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Sample records for gross fluid production

  1. Sectoral contributions to Nigerian gross domestic product using a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences ... This study analyzed sectoral contributions to Gross Domestic Product by Agriculture, Industry and services ... KEYWORDS: Granger causality, Unit root, VAR model and sectoral contribution ...

  2. Gross municipal product: the design procedure and application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Vasilevich Kolechkov

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the actual problem to find the adequate methods to assess the economic performance of municipalities conditioned by their growing independence and role in the development of regional economy. Nowadays many researchers are working on the practical application and testing of various approaches to assessing theterritory economicresults based on thecalculation of gross municipal product (GМP. However, the development of methodological reasonable calculation tools is still at an early stage. In this article presents a simplified method of calculating the gross municipal product, an analysis of the dynamics and territorialindustrial structure GМP, implemented in terms of grouping areas GМP methods hierarchical cluster analysis of the economic characteristics of the obtained clustersbased on systematic occurring in the economic literature, methodological developments in the calculation of gross municipal product, determination of strengths and weaknesses of different methodological approaches

  3. GLOBALIZATION AND GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT CONSTRUCTION IN ASEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Sri Wahyudi Suliswanto

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available There is no more doubt about the importance of economic growth, which can be calculated fromGross Domestic Product (GDP. This research analyzes the role of globalization on GDP inASEAN-5 by estimating panel data. It uses a fixed effect approach to accommodate various characteristicsin the countries. To accommodate such variation, it assumes that the intercepts variesacross these countries, while the slopes remain similar. Based on the estimation result, it suggeststhat net export and foreign direct investment represent the globalization process. Both have positiveand significant influences on GDP in the corresponding countries.Keywords: Globalization, international trade, foreign direct investment, gross domestic productJEL classification numbers: E01, F51, F43

  4. Labor Absorption and Its Impact on Gross Regional Domestic Product

    OpenAIRE

    Made Ika Prastyadewi; Agus Suman; Devanto Shasta Pratomo

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the determinants of labor absorption in the trade, hotel and restaurant sector and its impact on Gross Regional Domestic Product/GRDP at Bali Province. This study is important due to the fact that the GRDP in this sector is the highest compared to other sector but the labor absorption is lower than the agriculture sector. This study used panel data comprising 9 regencies/cities at Bali Province in the period 2003-2009 including fixed effect model and ...

  5. Characterizing the development of sectoral gross domestic product composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Raphael; Spies, Michael; Reusser, Dominik E; Kropp, Jürgen P; Rybski, Diego

    2013-07-01

    We consider the sectoral composition of a country's gross domestic product (GDP), i.e., the partitioning into agrarian, industrial, and service sectors. Exploring a simple system of differential equations, we characterize the transfer of GDP shares between the sectors in the course of economic development. The model fits for the majority of countries providing four country-specific parameters. Relating the agrarian with the industrial sector, a data collapse over all countries and all years supports the applicability of our approach. Depending on the parameter ranges, country development exhibits different transfer properties. Most countries follow three of eight characteristic paths. The types are not random but show distinct geographic and development patterns.

  6. Labor Absorption and Its Impact on Gross Regional Domestic Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Made Ika Prastyadewi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to examine the determinants of labor absorption in the trade, hotel and restaurant sector and its impact on Gross Regional Domestic Product/GRDP at Bali Province. This study is important due to the fact that the GRDP in this sector is the highest compared to other sector but the labor absorption is lower than the agriculture sector. This study used panel data comprising 9 regencies/cities at Bali Province in the period 2003-2009 including fixed effect model and simultaneous equation model of Two-Stage Least Square. The results showed that GRDP, working age population, and the minimum wage have positive effect on employment, while the educated unemployment has no significant effect on the employment in the trade, hotel and restaurant sector. In addition, increases in employment and workers productivity have positive and significant effects the GRDP in the trade, hotel and restaurant sector at Bali Province.

  7. Specific features of measuring the ecologically adjusted gross regional product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douginets Ganna V.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article formulates a necessity of deepening and improvement of ecological and economic indicators and considers the existing indices and indicators of sustainable development. It conducts a comparative analysis of existing norms of calculation of the ecological tax and fees for environmental pollution. It marks main problems of nature management in Ukraine and their consequences, namely, negative impact on health of the population. It offers methods of measurement of the ecologically adjusted gross regional product (EGRP on the basis of improvement of the cost method. It analyses dependence of the regional welfare on the state of environment with the help of measuring the EGRP of Ukrainian regions. It studies the pressure on Ukrainian regions by components: pollution of aquatic environment, atmospheric air, land resources and rates of waste formation. It conducts grouping of regions by EGRP per capita with specification of positive and negative dynamics of the indicator.

  8. Stimulation of gross dimethylsulfide (DMS) production by solar radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galí, Martí; Saló, Violeta; Almeda, Rodrigo; Calbet, Albert; Simó, Rafel

    2011-08-01

    Oceanic gross DMS production (GP) exerts a fundamental control on the concentration and the sea-air flux of this climatically-active trace gas. However, it is a poorly constrained process, owing to the complexity of the microbial food web processes involved and their interplay with physical forcing, particularly with solar radiation. The “inhibitor method”, using dimethyldisulfide (DMDS) or other compounds to inhibit bacterial DMS consumption, has been frequently used to determine GP in dark incubations. In the work presented here, DMDS addition was optimized for its use in light incubations. By comparing simultaneous dark and light measurements of GP in meso- to ultraoligotrophic waters, we found a significant enhancement of GP in natural sunlight in 7 out of 10 experiments. Such stimulation, which was generally between 30 and 80% on a daily basis, occurred throughout contrasting microbial communities and oceanographic settings.

  9. World distribution of gross domestic product per-capita

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustos-Guajardo, R.; Moukarzel, Cristian F.

    2015-05-01

    It is shown that the world distribution of gross domestic products per capita (GDPpc) is well described by a trade-investment model that combines yard-sale (YS) exchange and random multiplicative noise (RMN). We first derive analytically the typical value w(r, t) of the ranked wealths for a system evolving under YS exchange and RMN. The resulting analytical expressions are fitted to data for the GDPpc of up to 200 countries, in the period 1960-2013. Our model fits the data significantly better than previously proposed approaches that consider either Noise or Trade alone. Analysis of the resulting values for the fitting parameters, and of their time dependence, suggests that: (a) International trade conditions have (from 1960 to 2008) a statistical bias towards favoring richer countries. (b) Biased international commerce is the main cause for the observed divergence of GDPpc values from 1960 to 2008. (c) After 2008, the distribution of GDPpc starts to converge, and the world product per capita stops growing.

  10. Stratospheric sulfate geoengineering enhances terrestrial gross primary productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, L.; Robock, A.; Tilmes, S.; Neely, R. R., III

    2015-09-01

    Stratospheric sulfate geoengineering could impact the terrestrial carbon cycle by enhancing the carbon sink. With an 8 Tg yr-1 injection of SO2 to balance a Representative Concentration Pathway 6.0 (RCP6.0) scenario, we conducted climate model simulations with the Community Earth System Model, with the Community Atmospheric Model 4 fully coupled to tropospheric and stratospheric chemistry (CAM4-chem). During the geoengineering period, as compared to RCP6.0, land-averaged downward visible diffuse radiation increased 3.2 W m-2 (11 %). The enhanced diffuse radiation combined with the cooling increased plant photosynthesis by 2.4 %, which could contribute to an additional 3.8 ± 1.1 Gt C yr-1 global gross primary productivity without nutrient limitation. This increase could potentially increase the land carbon sink. Suppressed plant and soil respiration due to the cooling would reduce natural land carbon emission and therefore further enhance the terrestrial carbon sink during the geoengineering period. This beneficial impact of stratospheric sulfate geoengineering would need to be balanced by a large number of potential risks in any future decisions about implementation of geoengineering.

  11. Stratospheric sulfate geoengineering enhances terrestrial gross primary productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Xia

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Stratospheric sulfate geoengineering could impact the terrestrial carbon cycle by enhancing the carbon sink. With an 8 Tg yr−1 injection of SO2 to balance a Representative Concentration Pathway 6.0 (RCP6.0 scenario, we conducted climate model simulations with the Community Earth System Model, with the Community Atmospheric Model 4 fully coupled to tropospheric and stratospheric chemistry (CAM4-chem. During the geoengineering period, as compared to RCP6.0, land-averaged downward visible diffuse radiation increased 3.2 W m−2 (11 %. The enhanced diffuse radiation combined with the cooling increased plant photosynthesis by 2.4 %, which could contribute to an additional 3.8 ± 1.1 Gt C yr−1 global gross primary productivity without nutrient limitation. This increase could potentially increase the land carbon sink. Suppressed plant and soil respiration due to the cooling would reduce natural land carbon emission and therefore further enhance the terrestrial carbon sink during the geoengineering period. This beneficial impact of stratospheric sulfate geoengineering would need to be balanced by a large number of potential risks in any future decisions about implementation of geoengineering.

  12. Large historical growth in global terrestrial gross primary production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, J. E.; Berry, J. A.; Seibt, U.; Smith, S. J.; Montzka, S. A.; Launois, T.; Belviso, S.; Bopp, L.; Laine, M.

    2017-04-01

    Growth in terrestrial gross primary production (GPP)—the amount of carbon dioxide that is ‘fixed’ into organic material through the photosynthesis of land plants—may provide a negative feedback for climate change. It remains uncertain, however, to what extent biogeochemical processes can suppress global GPP growth. As a consequence, modelling estimates of terrestrial carbon storage, and of feedbacks between the carbon cycle and climate, remain poorly constrained. Here we present a global, measurement-based estimate of GPP growth during the twentieth century that is based on long-term atmospheric carbonyl sulfide (COS) records, derived from ice-core, firn and ambient air samples. We interpret these records using a model that simulates changes in COS concentration according to changes in its sources and sinks—including a large sink that is related to GPP. We find that the observation-based COS record is most consistent with simulations of climate and the carbon cycle that assume large GPP growth during the twentieth century (31% ± 5% growth; mean ± 95% confidence interval). Although this COS analysis does not directly constrain models of future GPP growth, it does provide a global-scale benchmark for historical carbon-cycle simulations.

  13. Large historical growth in global terrestrial gross primary production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, J. E.; Berry, J. A.; Seibt, U.; Smith, S. J.; Montzka, S. A.; Launois, T.; Belviso, S.; Bopp, L.; Laine, M.

    2017-04-05

    Growth in terrestrial gross primary production (GPP) may provide a feedback for climate change, but there is still strong disagreement on the extent to which biogeochemical processes may suppress this GPP growth at the ecosystem to continental scales. The consequent uncertainty in modeling of future carbon storage by the terrestrial biosphere constitutes one of the largest unknowns in global climate projections for the next century. Here we provide a global, measurement-based estimate of historical GPP growth using long-term atmospheric carbonyl sulfide (COS) records derived from ice core, firn, and ambient air samples. We interpret these records using a model that relates changes in the COS concentration to changes in its sources and sinks, the largest of which is proportional to GPP. The COS history was most consistent with simulations that assume a large historical GPP growth. Carbon-climate models that assume little to no GPP growth predicted trajectories of COS concentration over the anthropogenic era that differ from those observed. Continued COS monitoring may be useful for detecting ongoing changes in GPP while extending the ice core record to glacial cycles could provide further opportunities to evaluate earth system models.

  14. Extreme events in gross primary production: a characterization across continents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Zscheischler

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate extremes can affect the functioning of terrestrial ecosystems, for instance via a reduction of the photosynthetic capacity or alterations of respiratory processes. Yet the dominant regional and seasonal effects of hydrometeorological extremes are still not well documented. Here we quantify and characterize the role of large spatiotemporal extreme events in gross primary production (GPP as triggers of continental anomalies. We also investigate seasonal dynamics of extreme impacts on continental GPP anomalies. We find that the 50 largest positive (increase in uptake and negative extremes (decrease in uptake on each continent can explain most of the continental variation in GPP, which is in line with previous results obtained at the global scale. We show that negative extremes are larger than positive ones and demonstrate that this asymmetry is particularly strong in South America and Europe. Most extremes in GPP start in early summer. Our analysis indicates that the overall impacts and the spatial extents of GPP extremes are power law distributed with exponents that vary little across continents. Moreover, we show that on all continents and for all data sets the spatial extents play a more important role than durations or maximal GPP anomaly when it comes to the overall impact of GPP extremes. An analysis of possible causes implies that across continents most extremes in GPP can best be explained by water scarcity rather than by extreme temperatures. However, for Europe, South America and Oceania we identify also fire as an important driver. Our findings are consistent with remote sensing products. An independent validation against a literature survey on specific extreme events supports our results to a large extent.

  15. 25 CFR 215.21 - Payment of gross production tax on lead and zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Payment of gross production tax on lead and zinc. 215.21... ZINC MINING OPERATIONS AND LEASES, QUAPAW AGENCY § 215.21 Payment of gross production tax on lead and zinc. The superintendent of the Quapaw Indian Agency is hereby authorized and directed to pay at...

  16. Potato production in Europe - a gross margin analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren Marcus; Bizik, Jan; Costa, Luisa Dalla;

    The purpose of this paper is to examine different cropping practices, cost structures and gross margins for producing conventional table potatoes in 6 different regions within the European Union: Czech Republic, Denmark, Italy, Poland, Portugal and Slovakia. Findings from this study show that pot......The purpose of this paper is to examine different cropping practices, cost structures and gross margins for producing conventional table potatoes in 6 different regions within the European Union: Czech Republic, Denmark, Italy, Poland, Portugal and Slovakia. Findings from this study show...... that potato cropping practices varies signifi-cantly between these countries with major differences in yields and costs. Italy and Denmark are the two regions with highest gross margins due to high yields and reve-nues. Poland is by far the largest potato producing country among the 6 countries ex...

  17. COST OF PRODUCTION, GROSS RETURN AND NET PROFIT IN COMMERCIAL EGG PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Farooq, Zahoor-ul-Haq1, M.A. Mian, F.R. Durrani and M. Syed

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out in Chakwal, Pakistan by collecting data from randomly selected 109 flocks to investigate cost of production, gross return and net profit per layer. Majority of the buildings in the study area were rented therefore, rent per layer was added to the total cost of production instead of depreciation on building and equipments. Overall total cost of production, gross return and net profit per layer was Rs. 393.88 ± 5.36, 432.14 ± 8.01 and 38.26 ± 6.66, respectively. Rate of return over the invested capital was 27%. Mean feed cost per layer was Rs. 302.23 ± 5.01, including Rs. 10.27 ± 0.24, 29.19 ± 0.42 and 262.77 ± 5.08 for starter, grower and layer ration, respectively. Feed cost was the major component contributing 76.73% to the total cost of production. Average cost of labor, day-old chick, building rent, vaccination, therapy, miscellaneous item, electricity, bedding material and transportation was Rs. 19.90 ± 0.45, 19.75 ± 0.05, 16.25 ± 0.26, 12.80 ± 0.10, 10.90 ± 2.32, 4.35 ± 0.09, 3.15 ± 0.07, 2.65 ± 0.09 and 1.90 ± 0.08, respectively, contributing 5.05, 5.01, 4.13, 3.25, 2.77, 1.10, 0.80, 0.67 and 0.48 % to the total cost of production. Gross return from the sale of marketable eggs, culled eggs, spent/culled bird, empty bags and manure was Rs. 388.84 ± 7.91, 3.85 ± 0.01, 35.80 ± 0.23, 2.20 ± 0.04 and 1.45 ± 0.01, respectively, contributing 89.98, 0.89, 8.28, 0.51 and 0.34% to the total return. Determining the effect of different parameters on the cost of production and net profit, large flocks, Hisex strain, brood-grow and lay system of rearing, good hygienic conditions of the farm, normal stocking rate and cage system of housing wee found to give maximum gross return as well as net profit.

  18. P-T path fluid evolution in the Gross Spitzkoppe granite stock, Namibia

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    Stephen Frindt

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The Gross Spitzkoppe granite stock (GSS is a zoned 30 km^2 epizonal intrusion that consists of three main granites: 1 medium-grained biotite granite (marginal, 2 a coarse-grained biotite granite, and 3 a central, porphyritic granite. The stock contains pegmatites as banded marginal stockscheiders and isolated pockets composed of large alkali feldspar and quartz, dark mica, interstitial fluorite, and euhedral topaz and beryl crystals. In the porphyritic granite there are local wolframite-bearing greisens and hydrothermal fluorite and topaz-rich veins.Fluid inclusion studies were conducted on: 1 topaz and quartz crystals from the marginal stockscheider; 2 quartz, topaz, fluorite and beryl crystals from isolated pegmatites; 3 topaz from a miarolitic pegmatite; 4 beryl and quartz veins from greisenized porphyritic granite; and 5 fluorite from a late fluorite vein inthe coarse-grained biotite granite. Preliminary data indicate the presence of three compositionally distinct primary and pseudosecondary inclusion types that are of late magmatic-hydrothermal origin.Type 1. Low salinity (0–10 eq. wt% NaCl H2O (± CO2 inclusions that homogenize to the liquid phase in the temperature range of 300 to 550˚C. These inclusions are from quartz, topaz and beryl. Inclusions in fluorite from the fluorite vein homogenize at ~170˚C and have a salinity of ca. 1–2 eq. wt% NaCl.Type 2. Saline (25–30 eq. wt% NaCl halite-bearing H2O (± CO2 inclusions that homogenize to the liquid phase in the temperature range of 300 to 400˚C. These inclusions are from quartz.Type 3. Low salinity (0–3 eq. wt% NaCl H2O-CO2 inclusions that homogenize to vapor phase in the temperature range of 330 to 550˚C. These inclusions are from quartz and topaz.Hydrothermal fluids from greisen minerals are represented by type 1 and type 2 H2O inclusions. They are predominantly of low salinity (~8 eq. wt% NaCl and homogenize to the liquid phase in the temperature range of 300 to 500

  19. Evaluation of the contributions of four components of gross domestic product in various regions in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanmang Wu

    Full Text Available Four major components influence the growth of the gross domestic product in Chinese provinces: consumption, investment, transnational exports, and inter-provincial exports. By splitting a competitive input-output table into a non-competitive input-output table, this study used an input-output model to measure the contributions of the four components of gross domestic product in various regions in China. We found that international exports drove the growth of the gross domestic product more strongly in the eastern region than in other regions. Investment and inter-provincial exports were the major impetus for gross domestic product growth in the central and western regions. We also found that consumption played a minimal role in driving the growth of the gross domestic product in all regions in China. According to these findings, although various regions can share much in terms of policies to transform the impetus for economic growth, there should be different foci for different regions. Their shared policy is to increase the role of final consumption in stimulating economic growth. Region-specific policies mandate that the eastern region should strengthen the driving force provided by international exports and that the central and western regions should strengthen indigenous growth capabilities by improving scientific innovation, industrial support, and institutional innovation.

  20. energy use and gross margin analysis for sesame production in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    As the negative impacts of energy by-products affect the climate, the knowledge and efficient use of ... Diesel and labour energy inputs dominated the total energy inputs for the two systems. .... such as output of sesame, quantity and type of.

  1. DETERMINATE NONPERIODIC VARIATION OF THE GROSS REGIONAL PRODUCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. А. Korshunov

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The classical problem of product supply and demand, which was first defined by А. Marshall, is reduced to Lorentz model in a nonlinear statement and it describes sustainable circular processes of commodity market, including price range increment in the context of crisis forthcoming (inflation; destabilization due to nonmanufacturing costs; the main stages of crisis development, including a stage of chaotic behavior of residence time at each attractor (equilibrium point; possibility of surmounting the crisis by means of modification of certain parameters. The given approach is used for the purpose of construction of a qualitative model of commodity price readjustment during precrisis and crisis periods, and finding reliable prognostication time.

  2. Macroeconomic Models used in the Structural Analysis of the Gross Domestic Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Anghelache

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a use case for macro economical models, the objective being the structural analysis of the Gross Domestic Product. The authors offer a snapshot on GDP evolution, the econometric models proposed for analysis are designed with the help of EViews software. Its performances are determined through the optics of the statistical tests.

  3. Joint control of terrestrial gross primary productivity by plant phenology and physiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xia, J.; Niu, S.; Ciais, P.; Janssens, I.A.; Chen, J.; Ammann, C.; Arain, A.; Blanken, P.D.; Cescatti, A.; Moors, E.J.

    2015-01-01

    Terrestrial gross primary productivity (GPP) varies greatly over time and space. A better understanding of this variability is necessary for more accurate predictions of the future climate–carbon cycle feedback. Recent studies have suggested that variability in GPP is driven by a broad range of biot

  4. G7 country Gross Domestic Product (GDP) time correlations. A graph network analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Mi'skiewicz, J

    2005-01-01

    The correlation between G7 countries has been analysed on the basis of Gross Domestic Product using different distance functions i.e. discrete, linear correlation and distribution distance. The distance matrics is analysed by various graph methods and the percolation threshold is calculated. The globalization process understood as increas of correlation has been observed. The applications of different distance function discussed.

  5. Joint control of terrestrial gross primary productivity by plant phenology and physiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xia, J.; Niu, S.; Ciais, P.; Janssens, I.A.; Chen, J.; Ammann, C.; Arain, A.; Blanken, P.D.; Cescatti, A.; Moors, E.J.

    2015-01-01

    Terrestrial gross primary productivity (GPP) varies greatly over time and space. A better understanding of this variability is necessary for more accurate predictions of the future climate–carbon cycle feedback. Recent studies have suggested that variability in GPP is driven by a broad range of

  6. Site-level evaluation of satellite-based global terrestrial gross primary production and net primary production monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David P. Turner; William D. Ritts; Warren B. Cohen; Thomas K. Maeirsperger; Stith T. Gower; Al A. Kirschbaum; Steve W. Runnings; Maosheng Zhaos; Steven C. Wofsy; Allison L. Dunn; Beverly E. Law; John L. Campbell; Walter C. Oechel; Hyo Jung Kwon; Tilden P. Meyers; Eric E. Small; Shirley A. Kurc; John A. Gamon

    2005-01-01

    Operational monitoring of global terrestrial gross primary production (GPP) and net primary production (NPP) is now underway using imagery from the satellite-borne Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor. Evaluation of MODIS GPP and NPP products will require site-level studies across a range of biomes, with close attention to numerous scaling...

  7. Production of table potatoes in Europe – a multinational gross margin analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren Marcus; Bizik, J.; Dalla Costa, L.

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines different cropping practies, cost structures and gross margins for conventional table potato cropping in 6 different regions within the European Union: Czech Republic, Denmark, Italy, Poland, Portugal and Slovakia. Findings from this study show that potato cropping practies...... varies significantly between the various countries with major differences in yield and costs. Italy and Denmark are two regions with highest gross margins due to hight yields and revenues. Poland is by far the largest potato producing country among the 6 countries. The production is primarily based...

  8. Heating production fluids in a wellbore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orrego, Yamila; Jankowski, Todd A.

    2016-07-12

    A method for heating a production fluid in a wellbore. The method can include heating, using a packer fluid, a working fluid flowing through a first medium disposed in a first section of the wellbore, where the first medium transfers heat from the packer fluid to the working fluid. The method can also include circulating the working fluid into a second section of the wellbore through a second medium, where the second medium transfers heat from the working fluid to the production fluid. The method can further include returning the working fluid to the first section of the wellbore through the first medium.

  9. Net primary production of forests: a constant fraction of gross primary production?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waring, R. H.; Landsberg, J. J.; Williams, M.

    1998-02-01

    Considerable progress has been made in our ability to model and measure annual gross primary production (GPP) by terrestrial vegetation. But challenges remain in estimating maintenance respiration (R(m)) and net primary production (NPP). To search for possible common relationships, we assembled annual carbon budgets from six evergreen and one deciduous forest in Oregon, USA, three pine plantations in New South Wales, Australia, a deciduous forest in Massachusetts, USA, and a Nothofagus forest on the South Island of New Zealand. At all 12 sites, a standard procedure was followed to estimate annual NPP of foliage, branches, stems, and roots, the carbon expended in synthesis of these organs (R(g)), their R(m), and that of previously produced foliage and sapwood in boles, branches, and large roots. In the survey, total NPP ranged from 120 to 1660 g C m(-2) year(-1), whereas the calculated fraction allocated to roots varied from 0.22 to 0.63. Comparative analysis indicated that the total NPP/GPP ratio was conservative (0.47 +/- 0.04 SD). This finding supports the possibility of greatly simplifying forest growth models. The constancy of the NPP/GPP ratio also provides an incentive to renew efforts to understand the environmental factors affecting partitioning of NPP above and belowground.

  10. Using Wavelets to Understand the Relationship between Mortgages and Gross Domestic Product in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. González-Concepción

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We use wavelet multiresolution decomposition and cross-wavelet analysis to reveal certain properties in financial data related to mortgages to households and gross domestic product data in Spain. Wavelet techniques possess many desirable properties, some of which are useful as a vehicle for analysing economic and financial data. In our case, wavelets are useful for drawing conclusions both in the time and frequency domains and for obtaining information on the different phases through which the study variables progress.

  11. MODIS/TERRA MOD17A2 Gross Primary Productivity 8-Day L4 Global 1km

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) products are a cumulative composite of GPP values based on the radiation...

  12. Efficiency of chlorophyll in gross primary productivity: A proof of concept and application in crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitelson, Anatoly A; Peng, Yi; Viña, Andrés; Arkebauer, Timothy; Schepers, James S

    2016-08-20

    One of the main factors affecting vegetation productivity is absorbed light, which is largely governed by chlorophyll. In this paper, we introduce the concept of chlorophyll efficiency, representing the amount of gross primary production per unit of canopy chlorophyll content (Chl) and incident PAR. We analyzed chlorophyll efficiency in two contrasting crops (soybean and maize). Given that they have different photosynthetic pathways (C3 vs. C4), leaf structures (dicot vs. monocot) and canopy architectures (a heliotrophic leaf angle distribution vs. a spherical leaf angle distribution), they cover a large spectrum of biophysical conditions. Our results show that chlorophyll efficiency in primary productivity is highly variable and responds to various physiological and phenological conditions, and water availability. Since Chl is accessible through non-destructive, remotely sensed techniques, the use of chlorophyll efficiency for modeling and monitoring plant optimization patterns is practical at different scales (e.g., leaf, canopy) and under widely-varying environmental conditions. Through this analysis, we directly related a functional characteristic, gross primary production with a structural characteristic, canopy chlorophyll content. Understanding the efficiency of the structural characteristic is of great interest as it allows explaining functional components of the plant system.

  13. Analysis of the Evolution of the Gross Domestic Product by Means of Cyclic Regressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalin Angelo Ioan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we will carry out an analysis on the regularity of the Gross Domestic Product of a country, in our case the United States. The method of analysis is based on a new method of analysis – the cyclic regressions based on the Fourier series of a function. Another point of view is that of considering instead the growth rate of GDP the speed of variation of this rate, computed as a numerical derivative. The obtained results show a cycle for this indicator for 71 years, the mean square error being 0.93%. The method described allows an prognosis on short-term trends in GDP.

  14. Developments of regional gross domestic product and the unemployment rate in Romania during 2000 - 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schonauer (Sacală Corina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Economic development of territorial units can be characterized by measuring the ability of producing goods and services and by measuring labor force in the area. The capacity of producing goods and services is measured by calculating the gross domestic product indicator. This article presents a comparative analysis of the evolution of regional GDP and the ILO unemployment rate at the level of the eight regions in Romania for a period of 13 years. The presented data come from the National Institute of Statistics of Romania.

  15. EuroMInd-D: A Density Estimate of Monthly Gross Domestic Product for the Euro Area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Proietti, Tommaso; Marczak, Martyna; Mazzi, Gianluigi

    EuroMInd-D is a density estimate of monthly gross domestic product (GDP) constructed according to a bottom–up approach, pooling the density estimates of eleven GDP components, by output and expenditure type. The components density estimates are obtained from a medium-size dynamic factor model...... parameters, and conditional simulation filters for simulating from the predictive distribution of GDP. Both algorithms process sequentially the data as they become available in real time. The GDP density estimates for the output and expenditure approach are combined using alternative weighting schemes...

  16. Technical note: Consistent calculation of aquatic gross production from oxygen triple isotope measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kaiser

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen triple isotope measurements can be used to calculate aquatic gross oxygen production rates. Past studies have emphasised the appropriate definition of the 17O excess and often used an approximation to derive production rates from the 17O excess. Here, I show that the calculation can be phrased more consistently and without any approximations using the relative 17O/16O and 18O/16O isotope ratio differences (delta values directly. I call this the "dual delta method". The 17O excess is merely a mathematical construct and the derived production rate is independent of its definition, provided all calculations are performed with a consistent definition. I focus on the mixed layer, but also show how time series of triple isotope measurements below the mixed layer can be used to derive gross production.

    In the calculation of mixed layer productivity, I explicitly include isotopic fractionation during gas invasion and evasion, which requires the oxygen supersaturation s to be measured as well. I also suggest how bubble injection could be considered in the same mathematical framework. I distinguish between concentration steady state and isotopic steady state and show that only the latter needs to be assumed in the calculation. It is even possible to derive an estimate of the net production rate in the mixed layer that is independent of the assumption of concentration steady state.

    I review measurements of the parameters required for the calculation of gross production rates and show how their systematic uncertainties as well as the use of different published calculation methods can cause large variations in the production rates for the same underlying isotope ratios. In particular, the 17O excess of dissolved O2 in equilibrium with atmospheric O2 and the 17O excess of photosynthetic O2 need to

  17. Consistent calculation of aquatic gross production from oxygen triple isotope measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kaiser

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen triple isotope measurements can be used to calculate aquatic gross oxygen production rates. Past studies have emphasised the appropriate definition of the 17O excess and often used an approximation to derive production rates from the 17O excess. Here, I show that the calculation can be phrased more consistently and without any approximations using the relative 17O/16O and 18O/16O isotope ratio differences directly. The 17O excess is merely a mathematical construct and the derived production rate is independent of its definition, provided all calculations are performed with a consistent definition. I focus on the mixed layer, but also show how time series of triple oxygen measurements below the mixed layer can be used to derive gross production.

    In the calculation of mixed layer productivity, I explicitly include isotopic fractionation during gas invasion and evasion, which requires the oxygen supersaturation s to be measured as well. I also suggest how bubble injection could be considered in the same mathematical framework. I distinguish between concentration steady state and isotopic steady state and show that only the latter needs to be assumed in the calculation. It is even possible to derive an estimate of the net production rate in the mixed layer that is independent of the assumption of concentration steady state.

    I review measurements of the parameters required for the calculation of gross production rates and show how their systematic uncertainties as well as the use of different published calculation methods can cause large variations in the production rates for the same underlying isotope ratios. In particular, the 17O excess of dissolved O2 in equilibrium with atmospheric O2 and the 17O excess of photosynthetic O2 need to be re-measured. Because of these uncertainties, all

  18. Using Stochastic Ray Tracing to Simulate a Dense Time Series of Gross Primary Productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin van Leeuwen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Eddy-covariance carbon dioxide flux measurement is an established method to estimate primary productivity at the forest stand level (typically 10 ha. To validate eddy-covariance estimates, researchers rely on extensive time-series analysis and an assessment of flux contributions made by various ecosystem components at spatial scales much finer than the eddy-covariance footprint. Scaling these contributions to the stand level requires a consideration of the heterogeneity in the canopy radiation field. This paper presents a stochastic ray tracing approach to predict the probabilities of light absorption from over a thousand hemispherical directions by thousands of individual scene elements. Once a look-up table of absorption probabilities is computed, dynamic illumination conditions can be simulated in a computationally realistic time, from which stand-level gross primary productivity can be obtained by integrating photosynthetic assimilation over the scene. We demonstrate the method by inverting a leaf-level photosynthesis model with eddy-covariance and meteorological data. Optimized leaf photosynthesis parameters and canopy structure were able to explain 75% of variation in eddy-covariance gross primary productivity estimates, and commonly used parameters, including photosynthetic capacity and quantum yield, fell within reported ranges. Remaining challenges are discussed including the need to address the distribution of radiation within shoots and needles.

  19. Gross nitrous oxide production drives net nitrous oxide fluxes across a salt marsh landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wendy H; Silver, Whendee L

    2016-06-01

    Sea level rise will change inundation regimes in salt marshes, altering redox dynamics that control nitrification - a potential source of the potent greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide (N2 O) - and denitrification, a major nitrogen (N) loss pathway in coastal ecosystems and both a source and sink of N2 O. Measurements of net N2 O fluxes alone yield little insight into the different effects of redox conditions on N2 O production and consumption. We used in situ measurements of gross N2 O fluxes across a salt marsh elevation gradient to determine how soil N2 O emissions in coastal ecosystems may respond to future sea level rise. Soil redox declined as marsh elevation decreased, with lower soil nitrate and higher ferrous iron in the low marsh compared to the mid and high marshes (P Net N2 O fluxes differed significantly among marsh zones (P = 0.009), averaging 9.8 ± 5.4 μg N m(-2)  h(-1) , -2.2 ± 0.9 μg N m(-2)  h(-1) , and 0.67 ± 0.57 μg N m(-2)  h(-1) in the low, mid, and high marshes, respectively. Both net N2 O release and uptake were observed in the low and high marshes, but the mid-marsh was consistently a net N2 O sink. Gross N2 O production was highest in the low marsh and lowest in the mid-marsh (P = 0.02), whereas gross N2 O consumption did not differ among marsh zones. Thus, variability in gross N2 O production rates drove the differences in net N2 O flux among marsh zones. Our results suggest that future studies should focus on elucidating controls on the processes producing, rather than consuming, N2 O in salt marshes to improve our predictions of changes in net N2 O fluxes caused by future sea level rise.

  20. Non-ideal feedforward torque control of wind turbines: Impacts on annual energy production & gross earnings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackl, Christoph; Schechner, Korbinian

    2016-09-01

    We discuss non-ideal torque control in wind turbine systems. Most high-level controllers generate a reference torque which is then send to the underlying electrical drive system (generator+inverter) of the wind turbine system to steer the turbine/generator to its optimal operation point (depending on the wind speed). The energy production heavily depends on the mechanical power (i.e. the product of rotational speed and generator torque). However, since torque sensors in the MW range are not available or extremely expensive, the underlying torque control system is implemented as feedforward control and, therefore, is inherently sensitive to parameter variations/uncertainties. Based on real wind data and a wind turbine system model, we discuss causes and impacts of non-ideal feedforward torque control on the energy production and the annual gross earnings.

  1. Spatial extrapolation of light use efficiency model parameters to predict gross primary production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karsten Schulz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available To capture the spatial and temporal variability of the gross primary production as a key component of the global carbon cycle, the light use efficiency modeling approach in combination with remote sensing data has shown to be well suited. Typically, the model parameters, such as the maximum light use efficiency, are either set to a universal constant or to land class dependent values stored in look-up tables. In this study, we employ the machine learning technique support vector regression to explicitly relate the model parameters of a light use efficiency model calibrated at several FLUXNET sites to site-specific characteristics obtained by meteorological measurements, ecological estimations and remote sensing data. A feature selection algorithm extracts the relevant site characteristics in a cross-validation, and leads to an individual set of characteristic attributes for each parameter. With this set of attributes, the model parameters can be estimated at sites where a parameter calibration is not possible due to the absence of eddy covariance flux measurement data. This will finally allow a spatially continuous model application. The performance of the spatial extrapolation scheme is evaluated with a cross-validation approach, which shows the methodology to be well suited to recapture the variability of gross primary production across the study sites.

  2. A multi-sites analysis on the ozone effects on Gross Primary Production of European forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proietti, C. [Department of Environmental Biology, Sapienza University of Rome, Piazzale Aldo Moro, 5, 00185 Rome (Italy); Anav, A. [Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment (ENEA), C.R. Casaccia, Via Anguillarese 301, 00123 S. Maria di Galeria, Rome (Italy); University of Exeter, College of Engineering, Mathematics and Physical Sciences, Exeter (United Kingdom); De Marco, A. [Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment (ENEA), C.R. Casaccia, Via Anguillarese 301, 00123 S. Maria di Galeria, Rome (Italy); Sicard, P. [ACRI-HE, 260 route du Pin Montard BP234, 06904 Sophia Antipolis-cedex (France); Vitale, M., E-mail: marcello.vitale@uniroma1.it [Department of Environmental Biology, Sapienza University of Rome, Piazzale Aldo Moro, 5, 00185 Rome (Italy)

    2016-06-15

    Ozone (O{sub 3}) is both a greenhouse gas and a secondary air pollutant causing adverse impacts on forests ecosystems at different scales, from cellular to ecosystem level. Specifically, the phytotoxic nature of O{sub 3} can impair CO{sub 2} assimilation that, in turn affects forest productivity. This study aims to evaluate the effects of tropospheric O{sub 3} on Gross Primary Production (GPP) at 37 European forest sites during the time period 2000–2010. Due to the lack of carbon assimilation data at O{sub 3} monitoring stations (and vice-versa) this study makes a first attempt to combine high resolution MODIS Gross Primary Production (GPP) estimates and O{sub 3} measurement data. Partial Correlations, Anomalies Analysis and the Random Forests Analysis (RFA) were used to quantify the effects of tropospheric O{sub 3} concentration and its uptake on GPP and to evaluate the most important factors affecting inter-annual GPP changes. Our results showed, along a North-West/South-East European transect, a negative impact of O{sub 3} on GPP ranging from 0.4% to 30%, although a key role of meteorological parameters respect to pollutant variables in affecting GPP was found. In particular, meteorological parameters, namely air temperature (T), soil water content (SWC) and relative humidity (RH) are the most important predictors at 81% of test sites. Moreover, it is interesting to highlight a key role of SWC in the Mediterranean areas (Spanish, Italian and French test sites) confirming that, soil moisture and soil water availability affect vegetation growth and photosynthesis especially in arid or semi-arid ecosystems such as the Mediterranean climate regions. Considering the pivotal role of GPP in the global carbon balance and the O{sub 3} ability to reduce primary productivity of the forests, this study can help in assessing the O{sub 3} impacts on ecosystem services, including wood production and carbon sequestration. - Highlights: • Assessment of the surface O{sub 3

  3. Econometric Analysis of the Nexus of Exchange Rate Deregulation and Agricultural Share of Gross Domestic Product in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Oyinbo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the relationship between exchange rate deregulation and the agricultural share of gross domestic product in Nigeria from an econometric perspective using time series data. The data were analysed using augmented dickey fuller unit root test, unrestricted vector autoregression and pairwise granger causality. The results of the data analysis revealed the existence of unidirectional causality from exchange rate to agricultural share of gross domestic production in Nigeria and this implies that market driven exchange rate policy has been significant in influencing the trend in agricultural share of gross domestic production in Nigeria. However, it is recommended that the monetary authority of Nigeria should closely monitor the movement of the market driven exchange rate so that exchange rate deregulation does not become counterproductive through unhealthy price distortions on agricultural production, international trade and foreign direct investment in the agricultural sector of Nigeria’s economy.

  4. High sensitivity of gross primary production in the Rocky Mountains to summer rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkelhammer, M.; Stefanescu, I.C.; Joiner, J.; Anderson, Lesleigh

    2017-01-01

    In the catchments of the Rocky Mountains, peak snowpack is declining in response to warmer spring temperatures. To understand how this will influence terrestrial gross primary production (GPP), we compared precipitation data across the intermountain west with satellite retrievals of solar-induced fluorescence (SIF), a proxy for GPP. Annual precipitation patterns explained most of the spatial and temporal variability of SIF, but the slope of the response was dependent on site to site differences in the proportion of snowpack to summer rain. We separated the response of SIF to different seasonal precipitation amounts and found that SIF was approximately twice as sensitive to variations in summer rain than snowpack. The response of peak GPP to a secular decline in snowpack will likely be subtle, whereas a change in summer rain amount will have precipitous effects on GPP. The study suggests that the rain use efficiency of Rocky Mountain ecosystems is strongly dependent on precipitation form and timing.

