

    The subject “Railway capacity” is a combination of the capacity consumption and how the capacity is utilized. The capacity utilization of railways can be divided into 4 core elements: The number of trains; the average speed; the heterogeneity of the operation; and the stability. This article...... describes how the capacity consumption for railways can be worked out and analytical measurements of how the capacity is utilized. Furthermore, the article describes how it is possible to state and visualize railway capacity. Having unused railway capacity is not always equal to be able to operate more...

  8. Carbohydrate Loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csernus, Marilyn

    Carbohydrate loading is a frequently used technique to improve performance by altering an athlete's diet. The objective is to increase glycogen stored in muscles for use in prolonged strenuous exercise. For two to three days, the athlete consumes a diet that is low in carbohydrates and high in fat and protein while continuing to exercise and…

  9. Load sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Ende, D.; Almeida, P.M.R.; Dingemans, T.J.; Van der Zwaag, S.

    2007-01-01

    The invention relates to a load sensor comprising a polymer matrix and a piezo-ceramic material such as PZT, em not bedded in the polymer matrix, which together form a compos not ite, wherein the polymer matrix is a liquid crystalline resin, and wherein the piezo-ceramic material is a PZT powder for

  10. Carbohydrate Loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csernus, Marilyn

    Carbohydrate loading is a frequently used technique to improve performance by altering an athlete's diet. The objective is to increase glycogen stored in muscles for use in prolonged strenuous exercise. For two to three days, the athlete consumes a diet that is low in carbohydrates and high in fat and protein while continuing to exercise and…

  11. Duration of load effects of solid wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Staffan

    Test methods for studying the effect of long-term loading on the load carrying capacity of structural wood are discussed. The impact of sampling procedures on test results is investigated and is exemplified. It is concluded from this investigation that the sampling method has a significant impact...

  12. Optical information capacity of silicon

    CERN Document Server

    Dimitropoulos, Dimitris

    2014-01-01

    Modern computing and data storage systems increasingly rely on parallel architectures where processing and storage load is distributed within a cluster of nodes. The necessity for high-bandwidth data links has made optical communication a critical constituent of modern information systems and silicon the leading platform for creating the necessary optical components. While silicon is arguably the most extensively studied material in history, one of its most important attributes, an analysis of its capacity to carry optical information, has not been reported. The calculation of the information capacity of silicon is complicated by nonlinear losses, phenomena that emerge in optical nanowires as a result of the concentration of optical power in a small geometry. Nonlinear losses are absent in silica glass optical fiber and other common communication channels. While nonlinear loss in silicon is well known, noise and fluctuations that arise from it have never been considered. Here we report sources of fluctuations...

  13. The implications of particle energy and acidic media on gross alpha and gross beta determination using liquid scintillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zapata-Garcia, D. [Laboratori de Radiologia Ambiental (LRA), Departament de Quimica Analitica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques, 1-11 Planta 3, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Llaurado, M., E-mail: montse.llaurado@ub.edu [Laboratori de Radiologia Ambiental (LRA), Departament de Quimica Analitica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques, 1-11 Planta 3, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Rauret, G. [Laboratori de Radiologia Ambiental (LRA), Departament de Quimica Analitica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques, 1-11 Planta 3, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2012-04-15

    The interaction of humans with radioactivity present in the environment from natural and artificial sources necessitates an evaluation of its risk on human health. Gross alpha and gross beta activities can provide a rapid evaluation of the radioactive content of a sample and can be simultaneously determined by using liquid scintillation counters. However, calibration of the liquid scintillation counter is required and is affected by many factors, such as particle energy and the acidity of the media. This study investigates what effect the particle energy used for calibration has on misclassification and how to account for this misclassification in routine measurements. The variability in measurement produced by the final pH, as well as any acids used in sample treatment, was also studied. These results showed that the most commonly used acid for these types of analyses, HNO{sub 3}, produced a high amount of misclassifications at very low pH. The results improved when HCl was used to adjust the sample to low pH. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We study the effect of alpha and beta energies on PSA optimisation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The optimum PSA shifts to higher values as the alpha energy increases. Beta energies do not affect it. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We study the effect of pH on the simultaneous determination of gross alpha/beta activities. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HNO{sub 3} produces a high amount of misclassification at very low pH. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The results improve when HCl is used to adjust the sample to low pH.

  14. H形截面构件中单面角焊缝接头的承载性能:I焊缝熔深和接头抗剪承载力试验研究%Root Measurement and Experimental Research of Shear Loading Capacity of One-side Fillet in H-shaped Steel Members

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈以一; 沈祖炎; 郑沁宇; 刘鹏

    2001-01-01

    在轻型钢结构建筑中采用的以单面角焊缝连接翼缘和腹板的组合H形截面钢构件,其焊缝接头性能尚未得到充分的试验验证。为此进行了两个基础性系列试验:对单面角焊缝接头的57个试件通过金相分析测定熔探,对26个试件进行焊缝抗剪试验。试验结果表明,在单调静力荷载条件下,单面连接角焊缝有良好的承载和变形性能,可以按照钢结构设计规范有关规定计算基设计承载力。%The properties of the joints with one-sid fillet weld connectingthe webs to flanges in H-shaped steel members used in light-we ight steel structures, have not been yet thoroughly researched by tests. Two basicexperiments arereported. The deepness of the we ld root was measured by metallographic examination on 57 pieces of amples, and theother 26 speimens where the welds were subjected to shear forces are loaded. The resultsshow that the joints with one-side fillet weld have sufficient loading capacity and deformablility to shear force under monotonic loading conditions, and the resistance of the weld can be calculated by the provisions of the present design specification of the steel structures.

  15. Analysis on Grid-Connectible Capacity of Distributed PV Generation in Case of PV Generation Distribution Close to Load Distribution%分布式光伏电源与负荷分布接近条件下的可接入容量分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘健; 黄炜

    2015-01-01

    为了给分布式光伏电源接入规划提供科学决策依据,建立了负荷和分布式光伏电源在各种分布下所引起的电压偏差和电压波动数学模型。在此基础上,以分布式光伏电源引起的最大电压上偏差和最大电压波动以及无分布式光伏电源时单纯由负载引起的最大电压下偏差为约束条件,推导出了6种负荷和分布式光伏电源容量沿馈线相同分布条件下能够满足电压质量要求的分布式光伏电源允许接入容量范围。以城市配电网和农村配电网的典型参数为例对所提出方法进行了分析和说明,结果表明所建议方法是可行的,并且能够有效得出允许接入的分布式光伏电源的容量范围。%To offer reasonable foundation for the planning of grid-connection of distributed photovoltaic (PV) generations, the mathematical models for voltage deviation and voltage fluctuation caused by various distributions of loads and PV generations are established. Taking the maximum upper deviation of voltage and the maximum voltage fluctuation caused by distributed PV generations and the maximum lower voltage deviation caused by the load only when the PV generation does not exist as constraints, the capacity range of allowed grid-connected distributed PV generations, by which the demand on voltage quality can be met under six distribution conditions of load and distributed PV generations along the feeder, is derived. Taking typical parameters of urban distribution network and those of rural distribution network for example, the proposed method is analyzed and illustrated, results of the analysis show that the proposed method is feasible, and using the proposed method the allowed grid-connected capacity range of distributed PV generations can be determined.

  16. 硫酸香茅醛显色法测定莪术油微囊载药量与包封率%Determination of Drug Loading Capacity and Encapsulation Efficiency in Zedoary Turmericoil Microcapsules by Sulfuric Acid - vanillin Coloration Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴继龙; 张立华; 陈欢; 杨丽娜; 代英辉; 王东; 刘东春

    2014-01-01

    为评价莪术油/(麦芽糊精-Povacoat )微囊的质量,建立了硫酸香茅醛显色测定其载药量和包封率的方法。对莪术油乙醇溶液进行波长扫描,确定508nm为最大吸收波长,显色稳定性试验表明,反应液在150min内吸光度较稳定。莪术油检测浓度在0.1992μg/mL~9.960μg/mL范围内线性关系良好(A=0.0947C-0.0012,r=0.9993),微囊的载药量测定和包封率测定的方法回收率分别为99.6%和99.1%。经测定,3批微囊的载药量为51.5mg/g~53.2mg/g ,包封率为88.2%~90.7%。%In order to evaluate the quality of Zedoary turmeric oil/(maltodextrin-Povacoat) microcapsules(ZTO/M-P Mcs) ,a sulfuric acid-vanillin coloration method for determination of drug loading capacity and encapsulation efficiency was developed .Wavelength scanned on the ZTO ethanol solution was determined at 508nm as the maximum absorption wavelength .Color stability tests showed that the absorbance of reac-tion solutions was stabled at 150 minutes .Absorbance and concentration of ZTO had a good linear relationship in the range of 0.199 2μg/mL~9.96μg/mL (A=0.094 7C-0.001 2 ,r=0.999 3 ) ,the average recovery of determination of drug loading capacity and encapsulation efficien-cy were 99.6% and 99.1% respectively .According to assay results of 3 batches ,drug loading was 51.5mg/g~53.2mg/g;Encapsulation effi-ciency was 88.2% ~90.7% .

  17. Representation of Solar Capacity Value in the ReEDS Capacity Expansion Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sigrin, B.; Sullivan, P.; Ibanez, E.; Margolis, R.

