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Sample records for gross gudrun reichenauer

  1. Gross motor control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross motor control is the ability to make large, general movements (such as waving an arm or lifting a leg). ... Gross motor control is a milestone in the development of an infant. Infants develop gross motor control before they develop ...

  2. NM Gross Receipts Baseline

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  3. Gross National Happiness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giri, Krishna Prasad; Kjær-Rasmussen, Lone Krogh

    This paper investigates practices related to the ideology of infusing Gross National Happiness (GNH) into school curriculum, the effectiveness of the meditation and mind training and the implication of GNH for school environment. It also explores how GNH ambience has been managed and practiced...... of Gross National Happiness and Educating for Gross National happiness....

  4. Naaber on huvitav / Gudrun Holz

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Holz, Gudrun

    2004-01-01

    Oberhauseni rahvusvahelisest lühifilmifestivalist, mis toimus 29. aprillist 4. maini. Ka eesti filmidest : Pärtel Taali "Porgand", Killu Sukmiti ja Mari Laanemetsa "Jätke võtmed väljapoole, kui lahkute", Jaan Toomiku "Liina", Andres Maimiku "Kurat saunas"

  5. Naaber on huvitav / Gudrun Holz

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Holz, Gudrun

    2004-01-01

    Oberhauseni rahvusvahelisest lühifilmifestivalist, mis toimus 29. aprillist 4. maini. Ka eesti filmidest : Pärtel Taali "Porgand", Killu Sukmiti ja Mari Laanemetsa "Jätke võtmed väljapoole, kui lahkute", Jaan Toomiku "Liina", Andres Maimiku "Kurat saunas"

  6. Loovkirjutamist õpetab Philip Gross

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    T.S. Elioti luulepreemia laureaat Philip Gross on Tallinna Ülikooli talvekooli rahvusvahelise kursuse "Poetry: A Conversation between Words and Silence" läbiviija. Oma seminarides keskendub ta lisaks loovkirjutamisele ka loova lugemise vajadusele

  7. Gross Sales Tax Collections

    Data.gov (United States)

    City of Jackson, Mississippi — This data is captured directly from the MS Department of Revenue and specific to the City of Jackson. It is compiled from Gross Sales Tax reported by taxpayers each...

  8. Gross decontamination experiment report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, R.; Kinney, K.; Dettorre, J.; Gilbert, V.

    1983-07-01

    A Gross Decontamination Experiment was conducted on various levels and surfaces of the TMI - Unit 2 reactor building in March 1982. The polar crane, D-rings, missile shields, refueling canals, refueling bridges, equipment, and elevations 305' and 347'-6'' were flushed with low pressure water. Additionally, floor surfaces on elevation 305' and floor surfaces and major pieces of equipment on elevation 347'-6'' were sprayed with high pressure water. Selective surfaces were decontaminated with a mechanical scrubber and chemicals. Strippable coating was tested and evaluated on equipment and floor surfaces. The effectiveness, efficiency, and safety of several decontamination techniques were established for the large, complex decontamination effort. Various decontamination equipment was evaluated and its effectiveness was documented. Decontamination training and procedures were documented and evaluated, as were the support system and organization for the experiment.

  9. Gross job flows and firms

    OpenAIRE

    Scott Schuh; Robert K. Triest

    1999-01-01

    This paper extends the work of Dunne, Roberts, and Samuelson [3] and Davis, Haltiwanger, and Schuh [2] on gross job flows among manufacturing plants. Gross job creation, destruction, and reallocation have been shown to be important in understanding the birth, growth, and death of plants, and the relation of plant life cycles to the business cycle. However, little is known about job flows between firms or how job flows among plants occur within firms (corporate restructuring). We use informati...

  10. On a question of Gross

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Abhijit

    2007-03-01

    Using the notion of weighted sharing of sets we prove two uniqueness theorems which improve the results proved by Fang and Qiu [H. Qiu, M. Fang, A unicity theorem for meromorphic functions, Bull. Malaysian Math. Sci. Soc. 25 (2002) 31-38], Lahiri and Banerjee [I. Lahiri, A. Banerjee, Uniqueness of meromorphic functions with deficient poles, Kyungpook Math. J. 44 (2004) 575-584] and Yi and Lin [H.X. Yi, W.C. Lin, Uniqueness theorems concerning a question of Gross, Proc. Japan Acad. Ser. A 80 (2004) 136-140] and thus provide an answer to the question of Gross [F. Gross, Factorization of meromorphic functions and some open problems, in: Proc. Conf. Univ. Kentucky, Lexington, KY, 1976, in: Lecture Notes in Math., vol. 599, Springer, Berlin, 1977, pp. 51-69], under a weaker hypothesis.

  11. NM Gross Receipts July - December 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  12. NM Gross Receipts January - June 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  13. NM Gross Receipts January - June 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  14. NM Gross Receipts January - June 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  15. NM Gross Receipts January - June 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  16. NM Gross Receipts July - December 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  17. Gross anatomy of network security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Thomas J.

    2002-01-01

    Information security involves many branches of effort, including information assurance, host level security, physical security, and network security. Computer network security methods and implementations are given a top-down description to permit a medically focused audience to anchor this information to their daily practice. The depth of detail of network functionality and security measures, like that of the study of human anatomy, can be highly involved. Presented at the level of major gross anatomical systems, this paper will focus on network backbone implementation and perimeter defenses, then diagnostic tools, and finally the user practices (the human element). Physical security measures, though significant, have been defined as beyond the scope of this presentation.

  18. Evaluation of gross radioactivity in foodstuffs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zorer, Oezlem Selcuk; Oeter, Cigdem [Yuzuncu Yil Univ., Van (Turkey). Dept. of Chemistry

    2015-05-15

    The paper presents the results of radiological investigations of food products sampled in the summer and fall of 2011 and 2012 in different parts of Van, Turkey. Gross radioactivity measurements in food products were evaluated. Food items were divided into eight groups: (1) water, (2) fish, (3) cheese products, (4) fruits, (5) vegetables, (6) herbs, (7) walnut and (8) rock salt. The levels of the gross alpha and gross beta radioactivity in all food samples varied widely ranging from 0.070 to 10.885 Bq/g and from 0.132 to 48.285 Bq/g on dry mass basis, respectively. In one sample, gross alpha and gross beta activity concentrations were found to be relatively high according to the other samples and in all samples, the gross alpha radioactivity was measured lower than the gross beta radioactivity. The gross α and gross β activities were measured by using α/β counter of the multi-detector low background system (PIC MPC-9604).

  19. Measures of Gross National Happiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruut Veenhoven

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Happiness is rising on the political agenda and this calls for measures of how well nations perform in creating great happiness for a great number, analogous to measures of success in creating wealth, such as GDP. Happiness is defined as subjective enjoyment of one’s life as-a-whole and this can be measured using self-reports. Question on happiness are currently used in large scale surveys of the general population in nations. As a result we have now comparable data on happiness in 144 contemporary nations and time-series of 25 years and longer on 11 developed nations. These data can be aggregated in different ways: If the aim is simply greater happiness for a greater number of citizens, Average happiness (AH is an appropriate measure. If the focus is on enduring happiness, it is better to combine average happiness with longevity in an index of Happy Life Years (HLY. If the aim is to reduce disparity among citizens a relevant indicator is the Inequality of Happiness (IH in the nations as measured with the standard deviation. Average and dispersion can also be combined in an index of Inequality-Adjusted Happiness (IAH. Comparison across nations shows sizable differences on all these measures of gross national happiness and these differences correspond with societal characteristics that can be influenced by policy makers, such as freedom and justice. Comparison over time shows major improvement during the last decade.

  20. The Mechanics of Gross Moist Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeljka Fuchs

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The gross moist stability relates the net lateral outflow of moist entropy or moist static energy from an atmospheric convective region to some measure of the strength of the convection in that region. If the gross moist stability can be predicted as a function of the local environmental conditions, then it becomes the key element in understanding how convection is controlled by the large-scale flow. This paper provides a guide to the various ways in which the gross moist stability is defined and the subtleties of its calculation from observations and models. Various theories for the determination of the gross moist stability are presented and its roles in current conceptual models for the tropical atmospheric circulation are analyzed. The possible effect of negative gross moist stability on the development and dynamics of tropical disturbances is currently of great interest.

  1. The future of gross anatomy teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malamed, S; Seiden, D

    1995-01-01

    A survey of U.S. departments of anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry shows that 39% of the respondent anatomy departments reported declines in the numbers of graduate students taking the human gross anatomy course. Similarly, 42% of the departments reported decreases in the numbers of graduate students teaching human gross anatomy. These decreases were greater in anatomy than in physiology and in biochemistry. The percentages of departments reporting increases in students taking or teaching their courses was 6% for human gross anatomy and 0% to 19% for physiology and biochemistry courses. To reverse this trend the establishment of specific programs for the training of gross anatomy teachers is advocated. These new teachers will be available as the need for them is increasingly recognized in the future.

  2. FUZZY ECCENTRICITY AND GROSS ERROR IDENTIFICATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The dominant and recessive effect made by exceptional interferer is analyzed in measurement system based on responsive character, and the gross error model of fuzzy clustering based on fuzzy relation and fuzzy equipollence relation is built. The concept and calculate formula of fuzzy eccentricity are defined to deduce the evaluation rule and function of gross error, on the base of them, a fuzzy clustering method of separating and discriminating the gross error is found. Utilized in the dynamic circular division measurement system, the method can identify and eliminate gross error in measured data, and reduce measured data dispersity. Experimental results indicate that the use of the method and model enables repetitive precision of the system to improve 80% higher than the foregoing system, to reach 3.5 s, and angle measurement error is less than 7 s.

  3. Validating the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Downs, Jenny; Stahlhut, Michelle; Wong, Kingsley;

    2016-01-01

    Rett syndrome is a pervasive neurodevelopmental disorder associated with a pathogenic mutation on the MECP2 gene. Impaired movement is a fundamental component and the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale was developed to measure gross motor abilities in this population. The current study investigated...... the validity and reliability of the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale. Video data showing gross motor abilities supplemented with parent report data was collected for 255 girls and women registered with the Australian Rett Syndrome Database, and the factor structure and relationships between motor scores, age...... and genotype were investigated. Clinical assessment scores for 38 girls and women with Rett syndrome who attended the Danish Center for Rett Syndrome were used to assess consistency of measurement. Principal components analysis enabled the calculation of three factor scores: Sitting, Standing and Walking...

  4. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia presenting with gross hematuria

    OpenAIRE

    Kalbani, Naifain Al; Weitzman, Sheila; Abdelhaleem, Mohamed; Carcao, Manuel; Abla, Oussama

    2007-01-01

    A case of a six-year-old boy presenting with gross hematuria is reported. Investigations revealed the etiology of the hematuria to be thrombocytopenia in the setting of newly diagnosed acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The diagnosis of leukemia was confirmed by bone marrow examination. The patient’s hematuria completely resolved with platelet transfusions. Although thrombocytopenia is a very common presenting feature of acute lymphoblastic leukemia, gross hematuria is exceedingly rare. Thus, thro...

  5. Validating the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Jenny; Stahlhut, Michelle; Wong, Kingsley; Syhler, Birgit; Bisgaard, Anne-Marie; Jacoby, Peter; Leonard, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Rett syndrome is a pervasive neurodevelopmental disorder associated with a pathogenic mutation on the MECP2 gene. Impaired movement is a fundamental component and the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale was developed to measure gross motor abilities in this population. The current study investigated the validity and reliability of the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale. Video data showing gross motor abilities supplemented with parent report data was collected for 255 girls and women registered with the Australian Rett Syndrome Database, and the factor structure and relationships between motor scores, age and genotype were investigated. Clinical assessment scores for 38 girls and women with Rett syndrome who attended the Danish Center for Rett Syndrome were used to assess consistency of measurement. Principal components analysis enabled the calculation of three factor scores: Sitting, Standing and Walking, and Challenge. Motor scores were poorer with increasing age and those with the p.Arg133Cys, p.Arg294* or p.Arg306Cys mutation achieved higher scores than those with a large deletion. The repeatability of clinical assessment was excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient for total score 0.99, 95% CI 0.93-0.98). The standard error of measurement for the total score was 2 points and we would be 95% confident that a change 4 points in the 45-point scale would be greater than within-subject measurement error. The Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale could be an appropriate measure of gross motor skills in clinical practice and clinical trials.

  6. Concurrent Validity of Preschooler Gross Motor Quality Scale with Test of Gross Motor Development-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shih-Heng; Sun, Hsiao-Ling; Zhu, Yi-Ching; Huang, Li-chi; Hsieh, Yueh-Ling

    2011-01-01

    Preschooler Gross Motor Quality Scale (PGMQ) was recently developed to evaluate motor skill quality of preschoolers. The purpose of this study was to establish the concurrent validity of PGMQ using Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (TGMD-2) as the gold standard. One hundred and thirty five preschool children aged from three to six years were…

  7. BOREAS HYD-8 Gross Precipitation Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Richard; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Knapp, David E. (Editor); Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Hydrology (HYD)-08 team made measurements of surface hydrological processes at the Southern Study Area-Old Black Spruce (SSA-OBS) Tower Flux site to support its research into point hydrological processes and the spatial variation of these processes. Data collected may be useful in characterizing canopy interception, drip, throughfall, moss interception, drainage, evaporation, and capacity during the growing season at daily temporal resolution. This particular data set contains the gross precipitation measurements for July to August 1996. Gross precipitation is the precipitation that falls that is not intercepted by tree canopies. These data are stored in ASCII text files. The HYD-08 gross precipitation data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  8. 7 CFR 1424.7 - Gross payable units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Biodiesel producers will be eligible for payments on gross payable units for all biodiesel production from... rates. Unless otherwise determined by CCC, gross payable units for biodiesel production from eligible... biodiesel production gross payable units. (3) Adding the APP and BPP to determine biodiesel gross...

  9. Multiregional estimation of gross internal migration flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot, D K; Milne, W J

    1989-01-01

    "A multiregional model of gross internal migration flows is presented in this article. The interdependence of economic factors across all regions is recognized by imposing a non-stochastic adding-up constraint that requires total inmigration to equal total outmigration in each time period. An iterated system estimation technique is used to obtain asymptotically consistent and efficient parameter estimates. The model is estimated for gross migration flows among the Canadian provinces over the period 1962-86 and then is used to examine the likelihood of a wash-out effect in net migration models. The results indicate that previous approaches that use net migration equations may not always be empirically justified."

  10. The Gross conjecture over rational function fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OUYANG; Yi

    2005-01-01

    We study the Gross conjecture for the cyclotomic function field extension k(∧f)/k where k = Fq(t) is the rational function field and f is a monic polynomial in Fq[t].We prove the conjecture in the Fermat curve case(i.e., when f = t(t - 1)) by a direct calculation. We also prove the case when f is irreducible, which is analogous to the Weil reciprocity law. In the general case, we manage to show the weak version of the Gross conjecture here.

  11. Gross Revenue risk in Swiss dairy farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benni, El N.; Finger, R.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated how agricultural policy reforms, including market liberalization and market deregulation, have influenced gross revenue risk of Swiss dairy producers using farm-level panel data between 1990 and 2009. Based on detrended data, variance decomposition was applied to assess how o

  12. Gross Revenue risk in Swiss dairy farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benni, El N.; Finger, R.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated how agricultural policy reforms, including market liberalization and market deregulation, have influenced gross revenue risk of Swiss dairy producers using farm-level panel data between 1990 and 2009. Based on detrended data, variance decomposition was applied to assess how

  13. Activity level of gross α and gross β in airborne aerosol samples around the Qinshan NPP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Bin; YE Jida; CHEN Qianyuan; WU Xiaofei; SONG Weili; WANG Hongfeng

    2007-01-01

    The monitoring results of gross α and gross β activity from 2001 to 2005 for environmental airborne aerosol samples around the Qinshan NPP base are presented in this paper. A total of 170 aerosol samples were collected from monitoring sites of Caichenmen village, Qinlian village, Xiajiawan village and Yangliucun village around the Qinshan NPP base. The measured specific activity of gross α and gross β are in the range of 0.02 ~ 0.38 mBq/m3 and 0.10 ~ 1.81 mBq/m3, respectively, with an average of 0.11 mBq/m3 and 0.45mBq/m3, respectively. They are lower than the average of 0.15 mBq/m3 and 0.52mBq/m3, of reference site at Hangzhou City. It is indicated that the specific activity of gross α and gross β for environmental aerosol samples around the Qinshan NPP base had not been increased in normal operating conditions of the NPP.

  14. Noncommutative complex Grosse-Wulkenhaar model

    CERN Document Server

    Hounkonnou, Mahouton Norbert

    2012-01-01

    This paper stands for an application of the noncommutative (NC) Noether theorem, given in our previous work [AIP Proc 956 (2007) 55-60], for the NC complex Grosse-Wulkenhaar model. It provides with an extension of a recent work [Physics Letters B 653 (2007) 343-345]. The local conservation of energy-momentum tensors (EMTs) is recovered using improvement procedures based on Moyal algebraic techniques. Broken dilatation symmetry is discussed. NC gauge currents are also explicitly computed.

  15. The Gross Motor Skills of Children with Mild Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonis, Karen P.; Jernice, Tan Sing Yee

    2014-01-01

    Many international studies have examined the gross motor skills of children studying in special schools while local studies of such nature are limited. This study investigated the gross motor skills of children with Mild Learning Disabilities (MLD; n = 14, M age = 8.93 years, SD = 0.33) with the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (TGMD-2, Ulrich,…

  16. 7 CFR 1410.44 - Average adjusted gross income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Average adjusted gross income. 1410.44 Section 1410... Average adjusted gross income. (a) Benefits under this part will not be available to persons or legal entities whose average adjusted gross income exceeds $1,000,000 or as further specified in part...

  17. 7 CFR 701.17 - Average adjusted gross income limitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9003), each applicant must meet the provisions of the Adjusted Gross Income Limitations at 7 CFR part... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Average adjusted gross income limitation. 701.17... RELATED PROGRAMS PREVIOUSLY ADMINISTERED UNDER THIS PART § 701.17 Average adjusted gross income...

  18. Baryons in Massive Gross-Neveu Models

    CERN Document Server

    Thies, M; Thies, Michael; Urlichs, Konrad

    2005-01-01

    Baryons in the large N limit of (1+1)-dimensional Gross-Neveu models with either discrete or continuous chiral symmetry have long been known. We generalize their construction to the case where the symmetry is explicitly broken by a bare mass term in the Lagrangian. In the discrete symmetry case, the exact solution is found for arbitrary bare fermion mass, using the Hartree-Fock approach. In the continuous symmetry case, a derivative expansion allows us to rederive a formerly proposed Skyrme-type model and to compute systematically corrections to the leading order description based on an effective sine-Gordon theory.

  19. [Gross anatomy dissection and the legal control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashina, Shohei; Shibata, Yosaburo

    2010-12-01

    In Japan, dissection of human body is generally prohibited by the Penal Code, i.e. the criminal law. However, the Postmortem Examination and Corpse Preservation Act allows for the dissection of the body in very limited situations, that include gross anatomy dissection and pathological and forensic autopsy in medical and dental schools. Growing numbers of co-medical schools have been founded more recently in Japan, and not a small number of co-medical schools try to adopt human body dissection in the course of anatomy education. The present short communication reminds us of the ways of thinking of the Postmortem Examination and Corpse Preservation Act and the Act on Body Donation for Medical and Dental Education in order that anatomy education in medical as well as co-medical schools takes place under the regulation by these two laws.

  20. Robust Principal Component Test in Gross Error Detection and Identification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Principle component analysis (PCA) based chi-square test is more sensitive to subtle gross errors and has greater power to correctly detect gross errors than classical chi-square test. However, classical principal component test (PCT) is non-robust and can be very sensitive to one or more outliers. In this paper, a Huber function liked robust weight factor was added in the collective chi-square test to eliminate the influence of gross errors on the PCT. Meanwhile, robust chi-square test was applied to modified simultaneous estimation of gross error (MSEGE) strategy to detect and identify multiple gross errors. Simulation results show that the proposed robust test can reduce the possibility of type Ⅱ errors effectively. Adding robust chi-square test into MSEGE does not obviously improve the power of multiple gross error identification, the proposed approach considers the influence of outliers on hypothesis statistic test and is more reasonable.

  1. Effect of temperate climate tree species on gross ammonification, gross nitrification and N2O formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüggemann, N.; Rosenkranz, P.; Papen, H.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.

    2003-04-01

    Microbial nitrogen turnover processes in the soil, like ammonification, nitrification and denitrification, play an important role in the formation of nitrous oxide (N2O): (i) ammonification, because it releases nitrogen from organic material in the form of ammonium (NH4+), which in turn can serve as substrate for nitrification; (ii) nitrification itself (i.e. the turnover of NH4+ to nitrate, NO3-), during which nitric oxide (NO) and N2O can be released as by-products at varying ratios; (iii) denitrification, in which NO3- serves as electron acceptor and is converted to molecular nitrogen (N2) via NO and N2O as intermediates, that can also be partially lost to the atmosphere. Temperate forest soils are a substantial source of atmospheric N2O contributing up to 10% to the total atmospheric N2O budget. However, this figure is afflicted with a huge uncertainty due to a number of factors governing the soil N2O formation, consumption, release and uptake, which are not fully understood at present. To one of these factors belongs the influence of the tree species on nitrogen turnover processes in the soil and the formation of N trace gases related with them. The aim of the present work was to analyse this tree species effect for the temperate climate region. For this purpose the effect of five different temperate tree species, having the same age and growing on the same soil in direct vicinity to each other, on gross ammonification and gross nitrification as well as on N2O formation was investigated. The trees (common beech, Fagus sylvatica; pedunculate oak, Quercus robur; Norway spruce, Picea abies; Japanese larch, Larix leptolepis; mountain pine, Pinus mugo) were part of a species trial in Western Jutland, Denmark, established in 1965 on a former sandy heathland. Samples from the soil under these five tree species were taken in spring and in summer 2002, respectively, differentiating between organic layer and mineral soil. The gross rates of ammonification as well of

  2. TERATOGENIC EFFECTS OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES: GROSS ANOMALIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Prakash

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available BACK GROUND: Prenatal exposure of AgNPs can induces devastative and detrimental effect in the organogenesis period of the developing embryos and foetuses. Organogenesis period is highly condemnatory and persuadable. Any injury to embryo during this period leads to dysmorphogenesis or even death AIM: The present study means to evaluate the gross anomalies on developing f o etus subsequent to silver nanoparticle ingestion during the gestational period. MATERIAL & METHOD: Random selections of pregnant Swiss albino mice were selected. AgNPs, of 20 - 100 nm size ra nge, were administered to pregnant mice by repeated oral gavages at concentra tions of 0.5, 1, 5, 10, 15 & 20 mg/kg/day during 4 - 17 gestational day. All dams were subjected to exteriorization on GD 18. The fetuses were evaluated for body malformation effects . RESULTS: Repeated oral gavages treatment with AgNPs at a concentration of 0.5mg/kg/day caused resorption (4.61% and intra uterine growth retardation (7.69% with no gross morphology alteration. 1 mg/kg/day caused resorption (9.23% and intra uterine growth retardation (10.76% with a rare case of haemorrhagic conception (1.53%, 5mg/kg/day caused limb malformation (7.01% resorption (17.54% and intra uterine growth retardation (17.54%, closed type Neural tube deformity (5.26%, 10mg/kg/day caused 20 % of limb malformation including Amelia, foot and tail vein hemorrhages and simple tail vein haemorrhage (3.50% each, resorption (22.80%, intra uterine growth retardation (29.82%, 15mg/kg/day caused severe hemorrhage within the entire body (22.80%, lim b anomaly including syndactyly and oligodactyly (8.77%, resorption (42.10%, intra uterine growth retardation (45.61%, 20mg/kg/day caused Omphalocele (3.27%, Bidiscoidal placental anomaly (9.83%, resorption (29.50% and intra uterine growth retardation (62.29%. CONCLUSION: The results show that a repeated oral dose of AgNPs during pregnancy caused fetal body dysmorphogenesis which is dose

  3. Gross revenue risk in Swiss dairy farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Benni, N; Finger, R

    2013-02-01

    This study investigated how agricultural policy reforms, including market liberalization and market deregulation, have influenced gross revenue risk of Swiss dairy producers using farm-level panel data between 1990 and 2009. Based on detrended data, variance decomposition was applied to assess how output prices and yields contributed to revenue risk over 3 different periods: the whole period (1990-2009), the first decade (1990-1999), and the second decade (1999-2009). In addition, the effect of expected changes in animal-based support for roughage-consuming cattle and price volatility on revenue risk was evaluated using a simulation model. Prices were the main contributor to revenue risk, even if the importance of yield risk increased over time. Swiss dairy producers can profit from natural hedge but market deregulation and market liberalization have reduced the natural hedge at the farm level. An increase in price volatility would substantially increase revenue risk and would, together with the abandonment of direct payments, reduce the comparative advantage of dairy production for risk-averse decision makers. Depending on other available risk management strategies, price risk management instruments might be a valuable solution for Swiss dairy producers in the future.

  4. Guidelines for Standard Photography in Gross and Clinical Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barut, Cagatay; Ertilav, Hakan

    2011-01-01

    Photography has a widespread usage in medicine and anatomy. In this review, authors focused on the usage of photography in gross and clinical anatomy. Photography in gross and clinical anatomy is not only essential for accurate documentation of morphological findings but also important in sharing knowledge and experience. Photographs of cadavers…

  5. 26 CFR 1.61-4 - Gross income of farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Gross income of farmers. (a) Farmers using the cash method of accounting. A farmer using the cash receipts and disbursements method of accounting shall include in his gross income for the taxable year— (1) The amount of cash and the value of merchandise or other property received during the taxable...

  6. Guidelines for Standard Photography in Gross and Clinical Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barut, Cagatay; Ertilav, Hakan

    2011-01-01

    Photography has a widespread usage in medicine and anatomy. In this review, authors focused on the usage of photography in gross and clinical anatomy. Photography in gross and clinical anatomy is not only essential for accurate documentation of morphological findings but also important in sharing knowledge and experience. Photographs of cadavers…

  7. Psychiatric Symptoms in Children with Gross Motor Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emck, Claudia; Bosscher, Ruud J.; van Wieringen, Piet C. W.; Doreleijers, Theo; Beek, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Children with psychiatric disorders often demonstrate gross motor problems. This study investigates if the reverse also holds true by assessing psychiatric symptoms present in children with gross motor problems. Emotional, behavioral, and autism spectrum disorders (ASD), as well as psychosocial problems, were assessed in a sample of 40 children…

  8. The Gross Anatomy Course: An Analysis of Its Importance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockers, Anja; Jerg-Bretzke, Lucia; Lamp, Christoph; Brinkmann, Anke; Traue, Harald C.; Bockers, Tobias M.

    2010-01-01

    The gross anatomy dissection course is a cost-intensive piece of undergraduate medical education that students and professionals alike describe as very important within the overall medical curriculum. We sought to understand more explicitly students' valuation of gross anatomy as an "important" course and so developed a quantitative…

  9. Estimating the gross moist stability in shallow and deep convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C. A.; Jong, B. T.; Chou, C.

    2015-12-01

    Gross moist stability has been used to study the link between tropical deep convection and large scale circulation in a moist static energy (MSE) budget. Here we aim to calculate the gross moist stability from more realistic profiles of vertical velocity and extend it beyond deep convection, adding shallow convection. Based on a principal component analysis, we were able to decompose the vertical velocity into two leading modes, which are dominated by deep and shallow convection, respectively. According to the deep and shallow modes, we calculate the gross moist stability for these two modes and discuss the roles of deep and shallow convection in the MSE budget. The gross moist stability of deep convection tends to be positive in the tropics, while that of shallow convection is negative over most areas of the tropics. This implies that deep convection exports MSE to stabilize the atmosphere and shallow convection imports MSE to enhance deep convection and destabilize the atmosphere. Based on the spatial distribution, moisture tends to reduce the gross moist stability of deep convection, while dry static energy has little impact. Deeper deep convection tends to have greater gross moist stability. For shallow convection, on the other hand, the gross moist stability is affected not only by low-level moisture but also mid-level moisture. Both moister low-level and drier mid-level moisture reduce the gross moist stability of shallow convection. Greater low-level dry static energy, which is associated with warmer sea surface temperature, also tends to reduce gross moist stability.

  10. Sectoral contributions to Nigerian gross domestic product using a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences ... This study analyzed sectoral contributions to Gross Domestic Product by Agriculture, Industry and services ... KEYWORDS: Granger causality, Unit root, VAR model and sectoral contribution ...

  11. Premedical anatomy experience and student performance in medical gross anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondrashov, Peter; McDaniel, Dalton J; Jordan, Rebecca M

    2017-04-01

    Gross anatomy is considered one of the most important basic science courses in medical education, yet few medical schools require its completion prior to matriculation. The effect of taking anatomy courses before entering medical school on performance in medical gross anatomy has been previously studied with inconsistent results. The effect of premedical anatomy coursework on performance in medical gross anatomy, overall medical school grade point average (GPA), and Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing Examination Level 1 (COMLEX 1) score was evaluated in 456 first-year osteopathic medical students along with a survey on its perceived benefits on success in medical gross anatomy course. No significant differences were found in gross anatomy grade, GPA, or COMLEX 1 score between students with premedical anatomy coursework and those without. However, significant differences and higher scores were observed in students who had taken three or more undergraduate anatomy courses including at least one with cadaveric laboratory. There was significantly lower perceived benefit for academic success in the medical gross anatomy course (P<.001) from those students who had taken premedical anatomy courses (5.9 of 10) compared with those who had not (8.2 of 10). Results suggest that requiring any anatomy course as a prerequisite for medical school would not have significant effect on student performance in the medical gross anatomy course. However, requiring more specific anatomy coursework including taking three or more undergraduate anatomy courses, one with cadaveric laboratory component, may result in higher medical gross anatomy grades, medical school GPA, and COMLEX 1 scores. Clin. Anat. 30:303-311, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Gross Motor Profile and Its Association with Socialization Skills in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardiono D. Pusponegoro

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: Children with ASD had lower gross motor skills compared to typically developing children. Gross motor impairments were found in 20% of the ASD children, and these children also had lower socialization skills than those without gross motor impairments.

  13. Gross Pollutant Traps: Wet Load Assessment at Sungai Kerayong, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Shah, M. R.; Zahari, N. M.; Said, N. F. Md; Sidek, L. M.; Basri, H.; Noor, M. S. F. Md; Husni, M. M. Mohammad; Jajarmizadeh, Milad; Roseli, ZA; Mohd. Dom, N.

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this project is to carry out assessment on the effectiveness and performance of Gross Pollutant Traps (GPTs) stormwater quality control in the urban areas. The study aims to provide a management and planning tool for effective management of the gross pollutants in the urban areas specifically in River of Life (ROL) project. ROL project is a Malaysian Government initiative under the Economic Transformation Program. One of the program in the greater Klang Valley is to transform Klang River into a vibrant and livable waterfront by the year 2020. The main river in ROL catchment is Sungai Klang (upper catchment), with main tributaries Sungai Gombak, Sungai Batu, Sungai Jinjang, Sungai Keroh, Sungai Bunus, Sungai Ampang and Sungai Kerayong. This paper objective is to study the gross pollutant wet load at Sungai Kerayong 1 and Sungai Kerayong 2 which is located at the downstream location of the ROL project. The result shows that Sungai Kerayong 2 produced higher gross pollutant wet load (8025.33 kg/ha/yr) than Sungai Kerayong 1 (4695.12 kg/ha/yr). This could be due to high contributions amounts of gross pollutant traps from residential area, the degree of develop area, and also the location of the river itself related to climate and rainfall.

  14. Gross efficiency during rowing is not affected by stroke rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmijster, Mathijs J; Van Soest, Arthur J; De Koning, Jos J

    2009-05-01

    It has been suggested that the optimal stroke rate in rowing is partly determined by the stroke-rate dependence of internal power losses. This should be reflected in a stroke-rate dependency of gross efficiency (e(gross)). The purpose of this study was to investigate if e(gross) is affected by stroke rate. A second aim was to determine whether internal power losses can be estimated by the negative power output during the stroke cycle (P(negative)). Seventeen well-trained female rowers participated in this study. They rowed three trials on a modified rowing ergometer on slides at a submaximal intensity, with a respiratory exchange ratio of 1 or close to 1. Stroke rates were 28, 34, and 40 strokes per minute. The trials were fully randomized. Power transfer to the flywheel was kept constant whereas e(gross) was determined during each trial. No significant differences in e(gross) were found between conditions. This finding suggests that in rowing internal power losses are not influenced by stroke rate. Furthermore, although P(negative) increased at increasing stroke rate (P measure to estimate internal power losses. This study shows that within the range of stroke rates applied in competitive rowing, internal power losses are unrelated to rowing cycle frequency.

  15. Gross municipal product: the design procedure and application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Vasilevich Kolechkov

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the actual problem to find the adequate methods to assess the economic performance of municipalities conditioned by their growing independence and role in the development of regional economy. Nowadays many researchers are working on the practical application and testing of various approaches to assessing theterritory economicresults based on thecalculation of gross municipal product (GМP. However, the development of methodological reasonable calculation tools is still at an early stage. In this article presents a simplified method of calculating the gross municipal product, an analysis of the dynamics and territorialindustrial structure GМP, implemented in terms of grouping areas GМP methods hierarchical cluster analysis of the economic characteristics of the obtained clustersbased on systematic occurring in the economic literature, methodological developments in the calculation of gross municipal product, determination of strengths and weaknesses of different methodological approaches

  16. Anatomy of the Gross Intestine of the Capybara (Hydrochoerus Hydrochaeris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelia Vazquez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The anatomy of the gross intestine and its mesentery of the capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris have not been described completely. Approach: In the present study, eight adult capybaras were studied using gross dissection. Results: The cecum was the largest part of the intestine and was divided into base, body and apex. The cecocolic fold joined the cecum to the full extent of the proximal loop of ascending colon. The ascending colon was divided into two ansae, one proximal and one distal or spiral. The distal ansa had a spiral arrangement and was placed cranially to the right, covered ventrally by the apex of the cecum. This ansa had a centripetal gyrus to the left, a central flexure and a centrifugal gyrus turning to the right that was continuous with the transverse colon in the right colic flexure. Conclusion: The gross intestine of the capybara was different to other previously studied rodents.

  17. Potato production in Europe - a gross margin analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren Marcus; Bizik, Jan; Costa, Luisa Dalla;

    The purpose of this paper is to examine different cropping practices, cost structures and gross margins for producing conventional table potatoes in 6 different regions within the European Union: Czech Republic, Denmark, Italy, Poland, Portugal and Slovakia. Findings from this study show that pot......The purpose of this paper is to examine different cropping practices, cost structures and gross margins for producing conventional table potatoes in 6 different regions within the European Union: Czech Republic, Denmark, Italy, Poland, Portugal and Slovakia. Findings from this study show...... that potato cropping practices varies signifi-cantly between these countries with major differences in yields and costs. Italy and Denmark are the two regions with highest gross margins due to high yields and reve-nues. Poland is by far the largest potato producing country among the 6 countries ex...

  18. A survey of gross alpha and gross beta activity in soil samples in Kinta District, Perak, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Siak Kuan; Wagiran, Husin; Ramli, Ahmad Termizi

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the gross alpha and gross beta activity concentrations from the different soil types found in the Kinta District, Perak, Malaysia. A total of 128 soil samples were collected and their dose rates were measured 1 m above the ground. Gross alpha and gross beta activity measurements were carried out using gas flow proportional counter, Tennelec Series 5 LB5500 Automatic Low Background Counting System. The alpha activity concentration ranged from 15 to 9634 Bq kg(-1) with a mean value of 1558±121 Bq kg(-1). The beta activity concentration ranged from 142 to 6173 Bq kg(-1) with a mean value of 1112±32 Bq kg(-1). High alpha and beta activity concentrations are from the same soil type. The results of the analysis show a strong correlation between the gross alpha activity concentration and dose rate (R = 0.92). The data obtained can be used as a database for each soil type.

  19. Ludwik Gross, Sarah Stewart, and the 1950s discoveries of Gross murine leukemia virus and polyoma virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Gregory J

    2014-12-01

    The Polish-American scientist Ludwik Gross made two important discoveries in the early 1950s. He showed that two viruses - murine leukemia virus and parotid tumor virus - could cause cancer when they were injected into susceptible animals. At first, Gross's discoveries were greeted with skepticism: it seemed implausible that viruses could cause a disease as complex as cancer. Inspired by Gross's initial experiments, similar results were obtained by Sarah Stewart and Bernice Eddy who later renamed the parotid tumor virus SE polyoma virus after finding it could cause many different types of tumors in mice, hamsters, and rats. Eventually the "SE" was dropped and virologists adopted the name "polyoma virus." After Gross's work was published, additional viruses capable of causing solid tumors or blood-borne tumors in mice were described by Arnold Graffi, Charlotte Friend, John Moloney and others. By 1961, sufficient data had been accumulated for Gross to confidently publish an extensive monograph--Oncogenic Viruses--the first history of tumor virology, which became a standard reference work and marked the emergence of tumor virology as a distinct, legitimate field of study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Numerical simulation for the Gross-Pitaevskii equation based on the lattice Boltzmann method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huimin

    2017-09-01

    A lattice Boltzmann model for the Gross-Pitaevskii equation is proposed in this paper. Some numerical tests for one- and two-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation have been conducted. The waves of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation are simulated. Numerical results show that the lattice Boltzmann method is an effective method for the wave of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation.

  1. 29 CFR 779.259 - What is included in annual gross volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is included in annual gross volume. 779.259 Section... Coverage Annual Gross Volume of Sales Made Or Business Done § 779.259 What is included in annual gross volume. (a) The annual gross volume of sales made or business done of an enterprise consists of its...

  2. 29 CFR 794.122 - Ascertainment of “annual” gross sales volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ascertainment of âannualâ gross sales volume. 794.122... Annual Gross Volume of Sales § 794.122 Ascertainment of “annual” gross sales volume. The annual gross volume of sales of an enterprise engaged in the wholesale or bulk distribution of petroleum...

  3. Happy Life Years: a measure of Gross National Happiness

    OpenAIRE

    Veenhoven, Ruut

    2004-01-01

    textabstractHappiness is defined as the degree to which a person enjoys his or her life-as-a-whole. Accordingly ‘Gross National Happiness’ is defined as the degree to which citizens in a country enjoy the life they live. Individual happiness can be measured by self-report on a single standard question. Hence Gross National Happiness can be measured by the average response to such questions in general populations surveys. Survey data on average self-report of happiness can be combined with est...

  4. The Impact of Investments and Gross Value Added upon Earnings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa APARASCHIVEI

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we tried to capture the impact of investments and gross value added, but also the impact of the employment on the average wage. The analysis refers to the period 1998- 2008 and we are using data on the activities of the Romanian economy. The results of this study confirm the negative influence of the employment, being consistent with the theory. Also, the impact of investments and that of gross value added came out to be positive and significant.

  5. Revised Phase Diagram of the Gross-Neveu Model

    CERN Document Server

    Thies, M; Thies, Michael; Urlichs, Konrad

    2003-01-01

    We confirm earlier hints that the conventional phase diagram of the discrete chiral Gross-Neveu model in the large N limit is deficient at non-zero chemical potential. We present the corrected phase diagram constructed in mean field theory. It has three different phases, including a kink-antikink crystal phase. All transitions are second order. The driving mechanism for the new structure of baryonic matter in the Gross-Neveu model is an Overhauser type instability with gap formation at the Fermi surface.

  6. Monitoring of gross alpha, gross beta and actinides activities in exhaust air released from the waste isolation pilot plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thakur, P., E-mail: pthakur@cemrc.org [Carlsbad Environmental Monitoring and Research Center, 1400 University Drive, Carlsbad, New Mexico 88220 (United States); Mulholland, G.P. [Carlsbad Environmental Monitoring and Research Center, 1400 University Drive, Carlsbad, New Mexico 88220 (United States)

    2011-09-15

    The simultaneous measurements of gross alpha and beta activities is one of the simplest radioanalytical technique used as a method for screening samples of both high and low activities of alpha and beta emitting radionuclides in environmental and bioassay samples. Such measurements are of great interest from both a radiological, waste disposal viewpoint, and to establish a trend of radioactivity based on long term monitoring. At the WIPP (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant) site, unfiltered exhaust air from the underground repository is the most important effluent. As part of its monitoring program, the particulates from WIPP exhaust air are collected everyday at a location typically called the Fixed Air Sampler (FAS) site or Station A, this site is located at the release point for aerosol effluents from the underground to the environment. The measurements of gross alpha and beta activity on air filter samples were performed using an ultra low level counter, PIC-MPC 9604-{alpha}/{beta}, from Protean Instrument Corporation. The high sensitivity of the gross alpha and beta instrument enables detection of low value activity from the air filters. In 2009, the values of gross alpha and beta activity concentrations ranged from Simultaneous measurements of gross alpha and gross beta activities in the particulates from WIPP exhaust air were performed. > Ultra low level counter, PIC-MPC 9604-{alpha}/{beta} counter was used for the measurements. > Values of gross alpha activity concentrations ranged from Values of gross beta activity concentrations ranged from

  7. 26 CFR 1.555-2 - Additions to gross income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Corporation sells 90percent of its stock in the Y Corporation and thus is a minority shareholder in the Y... on which the required United States group exists, and (2) Such foreign corporation is a shareholder... the gross income of its shareholders, whether United States shareholders or other foreign...

  8. Comments on the research article by Gross et al. (2012)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guntur, Srinivas; Sørensen, Niels N.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this Letter to the Editor is to present a discussion on the physics of rotational augmentation based on existing work. One of the latest works by Gross et al. (2012) is highlighted here, and its conclusions are discussed. Based on the existing understanding of rotational augmentati...

  9. Effective Collaboration among the Gross Motor Assessment Team Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menear, Kristi S.; Davis, Timothy D.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the gross motor assessment team (GMAT) members' roles and collaborative approach to making appropriate decisions and modifications when addressing the needs of individuals with disabilities in physical education. Case studies of students are used to demonstrate effective uses of the GMAT. The primary outcome of the GMAT's…

  10. 40 CFR 403.15 - Net/Gross calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... STANDARDS GENERAL PRE-TREAT-MENT REGULATIONS FOR EXIST-ING AND NEW SOURCES OF POLLUTION § 403.15 Net/Gross... pollutants in the Industrial User's intake water in accordance with this section. Any Industrial User wishing... of the Industrial User, the applicable Standard will be calculated on a “net” basis (i.e., adjusted...

  11. Rubriek 'Meten in de praktijk': Gross Motor Function Measure.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenhof, C.; Ketelaar, M.

    2004-01-01

    De Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) is een instrument dat de grof-motorische vaardigheden meet van kinderen met cerebrale parese. De GMFM is expliciet ontwikkeld als evaluatief meetinstrument, wat betekent dat het bedoeld is om veranderingen over de tijd of verandering en die optreden na behandel

  12. Development of the Gross Motor Function Classification System (1997)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    To address the need for a standardized system to classify the gross motor function of children with cerebral palsy, the authors developed a five-level classification system analogous to the staging and grading systems used in medicine. Nominal group process and Delphi survey consensus methods were used to examine content validity and revise the…

  13. Effective Collaboration among the Gross Motor Assessment Team Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menear, Kristi S.; Davis, Timothy D.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the gross motor assessment team (GMAT) members' roles and collaborative approach to making appropriate decisions and modifications when addressing the needs of individuals with disabilities in physical education. Case studies of students are used to demonstrate effective uses of the GMAT. The primary outcome of the GMAT's…

  14. Assessing Gross Motor Skills of Kosovar Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shala, Merita

    2009-01-01

    In the light of the new developments in preschool education in Kosovo, this study attempts to carry out an assessment of the development of gross motor skills of preschool children attending institutional education. The emphasis is on creating a set of tests to measure the motor attainments of these children by conducting assessments of the…

  15. 78 FR 26575 - Gross Combination Weight Rating; Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-07

    ... Weight Rating; Definition AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION... definition of ``gross combination weight rating'' (or GCWR) to clarify that a GCWR is the greater of: the....regulations.gov . Fax: 1-202-493-2251. Mail: Docket Management Facility (M-30), U.S. Department of...

  16. Gross and Microscopic Lesions in Corals from Micronesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, T M; Aeby, G S; Hughen, K A

    2016-01-01

    The authors documented gross and microscopic morphology of lesions in corals on 7 islands spanning western, southern, and eastern Micronesia, sampling 76 colonies comprising 30 species of corals among 18 genera, with Acropora, Porites, and Montipora dominating. Tissue loss comprised the majority of gross lesions sampled (41%), followed by discoloration (30%) and growth anomaly (29%). Of 31 cases of tissue loss, most lesions were subacute (48%), followed by acute and chronic (26% each). Of 23 samples with discoloration, most were dark discoloration (40%), with bleaching and other discoloration each constituting 30%. Of 22 growth anomalies, umbonate growth anomalies composed half, with exophytic, nodular, and rugose growth anomalies composing the remainder. On histopathology, for 9 cases of dark discoloration, fungal infections predominated (77%); for 7 bleached corals, depletion of zooxanthellae from the gastrodermis made up a majority of microscopic diagnoses (57%); and for growth anomalies other than umbonate, hyperplasia of the basal body wall was the most common microscopic finding (63%). For the remainder of the gross lesions, no single microscopic finding constituted >50% of the total. Host response varied with the agent present on histology. Fragmentation of tissues was most often associated with algae (60%), whereas necrosis dominated (53%) for fungi. Two newly documented potentially symbiotic tissue-associated metazoans were seen in Porites and Montipora. Findings of multiple potential etiologies for a given gross lesion highlight the importance of incorporating histopathology in coral disease surveys. This study also expands the range of corals infected with cell-associated microbial aggregates.

  17. Gross and microscopic lesions in corals from Micronesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, Thierry M.; Aeby, Greta S.; Hughen, Konrad A.

    2015-01-01

    The authors documented gross and microscopic morphology of lesions in corals on 7 islands spanning western, southern, and eastern Micronesia, sampling 76 colonies comprising 30 species of corals among 18 genera, with Acropora, Porites, and Montipora dominating. Tissue loss comprised the majority of gross lesions sampled (41%), followed by discoloration (30%) and growth anomaly (29%). Of 31 cases of tissue loss, most lesions were subacute (48%), followed by acute and chronic (26% each). Of 23 samples with discoloration, most were dark discoloration (40%), with bleaching and other discoloration each constituting 30%. Of 22 growth anomalies, umbonate growth anomalies composed half, with exophytic, nodular, and rugose growth anomalies composing the remainder. On histopathology, for 9 cases of dark discoloration, fungal infections predominated (77%); for 7 bleached corals, depletion of zooxanthellae from the gastrodermis made up a majority of microscopic diagnoses (57%); and for growth anomalies other than umbonate, hyperplasia of the basal body wall was the most common microscopic finding (63%). For the remainder of the gross lesions, no single microscopic finding constituted >50% of the total. Host response varied with the agent present on histology. Fragmentation of tissues was most often associated with algae (60%), whereas necrosis dominated (53%) for fungi. Two newly documented potentially symbiotic tissue-associated metazoans were seen in Porites and Montipora. Findings of multiple potential etiologies for a given gross lesion highlight the importance of incorporating histopathology in coral disease surveys. This study also expands the range of corals infected with cell-associated microbial aggregates.

  18. Happy Life Years: a measure of Gross National Happiness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractHappiness is defined as the degree to which a person enjoys his or her life-as-a-whole. Accordingly ‘Gross National Happiness’ is defined as the degree to which citizens in a country enjoy the life they live. Individual happiness can be measured by self-report on a single standard

  19. 77 FR 51706 - Gross Combination Weight Rating (GCWR); Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration 49 CFR Parts 383 and 390 RIN 2126-AB53 Gross Combination Weight Rating (GCWR); Definition AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Direct final rule; request for comments. SUMMARY: The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration...

  20. Strategic improvements for gross anatomy web-based teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marker, David R; Juluru, Krishna; Long, Chris; Magid, Donna

    2012-01-01

    Current generations of graduate students have been immersed in technology from their early school years and have high expectations regarding digital resources. To better meet the expectations of Gross Anatomy students at our institution, electronic radiology teaching files for first-year coursework were organized into a web site. The web site was custom designed to provide material that directly correlated to the Gross Anatomy dissection and lectures. Quick links provided sets of images grouped by anatomic location. Additionally, Lab and Study Companions provided specific material for the students to review prior to and after lectures and gross dissections. Student opinions of this education resource were compared to student opinions of the prior year's digital teaching files. The new content was ranked as more user friendly (3.1 points versus 2.3 points) and more useful for learning anatomy (3.3 points versus 2.6 points). Many students reported that using the web portal was critical in helping them to better understand relationships of anatomical structures. These findings suggest that a well-organized web portal can provide a user-friendly, valuable educational resource for medical students who are studying Gross Anatomy.

  1. Fine and Gross Motor Ability in Males with ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Both fine and gross motor abilities were evaluated in 10-year-old males with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and compared to a group of control children at the School of Psychology, Curtin University of Technology, Perth, Australia.

  2. Construction of 2-dimensional Grosse-Wulkenhaar Model

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Zhituo

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we construct the noncommutative Grosse-Wulkenhaar model on 2-dimensional Moyal plane with the method of loop vertex expansion. We treat renormalization with this new tool, adapt Nelson's argument and prove Borel summability of the perturbation series. This is the first non-commutative quantum field theory model to be built in a non-perturbative sense.

  3. Monopol suretab kohaliku loomakasvataja / Oleg Gross ; interv . Illar Mõttus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Gross, Oleg, 1952-

    2005-01-01

    Väike-Maarja jäätmetehase monopoolse seisundi vastu sõna võtnud OG Elektra omanik Oleg Gross on kindel, et jäätmetehasega suretatakse kohalikud väiksemad lihatootjad välja. Kommenteerivad talupidaja Jüri Järvet ja Rakvere Lihakombinaadi direktor Olle Horm

  4. ɛ-expansion in the Gross-Neveu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, Avinash

    2016-10-01

    We use the recently developed CFT techniques of Rychkov and Tan to compute anomalous dimensions in the O( N ) Gross-Neveu model in d = 2 + ɛ dimensions. To do this, we extend the "cowpie contraction" algorithm of arXiv:1506.06616 to theories with fermions. Our results match perfectly with Feynman diagram computations.

  5. Barn music at St Donat's castle / Philip Gross

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Gross, Philip, 1952-

    2011-01-01

    Muusikafestivalist "Vale of Glamorgan", mis oli 2010. a. pühendatud Arvo Pärdile. Eesti kammermuusikaansambli Resonabilis kavas oli ka festivali tellimusel valminud uelsi helilooja Gareth Peredur Churchilli "Vocable", mille teksti kirjutas Philip Gross. Festivalikontsertide muljeid leiab Grossi luuletsüklis "Barn music" (avaldatud samas ajakirjanumbris, lk. 42-43)

  6. Samuel D. Gross: the nestor of American surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo-Pereyra, Luis H

    2006-01-01

    Samuel David Gross (1805-1884) represented the most notable surgeon of his generation and was honored with the title of "The Nestor of American Surgeon" by surgeon biographer Isaac Minis Hays. Of Pennsylvania Dutch stock, he was born on the family farm near Easton, Pennsylvania. He attended Wilkebarré Academy and Lawrenceville High School, noted private institutions of the day. He apprenticed under Doctor Joseph K. Swift of Easton and later with Professor George McClellan while in Philadelphia. In 1828, he graduated from Jefferson Medical College and remained for a short time in Philadelphia. Professor Gross focused his professional pursuits in the cities of Easton (1830-1833), Cincinnati (1833-1840), Louisville (1840-1856), and Philadelphia (1856-1882). He retired from Jefferson Medical College two years before his death in 1884. Samuel D. Gross' contributions to surgery were numerous and diverse. He was recognized as a prolific author of classic texts of pathology, surgery, and history, an educator, a leader, a surgical researcher, and a pioneer surgeon practitioner. His influence in national affairs was immense, and his recognition as a respected surgeon was unmatched. He remains the most distinguished surgeon of his times. History values him as a hard working, honest, highly competent, and committed individual. His capacity for work and his dedication to a single cause were unrivaled. Doctor Gross integrated the best that surgery could give to future generations of surgical professionals.

  7. Attitudes of Healthcare Students on Gross Anatomy Laboratory Sessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashiro, Yukiko; Anahara, Reiko; Kohno, Toshihiko; Mori, Chisato; Matsuno, Yoshiharu

    2009-01-01

    At Chiba University, gross anatomy laboratory sessions ("laboratories") are required for physical therapy students. Though most physical therapy schools require their students to participate in laboratories so that they will better understand the structure of the human body, few data exist on the value of these laboratories specifically…

  8. Uniqueness of Meromorphic Functions and Question of Gross

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仪洪勋

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, we deal with the problem of uniqueness of meromorphic functions. It is shown that there exist two finite sets Sj (j=1, 2) such that any two nonconstant meromorphic functions f and g satisfying Ef(Sj)=Eg(Sj) for j = 1,2 must be identical, which answers a question posed by Gross.