  5. The Correlation Between Gross Domestic Product and Unemployment in Romania Starting with 1995

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavia - Maria Gibescu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available It is known that until the late 1980s, in Romania, the term “unemployed” was practically unused, the centralized economy having as major goal the complete occupancy. Starting with 1990, this phenomenon was manifested itself in our country as well, as a result of the imbalance of the labor market. To understand and represent the macroeconomic phenomena better, the paper presents the analysis of the relationship between the Gross domestic product and the unemployment, as well as the current influences. The conclusions show the fact that beginning with 1995, their dynamics included a relationship, broken by the effects of the world economic crisis present in our country as well.

  6. Global gross primary productivity and water use efficiency changes under drought stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhen; Wang, Jingxin; Liu, Shirong; Rentch, James S.; Sun, Pengsen; Lu, Chaoqun

    2017-01-01

    Drought can affect the structure, composition and function of terrestrial ecosystems, yet drought impacts and post-drought recovery potentials of different land cover types have not been extensively studied at a global scale. We evaluated drought impacts on gross primary productivity (GPP), evapotranspiration (ET), and water use efficiency (WUE) of different global terrestrial ecosystems, as well as the drought-resilience of each ecosystem type during the period of 2000 to 2011. Using GPP as biome vitality indicator against drought stress, we developed a model to examine ecosystem resilience represented by the length of recovery days (LRD). LRD presented an evident gradient of high (>60 days) in mid-latitude region and low (stress induced responses or data uncertainties, which require further investigation.

  7. Seasonal Forecasting of Agriculture Gross Domestic Production in Iran: Application of Periodic Autoregressive Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ghahremanzadeh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture as one of the major economic sectors of Iran, has an important role in Gross Domestic Production by providing about 14% of GDP. This study attempts to forecast the value of the agriculture GDP using Periodic Autoregressive model (PAR, as the new seasonal time series techniques. To address this aim, the quarterly data were collected from March 1988 to July 1989. The collected data was firstly analyzed using periodic unit root test Franses & Paap (2004. The analysis found non-periodic unit root in the seasonal data. Second, periodic seasonal behavior (Boswijk & Franses, 1996 was examined. The results showed that periodic autoregressive model fits agriculture GDP well. This makes an accurate forecast of agriculture GDP possible. Using the estimated model, the future value of quarter agricultural GDP from March 2011 to July 2012was forecasted. With consideration to the fair fit of this model with agricultural GDP, It is recommended to use periodic autoregressive model for the future studies.

  8. The long run relationship between foreign direct investments, exports, and gross domestic product: panel data implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet ERYİĞİT

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Foreign direct investment (FDI is defined as establishing a new company or branch of a foreign company by foreign investor or share acquisitions of a company established in host country (any percentage of shares acquired outside the stock exchange or 10 percent or more of the shares or voting power of a company acquired through the stock exchange (UNCTAD, 2012. This study investigated the long-term relationship between FDI and export volume, FDI and Gross Domestic Products (GDP, and export volume and GDP through cointegration tests. It is conducted the panel data analysis using data for the period of 2000-2010 from 15 countries making direct investment in Turkey regularly since year 2000. Panel unit-root tests showed that variables are stationary for the first difference level. Residual based and error correction based cointegration tests revealed that there is long-term relationship between FDI and export volume, FDI and GDP, and export volume and GDP.

  9. Global Dental Research Productivity and Its Association With Human Development, Gross National Income, and Political Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allareddy, Veerasathpurush; Allareddy, Veeratrishul; Rampa, Sankeerth; Nalliah, Romesh P; Elangovan, Satheesh

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the associations between country level factors (such as human development, economic productivity, and political stability) and their dental research productivity. This study is a cross-sectional analysis of bibliometric data from Scopus search engine. Human Development Index (HDI), Gross National Income per capita (GNI), and Failed State Index measures were the independent variables. Outcomes were "Total number of publications (articles or articles in press) in the field of dentistry" and "Total number of publications in the field of dentistry per million population." Non-parametric tests were used to examine the association between the independent and outcome variables. During the year 2013, a total of 11,952 dental research articles were published across the world. The top 5 publishing countries were United States, Brazil, India, Japan, and United Kingdom. "Very High" HDI countries had significantly higher number of total dental research articles and dental research articles per million population when compared to the "High HDI," "Medium HDI," and "Low HDI" countries (p human development and economic development of a country are linearly correlated with dental research productivity. Dental research productivity also increases with increasing political stability of a country. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Annual Gross Primary Production from Vegetation Indices: A Theoretically Sound Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Amparo Gilabert

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A linear relationship between the annual gross primary production (GPP and a PAR-weighted vegetation index is theoretically derived from the Monteith equation. A semi-empirical model is then proposed to estimate the annual GPP from commonly available vegetation indices images and a representative PAR, which does not require actual meteorological data. A cross validation procedure is used to calibrate and validate the model predictions against reference data. As the calibration/validation process depends on the reference GPP product, the higher the quality of the reference GPP, the better the performance of the semi-empirical model. The annual GPP has been estimated at 1-km scale from MODIS NDVI and EVI images for eight years. Two reference data sets have been used: an optimized GPP product for the study area previously obtained and the MOD17A3 product. Different statistics show a good agreement between the estimates and the reference GPP data, with correlation coefficient around 0.9 and relative RMSE around 20%. The annual GPP is overestimated in semiarid areas and slightly underestimated in dense forest areas. With the above limitations, the model provides an excellent compromise between simplicity and accuracy for the calculation of long time series of annual GPP.

  11. Multifunctionality of forestry as basis for creating gross innovational forestry product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolai Mikhailovich Bolshakov

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to theoretical and methodological issues of defining the essence, role and place of multifunctional forest economy (MFFE from the perspective of the scientific rationale of the state forest policy, which contributes to transference of the forest sector to the innovative basis with the emphasis on the regeneration issues. The system-regeneration approach is used as a methodological tool, which is the combination of principles and analysis of the forest sector as a complicated social-economical system based on the methodology of the regeneration process. On the basis of objective economic laws and regulations, a political-economic analysis is carried out to find out the system interrelation of the quality of forest resource use and productivity of social labour in the forest sector. Common features in the circulation of the functions of forestry capable of creating a special form of an innovation, gross innovational forestry product are identified. A model of a multifunctional forestry providing an opportunity to predict the characteristics of innovational products in complex systems is suggested. This model makes the basis for research of the innovative changes potentional for modernization of the innovative forest product.

  12. Effects of canopy photosynthesis saturation on the estimation of gross primary productivity from MODIS data in a tropical forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Propastin, P.; Ibrom, Andreas; Knohl, A.;

    2012-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) gross primary production (GPP) product (GPPMOD17A2) was evaluated against GPP from the eddy covariance flux measurements (GPPm) at a CO2 flux tower test site in a tropical rainforest in Sulawesi, Indonesia. The dynamics of 8-day GPPMOD17A2...

  13. Statistical Analysis of the Correlation between the Happy Planet Index and the Gross Domestic Product Per Capita, in Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriela OPAIT

    2016-01-01

    This paper reflects the architecture of the methodology for to achieve the statistical modeling of the trend concerning the correlation between the Happy Planet Index and the Gross Domestic Product per capita in Romania, between 2006-2013. with the help of the „Least Squares Method”. Also, this paper reflects the manner in which we can to measure the intensity of the correlation between the Happy Planet Index and the Gross Domestic Product per capita in Romania, between 2006-2013 with the h...

  14. Statistical Analysis of the Correlation between the Happy Planet Index and the Gross Domestic Product Per Capita, in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela OPAIT

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reflects the architecture of the methodology for to achieve the statistical modeling of the trend concerning the correlation between the Happy Planet Index and the Gross Domestic Product per capita in Romania, between 2006-2013. with the help of the „Least Squares Method”. Also, this paper reflects the manner in which we can to measure the intensity of the correlation between the Happy Planet Index and the Gross Domestic Product per capita in Romania, between 2006-2013 with the help of the Correlation Raport.

  15. 7 CFR 1160.107 - Fluid milk product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Fluid milk product. 1160.107 Section 1160.107... Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FLUID MILK PROMOTION PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Definitions § 1160.107 Fluid milk product. Fluid milk product means any product that meets...

  16. Estimation of gross primary production of the Amazon-Cerrado transitional forest by remote sensing techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maísa Caldas Souza

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The gross primary production (GPP of ecosystems is an important variable in the study of global climate change. Generally, the GPP has been estimated by micrometeorological techniques. However, these techniques have a high cost of implantation and maintenance, making the use of orbital sensor data an option to be evaluated. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer MOD17A2 product and the vegetation photosynthesis model (VPM to predict the GPP of the Amazon-Cerrado transitional forest. The GPP predicted by MOD17A2 (GPP MODIS and VPM (GPP VPM were validated with the GPP estimated by eddy covariance (GPP EC. The GPP MODIS, GPP VPM and GPP EC have similar seasonality, with higher values in the wet season and lower in the dry season. However, the VPM performed was better than the MOD17A2 to estimate the GPP, due to use local climatic data for predict the light use efficiency, while the MOD17A2 use a global circulation model and the lookup table of each vegetation type to estimate the light use efficiency.

  17. Joint control of terrestrial gross primary productivity by plant phenology and physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jianyang; Niu, Shuli; Ciais, Philippe; Janssens, Ivan A; Chen, Jiquan; Ammann, Christof; Arain, Altaf; Blanken, Peter D; Cescatti, Alessandro; Bonal, Damien; Buchmann, Nina; Curtis, Peter S; Chen, Shiping; Dong, Jinwei; Flanagan, Lawrence B; Frankenberg, Christian; Georgiadis, Teodoro; Gough, Christopher M; Hui, Dafeng; Kiely, Gerard; Li, Jianwei; Lund, Magnus; Magliulo, Vincenzo; Marcolla, Barbara; Merbold, Lutz; Montagnani, Leonardo; Moors, Eddy J; Olesen, Jørgen E; Piao, Shilong; Raschi, Antonio; Roupsard, Olivier; Suyker, Andrew E; Urbaniak, Marek; Vaccari, Francesco P; Varlagin, Andrej; Vesala, Timo; Wilkinson, Matthew; Weng, Ensheng; Wohlfahrt, Georg; Yan, Liming; Luo, Yiqi

    2015-03-03

    Terrestrial gross primary productivity (GPP) varies greatly over time and space. A better understanding of this variability is necessary for more accurate predictions of the future climate-carbon cycle feedback. Recent studies have suggested that variability in GPP is driven by a broad range of biotic and abiotic factors operating mainly through changes in vegetation phenology and physiological processes. However, it is still unclear how plant phenology and physiology can be integrated to explain the spatiotemporal variability of terrestrial GPP. Based on analyses of eddy-covariance and satellite-derived data, we decomposed annual terrestrial GPP into the length of the CO2 uptake period (CUP) and the seasonal maximal capacity of CO2 uptake (GPPmax). The product of CUP and GPPmax explained >90% of the temporal GPP variability in most areas of North America during 2000-2010 and the spatial GPP variation among globally distributed eddy flux tower sites. It also explained GPP response to the European heatwave in 2003 (r(2) = 0.90) and GPP recovery after a fire disturbance in South Dakota (r(2) = 0.88). Additional analysis of the eddy-covariance flux data shows that the interbiome variation in annual GPP is better explained by that in GPPmax than CUP. These findings indicate that terrestrial GPP is jointly controlled by ecosystem-level plant phenology and photosynthetic capacity, and greater understanding of GPPmax and CUP responses to environmental and biological variations will, thus, improve predictions of GPP over time and space.

  18. Dominant role of plant physiology in trend and variability of gross primary productivity in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Sha; Zhang, Yao; Ciais, Philippe; Xiao, Xiangming; Luo, Yiqi; Caylor, Kelly K.; Huang, Yuefei; Wang, Guangqian

    2017-02-01

    Annual gross primary productivity (GPP) varies considerably due to climate-induced changes in plant phenology and physiology. However, the relative importance of plant phenology and physiology on annual GPP variation is not clear. In this study, a Statistical Model of Integrated Phenology and Physiology (SMIPP) was used to evaluate the relative contributions of maximum daily GPP (GPPmax) and the start and end of growing season (GSstart and GSend) to annual GPP variability, using a regional GPP product in North America during 2000–2014 and GPP data from 24 AmeriFlux sites. Climatic sensitivity of the three indicators was assessed to investigate the climate impacts on plant phenology and physiology. The SMIPP can explain 98% of inter-annual variability of GPP over mid- and high latitudes in North America. The long-term trend and inter-annual variability of GPP are dominated by GPPmax both at the ecosystem and regional scales. During warmer spring and autumn, GSstart is advanced and GSend delayed, respectively. GPPmax responds positively to summer temperature over high latitudes (40–80°N), but negatively in mid-latitudes (25–40°N). This study demonstrates that plant physiology, rather than phenology, plays a dominant role in annual GPP variability, indicating more attention should be paid to physiological change under futher climate change.

  19. Interplay of drought and tropical cyclone activity in SE U.S. gross primary productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowman, Lauren E. L.; Barros, Ana P.

    2016-06-01

    Tropical cyclones (TCs), often associated with massive flooding and landslides in the Southeast U.S. (SE U.S.), provide a significant input of freshwater to the hydrologic system, and their timing and trajectory significantly impact drought severity and persistence. This manuscript investigates the sensitivity of gross primary productivity (GPP) in the SE U.S. to TC activity using the 1-D column implementation of the Duke Coupled Hydrology Model with Vegetation (DCHM-V) including coupled water and energy cycles and a biochemical representation of photosynthesis. Decadal-scale simulations of water, energy, and carbon fluxes were conducted at high temporal (30 min) and spatial (4 km) resolution over the period 2002-2012. At local scales, model results without calibration compare well against AmeriFlux tower data. At regional scales, differences between the DCHM-V estimates and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer GPP product reflect the spatial organization of soil hydraulic properties and soil moisture dynamics by physiographic region, highlighting the links between the water and carbon cycles. To isolate the contribution of TC precipitation to SE U.S. productivity, control forcing simulations are contrasted with simulations where periods of TC activity in the atmospheric forcing data were replaced with climatology. During wet years, TC activity impacts productivity in 40-50% of the SE U.S. domain and explains a regional GPP increase of 3-5 Mg C/m2 that is 9% of the warm season total. In dry years, 23-34% of the domain exhibits a smaller positive response that corresponds to 4-8% of the seasonal carbon uptake, depending on TC timing and trajectory.

  20. Linear extension rates and gross carbonate production of Acropora cervicornis at Coral Gardens, Belize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeling, E.; Greer, L.; Lescinsky, H.; Humston, R.; Wirth, K. R.; Baums, I. B.; Curran, A.

    2014-12-01

    Branching Acropora coral species have fast growth and carbonate production rates, and thus have functioned as important reef-building species throughout the Pleistocene and Holocene. Recently, net carbonate production (kg CaCO3 m-2 year-1) has been recognized as an important measure of reef health, especially when monitoring endangered species, such as Acropora cervicornis. This study examines carbonate production in a thriving population of A. cervicornis at the Coral Gardens reef in Belize. Photographic surveys were conducted along five transects of A. cervicornis-dominated reefs from 2011-2014. Matching photographs from 2013 and 2014 were scaled to 1 m2 and compared to calculate 84 individual A. cervicornis linear extension rates across the reef. Linear extension rates averaged 12.4 cm/yr and were as high as 17 cm/yr in some areas of the reef. Carbonate production was calculated two ways. The first followed the standard procedure of multiplying percent live coral cover, by the linear extension rate and skeletal density. The second used the number of live coral tips per square meter in place of percent live coral multiplied by the average cross-sectional area of the branches. The standard method yielded a carbonate production rate of 113 kg CaCO3 m-2 year-1 for the reef, and the tip method yielded a rate of 6 kg m-2 year-1. We suggest that the tip method is a more accurate measure of production, because A. cervicornis grows primarily from the live tips, with only limited radial growth and resheeting over dead skeleton. While this method omits the contributions of radial growth and resheeting, and is therefore somewhat of an underestimate, our future work will quantify these aspects of growth in a more complete carbonate budget. Still, our estimate suggests a carbonate production rate per unit area of A. cervicornis that is on par with other Caribbean coral species, rather than two orders of magnitude higher as reported by Perry et al (2013). Although gross coral

  1. Entropy production and collisionless fluid closure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarazin, Y; Zarzoso, D; Garbet, X; Ghendrih, Ph; Grandgirard, V [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Dif-Pradalier, G, E-mail: yanick.sarazin@cea.f [Center for Astrophysics and Space Science, U.C.S.D., La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)

    2009-11-15

    A novel method is proposed to construct collisionless fluid closures accounting for some kinetic properties. The idea consists in optimizing the agreement between the fluid and kinetic quasi-linear entropy production rates, so as to constrain the closure coefficients. This procedure is applied to the slab branch of the ion temperature gradient driven instability. Focusing on the kinetic regime characterized by slow waves, the closure proposed by Hammett and Perkins (Hammett and Perkins 1990 Phys. Rev. Lett. 64 3019) naturally emerges from the systematic identification of the kinetic and fluid entropy production rates. This closure is revealed to be extremely powerful well beyond the kinetic regime. Besides, it reconciles the fluid and kinetic linear stability diagrams in the two-dimensional space of the density and temperature gradient lengths. Such a method is systematic and generic. As such, it is applicable to other models and classes of instabilities.

  2. Entropy production and collisionless fluid closure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarazin, Y.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Zarzoso, D.; Garbet, X.; Ghendrih, Ph; Grandgirard, V.

    2009-11-01

    A novel method is proposed to construct collisionless fluid closures accounting for some kinetic properties. The idea consists in optimizing the agreement between the fluid and kinetic quasi-linear entropy production rates, so as to constrain the closure coefficients. This procedure is applied to the slab branch of the ion temperature gradient driven instability. Focusing on the kinetic regime characterized by slow waves, the closure proposed by Hammett and Perkins (Hammett and Perkins 1990 Phys. Rev. Lett. 64 3019) naturally emerges from the systematic identification of the kinetic and fluid entropy production rates. This closure is revealed to be extremely powerful well beyond the kinetic regime. Besides, it reconciles the fluid and kinetic linear stability diagrams in the two-dimensional space of the density and temperature gradient lengths. Such a method is systematic and generic. As such, it is applicable to other models and classes of instabilities.

  3. Remote sensing of sun-induced fluorescence to improve modeling of diurnal courses of gross primary production (GPP)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damm, A.; Elbers, J.A.; Erler, A.; Giolis, B.; Hamdi, K.; Hutjes, R.W.A.; Kosvancova, M.; Meroni, M.; Migliettas, F.; Moersch, A.; Moreno, J.; Schickling, A.; Sonnenschein, R.; Udelhoven, T.; Linden, van der S.; Hostert, P.; Rascher, U.

    2010-01-01

    Terrestrial gross primary production (GPP) is an important parameter to explore and quantify carbon fixation by plant ecosystems at various scales. Remote sensing (RS) offers a unique possibility to investigate GPP in a spatially explicit fashion; however, budgeting of terrestrial carbon cycles base

  4. Remote sensing of annual terrestrial gross primary productivity from MODIS: an assessment using the FLUXNET La Thuile data set

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verma, M.; Friedl, M.A.; Richardson, A.D.; Kiely, G.; Cescatti, A.; Law, B.E.; Wohlfahrt, G.; Gielen, G.; Roupsard, O.; Moors, E.J.

    2014-01-01

    Gross primary productivity (GPP) is the largest and most variable component of the global terrestrial carbon cycle. Repeatable and accurate monitoring of terrestrial GPP is therefore critical for quantifying dynamics in regional-to-global carbon budgets. Remote sensing provides high frequency

  5. Remote sensing of annual terrestrial gross primary productivity from MODIS: an assessment using the FLUXNET La Thuile data set

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verma, M.; Friedl, M.A.; Richardson, A.D.; Kiely, G.; Cescatti, A.; Law, B.E.; Wohlfahrt, G.; Gielen, G.; Roupsard, O.; Moors, E.J.

    2014-01-01

    Gross primary productivity (GPP) is the largest and most variable component of the global terrestrial carbon cycle. Repeatable and accurate monitoring of terrestrial GPP is therefore critical for quantifying dynamics in regional-to-global carbon budgets. Remote sensing provides high frequency observ

  6. Improved assessment of gross and net primary productivity of Canada's landmass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonsamo, Alemu; Chen, Jing M.; Price, David T.; Kurz, Werner A.; Liu, Jane; Boisvenue, Céline; Hember, Robbie A.; Wu, Chaoyang; Chang, Kuo-Hsien

    2013-12-01

    assess Canada's gross primary productivity (GPP) and net primary productivity (NPP) using boreal ecosystem productivity simulator (BEPS) at 250 m spatial resolution with improved input parameter and driver fields and phenology and nutrient release parameterization schemes. BEPS is a process-based two-leaf enzyme kinetic terrestrial ecosystem model designed to simulate energy, water, and carbon (C) fluxes using spatial data sets of meteorology, remotely sensed land surface variables, soil properties, and photosynthesis and respiration rate parameters. Two improved key land surface variables, leaf area index (LAI) and land cover type, are derived at 250 m from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer sensor. For diagnostic error assessment, we use nine forest flux tower sites where all measured C flux, meteorology, and ancillary data sets are available. The errors due to input drivers and parameters are then independently corrected for Canada-wide GPP and NPP simulations. The optimized LAI use, for example, reduced the absolute bias in GPP from 20.7% to 1.1% for hourly BEPS simulations. Following the error diagnostics and corrections, daily GPP and NPP are simulated over Canada at 250 m spatial resolution, the highest resolution simulation yet for the country or any other comparable region. Total NPP (GPP) for Canada's land area was 1.27 (2.68) Pg C for 2008, with forests contributing 1.02 (2.2) Pg C. The annual comparisons between measured and simulated GPP show that the mean differences are not statistically significant (p > 0.05, paired t test). The main BEPS simulation error sources are from the driver fields.

  7. An Evaluation of the MOD17 Gross Primary Production Algorithm in a Mangrove Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, H.; Najjar, R.; Herrmann, M.; Fuentes, J. D.; Ruiz-Plancarte, J.

    2015-12-01

    Though coastal wetlands occupy a small fraction of the Earth's surface, they are extremely active ecosystems and play a significant role in the global carbon budget. However, coastal wetlands are still poorly understood, especially when compared to open-ocean and terrestrial ecosystems. This is partly due to the limited in situ observations in these areas. One of the ways around the limited in situ data is to use remote sensing products. Here we present the first evaluation of the MOD17 remote sensing algorithm of gross primary productivity (GPP) in a mangrove forest using data from a flux tower in the Florida Everglades. MOD17 utilizes remote sensing products from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer and meteorological fields from the NCEP/DOE Reanalysis 2. MOD17 is found to capture the long-term mean and seasonal amplitude of GPP but has significant errors describing the interannual variability, intramonthly variability, and the phasing of the annual cycle in GPP. Regarding the latter, MOD17 overestimates GPP when salinity is high and underestimates it when it is low, consistent with the fact that MOD17 ignores salinity and salinity tends to decrease GPP. Including salinity in the algorithm would then most likely improve its accuracy. MOD17 also assumes that GPP is linear with respect to PAR (photosynthetically active radiation), which does not hold true in the mangroves. Finally, the estimated PAR and air temperature inputs to MOD17 were found to be significantly lower than observed. In summary, while MOD17 captures some aspects of GPP variability at this mangrove site, it appears to be doing so for the wrong reasons.

  8. Multiscale analyses of solar-induced florescence and gross primary production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Jeffrey D.; Griffis, Timothy J.; Baker, John M.; Frankenberg, Christian; Verma, Manish; Yuen, Karen

    2017-01-01

    Solar-induced fluorescence (SIF) has shown great promise for probing spatiotemporal variations in terrestrial gross primary production (GPP), the largest component flux of the global carbon cycle. However, scale mismatches between SIF and ground-based GPP have posed challenges toward fully exploiting these data. We used SIF obtained at high spatial sampling rates and resolution by NASA's Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 satellite to elucidate GPP-SIF relationships across space and time in the U.S. Corn Belt. Strong linear scaling functions (R2 ≥ 0.79) that were consistent across instantaneous to monthly time scales were obtained for corn ecosystems and for a heterogeneous landscape based on tall tower observations. Although the slope of the corn function was 56% higher than for the landscape, SIF was similar for corn (C4) and soybean (C3). Taken together, there is strong observational evidence showing robust linear GPP-SIF scaling that is sensitive to plant physiology but insensitive to the spatial or temporal scale.

  9. Gross domestic product, science interest, and science achievement: a person × nation interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker-Drob, Elliot M; Cheung, Amanda K; Briley, Daniel A

    2014-11-01

    Maximizing science achievement is a critical target of educational policy and has important implications for national and international economic and technological competitiveness. Previous research has identified both science interest and socioeconomic status (SES) as robust predictors of science achievement, but little research has examined their joint effects. In a data set drawn from approximately 400,000 high school students from 57 countries, we documented large Science Interest × SES and Science Interest × Per Capita Gross Domestic Product (GDP) interactions in the prediction of science achievement. Student interest in science is a substantially stronger predictor of science achievement in higher socioeconomic contexts and in higher-GDP nations. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that in higher-opportunity contexts, motivational factors play larger roles in learning and achievement. They add to the growing body of evidence indicating that substantial cross-national differences in psychological effect sizes are not simply a logical possibility but, in many cases, an empirical reality. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Impact of disaster-related mortality on gross domestic product in the WHO African Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldis William

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disaster-related mortality is a growing public health concern in the African Region. These deaths are hypothesized to have a significantly negative effect on per capita gross domestic product (GDP. The objective of this study was to estimate the loss in GDP attributable to natural and technological disaster-related mortality in the WHO African Region. Methods The impact of disaster-related mortality on GDP was estimated using double-log econometric model and cross-sectional data on various Member States in the WHO African Region. The analysis was based on 45 of the 46 countries in the Region. The data was obtained from various UNDP and World Bank publications. Results The coefficients for capital (K, educational enrolment (EN, life expectancy (LE and exports (X had a positive sign; while imports (M and disaster mortality (DS were found to impact negatively on GDP. The above-mentioned explanatory variables were found to have a statistically significant effect on GDP at 5% level in a t-distribution test. Disaster mortality of a single person was found to reduce GDP by US$0.01828. Conclusions We have demonstrated that disaster-related mortality has a significant negative effect on GDP. Thus, as policy-makers strive to increase GDP through capital investment, export promotion and increased educational enrolment, they should always keep in mind that investments made in the strengthening of national capacity to mitigate the effects of national disasters expeditiously and effectively will yield significant economic returns.

  11. Happiness and age in European adults: The moderating role of gross domestic product per capita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Jessica; Robinson, Oliver; Thompson, Trevor

    2015-09-01

    Studies of happiness levels across the life span have found support for two rival hypotheses. The positivity effect states that as people get older, they increasingly attend to positive information, which implies that happiness remains stable or increases with age, whereas the U-shaped hypothesis posits a curvilinear shape resulting from a dip during midlife. Both have been presented as potentially universal hypotheses that relate to cognitive and/or biological causes. The current study examined the happiness-age relationship across 29 European nations (N = 46,301) to explore whether it is moderated by national wealth, as indexed by Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita. It was found that eudaimonic and hedonic happiness remained relatively stable across the life span only in the most affluent nations; in poorer nations, there was either a fluctuating or steady age-associated decline. These findings challenge the cultural universality of the happiness-age relationship and suggest that models of how age relates to happiness should include the socioeconomic level of analysis. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. A multifactor approach to forecasting Romanian gross domestic product (GDP) in the short run

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armeanu, Daniel; Lache, Leonard; Panait, Mirela

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the application of a generalized dynamic factor model (GDFM) based on dynamic principal components analysis to forecasting short-term economic growth in Romania. We have used a generalized principal components approach to estimate a dynamic model based on a dataset comprising 86 economic and non-economic variables that are linked to economic output. The model exploits the dynamic correlations between these variables and uses three common components that account for roughly 72% of the information contained in the original space. We show that it is possible to generate reliable forecasts of quarterly real gross domestic product (GDP) using just the common components while also assessing the contribution of the individual variables to the dynamics of real GDP. In order to assess the relative performance of the GDFM to standard models based on principal components analysis, we have also estimated two Stock-Watson (SW) models that were used to perform the same out-of-sample forecasts as the GDFM. The results indicate significantly better performance of the GDFM compared with the competing SW models, which empirically confirms our expectations that the GDFM produces more accurate forecasts when dealing with large datasets. PMID:28742100

  13. The Potential of Carbonyl Sulfide as a Tracer for Gross Primary Productivity at Flux Tower Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blonquist, J.; Montzka, S. A.; Yakir, D.; Desai, A. R.; Dragoni, D.; Griffis, T. J.; Monson, R. K.; Munger, J. W.; Scott, R. L.; Bowling, D. R.

    2010-12-01

    Regional/continental scale studies of atmospheric carbonyl sulfide (OCS) seasonal dynamics and leaf level studies of plant OCS uptake have shown a close relationship to CO2 dynamics and uptake, suggesting potential for OCS as a tracer for gross primary productivity (GPP). Canopy CO2 and OCS differences (mole fraction within canopy minus that above canopy) at a temperate deciduous forest (Harvard Forest AmeriFlux site) were analyzed relative to net ecosystem exchange (NEE) and GPP, respectively. Canopy CO2 and OCS vertical gradients (CO2 and OCS differences divided by within and above canopy measurement height differences) were used to calculate ecosystem relative uptake (ERU; relative canopy OCS gradient divided by relative canopy CO2 gradient, where relative gradients are gradients normalized by above canopy mole fractions), from which GPP was estimated using an equation that assumes OCS follows the same physical pathway as CO2 into plant leaves and where GPP / NEE was proportional to OCS gradient / CO2 gradient. Additionally, canopy CO2 differences from five other AmeriFlux sites were analyzed, and OCS differences were projected from these differences (via an assumed ERU) to further evaluate OCS as a potential GPP tracer. At Harvard Forest, canopy CO2 differences were related to NEE (y = 0.041x + 0.046, r2 = 0.14, P ERU is potentially measurable with current grab-sample-based OCS measurement capabilities and may provide an alternative means of estimating GPP at flux tower sites.

  14. Recent Changes in Terrestrial Gross Primary Productivity in Asia from 1982 to 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhito Ichii

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Past changes in gross primary productivity (GPP were assessed using historical satellite observations based on the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR onboard the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA satellite series and four terrestrial biosphere models to identify the trends and driving mechanisms related to GPP and NDVI in Asia. A satellite-based time-series data analysis showed that approximately 40% of the area has experienced a significant increase in the NDVI, while only a few areas have experienced a significant decreasing trend over the last 30 years. The increases in the NDVI are dominant in the sub-continental regions of Siberia, East Asia, and India. Simulations using the terrestrial biosphere models also showed significant increases in GPP, similar to the results for the NDVI, in boreal and temperate regions. A modeled sensitivity analysis showed that the increases in GPP are explained by increased temperature and precipitation in Siberia. Precipitation, solar radiation and CO2 fertilization are important factors in the tropical regions. However, the relative contributions of each factor to GPP changes are different among the models.

  15. 2,4-D and Glyphosate affect aquatic biofilm accrual, gross primary production, and community respiration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawton E. Shaw

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D and glyphosate are widely used agricultural herbicides commonly found in surface waters near cultivated land. Field experiments were conducted to determine the effects of 2,4-D and glyphosate on biofilms in a pond next to agricultural land in Athabasca, Alberta. Contaminant-exposure substrates (CES consisted of GF/C glass fiber or a cellulose filter paper substrates placed on specimen jars filled with agar that contained low levels of nitrogen and phosphorus, and different concentrations (15, 9.0, 1.5 mM of either 2,4-D or glyphosate. Nutrients and herbicide diffused freely through the agar to the substrate surface. CES arrays were deployed 15 cm below the water surface for 22 days, after which biofilms were collected and biomass (chlorophyll a, autotroph gross primary production (GPP, and heterotroph community respiration (CR were measured. 2,4-D (15 mM caused significant decreases in rates of biomass accrual (−22%, GPP (−34%, and CR(−63%. Glyphosate (15 mM also caused significant decreases in rates of biomass accrual (−50%, GPP (−67%, and CR (−47%. For the contaminant concentrations used, mean flux rates are estimated to be between 50–700 ng cm−2 min−1.

  16. Modeling the Philippines' real gross domestic product: A normal estimation equation for multiple linear regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrutia, Jackie D.; Tampis, Razzcelle L.; Mercado, Joseph; Baygan, Aaron Vito M.; Baccay, Edcon B.

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this research is to formulate a mathematical model for the Philippines' Real Gross Domestic Product (Real GDP). The following factors are considered: Consumers' Spending (x1), Government's Spending (x2), Capital Formation (x3) and Imports (x4) as the Independent Variables that can actually influence in the Real GDP in the Philippines (y). The researchers used a Normal Estimation Equation using Matrices to create the model for Real GDP and used α = 0.01.The researchers analyzed quarterly data from 1990 to 2013. The data were acquired from the National Statistical Coordination Board (NSCB) resulting to a total of 96 observations for each variable. The data have undergone a logarithmic transformation particularly the Dependent Variable (y) to satisfy all the assumptions of the Multiple Linear Regression Analysis. The mathematical model for Real GDP was formulated using Matrices through MATLAB. Based on the results, only three of the Independent Variables are significant to the Dependent Variable namely: Consumers' Spending (x1), Capital Formation (x3) and Imports (x4), hence, can actually predict Real GDP (y). The regression analysis displays that 98.7% (coefficient of determination) of the Independent Variables can actually predict the Dependent Variable. With 97.6% of the result in Paired T-Test, the Predicted Values obtained from the model showed no significant difference from the Actual Values of Real GDP. This research will be essential in appraising the forthcoming changes to aid the Government in implementing policies for the development of the economy.

  17. Sea Surface Temperature Influence on Terrestrial Gross Primary Production along the Southern California Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, Janet J.; Vargas, Rodrigo; Rivas, David; Gaxiola-Castro, Gilberto; Hernandez-Ayon, J. Martin; Lara-Lara, Ruben

    2015-01-01

    Some land and ocean processes are related through connections (and synoptic-scale teleconnections) to the atmosphere. Synoptic-scale atmospheric (El Niño/Southern Oscillation [ENSO], Pacific Decadal Oscillation [PDO], and North Atlantic Oscillation [NAO]) decadal cycles are known to influence the global terrestrial carbon cycle. Potentially, smaller scale land-ocean connections influenced by coastal upwelling (changes in sea surface temperature) may be important for local-to-regional water-limited ecosystems where plants may benefit from air moisture transported from the ocean to terrestrial ecosystems. Here we use satellite-derived observations to test potential connections between changes in sea surface temperature (SST) in regions with strong coastal upwelling and terrestrial gross primary production (GPP) across the Baja California Peninsula. This region is characterized by an arid/semiarid climate along the southern California Current. We found that SST was correlated with the fraction of photosynthetic active radiation (fPAR; as a proxy for GPP) with lags ranging from 0 to 5 months. In contrast ENSO was not as strongly related with fPAR as SST in these coastal ecosystems. Our results show the importance of local-scale changes in SST during upwelling events, to explain the variability in GPP in coastal, water-limited ecosystems. The response of GPP to SST was spatially-dependent: colder SST in the northern areas increased GPP (likely by influencing fog formation), while warmer SST at the southern areas was associated to higher GPP (as SST is in phase with precipitation patterns). Interannual trends in fPAR are also spatially variable along the Baja California Peninsula with increasing secular trends in subtropical regions, decreasing trends in the most arid region, and no trend in the semi-arid regions. These findings suggest that studies and ecosystem process based models should consider the lateral influence of local-scale ocean processes that could

  18. Effects of foliage clumping on the estimation of global terrestrial gross primary productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing M.; Mo, Gang; Pisek, Jan; Liu, Jane; Deng, Feng; Ishizawa, Misa; Chan, Douglas

    2012-03-01

    Sunlit and shaded leaf separation proposed by Norman (1982) is an effective way to upscale from leaf to canopy in modeling vegetation photosynthesis. The Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS) makes use of this methodology, and has been shown to be reliable in modeling the gross primary productivity (GPP) derived from CO2flux and tree ring measurements. In this study, we use BEPS to investigate the effect of canopy architecture on the global distribution of GPP. For this purpose, we use not only leaf area index (LAI) but also the first ever global map of the foliage clumping index derived from the multiangle satellite sensor POLDER at 6 km resolution. The clumping index, which characterizes the degree of the deviation of 3-dimensional leaf spatial distributions from the random case, is used to separate sunlit and shaded LAI values for a given LAI. Our model results show that global GPP in 2003 was 132 ± 22 Pg C. Relative to this baseline case, our results also show: (1) global GPP is overestimated by 12% when accurate LAI is available but clumping is ignored, and (2) global GPP is underestimated by 9% when the effective LAI is available and clumping is ignored. The clumping effects in both cases are statistically significant (p < 0.001). The effective LAI is often derived from remote sensing by inverting the measured canopy gap fraction to LAI without considering the clumping. Global GPP would therefore be generally underestimated when remotely sensed LAI (actually effective LAI by our definition) is used. This is due to the underestimation of the shaded LAI and therefore the contribution of shaded leaves to GPP. We found that shaded leaves contribute 50%, 38%, 37%, 39%, 26%, 29% and 21% to the total GPP for broadleaf evergreen forest, broadleaf deciduous forest, evergreen conifer forest, deciduous conifer forest, shrub, C4 vegetation, and other vegetation, respectively. The global average of this ratio is 35%.

  19. Optimal utilization of modern reproductive technologies to maximize the gross margin of milk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkilä, A-M; Peippo, J

    2012-06-01

    In this study, a linear programming model was developed to maximize the gross margin of milk production by determining the optimal use of different reproductive technologies in a dairy herd. The model has the potential to vary the use of conventional artificial insemination, insemination with X-sorted sperm, and the use of unselected or sex-selected embryo recovery and transfer. Data from Finnish dairy herd recording systems were used to parameterize the model. This paper presents the results of 6 scenarios for a herd size of 60 dairy cows. In the basic scenario, the optimum economic combination for Finnish conditions was to inseminate 10 heifers and 22 cows with unsorted semen, 8 heifers with X-sorted sperm, and to use 20 cows as embryo donors which was the upper constraint for this technique. The embryo donors were inseminated with conventional semen for both embryo production and their subsequent pregnancy. Without restriction on embryo recovery, the optimum combination was to use all heifers as donors of sex-selected embryos and all cows as donors of unselected embryos. It was more profitable to produce female embryos with X-sorted sperm than by sorting embryos. Embryo recipients were not economically justified in any scenario. In practice, the optimal strategy is herd-specific depending on the input costs, output values and the technical success of each reproductive technology in that herd. This single-year linear programming model adequately differentiates between breeding technologies within a herd, but further research is needed to develop dynamic models to consider genetic improvement and herd expansion. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Gross community production and metabolic balance in the South Pacific Gyre, using a non intrusive bio-optical method

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    H. Claustre

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The very clear waters of the South Pacific Gyre likely constitute an end-member of oligotrophic conditions which remain essentially unknown with respect to its impact on carbon fixation and exportation. We describe a non-intrusive bio-optical method to quantify the various terms of a production budget (Gross community production, community losses, net community production in this area. This method is based on the analysis of the diel cycle in Particulate Organic Carbon (POC, derived from high frequency measurements of the particle attenuation coefficient cp. We report very high integrated rates of Gross Community Production within the euphotic layer (average of 846±484 mg C m−2 d−1 for 17 stations that are far above any rates determined using incubation techniques for such areas. Furthermore we show that the daily production of POC is essentially balanced by the losses so that the system cannot be considered as net heterotrophic. Our results thus agree well with geochemical methods, but not with incubation studies based on oxygen methods. We stress to the important role of deep layers, below the euphotic layer, in contributing to carbon fixation when incident irradiance at the ocean surface is high (absence of cloud coverage. These deep layers, not considered up to know, might fuel part of the heterotrophic processes in the upper layer, including through dissolved organic carbon. We further demonstrate that, in these extremely clear and stratified waters, integrated gross community production is proportional to the POC content and surface irradiance via an efficiency index ψ GCP*, the water column cross section for Gross Community Production. We finally discuss our results in the context of the role of oligotrophic gyre in the global carbon budget and of the possibility of using optical proxies from space for the development of growth community rather than primary production

  1. Uncertainty analysis of gross primary production partitioned from net ecosystem exchange measurements

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    R. Raj

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Gross primary production (GPP, separated from flux tower measurements of net ecosystem exchange (NEE of CO2, is used increasingly to validate process-based simulators and remote sensing-derived estimates of simulated GPP at various time steps. Proper validation should include the uncertainty associated with this separation at different time steps. This can be achieved by using a Bayesian framework. In this study, we estimated the uncertainty in GPP at half hourly time steps. We used a non-rectangular hyperbola (NRH model to separate GPP from flux tower measurements of NEE at the Speulderbos forest site, The Netherlands. The NRH model included the variables that influence GPP, in particular radiation, and temperature. In addition, the NRH model provided a robust empirical relationship between radiation and GPP by including the degree of curvature of the light response curve. Parameters of the NRH model were fitted to the measured NEE data for every 10-day period during the growing season (April to October in 2009. Adopting a Bayesian approach, we defined the prior distribution of each NRH parameter. Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC simulation was used to update the prior distribution of each NRH parameter. This allowed us to estimate the uncertainty in the separated GPP at half-hourly time steps. This yielded the posterior distribution of GPP at each half hour and allowed the quantification of uncertainty. The time series of posterior distributions thus obtained allowed us to estimate the uncertainty at daily time steps. We compared the informative with non-informative prior distributions of the NRH parameters. The results showed that both choices of prior produced similar posterior distributions GPP. This will provide relevant and important information for the validation of process-based simulators in the future. Furthermore, the obtained posterior distributions of NEE and the NRH parameters are of interest for a range of applications.