    2014-03-01

    An important issue for electricity system operators is the estimation of renewables' capacity contributions to reliably meeting system demand, or their capacity value. While the capacity value of thermal generation can be estimated easily, assessment of wind and solar requires a more nuanced approach due to the resource variability. Reliability-based methods, particularly assessment of the Effective Load-Carrying Capacity, are considered to be the most robust and widely-accepted techniques for addressing this resource variability. This report compares estimates of solar PV capacity value by the Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) capacity expansion model against two sources. The first comparison is against values published by utilities or other entities for known electrical systems at existing solar penetration levels. The second comparison is against a time-series ELCC simulation tool for high renewable penetration scenarios in the Western Interconnection. Results from the ReEDS model are found to compare well with both comparisons, despite being resolved at a super-hourly temporal resolution. Two results are relevant for other capacity-based models that use a super-hourly resolution to model solar capacity value. First, solar capacity value should not be parameterized as a static value, but must decay with increasing penetration. This is because -- for an afternoon-peaking system -- as solar penetration increases, the system's peak net load shifts to later in the day -- when solar output is lower. Second, long-term planning models should determine system adequacy requirements in each time period in order to approximate LOLP calculations. Within the ReEDS model we resolve these issues by using a capacity value estimate that varies by time-slice. Within each time period the net load and shadow price on ReEDS's planning reserve constraint signals the relative importance of additional firm capacity.

  18. 流域污染负荷解析与环境容量研究--以安徽太平湖流域为例%Study on pollution loading and water environmental capacity in watershed-A case study of Taiping Lake Basin, Anhui Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李响; 陆君; 钱敏蕾; 王祥荣; 樊正球; 王寿兵

    2014-01-01

    以安徽省太平湖流域为例,运用监测、统计数据以及排污系数法对流域内8种污染源的污染排放情况进行全面解析,结合一维水质模型、沃伦威得尔模型以及狄龙模型等水质模型的应用,在流域水质监测的基础上核算了太平湖及主要入湖河流的水环境容量.结果表明,2011年,太平湖流域污染物入湖量为:COD 3863.75t/a, NH3-N 410.24t/a, TP 51.63t/a;城镇和农村生活污染为太平湖流域的主要污染源,约占流域入湖污染物总量的60%;麻川河和浦溪河流域的污染最严重;流域污染物的排放在空间上呈现较为明显的区域分布,经济发达区域污染相对较严重.在当前水质目标下,太平湖仍有相当大的可用容量;浦溪河、秧溪河和舒溪河流域的氨氮和总磷排放量接近环境容量,需进行总量控制及削减.%The study of pollution loading and water environmental capacity is one of the key issues in water environment, water resources management and allocation in watershed. A comprehensive analysis of water pollution loading and environment capacity was conducted in this paper by taking a case study of Taiping Lake Basin, Anhui Province, China. Based on monitoring and statistic data as well as discharge coefficient method, different sources of water pollution were analyzed. Three models, including simplified one-dimension model, Vollen welder model and Dillion model, were used to estimate water environmental capacity of Taiping Lake and other major rivers. Results indicated that 3863.75tons of COD, 410.24tons of NH3-N and 51.63tons of TP was discharged into Taiping Lake in 2011. Water pollution was mainly contributed by urban and rural domestic sewage, accounting for about 60%. Machuan River and Puxi River were more seriously polluted than other rivers in Taiping Lake Basin. The spatial analysis of pollutant discharge suggested that developed regions had relatively higher pollution loading. While Taiping

  19. Gross Motor Profile and Its Association with Socialization Skills in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusponegoro, Hardiono D; Efar, Pustika; Soedjatmiko; Soebadi, Amanda; Firmansyah, Agus; Chen, Hui-Ju; Hung, Kun-Long

    2016-12-01

    While social impairment is considered to be the core deficit in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a large proportion of these children have poor gross motor ability, and gross motor deficits may influence socialization skills in children with ASD. The objectives of this study were to compare gross motor skills in children with ASD to typically developing children, to describe gross motor problems in children with ASD, and to investigate associations between gross motor and socialization skills in children with ASD. This was a cross-sectional study including 40 ASD children aged from 18 months to 6 years and 40 age-matched typically developing controls. Gross motor and socialization skills were scored using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, 2(nd) edition (Vineland-II). Below average gross motor function was found in eight of 40 (20%) ASD children. The mean gross motor v-scale score in the ASD group was 15.1 [standard deviation (SD) 3.12], significantly lower than in the control group [18.7, SD 2.09, p = 0.0001; 95% confidence intervals (CI) from -4.725 to -2.525]. The differences were most prominent in ball throwing and catching, using stairs, jumping, and bicycling. The ASD children with gross motor impairments had a mean socialization domain score of 66.6 (SD 6.50) compared to 85.7 (SD 10.90) in those without gross motor impairments (p = 0.0001, 95% CI from -25.327 to -12.736). Children with ASD had lower gross motor skills compared to typically developing children. Gross motor impairments were found in 20% of the ASD children, and these children also had lower socialization skills than those without gross motor impairments. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Optimal Bilinear Control of Gross--Pitaevskii Equations

    KAUST Repository

    Hintermüller, Michael

    2013-01-01

    A mathematical framework for optimal bilinear control of nonlinear Schrödinger equations of Gross--Pitaevskii type arising in the description of Bose--Einstein condensates is presented. The obtained results generalize earlier efforts found in the literature in several aspects. In particular, the cost induced by the physical workload over the control process is taken into account rather than the often used L^2- or H^1-norms for the cost of the control action. Well-posedness of the problem and existence of an optimal control are proved. In addition, the first order optimality system is rigorously derived. Also a numerical solution method is proposed, which is based on a Newton-type iteration, and used to solve several coherent quantum control problems.

  1. Gross National Happiness: Ideology versus practices in Bhutanese Seconday Schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær-Rasmussen, Lone Krogh; Giri, Krishna Prasad

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates practices related to the ideology of infusing Gross National Happiness (GNH) into school curriculum, the effectiveness of the meditation and mind training and the implication of GNH for school environment. It also explores how GNH ambience has been managed and practiced......, the influence of the concept of GNH in school life generally and specifically and the effects on teachers and students of mindfull training in the class, how does it work? The investigation is based on empirical data from eight selected secondary schools spread all over Bhutan. Principals, teachers, students...... and parents were interviewed in 2012/2013 individually and in groups. Further more classroom observations took place. Finally the investigation is based on literature review and readings of documents, which describe and analyse policies, principles, strategies and philosophies related to the implementation...

  2. Measurement and Quantification of Gross Human Shoulder Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy T. Newkirk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The shoulder girdle plays an important role in the large pointing workspace that humans enjoy. The goal of this work was to characterize the human shoulder girdle motion in relation to the arm. The overall motion of the human shoulder girdle was characterized based on motion studies completed on test subjects during voluntary (natural/unforced motion. The collected data from the experiments were used to develop surface fit equations that represent the position and orientation of the glenohumeral joint for a given humeral pointing direction. These equations completely quantify gross human shoulder girdle motion relative to the humerus. The equations are presented along with goodness-of-fit results that indicate the equations well approximate the motion of the human glenohumeral joint. This is the first time the motion has been quantified for the entire workspace, and the equations provide a reference against which to compare future work.

  3. Labor Absorption and Its Impact on Gross Regional Domestic Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Made Ika Prastyadewi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to examine the determinants of labor absorption in the trade, hotel and restaurant sector and its impact on Gross Regional Domestic Product/GRDP at Bali Province. This study is important due to the fact that the GRDP in this sector is the highest compared to other sector but the labor absorption is lower than the agriculture sector. This study used panel data comprising 9 regencies/cities at Bali Province in the period 2003-2009 including fixed effect model and simultaneous equation model of Two-Stage Least Square. The results showed that GRDP, working age population, and the minimum wage have positive effect on employment, while the educated unemployment has no significant effect on the employment in the trade, hotel and restaurant sector. In addition, increases in employment and workers productivity have positive and significant effects the GRDP in the trade, hotel and restaurant sector at Bali Province.

  4. Specific features of measuring the ecologically adjusted gross regional product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douginets Ganna V.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article formulates a necessity of deepening and improvement of ecological and economic indicators and considers the existing indices and indicators of sustainable development. It conducts a comparative analysis of existing norms of calculation of the ecological tax and fees for environmental pollution. It marks main problems of nature management in Ukraine and their consequences, namely, negative impact on health of the population. It offers methods of measurement of the ecologically adjusted gross regional product (EGRP on the basis of improvement of the cost method. It analyses dependence of the regional welfare on the state of environment with the help of measuring the EGRP of Ukrainian regions. It studies the pressure on Ukrainian regions by components: pollution of aquatic environment, atmospheric air, land resources and rates of waste formation. It conducts grouping of regions by EGRP per capita with specification of positive and negative dynamics of the indicator.

  5. Stimulation of gross dimethylsulfide (DMS) production by solar radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galí, Martí; Saló, Violeta; Almeda, Rodrigo; Calbet, Albert; Simó, Rafel

    2011-08-01

    Oceanic gross DMS production (GP) exerts a fundamental control on the concentration and the sea-air flux of this climatically-active trace gas. However, it is a poorly constrained process, owing to the complexity of the microbial food web processes involved and their interplay with physical forcing, particularly with solar radiation. The “inhibitor method”, using dimethyldisulfide (DMDS) or other compounds to inhibit bacterial DMS consumption, has been frequently used to determine GP in dark incubations. In the work presented here, DMDS addition was optimized for its use in light incubations. By comparing simultaneous dark and light measurements of GP in meso- to ultraoligotrophic waters, we found a significant enhancement of GP in natural sunlight in 7 out of 10 experiments. Such stimulation, which was generally between 30 and 80% on a daily basis, occurred throughout contrasting microbial communities and oceanographic settings.