  9. Interlimb Coordination: An Important Facet of Gross-Motor Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobbio, Tatiana; Gabbard, Carl; Cacola, Priscila

    2009-01-01

    Motor development attains landmark significance during early childhood. Although early childhood educators may be familiar with the gross-motor skill category, the subcategory of interlimb coordination needs greater attention than it typically receives from teachers of young children. Interlimb coordination primarily involves movements requiring…

  10. Barn music at St Donat's castle / Philip Gross

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Gross, Philip, 1952-

    2011-01-01

    Muusikafestivalist "Vale of Glamorgan", mis oli 2010. a. pühendatud Arvo Pärdile. Eesti kammermuusikaansambli Resonabilis kavas oli ka festivali tellimusel valminud uelsi helilooja Gareth Peredur Churchilli "Vocable", mille teksti kirjutas Philip Gross. Festivalikontsertide muljeid leiab Grossi luuletsüklis "Barn music" (avaldatud samas ajakirjanumbris, lk. 42-43)

  11. 75 FR 15610 - Exclusions From Gross Income of Foreign Corporations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 Exclusions From Gross Income of Foreign Corporations CFR Correction In Title 26 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 1 (Sec. Sec. 1.851 to 1.907), revised as...

  12. Gross Motor Development, Movement Abnormalities, and Early Identification of Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozonoff, Sally; Young, Gregory S.; Goldring, Stacy; Greiss-Hess, Laura; Herrera, Adriana M.; Steele, Joel; Macari, Suzanne; Hepburn, Susan; Rogers, Sally J.

    2008-01-01

    Gross motor development (supine, prone, rolling, sitting, crawling, walking) and movement abnormalities were examined in the home videos of infants later diagnosed with autism (regression and no regression subgroups), developmental delays (DD), or typical development. Group differences in maturity were found for walking, prone, and supine, with…

  13. Outcomes of a Rotational Dissection System in Gross Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshak, David W.; Oakes, Joanne; Hsieh, Pei-Hsuan; Chuang, Alice Z.; Cleary, Leonard J.

    2015-01-01

    At the University of Texas Houston Medical School, a rotational dissection system was introduced to improve coordination between the Gross Anatomy and the Introduction to Clinical Medicine (ICM) courses. Six students were assigned to each cadaver and divided into two teams. For each laboratory, one team was assigned to dissect and the other to…

  14. Strategic Improvements for Gross Anatomy Web-Based Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Marker

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Current generations of graduate students have been immersed in technology from their early school years and have high expectations regarding digital resources. To better meet the expectations of Gross Anatomy students at our institution, electronic radiology teaching files for first-year coursework were organized into a web site. The web site was custom designed to provide material that directly correlated to the Gross Anatomy dissection and lectures. Quick links provided sets of images grouped by anatomic location. Additionally, Lab and Study Companions provided specific material for the students to review prior to and after lectures and gross dissections. Student opinions of this education resource were compared to student opinions of the prior year’s digital teaching files. The new content was ranked as more user friendly (3.1 points versus 2.3 points and more useful for learning anatomy (3.3 points versus 2.6 points. Many students reported that using the web portal was critical in helping them to better understand relationships of anatomical structures. These findings suggest that a well-organized web portal can provide a user-friendly, valuable educational resource for medical students who are studying Gross Anatomy.

  15. Vast Portfolio Selection with Gross-exposure Constraints*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jianqing; Zhang, Jingjin; Yu, Ke

    2012-01-01

    We introduce the large portfolio selection using gross-exposure constraints. We show that with gross-exposure constraint the empirically selected optimal portfolios based on estimated covariance matrices have similar performance to the theoretical optimal ones and there is no error accumulation effect from estimation of vast covariance matrices. This gives theoretical justification to the empirical results in Jagannathan and Ma (2003). We also show that the no-short-sale portfolio can be improved by allowing some short positions. The applications to portfolio selection, tracking, and improvements are also addressed. The utility of our new approach is illustrated by simulation and empirical studies on the 100 Fama-French industrial portfolios and the 600 stocks randomly selected from Russell 3000. PMID:23293404

  16. Vast Portfolio Selection with Gross-exposure Constraints().

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jianqing; Zhang, Jingjin; Yu, Ke

    2012-01-01

    We introduce the large portfolio selection using gross-exposure constraints. We show that with gross-exposure constraint the empirically selected optimal portfolios based on estimated covariance matrices have similar performance to the theoretical optimal ones and there is no error accumulation effect from estimation of vast covariance matrices. This gives theoretical justification to the empirical results in Jagannathan and Ma (2003). We also show that the no-short-sale portfolio can be improved by allowing some short positions. The applications to portfolio selection, tracking, and improvements are also addressed. The utility of our new approach is illustrated by simulation and empirical studies on the 100 Fama-French industrial portfolios and the 600 stocks randomly selected from Russell 3000.

  17. Gross-Pitaevski map as a chaotic dynamical system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarneri, Italo

    2017-03-01

    The Gross-Pitaevski map is a discrete time, split-operator version of the Gross-Pitaevski dynamics in the circle, for which exponential instability has been recently reported. Here it is studied as a classical dynamical system in its own right. A systematic analysis of Lyapunov exponents exposes strongly chaotic behavior. Exponential growth of energy is then shown to be a direct consequence of rotational invariance and for stationary solutions the full spectrum of Lyapunov exponents is analytically computed. The present analysis includes the "resonant" case, when the free rotation period is commensurate to 2 π , and the map has countably many constants of the motion. Except for lowest-order resonances, this case exhibits an integrable-chaotic transition.

  18. The San Andreas fault experiment. [gross tectonic plates relative velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D. E.; Vonbun, F. O.

    1973-01-01

    A plan was developed during 1971 to determine gross tectonic plate motions along the San Andreas Fault System in California. Knowledge of the gross motion along the total fault system is an essential component in the construction of realistic deformation models of fault regions. Such mathematical models will be used in the future for studies which will eventually lead to prediction of major earthquakes. The main purpose of the experiment described is the determination of the relative velocity of the North American and the Pacific Plates. This motion being so extremely small, cannot be measured directly but can be deduced from distance measurements between points on opposite sites of the plate boundary taken over a number of years.

  19. GLOBALIZATION AND GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT CONSTRUCTION IN ASEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Sri Wahyudi Suliswanto

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available There is no more doubt about the importance of economic growth, which can be calculated fromGross Domestic Product (GDP. This research analyzes the role of globalization on GDP inASEAN-5 by estimating panel data. It uses a fixed effect approach to accommodate various characteristicsin the countries. To accommodate such variation, it assumes that the intercepts variesacross these countries, while the slopes remain similar. Based on the estimation result, it suggeststhat net export and foreign direct investment represent the globalization process. Both have positiveand significant influences on GDP in the corresponding countries.Keywords: Globalization, international trade, foreign direct investment, gross domestic productJEL classification numbers: E01, F51, F43

  20. PREDICTION OF GROSS FEED EFFICIENCY IN ITALIAN HOLSTEIN FRIESIAN BULLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaella Finocchiaro

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to predict gross feed efficiency of Italian Holstein Friesian bulls selected for production, functional and type traits. A total of 12,238 bulls, from the April 2015 genetic evaluation, were used. Predicted daily gross feed efficiency (pFE was obtained as ratio between milk yield (MY and predicted dry matter intake (pDMI. Phenotypic trend for MY, predicted body weight (pBW and pFE were calculated by the bull birth year. The results suggest that pFE can be successfully selected to increase profitability of dairy cattle using the current milk recording system. Direct measurements on DMI should be considered to confirm results of pFE obtained in the present study.

  1. Gross efficiency and energy expenditure in kayak ergometer exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, B B; Mourão, L; Massart, A; Figueiredo, P; Vilas-Boas, J P; Santos, A M C; Fernandes, R J

    2012-08-01

    We purposed to study energy expenditure, power output and gross efficiency during kayak ergometer exercise in 12 elite sprint kayakers. 6 males (age 24.2±4.8 years, height 180.4±4.8 cm, body mass 79.7±8.5 kg) and 6 females (age 24.3±4.5 years, height 164.5±3.9 cm, body mass 65.4±3.5 kg), performed an incremental intermittent protocol on kayak ergometer with VO2 and blood lactate concentration assessment, a non-linear increase between power output and energy expenditure being observed. Paddling power output, energy expenditure and gross efficiency corresponding to VO2max averaged 199.92±50.41 W, 75.27±6.30 ml.kg - 1.min - 1, and 10.10±1.08%. Male kayakers presented higher VO2max, power output and gross efficiency at the VO2max, and lower heart rate and maximal lactate concentration than females, but no differences were found between genders regarding energy expenditure at VO2max. Aerobic and anaerobic components of energy expenditure evidenced a significant contribution of anaerobic energy sources in sprint kayak performance. Results also suggested the dependence of the gross efficiency on the changes in the amount of the aerobic and anaerobic contributions, at heavy and severe intensities. The inter-individual variance of the relationship between energy expenditure and the corresponding paddling power output revealed a relevant tracking for females (FDγ=0.73±0.06), conversely to the male group (FDγ=0.27±0.08), supporting that some male kayakers are more skilled in some paddling intensities than others.

  2. Constructive Renormalization of 2-dimensional Grosse-Wulkenhaar Model

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Zhituo

    2012-01-01

    In this talk we briefly report the recent work on the construction of the 2-dimensional Grosse-Wulkenhaar model with the method of loop vertex expansion. We treat renormalization with this new tool, adapt Nelson's argument and prove Borel summability of the perturbation series. This is the first non-commutative quantum field theory model to be built in a non-perturbative sense.

  3. Landscape History of Grosses Moos, NW Swiss Alpine Foreland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joanna Heer, Aleksandra; Adamiec, Grzegorz; Veit, Heinz; May, Jan-Hendrik; Novenko, Elena; Hajdas, Irka

    2017-04-01

    The western Swiss Plateau with Lake Neuchâtel is part of the alpine foreland and among the key areas for the reconstruction of environmental changes since the last postglacial. This study was carried out in a landscape located NE of the lake and called Grosses Moos (The Large Fen) - currently designated the Swiss largest, continuous farming area, after the fen was drained in course of landscape engineering projects performed in Switzerland at the end of the 19th century. The study contributes new results from nine excavations of littoral ridges identified in Grosses Moos, and integrates sedimentology, paleo-environmental analysis and three independent chronological methods. Radiocarbon dating, pollen analysis and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) were applied to the sediments. While pollen and radiocarbon follow the standard procedures, the evaluation of the luminescence age estimates demanded adjustment according to the physical and microdosimetric properties of the alpine quartz, and consideration of the peculiarities of the changing littoral environments of Grosses Moos. The Grosses Moos landscape developed on the temporary surface of the post-Last Glacial sedimentary infill of the over-deepened glacial Aare valley. In this study the landscape history has been fitted into the existing supraregional time scales of NGRIP, the Swiss bio-zones system and the human history based on archaeological and historic records and covers a time span of up to 15'000 yr b2k. The wide-ranging suite of geomorphic features and sedimentary sequences, including littoral lake sediments, beach ridges, dunes, palaeo-channels, peat and colluvial deposits, enable the extensive reconstruction of spatially and temporally variable natural shaping processes. In addition, our results indicate remobilization of soil, colluvium, and sediment due to human settlement activities since the Neolithic - with an important increase in sediment load and spatial variability since the Bronze Age

  4. Relationship Between Gross Motor Function and Daily Functional Skill in Children With Cerebral Palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Kwon, Tae Gun; Yi, Sook-Hee; Kim, Tae Won; Chang, Hyun Jung; Kwon, Jeong-Yi

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between gross motor function and daily functional skill in children with cerebral palsy (CP) and to explore how this relationship is moderated by the Gross Motor Function Classification System, Bimanual Fine Motor Function (BFMF), neuromotor types, and limb distribution of CP. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 112 children with CP (range, 4 years to 7 years and 7 months) was performed. Gross motor function was assessed with the Gross Motor Function ...

  5. 26 CFR 1.927(b)-1T - Temporary regulations; Definition of gross receipts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Temporary regulations; Definition of gross...(b)-1T Temporary regulations; Definition of gross receipts. (a) General rule. Under section 927(b.... The FSC's gross receipts for purposes of computing its profit under the administrative pricing...

  6. The relationship between gross motor skills and academic achievement in children with learning disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westendorp, Marieke; Hartman, Esther; Houwen, Suzanne; Smith, Joanne; Visscher, Chris

    2011-01-01

    The present study compared the gross motor skills of 7- to 12-year-old children with learning disabilities (n = 104) with those of age-matched typically developing children (n = 104) using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2. Additionally, the specific relationships between subsets of gross motor

  7. 46 CFR 130.110 - Internal communications on OSVs of less than 100 gross tons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Internal communications on OSVs of less than 100 gross... Internal communications on OSVs of less than 100 gross tons. Each vessel of less than 100 gross tons... have a fixed means of communication between the pilothouse and the place where the auxiliary means...

  8. The relationship between gross motor skills and academic achievement in children with learning disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westendorp, Marieke; Hartman, Esther; Houwen, Suzanne; Smith, Joanne; Visscher, Chris

    2011-01-01

    The present study compared the gross motor skills of 7- to 12-year-old children with learning disabilities (n = 104) with those of age-matched typically developing children (n = 104) using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2. Additionally, the specific relationships between subsets of gross motor

  9. 26 CFR 1.872-1 - Gross income of nonresident alien individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gross income of nonresident alien individuals. 1...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Nonresident Aliens and Foreign Corporations § 1.872-1 Gross income of nonresident alien individuals. (a) In general—(1) Inclusions. The gross income of a nonresident...

  10. 26 CFR 20.2031-1 - Definition of gross estate; valuation of property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., except that if the executor elects the alternate valuation method under section 2032, it is the fair... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definition of gross estate; valuation of... § 20.2031-1 Definition of gross estate; valuation of property. (a) Definition of gross estate. Except...

  11. 26 CFR 1.924(a)-1T - Temporary regulations; definition of foreign trading gross receipts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... trading gross receipts. 1.924(a)-1T Section 1.924(a)-1T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... United States § 1.924(a)-1T Temporary regulations; definition of foreign trading gross receipts. (a) In general. The term “foreign trading gross receipts” means any of the five amounts described in...

  12. The response of gross nitrogen mineralization to labile carbon inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtson, Per

    2014-05-01

    Input of labile carbon sources to forest soils commonly result in priming, i.e. an increase in the microbial decomposition of soil organic matter. Efforts aimed at quantifying the extent of priming have, to date, largely focused on soil organic matter decomposition manifested as soil respiration. Less is known about how gross nitrogen mineralization responds to input of labile carbon. It is often assumed that increased priming results in decreased soil carbon stocks. However, microbial mineralization of organic nitrogen into plant available forms is a major factor limiting primary production in forests. If increased decomposition of soil organic matter in response to labile carbon is accompanied by a concurrent increased nitrogen mineralization, this could result in elevated primary production and higher rates of plant derived organic matter input to soils. Therefore, in order to fully understand the effect of priming on net ecosystem exchange and soil carbon stocks, it is vital to consider if increased decomposition of soil organic matter caused by priming also results in increased nitrogen mineralization. Here I present the results from a series of experiments aimed at determining if, and to which extent, gross nitrogen mineralization is stimulated by input of labile carbon. The results suggest that it is by no means uncommon to find an increase in gross N mineralization rates in response to labile carbon inputs. The magnitude of the increase seems dependent on the nitrogen status of the soil, as well as the concentration and rate of labile carbon inputs. However, continuous input of labile carbon sources that also contains nitrogen, e.g. amino acids, seems to inhibit rather than increase the mineralization of organic nitrogen. These findings suggest that there is a potential for a positive feedback between priming and primary production that needs to be considered in order to fully understand the influence of priming on net ecosystem exchange and soil carbon

  13. The Schroedinger functional for Gross-Neveu models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leder, B.

    2007-04-18

    Gross-Neveu type models with a finite number of fermion flavours are studied on a two-dimensional Euclidean space-time lattice. The models are asymptotically free and are invariant under a chiral symmetry. These similarities to QCD make them perfect benchmark systems for fermion actions used in large scale lattice QCD computations. The Schroedinger functional for the Gross-Neveu models is defined for both, Wilson and Ginsparg-Wilson fermions, and shown to be renormalisable in 1-loop lattice perturbation theory. In two dimensions four fermion interactions of the Gross-Neveu models have dimensionless coupling constants. The symmetry properties of the four fermion interaction terms and the relations among them are discussed. For Wilson fermions chiral symmetry is explicitly broken and additional terms must be included in the action. Chiral symmetry is restored up to cut-off effects by tuning the bare mass and one of the couplings. The critical mass and the symmetry restoring coupling are computed to second order in lattice perturbation theory. This result is used in the 1-loop computation of the renormalised couplings and the associated beta-functions. The renormalised couplings are defined in terms of suitable boundary-to-boundary correlation functions. In the computation the known first order coefficients of the beta-functions are reproduced. One of the couplings is found to have a vanishing betafunction. The calculation is repeated for the recently proposed Schroedinger functional with exact chiral symmetry, i.e. Ginsparg-Wilson fermions. The renormalisation pattern is found to be the same as in the Wilson case. Using the regularisation dependent finite part of the renormalised couplings, the ratio of the Lambda-parameters is computed. (orig.)

  14. Verbal priming and taste sensitivity make moral transgressions gross.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herz, Rachel S

    2014-02-01

    The aims of the present study were to assess whether: (a) visceral and moral disgust share a common oral origin (taste); (b) moral transgressions that are also viscerally involving are evaluated accordingly as a function of individual differences in taste sensitivity; (c) verbal priming interacts with taste sensitivity to alter how disgust is experienced in moral transgressions; and (d) whether gender moderates these effects. Standard tests of disgust sensitivity, a questionnaire developed for this research assessing different types of moral transgressions (nonvisceral, implied-visceral, visceral) with the terms "angry" and "grossed-out," and a taste sensitivity test of 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) were administered to 102 participants. Results confirmed past findings that the more sensitive to PROP a participant was the more disgusted they were by visceral, but not moral, disgust elicitors. Importantly, the findings newly revealed that taste sensitivity had no bearing on evaluations of moral transgressions, regardless of their visceral nature, when "angry" was the emotion primed. However, when "grossed-out" was primed for evaluating moral violations, the more intense PROP tasted to a participant the more "grossed-out" they were by all transgressions. Women were generally more disgust sensitive and morally condemning than men, but disgust test, transgression type, and priming scale modulated these effects. The present findings support the proposition that moral and visceral disgust do not share a common oral origin, but show that linguistic priming can transform a moral transgression into a viscerally repulsive event and that susceptibility to this priming varies as a function of an individual's sensitivity to the origins of visceral disgust-bitter taste.

  15. Complex saddles in the Gross-Witten-Wadia matrix model

    CERN Document Server

    Álvarez, Gabriel; Medina, Elena

    2016-01-01

    We give an exhaustive characterization of the complex saddle point configurations of the Gross-Witten-Wadia matrix model in the large-N limit. In particular, we characterize the cases in which the saddles accumulate in one, two, or three arcs, in terms of the values of the coupling constant and of the fraction of the total unit density that is supported in one of the arcs, and derive an explicit condition for gap closing associated to nonvacuum saddles. By applying the idea of large-N instanton we also give direct analytic derivations of the weak-coupling and strong-coupling instanton actions.

  16. Pathology Gross Photography: The Beginning of Digital Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampy, B Alan; Glassy, Eric F

    2015-06-01

    The underutilized practice of photographing anatomic pathology specimens from surgical pathology and autopsies is an invaluable benefit to patients, clinicians, pathologists, and students. Photographic documentation of clinical specimens is essential for the effective practice of pathology. When considering what specimens to photograph, all grossly evident pathology, absent yet expected pathologic features, and gross-only specimens should be thoroughly documented. Specimen preparation prior to photography includes proper lighting and background, wiping surfaces of blood, removing material such as tubes or bandages, orienting the specimen in a logical fashion, framing the specimen to fill the screen, positioning of probes, and using the right-sized scale.

  17. Four loop renormalization of the Gross-Neveu model

    CERN Document Server

    Gracey, J A; Schroder, Y

    2016-01-01

    We renormalize the SU(N) Gross-Neveu model in the modified minimal subtraction (MSbar) scheme at four loops and determine the beta-function at this order. The theory ceases to be multiplicatively renormalizable when dimensionally regularized due to the generation of evanescent 4-fermi operators. The first of these appears at three loops and we correctly take their effect into account in deriving the renormalization group functions. We use the results to provide estimates of critical exponents relevant to phase transitions in graphene.

  18. Gross shell structure at high spin in heavy nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Deleplanque, M A; Pashkevich, V V; Chu, S Y; Unzhakova, A

    2004-01-01

    Experimental nuclear moments of inertia at high spins along the yrast line have been determined systematically and found to differ from the rigid-body values. The difference is attributed to shell effects and these have been calculated microscopically. The data and quantal calculations are interpreted by means of the semiclassical Periodic Orbit Theory. From this new perspective, features in the moments of inertia as a function of neutron number and spin, as well as their relation to the shell energies can be understood. Gross shell effects persist up to the highest angular momenta observed.

  19. Labor Absorption and Its Impact on Gross Regional Domestic Product

    OpenAIRE

    Made Ika Prastyadewi; Agus Suman; Devanto Shasta Pratomo

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the determinants of labor absorption in the trade, hotel and restaurant sector and its impact on Gross Regional Domestic Product/GRDP at Bali Province. This study is important due to the fact that the GRDP in this sector is the highest compared to other sector but the labor absorption is lower than the agriculture sector. This study used panel data comprising 9 regencies/cities at Bali Province in the period 2003-2009 including fixed effect model and ...

  20. Characterizing the development of sectoral gross domestic product composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Raphael; Spies, Michael; Reusser, Dominik E; Kropp, Jürgen P; Rybski, Diego

    2013-07-01

    We consider the sectoral composition of a country's gross domestic product (GDP), i.e., the partitioning into agrarian, industrial, and service sectors. Exploring a simple system of differential equations, we characterize the transfer of GDP shares between the sectors in the course of economic development. The model fits for the majority of countries providing four country-specific parameters. Relating the agrarian with the industrial sector, a data collapse over all countries and all years supports the applicability of our approach. Depending on the parameter ranges, country development exhibits different transfer properties. Most countries follow three of eight characteristic paths. The types are not random but show distinct geographic and development patterns.

  1. Gross shell structure at high spin in heavy nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deleplanque, Marie-Agnes; Frauendorf, Stefan; Pashkevich, Vitaly V.; Chu, S.Y.; Unzhakova, Anja

    2003-10-07

    Experimental nuclear moments of inertia at high spins along the yrast line have been determined systematically and found to differ from the rigid-body values. The difference is attributed to shell effect and these have been calculated microscopically. The data and quantal calculations are interpreted by means of the semiclassical Periodic Orbit Theory. From this new perspective, features in the moments of inertia as a function of neutron number and spin, as well as their relation to the shell energies can be understood. Gross shell effects persist up to the highest angular momenta observed.

  2. The implications of particle energy and acidic media on gross alpha and gross beta determination using liquid scintillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zapata-Garcia, D. [Laboratori de Radiologia Ambiental (LRA), Departament de Quimica Analitica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques, 1-11 Planta 3, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Llaurado, M., E-mail: montse.llaurado@ub.edu [Laboratori de Radiologia Ambiental (LRA), Departament de Quimica Analitica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques, 1-11 Planta 3, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Rauret, G. [Laboratori de Radiologia Ambiental (LRA), Departament de Quimica Analitica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques, 1-11 Planta 3, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2012-04-15

    The interaction of humans with radioactivity present in the environment from natural and artificial sources necessitates an evaluation of its risk on human health. Gross alpha and gross beta activities can provide a rapid evaluation of the radioactive content of a sample and can be simultaneously determined by using liquid scintillation counters. However, calibration of the liquid scintillation counter is required and is affected by many factors, such as particle energy and the acidity of the media. This study investigates what effect the particle energy used for calibration has on misclassification and how to account for this misclassification in routine measurements. The variability in measurement produced by the final pH, as well as any acids used in sample treatment, was also studied. These results showed that the most commonly used acid for these types of analyses, HNO{sub 3}, produced a high amount of misclassifications at very low pH. The results improved when HCl was used to adjust the sample to low pH. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We study the effect of alpha and beta energies on PSA optimisation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The optimum PSA shifts to higher values as the alpha energy increases. Beta energies do not affect it. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We study the effect of pH on the simultaneous determination of gross alpha/beta activities. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HNO{sub 3} produces a high amount of misclassification at very low pH. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The results improve when HCl is used to adjust the sample to low pH.

  3. Gross Motor Profile and Its Association with Socialization Skills in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusponegoro, Hardiono D; Efar, Pustika; Soedjatmiko; Soebadi, Amanda; Firmansyah, Agus; Chen, Hui-Ju; Hung, Kun-Long

    2016-12-01

    While social impairment is considered to be the core deficit in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a large proportion of these children have poor gross motor ability, and gross motor deficits may influence socialization skills in children with ASD. The objectives of this study were to compare gross motor skills in children with ASD to typically developing children, to describe gross motor problems in children with ASD, and to investigate associations between gross motor and socialization skills in children with ASD. This was a cross-sectional study including 40 ASD children aged from 18 months to 6 years and 40 age-matched typically developing controls. Gross motor and socialization skills were scored using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, 2(nd) edition (Vineland-II). Below average gross motor function was found in eight of 40 (20%) ASD children. The mean gross motor v-scale score in the ASD group was 15.1 [standard deviation (SD) 3.12], significantly lower than in the control group [18.7, SD 2.09, p = 0.0001; 95% confidence intervals (CI) from -4.725 to -2.525]. The differences were most prominent in ball throwing and catching, using stairs, jumping, and bicycling. The ASD children with gross motor impairments had a mean socialization domain score of 66.6 (SD 6.50) compared to 85.7 (SD 10.90) in those without gross motor impairments (p = 0.0001, 95% CI from -25.327 to -12.736). Children with ASD had lower gross motor skills compared to typically developing children. Gross motor impairments were found in 20% of the ASD children, and these children also had lower socialization skills than those without gross motor impairments. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Optimal Bilinear Control of Gross--Pitaevskii Equations

    KAUST Repository

    Hintermüller, Michael

    2013-01-01

    A mathematical framework for optimal bilinear control of nonlinear Schrödinger equations of Gross--Pitaevskii type arising in the description of Bose--Einstein condensates is presented. The obtained results generalize earlier efforts found in the literature in several aspects. In particular, the cost induced by the physical workload over the control process is taken into account rather than the often used L^2- or H^1-norms for the cost of the control action. Well-posedness of the problem and existence of an optimal control are proved. In addition, the first order optimality system is rigorously derived. Also a numerical solution method is proposed, which is based on a Newton-type iteration, and used to solve several coherent quantum control problems.

  5. Gross National Happiness: Ideology versus practices in Bhutanese Seconday Schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær-Rasmussen, Lone Krogh; Giri, Krishna Prasad

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates practices related to the ideology of infusing Gross National Happiness (GNH) into school curriculum, the effectiveness of the meditation and mind training and the implication of GNH for school environment. It also explores how GNH ambience has been managed and practiced......, the influence of the concept of GNH in school life generally and specifically and the effects on teachers and students of mindfull training in the class, how does it work? The investigation is based on empirical data from eight selected secondary schools spread all over Bhutan. Principals, teachers, students...... and parents were interviewed in 2012/2013 individually and in groups. Further more classroom observations took place. Finally the investigation is based on literature review and readings of documents, which describe and analyse policies, principles, strategies and philosophies related to the implementation...

  6. Measurement and Quantification of Gross Human Shoulder Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy T. Newkirk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The shoulder girdle plays an important role in the large pointing workspace that humans enjoy. The goal of this work was to characterize the human shoulder girdle motion in relation to the arm. The overall motion of the human shoulder girdle was characterized based on motion studies completed on test subjects during voluntary (natural/unforced motion. The collected data from the experiments were used to develop surface fit equations that represent the position and orientation of the glenohumeral joint for a given humeral pointing direction. These equations completely quantify gross human shoulder girdle motion relative to the humerus. The equations are presented along with goodness-of-fit results that indicate the equations well approximate the motion of the human glenohumeral joint. This is the first time the motion has been quantified for the entire workspace, and the equations provide a reference against which to compare future work.

  7. Labor Absorption and Its Impact on Gross Regional Domestic Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Made Ika Prastyadewi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to examine the determinants of labor absorption in the trade, hotel and restaurant sector and its impact on Gross Regional Domestic Product/GRDP at Bali Province. This study is important due to the fact that the GRDP in this sector is the highest compared to other sector but the labor absorption is lower than the agriculture sector. This study used panel data comprising 9 regencies/cities at Bali Province in the period 2003-2009 including fixed effect model and simultaneous equation model of Two-Stage Least Square. The results showed that GRDP, working age population, and the minimum wage have positive effect on employment, while the educated unemployment has no significant effect on the employment in the trade, hotel and restaurant sector. In addition, increases in employment and workers productivity have positive and significant effects the GRDP in the trade, hotel and restaurant sector at Bali Province.

  8. Specific features of measuring the ecologically adjusted gross regional product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douginets Ganna V.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article formulates a necessity of deepening and improvement of ecological and economic indicators and considers the existing indices and indicators of sustainable development. It conducts a comparative analysis of existing norms of calculation of the ecological tax and fees for environmental pollution. It marks main problems of nature management in Ukraine and their consequences, namely, negative impact on health of the population. It offers methods of measurement of the ecologically adjusted gross regional product (EGRP on the basis of improvement of the cost method. It analyses dependence of the regional welfare on the state of environment with the help of measuring the EGRP of Ukrainian regions. It studies the pressure on Ukrainian regions by components: pollution of aquatic environment, atmospheric air, land resources and rates of waste formation. It conducts grouping of regions by EGRP per capita with specification of positive and negative dynamics of the indicator.

  9. Stimulation of gross dimethylsulfide (DMS) production by solar radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galí, Martí; Saló, Violeta; Almeda, Rodrigo; Calbet, Albert; Simó, Rafel

    2011-08-01

    Oceanic gross DMS production (GP) exerts a fundamental control on the concentration and the sea-air flux of this climatically-active trace gas. However, it is a poorly constrained process, owing to the complexity of the microbial food web processes involved and their interplay with physical forcing, particularly with solar radiation. The “inhibitor method”, using dimethyldisulfide (DMDS) or other compounds to inhibit bacterial DMS consumption, has been frequently used to determine GP in dark incubations. In the work presented here, DMDS addition was optimized for its use in light incubations. By comparing simultaneous dark and light measurements of GP in meso- to ultraoligotrophic waters, we found a significant enhancement of GP in natural sunlight in 7 out of 10 experiments. Such stimulation, which was generally between 30 and 80% on a daily basis, occurred throughout contrasting microbial communities and oceanographic settings.

  10. Full Phase Diagram of the Massive Gross-Neveu Model

    CERN Document Server

    Schnetz, O; Urlichs, K; Schnetz, Oliver; Thies, Michael; Urlichs, Konrad

    2006-01-01

    The massive Gross-Neveu model is solved in the large N limit at finite temperature and chemical potential. The scalar potential is given in terms of Jacobi elliptic functions. It contains three parameters which are determined by transcendental equations. Self-consistency of the scalar potential is proved. The phase diagram for non-zero bare quark mass is found to contain a kink-antikink crystal phase as well as a massive fermion gas phase featuring a cross-over from light to heavy effective fermion mass. For zero bare quark mass we recover the three known phases kink-antikink crystal, massless fermion gas, and massive fermion gas. All phase transitions are shown to be of second order. Equations for the phase boundaries are given and solved numerically. Implications on condensed matter physics are indicated where our results generalize the bipolaron lattice in non-degenerate conducting polymers to finite temperature.

  11. Single Epoch GPS Deformation Signals Extraction and Gross Error Detection Technique Based on Wavelet Transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jian; GAO Jingxiang; XU Changhui

    2006-01-01

    Wavelet theory is efficient as an adequate tool for analyzing single epoch GPS deformation signal. Wavelet analysis technique on gross error detection and recovery is advanced. Criteria of wavelet function choosing and Mallat decomposition levels decision are discussed. An effective deformation signal extracting method is proposed, that is wavelet noise reduction technique considering gross error recovery, which combines wavelet multi-resolution gross error detection results. Time position recognizing of gross errors and their repairing performance are realized. In the experiment, compactly supported orthogonal wavelet with short support block is more efficient than the longer one when discerning gross errors, which can obtain more finely analyses. And the shape of discerned gross error of short support wavelet is simpler than that of the longer one. Meanwhile, the time scale is easier to identify.

  12. Effect of physical therapy frequency on gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun-Young

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] This study attempted to investigate the effect of physical therapy frequency based on neurodevelopmental therapy on gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy. [Subjects and Methods] The study sample included 161 children with cerebral palsy who attended a convalescent or rehabilitation center for disabled individuals or a special school for children with physical disabilities in South Korea. Gross Motor Function Measure data were collected according to physical therapy frequency based on neurodevelopmental therapy for a period of 1 year. [Results] The correlation between physical therapy frequency and Gross Motor Function Measure scores for crawling and kneeling, standing, walking, running and jumping, and rolling, and the Gross Motor Function Measure total score was significant. The differences in gross motor function according to physical therapy frequency were significant for crawling, kneeling, standing, and Gross Motor Function Measure total score. The differences in gross motor function according to frequency of physical therapy were significant for standing in Gross Motor Function Classification System Level V. [Conclusion] Intensive physical therapy was more effective for improving gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy. In particular, crawling and kneeling, and standing ability showed greater increases with intensive physical therapy.

  13. Effect of physical therapy frequency on gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun-Young

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study attempted to investigate the effect of physical therapy frequency based on neurodevelopmental therapy on gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy. [Subjects and Methods] The study sample included 161 children with cerebral palsy who attended a convalescent or rehabilitation center for disabled individuals or a special school for children with physical disabilities in South Korea. Gross Motor Function Measure data were collected according to physical therapy frequency based on neurodevelopmental therapy for a period of 1 year. [Results] The correlation between physical therapy frequency and Gross Motor Function Measure scores for crawling and kneeling, standing, walking, running and jumping, and rolling, and the Gross Motor Function Measure total score was significant. The differences in gross motor function according to physical therapy frequency were significant for crawling, kneeling, standing, and Gross Motor Function Measure total score. The differences in gross motor function according to frequency of physical therapy were significant for standing in Gross Motor Function Classification System Level V. [Conclusion] Intensive physical therapy was more effective for improving gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy. In particular, crawling and kneeling, and standing ability showed greater increases with intensive physical therapy. PMID:27390440

  14. Assessment outcomes: computerized instruction in a human gross anatomy course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowski, Elaine L

    2002-01-01

    New and traditional educational media were used to study alternative methods of instruction in a human gross anatomy course. Three consecutive entry-level physical therapy (PT) classes (55 students total) participated in this study. No other anatomy course was available to these students during this time. During the first year, all entering PT students (n = 18) completed a traditional cadaver anatomy course. This traditional group attended weekly lectures and dissection laboratories for 15 weeks. During the second year, the next entering class of PT students (n = 17) completed a self-study, computerized noncadaver anatomy course. This self-study group attended an introductory session to receive course objectives and instruction in using the computer package chosen for the study. After the introductory session, this group worked independently for the remainder of their 15-week course. During the third year, the entering class of PT students (n = 20) attended weekly lectures and completed a self-study, computerized non-cadaver laboratory course. This lecture and self-study group attended an introductory session to review course objectives and receive instruction in using the computer package. For the remainder of their 15-week course, this group attended a weekly lecture and worked independently on the computer for the laboratory portion of their course. All groups kept time logs, recording class and study time for each day of the course. The time logs were collected on the last day of each course. Each group's performance in anatomy-based system courses was followed through the remainder of the PT curricula, including clinical rotations, and through the completion of the state board licensure examination. Data were analyzed using a multivariate analysis of variance and a Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance. There was no significant difference in anatomy course class means, class study times, performance throughout the remainder of the PT curricula, and performance

  15. World distribution of gross domestic product per-capita

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustos-Guajardo, R.; Moukarzel, Cristian F.

    2015-05-01

    It is shown that the world distribution of gross domestic products per capita (GDPpc) is well described by a trade-investment model that combines yard-sale (YS) exchange and random multiplicative noise (RMN). We first derive analytically the typical value w(r, t) of the ranked wealths for a system evolving under YS exchange and RMN. The resulting analytical expressions are fitted to data for the GDPpc of up to 200 countries, in the period 1960-2013. Our model fits the data significantly better than previously proposed approaches that consider either Noise or Trade alone. Analysis of the resulting values for the fitting parameters, and of their time dependence, suggests that: (a) International trade conditions have (from 1960 to 2008) a statistical bias towards favoring richer countries. (b) Biased international commerce is the main cause for the observed divergence of GDPpc values from 1960 to 2008. (c) After 2008, the distribution of GDPpc starts to converge, and the world product per capita stops growing.

  16. Gross congenital malformation at birth in a government hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Sachdeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A hospital-based cross-sectional study was undertaken to determine proportion of gross congenital malformation (GCMF occurring at intramural births. Rate of GCMF was found to be 16.4/1000 consecutive singleton births (>28 weeks with three leading malformation as anencephaly (44.68%, talipes equinovarus (17.02% and meningomyelocele (10.63%. Higher risk of malformed births were noticed amongst un-booked (2.07% in-comparison to booked (1.01% mothers; women with low level of education (up to 8 years [2.14%] vs. at least 9 years of schooling [0.82%]; gravida status of at least 3 (2.69% followed by 1 (1.43% and 2 (1.0% respectively; pre-term (5.13% vs. term (0.66%; cesarean section (4.36% versus vaginal delivery (0.62%. Mortality was significantly higher among congenitally malformed (17.35% than normal (0.34% newborns. With-in study limitation, emergence of neural tube defect as the single largest category of congenital malformation indicates maternal malnutrition (especially folic acid that needs appropriate attention and management.

  17. Progestogen-related gross and microscopic changes in female Beagles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, L W; Kelly, W A

    1976-01-01

    Long-term studies of megestrol acetate and chlormadinone acetate in 100 female dogs are in progress. Doses of zero, one, 10 and 25 times the expected human dose of megestrol acetate and 25 times the expected human dose of chlormadinone acetate (on a milligram per kilogram body weight basis) are being given daily. During the first 4 years, eight dogs from each of the five groups were killed. The principal gross findings included enlarged uteri with mucoid material in the lumina, mammary development in dogs given middle and high doses of megestrol acetate and chlormadinone acetate, and thickened gallbladder walls in dogs given high doses of each. Histologic evaluation showed inhibition of ovulation for progestogen-treated dogs and suppression of ovarian follicular development with the high doses. Cystic endometrial hyperplasia was slight in the low-dose dogs and moderate to severe in most of the high-dose dogs; a few also had ulcerative endometritis and pyometra. The mammary glands of dogs given the middle and high doses produced lobules, acini, and secretion exceeding natural metestrus. Slight to marked cystic mucinous hyperplasia occurred in the gallbladders of most dogs given the high doses. Tow high-dose megestrol dogs had clinical signs and microscopic pancreatic, renal, and ocular changes indicative of diabetes mellitus.

  18. Stratospheric sulfate geoengineering enhances terrestrial gross primary productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, L.; Robock, A.; Tilmes, S.; Neely, R. R., III

    2015-09-01

    Stratospheric sulfate geoengineering could impact the terrestrial carbon cycle by enhancing the carbon sink. With an 8 Tg yr-1 injection of SO2 to balance a Representative Concentration Pathway 6.0 (RCP6.0) scenario, we conducted climate model simulations with the Community Earth System Model, with the Community Atmospheric Model 4 fully coupled to tropospheric and stratospheric chemistry (CAM4-chem). During the geoengineering period, as compared to RCP6.0, land-averaged downward visible diffuse radiation increased 3.2 W m-2 (11 %). The enhanced diffuse radiation combined with the cooling increased plant photosynthesis by 2.4 %, which could contribute to an additional 3.8 ± 1.1 Gt C yr-1 global gross primary productivity without nutrient limitation. This increase could potentially increase the land carbon sink. Suppressed plant and soil respiration due to the cooling would reduce natural land carbon emission and therefore further enhance the terrestrial carbon sink during the geoengineering period. This beneficial impact of stratospheric sulfate geoengineering would need to be balanced by a large number of potential risks in any future decisions about implementation of geoengineering.

  19. Stratospheric sulfate geoengineering enhances terrestrial gross primary productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Xia

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Stratospheric sulfate geoengineering could impact the terrestrial carbon cycle by enhancing the carbon sink. With an 8 Tg yr−1 injection of SO2 to balance a Representative Concentration Pathway 6.0 (RCP6.0 scenario, we conducted climate model simulations with the Community Earth System Model, with the Community Atmospheric Model 4 fully coupled to tropospheric and stratospheric chemistry (CAM4-chem. During the geoengineering period, as compared to RCP6.0, land-averaged downward visible diffuse radiation increased 3.2 W m−2 (11 %. The enhanced diffuse radiation combined with the cooling increased plant photosynthesis by 2.4 %, which could contribute to an additional 3.8 ± 1.1 Gt C yr−1 global gross primary productivity without nutrient limitation. This increase could potentially increase the land carbon sink. Suppressed plant and soil respiration due to the cooling would reduce natural land carbon emission and therefore further enhance the terrestrial carbon sink during the geoengineering period. This beneficial impact of stratospheric sulfate geoengineering would need to be balanced by a large number of potential risks in any future decisions about implementation of geoengineering.

  20. Horava-Lifshitz-like Gross-Neveu model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, A. M.; Mariz, T.; Martinez, R.; Nascimento, J. R.; Petrov, A. Yu.; Ribeiro, R. F.

    2017-03-01

    We describe a Horava-Lifshitz-like reformulated four-fermion Gross-Neveu model describing the dynamics of two-component spinors in (2 +1 )-dimensional space-time. Within our study, we introduce the Lagrange multiplier, study the gap equation (including the finite temperature case) which turns out to display essentially distinct behaviors for even and odd values of the critical exponent z , and show that the dynamical parity breaking occurs only for the odd z . We demonstrate that for any odd z , there exists a critical temperature at which the dynamical parity breaking disappears. Besides of this, we obtain the effective propagator and show that the resulting effective theory is renormalizable within the framework of the 1/N expansion for all values of z . As one more application of the dynamical parity breaking, we consider coupling of the vector field to the fermions in the case of a simplified spinor-vector coupling and discuss the generation of the Chern-Simons term.

  1. Large historical growth in global terrestrial gross primary production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, J. E.; Berry, J. A.; Seibt, U.; Smith, S. J.; Montzka, S. A.; Launois, T.; Belviso, S.; Bopp, L.; Laine, M.

    2017-04-01

    Growth in terrestrial gross primary production (GPP)—the amount of carbon dioxide that is ‘fixed’ into organic material through the photosynthesis of land plants—may provide a negative feedback for climate change. It remains uncertain, however, to what extent biogeochemical processes can suppress global GPP growth. As a consequence, modelling estimates of terrestrial carbon storage, and of feedbacks between the carbon cycle and climate, remain poorly constrained. Here we present a global, measurement-based estimate of GPP growth during the twentieth century that is based on long-term atmospheric carbonyl sulfide (COS) records, derived from ice-core, firn and ambient air samples. We interpret these records using a model that simulates changes in COS concentration according to changes in its sources and sinks—including a large sink that is related to GPP. We find that the observation-based COS record is most consistent with simulations of climate and the carbon cycle that assume large GPP growth during the twentieth century (31% ± 5% growth; mean ± 95% confidence interval). Although this COS analysis does not directly constrain models of future GPP growth, it does provide a global-scale benchmark for historical carbon-cycle simulations.

  2. Large historical growth in global terrestrial gross primary production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, J. E.; Berry, J. A.; Seibt, U.; Smith, S. J.; Montzka, S. A.; Launois, T.; Belviso, S.; Bopp, L.; Laine, M.

    2017-04-05

    Growth in terrestrial gross primary production (GPP) may provide a feedback for climate change, but there is still strong disagreement on the extent to which biogeochemical processes may suppress this GPP growth at the ecosystem to continental scales. The consequent uncertainty in modeling of future carbon storage by the terrestrial biosphere constitutes one of the largest unknowns in global climate projections for the next century. Here we provide a global, measurement-based estimate of historical GPP growth using long-term atmospheric carbonyl sulfide (COS) records derived from ice core, firn, and ambient air samples. We interpret these records using a model that relates changes in the COS concentration to changes in its sources and sinks, the largest of which is proportional to GPP. The COS history was most consistent with simulations that assume a large historical GPP growth. Carbon-climate models that assume little to no GPP growth predicted trajectories of COS concentration over the anthropogenic era that differ from those observed. Continued COS monitoring may be useful for detecting ongoing changes in GPP while extending the ice core record to glacial cycles could provide further opportunities to evaluate earth system models.

  3. A boy with fever, cough and gross haematuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzi, Giorgio; Maschio, Massimo; Poillucci, Gabriele; Pennesi, Marco; Barbi, Egidio

    2017-08-28

    A 5 year-old boy presented with 2-days of fever and cough. On examination, he had mild dyspnoea and chest pain, with crackles and hypoventilation at the right lung base. Blood tests showed: WBC 39.1×10(9)/L; N 28.9×10(9)/L; Hb 11.3gr/dL; PLT 375×10(9)/L; CRP 28.7mg/dL; ESR 41mm/h. Chest x-ray confirmed a pulmonary consolidation in the right lower lobe (figure 1), with an associated pleural effusion. Bacterial pneumonia was diagnosed and intravenous ceftriaxone 100mg/kg/die was started. The following day, he developed palpebral oedema and his urine became tea coloured. His blood pressure was 126/82mmHg (>99th percentile).(1) Serum creatinine rose from 0.45mg/dl to 1.09mg/dl (39.8µmol/L - 93.4µmol/L) and C3 was 9mg/dl (n.r. 90-180mg/dl). Urinalysis revealed gross hematuria and 3+ proteinuria, with microscopicy showing dysmorphic red blood cells with casts. Ultrasounds showed enlarged kidneys with increased echogenicity. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  4. Peer-Assisted Learning in a Gross Anatomy Dissection Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Eui-Ryoung; Chung, Eun-Kyung; Nam, Kwang-Il

    2015-01-01

    Peer-assisted learning encourages students to participate more actively in the dissection process and promotes thoughtful dissection. We implemented peer-assisted dissection in 2012 and compared its effects on students' self-assessments of learning and their academic achievement with those of faculty-led dissection. All subjects performed dissections after a lecture about upper-limb gross anatomy. Experimental group (n = 134) dissected a cadaver while guided by peer tutors who had prepared for the dissection in advance, and control group (n = 71) dissected a cadaver after the introduction by a faculty via prosection. Self-assessment scores regarding the learning objectives related to upper limbs were significantly higher in experimental group than in control group. Additionally, experimental group received significantly higher academic scores than did control group. The students in peer-assisted learning perceived themselves as having a better understanding of course content and achieved better academic results compared with those who participated in faculty-led dissection. Peer-assisted dissection contributed to self-perception and to the ability to retain and explain anatomical knowledge.

  5. 20 CFR 418.1115 - What are the modified adjusted gross income ranges?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... gross income range amounts by any percentage increase in the Consumer Price Index rounded to the nearest...) of this section. We will use your modified adjusted gross income amount together with your tax filing... from his/her spouse for the entire tax year for the year we use to make our income-related...

  6. Balloon-occluded percutaneous transheptic obliteration of isolated vesical varices causing gross hematuria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Dong Hoon; Kim, Dong Hyun; Kim, Min Seok; Kim, Chul Sung [Department of Urology, College of Medicine, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-01-15

    Gross hematuria secondary to vesical varices is an unusual presentation. We report such a case recurrent gross hematuria in a male patient who had a history of bladder substitution with ileal segments that had been treated by balloon-occluded percutaneous transhepatic obliteration of vesical varices.

  7. De Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM): een onderzoek naar de responsiviteit van de Nederlandse vertaling.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenhof, C.; Ketelaar, M.; Petegem-van Beek, E. van; Vermeer, A.

    2003-01-01

    This article is about the psychometric characteristics of the Dutch translation of the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM). It describes the responsiveness to change. The article "Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM): a reliability study of the Dutch translation" focuses on the reliability of the GMF

  8. De Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM): een onderzoek naar de betrouwbaarheid van de Nederlandse vertaling.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenhof, C.; Ketelaar, M.; Petegem-van Beek, E. van

    2003-01-01

    This article is about the psychometric characteristics of the Dutch translation of the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM). It describes the reliability of the instrument. The article "Gross Motor Function Measure" (GMFM): a validity study of the Dutch translation focusses on the responsiveness of t

  9. Brief Assessment of Motor Function: Content Validity and Reliability of the Upper Extremity Gross Motor Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cintas, Holly Lea; Parks, Rebecca; Don, Sarah; Gerber, Lynn

    2011-01-01

    Content validity and reliability of the Brief Assessment of Motor Function (BAMF) Upper Extremity Gross Motor Scale (UEGMS) were evaluated in this prospective, descriptive study. The UEGMS is one of five BAMF ordinal scales designed for quick documentation of gross, fine, and oral motor skill levels. Designed to be independent of age and…

  10. Fixed Point of Generalized Eventual Cyclic Gross in Fuzzy Norm Spaces for Contractive Mappings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. M. Mohsenialhosseini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We define generalized eventual cyclic gross contractive mapping in fuzzy norm spaces, which is a generalization of the eventual cyclic gross contractions. Also we prove the existence of a fixed point for this type of contractive mapping on fuzzy norm spaces.

  11. 46 CFR 129.315 - Power sources for OSVs of 100 or more gross tons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Power sources for OSVs of 100 or more gross tons. 129.315 Section 129.315 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 129.315 Power sources for OSVs of 100 or more gross tons. (a) The...

  12. Combined climate factors alleviate changes in gross soil nitrogen dynamics in heathlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjorsne, Anna-Karin; Rutting, Tobias; Ambus, Per

    2014-01-01

    of exposure to three climate change factors, i.e. warming, elevated CO2 (eCO(2)) and summer drought, applied both in isolation and in combination. By conducting laboratory N-15 tracing experiments we show that warming increased both gross N mineralization and nitrification rates. In contrast, gross...

  13. 26 CFR 1.1332-1 - Inclusion in gross income of war loss recoveries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Inclusion in gross income of war loss recoveries. 1.1332-1 Section 1.1332-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES War Loss Recoveries § 1.1332-1 Inclusion in gross income of...

  14. Comparison of Gross Anatomy Test Scores Using Traditional Specimens vs. Quicktime Virtual Reality Animated Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maza, Paul Sadiri

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, technological advances such as computers have been employed in teaching gross anatomy at all levels of education, even in professional schools such as medical and veterinary medical colleges. Benefits of computer based instructional tools for gross anatomy include the convenience of not having to physically view or dissect a…

  15. The Effects of Basketball Basic Skills Training on Gross Motor Skills Development of Female Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayazit, Betul

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of basketball basic skills training on gross motor skills development of female children in Turkey. For that purpose, 40 female children took part in the study voluntarily. Basketball basic skills test was used to improve the gross motor skills of the female children in the study. Also,…

  16. The Effects of Basketball Basic Skills Training on Gross Motor Skills Development of Female Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayazit, Betul

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of basketball basic skills training on gross motor skills development of female children in Turkey. For that purpose, 40 female children took part in the study voluntarily. Basketball basic skills test was used to improve the gross motor skills of the female children in the study. Also,…

  17. 25 CFR 215.21 - Payment of gross production tax on lead and zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Payment of gross production tax on lead and zinc. 215.21... ZINC MINING OPERATIONS AND LEASES, QUAPAW AGENCY § 215.21 Payment of gross production tax on lead and zinc. The superintendent of the Quapaw Indian Agency is hereby authorized and directed to pay at...

  18. 26 CFR 1.61-3 - Gross income derived from business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gross income derived from business. 1.61-3 Section 1.61-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME... Taxable Income § 1.61-3 Gross income derived from business. (a) In general. In a...

  19. 26 CFR 1.804-3 - Gross investment income of a life insurance company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... law) shall be excluded from the gross investment income of a life insurance company. However, section... company. 1.804-3 Section 1.804-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... insurance company. (a) Gross investment income defined. For purposes of part I, subchapter L, chapter 1 of...

  20. 17 CFR 1.58 - Gross collection of exchange-set margins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gross collection of exchange-set margins. 1.58 Section 1.58 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION GENERAL REGULATIONS UNDER THE COMMODITY EXCHANGE ACT Miscellaneous § 1.58 Gross collection of exchange-set...