  2. Constraining Ecosystem Gross Primary Production and Transpiration with Measurements of Photosynthetic 13CO2 Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blonquist, J. M.; Wingate, L.; Ogeé, J.; Bowling, D. R.

    2011-12-01

    The stable carbon isotope composition of atmospheric CO2 (δ13Ca) can provide useful information on water use efficiency (WUE) dynamics of terrestrial ecosystems and potentially constrain models of CO2 and water fluxes at the land surface. This is due to the leaf-level relationship between photosynthetic 13CO2 discrimination (Δ), which influences δ13Ca, and the ratio of leaf intercellular to atmospheric CO2 mole fractions (Ci / Ca), which is related to WUE and is determined by the balance between C assimilation (CO2 demand) and stomatal conductance (CO2 supply). We used branch-scale Δ derived from tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy measurements collected in a Maritime pine forest to estimate Ci / Ca variations over an entire growing season. We combined Ci / Ca estimates with rates of gross primary production (GPP) derived from eddy covariance (EC) to estimate canopy-scale stomatal conductance (Gs) and transpiration (T). Estimates of T were highly correlated to T estimates derived from sapflow data (y = 1.22x + 0.08; r2 = 0.61; slope P MuSICA) (y = 0.88x - 0.05; r2 = 0.64; slope P MuSICA (y = 1.10 + 0.42; r2 = 0.50; slope P < 0.001). Results demonstrate that the leaf-level relationship between Δ and Ci / Ca can be extended to the canopy-scale and that Δ measurements have utility for partitioning ecosystem-scale CO2 and water fluxes.

  3. A geostatistical synthesis study of factors affecting gross primary productivity in various ecosystems of North America

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    V. Yadav

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A coupled Bayesian model selection and geostatistical regression modeling approach is adopted for empirical analysis of gross primary productivity (GPP at six AmeriFlux sites, including the Kennedy Space Center Scrub Oak, Vaira Ranch, Tonzi Ranch, Blodgett Forest, Morgan Monroe State Forest, and Harvard Forest sites. The analysis is performed at a continuum of temporal scales ranging from daily to monthly, for a period of seven years. A total of 10 covariates representing environmental stimuli and indices of plant physiology are considered in explaining variations in GPP. Similar to other statistical methods, the proposed approach estimates regression coefficients and uncertainties associated with the covariates in a selected regression model. However, unlike traditional regression methods, the presented approach also estimates the uncertainty associated with the selection of a single "best" model of GPP. In addition, the approach provides an enhanced understanding of how the importance of specific covariates changes with temporal resolutions. An examination of trends in the importance of specific covariates reveals scaling thresholds above or below which covariates become significant in explaining GPP. Results indicate that most sites (especially those with a stronger seasonal cycle exhibit at least one prominent scaling threshold between daily to 20-day temporal scale. This demonstrates that environmental variables that explain GPP at synoptic scales are different from those that capture its seasonality. At shorter time scales, radiation, temperature, and vapor pressure deficit exert most significant influence on GPP at most examined sites. However, at coarser time scales, the importance of these covariates in explaining GPP declines. Overall, unique best models are identified at most sites at the daily scale, whereas multiple competing models are identified at larger time scales. In addition, the selected models are able to explain a larger

  4. A geostatistical synthesis study of factors affecting gross primary productivity in various ecosystems of North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Yadav

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A coupled Bayesian model selection and geostatistical regression modeling approach is adopted for empirical analysis of gross primary productivity (GPP at six AmeriFlux sites, including the Kennedy Space Center Scrub Oak, Vaira Ranch, Tonzi Ranch, Blodgett Forest, Morgan Monroe State Forest, and Harvard Forest sites. The analysis is performed at a continuum of temporal scales ranging from daily to monthly, for a period of seven years. A total of 10 covariates representing environmental stimuli and indices of plant physiology are considered in explaining variations in GPP. Similarly to other statistical methods, the presented approach estimates regression coefficients and uncertainties associated with the covariates in a selected regression model. Unlike traditional regression methods, however, the approach also estimates the uncertainty associated with the selection of a single "best" model of GPP. In addition, the approach provides an enhanced understanding of how the importance of specific covariates changes with the examined timescale (i.e. temporal resolution. An examination of changes in the importance of specific covariates across timescales reveals thresholds above or below which covariates become important in explaining GPP. Results indicate that most sites (especially those with a stronger seasonal cycle exhibit at least one prominent scaling threshold between the daily and 20-day temporal scales. This demonstrates that environmental variables that explain GPP at synoptic scales are different from those that capture its seasonality. At shorter time scales, radiation, temperature, and vapor pressure deficit exert the most significant influence on GPP at most examined sites. At coarser time scales, however, the importance of these covariates in explaining GPP declines. Overall, unique best models are identified at most sites at the daily scale, whereas multiple competing models are identified at longer time scales.

  5. Consistency Between Sun-Induced Chlorophyll Fluorescence and Gross Primary Production of Vegetation in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yao; Xiao, Xiangming; Jin, Cui; Dong, Jinwei; Zhou, Sha; Wagle, Pradeep; Joiner, Joanna; Guanter, Luis; Zhang, Yongguang; Zhang , Geli; Qin, Yuanwei; Wang, Jie; Moore, Berrien, III

    2016-01-01

    Accurate estimation of the gross primary production (GPP) of terrestrial ecosystems is vital for a better understanding of the spatial-temporal patterns of the global carbon cycle. In this study,we estimate GPP in North America (NA) using the satellite-based Vegetation Photosynthesis Model (VPM), MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) images at 8-day temporal and 500 meter spatial resolutions, and NCEP-NARR (National Center for Environmental Prediction-North America Regional Reanalysis) climate data. The simulated GPP (GPP (sub VPM)) agrees well with the flux tower derived GPP (GPPEC) at 39 AmeriFlux sites (155 site-years). The GPP (sub VPM) in 2010 is spatially aggregated to 0.5 by 0.5-degree grid cells and then compared with sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) data from Global Ozone Monitoring Instrument 2 (GOME-2), which is directly related to vegetation photosynthesis. Spatial distribution and seasonal dynamics of GPP (sub VPM) and GOME-2 SIF show good consistency. At the biome scale, GPP (sub VPM) and SIF shows strong linear relationships (R (sup 2) is greater than 0.95) and small variations in regression slopes ((4.60-5.55 grams Carbon per square meter per day) divided by (milliwatts per square meter per nanometer per square radian)). The total annual GPP (sub VPM) in NA in 2010 is approximately 13.53 petagrams Carbon per year, which accounts for approximately 11.0 percent of the global terrestrial GPP and is within the range of annual GPP estimates from six other process-based and data-driven models (11.35-22.23 petagrams Carbon per year). Among the seven models, some models did not capture the spatial pattern of GOME-2 SIF data at annual scale, especially in Midwest cropland region. The results from this study demonstrate the reliable performance of VPM at the continental scale, and the potential of SIF data being used as a benchmark to compare with GPP models.

  6. Structural Uncertainty in Model-Simulated Trends of Global Gross Primary Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaichun Zhu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Projected changes in the frequency and severity of droughts as a result of increase in greenhouse gases have a significant impact on the role of vegetation in regulating the global carbon cycle. Drought effect on vegetation Gross Primary Production (GPP is usually modeled as a function of Vapor Pressure Deficit (VPD and/or soil moisture. Climate projections suggest a strong likelihood of increasing trend in VPD, while regional changes in precipitation are less certain. This difference in projections between VPD and precipitation can cause considerable discrepancies in the predictions of vegetation behavior depending on how ecosystem models represent the drought effect. In this study, we scrutinized the model responses to drought using the 30-year record of Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS 3g Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI dataset. A diagnostic ecosystem model, Terrestrial Observation and Prediction System (TOPS, was used to estimate global GPP from 1982 to 2009 under nine different experimental simulations. The control run of global GPP increased until 2000, but stayed constant after 2000. Among the simulations with single climate constraint (temperature, VPD, rainfall and solar radiation, only the VPD-driven simulation showed a decrease in 2000s, while the other scenarios simulated an increase in GPP. The diverging responses in 2000s can be attributed to the difference in the representation of the impact of water stress on vegetation in models, i.e., using VPD and/or precipitation. Spatial map of trend in simulated GPP using GIMMS 3g data is consistent with the GPP driven by soil moisture than the GPP driven by VPD, confirming the need for a soil moisture constraint in modeling global GPP.

  7. Improving North American gross primary production (GPP) estimates using atmospheric measurements of carbonyl sulfide (COS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huilin; Montzka, Steve; Andrews, Arlyn; Sweeney, Colm; Jacobson, Andy; Miller, Ben; Masarie, Ken; Jung, Martin; Gerbig, Christoph; Campbell, Elliott; Abu-Naser, Mohammad; Berry, Joe; Baker, Ian; Tans, Pieter

    2013-04-01

    Understanding the responses of gross primary production (GPP) to climate change is essential for improving our prediction of climate change. To this end, it is important to accurately partition net ecosystem exchange of carbon into GPP and respiration. Recent studies suggest that carbonyl sulfide is a useful tracer to provide a constraint on GPP, based on the fact that both COS and CO2 are simultaneously taken up by plants and the quantitative correlation between GPP and COS plant uptake. We will present an assessment of North American GPP estimates from the Simple Biosphere (SiB) model, the Carnegie-Ames-Stanford Approach (CASA) model, and the MPI-BGC model through atmospheric transport simulations of COS in a receptor oriented framework. The newly upgraded Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory Model (HYSPLIT) will be employed to compute the influence functions, i.e. footprints, to link the surface fluxes to the concentration changes at the receptor observations. The HYSPLIT is driven by the 3-hourly archived NAM 12km meteorological data from NOAA NCEP. The background concentrations are calculated using empirical curtains along the west coast of North America that have been created by interpolating in time and space the observations at the NOAA/ESRL marine boundary layer stations and from aircraft vertical profiles. The plant uptake of COS is derived from GPP estimates of biospheric models. The soil uptake and anthropogenic emissions are from Kettle et al. 2002. In addition, we have developed a new soil flux map of COS based on observations of molecular hydrogen (H2), which shares a common soil uptake term but lacks a vegetative sink. We will also improve the GPP estimates by assimilating atmospheric observations of COS in the receptor oriented framework, and then present the assessment of the improved GPP estimates against variations of climate variables such as temperature and precipitation.

  8. Gross Domestic Product (GDP and productivity of schizophrenia trials: an ecological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenton Mark

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 5000 randomised controlled trials (RCTs in the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's database affords an opportunity to research for variables related to the differences between nations of their output of schizophrenia trials. Methods Ecological study – investigating the relationship between four economic/demographic variables and number of schizophrenia RCTs per country. The variable with closest correlation was used to predict the expected number of studies. Results GDP closely correlated with schizophrenia trial output, with 76% of the total variation about the Y explained by the regression line (r = 0.87, 95% CI 0.79 to 0.92, r2 = 0.76. Many countries have a strong tradition of schizophrenia trials, exceeding their predicted output. All nations with no identified trial output had GDPs that predicted zero trial activity. Several nations with relatively small GDPs are, nevertheless, highly productive of trials. Some wealthy countries seem either not to have produced the expected number of randomised trials or not to have disseminated them to the English-speaking world. Conclusions This hypothesis-generating study could not investigate causal relationships, but suggests, that for those seeking all relevant studies, expending effort searching the scientific literature of Germany, Italy, France, Brazil and Japan may be a good investment.

  9. Marginal Lands Gross Primary Production Dominate Atmospheric CO2 Interannual Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlström, A.; Raupach, M. R.; Schurgers, G.; Arneth, A.; Jung, M.; Reichstein, M.; Smith, B.

    2014-12-01

    Since the 1960s terrestrial ecosystems have acted as a substantial sink for atmospheric CO2, sequestering about one quarter of anthropogenic emissions in an average year. Variations in this land carbon sink are also responsible for most of the large interannual variability in atmospheric CO2 concentrations. While most evidence places the majority of the sink in highly productive forests and at high latitudes experiencing warmer and longer growing seasons, the location and the processes governing the interannual variations are still not well characterised. Here we evaluate the hypothesis that the long-term trend and the variability in the land CO2 sink are respectively dominated by geographically distinct regions: the sink by highly productive lands, mainly forests, and the variability by semi-arid or "marginal" lands where vegetation activity is strongly limited by water and therefore responds strongly to climate variability. Using novel analysis methods and data from both upscaled flux-tower measurements and a dynamic global vegetation model, we show that (1) the interannual variability in the terrestrial CO2 sink arises mainly from variability in terrestrial gross primary production (GPP); (2) most of the interannual variability in GPP arises in tropical and subtropical marginal lands, where negative anomalies are driven mainly by warm, dry conditions and positive anomalies by cool, wet conditions; (3) the variability in the GPP of high-latitude marginal lands (tundra and shrublands) is instead controlled by temperature and light, with warm bright conditions resulting in positive anomalies. The influence of ENSO (El Niño-Southern Oscillation) on the growth rate of atmospheric CO2 concentrations is mediated primarily through climatic effects on GPP in marginal lands, with opposite signs in subtropical and higher-latitude regions. Our results show that the land sink of CO2 (dominated by forests) and its interannual variability (dominated by marginal lands) are

  10. Comment on: "Technical note: Consistent calculation of aquatic gross production from oxygen triple isotope measurements" by Kaiser (2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. P. Nicholson

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Kaiser (2011 has introduced an improved method for calculating gross productivity from the triple isotopic composition of dissolved oxygen in aquatic systems. His equation avoids approximations of previous methodologies, and also accounts for additional physical processes such as kinetic fractionation during invasion and evasion at the air-sea interface. However, when comparing his new approach to previous methods, Kaiser inconsistently defines the biological end-member with the result of overestimating the degree to which the various approaches of previous studies diverge. In particular, for his base case, Kaiser assigns a 17O excess to the product of photosynthesis (17δP that is too low, resulting in his result being ~30 % too high when compared to previous equations. When this is corrected, I find that Kaiser's equations are consistent with all previous study methodologies within about ±20 % for realistic conditions of metabolic balance (f and gross productivity (g. A methodological bias of ±20 % is of similar magnitude to current uncertainty in the wind-speed dependence of the air-sea gas transfer velocity, k, which directly impacts calculated gross productivity rates as well. While previous results could and should be revisited and corrected using the proposed improved equations, the magnitude of such corrections may be much less than implied by Kaiser.

  11. Estimation of Crop Gross Primary Production (GPP). 2; Do Scaled (MODIS) Vegetation Indices Improve Performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingyuan; Cheng, Yen-Ben; Lyapustin, Alexei I.; Wang, Yujie; Zhang, Xiaoyang; Suyker, Andrew; Verma, Shashi; Shuai, Yanmin; Middleton, Elizabeth M.

    2015-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing estimates of Gross Primary Production (GPP) have routinely been made using spectral Vegetation Indices (VIs) over the past two decades. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI), the green band Wide Dynamic Range Vegetation Index (WDRVIgreen), and the green band Chlorophyll Index (CIgreen) have been employed to estimate GPP under the assumption that GPP is proportional to the product of VI and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) (where VI is one of four VIs: NDVI, EVI, WDRVIgreen, or CIgreen). However, the empirical regressions between VI*PAR and GPP measured locally at flux towers do not pass through the origin (i.e., the zero X-Y value for regressions). Therefore they are somewhat difficult to interpret and apply. This study investigates (1) what are the scaling factors and offsets (i.e., regression slopes and intercepts) between the fraction of PAR absorbed by chlorophyll of a canopy (fAPARchl) and the VIs, and (2) whether the scaled VIs developed in (1) can eliminate the deficiency and improve the accuracy of GPP estimates. Three AmeriFlux maize and soybean fields were selected for this study, two of which are irrigated and one is rainfed. The four VIs and fAPARchl of the fields were computed with the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite images. The GPP estimation performance for the scaled VIs was compared to results obtained with the original VIs and evaluated with standard statistics: the coefficient of determination (R2), the root mean square error (RMSE), and the coefficient of variation (CV). Overall, the scaled EVI obtained the best performance. The performance of the scaled NDVI, EVI and WDRVIgreen was improved across sites, crop types and soil/background wetness conditions. The scaled CIgreen did not improve results, compared to the original CIgreen. The scaled green band indices (WDRVIgreen, CIgreen) did not exhibit superior performance to either the

  12. Reply to Nicholson's comment on "Consistent calculation of aquatic gross production from oxygen triple isotope measurements" by Kaiser (2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kaiser

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The comment by Nicholson (2011a questions the "consistency" of the "definition" of the "biological end-member" used by Kaiser (2011a in the calculation of oxygen gross production. "Biological end-member" refers to the relative oxygen isotope ratio difference between photosynthetic oxygen and Air-O2 (abbreviated 17δP and 18δP for 17O/16O and 18O/16O, respectively.

    This comment has no merit for the following reasons: (a the isotopic composition of photosynthetic oxygen cannot be "defined", it can only be measured, modelled or calculated based on other data; (b the isotopic composition of photosynthetic oxygen was not "defined" in Kaiser (2011a, but derived from published measurements; (c the published measurements themselves were inconsistent and no single result could be identified as best; (d since no best value could be identified, a hypothetical base case was constructed in a way that was consistent with previous publications; (e the values of 17δP=−11.646‰ and 18δP=−22.835‰ assumed for the base case are compatible with the experimental evidence published before the paper of Kaiser (2011a; (f even if the "biological end-member" was based on a definition, there could be no argument about the "consistency" of this definition – as per its nature, a definition is arbitrary.

    The qualification of base case gross production values as being "30 % too high" must therefore also be rejected. Even though recently revised measurements of the relative 17O/16O isotope ratio difference between VSMOW and Air-O2, 17δVSMOW (Barkan and Luz, 2011, do support lower estimates of gross production, our own measurements disagree with these revised 17δVSMOW values. If scaled for differences in 18

  13. MODIS/TERRA MOD17A2H Gross Primary Productivity 8-Day L4 Global 500m SIN Grid Version 6

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The version 6 Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) product is a cumulative 8-day composite of values with 500 meter pixel size based on the radiation-use efficiency...

  14. MODIS/AQUA MYD17A2H Gross Primary Productivity 8-Day L4 Global 500m SIN Grid Version 6

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The version 6 Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) product is a cumulative 8-day composite of values with 500 meter pixel size based on the radiation-use efficiency...

  15. Global estimates of evapotranspiration and gross primary production based on MODIS and global meteorology data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, W.; Liu, S.; Yu, G.; Bonnefond, J.-M.; Chen, J.; Davis, K.; Desai, A.R.; Goldstein, Allen H.; Gianelle, D.; Rossi, F.; Suyker, A.E.; Verma, S.B.

    2010-01-01

    The simulation of gross primary production (GPP) at various spatial and temporal scales remains a major challenge for quantifying the global carbon cycle. We developed a light use efficiency model, called EC-LUE, driven by only four variables: normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), air temperature, and the Bowen ratio of sensible to latent heat flux. The EC-LUE model may have the most potential to adequately address the spatial and temporal dynamics of GPP because its parameters (i.e., the potential light use efficiency and optimal plant growth temperature) are invariant across the various land cover types. However, the application of the previous EC-LUE model was hampered by poor prediction of Bowen ratio at the large spatial scale. In this study, we substituted the Bowen ratio with the ratio of evapotranspiration (ET) to net radiation, and revised the RS-PM (Remote Sensing-Penman Monteith) model for quantifying ET. Fifty-four eddy covariance towers, including various ecosystem types, were selected to calibrate and validate the revised RS-PM and EC-LUE models. The revised RS-PM model explained 82% and 68% of the observed variations of ET for all the calibration and validation sites, respectively. Using estimated ET as input, the EC-LUE model performed well in calibration and validation sites, explaining 75% and 61% of the observed GPP variation for calibration and validation sites respectively. Global patterns of ET and GPP at a spatial resolution of 0.5?? latitude by 0.6?? longitude during the years 2000-2003 were determined using the global MERRA dataset (Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications) and MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer). The global estimates of ET and GPP agreed well with the other global models from the literature, with the highest ET and GPP over tropical forests and the lowest values in dry and high latitude areas. However, comparisons with observed GPP

  16. Leaf chlorophyll constraint on model simulated gross primary productivity in agricultural systems

    KAUST Repository

    Houborg, Rasmus

    2015-05-05

    Leaf chlorophyll content (Chll) may serve as an observational proxy for the maximum rate of carboxylation (Vmax), which describes leaf photosynthetic capacity and represents the single most important control on modeled leaf photosynthesis within most Terrestrial Biosphere Models (TBMs). The parameterization of Vmax is associated with great uncertainty as it can vary significantly between plants and in response to changes in leaf nitrogen (N) availability, plant phenology and environmental conditions. Houborg et al. (2013) outlined a semi-mechanistic relationship between V max 25 (Vmax normalized to 25 °C) and Chll based on inter-linkages between V max 25 , Rubisco enzyme kinetics, N and Chll. Here, these relationships are parameterized for a wider range of important agricultural crops and embedded within the leaf photosynthesis-conductance scheme of the Community Land Model (CLM), bypassing the questionable use of temporally invariant and broadly defined plant functional type (PFT) specific V max 25 values. In this study, the new Chll constrained version of CLM is refined with an updated parameterization scheme for specific application to soybean and maize. The benefit of using in-situ measured and satellite retrieved Chll for constraining model simulations of Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) is evaluated over fields in central Nebraska, U.S.A between 2001 and 2005. Landsat-based Chll time-series records derived from the Regularized Canopy Reflectance model (REGFLEC) are used as forcing to the CLM. Validation of simulated GPP against 15 site-years of flux tower observations demonstrate the utility of Chll as a model constraint, with the coefficient of efficiency increasing from 0.91 to 0.94 and from 0.87 to 0.91 for maize and soybean, respectively. Model performances particularly improve during the late reproductive and senescence stage, where the largest temporal variations in Chll (averaging 35–55 μg cm−2 for maize and 20–35 μg cm−2 for soybean) are

  17. Leaf chlorophyll constraint on model simulated gross primary productivity in agricultural systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houborg, Rasmus; F. McCabe, Matthew; Cescatti, Alessandro; A. Gitelson, Anatoly

    2015-12-01

    Leaf chlorophyll content (Chll) may serve as an observational proxy for the maximum rate of carboxylation (Vmax), which describes leaf photosynthetic capacity and represents the single most important control on modeled leaf photosynthesis within most Terrestrial Biosphere Models (TBMs). The parameterization of Vmax is associated with great uncertainty as it can vary significantly between plants and in response to changes in leaf nitrogen (N) availability, plant phenology and environmental conditions. Houborg et al. (2013) outlined a semi-mechanistic relationship between Vmax25 (Vmax normalized to 25 °C) and Chll based on inter-linkages between Vmax25, Rubisco enzyme kinetics, N and Chll. Here, these relationships are parameterized for a wider range of important agricultural crops and embedded within the leaf photosynthesis-conductance scheme of the Community Land Model (CLM), bypassing the questionable use of temporally invariant and broadly defined plant functional type (PFT) specific Vmax25 values. In this study, the new Chll constrained version of CLM is refined with an updated parameterization scheme for specific application to soybean and maize. The benefit of using in-situ measured and satellite retrieved Chll for constraining model simulations of Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) is evaluated over fields in central Nebraska, U.S.A between 2001 and 2005. Landsat-based Chll time-series records derived from the Regularized Canopy Reflectance model (REGFLEC) are used as forcing to the CLM. Validation of simulated GPP against 15 site-years of flux tower observations demonstrate the utility of Chll as a model constraint, with the coefficient of efficiency increasing from 0.91 to 0.94 and from 0.87 to 0.91 for maize and soybean, respectively. Model performances particularly improve during the late reproductive and senescence stage, where the largest temporal variations in Chll (averaging 35-55 μg cm-2 for maize and 20-35 μg cm-2 for soybean) are observed. While

  18. 7 CFR 1150.113 - Fluid milk products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Fluid milk products. 1150.113 Section 1150.113... Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PROMOTION PROGRAM Dairy Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1150.113 Fluid milk products. Fluid milk products means those milk products...

  19. Laparoscopic ovum collection in sheep: gross and microscopic evaluation of the ovary and influence on ooctye production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, P P M; Padilha, L C; Oliveira, M E F; Motheo, T F; da Silva, A S L; Barros, F F P C; Coutinho, L N; Flôres, F N; Lopes, M C S; Bandarra, M B; Silva, M A M; Vasconcelos, R O; Rodrigues, L F S; Vicente, W R R

    2011-09-01

    Gross and microscopic evaluations of the ovaries of sheep subjected to successive ovum collection were performed with the objective of identifying if there was interference in oocyte production and morphology of gonads. Gross evaluation of the internal genital tract was also performed. Eighteen ewes of the Santa Inês breed were randomly distributed into three experimental groups of six animals each; G0, G1 and G9 with no, one and nine repetitions, respectively. Estrous synchronization was achieved with a short protocol using MAP followed by single dose stimulation with 80mg of FSHp and 300 IU of eCG (IM). Laparoscopic ovum pick-up was performed 36h later, with 7-day intervals. The number of visualized follicles, aspirated follicles and oocytes recovery was recorded. After the last intervention, ovariectomy was performed for evaluation of gross and microscopical appearance and existence of lesions caused by follicular puncture, which were classified as absent (0), mild (1), moderate (2) and severe (3). The number of visualized follicles, aspirated follicles and oocytes recovery were 13.2±2.0, 11.3±3.0 and 5.8±2.3, respectively, with a recovery rate of 51.7%. No statistical difference was found between the nine sessions (P>0.05). Nine sessions of superovulation and ovum collection procedures did not cause ovarian lesions and did not interfere with the production of follicles in ewes of the Santa Inês breed.

  20. Integration of MODIS land and atmosphere products with a coupled-process model to estimate gross primary productivity and evapotranspiration from 1 km to global scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Youngryel; Baldocchi, Dennis D.; Kobayashi, Hideki; van Ingen, Catharine; Li, Jie; Black, T. Andy; Beringer, Jason; van Gorsel, Eva; Knohl, Alexander; Law, Beverly E.; Roupsard, Olivier

    2011-12-01

    We propose the Breathing Earth System Simulator (BESS), an upscaling approach to quantify global gross primary productivity and evapotranspiration using MODIS with a spatial resolution of 1-5 km and a temporal resolution of 8 days. This effort is novel because it is the first system that harmonizes and utilizes MODIS Atmosphere and Land products on the same projection and spatial resolution over the global land. This enabled us to use the MODIS Atmosphere products to calculate atmospheric radiative transfer for visual and near infrared radiation wave bands. Then we coupled atmospheric and canopy radiative transfer processes, with models that computed leaf photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and transpiration on the sunlit and shaded portions of the vegetation and soil. At the annual time step, the mass and energy fluxes derived from BESS showed strong linear relations with measurements of solar irradiance (r2 = 0.95, relative bias: 8%), gross primary productivity (r2 = 0.86, relative bias: 5%) and evapotranspiration (r2 = 0.86, relative bias: 15%) in data from 33 flux towers that cover seven plant functional types across arctic to tropical climatic zones. A sensitivity analysis revealed that the gross primary productivity and evapotranspiration computed in BESS were most sensitive to leaf area index and solar irradiance, respectively. We quantified the mean global terrestrial estimates of gross primary productivity and evapotranpiration between 2001 and 2003 as 118 ± 26 PgC yr-1 and 500 ± 104 mm yr-1 (equivalent to 63,000 ± 13,100 km3 yr-1), respectively. BESS-derived gross primary productivity and evapotranspiration estimates were consistent with the estimates from independent machine-learning, data-driven products, but the process-oriented structure has the advantage of diagnosing sensitivity of mechanisms. The process-based BESS is able to offer gridded biophysical variables everywhere from local to the total global land scales with an 8-day interval over

  1. Remote sensing-based estimation of gross primary production in a subalpine grassland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rossini

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the performances in a terrestrial ecosystem of gross primary production (GPP estimation of a suite of spectral vegetation indexes (VIs that can be computed from currently orbiting platforms. Vegetation indexes were computed from near-surface field spectroscopy measurements collected using an automatic system designed for high temporal frequency acquisition of spectral measurements in the visible near-infrared region. Spectral observations were collected for two consecutive years in Italy in a subalpine grassland equipped with an Eddy Covariance (EC flux tower which provides continuous measurements of net ecosystem carbon dioxide (CO2 exchange (NEE and the derived GPP.

    Different VIs were calculated based on ESA-MERIS and NASA-MODIS spectral bands and correlated with biophysical (Leaf Area Index, LAI; fraction of photosynthetically active radiation intercepted by green vegetation, fIPARg, biochemical (chlorophyll concentration and ecophysiological (green light-use efficiency, LUEg canopy variables. In this study, the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI showed better correlations with LAI and fPARg (r = 0.90 and 0.95, respectively, the MERIS terrestrial chlorophyll index (MTCI with leaf chlorophyll content (r = 0.91 and the Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI551, computed as (R531R551/(R531+R551 with LUEg (r = 0.64.

    Subsequently, these VIs were used to estimate GPP using different modelling solutions based on the light-use efficiency model describing the GPP as driven by the photosynthetically active radiation absorbed by green vegetation (APARg and by the efficiency (ε with which plants use the absorbed radiation to fix carbon via photosynthesis. Results show that GPP can be successfully modelled with a

  2. Remote sensing-based estimation of gross primary production in a subalpine grassland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rossini

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the performances in a terrestrial ecosystem of gross primary production (GPP estimation of a suite of spectral vegetation indexes (VIs that can be computed from currently orbiting platforms. Vegetation indexes were computed from near-surface field spectroscopy measurements collected using an automatic system designed for high temporal frequency acquisition of spectral measurements in the visible near-infrared region. Spectral observations were collected for two consecutive years in Italy in a subalpine grassland equipped with an eddy covariance (EC flux tower that provides continuous measurements of net ecosystem carbon dioxide (CO2 exchange (NEE and the derived GPP.

    Different VIs were calculated based on ESA-MERIS and NASA-MODIS spectral bands and correlated with biophysical (Leaf area index, LAI; fraction of photosynthetically active radiation intercepted by green vegetation, fIPARg, biochemical (chlorophyll concentration and ecophysiological (green light-use efficiency, LUEg canopy variables. In this study, the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI was the index best correlated with LAI and fIPARg (r = 0.90 and 0.95, respectively, the MERIS terrestrial chlorophyll index (MTCI with leaf chlorophyll content (r = 0.91 and the photochemical reflectance index (PRI551, computed as (R531-R551/(R531+R551 with LUEg (r = 0.64.

    Subsequently, these VIs were used to estimate GPP using different modelling solutions based on Monteith's light-use efficiency model describing the GPP as driven by the photosynthetically active radiation absorbed by green vegetation (APARg and by the efficiency (ε with which plants use the absorbed radiation to fix carbon via photosynthesis. Results show that GPP can be successfully modelled

  3. A continuous hyperspatial monitoring system of evapotranspiration and gross primary productivity from Unmanned Aerial Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sheng; Bandini, Filippo; Jakobsen, Jakob; Zarco-Tejada, Pablo J.; Köppl, Christian Josef; Haugård Olesen, Daniel; Ibrom, Andreas; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter; Garcia, Monica

    2017-04-01

    Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) can collect optical and thermal hyperspatial (signatures of the land surface, closely linked with the vegetation structure and functioning, are already part of models to predict Evapotranspiration (ET) and Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) from satellites. However, there remain challenges for an operational monitoring using UAS compared to satellites: the payload capacity of most commercial UAS is less than 2 kg, but miniaturized sensors have low signal to noise ratios and small field of view requires mosaicking hundreds of images and accurate orthorectification. In addition, wind gusts and lower platform stability require appropriate geometric and radiometric corrections. Finally, modeling fluxes on days without images is still an issue for both satellite and UAS applications. This study focuses on designing an operational UAS-based monitoring system including payload design, sensor calibration, based on routine collection of optical and thermal images in a Danish willow field to perform a joint monitoring of ET and GPP dynamics over continuous time at daily time steps. The payload (digital camera (Sony RX-100) used to retrieve accurate digital elevation models (DEMs) for multispectral and thermal image orthorectification, and a standard GNSS single frequency receiver (UBlox) or a real time kinematic double frequency system (Novatel Inc. flexpack6+OEM628). Geometric calibration of the digital and multispectral cameras was conducted to recover intrinsic camera parameters. After geometric calibration, accurate DEMs with vertical errors about 10cm could be retrieved. Radiometric calibration for the multispectral camera was conducted with an integrating sphere (Labsphere CSTM-USS-2000C) and the laboratory calibration showed that the camera measured radiance had a bias within ±4.8%. The thermal camera was calibrated using a black body at varying target and ambient temperatures and resulted in laboratory accuracy with RMSE of 0.95 K. A

  4. 7 CFR 1000.16 - Fluid cream product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Fluid cream product. 1000.16 Section 1000.16... Definitions § 1000.16 Fluid cream product. Fluid cream product means cream (other than plastic cream or frozen cream), including sterilized cream, or a mixture of cream and milk or skim milk containing 9 percent...

  5. DYNAMICS OF THE SHARE OF EDUCATION EXPENDITURES WITHIN ROMANIA’S GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT - ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL EFFECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADRIAN MĂCRIŞ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper fundamentally starts from a generally accepted truth, namely the one stating that education is the basic foundation of social, cultural, and economic development, the guarantee of building a future when young generations are going to benefit from new abilities, knowledge, and ideals; its financing represents a key issue in accomplishing its long term mission in society. The hereby approach deals with an analysis of the evolution of education expenditures within Romania’s gross domestic product which mainly determine the basic economic and social effects.

  6. Supercritical fluids technology for clean biofuel production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dongsheng Wen; H.Jiang; Kai Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Biofuels are liquid or gaseous fuels that are predominantly produced from biomass for transport sector applications.As biofuels are renewable,sustainable,carbon neutral and environmentally benign,they have been proposed as promising alternative fuels for gasoline and diesel engines.This paper reviews state-of-the-art application of the supercritical fluid(SCF)technique in biofuels production that includes biodiesel from vegetable oils via the transesterification process,bio-hydrogen from the gasification and bio-oil from the lique-faction of biomass,with biodiesel production as the main focus. The global biofuel situation and biofuel economics are also reviewed.The SCF has been shown to be a promising technique for future large-scale biofuel production,especially for biodiesel production from waster oil and fat.Compared with conventional biofuel production methods,the SCF technology possesses a number of advantages that includes fast inetics,high fuel production rate,ease of continuous operation and elimination of the necessity of catalysts.The harsh operation environment,i.e. the high temperature and high pressure,and its request on the materials and associated cost are the main concerns for its wide application.

  7. Attributing regional trends of evapotranspiration and gross primary productivity with remote sensing: a case study in the North China Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Xingguo; Chen, Xuejuan; Hu, Shi; Liu, Suxia; Xia, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Attributing changes in evapotranspiration (ET) and gross primary productivity (GPP) is crucial for impact and adaptation assessment of the agro-ecosystems to climate change. Simulations with the VIP model revealed that annual ET and GPP slightly increased from 1981 to 2013 over the North China Plain. The tendencies of both ET and GPP were upward in the spring season, while they were weak and downward in the summer season. A complete factor analysis illustrated that the relative contributions of climatic change, CO2 fertilization, and management to the ET (GPP) trend were 56 (-32) %, -28 (25) %, and 68 (108) %, respectively. The decline of global radiation resulted from deteriorated aerosol and air pollution was the principal cause of GPP decline in summer, while air warming intensified the water cycle and advanced the plant productivity in the spring season. Generally, agronomic improvements were the principal drivers of crop productivity enhancement.

  8. Camera derived vegetation greenness index as proxy for gross primary production in a low Arctic wetland area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard-Nielsen, Andreas; Lund, Magnus; Hansen, Birger

    2013-01-01

    of these changes. This study investigates the ability to use automatic digital camera images (DCIs) as proxy data for gross primary production (GPP) in a complex low Arctic wetland site. Vegetation greenness computed from DCIs was found to correlate significantly (R2 = 0.62, p ... vegetation index (NDVI) product derived from the WorldView-2 satellite. An object-based classification based on a bi-temporal image composite was used to classify the study area into heath, copse, fen, and bedrock. Temporal evolution of vegetation greenness was evaluated and modeled with double sigmoid...... and GPP (R2 = 0.85, p cameras may be used as a cost-effective proxy for potential GPP in remote Arctic regions....

  9. Validation and improvement of MODIS Gross Primary Productivity in typical forest ecosystems of East Asia based on eddy covariance measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Y.; He, M.; Ju, W.

    2011-12-01

    Terrestrial carbon cycle plays an important role in global climate change. As a key component of terrestrial carbon cycle, gross primary productivity (GPP) is a major determinant of carbon exchange between the atmosphere and terrestrial ecosystems. Because of the large spatial heterogeneity and temporal dynamics of ecosystems, it is a challenge to estimate GPP at global or regional scales. 8-day MODIS GPP product provides a real time estimate of global GPP. However, many previous studies indicated that MODIS GPP has large uncertainties, which was partly caused by biases in maximum light use efficiency and meteorological data inputs, including VPD, air temperature, and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). In this study, MODIS GPP of six typical forest ecosystems in East Asia was validated using GPP derived from the eddy covariance flux measurements. The validation indicated that MODIS GPP was significantly underestimated in the forest ecosystems of East Asia. The underestimation is generally more serious in growing seasons than in non-growing seasons and becomes more obvious from the south to the north. By using observed meteorological data, smoothed fPAR and optimized maximum light use efficiency (ɛmax), predicted GPP with MOD17 algorithm consistently matched well with measured GPP. Smoothed fPAR definitely reduced underestimation of annual GPP, and the optimized ɛmax improved annual GPP more significantly, indicating that the errors in MODIS GPP of forest ecosystems in East Asia can be mainly attributed to the uncertainties of ɛmax. Optimized ɛmax are generally higher than that used for producing MODIS GPP product. The optimized ɛmax changes significantly with forest types. It even exhibits distinct seasonal variations for a specific forest. Key words: Gross Primary Productivity, MODIS, Maximum light use efficiency, East Asia, Forest ecosystem Correspondence author:Weimin Ju Email:juweimin@nju.edu.cn

  10. Analysis of The Gross Domestic Product (G.D.P) of Nigeria:1960-2012

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. OLIVER OSUAGWA

    2015-06-01

    Jun 1, 2015 ... Abstract. In this work, data on Nigerian Goss Domestic Product was collected online from the portal ... are the Value Added (or Production) approach and the Income (or By .... process that vary as time passes. Observation.