  6. Full Phase Diagram of the Massive Gross-Neveu Model

    CERN Document Server

    Schnetz, O; Urlichs, K; Schnetz, Oliver; Thies, Michael; Urlichs, Konrad

    2006-01-01

    The massive Gross-Neveu model is solved in the large N limit at finite temperature and chemical potential. The scalar potential is given in terms of Jacobi elliptic functions. It contains three parameters which are determined by transcendental equations. Self-consistency of the scalar potential is proved. The phase diagram for non-zero bare quark mass is found to contain a kink-antikink crystal phase as well as a massive fermion gas phase featuring a cross-over from light to heavy effective fermion mass. For zero bare quark mass we recover the three known phases kink-antikink crystal, massless fermion gas, and massive fermion gas. All phase transitions are shown to be of second order. Equations for the phase boundaries are given and solved numerically. Implications on condensed matter physics are indicated where our results generalize the bipolaron lattice in non-degenerate conducting polymers to finite temperature.

  7. Discontinuous symplectic capacities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zehmisch, K.; Ziltener, F.J.

    2014-01-01

    We show that the spherical capacity is discontinuous on a smooth family of ellipsoidal shells. Moreover, we prove that the shell capacity is discontinuous on a family of open sets with smooth connected boundaries.

  8. PROBABILISTIC METHOD DETERMINE THE CAPACITY OF THE ATC SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Turkov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article offers method of estimating airport capacity which helps the controller to define work-load in summer months in particular, on holidays when the number of flights from Moscow airports increases drastically.

  9. Responsibility and Capacities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    That responsible moral agency presupposes certain mental capacities, constitutes a widely accepted view among theorists. Moreover, it is often assumed that degrees in the development of the relevant capacities co-vary with degrees of responsibility. In this article it is argued that, the move from...... the view that responsibility requires certain mental capacities to the position that degrees of responsibility co-vary with degrees of the development of the mental capacities, is premature....

  10. Lightening the load: perceptual load impairs visual detection in typical adults but not in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remington, Anna M; Swettenham, John G; Lavie, Nilli

    2012-05-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) research portrays a mixed picture of attentional abilities with demonstrations of enhancements (e.g., superior visual search) and deficits (e.g., higher distractibility). Here we test a potential resolution derived from the Load Theory of Attention (e.g., Lavie, 2005). In Load Theory, distractor processing depends on the perceptual load of the task and as such can only be eliminated under high load that engages full capacity. We hypothesize that ASD involves enhanced perceptual capacity, leading to the superior performance and increased distractor processing previously reported. Using a signal-detection paradigm, we test this directly and demonstrate that, under higher levels of load, perceptual sensitivity was reduced in typical adults but not in adults with ASD. These findings confirm our hypothesis and offer a promising solution to the previous discrepancies by suggesting that increased distractor processing in ASD results not from a filtering deficit but from enhanced perceptual capacity.

  11. CDMA systems capacity engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Kiseon

    2004-01-01

    This new hands-on resource tackles capacity planning and engineering issues that are crucial to optimizing wireless communication systems performance. Going beyond the system physical level and investigating CDMA system capacity at the service level, this volume is the single-source for engineering and analyzing systems capacity and resources.

  12. Anaesthesia for intestinal short circuiting in the morbidly obese with reference to the pathophysiology of gross obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, G S

    1975-05-01

    Sixteen extremely obese patients were anaesthetized for intestinal short circuiting operations. Severe obesity may cause pathological cardio-pulmonary changes. Cardiovascular alterations include increased systemic, pulmonary artery and pulmonary capillary venous pressure. Cardiac output, total blood volume and left ventricular work increase. Expiratory reserve volume and consequently functional residual capacity decrease with gross obesity. Functional residual capacity falls below closing volume and inspired gas may be distributed to non-dependent lung zones, resulting in decreased ventilation/perfusion ratios and arterial hypoxaemia. Low total respiratory compliance increases the oxygen cost of the work of breathing. Obesity may change the dose requirements for regional anaesthesia and long-acting muscle relaxants. General anaesthesia may also reduce functional residual capacity. We used a technique of anaesthesia which consisted of epidural analgesia with intra-operative mechanical ventilation and which specifically avoided volatile inhalation agents and long-acting muscle relaxants. All patients were extubated immediately after operation and returned to the recovery room for an average duration of 26 hours. Post-operative treatment included humidified oxygen, chest physiotherapy and elevation of the head of the bed to 45 degrees. Each patient's respiratory progress was monitored by repeated determinations of arterial blood gases and vital capacity and by serial chest X-rays. None of the patients in this group required post-operative tracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation.

  13. Single Epoch GPS Deformation Signals Extraction and Gross Error Detection Technique Based on Wavelet Transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jian; GAO Jingxiang; XU Changhui

    2006-01-01

    Wavelet theory is efficient as an adequate tool for analyzing single epoch GPS deformation signal. Wavelet analysis technique on gross error detection and recovery is advanced. Criteria of wavelet function choosing and Mallat decomposition levels decision are discussed. An effective deformation signal extracting method is proposed, that is wavelet noise reduction technique considering gross error recovery, which combines wavelet multi-resolution gross error detection results. Time position recognizing of gross errors and their repairing performance are realized. In the experiment, compactly supported orthogonal wavelet with short support block is more efficient than the longer one when discerning gross errors, which can obtain more finely analyses. And the shape of discerned gross error of short support wavelet is simpler than that of the longer one. Meanwhile, the time scale is easier to identify.

  14. Load Balancing Algorithm for Cache Cluster

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘美华; 古志民; 曹元大

    2003-01-01

    By the load definition of cluster, the request is regarded as granularity to compute load and implement the load balancing in cache cluster. First, the processing power of cache-node is studied from four aspects: network bandwidth, memory capacity, disk access rate and CPU usage. Then, the weighted load of cache-node is customized. Based on this, a load-balancing algorithm that can be applied to the cache cluster is proposed. Finally, Polygraph is used as a benchmarking tool to test the cache cluster possessing the load-balancing algorithm and the cache cluster with cache array routing protocol respectively. The results show the load-balancing algorithm can improve the performance of the cache cluster.

  15. 46 CFR 31.25-1 - Load lines required-TB/OCL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Load lines required-TB/OCL. 31.25-1 Section 31.25-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Load Lines § 31.25-1 Load lines required—TB/OCL. All tank vessels of 150 gross tons or over, or 79 feet in...

  16. Impact of disaster-related mortality on gross domestic product in the WHO African Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldis William

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disaster-related mortality is a growing public health concern in the African Region. These deaths are hypothesized to have a significantly negative effect on per capita gross domestic product (GDP. The objective of this study was to estimate the loss in GDP attributable to natural and technological disaster-related mortality in the WHO African Region. Methods The impact of disaster-related mortality on GDP was estimated using double-log econometric model and cross-sectional data on various Member States in the WHO African Region. The analysis was based on 45 of the 46 countries in the Region. The data was obtained from various UNDP and World Bank publications. Results The coefficients for capital (K, educational enrolment (EN, life expectancy (LE and exports (X had a positive sign; while imports (M and disaster mortality (DS were found to impact negatively on GDP. The above-mentioned explanatory variables were found to have a statistically significant effect on GDP at 5% level in a t-distribution test. Disaster mortality of a single person was found to reduce GDP by US$0.01828. Conclusions We have demonstrated that disaster-related mortality has a significant negative effect on GDP. Thus, as policy-makers strive to increase GDP through capital investment, export promotion and increased educational enrolment, they should always keep in mind that investments made in the strengthening of national capacity to mitigate the effects of national disasters expeditiously and effectively will yield significant economic returns.

  17. Effect of physical therapy frequency on gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun-Young

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] This study attempted to investigate the effect of physical therapy frequency based on neurodevelopmental therapy on gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy. [Subjects and Methods] The study sample included 161 children with cerebral palsy who attended a convalescent or rehabilitation center for disabled individuals or a special school for children with physical disabilities in South Korea. Gross Motor Function Measure data were collected according to physical therapy frequency based on neurodevelopmental therapy for a period of 1 year. [Results] The correlation between physical therapy frequency and Gross Motor Function Measure scores for crawling and kneeling, standing, walking, running and jumping, and rolling, and the Gross Motor Function Measure total score was significant. The differences in gross motor function according to physical therapy frequency were significant for crawling, kneeling, standing, and Gross Motor Function Measure total score. The differences in gross motor function according to frequency of physical therapy were significant for standing in Gross Motor Function Classification System Level V. [Conclusion] Intensive physical therapy was more effective for improving gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy. In particular, crawling and kneeling, and standing ability showed greater increases with intensive physical therapy.