  1. Comparison of Gross Anatomy Test Scores Using Traditional Specimens vs. Quicktime Virtual Reality Animated Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maza, Paul Sadiri

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, technological advances such as computers have been employed in teaching gross anatomy at all levels of education, even in professional schools such as medical and veterinary medical colleges. Benefits of computer based instructional tools for gross anatomy include the convenience of not having to physically view or dissect a…

  2. Gross Motor Development of Malaysian Hearing Impaired Male Pre- and Early School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawi, Khairi; Lian, Denise Koh Choon; Abdullah, Rozlina Tan

    2014-01-01

    Acquisition of gross motor skill is a natural developmental process for children. This aspect of human development increases with one's chronological age, irrespective of any developmental conditions. The purpose of this study was to assess the level of gross motor skill development among pre- and early school-aged children with motor disability.…

  3. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Test of Gross Motor Development-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ka Yee Allison; Cheung, Siu Yin

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the underlying structure of the second edition of the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (Ulrich, 2000) as applied to Chinese children. The Test of Gross Motor Development-2 was administered to 626 Hong Kong Chinese children. The outlier test with standard scoring was utilized. After data screening, a total…

  4. Developmental and physical-fitness associations with gross motor coordination problems in Peruvian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Chaves, Raquel Nichele; Bustamante Valdívia, Alcibíades; Nevill, Alan; Freitas, Duarte; Tani, Go; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Maia, José António Ribeiro

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this cross-sectional study were to examine the developmental characteristics (biological maturation and body size) associated with gross motor coordination problems in 5193 Peruvian children (2787 girls) aged 6-14 years from different geographical locations, and to investigate how the probability that children suffer with gross motor coordination problems varies with physical fitness. Children with gross motor coordination problems were more likely to have lower flexibility and explosive strength levels, having adjusted for age, sex, maturation and study site. Older children were more likely to suffer from gross motor coordination problems, as were those with greater body mass index. However, more mature children were less likely to have gross motor coordination problems, although children who live at sea level or at high altitude were more likely to suffer from gross motor coordination problems than children living in the jungle. Our results provide evidence that children and adolescents with lower physical fitness are more likely to have gross motor coordination difficulties. The identification of youths with gross motor coordination problems and providing them with effective intervention programs is an important priority in order to overcome such developmental problems, and help to improve their general health status.

  5. Can Clinical Assessment of Locomotive Body Function Explain Gross Motor Environmental Performance in Cerebral Palsy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz Mengibar, Jose Manuel; Santonja-Medina, Fernando; Sanchez-de-Muniain, Paloma; Canteras-Jordana, Manuel

    2016-03-01

    Gross Motor Function Classification System has discriminative purposes but does not assess short-term therapy goals. Locomotion Stages (LS) classify postural body functions and independent activity components. Assessing the relation between Gross Motor Function Classification System level and Locomotion Stages will make us understand if clinical assessment can explain and predict motor environmental performance in cerebral palsy. A total of 462 children were assessed with both scales. High reliability and strong negative correlation (-0.908) for Gross Motor Function Classification System and Locomotion Stages at any age was found. Sensitivity was 83%, and specificity and positive predictive value were 100% within the same age range. Regression analysis showed detailed probabilities for the realization of the Gross Motor Function Classification System depending on the Locomotion Stages and the age group. Postural body function measure with Locomotion Stages is reliable, sensitive, and specific for gross motor function and able to predict environmental performance.

  6. The effects of training on gross efficiency in cycling: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopker, J; Passfield, L; Coleman, D; Jobson, S; Edwards, L; Carter, H

    2009-12-01

    There has been much debate in the recent scientific literature regarding the possible ability to increase gross efficiency in cycling via training. Using cross-sectional study designs, researchers have demonstrated no significant differences in gross efficiency between trained and untrained cyclists. Reviewing this literature provides evidence to suggest that methodological inadequacies may have played a crucial role in the conclusions drawn from the majority of these studies. We present an overview of these studies and their relative shortcomings and conclude that in well-controlled and rigorously designed studies, training has a positive influence upon gross efficiency. Putative mechanisms for the increase in gross efficiency as a result of training include, muscle fibre type transformation, changes to muscle fibre shortening velocities and changes within the mitochondria. However, the specific mechanisms by which training improves gross efficiency and their impact on cycling performance remain to be determined.

  7. Gross Nitrogen Mineralization in Surface Sediments of the Yangtze Estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xianbiao; Hou, Lijun; Liu, Min; Li, Xiaofei; Yin, Guoyu; Zheng, Yanling; Deng, Fengyu

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen mineralization is a key biogeochemical process transforming organic nitrogen to inorganic nitrogen in estuarine and coastal sediments. Although sedimentary nitrogen mineralization is an important internal driver for aquatic eutrophication, few studies have investigated sedimentary nitrogen mineralization in these environments. Sediment-slurry incubation experiments combined with 15N isotope dilution technique were conducted to quantify the potential rates of nitrogen mineralization in surface sediments of the Yangtze Estuary. The gross nitrogen mineralization (GNM) rates ranged from 0.02 to 5.13 mg N kg(-1) d(-1) in surface sediments of the study area. The GNM rates were generally higher in summer than in winter, and the relative high rates were detected mainly at sites near the north branch and frontal edge of this estuary. The spatial and temporal distributions of GNM rates were observed to depend largely on temperature, salinity, sedimentary organic carbon and nitrogen contents, and extracellular enzyme (urease and L-glutaminase) activities. The total mineralized nitrogen in the sediments of the Yangtze Estuary was estimated to be about 6.17 × 10(5) t N yr(-1), and approximately 37% of it was retained in the estuary. Assuming the retained mineralized nitrogen is totally released from the sediments into the water column, which contributed 12-15% of total dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) sources in this study area. This result indicated that the mineralization process is a significant internal nitrogen source for the overlying water of the Yangtze Estuary, and thus may contribute to the estuarine and coastal eutrophication.

  8. Gross Nitrogen Mineralization in Surface Sediments of the Yangtze Estuary.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianbiao Lin

    Full Text Available Nitrogen mineralization is a key biogeochemical process transforming organic nitrogen to inorganic nitrogen in estuarine and coastal sediments. Although sedimentary nitrogen mineralization is an important internal driver for aquatic eutrophication, few studies have investigated sedimentary nitrogen mineralization in these environments. Sediment-slurry incubation experiments combined with 15N isotope dilution technique were conducted to quantify the potential rates of nitrogen mineralization in surface sediments of the Yangtze Estuary. The gross nitrogen mineralization (GNM rates ranged from 0.02 to 5.13 mg N kg(-1 d(-1 in surface sediments of the study area. The GNM rates were generally higher in summer than in winter, and the relative high rates were detected mainly at sites near the north branch and frontal edge of this estuary. The spatial and temporal distributions of GNM rates were observed to depend largely on temperature, salinity, sedimentary organic carbon and nitrogen contents, and extracellular enzyme (urease and L-glutaminase activities. The total mineralized nitrogen in the sediments of the Yangtze Estuary was estimated to be about 6.17 × 10(5 t N yr(-1, and approximately 37% of it was retained in the estuary. Assuming the retained mineralized nitrogen is totally released from the sediments into the water column, which contributed 12-15% of total dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN sources in this study area. This result indicated that the mineralization process is a significant internal nitrogen source for the overlying water of the Yangtze Estuary, and thus may contribute to the estuarine and coastal eutrophication.

  9. GROSS ANATOMY AND BLOOD SUPPLY OF SMALL INTESTINE IN FOETUSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwer Unisa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM OF STUDY: To develop charts of length and width of small intestine, origin, length and branching pattern of celiac trunk and Superior mesenteric artery. This will help us to know any congenital anomaly in the small intestine, and abnormal origin, length, variation i n the branching pattern. MATERIALS AND METHOD S: The material used for the present study of 100 foetuses of different stages of gestation collected from Government maternity Hospital, Hanamkonda, ChandaKantha Memorial Hospital Warangal and private nursing h omes of Warangal D istrict of Andhra Pradesh within 10 hours of death. The dead foetuses were preserved in the hospital in 10% formalin. The foetuses were embalmed by injecting with 20 cc to 100 cc 10% formalin in to the cranial cavity and trunk depending o n the stage of gestation. Foetuses were dissected to expose small intestine and the blood vessels which supply it systematically in the following manner. OBSERVATIONS: The present study conducted has shown that length, width of small intestine was found to be increasing with foetal age. The length of celiac trunk, the length of superior mesenteric artery was found to increase proportionality with the foetal age. The causes of death in foetuses related to small intestine are intussusceptions intestional malr otation such as ladd’s bands, volvulus, cystic fibrosis, intestional infections and necrotizing enterocolitis. Knowledge related to gross anatomy and blood supply of small intestine is important because of these causes which may lead to death in foetus e s. In the present study no anomalies related to small intestine are found.

  10. Extreme events in gross primary production: a characterization across continents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Zscheischler

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate extremes can affect the functioning of terrestrial ecosystems, for instance via a reduction of the photosynthetic capacity or alterations of respiratory processes. Yet the dominant regional and seasonal effects of hydrometeorological extremes are still not well documented. Here we quantify and characterize the role of large spatiotemporal extreme events in gross primary production (GPP as triggers of continental anomalies. We also investigate seasonal dynamics of extreme impacts on continental GPP anomalies. We find that the 50 largest positive (increase in uptake and negative extremes (decrease in uptake on each continent can explain most of the continental variation in GPP, which is in line with previous results obtained at the global scale. We show that negative extremes are larger than positive ones and demonstrate that this asymmetry is particularly strong in South America and Europe. Most extremes in GPP start in early summer. Our analysis indicates that the overall impacts and the spatial extents of GPP extremes are power law distributed with exponents that vary little across continents. Moreover, we show that on all continents and for all data sets the spatial extents play a more important role than durations or maximal GPP anomaly when it comes to the overall impact of GPP extremes. An analysis of possible causes implies that across continents most extremes in GPP can best be explained by water scarcity rather than by extreme temperatures. However, for Europe, South America and Oceania we identify also fire as an important driver. Our findings are consistent with remote sensing products. An independent validation against a literature survey on specific extreme events supports our results to a large extent.

  11. Gross and Histomorphological Studies of Femoral Head Resurfacing in Dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Sharifi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The foetal skull bone as a biological graft was investigated. This study was conducted on Fifteen adult mixed - breed normal dogs 12 to 24 months with weighing 21.4=3.6 Kg .Dogs were randomly divided into 3 groups of 5 animals each. The foetal skull bone of 45 days old was collected from one pregnant bitch via cesarean method. The right femoral head cartilage was removed completely in all dogs of 3 groups.. Group I acted as control one, whereas in II group, resurfacing was done by using foetal skull bone which was fixed by using 0.8 mm cerclage wire in criss-cross fashion, but in III group, it was done similar to II group and the hip joint additionally was fixed by using 2 mm steinmenn pin.The clinical observations was made accordingly for 60 days in all groups. The gross changes of femoral head in group I & II were quite smooth and slippy, but in III group were uneven and rough due to secondary changes and ankylosis, but on micropscopic interpertation there was a remarkable compatibility of the graft with femoral head.The reconstruction of articular cartilage was faster in group II and even group III animals than group I animals. There was single row of chondrocyte in scatter area of samples in group . The complete and uniform hyaline cartilage in group II and fibro - cartilage and mixture of connective tissues in group III animals were observed. The results indicated that the foetal skull bone due to its pleuripotent calvarium easily can orient itself into the chondrocytes and cartilagenous tissues in articular surface of the hip joint, if there is suitable enviroment before complete ossification,so that normal joint motion could expect.

  12. 5 CFR 890.1112 - Denial of continuation of coverage due to involuntary separation for gross misconduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... involuntary separation for gross misconduct. 890.1112 Section 890.1112 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF... involuntary separation for gross misconduct. (a) Notice of denial. (1) When an employing office determines that the offense for which an employee is being removed constitutes gross misconduct for the purpose...

  13. Effects of land use change on soil gross nitrogen transformation rates in subtropical acid soils of Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yongbo; Xu, Zhihong

    2015-07-01

    Land use change affects soil gross nitrogen (N) transformations, but such information is particularly lacking under subtropical conditions. A study was carried out to investigate the potential gross N transformation rates in forest and agricultural (converted from the forest) soils in subtropical China. The simultaneously occurring gross N transformations in soil were quantified by a (15)N tracing study under aerobic conditions. The results showed that change of land use types substantially altered most gross N transformation rates. The gross ammonification and nitrification rates were significantly higher in the agricultural soils than in the forest soils, while the reverse was true for the gross N immobilization rates. The higher total carbon (C) concentrations and C / N ratio in the forest soils relative to the agricultural soils were related to the greater gross N immobilization rates in the forest soils. The lower gross ammonification combined with negligible gross nitrification rates, but much higher gross N immobilization rates in the forest soils than in the agricultural soils suggest that this may be a mechanism to effectively conserve available mineral N in the forest soils through increasing microbial biomass N, the relatively labile organic N. The greater gross nitrification rates and lower gross N immobilization rates in the agricultural soils suggest that conversion of forests to agricultural soils may exert more negative effects on the environment by N loss through NO3 (-) leaching or denitrification (when conditions for denitrification exist).

  14. Longitudinal Association Between Gross Motor Capacity and Neuromusculoskeletal Function in Children and Youth With Cerebral Palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Rimke C.; Becher, Jules G.; Voorman, Jeanine M.; Gorter, Jan Willem; van Eck, Mirjam; van Meeteren, Jetty; Smits, Dirk Wouter; Twisk, Jos W.; Dallmeijer, Annet J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To examine associations over longitudinal measurements between neuromusculoskeletal function and gross motor capacity in children and youth with cerebral palsy (CP). Design: A prospective cohort study. Setting: Rehabilitation departments of university medical centers and rehabilitations c

  15. Longitudinal Association Between Gross Motor Capacity and Neuromusculoskeletal Function in Children and Youth With Cerebral Palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Rimke C.; Becher, Jules G.; Voorman, Jeanine M.; Gorter, Jan Willem; van Eck, Mirjam; van Meeteren, Jetty; Smits, Dirk Wouter; Twisk, Jos W.; Dallmeijer, Annet J.; van Schie, P. E M; Schuengel, C.; Ketelaar, M.; Lindeman, E.; Jongmans, M.; Roebroeck, M. E.; Tan, S. S.; Wiegerink, D. J H G; Reinders-Messelink, H. A.; Verheijden, J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine associations over longitudinal measurements between neuromusculoskeletal function and gross motor capacity in children and youth with cerebral palsy (CP). Design A prospective cohort study. Setting Rehabilitation departments of university medical centers and rehabilitations cent

  16. The central role of trunk control in the gross motor function of children with cerebral palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Curtis, Derek John; Butler, Penny; Saavedra, Sandy;

    2015-01-01

    Aim Improvement of gross motor function and mobility are primary goals of physical therapy in children with cerebral palsy (CP). The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between segmental control of the trunk and the corresponding gross motor function in children with CP....... Method This retrospective cross-sectional study was based on 92 consecutive referrals of children with CP in Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels I to V, 39 females, 53 males (median age 4y [range 1–14y]), and 77, 12, and 3 with spastic, dyskinetic, and ataxic CP respectively....... The participants were tested using the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM), the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI), and the Segmental Assessment of Trunk Control (SATCo). Results Linear regression analysis showed a positive relationship between the segmental level of trunk control and age...

  17. Longitudinal Association Between Gross Motor Capacity and Neuromusculoskeletal Function in Children and Youth With Cerebral Palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Rimke C.; Becher, Jules G.; Voorman, Jeanine M.; Gorter, Jan Willem; van Eck, Mirjam; van Meeteren, Jetty; Smits, Dirk Wouter; Twisk, Jos W.; Dallmeijer, Annet J.

    Objective: To examine associations over longitudinal measurements between neuromusculoskeletal function and gross motor capacity in children and youth with cerebral palsy (CP). Design: A prospective cohort study. Setting: Rehabilitation departments of university medical centers and rehabilitations

  18. Longitudinal Association Between Gross Motor Capacity and Neuromusculoskeletal Function in Children and Youth With Cerebral Palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Rimke C.; Becher, Jules G.; Voorman, Jeanine M.; Gorter, Jan Willem; van Eck, Mirjam; van Meeteren, Jetty; Smits, Dirk Wouter; Twisk, Jos W.; Dallmeijer, Annet J.; van Schie, P. E M; Schuengel, C.; Ketelaar, M.; Lindeman, E.; Jongmans, M.; Roebroeck, M. E.; Tan, S. S.; Wiegerink, D. J H G; Reinders-Messelink, H. A.; Verheijden, J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine associations over longitudinal measurements between neuromusculoskeletal function and gross motor capacity in children and youth with cerebral palsy (CP). Design A prospective cohort study. Setting Rehabilitation departments of university medical centers and rehabilitations

  19. Envelope Periodic Solutions to One-Dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii Equation in Bose-Einstein Condensation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Shi-Kuo; GAO Bin; FU Zun-Tao; LIU Shi-Da

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, applying the dependent and independent variables transformations as well as the Jacobi elliptic function expansion method, the envelope periodic solutions to one-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation in Bose-Einstein condensates are obtained.

  20. Effect of physical therapy frequency on gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Eun-Young

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study attempted to investigate the effect of physical therapy frequency based on neurodevelopmental therapy on gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy. [Subjects and Methods] The study sample included 161 children with cerebral palsy who attended a convalescent or rehabilitation center for disabled individuals or a special school for children with physical disabilities in South Korea. Gross Motor Function Measure data were collected according to physical therapy fr...

  1. Analysis of historical gross gamma logging data from BY tank farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MYERS, D.A.

    1999-10-13

    Gross gamma ray logs, recorded from January 1975 through mid-year 1994 as part of the Single-Shell Tank Farm Dry Well Surveillance Program, have been reanalyzed for the BY tank farm to locate the presence of mobile radionuclides in the subsurface. This report presents the BY tank farm gross gamma ray data in such a way as to assist others in their study of vadose zone mechanisms.

  2. Current usage and future trends in gross digital photography in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Christopher L; DeKoning, Lawrence; Klonowski, Paul; Naugler, Christopher

    2014-01-14

    The purpose of this study was to assess the current usage, utilization and future direction of digital photography of gross surgical specimens in pathology laboratories across Canada. An online survey consisting of 23 multiple choice and free-text questions regarding gross digital photography was sent out to via email to laboratory staff across Canada involved in gross dissection of surgical specimens. Sixty surveys were returned with representation from most of the provinces. Results showed that gross digital photography is utilized at most institutions (90.0%) and the primary users of the technology are Pathologists (88.0%), Pathologists' Assistants (54.0%) and Pathology residents (50.0%). Most respondents felt that there is a definite need for routine digital imaging of gross surgical specimens in their practice (80.0%). The top two applications for gross digital photography are for documentation of interesting/ complex cases (98.0%) and for teaching purposes (84.0%). The main limitations identified by the survey group are storage space (42.5%) and security issues (40.0%). Respondents indicated that future applications of gross digital photography mostly include teaching (96.6%), presentation at tumour boards/ clinical rounds (89.8%), medico-legal documentation (72.9%) and usage for consultation purposes (69.5%). The results of this survey indicate that pathology staff across Canada currently utilizes gross digital images for regular documentation and educational reasons. They also show that the technology will be needed for future applications in teaching, consultation and medico-legal purposes.

  3. Class numbers of cyclic 2-extensions and Gross conjecture over Q

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The Gross conjecture over Q was first claimed by Aoki in 1991.However,the original proof contains too many mistakes and false claims to be considered as a serious proof.This paper is an attempt to find a sound proof of the Gross conjecture under the outline of Aoki.We reduce the conjecture to an elementary conjecture concerning the class numbers of cyclic 2-extensions of Q.

  4. Gross changes in reconstructions of historic land cover/use for Europe between 1900 and 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Richard; Herold, Martin; Verburg, Peter H; Clevers, Jan G P W; Eberle, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    Historic land-cover/use change is important for studies on climate change, soil carbon, and biodiversity assessments. Available reconstructions focus on the net area difference between two time steps (net changes) instead of accounting for all area gains and losses (gross changes). This leads to a serious underestimation of land-cover/use dynamics with impacts on the biogeochemical and environmental assessments based on these reconstructions. In this study, we quantified to what extent land-cover/use reconstructions underestimate land-cover/use changes in Europe for the 1900-2010 period by accounting for net changes only. We empirically analyzed available historic land-change data, quantified their uncertainty, corrected for spatial-temporal effects and identified underlying processes causing differences between gross and net changes. Gross changes varied for different land classes (largest for forest and grassland) and led to two to four times the amount of net changes. We applied the empirical results of gross change quantities in a spatially explicit reconstruction of historic land change to reconstruct gross changes for the EU27 plus Switzerland at 1 km spatial resolution between 1950 and 2010. In addition, the reconstruction was extended back to 1900 to explore the effects of accounting for gross changes on longer time scales. We created a land-change reconstruction that only accounted for net changes for comparison. Our two model outputs were compared with five commonly used global reconstructions for the same period and area. In our reconstruction, gross changes led in total to a 56% area change (ca. 0.5% yr(-1)) between 1900 and 2010 and cover twice the area of net changes. All global reconstructions used for comparison estimated fewer changes than our gross change reconstruction. Main land-change processes were cropland/grassland dynamics and afforestation, and also deforestation and urbanization. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. The relationship between spasticity and gross motor capability in nonambulatory children with spastic cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katusic, Ana; Alimovic, Sonja

    2013-09-01

    Spasticity has been considered as a major impairment in cerebral palsy (CP), but the relationship between this impairment and motor functions is still unclear, especially in the same group of patients with CP. The aim of this investigation is to determine the relationship between spasticity and gross motor capability in nonambulatory children with spastic CP. Seventy-one children (30 boys, 41 girls) with bilateral spastic cerebral palsy and with Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels IV (n=34) and V (n=37) were included in the study. The spasticity level in lower limbs was evaluated using the Modified Modified Ashworth Scale and the gross motor function with the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM-88). Spearman's correlation analysis was used to determine the nature and the strength of the relationship. The results showed a moderate correlation between spasticity and gross motor skills (ρ=0.52 for the GMFCS level; ρ=0.57 for the GMFM-88), accounting for less than 30% of the explained variance. It seems that spasticity is just one factor among many others that could interfere with gross motor skills, even in children with severe forms of spastic CP. Knowledge of the impact of spasticity on motor skills may be useful in the setting of adequate rehabilitation strategies for nonambulatory children with spastic CP.

  6. Determination of respiration, gross nitrification and denitrification in soil profile using BaPS system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Shu-tao; HUANG Yao

    2006-01-01

    A facility of BaPS (Barometric Process Separation) was used to determine soil respiration, gross nitrification and denitrification in a winter wheat field with depths of 0-7, 7-14 and 14-21 cm. N2O production was determined by a gas chromatograph. Crop root mass and relevant soil parameters were measured. Results showed that soil respiration and gross nitrification decreased with the increase of soil depth, while denitrification did not change significantly. In comparison with no-plowing plot, soil respiration increased significantly in plowing plot, especially in the surface soil of 0-7 cm, while gross nitrification and denitrification rates were not affected by plowing. Cropping practice in previous season was found to affect soil gross nitrification in the following wheat-growing season. Higher gross nitrification rate occurred in the filed plot with preceding crop of rice compared with that of maize for all the three depths of 0-7, 7-14 and 14-21 cm. A further investigation indicated that the nitrification for all the cases accounted for about 76% of the total nitrogen transformation processes of nitrification and denitrification and the N2O production correlated with nitrification significantly, suggesting that nitrification is a key process of soil N2O production in the wheat field. In addition, the variations of soil respiration and gross nitrification were exponentially dependent on root mass (P<0.001).

  7. Gross-beta activity in ground water: natural sources and artifacts of sampling and laboratory analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Alan H.

    1995-01-01

    Gross-beta activity has been used as an indicator of beta-emitting isotopes in water since at least the early 1950s. Originally designed for detection of radioactive releases from nuclear facilities and weapons tests, analysis of gross-beta activity is widely used in studies of naturally occurring radioactivity in ground water. Analyses of about 800 samples from 5 ground-water regions of the United States provide a basis for evaluating the utility of this measurement. The data suggest that measured gross-beta activities are due to (1) long-lived radionuclides in ground water, and (2) ingrowth of beta-emitting radionuclides during holding times between collection of samples and laboratory measurements.Although40K and228Ra appear to be the primary sources of beta activity in ground water, the sum of40K plus228Ra appears to be less than the measured gross-beta activity in most ground-water samples. The difference between the contribution from these radionuclides and gross-beta activity is most pronounced in ground water with gross-beta activities > 10 pCi/L, where these 2 radionuclides account for less than one-half the measured ross-beta activity. One exception is groundwater from the Coastal Plain of New Jersey, where40K plus228Ra generally contribute most of the gross-beta activity. In contrast,40K and228Ra generally contribute most of beta activity in ground water with gross-beta activities measure all beta activity in ground water. Although3H contributes beta activity to some ground water, it is driven from the sample before counting and therefore is not detected by gross-beta measurements. Beta-emitting radionuclides with half-lives shorter than a few days can decay to low values between sampling and counting. Although little is known about concentrations of most short-lived beta-emitting radionuclides in environmental ground water (water unaffected by direct releases from nuclear facilities and weapons tests), their activities are expected to be low.Ingrowth of

  8. Evaluation of free i-applications for tertiary level gross anatomy education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew F. Pollard

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe use of electronic resources in education, including i-applications used on portable handheld devices, is increasing. Apple® handheld devices are popular, with free applications the most prevalent download form. Many gross anatomy i-applications are available, however no information on the quality of free anatomy products is available. Rating such products could therefore guide product recommendations.AimTo evaluate the quality and range of free iPod® applications that are applicable for tertiary level gross anatomy education.MethodsA search of the iTunes® Application Store with keywords anatomy, free, medical, functional, clinical, gross, and human was performed, with inclusion based on free applications containing human gross anatomy usable for tertiary education purposes. Application specification was noted; each was trialled independently and rated for usability, specification, academic level, and quality (image and programme.ResultsSixty-three applications were identified and eleven met inclusion criteria. Two provided gross anatomy of the entire body, nine examined specific regions or systems. Five were judged introductory in academic level, five intermediate, and one advanced. One application was rated low quality, and four excellent. None were considered difficult to use (six easy, five medium. Application size ranged between 1.2MB and 229MB (mean 27MB.ConclusionsThere are few free i-applications for learning gross anatomy and most concentrate on individual body systems, with the academic level and usability of all products well rated. Results suggest some free I-applications could be suitable adjuncts for gross anatomy education at both an undergraduate and graduate level.

  9. Gross alpha determination in radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants using the track registration technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez-Navarro, M.J. [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (UPM) E.T.S.I de Caminos, Canales y Puertos, Profesor Aranguren, s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: he04@caminos.upm.es; Pujol, Ll. [Centro de Estudios y Experimentacion de Obras Publicas (CEDEX), Alfonso XII, 3, 28014 Madrid (Spain); Gonzalez-Gonzalez, J.A. [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (UPM) E.T.S.I de Caminos, Canales y Puertos, Profesor Aranguren, s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2007-03-15

    Low and intermediate level nuclear wastes (ion-exchange resins and evaporator concentrates) essentially contain beta and gamma emitters, with very few alpha emitters. Several techniques may be used to determine gross alpha activity but, in this case, solid-state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs) are a suitable technique for gross alpha determination because track detectors are not sensitive to beta and gamma emitters. Also, this technique is simple and inexpensive. In this paper, we studied the parameters (background, efficiency and self-absorption) that could affect the gross alpha determination using SSNTDs for both sample preparation methods, the 'dry method' with tensioactives and the 'wet method'. For the 'dry method', a self-absorption curve for {sup 241}Am standard was prepared using a set of varying thickness of sodium salt and for two different tensioactives: Tween{sup (R)}20 and Teg. The results showed that, below 1mg/cm{sup 2}, the self-absorption factor can be considered similar for both tensioactives and equal to unity. Several detectors for gross alpha determination were compared and we found that the most suitable techniques were ZnS(Ag) solid scintillator and track detectors. Both detectors were used to compare radioactive waste samples. Finally, the proposed methods ('dry method' with Teg tensioactive and 'wet method') using track detectors were tested by analysing the gross alpha activity of several radioactive wastes.

  10. Assessment of the effects of greywater reuse on gross solids movement in sewer systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penn, R; Schütze, M; Friedler, E

    2014-01-01

    Onsite greywater reuse (GWR) and installation of water-efficient toilets (WETs) reduce urban freshwater demand and thus enhance urban water use sustainability. Research on GWR and WETs has generally overlooked their potential effects on municipal sewer systems: GWR and WETs affect the flow regime in sewers, and consequently also influence gross solids transport. To asses these impacts, a gross solids transport model was developed. The model is based on approaches found in the literature. Hydrodynamic calculations of sewage flow were performed using the SIMBA6 simulator and then used for the gross solid movement models. Flow characteristics in the up- and downstream sections of the sewer network differ. Therefore different approaches were used to model solids movement in each of these two parts. Each model determines whether a solid moves as a result of a momentary sewage flow, and if it moves, calculation of its velocity is possible. The paper shows the adoption and implementation of two gross solids transport models using SIMBA6 and depicts the results of the effects of various GWR and WET scenarios on gross solids movement in sewers for a real case study in Israel.

  11. Evaluation of the contributions of four components of gross domestic product in various regions in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanmang Wu

    Full Text Available Four major components influence the growth of the gross domestic product in Chinese provinces: consumption, investment, transnational exports, and inter-provincial exports. By splitting a competitive input-output table into a non-competitive input-output table, this study used an input-output model to measure the contributions of the four components of gross domestic product in various regions in China. We found that international exports drove the growth of the gross domestic product more strongly in the eastern region than in other regions. Investment and inter-provincial exports were the major impetus for gross domestic product growth in the central and western regions. We also found that consumption played a minimal role in driving the growth of the gross domestic product in all regions in China. According to these findings, although various regions can share much in terms of policies to transform the impetus for economic growth, there should be different foci for different regions. Their shared policy is to increase the role of final consumption in stimulating economic growth. Region-specific policies mandate that the eastern region should strengthen the driving force provided by international exports and that the central and western regions should strengthen indigenous growth capabilities by improving scientific innovation, industrial support, and institutional innovation.

  12. Gross Motor Function Measure Evolution Ratio: Use as a Control for Natural Progression in Cerebral Palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marois, Pierre; Marois, Mikael; Pouliot-Laforte, Annie; Vanasse, Michel; Lambert, Jean; Ballaz, Laurent

    2016-05-01

    To develop a new way to interpret Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM-66) score improvement in studies conducted without control groups in children with cerebral palsy (CP). The curves, which describe the pattern of motor development according to the children's Gross Motor Function Classification System level, were used as historical control to define the GMFM-66 expected natural evolution in children with CP. These curves have been modeled and generalized to fit the curve to particular children characteristics. Research center. Not applicable. Not applicable. Not applicable. Assuming that the GMFM-66 score evolution followed the shape of the Rosenbaum curves, by taking into account the age and GMFM-66 score of children, the expected natural evolution of the GMFM-66 score was predicted for any group of children with CP who were Motor Function Measure Evolution Ratio, was defined as follows: Gross Motor Function Measure Evolution Ratio=measured GMFM-66 score change/expected natural evolution. For practical or ethical reasons, it is almost impossible to use control groups in studies evaluating effectiveness of many therapeutic modalities. The Gross Motor Function Measure Evolution Ratio gives the opportunity to take into account the expected natural evolution of the gross motor function of children with CP, which is essential to accurately interpret the therapy effect on the GMFM-66. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Determination of natural radioactivity by gross alpha and beta measurements in ground water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turhan, S; Ozçitak, E; Taşkin, H; Varinlioğlu, A

    2013-06-01

    In this study, the activity concentrations of the gross α and β in ground water samples collected from the different drilled wells in Nevşehir province were measured to assess annual effective dose due to the ingestion of the water samples. Nevşehir province is one of the major cities of Cappadocia Region which is a popular tourist destination as it has many areas with unique geological, historic, and cultural features. Sampling and measurements were carried out in the autumn of 2011 and the spring of 2012. The values of the activity concentrations of the gross α and β measured in the water samples ranged from 80 to 380 mBq L(-1) with a mean of 192 mBq L(-1) and 120-3470 mBq L(-1) with a mean of 579 mBq L(-1) respectively. All values of the gross α were lower than the limit value of 500 mBq L(-1) while two ground water samples were found to have gross β activity concentrations of greater than 1000 mBq L(-1). Therefore two water samples were the subject of further radioisotope-specific analysis. The obtained result indicated that the elevated activity concentrations of the gross β in these water samples are dominated by (40)K activity. Annual effective doses ranged from 0.04 to 0.20 mSv y(-1).

  14. GENDER DIFFERENCES IN FINE AND GROSS MOTOR SKILLS OF NORMALLY DEVELOPING OVERWEIGHT AND OBESE ADOLESCENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şehmus ASLAN

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to compare girls’ and boys’ fine and gross motor skills in normally developing overweight and obese adolescents. 18 girls and 28 boys with 12-18 age range, in totally 46 overweight and obese adolecents participated in the study. Body mass index of participants were calculated. Fine and gross motor skills of adolescents were assessed by Short Form Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOT-2 SF. There was no differences between girls and boys for BOT-2 SF total scores (p>0.05, but it was found differences in several items of BOT-2 SF. Scores of test items for fine motor scores in the girls were higher than the boys (p0.05. Gross motor skill tests including jumping in place, dribling a ball, sit-ups, one- legged stationary hop test scores were higher in the boys, while tapping feet and fingers test score was higher in the girls (p<0.05. Our results suggested that there is differences between girls’ and boys’ fine and gross motor skills in normally developing overweight and obese adolescents. Girls have better fine motor skill performance while boys have better gross motor skill performance in overweight and obese adolescents.

  15. ASSETS ADMITTED TO COVER GROSS TECHNICAL RESERVES CASE STUDY: INSURANCE – REINSURANCE COMPANY ASTRA SA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IRINELA – CONSTANTINA BADEA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze the asset structure and the coverage of gross technical reserves of the Insurance – Reinsurance Company Astra SA, for the period 2003 – 2014. Insurance companies are required to constitute technical reserves, in order to cope with the payment obligations to policyholders. These reserves may only be covered on account of certain assets, admitted by law. In Romania, Orders No. 8 and 9/2011, issued by the Insurance Supervisory Commission, contain Rules regarding the assets admitted to cover gross technical reserves, the dispersion of assets admitted to cover gross technical reserves and the liquidity coefficient. Order No. 9/2011, relating to general insurance, has been amended by Rule No. 22/2014. In this paper, we have analyzed the main elements of Astra’s assets, their share in total assets and we have calculated the coverage of gross technical reserves by total assets and liquid assets. In 2013 and 2014, the value of total assets was below the value of gross tehnical reserves, which demonstrated Astra’s financial instability, through negative capital and the inability to meet the obligations to policyholders. Failure to comply with the prudential indicators has been one of the main causes of Astra`s bankruptcy.

  16. Association of therapeutic occasion, gross motor function grading and developmental level with gross motor functional recovery in children with cerebral palsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The abnormal posture and motor pattern have not stabilized in children with cerebral palsy at early period, thus timely treatment can establish normal postural reflex and motor pattern, and prevent complications of muscle contracture, ankylosis, skeletal deformity, etc. The clinical factors affecting the rehabilitative efficacy of gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy should be observed.OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of therapeutic occasion, grading of gross motor function and developmental level on the rehabilitative efficacy in children with cerebral palsy.DESIGN: A case-controlled analysis.SETTING: Qilu Children's Hospital of Shandong University.PARTICIPANTS: Totally 138 children with cerebral palsy, who were hospitalized for 12 months in the Rehabilitation Center of Qilu Children's Hospital, Shandong University, were selected from April 2004 to September 2006, and all the children were diagnosed to be accorded with the standard set by the national seminar on cerebral palsy in 2004. There were 97 males and 41 females, including 55 cases of 0 - 2 years old,47 cases of 2 - 4 years and 36 cases of 4 - 6 years. Informed contents were obtained from relatives of all the children.METHODS: ① Comprehensive rehabilitation treatment: Vojta method was to induce the children to turn over the body and crawl by stimulating reflective turn over and crawling on belly. Bobath method including trainings of head control, turning over body, keeping sitting position, keeping balance, crawling, keeping standing position, and walking, etc.; The children were massaged by using the maneuvers of push, press, rub,pull, wave, etc. according to the sites and types of palsy. Acupuncture was performed mainly at bilateral motor areas, the needle was retained for 1 hour per time, 6 days continuously every week, and followed by a 1-day interval. ② Prognosis assessment: The gross motor functional grading of the children with cerebral palsy at admission was

  17. Gross N transformation rates after application of household compost or domestic sewage sludge to agricultural soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambus, P.; Kure, L.K.; Jensen, E.S.

    2002-01-01

    Gross N mineralization and immobilization was examined in soil amended with compost and sewage sludge on seven occasions during a year using N-15 pool dilution and enrichment techniques. Gross N mineralization was initially stimulated with both wastes and accelerated through the first 112 days...... of incubation, peaking at 5 mg N.kg(-1).d(-1) with compost compared with 4 mg N.kg(-1).d(-1) in control and sludge-treated soil. The magnitudes of mineralization rates exceeded those of immobilization by on average 6.3 ( compost) and 11.4 ( sludge) times, leading to a persistent net N mineralization cumulating...... up to 160 mg N.kg(-1) soil(compost) and 54 mg N.kg(-1) soil (sludge) over the season from May to November. The numerical model FLUAZ comprehensively predicted rates of gross mineralization and immobilization. Sludge exhibited an early season N-release, whereas compost released only 10% of the N...

  18. Gross β activity level of fallout in the environment around Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Ji-Da; CHEN Bin; WU Zong-Mei

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the measurement results of gross β activities in fallout samples collected from the environment around Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) during 1993-2002. The gross β activity of 191 samples collected at five monitoring spots were (0.11~3.64) Bq · m-2 · d-1, with an average of (0.91 ±0.49) Bq · m-2 · d-1. This value was lower than (1.02±0.35) Bq·m-2·d-1 , the average of the samples collected at the reference spot in Hangzhou.It indicated that no obvious rise in the gross β activity level of fallout was observed in ambience of Qinshan NPP.

  19. Integrable Gross-Neveu models with fermion-fermion and fermion-antifermion pairing

    CERN Document Server

    Thies, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The massless Gross-Neveu and chiral Gross-Neveu models are well known examples of integrable quantum field theories in 1+1 dimensions. We address the question whether integrability is preserved if one either replaces the four-fermion interaction in fermion-antifermion channels by a dual interaction in fermion-fermion channels, or if one adds such a dual interaction to an existing integrable model. The relativistic Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov approach is adequate to deal with the large N limit of such models. In this way, we construct and solve three integrable models with Cooper pairing. We also identify a candidate for a fourth integrable model with maximal kinematic symmetry, the "perfect" Gross-Neveu model. This type of field theories can serve as exactly solvable toy models for color superconductivity in quantum chromodynamics.

  20. Financial Variables Effect on the U.S. Gross Private Domestic Investment (GPDI) 1959-2001

    CERN Document Server

    Bell, Byron E

    2007-01-01

    I studied what role the US stock markets and money markets have possibly played in the Gross Private Domestic Investment (GPDI) of the United States from the year 1959 to the year 2001, Gross Private Domestic Investment refers to the total amount of investment spending by businesses and firms located within the borders of a nation. It includes both the values of the purchases of non-residential fixed investment, which include capital goods used for production, and the values of the purchases of residential fixed investment, which include construction spending for factories or offices. And I created a Multiple Linear Regression Model of the GDPI. To see if companies and private citizens use the stock market and money markets as a way of financing capital projects (business ventures, buying commercial and noncommercial property, etc). Keywords: Gross Private Domestic Investment, Pearson Correlation, SP 500, TB3

  1. EFFECT OF SENSORY INTEGRATION THERAPY ON GROSS MOTOR FUNCTION IN CHILDREN WITH CEREBRAL PALSY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Shamsoddini

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveThe primary problem in children with cerebral palsy (CP, frequently referred for occupational therapy, is gross motor dysfunction. The current study was designed to investigate the effects of sensory integration therapy (SIT on gross motor skills in CP patients.Materials & MethodsTwenty-four children with diplegic spastic CP were randomly divided into two groups: First group (n=14,6 girls, 8 boys, age range 2 to 6 years, mean age 3.9 years; the second or control group (n=10, 5 girls, 5 boys, age range 2 to 6 years, mean age 3.4 years. SIT training was given to the first group and only the home program was given for the second group. All children were evaluated with gross motor function measurement (GMFM 88 for rolling, sitting, crawling, standing and walking position before and after intervention. Treatment duration for both groups was 1 hour, 5 days per week for a period of 12 weeks.ResultsGross motor function in children of the case group improved significantly better that in the control group, after intervention in sitting (P=0.02, crawling (P=0.001 and standing (P=0.03 positions; however no significant difference was seen in rolling (P=0.65 and walking (P=0.69 ability assessment.ConclusionThis study showed the beneficial effects of the SIT training program for children with CP; the SIT intervention had a significantly positive effect on gross motor function in the children with diplegic spastic CP. Moreover the results of the present study showed that sensory integration and vestibular stimulation were effective in children with cerebral palsy.Keywords:Cerebral palsy, Children, Gross motor, Occupational therapy, Sensory integration

  2. Effect of cerebrolysin on gross motor function of children with cerebral palsy: a clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasiri, Jafar; Safavifar, Faezeh

    2017-01-10

    Gross motor dysfunction is considered as the most challenging problem in cerebral palsy (CP). It is proven that improvement of gross motor function could reduce CP-related disabilities and provide better quality of life in this group of patients. Therefore, the aim of this trial is to evaluate the effectiveness of cerebrolysin (CBL) on gross motor function of children with CP who are undergoing treatment. In this clinical trial study, paediatric patients aged 18-75 months with spastic diplegic or quadriplegic cerebral palsy, who were under rehabilitation therapy, were selected and randomly allocated in control and CBL groups. Patients in CBL group underwent treatment with standard rehabilitation therapy plus CBL. The latter was administrated intramuscularly as a single daily dose of 0.1 cc/kg for 10 days and then continued weekly for 4 months. Gross motor function of participants in the two studied groups, before and after trial, was evaluated and compared using the validated Persian version of gross motor function classification system-expanded and revised (GMFCS-E&R). During this trial, 108 patients with CP were evaluated for eligibility. From these, 50 patients were enrolled and randomly allocated in the CBL and control groups. Four months after trial, the mean level of GMFCS decreased significantly in the two groups (P < 0.05). However, it was significantly lower in the CBL group than in the control group (2.1 vs. 3.16, P < 0.05). The results of this trial indicated that CBL could improve gross motor function in patients with CP. This finding is consistent with neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects of CBL, which have been reported in various clinical trials in other neurological disorders. Further studies are recommended to establish the value of continued neuroprotection and to determine the pharmacokinetics/dynamics of CBL in this group of patients.

  3. Acute gross sterile pyuria after oral ciprofloxacin treatment of urinary tract infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pathoom Sukkaromdee; Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2016-01-01

    The sterile pyuria is an interesting problem in urology. Acute gross sterile pyuria is not a common clinical problem and is difficult to make a correct diagnosis. Here, the authors reported a case of acute gross sterile pyuria after oral ciprofloxacin treatment of urinary tract infection. The patient developed problem after complete course of 7-day acute upper urinary tract treatment. The patient was observed with cloudy whitish urine that had never seen before. The urinalysis showed sterile pyuria. This case was treated by conservative method and the problem was resolved within 7 days.

  4. Btryoid Wilm's tumor in a child presenting with gross hematuria: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chae Jung; Im, Young Jae; Shin, Hyun Joo; Kim, Myung Joon; Lee, Mi Jung [Severance Children' s Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    We report a unique case of botryoid Wilms' tumor with its characteristic imaging findings in a 5-month-old boy presenting with gross hematuria. In our case, ultrasonography revealed lobulated hyperechoic lesions filling the pelvicalyceal system without parenchymal invasion, mimicking a blood clot. However, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated the exact extent of the lesion with diffusion restriction and delayed enhancement suggestive of a tumor. Despite their rarity, botryoid Wilms' tumors should be included in the differential diagnosis of lobulated renal pelvic lesions presenting as gross hematuria in children, and MRI can suggest the diagnosis.

  5. MODELING AND FORECASTING THE GROSS ENROLLMENT RATIO IN ROMANIAN PRIMARY SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARINOIU CRISTIAN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The gross enrollment ratio in primary school is one of the basic indicators used in order to evaluate the proposed objectives of the educational system. Knowing its evolution allows a more rigorous substantiation of the strategies and of the human resources politics not only from the educational field but also from the economic one. In this paper we propose an econometric model in order to describe the gross enrollment ratio in Romanian primary school and we achieve its prediction for the next years, having as a guide the Box-Jenkins’s methodology. The obtained results indicate the continuous decrease of this rate for the next years.

  6. Improving gross motor function and postural control with hippotherapy in children with Down syndrome: case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champagne, Danielle; Dugas, Claude

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this case report is to describe the impact of an 11-week hippotherapy program on the gross motor functions of two children (respectively 28 and 37 months old) diagnosed with Down syndrome. Hippotherapy is a strategy that uses the horse's motion to stimulate and enhance muscle contraction and postural control. The children were assessed by the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) and accelerometry. The results indicate that both children improved on many dimensions of the GMFM. Power spectral analysis of the acceleration signals showed improvement in postural control of either the head or trunk, because the children adopted two different adaptative strategies to perturbation induced by the moving horse.

  7. Production of table potatoes in Europe – a multinational gross margin analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren Marcus; Bizik, J.; Dalla Costa, L.

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines different cropping practies, cost structures and gross margins for conventional table potato cropping in 6 different regions within the European Union: Czech Republic, Denmark, Italy, Poland, Portugal and Slovakia. Findings from this study show that potato cropping practies...... varies significantly between the various countries with major differences in yield and costs. Italy and Denmark are two regions with highest gross margins due to hight yields and revenues. Poland is by far the largest potato producing country among the 6 countries. The production is primarily based...

  8. No First-Order Phase Transition in the Gross-Neveu Model?

    CERN Document Server

    Brzoska, A; Brzoska, Andrej; Thies, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Within a variational calculation we investigate the role of baryons for the structure of dense matter in the Gross-Neveu model. We construct a trial ground state at finite baryon density which breaks translational invariance. Its scalar potential interpolates between widely spaced kinks and antikinks at low density and the value zero at infinite density. Its energy is lower than the one of the standard Fermi gas at all densities considered. This suggests that the discrete gamma_5 symmetry of the Gross-Neveu model does not get restored in a first order phase transition at finite density, at variance with common wisdom.

  9. Gross hepatomegaly due to ‘minimal change’ liver disease in a young female alcoholic

    OpenAIRE

    Majumdar, Sisir K.; Shaw, G K; Aps, E. J.; Thomson, Allan D.; O Gorman, P.; Bugler, J.

    1982-01-01

    The case of a grossly enlarged liver due to alcohol excess in a woman of 21 is reported. This case further demonstrates that a chronic alcoholic can have gross hepatomegaly with normal histology and normal liver function tests. The possible pathogenetic basis of ethanol-induced hepatomegaly (‘minimal change’ liver disease) is discussed.

  10. 26 CFR 1.62-1T - Adjusted gross income (temporary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... section 165 for losses incurred in any transaction entered into for profit though not connected with a... determining adjusted gross income, expenses must be those directly, and not those merely remotely, connected... research scientist, is employed by Corporation X. B gives a speech before members of Association Y,...

  11. Terrestrial gross carbon dioxide uptake: Global distribution and covariation with climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beer, C.; Veenendaal, E.M.

    2010-01-01

    Terrestrial gross primary production (GPP) is the largest global CO2 flux driving several ecosystem functions. We provide an observation-based estimate of this flux at 123 ± 8 petagrams of carbon per year (Pg C year-1) using eddy covariance flux data and various diagnostic models. Tropical forests

  12. 7 CFR 1400.501 - Determination of average adjusted gross income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... renewable energy; (4) The sale, including the sale of easements and development rights, of farm, ranch... renewable energy; (7) The feeding, rearing, or finishing of livestock; (8) The sale of land that has been..., and farm operations. (c) Except as otherwise provided in this subpart, adjusted gross income means:...

  13. Development of the Gross Motor Function Classification System for Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Peter L.; Palisano, Robert J.; Bartlett, Doreen J.; Galuppi, Barbara E.; Russell, Dianne J.

    2008-01-01

    The Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) for cerebral palsy has been widely used internationally for clinical, research, and administrative purposes. This paper recounts the ideas and work behind the creation of the GMFCS, reports on the lessons learned, and identifies some philosophical challenges inherent in trying to develop an…

  14. The gross motor function measure is a valid and sensitive outcome measure for spinal muscular atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Leslie; Owens, Hollis; Hynan, Linda S; Iannaccone, Susan T

    2006-06-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy is a genetic disease of the anterior horn cell with high morbidity rate in childhood. Certain drugs may be of benefit and are in or under consideration for Phase II trials. Outcome measures that are age appropriate and representative of disease activity remain under study. Several have not yet been validated for spinal muscular atrophy. The Gross Motor Function Measure is a measure of motor function. We showed previously that the Gross Motor Function Measure is a reliable outcome measure to assess motor function in children with spinal muscular atrophy. By collating our data from 40 spinal muscular atrophy patients, ages 5 through 17 years, we now show the validity of the Gross Motor Function Measure when compared to Quantitative Muscle Testing and ambulatory status in children with spinal muscular atrophy. The median for Gross Motor Function Measure total scores for walkers was 237 (range: 197-261) and for non-walkers, 64 (range: 4-177; PGross Motor Function Measure is valid and sensitive as an outcome measure for clinical trials in pediatric spinal muscular atrophy.

  15. Stereoscopic Anatomy: Evaluation of a New Teaching System in Human Gross Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prentice, Ernest D.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    A stereoscopic slide-based autoinstructional program has been developed as a substitute for dissection in teaching gross anatomy. Evaluation data suggest that this program, while having minor limitations in terms of anatomical orientation, does provide a viable alternative to dissection. (Editor/LBH)

  16. Student performance on practical gross anatomy examinations is not affected by assessment modality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Amanda J; Innes, Stanley I; Stomski, Norman J; Armson, Anthony J

    2016-01-01

    Anatomical education is becoming modernized, not only in its teaching and learning, but also in its assessment formats. Traditional "steeplechase" examinations are being replaced with online gross anatomy examinations. The aims of this study were to: (1) determine if online anatomy practical examinations are equivalent to traditional anatomy practical examinations; and (2) to examine if students' perceptions of the online or laboratory testing environments influenced their performance on the examinations. In phase one, 10 third-year students were interviewed to generate perception items to which five anatomy lecturers assigned content validity. In phase two, students' gross anatomical knowledge was assessed by examinations in two modes and their perceptions were examined using the devised survey instrument. Forty-five second-year chiropractic students voluntarily participated in Phase Two. The two randomly allocated groups completed the examinations in a sequential cross-over manner. Student performance on the gross anatomy examination was not different between traditional "steeplechase" (mean ± standard deviation (SD): 69 ± 11%) and online (68 ± 15%) modes. The majority of students (87%) agreed that they felt comfortable using computers for gross anatomy examinations. However, fewer students found it easy to orientate images of cadaver specimens online. The majority of students (85%) agreed that they felt comfortable working with cadavers but there was less agreement on the effect of moving around the laboratory during practical examinations. This data will allow anatomists to confidently implement online assessments without fear of jeopardizing academic rigor or student performance. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.

  17. Macroeconomic Models used in the Structural Analysis of the Gross Domestic Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Anghelache

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a use case for macro economical models, the objective being the structural analysis of the Gross Domestic Product. The authors offer a snapshot on GDP evolution, the econometric models proposed for analysis are designed with the help of EViews software. Its performances are determined through the optics of the statistical tests.

  18. Scattering and duality in the 2 dimensional OSp(2|2) gross neveu and sigma models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saleur, H.; Pozsgay, B.

    2010-01-01

    We write the thermodynamic Bethe ansatz for the massive OSp(2|2) Gross Neveu and sigma models. We find evidence that the GN S matrix proposed by Bassi and Leclair [12] is the correct one. We determine features of the sigma model S matrix, which seem highly unconventional; we conjecture in particular

  19. Gross and microscopic pathology of hard and soft corals in New Caledonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, Thierry M.; Aeby, Greta S.; Lasne, Gregory; Tribollet, Aline

    2014-01-01

    We surveyed the reefs of Grande Terre, New Caledonia, for coral diseases in 2010 and 2013. Lesions encountered in hard and soft corals were systematically described at the gross and microscopic level. We sampled paired and normal tissues from 101 and 65 colonies in 2010 and 2013, respectively, comprising 51 species of corals from 27 genera. Tissue loss was the most common gross lesion sampled (40%) followed by discoloration (28%), growth anomalies (13%), bleaching (10%), and flatworm infestation (1%). When grouped by gross lesions, the diversity of microscopic lesions as measured by Shannon–Wiener index was highest for tissue loss, followed by discoloration, bleaching, and growth anomaly. Our findings document an extension of the range of certain diseases such as Porites trematodiasis and endolithic hypermycosis (dark spots) to the Western Pacific as well as the presence of a putative cnidarian endosymbiont. We also expand the range of species infected by cell-associated microbial aggregates, and confirm the trend that these aggregates predominate in dominant genera of corals in the Indo-Pacific. This study highlights the importance of including histopathology as an integral component of baseline coral disease surveys, because a given gross lesion might be associated with multiple potential causative agents.

  20. 48 CFR 29.401-4 - New Mexico gross receipts and compensating tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false New Mexico gross receipts and compensating tax. 29.401-4 Section 29.401-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS TAXES Contract Clauses 29.401-4 New Mexico...

  1. 20 CFR 10.712 - What amounts are included in the gross recovery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... recovery? 10.712 Section 10.712 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF... gross recovery? (a) When a settlement or judgment is paid to, or for, one individual, the entire amount... recovery. If a settlement or judgment is paid to or for more than one individual or in more than...