  11. Reply to Nicholson's comment on "Consistent calculation of aquatic gross production from oxygen triple isotope measurements" by Kaiser (2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kaiser

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The comment by Nicholson (2011a questions the "consistency" of the "definition" of the "biological end-member" used by Kaiser (2011a in the calculation of oxygen gross production. "Biological end-member" refers to the relative oxygen isotope ratio difference between photosynthetic oxygen and Air-O2 (abbreviated 17δP and 18δP for 17O/16O and 18O/16O, respectively. The comment claims that this leads to an overestimate of the discrepancy between previous studies and that the resulting gross production rates are "30% too high". Nicholson recognises the improved accuracy of Kaiser's direct calculation ("dual-delta" method compared to previous approximate approaches based on 17O excess (17Δ and its simplicity compared to previous iterative calculation methods. Although he correctly points out that differences in the normalised gross production rate (g are largely due to different input parameters used in Kaiser's "base case" and previous studies, he does not acknowledge Kaiser's observation that iterative and dual-delta calculation methods give exactly the same g for the same input parameters (disregarding kinetic isotope fractionation during air-sea exchange. The comment is based on misunderstandings with respect to the "base case" 17δP and 18δP values. Since direct measurements of 17δP and 18δPdo not exist or have been lost, Kaiser constructed the "base case" in a way that was consistent and compatible with literature data. Nicholson showed that an alternative reconstruction of 17δP gives g values closer to previous studies. However, unlike Nicholson, we refrain from interpreting either reconstruction as a benchmark for the accuracy of g. A number of publications over the last 12 months

  12. Evaluation of satellite based indices for gross primary production estimates in a sparse savanna in the Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sjöström

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the more frequently applied methods for integrating controls on primary production through satellite data is the Light Use Efficiency (LUE approach. Satellite indices such as the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI and the Shortwave Infrared Water Stress Index (SIWSI have previously shown promise as predictors of primary production in several different environments. In this study, we evaluate NDVI, EVI and SIWSI derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS satellite sensor against in-situ measurements from central Sudan in order to asses their applicability in LUE-based primary production modeling within a water limited environment. Results show a strong correlation between vegetation indices and gross primary production (GPP, demonstrating the significance of vegetation indices for deriving information on primary production with relatively high accuracy at similar areas. Evaluation of SIWSI however, reveal that the fraction of vegetation apparently is to low for the index to provide accurate information on canopy water content, indicating that the use of SIWSI as a predictor of water stress in satellite data-driven primary production modeling in similar semi-arid ecosystems is limited.

  13. Estimation and Forecasting the Gross Domestic Product´s Growth Rate in Ecuador: a Short-term Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadier Alberto Torres−Sánchez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ecuador is the seventh largest economy in Latin America. From 2000 to 2012, the country has been expanding at an average rate of 1,15 % on a quarter over quarter basis, mostly due to a rise in exports. Ecuador´s economy is highly dependent on oil exports. In order to reach its full growth potential, the country needs to reduce its dependence on oil revenue; increase the tax base; achieve political stability and reduce the levels of poverty and inequality. The main objective of this research is specifically marked in estimate and forecast the Gross Domestic Product´s Growth Rate in Ecuador, applying for this Box – Jenkins´ Methodology for ARIMA models. It was obtained a forecast of 3,96 % approximately, that represents a logical result according with the time series.

  14. Investigating the usefulness of satellite derived fluorescence data in inferring gross primary productivity within the carbon cycle data assimilation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Koffi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the utility of satellite measurements of chlorophyll fluorescence (Fs in constraining gross primary productivity (GPP. We ingest Fs measurements into the Carbon-Cycle Data Assimilation System (CCDAS which has been augmented by the fluorescence component of the Soil Canopy Observation, Photochemistry and Energy fluxes (SCOPE model. CCDAS simulates well the patterns of Fs suggesting the combined model is capable of ingesting these measurements. However simulated Fs is insensitive to the key parameter controlling GPP, the carboxylation capacity (Vcmax. Simulated Fs is sensitive to both the incoming absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (aPAR and leaf chlorophyll concentration both of which are treated as perfectly known in previous CCDAS versions. Proper use of Fs measurements therefore requires enhancement of CCDAS to include and expose these variables.

  15. Growth in US health spending remained slow in 2010; health share of gross domestic product was unchanged from 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Anne B; Lassman, David; Washington, Benjamin; Catlin, Aaron

    2012-01-01

    Medical goods and services are generally viewed as necessities. Even so, the latest recession had a dramatic effect on their utilization. US health spending grew more slowly in 2009 and 2010-at rates of 3.8 percent and 3.9 percent, respectively-than in any other years during the fifty-one-year history of the National Health Expenditure Accounts. In 2010 extraordinarily slow growth in the use and intensity of services led to slower growth in spending for personal health care. The rates of growth in overall US gross domestic product (GDP) and in health spending began to converge in 2010. As a result, the health spending share of GDP stabilized at 17.9 percent.

  16. Disparities in rheumatoid arthritis disease activity according to gross domestic product in 25 countries in the QUEST-RA database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sokka, T; Kautiainen, H; Pincus, T

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyse associations between the clinical status of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and the gross domestic product (GDP) of their resident country. METHODS: The Quantitative Standard Monitoring of Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis (QUEST-RA) cohort includes clinical......-related variables were analysed according to GDP per capita, including 14 "high GDP" countries with GDP per capita greater than US$24,000 and 11 "low GDP" countries with GDP per capita less than US$11,000. RESULTS: Disease activity DAS28 ranged between 3.1 and 6.0 among the 25 countries and was significantly...... associated with GDP (r = -0.78, 95% CI -0.56 to -0.90, r(2) = 61%). Disease activity levels differed substantially between "high GDP" and "low GDP" countries at much greater levels than according to whether patients were currently taking or not taking methotrexate, prednisone and/or biological agents...

  17. A continuous measure of gross primary production for the conterminous United States derived from MODIS and AmeriFlux data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Jingfeng [Purdue University; Zhuang, Qianlai [Purdue University; Law, Beverly E. [Oregon State University; Chen, Jiquan [University of Toledo, Toledo, OH; Baldocchi, D. D. [University of California, Berkeley; Ma, Siyan [University of California, Berkeley; Cook, David R. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Oren, Ram [Duke University; Katul, G. G. [Duke University; Gu, Lianhong [ORNL

    2010-03-01

    The quantification of carbon fluxes between the terrestrial biosphere and the atmosphere is of scientific importance and also relevant to climate-policy making. Eddy covariance flux towers provide continuous measurements of ecosystem-level exchange of carbon dioxide spanning diurnal, synoptic, seasonal, and interannual time scales. However, these measurements only represent the fluxes at the scale of the tower footprint. Here we used remotely sensed data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to upscale gross primary productivity (GPP) data from eddy covariance flux towers to the continental scale. We first combined GPP and MODIS data for 42 AmeriFlux towers encompassing a wide range of ecosystem and climate types to develop a predictive GPP model using a regression tree approach. The predictive model was trained using observed GPP over the period 2000 2004, and was validated using observed GPP over the period 2005 2006 and leave-one-out cross-validation. Our model predicted GPP fairly well at the site level. We then used the model to estimate GPP for each 1 km 1 km cell across the U.S. for each 8-day interval over the period from February 2000 to December 2006 using MODIS data. Our GPP estimates provide a spatially and temporally continuous measure of gross primary production for the U.S. that is a highly constrained by eddy covariance flux data. Our study demonstrated that our empirical approach is effective for upscaling eddy flux GPP data to the continental scale and producing continuous GPP estimates across multiple biomes. With these estimates, we then examined the patterns, magnitude, and interannual variability of GPP. We estimated a gross carbon uptake between 6.91 and 7.33 Pg C yr 1 for the conterminous U.S. Drought, fires, and hurricanes reduced annual GPP at regional scales and could have a significant impact on the U.S. net ecosystem carbon exchange. The sources of the interannual variability of U.S. GPP were dominated by these

  18. Aspects Regarding the Gross Chemical Composition and Fatty Acids Content of Some By-Products Obtained from the Biofuel Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olimpia Colibar

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Samples of by-products, obtained from the production of biofuels were collected. These products were introduced in different proportions in feed rations of fattening lambs. Gross chemical composition of feed was analyzed and compared with mean reference values. Ash and cellulose content does not influence the results. The percentage of raw protein, specific for each feed, is correlated with the body weight gain. Fat quantity of rape meal is the closest to that of granulated feed and also the highest compared with the other groups, so that it can justify the higher productive performance achieved by group 1, who received rape meal in ratio. The concentration of fatty acids was determined from analyzed feed after oils extraction, their saponification and their reading with a HPLC. The data showed that the fatty acid level is relatively close to that specified in the literature. Euricic acid, that is responsible for the toxic potential of the rape, has been found in rape meal.

  19. Production of reagents for cleaning fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grunberg, I.V.; Korostyleva, R.N.; Pytel, S.P.; Spasskii, P.I.; Titarenko, N.K.; Trachtenberg, S.I.; Yushkevich, V.I.

    1980-10-25

    A method for producing reagents for cleaning fluids is proposed using polymerization of acrylonitril, metachrylate or a mixture of the two in water and saponification of the polymers with alakali. To reduce the consumption of monomers and increase the quality of the reagents, 0.4-1.0 parts humic substances, 0.2-1.0 parts hydrolizate from tanning waste products and 1.2-4.0 parts monomers are added to the reaction medium, followed by copolymerization in an acid medium. The proposed method ensures quality reagents which combine lower water yield with a moderate increase in viscosity when acting on clay solutions. Compared with the current method, this method lowers the consumption of an expensive and hard-to-find monomer 1.2-1.4X for one ton of reagent, which lowers the cost of raw material by 1.3-1.7X. This results in a savings of 195-385 rubles per ton of reagent, 600-1200 thousand at 3000 tons/yr.

  20. Evaluating the role of land cover and climate uncertainties in computing gross primary production in Hawaiian Island ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, Heather L.; Selmants, Paul; Moreno, Alvaro; Running Steve W,; Giardina, Christian P.

    2017-01-01

    Gross primary production (GPP) is the Earth’s largest carbon flux into the terrestrial biosphere and plays a critical role in regulating atmospheric chemistry and global climate. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS)-MOD17 data product is a widely used remote sensing-based model that provides global estimates of spatiotemporal trends in GPP. When the MOD17 algorithm is applied to regional scale heterogeneous landscapes, input data from coarse resolution land cover and climate products may increase uncertainty in GPP estimates, especially in high productivity tropical ecosystems. We examined the influence of using locally specific land cover and high-resolution local climate input data on MOD17 estimates of GPP for the State of Hawaii, a heterogeneous and discontinuous tropical landscape. Replacing the global land cover data input product (MOD12Q1) with Hawaii-specific land cover data reduced statewide GPP estimates by ~8%, primarily because the Hawaii-specific land cover map had less vegetated land area compared to the global land cover product. Replacing coarse resolution GMAO climate data with Hawaii-specific high-resolution climate data also reduced statewide GPP estimates by ~8% because of the higher spatial variability of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) in the Hawaii-specific climate data. The combined use of both Hawaii-specific land cover and high-resolution Hawaii climate data inputs reduced statewide GPP by ~16%, suggesting equal and independent influence on MOD17 GPP estimates. Our sensitivity analyses within a heterogeneous tropical landscape suggest that refined global land cover and climate data sets may contribute to an enhanced MOD17 product at a variety of spatial scales.

  1. Evaluating the role of land cover and climate uncertainties in computing gross primary production in Hawaiian Island ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, Heather L; Selmants, Paul C; Moreno, Alvaro; Running, Steve W; Giardina, Christian P

    2017-01-01

    Gross primary production (GPP) is the Earth's largest carbon flux into the terrestrial biosphere and plays a critical role in regulating atmospheric chemistry and global climate. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS)-MOD17 data product is a widely used remote sensing-based model that provides global estimates of spatiotemporal trends in GPP. When the MOD17 algorithm is applied to regional scale heterogeneous landscapes, input data from coarse resolution land cover and climate products may increase uncertainty in GPP estimates, especially in high productivity tropical ecosystems. We examined the influence of using locally specific land cover and high-resolution local climate input data on MOD17 estimates of GPP for the State of Hawaii, a heterogeneous and discontinuous tropical landscape. Replacing the global land cover data input product (MOD12Q1) with Hawaii-specific land cover data reduced statewide GPP estimates by ~8%, primarily because the Hawaii-specific land cover map had less vegetated land area compared to the global land cover product. Replacing coarse resolution GMAO climate data with Hawaii-specific high-resolution climate data also reduced statewide GPP estimates by ~8% because of the higher spatial variability of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) in the Hawaii-specific climate data. The combined use of both Hawaii-specific land cover and high-resolution Hawaii climate data inputs reduced statewide GPP by ~16%, suggesting equal and independent influence on MOD17 GPP estimates. Our sensitivity analyses within a heterogeneous tropical landscape suggest that refined global land cover and climate data sets may contribute to an enhanced MOD17 product at a variety of spatial scales.

  2. [Sugar substitute products impact on oral fluid biochemical properties].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsapok, P I; Imbriakov, K V; Chuchkova, M R

    2012-01-01

    Sugar substitute products impact on oral fluid protein and carbohydrate content, as well as oxidative balance were studied in 60 medical school students in compare with conventional sugar. Sugar intake proved to cause cariesogenic carbohydrate metabolism disorders in oral fluid, intensification of lipoperoxidation and decrease in antioxidation activity. Sugar substitute products help to prevent dental decay.

  3. 7 CFR 1030.16 - Fluid cream product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Fluid cream product. 1030.16 Section 1030.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Regulating Handling Definitions § 1030.16 Fluid cream product. See § 1000.16....

  4. 7 CFR 1001.16 - Fluid cream product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Fluid cream product. 1001.16 Section 1001.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Handling Definitions § 1001.16 Fluid cream product. See § 1000.16....

  5. 7 CFR 1126.16 - Fluid cream product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Fluid cream product. 1126.16 Section 1126.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Handling Definitions § 1126.16 Fluid cream product. See § 1000.16....

  6. 7 CFR 1033.16 - Fluid cream product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Fluid cream product. 1033.16 Section 1033.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Handling Definitions § 1033.16 Fluid cream product. See § 1000.16....

  7. 7 CFR 1007.16 - Fluid cream product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Fluid cream product. 1007.16 Section 1007.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Handling Definitions § 1007.16 Fluid cream product. See § 1000.16....

  8. 7 CFR 1131.16 - Fluid cream product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Fluid cream product. 1131.16 Section 1131.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Handling Definitions § 1131.16 Fluid cream product. See § 1000.16....

  9. 7 CFR 1006.16 - Fluid cream product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Fluid cream product. 1006.16 Section 1006.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Handling Definitions § 1006.16 Fluid cream product. See § 1000.16....

  10. 7 CFR 1005.16 - Fluid cream product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Fluid cream product. 1005.16 Section 1005.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Regulating Handling Definitions § 1005.16 Fluid cream product. See § 1000.16....

  11. 7 CFR 1124.16 - Fluid cream product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Fluid cream product. 1124.16 Section 1124.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Regulating Handling Definitions § 1124.16 Fluid cream product. See § 1000.16....

  12. 7 CFR 1032.16 - Fluid cream product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Fluid cream product. 1032.16 Section 1032.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Handling Definitions § 1032.16 Fluid cream product. See § 1000.16....

  13. 7 CFR 1001.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Fluid milk product. 1001.15 Section 1001.15 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE NORTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1001.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15....

  14. 7 CFR 1131.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Fluid milk product. 1131.15 Section 1131.15 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE ARIZONA MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1131.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15....

  15. 7 CFR 1005.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Fluid milk product. 1005.15 Section 1005.15 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE APPALACHIAN MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1005.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15....

  16. 7 CFR 1030.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Fluid milk product. 1030.15 Section 1030.15 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE UPPER MIDWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1030.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15....

  17. 7 CFR 1124.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Fluid milk product. 1124.15 Section 1124.15 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1124.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15....

  18. 7 CFR 1033.15 - Fluid milk products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Fluid milk products. 1033.15 Section 1033.15... Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE MIDEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1033.15 Fluid milk products. See § 1000.15....

  19. 7 CFR 1006.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Fluid milk product. 1006.15 Section 1006.15 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE FLORIDA MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1006.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15....

  20. 7 CFR 1126.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Fluid milk product. 1126.15 Section 1126.15 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE SOUTHWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1126.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15....

  1. 7 CFR 1007.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Fluid milk product. 1007.15 Section 1007.15 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE SOUTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1007.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15....

  2. 7 CFR 1032.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Fluid milk product. 1032.15 Section 1032.15 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE CENTRAL MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1032.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15....

  3. How drought severity constrains gross primary production(GPP) and its partitioning among carbon pools in a Quercus ilex coppice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambal, S.; Lempereur, M.; Limousin, J. M.; Martin-StPaul, N. K.; Ourcival, J. M.; Rodríguez-Calcerrada, J.

    2014-12-01

    The partitioning of photosynthates toward biomass compartments plays a crucial role in the carbon (C) sink function of forests. Few studies have examined how carbon is allocated toward plant compartments in drought-prone forests. We analyzed the fate of gross primary production (GPP) in relation to yearly water deficit in an old evergreen Mediterranean Quercus ilex coppice severely affected by water limitations. Carbon fluxes between the ecosystem and the atmosphere were measured with an eddy covariance flux tower running continuously since 2001. Discrete measurements of litterfall, stem growth and fAPAR allowed us to derive annual productions of leaves, wood, flowers and acorns, and an isometric relationship between stem and belowground biomass has been used to estimate perennial belowground growth. By combining eddy covariance fluxes with annual net primary productions (NPP), we managed to close a C budget and derive values of autotrophic, heterotrophic respirations and carbon-use efficiency (CUE; the ratio between NPP and GPP). Average values of yearly net ecosystem production (NEP), GPP and Reco were 282, 1259 and 977 g C m-2. The corresponding aboveground net primary production (ANPP) components were 142.5, 26.4 and 69.6 g C m-2 for leaves, reproductive effort (flowers and fruits) and stems, respectively. NEP, GPP and Reco were affected by annual water deficit. Partitioning to the different plant compartments was also impacted by drought, with a hierarchy of responses going from the most affected - the stem growth - to the least affected - the leaf production. The average CUE was 0.40, which is well in the range for Mediterranean-type forest ecosystems. CUE tended to decrease less drastically in response to drought than GPP and NPP did, probably due to drought acclimation of autotrophic respiration. Overall, our results provide a baseline for modeling the inter-annual variations of carbon fluxes and allocation in this widespread Mediterranean ecosystem, and

  4. Joint control of terrestrial gross primary productivity by plant phenology and physiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xia, Jianyang; Niu, Shuli; Ciais, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    –covariance and satellite-derived data, we decomposed annual terrestrial GPP into the length of the CO2 uptake period (CUP) and the seasonal maximal capacity of CO2 uptake (GPPmax). The product of CUP and GPPmax explained >90% of the temporal GPP variability in most areas of North America during 2000–2010 and the spatial...... GPP variation among globally distributed eddy flux tower sites. It also explained GPP response to the European heatwave in 2003 (r2 = 0.90) and GPP recovery after a fire disturbance in South Dakota (r2 = 0.88). Additional analysis of the eddy–covariance flux data shows that the interbiome variation...

  5. An Analysis of the Co-integration and Causality Relationship between Electricity Consumption and Gross Domestic Product (GDP in the Developing Countries: An Empirical Study of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayhan Kapusuzoglu

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, long term relationship and causality relationship between electricity consumption and gross domestic product in Turkey for the period 1975-2006 were investigated. As a result of the co-integration analysis made firstly in this study, the long term relationship between the electricity consumption and gross domestic product was found. According to the result of Granger causality analysis made in accordance with vector error correction model, it was determined that there was unidirectional causality relationship between electricity consumption and gross domestic product. According to the findings, it can be said that in the process of economic growth in Turkey, gross domestic product amount was an important variable which affected the electricity consumption positively in the long term and therefore it can be said that it is important to provide the primary energy sources used in electricity energy production and electricity energy in the long term and in time without any interaction for preventing the failures which may arise during the process of economic growth and for the stability of the economic production and consumption process

  6. Analysis of per capita income dynamics of the USA and Russia gross domestic product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor' Il'ich Pichurin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper represents a judgment that the relator of per capita income of the countries is a rough indicator of the ratio of labor productivity in these countries. Accordingly, the analysis of the dynamics of per capita income in the United States and Russia for the period from 1861 to present time is made. The described statistical data shows that the ratio of per capita income in the U. S. and Russia has not changed from 1861 to 1913. Consequently, the nowadays widespread claim that capitalist development in Russia led the country into the category of rapidly developing countries for 50 years after the abolition of serfdom is not true. The gap in labor productivity in Russia compared to the United States, Germany, Britain and other developed countries remained unchanged. The sharp decline in per capita income was based on the country's industrialization and appropriate agricultural sphere mechanization. As a result, the gap has narrowed to the mid-sixties of the XX century up to two times, despite the fact those ten years of this period fell out from the normal development in connection with the Second World War and post-war reconstruction of the nationaleconomy. After thecollapse of thesocialisteconomy, this gap increased up to fivetimes in 2000, and now after the first decade of the XXI century it is about threetimes. Thereasons for these changes in respect to per capita income are analyzed in this paper.

  7. Gross world product and consumption in a global warming model with endogenous technological change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerlagh, Reyer; Van der Zwaan, Bob [IVM/VU, Institute for Environmental Studies, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1087, 1081 HV, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2003-02-01

    This paper analyzes the macro-economic costs and effects on consumption and energy demand of limiting the global average atmospheric temperature increase to 2C. We use a macro-economic model in which there are two competing energy technologies (carbon and non-carbon, respectively), technological change is represented endogenously, and energy is aggregated through a CES function implying positive demand for the relatively expensive non-carbon technology. Technological change is represented through a learning curve describing decreasing energy production costs as a function of cumulative experience. We find that energy savings constitutes an important mechanism for decreasing abatement costs in the short- and medium-term, while the acquisition of additional learning experience substantially decreases abatement costs in the longer-term.

  8. Gross primary productivity of the true steppe in central Asia in relation to NDVI: scaling up CO2 fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmanov, Tagir G.; Johnson, Douglas A.; Saliendra, Nicanor Z.; Akshalov, Kanat; Wylie, Bruce K.

    2004-01-01

    Compared to other characteristics of CO2 exchange, gross primary productivity (P g ) is most directly related to photosynthetic activity. Until recently, it was considered difficult to obtain measurement-based P g . The objective of our study was to evaluate if P g can be estimated from continuous CO2 flux measurements using nonlinear identification of the nonrectangular hyperbolic model of ecosystem-scale, light-response curves. Estimates of P g and ecosystem respiration (R e ) were obtained using Bowen ratio– energy-balance measurements of CO2 exchange in a true-steppe ecosystem in northern Kazakhstan during four growing seasons (1998–2001). The maximum mean weekly apparent quantum yield (αmax) was 0.0388 mol CO2 mol photons and the maximum mean weekly P g was 28 g CO2/m2/day in July 2000. The highest mean weekly R e max (20 g CO2m2/day) was observed in July of both 1999 and 2000. Nighttime respiration calculated from daily respiration corrected for length of the dark period and temperature (using Q 10 = 2) was closely associated with measured nighttime respiration (R 2 = 0.67 to 0.93). The 4-year average annual gross primary production (GPP) was 1617 g CO2/m2/ year (range = 1308–1957). Ten-day normalized difference vegetation index corrected for the start of the season (NDVIsos) was closely associated with 10-day average P g (R 2 = 0.66 to 0.83), which was higher than R 2 values for regressions of mean 10-day net daytime fluxes on NDVIsos (0.55–0.72). This demonstrates the advantage of usingP g in scaling up flux-tower measurements compared to other characteristics (net daytime flux or net 24-h flux).

  9. Comparison of Gross Primary Productivity Derived from GIMMS NDVI3g, GIMMS, and MODIS in Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junbang Wang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Gross primary production (GPP plays an important role in the net ecosystem exchange of CO2 between the atmosphere and terrestrial ecosystems. It is particularly important to monitor GPP in Southeast Asia because of increasing rates of tropical forest degradation and deforestation in the region in recent decades. The newly available, improved, third generation Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI3g from the Global Inventory Modelling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS group provides a long temporal dataset, from July 1981 to December 2011, for terrestrial carbon cycle and climate response research. However, GIMMS NDVI3g-based GPP estimates are not yet available. We applied the GLOPEM-CEVSA model, which integrates an ecosystem process model and a production efficiency model, to estimate GPP in Southeast Asia based on three independent results of the fraction of photosynthetically active radiation absorbed by vegetation (FPAR from GIMMS NDVI3g (GPPNDVI3g, GIMMS NDVI1g (GPPNDVI1g, and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS MOD15A2 FPAR product (GPPMOD15. The GPP results were validated using ground data from eddy flux towers located in different forest biomes, and comparisons were made among the three GPPs as well as the MOD17A2 GPP products (GPPMOD17. Based on validation with flux tower derived GPP estimates the results show that GPPNDVI3g is more accurate than GPPNDVI1g and is comparable in accuracy with GPPMOD15. In addition, GPPNDVI3g and GPPMOD15 have good spatial-temporal consistency. Our results indicate that GIMMS NDVI3g is an effective dataset for regional GPP simulation in Southeast Asia, capable of accurately tracking the variation and trends in long-term terrestrial ecosystem GPP dynamics.

  10. Testing the applicability of BIOME-BGC to simulate beech gross primary production in Europe using a new continental weather dataset

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chiesi, Marta; Chirici, Gherardo; Marchetti, Marco

    2016-01-01

    A daily 1-km Pan-European weather dataset can drive the BIOME-BGC model for the estimation of current and future beech gross primary production (GPP). Annual beech GPP is affected primarily by spring temperature and more irregularly by summer water stress.The spread of beech forests in Europe enh...

  11. The use of the stable isotope, oxygen-18, as a tracer to measure gross primary production in coastal and oligotrophic waters and in monoclonal cultures of marine phytoplankton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grande, K.D.

    1988-01-01

    A new technique was developed to measure the in vitro rates of gross oxygen production in planktonic communities, in which water is enriched with the stable isotope {sup 18}O, and photosynthetic evolution of {sup 18}O{sup 16}O is measured. In order to calculate gross oxygen production, they correct for the {sup 18}O fractionation due to respiration. The standard technique for measuring production in the oceans, {sup 14}C-bicarbonate uptake, has recently been questioned due to discrepancies with other estimates of water column production and suspected intrinsic problems with the {sup 14}C technique. They compared rates of {sup 18}O gross production and {sup 14}C production in oligotrophic and coastal sites. Samples were generally incubated under natural lighting with neutral density screening. Some oligotrophic bottles were incubated in situ at the depth of collection. Rates of {sup 14}C production were 60-100% of {sup 18}O gross production in both coastal and oceanic communities. Assuming a PQ of 1.0 to 1.5, these comparisons suggest that {sup 14}C production rates are not seriously underestimating actual in vitro rates of production. They also measured rates of light respiration in cultures and natural populations by the {sup 18}O technique. The rates of light respiration in algal cultures were generally greater than dark rates by a factor of two to ten. The increased respiration in the light could be due to increased rates of mitochondrial respiration, photorespiration or Mehler respiration. They measured the enhanced {sup 14}C production under reduced (O{sub 2}) conditions (the Warburg effect), as an estimate of the rate of photorespiration. In three clones, rates of photorespiration were a significant fraction of light respiration. In five other clones examined, photorespiration was not implicated as a source of light respiration.

  12. Modeling gross primary production of a temperate grassland ecosystem in Inner Mongolia, China, using MODIS imagery and climate data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU WeiXing; WANG ShaoQiang; XIAO XiangMing; YU GuiRui; FU YuLing; HAO YanBin

    2008-01-01

    Carbon fluxes in temperate grassland ecosystems are characterized by large inter-annual variations due to fluctuations in precipitation and land water availability. Since an eddy flux tower has been in operation in the Xilin Gol grassland, which belongs to typical temperate grassland in North China, in this study, observed eddy covariance flux data were used to critically evaluate the biophysical performance of different remote sensing vegetation indices in relation to carbon fluxes. Furthermore,vegetation photosynthesis model (VPM) was introduced to estimate gross primary production (GPP+) of the grassland ecosystem for assessing its dependability. As defined by the input variables of VPM,Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradimeter (MODIS) and standard data product MOD09A1 were downloaded for calculating enhanced vegetation index (EVI) and land surface water index (LSWl).Measured air temperature (Ta) and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) data were also included for model simulating. Field CO2 flux data, during the period from May, 2003 to September, 2005, were used to estimate the "observed" GPP (GPPobs) for validation. The seasonal dynamics of GPP predicted from VPM (GPPVPM) was compared quite well (R2=0.903, N=111, p<0.0001) with the observed GPP. The aggregate GPPVPM for the study period was 641.5 g C·m-2, representing a ~6% over-estimation, compared with GPPobs. Additionally, GPP predicted from other two typical production efficiency model (PEM)represents either higher overestimation or lower underestimation to GPPobs. Results of this study demonstrate that VPM has potential for estimating site-level or regional grassland GPP, and might be an effective tool for scaling-up carbon fluxes.

  13. New global observations of the terrestrial carbon cycle from GOSAT: Patterns of plant fluorescence with gross primary productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankenberg, Christian; Fisher, Joshua B.; Worden, John; Badgley, Grayson; Saatchi, Sassan S.; Lee, Jung-Eun; Toon, Geoffrey C.; Butz, André; Jung, Martin; Kuze, Akihiko; Yokota, Tatsuya

    2011-09-01

    Our ability to close the Earth's carbon budget and predict feedbacks in a warming climate depends critically on knowing where, when and how carbon dioxide is exchanged between the land and atmosphere. Terrestrial gross primary production (GPP) constitutes the largest flux component in the global carbon budget, however significant uncertainties remain in GPP estimates and its seasonality. Empirically, we show that global spaceborne observations of solar induced chlorophyll fluorescence - occurring during photosynthesis - exhibit a strong linear correlation with GPP. We found that the fluorescence emission even without any additional climatic or model information has the same or better predictive skill in estimating GPP as those derived from traditional remotely-sensed vegetation indices using ancillary data and model assumptions. In boreal summer the generally strong linear correlation between fluorescence and GPP models weakens, attributable to discrepancies in savannas/croplands (18-48% higher fluorescence-based GPP derived by simple linear scaling), and high-latitude needleleaf forests (28-32% lower fluorescence). Our results demonstrate that retrievals of chlorophyll fluorescence provide direct global observational constraints for GPP and open an entirely new viewpoint on the global carbon cycle. We anticipate that global fluorescence data in combination with consolidated plant physiological fluorescence models will be a step-change in carbon cycle research and enable an unprecedented robustness in the understanding of the current and future carbon cycle.

  14. Precipitation and Carbon-Water Coupling Jointly Control the Interannual Variability of Global Land Gross Primary Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yao; Xiao, Xiangming; Guanter, Luis; Zhou, Sha; Ciais, Philippe; Joiner, Joanna; Sitch, Stephen; Wu, Xiaocui; Nabel, Julian; Dong, Jinwei; Kato, Etsushi; Jain, Atul K.; Wiltshire, Andy; Stocker, Benjamin D.

    2016-01-01

    Carbon uptake by terrestrial ecosystems is increasing along with the rising of atmospheric CO2 concentration. Embedded in this trend, recent studies suggested that the interannual variability (IAV) of global carbon fluxes may be dominated by semi-arid ecosystems, but the underlying mechanisms of this high variability in these specific regions are not well known. Here we derive an ensemble of gross primary production (GPP) estimates using the average of three data-driven models and eleven process-based models. These models are weighted by their spatial representativeness of the satellite-based solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF). We then use this weighted GPP ensemble to investigate the GPP variability for different aridity regimes. We show that semi-arid regions contribute to 57% of the detrended IAV of global GPP. Moreover, in regions with higher GPP variability, GPP fluctuations are mostly controlled by precipitation and strongly coupled with evapotranspiration (ET). This higher GPP IAV in semi-arid regions is co-limited by supply (precipitation)-induced ET variability and GPP-ET coupling strength. Our results demonstrate the importance of semi-arid regions to the global terrestrial carbon cycle and posit that there will be larger GPP and ET variations in the future with changes in precipitation patterns and dryland expansion.

  15. Estimating of gross primary production in an Amazon-Cerrado transitional forest using MODIS and Landsat imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danelichen, Victor H M; Biudes, Marcelo S; Velasque, Maísa C S; Machado, Nadja G; Gomes, Raphael S R; Vourlitis, George L; Nogueira, José S

    2015-09-01

    The acceleration of the anthropogenic activity has increased the atmospheric carbon concentration, which causes changes in regional climate. The Gross Primary Production (GPP) is an important variable in the global carbon cycle studies, since it defines the atmospheric carbon extraction rate from terrestrial ecosystems. The objective of this study was to estimate the GPP of the Amazon-Cerrado Transitional Forest by the Vegetation Photosynthesis Model (VPM) using local meteorological data and remote sensing data from MODIS and Landsat 5 TM reflectance from 2005 to 2008. The GPP was estimated using Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) calculated by MODIS and Landsat 5 TM images. The GPP estimates were compared with measurements in a flux tower by eddy covariance. The GPP measured in the tower was consistent with higher values during the wet season and there was a trend to increase from 2005 to 2008. The GPP estimated by VPM showed the same increasing trend observed in measured GPP and had high correlation and Willmott's coefficient and low error metrics in comparison to measured GPP. These results indicated high potential of the Landsat 5 TM images to estimate the GPP of Amazon-Cerrado Transitional Forest by VPM.

  16. Precipitation and carbon-water coupling jointly control the interannual variability of global land gross primary production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yao; Xiao, Xiangming; Guanter, Luis; Zhou, Sha; Ciais, Philippe; Joiner, Joanna; Sitch, Stephen; Wu, Xiaocui; Nabel, Julia; Dong, Jinwei; Kato, Etsushi; Jain, Atul K.; Wiltshire, Andy; Stocker, Benjamin D.

    2016-12-01

    Carbon uptake by terrestrial ecosystems is increasing along with the rising of atmospheric CO2 concentration. Embedded in this trend, recent studies suggested that the interannual variability (IAV) of global carbon fluxes may be dominated by semi-arid ecosystems, but the underlying mechanisms of this high variability in these specific regions are not well known. Here we derive an ensemble of gross primary production (GPP) estimates using the average of three data-driven models and eleven process-based models. These models are weighted by their spatial representativeness of the satellite-based solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF). We then use this weighted GPP ensemble to investigate the GPP variability for different aridity regimes. We show that semi-arid regions contribute to 57% of the detrended IAV of global GPP. Moreover, in regions with higher GPP variability, GPP fluctuations are mostly controlled by precipitation and strongly coupled with evapotranspiration (ET). This higher GPP IAV in semi-arid regions is co-limited by supply (precipitation)-induced ET variability and GPP-ET coupling strength. Our results demonstrate the importance of semi-arid regions to the global terrestrial carbon cycle and posit that there will be larger GPP and ET variations in the future with changes in precipitation patterns and dryland expansion.

  17. Looking for non-linear relation evidences between Brazilian gross domestic product (GDP) and fixed capital stock (K)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamimura, A.; Guerra, S. M. G.; Sauer, I. L.

    2004-02-01

    This paper deals with the epistemologic problem of searching for experimental evidences of a particular economic model theory. The difficulties of such tasks are well-known due to the peculiarities of the economic system, mainly related to the non-repetitiousness of experiments. Thus, indirect evidence and other related parameter correlations must be looked for. In the present case, a Brazilian macroeconomic historical data set is analysed and some particular phenomena relating correlation between gross domestic production (GDP), fixed capital stock and electricity consumption (EC) and their respectives elasticities are presented. Developed countries, in general, present different behaviour of these variables, compared to emerging economies, not only from the point of view of absolute value aspect, but also from the point of view internal dynamic interaction process. The celebrated correlation between EC and GDP, easily verified in the data of developed countries, becomes actually a myth for the emerging countries. However, this “bad” result could be an evidence of a model proposed by the authors.

  18. Multivariate time series analysis on the dynamic relationship between Class B notifiable diseases and gross domestic product (GDP) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Yin, Fei; Zhou, Ting; Zhang, Xing-Yu; Li, Xiao-Song

    2016-12-23

    The surveillance of infectious diseases is of great importance for disease control and prevention, and more attention should be paid to the Class B notifiable diseases in China. Meanwhile, according to the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the annual growth of Chinese gross domestic product (GDP) would decelerate below 7% after many years of soaring. Under such circumstances, this study aimed to answer what will happen to the incidence rates of infectious diseases in China if Chinese GDP growth remained below 7% in the next five years. Firstly, time plots and cross-correlation matrices were presented to illustrate the characteristics of data. Then, the multivariate time series (MTS) models were proposed to explore the dynamic relationship between incidence rates and GDP. Three kinds of MTS models, i.e., vector auto-regressive (VAR) model for original series, VAR model for differenced series and error-correction model (ECM), were considered in this study. The rank of error-correction term was taken as an indicator for model selection. Finally, our results suggested that four kinds of infectious diseases (epidemic hemorrhagic fever, pertussis, scarlet fever and syphilis) might need attention in China because their incidence rates have increased since the year 2010.

  19. Estimating of gross primary production in an Amazon-Cerrado transitional forest using MODIS and Landsat imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VICTOR H.M. DANELICHEN

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The acceleration of the anthropogenic activity has increased the atmospheric carbon concentration, which causes changes in regional climate. The Gross Primary Production (GPP is an important variable in the global carbon cycle studies, since it defines the atmospheric carbon extraction rate from terrestrial ecosystems. The objective of this study was to estimate the GPP of the Amazon-Cerrado Transitional Forest by the Vegetation Photosynthesis Model (VPM using local meteorological data and remote sensing data from MODIS and Landsat 5 TM reflectance from 2005 to 2008. The GPP was estimated using Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI and Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI calculated by MODIS and Landsat 5 TM images. The GPP estimates were compared with measurements in a flux tower by eddy covariance. The GPP measured in the tower was consistent with higher values during the wet season and there was a trend to increase from 2005 to 2008. The GPP estimated by VPM showed the same increasing trend observed in measured GPP and had high correlation and Willmott's coefficient and low error metrics in comparison to measured GPP. These results indicated high potential of the Landsat 5 TM images to estimate the GPP of Amazon-Cerrado Transitional Forest by VPM.

  20. Basis for a new product programme for fluid connections in

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voigt, Kristian

    1999-01-01

    If one decides to make a new product programme for fluid connections (known as tubes, hoses, fittings) certain conditions should be taken into consideration. This include which functionality that is needed, what the different stakeholders demand from the product programme, how the functionality...... is distributed between the fluid connections and other system components, which phenomena there is of interest and how to deal with them. This paper can provide help when a specification has to be set up for a new product programme for fluid connections....

  1. Tree-grass phenology information improves light use efficiency modelling of gross primary productivity for an Australian tropical savanna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Caitlin E.; Beringer, Jason; Evans, Bradley; Hutley, Lindsay B.; Tapper, Nigel J.