  18. Effect of physical therapy frequency on gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun-Young

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study attempted to investigate the effect of physical therapy frequency based on neurodevelopmental therapy on gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy. [Subjects and Methods] The study sample included 161 children with cerebral palsy who attended a convalescent or rehabilitation center for disabled individuals or a special school for children with physical disabilities in South Korea. Gross Motor Function Measure data were collected according to physical therapy frequency based on neurodevelopmental therapy for a period of 1 year. [Results] The correlation between physical therapy frequency and Gross Motor Function Measure scores for crawling and kneeling, standing, walking, running and jumping, and rolling, and the Gross Motor Function Measure total score was significant. The differences in gross motor function according to physical therapy frequency were significant for crawling, kneeling, standing, and Gross Motor Function Measure total score. The differences in gross motor function according to frequency of physical therapy were significant for standing in Gross Motor Function Classification System Level V. [Conclusion] Intensive physical therapy was more effective for improving gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy. In particular, crawling and kneeling, and standing ability showed greater increases with intensive physical therapy. PMID:27390440

  19. 聚乙二醇功能化程度对纳米金壳夹心二氧化硅载药量及稳定性影响研究%The Influence of PEG Grafting Level on the Drug Loading Capacity and Stability of Gold Nanoshells on Silica Nanorattles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈帅娜; 刘惠玉; 陈东; 吴小莉; 唐芳琼; 杨文智

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we grafted various amounts of polyethylene glycol (PEG) onto the surface of gold nanoshells on silica nanorattles (GSNs) and investigated the effects of grafting level about drug loading capacity and stability of GSNs. The results showed that the average thickness of GSNs increased about 4 nm after PEGylation. With the increase of PEGylation,the sedimentation rate of GSNs decreased gradually and the stability increased, and GSNs keeps good stability after standing 35 days. Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) tests show that it will reach saturation point of PEGylation when the molar ratio of PEG and Au reaches nearly 0. 24. In addition, it has no influence on drug loading capacity about different PEGylation processes. The results of this study will provide an important theoretical basis for the optimization the PEGlyation on the surface of inorganic nanomaterials and for the development of inorganic nano-carrier materials in vivo applications.%本文系统研究了不同聚乙二醇(PEG)功能化程度对纳米金壳夹心二氧化硅(GSNs)载药量及稳定性的影响.透射电子显微镜(TEM)观察结果表明,GSNs表面经修饰分子量为5 KDa的α-甲氧基-ω-巯基聚乙二醇(mPEG-SH)分子后,PEG分子层平均厚度约为4 nm;随PEG化程度增加,GSNs聚集沉降速度改善,稳定性提高,久置后(35 d)稳定性良好;电感耦合等离子体发射光谱(ICP-OES)测试表明,当PEG与Au反应摩尔比为0.24时,PEG分子层在金壳表面接近饱和;不同PEG化程度对GSNs载药量基本无影响.本研究可为优化无机纳米材料表面PEG修饰过程,发展无机纳米载体材料体内应用提供理论依据.

  20. Probabilistic representation of duration of load effects in timber structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Staffan

    2011-01-01

    to be considered. These two cases are maximum load level exceeding load-carrying capacity and damage accumulation (caused by the load and its duration) leading to failure. The effect of both load intensity and load duration on the capacity of timber has been an area of large interest over the last decades...... models for the representation of damage accumulation in timber are considered. The parameters of these models are calibrated by the use of test data whereas uncertainties associated with the model formulation and limited sample size are considered. The DOL effect is usually taken into account in code...

  1. Cognitive load measurement as a means to advance cognitive load theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paas, F.; Tuovinen, J.E.; Tabbers, H.; van Gerven, P.W.M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper discusses cognitive load measurement techniques with regard to their contribution to cognitive load theory (CLT). CLT is concerned with the design of instructional methods that efficiently use people's limited cognitive processing capacity to apply acquired knowledge and skills to new

  2. Assessment outcomes: computerized instruction in a human gross anatomy course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowski, Elaine L

    2002-01-01

    New and traditional educational media were used to study alternative methods of instruction in a human gross anatomy course. Three consecutive entry-level physical therapy (PT) classes (55 students total) participated in this study. No other anatomy course was available to these students during this time. During the first year, all entering PT students (n = 18) completed a traditional cadaver anatomy course. This traditional group attended weekly lectures and dissection laboratories for 15 weeks. During the second year, the next entering class of PT students (n = 17) completed a self-study, computerized noncadaver anatomy course. This self-study group attended an introductory session to receive course objectives and instruction in using the computer package chosen for the study. After the introductory session, this group worked independently for the remainder of their 15-week course. During the third year, the entering class of PT students (n = 20) attended weekly lectures and completed a self-study, computerized non-cadaver laboratory course. This lecture and self-study group attended an introductory session to review course objectives and receive instruction in using the computer package. For the remainder of their 15-week course, this group attended a weekly lecture and worked independently on the computer for the laboratory portion of their course. All groups kept time logs, recording class and study time for each day of the course. The time logs were collected on the last day of each course. Each group's performance in anatomy-based system courses was followed through the remainder of the PT curricula, including clinical rotations, and through the completion of the state board licensure examination. Data were analyzed using a multivariate analysis of variance and a Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance. There was no significant difference in anatomy course class means, class study times, performance throughout the remainder of the PT curricula, and performance

  3. Determinants of Capacity Utilization in Road Freight Transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abate, Megersa Abera

    2014-01-01

    Recent performance figures in the European road freight transport sector show that there is an excess capacity. To shed light on this phenomenon, this paper studies two aspects of capacity utilization in trucking: the extent of empty running and the load factor. The paper shows that they can...

  4. Load-carrying capacity assessment of composite (GRP) sandwich pipes

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Mathias

    2012-01-01

    Oppgaven tar for seg en rekke mekaniske egenskaper i en glassfiberarmert kompositt. En rekke eksperimenter har blitt utført og resultatene har blitt verifisert ved hjelp av en elementmetode-basert numerisk løser.

  5. Tax Capacity and Tax Effort : Extended Cross-Country Analysis from 1994 to 2009

    OpenAIRE

    Le, Tuan Minh; Moreno-Dodson, Blanca; Bayraktar, Nihal

    2012-01-01

    One of the important factors for economic development is the existence of an effective tax system. This paper deals with the concept and empirical estimation of countries' taxable capacity and tax effort. It employs a cross-country study from a sample of 110 developing and developed countries during 1994-2009. Taxable capacity refers to the predicted tax-to-gross domestic product ratio tha...

  6. Interannual consistency of gross energy in red oak acorns

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.G. Leach; R.M. Kaminski; J.N. Straub; A.W. Ezell; T.S. Hawkins; T.D. Leininger

    2013-01-01

    Red oak Quercus spp., Subgenus Erythrobalanus acorns are forage for mallards Anas platyrhyncos, wood ducks Aix sponsa, and other wildlife that use bottomland hardwood forests in the southeastern United States. However, annual variation in true metabolizable energy from acorns would affect carrying-capacity estimates of bottomland hardwood forests for wintering ducks....

  7. Capacity at Railway Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex

    2011-01-01

    Stations do have other challenges regarding capacity than open lines as it is here the traffic is dispatched. The UIC 406 capacity method that can be used to analyse the capacity consumption can be exposed in different ways at stations which may lead to different results. Therefore, stations need...... special focus when conducting UIC 406 capacity analyses.This paper describes how the UIC 406 capacity method can be expounded for stations. Commonly for the analyses of the stations it is recommended to include the entire station including the switch zone(s) and all station tracks. By including the switch...... is changed, this paper recommends that the railway lines are not always be divided. In case trains turn around on open (single track) line, the capacity consumption may be too low if a railway line is divided. The same can be the case if only few trains are overtaken at an overtaking station. For dead end...

  8. Evaluation of railway capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex; Kaas, Anders H.; Schittenhelm, Bernd

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the relatively new UIC 406 method for calculating capacity consumption on railway lines. The UIC 406 method is an easy and effective way of calculating the capacity consumption, but it is possible to expound the UIC 406 method in different ways which can lead to different...... capacity consumptions. This paper describes the UIC 406 method and how it is expounded in Denmark. The paper describes the importance of choosing the right length of the line sections examined and how line sections with multiple track sections are examined. Furthermore, the possibility of using idle...... capacity to run more trains is examined. The paper presents a method to examine the expected capacity utilization of future timetables. The method is based on the plan of operation instead of the exact (known) timetable. At the end of the paper it is described how it is possible to make capacity statements...

  9. 高强薄壁冷弯卷边槽钢柱承载力计算方法%Calculation method for load-carrying capacity of high strength thin-wall cold-formed lipped channel columns under axial compression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金梦飞; 刘昕露; 吕呈; 孙德发

    2014-01-01

    Based on the contrast analysis of the Effective Width Method and the Direct Strength Method, analysis and discussion are mentioned about the ultimate load-carrying capacities of 1 mm thickness Q345 cold-formed thin-wall steel lipped channel columns. The calculation and test results showed that, it is relative safety in calculation the lipped channel columns according to GB 50018-2002 Technical Code of Cold-Formed Thin-wall Steel Structure.%在分析比较有效宽度法( EWM)和直接强度法( DSM)的基础上,以1 mm厚Q345冷弯薄壁卷边槽钢柱为例,对其极限承载力进行了较深入的探讨和对比分析,计算与试验结果表明:按GB 50018-2002冷弯薄壁型钢结构技术规范计算槽钢柱是可行的。

  10. Estudio de la cargabilidad de cables de alta tensión de aislamiento sólido con las variaciones periódicas de la carga; Study of the current capacity of solid insulation high voltage cables with periodical changes of load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan F Zuñinga

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Se plantean los resultados obtenidos al introducir una corrección al método desarrollado en el CIPEL para elcálculo de la cargabilidad de cables soterrados considerando las variaciones periódicas de la curva de cargadiaria y la impedancia compleja del medio que rodea a la instalación a partir del empleo de funciones Bessel yHankel. La validación de la corrección propuesta se realizó mediante el cálculo, con y sin la corrección planteada,de la temperatura superficial de cables en servicio por el método de cálculo propuesto y su comparación conlos medidos en la superficie de dichos cables  This work presents the results obtaines after the introduction of a correction to the method developed in theCIPEL to calculate the current capacity of underground cables considering the periodical chnages of the loadchanges of the daily load curve and the complex impedance of the enviroment sorrounding the installation usingBessel and Hankel funtions.The validity of the proposed correction was carried out calculating the surfacetemperature of the cables in service by means of the calculating method  with and whithout the correction  andthe  comparison of these values with the temperature mesured on the surface of the cables

  11. World distribution of gross domestic product per-capita

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustos-Guajardo, R.; Moukarzel, Cristian F.