  2. Gross genomic damage measured by DNA image cytometry independently predicts gastric cancer patient survival

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belien, J.A.M.; Buffart, T.E.; Gill, A.; Broeckaert, M.A.M.; Quirke, P.; Meijer, G.A.; Grabsch, H.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: DNA aneuploidy reflects gross genomic changes. It can be measured by flow cytometry (FCM-DNA) or image cytometry (ICM-DNA). In gastric cancer, the prevalence of DNA aneuploidy has been reported to range from 27 to 100%, with conflicting associations with clinicopathological variables. Th

  3. Medical gross anatomy as a predictor of performance on the USMLE Step 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Cathryn A; Tucker, Richard P

    2005-03-01

    Traditional predictors of medical school performance, such as Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) scores and grade point averages, are often used during the admissions process to help identify the prospective students who are most likely to complete the basic science portion of the curriculum successfully. Here we analyzed the admissions files and student records of 285 first-year medical students who matriculated at the University of California at Davis School of Medicine between 1999 and 2001 to determine if performance in medical gross anatomy is a similar, if not better, predictor of performance on the United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) Step 1 than traditional predictors used by medical school admissions committees. Though MCAT scores and grade point averages were correlated with scores on the USMLE Step 1, only the score on the biological science section of the MCAT was significantly correlated with passing the licensing examination. In contrast, class rank in medical gross anatomy and the score on a gross anatomy comprehensive final examination were correlated both with scores on the USMLE Step 1 and passing the examination. Our results indicate that medical schools should consider performance in medical gross anatomy just as much, if not more, than traditional predictors of medical school performance when trying to identify students who may need more time or tutoring to pass the licensing examination.

  4. Gross motor skills and sports participation of children with visual impairments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwen, S; Visscher, C.; Hartman, E.; Lemmink, K.A.P.M.

    2007-01-01

    Gross motor skill performance of children with visual impairments and its association with the degree of visual impairment and sports participation was examined. Twenty children with visual impairments (M age = 9.2 years, SD =1.5) and 100 sighted children (M age = 9.1 years, SD = 1.5) from mainstrea

  5. Assessment of Preschoolers' Gross Motor Proficiency: Revisiting Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Hazel Mei Yung

    2011-01-01

    Literature reveals that there are very few validated motor proficiency tests for young children. According to Gallahue and Ozmun, the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency is a valid test. However, manipulative skills, which are classified as gross motor skills by most motor development specialists, are only tested in the Upper Limb…

  6. Gross Motor Performance and Physical Fitness in Children with Psychiatric Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emck, Claudia; Bosscher, Ruud J.; van Wieringen, Piet C. W.; Doreleijers, Theo; Beek, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: Gross motor performance appears to be impaired in children with psychiatric disorders but little is known about which skill domains are affected in each disorder, nor about possible accompanying deficits in physical fitness. The present study has sought to provide information about these issues in children with emotional, behavioural, and…

  7. Comparison of a Gross Anatomy Laboratory to Online Anatomy Software for Teaching Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathiowetz, Virgil; Yu, Chih-Huang; Quake-Rapp, Cindee

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the grades, self-perceived learning, and satisfaction between occupational therapy students who used a gross anatomy laboratory versus online anatomy software (AnatomyTV) as tools to learn anatomy at a large public university and a satellite campus in the mid-western United States. The goal was to determine if…

  8. Medical Student Preferences for Self-Directed Study Resources in Gross Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi-Lundberg, Derek L.; Low, Tze Feng; Patman, Phillip; Turner, Paul; Sinha, Sankar N.

    2016-01-01

    Gross anatomy instruction in medical curricula involve a range of resources and activities including dissection, prosected specimens, anatomical models, radiological images, surface anatomy, textbooks, atlases, and computer-assisted learning (CAL). These resources and activities are underpinned by the expectation that students will actively engage…

  9. Student Performance on Practical Gross Anatomy Examinations Is Not Affected by Assessment Modality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Amanda J.; Innes, Stanley I.; Stomski, Norman J.; Armson, Anthony J.

    2016-01-01

    Anatomical education is becoming modernized, not only in its teaching and learning, but also in its assessment formats. Traditional "steeplechase" examinations are being replaced with online gross anatomy examinations. The aims of this study were to: (1) determine if online anatomy practical examinations are equivalent to traditional…

  10. Effects of winter flooding on mass and gross energy of bottomland hardwood acorns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan G. Leach; Jacob N. Straub; Richard M. Kaminski; Andrew W. Ezell; Tracy S. Hawkins; Theodor D. Leininger

    2012-01-01

    Decomposition of red oak acorns (Quercus spp.; Section Erythrobalanus) could decrease forage biomass and gross energy (GE) available to wintering ducks from acorns. We estimated changes in mass and GE for 3 species of red oak acorns in flooded and non-flooded bottomland hardwood forests in Mississippi during winter 2009–2010. Mass...

  11. Method of Multi-dimensional Gross Errors Snooping of GPS Velocity Estimation in Airborne Gravimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHENG Kai

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Precision velocity plays an important role in airborne gravimetry. Since the aircraft in a state of stable flight, we could establish a strict state equation with constant acceleration model for it, then obtained predicted velocity which was used for constructing a priori residual Q to detect the gross errors. Theoretical research showed that Q was influenced by the accuracy of predicted velocity and the measurement errors. According to the statistical features of Q combined with IGG Ⅲ principle, we could lower the contribution of the observation that contained the gross errors. Static testing was used for analyzing the characteristic of measurement errors as well as the accuracy of predicted velocity under the simulated ideal flight environment where the acceleration was approximate to a constant, the results also showed the relationship between the sampling rate and the ability of detecting gross errors. Both the static and kinematic tests demonstrate that new method can well detect the gross error smaller than 1 cycle.

  12. Self-Pacing a Gross Motor Skills Course: Crawler Tractor Operator, MOS 62E20.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Mark F.; Taylor, John E.

    As part of the Army's emphasis on performance-oriented instruction in training centers, a study was conducted to determine the feasibility of using self-paced instruction in a gross motor skills course. The Crawler Tractor Operator Course, a seven-week heavy equipment course conducted at Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri was selected for the study…

  13. Gross Square Feet Per Student. IssueTrak: A CEFPI Brief on Educational Facility Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlers, Art

    The Council of Educational Facility Planners International regularly provides the recommended number of gross square feet (gsf) per student figures. This report provides revised numbers based on responses from its Design Portfolio winners over the past 5 years. Average national averages of square footage space per student for Canada and the…

  14. A longitudinal study on gross motor development in children with learning disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westendorp, Marieke; Hartman, Esther; Houwen, Suzanne; Huijgen, Barbara C. H.; Smith, Joanne; Visscher, Chris

    This longitudinal study examined the development of gross motor skills, and sex-differences therein, in 7; to 11-years-old children with learning disorders (LD) and compared the results with typically developing children to determine the performance level of children with LD. In children with LD (n

  15. Remarks on the Blow-Up Solutions for the Critical Gross-Pitaevskii Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoguang Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the blow-up solutions of the critical Gross-Pitaevskii equation, which models the Bose-Einstein condensate. The existence and qualitative properties of the minimal blow-up solutions are obtained.

  16. Gross motor skills and sports participation of children with visual impairments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwen, S; Visscher, C.; Hartman, E.; Lemmink, K.A.P.M.

    Gross motor skill performance of children with visual impairments and its association with the degree of visual impairment and sports participation was examined. Twenty children with visual impairments (M age = 9.2 years, SD =1.5) and 100 sighted children (M age = 9.1 years, SD = 1.5) from

  17. Hydrodynamical form for the one-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haidar Mohamad

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We establish a well-posedness result for the hydrodynamical form (HGP of the one dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation (GP via the classical form of this equation. The result established in this way proves that (HGP is locally well-posed since the solution of (GP can vanished at some $t\

  18. The effect of ambient temperature on gross-efficiency in cycling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hettinga, F.J.; Koning, J.J. de; Vrijer, A. de; Wüst, R.C.I.; Daanen, H.A.M.; Foster, C.

    2007-01-01

    Time-trial performance deteriorates in the heat. This might potentially be the result of a temperature-induced decrease in gross-efficiency (GE). The effect of high ambient temperature on GE during cycling will be studied, with the intent of determining if a heat-induced change in GE could account f

  19. The Effects of Modified Games on the Development of Gross Motor Skill in Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestari, Indah; Ratnaningsih, Tri

    2016-01-01

    Gross motor skills on children must be optimized much earlier since it plays important role not only on their interaction process but also in supporting other multiple developments. One of the means in developing child's motor skill is by providing innovative games i.e. modified games including game format, game timing, and game sequence. The…

  20. Hand-rim Forces and Gross Mechanical Efficiency at Various Frequencies of Wheelchair Propulsion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenton, J. P.; van der Woude, L. H. V.; Fowler, N. E.; Nicholson, G.; Tolfrey, K.; Goosey-Tolfrey, V. L.

    2013-01-01

    To determine the effects of push frequency changes on force application, fraction of effective force (FEF) and gross efficiency (GE) during hand-rim propulsion. 8 male able-bodied participants performed five 4-min sub-maximal exercise bouts at 1.8 m.s(-1); the freely chosen frequency (FCF), followed

  1. 26 CFR 1.951-1 - Amounts included in gross income of United States shareholders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... shareholders. Therefore, the redemption rights are not restrictions or other limitations within the meaning of... States shareholders. 1.951-1 Section 1.951-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... included in gross income of United States shareholders. (a) In general. If a foreign corporation is...

  2. Joint control of terrestrial gross primary productivity by plant phenology and physiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xia, J.; Niu, S.; Ciais, P.; Janssens, I.A.; Chen, J.; Ammann, C.; Arain, A.; Blanken, P.D.; Cescatti, A.; Moors, E.J.

    2015-01-01

    Terrestrial gross primary productivity (GPP) varies greatly over time and space. A better understanding of this variability is necessary for more accurate predictions of the future climate–carbon cycle feedback. Recent studies have suggested that variability in GPP is driven by a broad range of biot

  3. Spatial patterns for the three species Gross-Pitaevskii system in the plane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Squassina

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we highlight some particular spatial patterns of ground state solutions for the three species Gross-Pitaevskii system in the plane having physical coefficients with particular attention to the cases where the inter-species coefficients become large. The solutions models least energy stationary states of a mixture of three Bose-Einstein condensates.

  4. An Efficient Compact Finite Difference Method for the Solution of the Gross-Pitaevskii Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongpei Zhang

    2015-01-01

    matrices. The CFDM-AIF method is implemented to investigate the ground and first excited state solutions of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation in two-dimensional (2D and three-dimensional (3D Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs. Numerical results are presented to demonstrate the validity, accuracy, and efficiency of the CFDM-AIF method.

  5. G7 country Gross Domestic Product (GDP) time correlations. A graph network analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Mi'skiewicz, J

    2005-01-01

    The correlation between G7 countries has been analysed on the basis of Gross Domestic Product using different distance functions i.e. discrete, linear correlation and distribution distance. The distance matrics is analysed by various graph methods and the percolation threshold is calculated. The globalization process understood as increas of correlation has been observed. The applications of different distance function discussed.

  6. Direct measurements of the light dependence of gross photosynthesis and oxygen consumption in the ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailleul, B.; Park, J.; Brown, C. M.; Bidle, K. D.; Lee, S.; Falkowski, P. G.

    2016-02-01

    For decades, a lack of understanding of how respiration is influenced by light has been stymying our ability to quantitatively analyze how phytoplankton allocate carbon in situ and the biological mechanisms that participate to the fate of blooms. Using membrane inlet mass spectrometry (MIMS), the light dependencies of gross photosynthesis and oxygen uptake rates were measured during the bloom demises of two prymnesiophytes, in two open ocean regions. In the North Atlantic, dominated by Emiliania huxleyi, respiration was independent of irradiance and was higher than the gross photosynthetic rate at all irradiances. In the Amundsen Sea (Antarctica), dominated by Phaeocystis antarctica, the situation was very different. Dark respiration was one order of magnitude lower than the maximal gross photosynthetic rate. ut the oxygen uptake rate increased by 10 fold at surface irradiances, where it becomes higher than gross photosynthesis. Our results suggest that the light dependence of oxygen uptake in P. antarctica has two sources: one is independent of photosynthesis, and is possibly associated with the photo-reduction of O2 mediated by dissolved organic matter; the second reflects the activity of an oxidase fueled in the light with photosynthetic electron flow. Interestingly, these dramatic light-dependent changes in oxygen uptake were not reproduced in nutrient-replete P. antarctica cultures, in the laboratory. Our measurements highlight the importance of improving our understanding of oxygen consuming reactions in the euphotic zone, which is critical to investigating the physiology of phytoplankton and tracing the fate of phytoplankton blooms.

  7. A longitudinal study on gross motor development in children with learning disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westendorp, Marieke; Hartman, Esther; Houwen, Suzanne; Huijgen, Barbara C. H.; Smith, Joanne; Visscher, Chris

    2014-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the development of gross motor skills, and sex-differences therein, in 7; to 11-years-old children with learning disorders (LD) and compared the results with typically developing children to determine the performance level of children with LD. In children with LD (n

  8. Effects of Aquatic Intervention on Gross Motor Skills in Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roostaei, Meysam; Baharlouei, Hamzeh; Azadi, Hamidreza; Fragala-Pinkham, Maria A

    2016-12-14

    To review the literature on the effects of aquatic intervention on gross motor skills for children with cerebral palsy (CP). Six databases were searched from inception to January 2016. Aquatic studies for children aged 1-21 years with any type or CP classification and at least one outcome measuring gross motor skills were included. Information was extracted on study design, outcomes, and aquatic program type, frequency, duration, and intensity. Quality was rated using the Centre of Evidence-Based Medicine: Levels of Evidence and the PEDro scale. Of the 11 studies which met inclusion criteria, only two used randomized control trial design, and the results were mixed. Quality of evidence was rated as moderate to high for only one study. Most studies used quasi-experimental designs and reported improvements in gross motor skills for within group analyses after aquatic programs were held for two to three times per week and lasting for 6-16 weeks. Participants were classified according to the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels I-V, and were aged 3-21 years. Mild to no adverse reactions were reported. Evidence on aquatic interventions for ambulatory children with CP is limited. Aquatic exercise is feasible and adverse effects are minimal; however, dosing parameters are unclear. Further research is needed to determine aquatic intervention effectiveness and exercise dosing across age categories and GMFCS levels.

  9. Gross Motor Performance and Physical Fitness in Children with Psychiatric Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emck, Claudia; Bosscher, Ruud J.; van Wieringen, Piet C. W.; Doreleijers, Theo; Beek, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: Gross motor performance appears to be impaired in children with psychiatric disorders but little is known about which skill domains are affected in each disorder, nor about possible accompanying deficits in physical fitness. The present study has sought to provide information about these issues in children with emotional, behavioural, and…

  10. 46 CFR 130.130 - Steering on OSVs of less than 100 gross tons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... must be installed in the pilothouse to indicate operation of the power units. (e) The auxiliary means... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steering on OSVs of less than 100 gross tons. 130.130... VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Vessel Control § 130.130 Steering on OSVs of...

  11. A note on a proof of F. Hahn concerning the gross substitutability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgi, G

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this note is to investigate the assumptions and the proofs of some results by F. Hahn, which have been stated in several other classics of Economic Theory. The results deal with the relations between the gross substitutability and the weak axiom of revealed preference, in a pure exchange economy, ruled by the Walras law.

  12. Joint control of terrestrial gross primary productivity by plant phenology and physiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xia, J.; Niu, S.; Ciais, P.; Janssens, I.A.; Chen, J.; Ammann, C.; Arain, A.; Blanken, P.D.; Cescatti, A.; Moors, E.J.

    2015-01-01

    Terrestrial gross primary productivity (GPP) varies greatly over time and space. A better understanding of this variability is necessary for more accurate predictions of the future climate–carbon cycle feedback. Recent studies have suggested that variability in GPP is driven by a broad range of

  13. Associations between gross motor and communicative development in at-risk infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBarton, Eve Sauer; Iverson, Jana M

    2016-08-01

    Infants' advances in locomotion relate to advances in communicative development. However, little is known about these relations in infants at risk for delays in these domains and whether they may extend to earlier achievements in gross motor development in infancy. We examined whether advances in sitting and prone locomotion are related to communicative development in infants who have an older sibling with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and are at risk for motor and communication delays (heightened-risk; HR). We conducted a longitudinal study with 37 HR infants who did not receive an ASD diagnosis at 36 months. Infants were observed monthly between the ages of 5 and 14 months. We assessed gross motor development using the Alberta Infant Motor Scales (AIMS) and recorded ages of onset of verbal and nonverbal communicative behaviors. Results indicated increased presence of early gross motor delay from 5 to 10 months. In addition, there were positive relations between sitting and gesture and babble onset and between prone development and gesture onset. Thus, links between gross motor development and communication extend to at-risk development and provide a starting point for future research on potential cascading consequences of motor advances on communication development.

  14. The phase diagram of the massive Gross-Neveu model, revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Schnetz, O; Urlichs, K; Schnetz, Oliver; Thies, Michael; Urlichs, Konrad

    2005-01-01

    The massive Gross-Neveu model is solved in the large N limit at finite temperature and chemical potential. The phase diagram features a kink-antikink crystal phase which was missed in previous works. Translated into the framework of condensed matter physics our results generalize the bipolaron lattice in non-degenerate conducting polymers to finite temperature.

  15. 26 CFR 41.4482(b)-1 - Definition of taxable gross weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... oilfield machinery, etc.) mounted on the vehicle for use on construction jobs, in oilfield operations, etc...) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES EXCISE TAX ON USE OF CERTAIN HIGHWAY MOTOR VEHICLES Tax on Use of Certain Highway Motor Vehicles § 41.4482(b)-1 Definition of taxable gross weight. (a) Actual unloaded weight—(1)...

  16. The Impact of Gross Anatomy on the Future Head and Neck Surgeon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archibald, David J.; Carlson, Matthew L.

    2009-01-01

    Gross anatomy is not only a rite of passage for medical students as they enter the world of practicing medicine but may also be an unrecognized fork in the road in their pursuit of choosing a medical specialty. Otolaryngology: head and neck surgery tends to be poorly represented in medical school curriculum, often only offered as an elective…

  17. Building a Low-Cost Gross Anatomy Laboratory: A Big Step for a Small University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Evan

    2010-01-01

    This article illustrates details of the planning, building, and improvement phases of a cost-efficient, full-dissection gross anatomy laboratory on a campus of an historically design-centric university. Special considerations were given throughout the project to the nature of hosting cadavers in a building shared amongst all undergraduate majors.…

  18. A "Second Life" for Gross Anatomy: Applications for Multiuser Virtual Environments in Teaching the Anatomical Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, April; Hazzard, Matthew; Challman, Sandra D.; Morgenstein, Aaron M.; Brueckner, Jennifer K.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the emerging role of educational multiuser virtual environments, specifically Second Life[TM], in anatomical sciences education. Virtual worlds promote inquiry-based learning and conceptual understanding, potentially making them applicable for teaching and learning gross anatomy. A short introduction to Second Life as an…

  19. The impact of unit cost reductions on gross profit: Increasing or decreasing returns?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ely Dahan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We suggest that marketers actively participate in reducing unit costs during new product development, consistent with the theme of integrated marketing and manufacturing. Most marketing managers misjudge the impact on gross profit of reducing variable unit manufacturing costs, mistakenly believing that such cost reductions yield decreasing or linear returns while they actually generate increasing returns.

  20. Calculation of gross energy consumption[in a building]; Beregning af bruttoenergiforbrug

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelund Thomsen, Kirsten; Aggerholm, Soeren

    2000-07-01

    This bulletin presents a method for calculating the gross energy consumption of a building. The net heat demand for space heating, ventilation and domestic hot water should be calculated. Next converted to gross energy consumption, i.e. the amount of energy that is required to supply, for instance, a gas furnace in order that it produces the calculated amount of heat. First the electricity consumption required for ventilation, appliances and lighting is calculated, taking into consideration the daylight utilisation in commercial buildings. The point of departure is the existing method for calculating the net heat demand of buildings. The method includes heat supply from persons, lighting and appliances. This calculating method was later extended to include a method for calculating the energy demand for domestic hot water and addition of non-utilised heat loss from pipes and heat producing installations. This loss is calculated on the basis of loss in hot water tanks, heat and hot water pipes. Heat supply from solar collectors is calculated and deducted from the heat demand. The calculated end result is called gross heat requirement. Next the gross energy consumption for heating, ventilation and domestic hot water is determined by means of annual efficiency for heating installations. An inventory of the environmental impact is calculated based on the energy consumption measured by the total CO{sub 2} production per m{sup 2} floor area. The CO{sub 2} emission is calculated on the basis of the calculated gross energy consumption of heating and electricity, and on standard values for CO{sub 2} contents in the fuels used and emissions from electricity production issued by the Danish Energy Agency. The gross energy consumption is calculated for three examples of buildings: a single-family house, an administration building and a multi-storey building. The examples show that it is feasible to do calculations for typical buildings. Heat consumption for space heating and

  1. Gross motor function in children with spastic cerebral palsy and cerebral visual impairment: A comparison between outcomes of the original and the Cerebral Visual Impairment adapted Gross Motor Function Measure-88 (GMFM-88-CVI)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salavati, M.; Rameckers, E.A.A.; Waninge, A.; Krijnen, W.P.; Steenbergen, B.; Schans, C.P. van der

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether the adapted version of the Gross Motor Function Measure-88 (GMFM-88) for children with Cerebral Palsy (CP) and Cerebral Visual Impairment (CVI) results in higher scores. This is most likely to be a reflection of their gross motor function, however it may be the result

  2. Gross motor function in children with spastic Cerebral Palsy and Cerebral Visual Impairment : A comparison between outcomes of the original and the Cerebral Visual Impairment adapted Gross Motor Function Measure-88 (GMFM-88-CVI)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salavati, M.; Rameckers, E. A. A.; Waninge, A.; Krijnen, W. P.; Steenbergen, B.; van der Schans, C. P.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether the adapted version of the Gross Motor Function Measure 88 (GMFM-88) for children with Cerebral Palsy (CP) and Cerebral Visual Impairment (CVI) results in higher scores. This is most likely to be a reflection of their gross motor function, however it may be the result

  3. Gross motor function in children with spastic cerebral palsy and cerebral visual impairment: A comparison between outcomes of the original and the Cerebral Visual Impairment adapted Gross Motor Function Measure-88 (GMFM-88-CVI)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salavati, M.; Rameckers, E.A.A.; Waninge, A.; Krijnen, W.P.; Steenbergen, B.; Schans, C.P. van der

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether the adapted version of the Gross Motor Function Measure-88 (GMFM-88) for children with Cerebral Palsy (CP) and Cerebral Visual Impairment (CVI) results in higher scores. This is most likely to be a reflection of their gross motor function, however it may be the result

  4. Assessing the influence of historic net and gross land changes on the carbon fluxes of Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Richard; Schulp, Catharina J E; Hengeveld, Geerten M; Verburg, Peter H; Clevers, Jan G P W; Schelhaas, Mart-Jan; Herold, Martin

    2016-07-01

    Legacy effects of land cover/use on carbon fluxes require considering both present and past land cover/use change dynamics. To assess past land use dynamics, model-based reconstructions of historic land cover/use are needed. Most historic reconstructions consider only the net area difference between two time steps (net changes) instead of accounting for all area gains and losses (gross changes). Studies about the impact of gross and net land change accounting methods on the carbon balance are still lacking. In this study, we assessed historic changes in carbon in soils for five land cover/use types and of carbon in above-ground biomass of forests. The assessment focused on Europe for the period 1950 to 2010 with decadal time steps at 1-km spatial resolution using a bookkeeping approach. To assess the implications of gross land change data, we also used net land changes for comparison. Main contributors to carbon sequestration between 1950 and 2010 were afforestation and cropland abandonment leading to 14.6 PgC sequestered carbon (of which 7.6 PgC was in forest biomass). Sequestration was highest for old-growth forest areas. A sequestration dip was reached during the 1970s due to changes in forest management practices. Main contributors to carbon emissions were deforestation (1.7 PgC) and stable cropland areas on peaty soils (0.8 PgC). In total, net fluxes summed up to 203 TgC yr(-1) (98 TgC yr(-1) in forest biomass and 105 TgC yr(-1) in soils). For areas that were subject to land changes in both reconstructions (35% of total area), the differences in carbon fluxes were about 68%. Overall for Europe the difference between accounting for either gross or net land changes led to 7% difference (up to 11% per decade) in carbon fluxes with systematically higher fluxes for gross land change data.

  5. Gross violation of human rights and inequality in city of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruotti, Caren; Freitas, Taís Viudes de; Almeida, Juliana Feliciano de; Peres, Maria Fernanda Tourinho

    2009-06-01

    To analyze the profile of gross human rights violations, and the relationship between these violations and socioeconomic and demographic indicators. Cross-sectional ecological study of 96 census districts of the city of São Paulo (Southeastern Brazil) in the year 2000. The data used came from the gross human rights violations database maintained by the Núcleo de Estudos de Violência (Center for the Study of Violence) at the Universidade de São Paulo. This database contains information on all the cases of summary executions, lynching and police violence reported on the written press. Socioeconomic and demographic data were obtained from the 2000 Census carried out by the Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics). A descriptive analysis of the data was carried out, and the association between the dependent variable - gross human rights violations (number of police violence victims, lynching episodes and summary executions) -, and different socioeconomic and demographic variables was tested. In order to test this association the Spearman's correlation test was used. The correlations between gross human rights violations and the socioeconomic and demographic indicators were statistically significant, except for the urbanization rate and the hospital beds per 1000 inhabitants. The strongest correlations were found between the dependent variable and the following variables: size of the resident population (r=0,693), proportion of youths aged from 15 to 24 years (r=0,621), and proportion of household heads with no education or with up to three years of schooling (r=0,590). Gross human rights violations more markedly occur in the population with the worst living conditions. Therefore, in a scenario in which inequality in attaining social and economic rights is directly superposed to the violation of civil rights, the violence cycle is intensified and perpetuated.

  6. How the Integration of Pathology in the Gross Anatomy Laboratory Affects Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rae, Guenevere; Cork, John R; Karpinski, Aryn C; McGoey, Robin; Swartz, William

    2017-01-01

    The main objective of this project was to integrate pathologists into the gross anatomy laboratory setting to increase the exposure that early medical students receive to pathologists as clinicians. Pathologists visited the gross anatomy laboratory 3 times throughout the 15-week course to assist medical students in determining the cause of death of the cadaver being dissected. This intervention was implemented with 1st-semester medical students for 2 consecutive years (a total of 100 dissection teams consisting of 4 students in each team). A quantitative content analysis was performed on the students' end of the course assignments to determine whether the students learned a greater percentage of pathologic information by having interactions with pathologists in the gross lab and to identify trends in the way medical students diagnosed their "first patient" (i.e., the cadaver). The students who had interactions with pathologists in the laboratory had significantly more pathology in their narrative than the students who did not receive pathologist interaction. They were also more likely to conclude that the cadaver they dissected actually died from a cause other than the one listed on the death certificate (18.3%; n = 15) compared to the students who had no pathologist interaction (1.8%; n = 2). A postintervention survey indicated that 65% of students felt that interaction with pathologists helped them understand the clinical application of gross anatomy, more than 40% become more interested in pathology, and 74% would have liked to have had more pathologist interaction. This intervention demonstrated a way to increase pathologist interaction within the undergraduate medical curriculum and enhance the educational environment of the gross anatomy laboratory.

  7. 26 CFR 1.132-1T - Exclusion from gross income of certain fringe benefits-1985 through 1988 (temporary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exclusion from gross income of certain fringe benefits-1985 through 1988 (temporary). 1.132-1T Section 1.132-1T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... 1988 (temporary). (a) In general. Gross income does not include any fringe benefit which qualifies as...

  8. Neonatal Stroke Causes Poor Midline Motor Behaviors and Poor Fine and Gross Motor Skills during Early Infancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao-Ying; Lo, Warren D.; Heathcock, Jill C.

    2013-01-01

    Upper extremity movements, midline behaviors, fine, and gross motor skills are frequently impaired in hemiparesis and cerebral palsy. We investigated midline toy exploration and fine and gross motor skills in infants at risk for hemiplegic cerebral palsy. Eight infants with neonatal stroke (NS) and thirteen infants with typical development (TD)…

  9. Use of Saliva for Assessment of Stress and Its Effect on the Immune System Prior to Gross Anatomy Practical Examinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, S. Reid; Brown, Jason R.; Aycock, Jeffrey E.; Grubbs, S. Lee; Johnson, Roger B.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the longitudinal effects of a series of stressful gross anatomy tests on the immune system. Thirty-six freshman occupational therapy students completed a written stress evaluation survey, and saliva samples were obtained at baseline and prior to each of three timed-practical gross anatomy tests.…

  10. The Natural History of Gross Motor Development in Children with Cerebral Palsy Aged 1 to 15 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckung, E.; Carlsson, G.; Carlsdotter, S.; Uvebrant, P.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore motor development in children with cerebral palsy (CP) using developmental curves for CP, subtypes, and the five severity levels of the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS). The Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) and the GMFCS were applied to 317 children (145 females, 172 males) with CP, aged…

  11. Loosely-guided, self-directed learning versus strictly-guided, station-based learning in gross anatomy laboratory sessions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooloos, J.G.M.; Waal Malefijt, M.C. de; Ruiter, D.J.; Vorstenbosch, M.A.T.M.

    2012-01-01

    Anatomy students studying dissected anatomical specimens were subjected to either a loosely-guided, self-directed learning environment or a strictly-guided, preformatted gross anatomy laboratory session. The current study's guiding questions were: (1) do strictly-guided gross anatomy laboratory sess

  12. Use of Saliva for Assessment of Stress and Its Effect on the Immune System Prior to Gross Anatomy Practical Examinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, S. Reid; Brown, Jason R.; Aycock, Jeffrey E.; Grubbs, S. Lee; Johnson, Roger B.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the longitudinal effects of a series of stressful gross anatomy tests on the immune system. Thirty-six freshman occupational therapy students completed a written stress evaluation survey, and saliva samples were obtained at baseline and prior to each of three timed-practical gross anatomy tests.…

  13. GROSS CAPITAL FORMATION AND ECONOMIC GROWTH DURING EARLY 2000’S IN EU-MEMBER AND CANDIDATES STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin-Marius PAVELESCU

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to reveal the correlation between the gross capital formation and the gross domestic product in countries of the European Union in 2007, during the period 1999-2006. The evaluation is made both on demand side and on supply side. On the demand side we take into account the gross capital formation dynamics and structure and the gross domestic product dynamics. On the supply side calculate the capital accumulation efficiency, through modification of the formulae resulted from Domar’s economic growth model in order to emphasise the impact of domestic demand and net export changes. In the end we present some conclusions and proposals for gross capital formation contribution to economic growth methodology improvement.

  14. Relation between hand function and gross motor function in full term infants aged 4 to 8 months

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Solange F.; Figueiredo, Elyonara M.; Gonçalves, Rejane V.; Mancini, Marisa C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: In children, reaching emerges around four months of age, which is followed by rapid changes in hand function and concomitant changes in gross motor function, including the acquisition of independent sitting. Although there is a close functional relationship between these domains, to date they have been investigated separately. Objective: To investigate the longitudinal profile of changes and the relationship between the development of hand function (i.e. reaching for and manipulating an object) and gross motor function in 13 normally developing children born at term who were evaluated every 15 days from 4 to 8 months of age. Method: The number of reaches and the period (i.e. time) of manipulation to an object were extracted from video synchronized with the Qualisys(r) movement analysis system. Gross motor function was measured using the Alberta Infant Motor Scale. ANOVA for repeated measures was used to test the effect of age on the number of reaches, the time of manipulation and gross motor function. Hierarchical regression models were used to test the associations of reaching and manipulation with gross motor function. Results: Results revealed a significant increase in the number of reaches (p<0.001), the time of manipulation (p<0.001) and gross motor function (p<0.001) over time, as well as associations between reaching and gross motor function (R2=0.84; p<0.001) and manipulation and gross motor function (R2=0.13; p=0.02) from 4 to 6 months of age. Associations from 6 to 8 months of age were not significant. Conclusion: The relationship between hand function and gross motor function was not constant, and the age span from 4 to 6 months was a critical period of interdependency of hand function and gross motor function development. PMID:25714437

  15. Gross alpha and beta radioactivity concentration in water, soil and sediment of the Bendimahi River and Van Lake (Turkey).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selçuk Zorer, Ozlem; Ceylan, Hasan; Doğru, Mahmut

    2009-01-01

    The concentrations of the natural radioactivity in water, soil and sediment samples collected from Bendimahi River which originates near the Tendürek Mountain (Van, Turkey), its tributaries and Van Lake (Turkey) were measured. The gross-alpha and gross-beta radioactivity concentrations were investigated in May and August in 2005. Determination of the gross-alpha and gross-beta radioactivity of river water, soil and sediment samples was obtained by using gas-flow proportional counter, PIC-MPC 9604-alpha/beta counter. In water samples, the obtained results show that in May; gross-alpha and gross-beta activity concentrations varied between 0.063-0.782 and 0.021-0.816 Bq l(-1) and in August the values were 0.009-0.037 and 0.081-3.116 Bq l(-1), respectively. The gross-alpha and gross-beta activity concentrations in soil samples ranged from 0.800 to 4.277 Bq g(-1) and 0.951 to 11.773 Bq g(-1) in May and 0.686 to 4.713 Bq g(-1) and 0.073 to 9.524 Bq g(-1) in August, respectively. Concentrations ranging from 0.782 to 4.596 Bq g(-1) and from 0.482 to 10.372 Bq g(-1) in May and from 0.580 to 5.824 Bq g(-1) and from 0.303 to 9.702 Bq g(-1) in August for gross-alpha and gross-beta radioactivity were observed in sediments, respectively.

  16. Infrequency of gross skin lesions among Panamanian forest mammals with cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrer, A; Christensen, H A

    1975-08-01

    Natural leishmanial infections among feral mammals in the Republic of Panama were studied in relation to gross skin alterations. Three dermatotropic species of Leishmania, L. braziliensis, L. mexicana and L. hertigi, isolated from 230 sylvatic animals of 5 mammalian orders were involved. In 205 (89%) of the cases there were no gross skin alterations. Cryptic infections of all three leishmanial species among wild animals were confirmed by culture and hamster inoculation. This type of infection was always present in the sloths, Choloepus hoffmanni and Bradypus infusatcus, infected with L. braziliensis and in the porcupine, Coendou rothschildi, infected with L. hertigi. Suggestive skin alterations were encountered in 10 (4%) of infected animals. Only 15 (7%) of infected animals exhibited typical leishmanial lesions. It was possible to correlate skin depigmentation with the course of leishmanial infection in one animal, a young kinkajou, Potos flavus.

  17. Cut-and-join description of generalized Brezin-Gross-Witten model

    CERN Document Server

    Alexandrov, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the Brezin-Gross-Witten model, a tau-function of the KdV hierarchy, and its natural one-parameter deformation, the generalized Brezin-Gross-Witten tau-function. In particular, we derive the Virasoro constraints, which completely specify the partition function. We solve them in terms of the cut-and-join operator. The Virasoro constraints lead to the loop equations, which we solve in terms of the correlation functions. Explicit expressions for the coefficients of the tau-function and the free energy are derived, and a compact formula for the genus zero contribution is conjectured. A family of polynomial solutions of the KdV hierarchy, given by the Schur functions, is obtained for the half-integer values of the parameter. The quantum spectral curve and its classical limit are discussed.

  18. Ising and Gross-Neveu model in next-to-leading order

    CERN Document Server

    Knorr, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    We study scalar and chiral fermionic models in next-to-leading order with the help of the functional renormalisation group. Their critical behaviour is of special interest in condensed matter systems, in particular graphene. To derive the beta functions, we make extensive use of computer algebra. The resulting flow equations were solved with pseudo-spectral methods to guarantee high accuracy. New estimates on critical quantities for both the Ising and the Gross-Neveu model are provided. For the Ising model, the estimates agree with earlier renormalisation group studies of the same level of approximation. By contrast, the approximation for the Gross-Neveu model retains many more operators than all earlier studies. For two Dirac fermions, the results agree with both lattice and large-$N_f$ calculations, but for a single flavour, different methods disagree quantitatively, and further studies are necessary.

  19. Detection of gross errors using mixed integer optimization approach in process industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MEI Cong-li; SU Hong-ye; CHU Jian

    2007-01-01

    A novel mixed integer linear programming (NMILP) model for detection of gross errors is presented in this paper.Yamamura et al.(1988) designed a model for detection of gross errors and data reconciliation based on Akaike information criterion (AIC). But much computational cost is needed due to its combinational nature. A mixed integer linear programming (MILP)approach was performed to reduce the computational cost and enhance the robustness. But it loses the super performance of maximum likelihood estimation. To reduce the computational cost and have the merit of maximum likelihood estimation, the simultaneous data reconciliation method in an MILP framework is decomposed and replaced by an NMILP subproblem and a quadratic programming (QP) or a least squares estimation (LSE) subproblem. Simulation result of an industrial case shows the high efficiency of the method.

  20. Phase structure of the massive chiral Gross-Neveu model from Hartree-Fock

    CERN Document Server

    Boehmer, Christian; Kraus, Sebastian; Thies, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The phase diagram of the massive chiral Gross-Neveu model (the massive Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model in 1+1 dimensions) is constructed. In the large N limit, the Hartree-Fock approach can be used. We find numerically a chiral crystal phase separated from a massive Fermi gas phase by a 1st order transition. Using perturbation theory, we also construct the critical sheet where the homogeneous phase becomes unstable in a 2nd order transition. A tricritical curve is located. The phase diagram is mapped out as a function of fermion mass, chemical potential and temperature and compared with the one of the discrete chiral Gross-Neveu model. As a by-product, we illustrate the crystal structure of matter at zero temperature for various densities and fermion masses.

  1. The impact of gross anatomy laboratory on first year medical students' interest in a surgical career.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulcrano, Marisa E; Malekzadeh, Sonya; Kumar, Anagha

    2016-09-01

    This study sought to determine the impact of gross anatomy laboratory (GA) on first year medical students' (M1) interest in a surgical career. Secondary objectives included identifying other influences in M1s' career decision making. This prospective study included surveys before and after GA. All M1s enrolled in GA were invited to participate. Sixty students completed both the pre- and post-test surveys. A 5-point Likert-type scale surveyed participants' interests, specific personality traits, experience during the course of GA, and likelihood of pursuing a surgical career. Statistical analysis included Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test and (Polychotomous) Ordinal Logistic Regression Model. Students' desire to work with their hands increased (50 vs. 33.3%) and enjoyment working with instruments and tools similarly increased (50 vs. 41.7%). Likelihood of pursuing a surgical career after gross anatomy increased in 31.7% of students, decreased in 16.7%, and was unchanged in 51.7%. Over 75% of students with a prior interest in surgery and 21% of those who previously felt neutral agreed that they were likely to pursue a career in surgery at the conclusion of the laboratory. Students with a surgeon family member were 0.1976 times as likely to exhibit a positive change in interest (P values 0.024). Gross anatomy may influence up to a third of the class to consider a surgical career, especially those with a prior interest in surgery and those previously feeling ambivalent. Students with a surgeon family member became less likely to enter a surgical career after gross anatomy. Clin. Anat. 29:691-695, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Dietary lipid and gross energy affect protein utilization in the rare minnow Gobiocypris rarus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Benli; Xiong, Xiaoqin; Xie, Shouqi; Wang, Jianwei

    2016-07-01

    An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to detect the optimal dietary protein and energy, as well as the effects of protein to energy ratio on growth, for the rare minnow ( Gobiocypris rarus), which are critical to nutrition standardization for model fish. Twenty-four diets were formulated to contain three gross energy (10, 12.5, 15 kJ/g), four protein (20%, 25%, 30%, 35%), and two lipid levels (3%, 6%). The results showed that optimal dietary E/P was 41.7-50 kJ/g for maximum growth in juvenile rare minnows at 6% dietary crude lipid. At 3% dietary lipid, specific growth rate (SGR) increased markedly when E/P decreased from 62.5 kJ/g to 35.7 kJ/g and gross energy was 12.5 kJ/g, and from 75 kJ/g to 42.9 kJ/g when gross energy was 15.0 kJ/g. The optimal gross energy was estimated at 12.5 kJ/g and excess energy decreased food intake and growth. Dietary lipid exhibited an apparent protein-sparing effect. Optimal protein decreased from 35% to 25%-30% with an increase in dietary lipid from 3% to 6% without adversely effecting growth. Dietary lipid level affects the optimal dietary E/P ratio. In conclusion, recommended dietary protein and energy for rare minnow are 20%-35% and 10-12.5 kJ/g, respectively.

  3. Clinical management and gross pathological findings of a severe anaplamosis in a dairy cow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Abba

    2016-06-01

    Results: The cow did not survive the infection as it eventually died of the disease. Post mortem examination showed gross evidence of splenomegaly, hepatomegaly, distended bile duct and generalized jaundice. Conclusion: Based on the consequence of this case report, preventive vector control, prompt and appropriate treatment and improved management practices are recommended in order to prevent clinical anaplasmosis cases among cattle. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2016; 3(2.000: 195-199

  4. Zamolodchikov's c-function for the Chiral Gross-Neveu Model

    CERN Document Server

    Cabra, D C

    1993-01-01

    We construct the Zamolodchikov's c-function for the Chiral Gross-Neveu Model up to two loops. We show that the c-function interpolates between the two known critical points of the theory, it is stationary at them and it decreases with the running coupling constant. In particular one can infer the non-existence of additional critical points in the region under investigation.

  5. Monitoring gross alpha and beta activity in liquids by using ZnS(Ag) scintillation detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevanato, L.; Cester, D.; Filippi, D.; Lunardon, M.; Mistura, G.; Moretto, S.; Viesti, G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy ' Galileo Galilei' , University of Padova, (Italy); Badocco, D.; Pastore, P.; Romanini, F. [Department of Chemical Sciences, University of Padova, (Italy)

    2015-07-01

    In this work the possibility of monitoring gross alpha and beta activity in liquids using EJ-444 was investigated. Specific tests were carried out to determine the change of the detector properties in water tests. Possible protecting coating is also proposed and tested. Alpha/beta real-time monitoring in liquids is a goal of the EU project TAWARA{sub R}TM. (authors)

  6. Kinetic Thomas-Fermi solutions of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation

    OpenAIRE

    Ölschläger, M.; Wirth, G.; Smith, C. Morais; Hemmerich, A.

    2010-01-01

    Approximate solutions of the Gross-Pitaevskii (GP) equation, obtained upon neglection of the kinetic energy, are well known as Thomas-Fermi solutions. They are characterized by the compensation of the local potential by the collisional energy. In this article we consider exact solutions of the GP-equation with this property and definite values of the kinetic energy, which suggests the term "kinetic Thomas-Fermi" (KTF) solutions. We point out that a large class of light-shift potentials gives ...

  7. Efficient and accurate methods for solving the time-dependent spin-2 Gross-Pitaevskii equation

    CERN Document Server

    Symes, L M

    2016-01-01

    We develop numerical methods for solving the spin-2 Gross-Pitaevskii equation. The basis of our work is a two-way splitting of this evolution equation that leads to two exactly solvable subsystems. Utilizing second-order and fourth-order composition schemes we realize two fully symplectic integration algorithms, the first such algorithms for evolving spin-2 condensates. We demonstrate the accuracy of these algorithms against other methods on application to an exact continuous wave solution that we derive.

  8. Gross motor ability predicts response to upper extremity rehabilitation in chronic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Sarah Hulbert; Rafiei, Mohammad Hossein; Borstad, Alexandra; Adeli, Hojjat; Gauthier, Lynne V

    2017-08-30

    The majority of rehabilitation research focuses on the comparative effectiveness of different interventions in groups of patients, while much less is currently known regarding individual factors that predict response to rehabilitation. In a recent article, the authors presented a prognostic model to identify the sensorimotor characteristics predictive of the extent of motor recovery after Constraint-Induced Movement (CI) therapy amongst individuals with chronic mild-to-moderate motor deficit using the enhanced probabilistic neural network (EPNN). This follow-up paper examines which participant characteristics are robust predictors of rehabilitation response irrespective of the training modality. To accomplish this, EPNN was first applied to predict treatment response amongst individuals who received a virtual-reality gaming intervention (utilizing the same enrollment criteria as the prior study). The combinations of predictors that yield high predictive validity for both therapies, using their respective datasets, were then identified. High predictive classification accuracy was achieved for both the gaming (94.7%) and combined datasets (94.5%). Though CI therapy employed primarily fine-motor training tasks and the gaming intervention emphasized gross-motor practice, larger improvements in gross motor function were observed within both datasets. Poorer gross motor ability at pre-treatment predicted better rehabilitation response in both the gaming and combined datasets. The conclusion of this research is that for individuals with chronic mild-to-moderate upper extremity hemiparesis, residual deficits in gross motor function are highly responsive to motor restorative interventions, irrespective of the modality of training. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. From non-degenerate conducting polymers to dense matter in the massive Gross-Neveu model

    CERN Document Server

    Thies, M; Thies, Michael; Urlichs, Konrad

    2005-01-01

    Using results from the theory of non-degenerate conducting polymers like cis-polyacetylene, we generalize our previous work on baryonic matter in the massless Gross-Neveu model to finite bare fermion mass. In the large N limit, the exact ground state is constructed analytically, in close analogy to the bipolaron lattice in polymers. These findings are contrasted to the standard scenario with a first order phase transition as a function of density.

  10. Analytical solution of the Gross-Neveu model at finite density

    CERN Document Server

    Thies, M

    2003-01-01

    Recent numerical calculations have shown that the ground state of the Gross-Neveu model at finite density is a crystal. Guided by these results, we can now present the analytical solution to this problem in terms of elliptic functions. The scalar potential is the superpotential of the non-relativistic Lame Hamiltonian. This model can also serve as analytically solvable toy model for a relativistic superconductor in the Larkin-Ovchinnikov-Fulde-Ferrell phase.

  11. Divergence of the axial current and fermion density in Gross-Neveu models

    CERN Document Server

    Karbstein, Felix

    2007-01-01

    The divergence of the axial current is used to relate the spatial derivative of the fermion density to the bare fermion mass and scalar/pseudoscalar condensates in 1+1 dimensional Gross-Neveu models. This serves as a novel test of known results, to explain simple features of the continuous chiral model and to resolve a conflict concerning the assignment of baryon number to certain multi-fermion bound states.

  12. Hip displacement in relation to age and gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Larnert, Per; Risto, Olof; Hägglund, Gunnar; Wagner, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Hip dislocation in cerebral palsy (CP) is a serious complication. By radiographic screening and prophylactic surgery of children at risk most dislocations can be prevented. CPUP, the Swedish CP registry and follow-up program, includes annual radiographic examinations of children at Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels III–V. Data from CPUP were analysed to assess the risk of hip displacement in relation to GMFCS levels and age. Methods All children at GMFCS levels...

  13. Giant prostatic hyperplasia: report of a previously asymptomatic man presenting with gross hematuria and hypovolemic shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wroclawski, Marcelo Langer; Carneiro, Ariê; Tristão, Rodrigo Alves; Sakuramoto, Paulo Kouiti; Youssef, Jorg Daoud Merched; Lopes Neto, Antonio Correa; Santiago, Lucila Heloísa Simardi; Pompeo, Antonio Carlos Lima

    2015-01-01

    Giant prostatic hyperplasia is a rare condition characterized by very high volume benign prostatic enlargement (>500g). Few cases have been reported so far and most of them are associated with severe lower urinary symptoms. We report the first case of asymptomatic giant prostatic hyperplasia in an elderly man who had a 720g prostate adenoma, sudden gross hematuria and hypovolemic shock. The patient was successfully treated with open transvesical prostatectomy and had an uneventful postoperative recovery.

  14. Twisted Grosse-Wulkenhaar $\\phi^{\\star 4}$ model: dynamical noncommutativity and Noether currents

    CERN Document Server

    Hounkonnou, Mahouton Norbert

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses the computation of Noether currrents for the renormalizable Grosse-Wulkenhaar (GW) $\\phi^{\\star 4}$ model subjected to a dynamical noncomutativity realized through a twisted Moyal product. The noncommutative (NC) energy-momentum tensor (EMT), angular momentum tensor (AMT) and the dilatation current (DC) are explicitly derived. The breaking of translation and rotation invariances has been avoided via a constraint equation.

  15. Using Wavelets to Understand the Relationship between Mortgages and Gross Domestic Product in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. González-Concepción

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We use wavelet multiresolution decomposition and cross-wavelet analysis to reveal certain properties in financial data related to mortgages to households and gross domestic product data in Spain. Wavelet techniques possess many desirable properties, some of which are useful as a vehicle for analysing economic and financial data. In our case, wavelets are useful for drawing conclusions both in the time and frequency domains and for obtaining information on the different phases through which the study variables progress.

  16. Gross motor skill performance in a sample of overweight and non-overweight preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morano, Milena; Colella, Dario; Caroli, Margherita

    2011-10-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the gross motor skill performance of overweight and non-overweight preschool children from South of Italy, and to investigate possible differences by gender. Participants were 38 boys and 42 girls (4.5 ± 0.5 yr) categorized as overweight (n = 38) and non-overweight (n = 42), according to the IOTF body mass index (BMI) cut-off points. The Test of Gross Motor Development was used to assess seven locomotor skills (run, gallop, hop, leap, horizontal jump, skip and slide) and five object-control skills (two-hand strike, stationary bounce, catch, kick and overhand throw). The raw, standard and percentile scores and the Gross Motor Development Quotient (GMDQ) were calculated for each participant. ANOVA 2 (gender) x 2 (group) was conducted on the subtest standard scores and the GMDQ. No differences in performance were found between boys and girls on the subscale standard scores and the GMDQ. Significant main effects (p overweight children reporting lower movement competence than their counterparts. Pearson's correlations revealed relationships (p Overweight participants showed poorer performance on locomotor and object-control tasks than their non-overweight peers. Interventions to promote physical activity in overweight children should be directed towards achieving a healthy weight and motor skill improvement.

  17. The relationship between gross motor function and manual ability in cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oskoui, Maryam; Majnemer, Annette; Dagenais, Lynn; Shevell, Michael I

    2013-12-01

    A retrospective cohort study was conducted to describe the relationship between gross motor function and manual ability in children with cerebral palsy and explore differences between cerebral palsy subtypes and associated comorbidities. Children with cerebral palsy born between 1999 and 2008 were included from the Registre de la Paralyse Cérébrale de Québec identifying 332 children. The overall agreement between Gross Motor Function Classification System and Manual Ability Classification Scale Levels was moderate (kappa 0.457, standard error 0.034) with a strong positive correlation (Spearman rho of 0.820, standard error 0.023). This agreement was moderate among children with spastic quadriparesis and dysketic cerebral palsy, fair in children with spastic diplegia, and poor in children with spastic hemiplegia. Children with cognitive impairment showed a higher correlation than those without cognitive impairment. The correlation between gross motor function and manual ability in children with CP varies based on neurologic subtype and cognitive level.

  18. Gross and Morphometric Anatomy of the Male Reproductive System of Bats (Eidolon helvum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danmaigoro, A; Onu, J E; Sonfada, M L; Umaru, M A; Hena, S A; Mahmuda, A

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed at examining the gross and morphometry of the reproductive tract of the male bats (Eidolon helvum). Thirty male bats (adults n = 17 and juveniles n = 13) were captured using net, weighed, aged using relative ossification of the wing bone, and dissected for gross examination. Morphologically, the mean body weight and forearm length in both adults and juveniles were 235.31 ± 6.30 g, 12.14 ± 0.19 cm and 69.54 ± 7.68 g, 7.77 ± 0.29 cm, respectively. The testicles were completely descended in adults with the penis projected cranially. The epididymides were found at the median border of the testis and continues as vas deferens. No significant differences (P > 0.05) were observed between right and left testicular weights in both adults and juveniles and also in lengths of different parts of the reproductive segments in both age groups assessed, respectively. This work has documented the gross anatomy of the male reproductive tract in bats. Ultrastructure and histochemistry are recommended for further insight into the reproductive biology.

  19. Clinical anatomy of the subserous layer: An amalgamation of gross and clinical anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabuki, Yoshihiko

    2016-05-01

    The 1998 edition of Terminologia Anatomica introduced some currently used clinical anatomical terms for the pelvic connective tissue or subserous layer. These innovations persuaded the present author to consider a format in which the clinical anatomical terms could be reconciled with those of gross anatomy and incorporated into a single anatomical glossary without contradiction or ambiguity. Specific studies on the subserous layer were undertaken on 79 Japanese women who had undergone surgery for uterine cervical cancer, and on 26 female cadavers that were dissected, 17 being formalin-fixed and 9 fresh. The results were as follows: (a) the subserous layer could be segmentalized by surgical dissection in the perpendicular, horizontal and sagittal planes; (b) the segmentalized subserous layer corresponded to 12 cubes, or ligaments, of minimal dimension that enabled the pelvic organs to be extirpated; (c) each ligament had a three-dimensional (3D) structure comprising craniocaudal, mediolateral, and dorsoventral directions vis-á-vis the pelvic axis; (d) these 3D-structured ligaments were encoded morphologically in order of decreasing length; and (e) using these codes, all the surgical procedures for 19th century to present-day radical hysterectomy could be expressed symbolically. The establishment of clinical anatomical terms, represented symbolically through coding as demonstrated in this article, could provide common ground for amalgamating clinical anatomy with gross anatomy. Consequently, terms in clinical anatomy and gross anatomy could be reconciled and compiled into a single anatomical glossary.