    2017-01-01

    The coexistence of trees and grasses in savanna ecosystems results in marked phenological dynamics that vary spatially and temporally with climate. Australian savannas comprise a complex variety of life forms and phenologies, from evergreen trees to annual/perennial grasses, producing a boom-bust seasonal pattern of productivity that follows the wet-dry seasonal rainfall cycle. As the climate changes into the 21st century, modification to rainfall and temperature regimes in savannas is highly likely. There is a need to link phenology cycles of different species with productivity to understand how the tree-grass relationship may shift in response to climate change. This study investigated the relationship between productivity and phenology for trees and grasses in an Australian tropical savanna. Productivity, estimated from overstory (tree) and understory (grass) eddy covariance flux tower estimates of gross primary productivity (GPP), was compared against 2 years of repeat time-lapse digital photography (phenocams). We explored the phenology-productivity relationship at the ecosystem scale using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) vegetation indices and flux tower GPP. These data were obtained from the Howard Springs OzFlux/Fluxnet site (AU-How) in northern Australia. Two greenness indices were calculated from the phenocam images: the green chromatic coordinate (GCC) and excess green index (ExG). These indices captured the temporal dynamics of the understory (grass) and overstory (trees) phenology and were correlated well with tower GPP for understory (r2 = 0.65 to 0.72) but less so for the overstory (r2 = 0.14 to 0.23). The MODIS enhanced vegetation index (EVI) correlated well with GPP at the ecosystem scale (r2 = 0.70). Lastly, we used GCC and EVI to parameterise a light use efficiency (LUE) model and found it to improve the estimates of GPP for the overstory, understory and ecosystem. We conclude that phenology is an important parameter to

  2. Effects of the partitioning of diffuse and direct solar radiation on satellite-based modeling of crop gross primary production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Qinchuan; Gong, Peng; Suyker, Andrew E.; Si, Yali

    2016-08-01

    Modeling crop gross primary production (GPP) is critical to understanding the carbon dynamics of agro-ecosystems. Satellite-based studies have widely used production efficiency models (PEM) to estimate cropland GPP, wherein light use efficiency (LUE) is a key model parameter. One factor that has not been well considered in many PEMs is that canopy LUE could vary with illumination conditions. This study investigates how the partitioning of diffuse and direct solar radiation influences cropland GPP using both flux tower and satellite data. The field-measured hourly LUE under cloudy conditions was 1.50 and 1.70 times higher than that under near clear-sky conditions for irrigated corn and soybean, respectively. We applied a two-leaf model to simulate the canopy radiative transfer process, where modeled photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) absorbed by canopy agreed with tower measurements (R2 = 0.959 and 0.914 for corn and soybean, respectively). Derived canopy LUE became similar after accounting for the impact of light saturation on leaf photosynthetic capacity under varied illumination conditions. The impacts of solar radiation partitioning on satellite-based modeling of crop GPP was examined using vegetation indices (VI) derived from MODIS data. Consistent with the field modeling results, the relationship between daily GPP and PAR × VI under varied illumination conditions showed different patterns in terms of regression slope and intercept. We proposed a function to correct the influences of direct and diffuse radiation partitioning and the explained variance of flux tower GPP increased in all experiments. Our results suggest that the non-linear response of leaf photosynthesis to light absorption contributes to higher canopy LUE on cloudy days than on clear days. We conclude that accounting for the impacts of solar radiation partitioning is necessary for modeling crop GPP on a daily or shorter basis.

  3. Analysis of El Niño-Southern Oscillation Phenomena's Effect on the Gross Domestic Product of Western Pacific Nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, M.; Lewis, A.; Mezzafonte, D.

    2014-12-01

    El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is a climatological phenomenon that occurs in the tropical Pacific Ocean which has a direct influence on the climate of western Pacific nations. This study evaluated the meteorological effects of ENSO on the economies of Indonesia and the Philippines. It was hypothesized that decreased precipitation in the western Tropical Pacific region during El Niño events causes decreases in agricultural production in the region resulting in a negative effect on a nation's Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Furthermore, during La Niña events, when precipitation increases, an increase in the nation's agricultural GDP and overall GDP is expected. Annual GDP data were obtained from the World Bank and the Bank of Indonesia for 1960-2012. Sea surface temperatures (SST) data, in the Niño 3.4 region, were obtained from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Climate Data Center. Data of the agricultural and total GDP of Indonesia and the Philippines had inconclusive correlations with ENSO signal data. By examining data between smaller time segments of the overall 1960-2012 timeframe, more conclusive results could not be discerned. Indonesia's quarterly non-oil GDP for 2000-2009 was independently correlated with ENSO providing better insight on the variables' relationship during discrete ENSO phenomena. The results provided strong correlation coefficients of 0.831 and 0.624 in support of the antithesis as well as -0.421 in support of the hypothesis. An economic anomaly known as the East Asian Financial Crisis may have been the cause of the unexpected correlations however more data is needed to be certain. Overall, the results demonstrated weak to moderate correlations between studied variables. However, more data is needed to reach substantial conclusions.

  4. Green light: gross primary production influences seasonal stream N export by controlling fine-scale temporal N dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, S.; Lupon, A.; Sabater, F.; Martí Roca, E.

    2015-12-01

    The contribution of in-stream processes to nitrogen (N) exports remains unclear because stream water chemistry integrates biogeochemical processes occurring at different spatial and temporal scales within upland, riparian and aquatic ecosystems. Monitoring nutrient concentrations at fine-scale temporal resolution can provide insights on in-stream N processing. Yet, the mechanisms underlying fine-scale temporal nutrient dynamics and their implications for flux budgets at catchment scale are still poorly understood. Here, we investigated patterns and controls of diel variation in stream nitrate (NO3-) concentration and the influence of these on N fluxes along a stream continuum with increasing riparian area and channel width. We tested two alternative hypotheses: that diel variation in stream NO3- concentration is driven (a) by stream metabolism, or (b) by riparian groundwater inputs. Although productivity in this stream was extremely low, patterns of diel variation in stream NO3- concentration emerged in early-spring and they were highly correlated with the daily regime of irradiance and gross primary production (GPP). In addition, diel NO3- patterns agreed with those predicted from GPP and biofilm C:N ratios, but not with diel variations predicted from changes in riparian groundwater inputs. These results point at in-stream photoautotrophic N uptake as the most likely driver of diel fluctuations in stream NO3- concentration. From a network perspective, the occurrence of diel variations in stream NO3- concentration, and thus their influence on stream N fluxes, increased along the stream continuum likely because of increases in light inputs and water temperature. This study evidences that monitoring of nutrient concentrations at fine-scale temporal resolution can provide mechanistic explanations about the relevance of in-stream and terrestrial processes on regulating stream N dynamics and their contribution to N export at catchment scale.

  5. Exchange of carbonyl sulfide (COS), a potential tracer of gross primary productivity, between grassland ecosystem components and the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, M.; Rhew, R. C.

    2013-12-01

    Recently, measurements of carbonyl sulfide (COS) exchange have been used as an independent constraint for estimates of gross primary productivity over terrestrial ecosystems and continents. CO2 is both taken up and released by plants, whereas COS is usually only consumed and at a predictable ratio to CO2. Most of the underlying theoretical assumptions of this method have been verified, however the problem of parsing leaf exchange from other terrestrial sources and sinks of COS is still under investigation. In ecosystems that experience distinct periods of growing and senescence, it is possible to assess COS fluxes in situ when no green plants are present and compare to measurements during the growing season. Taking advantage of this seasonal pattern, we have investigated COS exchange from March 2012 to March 2013 in a Mediterranean grassland outside of Santa Cruz, CA, U.S.A (37.0°N, 122°W). Through lab-based incubation experiments, we found that net COS uptake of grassland soil can be reduced by increased soil moisture. We evaluated this claim in the field with monthly field deployments of static flux chambers over the in-tact soil and plant system. In the dry summer, artificial rain amendments caused COS net uptake to decrease, sometimes leading to overall net production to the atmosphere, in agreement with lab experiments. During the wet growing season, water additions caused over 2x increase in COS uptake from the atmosphere. Contrary to what has been previously claimed, soil exchange of COS is not negligible in grassland ecosystems.

  6. Disparities in rheumatoid arthritis disease activity according to gross domestic product in 25 countries in the QUEST–RA database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokka, T; Kautiainen, H; Pincus, T; Toloza, S; da Rocha Castelar Pinheiro, G; Lazovskis, J; Hetland, M L; Peets, T; Immonen, K; Maillefert, J F; Drosos, A A; Alten, R; Pohl, C; Rojkovich, B; Bresnihan, B; Minnock, P; Cazzato, M; Bombardieri, S; Rexhepi, S; Rexhepi, M; Andersone, D; Stropuviene, S; Huisman, M; Sierakowski, S; Karateev, D; Skakic, V; Naranjo, A; Baecklund, E; Henrohn, D; Gogus, F; Badsha, H; Mofti, A; Taylor, P; McClinton, C; Yazici, Y

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To analyse associations between the clinical status of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and the gross domestic product (GDP) of their resident country. Methods: The Quantitative Standard Monitoring of Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis (QUEST–RA) cohort includes clinical and questionnaire data from 6004 patients who were seen in usual care at 70 rheumatology clinics in 25 countries as of April 2008, including 18 European countries. Demographic variables, clinical characteristics, RA disease activity measures, including the disease activity score in 28 joints (DAS28), and treatment-related variables were analysed according to GDP per capita, including 14 “high GDP” countries with GDP per capita greater than US$24 000 and 11 “low GDP” countries with GDP per capita less than US$11 000. Results: Disease activity DAS28 ranged between 3.1 and 6.0 among the 25 countries and was significantly associated with GDP (r  =  −0.78, 95% CI −0.56 to −0.90, r2  =  61%). Disease activity levels differed substantially between “high GDP” and “low GDP” countries at much greater levels than according to whether patients were currently taking or not taking methotrexate, prednisone and/or biological agents. Conclusions: The clinical status of patients with RA was correlated significantly with GDP among 25 mostly European countries according to all disease measures, associated only modestly with the current use of antirheumatic medications. The burden of arthritis appears substantially greater in “low GDP” than in “high GDP” countries. These findings may alert healthcare professionals and designers of health policy towards improving the clinical status of patients with RA in all countries. PMID:19643759

  7. Deriving a light use efficiency model from eddy covariance flux data for predicting daily gross primary production across biomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, W.; Liu, S.; Zhou, G.; Tieszen, L.L.; Baldocchi, D.; Bernhofer, C.; Gholz, H.; Goldstein, Allen H.; Goulden, M.L.; Hollinger, D.Y.; Hu, Y.; Law, B.E.; Stoy, Paul C.; Vesala, T.; Wofsy, S.C.

    2007-01-01

    The quantitative simulation of gross primary production (GPP) at various spatial and temporal scales has been a major challenge in quantifying the global carbon cycle. We developed a light use efficiency (LUE) daily GPP model from eddy covariance (EC) measurements. The model, called EC-LUE, is driven by only four variables: normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), air temperature, and the Bowen ratio of sensible to latent heat flux (used to calculate moisture stress). The EC-LUE model relies on two assumptions: First, that the fraction of absorbed PAR (fPAR) is a linear function of NDVI; Second, that the realized light use efficiency, calculated from a biome-independent invariant potential LUE, is controlled by air temperature or soil moisture, whichever is most limiting. The EC-LUE model was calibrated and validated using 24,349 daily GPP estimates derived from 28 eddy covariance flux towers from the AmeriFlux and EuroFlux networks, covering a variety of forests, grasslands and savannas. The model explained 85% and 77% of the observed variations of daily GPP for all the calibration and validation sites, respectively. A comparison with GPP calculated from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) indicated that the EC-LUE model predicted GPP that better matched tower data across these sites. The realized LUE was predominantly controlled by moisture conditions throughout the growing season, and controlled by temperature only at the beginning and end of the growing season. The EC-LUE model is an alternative approach that makes it possible to map daily GPP over large areas because (1) the potential LUE is invariant across various land cover types and (2) all driving forces of the model can be derived from remote sensing data or existing climate observation networks.

  8. A simplified gross primary production and evapotranspiration model for boreal coniferous forests - is a generic calibration sufficient?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minunno, F.; Peltoniemi, M.; Launiainen, S.; Aurela, M.; Lindroth, A.; Lohila, A.; Mammarella, I.; Minkkinen, K.; Mäkelä, A.

    2015-07-01

    The problem of model complexity has been lively debated in environmental sciences as well as in the forest modelling community. Simple models are less input demanding and their calibration involves a lower number of parameters, but they might be suitable only at local scale. In this work we calibrated a simplified ecosystem process model (PRELES) to data from multiple sites and we tested if PRELES can be used at regional scale to estimate the carbon and water fluxes of Boreal conifer forests. We compared a multi-site (M-S) with site-specific (S-S) calibrations. Model calibrations and evaluations were carried out by the means of the Bayesian method; Bayesian calibration (BC) and Bayesian model comparison (BMC) were used to quantify the uncertainty in model parameters and model structure. To evaluate model performances BMC results were combined with more classical analysis of model-data mismatch (M-DM). Evapotranspiration (ET) and gross primary production (GPP) measurements collected in 10 sites of Finland and Sweden were used in the study. Calibration results showed that similar estimates were obtained for the parameters at which model outputs are most sensitive. No significant differences were encountered in the predictions of the multi-site and site-specific versions of PRELES with exception of a site with agricultural history (Alkkia). Although PRELES predicted GPP better than evapotranspiration, we concluded that the model can be reliably used at regional scale to simulate carbon and water fluxes of Boreal forests. Our analyses underlined also the importance of using long and carefully collected flux datasets in model calibration. In fact, even a single site can provide model calibrations that can be applied at a wider spatial scale, since it covers a wide range of variability in climatic conditions.

  9. Climate-driven uncertainties in modeling terrestrial gross primary production: a site level to global-scale analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman, Rahul; Jain, Atul K; Liang, Miaoling

    2014-05-01

    We used a land surface model to quantify the causes and extents of biases in terrestrial gross primary production (GPP) due to the use of meteorological reanalysis datasets. We first calibrated the model using meteorology and eddy covariance data from 25 flux tower sites ranging from the tropics to the northern high latitudes and subsequently repeated the site simulations using two reanalysis datasets: NCEP/NCAR and CRUNCEP. The results show that at most sites, the reanalysis-driven GPP bias was significantly positive with respect to the observed meteorology-driven simulations. Notably, the absolute GPP bias was highest at the tropical evergreen tree sites, averaging up to ca. 0.45 kg C m(-2)  yr(-1) across sites (ca. 15% of site level GPP). At the northern mid-/high-latitude broadleaf deciduous and the needleleaf evergreen tree sites, the corresponding annual GPP biases were up to 20%. For the nontree sites, average annual biases of up to ca. 20-30% were simulated within savanna, grassland, and shrubland vegetation types. At the tree sites, the biases in short-wave radiation and humidity strongly influenced the GPP biases, while the nontree sites were more affected by biases in factors controlling water stress (precipitation, humidity, and air temperature). In this study, we also discuss the influence of seasonal patterns of meteorological biases on GPP. Finally, using model simulations for the global land surface, we discuss the potential impacts of site-level reanalysis-driven biases on the global estimates of GPP. In a broader context, our results can have important consequences on other terrestrial ecosystem fluxes (e.g., net primary production, net ecosystem production, energy/water fluxes) and reservoirs (e.g., soil carbon stocks). In a complementary study (Barman et al., ), we extend the present analysis for latent and sensible heat fluxes, thus consistently integrating the analysis of climate-driven uncertainties in carbon, energy, and water fluxes

  10. Diagnosing the Dynamics of Observed and Simulated Ecosystem Gross Primary Productivity with Time Causal Information Theory Quantifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sippel, Sebastian; Lange, Holger; Mahecha, Miguel D; Hauhs, Michael; Bodesheim, Paul; Kaminski, Thomas; Gans, Fabian; Rosso, Osvaldo A

    2016-01-01

    Data analysis and model-data comparisons in the environmental sciences require diagnostic measures that quantify time series dynamics and structure, and are robust to noise in observational data. This paper investigates the temporal dynamics of environmental time series using measures quantifying their information content and complexity. The measures are used to classify natural processes on one hand, and to compare models with observations on the other. The present analysis focuses on the global carbon cycle as an area of research in which model-data integration and comparisons are key to improving our understanding of natural phenomena. We investigate the dynamics of observed and simulated time series of Gross Primary Productivity (GPP), a key variable in terrestrial ecosystems that quantifies ecosystem carbon uptake. However, the dynamics, patterns and magnitudes of GPP time series, both observed and simulated, vary substantially on different temporal and spatial scales. We demonstrate here that information content and complexity, or Information Theory Quantifiers (ITQ) for short, serve as robust and efficient data-analytical and model benchmarking tools for evaluating the temporal structure and dynamical properties of simulated or observed time series at various spatial scales. At continental scale, we compare GPP time series simulated with two models and an observations-based product. This analysis reveals qualitative differences between model evaluation based on ITQ compared to traditional model performance metrics, indicating that good model performance in terms of absolute or relative error does not imply that the dynamics of the observations is captured well. Furthermore, we show, using an ensemble of site-scale measurements obtained from the FLUXNET archive in the Mediterranean, that model-data or model-model mismatches as indicated by ITQ can be attributed to and interpreted as differences in the temporal structure of the respective ecological time

  11. Diagnosing the Dynamics of Observed and Simulated Ecosystem Gross Primary Productivity with Time Causal Information Theory Quantifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sippel, Sebastian; Mahecha, Miguel D.; Hauhs, Michael; Bodesheim, Paul; Kaminski, Thomas; Gans, Fabian; Rosso, Osvaldo A.

    2016-01-01

    Data analysis and model-data comparisons in the environmental sciences require diagnostic measures that quantify time series dynamics and structure, and are robust to noise in observational data. This paper investigates the temporal dynamics of environmental time series using measures quantifying their information content and complexity. The measures are used to classify natural processes on one hand, and to compare models with observations on the other. The present analysis focuses on the global carbon cycle as an area of research in which model-data integration and comparisons are key to improving our understanding of natural phenomena. We investigate the dynamics of observed and simulated time series of Gross Primary Productivity (GPP), a key variable in terrestrial ecosystems that quantifies ecosystem carbon uptake. However, the dynamics, patterns and magnitudes of GPP time series, both observed and simulated, vary substantially on different temporal and spatial scales. We demonstrate here that information content and complexity, or Information Theory Quantifiers (ITQ) for short, serve as robust and efficient data-analytical and model benchmarking tools for evaluating the temporal structure and dynamical properties of simulated or observed time series at various spatial scales. At continental scale, we compare GPP time series simulated with two models and an observations-based product. This analysis reveals qualitative differences between model evaluation based on ITQ compared to traditional model performance metrics, indicating that good model performance in terms of absolute or relative error does not imply that the dynamics of the observations is captured well. Furthermore, we show, using an ensemble of site-scale measurements obtained from the FLUXNET archive in the Mediterranean, that model-data or model-model mismatches as indicated by ITQ can be attributed to and interpreted as differences in the temporal structure of the respective ecological time

  12. Gross motor control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross motor control is the ability to make large, general movements (such as waving an arm or lifting a leg). ... Gross motor control is a milestone in the development of an infant. Infants develop gross motor control before they develop ...

  13. Gross primary production dynamics assessment of a mediterranean holm oak forest by remote sensing time series analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicuéndez, Víctor; Huesca, Margarita; Rodriguez-Rastrero, Manuel; Litago, Javier; Recuero, Laura; Merino de Miguel, Silvia; Palacios Orueta, Alicia

    2014-05-01

    Agroforestry ecosystems have a significant social, economic and environmental impact on the development of many regions of the world. In the Iberian Peninsula the agroforestry oak forest called "Dehesa" or "Montado" is considered as the extreme case of transformation of a Mediterranean forest by the management of human to provide a wide range of natural resources. The high variability of the Mediterranean climate and the different extensive management practices which human realized on the Dehesa result in a high spatial and temporal dynamics of the ecosystem. This leads to a complex pattern in CO2 exchange between the atmosphere and the ecosystem, i.e. in ecosystem's production. Thus, it is essential to assess Dehesa's carbon cycle to reach maximum economic benefits ensuring environmental sustainability. In this sense, the availability of high frequency Remote Sensing (RS) time series allows the assessment of ecosystem evolution at different temporal and spatial scales. Extensive research has been conducted to estimate production from RS data in different ecosystems. However, there are few studies on the Dehesa type ecosystems, probably due to their complexity in terms of spatial arrangement and temporal dynamics. In this study our overall objective is to assess the Gross Primary Production (GPP) dynamics of a Dehesa ecosystem situated in Central Spain by analyzing time series (2004-2008) of two models: (1) GPP provided by Remote Sensing Images of sensor MODIS (MOD17A2 product) and (2) GPP estimated by the implementation of a Site Specific Light Use Efficiency model based as MODIS model on Monteith equation (1972), but taking into account local ecological and meteorological parameters. Both models have been compared with the Production provided by an Eddy Covariance (EC) flux Tower that is located in our study area. In addition, dynamic relationships between models of GPP with Precipitation and Soil Water Content have been investigated by means of cross

  14. Combining high-resolution gross domestic product data with home and personal care product market research data to generate a subnational emission inventory for Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Juliet Elizabeth Natasha; Vamshi, Raghu; Holmes, Christopher; Rowson, Matthew; Miah, Taqmina; Price, Oliver Richard

    2014-04-01

    Environmental risk assessment of chemicals is reliant on good estimates of product usage information and robust exposure models. Over the past 20 to 30 years, much progress has been made with the development of exposure models that simulate the transport and distribution of chemicals in the environment. However, little progress has been made in our ability to estimate chemical emissions of home and personal care (HPC) products. In this project, we have developed an approach to estimate subnational emission inventory of chemical ingredients used in HPC products for 12 Asian countries including Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Pakistan, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Vietnam (Asia-12). To develop this inventory, we have coupled a 1 km grid of per capita gross domestic product (GDP) estimates with market research data of HPC product sales. We explore the necessity of accounting for a population's ability to purchase HPC products in determining their subnational distribution in regions where wealth is not uniform. The implications of using high resolution data on inter- and intracountry subnational emission estimates for a range of hypothetical and actual HPC product types were explored. It was demonstrated that for low value products (500 US$ per capita/annum required to purchase product) the implications on emissions being assigned to subnational regions can vary by several orders of magnitude. The implications of this on conducting national or regional level risk assessments may be significant. Further work is needed to explore the implications of this variability in HPC emissions to enable the HPC industry and/or governments to advance risk-based chemical management policies in emerging markets. © 2013 SETAC.

  15. Global evaluation of gross primary productivity in the JULES land surface model v3.4.1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Slevin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the ability of the JULES land surface model (LSM to simulate gross primary productivity (GPP on regional and global scales for 2001–2010. Model simulations, performed at various spatial resolutions and driven with a variety of meteorological datasets (WFDEI-GPCC, WFDEI-CRU and PRINCETON, were compared to the MODIS GPP product, spatially gridded estimates of upscaled GPP from the FLUXNET network (FLUXNET-MTE and the CARDAMOM terrestrial carbon cycle analysis. Firstly, when JULES was driven with the WFDEI-GPCC dataset (at 0. 5° × 0. 5° spatial resolution, the annual average global GPP simulated by JULES for 2001–2010 was higher than the observation-based estimates (MODIS and FLUXNET-MTE, by 25 and 8 %, respectively, and CARDAMOM estimates by 23 %. JULES was able to simulate the standard deviation of monthly GPP fluxes compared to CARDAMOM and the observation-based estimates on global scales. Secondly, GPP simulated by JULES for various biomes (forests, grasslands and shrubs on global and regional scales were compared. Differences among JULES, MODIS, FLUXNET-MTE and CARDAMOM on global scales were due to differences in simulated GPP in the tropics. Thirdly, it was shown that spatial resolution (0. 5° × 0. 5°, 1° × 1° and 2° × 2° had little impact on simulated GPP on these large scales, with global GPP ranging from 140 to 142 PgC year−1. Finally, the sensitivity of JULES to meteorological driving data, a major source of model uncertainty, was examined. Estimates of annual average global GPP were higher when JULES was driven with the PRINCETON meteorological dataset than when driven with the WFDEI-GPCC dataset by 3 PgC year−1. On regional scales, differences between the two were observed, with the WFDEI-GPCC-driven model simulations estimating higher GPP in the tropics (5° N–5° S and the PRINCETON-driven model simulations estimating higher GPP in the extratropics (30

  16. Improvement of satellite-based gross primary production through incorporation of high resolution input data over east asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Haemi; Im, Jungho; Kim, Miae

    2016-04-01

    Photosynthesis of plants is the main mechanism of carbon absorption from the atmosphere into the terrestrial ecosystem and it contributes to remove greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide. Annually, 120 Gt of C is supposed to be assimilated through photosynthetic activity of plants as the gross primary production (GPP) over global land area. In terms of climate change, GPP modelling is essential to understand carbon cycle and the balance of carbon budget over various ecosystems. One of the GPP modelling approaches uses light use efficiency that each vegetation type has a specific efficiency for consuming solar radiation related with temperature and humidity. Satellite data can be used to measure various meteorological and biophysical factors over vast areas, which can be used to quantify GPP. NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) program provides Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)-derived global GPP product, namely MOD17A2H, on a daily basis. However, significant underestimation of MOD17A2H has been reported in Eastern Asia due to its dense forest distribution and humid condition during monsoon rainy season in summer. The objective of this study was to improve underestimation of MODIS GPP (MOD17A2H) by incorporating meteorological data-temperature, relative humidity, and solar radiation-of higher spatial resolution than data used in MOD17A2H. Landsat-based land cover maps of finer resolution observation and monitoring - global land cover (FROM-GLC) at 30m resolution were used for selection of light use efficiency (LUE). GPP (eq1. GPP = APAR×LUE) is computed by multiplication of APAR (IPAR×fPAR) and LUE (ɛ= ɛmax×T(°C)scalar×VPD(Pa)scalar, where, T is temperature, VPD is vapour pressure deficit) in this study. Meteorological data of Japanese 55-year Reanalysis (JRA-55, 0.56° grid, 3hr) were used for calculation of GPP in East Asia, including Eastern part of China, Korean peninsula, and Japan. Results were validated using flux tower-observed GPP

  17. 7 CFR 1424.7 - Gross payable units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Biodiesel producers will be eligible for payments on gross payable units for all biodiesel production from... rates. Unless otherwise determined by CCC, gross payable units for biodiesel production from eligible... biodiesel production gross payable units. (3) Adding the APP and BPP to determine biodiesel gross...

  18. 7 CFR 1000.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... nonfat milk solids, and whey; and (2) The quantity of skim milk equivalent in any modified product... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Fluid milk product. 1000.15 Section 1000.15 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL PROVISIONS OF FEDERAL MILK MARKETING...

  19. Entropy production rate as a constraint for collisionless fluid closures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleurence, E.; Sarazin, Y.; Garbet, X.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Ghendrih, Ph.; Grandgirard, V.; Ottaviani, M.

    2006-11-01

    A novel method is proposed to construct collisionless fluid closures accounting for some kinetic properties. The first dropped fluid moment is assumed to be a linear function of the lower order ones. Optimizing the agreement between the fluid and kinetic entropy production rates is used to constrain the coefficients of the linear development. This procedure is applied to a reduced version of the interchange instability. The closure, involving the absolute value of the wave vector, is non-local in real space. In this case, the linear instability thresholds are the same, and the linear growth rates exhibit similar characteristics. Such a method is applicable to other models and classes of instabilities.

  20. New global observations of the terrestrial carbon cycle from GOSAT: Patterns of vegetation fluorescence with gross primary productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankenberg, C.; Fisher, J. B.; Lee, J.; Guanter, L.; Van der Tol, C.; Toon, G. C.; kuze, A.; Yokota, T.; Badgley, G. M.; Butz, A.; Jung, M.; Saatchi, S. S.; Worden, J.

    2011-12-01

    Our ability to close the Earth's carbon budget and predict feedbacks in a warming climate depends critically on knowing where, when and how carbon dioxide is exchanged between the land and atmosphere. Terrestrial gross primary production (GPP) constitutes the largest flux component in the global carbon budget, however significant uncertainties remain in GPP estimates and its seasonality. Solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence is a powerful proxy for assessing biomass photosynthetic activity since photosynthesis and fluorescence are directly coupled processes. This gives rise to re-emission of light between approximately 670 and 780 nm. Passive methods to quantify the fluorescence signal are mainly based on the filling-in of highly saturated O2 absorption structures. This method, however, was mostly applied in field-based measurements and is not directly applicable to space-borne retrievals. We show that variability of aerosols in the atmosphere load and surface pressure cannot be unequivocally disentangled from fluorescence since all these factor impact the absorption depths of O2 lines. This gives rise to biases in the retrieved scattering properties in typical multi-spectral XCO2 retrievals when using the O2 A band but not when focussing solely of solar Fraunhofer lines. We will a) present our retrieval method based on an iterative, non-linear least-squares fitting of Fraunhofer lines, b) discuss the potential impact on XCO2 retrievals and c) show recent fluorescence results from more than one year of GOSAT data. Empirically, we show that global spaceborne observations of solar induced chlorophyll fluorescence exhibit a strong linear correlation with GPP. We found that the fluorescence emission even without any additional meteorological, vegetation type or model information has the same or better predictive skill in estimating GPP as those derived from traditional remotely-sensed vegetation indices using ancillary data and model assumptions. Our results

  1. Remote sensing of annual terrestrial gross primary productivity from MODIS: an assessment using the FLUXNET La Thuile dataset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Verma

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Gross primary productivity (GPP is the largest and most variable component of the global terrestrial carbon cycle. Repeatable and accurate monitoring of terrestrial GPP is therefore critical for quantifying dynamics in regional-to-global carbon budgets. Remote sensing provides high frequency observations of terrestrial ecosystems and is widely used to monitor and model spatiotemporal variability in ecosystem properties and processes that affect terrestrial GPP. We used data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS and FLUXNET to assess how well four metrics derived from remotely sensed vegetation indices (hereafter referred to as proxies and six remote sensing-based models capture spatial and temporal variations in annual GPP. Specifically, we used the FLUXNET "La Thuile" data set, which includes several times more sites (144 and site years (422 than previous efforts have used. Our results show that remotely sensed proxies and modeled GPP are able to capture statistically significant amounts of spatial variation in mean annual GPP in every biome except croplands, but that the total variance explained differed substantially across biomes (R2 ≈ 0.1−0.8. The ability of remotely sensed proxies and models to explain interannual variability GPP was even more limited. Remotely sensed proxies explained 40–60% of interannual variance in annual GPP in moisture-limited biomes including grasslands and shrublands. However, none of the models or remotely sensed proxies explained statistically significant amounts of interannual variation in GPP in croplands, evergreen needleleaf forests, and deciduous broadleaf forests. Because important factors that affect year-to-year variation in GPP are not explicitly captured or included in the remote sensing proxies and models we examined (e.g., interactions between biotic and abiotic conditions, and lagged ecosystems responses to environmental process, our results are not surprising

  2. Integrating Chlorophyll fapar and Nadir Photochemical Reflectance Index from EO-1/Hyperion to Predict Cornfield Daily Gross Primary Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingyuan; Middleton, Elizabeth M.; Cheng, Yen-Ben; Huemmrich, K. Fred; Cook, Bruce D.; Corp, Lawrence A.; Kustas, William P.; Russ, Andrew L.; Prueger, John H.; Yao, Tian

    2016-01-01

    The concept of light use efficiency (Epsilon) and the concept of fraction of photosynthetically active ration (PAR) absorbed for vegetation photosynthesis (PSN), i.e., fAPAR (sub PSN), have been widely utilized to estimate vegetation gross primary productivity (GPP). It has been demonstrated that the photochemical reflectance index (PRI) is empirically related to e. An experimental US Department of Agriculture (USDA) cornfield in Maryland was selected as our study field. We explored the potential of integrating fAPAR(sub chl) (defined as the fraction of PAR absorbed by chlorophyll) and nadir PRI (PRI(sub nadir)) to predict cornfield daily GPP. We acquired nadir or near-nadir EO-1/Hyperion satellite images that covered the cornfield and took nadir in-situ field spectral measurements. Those data were used to derive the PRI(sub nadir) and fAPAR (sub chl). The fAPAR (sub chl) is retrieved with the advanced radiative transfer model PROSAIL2 and the Metropolis approach, a type of Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) estimation procedure. We define chlorophyll light use efficiency Epsilon (sub chl) as the ratio of vegetation GPP as measured by eddy covariance techniques to PAR absorbed by chlorophyll (Epsilon(sub chl) = GPP/APAR (sub chl). Daily Epsilon (sub chl) retrieved with the EO-1 Hyperion images was regressed with a linear equation of PRI (sub nadir) Epsilon (sub chl) = Alpha × PRI (sub nadir) + Beta). The satellite Epsilon(sub chl- PRI (sub nadir) linear relationship for the cornfield was implemented to develop an integrated daily GPP model [GPP = (Alpha × PRI(sub nadir) + Beta) × fAPAR (sub chl) × PAR], which was evaluated with fAPAR (sub chl) and PRI (sub nadir) retrieved from field measurements. Daily GPP estimated with this fAPAR (sub chl-) PRI (nadir) integration model was strongly correlated with the observed tower in-situ daily GPP (R(sup 2) = 0.93); with a root mean square error (RMSE) of 1.71 g C mol-(sup -1) PPFD and coefficient of variation (CV) of 16

  3. Gross Primary Production of a Wheat Canopy Relates Stronger to Far Red Than to Red Solar-Induced Chlorophyll Fluorescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Goulas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF is a radiation flux emitted by chlorophyll molecules in the red (RSIF and far red region (FRSIF, and is considered as a potential indicator of the functional state of photosynthesis in remote sensing applications. Recently, ground studies and space observations have demonstrated a strong empirical linear relationship between FRSIF and carbon uptake through photosynthesis (GPP, gross primary production. In this study, we investigated the potential of RSIF and FRSIF to represent the functional status of photosynthesis at canopy level on a wheat crop. RSIF and FRSIF were continuously measured in the O2-B (SIF687 and O2-A bands (SIF760 at a high frequency rate from a nadir view at a height of 21 m, simultaneously with carbon uptake using eddy covariance (EC techniques. The relative fluorescence yield (Fyield and the photochemical yield were acquired at leaf level using active fluorescence measurements. SIF was normalized with photosynthetically active radiation (PAR to derive apparent spectral fluorescence yields (ASFY687, ASFY760. At the diurnal scale, we found limited variations of ASFY687 and ASFY760 during sunny days. We also did not find any link between Fyield and light use efficiency (LUE derived from EC, which would prevent SIF from indicating LUE changes. The coefficient of determination ( r 2 of the linear regression between SIF and GPP is found to be highly variable, depending on the emission wavelength, the time scale of observation, sky conditions, and the phenological stage. Despite its photosystem II (PSII origin, SIF687 correlates less than SIF760 with GPP in any cases. The strongest SIF–GPP relationship was found for SIF760 during canopy growth. When canopy is in a steady state, SIF687 and SIF760 are almost as effective as PAR in predicting GPP. Our results imply some constraints in the use of simple linear relationships to infer GPP from SIF, as they are expected to be better predictive

  4. Drill-in fluid reduces formation damage, increases production rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hands, N. [Nederlandse Aardolie Maatschappij B.V., Velsen (Netherlands); Kowbel, K. [Ensco International/NAM, Assen (Netherlands); Maikranz, S. [M-I LLC, Houston, TX (United States); Nouris, R. [M-I LLC, Velsen (Netherlands)

    1998-07-13

    A sodium formate drill-in fluid system reduced formation damage, resulting in better-than-expected production rates for an off-shore Dutch development well. Programmed to optimize production capacity and reservoir drainage from a Rotliegend sandstone gas discovery, the 5-7/8-in. subhorizontal production interval was drilled and completed barefoot with a unique, rheologically engineered sodium formate drill-in fluid system. The new system, consisting of a sodium formate (NaCOOH) brine as the base fluid and properly sized calcium carbonate as the formation-bridging agent, was selected on the basis of its well-documented record in reducing solids impairment and formation damage in similar sandstone structures in Germany. The system was engineered around the low-shear-rate viscosity (LSRV) concept, designed to provide exceptional rheological properties. After describing the drilling program, the paper gives results on the drilling and completion.

  5. Seasonal net and gross biological oxygen production in a temperate shelf sea from oxygen-argon-ratio and oxygen triple isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seguro, Isabel; Marca, Alina; Kaiser, Jan

    2017-04-01

    Temperate shelf seas are major carbon sink areas. Quantifying accurately primary production is therefore essential to understand the shelf sea carbon pump and its role in the uptake of anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Here we use high-resolution dissolved oxygen-to-argon (O2/Ar) ratios and oxygen triple isotopes (16O, 17O and 18O) to derive estimates of net and gross biological oxygen production in the Celtic Sea during the most productive seasons (spring, summer and autumn) in 2014-2015. O2/Ar ratios were measured continuously using a shipboard membrane inlet mass spectrometer (MIMS). Additional discrete water samples obtained from CTD hydrocasts were used to measure O2/Ar depth profiles and the δ(17O) and δ(18O) values of dissolved O2. Calculations of net (N(O2/Ar)) and gross (G(17O)) oxygen fluxes showed higher values during the spring bloom and lowest during the autumn bloom. Continuous N(O2/Ar) underway measurement was on average (58±38) mmol m-2 d-1 and discrete G(17O) measurements was average (170±161) mmol m-2 d-1 during the spring bloom. Results from the summer cruise showed a peak in production just below the mixed layer. These peaks are not detectable by high coverage ocean colour satellite systems, typically used to calculate total annual production. Our results show primary production values at unprecedentedly high resolution in the shelf sea.

  6. The effect of simple nitrogen fertilizer recommendation strategies on product carbon footprint and gross margin of wheat and maize production in the North China Plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Nan; Feike, Til; Back, Hans; Xiao, Haifeng; Bahrs, Enno

    2015-11-01

    Overuse of nitrogen (N) fertilizer constitutes the major issue of current crop production in China, exerting a substantial effect on global warming through massive emission of greenhouse gas (GHG). Despite the ongoing effort, which includes the promotion of technologically sophisticated N management schemes, farmers' N rates maintain at excessive rates. Therefore the current study tests three simple and easily to apply N fertilizer recommendation strategies, which could be implemented on large scale through the existing agricultural advisory system of China, at comparatively low cost. Building on a detailed crop production dataset of 65 winter wheat (WW) and summer maize (SM) producing farm households of the North China Plain, scenario analysis is applied. The effects of the three N strategies under constant and changing yield levels on product carbon footprint (PCF) and gross margin (GM) are determined for the production condition of every individual farm household. The N fixed rate strategy realized the highest improvement potential in PCF and GM in WW; while the N coefficient strategy performed best in SM. The analysis furthermore revealed that improved N management has a significant positive effect on PCF, but only a marginal and insignificant effect on GM. On the other side, a potential 10% yield loss would have only a marginal effect on PCF, but a detrimental effect on farmers' income. With farmers currently applying excessive N rates as "cheap insurance" against potential N limitation, it will be of vital importance to avoid any yield reductions (caused by N limitation) and respective severe financial losses, when promoting and implementing advanced fertilization strategies. To achieve this, it is furthermore recommended to increase the price of fertilizer, improve the agricultural extensions system, and recognize farmers' fertilizer related decision-making processes as key research areas.