    2015-05-01

    It is shown that the world distribution of gross domestic products per capita (GDPpc) is well described by a trade-investment model that combines yard-sale (YS) exchange and random multiplicative noise (RMN). We first derive analytically the typical value w(r, t) of the ranked wealths for a system evolving under YS exchange and RMN. The resulting analytical expressions are fitted to data for the GDPpc of up to 200 countries, in the period 1960-2013. Our model fits the data significantly better than previously proposed approaches that consider either Noise or Trade alone. Analysis of the resulting values for the fitting parameters, and of their time dependence, suggests that: (a) International trade conditions have (from 1960 to 2008) a statistical bias towards favoring richer countries. (b) Biased international commerce is the main cause for the observed divergence of GDPpc values from 1960 to 2008. (c) After 2008, the distribution of GDPpc starts to converge, and the world product per capita stops growing.

  12. Gross congenital malformation at birth in a government hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Sachdeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A hospital-based cross-sectional study was undertaken to determine proportion of gross congenital malformation (GCMF occurring at intramural births. Rate of GCMF was found to be 16.4/1000 consecutive singleton births (>28 weeks with three leading malformation as anencephaly (44.68%, talipes equinovarus (17.02% and meningomyelocele (10.63%. Higher risk of malformed births were noticed amongst un-booked (2.07% in-comparison to booked (1.01% mothers; women with low level of education (up to 8 years [2.14%] vs. at least 9 years of schooling [0.82%]; gravida status of at least 3 (2.69% followed by 1 (1.43% and 2 (1.0% respectively; pre-term (5.13% vs. term (0.66%; cesarean section (4.36% versus vaginal delivery (0.62%. Mortality was significantly higher among congenitally malformed (17.35% than normal (0.34% newborns. With-in study limitation, emergence of neural tube defect as the single largest category of congenital malformation indicates maternal malnutrition (especially folic acid that needs appropriate attention and management.

  13. Progestogen-related gross and microscopic changes in female Beagles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, L W; Kelly, W A

    1976-01-01

    Long-term studies of megestrol acetate and chlormadinone acetate in 100 female dogs are in progress. Doses of zero, one, 10 and 25 times the expected human dose of megestrol acetate and 25 times the expected human dose of chlormadinone acetate (on a milligram per kilogram body weight basis) are being given daily. During the first 4 years, eight dogs from each of the five groups were killed. The principal gross findings included enlarged uteri with mucoid material in the lumina, mammary development in dogs given middle and high doses of megestrol acetate and chlormadinone acetate, and thickened gallbladder walls in dogs given high doses of each. Histologic evaluation showed inhibition of ovulation for progestogen-treated dogs and suppression of ovarian follicular development with the high doses. Cystic endometrial hyperplasia was slight in the low-dose dogs and moderate to severe in most of the high-dose dogs; a few also had ulcerative endometritis and pyometra. The mammary glands of dogs given the middle and high doses produced lobules, acini, and secretion exceeding natural metestrus. Slight to marked cystic mucinous hyperplasia occurred in the gallbladders of most dogs given the high doses. Tow high-dose megestrol dogs had clinical signs and microscopic pancreatic, renal, and ocular changes indicative of diabetes mellitus.

  14. Stratospheric sulfate geoengineering enhances terrestrial gross primary productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, L.; Robock, A.; Tilmes, S.; Neely, R. R., III

    2015-09-01

    Stratospheric sulfate geoengineering could impact the terrestrial carbon cycle by enhancing the carbon sink. With an 8 Tg yr-1 injection of SO2 to balance a Representative Concentration Pathway 6.0 (RCP6.0) scenario, we conducted climate model simulations with the Community Earth System Model, with the Community Atmospheric Model 4 fully coupled to tropospheric and stratospheric chemistry (CAM4-chem). During the geoengineering period, as compared to RCP6.0, land-averaged downward visible diffuse radiation increased 3.2 W m-2 (11 %). The enhanced diffuse radiation combined with the cooling increased plant photosynthesis by 2.4 %, which could contribute to an additional 3.8 ± 1.1 Gt C yr-1 global gross primary productivity without nutrient limitation. This increase could potentially increase the land carbon sink. Suppressed plant and soil respiration due to the cooling would reduce natural land carbon emission and therefore further enhance the terrestrial carbon sink during the geoengineering period. This beneficial impact of stratospheric sulfate geoengineering would need to be balanced by a large number of potential risks in any future decisions about implementation of geoengineering.

  15. Stratospheric sulfate geoengineering enhances terrestrial gross primary productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Xia

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Stratospheric sulfate geoengineering could impact the terrestrial carbon cycle by enhancing the carbon sink. With an 8 Tg yr−1 injection of SO2 to balance a Representative Concentration Pathway 6.0 (RCP6.0 scenario, we conducted climate model simulations with the Community Earth System Model, with the Community Atmospheric Model 4 fully coupled to tropospheric and stratospheric chemistry (CAM4-chem. During the geoengineering period, as compared to RCP6.0, land-averaged downward visible diffuse radiation increased 3.2 W m−2 (11 %. The enhanced diffuse radiation combined with the cooling increased plant photosynthesis by 2.4 %, which could contribute to an additional 3.8 ± 1.1 Gt C yr−1 global gross primary productivity without nutrient limitation. This increase could potentially increase the land carbon sink. Suppressed plant and soil respiration due to the cooling would reduce natural land carbon emission and therefore further enhance the terrestrial carbon sink during the geoengineering period. This beneficial impact of stratospheric sulfate geoengineering would need to be balanced by a large number of potential risks in any future decisions about implementation of geoengineering.

  16. Horava-Lifshitz-like Gross-Neveu model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, A. M.; Mariz, T.; Martinez, R.; Nascimento, J. R.; Petrov, A. Yu.; Ribeiro, R. F.

    2017-03-01

    We describe a Horava-Lifshitz-like reformulated four-fermion Gross-Neveu model describing the dynamics of two-component spinors in (2 +1 )-dimensional space-time. Within our study, we introduce the Lagrange multiplier, study the gap equation (including the finite temperature case) which turns out to display essentially distinct behaviors for even and odd values of the critical exponent z , and show that the dynamical parity breaking occurs only for the odd z . We demonstrate that for any odd z , there exists a critical temperature at which the dynamical parity breaking disappears. Besides of this, we obtain the effective propagator and show that the resulting effective theory is renormalizable within the framework of the 1/N expansion for all values of z . As one more application of the dynamical parity breaking, we consider coupling of the vector field to the fermions in the case of a simplified spinor-vector coupling and discuss the generation of the Chern-Simons term.

  17. Large historical growth in global terrestrial gross primary production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, J. E.; Berry, J. A.; Seibt, U.; Smith, S. J.; Montzka, S. A.; Launois, T.; Belviso, S.; Bopp, L.; Laine, M.

    2017-04-01

    Growth in terrestrial gross primary production (GPP)—the amount of carbon dioxide that is ‘fixed’ into organic material through the photosynthesis of land plants—may provide a negative feedback for climate change. It remains uncertain, however, to what extent biogeochemical processes can suppress global GPP growth. As a consequence, modelling estimates of terrestrial carbon storage, and of feedbacks between the carbon cycle and climate, remain poorly constrained. Here we present a global, measurement-based estimate of GPP growth during the twentieth century that is based on long-term atmospheric carbonyl sulfide (COS) records, derived from ice-core, firn and ambient air samples. We interpret these records using a model that simulates changes in COS concentration according to changes in its sources and sinks—including a large sink that is related to GPP. We find that the observation-based COS record is most consistent with simulations of climate and the carbon cycle that assume large GPP growth during the twentieth century (31% ± 5% growth; mean ± 95% confidence interval). Although this COS analysis does not directly constrain models of future GPP growth, it does provide a global-scale benchmark for historical carbon-cycle simulations.

  18. Large historical growth in global terrestrial gross primary production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, J. E.; Berry, J. A.; Seibt, U.; Smith, S. J.; Montzka, S. A.; Launois, T.; Belviso, S.; Bopp, L.; Laine, M.

    2017-04-05

    Growth in terrestrial gross primary production (GPP) may provide a feedback for climate change, but there is still strong disagreement on the extent to which biogeochemical processes may suppress this GPP growth at the ecosystem to continental scales. The consequent uncertainty in modeling of future carbon storage by the terrestrial biosphere constitutes one of the largest unknowns in global climate projections for the next century. Here we provide a global, measurement-based estimate of historical GPP growth using long-term atmospheric carbonyl sulfide (COS) records derived from ice core, firn, and ambient air samples. We interpret these records using a model that relates changes in the COS concentration to changes in its sources and sinks, the largest of which is proportional to GPP. The COS history was most consistent with simulations that assume a large historical GPP growth. Carbon-climate models that assume little to no GPP growth predicted trajectories of COS concentration over the anthropogenic era that differ from those observed. Continued COS monitoring may be useful for detecting ongoing changes in GPP while extending the ice core record to glacial cycles could provide further opportunities to evaluate earth system models.