  20. Determination of gross-β and γ-ray activity concentrations of human tooth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Hayun Ja [Dept. of Dental Hygene, Daegu Health College, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Hyun Kyung [Dept. of Dental Hygene, Silla University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung Hwan [Dept. of Radiological Science, Cheongju University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    The γ-ray concentration and gross-β activity by age group were measured in the teeth of males and females of the domestic residents. They were divided into 7 age groups from 10s to the age of 70s. The gross-β activity concentration was measured by using the Tennelec XLB measuring instrument filled with P10 gas (argon 90%, methane 10%). The γ-ray was measured through the γ-ray spectroscopic analytical method by using the high purity germanium (HPGe) radiation detector. The range of gross-β activity concentration was measured 0.089 to 0.32 Bq/kg in females and 0.13 to 0.26 Bq/kg in males. From the γ-ray spectroscopic analysis of the teeth, the natural radioactive isotopes of '4{sup 0}K, {sup 208}Tl, {sup 228}Ac and {sup 234}Th were detected and their measured γ-ray activity concentrations were found to be 20.7, 21.9, 3.88 and 5.24 Bq/kg, respectively.

  1. Gross and Morphometric Anatomy of the Male Reproductive System of Bats (Eidolon helvum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Danmaigoro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at examining the gross and morphometry of the reproductive tract of the male bats (Eidolon helvum. Thirty male bats (adults n=17 and juveniles n=13 were captured using net, weighed, aged using relative ossification of the wing bone, and dissected for gross examination. Morphologically, the mean body weight and forearm length in both adults and juveniles were 235.31±6.30 g, 12.14±0.19 cm and 69.54±7.68 g, 7.77±0.29 cm, respectively. The testicles were completely descended in adults with the penis projected cranially. The epididymides were found at the median border of the testis and continues as vas deferens. No significant differences (P>0.05 were observed between right and left testicular weights in both adults and juveniles and also in lengths of different parts of the reproductive segments in both age groups assessed, respectively. This work has documented the gross anatomy of the male reproductive tract in bats. Ultrastructure and histochemistry are recommended for further insight into the reproductive biology.

  2. Health and Gross National Happiness: review of current status in Bhutan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torres CE

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Tashi Tobgay1, Ugen Dophu1, Cristina E Torres2, Kesara Na-Bangchang31Department of Public Health, Ministry of Health, Kawajangsa, Bhutan; 2Forum for Ethical Review Committees in Asian and Western Pacific Region, Clinical Coordination and Training Center, 3Thailand Center of Excellence on Drug Discovery and Development (TCEDDD, Thammasat University, Rangsit Campus, ThailandAbstract: Worldwide, contemporary measures of the success of health development programs have been mostly in terms of the reduction of mortality and morbidity as well as increasing longevity. While these goals have yielded much-needed health improvements, the subjective outcomes of these improvements, as experienced by individuals and the communities, have not been considered. Bhutan, under the overarching policy of Gross National Happiness, has provided due consideration to these subjective indicators. Here, we report on the current status of health and happiness in Bhutan as revealed by conventional objective indicators and subjective Gross National Happiness indicators. The current literature on health in Bhutan in relation to the Gross National Happiness Survey conducted by the Centre of Bhutan Studies has been reviewed. Bhutan has made great strides within a short period of modernization, as shown by both objective and subjective indicators. Tremendous challenges lie ahead to achieve the ultimate goal of health and happiness, and how Bhutan articulates its path to modernization may be a lesson for the rest of the world.Keywords: Bhutan, happiness, health, indicators

  3. Gross anatomy of superficial fascia and future localised fat deposit areas of the abdomen in foetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramod Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The development and popularity of body contouring procedures such as liposuction and abdominoplasty has renewed interest in the anatomy of the superficial fascia and subcutaneous fat deposits of the abdomen. The study of anatomy of fascia and fetal adipose tissue was proposed as it may be of value in understanding the possible programing of prevention of obesity. Objectives: The present study was undertaken to understand the gross anatomy of superficial fascia of abdomen and to study the gross anatomy of future localized fat deposits (LFDs area of abdomen in fetus. Materials and Methods: Four fetus (two male & two female of four month of intrauterine life were dissected. Attachments & layers of superficial fascia and future subcutaneous fat deposit area of upper and lower abdomen were noted. Results: Superficial fascia of the abdomen was multi layered in mid line and number of layers reduced laterally as in adult. The future abdominal LFD (localized fat deposits area in fetus shows brownish-white blubbary tissue without well-defined adult fat lobules. Conclusion: The attachment and gross anatomy of superficial fascia of the fetus was similar to that in adults. The future LFD areas showed brownish white blubbary tissue with ill-defined fat lobules.

  4. Impact of introduction of blended learning in gross anatomy on student outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Rodney A; Whitburn, Laura Y

    2016-10-01

    Blended learning has become increasingly common, in a variety of disciplines, to take advantage of new technology and potentially increase the efficiency and flexibility of delivery. This study aimed to describe blended delivery of a gross anatomy course and to evaluate the effectiveness of the delivery in terms of student outcomes. A gross anatomy course for second-year physiotherapy students across two campuses was delivered in traditional face-to-face teaching mode in 2013 (n = 150 students), some online content was introduced in 2014 (n = 160) and the subject was fully blended in 2015 (n = 151). The final 'blend' consisted of one lecture per week with most content delivered using online video resources (prepared by staff using a structured peer-reviewed process) and retention of face-to-face practical classes. Outcomes evaluated included student grades, student engagement with content through online discussion forums and student feedback using both quantitative and qualitative analysis. Grades were higher in 2014 and 2015 than in 2013 (P blended version in 2015 resulted in more balanced comments about online content but higher perceived workload (P learning. Blended learning appears to be well-suited to gross anatomy teaching on the proviso that face-to-face practical classes are maintained, but may result in higher perceived workloads. Anat Sci Educ 9: 422-430. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.

  5. The clinical effect of hippotherapy on gross motor function of children with Cerebral Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Litlle

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cerebral palsy (CP is the most common cause of physical disability affecting gross motor function (GMF in early childhood. Hippotherapy is a treatment approach aimed at improving GMF in children with CP. Several systematic reviews have been published showing an improvement in Dimension E of the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM after hippotherapy. However, these reviews failed to evaluate the clinical effect of hippotherapy in improving GMF in children with CP.Objective: To critically appraise the evidence of hippotherapy to ascertain whether it is a clinically meaningful approach for children with CP.Methodology: Five computerised bibliographic databases were searched. Predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria were set. The PEDro scale was used to assess the quality of the studies. A revised JBI Data extraction tool was used to extract data from the selected articles. Revman© Review Manager Software was used to create forest plots for comparisons of results.Results: All studies used the GMFM as an outcome measure for gross motor function. The added benefit of hippotherapy is a minimum 1% and a maximum 7% increase on the GMFM scores. However, all 95% confidence intervals (CI around all the mean differences were insignificant.Conclusion: The clinical effect of hippotherapy on the GMF of children with CP is small. Larger studies are required to provide evidence of the effect of hippotherapy within this population.

  6. Digital lectures for learning gross anatomy: a study of their efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anudeep; Min, Aung Ko Ko

    2017-03-01

    The current study investigates the level of students' learning and attitudes towards the teaching and learning process when using digital lectures to teach gross anatomy to year 1 medical students. The study sampled year 1 medical students of cohorts 2013 and 2014. The year 1 medical students in 2013 were taught gross anatomy of the heart by didactic classroom lectures while those in 2014 were taught with digital lectures using the same content. A review session was conducted for the 2014 cohort. A 19-item survey was distributed amongst students to investigate their attitudes and feedback. The data were analysed using SPSS software. The 2014 cohort had a mean score of 47.65 for short essay questions and 51.19 for multiple choice questions, while the 2013 cohort scored an average of 36.80 for short essay questions and 49.22 for multiple choice questions. The difference in scores for each type of question was found to be significant. Using a 5-point Likert scale, students gave an average of 4.11 when asked if they liked the teaching and learning process and would like it to be applied further. The results of the study provide strong evidence that the digital teaching and learning process was well received by students and could also lead to improved performance. Digital lectures can provide a satisfactory substitute for classroom lectures to teach gross anatomy, thus providing flexibility in learning and efficient learning, whilst also freeing lecture slots to promote mastery learning.

  7. Associations between gross motor coordination and academic achievement in elementary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Luís; Santos, Rute; Pereira, Beatriz; Lopes, Vítor P

    2013-02-01

    We aimed to evaluate the relationship between gross motor coordination (MC) and academic achievement (AA) in a sample of Portuguese children aged 9-12 years. The study took place during the 2009/2010 school year and involved 596 urban children (281 girls) from the north of Portugal. AA was assessed using the Portuguese Language and Mathematics National Exams. Gross MC was evaluated with the Körperkoordination Test für Kinder. Cardiorespiratory fitness was predicted by a maximal multistage 20-m shuttle-run test of the Fitnessgram Test Battery. Body weight and height were measured following standard procedures. Socio-economic status was based on annual family income. Logistic Regression was used to analyze the association of gross MC with AA. 51.6% of the sample exhibited MC disorders or MC insufficiency and none of the participants showed very good MC. In both genders, children with insufficient MC or MC disorders exhibited a higher probability of having low AA, compared with those with normal or good MC (pbody mass index and socio-economic status.

  8. Effects of an aquatic program on gross motor function of children with spastic cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NIKOLAOS CHRYSAGIS; ANGELIKI DOUKA; MICHAIL NIKOPOULOS; FOTEINI APOSTOLOPOULOU; DIMITRA KOUTSOUKI

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of a 10-week aquatic program on the gross motor function, on the range of motion and on spasticity of childrenwith cerebral palsy (CP. Six students served as subjects for the experimental group and another 6 were assigned to the control group. The aquatic program was taking place twice a week and consisted of a warm up, the main training session and a cool down phase. Measuring instruments were the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM (dimensions D and E, a goniometer and the modified Ashworth Scale. Pre-test and Post-test were executed before and after the intervention program. Significant interaction effect was found with respect to: the active shoulder flexion (p=.052, the active shoulder abduction (p=.052, the passive hip abduction (p=.001 and the passive knee extension (p=.045. Interaction effect was found for spasticity of the hip adductors (p=.002 and knee flexors (p=.049. Results of the present study indicated that an aquatic program might have a positive effect in gross motor function as well as in range of motion and spasticity in students with spastic cerebral palsy.

  9. Gross and Morphometric Anatomy of the Male Reproductive System of Bats (Eidolon helvum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danmaigoro, A.; Onu, J. E.; Sonfada, M. L.; Umaru, M. A.; Hena, S. A.; Mahmuda, A.

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed at examining the gross and morphometry of the reproductive tract of the male bats (Eidolon helvum). Thirty male bats (adults n = 17 and juveniles n = 13) were captured using net, weighed, aged using relative ossification of the wing bone, and dissected for gross examination. Morphologically, the mean body weight and forearm length in both adults and juveniles were 235.31 ± 6.30 g, 12.14 ± 0.19 cm and 69.54 ± 7.68 g, 7.77 ± 0.29 cm, respectively. The testicles were completely descended in adults with the penis projected cranially. The epididymides were found at the median border of the testis and continues as vas deferens. No significant differences (P > 0.05) were observed between right and left testicular weights in both adults and juveniles and also in lengths of different parts of the reproductive segments in both age groups assessed, respectively. This work has documented the gross anatomy of the male reproductive tract in bats. Ultrastructure and histochemistry are recommended for further insight into the reproductive biology. PMID:24800105

  10. A Design Study Investigating Augmented Reality and Photograph Annotation in a Digitalized Grossing Workstation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Joyce A; Törnros, Martin E; Waltersson, Marie; Richard, Helen; Kusoffsky, Madeleine; Lundström, Claes F; Kurti, Arianit

    2017-01-01

    Within digital pathology, digitalization of the grossing procedure has been relatively underexplored in comparison to digitalization of pathology slides. Our investigation focuses on the interaction design of an augmented reality gross pathology workstation and refining the interface so that information and visualizations are easily recorded and displayed in a thoughtful view. The work in this project occurred in two phases: the first phase focused on implementation of an augmented reality grossing workstation prototype while the second phase focused on the implementation of an incremental prototype in parallel with a deeper design study. Our research institute focused on an experimental and "designerly" approach to create a digital gross pathology prototype as opposed to focusing on developing a system for immediate clinical deployment. Evaluation has not been limited to user tests and interviews, but rather key insights were uncovered through design methods such as "rapid ethnography" and "conversation with materials". We developed an augmented reality enhanced digital grossing station prototype to assist pathology technicians in capturing data during examination. The prototype uses a magnetically tracked scalpel to annotate planned cuts and dimensions onto photographs taken of the work surface. This article focuses on the use of qualitative design methods to evaluate and refine the prototype. Our aims were to build on the strengths of the prototype's technology, improve the ergonomics of the digital/physical workstation by considering numerous alternative design directions, and to consider the effects of digitalization on personnel and the pathology diagnostics information flow from a wider perspective. A proposed interface design allows the pathology technician to place images in relation to its orientation, annotate directly on the image, and create linked information. The augmented reality magnetically tracked scalpel reduces tool switching though limitations

  11. Effects of Neurodevelopmental Therapy on Gross Motor Function in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina LABAF

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA How to Cite This Article: labaf S, Shamsoddini A, Hollisaz MT, Sobhani V, Shakibaee A . Effects of Neurodevelopmental Therapy on Gross Motor Function in Children with Cerebral Palsy. Iran J Child Neurol. Spring 2015;9(1:37-42.AbstractObjectiveNeurodevelopmental treatments are an advanced therapeutic approach practiced by experienced occupational therapists for the rehabilitation of children with cerebral palsy. The primary challenge in children with cerebral palsy is gross motor dysfunction. We studied the effects of neurodevelopmental therapy on gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy.Materials & MethodsIn a quasi-experimental design, 28 children with cerebral palsy were randomly divided into two groups. Neurodevelopmental therapy was given to a first group (n=15 with a mean age of 4.9 years; and a second group with a mean age 4.4 years (n=13 who were the control group. All children were evaluated with the Gross Motor Function Measure. Treatments were scheduled for three - one-hour sessions per week for 3 months.ResultsWe obtained statistically significant differences in the values between the baseline and post treatment in two groups. The groups were significantly different in laying and rolling (P=0.000, sitting (0.002, crawling and kneeling (0.004, and standing abilities (P=0.005. However, there were no significantdifferences in walking, running, and jumping abilities between the two groups (0.090.ConclusionWe concluded that the neurodevelopmental treatment improved gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy in four dimensions (laying and rolling, sitting, crawling and kneeling, and standing. However, walking, running, and jumping did not improve significantly. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso

  12. Gross-fragmentation of meteoroids and bulk density of Geminids from photographic fireball records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceplecha, Zdenek; Mccrosky, R. E.

    1992-01-01

    The explicit solution of the drag and ablation equations of a single nonfragmenting meteoroid moving in any actual atmosphere was published several years ago. The solution yields the theoretical relation of l, the distance flown by the meteoroid in its trajectory, as a function of time, t, assuming that the height, h, is a known function of l. The photographic records of meteors and fireballs are coded by time marks, using a rotating shutter or a similar device to break the moving image. Time is, thus, the independent variable and for each time mark on a meteoroid trajector, the observed distance along the trajectory, l sub obs, as well as the double- or multiple- station photographs of the same meteoroid. Applying this solution to all available Prairie Network (PN) fireball-records, we recognized that the majority of them gave good solutions with standard deviations somewhat bigger than the intrinsic geometrical precision of the data. We also noticed that, on an average, previous methods of evaluation of the meteoroid velocities (interpolation polynomials, numerical differenciation of the observed l sub obs) used up to only several tens of percent of the intrinsic precision of the PN observational data. When residuals of these solutions, i.e. l sub obs - l sub com, were represented as a function of time for about 75 percent of solutions. The remaining 25 percent of residuals showed systematic changes with time exceeding one standard deviation. We tried to explain these systematic time course of residuals by using different meteoroids first computed theoretically and then analyzed by the same model as the natural PN fireballs were. The conclusion of these model computations is that systematic time changes of residuals in the nonfragmenting model exceeding one standard of deviation are caused by sudden gross fragmentation at one or more trajectory points. Thus, we generalized the explicit solution of the drag and ablation equations of a single nonfragmenting

  13. Reference Curves for the Gross Motor Function Measure: Percentiles for Clinical Description and Tracking Over Time Among Children With Cerebral Palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Hanna, Steven E.; Bartlett, Doreen J; Rivard, Lisa M; Russell, Dianne J

    2008-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Physical therapists frequently use the 66-item Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM-66) with the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) to examine gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Until now, reference percentiles for this measure were not available. The aim of this study was to improve the clinical utility of this gross motor measure by developing cross-sectional reference percentiles for the GMFM-66 within levels of the GMFCS.

  14. 26 CFR 1.101-1 - Exclusion from gross income of proceeds of life insurance contracts payable by reason of death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Specifically Excluded from Gross Income § 1.101-1 Exclusion from gross income of proceeds of life insurance... proceeds of life insurance policies, if paid by reason of the death of the insured, are excluded from the gross income of the recipient. Death benefit payments having the characteristics of life...

  15. Community occupancy before-after-control-impact (CO-BACI) analysis of Hurricane Gudrun on Swedish forest birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, James C; Stjernman, Martin; Lindström, Åke; Smith, Henrik G

    2015-04-01

    Resilience of ecological communities to perturbation is important in the face of increased global change from anthropogenic stressors. Monitoring is required to detect the impact of, and recovery from, perturbations, and before-after-control-impact (BACI) analysis provides a powerful framework in this regard. However, species in a community are not observed with perfect detection, and occupancy analysis is required to correct for imperfect detectability of species. We present a Bayesian community occupancy before-after-control-impact (CO-BACI) framework to monitor ecological community response to perturbation when constituent species are imperfectly detected. We test the power of the model to detect changes in community composition following an acute perturbation with simulation. We then apply the model to a study of the impact of a large hurricane on the forest bird community of Sweden, using data from the national bird survey scheme. Although simulation shows the model can detect changes in community occupancy following an acute perturbation, application to a Swedish forest bird community following a major hurricane detected no change in community occupancy despite widespread forest loss. Birds with landscape occupancy less than 50% required correcting for detectability. We conclude that CO-BACI analysis is a useful tool that can incorporate rare species in analyses and detect occupancy changes in ecological communities following perturbation, but, because it does not include abundance, some impacts may be overlooked.

  16. Interview with one of the 2004 Nobel Laureates in Physics, Dr. David J. Gross, January 26, 2005

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Video Productions

    2005-01-01

    Dr. David Gross, (Professor of Theoretical Physics, Director of the Kavli Institute For Theoretical Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara), at CERN for a talk, answered the questions of Paola Catapano

  17. MODIS/TERRA MOD17A2 Gross Primary Productivity 8-Day L4 Global 1km

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) products are a cumulative composite of GPP values based on the radiation...

  18. The clinimetric properties of performance-based gross motor tests used for children with developmental coordination disorder: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Leanne M; Hillier, Susan L; Civetta, Lauren R

    2010-01-01

    Performance-based measures of gross motor skills are required for children with developmental coordination disorder to quantify motor ability and objectify change. Information related to psychometrics, clinical utility, feasibility, and client appropriateness and acceptability is needed so that clinicians and researchers are assured that they have chosen the most appropriate and robust tool. This review identified performance-based measures of gross motor skills for this population, and the research evidence for their clinimetric properties through a systematic literature search. Seven measures met the inclusion criteria and were appraised for their clinimetric properties. The Movement Assessment Battery for Children and the Test for Gross Motor Development (second version) scored highest on appraisal. The 2 highest scoring measures are recommended in the first instance for clinicians wishing to evaluate gross motor performance in children with developmental coordination disorder. However, both measures require further testing to increase confidence in their validity for this population.

  19. Gross Motor Coincidence Timing by Children with Learning Difficulties and Children Matched on Mean Chronological and Mental Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacklin, Susan M.

    1987-01-01

    This study examines the learning of a gross motor coincidence timing task by children with learning difficulties, compared with that by children of average intelligence of an equivalent chronological age and mental age. Results are discussed. (Author/MT)

  20. Gross Motor Function Classification System used in adults with cerebral palsy: agreement of self-reported versus professional rating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahnsen, Reidun; Aamodt, Geir; Rosenbaum, Peter

    2006-09-01

    The present study investigated the reliability of self-reported rating of Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels compared with professional rating, and changes in gross motor function over time, in adults with cerebral palsy. Twenty-nine females and 33 males aged between 18 years 5 months and 62 years 11 months (mean age 34y 7mo [SD 10y 6mo]) participated in the study. Participants rated their current gross motor function using the GMFCS and reported their judgement of their gross motor function at age 10 to 12 years. The project leader, a physical therapist, also classified participants' current GMFCS levels and conducted a chart review on all accessible medical records of participants' gross motor function when they were 10 to 12 years old, rating the GMFCS level accordingly. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) between self-reported and professional ratings showed excellent agreement (ICC=0.93-0.95, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.89-0.97). More than half the participants experienced a stable gross motor function from the age of 10 to 12 years to the present. Those at GMFCS Levels II and III at the age of 10 to 12 years (according to the professional rating) had significant change for the worse in gross motor function over time, with odds ratios of 9.30 (95% CI 1.2-73.0, p=0.03) and 7.00 (95% CI 1.1-43.0, p=0.04) respectively. Interview data on circumstances regarding changes in gross motor function since childhood are also reported. Changes in GMFCS level were mostly associated with physical or social environmental factors.

  1. Trend of Gross Beta Radioactivity in Air Particles and Rainwater of around the Domestic Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeom, Jungmin; Shin, Daeyewn; Kim, Soongpyung; Ju, Sundong [Chosun Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); OH, Youngsoo; Kim, Byunggyu; Kim, Sunsik [Hanbit Nuclear Power Site, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Investigating items can be distinguished into two parts, regional radiation and concentrations of environmental radioactivity, and in environmental radioactivity, to access the internal exposure dose, gross beta-radioactivity of particles in air and rainwater specimen are being tested. Gross beta-radioactivity quickly shows whether radiation is unusual or no since most of nuclide released in radioactive emergency while operating an atomic energy facility emits beta rays, and the method used to test it is simple. Looking at the years of analyzed results of particles in air and rainwater around the facility for gross beta-radioactivity, they have a constant trend. The cause of the trend was investigated with a doubt that something else rather than operation of a nuclear power plant might have caused this trend. Due to high gross beta radioactivity concentration in winter, sometimes, radioactivity concentration five times higher than reported last five years average gross beta radioactivity concentration is detected. Looking at the contents investigated above, we can see nuclear power plants have correlation with surrounding gross beta radioactivity concentration. Precipitation has negative correlation, and the weight of air particles and concentration of component element have positive correlation. Our country is influenced by northwest wind in winter. China which is located northwest, has heavy air pollution and smog due to industrialization and there was a report saying it is affecting Korea. Therefore, not because of management of power plants but because of change in season, it can be misunderstood that operating power plants is causing the increased gross beta radioactivity concentration. Based on this investigation, more research to find various causes of gross beta radioactivity concentration in winter is necessary.

  2. Gross anatomy and histology of the alimentary system of Characidae (Teleostei: Ostariophysi: Characiformes) and potential phylogenetic information

    OpenAIRE

    Felipe Alonso; Juan Marcos Mirande; Matías Pandolfi

    2015-01-01

    A compared study of the morphology of the alimentary tract and liver of seven selected species corresponding to the main clades of the Characidae family is presented herein. Three new set of characters corresponding to 1) alimentary tract gross anatomy, 2) alimentary tract histology and 3) liver gross anatomy are evaluated as potential sources of data for future phylogenetic studies of the Characidae. Not considerable interspecific variation was observed at the histological level and therefor...

  3. Correlation between the Gait Deviation Index and gross motor function (GMFCS level) in children with cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Malt, Merete A.; Aarli, Ånen; Bogen, Bård; Fevang, Jonas M

    2016-01-01

    Aim The Gait Deviation Index (GDI) is a score derived from three-dimensional gait analysis (3DGA). The GDI provides a numerical value that expresses overall gait pathology (ranging from 0 to 100, where 100 indicates the absence of gait pathology). The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the GDI and different levels of gross motor function [defined as the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS)] and to explore if age, height, weight, gender and cerebral pals...

  4. Gross Motor Function Classification System Expanded & Revised (GMFCS E & R): reliability between therapists and parents in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela B. R. Silva; Luzia I. Pfeifer; Carolina A. R. Funayama

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several studies have demonstrated the importance of using the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) to classify gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy, but the reliability of the expanded and revised version has not been examined in Brazil (GMFCS E & R). OBJECTIVE:: To determine the intra- and inter-rater reliability of the Portuguese-Brazil version of the GMFCS E & R applied by therapists and compare to classification provided by parents of children...

  5. [Effects of nitrification inhibitors DCD and DMPP on cinnamon soil' s gross nitrogen mineralization and nitrification rates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Xu, Hui; Xia, Zong-Wei; Guo, Yan-Ling

    2012-01-01

    By using 15N pool dilution technique in combining with in situ soil cultivation, this paper studied the effects of nitrification inhibitors dicyandiamide (DCD) and 3,4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate (DMPP) on the gross nitrogen (N) mineralization and nitrification rates in a saline-alkali cinnamon soil in North China. The experiment was carried out in a maize-wheat rotation field in Yuncheng City of Shanxi Province, and three treatments were installed, i.e., urea, urea + DCD, and urea + DMPP. In the first two weeks after fertilization, DCD and DMPP made the gross N mineralization rate and gross N nitrification rate decreased by 25.5% and 7.3%, and by 60.3% and 59.1%, respectively, with a significant difference in the gross N mineralization rate but less difference in the gross N nitrification rate between the effects of DCD and DMPP. However, significant difference was observed in the gross N nitrification rate between the effects of DCD and DMPP after seven weeks of fertilization. The gross N mineralization and nitrification rates and the NH4+ and NO3-consumption rates after two weeks of fertilization were 7.2-10.0, 5.5-21.5, 9.1-12.2, and 5.1-8.4 times of those before fertilization, respectively, possibly due to the stimulating effect of N fertilization. DCD and DMPP made the fertilizer urea N more maintained in NH(4+)-N form and less accumulated in NO(3-)-N form in soil. The decreases of the gross N mineralization and nitrifications rate in the test soil due to the effects of the inhibitors would benefit the reduction of N2O emission from the soil.

  6. Beta-decay rate and beta-delayed neutron emission probability of improved gross theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koura, Hiroyuki

    2014-09-01

    A theoretical study has been carried out on beta-decay rate and beta-delayed neutron emission probability. The gross theory of the beta decay is based on an idea of the sum rule of the beta-decay strength function, and has succeeded in describing beta-decay half-lives of nuclei overall nuclear mass region. The gross theory includes not only the allowed transition as the Fermi and the Gamow-Teller, but also the first-forbidden transition. In this work, some improvements are introduced as the nuclear shell correction on nuclear level densities and the nuclear deformation for nuclear strength functions, those effects were not included in the original gross theory. The shell energy and the nuclear deformation for unmeasured nuclei are adopted from the KTUY nuclear mass formula, which is based on the spherical-basis method. Considering the properties of the integrated Fermi function, we can roughly categorized energy region of excited-state of a daughter nucleus into three regions: a highly-excited energy region, which fully affect a delayed neutron probability, a middle energy region, which is estimated to contribute the decay heat, and a region neighboring the ground-state, which determines the beta-decay rate. Some results will be given in the presentation. A theoretical study has been carried out on beta-decay rate and beta-delayed neutron emission probability. The gross theory of the beta decay is based on an idea of the sum rule of the beta-decay strength function, and has succeeded in describing beta-decay half-lives of nuclei overall nuclear mass region. The gross theory includes not only the allowed transition as the Fermi and the Gamow-Teller, but also the first-forbidden transition. In this work, some improvements are introduced as the nuclear shell correction on nuclear level densities and the nuclear deformation for nuclear strength functions, those effects were not included in the original gross theory. The shell energy and the nuclear deformation for

  7. GROSS AND MICROSCOPIC ANATOMY OF MAMMARY GLAND OF DROMEDARIES UNDER DIFFERENT PHYSIOLOGICAL CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kausar, A. Sarwar and C.S. Hayat

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Samples of 24 mammary glands from healthy one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius cows were investigated under different physiological conditions for their gross and light microscopic anatomy. Different groups included equal number of immature heifers, mature heifers, lactating and non-lactating animals. Tissues fixed in 10% NBF were processed as per routine and stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E and Massons trichome. Morphometry was done with the help of stage and ocular micrometer. Gross studies revealed that the camel's udder consists of four quarters. The udder and teat showed light brown to solid black tinge in colour. The tips of teats sloped to a point both in immature and mature animals, however, the conformation of teats turned rounded at the tips in lactating camels. Each teat possessed two teat canals. The dimensions of teat and streak canal varied markedly among four different groups. Number of Furestenberg's rosettes ranged from 11.6 to 13.6. Microscopic studies revealed that streak canal was lined by stratified squamous keratinized epithelium that was partially extremely thin in some parts. Cutaneous layer of teat was devoid of hair follicles except at the base of teat. Follicles were associated with sebaceous glands. Sweat glands were less coiled and showed a wide acinous element forming the part of excretory duct. Glomus organs occurred in the stratum profundum of the corium as well as in the subcutis of the skin of mammary gland. They also revealed great variation in structure and size. Epithelial lining of the alveoli varied from flattened to columnar according to physiological state. Number and size of alveoli per lobule decreased and the parenchyma was replaced by loose connective tissue during non-lactating phase. These results suggested that age and lactation considerably influenced gross and microscopic anatomy of mammary gland in camels.

  8. Participation in asynchronous online discussion forums does improve student learning of gross anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Rodney A; Farchione, Davide; Hughes, Diane L; Chan, Siew-Pang

    2014-01-01

    Asynchronous online discussion forums are common in blended learning models and are popular with students. A previous report has suggested that participation in these forums may assist student learning in a gross anatomy subject but it was unclear as to whether more academically able students post more often or whether participation led to improved learning outcomes. This study used a path model to analyze the contribution of forum participation, previous academic ability, and student campus of enrolment to final marks in a multicampus gross anatomy course for physiotherapy students. The course has a substantial online learning management system (LMS) that incorporates asynchronous forums as a learning tool, particularly to answer learning objectives. Students were encouraged to post new threads and answer queries in threads started by others. The forums were moderated weekly by staff. Discussion forums were the most used feature of the LMS site with 31,920 hits. Forty-eight percent of the students posted at least once with 186 threads initiated by students and a total of 608 posts. The total number of posts made a significant direct contribution to final mark (P = 0.008) as did previous academic ability (P = 0.002). Although campus did not contribute to final mark, there was a trend for students at the campus where the course coordinator was situated to post more often than those at the other campus (P = 0.073). These results indicate that asynchronous online discussion forums can be an effective tool for improving student learning outcomes as evidenced by final marks in gross anatomy teaching.

  9. CIRCLE OF WILLIS: VARIANT FORMS AND THEIR EMBRYOLOGY USING GROSS DISSECTION AND MAGNETIC RESONANCE ANGIOGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bishwajeet Saikia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The circle of Willis is a large arterial anastomotic ring present at the base of the brain uniting the internal carotid and the vertebrobasilar systems. Branches from the internal carotid and vertebral arteries anastomose to form an arterial circle in the basal cisterns and then distribute to supply the brain. The anatomy of the circle is known to vary significantly; the vessels may be absent or sufficiently narrowed altering the hemodynamics of the circle of Willis and affecting its role as a collateral route. These variant forms can be correlated to their phylogeny and embryology. Prior knowledge of these variant forms is important in pathologies and treatment (e.g. parent artery occlusion for carotid aneurysms resulting occlusion of carotid and vertebral arteries. Context and purpose: Our study was undertaken to observe and compare the morphology of circle of Willis using two entirely different methods; gross dissection (GD and Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA and to correlate the variant patterns encountered with the possible underlying developmental events. Gross dissection was carried out in 70 human cadavers and equal numbers of MRA’s of healthy individuals were studied retrospectively. Results: Only 31 cases (22.14% presented with a complete circle of Willis, out of which 14 (20% were cadaveric specimen and 17 (24.18% were in MRA group. Unilateral hypoplastic posterior communicating artery was the most common variation observed in our study (19.28%. Conclusions: The wide variation in completeness of the circle of Willis in general population is similar to earlier observations. Review of phylogeny and embryology makes us familiar with variant forms which would be otherwise difficult to recognize and may be misinterpreted. MRA and gross dissection findings despite certain variations are comparable.

  10. Degeneration of the long biceps tendon: comparison of MRI with gross anatomy and histology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Florian M; Grehn, Holger; Hilbe, Monika; Pfirrmann, Christian W A; Manzanell, Silvana; Hodler, Jürg

    2009-11-01

    The objective of our study was to relate alterations in biceps tendon diameter and signal on MR images to gross anatomy and histology. T1-weighted, T2-weighted fat-saturated, and proton density-weighted fat-saturated spin-echo sequences were acquired in 15 cadaveric shoulders. Biceps tendon diameter (normal, flattened, thickened, and partially or completely torn) and signal intensity (compared with bone, fat, muscle, and joint fluid) were graded by two readers independently and in a blinded fashion. The distance of tendon abnormalities from the attachment at the glenoid were noted in millimeters. MRI findings were related to gross anatomic and histologic findings. On the basis of gross anatomy, there were six normal, five flattened, two thickened, and two partially torn tendons. Reader 1 graded nine diameter changes correctly, missed two, and incorrectly graded four. The corresponding values for reader 2 were seven, one, and five, respectively, with kappa = 0.75. Histology showed mucoid degeneration (n = 13), lipoid degeneration (n = 7), and fatty infiltration (n = 6). At least one type of abnormality was found in each single tendon. Mucoid degeneration was hyperintense compared with fatty infiltration on T2-weighted fat-saturated images and hyperintense compared with magic-angle artifacts on proton density-weighted fat-saturated images. MRI-based localization of degeneration agreed well with histologic findings. Diameter changes are specific but not sensitive in diagnosing tendinopathy of the biceps tendon. Increased tendon signal is most typical for mucoid degeneration but should be used with care as a sign of tendon degeneration.

  11. Digital lectures for learning gross anatomy: a study of their efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anudeep Singh

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose The current study investigates the level of students’ learning and attitudes towards the teaching and learning process when using digital lectures to teach gross anatomy to year 1 medical students. Methods The study sampled year 1 medical students of cohorts 2013 and 2014. The year 1 medical students in 2013 were taught gross anatomy of the heart by didactic classroom lectures while those in 2014 were taught with digital lectures using the same content. A review session was conducted for the 2014 cohort. A 19-item survey was distributed amongst students to investigate their attitudes and feedback. The data were analysed using SPSS software. Results The 2014 cohort had a mean score of 47.65 for short essay questions and 51.19 for multiple choice questions, while the 2013 cohort scored an average of 36.80 for short essay questions and 49.22 for multiple choice questions. The difference in scores for each type of question was found to be significant. Using a 5-point Likert scale, students gave an average of 4.11 when asked if they liked the teaching and learning process and would like it to be applied further. Conclusion The results of the study provide strong evidence that the digital teaching and learning process was well received by students and could also lead to improved performance. Digital lectures can provide a satisfactory substitute for classroom lectures to teach gross anatomy, thus providing flexibility in learning and efficient learning, whilst also freeing lecture slots to promote mastery learning.

  12. EFFECT OF GESTATIONAL DIABETES MELLITUS ON GROSS MORPHOLOGY OF PLACENTA: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Saini

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The fetus, placenta and mother constitute a triad of contributors to pregnancy outcome. When pregnancy is complicated by a medical problem like, diabetes mellitus which affects maternal health, architecture and functions of the placenta may even jeopardize the fetal normalcy. The placenta being the bridge between maternal and fetal activities, considered as a window through which maternal dysfunctions and their impacts on fetal well being can be understood. Aim: The aim was to study gross morphology of placentae of women with gestational diabetes mellitus and to compare the results with normal pregnancies. Methods: It was an observational study. After due approval from institutional ethics committee, 40 placentae from pregnant women clinically diagnosed with gestational diabetes mellitus and 40 placentae from uncomplicated normal pregnant women were collected from labour room and operation theatre of department of obstetrics and gynaecology of government medical college hospital in Jaipur (Rajasthan. Confirmed gestational diabetic cases were selected purposively while controls were taken sequentially. Gross morphological features of each placenta were recorded. The statistical methods used were unpaired ‘t’ test and chi square test. Results: The results showed that weight, diameter, surface area, central thickness and number of cotyledons of placentae from diabetic mothers were significantly more than placentae from normal uncomplicated pregnancies, while no significant differences were observed in shape and site of umbilical cord insertion. Conclusion: The gross morphology of placentae with gestational diabetes mellitus significantly differs from normal pregnancies which may be associated with alteration in physiological functioning of placenta and ultimately fetal outcome.

  13. Methodology for full comparative assessment of direct gross glycerin combustion in a flame tube furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maturana, Aymer Yeferson; Pagliuso, Josmar D. [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering. Sao Carlos School of Engineering. University of Sao Paulo, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)], e-mails: aymermat@sc.usp.br, josmar@sc.usp.br

    2010-07-01

    This study is to develop a methodology to identify and evaluate the emissions and heat transfer associated to combustion of gross glycerin a by-product of the Brazilian biodiesel manufacture process as alternative energy source. It aims to increase the present knowledge on the matter and to contribute to the improvement of the economic and environmental perspective of biodiesel industry. This methodology was considered to be used for assessment of gross glycerin combustion from three different types of biodiesel (bovine tallow, palm and soy). The procedures for evaluation and quantification of emissions of sulphur and nitrogen oxides, total hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and acrolein were analyzed, described and standardized. Experimental techniques for mutagenic and toxic effects assessment of gases similarly were analyzed and standardized, as well as the calorific power, the associate heat transfer and fundamentals operational parameters. The methodology was developed, using a full-instrumented flame tube furnace, continuous gas analyzers, a chromatograph, automatic data acquisition systems and other auxiliary equipment. The mutagenic and toxic effects of the study was based on Tradescantia clone KU-20, using chambers of intoxication and biological analytical techniques previously developed and others were specially adapted. The benchmark for the initial set up was based on the performance evaluation of the previous equipment tested with diesel considering its behavior during direct combustion. Finally, the following factors were defined for the combustion of crude glycerin, configurations of equipment types, operational parameters such as air fuel ratio adiabatic temperature and other necessary aspect for successful application of the methodology. The developed and integrated methodology was made available to the concern industry, environmental authorities and researchers as procedures to access the viability of gross glycerin or similar fuels as

  14. Evaluating dissection in the gross anatomy course: Correlation between quality of laboratory dissection and students outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwachukwu, Chika; Lachman, Nirusha; Pawlina, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    Anatomy learned by active exploration through dissection has many proven benefits including improvement of anatomic knowledge. Decreased laboratory time may affect the quality of dissection and ultimately lower student performance in anatomy translating to lower knowledge acquisition. The aim of this study was to determine whether the quality of students' dissection in teams correlates with their performance in the gross anatomy course. Quality of dissections for each team enrolled in a gross anatomy course at Mayo Medical School was evaluated biweekly using a five-point rubric based on course learning objectives. Assessment of anatomic knowledge was based on sequential laboratory practice practical examination scores, achievements on daily audience response system (ARS) quizzes, and final practical, written, and National Board of Medical Examiners(®) (NBME(®) ) Gross Anatomy and Embryology Subject Examinations. Twelve teams comprising 48 students were included in the study. There was a positive correlation between dissection quality and practice practical examination score (R = 0.83) and a negative correlation between dissection quality and ARS quizzes (R = -0.985). Dissection teams with a passing score on their dissection evaluations (>70%) performed better on their final examinations. Based on an end of course survey, students agreed that dissection evaluations should continue to be a part of the course. This study showed that better quality of dissection was associated with higher scores on practice practical examinations, final practical, written, and NBME examinations. The study demonstrated a positive correlation between dissection evaluations, accompanied by formative feedback during the course, and higher scores on final course assessments.

  15. Digital lectures for learning gross anatomy: a study of their efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The current study investigates the level of students’ learning and attitudes towards the teaching and learning process when using digital lectures to teach gross anatomy to year 1 medical students. Methods The study sampled year 1 medical students of cohorts 2013 and 2014. The year 1 medical students in 2013 were taught gross anatomy of the heart by didactic classroom lectures while those in 2014 were taught with digital lectures using the same content. A review session was conducted for the 2014 cohort. A 19-item survey was distributed amongst students to investigate their attitudes and feedback. The data were analysed using SPSS software. Results The 2014 cohort had a mean score of 47.65 for short essay questions and 51.19 for multiple choice questions, while the 2013 cohort scored an average of 36.80 for short essay questions and 49.22 for multiple choice questions. The difference in scores for each type of question was found to be significant. Using a 5-point Likert scale, students gave an average of 4.11 when asked if they liked the teaching and learning process and would like it to be applied further. Conclusion The results of the study provide strong evidence that the digital teaching and learning process was well received by students and could also lead to improved performance. Digital lectures can provide a satisfactory substitute for classroom lectures to teach gross anatomy, thus providing flexibility in learning and efficient learning, whilst also freeing lecture slots to promote mastery learning. PMID:28264551

  16. Analysis of the Evolution of the Gross Domestic Product by Means of Cyclic Regressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalin Angelo Ioan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we will carry out an analysis on the regularity of the Gross Domestic Product of a country, in our case the United States. The method of analysis is based on a new method of analysis – the cyclic regressions based on the Fourier series of a function. Another point of view is that of considering instead the growth rate of GDP the speed of variation of this rate, computed as a numerical derivative. The obtained results show a cycle for this indicator for 71 years, the mean square error being 0.93%. The method described allows an prognosis on short-term trends in GDP.

  17. 61-year-old man with sudden onset of gross hematuria: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, Alexander; Aitchison, Robert; Lees, Dania S; Landoli, Ciro Louis; Dayrit, Kristoffer; Kharasch, Morris; Wang, Ernest

    2014-01-01

    A 61-year-old man with a medical history of gastroesophageal reflux disease presented with complaints of gross hematuria for 2 days and occasional epistaxis for 1 week. The medication list included only ranitidine. Laboratory data showed significantly elevated prothrombin time and international normalized ratio. The liver panel was normal. On inspection, the patient's bottle of ranitidine, which was refilled 20 days before, contained 5-mg tablets of warfarin. The international normalized ratio and prothrombin time were reversed with FFP, vitamin K, and Novoseven.

  18. Gross morphometry of young Geochelone sulcata (Testudines: Testudinidae) in Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Merchán, Manuel; Coll, Marta; Fournier, Raúl

    2014-01-01

    The African Spur tortoise, Geochelone sulcata, has been introduced to Costa Rica. A total of 31 tortoises were measured for 26 gross morphometry parameters. All individuals measured were inmature, aged from 5 to 34 months, and were born in captivity in La Garita de Alajuela, Costa Rica. Mean straight carapace length was 83.1 mm, mean straight plastron length was 68.3 mm and mean maximum height was 46.2 mm. All the measurements were correlated, except tail length and cloacal distance. Weight h...

  19. Gross morphometry of young Geochelone sulcata (Testudines: Testudinidae) in Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Merchán, Manuel; Coll, Marta; Fournier, Raúl

    2014-01-01

    The African Spur tortoise, Geochelone sulcata, has been introduced to Costa Rica. A total of 31 tortoises weremeasured for 26 gross morphometry parameters. All individuals measured were inmature, aged from 5 to 34months, and were born in captivity in La Garita de Alajuela, Costa Rica. Mean straight carapace length was 83.1mm, mean straight plastron length was 68.3 mm and mean maximum height was 46.2 mm. All the measurementswere correlated, except tail length and cloacal distance. Weight had t...

  20. Determinants of gross motor skill performance in children with visual impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haibach, Pamela S; Wagner, Matthias O; Lieberman, Lauren J

    2014-10-01

    Children with visual impairments (CWVI) generally perform poorer in gross motor skills when compared with their sighted peers. This study examined the influence of age, sex, and severity of visual impairment upon locomotor and object control skills in CWVI. Participants included 100 CWVI from across the United States who completed the Test of Gross Motor Development II (TGMD-II). The TGMD-II consists of 12 gross motor skills including 6 object control skills (catching, kicking, striking, dribbling, throwing, and rolling) and 6 locomotor skills (running, sliding, galloping, leaping, jumping, and hopping). The full range of visual impairments according to United States Association for Blind Athletes (USABA; B3=20/200-20/599, legally blind; B2=20/600 and up, travel vision; B1=totally blind) were assessed. The B1 group performed significantly worse than the B2 (0.000 ≤ p ≤ 0.049) or B3 groups (0.000 ≤ p ≤ 0.005); however, there were no significant differences between B2 and B3 except for the run (p=0.006), catch (p=0.000), and throw (p=0.012). Age and sex did not play an important role in most of the skills, with the exception of boys outperforming girls striking (p=0.009), dribbling (p=0.013), and throwing (p=0.000), and older children outperforming younger children in dribbling (p=0.002). The significant impact of the severity of visual impairment is likely due to decreased experiences and opportunities for children with more severe visual impairments. In addition, it is likely that these reduced experiences explain the lack of age-related differences in the CWVI. The large disparities in performance between children who are blind and their partially sighted peers give direction for instruction and future research. In addition, there is a critical need for intentional and specific instruction on motor skills at a younger age to enable CWVI to develop their gross motor skills.

  1. Gross nitrous oxide production drives net nitrous oxide fluxes across a salt marsh landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wendy H; Silver, Whendee L

    2016-06-01

    Sea level rise will change inundation regimes in salt marshes, altering redox dynamics that control nitrification - a potential source of the potent greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide (N2 O) - and denitrification, a major nitrogen (N) loss pathway in coastal ecosystems and both a source and sink of N2 O. Measurements of net N2 O fluxes alone yield little insight into the different effects of redox conditions on N2 O production and consumption. We used in situ measurements of gross N2 O fluxes across a salt marsh elevation gradient to determine how soil N2 O emissions in coastal ecosystems may respond to future sea level rise. Soil redox declined as marsh elevation decreased, with lower soil nitrate and higher ferrous iron in the low marsh compared to the mid and high marshes (P Net N2 O fluxes differed significantly among marsh zones (P = 0.009), averaging 9.8 ± 5.4 μg N m(-2)  h(-1) , -2.2 ± 0.9 μg N m(-2)  h(-1) , and 0.67 ± 0.57 μg N m(-2)  h(-1) in the low, mid, and high marshes, respectively. Both net N2 O release and uptake were observed in the low and high marshes, but the mid-marsh was consistently a net N2 O sink. Gross N2 O production was highest in the low marsh and lowest in the mid-marsh (P = 0.02), whereas gross N2 O consumption did not differ among marsh zones. Thus, variability in gross N2 O production rates drove the differences in net N2 O flux among marsh zones. Our results suggest that future studies should focus on elucidating controls on the processes producing, rather than consuming, N2 O in salt marshes to improve our predictions of changes in net N2 O fluxes caused by future sea level rise.

  2. Special solutions of the Riccati equation with applications to the Gross-Pitaevskii nonlinear PDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anas Al Bastami

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A method for finding solutions of the Riccati differential equation $y' = P(x + Q(xy + R(xy^2$ is introduced. Provided that certain relations exist between the coefficient $P(x$, $Q(x$ and $R(x$, the above equation can be solved in closed form. We determine the required relations and find the general solutions to the aforementioned equation. The method is then applied to the Riccati equation arising in the solution of the multidimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation of Bose-Einstein condensates by the F-expansion and the balance principle techniques.

  3. Riccati generalization of self-similar solutions of nonautonomous Gross-Pitaevskii equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panigrahi, P. K.; Gupta, Rama; Goyal, Amit; Kumar, C. N.

    2013-07-01

    We present a systematic analytical approach to construct a family of self-similar waves, related through a free parameter, in quasi one-dimension Gross-Pitaevskii equation with time-varying parameters. This approach enables us to control the dynamics of dark and bright similaritons, and first- and second- order self-similar rogue waves in Bose-Einstein condensate through the modulation of time dependent trapping potential. The analysis is done for the sech2- type time-varying quadratic trapping potential for two different choices of linear potential.

  4. Developments of regional gross domestic product and the unemployment rate in Romania during 2000 - 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schonauer (Sacală Corina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Economic development of territorial units can be characterized by measuring the ability of producing goods and services and by measuring labor force in the area. The capacity of producing goods and services is measured by calculating the gross domestic product indicator. This article presents a comparative analysis of the evolution of regional GDP and the ILO unemployment rate at the level of the eight regions in Romania for a period of 13 years. The presented data come from the National Institute of Statistics of Romania.

  5. Scaling analysis of paces of fetal breathing, gross-body and extremity movements

    OpenAIRE

    Govindan, R. B.; Wilson, J D; Murphy, P; Russel, W.A.; Lowery, C L

    2007-01-01

    Using detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA), we studied the scaling properties of the time instances (occurrence) of the fetal breathing, gross-body, and extremity movements scored on a second by second basis from the recorded ultrasound measurements of 49 fetuses. The DFA exponent α of all the three movements of the fetuses varied between 0.63 and 1.1. We found an increase in α obtained for the movement due to breathing as a function of the gestational age while this trend was not observed fo...

  6. Using interactive videodiscs to teach gross anatomy to undergraduates at the Ohio State University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy, J F; Frisby, A J

    1992-02-01

    To determine whether interactive-videodisc lessons can effectively replace some of the labor-intensive laboratories in human gross anatomy, pre-nursing and allied-medical-professions undergraduates at The Ohio State University were randomly assigned to either a traditional cadaver-demonstration lab or an interactive-videodisc computer lab covering the same material. In a one-unit pilot study in the autumn quarter of 1989 (involving 190 students) and a full-quarter course in the spring quarter of 1991 (283 students), the performances of the computer-lab students were not significantly different from those of the students in the traditional cadaver-demonstration-lab groups.

  7. EuroMInd-D: A Density Estimate of Monthly Gross Domestic Product for the Euro Area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Proietti, Tommaso; Marczak, Martyna; Mazzi, Gianluigi

    EuroMInd-D is a density estimate of monthly gross domestic product (GDP) constructed according to a bottom–up approach, pooling the density estimates of eleven GDP components, by output and expenditure type. The components density estimates are obtained from a medium-size dynamic factor model...... parameters, and conditional simulation filters for simulating from the predictive distribution of GDP. Both algorithms process sequentially the data as they become available in real time. The GDP density estimates for the output and expenditure approach are combined using alternative weighting schemes...

  8. Postoperative Urinary Retention With Gross Vulvar Edema After Use of 4% Icodextrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Beverly; Robinson, Randal

    2015-07-01

    4% icodextrin is a fluid that can be instilled laparoscopically to prevent adhesion formation. There are few complications reported in the literature associated with its use. A 38-year-old woman, gravida 2, para 0, abortus 2 underwent laparoscopic salpingectomy. 4% icodextrin was instilled in an effort to prevent adhesion formation. Postoperatively, the patient experienced urinary retention and gross vulvar edema that required foley catheter use until the 4% icodextrin solution had absorbed. Postoperative complications that may be associated with the use of 4% icodextrin include urinary retention and vulvar edema. Reprint & Copyright © 2015 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  9. Phase Diagram of the Gross-Neveu Model: Exact Results and Condensed Matter Precursors

    CERN Document Server

    Schnetz, O; Urlichs, K; Schnetz, Oliver; Thies, Michael; Urlichs, Konrad

    2004-01-01

    Recently the revised phase diagram of the (large N) Gross-Neveu model in 1+1 dimensions with discrete chiral symmetry has been determined numerically. It features three phases, a massless and a massive Fermi gas and a kink-antikink crystal. Here we investigate the phase diagram by analytical means, mapping the Dirac-Hartree-Fock equation onto the non-relativistic Schroedinger equation with the (single gap) Lame potential. It is pointed out that mathematically identical phase diagrams appeared in the condensed matter literature some time ago in the context of the Peierls-Froehlich model and ferromagnetic superconductors.

  10. COST OF PRODUCTION, GROSS RETURN AND NET PROFIT IN COMMERCIAL EGG PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Farooq, Zahoor-ul-Haq1, M.A. Mian, F.R. Durrani and M. Syed

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out in Chakwal, Pakistan by collecting data from randomly selected 109 flocks to investigate cost of production, gross return and net profit per layer. Majority of the buildings in the study area were rented therefore, rent per layer was added to the total cost of production instead of depreciation on building and equipments. Overall total cost of production, gross return and net profit per layer was Rs. 393.88 ± 5.36, 432.14 ± 8.01 and 38.26 ± 6.66, respectively. Rate of return over the invested capital was 27%. Mean feed cost per layer was Rs. 302.23 ± 5.01, including Rs. 10.27 ± 0.24, 29.19 ± 0.42 and 262.77 ± 5.08 for starter, grower and layer ration, respectively. Feed cost was the major component contributing 76.73% to the total cost of production. Average cost of labor, day-old chick, building rent, vaccination, therapy, miscellaneous item, electricity, bedding material and transportation was Rs. 19.90 ± 0.45, 19.75 ± 0.05, 16.25 ± 0.26, 12.80 ± 0.10, 10.90 ± 2.32, 4.35 ± 0.09, 3.15 ± 0.07, 2.65 ± 0.09 and 1.90 ± 0.08, respectively, contributing 5.05, 5.01, 4.13, 3.25, 2.77, 1.10, 0.80, 0.67 and 0.48 % to the total cost of production. Gross return from the sale of marketable eggs, culled eggs, spent/culled bird, empty bags and manure was Rs. 388.84 ± 7.91, 3.85 ± 0.01, 35.80 ± 0.23, 2.20 ± 0.04 and 1.45 ± 0.01, respectively, contributing 89.98, 0.89, 8.28, 0.51 and 0.34% to the total return. Determining the effect of different parameters on the cost of production and net profit, large flocks, Hisex strain, brood-grow and lay system of rearing, good hygienic conditions of the farm, normal stocking rate and cage system of housing wee found to give maximum gross return as well as net profit.