  7. Measured and modeled interactive effects of potassium deficiency and water deficit on gross primary productivity and light-use efficiency in Eucalyptus grandis plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christina, Mathias; Le Maire, Guerric; Battie-Laclau, Patricia; Nouvellon, Yann; Bouillet, Jean-Pierre; Jourdan, Christophe; de Moraes Gonçalves, José Leonardo; Laclau, Jean-Paul

    2015-05-01

    Global climate change is expected to increase the length of drought periods in many tropical regions. Although large amounts of potassium (K) are applied in tropical crops and planted forests, little is known about the interaction between K nutrition and water deficit on the physiological mechanisms governing plant growth. A process-based model (MAESPA) parameterized in a split-plot experiment in Brazil was used to gain insight into the combined effects of K deficiency and water deficit on absorbed radiation (aPAR), gross primary productivity (GPP), and light-use efficiency for carbon assimilation and stem biomass production (LUEC and LUEs ) in Eucalyptus grandis plantations. The main-plot factor was the water supply (undisturbed rainfall vs. 37% of throughfall excluded) and the subplot factor was the K supply (with or without 0.45 mol K m(-2 ) K addition). Mean GPP was 28% lower without K addition over the first 3 years after planting whether throughfall was partly excluded or not. K deficiency reduced aPAR by 20% and LUEC by 10% over the whole period of growth. With K addition, throughfall exclusion decreased GPP by 25%, resulting from a 21% decrease in LUEC at the end of the study period. The effect of the combination of K deficiency and water deficit was less severe than the sum of the effects of K deficiency and water deficit individually, leading to a reduction in stem biomass production, gross primary productivity and LUE similar to K deficiency on its own. The modeling approach showed that K nutrition and water deficit influenced absorbed radiation essentially through changes in leaf area index and tree height. The changes in gross primary productivity and light-use efficiency were, however, driven by a more complex set of tree parameters, especially those controlling water uptake by roots and leaf photosynthetic capacities. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Estimation of Crop Gross Primary Production (GPP): I. Impact of MODIS Observation Footprint and Impact of Vegetation BRDF Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingyuan; Cheng, Yen-Ben; Lyapustin, Alexei I.; Wang, Yujie; Xiao, Xiangming; Suyker, Andrew; Verma, Shashi; Tan, Bin; Middleton, Elizabeth M.

    2014-01-01

    Accurate estimation of gross primary production (GPP) is essential for carbon cycle and climate change studies. Three AmeriFlux crop sites of maize and soybean were selected for this study. Two of the sites were irrigated and the other one was rainfed. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), the enhanced vegetation index (EVI), the green band chlorophyll index (CIgreen), and the green band wide dynamic range vegetation index (WDRVIgreen) were computed from the moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) surface reflectance data. We examined the impacts of the MODIS observation footprint and the vegetation bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) on crop daily GPP estimation with the four spectral vegetation indices (VIs - NDVI, EVI, WDRVIgreen and CIgreen) where GPP was predicted with two linear models, with and without offset: GPP = a × VI × PAR and GPP = a × VI × PAR + b. Model performance was evaluated with coefficient of determination (R2), root mean square error (RMSE), and coefficient of variation (CV). The MODIS data were filtered into four categories and four experiments were conducted to assess the impacts. The first experiment included all observations. The second experiment only included observations with view zenith angle (VZA) = 35? to constrain growth of the footprint size,which achieved a better grid cell match with the agricultural fields. The third experiment included only forward scatter observations with VZA = 35?. The fourth experiment included only backscatter observations with VZA = 35?. Overall, the EVI yielded the most consistently strong relationships to daily GPP under all examined conditions. The model GPP = a × VI × PAR + b had better performance than the model GPP = a × VI × PAR, and the offset was significant for most cases. Better performance was obtained for the irrigated field than its counterpart rainfed field. Comparison of experiment 2 vs. experiment 1 was used to examine the observation

  9. Upwelling increases net primary production of corals and reef-wide gross primary production along the Pacific coast of Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines eStuhldreier

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Photosynthetic production is a key ecosystem service provided by tropical coral reefs, but knowledge about the contribution of corals and other reef-associated organisms and the controlling environmental factors is scarce. Locations with occurrence of upwelling events can serve as in-situ laboratories to investigate the impact of environmental variability on production rates of reef-associated organisms. This study investigated individual and reef-wide net (Pn and gross primary production (Pg for the dominant autotrophic benthic organisms (hard corals Pocillopora spp., crustose coralline algae (CCA, turf algae, and the macroalga Caulerpa sertularioides associated with a coral reef along the Pacific coast of Costa Rica. Oxygen fluxes by these organisms were measured at a weekly to monthly resolution over one year (May 2013 - April 2014 via in-situ chamber incubations. The influence of simultaneously measured environmental parameters (temperature, light, inorganic nutrient concentrations, dissolved and particulate organic matter concentrations on Pn of the different taxa were tested via linear model fitting. Turf algae showed highest individual Pn and Pg rates per organism surface area (35 and 49 mmol O2 m-² h-1, followed by Pocillopora spp. (16 and 25 mmol O2 m-² h-1, CCA (9 and 15 mmol O2 m-² h-1 and C. sertularioides (8 and 11 mmol O2 m-² h-1. Under upwelling conditions (February – April 2014, Pn rates of all algal taxa remained relatively uniform despite high nutrient availability, Pn of corals increased by 70 %. On an ecosystem level, corals on average contributed 60 % of total Pn and Pg per reef area (73 and 98 mmol O2 m-² h-1, respectively due to high benthic coverage, followed by turf algae (25 %. Under upwelling conditions, reef-wide Pg increased by >40 %, indicating acclimatization of local reef communities to upwelling conditions.

  10. Absorbent product to absorb fluids. [for collection of human wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawn, F. S.; Correale, J. V. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A multi-layer absorbent product for use in contact with the skin to absorb fluids is discussed. The product utilizes a water pervious facing layer for contacting the skin, overlayed by a first fibrous wicking layer, the wicking layer preferably being of the one-way variety in which fluid or liquid is moved away from the facing layer. The product further includes a first container section defined by inner and outer layer of a water pervious wicking material between which is disposed a first absorbent mass. A second container section defined by inner and outer layers between which is disposed a second absorbent mass and a liquid impermeable/gas permeable layer. Spacesuit applications are discussed.

  11. NM Gross Receipts Baseline

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  12. Gross National Happiness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giri, Krishna Prasad; Kjær-Rasmussen, Lone Krogh

    This paper investigates practices related to the ideology of infusing Gross National Happiness (GNH) into school curriculum, the effectiveness of the meditation and mind training and the implication of GNH for school environment. It also explores how GNH ambience has been managed and practiced...... of Gross National Happiness and Educating for Gross National happiness....

  13. Evaluation of gross radioactivity in foodstuffs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zorer, Oezlem Selcuk; Oeter, Cigdem [Yuzuncu Yil Univ., Van (Turkey). Dept. of Chemistry

    2015-05-15

    The paper presents the results of radiological investigations of food products sampled in the summer and fall of 2011 and 2012 in different parts of Van, Turkey. Gross radioactivity measurements in food products were evaluated. Food items were divided into eight groups: (1) water, (2) fish, (3) cheese products, (4) fruits, (5) vegetables, (6) herbs, (7) walnut and (8) rock salt. The levels of the gross alpha and gross beta radioactivity in all food samples varied widely ranging from 0.070 to 10.885 Bq/g and from 0.132 to 48.285 Bq/g on dry mass basis, respectively. In one sample, gross alpha and gross beta activity concentrations were found to be relatively high according to the other samples and in all samples, the gross alpha radioactivity was measured lower than the gross beta radioactivity. The gross α and gross β activities were measured by using α/β counter of the multi-detector low background system (PIC MPC-9604).

  14. Compressible forced viscous fluid from product Einstein manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Hao, Xin; Zhao, Liu

    2015-01-01

    We consider the fluctuation modes around a hypersurface $\\Sigma_c$ in a $(d+2)$-dimensional product Einstein manifold, with $\\Sigma_c$ taken either near the horizon or at some finite cutoff from the horizon. By mapping the equations that governs the lowest nontrivial order of the fluctuation modes into a system of partial differential equations on a flat Newtonian spacetime, a system of compressible, forced viscous fluid is realized. This result generalizes the non bulk/boundary holographic duality constructed by us recently to the case of a different background geometry.

  15. A Continuous Measure of Gross Primary Production for the Conterminous U.S. Derived from MODIS and AmeriFlux Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Jingfeng; Zhuang, Qianlai; Law, Beverly E.; Chen, Jiquan; Baldocchi, Dennis D.; Cook, David R.; Oren, Ram; Richardson, Andrew D.; Wharton, Sonia; Ma, Siyan; Martin, Timothy A.; Verma, Shashi B.; Suyker, Andrew E.; Scott, Russell L.; Monson, Russell K.; Litvak, Marcy; Hollinger, David Y.; Sun, Ge; Davis, Kenneth J.; Bolstad, Paul V.; Burns, Sean P.; Curtis, Peter S.; Drake, Bert G.; Falk, Matthias; Fischer, Marc L.; Foster, David R.; Gu, Lianhong; Hadley, Julian L.; Katul, Gabriel G.; Matamala, Roser; McNulty, Steve; Meyers, Tilden P.; Munger, J. William; Noormets, Asko; Oechel, Walter C.; U, Kyaw Tha Paw; Schmid, Hans Peter; Starr, Gregory; Torn, Margaret S.; Wofsy, Steven C.

    2009-01-28

    The quantification of carbon fluxes between the terrestrial biosphere and the atmosphere is of scientific importance and also relevant to climate-policy making. Eddy covariance flux towers provide continuous measurements of ecosystem-level exchange of carbon dioxide spanning diurnal, synoptic, seasonal, and interannual time scales. However, these measurements only represent the fluxes at the scale of the tower footprint. Here we used remotely-sensed data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to upscale gross primary productivity (GPP) data from eddy covariance flux towers to the continental scale. We first combined GPP and MODIS data for 42 AmeriFlux towers encompassing a wide range of ecosystem and climate types to develop a predictive GPP model using a regression tree approach. The predictive model was trained using observed GPP over the period 2000-2004, and was validated using observed GPP over the period 2005-2006 and leave-one-out cross-validation. Our model predicted GPP fairly well at the site level. We then used the model to estimate GPP for each 1 km x 1 km cell across the U.S. for each 8-day interval over the period from February 2000 to December 2006 using MODIS data. Our GPP estimates provide a spatially and temporally continuous measure of gross primary production for the U.S. that is a highly constrained by eddy covariance flux data. Our study demonstrated that our empirical approach is effective for upscaling eddy flux GPP data to the continental scale and producing continuous GPP estimates across multiple biomes. With these estimates, we then examined the patterns, magnitude, and interannual variability of GPP. We estimated a gross carbon uptake between 6.91 and 7.33 Pg C yr{sup -1} for the conterminous U.S. Drought, fires, and hurricanes reduced annual GPP at regional scales and could have a significant impact on the U.S. net ecosystem carbon exchange. The sources of the interannual variability of U.S. GPP were dominated

  16. Modeling gross primary production of agro-forestry ecosystems by assimilation of satellite-derived information in a process-based model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliavacca, Mirco; Meroni, Michele; Busetto, Lorenzo; Colombo, Roberto; Zenone, Terenzio; Matteucci, Giorgio; Manca, Giovanni; Seufert, Guenther

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present results obtained in the framework of a regional-scale analysis of the carbon budget of poplar plantations in Northern Italy. We explored the ability of the process-based model BIOME-BGC to estimate the gross primary production (GPP) using an inverse modeling approach exploiting eddy covariance and satellite data. We firstly present a version of BIOME-BGC coupled with the radiative transfer models PROSPECT and SAILH (named PROSAILH-BGC) with the aims of i) improving the BIOME-BGC description of the radiative transfer regime within the canopy and ii) allowing the assimilation of remotely-sensed vegetation index time series, such as MODIS NDVI, into the model. Secondly, we present a two-step model inversion for optimization of model parameters. In the first step, some key ecophysiological parameters were optimized against data collected by an eddy covariance flux tower. In the second step, important information about phenological dates and about standing biomass were optimized against MODIS NDVI. Results obtained showed that the PROSAILH-BGC allowed simulation of MODIS NDVI with good accuracy and that we described better the canopy radiation regime. The inverse modeling approach was demonstrated to be useful for the optimization of ecophysiological model parameters, phenological dates and parameters related to the standing biomass, allowing good accuracy of daily and annual GPP predictions. In summary, this study showed that assimilation of eddy covariance and remote sensing data in a process model may provide important information for modeling gross primary production at regional scale.

  17. Evaluation of the impact of storm event inputs on levels of gross primary production and respiration in a drinking water reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samal, N. R.; Pierson, D. C.; Staehr, P. A.; Pradhanang, S. M.; Smith, D. G.

    2013-12-01

    Episodic inputs of dissolved and particulate material during storm events can have important effects on lake and reservoir ecosystem function and also impact reservoir drinking water quality. We evaluate the impacts of storm events using vertical profiles of temperature, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, conductivity and chlorophyll automatically collected at 6 hour intervals in Ashokan Reservoir, which is a part of the New York City drinking water supply. Storm driven inputs to the reservoir periodically result in large input of suspended sediments that result in reservoir turbidity levels exceeding 25 NTU, and substantial reductions in the euphotic depth. Dissolved materials associated with these same storms would be expected to stimulate bacterial production. This study involves the use of a conceptual model to calculate depth specific estimates of gross primary production (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (R) using three years of data that included 777 events that increased reservoir turbidity levels to over 25 NTU. Using data from before, during and after storm events, we examine how the balance between GPP and R is influenced by storm related increases in turbidity and dissolved organic matter, which would in turn influence light attenuation and bacterial production. Key words: metabolism, primary production, GPP, respiration, euphotic depth, storm event, reservoir

  18. Estimation of crop gross primary production (GPP): fAPAR_chl versus MOD15A2 FPAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Within leaf chloroplasts chlorophylls absorb photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) for photosynthesis (PSN). The MOD15A2 FPAR (fraction of PAR absorbed by canopy, i.e., fAPARcanopy) product has been widely used to compute absorbed PAR for PSN (APARPSN). The MOD17A2 algorithm uses MOD15A2 FPAR i...

  19. Gross world product and consumption in a global warming model with endogenous technological change. A study with DEMETER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Zwaan, B.C.C. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands); Gerlagh, R. [Institute for Environmental Studies IVM, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2002-06-01

    This paper analyzes the macro-economic costs and effects on consumption and energy demand of limiting the global average atmospheric temperature increase to 2 degrees Celsius. We use a macro-economic model (DEMETER: DE-carbonization Model with Endogenous Technologies for Emission Reduction) in which there are two competing energy technologies (carbon and non-carbon, respectively), technological change is represented endogenously, and energy is aggregated through a CES function implying positive demand for the relatively expensive non-carbon technology. Technological change is represented through a learning curve describing decreasing energy production costs as a function of cumulative experience. We compare scenarios that (1) allow for energy savings, versus scenarios that assume energy demand following an exogenous path, and scenarios that (2) allow for enhanced learning effects resulting from increased experience obtained with the carbon and non-carbon technologies, versus scenarios that assume production costs following an exogenous path. We find that energy savings constitutes an important mechanism for decreasing abatement costs in the short and medium term, while the acquisition of additional learning experience substantially decreases abatement costs in the longer term.

  20. Loovkirjutamist õpetab Philip Gross

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    T.S. Elioti luulepreemia laureaat Philip Gross on Tallinna Ülikooli talvekooli rahvusvahelise kursuse "Poetry: A Conversation between Words and Silence" läbiviija. Oma seminarides keskendub ta lisaks loovkirjutamisele ka loova lugemise vajadusele

  1. Gross Sales Tax Collections

    Data.gov (United States)

    City of Jackson, Mississippi — This data is captured directly from the MS Department of Revenue and specific to the City of Jackson. It is compiled from Gross Sales Tax reported by taxpayers each...

  2. Estimates of vertical turbulent mixing used to determine a vertical gradient in net and gross oxygen production in the oligotrophic South Pacific Gyre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskell, W. Z.; Prokopenko, M. G.; Stanley, R. H. R.; Knapp, A. N.

    2016-07-01

    Mixed layer (ML) gross (GOP) and net (NOP) oxygen production rates based on in situ mass balances of triple oxygen isotopes (TOI) and O2/Ar are influenced by vertical transport from below, a term traditionally difficult to constrain. Here we present a new approach to estimate vertical eddy diffusivity (Kz) based on density gradients in the upper thermocline and wind speed-based rates of turbulent shear at the ML depth. As an example, we use this Kz, verified by an independent 7Be-based estimate, in an O2/TOI budget at a site in the oligotrophic South Pacific Gyre. NOP equaled 0.31 ± 0.16 mmol m-2 d-1 in the ML (~55-65 m depth) and 1.2 ± 0.4 mmol m-2 d-1 (80%) beneath the ML, while GOP equaled 74 ± 27 mmol m-2 d-1 (86%) in the ML and 12 ± 4 mmol m-2 d-1 (14%) below, revealing a vertical gradient in production rates unquantifiable without the Kz estimate.

  3. The Impact of Alternative Trait-Scaling Hypotheses for the Maximum Photosynthetic Carboxylation Rate (V (sub cmax)) on Global Gross Primary Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Anthony P.; Quaife, Tristan; Van Bodegom, Peter M.; De Kauwe, Martin G.; Keenan, Trevor F.; Joiner, Joanna; Lomas, Mark R.; MacBean, Natasha; Xu, Chongang; Yang, Xiaojuan; hide

    2017-01-01

    The maximum photosynthetic carboxylation rate (V (sub cmax)) is an influential plant trait that has multiple scaling hypotheses, which is a source of uncertainty in predictive understanding of global gross primary production (GPP). Four trait-scaling hypotheses (plant functional type, nutrient limitation, environmental filtering, and plant plasticity) with nine specific implementations were used to predict global V(sub cmax) distributions and their impact on global GPP in the Sheffield Dynamic Global Vegetation Model (SDGVM). Global GPP varied from 108.1 to 128.2 petagrams of Carbon (PgC) per year, 65 percent of the range of a recent model intercomparison of global GPP. The variation in GPP propagated through to a 27percent coefficient of variation in net biome productivity (NBP). All hypotheses produced global GPP that was highly correlated (r equals 0.85-0.91) with three proxies of global GPP. Plant functional type-based nutrient limitation, underpinned by a core SDGVM hypothesis that plant nitrogen (N) status is inversely related to increasing costs of N acquisition with increasing soil carbon, adequately reproduced global GPP distributions. Further improvement could be achieved with accurate representation of water sensitivity and agriculture in SDGVM. Mismatch between environmental filtering (the most data-driven hypothesis) and GPP suggested that greater effort is needed understand V(sub cmax) variation in the field, particularly in northern latitudes.

  4. Analysis of light use efficiency and gross primary productivity based on remote sensing data over a phragmites-dominated wetland in Zhangye, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Guoqing; Sun, Rui; Zhang, Lei; Liu, Shaomin; Xu, Ziwei; Qiao, Chen

    2014-11-01

    Light use efficiency (LUE) is a critical parameter for estimating carbon exchange in many ecosystem models, especially those models based on remote sensing algorithms. Estimation and monitoring of LUE and gross primary productivity (GPP) over wetland is very important for the global carbon cycle research and modelling, since the wetland plays a vital role in the ecosystem balance. In this paper, carbon flux data observed with an eddy covariance tower over a reedsdominated wetland in Zhangye, northwest of China, was used to calculate LUE. Through the postprocessing of carbon flux data and estimation of ecosystem respiration, daily GPP was calculated firstly. Combining with fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (FPAR) inversed from HJ-1 satellite, LUE was determined. The maximum value of LUE was 1.03 g C·MJ-1 occurred in summer. Furthermore, a regional vegetation productivity model based on meteorological data and remote sensing data was used to estimate the wetland GPP. The results show that the modeled GPP results were consistent with in situ data.

  5. Water, Energy, and Carbon with Artificial Neural Networks (WECANN): a statistically based estimate of global surface turbulent fluxes and gross primary productivity using solar-induced fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamed Alemohammad, Seyed; Fang, Bin; Konings, Alexandra G.; Aires, Filipe; Green, Julia K.; Kolassa, Jana; Miralles, Diego; Prigent, Catherine; Gentine, Pierre

    2017-09-01

    A new global estimate of surface turbulent fluxes, latent heat flux (LE) and sensible heat flux (H), and gross primary production (GPP) is developed using a machine learning approach informed by novel remotely sensed solar-induced fluorescence (SIF) and other radiative and meteorological variables. This is the first study to jointly retrieve LE, H, and GPP using SIF observations. The approach uses an artificial neural network (ANN) with a target dataset generated from three independent data sources, weighted based on a triple collocation (TC) algorithm. The new retrieval, named Water, Energy, and Carbon with Artificial Neural Networks (WECANN), provides estimates of LE, H, and GPP from 2007 to 2015 at 1° × 1° spatial resolution and at monthly time resolution. The quality of ANN training is assessed using the target data, and the WECANN retrievals are evaluated using eddy covariance tower estimates from the FLUXNET network across various climates and conditions. When compared to eddy covariance estimates, WECANN typically outperforms other products, particularly for sensible and latent heat fluxes. Analyzing WECANN retrievals across three extreme drought and heat wave events demonstrates the capability of the retrievals to capture the extent of these events. Uncertainty estimates of the retrievals are analyzed and the interannual variability in average global and regional fluxes shows the impact of distinct climatic events - such as the 2015 El Niño - on surface turbulent fluxes and GPP.

  6. Temperature acclimation of photosynthesis has only minor effects on gross primary productivity (GPP) in an Earth System Model (ESM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goll, Daniel; Brovkin, Victor; Kattge, Jens; Zaehle, Soenke; Reick, Christian

    2013-04-01

    The productivity of terrestrial plants influences the dynamics of atmospheric CO2. It is therefore crucial to understand and quantify productivity and predict its future responses to climate change and increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Recently, Booth et al. (2012) found that the temperature dependence of photosynthesis is the most important uncertainty of the climate-carbon cycle feedback in a comprehensive ESM. Using trait data, Kattge and Knorr (2007) found that photosynthesis, in particular the acclimation of the maximum carboxylation rate (Vmax) and electron transport rate (Jmax), acclimates to prevailing temperatures. As a first attempt to address temperature acclimation of photosynthesis on global scale, we replaced the simplified exponential formulation of the temperature dependence of Vmax and Jmax in the Max Planck Institute Earth System Model (MPI-ESM) by a physiologically more plausible and justified model with short-term optimum temperature. For temperature acclimation we then implemented the acclimation descriptions by Kattge and Knorr (2007). We conducted sets of simulations on site scale driven by meteorological observations, and simulations on global scale for present day climate and for a 6 K warmer climate. The physiologically more plausible and justified model with short-term optimum temperature and temperature acclimation yields similar results as the old exponential formulation not accounting for either process. With the new model, global GPP for present day and in the warming scenario is increased by 0.7% and 0.9%, respectively. Acclimation causes a slight shift of productivity from high to low latitudes, too. A slightly larger effect on GPP has the replacement of the exponential formulation with the model with optimum temperature, resulting in a 1.2% decrease in global GPP under both climatic conditions. Acclimation thus compensates for the effects of the physiologically based temperature optimum of photosynthesis. As the effects

  7. In situ spectral measurements improve the efficiency of light use efficiency models to estimate gross primary productivity in Mediterranean cork oak woodland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerasoli, S.; Silva, J. M.; Carvalhais, N.; Correia, A.; Costa e Silva, F.; Pereira, J. S.

    2013-12-01

    The Light Use Efficiency (LUE) concept is usually applied to retrieve Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) estimates in models integrating spectral indexes, namely Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI), considered proxies of biophysical properties of vegetation. The integration of spectral measurements into LUE models can increase the robustness of GPP estimates by optimizing particular parameters of the model. NDVI and PRI are frequently obtained by broad band sensors on remote platforms at low spatial resolution (e.g. MODIS). In highly heterogeneous ecosystems such spectral information may not be representative of the dynamic response of the ecosystem to climate variables. In Mediterranean oak woodlands different plant functional types (PFT): trees canopy, shrubs and herbaceous layer, contribute to the overall Gross Primary Productivity (GPP). In situ spectral measurements can provide useful information on each PFT and its temporal variability. The objectives of this study were: i) to analyze the temporal variability of NDVI, PRI and others spectral indices for the three PFT, their response to climate variables and their relationship with biophysical properties of vegetation; ii) to optimize a LUE model integrating selected spectral indexes in which the contribution of each PFT to the overall GPP is estimated individually; iii) to compare the performance of disaggregated GPP estimates and lumped GPP estimates, evaluated against eddy covariance measurements. Ground measurements of vegetation reflectance were performed in a cork oak woodland located in Coruche, Portugal (39°8'N, 8°19'W) where carbon and water fluxes are continuously measured by eddy covariance. Between April 2011 and June 2013 reflectance measurements of the herbaceous layer, shrubs and trees canopy were acquired with a FieldSpec3 spectroradiometer (ASD Inc.) which provided data in the range of 350-2500nm. Measurements were repeated approximately on

  8. Computational fluid dynamics applications to improve crop production systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD), numerical analysis and simulation tools of fluid flow processes have emerged from the development stage and become nowadays a robust design tool. It is widely used to study various transport phenomena which involve fluid flow, heat and mass transfer, providing det...

  9. The association of fatigue, comorbidity burden, disease activity, disability and gross domestic product in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Results from 34 countries participating in the Quest-RA program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøn, Kathrine Lederballe; Ørnbjerg, Lykke Midtbøll; Hetland, Merete Lund

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim is to assess the prevalence of comorbidities and to further analyse to which degree fatigue can be explained by comorbidity burden, disease activity, disability and gross domestic product (GDP) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: Nine thousands eight hundred s...

  10. Effects of in-situ and reanalysis climate data on estimation of cropland gross primary production using the Vegetation Photosynthesis Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Cui; Xiao, Xiangming; Wagle, Pradeep; Griffis, Timothy; Dong, Jinwei; Wu, Chaoyang; Qin, Yuanwei; Cook, David R.

    2015-11-01

    Satellite-based Production Efficiency Models (PEMs) often require meteorological reanalysis data such as the North America Regional Reanalysis (NARR) by the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) as model inputs to simulate Gross Primary Production (GPP) at regional and global scales. This study first evaluated the accuracies of air temperature (TNARR) and downward shortwave radiation (RNARR) of the NARR by comparing with in-situ meteorological measurements at 37 AmeriFlux non-crop eddy flux sites, then used one PEM – the Vegetation Photosynthesis Model (VPM) to simulate 8-day mean GPP (GPPVPM) at seven AmeriFlux crop sites, and investigated the uncertainties in GPPVPM from climate inputs as compared with eddy covariance-based GPP (GPPEC). Results showed that TNARR agreed well with in-situ measurements; RNARR, however, was positively biased. An empirical linear correction was applied to RNARR, and significantly reduced the relative error of RNARR by ~25% for crop site-years. Overall, GPPVPM calculated from the in-situ (GPPVPM(EC)), original (GPPVPM(NARR)) and adjusted NARR (GPPVPM(adjNARR)) climate data tracked the seasonality of GPPEC well, albeit with different degrees of biases. GPPVPM(EC) showed a good match with GPPEC for maize (Zea mays L.), but was slightly underestimated for soybean (Glycine max L.). Replacing the in-situ climate data with the NARR resulted in a significant overestimation of GPPVPM(NARR) (18.4/29.6% for irrigated/rainfed maize and 12.7/12.5% for irrigated/rainfed soybean). GPPVPM(adjNARR) showed a good agreement with GPPVPM(EC) for both crops due to the reduction in the bias of RNARR. The results imply that the bias of RNARR introduced significant uncertainties into the PEM-based GPP estimates, suggesting that more accurate surface radiation datasets are needed to estimate primary production of terrestrial ecosystems at regional and global scales.

  11. Technical note: The effect of vertical turbulent mixing on gross O2 production assessments by the triple isotopic composition of dissolved O2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Wurgaft

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The 17O-excess (17Δ of dissolved O2 has been used, for over a decade, to estimate gross O2 production (G17OP rates in the mixed layer (ML in many regions of the ocean. This estimate relies on a steady-state balance of O2 fluxes, which include air-sea gas exchange, photosynthesis and respiration but notably, not turbulent mixing with O2 from the thermocline. In light of recent publications, which showed that neglecting the turbulent flux may lead to inaccurate G17OP estimations, we present a simple correction for the effect of turbulent flux of O2 from the thermocline on ML G17OP. The correction is based on a turbulent-flux term between the thermocline and the ML, and use the difference between the ML 17Δ and that of a single data-point below the ML base. Using a numerical model and measured data we compared turbulence-corrected G17OP rates to those calculated without it. The corrected G17OP rates were 10–90% lower than the uncorrected rates, which implies that a large fraction of the photosynthetic O2 in the ML is actually produced in the thermocline.

  12. Catchment disturbance and stream metabolism: Patterns in ecosystem respiration and gross primary production along a gradient of upland soil and vegetation disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houser, J.N.; Mulholland, P.J.; Maloney, K.O.

    2005-01-01

    Catchment characteristics determine the inputs of sediments and nutrients to streams. As a result, natural or anthropogenic disturbance of upland soil and vegetation can affect instream processes. The Fort Benning Military Installation (near Columbus, Georgia) exhibits a wide range of upland disturbance levels because of spatial variability in the intensity of military training. This gradient of disturbance was used to investigate the effect of upland soil and vegetation disturbance on rates of stream metabolism (ecosystem respiration rate [ER] and gross primary production rate [GPP]). Stream metabolism was measured using an open-system, single-station approach. All streams were net heterotrophic during all seasons. ER was highest in winter and spring and lowest in summer and autumn. ER was negatively correlated with catchment disturbance level in winter, spring, and summer, but not in autumn. ER was positively correlated with abundance of coarse woody debris, but not significantly related to % benthic organic matter. GPP was low in all streams and generally not significantly correlated with disturbance level. Our results suggest that the generally intact riparian zones of these streams were not sufficient to protect them from the effect of upland disturbance, and they emphasize the role of the entire catchment in determining stream structure and function. ?? 2005 by The North American Benthological Society.

  13. Global parameterization and validation of a two-leaf light use efficiency model for predicting gross primary production across FLUXNET sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Yanlian; Wu, Xiaocui; Ju, Weimin;

    2015-01-01

    Light use efficiency (LUE) models are widely used to simulate gross primary production (GPP). However, the treatment of the plant canopy as a big leaf by these models can introduce large uncertainties in simulated GPP. Recently, a two-leaf light use efficiency (TL-LUE) model was developed...... to simulate GPP separately for sunlit and shaded leaves and has been shown to outperform the big-leaf MOD17 model at six FLUX sites in China. In this study we investigated the performance of the TL-LUE model for a wider range of biomes. For this we optimized the parameters and tested the TL-LUE model using...... data from 98 FLUXNET sites which are distributed across the globe. The results showed that the TL-LUE model performed in general better than the MOD17 model in simulating 8 day GPP. Optimized maximum light use efficiency of shaded leaves (epsilon(msh)) was 2.63 to 4.59 times that of sunlit leaves...

  14. Monitoring and Assessing the 2012 Drought in the Great Plains: Analyzing Satellite-Retrieved Solar-Induced Chlorophyll Fluorescence, Drought Indices, and Gross Primary Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siheng Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined the relationship between satellite measurements of solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF and several meteorological drought indices, including the multi-time-scale standard precipitation index (SPI and the Palmer drought severity index (PDSI, to evaluate the potential of using SIF to monitor and assess drought. We found significant positive relationships between SIF and drought indices during the growing season (from June to September. SIF was found to be more sensitive to short-term SPIs (one or two months and less sensitive to long-term SPI (three months than were the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI or the normalized difference water index (NDWI. Significant correlations were found between SIF and PDSI during the growing season for the Great Plains. We found good consistency between SIF and flux-estimated gross primary production (GPP for the years studied, and synchronous declines of SIF and GPP in an extreme drought year (2012. We used SIF to monitor and assess the drought that occurred in the Great Plains during the summer of 2012, and found that although a meteorological drought was experienced throughout the Great Plains from June to September, the western area experienced more agricultural drought than the eastern area. Meanwhile, SIF declined more significantly than NDVI during the peak growing season. Yet for senescence, during which time the reduction of NDVI still went on, the reduction of SIF was eased. Our work provides an alternative to traditional reflectance-based vegetation or drought indices for monitoring and assessing agricultural drought.

  15. Gross primary production variability associated with meteorology, physiology, leaf area, and water supply in contrasting woodland and grassland semiarid riparian ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenerette, G. D.; Scott, R. L.; Barron-Gafford, G. A.; Huxman, T. E.

    2009-12-01

    Understanding ecosystem-atmosphere carbon exchanges in dryland environments has been more challenging than in mesic environments, likely due to more pronounced nonlinear responses of ecosystem processes to environmental variation. To better understand diurnal to interannual variation in gross primary productivity (GPP) variability, we coupled continuous eddy-covariance derived whole ecosystem gas exchange measurements with an ecophysiologic model based on fundamental principles of diffusion, mass balance, reaction kinetics, and biochemical regulation of photosynthesis. We evaluated the coupled data-model system to describe and understand the dynamics of 3 years of growing season GPP from a riparian grassland and woodland in southern Arizona. The data-model fusion procedure skillfully reproduced the majority of daily variation GPP throughout three growing seasons. While meteorology was similar between sites, the woodland site had consistently higher GPP rates and lower variability at daily and interannual timescales relative to the grassland site. We examined the causes of this variation using a new state factor model analysis that partitioned GPP variation into four factors: meteorology, physiology, leaf area, and water supply. The largest proportion of GPP variation was associated with physiological differences. The woodland showed a greater sensitivity than the grassland to water supply, while the grassland showed a greater sensitivity to leaf area. These differences are consistent with hypotheses of woody species using resistance mechanisms, stomatal regulation, and grassland species using resilience mechanisms, leaf area regulation, in avoiding water stress and have implications for future GPP sensitivity to climate variability following wood-grass transitions.

  16. PENGARUH GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT, INFLASI, SUKU BUNGA, MONEY SUPPLY, CURRENT ACCOUNT DAN CAPITAL ACCOUNT TERHADAP NILAI KURS RUPIAH INDONESIA – DOLLAR AMERIKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunika Murdayanti

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Since free-floating exchange rate system has been applied in Indonesia on August 1998, the accumulation of depreciation of rupiah against the US dollar has been about 48,7% until December 2001. This condition brings many argumentation about the reasons behind the exchange rate instability faced by Indonesia among many experts whether it is caused by economic factors or by non-economic factors. By recognizing the causes, it will be easier for the experts and government of Indonesia to formulate the solution. This research is intended to analyze the influence of economic variables, i.e. Gross Domestic Product, money supply, interest rate, inflation rate, Current Account & Capital Account in both Indonesia and The United State of America, as well as the position of the balance of international payment of Indonesia to the exchange rate movement in order to give contributions to solve the problem. Based on the result money supply becomes the only variable which has a multicollinearity and excluded from the regression linear. Also only current account is not significant influence on the exchange rate movement, instead of the other variables. Coefficient of determination of the research model is 84.4 %, means that other factors, not accommodated in this research, give 15.6 % influence to the exchange rate movement. These other factors can be categorized as other economic factors or non-economic factors.

  17. Estimation of Gross Domestic Product Using Multi-Sensor Remote Sensing Data: A Case Study in Zhejiang Province, East China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenze Yue

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available There exists a spatial mismatch between socioeconomic data, such as Gross Domestic Product (GDP, and physical and environmental datasets. This study provides a dasymetric approach for GDP estimation at a fine scale by combining the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program Operational Linescan System (DMSP/OLS nighttime imagery, enhanced vegetation index (EVI, and land cover data. Despite the advantages of DMSP/OLS nighttime imagery in estimating human activities, its drawbacks, including coarse resolution, overglow, and saturation effects, limit its application. Hence, high-resolution EVI data were integrated with DMSP/OLS in this study to create a Human Settlement Index (HSI for estimating the GDP of secondary and tertiary industries. The GDP of the primary industry was then estimated on the basis of land cover data, and the area with the GDP of the primary industry was classified by a threshold technique (DN ≤ 8. The regression model for GDP distribution estimation was implemented in Zhejiang Province in southeast China, and a GDP density map was generated at a resolution of 250 m × 250 m. Compared with the outcome of taking DMSP/OLS as a unique parameter, estimation errors obviously decreased. This study offers a low-cost and accurate approach for rapidly estimating high-resolution GDP distribution to construct an important database for the government when formulating developmental strategies.

  18. Methodological Approaches for Estimating Gross Regional Product after Taking into Account Depletion of Natural Resources, Environmental Pollution and Human Capital Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Alengordovich Korobitsyn

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A key indicator of the System of National Accounts of Russia at a regional scale is Gross Regional Product characterizing the value of goods and services produced in all sectors of the economy in a country and intended for final consumption, capital formation and net exports (excluding imports. From a sustainability perspective, the most weakness of GRP is that it ignores depreciation of man-made assets, natural resource depletion, environmental pollution and degradation, and potential social costs such as poorer health due to exposure to occupational hazards. Several types of alternative approaches to measuring socio-economic progress are considering for six administrative units of the Ural Federal District for the period 2006–2014. Proposed alternatives to GRP as a measure of social progress are focused on natural resource depletion, environmental externalities and some human development aspects. The most promising is the use of corrected macroeconomic indicators similar to the “genuine savings” compiled by the World Bank. Genuine savings are defined in this paper as net savings (net gross savings minus consumption of fixed capital minus the consumption of natural non-renewable resources and the monetary evaluations of damages resulting from air pollution, water pollution and waste disposal. Two main groups of non renewable resources are considered: energy resources (uranium ore, oil and natural gas and mineral resources (iron ore, copper, and aluminum. In spite of various shortcomings, this indicator represents a considerable improvement over GRP information. For example, while GRP demonstrates steady growth between 2006 and 2014 for the main Russian oil- and gas-producing regions — Hanty-Mansi and Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrugs, genuine savings for these regions decreased over all period. It means that their resource-based economy could not be considered as being on a sustainable path even in the framework of

  19. Gross primary production variability associated with meteorology, physiology, leaf area, and water supply in contrasting woodland and grassland semiarid riparian ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding ecosystem-atmosphere carbon exchanges in dryland environments has been more challenging than in mesic environments, likely due to more pronounced nonlinear responses of ecosystem processes to environmental variation. To better understand diurnal to interannual variation in gross primar...

  20. Major advances in fresh milk and milk products: fluid milk products and frozen desserts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, H D; Griffiths, M W

    2006-04-01

    Major technological advances in the fluid milk processing industry in the last 25 yr include significant improvements in all the unit operations of separation, standardization, pasteurization, homogenization, and packaging. Many advancements have been directed toward production capacity, automation, and hygienic operation. Extended shelf-life milks are produced by high heat treatment, sometimes coupled with microfiltration or centrifugation. Other nonthermal methods have also been investigated. Flavored milk beverages have increased in popularity, as have milk beverages packaged in single-service, closeable plastic containers. Likewise, the frozen dairy processing industry has seen the development of large-capacity, automated processing equipment for a wide range of products designed to gain market share. Significant advancements in product quality have been made, many of these arising from improved knowledge of the functional properties of ingredients and their impact on structure and texture. Incidents of foodborne disease associated with dairy products continue to occur, necessitating even greater diligence in the control of pathogen transmission. Analytical techniques for the rapid detection of specific types of microorganisms have been developed and greatly improved during this time. Despite tremendous technological advancements for processors and a greater diversity of products for consumers, per capita consumption of fluid milk has declined and consumption of frozen dairy desserts has been steady during this 25-yr period.

  1. 40 CFR 405.20 - Applicability; description of the fluid products subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS DAIRY PRODUCTS PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Fluid Products... percent fat to fat-free), flavored milk (chocolate and others) and cream (of various fat...