  19. A boy with fever, cough and gross haematuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzi, Giorgio; Maschio, Massimo; Poillucci, Gabriele; Pennesi, Marco; Barbi, Egidio

    2017-08-28

    A 5 year-old boy presented with 2-days of fever and cough. On examination, he had mild dyspnoea and chest pain, with crackles and hypoventilation at the right lung base. Blood tests showed: WBC 39.1×10(9)/L; N 28.9×10(9)/L; Hb 11.3gr/dL; PLT 375×10(9)/L; CRP 28.7mg/dL; ESR 41mm/h. Chest x-ray confirmed a pulmonary consolidation in the right lower lobe (figure 1), with an associated pleural effusion. Bacterial pneumonia was diagnosed and intravenous ceftriaxone 100mg/kg/die was started. The following day, he developed palpebral oedema and his urine became tea coloured. His blood pressure was 126/82mmHg (>99th percentile).(1) Serum creatinine rose from 0.45mg/dl to 1.09mg/dl (39.8µmol/L - 93.4µmol/L) and C3 was 9mg/dl (n.r. 90-180mg/dl). Urinalysis revealed gross hematuria and 3+ proteinuria, with microscopicy showing dysmorphic red blood cells with casts. Ultrasounds showed enlarged kidneys with increased echogenicity. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  20. Peer-Assisted Learning in a Gross Anatomy Dissection Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Eui-Ryoung; Chung, Eun-Kyung; Nam, Kwang-Il

    2015-01-01

    Peer-assisted learning encourages students to participate more actively in the dissection process and promotes thoughtful dissection. We implemented peer-assisted dissection in 2012 and compared its effects on students' self-assessments of learning and their academic achievement with those of faculty-led dissection. All subjects performed dissections after a lecture about upper-limb gross anatomy. Experimental group (n = 134) dissected a cadaver while guided by peer tutors who had prepared for the dissection in advance, and control group (n = 71) dissected a cadaver after the introduction by a faculty via prosection. Self-assessment scores regarding the learning objectives related to upper limbs were significantly higher in experimental group than in control group. Additionally, experimental group received significantly higher academic scores than did control group. The students in peer-assisted learning perceived themselves as having a better understanding of course content and achieved better academic results compared with those who participated in faculty-led dissection. Peer-assisted dissection contributed to self-perception and to the ability to retain and explain anatomical knowledge.

  1. Capacity Building in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Adam McCarty

    2001-01-01

    This report is the outcome of a study commissioned to examine the capacity building needs in Vietnam, and is a supplementary document to the Asian Development Bank's Country Operational Strategy for Vietnam. Vietnam's needs in terms of capacity building are particularly important given that is it a transitional economy and also one with little institutional experience in dealing with the international donor community. This paper examines the international awareness of capacity building and ca...

  2. Load testing circuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    A load testing circuit a circuit tests the load impedance of a load connected to an amplifier. The load impedance includes a first terminal and a second terminal, the load testing circuit comprising a signal generator providing a test signal of a defined bandwidth to the first terminal of the load...

  3. 20 CFR 418.1115 - What are the modified adjusted gross income ranges?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... gross income range amounts by any percentage increase in the Consumer Price Index rounded to the nearest...) of this section. We will use your modified adjusted gross income amount together with your tax filing... from his/her spouse for the entire tax year for the year we use to make our income-related...

  4. Balloon-occluded percutaneous transheptic obliteration of isolated vesical varices causing gross hematuria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Dong Hoon; Kim, Dong Hyun; Kim, Min Seok; Kim, Chul Sung [Department of Urology, College of Medicine, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-01-15

    Gross hematuria secondary to vesical varices is an unusual presentation. We report such a case recurrent gross hematuria in a male patient who had a history of bladder substitution with ileal segments that had been treated by balloon-occluded percutaneous transhepatic obliteration of vesical varices.

  5. De Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM): een onderzoek naar de responsiviteit van de Nederlandse vertaling.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenhof, C.; Ketelaar, M.; Petegem-van Beek, E. van; Vermeer, A.

    2003-01-01

    This article is about the psychometric characteristics of the Dutch translation of the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM). It describes the responsiveness to change. The article "Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM): a reliability study of the Dutch translation" focuses on the reliability of the GMF

  6. De Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM): een onderzoek naar de betrouwbaarheid van de Nederlandse vertaling.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenhof, C.; Ketelaar, M.; Petegem-van Beek, E. van

    2003-01-01

    This article is about the psychometric characteristics of the Dutch translation of the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM). It describes the reliability of the instrument. The article "Gross Motor Function Measure" (GMFM): a validity study of the Dutch translation focusses on the responsiveness of t

  7. Brief Assessment of Motor Function: Content Validity and Reliability of the Upper Extremity Gross Motor Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cintas, Holly Lea; Parks, Rebecca; Don, Sarah; Gerber, Lynn

    2011-01-01

    Content validity and reliability of the Brief Assessment of Motor Function (BAMF) Upper Extremity Gross Motor Scale (UEGMS) were evaluated in this prospective, descriptive study. The UEGMS is one of five BAMF ordinal scales designed for quick documentation of gross, fine, and oral motor skill levels. Designed to be independent of age and…

  8. Fixed Point of Generalized Eventual Cyclic Gross in Fuzzy Norm Spaces for Contractive Mappings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. M. Mohsenialhosseini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We define generalized eventual cyclic gross contractive mapping in fuzzy norm spaces, which is a generalization of the eventual cyclic gross contractions. Also we prove the existence of a fixed point for this type of contractive mapping on fuzzy norm spaces.

  9. 46 CFR 129.315 - Power sources for OSVs of 100 or more gross tons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Power sources for OSVs of 100 or more gross tons. 129.315 Section 129.315 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 129.315 Power sources for OSVs of 100 or more gross tons. (a) The...

  10. Combined climate factors alleviate changes in gross soil nitrogen dynamics in heathlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjorsne, Anna-Karin; Rutting, Tobias; Ambus, Per

    2014-01-01

    of exposure to three climate change factors, i.e. warming, elevated CO2 (eCO(2)) and summer drought, applied both in isolation and in combination. By conducting laboratory N-15 tracing experiments we show that warming increased both gross N mineralization and nitrification rates. In contrast, gross...

  11. 26 CFR 1.1332-1 - Inclusion in gross income of war loss recoveries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Inclusion in gross income of war loss recoveries. 1.1332-1 Section 1.1332-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES War Loss Recoveries § 1.1332-1 Inclusion in gross income of...

  12. Comparison of Gross Anatomy Test Scores Using Traditional Specimens vs. Quicktime Virtual Reality Animated Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maza, Paul Sadiri

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, technological advances such as computers have been employed in teaching gross anatomy at all levels of education, even in professional schools such as medical and veterinary medical colleges. Benefits of computer based instructional tools for gross anatomy include the convenience of not having to physically view or dissect a…

  13. The Effects of Basketball Basic Skills Training on Gross Motor Skills Development of Female Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayazit, Betul

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of basketball basic skills training on gross motor skills development of female children in Turkey. For that purpose, 40 female children took part in the study voluntarily. Basketball basic skills test was used to improve the gross motor skills of the female children in the study. Also,…

  14. The Effects of Basketball Basic Skills Training on Gross Motor Skills Development of Female Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayazit, Betul

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of basketball basic skills training on gross motor skills development of female children in Turkey. For that purpose, 40 female children took part in the study voluntarily. Basketball basic skills test was used to improve the gross motor skills of the female children in the study. Also,…

  15. 25 CFR 215.21 - Payment of gross production tax on lead and zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Payment of gross production tax on lead and zinc. 215.21... ZINC MINING OPERATIONS AND LEASES, QUAPAW AGENCY § 215.21 Payment of gross production tax on lead and zinc. The superintendent of the Quapaw Indian Agency is hereby authorized and directed to pay at...

  16. 26 CFR 1.61-3 - Gross income derived from business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gross income derived from business. 1.61-3 Section 1.61-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME... Taxable Income § 1.61-3 Gross income derived from business. (a) In general. In a...

  17. 26 CFR 1.804-3 - Gross investment income of a life insurance company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... law) shall be excluded from the gross investment income of a life insurance company. However, section... company. 1.804-3 Section 1.804-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... insurance company. (a) Gross investment income defined. For purposes of part I, subchapter L, chapter 1 of...

  18. 17 CFR 1.58 - Gross collection of exchange-set margins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gross collection of exchange-set margins. 1.58 Section 1.58 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION GENERAL REGULATIONS UNDER THE COMMODITY EXCHANGE ACT Miscellaneous § 1.58 Gross collection of exchange-set...