  11. Morphological studies of Gross virus-induced lymphoblasts by scanning electron microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ichikawa,Hiroyuki

    1977-04-01

    Full Text Available The surface of Gross virus-induced murine lymphoblasts and C-type virus particles budding from these cells were investigated under the scanning electron microscope (SEM. The cells appeared spindle-shaped or roughly-rounded with extensive surface features consisting of microvilli, blebs and ruffled membranes. C-type virus particles were detected on the cell membrane as small spherical particles, distinguishable from the microvilli. Clustered virions were observed in some cases. However, the distribution of virions appeared to be random. The surface of the virion was smooth and had no globular units at high magnification. These morphological observations were confirmed in ultrathin sections.

  12. Comparison of gross anatomy test scores using traditional specimens vs. QuickTime Virtual Reality animated specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maza, Paul Sadiri

    In recent years, technological advances such as computers have been employed in teaching gross anatomy at all levels of education, even in professional schools such as medical and veterinary medical colleges. Benefits of computer based instructional tools for gross anatomy include the convenience of not having to physically view or dissect a cadaver. Anatomy educators debate over the advantages versus the disadvantages of computer based resources for gross anatomy instruction. Many studies, case reports, and editorials argue for the increased use of computer based anatomy educational tools, while others discuss the necessity of dissection for various reasons important in learning anatomy, such as a three-dimensional physical view of the specimen, physical handling of tissues, interactions with fellow students during dissection, and differences between specific specimens. While many articles deal with gross anatomy education using computers, there seems to be a lack of studies investigating the use of computer based resources as an assessment tool for gross anatomy, specifically using the Apple application QuickTime Virtual Reality (QTVR). This study investigated the use of QTVR movie modules to assess if using computer based QTVR movie module assessments were equal in quality to actual physical specimen examinations. A gross anatomy course in the College of Veterinary Medicine at Cornell University was used as a source of anatomy students and gross anatomy examinations. Two groups were compared, one group taking gross anatomy examinations in a traditional manner, by viewing actual physical specimens and answering questions based on those specimens. The other group took the same examinations using the same specimens, but the specimens were viewed as simulated three-dimensional objects in a QTVR movie module. Sample group means for the assessments were compared. A survey was also administered asking students' perceptions of quality and user-friendliness of the QTVR

  13. High-performance HVDC transmission over long distances; Hochleistungsuebertragung ueber grosse Entfernungen mit hochgespanntem Gleichstrom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radtke, U. [PreussenElektra AG, Hannover (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    High-voltage DC transmission is a world-wide established technology for low-cost transmission of large amounts of electricity over long distances. Thanks to HVDC transmission, large amounts of electricity can now for the first time also be transmitted over long distances via ocean cable, something that cannot be done with AC power cables. HVDC transmission is independent of grid frequencies and can link grids of different frequency and different quality of frequency. Interconnected grids coupled via DC circuits can exploit additional technical and economic advantages such as mutual supply of power reserves, balancing of peak load, and modulation of active and reactive power. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Hochspannungs-Gleichstromuebertragung (HGUe) ist eine weltweit etablierte Technik zur kostenguenstigen Uebertragung grosser elektrischer Leistungen ueber grosse Entfernungen. Sie schafft erstmals die Moeglichkeit, auch mittels Seekabel grosse Leistungen ueber Entfernungen zu uebertragen, die mit der Drehstromtechnik nicht moeglich sind. HGUeist unabhaengig von den Netzfrequenzen und kann Netze unterschiedlicher Frequenz und Frequenzguete miteinander verbinden. Ueber Gleichstromkreise gekuppelte Verbundnetze koennen zusaetzliche technische und wirtschaftliche Vorteile wie gegenseitige Bereitstellung von Kraftwerksreserven, Spitzenlastausgleich sowie Wirk- und Blindleistungsmodulation nutzt. (orig.)

  14. Spatial extrapolation of light use efficiency model parameters to predict gross primary production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karsten Schulz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available To capture the spatial and temporal variability of the gross primary production as a key component of the global carbon cycle, the light use efficiency modeling approach in combination with remote sensing data has shown to be well suited. Typically, the model parameters, such as the maximum light use efficiency, are either set to a universal constant or to land class dependent values stored in look-up tables. In this study, we employ the machine learning technique support vector regression to explicitly relate the model parameters of a light use efficiency model calibrated at several FLUXNET sites to site-specific characteristics obtained by meteorological measurements, ecological estimations and remote sensing data. A feature selection algorithm extracts the relevant site characteristics in a cross-validation, and leads to an individual set of characteristic attributes for each parameter. With this set of attributes, the model parameters can be estimated at sites where a parameter calibration is not possible due to the absence of eddy covariance flux measurement data. This will finally allow a spatially continuous model application. The performance of the spatial extrapolation scheme is evaluated with a cross-validation approach, which shows the methodology to be well suited to recapture the variability of gross primary production across the study sites.

  15. Histological features of the placenta and their relation to the gross and data from Thoroughbred mares

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    Fernanda M. Pazinato

    Full Text Available Abstract: The placenta is a transitory organ that originates from maternal and fetal tissues, the function of which is transporting nutrients from the mother to the fetus. The aim of this study was describe the histological features of placentas in healthy Thoroughbred mares at foaling and evaluate their relation with the gross placental and data of these mares. For this study 188 Thoroughbred mares were used. It was performed clinical observation for signs of placentitis during daily health checks and ultrasonic examination monthly to assess the fetus and placenta. All of the mares that exhibited clinical signs of placentitis were treated during gestation. The parturition was assisted, the placentas were grossly evaluated and samples were collected immediately after expulsion. The following data were considered for each mare: age, gestational age, number of parturition, time for placental expulsion, umbilical-cord length, placental weight and clinical signs of placentitis. Histological evaluation of the placentas revealed extensive cytoplasmic vacuolization of the epithelial areolar cells, presence of inflammatory infiltrates and hypoplasia-atrophy of the microcotyledons. Most of the gross placental findings were consistent with the histological results. In conclusion the mares with a vacuolated placental chorionic epithelium were older and had experienced a larger number of births. Great part of the mares with inflammatory infiltrates did not showed any clinical signs of placentitis during gestation.

  16. Influence of the environment on performance of gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatudimu, Margaret Bukola

    2012-01-01

    Assessment and physiotherapy intervention for children with cerebral palsy (CP) are conventionally carried out in the hospital or clinic setting. However, the daily lives of these children include a variety of environmental settings in addition to the clinical setting. The objective of this study was therefore to explore the possible influence of the environment on motor function in children with CP. Purposively selected children with CP (n=107), ages 1 and 6 years with mean age of 2.1 years (SD 1.10 yrs), were involved in this study. The motor function of each child was assessed in the hospital and at their homes within a one-week interval, using the gross motor function measure (GMFM); this was done at the baseline and on a monthly basis for eight consecutive months. The paired t-test rank was computed to compare the overall GMFM score and each of the sub-domain scores measured in the clinic and at home. GMFM scores measured at home were significantly higher than those measured in the clinic and this pattern was also obtained for the sub-domains throughout the study period, suggesting that children performed gross motor functions better at their homes than in the clinic.

  17. Sleep-related offline improvements in gross motor task performance occur under free recall requirements

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    Andreas eMalangre

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Nocturnal sleep effects on memory consolidation following gross motor sequence learning were examined using a complex arm movement task. This task required participants to produce non-regular spatial patterns in the horizontal plane by successively fitting a small peg into different target-holes on an electronic pegboard. The respective reaching movements typically differed in amplitude and direction. Targets were visualized prior to each transport movement on a computer screen. With this task we tested 18 subjects (22.6 +/- 1.9 years; 8 female using a between-subjects design. Participants initially learned a 10-element arm movement sequence either in the morning or in the evening. Performance was retested under free recall requirements 15 minutes post training, as well as 12 hrs and 24 hrs later. Thus each group was provided with one sleep-filled and one wake retention interval. Dependent variables were error rate (number of erroneous sequences and average sequence execution time (correct sequences only. Performance improved during acquisition. Error rate remained stable across retention. Sequence execution time (inverse to execution speed significantly decreased again during the sleep-filled retention intervals, but remained stable during the respective wake intervals. These results corroborate recent findings on sleep-related enhancement consolidation in ecological valid, complex gross motor tasks. At the same time they suggest this effect to be truly memory-based and independent from repeated access to extrinsic sequence information during retests.

  18. Palindrome-mediated Translocations in Humans: A New Mechanistic Model for Gross Chromosomal Rearrangements

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    Hidehito Inagaki

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Palindromic DNA sequences, which can form secondary structures, are widely distributed in the human genome. Although the nature of the secondary structure—single-stranded hairpin or double-stranded cruciform—has been extensively investigated in vitro, the existence of such unusual non-B DNA in vivo remains controversial. Here, we review palindrome-mediated gross chromosomal rearrangements possibly induced by non-B DNA in humans. Recent advances in next-generation sequencing have not yet overcome the difficulty of palindromic sequence analysis. However, a dozen palindromic AT-rich repeat (PATRR sequences have been identified at the breakpoints of recurrent or non-recurrent chromosomal translocations in humans. The breakages always occur at the center of the palindrome. Analyses of polymorphisms within the palindromes indicate that the symmetry and length of the palindrome affect the frequency of the de novo occurrence of these palindrome-mediated translocations, suggesting the involvement of non-B DNA. Indeed, experiments using a plasmid-based model system showed that the formation of non-B DNA is likely the key to palindrome-mediated genomic rearrangements. Some evidence implies a new mechanism that cruciform DNAs may come close together first in nucleus and illegitimately joined. Analysis of PATRR-mediated translocations in humans will provide further understanding of gross chromosomal rearrangements in many organisms.

  19. Applications of Graph Theory to Gross Error Detection for GPS Geodetic Control Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes a broad perspective of the application of graph theory to establishment of GPS control networks whereby the GPS network is considered as a connected and directed graph with three components.In this algorithm the gross error detection is undertaken through loops of different spanning trees using the "Loop Law" in which the individual components ΔX,ΔY and ΔZ sum up to zero.If the sum of the respective vector components ∑X,∑Y and ∑Z in a loop is not zero and if the error is beyond the tolerable limit (ε>w),it indicates the existence of gross errors in one of the baselines in the loop and therefore the baseline must be removed or re-observed.After successful screening of errors by graph theory,network adjustment can be carried out.In this paper,the GPS data from the control network established as reference system for the HP Dam at Baishan county in Liaoning province is presented to illustrate the algorithm.

  20. Gross and microscopic morphology of lesions in Cnidaria from Palmyra Atoll, Central Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Gareth J.; Work, Thierry M.; Aeby, Greta S.; Knapp, Ingrid S.; Davy, Simon K.

    2011-01-01

    We conducted gross and microscopic characterizations of lesions in Cnidaria from Palmyra Atoll, Central Pacific. We found growth anomalies (GA) to be the most commonly encountered lesion. Cases of discoloration and tissue loss were rare. GAs had a focal or multi-focal distribution and were predominantly nodular, exophytic, and umbonate. In scleractinians, the majority of GAs manifested as hyperplasia of the basal body wall (52% of cases), with an associated absence or reduction of polyp structure (mesenteries and filaments, actinopharynx and tentacles), and depletion of zooxanthellae in the gastrodermis of the upper body wall. In the soft corals Sinularia sp. and Lobophytum sp., GAs exclusively manifested as prominent hyperplasia of the coenenchyme with an increased density of solenia. In contrast to scleractinians, soft coral GAs displayed an inflammatory and necrotizing component with marked edema of the mesoglea, accompanied by infiltrates of variably-sized granular amoebocytes. Fungi, algae, sponges, and Crustacea were present in some scleractinian GAs, but absent in soft coral GAs. Fragmentation of tissues was a common finding in Acropora acuminata and Montipora cf. dilatata colonies with tissue loss, although no obvious causative agents were seen. Discoloration in the zoanthid, Palythoa tuberculosa, was found to be the result of necrosis, while in Lobophytum sp. discoloration was the result of zooxanthellar depletion (bleaching). Soft corals with discoloration or tissue loss showed a marked inflammatory response, however no obvious causative organisms were seen. Lesions that appeared similar at the gross level were revealed to be distinct by microscopy, emphasizing the importance of histopathology.

  1. [Hans Gross and the beginning of criminology on a scientific basis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachhiesl, Christian

    2007-01-01

    Modern criminology--if one wants to consider it a separate scientific discipline at all--is usually perceived as being mainly influenced by the methods of natural sciences supplemented by components from the field of psychology, which, at least in some of its conceptions, tends to define itself as a natural science, too. If we take a look at the history of science, we will see development of criminology in this direction was not necessarily inevitable. The scientific work of the Austrian Hans Gross (1847-1915), one of the founding fathers of scientific criminology, serves as an example of the way how natural sciences and their exact methods became established in the methodological apparatus of modern criminology, although in praxi his claim for the application of exact methods was all too often replaced by irrational and intuitive ways of working. Still, Hans Gross' fundamental decision for the exact methods derived from the natural sciences is an important step towards a criminology that can be understood as a part of natural sciences, largely superseding the methods of cultural sciences and anthropological philosophy. This approach made the (criminal) human being an object of measurement and can result in the concept of man as a mere phenomenon of quantity. This is, on the one hand, ethically questionable; on the other hand, it made modern criminology more efficient and successful.

  2. Relationships between Gross Motor Abilities and Problematic Behaviors of Handicapped Children in Different Age Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uesugi, Masayuki; Araki, Tomoko; Fujii, Shun; Itotani, Keisuke; Otani, Yoshitaka; Seiichi, Takemasa

    2014-12-01

    [Purpose] In this study, we examined problematic behaviors of independent-walking and non-independent-walking handicapped children in the infant, school child and adolescent development phases, using the Japanese version of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC-J) to determine if such behaviors relate to their gross motor abilities. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 86 handicapped children who were receiving physical therapy. The subjects were classified into three groups by age. Using the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS), each group was further divided into an independent-walking group and non-independent-walking group. Thirteen physical therapists and 8 occupational therapists, who were treating the subject children, rated the subjects using the ABC-J. [Results] Significant differences were observed between the independent-walking and the non-independent-walking groups in the stereotypy and lethargy scores of infants. [Conclusion] For schoolchildren and adolescents, no significant differences were observed between the independent-walking and the non-independent-walking groups in their problematic behavior scores.

  3. Gross Morphological Features of the Organ Surface Primo-Vascular System Revealed by Hemacolor Staining

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    Chae Jeong Lim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The primo-vascular system (PVS, which consists of primo-vessels (PVs and primo-nodes (PNs, is a novel thread-like structure identified in many animal species. Various observational methods have been used to clarify its anatomical properties. Here, we used Hemacolor staining to examine the gross morphology of organ-surface PVS in rats. We observed a sinus structure (20–50 μm with a remarkably low cellularity within PNs and PVs and several lines of ductules (3–5 μm filled with single cells or granules (~1 μm in PV. Both sinuses and ductules were linearly aligned along the longitudinal axis of the PVS. Such morphology of the PVS was further confirmed by acridine orange staining. In PN slices, there was a honeycomb-like structure containing the granules with pentagonal lumens (~10 μm. Both PVs and PNs were densely filled with WBCs, RBCs, and putative mast cells (MCs, which were 90.3%, 5.9%, and 3.8% of the cell population, respectively. Granules in putative MCs showed spontaneous vibrating movements. In conclusion, the results show that Hemacolor, a simple and rapid staining system, can reveal the gross morphological features reported previously. Our findings may help to elucidate the structure and function of the PVS in normal and disease states in future studies.

  4. Gross, Histologic, and Computed Tomographic Anatomy of the Lacrimal System of Snakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Nicole M.; Maggs, David J.; Park, Shin Ae; Puchalski, Sarah; Reilly, Christopher M.; Paul-Murphy, Joanne; Murphy, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To describe the lacrimal system of snakes using contrast micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) with 3-dimensional reconstruction, fluorescein passage (“Jones”) testing, histology, and gross dissection. Animals studied One Royal Python and 19 snake cadavers representing 10 species. Procedures Direct observation following injection of fluorescein into the subspectacular space, micro-CT following injection of 3 contrast agents into the subspectacular space, gross dissection following injection of latex into the subspectacular space, and histopathology. Results Injection of fluorescein confirmed patency but not course of the lacrimal duct. Barium enabled clear visualization of the lacrimal duct whereas two iodinated contrast agents proved inadequate. Collectively, micro-CT, anatomic dissections, and histology suggest tears are produced by a single, large, serous, retrobulbar gland, released into the subspectacular space via several ductules, and drained through a single punctum originating in the ventronasal subspectacular space and the lacrimal duct taking one of 3 routes of variable tortuosity before opening into the oral cavity in close association with the opening of the duct of the vomeronasal organ. Conclusions The ophidian lacrimal duct has a generally tortuous course and the details of its anatomy is species variable. The tortuous course of the duct likely predisposes snakes to duct occlusion and must be considered when planning medical and surgical interventions in snakes with pseudobuphthalmos and subspectacular abscessation. PMID:24862081

  5. Time-saving and fail-safe dissection method for vestibulocochlear organs in gross anatomy classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Ryoji; Konno, Naoaki; Ishizawa, Akimitsu; Kanatsu, Yoshinori; Funakoshi, Kodai; Akashi, Hideo; Zhou, Ming; Abe, Hiroshi

    2017-09-01

    Because the vestibulocochlear organs are tiny and complex, and are covered by the petrous part of the temporal bone, they are very difficult for medical students to dissect and visualize during gross anatomy classes. Here, we report a time-saving and fail-safe procedure we have devised, using a hand-held hobby router. Nine en bloc temporal bone samples from donated human cadavers were used as trial materials for devising an appropriate procedure for dissecting the vestibulocochlear organs. A hand-held hobby router was used to cut through the temporal bone. After trials, the most time-saving and fail-safe method was selected. The performance of the selected method was assessed by a survey of 242 sides of 121 cadavers during gross anatomy classes for vestibulocochlear dissection. The assessment was based on the observation ratio. The best procedure appeared to be removal of the external acoustic meatus roof and tympanic cavity roof together with removal of the internal acoustic meatus roof. The whole procedure was completed within two dissection classes, each lasting 4.5 hr. The ratio of surveillance for the chorda tympani and three semicircular canals by students was significantly improved during 2013 through 2016. In our dissection class, "removal of the external acoustic meatus roof and tympanic cavity roof together with removal of the internal acoustic meatus roof" was the best procedure for students in the limited time available. Clin. Anat. 30:703-710, 2017. © 2017Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Improved gross efficiency during long duration submaximal cycling following a short-term high carbohydrate diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, M; Coleman, D; Hopker, J; Wiles, J

    2014-03-01

    To assess the effect of dietary manipulation on gross efficiency (GE), 15 trained male cyclists completed 3×2 h tests at submaximal exercise intensity (60% Maximal Minute Power). Using a randomized, crossover design participants consumed an isoenergetic diet (~4 000 kcal.day-1) in the 3 days preceding each test, that was either high in carbohydrate (HighCHO, [70% of the total energy derived from carbohydrate, 20% fat, 10% protein]), low in carbohydrate (LowCHO, [70% fat, 20% carbohydrate, 10% protein]) or contained a moderate amount of carbohydrate (ModCHO, [45% carbohydrate, 45% fat, 10% protein]). GE along with blood lactate and glucose were assessed every 30 min, and heart rate was measured at 5 s intervals throughout. Mean GE was significantly greater following the HighCHO than the ModCHO diet (HighCHO=20.4%±0.1%, ModCHO=19.6±0.2%; PDiet had no effect on blood glucose or lactate (P>0.05). This study suggests that before the measurement of gross efficiency, participants' diet should be controlled and monitored to ensure the validity of the results obtained.

  7. Recommendations for gross examination and sampling of surgical specimens of the spleen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, Dennis P; Louissaint, Abner; Vasef, Mohammad A; Auerbach, Aaron; Miranda, Roberto; Brynes, Russell K; Fedoriw, Yuri; Hudnall, S David

    2015-10-01

    This review examines handling and processing of spleen biopsies and splenectomy specimens with the aim of providing the pathologist with guidance in optimizing examination and diagnosis of splenic disorders. It also offers recommendations as to relevant reporting factors in gross examination, which may guide diagnostic workup. The role of splenic needle biopsies is discussed. The International Spleen Consortium is a group dedicated to promoting education and research on the anatomy, physiology, and pathology of the spleen. In keeping with these goals, we have undertaken to provide guidelines for gross examination, sectioning, and sampling of spleen tissue to optimize diagnosis (Burke). The pathology of the spleen may be complicated in routine practice due to a number of factors. Among these are lack of familiarity with lesions, complex histopathology, mimicry within several types of lesions, and overall rarity. To optimize diagnosis, appropriate handling and processing of splenic tissue are crucial. The importance of complete and accurate clinical history cannot be overstated. In many cases, significant clinical history such as previous lymphoproliferative disorders, hematologic disorders, trauma, etc, can provide important information to guide the evaluation of spleen specimens. Clinical information helps plan for appropriate processing of the spleen specimen. The pathologist should encourage surgical colleagues, who typically provide the specimens, to include as much clinical information as possible.

  8. Rapid determination of gross alpha/beta activity in milk using liquid scintilation counter technique

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    Sas Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid determination of gross alpha and beta emitters in milk by liquid scintillation counter is discussed. This method is based on direct addition of different types of milk into scintillation cocktail and therefore it is very promising for fast determination of alpha/beta activity due to direct alpha and beta separation, measurement in close 4p geometry and without sample treatment. The selected group of radionuclides was chosen with the respect to military significance, radio-toxicity, and possibility of potential misuse. As model radionuclides 241Am, 239Pu, and 90Sr were selected. The Liquid Scintilation Counter Hidex 300 SL equipped with triple-double-coincidence-ratio technique was used for sample measurement. The aim of the work was focused on comparison of different cocktails produced by Hidex and Perkin Elmer, choosing the best cocktail based on our measurement results and adjustment of its appropriate volume. Furthermore, the optimization of ratio between the volume of scintillation cocktail and the volume of urine was investigated with the respect to the model radionuclides. According to the obtained results, the efficiency for alpha emitters was greater than 85% and for beta, greater than 95%. The obtained results allowed this method to be used for rapid determination of gross alpha/beta activity in cases where time is an essence, such as first responders or mass-scale samples, where ordinary means suffer from lack of capacity or simply collapse under the onslaught.

  9. Gross human rights violations and reparation under international law: approaching rehabilitation as a form of reparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sveaass, Nora

    2013-01-01

    The strengthening of international criminal law through an increased focus on the right to reparation and rehabilitation for victims of crimes against humanity represents an important challenge to health professionals, particularly to those in the field of trauma research and treatment. A brief outline of some developments in the field of international law and justice for victims of gross human rights violations is presented, with a focus on the right to reparation including the means for rehabilitation. The fulfillment of this right is a complex endeavor which raises many questions. The road to justice and reparation for those whose rights have been brutally violated is long and burdensome. The active presence of trauma-informed health professionals in this process is a priority. Some of the issues raised within the context of states' obligations to provide and ensure redress and rehabilitation to those subjected to torture and gross human rights violations are discussed, and in particular how rehabilitation can be understood and responded to by health professionals.

  10. Measurements of gross erosion of Al in the DIII-D divertor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chrobak, C., E-mail: chrobak@fusion.gat.com [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Stangeby, P.C. [University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies, Toronto M3H 5T6 (Canada); Leonard, A.W. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Rudakov, D.L. [University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, CA 92093-0417 (United States); Wong, C.P.C. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); McLean, A.G. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 700 East Ave, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Wright, G.M. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Buchenauer, D.A.; Watkins, J.G.; Wampler, W.R. [Sandia National Laboratory, P.O. Box 5800, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States); Elder, J.D. [University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies, Toronto M3H 5T6 (Canada); Doerner, R.P.; Nishijima, D.; Tynan, G.R. [University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, CA 92093-0417 (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Aluminum (Al) is a convenient proxy for beryllium (Be) plasma material interaction studies since they have a number of physical and chemical similarities. Al samples were exposed at the lower outer strike point of an L-mode divertor plasma in DIII-D (conditions 7–11 × 10{sup 18} D-ions cm{sup −2} s{sup −1}, T{sub e} = 12–47 eV). The gross erosion rate was directly measured using post-mortem ion beam analysis of small 1 mm-sized samples where local re-deposition was determined to be negligible. The gross erosion rate was also calculated using spectroscopic methods, but these rates greatly underestimate the direct (i.e. non-spectroscopic) measurement. The direct measured erosion yields were within the range of published D{sup +} → Al ion beam sputtering yields. The ionizations per photon (S/XB) coefficients used in the spectroscopic analysis were determined in separate experiments using He plasmas at the PISCES-B linear plasma facility at UCSD. The measured S/XB coefficients were on average ∼6× higher than the theoretically calculated values.

  11. Gross hematuria as the presentation of an inguinoscrotal hernia: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ansari Kayvan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Several complications have been reported with inguinal hernias. Although hematuria and flank pain, either as the presentation or as a complication of inguinal hernia, are infrequent, this condition may lead to the development of obstructive uropathy, which can have diverse manifestations. Case presentation A 71-year-old Iranian man with Persian ethnicity presented with new onset episodes of gross hematuria and left-sided flank pain. A physical examination revealed a large and non-tender inguinal hernia on his left side. An initial workup included an abdominal ultrasound, an intravenous pyelogram and cystoscopy, which showed left hydronephrosis and a bulging on the left-side of his bladder wall. On further evaluation, computed tomography confirmed that his sigmoid colon was the source of the pressure effect on his bladder, resulting in hydroureteronephrosis and hematuria. No tumoral lesion was evident. Herniorrhaphy led to the resolution of his signs and symptoms. Conclusion Our case illustrates a rare presentation of inguinal hernia responsible for gross hematuria and unilateral hydronephrosis. Urologic signs and symptoms can be caused by the content of inguinal hernias. They can also present as complications of inguinal hernias.

  12. The gross anatomy laboratory: a novel venue for critical thinking and interdisciplinary teaching in dental education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Kevin C; Joy, Anita

    2015-03-01

    Reports on the status of dental education have concluded that there is a need for various types of curricular reform, making recommendations that include better integration of basic, behavioral, and clinical sciences, increased case-based teaching, emphasis on student-driven learning, and creation of lifelong learners. Dental schools faced with decreasing contact hours, increasing teaching material, and technological advancements have experimented with alternate curricular strategies. At Southern Illinois University School of Dental Medicine, curricular changes have begun with a series of integrated biomedical sciences courses. During the process of planning and implementing the integrated courses, a novel venue-the gross anatomy laboratory-was used to introduce all Year 1 students to critical thinking, self-directed learning, and the scientific method. The venture included student-driven documentation of anatomical variations encountered in the laboratory using robust scientific methods, thorough literature review, and subsequent presentation of findings in peer review settings. Students responded positively, with over 75% agreeing the experience intellectually challenged them. This article describes the process of re-envisioning the gross anatomy laboratory as an effective venue for small group-based, student-driven projects that focus on key pedagogical concepts to encourage the development of lifelong learners.

  13. Gross, histologic, and micro-computed tomographic anatomy of the lacrimal system of snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Nicole M; Maggs, David J; Park, Shin Ae; Puchalski, Sarah M; Reilly, Christopher M; Paul-Murphy, Joanne; Murphy, Christopher J

    2015-01-01

    To describe the lacrimal system of snakes using contrast micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) with 3-dimensional reconstruction, fluorescein passage ('Jones') testing, histology, and gross dissection. One royal python and 19 snake cadavers representing 10 species. Direct observation following injection of fluorescein into the subspectacular space, micro-CT following injection of three contrast agents into the subspectacular space, gross dissection following injection of latex into the subspectacular space, and histopathology. Injection of fluorescein confirmed patency, but not course of the lacrimal duct. Barium enabled clear visualization of the lacrimal duct, whereas two iodinated contrast agents proved inadequate. Collectively, micro-CT, anatomic dissections, and histology suggest tears are produced by a single, large, serous, retrobulbar gland, released into the subspectacular space via several ductules, and drained through a single punctum originating in the ventronasal subspectacular space, and the lacrimal duct, which takes one of three routes of variable tortuosity before opening into the oral cavity in close association with the opening of the duct of the vomeronasal organ. The ophidian lacrimal duct has a generally tortuous course, and the details of its anatomy are species-variable. The tortuous course of the duct likely predisposes snakes to duct occlusion and must be considered when planning medical and surgical interventions in snakes with pseudobuphthalmos and subspectacular abscessation. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  14. A finite-element toolbox for the stationary Gross-Pitaevskii equation with rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergez, Guillaume; Danaila, Ionut; Auliac, Sylvain; Hecht, Frédéric

    2016-12-01

    We present a new numerical system using classical finite elements with mesh adaptivity for computing stationary solutions of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. The programs are written as a toolbox for FreeFem++ (www.freefem.org), a free finite-element software available for all existing operating systems. This offers the advantage to hide all technical issues related to the implementation of the finite element method, allowing to easily code various numerical algorithms. Two robust and optimized numerical methods were implemented to minimize the Gross-Pitaevskii energy: a steepest descent method based on Sobolev gradients and a minimization algorithm based on the state-of-the-art optimization library Ipopt. For both methods, mesh adaptivity strategies are used to reduce the computational time and increase the local spatial accuracy when vortices are present. Different run cases are made available for 2D and 3D configurations of Bose-Einstein condensates in rotation. An optional graphical user interface is also provided, allowing to easily run predefined cases or with user-defined parameter files. We also provide several post-processing tools (like the identification of quantized vortices) that could help in extracting physical features from the simulations. The toolbox is extremely versatile and can be easily adapted to deal with different physical models.

  15. An unusual cause of gross hematuria and renal dysfunction in a young male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Rathi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Monoclonal immunoglobulin deposition disease (MIDD is an uncommon disease with a peak incidence between the 5 th and 6 th decades of life. It is characterized by non-fibrillar, Congo red negative deposition of monoclonal immunoglobulins in various organs, including in the kidneys. MIDD can be of three types depending on the composition of the deposits, and includes light chain deposition disease (LCDD, heavy chain deposition disease and light and heavy chain deposition disease, of which LCDD is the most common. Renal involvement is a universal finding in MIDD, and is in the form of renal insufficiency, microscopic hematuria and nephrotic range proteinuria. Gross hematuria is a rare occurrence. Renal biopsy usually shows nodular sclerosing glomerulopathy on light microscopy and diffuse linear staining of glomerular and tubular basement membrane on immunofluorescence microscopy. We report a young male who presented with rapidly progressive renal failure and gross hematuria and was diagnosed as LCDD with nodular glomerulopathy and crescents on renal biopsy.

  16. Gross and fine motor function in fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasouli, Omid; Fors, Egil A; Borchgrevink, Petter Chr; Öhberg, Fredrik; Stensdotter, Ann-Katrin

    2017-01-01

    Purpose This paper aimed to investigate motor proficiency in fine and gross motor function, with a focus on reaction time (RT) and movement skill, in patients with fibromyalgia (FM) and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) compared to healthy controls (HC). Methods A total of 60 individuals (20 CFS, 20 FM, and 20 HC), age 19–49 years, participated in this study. Gross motor function in the lower extremity was assessed using a RT task during gait initiation in response to an auditory trigger. Fine motor function in the upper extremity was measured during a precision task (the Purdue Pegboard test) where the number of pins inserted within 30 s was counted. Results No significant differences were found between FM and CFS in any parameters. FM and CFS groups had significantly longer RT than HC in the gait initiation (p=0.001, and p=0.004 respectively). In the Purdue Pegboard test, 20% in the FM group, 15% in the CFS groups, and 0% of HC group, scored below the threshold of the accepted performance. However, there were no significant differences between FM, CFS, and HC in this task (p=0.12). Conclusion Compared to controls, both CFS and FM groups displayed significantly longer RT in the gait initiation task. Generally, FM patients showed the worst results in both tests, although no group differences were found in fine motor control, according to the Purdue Pegboard test. PMID:28223840

  17. Using Stochastic Ray Tracing to Simulate a Dense Time Series of Gross Primary Productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin van Leeuwen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Eddy-covariance carbon dioxide flux measurement is an established method to estimate primary productivity at the forest stand level (typically 10 ha. To validate eddy-covariance estimates, researchers rely on extensive time-series analysis and an assessment of flux contributions made by various ecosystem components at spatial scales much finer than the eddy-covariance footprint. Scaling these contributions to the stand level requires a consideration of the heterogeneity in the canopy radiation field. This paper presents a stochastic ray tracing approach to predict the probabilities of light absorption from over a thousand hemispherical directions by thousands of individual scene elements. Once a look-up table of absorption probabilities is computed, dynamic illumination conditions can be simulated in a computationally realistic time, from which stand-level gross primary productivity can be obtained by integrating photosynthetic assimilation over the scene. We demonstrate the method by inverting a leaf-level photosynthesis model with eddy-covariance and meteorological data. Optimized leaf photosynthesis parameters and canopy structure were able to explain 75% of variation in eddy-covariance gross primary productivity estimates, and commonly used parameters, including photosynthetic capacity and quantum yield, fell within reported ranges. Remaining challenges are discussed including the need to address the distribution of radiation within shoots and needles.

  18. Self-directed learning modules of CT scan images to improve students' perception of gross anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pananghat Achutha; Jothi, Ramakrishnan; Mathivanan, Dharmalingam

    2016-01-01

    A contemporary anatomy curriculum that aims to be clinically relevant requires medical students to be introduced to radiological anatomy in the preclinical years. Ideally, the curriculum should also support self-directed learning, a habit best instilled early. Based on these educational requirements, we designed an interesting and clinically-meaningful program of self-learning modules in radiological anatomy to augment students' learning of gross anatomy. The program is guided by current theories of learning, which emphasize an individualized learning pace for students. This program uses enlarged computerized tomography (CT) scan images and associated resource materials. Scans are posted on the first day of the week in a public area for students to review on their own time. On the second day penciled outlines of important structures are provided to help students identify structures, and students are encouraged to discuss the images with faculty. On the last day of the week the identity of the structures are revealed to students. An open-ended questionnaire used to evaluate the program revealed that 95.5% of students used the program and a great majority recommended the program should be continued for future students. The present program enhances learning of gross anatomical relations through having students use visual clues in logically interpreting unlabeled CT scans in an organized and sequential way. The program promotes self-directed learning. In addition to its use with preclinical students, the modules might also help students in the clinical phase of the curriculum bolster their knowledge of spatial anatomy.

  19. Efficiency of chlorophyll in gross primary productivity: A proof of concept and application in crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitelson, Anatoly A; Peng, Yi; Viña, Andrés; Arkebauer, Timothy; Schepers, James S

    2016-08-20

    One of the main factors affecting vegetation productivity is absorbed light, which is largely governed by chlorophyll. In this paper, we introduce the concept of chlorophyll efficiency, representing the amount of gross primary production per unit of canopy chlorophyll content (Chl) and incident PAR. We analyzed chlorophyll efficiency in two contrasting crops (soybean and maize). Given that they have different photosynthetic pathways (C3 vs. C4), leaf structures (dicot vs. monocot) and canopy architectures (a heliotrophic leaf angle distribution vs. a spherical leaf angle distribution), they cover a large spectrum of biophysical conditions. Our results show that chlorophyll efficiency in primary productivity is highly variable and responds to various physiological and phenological conditions, and water availability. Since Chl is accessible through non-destructive, remotely sensed techniques, the use of chlorophyll efficiency for modeling and monitoring plant optimization patterns is practical at different scales (e.g., leaf, canopy) and under widely-varying environmental conditions. Through this analysis, we directly related a functional characteristic, gross primary production with a structural characteristic, canopy chlorophyll content. Understanding the efficiency of the structural characteristic is of great interest as it allows explaining functional components of the plant system.

  20. Improvement of gross motor and cognitive abilities by an exercise training program: three case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alesi M

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Marianna Alesi,1 Giuseppe Battaglia,2 Michele Roccella,1 Davide Testa,1 Antonio Palma,2 Annamaria Pepi1 1Department of Psychology, 2Department of Law, Social and Sport Science, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy Background: This work examined the efficacy of an integrated exercise training program (coach and family in three children with Down syndrome to improve their motor and cognitive abilities, in particular reaction time and working memory. Methods: The integrated exercise training program was used in three children with Down syndrome, comprising two boys (M1, with a chronological age of 10.3 years and a mental age of 4.7 years; M2, with a chronological age of 14.6 years and a mental age of less than 4 years and one girl (F1, chronological age 14.0 years and a mental age of less than 4 years. Results: Improvements in gross motor ability scores were seen after the training period. Greater improvements in task reaction time were noted for both evaluation parameters, ie, time and omissions. Conclusion: There is a close interrelationship between motor and cognitive domains in individuals with atypical development. There is a need to plan intervention programs based on the simultaneous involvement of child and parents and aimed at promoting an active lifestyle in individuals with Down syndrome. Keywords: disability, Down syndrome, gross motor abilities, cognitive abilities, physical activity

  1. Associations between Manual Abilities, Gross Motor Function, Epilepsy, and Mental Capacity in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa GAJEWSKA*

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: Gajewska E, Sobieska M, Samborski W. Associations between Manual Abilities, Gross Motor Function, Epilepsy, and Mental Capacity in Children with Cerebral Palsy. Iran J Child Neurol. 2014 Spring 8(2:45-52.ObjectiveThis study aimed to evaluate gross motor function and hand function in children with cerebral palsy to explore their association with epilepsy and mental capacity. Material & MethodsThe research investigating the association between gross and fine motor function and the presence of epilepsy and/or mental impairment was conducted on a group of 83 children (45 girls, 38 boys. Among them, 41 were diagnosedwith quadriplegia, 14 hemiplegia, 18 diplegia, 7 mixed form, and 3 athetosis.A neurologist assessed each child in terms of possible epilepsy and confirmed diagnosis in 35 children. A psychologist assessed the mental level (according toWechsler and found 13 children within intellectual norm, 3 children with mild mental impairment, 18 with moderate, 27 with severe, and 22 with profound.Children were then classified based on Gross Motor Function Classification System and Manual Ability Classification Scale.ResultsThe gross motor function and manual performance were analysed in relation to mental impairment and the presence of epilepsy. Epilepsy was found to disturb conscious motor functions, but also higher degree of mental impairment wasobserved in children with epilepsy.ConclusionThe occurrence of epilepsy in children with cerebral palsy is associated with worse manual function. The occurrence of epilepsy is associated with limitations in conscious motor functions. There is an association between epilepsy in children with cerebral palsy and the degree of mental impairment.The occurrence of epilepsy, mainly in children with hemiplegia and diplegia is associated with worse mental capacities.ReferencesRichards CL, Malouin F. Cerebral palsy: definition, assessment and rehabilitation. Handb Clin Neurol

  2. Jung's twin brother. Otto Gross and Carl Gustav Jung. With an hitherto unpublished letter by C. G. Jung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuer, G

    2001-10-01

    This paper is a preliminary communication of several years of research into the life and work of the Austrian psychoanalyst and anarchist Otto Gross (1877-1920). Although he played a pivotal role in the birth of modernity, acting as a significant influence upon psychiatry, psychoanalysis, ethics, sociology and literature, he has remained virtually unknown to this day. Following a biographical sketch and an overview of his main theoretical contributions, the impact of Gross' life and work on the development of analytical theory and practice is described. His relationship with some of the key figures in psychoanalysis is presented, with particular emphasis on his connections to Jung. The paper concludes with an account of relevant contemporary interest in his work: the founding of the International Otto Gross Society, the first edition of The Collected Works of Otto Gross on the Internet, and the 1st and 2nd International Otto Gross Congresses which took place in Berlin in 1999 and at the Burghölzli Clinic, Zürich, in October 2000.

  3. Technical note: Consistent calculation of aquatic gross production from oxygen triple isotope measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kaiser

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen triple isotope measurements can be used to calculate aquatic gross oxygen production rates. Past studies have emphasised the appropriate definition of the 17O excess and often used an approximation to derive production rates from the 17O excess. Here, I show that the calculation can be phrased more consistently and without any approximations using the relative 17O/16O and 18O/16O isotope ratio differences (delta values directly. I call this the "dual delta method". The 17O excess is merely a mathematical construct and the derived production rate is independent of its definition, provided all calculations are performed with a consistent definition. I focus on the mixed layer, but also show how time series of triple isotope measurements below the mixed layer can be used to derive gross production.

    In the calculation of mixed layer productivity, I explicitly include isotopic fractionation during gas invasion and evasion, which requires the oxygen supersaturation s to be measured as well. I also suggest how bubble injection could be considered in the same mathematical framework. I distinguish between concentration steady state and isotopic steady state and show that only the latter needs to be assumed in the calculation. It is even possible to derive an estimate of the net production rate in the mixed layer that is independent of the assumption of concentration steady state.

    I review measurements of the parameters required for the calculation of gross production rates and show how their systematic uncertainties as well as the use of different published calculation methods can cause large variations in the production rates for the same underlying isotope ratios. In particular, the 17O excess of dissolved O2 in equilibrium with atmospheric O2 and the 17O excess of photosynthetic O2 need to

  4. Consistent calculation of aquatic gross production from oxygen triple isotope measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kaiser

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen triple isotope measurements can be used to calculate aquatic gross oxygen production rates. Past studies have emphasised the appropriate definition of the 17O excess and often used an approximation to derive production rates from the 17O excess. Here, I show that the calculation can be phrased more consistently and without any approximations using the relative 17O/16O and 18O/16O isotope ratio differences directly. The 17O excess is merely a mathematical construct and the derived production rate is independent of its definition, provided all calculations are performed with a consistent definition. I focus on the mixed layer, but also show how time series of triple oxygen measurements below the mixed layer can be used to derive gross production.

    In the calculation of mixed layer productivity, I explicitly include isotopic fractionation during gas invasion and evasion, which requires the oxygen supersaturation s to be measured as well. I also suggest how bubble injection could be considered in the same mathematical framework. I distinguish between concentration steady state and isotopic steady state and show that only the latter needs to be assumed in the calculation. It is even possible to derive an estimate of the net production rate in the mixed layer that is independent of the assumption of concentration steady state.

    I review measurements of the parameters required for the calculation of gross production rates and show how their systematic uncertainties as well as the use of different published calculation methods can cause large variations in the production rates for the same underlying isotope ratios. In particular, the 17O excess of dissolved O2 in equilibrium with atmospheric O2 and the 17O excess of photosynthetic O2 need to be re-measured. Because of these uncertainties, all

  5. A multi-sites analysis on the ozone effects on Gross Primary Production of European forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proietti, C. [Department of Environmental Biology, Sapienza University of Rome, Piazzale Aldo Moro, 5, 00185 Rome (Italy); Anav, A. [Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment (ENEA), C.R. Casaccia, Via Anguillarese 301, 00123 S. Maria di Galeria, Rome (Italy); University of Exeter, College of Engineering, Mathematics and Physical Sciences, Exeter (United Kingdom); De Marco, A. [Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment (ENEA), C.R. Casaccia, Via Anguillarese 301, 00123 S. Maria di Galeria, Rome (Italy); Sicard, P. [ACRI-HE, 260 route du Pin Montard BP234, 06904 Sophia Antipolis-cedex (France); Vitale, M., E-mail: marcello.vitale@uniroma1.it [Department of Environmental Biology, Sapienza University of Rome, Piazzale Aldo Moro, 5, 00185 Rome (Italy)

    2016-06-15

    Ozone (O{sub 3}) is both a greenhouse gas and a secondary air pollutant causing adverse impacts on forests ecosystems at different scales, from cellular to ecosystem level. Specifically, the phytotoxic nature of O{sub 3} can impair CO{sub 2} assimilation that, in turn affects forest productivity. This study aims to evaluate the effects of tropospheric O{sub 3} on Gross Primary Production (GPP) at 37 European forest sites during the time period 2000–2010. Due to the lack of carbon assimilation data at O{sub 3} monitoring stations (and vice-versa) this study makes a first attempt to combine high resolution MODIS Gross Primary Production (GPP) estimates and O{sub 3} measurement data. Partial Correlations, Anomalies Analysis and the Random Forests Analysis (RFA) were used to quantify the effects of tropospheric O{sub 3} concentration and its uptake on GPP and to evaluate the most important factors affecting inter-annual GPP changes. Our results showed, along a North-West/South-East European transect, a negative impact of O{sub 3} on GPP ranging from 0.4% to 30%, although a key role of meteorological parameters respect to pollutant variables in affecting GPP was found. In particular, meteorological parameters, namely air temperature (T), soil water content (SWC) and relative humidity (RH) are the most important predictors at 81% of test sites. Moreover, it is interesting to highlight a key role of SWC in the Mediterranean areas (Spanish, Italian and French test sites) confirming that, soil moisture and soil water availability affect vegetation growth and photosynthesis especially in arid or semi-arid ecosystems such as the Mediterranean climate regions. Considering the pivotal role of GPP in the global carbon balance and the O{sub 3} ability to reduce primary productivity of the forests, this study can help in assessing the O{sub 3} impacts on ecosystem services, including wood production and carbon sequestration. - Highlights: • Assessment of the surface O{sub 3

  6. Assessment of leaching loss estimates and gross load of nitrogen from arable land in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, Markus (Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Soil Sciences)

    1999-01-01

    The focus of this thesis is on calculating N leaching loss estimates and gross loads of nitrogen. Calculations were done at two different scales, from field resolution in a small catchment to calculations at a large scale for the south and central part of Sweden. The latter study was initiated by Swedish commitments to international agreements concerning a decrease in N emissions to the Baltic Sea. Three of the papers deal with leaching of nitrogen in different periods: as it may have been in the 19[sup th] century, the current situation, and suggestions for a decrease with different countermeasures. The tools used in making these estimations were the SOIL/SOILN models. Calculations indicate that average N leaching was about the same in the 19[sup th] century as it is today at the end of the 20[sup th] century. The main reasons for high losses in the 19[sup th] century were high mineralisation rates in newly ploughed grassland, crop stress due to unfavourable conditions caused poor utilisation of N by crops, and large areas of bare fallow. N leaching was at its lowest in the 1930's due to larger N utilisation, a general termination of enhanced mineralisation and a large acreage of ley. Since then leaching has increased by on average about 60%, and more in the south of Sweden. Results also indicate that the draining of lakes has considerably decreased the retention capacity and is, along with the increase in gross load, one of the main causes of increased net load to the sea. A decrease in N leaching was estimated for the period 1985-1994. The decrease was mostly due to a smaller total area of arable land and an increase in the acreage of ley at the expense of cereals. The increase in the percentage of ley in the ten-year period (1985-1994) was the largest occurring in such a short time in the last 130 years in Sweden. Scenario calculations indicate that there is a potential for a decrease in the gross load of approximately 10 ktonnes from the current level of

  7. Medical students' attitudes towards science and gross anatomy, and the relationship to personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaisant, Odile; Stephens, Shiby; Apaydin, Nihal; Courtois, Robert; Lignier, Baptiste; Loukas, Marios; Moxham, Bernard

    2014-03-01

    Assessment of the personalities of medical students can enable medical educators to formulate strategies for the best development of academic and clinical competencies. Previous research has shown that medical students do not share a common personality profile, there being gender differences. We have also shown that, for French medical students, students with personality traits associated with strong competitiveness are selected for admission to medical school. In this study, we further show that the medical students have different personality profiles compared with other student groups (psychology and business studies). The main purpose of the present investigation was to assess attitudes to science and gross anatomy, and to relate these to the students' personalities. Questionnaires (including Thurstone and Chave analyses) were employed to measure attitudes, and personality was assessed using the Big Five Inventory (BFI). Data for attitudes were obtained for students at medical schools in Cardiff (UK), Paris, Descartes/Sorbonne (France), St George's University (Grenada) and Ankara (Turkey). Data obtained from personality tests were available for analysis from the Parisian cohort of students. Although the medical students were found to have strongly supportive views concerning the importance of science in medicine, their knowledge of the scientific method/philosophy of science was poor. Following analyses of the BFI in the French students, 'openness' and 'conscientiousness' were linked statistically with a positive attitude towards science. For anatomy, again strongly supportive views concerning the subject's importance in medicine were discerned. Analyses of the BFI in the French students did not show links statistically between personality profiles and attitudes towards gross anatomy, except male students with 'negative affectivity' showed less appreciation of the importance of anatomy. This contrasts with our earlier studies that showed that there is a

  8. HOLISTIC APPROACH OF TEACHING OF GROSS PATHOLOGICAL SPECIMEN FOR 2ND PROFESSIONAL MBBS STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupam

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Study of pathological specimen is necessary for the students towards their practical (including viva as well as theoretical examinations. Past experiences show that most of the students of 2nd Professional MBBS cannot answer properly the questions related to the pathological specimen, especially the histopathological portion when asked by the examiners. This is due to the conventional method of teaching where students are given only didactic lectures on histopathological features, which is not convenient for students to understand the histopathology and related questions. AIMS To assess the impact of new teaching method of gross pathological specimen using visual aids (PowerPoint to show histopathology. MATERIALS AND METHODS Total 41 students present in 2nd Prof. MBBS were divided into 4 groups under the leadership of class assistants or demonstrators. 20 practical classes were arranged for 4 months of study period. In the first one hour, each group was shown power-point presentation of histopathological features, related questions and answers of the gross specimen to be studied. All the aspects were discussed simultaneously. In the next one hour, there was a joint teaching session consisting of all four groups, moderated by the concerned professor with PowerPoint projection. Assessment was done by three mock tests comprising of Viva, Multiple Choice Questions and Short Assay type Questions and a routine internal assessment in the last week of the study period. Then a comparison was made with regards to presence of students and results of successive three mock tests. Result of internal assessment was compared with that of previous two batches in which students were taught with only routine lectures on the same gross pathological specimen. RESULTS The use of new method increased the average attendance of students significantly. The percentage of passing students in the mock tests was very good. There was notable increase of passing

  9. High sensitivity of gross primary production in the Rocky Mountains to summer rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkelhammer, M.; Stefanescu, I.C.; Joiner, J.; Anderson, Lesleigh

    2017-01-01

    In the catchments of the Rocky Mountains, peak snowpack is declining in response to warmer spring temperatures. To understand how this will influence terrestrial gross primary production (GPP), we compared precipitation data across the intermountain west with satellite retrievals of solar-induced fluorescence (SIF), a proxy for GPP. Annual precipitation patterns explained most of the spatial and temporal variability of SIF, but the slope of the response was dependent on site to site differences in the proportion of snowpack to summer rain. We separated the response of SIF to different seasonal precipitation amounts and found that SIF was approximately twice as sensitive to variations in summer rain than snowpack. The response of peak GPP to a secular decline in snowpack will likely be subtle, whereas a change in summer rain amount will have precipitous effects on GPP. The study suggests that the rain use efficiency of Rocky Mountain ecosystems is strongly dependent on precipitation form and timing.

  10. Opposable spines facilitate fine and gross object manipulation in fire ants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassill, Deby; Greco, Anthony; Silwal, Rajesh; Wang, Xuefeng

    2007-04-01

    Ants inhabit diverse terrestrial biomes from the Sahara Desert to the Arctic tundra. One factor contributing to the ants’ successful colonization of diverse geographical regions is their ability to manipulate objects when excavating nests, capturing, transporting and rendering prey or grooming, feeding and transporting helpless brood. This paper is the first to report the form and function of opposable spines on the foretarsi of queens and workers used during fine motor and gross motor object manipulation in the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta. In conjunction with their mandibles, queens and workers used their foretarsi to grasp and rotate eggs, push or pull thread-like objects out of their way or push excavated soil pellets behind them for disposal by other workers. Opposable spines were found on the foretarsi of workers from seven of eight other ant species suggesting that they might be a common feature in the Formicidae.

  11. The Correlation Between Gross Domestic Product and Unemployment in Romania Starting with 1995

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavia - Maria Gibescu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available It is known that until the late 1980s, in Romania, the term “unemployed” was practically unused, the centralized economy having as major goal the complete occupancy. Starting with 1990, this phenomenon was manifested itself in our country as well, as a result of the imbalance of the labor market. To understand and represent the macroeconomic phenomena better, the paper presents the analysis of the relationship between the Gross domestic product and the unemployment, as well as the current influences. The conclusions show the fact that beginning with 1995, their dynamics included a relationship, broken by the effects of the world economic crisis present in our country as well.

  12. Kinetic relaxation of a non-Maxwellian monatomic gas in a state of gross rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baganoff, D.

    1993-01-01

    The kinetic relaxation of a monatomic gas in a state of gross rest is studied by use of Maxwell's second-order moment equation. The molecular models considered range from the hard sphere to the Maxwell molecule. The development is exact for an ellipsoidal distribution and becomes a good approximation for more general distributions. The results show that the relaxation of second-order moments is nearly exponential for power-law molecules and that the characteristic time mu/p appears as the principal controlling parameter while the power-law constant plays a secondary role. Comparisons between results of numerical simulations using Bird's direct simulation Monte Carlo method and theory show excellent agreement for both hard-sphere and Maxwell molecules.