  2. A mechanistic description of the global COS cycle consistent with atmospheric measurements and its potential to evaluate gross primary production of vegetation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Launois, Thomas; Peylin, Philippe; Belviso, Sauveur; Bopp, Laurent; Ogée, Jérôme; Wingate, Lisa; Cuntz, Matthias

    2016-04-01

    Accurate estimates of the gross carbon fluxes - photosynthesis and respiration - are essential to predict the ecosystem carbon fluxes and stocks and their evolution in a changing climate. The gross primary productivity (GPP) in the current dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs), however, shows large differences in terms of mean values, phase and amplitude. As large scale measurements of the GPP are not possible, their estimates are usually based on indirect tracers. Carbonyl sulfide (COS) has been proposed as a tracer of GPP since COS and CO2 are dominantly taken up by plants via the same enzyme during photosynthesis. Thus leaf uptakes of COS and CO2 are often found to be proportional, with a coefficient of proportionality (LRU) that is species-dependant according to laboratory measurements. However contrarily to CO2, atmospheric records of COS over the last decades show a strong seasonal cycle but with no significant trend, which implies roughly equilibrated sources and sinks of COS at the global scale. Most recent estimates of COS uptake by plants using this LRU concept led to larger sinks over land than initially estimated. In order to maintain a closed atmospheric budget, a compensatory COS source had to be found, with the ocean being suggested as the most likely candidate. In this work, we propose a new mechanistically-based parameterization of the major sources and sinks of COS, allowing to close the global atmospheric budget. For the ocean, we used the ocean general circulation and biogeochemistry model NEMO-PISCES to assess the marine source of COS. Using the simulated organic compounds at the surface, we derived a direct source of COS through the COS photo-production as well as an indirect source through the emissions of sulfur compounds (DMS). The resulting simulated global fluxes correspond to a net source of COS of around 800 GgS yr-1, spatially and temporally consistent with the suggested missing source. For the land, we considered most anoxic soils

  3. Atmospheric COS measurements and satellite-derived vegetation fluorescence data to evaluate the terrestrial gross primary productivity of CMIP5 model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peylin, Philippe; MacBean, Natasha; Launois, Thomas; Belviso, Sauveur; Cadule, Patricia; Maignan, Fabienne

    2016-04-01

    Predicting the fate of the ecosystem carbon stocks and their sensitivity to climate change strongly relies on our ability to accurately model the gross carbon fluxes, i.e. photosynthesis and respiration. The Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) simulated by the different terrestrial models used in CMIP5 show large differences however, not only in terms of mean value but also in terms of phase and amplitude, thus hampering accurate investigations into carbon-climate feedbacks. While the net C flux of an ecosystem (NEE) can be measured in situ with the eddy covariance technique, the GPP is not directly accessible at larger scales and usually estimates are based on indirect measurements combining different tracers. Recent measurements of a new atmospheric tracer, the Carbonyl sulphide (COS), as well as the global measurement of Solar Induced Fluorescence (SIF) from satellite instruments (GOSAT, GOME2) open a new window for evaluating the GPP of earth system models. The use of COS relies on the fact that it is absorbed by the leaves in a similar manner to CO2, while there seems to be nothing equivalent to respiration for COS. Following recent work by Launois et al. (ACP, 2015), there is a potential to evaluate model GPP from atmospheric COS and CO2 measurements, using a transport model and recent parameterizations for the non-photosynthetic sinks (oxic soils, atmospheric oxidation) and biogenic sources (oceans and anoxic soils) of COS. Vegetation uptake of COS is modeled as a linear function of GPP and the ratio of COS to CO2 rate of uptake by plants. For the fluorescence, recent measurements of SIF from space appear to be highly correlated with monthly variations of data-driven GPP estimates (Guanter et al., 2012), following a strong dependence of vegetation SIF on photosynthetic activity. These global measurements thus provide new indications on the timing of canopy carbon uptake. In this work, we propose a dual approach that combines the strength of both COS and SIF

  4. Inequality in the distribution of rheumatologists in Brazil: correlation with local of medical residency, Gross Domestic Product and Human Development Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Albuquerque, Cleandro Pires

    2014-01-01

    To assess the distribution of rheumatologists in Brazil and their correlation with Medical Residency specialization offer, Gross Domestic Product (Gdp) And Municipal Human Development Index (HDI-M) of units of the federation (UFs). Query to various official databases, data summarization by techniques for descriptive statistics and cross-referenced information. For correlation analysis, we used the Spearman correlation coefficient (r). There were 1229 rheumatologists regularly registered in the country. The Northern region had only 3.6% of the total (n = 44), while the Southeast had 42.2% (n = 519). The State capitals, added to the five largest municipalities in each UF, concentrated 75.8% of these specialists (n = 931). In total, 49.9% of rheumatologists offered treatment at SUS. A general ratio of 157,809 inhabitants per rheumatologist in Brazil was determined, but with wide variation among UFs with respect to this ratio. In the years 2000-2012, there were 593 Rheumatology Residency graduated physicians in Brazil. We observed a positive correlation among number of rheumatologists compared with GDP (r = 0.94), HDI-M of the State capitals (r = 0.77) and number of Rheumatology Residency graduated physicians (r = 0.79) in UFs. We noted a strong concentration of rheumatologists in State capitals and larger municipalities, with noticeable inequalities also between UFs and country regions. The distribution of these professionals accompanied GDP, HDI-M of the State capital and number of Rheumatology Residency graduated physicians, suggesting that factors related to income opportunities and human development and the place of speciality training may influence the geographical fixation of rheumatologists.

  5. Global parameterization and validation of a two-leaf light use efficiency model for predicting gross primary production across FLUXNET sites: TL-LUE Parameterization and Validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Yanlian [Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Geographic Information Science and Technology, School of Geographic and Oceanographic Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing China; Joint Center for Global Change Studies, Beijing China; Wu, Xiaocui [International Institute for Earth System Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing China; Joint Center for Global Change Studies, Beijing China; Ju, Weimin [International Institute for Earth System Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing China; Jiangsu Center for Collaborative Innovation in Geographic Information Resource Development and Application, Nanjing China; Chen, Jing M. [International Institute for Earth System Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing China; Joint Center for Global Change Studies, Beijing China; Wang, Shaoqiang [Key Laboratory of Ecosystem Network Observation and Modeling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing China; Wang, Huimin [Key Laboratory of Ecosystem Network Observation and Modeling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing China; Yuan, Wenping [State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology, Future Earth Research Institute, Beijing Normal University, Beijing China; Andrew Black, T. [Faculty of Land and Food Systems, University of British Columbia, Vancouver British Columbia Canada; Jassal, Rachhpal [Faculty of Land and Food Systems, University of British Columbia, Vancouver British Columbia Canada; Ibrom, Andreas [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark (DTU), Kgs. Lyngby Denmark; Han, Shijie [Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang China; Yan, Junhua [South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou China; Margolis, Hank [Centre for Forest Studies, Faculty of Forestry, Geography and Geomatics, Laval University, Quebec City Quebec Canada; Roupsard, Olivier [CIRAD-Persyst, UMR Ecologie Fonctionnelle and Biogéochimie des Sols et Agroécosystèmes, SupAgro-CIRAD-INRA-IRD, Montpellier France; CATIE (Tropical Agricultural Centre for Research and Higher Education), Turrialba Costa Rica; Li, Yingnian [Northwest Institute of Plateau Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xining China; Zhao, Fenghua [Key Laboratory of Ecosystem Network Observation and Modeling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing China; Kiely, Gerard [Environmental Research Institute, Civil and Environmental Engineering Department, University College Cork, Cork Ireland; Starr, Gregory [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa Alabama USA; Pavelka, Marian [Laboratory of Plants Ecological Physiology, Institute of Systems Biology and Ecology AS CR, Prague Czech Republic; Montagnani, Leonardo [Forest Services, Autonomous Province of Bolzano, Bolzano Italy; Faculty of Sciences and Technology, Free University of Bolzano, Bolzano Italy; Wohlfahrt, Georg [Institute for Ecology, University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck Austria; European Academy of Bolzano, Bolzano Italy; D' Odorico, Petra [Grassland Sciences Group, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, ETH Zurich Switzerland; Cook, David [Atmospheric and Climate Research Program, Environmental Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne Illinois USA; Arain, M. Altaf [McMaster Centre for Climate Change and School of Geography and Earth Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton Ontario Canada; Bonal, Damien [INRA Nancy, UMR EEF, Champenoux France; Beringer, Jason [School of Earth and Environment, The University of Western Australia, Crawley Australia; Blanken, Peter D. [Department of Geography, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder Colorado USA; Loubet, Benjamin [UMR ECOSYS, INRA, AgroParisTech, Université Paris-Saclay, Thiverval-Grignon France; Leclerc, Monique Y. [Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, University of Georgia, Athens Georgia USA; Matteucci, Giorgio [Viea San Camillo Ed LellisViterbo, University of Tuscia, Viterbo Italy; Nagy, Zoltan [MTA-SZIE Plant Ecology Research Group, Szent Istvan University, Godollo Hungary; Olejnik, Janusz [Meteorology Department, Poznan University of Life Sciences, Poznan Poland; Department of Matter and Energy Fluxes, Global Change Research Center, Brno Czech Republic; Paw U, Kyaw Tha [Department of Land, Air and Water Resources, University of California, Davis California USA; Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge USA; Varlagin, Andrej [A.N. Severtsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow Russia

    2016-04-06

    Light use efficiency (LUE) models are widely used to simulate gross primary production (GPP). However, the treatment of the plant canopy as a big leaf by these models can introduce large uncertainties in simulated GPP. Recently, a two-leaf light use efficiency (TL-LUE) model was developed to simulate GPP separately for sunlit and shaded leaves and has been shown to outperform the big-leaf MOD17 model at 6 FLUX sites in China. In this study we investigated the performance of the TL-LUE model for a wider range of biomes. For this we optimized the parameters and tested the TL-LUE model using data from 98 FLUXNET sites which are distributed across the globe. The results showed that the TL-LUE model performed in general better than the MOD17 model in simulating 8-day GPP. Optimized maximum light use efficiency of shaded leaves (εmsh) was 2.63 to 4.59 times that of sunlit leaves (εmsu). Generally, the relationships of εmsh and εmsu with εmax were well described by linear equations, indicating the existence of general patterns across biomes. GPP simulated by the TL-LUE model was much less sensitive to biases in the photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) input than the MOD17 model. The results of this study suggest that the proposed TL-LUE model has the potential for simulating regional and global GPP of terrestrial ecosystems and it is more robust with regard to usual biases in input data than existing approaches which neglect the bi-modal within-canopy distribution of PAR.

  6. Assortment of Deep Mantle Fluids and Their Products in Kimberlites from China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Lei; HAO Jinhua; DING Yifei; LIU Yulong

    2004-01-01

    Based on studies of petrography, mineralogy and mineral chemistry, deep mantle fluids and their products in kimberlites and diamonds can be assorted into the ultradeep fluid-transmitted minerals with an oxygen-free feature, the deep fluid metasomatized-minerals characterized by enrichment in TiO2, K2O, BaO, REE and Fe3+, and the deep fluidreformed minerals. The three types show a successive descent in fluid origin depth and metasomatism strength, and they have brought forth a series of corresponding metasomatic products.

  7. Solid/liquid dispersions in drilling and production; Fluides charges en forage et production petroliere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peysson, Y. [Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France)

    2004-07-01

    To reach the new oil and gas fields, the oil industry is developing more and more sophisticated drilling and production schemes. Wells trajectories are now deviated, horizontal, with high extended reach, multi-branched, ultra deep offshore, etc. Extended reach wells are up to 10 km and offshore drilling is close to 3000 m of water depth. In these cases, drilling and production techniques are pushed to the limits. The operating conditions, the properties of the different materials employed must be controlled and operated in a more accurate way. This is the case for solid/liquid dispersions that are common in these operations: drilling, fluids, cements, hydrates dispersions oil and gas phases, sand venue with reservoir fluids, etc. These mixtures present some specific properties that can be at the limit between solid or liquid behaviour. For particular conditions the solid phase can create structures able to support large stresses and in others circumstances the mixture can flow like a viscous paste. Modeling of these characteristics is not easy and needs to use knowledge of different areas: Theology, physico-chemistry, hydrodynamics. thermodynamics, etc. In this revue, different systems used in the drilling and production industry will be discussed. Main properties of these systems and different development conducted by IFP will be addressed. (authors)

  8. Bio-oil production from biomass via supercritical fluid extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durak, Halil, E-mail: halildurak@yyu.edu.tr [Yuzuncu Yıl University, Vocational School of Health Services, 65080, Van (Turkey)

    2016-04-18

    Supercritical fluid extraction is used for producing bio-fuel from biomass. Supercritical fluid extraction process under supercritical conditions is the thermally disruption process of the lignocellulose or other organic materials at 250-400 °C temperature range under high pressure (4-5 MPa). Supercritical fluid extraction trials were performed in a cylindrical reactor (75 mL) in organic solvents (acetone, ethanol) under supercritical conditions with (calcium hydroxide, sodium carbonate) and without catalyst at the temperatures of 250, 275 and 300 °C. The produced liquids at 300 °C in supercritical liquefaction were analyzed and characterized by elemental, GC-MS and FT-IR. 36 and 37 different types of compounds were identified by GC-MS obtained in acetone and ethanol respectively.

  9. Bio-oil production from biomass via supercritical fluid extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durak, Halil

    2016-04-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction is used for producing bio-fuel from biomass. Supercritical fluid extraction process under supercritical conditions is the thermally disruption process of the lignocellulose or other organic materials at 250-400 °C temperature range under high pressure (4-5 MPa). Supercritical fluid extraction trials were performed in a cylindrical reactor (75 mL) in organic solvents (acetone, ethanol) under supercritical conditions with (calcium hydroxide, sodium carbonate) and without catalyst at the temperatures of 250, 275 and 300 °C. The produced liquids at 300 °C in supercritical liquefaction were analyzed and characterized by elemental, GC-MS and FT-IR. 36 and 37 different types of compounds were identified by GC-MS obtained in acetone and ethanol respectively.

  10. Algorithm developing of gross primary production from its capacity and a canopy conductance index using flux and global observing satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muramatsu, Kanako; Furumi, Shinobu; Daigo, Motomasa

    2015-10-01

    We plan to estimate gross primary production (GPP) using the SGLI sensor on-board the GCOM-C1 satellite after it is launched in 2017 by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, as we have developed a GPP estimation algorithm that uses SGLI sensor data. The characteristics of this GPP estimation method correspond to photosynthesis. The rate of plant photosynthesis depends on the plant's photosynthesis capacity and the degree to which photosynthesis is suppressed. The photosynthesis capacity depends on the chlorophyll content of leaves, which is a plant physiological parameter, and the degree of suppression of photosynthesis depends on weather conditions. The framework of the estimation method to determine the light-response curve parameters was developed using ux and satellite data in a previous study[1]. We estimated one of the light-response curve parameters based on the linear relationship between GPP capacity at 2000 (μmolm-2s-1) of photosynthetically active radiation and a chlorophyll index (CIgreen [2;3] ). The relationship was determined for seven plant functional types. Decreases in the photosynthetic rate are controlled by stomatal opening and closing. Leaf stomatal conductance is maximal during the morning and decreases in the afternoon. We focused on daily changes in leaf stomatal conductance. We used open shrub flux data and MODIS reflectance data to develop an algorithm for a canopy. We first evaluated the daily changes in GPP capacity estimated from CIgreen and photosynthesis active radiation using light response curves, and GPP observed during a flux experiment. Next, we estimated the canopy conductance using flux data and a big-leaf model using the Penman-Monteith equation[4]. We estimated GPP by multiplying GPP capacity by the normalized canopy conductance at 10:30, the time of satellite observations. The results showed that the estimated daily change in GPP was almost the same as the observed GPP. From this result, we defined a normalized canopy

  11. The relationship between Gross Primary Productivity and Sun-Induced Fluorescence in a nutrient manipulated Mediterranean grassland is controlled primarily by canopy structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliavacca, Mirco

    2017-04-01

    Recent studies have shown how human induced N/P imbalances affect essential ecosystem processes, and might be particularly important in water-limited ecosystems. Hyperspectral information can be used to directly infer nutrient-induces variation in structural and functional changes of vegetation under different nutrient availability. Among those, sun-induced fluorescence in the far-red region provides a new non-invasive measurement approach that has the potential to quantify dynamic changes in light-use efficiency and photosynthetic carbon dioxide uptake (Gross Primary Production, GPP). However, the mechanistic link between GPP and sun-induced fluorescence under different environmental conditions is not completely understood. In this contribution we investigated the structural and functional factors controlling the emission of SIF at 760 nm in a Mediterranean grassland with different levels of nutrient availability (Nitrogen (N), Phosphorous (P), and Nitrogen and Phosphorous (NP)). We showed how nutrient-induced changes in canopy structure (i.e. changes in plant forms abundance that influence leaf inclination distribution function, LIDF) and functional traits (e.g. nitrogen content per dry mass of leaves, N%, Chlorophyll ab concentration - Cab, and maximum carboxylation capacity, Vcmax) affected the observed relationship between SIF and GPP. Simultaneous measurements of canopy scale GPP and SIF were conducted with transparent transient-state canopy chambers and narrow-band spectrometers, respectively. To disentangle the main drivers of the GPP-SIF relationship we performed a factorial modeling exercise with the Soil-Canopy Observation of Photosynthesis and Energy (SCOPE) model. We conclude that the addition of nutrients imposed a change in the abundance of different plant forms and biochemistry of the canopy. This lead to changes in canopy structure (leaf area index, leaf inclinaton distribution function LIDF parameters) and functional traits (N%, P%, Cab and Vcmax

  12. Gross primary production responses to warming, elevated CO2 , and irrigation: quantifying the drivers of ecosystem physiology in a semiarid grassland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Edmund M; Ogle, Kiona; Peltier, Drew; Walker, Anthony P; De Kauwe, Martin G; Medlyn, Belinda E; Williams, David G; Parton, William; Asao, Shinichi; Guenet, Bertrand; Harper, Anna B; Lu, Xingjie; Luus, Kristina A; Zaehle, Sönke; Shu, Shijie; Werner, Christian; Xia, Jianyang; Pendall, Elise

    2017-08-01

    Determining whether the terrestrial biosphere will be a source or sink of carbon (C) under a future climate of elevated CO2 (eCO2 ) and warming requires accurate quantification of gross primary production (GPP), the largest flux of C in the global C cycle. We evaluated 6 years (2007-2012) of flux-derived GPP data from the Prairie Heating and CO2 Enrichment (PHACE) experiment, situated in a grassland in Wyoming, USA. The GPP data were used to calibrate a light response model whose basic formulation has been successfully used in a variety of ecosystems. The model was extended by modeling maximum photosynthetic rate (Amax ) and light-use efficiency (Q) as functions of soil water, air temperature, vapor pressure deficit, vegetation greenness, and nitrogen at current and antecedent (past) timescales. The model fits the observed GPP well (R(2)  = 0.79), which was confirmed by other model performance checks that compared different variants of the model (e.g. with and without antecedent effects). Stimulation of cumulative 6-year GPP by warming (29%, P = 0.02) and eCO2 (26%, P = 0.07) was primarily driven by enhanced C uptake during spring (129%, P = 0.001) and fall (124%, P = 0.001), respectively, which was consistent across years. Antecedent air temperature (Tairant ) and vapor pressure deficit (VPDant ) effects on Amax (over the past 3-4 days and 1-3 days, respectively) were the most significant predictors of temporal variability in GPP among most treatments. The importance of VPDant suggests that atmospheric drought is important for predicting GPP under current and future climate; we highlight the need for experimental studies to identify the mechanisms underlying such antecedent effects. Finally, posterior estimates of cumulative GPP under control and eCO2 treatments were tested as a benchmark against 12 terrestrial biosphere models (TBMs). The narrow uncertainties of these data-driven GPP estimates suggest that they could be useful semi-independent data

  13. Constraining gross primary production and ecosystem respiration estimates for North America using atmospheric observations of carbonyl sulfide (OCS) and CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, W.; Ju, W.; Chen, H.; Peters, W.; van der Velde, I.; Baker, I. T.; Andrews, A. E.; Zhang, Y.; Launois, T.; Campbell, J. E.; Suntharalingam, P.; Montzka, S. A.

    2016-12-01

    Carbonyl sulfide (OCS) is a promising novel atmospheric tracer for studying carbon cycle processes. OCS shares a similar pathway as CO2 during photosynthesis but not released through a respiration-like process, thus could be used to partition Gross Primary Production (GPP) from Net Ecosystem-atmosphere CO2 Exchange (NEE). This study uses joint atmospheric observations of OCS and CO2 to constrain GPP and ecosystem respiration (Re). Flask data from tower and aircraft sites over North America are collected. We employ our recently developed CarbonTracker (CT)-Lagrange carbon assimilation system, which is based on the CT framework and the Weather Research and Forecasting - Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport (WRF-STILT) model, and the Simple Biosphere model with simulated OCS (SiB3-OCS) that provides prior GPP, Re and plant uptake fluxes of OCS. Derived plant OCS fluxes from both process model and GPP-scaled model are tested in our inversion. To investigate the ability of OCS to constrain GPP and understand the uncertainty propagated from OCS modeling errors to constrained fluxes in a dual-tracer system including OCS and CO2, two inversion schemes are implemented and compared: (1) a two-step scheme, which firstly optimizes GPP using OCS observations, and then simultaneously optimizes GPP and Re using CO2 observations with OCS-constrained GPP in the first step as prior; (2) a joint scheme, which simultaneously optimizes GPP and Re using OCS and CO2 observations. We will evaluate the result using an estimated GPP from space-borne solar-induced fluorescence observations and a data-driven GPP upscaled from FLUXNET data with a statistical model (Jung et al., 2011). Preliminary result for the year 2010 shows the joint inversion makes simulated mole fractions more consistent with observations for both OCS and CO2. However, the uncertainty of OCS simulation is larger than that of CO2. The two-step and joint schemes perform similarly in improving the consistence with

  14. Observing and modeling dynamics in terrestrial gross primary productivity and phenology from remote sensing: An assessment using in-situ measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Manish K.

    Terrestrial gross primary productivity (GPP) is the largest and most variable component of the carbon cycle and is strongly influenced by phenology. Realistic characterization of spatio-temporal variation in GPP and phenology is therefore crucial for understanding dynamics in the global carbon cycle. In the last two decades, remote sensing has become a widely-used tool for this purpose. However, no study has comprehensively examined how well remote sensing models capture spatiotemporal patterns in GPP, and validation of remote sensing-based phenology models is limited. Using in-situ data from 144 eddy covariance towers located in all major biomes, I assessed the ability of 10 remote sensing-based methods to capture spatio-temporal variation in GPP at annual and seasonal scales. The models are based on different hypotheses regarding ecophysiological controls on GPP and span a range of structural and computational complexity. The results lead to four main conclusions: (i) at annual time scale, models were more successful capturing spatial variability than temporal variability; (ii) at seasonal scale, models were more successful in capturing average seasonal variability than interannual variability; (iii) simpler models performed as well or better than complex models; and (iv) models that were best at explaining seasonal variability in GPP were different from those that were best able to explain variability in annual scale GPP. Seasonal phenology of vegetation follows bounded growth and decay, and is widely modeled using growth functions. However, the specific form of the growth function affects how phenological dynamics are represented in ecosystem and remote sensing-base models. To examine this, four different growth functions (the logistic, Gompertz, Mirror-Gompertz and Richards function) were assessed using remotely sensed and in-situ data collected at several deciduous forest sites. All of the growth functions provided good statistical representation of in

  15. Sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence and photochemical reflectance index improve remote-sensing gross primary production estimates under varying nutrient availability in a typical Mediterranean savanna ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Priego, O.; Guan, J.; Rossini, M.; Fava, F.; Wutzler, T.; Moreno, G.; Carvalhais, N.; Carrara, A.; Kolle, O.; Julitta, T.; Schrumpf, M.; Reichstein, M.; Migliavacca, M.

    2015-11-01

    This study investigates the performances of different optical indices to estimate gross primary production (GPP) of herbaceous stratum in a Mediterranean savanna with different nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) availability. Sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence yield computed at 760 nm (Fy760), scaled photochemical reflectance index (sPRI), MERIS terrestrial-chlorophyll index (MTCI) and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) were computed from near-surface field spectroscopy measurements collected using high spectral resolution spectrometers covering the visible near-infrared regions. GPP was measured using canopy chambers on the same locations sampled by the spectrometers. We tested whether light-use efficiency (LUE) models driven by remote-sensing quantities (RSMs) can better track changes in GPP caused by nutrient supplies compared to those driven exclusively by meteorological data (MM). Particularly, we compared the performances of different RSM formulations - relying on the use of Fy760 or sPRI as a proxy for LUE and NDVI or MTCI as a fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (fAPAR) - with those of classical MM. Results showed higher GPP in the N-fertilized experimental plots during the growing period. These differences in GPP disappeared in the drying period when senescence effects masked out potential differences due to plant N content. Consequently, although MTCI was closely related to the mean of plant N content across treatments (r2 = 0.86, p < 0.01), it was poorly related to GPP (r2 = 0.45, p < 0.05). On the contrary sPRI and Fy760 correlated well with GPP during the whole measurement period. Results revealed that the relationship between GPP and Fy760 is not unique across treatments, but it is affected by N availability. Results from a cross-validation analysis showed that MM (AICcv = 127, MEcv = 0.879) outperformed RSM (AICcv =140, MEcv = 0.8737) when soil moisture was used to constrain the seasonal dynamic of LUE. However

  16. An Assessment of Productive Computational Fluid Dynamics for Aerodynamic Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    PANAIR [7]) to marching techniques (like ZEUS [8] and parabolized Navier-S tokes codes) and full-field, elliptical, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD...undeflected case), but individual representations were required to create each deflection angle for the bent nose configuration. Figure 1. Three

  17. SUPERCRITICAL FLUID TECHNOLOGY: NASCENT CONTRIVANCE FOR PHARMACEUTICAL PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.S. Wakure*, A.V. Yadav , N.M. Bhatia and M.A. Salunke

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A supercritical fluid (SF can be defined as a dense non condensable fluid. A fluid reaches the supercritical status when its temperature and pressure exceed the relevant critical temperature and pressure. At the critical point only a single phase exists which has some properties typical of liquids (density and some of gases (viscosity, compressibility, and mass diffusion coefficient. For pharmaceutical applications, the most widely used SF is carbon dioxide (more than 98% of the applications have been developed using this fluid because of its low and easily accessible critical temperature (31.2◦C and pressure (7.4MPa, non-flammability, non-toxicity and inexpensiveness. The physical and thermal properties of SCFs fall between those of the pure liquid and gas. SCFs offer liquid-like densities, gas-like viscosities, gas-like compressibility properties and higher diffusivities than liquids. The properties of SCFs, such as polarity, viscosity, and diffusivity, can be altered several-fold by varying the operating temperature and/or pressure during the process. This flexibility is enabling the use of SCFs for various applications in the food and pharmaceutical industries, with the drug delivery system design being a more recent addition.

  18. Critical fluid technology for the processing of lipid-related natural products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, J.W. [Los Alamos National Lab., Supercritical Fluid Facility, Chemistry Div. NM (United States)

    2004-07-01

    In recent years, the technology envelope that embraces critical fluids can involve a wide range of conditions, different types of pure and modified fluids, as well as processing options involving extractions, fractionations or reactions. Technological development drivers continue to be environmentally and consumer-benign processing and/or products, however in recent years expansion of the use of sub- and supercritical fluids has been catalyzed by applications in such opportune fields as nutraceuticals, conversion of biomass (bio-refining), and the ability to modify natural products by reactions. The use of critical fluid technology is an important facet of any sustainable development program, particularly when utilized over a broad, interconnected application platform. In this overview presentation, concepts and applications of critical fluids from the author's research as well as the literature will be cited to support the above trends. A totally 'green' processing platform appears to be viable using carbon dioxide in the appropriate form, ethanol and water as intermediate co-solvents/reactants, and water from above its boiling point to supercritical conditions. These fluids can be combined in overall coupled unit processes, such as combining trans-esterification with hydrogenation, or glycero-lysis of lipid moieties with supercritical fluid fractionation. Such fluids also can exploited sequentially for bio-refining processes or the segregation of value-added products, but may require using coupled fluid or unit operations to obtain the targeted product composition or purity. Changing the reduced temperatures and/or pressures of critical fluids offers a plethora of opportunity, an excellent example being the relative critical fluid state of water. For example, sub-critical water slightly above its boiling point provides a unique medium that mimics polar organic solvents, and has been used even for the extraction of thermally labile solutes or

  19. Continuity and internal properties of Gulf Coast sandstones and their implications for geopressured fluid production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morton, R.A.; Ewing, T.E.; Tyler, N.

    1983-01-01

    The intrinsic properties of the genetic sandstone units that typify many geopressured geothermal aquifers and hydrocarbon reservoirs in the Gulf Coast region were systematically investigated classified, and differentiated. The following topics are coverd: structural and stratigraphic limits of sandstone reservoirs, characteristics and dimensions of Gulf Coast sandstones; fault-compartment areas; comparison of production and geologic estimates of aquifer fluid volume; geologic setting and reservoir characteristics, Wells of Opportunity; internal properties of sandstones; and implications for geopressured fluid production. (MHR)

  20. Aquaporin deletion in mice reduces intraocular pressure and aqueous fluid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Duo; Vetrivel, L; Verkman, A S

    2002-06-01

    Aquaporin (AQP) water channels are expressed in the eye at sites of aqueous fluid production and outflow: AQP1 and AQP4 in nonpigmented ciliary epithelium, and AQP1 in trabecular meshwork endothelium. Novel methods were developed to compare aqueous fluid dynamics in wild-type mice versus mice lacking AQP1 and/or AQP4. Aqueous fluid production was measured by in vivo confocal microscopy after transcorneal iontophoretic introduction of fluorescein. Intraocular pressure (IOP), outflow, and anterior chamber compliance were determined from pressure measurements in response to fluid infusions using micropipettes. Aqueous fluid volume and [Cl(-)] were assayed in samples withdrawn by micropipettes. In wild-type mice (CD1 genetic background, age 4-6 wk), IOP was 16.0 +/- 0.4 mmHg (SE), aqueous fluid volume 7.2 +/- 0.3 microl, fluid production 3.6 +/- 0.2 microl/h, fluid outflow 0.36 +/- 0.06 microl/h/mmHg, and compliance 0.036 +/- 0.006 microl/mmHg. IOP was significantly decreased by up to 1.8 mmHg (P fluid production by up to 0.9 microl/h in age/litter-matched mice lacking AQP1 and/or AQP4 (outbred CD1 and inbred C57/bl6 genetic backgrounds). However, AQP deletion did not significantly affect outflow, [Cl(-)], volume, or compliance. These results provide evidence for the involvement of AQPs in intraocular pressure regulation by facilitating aqueous fluid secretion across the ciliary epithelium. AQP inhibition may thus provide a novel approach for the treatment of elevated IOP.

  1. Gross decontamination experiment report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, R.; Kinney, K.; Dettorre, J.; Gilbert, V.

    1983-07-01

    A Gross Decontamination Experiment was conducted on various levels and surfaces of the TMI - Unit 2 reactor building in March 1982. The polar crane, D-rings, missile shields, refueling canals, refueling bridges, equipment, and elevations 305' and 347'-6'' were flushed with low pressure water. Additionally, floor surfaces on elevation 305' and floor surfaces and major pieces of equipment on elevation 347'-6'' were sprayed with high pressure water. Selective surfaces were decontaminated with a mechanical scrubber and chemicals. Strippable coating was tested and evaluated on equipment and floor surfaces. The effectiveness, efficiency, and safety of several decontamination techniques were established for the large, complex decontamination effort. Various decontamination equipment was evaluated and its effectiveness was documented. Decontamination training and procedures were documented and evaluated, as were the support system and organization for the experiment.

  2. Increasing Biogas Production Rate from Cattle Manure Using Rumen Fluid as Inoculums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budiyono Budiyono

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 In this study, rumen fluid of animal ruminant was used as inoculums to increase biogas production rate from cattle manure at mesophilic condition. A series of laboratory experiments using 400 ml biodigester were performed in batch operation mode. Given 100 grams of fresh cattle manure (M was fed to each biodigester and mixed with rumen fluid (R and tap water (W in several ratio resulting six different M:W:R ratio contents i.e. 1:1:0; 1:0.75:0.25; 1:0.5:0.5; 1:0.25:0.75; and 1:0:1 (correspond to 0; 12.5; 25, 37.5; 50, and 100 % rumen, respectively and six different total solid (TS contents i.e. 2.6, 4.6, 6.2, 7.4, 9.2, 12.3, and 18.4 %. The operating temperatures were at room temperature. The results showed that the rumen fluid inoculated to biodigester significantly effected the biogas production. Rumen fluid inoculums caused biogas production rate and efficiency increase more than two times in compare to manure substrate without rumen fluid inoculums. The best performance for biogas production was the digester with rumen fluid and TS content in the range of 25-50 % and 7.4 and 9.2 %, respectively. These results suggest that, based on TS content effects to biogas yield, rumen fluid inoculums exhibit the similar effect with other inoculums. Increasing rumen content will also increase biogas production. Due to the optimum total solid (TS content for biogas production between 7-9 % (or correspond to more and less manure and total liquid 1:1, the rumen fluid content of 50 % will give the best performance for biogas production. The future work will be carried out to study the dynamics of biogas production if both the rumen fluid inoculums and manure are fed in the continuous system Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Doi: 10.12777/ijse.6.1.31-38 [How to cite this article: Budiyono, Widiasa, I.N., Johari, S. and Sunarso. (2014. Increasing Biogas

  3. Idiopathic cerebrospinal fluid overproduction: case-based review of the pathophysiological mechanism implied in the cerebrospinal fluid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisi, Gianluca; Frassanito, Paolo; Di Rocco, Concezio

    2014-08-28

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) overproduction results from either CSF infection or choroid plexus hypertrophy or tumor, with only a single idiopathic case described so far. We report a unique case of a male infant with Crouzon syndrome who presented with intracranial hypertension, caused by up to 4-fold increase in CSF daily production. Conditions related to CSF overproduction, namely central nervous system infections and choroid plexus hypertrophy or tumor, were ruled out by repeated magnetic resonance imaging and CSF samples. Medical therapy failed to reduce CSF production and the patient underwent several shunting procedures, cranial expansion, and endoscopic coagulation of the choroid plexus. This article thoroughly reviews pertinent literature on CSF production mechanisms and possible therapeutic implications.

  4. Role of Fluid Pressure in the Production Behavior of EnhancedGeothermal Systems with CO2 as Working Fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruess, Karsten

    2007-04-13

    Numerical simulation is used to evaluate mass flow and heatextraction rates from enhanced geothermal injection-production systemsthat are operated using either CO2 or water as heat transmission fluid.For a model system patterned after the European hot dry rock experimentat Soultz, we find significantly greater heat extraction rates for CO2 ascompared to water. The strong dependence of CO2 mobility (=density/viscosity) upon temperature and pressure may lead to unusualproduction behavior, where heat extraction rates can actually increasefor a time, even as the reservoir is subject to thermaldepletion.

  5. Leveraging Understanding of Flow of Variable Complex Fluid to Design Better Absorbent Hygiene Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krautkramer, C.; Rend, R. R.

    2014-12-01

    Menstrual flow, which is a result of shedding of uterus endometrium, occurs periodically in sync with a women's hormonal cycle. Management of this flow while allowing women to pursue their normal daily lives is the purpose of many commercial products. Some of these products, e.g. feminine hygiene pads and tampons, utilize porous materials in achieving their goal. In this paper we will demonstrate different phenomena that have been observed in flow of menstrual fluid through these porous materials, share some of the advances made in experimental and analytical study of these phenomena, and also present some of the unsolved challenges and difficulties encountered while studying this kind of flow. Menstrual fluid is generally composed of four main components: blood plasma, blood cells, cervical mucus, and tissue debris. This non-homogeneous, multiphase fluid displays very complex rheological behavior, e. g., yield stress, thixotropy, and visco-elasticity, that varies throughout and between menstrual cycles and among women due to various factors. Flow rates are also highly variable during menstruation and across the population and the rheological properties of the fluid change during the flow into and through the product. In addition to these phenomena, changes to the structure of the porous medium within the product can also be seen due to fouling and/or swelling of the material. This paper will, also, share how the fluid components impact the flow and the consequences for computer simulation, the creation of a simulant fluid and testing methods, and for designing products that best meet consumer needs. We hope to bring to light the challenges of managing this complex flow to meet a basic need of women all over the world. An opportunity exists to apply learnings from research in other disciplines to improve the scientific knowledge related to the flow of this complex fluid through the porous medium that is a sanitary product.

  6. Development of new critical fluid-based processing methods for nutraceuticals and natural products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, J. W. (Jerry W.)

    2004-01-01

    The development of new supercritical fluid processing technology as applied to nutraceuticals and natural products is no longer confined to using just supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO{sub 2}). Recently reported advances have been focused on modifying natural products and improving functionality of an end product using newer experimental techniques and fluid phases. In this presentation four focus areas will be emphasized: (1) control of particle size/morphology and encapsulation of the nutraceutical ingredients, (2) the use of combinatorial methodology to optimize critical fluid processing, (3) application of sub-critical water as a complementary medium for processing natural products, and (4) an assessment of the current state of products and processing which use critical fluid to produce nutraceutical and natural products for the food and cosmetic marketplace. Application of the various particle fomiation processes conducted in the presence of critical fluid media, such as: CPF, SAS, DELOS, RESS, PGSS, and GAS, can be used to produce particles of small and uniform distribution, having unique morphologies, that facilitate rapid dissolution or sustained release of many nutraceutical ingredients. These substances have included: therapeutic spices, phystosterols, vitamins, phospholpids, and carotenoids. Accelerating the development of critical fluid processing has been the application of combinatorial methodology to optimize extraction, fractionation, and/or reactions in near-, SC-, or subcritical fluid media. This is frequently accomplished by using sequential or multichannel automated instrumentation that was originally designed for analytical purposes. Several examples will be provided of rapidly assessing the extraction of anthocyanins with sub-critical water and the SFE of natural products. However, differences do exist in conducting experiments on the above instrumentation vs. scaled-up continuous processes, which

  7. Regulation of cerebrospinal fluid production by caffeine consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Sik

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Caffeine is the most commonly consumed psycho-stimulant in the world. The effects of caffeine on the body have been extensively studied; however, its effect on the structure of the brain has not been investigated to date. Results In the present study we found that the long-term consumption of caffeine can induce ventriculomegaly; this was observed in 40% of the study rats. In the caffeine-treated rats with ventriculomegaly, there was increased production of CSF, associated with the increased expression of Na+, K+-ATPase and increased cerebral blood flow (CBF. In contrast to the chronic effects, acute treatment with caffeine decreased the production of CSF, suggesting 'effect inversion' associated with caffeine, which was mediated by increased expression of the A1 adenosine receptor, in the choroid plexus of rats chronically treated with caffeine. The involvement of the A1 adenosine receptor in the effect inversion of caffeine was further supported by the induction of ventriculomegaly and Na+, K+-ATPase, in A1 agonist-treated rats. Conclusion The results of this study show that long-term consumption of caffeine can induce ventriculomegaly, which is mediated in part by increased production of CSF. Moreover, we also showed that adenosine receptor signaling can regulate the production of CSF by controlling the expression of Na+, K+-ATPase and CBF.

  8. Production of Mesophase Pitch from Coal Tar and Petroleum Pitches using Supercritical Fluid Extraction

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZEL, Mustafa Z.

    2002-01-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) is currently being investigated as a possible technique in the production of high quality mesophase pitch from coal tar and petroleum pitches. Mesophase pitch is used to make high technology products, such as carbon fibre. The conventional production of mesophase pitch initially involves the removal of low molecular weight species from coal tar and petroleum pitches. The remaining residue is then transformed into a mesophase pitch through a polym...