  19. Comparison of Gross Anatomy Test Scores Using Traditional Specimens vs. Quicktime Virtual Reality Animated Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maza, Paul Sadiri

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, technological advances such as computers have been employed in teaching gross anatomy at all levels of education, even in professional schools such as medical and veterinary medical colleges. Benefits of computer based instructional tools for gross anatomy include the convenience of not having to physically view or dissect a…

  20. Gross Motor Development of Malaysian Hearing Impaired Male Pre- and Early School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawi, Khairi; Lian, Denise Koh Choon; Abdullah, Rozlina Tan

    2014-01-01

    Acquisition of gross motor skill is a natural developmental process for children. This aspect of human development increases with one's chronological age, irrespective of any developmental conditions. The purpose of this study was to assess the level of gross motor skill development among pre- and early school-aged children with motor disability.…

  1. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Test of Gross Motor Development-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ka Yee Allison; Cheung, Siu Yin

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the underlying structure of the second edition of the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (Ulrich, 2000) as applied to Chinese children. The Test of Gross Motor Development-2 was administered to 626 Hong Kong Chinese children. The outlier test with standard scoring was utilized. After data screening, a total…

  2. Developmental and physical-fitness associations with gross motor coordination problems in Peruvian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Chaves, Raquel Nichele; Bustamante Valdívia, Alcibíades; Nevill, Alan; Freitas, Duarte; Tani, Go; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Maia, José António Ribeiro

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this cross-sectional study were to examine the developmental characteristics (biological maturation and body size) associated with gross motor coordination problems in 5193 Peruvian children (2787 girls) aged 6-14 years from different geographical locations, and to investigate how the probability that children suffer with gross motor coordination problems varies with physical fitness. Children with gross motor coordination problems were more likely to have lower flexibility and explosive strength levels, having adjusted for age, sex, maturation and study site. Older children were more likely to suffer from gross motor coordination problems, as were those with greater body mass index. However, more mature children were less likely to have gross motor coordination problems, although children who live at sea level or at high altitude were more likely to suffer from gross motor coordination problems than children living in the jungle. Our results provide evidence that children and adolescents with lower physical fitness are more likely to have gross motor coordination difficulties. The identification of youths with gross motor coordination problems and providing them with effective intervention programs is an important priority in order to overcome such developmental problems, and help to improve their general health status.

  3. Dilution: A Theoretical Burden or Just Load? A Reply to Tsal and Benoni (2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavie, Nilli; Torralbo, Ana

    2010-01-01

    Load theory of attention proposes that distractor processing is reduced in tasks with high perceptual load that exhaust attentional capacity within task-relevant processing. In contrast, tasks of low perceptual load leave spare capacity that spills over, resulting in the perception of task-irrelevant, potentially distracting stimuli. Tsal and…

  4. Investigating the usefulness of satellite derived fluorescence data in inferring gross primary productivity within the carbon cycle data assimilation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Koffi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the utility of satellite measurements of chlorophyll fluorescence (Fs in constraining gross primary productivity (GPP. We ingest Fs measurements into the Carbon-Cycle Data Assimilation System (CCDAS which has been augmented by the fluorescence component of the Soil Canopy Observation, Photochemistry and Energy fluxes (SCOPE model. CCDAS simulates well the patterns of Fs suggesting the combined model is capable of ingesting these measurements. However simulated Fs is insensitive to the key parameter controlling GPP, the carboxylation capacity (Vcmax. Simulated Fs is sensitive to both the incoming absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (aPAR and leaf chlorophyll concentration both of which are treated as perfectly known in previous CCDAS versions. Proper use of Fs measurements therefore requires enhancement of CCDAS to include and expose these variables.

  5. Can Clinical Assessment of Locomotive Body Function Explain Gross Motor Environmental Performance in Cerebral Palsy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz Mengibar, Jose Manuel; Santonja-Medina, Fernando; Sanchez-de-Muniain, Paloma; Canteras-Jordana, Manuel

    2016-03-01

    Gross Motor Function Classification System has discriminative purposes but does not assess short-term therapy goals. Locomotion Stages (LS) classify postural body functions and independent activity components. Assessing the relation between Gross Motor Function Classification System level and Locomotion Stages will make us understand if clinical assessment can explain and predict motor environmental performance in cerebral palsy. A total of 462 children were assessed with both scales. High reliability and strong negative correlation (-0.908) for Gross Motor Function Classification System and Locomotion Stages at any age was found. Sensitivity was 83%, and specificity and positive predictive value were 100% within the same age range. Regression analysis showed detailed probabilities for the realization of the Gross Motor Function Classification System depending on the Locomotion Stages and the age group. Postural body function measure with Locomotion Stages is reliable, sensitive, and specific for gross motor function and able to predict environmental performance.

  6. The effects of training on gross efficiency in cycling: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopker, J; Passfield, L; Coleman, D; Jobson, S; Edwards, L; Carter, H

    2009-12-01

    There has been much debate in the recent scientific literature regarding the possible ability to increase gross efficiency in cycling via training. Using cross-sectional study designs, researchers have demonstrated no significant differences in gross efficiency between trained and untrained cyclists. Reviewing this literature provides evidence to suggest that methodological inadequacies may have played a crucial role in the conclusions drawn from the majority of these studies. We present an overview of these studies and their relative shortcomings and conclude that in well-controlled and rigorously designed studies, training has a positive influence upon gross efficiency. Putative mechanisms for the increase in gross efficiency as a result of training include, muscle fibre type transformation, changes to muscle fibre shortening velocities and changes within the mitochondria. However, the specific mechanisms by which training improves gross efficiency and their impact on cycling performance remain to be determined.

  7. Bearing capacity and mechanical behavior of CFG pile composite foundation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈秋南; 赵明华; 周国华; 张主华

    2008-01-01

    CFG pile (i.e., pile constructed by granular materials of cement, fly-ash and gravel) composite foundation is applied in subsoil treatment widely and successfully. In order to have a further study of this kind of subsoil treatment technology, the influencing factors and calculation methods of the vertical bearing capacity of single CFG pile and the CFG pile composite foundation were discussed respectively. And based on the obtained solutions, effects by the cushion and measurements to reduce negative friction area were analyzed. Moreover, the developing law of settlement and bearing capacity eigenvalue controlled by the material strength with the increase of load were given for the CFG composite foundation. The in-situ static load test was tested for CFG pile. The results of test show that the maximum test load or half of the ultimate load is used from all the points of test, the average bearing capacity eigenvalue of single pile is 390 kN, and slightly greater than the design value of bearing capacity. The bearing capacity eigenvalues of composite foundation for 3 piles are greater than 300 kPa, and the mechanical properties of CFG pile composite foundation are almost identical in the case of the same load and cushion thickness. The pile-soil stress ratio and the load-sharing ratio can be adjusted through setting up cushion thickness.

  8. Liquid heat capacity lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comaskey, Brian J.; Scheibner, Karl F.; Ault, Earl R.

    2007-05-01

    The heat capacity laser concept is extended to systems in which the heat capacity lasing media is a liquid. The laser active liquid is circulated from a reservoir (where the bulk of the media and hence waste heat resides) through a channel so configured for both optical pumping of the media for gain and for light amplification from the resulting gain.

  9. Visual attention capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habekost, Thomas; Starrfelt, Randi

    2009-01-01

    to patient testing, and review existing TVA-based patient studies organized by lesion anatomy. Lesions in three anatomical regions affect visual capacity: The parietal lobes, frontal cortex and basal ganglia, and extrastriate cortex. Visual capacity thus depends on large, bilaterally distributed anatomical...

  10. Loads and loads and loads: The influence of prospective load, retrospective load, and ongoing task load in prospective memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beat eMeier

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In prospective memory tasks different kinds of load can occur. Adding a prospective memory task can impose a load on ongoing task performance. Adding ongoing task load can affect prospective memory performance. The existence of multiple target events increases prospective load and adding complexity to the to-be-remembered action increases retrospective load. In two experiments, we systematically examined the effects of these different types of load on prospective memory performance. Results showed an effect of prospective load on costs in the ongoing task for categorical targets (Experiment 2, but not for specific targets (Experiment 1. Retrospective load and ongoing task load both affected remembering the retrospective component of the prospective memory task. We suggest that prospective load can enhance costs in the ongoing task due to additional monitoring requirements. Retrospective load and ongoing task load seem to impact the division of resources between the ongoing task and retrieval of the retrospective component, which may affect disengagement from the ongoing task. In general, the results demonstrate that the different types of load affect prospective memory differentially.

  11. Motor skills and exercise capacity are associated with objective measures of cognitive functions and academic performance in preadolescent children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geertsen, Svend Sparre; Thomas, Richard; Larsen, Malte Nejst;

    2016-01-01

    these measures and the relationship with standard tests of academic performance in mathematics and reading comprehension. RESULTS: Both fine and gross motor skills were associated with better performance in all five tested cognitive domains (all P... comprehension. CONCLUSIONS: The data demonstrate that fine and gross motor skills are positively correlated with several aspects of cognitive functions and with academic performance in both mathematics and reading comprehension. Moreover, exercise capacity was associated with academic performance...... and performance in some cognitive domains. Future interventions should investigate associations between changes in motor skills, exercise capacity, cognitive functions, and academic performance to elucidate the causality of these associations....

  12. Gross Nitrogen Mineralization in Surface Sediments of the Yangtze Estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xianbiao; Hou, Lijun; Liu, Min; Li, Xiaofei; Yin, Guoyu; Zheng, Yanling; Deng, Fengyu

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen mineralization is a key biogeochemical process transforming organic nitrogen to inorganic nitrogen in estuarine and coastal sediments. Although sedimentary nitrogen mineralization is an important internal driver for aquatic eutrophication, few studies have investigated sedimentary nitrogen mineralization in these environments. Sediment-slurry incubation experiments combined with 15N isotope dilution technique were conducted to quantify the potential rates of nitrogen mineralization in surface sediments of the Yangtze Estuary. The gross nitrogen mineralization (GNM) rates ranged from 0.02 to 5.13 mg N kg(-1) d(-1) in surface sediments of the study area. The GNM rates were generally higher in summer than in winter, and the relative high rates were detected mainly at sites near the north branch and frontal edge of this estuary. The spatial and temporal distributions of GNM rates were observed to depend largely on temperature, salinity, sedimentary organic carbon and nitrogen contents, and extracellular enzyme (urease and L-glutaminase) activities. The total mineralized nitrogen in the sediments of the Yangtze Estuary was estimated to be about 6.17 × 10(5) t N yr(-1), and approximately 37% of it was retained in the estuary. Assuming the retained mineralized nitrogen is totally released from the sediments into the water column, which contributed 12-15% of total dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) sources in this study area. This result indicated that the mineralization process is a significant internal nitrogen source for the overlying water of the Yangtze Estuary, and thus may contribute to the estuarine and coastal eutrophication.