  13. GROSS TOXICITIES AND HEPATOPROTECTIVE EFFECT OF ALOE VERA (L BURM.F

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuzhat Sultana

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Traditional herbal drugs have a great demand in under developed countries due to their efficacy, low cost and lesser adverse effects, and they are considered to be “natural. Aloe vera at the dose of 500 mg body weight per oral was studied for the gross toxicities and hepatoprotective effect and observed the level of liver biochemical parameters in rabbits. Aloe vera showed highly significant (p<0.001 hepatoprotective effect by lowering the serum levels of serum glutamic oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT, serum glutamic pyruvates transaminase (SGPT and direct bilirubin. The overall experimental results suggests that Aloe vera protects the liver from oxidative stress and inhibits the excessive free radicals accumulation and possessing many hepatoprotective phytoconstituents which are biologically active such as flavonoids, alkaloids, they may be responsible for the significant hepatoprotective activity and the results justify the use of Aloe vera as a hepatoprotective agent.

  14. Global gross primary productivity and water use efficiency changes under drought stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhen; Wang, Jingxin; Liu, Shirong; Rentch, James S.; Sun, Pengsen; Lu, Chaoqun

    2017-01-01

    Drought can affect the structure, composition and function of terrestrial ecosystems, yet drought impacts and post-drought recovery potentials of different land cover types have not been extensively studied at a global scale. We evaluated drought impacts on gross primary productivity (GPP), evapotranspiration (ET), and water use efficiency (WUE) of different global terrestrial ecosystems, as well as the drought-resilience of each ecosystem type during the period of 2000 to 2011. Using GPP as biome vitality indicator against drought stress, we developed a model to examine ecosystem resilience represented by the length of recovery days (LRD). LRD presented an evident gradient of high (>60 days) in mid-latitude region and low (stress induced responses or data uncertainties, which require further investigation.

  15. Non-Abelian twisted kinks in chiral Gross-Neveu model with isospin

    CERN Document Server

    Thies, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The two-dimensional, massless Gross-Neveu model with Nc colors and SU(2) isospin is studied analytically in the large Nc limit. The chiral SU(2)L X SU(2)R symmetry is broken spontaneously in the vacuum. Twisted kinks connecting two arbitrary points on the vacuum manifold S3 are constructed, and their properties are explored. The phase diagram as a function of temperature, baryon- and isospin chemical potential is discussed, with special emphasis on inhomogeneous phases. The preferred form of the condensate is a product of the real kink crystal and the chiral spiral. Kink-kink scattering is solved, using the general solution of the multicomponent Bogoliubov-de Gennes equation recently presented by Takahashi.

  16. Incidence of gross reproductive abnormalities in small east African zebu cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assey, R J; Kessy, B M; Matovelo, J A; Minga, U

    1998-12-01

    Reproductive organs from mature Small East African zebu (SEAZ) heifers and cows slaughtered at the Morogoro abattoir were collected twice a month and evaluated over a period of 12 months. Out of the 402 animals from which reproductive organs were taken, 54% were pregnant, 24% were actively cycling and 22% were non-cycling. Various gross abnormalities were observed in the reproductive organs of about 16% of the cattle, and the major reproductive abnormality in both total and the non-cycling animals was various degrees of fibrous adhesion between the ovary and the infundibulum and mesosalpinx. It is concluded that, contrary to common belief, a majority of the female SEAZ cattle that are slaughtered are fertile.

  17. [Hans Gross as an archaeologist--the significance of archaeology for 'encyclopedic' criminology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, Stephan; Bachhiesl, Christian

    2014-01-01

    In some cases, forensics and criminology have to cooperate with disciplines that usually are counted among the humanities, e.g. with archaeology. This article examines the significance of this cooperation for the criminological epistemology at the turn of the 19th century. These methodological considerations are illustrated by an example: When Hans Gross, who became the founder of the Austrian School of Criminology later, saw an unusually shaped hill near Feldbach, a town in southern Styria, he assumed this hill to be a burial mound and informed the responsible archaeological authorities immediately. Further investigations showed, however, that this hill was a natural formation. This is an early example for interdisciplinary cooperation, which proves that both in archaeology and in criminology a thorough inspection of the site is decisive for further scientific analysis of the topic of research.

  18. Mis tulemust teie meeleavalduselt ootate? / Liivi Kulli, Jaanus Gross, Mari-Viivian Laht ... [jt.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Küsimusele vastasid Rakvere reaalgümnaasiumi inglise ja saksa keele õpetaja Liivi Kulli, Turba gümnaasiumi arvutiõpetuse õpetaja Jaanus Gross, Kiltsi põhikooli eesti keele ja kirjanduse õpetaja Mari-Viivian Laht, Ruusa kooli ja Mikitamäe põhikooli inglise keele õpetaja Anne Must, Kunda ühisgümnaasiumi klienditeeninduse õpetaja Evely Press, Tõstamaa keskkooli käsitöö- ja kunstiõpetaja, Inger Vahuvee, prantsuse lütseumi kehalise kasvatuse õpetaja Urmas Kokk, Tõnismäe reaalkooli kehalise kasvatuse õpetaja Mihhail Tõrtõšnõi, Ruila põhikooli inglise keele õpetaja Margit Levoll, ametiühingute keskliidu juht Harri Taliga

  19. A new system to reduce formaldehyde levels improves safety conditions during gross veterinary anatomy learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nacher, Víctor; Llombart, Cristina; Carretero, Ana; Navarro, Marc; Ysern, Pere; Calero, Sebastián; Fígols, Enric; Ruberte, Jesús

    2007-01-01

    Dissection is a very useful method of learning veterinary anatomy. However, formaldehyde, which is widely used to preserve cadavers, is an irritant, and it has recently been classified as a carcinogen. In 1997, the Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo [National Institute of Workplace Security and Hygiene] found that the levels of formaldehyde in our dissection room were above the threshold limit values. Unfortunately, no optimal substitute for formaldehyde is currently available. Therefore, we designed a new ventilation system that combines slow propulsion of fresh air from above the dissection table and rapid aspiration of polluted air from the perimeter. Formaldehyde measurements performed in 2004, after the introduction of this new system into our dissection laboratory, showed a dramatic reduction (about tenfold, or 0.03 ppm). A suitable propelling/aspirating air system successfully reduces the concentration of formaldehyde in the dissection room, significantly improving safety conditions for students, instructors, and technical staff during gross anatomy learning.

  20. Low-dimensional chiral physics. Gross-Neveu universality and magnetic catalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scherer, Daniel David

    2012-09-27

    In this thesis, we investigate the 3-dimensional, chirally symmetric Gross-Neveu model with functional renormalization group methods. This low-dimensional quantum field theory describes the continuum limit of the low-energy sector in certain lattice systems. The functional renormalization group allows to study in a nonperturbative way the physical properties of many-body systems and quantum field theories. The starting point is a formally exact flow equation with 1-loop structure for the generating functional of 1-particle irreducible vertices. Within a gradient expansion - tailor-made for extracting the infrared asymptotics of the momentum and frequency dependent vertices of the theory - we study the strong-coupling fixed point of the Gross-Neveu model even beyond the formal limit of infinite flavor number. This fixed point controls a 2nd order quantum phase transition from a massless phase to a phase with massive Dirac fermions. After a first analysis of the purely fermionic theory, a Hubbard-Stratonovich transformation is used to partially bosonize the theory. Within this bosonized description, we find universal critical exponents that are in excellent quantitative agreement with available results from 1/N{sub f}-expansions and Monte Carlo simulations and are expected to improve upon earlier results. The renormalization group flow allows us to gain insights into the global and local structure of the critical manifold within given truncations and better understanding of the relevant directions in the space of couplings, which in general do not coincide with the Gaussian classification. Within the framework of the so-called ''asymptotic safety''-scenario relevant for the construction of proper field theories, the fixed-point theory could be determined exactly in the limit of infinite flavor number. Here, the Gross-Neveu model yields a simple and intuitive example for how to define a nonperturbatively renormalizable quantum field theory. Going

  1. Lattice Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook Simulations in 2-D Incompressible Magnetohydrodynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Lattice Boltzmann Method is recently developed within numerical schemes for simulating a variety of physical systems. In this paper a new lattice Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (LBGK) model for two-dimensional incompressible magnetohydrodynamics (IMHD) is presented. The model is an extension of a hydrodynamics lattice BGK model with 9 velocities on a square lattice, resulting in a model with 17 velocities. Most of the existing LBGK models for MHD can be viewed as compressible schemes to simulate incompressible flows. The compressible effect might lead to some undesirable errors in numerical simulations. In our model the compressible effect has been overcome successfully. The model is then applied to the Hartmann flow, giving reasonable results.

  2. Gross morphology and morphometry of squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus Linnaeus, 1758 female genital organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Branco

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The gross anatomy of the genital organs of four specimens of young female of Saimiri sciureus was investigated. The animals were bred in captivity at the Centro Nacional de Primatas and had died from natural causes. The vulva was limited by the labium minus and presented a well-developed clitoris which seemed to represent a rudimentary penis. The vaginal vestibule was the first cavity and was very short, presenting a thick muscular wall which extended from the vulva comissure to the vaginal ostium. The vagina was constituted by an elongated and dorsally flattened muscular tube with a thin wall between the vaginal vestibule and cervix. The cervix was short with well-developed musculature. The uterus was simple, presenting a global fundus located in the caudal portion of the abdominal cavity. The uterine tubes were elongated and rectilinear, connected to the ovaries which were large, ellipsoid in shape, and presented a smooth surface.

  3. [Gross morphometry of young Geochelone sulcata (Testudines: Testudinidae) in Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchán, Manuel; Coll, Marta; Fournier, Raúl

    2005-01-01

    The African Spur tortoise, Geochelone sulcata, has been introduced to Costa Rica. A total of 31 tortoises were measured for 26 gross morphometry parameters. All individuals measured were inmature, aged from 5 to 34 months, and were born in captivity in La Garita de Alajuela, Costa Rica. Mean straight carapace length was 83.1 mm, mean straight plastron length was 68.3 mm and mean maximum height was 46.2 mm. All the measurements were correlated, except tail length and cloacal distance. Weight had the highest positive allometry coefficient. All the variables were joined in two Principal Components; tail length and cloacal distance in Factor 2 and the rest of them in Factor 1. Lack of correlation among tail measures and the other variables as well as their inclusion in a different Factor could be related with an incipient development of sexual dimorphism characters.

  4. Precise determination of universal finite volume observables in the Gross-Neveu model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korzec, T.

    2007-01-26

    The Gross-Neveu model is a quantum field theory in two space time dimensions that shares many features with quantum chromo dynamics. In this thesis the continuum model and its discretized versions are reviewed and a finite volume renormalization scheme is introduced and tested. Calculations in the limit of infinitely many fermion flavors as well as perturbative computations are carried out. In extensive Monte-Carlo simulations of the one flavor and the four flavor lattice models with Wilson fermions a set of universal finite volume observables is calculated to a high precision. In the one flavor model which is equivalent to the massless Thirring model the continuum extrapolated Monte-Carlo results are confronted with an exact solution of the model. (orig.)

  5. Scattering and duality in the 2 dimensional OSP(2|2) Gross Neveu and sigma models

    CERN Document Server

    Saleur, H

    2009-01-01

    We write the thermodynamic Bethe ansatz for the massive OSp(2|2) Gross Neveu and sigma models. We find evidence that the GN S matrix proposed by Bassi and Leclair [12] is the correct one. We determine features of the sigma model S matrix, which seem highly unconventional; we conjecture in particular a relation between this sigma model and the complex sine-Gordon model at a particular value of the coupling. We uncover an intriguing duality between the OSp(2|2) GN (resp. sigma) model on the one hand, and the SO(4) sigma (resp. GN model) on the other, somewhat generalizing to the massive case recent results on OSp(4|2). Finally, we write the TBA for the (SUSY version of the) flow into the random bond Ising model proposed by Cabra et al. [39], and conclude that their S matrix cannot be correct.

  6. Propagating and annihilating vortex dipoles in the Gross-Pitaevskii equation

    CERN Document Server

    Rorai, Cecilia; Fisher, Michael E

    2013-01-01

    Quantum vortex dynamics in Bose-Einstein condensates or superfluid helium can be informatively described by the Gross-Pitaevskii (GP) equation. Various approximate analytical formulae for a single stationary vortex are recalled and their shortcomings demonstrated. Significantly more accurate two-point [2/2] and [3/3] Pade' approximants for stationary vortex profiles are presented. Two straight, singly quantized, antiparallel vortices, located at a distance d apart, form a vortex dipole, which, in the GP model, can either annihilate or propagate indefinitely as a `solitary wave'. We show, through calculations performed in a periodic domain, that the details and types of behavior displayed by vortex dipoles depend strongly on the initial conditions rather than only on the separation distance (as has been previously claimed). It is found, indeed, that the choice of the initial two-vortex profile (i.e., the modulus of the `effective wave function'), strongly affects the vortex trajectories and the time scale of t...

  7. Proximate analysis, backwards stepwise regression between gross calorific value, ultimate and chemical analysis of wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telmo, C; Lousada, J; Moreira, N

    2010-06-01

    The gross calorific value (GCV), proximate, ultimate and chemical analysis of debark wood in Portugal were studied, for future utilization in wood pellets industry and the results compared with CEN/TS 14961. The relationship between GCV, ultimate and chemical analysis were determined by multiple regression stepwise backward. The treatment between hardwoods-softwoods did not result in significant statistical differences for proximate, ultimate and chemical analysis. Significant statistical differences were found in carbon for National (hardwoods-softwoods) and (National-tropical) hardwoods in volatile matter, fixed carbon, carbon and oxygen and also for chemical analysis in National (hardwoods-softwoods) for F and (National-tropical) hardwoods for Br. GCV was highly positively related to C (0.79 * * *) and negatively to O (-0.71 * * *). The final independent variables of the model were (C, O, S, Zn, Ni, Br) with R(2)=0.86; F=27.68 * * *. The hydrogen did not contribute statistically to the energy content.

  8. Symmetry Nonrestoration in a Gross-Neveu Model with Random Chemical Potential

    CERN Document Server

    Hong, S I; Hong, Seok-In; Kogut, John B.

    2001-01-01

    We study the symmetry behavior of the Gross-Neveu model in three and two dimensions with random chemical potential. This is equivalent to a four-fermion model with charge conjugation symmetry as well as Z_2 chiral symmetry. At high temperature the Z_2 chiral symmetry is always restored. In three dimensions the initially broken charge conjugation symmetry is not restored at high temperature, irrespective of the value of the disorder strength. In two dimensions and at zero temperature the charge conjugation symmetry undergoes a quantum phase transition from a symmetric state (for weak disorder) to a broken state (for strong disorder) as the disorder strength is varied. For any given value of disorder strength, the high-temperature behavior of the charge conjugation symmetry is the same as its zero-temperature behavior. Therefore, in two dimensions and for strong disorder strength the charge conjugation symmetry is not restored at high temperature.

  9. Redistribution and modulation of Gross murine leukemia virus antigens induced by specific antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioachim, H L; Sabbath, M

    1979-01-01

    Gross murine leukemia virus (G-MuLV)-induced rat leukemia cells in tissue culture replicate G-MuLV, express strong virus-associated membrane antigenicity, and are consistently killed by specific antibodies and complement in cytotoxicity tests. To explore the effect of specific antibodies, rat anti-G-MuLV antisera were added to the cultures of leukemia cells for variable periods of time. Redistribution of virus particles as well as of membrane virus antigens in the form of polar patches and caps was observed by electron microscopy, indirect immunofluorescence, and immunoelectron microscopy. Substantial decreases in cytotoxicity indexes accompanied these changes. The antigen modulation induced by anti-G-MuLV antibodies in vitro paralleled similar changes obtained in vivo by transplanttion of leukemia cells in rats with high anti-G-MuLV antibody titers. The importance of antigen modulation in this system resides in its direct relationship with the malignant potential of the leukemia cells.

  10. The natural radioactivity in water by gross alpha and beta measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonotto, D.M. [Departamento de Petrologia e Metalogenia, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Av. 24-A No. 1515, C.P. 178, CEP 13506-900, Rio Claro, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: danielbonotto@yahoo.com.br; Bueno, T.O.; Tessari, B.W.; Silva, A. [Departamento de Petrologia e Metalogenia, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Av. 24-A No. 1515, C.P. 178, CEP 13506-900, Rio Claro, SP (Brazil)

    2009-01-15

    An alternative method for evaluating gross alpha and beta radioactivity in water was developed by performing alpha counting using a surface barrier detector and gamma- ray spectrometry using a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector. Several experiments were realized under controlled conditions in the laboratory with the aim of establishing adequate calibration of the systems utilized for performing activity concentration measurements in water samples of variable salinity. Groundwater samples collected at several spas in Sao Paulo and Minas Gerais States in Brazil were submitted to the developed technique in order to assure its applicability in waters characterized by different Total Dissolved Solids content. The values obtained were compatible with the previous knowledge of the radioactivity of the studied water sources, thus indicating the reliability and usefulness of the method for generating information on investigations focusing environmental aspects and/or the evaluation of the drinking water quality in terms of radiological aspects.

  11. An Ad-Hoc Adaptive Pilot Model for Pitch Axis Gross Acquisition Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Curtis E.

    2012-01-01

    An ad-hoc algorithm is presented for real-time adaptation of the well-known crossover pilot model and applied to pitch axis gross acquisition tasks in a generic fighter aircraft. Off-line tuning of the crossover model to human pilot data gathered in a fixed-based high fidelity simulation is first accomplished for a series of changes in aircraft dynamics to provide expected values for model parameters. It is shown that in most cases, for this application, the traditional crossover model can be reduced to a gain and a time delay. The ad-hoc adaptive pilot gain algorithm is shown to have desirable convergence properties for most types of changes in aircraft dynamics.

  12. The many meanings of gross photosynthesis and their implication for photosynthesis research from leaf to globe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Lianghong; Wohlfahrt, Georg

    2015-04-01

    Gross photosynthesis is a key term and concept in carbon cycle science. It however turns out that this term has been and is used with different meanings by different communities - either with (historically referred to as apparent photosynthesis) or without (historically referred to as true photosynthesis) including photorespiration - which has been and still is causing confusion. Here we review the history of these terms and the underlying theory to clarify the terminology and make recommendations about a consistent use of terms. We further show that eddy covariance CO2 flux partitioning, due to an overestimation of daytime mitochondrial respiration and our inability to estimate photorespiration, yields estimates which are quantitatively closer to the definition of true photosynthesis (i.e. carboxylation only) despite aiming at estimating apparent photosynthesis (i.e. carboxylation minus photorespiration). The implications of this finding are discussed.

  13. Seasonal Forecasting of Agriculture Gross Domestic Production in Iran: Application of Periodic Autoregressive Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ghahremanzadeh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture as one of the major economic sectors of Iran, has an important role in Gross Domestic Production by providing about 14% of GDP. This study attempts to forecast the value of the agriculture GDP using Periodic Autoregressive model (PAR, as the new seasonal time series techniques. To address this aim, the quarterly data were collected from March 1988 to July 1989. The collected data was firstly analyzed using periodic unit root test Franses & Paap (2004. The analysis found non-periodic unit root in the seasonal data. Second, periodic seasonal behavior (Boswijk & Franses, 1996 was examined. The results showed that periodic autoregressive model fits agriculture GDP well. This makes an accurate forecast of agriculture GDP possible. Using the estimated model, the future value of quarter agricultural GDP from March 2011 to July 2012was forecasted. With consideration to the fair fit of this model with agricultural GDP, It is recommended to use periodic autoregressive model for the future studies.

  14. A modified lattice Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook model for convection heat transfer in porous media

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Liang; Guo, Zhaoli

    2015-01-01

    The lattice Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (LBGK) model has become the most popular one in the lattice Boltzmann method for simulating the convection heat transfer in porous media. However, the LBGK model generally suffers from numerical instability at low fluid viscosities and effective thermal diffusivities. In this paper, a modified LBGK model is developed for incompressible thermal flows in porous media at the representative elementary volume scale, in which the shear rate and temperature gradient are incorporated into the equilibrium distribution functions. With two additional parameters, the relaxation times in the collision process can be fixed at a proper value invariable to the viscosity and the effective thermal diffusivity. In addition, by constructing a modified equilibrium distribution function and a source term in the evolution equation of temperature field, the present model can recover the macroscopic equations correctly through the Chapman-Enskog analysis, which is another key point different from pre...

  15. Non-ideal feedforward torque control of wind turbines: Impacts on annual energy production & gross earnings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackl, Christoph; Schechner, Korbinian

    2016-09-01

    We discuss non-ideal torque control in wind turbine systems. Most high-level controllers generate a reference torque which is then send to the underlying electrical drive system (generator+inverter) of the wind turbine system to steer the turbine/generator to its optimal operation point (depending on the wind speed). The energy production heavily depends on the mechanical power (i.e. the product of rotational speed and generator torque). However, since torque sensors in the MW range are not available or extremely expensive, the underlying torque control system is implemented as feedforward control and, therefore, is inherently sensitive to parameter variations/uncertainties. Based on real wind data and a wind turbine system model, we discuss causes and impacts of non-ideal feedforward torque control on the energy production and the annual gross earnings.

  16. The long run relationship between foreign direct investments, exports, and gross domestic product: panel data implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet ERYİĞİT

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Foreign direct investment (FDI is defined as establishing a new company or branch of a foreign company by foreign investor or share acquisitions of a company established in host country (any percentage of shares acquired outside the stock exchange or 10 percent or more of the shares or voting power of a company acquired through the stock exchange (UNCTAD, 2012. This study investigated the long-term relationship between FDI and export volume, FDI and Gross Domestic Products (GDP, and export volume and GDP through cointegration tests. It is conducted the panel data analysis using data for the period of 2000-2010 from 15 countries making direct investment in Turkey regularly since year 2000. Panel unit-root tests showed that variables are stationary for the first difference level. Residual based and error correction based cointegration tests revealed that there is long-term relationship between FDI and export volume, FDI and GDP, and export volume and GDP.

  17. ATLAS-plus: Multimedia Instruction in Embryology, Gross Anatomy, and Histology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, CM; Miller, JG; Bush, LC; Bruenger, JA; Wysor, WJ; Meininger, ET; Wolf, FM; Fischer, TV; Beaudoin, AR; Burkel, WE; MacCallum, DK; Fisher, DL; Carlson, BM

    1992-01-01

    ATLAS-plus [Advanced Tools for Learning Anatomical Structure] is a multimedia program used to assist in the teaching of anatomy at the University of Michigan Medical School. ATLAS-plus contains three courses: Histology, Embryology, and Gross Anatomy. In addition to the three courses, a glossary containing terms from the three courses is available. All three courses and the glossary are accessible in the ATLAS-plus environment. The ATLAS-plus environment provides a consistent set of tools and options so that the user can navigate easily and intelligently in and between the various courses and modules in the ATLAS-plus world. The program is a collaboration between anatomy and cell biology faculty, medical students, graphic artists, systems analysts, and instructional designers. PMID:1482964

  18. Evolution of a superfluid vortex filament tangle driven by the Gross-Pitaevskii equation

    CERN Document Server

    Villois, Alberto; Krstulovic, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    The development and decay of a turbulent vortex tangle driven by the Gross-Pitaevskii equation is studied. Using a recently-developed accurate and robust tracking algorithm, all quantised vortices are extracted from the fields. The Vinen's decay law for the total vortex length with a coefficient that is in quantitative agreement with the values measured in Helium II is observed. The topology of the tangle is then studied showing that linked rings may appear during the decay. The tracking also allows for determining the statistics of small-scales quantities of vortex lines, exhibiting large fluctuations of curvature and torsion. Finally, the temporal evolution of the Kelvin wave spectrum is obtained providing evidence of the development of a weak-wave turbulence cascade.

  19. Measuring gross and net calcification of a reef coral under ocean acidification conditions: methodological considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Cohen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Ongoing ocean acidification (OA is rapidly altering carbonate chemistry in the oceans. The projected changes will likely have deleterious consequences for coral reefs by negatively affecting their growth. Nonetheless, diverse responses of reef-building corals calcification to OA hinder our ability to decipher reef susceptibility to elevated pCO2. Some of the inconsistencies between studies originate in measuring net calcification (NC, which does not always consider the proportions of the "real" (gross calcification (GC and gross dissolution in the observed response. Here we show that microcolonies of Stylophora pistillata (entirely covered by tissue, incubated under normal (8.2 and reduced (7.6 pH conditions for 16 months, survived and added new skeletal CaCO3, despite low (1.25 Ωarg conditions. Moreover, corals maintained their NC and GC rates under reduced (7.6 pH conditions and displayed positive NC rates at the low-end (7.3 pH treatment while bare coral skeleton underwent marked dissolution. Our findings suggest that S. pistillata may fall into the "low sensitivity" group with respect to OA and that their overlying tissue may be a key determinant in setting their tolerance to reduced pH by limiting dissolution and allowing them to calcify. This study is the first to measure GC and NC rates for a tropical scleractinian corals under OA conditions. We provide a detailed, realistic assessment of the problematic nature of previously accepted methods for measuring calcification (total alkalinity and 45Ca.

  20. Amiata donkeys: fat globule characteristics, milk gross composition and fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Martini

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Amiata donkeys are a native breed reared in central Italy. Safeguarding native donkey breeds represents an opportunity for the development of marginal areas, especially given that donkey milk is now appearing on the market due to its potential benefits for human health. To date, only a few studies have focused on the characteristics of the milk fat globules (MFGs in the donkey species. The aim of this study was to assess the morphometric characteristics of the fat globules, gross composition and fatty acid classes in milk from Amiata donkeys reared according to the typical farming and feeding systems of the area of origin. Individual milk samples, collected from 28 Amiata donkeys between 90 and 150 days of lactation, showed the following average composition (g/100 mL: 9.47 dry matter, 1.63 protein, 0.78 casein, 0.53 fat, 7.12 lactose, and 0.36 ash. The unsaturated:saturated fatty acids ratio in milk was close to 1. The percentage of short chains was 12.29, and the percentage of long chain fatty acids was 47.64. The donkey MFGs showed an average diameter of 1.92 μm, and a number of 2.18*109/mL. Regarding MFG distribution, 70% of the globules donkey of milk are smaller than 2 μm. In conclusion, the gross composition and fatty acids of Amiata donkey milk showed similarities with milk from other Italian donkey breeds, with the exception of the monounsaturated fatty acid values which were slightly higher. Donkey MFGs had a smaller diameter and were fewer than in the ruminant species.

  1. Discriminating Talent Identified Junior Australian Footballers Using a Fundamental Gross Athletic Movement Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl T. Woods, Harry G. Banyard, Ian McKeown, Job Fransen, Sam Robertson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Talent identification (TID is a pertinent component of the sports sciences, affording practitioners the opportunity to target developmental interventions to a select few; optimising financial investments. However, TID is multi-componential, requiring the recognition of immediate and prospective performance. The measurement of athletic movement skill may afford practitioners insight into the latter component given its augmented relationship with functional sport specific qualities. It is currently unknown whether athletic movement skill is a discriminant quality in junior Australian football (AF. This study aimed to discriminate talent identified junior AF players from their non-talent identified counterparts using a fundamental gross athletic movement assessment. From a total of 50 under 18 (U18 AF players; two groups were classified a priori based on selection level; talent identified (n = 25; state academy representatives and non-talent identified (n = 25; state-based competition representatives. Players performed a fundamental gross athletic movement assessment based on the Athletic Ability Assessment (AAA, consisting of an overhead squat, double lunge (left and right legs, single leg Romanian deadlift (left and right legs, and a push up (six movement criterions. Movements were scored across three assessment points using a three-point scale (resulting in a possible score of nine for each movement. A multivariate analysis of variance revealed significant between group effects on four of the six movement criterions (d = 0.56 – 0.87; p = 0.01 – 0.02. Binary logistic regression models and a receiver operating characteristic curve inspection revealed that the overhead squat score provided the greatest group discrimination (β(SE = -0.89(0.44; p < 0.05, with a score of 4.5 classifying 64% and 88% of the talent identified and non-talent identified groups, respectively. Results support the integration of this assessment into contemporary talent

  2. Intracultural variation of knowledge about wild plant uses in the Biosphere Reserve Grosses Walsertal (Austria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Leading scholars in ethnobiology and ethnomedicine continuously stress the need for moving beyond the bare description of local knowledge and to additionally analyse and theorise about the characteristics and dynamics of human interactions with plants and related local knowledge. Analyses of the variation of local knowledge are thereby perceived as minimal standard. In this study we investigate the distribution and variation of wild plant knowledge in five domains: food, drinks, human medicine, veterinary medicine and customs. We assess relations between the wild plant knowledge of informants and their socio-demographic as well as geographic background. Method Research was conducted in the Biosphere Reserve Grosses Walsertal, Austria. Structured questionnaires were used to inquire wild plant knowledge from 433 informants with varying socio-demographic and geographic background. Children assisted in the data collection. Data was analysed using descriptive statistics and generalized linear models. Results and discussion A majority of respondents is familiar with wild plant uses, however to varying degrees. Knowledge variations depend on the socio-demographic and geographic background of the informants as well as on the domains of knowledge under investigation: women, older informants and homegardeners report more human medicinal applications and applications in drinks than men, younger informants and non-homegardeners; farmers know a greater variety of veterinary medicinal applications than non-farmers; the place of residence relates significantly to food and veterinary uses. Customs are difficult to investigate in standardized matrices. The household-related distribution of work and the general socio-cultural context are especially helpful in order to explain intracultural variation of knowledge in the Grosses Walsertal. Conclusions Research on the intracultural variation of local knowledge exposes cultural characteristics and highlights the cultural

  3. Contributions of medicinal plants to the Gross National Happiness and Biodiscovery in Bhutan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangchuk, Phurpa; Tobgay, Tashi

    2015-06-03

    The medicinal plants and the associated Bhutanese traditional medicine (BTM) are protected by the country's constitution and receive both government support and acceptance by the wider public. More than 1000 medicinal plants are described in the BTM but currently collects only 300 species for daily formulations of BTM. These medicinal plants have been one of the drivers of the 'Gross National Happiness (GNH)' and biodiscovery projects in Bhutan. However, no review covering the systematic evaluations of the contributions of medicinal plants and the BTM to the GNH and biodiscovery exist till date. This paper, therefore addresses this information gap. It is based on the review of the existing traditional and scientific literature, government websites and policy documents. The descriptions and discussions of the paper is straightened, authenticated and enhanced by the data collected through the informal discussions with the BTM practitioners and also through the authors' many years of practical observations of the impact of the medicinal plants programs and the BTM practices in Bhutan. This paper found the following: a) the medicinal plants generates income to the farmers elevating their living standard and the economic status, b) it serves as the bulk ingredients of the BTM facilitating the provision of free traditional health care services to the patients, c) helps the conservation of medicinal plants and their pristine environment through recognition of their spiritual, social and economic values, d) preserves the rich BTM cultural heritage, and e) guides the biodiscovery projects based on their ethnobotanical information. The paper also identified the challenges and research gaps, and recommends appropriate strategies that can help secure the sustainable future of the medicinal plants, the BTM and the biodiscovery projects. The medicinal plants play significant role in the country's biodiscovery projects and the internationally renowned development policy of 'Gross

  4. GROSS AND MICROSCOPIC ANATOMY OF THYROID GLAND OF ONE-HUMPED CAMEL (CAMELUS DROMEDARIUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. KAUSAR AND R. U. SHAHID

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Tissue samples of thyroid glands of 16 healthy camels (Camelus dromedarius were investigated under two age groups i.e. group A (3-5 years and group B (6-10 years with equal number of animals, for their gross and microscopic anatomy. Gross studies revealed that thyroid glands were located near the first ring of trachea and had two lobes, connected by an isthmus. They were of reddish brown in colour. The values of weight, length and width of thyroid glands were 45.7 ± 0.35 and 50.65 ± 0.26 g, 36 ± 0.46 and 6.36 ± 0.33 cm, and 3.35 ± 0.29 and 3.53 ± 0.21 cm in groups A and B, respectively. The diameter of the glands averaged 0.97 ± 0.13 and 1.05 ± 0.14 cm in groups A and B, respectively. Histologically, thyroid gland consisted of a connective tissue capsule and trabeculae were found extending from the capsule into the substance of the gland, which divided it into lobules. Each lobule consisted of two sized follicles in variable numbers, the large and small. The large follicles were lined by low cuboidal epithelium, while the small follicles were lined by high cuboidal to columnar epithelium. The follicles had colloid material in their lumen, probably an apocrine secretion from the lining epithelial cells. The para follicular or C-cells were absent in thyroid glands of camel.

  5. Professional Formation in the Gross Anatomy Lab and Narrative Medicine: An Exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissler, Mark J; Saxton, Ben; Nuila, Ricardo; Balmer, Dorene F

    2016-06-01

    As an early and important experience in medical education, dissection in the gross anatomy lab is a locus of professional formation. Because students often think of their professional development in evolving, narrative terms, the authors propose that close attention to these narratives might add to understanding of professional formation in progress. They solicited written reflections from students, to explore ways that both the content and form of written reflections might illuminate themes relevant to professional formation, and to describe some elements of professional formation in the context of one institution (Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas). Seventeen students participated in writing sessions and wrote in response to an oral interview transcript and to a poem. Using a reading approach that grew out of the narrative medicine movement, the authors collaboratively engaged the content and form of these written reflections.Students' collection of written reflections was a rich source of information about their experiences in the anatomy lab. Through both content (e.g., expressions of gratitude, transitions, self-awareness) and form (e.g., from less detailed writing to literary playfulness), their writings gave a glimpse into the tensions, disappointments, and satisfactions of the practice of gross anatomy.This project models one way that educators can read and respond to the reflective writing that students generate. The authors go on to propose ways that interactions around reflective writing can be part of a broader goal of forming narrative-minded physicians, who become increasingly self- and other-aware as they progress in their education and practice.

  6. Physical fitness of primary school children in the reflection of different levels of gross motor coordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Ružbarská

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lower level of motor competences may result in unsuccessful engaging of children in physical activities as early as pre-school age and also prepubescent ages. This may subsequently lead to a spiral of forming negative attitudes towards an active lifestyle and may be accompanied by a negative trend in weight status and physical fitness outcomes. Objective: The aim of the study was to identify and analyze differences in physical fitness and somatic parameters of primary school-aged children according to level of their gross motor coordination. Methods:  A sample of 436 children aged 7 to 10 years, of which were 222 girls and 214 boys, performed physical fitness tests - Eurofit test battery. The level of motor coordination was assessed using the test battery Körperkoordination-Test-für-Kinder (KTK. The anthropometric data (body mass, body height, sum of five skinfolds were measured. The one-way ANOVA was used to assess differences in physical fitness test items and anthropometry parameters between children with normal motor quotient (MQ ≥ 86 and decreased levels of gross motor coordination (MQ ≤ 85. Results: Research findings indicate a strongly negative trend in physical development of children with motor deficits (MQ ≤ 85. The results of ANOVA revealed significantly less favourable level of most of the assessed physical fitness parameters in children with decreased level of motor coordination. Conclusions: The findings suggest that physical fitness outcomes of primary school-aged children are associated with a lower level of motor coordination. Motor coordination probably plays an important role in preventing, or moderating the so-called negative trajectory leading to childhood overweight or obesity.

  7. Suitability of faecal near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) predictions for estimating gross calorific value

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De la Roza-Delgado, B.; Modroño, S.; Vicente, F.; Martínez-Fernández, A.; Soldado, A.

    2015-07-01

    A total of 220 faecal pig and poultry samples, collected from different experimental trials were employed with the aim to demonstrate the suitability of Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy (NIRS) technology for estimation of gross calorific value on faeces as output products in energy balances studies. NIR spectra from dried and grounded faeces samples were analyzed using a Foss NIRSystem 6500 instrument, scanning over the wavelength range 400-2500 nm. Validation studies for quantitative analytical models were carried out to estimate the relevance of method performance associated to reference values to obtain an appropriate, accuracy and precision. The results for prediction of gross calorific value (GCV) of NIRS calibrations obtained for individual species showed high correlation coefficients comparing chemical analysis and NIRS predictions, ranged from 0.92 to 0.97 for poultry and pig. For external validation, the ratio between the standard error of cross validation (SECV) and the standard error of prediction (SEP) varied between 0.73 and 0.86 for poultry and pig respectively, indicating a sufficiently precision of calibrations. In addition a global model to estimate GCV in both species was developed and externally validated. It showed correlation coefficients of 0.99 for calibration, 0.98 for cross-validation and 0.97 for external validation. Finally, relative uncertainty was calculated for NIRS developed prediction models with the final value when applying individual NIRS species model of 1.3% and 1.5% for NIRS global prediction. This study suggests that NIRS is a suitable and accurate method for the determination of GCV in faeces, decreasing cost, timeless and for convenient handling of unpleasant samples.. (Author)

  8. Ecosystem gross CO2 fluxes in a tropical rainforest estimated from carbonyl sulfide (COS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibt, U. H.; Maseyk, K. S.; Lett, C.; Juarez, S.; Sun, W.

    2014-12-01

    Carbonyl sulfide (COS) is a promising new tracer to constrain the gross CO2 fluxes of land ecosystems, particularly in tropical forests where CO2 flux partitioning is often problematic due to the absence of turbulent flow at night. Since vegetation COS and CO2 uptake during photosynthesis is closely coupled, the gross fluxes of photosynthesis and respiration can be quantified through the concurrent measurements of COS and CO2. We measured ecosystem COS and CO2 exchange over four months in a tropical rainforest at La Selva, Costa Rica. We observed a strong ecosystem uptake of COS with a diel signal that was similar but not identical to net CO2 fluxes. Soils at the site mostly acted as COS sinks, correlated with soil moisture. The COS and CO2 data were used to calculate canopy photosynthesis (approx. GPP) from net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) based on the empirical relationship of leaf relative uptake of COS and CO2. Mid-day COS-based GPP estimates ranged from -10 to -15 μmol m-2 s-1, compared to NEE of -5 to -10 μmol m-2 s-1. Ecosystem respiration, calculated as the difference of NEE and GPP, ranged from 5 to 10 μmol m-2 s-1, similar to previous estimates of 5 to 9 μmol m-2 s-1 from CO2 flux partitioning and respiration component measurements at the site. Our results support the application of COS as a new tool in ecosystem flux partitioning that may be particularly useful in tropical forests.

  9. Intracultural variation of knowledge about wild plant uses in the Biosphere Reserve Grosses Walsertal (Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schunko Christoph

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leading scholars in ethnobiology and ethnomedicine continuously stress the need for moving beyond the bare description of local knowledge and to additionally analyse and theorise about the characteristics and dynamics of human interactions with plants and related local knowledge. Analyses of the variation of local knowledge are thereby perceived as minimal standard. In this study we investigate the distribution and variation of wild plant knowledge in five domains: food, drinks, human medicine, veterinary medicine and customs. We assess relations between the wild plant knowledge of informants and their socio-demographic as well as geographic background. Method Research was conducted in the Biosphere Reserve Grosses Walsertal, Austria. Structured questionnaires were used to inquire wild plant knowledge from 433 informants with varying socio-demographic and geographic background. Children assisted in the data collection. Data was analysed using descriptive statistics and generalized linear models. Results and discussion A majority of respondents is familiar with wild plant uses, however to varying degrees. Knowledge variations depend on the socio-demographic and geographic background of the informants as well as on the domains of knowledge under investigation: women, older informants and homegardeners report more human medicinal applications and applications in drinks than men, younger informants and non-homegardeners; farmers know a greater variety of veterinary medicinal applications than non-farmers; the place of residence relates significantly to food and veterinary uses. Customs are difficult to investigate in standardized matrices. The household-related distribution of work and the general socio-cultural context are especially helpful in order to explain intracultural variation of knowledge in the Grosses Walsertal. Conclusions Research on the intracultural variation of local knowledge exposes cultural characteristics and

  10. Econometric Analysis of the Nexus of Exchange Rate Deregulation and Agricultural Share of Gross Domestic Product in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Oyinbo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the relationship between exchange rate deregulation and the agricultural share of gross domestic product in Nigeria from an econometric perspective using time series data. The data were analysed using augmented dickey fuller unit root test, unrestricted vector autoregression and pairwise granger causality. The results of the data analysis revealed the existence of unidirectional causality from exchange rate to agricultural share of gross domestic production in Nigeria and this implies that market driven exchange rate policy has been significant in influencing the trend in agricultural share of gross domestic production in Nigeria. However, it is recommended that the monetary authority of Nigeria should closely monitor the movement of the market driven exchange rate so that exchange rate deregulation does not become counterproductive through unhealthy price distortions on agricultural production, international trade and foreign direct investment in the agricultural sector of Nigeria’s economy.

  11. THE ANALYSIS OF THE MAIN CHARACTERISTICS CONSIDERED FOR THE GROUPING EU MEMBER STATES ACCORDING TO GROSS INLAND ENERGY CONSUMPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POPESCU Catalin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Gross inland energy consumption represents the quantity of energy necessary to satisfy inland consumption of the geographical entity under consideration. It describes the total energy needs of a country. According to some Eurostat reports from 2013 and 2014, over the last two decades, gross inland energy consumption in the EU28, as can be noted, has changed pretty much: in 1990 cumulated 1670 million tonnes of oil equivalent (Mtoe, rose to a peak of 1830 Mtoe in 2006 and then decreased to 1680 Mtoe in 2012. These contradictory values required a comprehensive analysis and therefore, present paper describes the main characteristics related to the grouping EU Member States according to gross inland energy consumption in order to discover some common patterns among EU member states.

  12. From relativistic quantum fields to condensed matter and back again: Updating the Gross-Neveu phase diagram

    CERN Document Server

    Thies, M

    2006-01-01

    During the last few years, the phase diagram of the large N Gross-Neveu model in 1+1 dimensions at finite temperature and chemical potential has undergone a major revision. Here we present a streamlined account of this development, collecting the most important results. Quasi-one-dimensional condensed matter systems like conducting polymers provide real physical systems which can be approximately described by the Gross-Neveu model and have played some role in establishing its phase structure. The kink-antikink phase found at low temperatures is closely related to inhomogeneous superconductors in the Larkin-Ovchinnikov-Fulde-Ferrell phase. With the complete phase diagram at hand, the Gross-Neveu model can now serve as a firm testing ground for new algorithms and theoretical ideas.

  13. Climate change amplifies gross nitrogen turnover in montane grasslands of Central Europe both in summer and winter seasons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhe; Wang, Changhui; Unteregelsbacher, Sebastian; Lu, Haiyan; Gschwendtner, Silvia; Gasche, Rainer; Kolar, Allison; Schloter, Michael; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus; Dannenmann, Michael

    2016-04-01

    The carbon and nitrogen rich soils of montane grasslands are exposed to above average warming and to altered precipitation patterns as a result of global change. In order to investigate the consequences of climatic change for soil nitrogen turnover, we translocated intact plant-soil mesocosms along an elevational gradient. Following three years of equilibration, we monitored the dynamics of gross nitrogen turnover and ammonia oxidizing microbes over an entire year. Gross nitrogen turnover and gene levels of ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and archaea (AOA) showed pronounced seasonal dynamics. While both summer and winter periods equally contributed to cumulative annual N turnover, the highest gross N turnover and abundance of ammonia oxidizers were observed in frozen soil of climate change sites due to physical liberation of organic substrates and their rapid turnover in the unfrozen soil water film. The control site never experienced soil freezing due to a significant insulating snowpack. Climate change conditions accelerated gross N mineralization by 250% on average. The AOB community benefited more from increased soil ammonium production under climate change conditions than the AOA community and thus accounted for a significant increase in gross nitrification rates. Climate change impacts were restricted to the 2-6 cm topsoil and rarely occurred at 12-16 cm depth, where generally much lower N turnover was observed. Mineralization pulses in a changing climate may result in soil organic matter loss with their associated negative impacts on key soil functions. In this context, N cycling processes in frozen soil can be a hot spot for gross N turnover and thus be of paramount importance for understanding seasonal patterns, annual sum of N turnover and possible climate change feedbacks.

  14. Statistical Analysis of the Correlation between the Happy Planet Index and the Gross Domestic Product Per Capita, in Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriela OPAIT

    2016-01-01

    This paper reflects the architecture of the methodology for to achieve the statistical modeling of the trend concerning the correlation between the Happy Planet Index and the Gross Domestic Product per capita in Romania, between 2006-2013. with the help of the „Least Squares Method”. Also, this paper reflects the manner in which we can to measure the intensity of the correlation between the Happy Planet Index and the Gross Domestic Product per capita in Romania, between 2006-2013 with the h...

  15. Statistical Analysis of the Correlation between the Happy Planet Index and the Gross Domestic Product Per Capita, in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela OPAIT

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reflects the architecture of the methodology for to achieve the statistical modeling of the trend concerning the correlation between the Happy Planet Index and the Gross Domestic Product per capita in Romania, between 2006-2013. with the help of the „Least Squares Method”. Also, this paper reflects the manner in which we can to measure the intensity of the correlation between the Happy Planet Index and the Gross Domestic Product per capita in Romania, between 2006-2013 with the help of the Correlation Raport.

  16. An Eight-Year Study of Online Lecture Use in a Medical Gross Anatomy and Embryology Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieder, Gary L.; Borges, Nicole J.

    2012-01-01

    Online lectures have been used in lieu of live lectures in our gross anatomy and embryology course for the past eight years. We examined patterns of online lecture use by our students and related that use to academic entry measures, gender and examination performance. Detailed access records identified by student were available from server logs.…

  17. Effect of Spark Motor Program on the development of gross motor skills in intellectually disabled educable boys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashem Faal Moganloo

    2013-11-01

    Results: Spark Program caused significant changes in all the variables of the study, except speed and agility, in the experimental group after 24 sessions. The changes included: agility and speed (P=0.731, balance (P=0, strength (P=0.002, and bilateral coordination (P=0. Conclusion: Spark Motor Program can improve gross motor skills in intellectually disabled educable students.

  18. Effect of Upper Limb Deformities on Gross Motor and Upper Limb Functions in Children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun Sook; Sim, Eun Geol; Rha, Dong-wook

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the nature and extent of upper limb deformities via the use of various classifications, and to analyze the relationship between upper limb deformities and gross motor or upper limb functionality levels. Upper extremity data were collected from 234 children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP) who were…

  19. Stability and Decline in Gross Motor Function among Children and Youth with Cerebral Palsy Aged 2 to 21 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Steven E.; Rosenbaum, Peter L.; Bartlett, Doreen J.; Palisano, Robert J.; Walter, Stephen D.; Avery, Lisa; Russell, Dianne J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports the construction of gross motor development curves for children and youth with cerebral palsy (CP) in order to assess whether function is lost during adolescence. We followed children previously enrolled in a prospective longitudinal cohort study for an additional 4 years, as they entered adolescence and young adulthood. The…

  20. Early neuromotor development of high risk infants - Gross motor function in preterm and full-term born infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Haastert, I.C.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis is the result of 20 years follow-up of preterm and full-term born ‘graduates’ of the neonatal intensive care unit of the Wilhelmina Children’s Hospital, Utrecht. The aim was to answer questions that arose during admission and follow-up assessments. Typical gross motor development of pret

  1. Remote sensing of sun-induced fluorescence to improve modeling of diurnal courses of gross primary production (GPP)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damm, A.; Elbers, J.A.; Erler, A.; Giolis, B.; Hamdi, K.; Hutjes, R.W.A.; Kosvancova, M.; Meroni, M.; Migliettas, F.; Moersch, A.; Moreno, J.; Schickling, A.; Sonnenschein, R.; Udelhoven, T.; Linden, van der S.; Hostert, P.; Rascher, U.

    2010-01-01

    Terrestrial gross primary production (GPP) is an important parameter to explore and quantify carbon fixation by plant ecosystems at various scales. Remote sensing (RS) offers a unique possibility to investigate GPP in a spatially explicit fashion; however, budgeting of terrestrial carbon cycles base

  2. A participatory framework to identify Gross National Happiness Issues for the development of smallholder mixed farming systems in Bhutan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samdup, T.; Udo, H.M.J.; Zijpp, van der A.J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a participatory methodological framework to identify Gross National Happiness (GNH) issues at the smallholder level in Bhutan. GNH is a development paradigm of Bhutan that has increasingly drawn international attention. Its four pillars are sustainable and equitable socioeconomic

  3. A participatory framework to identify Gross National Happiness Issues for the development of smallholder mixed farming systems in Bhutan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samdup, T.; Udo, H.M.J.; Zijpp, van der A.J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a participatory methodological framework to identify Gross National Happiness (GNH) issues at the smallholder level in Bhutan. GNH is a development paradigm of Bhutan that has increasingly drawn international attention. Its four pillars are sustainable and equitable socioeconomic

  4. 33 CFR 157.43 - Discharges of clean and segregated ballast: Seagoing tank vessels of 150 gross tons or more.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Discharges of clean and segregated ballast: Seagoing tank vessels of 150 gross tons or more. (a) Clean... ballast tanks may discharge clean ballast from those tanks below the waterline at sea. (4) An existing... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discharges of clean...

  5. 75 FR 73998 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; New Pneumatic Tires for Motor Vehicles With a Gross...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ... Vehicle Safety Standards; New Pneumatic Tires for Motor Vehicles With a Gross Vehicle Weight Rating (GVWR... Federal motor vehicle safety standard (FMVSS) that applies to new pneumatic tires for use on vehicles with... (NPRM) proposing to upgrade FMVSS No. 119 (49 CFR 571.119), which applies to new pneumatic tires...

  6. The Effect of Resistance Training on Performance of Gross Motor Skills and Balance in Children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Zarrinkalam

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Cerebral palsy is the most common chronic motor disability in children and can have negative effect on motor functions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of eight weeks resistance training on gross motor ability, balance and walking speed in a group of such children. Methods: 21 cerebral palsy boys with spastic diplegia, aged between 12 and 16 years (mean, 13.66 years, participated in this study. A pre-test, involving walking, sitting, standing and walking up stairs. They were randomly divided into an experimental and control groups. Then, the experimental group participated in 8 weeks of resistance training.  The data was attained from a 10 meter walk test, Berg Balance Test, gross motor ability Section E, D and GMFCS tests.  Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, sample t-test were used for analyzing the data. Results: The results showed a significant improvement in the performance of experimental group in gross motor abilities section  E and D, balance and walking speed after 8 weeks of resistance training (P <0.05(. However, significant differences were not observed in the control group before and after the study (P <0.05.  Conclusion: The results showed that resistance training improves gross motor ability, balance and gait in children with cerebral palsy hence, it is recommended that resistance exercise be used as a therapeutic modality for children with cerebral palsy.

  7. Knee Muscle Strength at Varying Angular Velocities and Associations with Gross Motor Function in Ambulatory Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Wei-Hsien; Chen, Hseih-Ching; Shen, I-Hsuan; Chen, Chung-Yao; Chen, Chia-Ling; Chung, Chia-Ying

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationships of muscle strength at different angular velocities and gross motor functions in ambulatory children with cerebral palsy (CP). This study included 33 ambulatory children with spastic CP aged 6-15 years and 15 children with normal development. Children with CP were categorized into level I (n =…

  8. Big like a gym. New business models for public utilities; Gross wie eine Turnhalle. Neue Geschaeftsmodelle fuer Stadtwerke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarzburger, Heiko

    2013-10-01

    Electricity storage is no longer a vision, also in the case of greater power ratings too. The breakthrough is done: ready-to-connect systems are available as complete packages or containers. [German] Stromspeicher sind keine Vision mehr. Auch nicht fuer grosse Leistungen. Der Durchbruch ist geschafft: Anschlussfertige Systeme sind als Container oder Gesamtpakete verfuegbar.

  9. An Eight-Year Study of Online Lecture Use in a Medical Gross Anatomy and Embryology Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieder, Gary L.; Borges, Nicole J.

    2012-01-01

    Online lectures have been used in lieu of live lectures in our gross anatomy and embryology course for the past eight years. We examined patterns of online lecture use by our students and related that use to academic entry measures, gender and examination performance. Detailed access records identified by student were available from server logs.…

  10. Remote sensing of annual terrestrial gross primary productivity from MODIS: an assessment using the FLUXNET La Thuile data set

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verma, M.; Friedl, M.A.; Richardson, A.D.; Kiely, G.; Cescatti, A.; Law, B.E.; Wohlfahrt, G.; Gielen, G.; Roupsard, O.; Moors, E.J.

    2014-01-01

    Gross primary productivity (GPP) is the largest and most variable component of the global terrestrial carbon cycle. Repeatable and accurate monitoring of terrestrial GPP is therefore critical for quantifying dynamics in regional-to-global carbon budgets. Remote sensing provides high frequency

  11. 76 FR 28754 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Notice of Intent To Renew Collection 3038-0026, Gross...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION Agency Information Collection Activities: Notice of Intent To Renew Collection 3038-0026, Gross Collection of Exchange-Set Margins for Omnibus Accounts AGENCY: Commodity Futures Trading Commission....