  13. Gross Nitrogen Mineralization in Surface Sediments of the Yangtze Estuary.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianbiao Lin

    Full Text Available Nitrogen mineralization is a key biogeochemical process transforming organic nitrogen to inorganic nitrogen in estuarine and coastal sediments. Although sedimentary nitrogen mineralization is an important internal driver for aquatic eutrophication, few studies have investigated sedimentary nitrogen mineralization in these environments. Sediment-slurry incubation experiments combined with 15N isotope dilution technique were conducted to quantify the potential rates of nitrogen mineralization in surface sediments of the Yangtze Estuary. The gross nitrogen mineralization (GNM rates ranged from 0.02 to 5.13 mg N kg(-1 d(-1 in surface sediments of the study area. The GNM rates were generally higher in summer than in winter, and the relative high rates were detected mainly at sites near the north branch and frontal edge of this estuary. The spatial and temporal distributions of GNM rates were observed to depend largely on temperature, salinity, sedimentary organic carbon and nitrogen contents, and extracellular enzyme (urease and L-glutaminase activities. The total mineralized nitrogen in the sediments of the Yangtze Estuary was estimated to be about 6.17 × 10(5 t N yr(-1, and approximately 37% of it was retained in the estuary. Assuming the retained mineralized nitrogen is totally released from the sediments into the water column, which contributed 12-15% of total dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN sources in this study area. This result indicated that the mineralization process is a significant internal nitrogen source for the overlying water of the Yangtze Estuary, and thus may contribute to the estuarine and coastal eutrophication.

  14. GROSS ANATOMY AND BLOOD SUPPLY OF SMALL INTESTINE IN FOETUSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwer Unisa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM OF STUDY: To develop charts of length and width of small intestine, origin, length and branching pattern of celiac trunk and Superior mesenteric artery. This will help us to know any congenital anomaly in the small intestine, and abnormal origin, length, variation i n the branching pattern. MATERIALS AND METHOD S: The material used for the present study of 100 foetuses of different stages of gestation collected from Government maternity Hospital, Hanamkonda, ChandaKantha Memorial Hospital Warangal and private nursing h omes of Warangal D istrict of Andhra Pradesh within 10 hours of death. The dead foetuses were preserved in the hospital in 10% formalin. The foetuses were embalmed by injecting with 20 cc to 100 cc 10% formalin in to the cranial cavity and trunk depending o n the stage of gestation. Foetuses were dissected to expose small intestine and the blood vessels which supply it systematically in the following manner. OBSERVATIONS: The present study conducted has shown that length, width of small intestine was found to be increasing with foetal age. The length of celiac trunk, the length of superior mesenteric artery was found to increase proportionality with the foetal age. The causes of death in foetuses related to small intestine are intussusceptions intestional malr otation such as ladd’s bands, volvulus, cystic fibrosis, intestional infections and necrotizing enterocolitis. Knowledge related to gross anatomy and blood supply of small intestine is important because of these causes which may lead to death in foetus e s. In the present study no anomalies related to small intestine are found.

  15. Gross and Histomorphological Studies of Femoral Head Resurfacing in Dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Sharifi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The foetal skull bone as a biological graft was investigated. This study was conducted on Fifteen adult mixed - breed normal dogs 12 to 24 months with weighing 21.4=3.6 Kg .Dogs were randomly divided into 3 groups of 5 animals each. The foetal skull bone of 45 days old was collected from one pregnant bitch via cesarean method. The right femoral head cartilage was removed completely in all dogs of 3 groups.. Group I acted as control one, whereas in II group, resurfacing was done by using foetal skull bone which was fixed by using 0.8 mm cerclage wire in criss-cross fashion, but in III group, it was done similar to II group and the hip joint additionally was fixed by using 2 mm steinmenn pin.The clinical observations was made accordingly for 60 days in all groups. The gross changes of femoral head in group I & II were quite smooth and slippy, but in III group were uneven and rough due to secondary changes and ankylosis, but on micropscopic interpertation there was a remarkable compatibility of the graft with femoral head.The reconstruction of articular cartilage was faster in group II and even group III animals than group I animals. There was single row of chondrocyte in scatter area of samples in group . The complete and uniform hyaline cartilage in group II and fibro - cartilage and mixture of connective tissues in group III animals were observed. The results indicated that the foetal skull bone due to its pleuripotent calvarium easily can orient itself into the chondrocytes and cartilagenous tissues in articular surface of the hip joint, if there is suitable enviroment before complete ossification,so that normal joint motion could expect.

  16. Value for railway capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sameni, Melody Khadem; Preston, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Growth in rail traffic has not been matched by increases in railway infrastructure. Given this capacity challenge and the current restrictions on public spending, the allocation and the utilization of existing railway capacity are more important than ever. Great Britain has had the greatest growth...... in rail passenger kilometers of European countries since 1996. However, costs are higher and efficiency is lower than European best practice. This paper provides an innovative methodology for assessing the efficiency of passenger operators in capacity utilization. Data envelopment analysis (DEA) is used...... to analyze the efficiency of operators in transforming inputs of allocated capacity of infrastructure and franchise payments into valuable passenger service outputs while avoiding delays. By addressing operational and economic aspects of capacity utilization simultaneously, the paper deviates from existing...

  17. Dynamic Carrying Capacity Analysis of Double-Row Four-Point Contact Ball Slewing Bearing

    OpenAIRE

    Yunfeng Li; Di Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Carrying capacity is the most important performance index for slewing bearings. Maximizing the carrying capacity of slewing bearing is one pursuing goal for the bearing designer; this is usually realized by optimizing the design parameters. A method of analyzing the carrying capacity of double-row four-point contact ball slewing bearing by using dynamic carrying capacity surfaces was proposed in this paper. Based on the dynamic load carrying capacity surface of the slewing bearing, the effect...

  18. Vedr.: Military capacity building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Josefine Kühnel; Struwe, Lars Bangert

    2013-01-01

    Military capacity building has increasingly become an integral part of Danish defence. Military capacity is a new way of thinking Danish defence and poses a new set of challenges and opportunities for the Danish military and the Political leadership. On the 12th of december, PhD. Candidate Josefine...... Kühnel Larsen and researcher Lars Bangert Struwe of CMS had organized a seminar in collaboration with Royal Danish Defense Colleg and the East African Security Governance Network. The seminar focused on some of the risks involved in Military capacity building and how these risks are dealt with from...

  19. Vedr.: Military capacity building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Josefine Kühnel; Struwe, Lars Bangert

    2013-01-01

    Kühnel Larsen and researcher Lars Bangert Struwe of CMS had organized a seminar in collaboration with Royal Danish Defense Colleg and the East African Security Governance Network. The seminar focused on some of the risks involved in Military capacity building and how these risks are dealt with from......Military capacity building has increasingly become an integral part of Danish defence. Military capacity is a new way of thinking Danish defence and poses a new set of challenges and opportunities for the Danish military and the Political leadership. On the 12th of december, PhD. Candidate Josefine...

  20. 中国区域畜禽粪便能源潜力及总量控制研究%Biogas energy potential for livestock manure and gross control of animal feeding in region level of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿维; 胡林; 崔建宇; 卜美东; 张蓓蓓

    2013-01-01

    , according to EU's standard of limitation on nitrogen and phosphorus application, the loading capacity of agricultural land soil for nitrogen and phosphorus nutrients in 31 provinces of China were also assessed and the environmental capacity for livestock and poultry feeding were preliminary assessed as well. Comparing environmental capacity of animal feeding with the actual number of livestock and poultry raised, manure pollution risk on agricultural land in different provinces was analyzed. The results indicated that China produced 2.235 billion tons of animal manure in 2010, which would produce biogas 107.275 billion cubic meters, with the biogas by animal manure being about 60% equivalent energy potential of natural gas manure. The cattle manure was 982 million tons, amounted to 44% of the total, followed by pig manure, which was 465 million tons, amounted to 21% of the total. Shandong, Henan, Sichuan, Inner Mongolia, Hebei and Liaoning were the top 6 provinces produced more than 100 million tons and sum up to 916 million tons, amounted to 41% of the total. The average values of agricultural land soil loading of nitrogen and phosphorus nutrients were 43.73 kg/hm2 (TN) and 9.16 kg/hm2 (TP) in China. The loading values in Beijing, Tianjin, Hunan, Guangdong, Henan and Shandong were more than that in other provinces and have exceeded the EU's standard limitation. It can be considered that agricultural land soil in those provinces would be polluted if the animal manure were applied on the agricultural fields, because the number of livestock and poultry raised in those provinces has exceeded the environmental capacity of animal feeding. The environmental livestock feeding capacity in China are 12.956 billion pigs equivalent based on nitrogen and 15.974 billion pigs equivalent based on phosphorus. The actual total amount of livestock and poultry raised amounted to more than a quarter of the livestock feeding capacity, which was 3.473 billion pigs equivalent based on nitrogen