  12. Gross Motor Performance and Self-Perceived Motor Competence in Children with Emotional, Behavioural, and Pervasive Developmental Disorders: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emck, Claudia; Bosscher, Ruud; Beek, Peter; Doreleijers, Theo

    2009-01-01

    Aims: Motor performance and self-perceived motor competence have a great impact on the psychosocial development of children in general. In this review, empirical studies of gross motor performance and self-perception of motor competence in children with emotional (depression and anxiety), behavioural, and pervasive developmental disorders are…

  13. Effects of static bicycle training on gross motor function, muscle strength and spasticity of adolescents with spastic cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHRISTOS TSIGKANOS

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of an 8- week lower limb strengthening program on gross motor function, muscle strength and spasticity levels of both the quadriceps and hip adductors of adolescents 14 to 19 years of age with spastic cerebral palsy using a specific static bicycle (Thera-Vital exerciser. Eight students were assigned to the experimental group and another 8 to the control group. The strengthening program took place 3 times a week (6 sets of 10 to 15 full cycling circles. The Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM (dimensions D and E, an isometric hand-held dynamometer and Asworth scale were the measurement instruments used in the study. A multivariance analysis of variance (MANOVA was applied for identifying the statistical importance of the results of the intervention protocol. A statistically significant improvement in both gross motor function (p = 0.016 and muscle strength (p = 0.039 was found without a statistically significant alteration of the muscle tone of the quadriceps and hip adductors of the participants (p = 0.13 and p = 0.33. The results of the present study indicate that static bicycle is a safe and effective means of exercise since it improves the gross motor function of adolescents with cerebral palsy without increasing the muscle tone of the lower limb.

  14. New exact solutions of nonlinear Gross-Pitaevskii equation with weak bias magnetic and time-dependent laser fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Hua-Mei

    2005-01-01

    By using the mapping method and an appropriate transformation, we find new exact solutions of nonlinear Gross-Pitaevskii equation with weak bias magnetic and time-dependent laser fields. The solutions obtained in this paper include Jacobian elliptic function solutions, combined Jacobian elliptic function solutions , triangular function solutions, bright and dark solitons, and soliton-like solutions.

  15. Remote sensing of annual terrestrial gross primary productivity from MODIS: an assessment using the FLUXNET La Thuile data set

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verma, M.; Friedl, M.A.; Richardson, A.D.; Kiely, G.; Cescatti, A.; Law, B.E.; Wohlfahrt, G.; Gielen, G.; Roupsard, O.; Moors, E.J.

    2014-01-01

    Gross primary productivity (GPP) is the largest and most variable component of the global terrestrial carbon cycle. Repeatable and accurate monitoring of terrestrial GPP is therefore critical for quantifying dynamics in regional-to-global carbon budgets. Remote sensing provides high frequency observ

  16. Effects of age and timing of augmented feedback on learning muscle relaxation while performing a gross motor task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, H; Hermens, Hermanus J.

    Objective: To examine the combined effect of age and timing of augmented feedback on learning muscle relaxation. Performing a gross motor task, subjects had to lower their trapezius muscle activity using the electromyographic signal as visual myofeedback. Design: Healthy subjects (16 young adults:

  17. Intensification of the Learning Process: Gross Motor Performance Scale. A Series of Reports Designed for Classroom Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucks County Public Schools, Doylestown, PA.

    The Gross Motor Performance Screening Test was designed to aid the classroom teacher in obtaining specific information about the child's physical abilities. The test includes items which have been found to measure the various factors of physical fitness. It also includes items to measure skills important to the child and adult. Included also are…

  18. Effects of canopy photosynthesis saturation on the estimation of gross primary productivity from MODIS data in a tropical forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Propastin, P.; Ibrom, Andreas; Knohl, A.;

    2012-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) gross primary production (GPP) product (GPPMOD17A2) was evaluated against GPP from the eddy covariance flux measurements (GPPm) at a CO2 flux tower test site in a tropical rainforest in Sulawesi, Indonesia. The dynamics of 8-day GPPMOD17A2...

  19. Knee Muscle Strength at Varying Angular Velocities and Associations with Gross Motor Function in Ambulatory Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Wei-Hsien; Chen, Hseih-Ching; Shen, I-Hsuan; Chen, Chung-Yao; Chen, Chia-Ling; Chung, Chia-Ying

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationships of muscle strength at different angular velocities and gross motor functions in ambulatory children with cerebral palsy (CP). This study included 33 ambulatory children with spastic CP aged 6-15 years and 15 children with normal development. Children with CP were categorized into level I (n =…

  20. Gross deletions/duplications in PROS1 are relatively common in point mutation-negative hereditary protein S deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pintao, M.C.; Garcia, A.A.; Borgel, D.; Alhenc-Gelas, M.; Spek, C.A.; de Visser, M.C.H.; Gandrille, S.; Reitsma, P.H.

    2009-01-01

    Hereditary protein S (PS) deficiency is an autosomal disorder caused by mutations in the PS gene (PROS1). Conventional PCR-based mutation detection identifies PROS1 point mutations in approximately 50% of the cases. To verify if gross copy number variations (CNVs) are often present in point mutation

  1. Site-level evaluation of satellite-based global terrestrial gross primary production and net primary production monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David P. Turner; William D. Ritts; Warren B. Cohen; Thomas K. Maeirsperger; Stith T. Gower; Al A. Kirschbaum; Steve W. Runnings; Maosheng Zhaos; Steven C. Wofsy; Allison L. Dunn; Beverly E. Law; John L. Campbell; Walter C. Oechel; Hyo Jung Kwon; Tilden P. Meyers; Eric E. Small; Shirley A. Kurc; John A. Gamon

    2005-01-01

    Operational monitoring of global terrestrial gross primary production (GPP) and net primary production (NPP) is now underway using imagery from the satellite-borne Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor. Evaluation of MODIS GPP and NPP products will require site-level studies across a range of biomes, with close attention to numerous scaling...

  2. Interobserver Agreement of the Gross Motor Function Classification System in an Ambulant Population of Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Brona C.; Kerr, Claire; Parkes, Jackie

    2007-01-01

    Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) level was reported by three independent assessors in a population of children with cerebral palsy (CP) aged between 4 and 18 years (n=184; 112 males, 72 females; mean age 10y 10mo [SD 3y 7mo]). A software algorithm also provided a computed GMFCS level from a regional CP registry. Participants had…

  3. The relationship between spasticity in young children (18 months of age with cerebral palsy and their gross motor function development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verschuren Olaf

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is thought that spasticity has an influence on the development of functional motor abilities among children with cerebral palsy (CP. The extent to which spasticity is associated with the change in motor abilities in young children with CP has not been established. The objective of this study is to evaluate the relationship of initial spasticity in young children with CP and their gross motor function development over one year. Methods Fifty children with CP aged 18 months, GMFCS-levels I-V participated in a longitudinal observational study. Change in gross motor functioning (GMFM-66 was measured over one year. The level of spasticity measured at the first assessment was determined with the Modified Tardieu Scale in three muscle groups of the lower extremity (adductor muscles, the hamstrings and the m. gastrocnemius. The Spasticity Total Score per child was calculated with a maximum score of 12 points. Results Spearman's Rho Correlation (-0.28 revealed a statistically significant relationship (p Conclusion Our findings indicate that when measured over one year, spasticity is marginally related to gross motor function development in infants with CP. The initial level of spasticity is only one of the many child, environmental and family factors that determines gross motor development of a young child with CP.

  4. Importance of Adequate Gross Anatomy Education: The Impact of a Structured Pelvic Anatomy Course during Gynecology Fellowship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisler, Christine Aminda

    2011-01-01

    Medical education underwent standardization at the turn of the 20th century and remained fairly consistent until recently. Incorporation of a patient-centered or case-based curriculum is believed to reinforce basic science concepts. One negative aspect is a reduction in hours spent with cadaveric dissection in the gross anatomy laboratory. For…

  5. The Early Devonian eurypterid Grossopterus overathi (Gross, 1933 from Overath, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Dunlop

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The holotype and only known specimen of the eurypterid (Chelicerata: Eurypterida Grossopterus overathi (Gross, 1933 from the Early Devonian (Siegennian of Overath, north-west Germany is redescribed. Based on comparisons with other eurypterid taxa we interpret G. overathi as having a well-preserved type B genital appendage, which exhibits two apomorphic character states: (1 a furca fused into a single, spatulate plate and (2 marginal serrations near the distal end of the appendage. Grossopterus is assigned to the family Hughmilleriidae, but its carapace resembles that of the larger Slimonia acuminata (Salter, 1856 (Slimoniidae. A provisional phylogenetic analysis resolves Grossopterus as the sister group of (Slimonia + Pterygotoidea. The large pterygotids, in particular, have been suggested as significant predators on early vertebrates and hypotheses about eurypterid-fish co-evolution are reviewed, in particular Romer's proposal that dermal armour in fish evolved in response to eurypterid predation. Der Holotyp – das einzig bekannte Exemplar – des Eurypteriden (Chelicerata: Eurypterida Grossopterus overathi (Gross, 1933 aus dem frühen Devon (Siegennian von Overath im nordwestlichen Deutschland wird wieder beschrieben. Basierend auf Vergleichen mit anderen Eurypteriden-Taxa interpretieren wir G. overathi als Träger eines Typ B-Anhanges, wobei zwei apomorphe Merkmalszustände vorliegen: (1 die Furca ist zu einer einzigen, spatelförmigen Platte verschmolzen, und (2 der Seitenrand nahe des distalen Endes des Genitalanhanges ist gezähnt. Grossopterus wird zur Familie der Hughmilleriidae gestellt, aber der prosomale Dorsalschild ähnelt der größeren Slimonia acuminata (Salter, 1856 (Slimoniidae. Eine vorläufige phylogenetische Analyse zeigt Grossopterus als Schwesteruppe von (Slimonia + Pterygotoidea auf. Besonders die großen Pterygotiden wurden als signifikante Prädatoren von frühen Vertebraten gehandelt, und Hypothesen zur Eurypteriden

  6. The effect of urea fertiliser formulations on gross nitrogen transformations in a permanent grassland soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harty, Mary; Mueller, Christoph; Laughlin, Ronnie; Watson, Catherine; Richards, Karl; Lanigan, Gary; Forrestal, Patrick; McGeough, Karen

    2015-04-01

    Introduction By 2050, the current food production rate will need to increase by 70 % in order to meet the needs of the projected world population (FAO, 2014). Under the climate change response bill, Ireland has a target to reduce GHG emissions by 20% by 2020. Agriculture was responsible for almost one third of Ireland's overall Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions in 2012, with 39% of these emissions arising from chemical/organic fertilisers in the form of nitrous oxide (N2O). N2O losses represent environmental damage through ozone depletion and global warming as well as acidification, eutrophication, surface and groundwater contamination and it also represents financial loss to the farmer (Cameron 2013). The contradictory aims of increasing food production while reducing GHG emissions will require an adjustment to the current system of agricultural production. As part of a larger study evaluating the switching of nitrogen (N) fertiliser formulation to minimise N2O emissions, (from calcium ammonium nitrate (CAN) to urea based formulations), this experiment examined the effect of urea based fertiliser formulations on gross N transformations in a permanent pasture soil at Hillsborough, Co. Down, Northern Ireland. Study Design/Methodology A laboratory incubation study was undertaken, to examine the effect of urea in various combinations with two types of inhibitors on soil N dynamics and N2O and N2 emissions. The inhibitors examined were the urease inhibitor N-(butyl) thiophosphoric triamide (nBTPT) and the nitrification inhibitor dicyandiamide (DCD). The fertiliser products were labelled with 15N and the soil was incubated at 15 ° C at a water filled pore space of 65%. Soil mineral N (urea, NH4+, NO2- and NO3-) concentrations, gaseous losses (N2O and N2) and the 15N enrichments of NH4+, NO2-, NO3-, N2O and N2were analysed on 8 separate occasions over 25 days. An adapted numerical 15N tracing model (Müller et al., 2007) was used to quantify the effect of the inhibitors on

  7. HISTOPATHOLOGICAL AND GROSS ANATOMICAL STUDY OF HUMAN PLACENTA IN PATIENTS WITH PREECLAMPSIA

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    Vimla Kumari

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The beginning reason for preeclampsia is the placenta. Preeclampsia starts to lessen with the conveyance of the placenta and can happen without a baby, however, with the nearness of trophoblast tissue with hydatidiform moles. In perspective of this, investigation of the placenta ought to give knowledge into the pathophysiology of preeclampsia. In this presentation, we look at placental pathological and anatomical changes with preeclampsia and Foetal Development Limitation (FGR. No doubt, this examination ought to enlighten as both conditions are associated with comparably unusual placentation yet just in preeclampsia is there a maternal pathophysiological disorder. Comparative bits of knowledge about ahead of schedule and late onset preeclampsia ought to likewise be given by such information. METHODS A prospective study was led in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Government Medical College, Bettiah. 250 instances of pregnancy actuated hypertension were concentrated on. The cases with systolic circulatory strain more prominent than 130 mmHg, diastolic pulse more noteworthy than 90 mmHg on two estimations dismantled 6 hours in relationship with histological finding were incorporated into the study. These cases were further separated as mild preeclampsia if the diastolic circulatory strain was ≤100 mmHg and as moderate preeclampsia if the diastolic pulse was 110 mmHg. Extreme cases were characterised if the systolic pulse - ≥160 mmHg, diastolic circulatory strain ≥110 mmHg. Maternal and foetal result was considered and post conveyance placenta was sent for histopathologic examination. Gross anatomical and microscopic examination was done and discoveries were connected with the seriousness of PIH. RESULTS Out of 250 cases, there were 156 instances of mild PIH, 53 moderate and 41 were of severe PIH. On gross examination (Table 1, the mean weight of placenta was 429.9 gm in gentle instances of PIH, 364 gm in moderate

  8. A STUDY ON GROSS FEATURES AND DIFFERENT POSITIONS OF ADULTS VERMIFORM APPENDIX

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    Kasukurthy Ashalatha

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Appendix is derived from a Latin word (Pendere meaning at the end. It is a narrow worm-like tubular diverticulum, which arises from the posteromedial wall of caecum about 2 cms below the ileocaecal junction and is suspended by a peritoneal fold known as mesoappendix. The body of appendix is kinked on itself where the free border of mesoappendix ends. Hence, it is coiled like a worm and so is named the ‘Vermiform Appendix’. The appendix is taken up for study in view of its different positions, varying anatomical relations, and the clinical complications when pathologically affected. The relations, measurements, positions, and arterial supply were studied by gross dissection in 61 specimens (Adults – 33 and foetuses – 28 from the population of Krishna and Warangal districts of Andhra Pradesh. MATERIALS AND METHODS The present study was done on 31 adult specimens, out the length of the appendix, the diameter of the appendix at base, length of the caecum, length of ascending colon were measured. The position of the appendix was classified as per Datta’s classification. Mesenteric attachment to the vermiform appendix were noted. Even arterial supply of the appendix was studied. RESULTS Length of the appendix in adults varied from 2.00 to 25.00 cm as described by different authors, the average being 3.00 to 12.50 cm. The length of the caecum in adults were ranging from 5 to 8 cm. In the present study, the length of appendix was 14.4 cm The origin of the appendicular artery was from inferior division of ileocolic artery. A single appendicular artery is observed in all the specimens almost coinciding with studies of Michels et al. In the present study, in adults, the mesoappendix was extending to the tip in 19 specimens and extending to a variable extent in 14 specimens. Regarding the positions, in adults, they were retrocaecal, retrocolic, and subcaecal positions were 21.21% and splenic, promontory, and pelvic positions were 78

  9. Suppressed gross erosion of high-temperature lithium via rapid deuterium implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, T.; Jaworski, M. A.; Chen, M.; Carter, E. A.; Kaita, R.; Stotler, D. P.; De Temmerman, G.; Morgan, T. W.; van den Berg, M. A.; van der Meiden, H. J.

    2016-01-01

    Lithium-coated high-Z substrates are planned for use in the NSTX-U divertor and are a candidate plasma facing component (PFC) for reactors, but it remains necessary to characterize the gross Li erosion rate under high plasma fluxes (>1023 m-2 s-1), typical for the divertor region. In this work, a realistic model for the compositional evolution of a Li/D layer is developed that incorporates first principles molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of D diffusion in liquid Li. Predictions of Li erosion from a mixed Li/D material are also developed that include formation of lithium deuteride (LiD). The erosion rate of Li from LiD is predicted to be significantly lower than from pure Li. This prediction is tested in the Magnum-PSI linear plasma device at ion fluxes of 1023-1024 m-2 s-1 and Li surface temperatures  ⩽800 °C. Li/LiD coatings ranging in thickness from 0.2 to 500 μm are studied. The dynamic D/Li concentrations are inferred via diffusion simulations. The pure Li erosion rate remains greater than Langmuir Law evaporation, as expected. For mixed-material Li/LiD surfaces, the erosion rates are reduced, in good agreement with modelling in almost all cases. These results imply that the temperature limit for a Li-coated PFC may be significantly higher than previously imagined.

  10. Relationship between time use in physical activity and gross motor performance of preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ling-Yi; Cherng, Rong-Ju; Chen, Yung-Jung

    2017-02-01

    Participation in physical activity is an important health concern for children in most Western communities, but little is known about Asian children's participation. The purpose of this study was to extend the current knowledge on how much time preschool children in Taiwan spend on physical activity, to examine its relationship with gross motor performance and to provide information on the establishment of physical activity guidelines for preschool children in Taiwan. Two hundred and sixty-four children between 36 and 71 months old were recruited from a university medical centre and from preschools in Taiwan. The primary outcomes were measured using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-Second Edition and the modified Preschool-aged Children's Physical Activity Questionnaire. 89.8% of our participants did not meet the recommendations from the National Association for Sport and Physical Education for time spent in physical activities. Participants spent an average of 155 minutes/week in low intensity physical activity. Children with motor difficulties tended to spend less time on physical activity than did typically developing children. The mother's level of education and whether the child was overweight or obese correlated with how much time the children spent on physical activity. We conclude that paediatric occupational therapists should explain to parents the relationship between physical activity and motor development and advocate for developmentally positive physical activities for preschool children. Physical activity guidelines for Taiwanese preschoolers should be established immediately. © 2016 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  11. Quenched dynamics of two-dimensional solitons and vortices in the Gross-Pitaevskii equation

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Qian-Yong; Malomed, Boris A

    2012-01-01

    We consider a two-dimensional (2D) counterpart of the experiment that led to the creation of quasi-1D bright solitons in Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) [Nature 417, 150--153 (2002)]. We start by identifying the ground state of the 2D Gross-Pitaevskii equation for repulsive interactions, with a harmonic-oscillator (HO) trap, and with or without an optical lattice (OL). Subsequently, we switch the sign of the interaction to induce interatomic attraction and monitor the ensuing dynamics. Regions of the stable self-trapping and catastrophic collapse of 2D fundamental solitons are identified in the parameter plane of the OL strength and BEC norm. The increase of the OL strength expands the persistence domain for the solitons to larger norms. For single-charged solitary vortices, in addition to the survival and collapse regimes, an intermediate one is identified, where the vortex resists the collapse but loses its structure, transforming into a fundamental soliton. The same setting may also be implemented in the ...

  12. Multiscale analyses of solar-induced florescence and gross primary production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Jeffrey D.; Griffis, Timothy J.; Baker, John M.; Frankenberg, Christian; Verma, Manish; Yuen, Karen

    2017-01-01

    Solar-induced fluorescence (SIF) has shown great promise for probing spatiotemporal variations in terrestrial gross primary production (GPP), the largest component flux of the global carbon cycle. However, scale mismatches between SIF and ground-based GPP have posed challenges toward fully exploiting these data. We used SIF obtained at high spatial sampling rates and resolution by NASA's Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 satellite to elucidate GPP-SIF relationships across space and time in the U.S. Corn Belt. Strong linear scaling functions (R2 ≥ 0.79) that were consistent across instantaneous to monthly time scales were obtained for corn ecosystems and for a heterogeneous landscape based on tall tower observations. Although the slope of the corn function was 56% higher than for the landscape, SIF was similar for corn (C4) and soybean (C3). Taken together, there is strong observational evidence showing robust linear GPP-SIF scaling that is sensitive to plant physiology but insensitive to the spatial or temporal scale.

  13. Content validity and reliability of test of gross motor development in Chilean children

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    Marcelo Cano-Cappellacci

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To validate a Spanish version of the Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD-2 for the Chilean population. METHODS Descriptive, transversal, non-experimental validity and reliability study. Four translators, three experts and 92 Chilean children, from five to 10 years, students from a primary school in Santiago, Chile, have participated. The Committee of Experts has carried out translation, back-translation and revision processes to determine the translinguistic equivalence and content validity of the test, using the content validity index in 2013. In addition, a pilot implementation was achieved to determine test reliability in Spanish, by using the intraclass correlation coefficient and Bland-Altman method. We evaluated whether the results presented significant differences by replacing the bat with a racket, using T-test. RESULTS We obtained a content validity index higher than 0.80 for language clarity and relevance of the TGMD-2 for children. There were significant differences in the object control subtest when comparing the results with bat and racket. The intraclass correlation coefficient for reliability inter-rater, intra-rater and test-retest reliability was greater than 0.80 in all cases. CONCLUSIONS The TGMD-2 has appropriate content validity to be applied in the Chilean population. The reliability of this test is within the appropriate parameters and its use could be recommended in this population after the establishment of normative data, setting a further precedent for the validation in other Latin American countries.

  14. A vortex filament tracking method for the Gross-Pitaevskii model of a superfluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villois, Alberto; Krstulovic, Giorgio; Proment, Davide; Salman, Hayder

    2016-10-01

    We present an accurate and robust numerical method to track quantised vortex lines in a superfluid described by the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. By utilising the pseudo-vorticity field of the associated complex scalar order parameter of the superfluid, we are able to track the topological defects of the superfluid and reconstruct the vortex lines which correspond to zeros of the field. Throughout, we assume our field is periodic to allow us to make extensive use of the Fourier representation of the field and its derivatives in order to retain spectral accuracy. We present several case studies to test the precision of the method which include the evaluation of the curvature and torsion of a torus vortex knot, and the measurement of the Kelvin wave spectrum of a vortex line and a vortex ring. The method we present makes no a priori assumptions on the geometry of the vortices and is therefore applicable to a wide range of systems such as a superfluid in a turbulent state that is characterised by many vortex rings coexisting with sound waves. This allows us to track the positions of the vortex filaments in a dense turbulent vortex tangle and extract statistical information about the distribution of the size of the vortex rings and the inter-vortex separations. In principle, the method can be extended to track similar topological defects arising in other physical systems.

  15. Gross anatomy of the intestine and its mesentery in the nutria (Myocastor coypus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, W; Lima, M; Bielli, A

    2008-11-01

    The intestines and mesentery of the nutria (Myocastor coypus) have not been fully described. In the present study 30 adult nutrias were studied using gross dissection. The small intestine was divided into the duodenum, jejunum and ileum as usual. The duodenum started at the pylorus with a cranial portion, which dilated forming a duodenal ampulla. The ileum was located within the concavity of the caecum and attached to the coiled caecum by means of the iliocaecal fold. The ascending colon had two ansae, one proximal and one distal. The proximal ansa was fixed to the caecum by the caecocolic fold. The base of the caecum and a short proximal part of the ascending colon belonging to the proximal ansa were attached to the mesoduodenum descendens. The distal ansa of the ascending colon had a proximal part which was sacculated and a distal part which was smooth. The two parts of the distal ansa of the ascending colon were parallel and joined by a flexure of variable localisation. The smooth part of the distal ansa of the ascending colon was attached to the initial portion of the descending colon by a peritoneal fold. The short transverse colon was directly attached to the mesoduodenum and greater omentum. In conclusion, we have described the anatomy of the intestines of the nutria and its mesentery in detail, and provided a nomenclature list adapted to the Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria.

  16. Cytological conditions in root tip meristem after gross antagonism of phenylmercuric poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacFarlane, E.W.E.

    1953-01-01

    The dividing cells of onion root tips were protected by yeast extract, glutathione and cysteine in excess against PMOH 3.4 x 10/sup -5/ M which alone caused clumping of chromosomes in an hour's exposure. Spindle inhibition was not eliminated, but in concentrations of PMOH and of PMN near 10/sup -5/ M it was delayed or more rapidly overcome. The effect was similar to an 80 to 95% reduction in the concentration of the mercurials. A day after antagonism of PMOH 3.4 x 10/sup -5/ M with cysteine 8 x 10/sup -4/ M for an hour, a majority of dividing cells showed mitotic abnormalities characteristic of narcotic concentrations of PMOH. A few showed arrest of metaphase chromosomes on the equator as produced by cysteine alone. Successful antagonism of lethal concentrations of PMN in prolonged exposure was accompanied by accumulation of blocked metaphases. Spindle formation was renewed after return to tap water. In all experiments, even when gross effects were practically eliminated by antagonism with thiols, radiomimetic effects (chromosome fragments and chromatic bridges) appeared in dividing cells after exposure. Effective concentrations of all antagonists by themselves caused mitotic and chromosomal abnormalities. 17 references 2 tables.

  17. Avoiding the Limits to Growth: Gross National Happiness in Bhutan as a Model for Sustainable Development

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    Jeremy S. Brooks

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In their 30-year update to Limits to Growth, Meadows et al. call for a vision of sustainable development that includes systemic change brought on by new perspectives on the purpose of development, new ways of measuring progress, and changes in social norms. Here, I discuss Meadows et al.’s work in the context of the literature on sustainable development and well-being as well as the development trajectory of Bhutan. I suggest that Bhutan’s development approach mirrors Meadows et al.’s recommendations and provides one model for sustainable development. The ideal of maximizing Gross National Happiness (GNH exemplifies Bhutan’s commitment to holistic development and dovetails with arguments about the shortcomings of approaches that emphasize economic growth. I provide examples of how GNH has been put into practice, describe how happiness is being measured, and discuss the emergence of social norms and a shared Bhutanese identity that may contribute to sustainable development. Bhutan’s development success suggests that an alternative to growth-centric development is viable. However, while Bhutan’s standard of living has increased, the country faces challenges, the most important of which may be their ability to manage rising consumption levels. Importantly, other nations have begun measuring well-being and considering similar development approaches.

  18. Gross domestic product, science interest, and science achievement: a person × nation interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker-Drob, Elliot M; Cheung, Amanda K; Briley, Daniel A

    2014-11-01

    Maximizing science achievement is a critical target of educational policy and has important implications for national and international economic and technological competitiveness. Previous research has identified both science interest and socioeconomic status (SES) as robust predictors of science achievement, but little research has examined their joint effects. In a data set drawn from approximately 400,000 high school students from 57 countries, we documented large Science Interest × SES and Science Interest × Per Capita Gross Domestic Product (GDP) interactions in the prediction of science achievement. Student interest in science is a substantially stronger predictor of science achievement in higher socioeconomic contexts and in higher-GDP nations. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that in higher-opportunity contexts, motivational factors play larger roles in learning and achievement. They add to the growing body of evidence indicating that substantial cross-national differences in psychological effect sizes are not simply a logical possibility but, in many cases, an empirical reality. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Floating Offshore Wind in California: Gross Potential for Jobs and Economic Impacts from Two Future Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speer, Bethany [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Keyser, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tegen, Suzanne [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-04-18

    Construction of the first offshore wind farm in the United States began in 2015, using fixed platform structures that are appropriate for shallow seafloors, like those located off of the East Coast and mid-Atlantic. However, floating platforms, which have yet to be deployed commercially, will likely need to anchor to the deeper seafloor if deployed off of the West Coast. To analyze the employment and economic potential for floating offshore wind along the West Coast, the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) has commissioned the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to analyze two hypothetical, large-scale deployment scenarios for California: 16 GW of offshore wind by 2050 (Scenario A) and 10 GW of offshore wind by 2050 (Scenario B). The results of this analysis can be used to better understand the general scales of economic opportunities that could result from offshore wind development. Results show total state gross domestic product (GDP) impacts of $16.2 billion in Scenario B or $39.7 billion in Scenario A for construction; and $3.5 billion in Scenario B or $7.9 billion in Scenario A for the operations phases.

  20. Impact of disaster-related mortality on gross domestic product in the WHO African Region

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    Aldis William

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disaster-related mortality is a growing public health concern in the African Region. These deaths are hypothesized to have a significantly negative effect on per capita gross domestic product (GDP. The objective of this study was to estimate the loss in GDP attributable to natural and technological disaster-related mortality in the WHO African Region. Methods The impact of disaster-related mortality on GDP was estimated using double-log econometric model and cross-sectional data on various Member States in the WHO African Region. The analysis was based on 45 of the 46 countries in the Region. The data was obtained from various UNDP and World Bank publications. Results The coefficients for capital (K, educational enrolment (EN, life expectancy (LE and exports (X had a positive sign; while imports (M and disaster mortality (DS were found to impact negatively on GDP. The above-mentioned explanatory variables were found to have a statistically significant effect on GDP at 5% level in a t-distribution test. Disaster mortality of a single person was found to reduce GDP by US$0.01828. Conclusions We have demonstrated that disaster-related mortality has a significant negative effect on GDP. Thus, as policy-makers strive to increase GDP through capital investment, export promotion and increased educational enrolment, they should always keep in mind that investments made in the strengthening of national capacity to mitigate the effects of national disasters expeditiously and effectively will yield significant economic returns.

  1. Happiness and age in European adults: The moderating role of gross domestic product per capita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Jessica; Robinson, Oliver; Thompson, Trevor

    2015-09-01

    Studies of happiness levels across the life span have found support for two rival hypotheses. The positivity effect states that as people get older, they increasingly attend to positive information, which implies that happiness remains stable or increases with age, whereas the U-shaped hypothesis posits a curvilinear shape resulting from a dip during midlife. Both have been presented as potentially universal hypotheses that relate to cognitive and/or biological causes. The current study examined the happiness-age relationship across 29 European nations (N = 46,301) to explore whether it is moderated by national wealth, as indexed by Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita. It was found that eudaimonic and hedonic happiness remained relatively stable across the life span only in the most affluent nations; in poorer nations, there was either a fluctuating or steady age-associated decline. These findings challenge the cultural universality of the happiness-age relationship and suggest that models of how age relates to happiness should include the socioeconomic level of analysis. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Global Dental Research Productivity and Its Association With Human Development, Gross National Income, and Political Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allareddy, Veerasathpurush; Allareddy, Veeratrishul; Rampa, Sankeerth; Nalliah, Romesh P; Elangovan, Satheesh

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the associations between country level factors (such as human development, economic productivity, and political stability) and their dental research productivity. This study is a cross-sectional analysis of bibliometric data from Scopus search engine. Human Development Index (HDI), Gross National Income per capita (GNI), and Failed State Index measures were the independent variables. Outcomes were "Total number of publications (articles or articles in press) in the field of dentistry" and "Total number of publications in the field of dentistry per million population." Non-parametric tests were used to examine the association between the independent and outcome variables. During the year 2013, a total of 11,952 dental research articles were published across the world. The top 5 publishing countries were United States, Brazil, India, Japan, and United Kingdom. "Very High" HDI countries had significantly higher number of total dental research articles and dental research articles per million population when compared to the "High HDI," "Medium HDI," and "Low HDI" countries (p human development and economic development of a country are linearly correlated with dental research productivity. Dental research productivity also increases with increasing political stability of a country. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. [Effect of gross saponins of Tribulus terrestris on cardiocytes impaired by adriamycin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuang; Li, Hong; Xu, Hui; Yang, Shi-Jie

    2010-01-01

    This study is to observe the protection of gross saponins of Tribulus terrestris (GSTT) on cardiocytes impaired by adriamycin (ADR) and approach its mechanism of action. Cardiocytes of neonate rat were cultivated for 72 hours and divided into normal control group, model (ADR 2 mg x L(-1)) group, and GSTT (100, 30, and 10 mg x L(-1)) groups. MTT colorimetric method was deployed to detect cardiocyte survival rate, activities of CK, LDH, AST, SOD, MDA and NO were detected, and apoptosis was detected with flow cytometry. Effect of GSTT on caspase-3 was detected with Western blotting. Compared with control group, contents of CK, LDH, AST, MDA and NO were increased, and activity of SOD was reduced (P < 0.05, P < 0.01, P < 0.001) by ADR. Numbers of survival cells were increased (P < 0.05, P < 0.001), contents of CK, LDH, AST, MDA and NO were decreased, and activity of SOD was increased (P < 0.05, P < 0.01, P < 0.001) by GSTT (100 and 30 mg x L(-1)). Apoptosis of cardiocytes and concentration of caspase-3 can be reduced by GSTT (100 and 30 mg x L(-1)). GSTT can protect cardiocytes impaired by ADR, which are possible involved with its effect of resisting oxygen free radical.

  4. A multifactor approach to forecasting Romanian gross domestic product (GDP) in the short run

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armeanu, Daniel; Lache, Leonard; Panait, Mirela

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the application of a generalized dynamic factor model (GDFM) based on dynamic principal components analysis to forecasting short-term economic growth in Romania. We have used a generalized principal components approach to estimate a dynamic model based on a dataset comprising 86 economic and non-economic variables that are linked to economic output. The model exploits the dynamic correlations between these variables and uses three common components that account for roughly 72% of the information contained in the original space. We show that it is possible to generate reliable forecasts of quarterly real gross domestic product (GDP) using just the common components while also assessing the contribution of the individual variables to the dynamics of real GDP. In order to assess the relative performance of the GDFM to standard models based on principal components analysis, we have also estimated two Stock-Watson (SW) models that were used to perform the same out-of-sample forecasts as the GDFM. The results indicate significantly better performance of the GDFM compared with the competing SW models, which empirically confirms our expectations that the GDFM produces more accurate forecasts when dealing with large datasets. PMID:28742100

  5. Annual Gross Primary Production from Vegetation Indices: A Theoretically Sound Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Amparo Gilabert

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A linear relationship between the annual gross primary production (GPP and a PAR-weighted vegetation index is theoretically derived from the Monteith equation. A semi-empirical model is then proposed to estimate the annual GPP from commonly available vegetation indices images and a representative PAR, which does not require actual meteorological data. A cross validation procedure is used to calibrate and validate the model predictions against reference data. As the calibration/validation process depends on the reference GPP product, the higher the quality of the reference GPP, the better the performance of the semi-empirical model. The annual GPP has been estimated at 1-km scale from MODIS NDVI and EVI images for eight years. Two reference data sets have been used: an optimized GPP product for the study area previously obtained and the MOD17A3 product. Different statistics show a good agreement between the estimates and the reference GPP data, with correlation coefficient around 0.9 and relative RMSE around 20%. The annual GPP is overestimated in semiarid areas and slightly underestimated in dense forest areas. With the above limitations, the model provides an excellent compromise between simplicity and accuracy for the calculation of long time series of annual GPP.

  6. Excruciating Effect of Formaldehyde Exposure to Students in Gross Anatomy Dissection Laboratory

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    OG Avwioro

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Formaldehyde is extensively used for preservation of cadavers in departments of anatomy. However, it is a noxious chemical which may cause serious health problems.Objective: To assess the effect of exposure of medical students to formaldehyde at the Department of Anatomy, Niger Delta University, Nigeria. Methods: In a questionnaire-based study, 93 second-year medical students were surveyed at the Department of Human Anatomy, Niger Delta University, Nigeria. The average duration of exposure for each student in the dissection hall was 6 hr/wk. Participants with history of cough, respiratory or skin diseases were excluded from the study. Results: Out of 93 questionnaires distributed, 75 were completed and returned (response rate: 81%. Of 75 students, 58 (77% were strongly affected by unpleasant smell of formaldehyde. It was followed by “runny or congested nose” and “redness of the eyes.” “Skin-related diseases” was identified as the least ranked effect of formaldehyde.Conclusion: Due to the numerous health challenges that formaldehyde causes to students in the gross anatomy dissection laboratories, it cannot be considered as a suitable chemical for embalmment of cadaver for dissection.

  7. Multifunctionality of forestry as basis for creating gross innovational forestry product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolai Mikhailovich Bolshakov

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to theoretical and methodological issues of defining the essence, role and place of multifunctional forest economy (MFFE from the perspective of the scientific rationale of the state forest policy, which contributes to transference of the forest sector to the innovative basis with the emphasis on the regeneration issues. The system-regeneration approach is used as a methodological tool, which is the combination of principles and analysis of the forest sector as a complicated social-economical system based on the methodology of the regeneration process. On the basis of objective economic laws and regulations, a political-economic analysis is carried out to find out the system interrelation of the quality of forest resource use and productivity of social labour in the forest sector. Common features in the circulation of the functions of forestry capable of creating a special form of an innovation, gross innovational forestry product are identified. A model of a multifunctional forestry providing an opportunity to predict the characteristics of innovational products in complex systems is suggested. This model makes the basis for research of the innovative changes potentional for modernization of the innovative forest product.

  8. Integrating gross pathology into teaching of undergraduate medical science students using human cadavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalan, Vinod; Dissabandara, Lakal; Nirthanan, Selvanayagam; Forwood, Mark R; Lam, Alfred King-Yin

    2016-09-01

    Human cadavers offer a great opportunity for histopathology students for the learning and teaching of tissue pathology. In this study, we aimed to implement an integrated learning approach by using cadavers to enhance students' knowledge and to develop their skills in gross tissue identification, handling and dissection techniques. A total of 35 students enrolled in the undergraduate medical science program participated in this study. A 3-hour laboratory session was conducted that included an active exploration of cadaveric specimens to identify normal and pathological tissues as well as tissue dissection. The majority of the students strongly agreed that the integration of normal and morbid anatomy improved their understanding of tissue pathology. All the students either agreed or strongly agreed that this laboratory session was useful to improve their tissue dissection and instrument handling skills. Furthermore, students from both cohorts rated the session as very relevant to their learning and recommended that this approach be added to the existing histopathology curriculum. To conclude, an integrated cadaver-based practical session can be used effectively to enhance the learning experience of histopathology science students, as well as improving their manual skills of tissue treatment, instrument handling and dissection.

  9. Do collaborative practical tests encourage student-centered active learning of gross anatomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Rodney A; Cates, Tanya; White, Lloyd; Farchione, Davide

    2016-05-06

    Benefits of collaborative testing have been identified in many disciplines. This study sought to determine whether collaborative practical tests encouraged active learning of anatomy. A gross anatomy course included a collaborative component in four practical tests. Two hundred and seven students initially completed the test as individuals and then worked as a team to complete the same test again immediately afterwards. The relationship between mean individual, team, and difference (between team and individual) test scores to overall performance on the final examination (representing overall learning in the course) was examined using regression analysis. The overall mark in the course increased by 9% with a decreased failure rate. There was a strong relationship between individual score and final examination mark (P learning occurring during the collaborative testing and that weaker students gained the benefit from team marks without significant active learning taking place. This negative outcome may be due to insufficient encouragement of the active learning strategies that were expected to occur during the collaborative testing process. An improved understanding of the efficacy of collaborative assessment could be achieved through the inclusion of questionnaire based data to allow a better interpretation of learning outcomes. Anat Sci Educ 9: 231-237. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.

  10. Test of gross motor development-2 for Filipino children with intellectual disability: validity and reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capio, Catherine M; Eguia, Kathlynne F; Simons, Johan

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to examine aspects of validity and reliability of the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (TGMD-2) in Filipino children with intellectual disability. Content and construct validity were verified, as well as inter-rater and intra-rater reliability. Two paediatric physiotherapists tested 81 children with intellectual disability (mean age = 9.29 ± 2.71 years) on locomotor and object control skills. Analysis of covariance, confirmatory factor analysis and analysis of variance were used to test validity, while Cronbach's alpha, intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) and Bland-Altman plots were used to examine reliability. Age was a significant predictor of locomotor and object control scores (P = 0.004). The data fit the hypothesised two-factor model with fit indices as follows: χ(2) = 33.525, DF = 34, P = 0.491, χ(2)/DF = 0.986. As hypothesised, gender was a significant predictor for object control skills (P = 0.038). Participants' mean scores were significantly below mastery (locomotor, P children with intellectual disability.

  11. The Potential of Carbonyl Sulfide as a Tracer for Gross Primary Productivity at Flux Tower Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blonquist, J.; Montzka, S. A.; Yakir, D.; Desai, A. R.; Dragoni, D.; Griffis, T. J.; Monson, R. K.; Munger, J. W.; Scott, R. L.; Bowling, D. R.

    2010-12-01

    Regional/continental scale studies of atmospheric carbonyl sulfide (OCS) seasonal dynamics and leaf level studies of plant OCS uptake have shown a close relationship to CO2 dynamics and uptake, suggesting potential for OCS as a tracer for gross primary productivity (GPP). Canopy CO2 and OCS differences (mole fraction within canopy minus that above canopy) at a temperate deciduous forest (Harvard Forest AmeriFlux site) were analyzed relative to net ecosystem exchange (NEE) and GPP, respectively. Canopy CO2 and OCS vertical gradients (CO2 and OCS differences divided by within and above canopy measurement height differences) were used to calculate ecosystem relative uptake (ERU; relative canopy OCS gradient divided by relative canopy CO2 gradient, where relative gradients are gradients normalized by above canopy mole fractions), from which GPP was estimated using an equation that assumes OCS follows the same physical pathway as CO2 into plant leaves and where GPP / NEE was proportional to OCS gradient / CO2 gradient. Additionally, canopy CO2 differences from five other AmeriFlux sites were analyzed, and OCS differences were projected from these differences (via an assumed ERU) to further evaluate OCS as a potential GPP tracer. At Harvard Forest, canopy CO2 differences were related to NEE (y = 0.041x + 0.046, r2 = 0.14, P ERU is potentially measurable with current grab-sample-based OCS measurement capabilities and may provide an alternative means of estimating GPP at flux tower sites.

  12. Estimation of gross primary production of the Amazon-Cerrado transitional forest by remote sensing techniques

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    Maísa Caldas Souza

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The gross primary production (GPP of ecosystems is an important variable in the study of global climate change. Generally, the GPP has been estimated by micrometeorological techniques. However, these techniques have a high cost of implantation and maintenance, making the use of orbital sensor data an option to be evaluated. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer MOD17A2 product and the vegetation photosynthesis model (VPM to predict the GPP of the Amazon-Cerrado transitional forest. The GPP predicted by MOD17A2 (GPP MODIS and VPM (GPP VPM were validated with the GPP estimated by eddy covariance (GPP EC. The GPP MODIS, GPP VPM and GPP EC have similar seasonality, with higher values in the wet season and lower in the dry season. However, the VPM performed was better than the MOD17A2 to estimate the GPP, due to use local climatic data for predict the light use efficiency, while the MOD17A2 use a global circulation model and the lookup table of each vegetation type to estimate the light use efficiency.

  13. Kinetic Thomas-Fermi solutions of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation

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    Ölschläger, M.; Wirth, G.; Smith, C. Morais; Hemmerich, A.

    2009-04-01

    Approximate solutions of the Gross-Pitaevskii (GP) equation, obtained upon neglection of the kinetic energy, are well known as Thomas-Fermi solutions. They are characterized by the compensation of the local potential by the collisional energy. In this article we consider exact solutions of the GP-equation with this property and definite values of the kinetic energy, which suggests the term "kinetic Thomas-Fermi" (KTF) solutions. Despite their formal simplicity, KTF-solutions can possess complex current density fields with unconventional topology. We point out that a large class of light-shift potentials gives rise to KTF-solutions. As elementary examples, we consider one-dimensional and two-dimensional optical lattice scenarios, obtained by means of the superposition of two, three and four laser beams, and discuss the stability properties of the corresponding KTF-solutions. A general method is proposed to excite two-dimensional KTF-solutions in experiments by means of time-modulated light-shift potentials.

  14. Increasing Medical Student Exposure to IR through Integration of IR into the Gross Anatomy Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePietro, Daniel M; Kiefer, Ryan M; Redmond, Jonas W; Workman, Alan D; Nadolski, Gregory J; Gade, Terence P; Trerotola, Scott O; Hunt, Stephen J

    2017-10-01

    To compare medical student knowledge of and interest in interventional radiology (IR) before and after the integration of an IR lecture series within the gross anatomy course. Four elective IR lectures were scheduled to coincide with the relevant anatomy dissection curriculum. Anonymous surveys were distributed to 146 students before and after the lectures regarding students' knowledge of and interest in IR, responsibilities of an IR physician, and IR training pathways. Those who did not attend served as controls. Response rates were 67% (n = 98) in the prelecture group, 55% (n = 22) in the group who attended the lecture, and 28% (n = 30) in the control group. A total of 73% of the prelecture group reported little knowledge of IR compared with other specialties. This decreased to 27% in those who attended the lecture (P attended believed they had more knowledge of IR than any other specialty, compared with 7% of controls (P value not significant) and 2% of the prelecture group (P attendance could name a significantly greater number of IR procedures (mean, 1.82) than the prelecture group (mean, 0.57; P attended would consider a career in IR, compared with 24% in the prelecture group and 33% in the control group (P attended had knowledge of the IR residency, compared with 5% in the prelecture group and 33% in the control group (P students about IR and generating interest in the field. Copyright © 2017 SIR. All rights reserved.

  15. Penetrance and clinical consequences of a gross SDHB deletion in a large family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solis, D C; Burnichon, N; Timmers, H J L M; Raygada, M J; Kozupa, A; Merino, M J; Makey, D; Adams, K T; Venisse, A; Gimenez-Roqueplo, A-P; Pacak, K

    2009-04-01

    Mutations in the gene encoding subunit B of the mitochondrial enzyme succinate dehydrogenase (SDHB) are inherited in an autosomal dominant manner and are associated with hereditary paraganglioma (PGL) and pheochromocytoma. The phenotype of patients with SDHB point mutations has been previously described. However, the phenotype and penetrance of gross SDHB deletions have not been well characterized as they are rarely described. The objective was to describe the phenotype and estimate the penetrance of an exon 1 large SDHB deletion in one kindred. A retrospective and prospective study of 41 relatives across five generations was carried out. The main outcome measures were genetic testing, clinical presentations, plasma catecholamines and their O-methylated metabolites. Of the 41 mutation carriers identified, 11 were diagnosed with PGL, 12 were found to be healthy carriers after evaluation, and 18 were reportedly healthy based on family history accounts. The penetrance of PGL related to the exon 1 large SDHB deletion in this family was estimated to be 35% by age 40. Variable expressivity of the phenotype associated with a large exon 1 SDHB deletion was observed, including low penetrance, diverse primary PGL tumor locations, and malignant potential.

  16. Gross and histologic features of gastritis due to Ophidascaris arndti in tropical rattlesnakes ( Crotalus durissus

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    É.M. Mello

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The tropical rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus is a snake of great importance for biomedical industry since its poison is used for the production of antiophidic serum and researches. Several conditions related to animal health, such as diseases and parasites, which can promote the reduction of poison production by these snakes should be investigated. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to characterize the gross and microscopic lesions related to the presence of Ophidascaris arndti in stomachs of tropical rattlesnakes. The gastrointestinal tract of thirty-five South American rattlesnakes captured in Southeastern region of Brazil were analyzed and nineteen animals showed infestation by the parasites, found in the small intestine and, especially, in the stomach of the hosts. Grossly, lesions were characterized by mucosal ulcers occasionally associated with hemorrhage. Microscopic alterations included histiocytic granulomas, fibrosis, necrosis, and hemorrhage. Based on these findings, the diagnosis of a parasitic granulomatous disease was made. The lesions may be related to the cause of death in captivity snakes, since the lesions can promote secondary infections by opportunistic bacteria. Moreover, the intense inflammatory response accompanied by fibrosis may be related to poor functioning of the gastric snakes, which it may exhibit frequent regurgitation of the food.

  17. Estimating the gross budget of applied nitrogen and phosphorus in tea plantations

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    Chi-Feng Chen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available To increase crop yield, high fertilizer application rates have generally been used. The residual fertilizers potentially become a source of diffused pollution, and degrade soil and water quality. Such nonpoint source pollution is a major threat to reservoir eutrophication. The best management practices (BMPs are usually used to prevent eutrophication; however, the environmental distribution of the applied fertilizers has not been understood properly. This could lead to a biased assessment of the rational quantity of nitrogen and phosphorous applied and the selection of BMPs. A field investigation of 32 plantations and 4 forests in the Feitsui Reservoir watershed, Taiwan, was conducted. Storm runoff water and soils were sampled, and a mass balance was used to demonstrate the gross nutrient budget. The results showed that when applying fertilizers of 2700 kg ha−1 in tea plantations only 18.3% of applied nitrogen and 5.5% of applied phosphorus were utilized by tea plants. Less than 5% of applied phosphorus was released in storm runoff, and more than 90% remained in the field. Approximately 30% of the nitrogen was lost through storm runoff, and 52% was stored in the soil mass. Therefore, reducing fertilizer application was recommended as the principal BMP, and collecting and treating storm runoff was suggested for controlling nitrogen pollution. The current management of soil erosion is an efficient measure for controlling phosphorus pollution.

  18. Recent Changes in Terrestrial Gross Primary Productivity in Asia from 1982 to 2011

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    Kazuhito Ichii

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Past changes in gross primary productivity (GPP were assessed using historical satellite observations based on the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR onboard the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA satellite series and four terrestrial biosphere models to identify the trends and driving mechanisms related to GPP and NDVI in Asia. A satellite-based time-series data analysis showed that approximately 40% of the area has experienced a significant increase in the NDVI, while only a few areas have experienced a significant decreasing trend over the last 30 years. The increases in the NDVI are dominant in the sub-continental regions of Siberia, East Asia, and India. Simulations using the terrestrial biosphere models also showed significant increases in GPP, similar to the results for the NDVI, in boreal and temperate regions. A modeled sensitivity analysis showed that the increases in GPP are explained by increased temperature and precipitation in Siberia. Precipitation, solar radiation and CO2 fertilization are important factors in the tropical regions. However, the relative contributions of each factor to GPP changes are different among the models.

  19. Net primary production of forests: a constant fraction of gross primary production?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waring, R. H.; Landsberg, J. J.; Williams, M.

    1998-02-01

    Considerable progress has been made in our ability to model and measure annual gross primary production (GPP) by terrestrial vegetation. But challenges remain in estimating maintenance respiration (R(m)) and net primary production (NPP). To search for possible common relationships, we assembled annual carbon budgets from six evergreen and one deciduous forest in Oregon, USA, three pine plantations in New South Wales, Australia, a deciduous forest in Massachusetts, USA, and a Nothofagus forest on the South Island of New Zealand. At all 12 sites, a standard procedure was followed to estimate annual NPP of foliage, branches, stems, and roots, the carbon expended in synthesis of these organs (R(g)), their R(m), and that of previously produced foliage and sapwood in boles, branches, and large roots. In the survey, total NPP ranged from 120 to 1660 g C m(-2) year(-1), whereas the calculated fraction allocated to roots varied from 0.22 to 0.63. Comparative analysis indicated that the total NPP/GPP ratio was conservative (0.47 +/- 0.04 SD). This finding supports the possibility of greatly simplifying forest growth models. The constancy of the NPP/GPP ratio also provides an incentive to renew efforts to understand the environmental factors affecting partitioning of NPP above and belowground.

  20. Joint control of terrestrial gross primary productivity by plant phenology and physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jianyang; Niu, Shuli; Ciais, Philippe; Janssens, Ivan A; Chen, Jiquan; Ammann, Christof; Arain, Altaf; Blanken, Peter D; Cescatti, Alessandro; Bonal, Damien; Buchmann, Nina; Curtis, Peter S; Chen, Shiping; Dong, Jinwei; Flanagan, Lawrence B; Frankenberg, Christian; Georgiadis, Teodoro; Gough, Christopher M; Hui, Dafeng; Kiely, Gerard; Li, Jianwei; Lund, Magnus; Magliulo, Vincenzo; Marcolla, Barbara; Merbold, Lutz; Montagnani, Leonardo; Moors, Eddy J; Olesen, Jørgen E; Piao, Shilong; Raschi, Antonio; Roupsard, Olivier; Suyker, Andrew E; Urbaniak, Marek; Vaccari, Francesco P; Varlagin, Andrej; Vesala, Timo; Wilkinson, Matthew; Weng, Ensheng; Wohlfahrt, Georg; Yan, Liming; Luo, Yiqi

    2015-03-03

    Terrestrial gross primary productivity (GPP) varies greatly over time and space. A better understanding of this variability is necessary for more accurate predictions of the future climate-carbon cycle feedback. Recent studies have suggested that variability in GPP is driven by a broad range of biotic and abiotic factors operating mainly through changes in vegetation phenology and physiological processes. However, it is still unclear how plant phenology and physiology can be integrated to explain the spatiotemporal variability of terrestrial GPP. Based on analyses of eddy-covariance and satellite-derived data, we decomposed annual terrestrial GPP into the length of the CO2 uptake period (CUP) and the seasonal maximal capacity of CO2 uptake (GPPmax). The product of CUP and GPPmax explained >90% of the temporal GPP variability in most areas of North America during 2000-2010 and the spatial GPP variation among globally distributed eddy flux tower sites. It also explained GPP response to the European heatwave in 2003 (r(2) = 0.90) and GPP recovery after a fire disturbance in South Dakota (r(2) = 0.88). Additional analysis of the eddy-covariance flux data shows that the interbiome variation in annual GPP is better explained by that in GPPmax than CUP. These findings indicate that terrestrial GPP is jointly controlled by ecosystem-level plant phenology and photosynthetic capacity, and greater understanding of GPPmax and CUP responses to environmental and biological variations will, thus, improve predictions of GPP over time and space.