  9. Inhibition of oncostatin M in osteoarthritic synovial fluid enhances GAG production in osteoarthritic cartilage repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Beekhuizen

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Mediators in the synovial fluid are thought to play a major role in osteoarthritic cartilage turnover. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the role of oncostatin M (OSM in osteoarthritis (OA by evaluating the presence of the cytokine and its receptors in the OA joint and interfering with its activity in synovial fluid co-cultured with cartilage explants. OSM levels were increased in the synovial fluid of osteoarthritic patients compared to healthy donors. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the presence of both the leukaemia inhibitory factor (LIF and OSM receptors for OSM throughout the whole depth of osteoarthritic cartilage and synovial tissue, whereas in healthy cartilage their presence seemed more restricted to the superficial zone. Blocking OSM activity, using an activity inhibiting antibody, in 25 % osteoarthritic synovial fluid added to OA cartilage explant cultures increased glycosaminoglycan (GAG content from 18.6 mg/g to 24.3 mg/g (P < 0.03 and total production from 7.0 mg/g to 11.9 mg/g (P < 0.003. However, OSM exogenously added to cartilage explant cultures reflecting low and high concentrations in the synovial fluid (5 and 50 pg/mL did not affect cartilage matrix turnover, suggesting that factors present in the synovial fluid act in concert with OSM to inhibit GAG production. The current study indicates the potential to enhance cartilage repair in osteoarthritis by modulating the joint environment by interfering with OSM activity.

  10. Formation Sequences of Iron Minerals in the Acidic Alteration Products and Variation of Hydrothermal Fluid Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isobe, H.; Yoshizawa, M.

    2008-12-01

    Iron minerals have important role in environmental issues not only on the Earth but also other terrestrial planets. Iron mineral species related to alteration products of primary minerals with surface or subsurface fluids are characterized by temperature, acidity and redox conditions of the fluids. We can see various iron- bearing alteration products in alteration products around fumaroles in geothermal/volcanic areas. In this study, zonal structures of iron minerals in alteration products of the geothermal area are observed to elucidate temporal and spatial variation of hydrothermal fluids. Alteration of the pyroxene-amphibole andesite of Garan-dake volcano, Oita, Japan occurs by the acidic hydrothermal fluid to form cristobalite leaching out elements other than Si. Hand specimens with unaltered or weakly altered core and cristobalite crust show various sequences of layers. XRD analysis revealed that the alteration degree is represented by abundance of cristobalite. Intermediately altered layers are characterized by occurrence including alunite, pyrite, kaolinite, goethite and hematite. A specimen with reddish brown core surrounded by cristobalite-rich white crust has brown colored layers at the boundary of core and the crust. Reddish core is characterized by occurrence of crystalline hematite by XRD. Another hand specimen has light gray core, which represents reduced conditions, and white cristobalite crust with light brown and reddish brown layers of ferric iron minerals between the core and the crust. On the other hand, hornblende crystals, typical ferrous iron-bearing mineral of the host rock, are well preserved in some samples with strongly decolorized cristobalite-rich groundmass. Hydrothermal alteration experiments of iron-rich basaltic material shows iron mineral species depend on acidity and temperature of the fluid. Oxidation states of the iron-bearing mineral species are strongly influenced by the acidity and redox conditions. Variations of alteration

  11. Lignin depolymerisation in supercritical carbon dioxide/acetone/water fluid for the production of aromatic chemicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gosselink, R.J.A.; Teunissen, W.; Dam, van J.E.G.; Jong, de E.; Gellerstedt, G.; Scott, E.L.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2012-01-01

    Valorisation of lignin plays a key role in further development of lignocellulosic biorefinery processes the production of biofuels and bio-based materials. In the present study, organosolv hardwood and wheat straw lignins were converted in a supercritical fluid consisting of carbon dioxide/acetone/w

  12. Cerebrospinal fluid flow and production in patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus studied by MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gideon, P; Ståhlberg, F; Thomsen, C

    1994-01-01

    An interleaved velocity-sensitised fast low-angle shot pulse sequence was used to study cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow in the cerebral aqueduct, and supratentorial CSF production in 9 patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) and 9 healthy volunteers. The peak aqueduct CSF flow, both caudal...

  13. Gross job flows and firms

    OpenAIRE

    Scott Schuh; Robert K. Triest

    1999-01-01

    This paper extends the work of Dunne, Roberts, and Samuelson [3] and Davis, Haltiwanger, and Schuh [2] on gross job flows among manufacturing plants. Gross job creation, destruction, and reallocation have been shown to be important in understanding the birth, growth, and death of plants, and the relation of plant life cycles to the business cycle. However, little is known about job flows between firms or how job flows among plants occur within firms (corporate restructuring). We use informati...

  14. Selection and properties of alternative forming fluids for TRISO fuel kernel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, M.P. [Colorado School of Mines, 1500 Illinois St., Golden, CO 80401 (United States); King, J.C., E-mail: kingjc@mines.edu [Colorado School of Mines, 1500 Illinois St., Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Gorman, B.P. [Colorado School of Mines, 1500 Illinois St., Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Marshall, D.W. [Idaho National Laboratory, 2525 N. Fremont Avenue, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Forming fluid selection criteria developed for TRISO kernel production. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ten candidates selected for further study. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Density, viscosity, and surface tension measured for first time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Settling velocity and heat transfer rates calculated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Three fluids recommended for kernel production testing. - Abstract: Current Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) designs incorporate TRi-structural ISOtropic (TRISO) fuel, which consists of a spherical fissile fuel kernel surrounded by layers of pyrolytic carbon and silicon carbide. An internal sol-gel process forms the fuel kernel using wet chemistry to produce uranium oxyhydroxide gel spheres by dropping a cold precursor solution into a hot column of trichloroethylene (TCE). Over time, gelation byproducts inhibit complete gelation, and the TCE must be purified or discarded. The resulting TCE waste stream contains both radioactive and hazardous materials and is thus considered a mixed hazardous waste. Changing the forming fluid to a non-hazardous alternative could greatly improve the economics of TRISO fuel kernel production. Selection criteria for a replacement forming fluid narrowed a list of {approx}10,800 chemicals to yield ten potential replacement forming fluids: 1-bromododecane, 1-bromotetradecane, 1-bromoundecane, 1-chlorooctadecane, 1-chlorotetradecane, 1-iododecane, 1-iodododecane, 1-iodohexadecane, 1-iodooctadecane, and squalane. The density, viscosity, and surface tension for each potential replacement forming fluid were measured as a function of temperature between 25 Degree-Sign C and 80 Degree-Sign C. Calculated settling velocities and heat transfer rates give an overall column height approximation. 1-bromotetradecane, 1-chlorooctadecane, and 1-iodododecane show the greatest promise as replacements, and future tests will verify their ability to form satisfactory

  15. Monitoring of magnetic EOR fluids in reservoir under production by using the electromagnetic method

    Science.gov (United States)

    KIM, S.; Min, D. J.; Moon, S.; Kim, W. K.; Shin, Y.

    2014-12-01

    To increase the amount of oil and gas extracted during production, some techniques like EOR (Enhanced Oil Recovery) are applied by injecting some materials such as water and CO2. Recently, there are some researches for injecting magnetic nanoparticles with fluids during EOR. The size of particle is nano-scale, which can prevent particles from adhering to the pores of reservoir. The main purpose of injecting magnetic nanoparticles is to monitor movement or distribution of EOR fluids. To monitor the injected magnetic EOR fluids in the reservoir, CSEM (controlled source electromagnetic method) can be the most optimized geophysical method among various geophysical monitoring methods. Depending on the reservoir circumstances, we can control the electric or magnetic sources to monitor reservoir during oil or gas production. In this study, we perform numerical simulation of CSEM for 3D horizontal-layered models assuming a reservoir under production. We suppose that there are two wells: one is for the controlled source; the other is for the receiver. By changing the distribution, movement and magnetization of EOR fluids, we compare the electric or magnetic fields recorded at the receiver. Maxwell's equations are the governing equation of CSEM and are approximated by using the edge-based finite-element method. Direct solver is applied to solve the linear equations. Because injected magnetic nanoparticle changes the conductivity of EOR fluid, there is high contrast of conductivity of reservoir. This high contrast of conductivity induces secondary electric or magnetic fields that are recorded at the receiver well. We compare these recorded secondary fields generated by various movement or distribution of magnetic EOR fluid. Acknowledgements This work was supported by the "Development of Technology for CO2 Marine Geological Storage" grant funded by the Ministry of Oceans and Fisheries of Korea, by the "Civil Military Technology Cooperation Center", and by the International

  16. Cross-linked Polyelectrolyte and Its Function in Adsorption of Fluid and Excess Nitrogen Waste Products: an Experimental Study on Dialysate Effluent Fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayebi Khosroshahi, Hamid; Abedi, Behzad; Daneshvar, Sabalan; Alizadeh, Effat; Khalilzadeh, Mohammadreza; Abedi, Yaghoub

    2017-07-01

    One of the most important issues in patients with chronic kidney disease is fluid retention and volume overload accompanied by retention of nitrogenous waste products and some electrolytes. Bowel fluid contains high levels of urea, creatinine, uric acid, and electrolytes, which make it a potential candidate for intestinal excretion of nitrogen wastes and electrolytes. Cross-linked polyelectrolyte (CLP) is a polymer that, given orally, absorbs excess fluid, electrolyte, and nitrogenous waste products. In an experimental study on 30 hemodialysis patients, the effect of CLP on adsorption of fluid, urea, creatinine, uric acid, sodium, and potassium were evaluated. For this purpose, 500 mL of effluent fluid of each patient were collected at the 1st hour of dialysis. The concentrations of the abovementioned products were measured by standard methods. Then the dialysate effluent samples were treated with 6 g of CLP and incubated for 4 hours at 37°C. Up to 80% of effluent fluid water was adsorbed by CLP. There were significant reductions in urea, creatinine, uric acid, and sodium levels in the remaining effluent fluid (P substitute for conventional dialysis methods, especially hemodialysis.

  17. La inversión extranjera directa, las exportaciones, el producto interno bruto y el mercado laboral en Puerto Rico Foreign direct investment, exports, Gross Domestic Product and the labor market in Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel L. Ruiz Mercado

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se utiliza un modelo de vectores autorregresivos (VAR para examinar la interrelación entre la entrada de flujos de inversión extranjera directa (EFIED, las exportaciones, el producto interno bruto (PIB, la tasa de desempleo (TD y la tasa de participación laboral (TPL en Puerto Rico. Los datos utilizados incluyen los años fisca- les de 1980 al 2010. Se encontraron cuatro vectores cointegrados en el sistema, que evidencian la existencia de una relación de largo plazo entre las variables. Los hallazgos sugieren que aumentos consecutivos en la EFIED podrían reducir significativamente la TD e incrementar el interés de los puertorriqueños por ingresar en la fuerza laboral. El mismo resultado se refleja con relación a los incrementos en el nivel de exportaciones. Las variaciones en el PIB se explican principalmente en el largo plazo por la TD.In this paper, a vector autorregresive model (VAR is applied to examine the interrelationship among foreign direct investment, exports, Gross Domestic Product (GDP, unemployment rate and labor force participation rate in Puerto Rico, taking into account a time period that includes the fiscal years from 1980 to 2010.  Four cointegrating vectors were found in the system which indicates that there is a long run relationship between the variables. The findings suggest that consecutive increases in foreign direct investment inflows could significantly reduce the unemployment rate and increase interest in joining the labor force in Puerto Rico.  The same result also applies to increases in export levels.  The variations in Gross Domestic Product are mainly explained in the long run by the unemployment rate.

  18. Numerical study of cryogenic micro-slush particle production using a two-fluid nozzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishimoto, Jun

    2009-01-01

    The fundamental characteristics of the atomization behavior of micro-slush nitrogen ( SN) jet flow through a two-fluid nozzle was numerically investigated and visualized by a new type of integrated simulation technique. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis is focused on the production mechanism of micro-slush nitrogen particles in a two-fluid nozzle and on the consecutive atomizing spray flow characteristics of the micro-slush jet. Based on the numerically predicted nozzle atomization performance, a new type of superadiabatic two-fluid ejector nozzle is developed. This nozzle is capable of generating and atomizing micro-slush nitrogen by means of liquid-gas impingement of a pressurized subcooled liquid nitrogen ( LN) flow and a low-temperature, high-speed gaseous helium (GHe) flow. The application of micro-slush as a refrigerant for long-distance high-temperature superconducting cables (HTS) is anticipated, and its production technology is expected to result in an extensive improvement in the effective cooling performance of superconducting systems. Computation indicates that the cryogenic micro-slush atomization rate and the multiphase spraying flow characteristics are affected by rapid LN-GHe mixing and turbulence perturbation upstream of the two-fluid nozzle, hydrodynamic instabilities at the gas-liquid interface, and shear stress between the liquid core and periphery of the LN jet. Calculation of the effect of micro-slush atomization on the jet thermal field revealed that high-speed mixing of LN-GHe swirling flow extensively enhances the heat transfer between the LN 2-phase and the GHe-phase. Furthermore, the performance of the micro-slush production nozzle was experimentally investigated by particle image velocimetry (PIV), which confirmed that the measurement results were in reasonable agreement with the numerical results.

  19. On a question of Gross

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Abhijit

    2007-03-01

    Using the notion of weighted sharing of sets we prove two uniqueness theorems which improve the results proved by Fang and Qiu [H. Qiu, M. Fang, A unicity theorem for meromorphic functions, Bull. Malaysian Math. Sci. Soc. 25 (2002) 31-38], Lahiri and Banerjee [I. Lahiri, A. Banerjee, Uniqueness of meromorphic functions with deficient poles, Kyungpook Math. J. 44 (2004) 575-584] and Yi and Lin [H.X. Yi, W.C. Lin, Uniqueness theorems concerning a question of Gross, Proc. Japan Acad. Ser. A 80 (2004) 136-140] and thus provide an answer to the question of Gross [F. Gross, Factorization of meromorphic functions and some open problems, in: Proc. Conf. Univ. Kentucky, Lexington, KY, 1976, in: Lecture Notes in Math., vol. 599, Springer, Berlin, 1977, pp. 51-69], under a weaker hypothesis.

  20. Comparison of Straight and Helical Nanotube Production in a Swirled Fluid CVD Reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Bathgate, Graham; Iyuke, Sunny; Kavishe, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Research into Carbon Nanotubes and their applications is fast becoming an extremely popular topic, and any means to greatly improve the synthesis process has a huge marketability. While investigating the feasibility of continuous production of single-walled carbon nanotubes in a vertical Swirled Fluid Chemical Vapour Deposition (CVD) reactor, it was discovered that helical nanotubes were lifted from the reactor by the gas current while straight tubes remained behind. Investigation into the me...

  1. EFFECTS OF LOCALIZED AQUIFER BOILING ON FLUID PRODUCTION AT CERRO PRIETO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truesdell, Alfred H.; D'Amore, Franco; Nieva, David

    1984-01-01

    Localized aquifer boiling in the shallow two-phase reservoir of Cerro Prieto has produced excess steam and increased electrical output. Unfortunately it has also caused near-well mineral deposition that has decreased permeability and fluid flow. Inflow of cold water has limited the extent of aquifer boiling and permeability loss. The deeper reservoir at Cerro Prieto may need injection of cold water to decrease boiling and prevent loss of production. Refs.

  2. Investigating impacts of economic growth on the environment using remote sensing tools: A case study of gross domestic product and net primary production in China from 2001 to 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Naizhuo

    Pursuing sustainable co-development of economy and environment has been established as a basic national policy by the present Chinese government. However, studies regarding actual outcomes of the co-development policy at the whole Chinese scale are still limited. Detecting China's economic growth and changes of environmental quality will not only contribute to evaluation of outcomes of the co-development policy but more importantly is an opportunity to examine the suitability of the IPAT model and improve our understanding of human-environment interactions. The core of the IPAT theory is an equation where I=PxAxT that models human impact on the environment as a function of changes to population (P), affluence ( A), and technology (T). The IPAT theory emphasizes that economic growth will inevitably produce negative impacts on the environment. Thus, if China's environmental quality declined while economic growth occurred, then the IPAT theory will be substantiated. Otherwise, the suitability of the IPAT theory will be called into question and its tenets must be reconsidered. In this dissertation research I selected gross domestic product (GDP) and net primary production (NPP) as indicators to evaluate production of social and ecological systems respectively. The main study objectives are (1) to develop a methodology to facilitate integration of the two indicators derived from demographic data sources and satellite imagery at different geographic scales, (2) to jointly explore changing patterns of China's economic and ecological production (i.e., spatially and temporally coincident patterns of change in GDP and NPP) across different spatial scales, (3) to analyze whether economic growth has produced negative impacts on ecosystem production and whether the impacts correlate to the economic growth, and finally (4) to discuss whether the IPAT theory is suitable for explaining the joint changes of GDP and NPP in China or if it is in need of modification. To fulfill the

  3. Improvement of methane production from waste paper by pretreatment with rumen fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Yasunori; Tada, Chika; Fukuda, Yasuhiro; Nakai, Yutaka

    2013-01-01

    Cellulose hydrolysis is the rate-limiting step in anaerobic digestion. In the present study, waste paper was used as a model of cellulosic biomass and was pretreated with rumen fluid prior to methane production. To achieve a high methane yield, the reaction time of the pretreatment was examined. Waste paper was soaked with rumen fluid for 6 and 24h at 37 °C. Various volatile fatty acids, especially acetate, were produced by the pretreatment. Semicontinuous methane production was carried out over a 20-day period. The best daily methane yield was obtained by the 6-h pretreatment. The amount was 2.6 times higher than that of untreated paper, which resulted in 73.4% of the theoretical methane yield. During methane production, the cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin degradabilities were improved by the pretreatment. Pretreatment by rumen fluid is therefore a powerful method to accelerate the methane yield from a cellulosic biomass. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Selection and properties of alternative forming fluids for TRISO fuel kernel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, M. P. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); King, J. C. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Gorman, B. P. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Marshall, Doug W. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Current Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) designs incorporate TRi-structural ISOtropic (TRISO) fuel, which consists of a spherical fissile fuel kernel surrounded by layers of pyrolytic carbon and silicon carbide. An internal sol-gel process forms the fuel kernel using wet chemistry to produce uranium oxyhydroxide gel spheres by dropping a cold precursor solution into a hot column of trichloroethylene (TCE). Over time, gelation byproducts inhibit complete gelation, and the TCE must be purified or discarded. The resulting TCE waste stream contains both radioactive and hazardous materials and is thus considered a mixed hazardous waste. Changing the forming fluid to a non-hazardous alternative could greatly improve the economics of TRISO fuel kernel production. Selection criteria for a replacement forming fluid narrowed a list of ~10,800 chemicals to yield ten potential replacement forming fluids: 1-bromododecane, 1- bromotetradecane, 1-bromoundecane, 1-chlorooctadecane, 1-chlorotetradecane, 1-iododecane, 1-iodododecane, 1-iodohexadecane, 1-iodooctadecane, and squalane. The density, viscosity, and surface tension for each potential replacement forming fluid were measured as a function of temperature between 25 °C and 80 °C. Calculated settling velocities and heat transfer rates give an overall column height approximation. 1-bromotetradecane, 1-chlorooctadecane, and 1-iodododecane show the greatest promise as replacements, and future tests will verify their ability to form satisfactory fuel kernels.

  5. Selection and properties of alternative forming fluids for TRISO fuel kernel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, M. P.; King, J. C.; Gorman, B. P.; Marshall, D. W.

    2013-01-01

    Current Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) designs incorporate TRi-structural ISOtropic (TRISO) fuel, which consists of a spherical fissile fuel kernel surrounded by layers of pyrolytic carbon and silicon carbide. An internal sol-gel process forms the fuel kernel using wet chemistry to produce uranium oxyhydroxide gel spheres by dropping a cold precursor solution into a hot column of trichloroethylene (TCE). Over time, gelation byproducts inhibit complete gelation, and the TCE must be purified or discarded. The resulting TCE waste stream contains both radioactive and hazardous materials and is thus considered a mixed hazardous waste. Changing the forming fluid to a non-hazardous alternative could greatly improve the economics of TRISO fuel kernel production. Selection criteria for a replacement forming fluid narrowed a list of ˜10,800 chemicals to yield ten potential replacement forming fluids: 1-bromododecane, 1-bromotetradecane, 1-bromoundecane, 1-chlorooctadecane, 1-chlorotetradecane, 1-iododecane, 1-iodododecane, 1-iodohexadecane, 1-iodooctadecane, and squalane. The density, viscosity, and surface tension for each potential replacement forming fluid were measured as a function of temperature between 25 °C and 80 °C. Calculated settling velocities and heat transfer rates give an overall column height approximation. 1-bromotetradecane, 1-chlorooctadecane, and 1-iodododecane show the greatest promise as replacements, and future tests will verify their ability to form satisfactory fuel kernels.

  6. On Entropy Production in the Madelung Fluid and the Role of Bohm's Potential in Classical Diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heifetz, Eyal; Tsekov, Roumen; Cohen, Eliahu; Nussinov, Zohar

    2016-07-01

    The Madelung equations map the non-relativistic time-dependent Schrödinger equation into hydrodynamic equations of a virtual fluid. While the von Neumann entropy remains constant, we demonstrate that an increase of the Shannon entropy, associated with this Madelung fluid, is proportional to the expectation value of its velocity divergence. Hence, the Shannon entropy may grow (or decrease) due to an expansion (or compression) of the Madelung fluid. These effects result from the interference between solutions of the Schrödinger equation. Growth of the Shannon entropy due to expansion is common in diffusive processes. However, in the latter the process is irreversible while the processes in the Madelung fluid are always reversible. The relations between interference, compressibility and variation of the Shannon entropy are then examined in several simple examples. Furthermore, we demonstrate that for classical diffusive processes, the "force" accelerating diffusion has the form of the positive gradient of the quantum Bohm potential. Expressing then the diffusion coefficient in terms of the Planck constant reveals the lower bound given by the Heisenberg uncertainty principle in terms of the product between the gas mean free path and the Brownian momentum.

  7. The Effect of Feed to Inoculums Ratio on Biogas Production Rate from Cattle Manure Using Rumen Fluid as Inoculums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sunarso

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, rumen fluid of animal ruminant was used as inoculums to increase biogas production rate from cattle manure at mesophilic condition. A series of laboratory experiments using 400 ml biodigester were performed in batch operation mode. Given 100 grams of fresh cattle manure was fed to each biodigester and mixed with rumen fluid and tap water resulting five different feed to inoculum (F/I ratios (i.e. 17.64, 23.51, 35.27, and 70.54. The operating temperatures were varied at room temperature. The results showed that the rumen fluid inoculated to biodigester significantly effected the biogas production. Rumen fluid inoculums caused biogas production rate and efficiency increase more than two times in compare to manure substrate without rumen fluid inoculums. At four F/Is tested, after 80 days digestion, the biogas yield were 191, 162, 144 and 112 mL/g VS, respectively. About 80% of the biogas production was obtained during the first 40 days of digestion. The best performance of biogas production will be obtained if F/I ratio is in the range of 17.64 to 35.27 (correspond to 25 – 50 % of rumen fluid. The future work will be carried out to study the dynamics of biogas production if both the rumen fluid inoculums and manure are fed in the continuous system

  8. Supercritical Fluid Chromatography--Theoretical Background and Applications on Natural Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Anja; Ganzera, Markus

    2015-11-01

    The use of supercritical fluid chromatography for natural product analysis as well as underlying theoretical mechanisms and instrumental requirements are summarized in this review. A short introduction focusing on the historical development of this interesting separation technique is followed by remarks on the current instrumental design, also describing possible detection modes and useable stationary phases. The overview on relevant applications is grouped based on their basic intention, may it be (semi)preparative or purely analytical. They indicate that supercritical fluid chromatography is still primarily considered for the analysis of nonpolar analytes like carotenoids, fatty acids, or terpenes. The low polarity of supercritical carbon dioxide, which is used with modifiers almost exclusively as a mobile phase today, combined with high efficiency and fast separations might explain the popularity of supercritical fluid chromatography for the analysis of these compounds. Yet, it has been shown that more polar natural products (e.g., xanthones, flavonoids, alkaloids) are separable too, with the same (if not superior) selectivity and reproducibility than established approaches like HPLC or GC.

  9. Estrogenic octylphenol affects seminal fluid production and its biochemical composition of eelpout (Zoarces viviparus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Tina H; Korsgaard, Bodil

    2004-10-01

    Estrogenic chemicals such as alkylphenols (APs) have been shown to disrupt the reproductive system of male fish. In the present study, the effects of the estrogenic chemical octylphenol (100 microg g(-1)) and 17 beta-estradiol on the semen production and the biochemical composition of the seminal fluid of the viviparous eelpout (Zoarces viviparus) were investigated at the time of spawning. After 10 days of octylphenol or estrogen treatment, vitellogenin (Vtg) synthesis was induced as indicated by increased plasma vitellogenin concentration. In accordance with the increased vitellogenin concentration, hepatosomatic index (HSI), total protein concentration, and total calcium concentration were also increased, and free amino acids concentration was decreased in blood plasma. Octylphenol treatment caused a decrease in the gonadosomatic index (GSI) and the milt volume and an increase in the spermatocrit. The histological examination revealed that octylphenol affected the normal lobular structure, including the Sertoli cells. In the majority of the octylphenol-treated fish, trapped sperm cells were observed in parts of the seminiferous lobules and the sperm ducts. The biochemical composition of the seminal fluid was also affected by the octylphenol or estrogen. The seminal plasma concentrations of magnesium, calcium, and total protein were elevated, and the concentration of free amino acids was reduced in the treated fish. This study indicates that octylphenol inhibits the seminal fluid production and changes its biochemical composition in eelpouts.

  10. Recent progress in supercritical fluid science for biofuel production from woody biomass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shiro Saka

    2006-01-01

    Owing to an environment-friendly utilization of resources, increased attention has been focused on fuels and chemicals from biomass as an alternative to fossil resources. In addition, supercritical fluid technology has been considered to be an environmentally-benign treatment. Therefore, its technology was applied for a conversion of biomass to useful fuels and chemicals in order to mitigate environmental loading. For example, supercritical water treatment has demonstrated that lignocellulosics can be hydrolyzed to become lignin-derived products for useful aromatic chemicals and carbohydrate-derived products, such as polysaccharides,oligosaccharides and monosaccharides of glucose, mannose and xylose used for subsequent ethanol fermentation. If this treatment is prolonged, lignocellulosics were found to be converted to organic acids such as formic, acetic, glycolic and lactic acids which can be converted to methane for biofuel. When alcohols, such as methanol and ethanol, were used instead of water, some other useful products were achieved, and its liquefied products were found to have a potential for liquid biofuel. In this study, therefore, our research achievements in supercritical fluid science of woody biomass will be introduced for clean and green chemistry for a sustainable environment.

  11. Workshop on induced Seismicity due to fluid injection/production from Energy-Related Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majer, E.L.; Asanuma, Hiroshi; Rueter, Horst; Stump, Brian; Segall, Paul; Zoback, Mark; Nelson, Jim; Frohlich, Cliff; Rutledge, Jim; Gritto, Roland; Baria, Roy; Hickman, Steve; McGarr, Art; Ellsworth, Bill; Lockner, Dave; Oppenheimer, David; Henning, Peter; Rosca, Anca; Hornby, Brian; Wang, Herb; Beeler, Nick; Ghassemi, Ahmad; Walters, Mark; Robertson-Tait, Ann; Dracos, Peter; Fehler, Mike; Abou-Sayed, Ahmed; Ake, Jon; Vorobiev, Oleg; Julian, Bruce

    2011-04-01

    that was necessary not only to make fluid injections safe, but an economic asset, DOE organized a series of workshops. The first workshop was held on February 4, 2010, at Stanford University. A second workshop will be held in mid-2010 to address the critical elements of a 'best practices/protocol' that industry could use as a guide to move forward with safe implementation of fluid injections/production for energy-related applications, i.e., a risk mitigation plan, and specific recommendations for industry to follow. The objectives of the first workshop were to identify critical technology and research needs/approaches to advance the understanding of induced seismicity associated with energy related fluid injection/production, such that: (1) The risk associated with induced seismicity can be reduced to a level that is acceptable to the public, policy makers, and regulators; and (2) Seismicity can be utilized/controlled to monitor, manage, and optimize the desired fluid behavior in a cost effective fashion. There were two primary goals during the workshop: (1) Identify the critical roadblocks preventing the necessary understanding of human-induced seismicity. These roadblocks could be technology related (better imaging of faults and fractures, more accurate fluid tracking, improved stress measurements, etc.), research related (fundamental understanding of rock physical properties and geochemical fluid/rock interactions, development of improved constitutive relations, improved understanding of rock failure, improved data processing and modeling, etc.), or a combination of both. (2) After laying out the roadblocks the second goal was to identify technology development and research needs that could be implemented in the near future to address the above objectives.

  12. Radiation protection in the geothermal energy facility of the German genetic research center (GFZ) Potsdam in Gross Schoenebeck (Brandenburg); Strahlenschutz in der Geothermieanlage des Deutschen Geoforschungszentrums (GFZ) Potsdam in Gross Schoenebeck (Brandenburg)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dilling, Joerg; Doering, Joachim; Ebert, Monika; Mielcarek, Juergen [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Berlin (Germany); Regenspurg, Simona [Helmholtz-Zentrum Potsdam Deutsches Geoforschungszentrum, Potsdam (Germany)

    2014-10-01

    About 70% of the geothermal energy originates from radioactive decay. For the utilization of geothermal energy water is used as working fluid. The efficiency of a geothermal energy facility is correlated to the water temperature. In the geothermal energy facility of Gross Schoenebeck the thermal water has a temperature of 150 C. The salty water (265 g/l) contains a complex mixture of dissolved components that might precipitate during cooling (scale formation). The deposits can include radioactive materials (isotopes from the uranium and thorium decay series and K-40). The thermal water from the production bore holes is filtered on the surface.

  13. Effects of irregular cerebrospinal fluid production rate in human brain ventricular system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadzri, Edi Azali; Shamsudin, Amir Hamzah; Osman, Kahar; Abdul Kadir, Mohammed Rafiq; Aziz, Azian Abd

    2012-06-01

    Hydrocephalus is an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the ventricles and cavities in the brain. It occurs when the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow or absorption is blocked or when excessive CSF is secreted. The excessive accumulation of CSF results in an abnormal widening of the ventricles. This widening creates potentially harmful pressure on the tissues of the brain. In this study, flow analysis of CSF was conducted on a three-dimensional model of the third ventricle and aqueduct of Sylvius, derived from MRI scans. CSF was modeled as Newtonian Fluid and its flow through the region of interest (ROI) was done using EFD. Lab software. Different steady flow rates through the Foramen of Monro, classified by normal and hydrocephalus cases, were modeled to investigate its effects. The results show that, for normal and hydrocephalus cases, the pressure drop of CSF flow across the third ventricle was observed to be linearly proportionally to the production rate increment. In conclusion, flow rates that cause pressure drop of 5 Pa was found to be the threshold for the initial sign of hydrocephalus.

  14. NM Gross Receipts July - December 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  15. NM Gross Receipts January - June 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  16. NM Gross Receipts January - June 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  17. NM Gross Receipts January - June 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  18. NM Gross Receipts January - June 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  19. NM Gross Receipts July - December 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  20. Study of three-phase fluid dynamics in a surging production system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Rodolfo; Assuncao, Pablo Morelato; Ressel, Fabio de Assis [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo, Sao Mateus, ES (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Among others factors, petroleum extraction is subordinate to the reservoir pressure and the required pressure to rise it to the surface production facilities. Reservoir deliverability equations tied production rate with reservoir driving force (Economides, 1994). The Inflow Performance Relationship (IPR) is obtained by measuring the production rates under various drawdown pressures, and is used to assess well performance by plotting the well production rate against the flowing bottonhole pressure. Others limiting rate of production factors are imposed by wellhead required pressure and the production tubing performance. The tubing performance is sensitive to several parameters among which we can highlight the production tubing geometry and the properties of the produced fluids (Guo, 2007). Therewith we can define the Tubing Performance Relationship (TPR) similarly to the IPR. Thus the present work aims the hydraulic performance analysis of a production system with a flowing well without artificial elevation methods. Furthermore the triphasic (water-oil-gas) flow studies, both in the production string and the production line, allowed the inspection of the main variables of the system, fluid properties, operation conditions and geometric parameters, on the head loss. In order obtain all these, several methods were developed, each one with specifics limitations to include all flow patterns. The most common biphasic horizontal flow patterns according to Brill and Beggs (1975) are: mist flow, bubble flow, plug flow, slug flow, stratified flow, wavy flow and annular flow. Yet according to Brill and Beggs (1975) the most common biphasic vertical flow patterns are: bubbly flow, slug flow, churn flow, and annular flow. Accordingly to these, another outbreak discussed is the pattern flow sensibility on the head loss. The methodology used in the present work is based on the discretization of the system in several discrete counterparts cells, in which was where it was applied

  1. Influence of fluid dynamics on anaerobic digestion of food waste for biogas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fengping; Zhang, Cunsheng; Huo, Shuhao

    2016-08-17

    To enhance the stability and efficiency of an anaerobic process, the influences of fluid dynamics on the performance of anaerobic digestion and sludge granulation were investigated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Four different propeller speeds (20, 60, 100, 140 r/min) were adopted for anaerobic digestion of food waste in a 30 L continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR). Experimental results indicated that the methane yield increased with increasing the propeller speed within the experimental range. Results from CFD simulation and sludge granulation showed that the optimum propeller speed for anaerobic digestion was 100 r/min. Lower propeller speed (20 r/min) inhibited mass transfer and resulted in the failure of anaerobic digestion, while higher propeller speed (140 r/min) would lead to higher energy loss and system instability. Under this condition, anaerobic digestion could work effectively with higher efficiency of mass transfer which facilitated sludge granulation and biogas production. The corresponding mean liquid velocity and shear strain rate were 0.082 m/s and 10.48 s(-1), respectively. Moreover, compact granular sludge could be formed, with lower energy consumption. CFD was successfully used to study the influence of fluid dynamics on the anaerobic digestion process. The key parameters of the optimum mixing condition for anaerobic digestion of food waste in a 30 L CSTR including liquid velocity and shear strain rate were obtained using CFD, which were of paramount significance for the scale-up of the bioreactor. This study provided a new way for the optimization and scale-up of the anaerobic digestion process in CSTR based on the fluid dynamics analysis.

  2. Study on reformulation of fluid catalytic cracking gasoline and increasing production of light olefins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pingxiang YAN; Xianghai MENG; Jinsen GAO; Chunmin XU; Zhiyu SUI

    2008-01-01

    The effects of reaction temperature, mass ratio of catalyst to oil, space velocity, and mass ratio of water to oil on the product distribution, the yields of light olefins (light olefins including ethylene, propylene and butylene) and the composition of the fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) gasoline upgraded over the self-made catalyst GL in a confined fluidized bed reactor were investigated. The experimental results showed that FCC gasoline was obviously reformulated under appropriate reaction con-ditions. The olefins (olefins with C atom number above 4) content of FCC gasoline was markedly reduced, and the aromatics content and octane number were increased. The upgraded gasoline met the new standard of gasoline, and meanwhile, higher yields of light olefins were obtained. Furthermore, higher reaction temperature, higher mass ratio of catalyst to oil, higher mass ratio of water to oil, and lower space velocity were found to be beneficial to FCC gasoline reformulation and light olefins production.

  3. A Review on Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE of Lycopene from Tomato and Tomato Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevzat Konar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Lycopene, an acyclic, open chain, unsaturated carotenoid having 13 double bonds, of which 11 are conjugated, arranged in a linear array, is considered to be a pigment of potential commercial importance in the emerging market for nutraceutical products because of its function as a health-promoting ingredient. Lycopene has received a great deal of attention as an effective antioxidant that can play an important role in reducing the risk of several chronic diseases. In this study, we reviewed extraction parameters of lycopene from tomato and tomato products by supercritical fluids and pre-extraction procedures. For extraction, temperature range as 50-110°C, extraction time range as 0.5-8.0 hours, extraction pressure range as 300-400 bar and using co-solvent, especially ethanol, are common parameters.

  4. Cerebrospinal fluid production and dynamics in normal aging: a MRI phase-mapping study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gideon, P; Thomsen, C; Ståhlberg, F

    1994-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) phase mapping was used for non-invasive evaluation of the to-and-fro motion of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the cerebral aqueduct, and to measure the supratentorial CSF production in vivo, in 13 healthy volunteers to determine whether normal aging affects...... these parameters. Eight young healthy volunteers (mean age 29.8 years) and five elderly healthy volunteers (mean age 69.0 years) were examined, all were normal on conventional MRI. Slightly higher aqueductal CSF peak flow velocities and peak volume flow in both the caudal and rostral directions were found...... in fact occurs at this relatively high rate. Our study further suggests that the differences found in human CSF production rates are caused by interindividual factors other than age....

  5. Entropy production for a relativistic simple fluid in a weak electromagnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Perciante, A. L.; Sandoval-Villalbazo, A.; Brun-Battistini, D.

    2016-11-01

    Thermal dissipation in plasmas includes a variety of effects, most of them arising from the fact that these gases are usually composed of at least two species. In the case of a mild temperature single component charged fluid kinetic theory indicates that the temperature gradient is the only source of vector-type dissipation. However, if the temperature increases to a point in which the molecule's velocities approach the speed of light, electrothermal dissipation is possible even for the single component charged gas. The modification to the structure of the entropy production introduced by this effect is established in order to address the second law of thermodynamics for such a system. The entropy balance equation is obtained from the relativistic Boltzmann equation and the vector contribution to the entropy production is calculated in terms of the thermodynamic forces and the electromagnetic field using Chapman-Enskog's expansion. It is shown that the structure is consistent with the constitutive equation previously reported, in which a thermoelectric effect was found for a single component relativistic fluid. This effect does not have a non-relativistic counterpart and presents no ambiguity regarding the frame chosen as the comoving frame, which is an issue in the mixture case.

  6. Exposure to follicular fluid during oocyte maturation and oviductal fluid during post-maturation does not improve in vitro embryo production in the horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douet, Cécile; Parodi, Olivia; Martino, Nicola Antonio; Lacalandra, Giovanni Michele; Nicassio, Michele; Reigner, Fabrice; Deleuze, Stefan; Dell'Aquila, Maria Elena; Goudet, Ghylène

    2017-09-20

    Most wild equids and many domestic horse breeds are at risk of extinction, so there is an urgent need for genome resource banking. Embryos cryopreservation allows the preservation of genetics from male and female and is the fastest method to restore a breed. In the equine, embryo production in vitro would allow the production of several embryos per cycle. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is used to generate horse embryos, but it requires expensive equipment and expertise in micromanipulation, and blastocyst development rates remain low. No conventional in vitro fertilization (IVF) technique for equine embryo production is available. The development of culture conditions able to mimic the maturation of the oocyte in preovulatory follicular fluid (pFF) and the post-maturation in oviductal fluid (OF) may improve embryo production in vitro. Our aim was to analyse the effect of in vitro maturation in pFF and incubation in OF on in vitro maturation of equine oocytes, fertilization using conventional IVF or ICSI, and embryo development after culture in synthetic oviductal fluid (SOF) or DMEM-F12. Oocytes collected from slaughtered mares or by ovum pick up were matured in vitro in pFF or semi-synthetic maturation medium (MM). The in vitro maturation, fertilization and development rates were not statistically different between pFF and MM. After in vitro maturation, oocytes were incubated with or without OF. Post-maturation in OF did not significantly improve the fertilization and development rates. Thus, in our study, exposure to physiological fluids for oocyte maturation and post-maturation does not improve in vitro embryo production in the horse.

  7. Gross anatomy of network security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Thomas J.

    2002-01-01

    Information security involves many branches of effort, including information assurance, host level security, physical security, and network security. Computer network security methods and implementations are given a top-down description to permit a medically focused audience to anchor this information to their daily practice. The depth of detail of network functionality and security measures, like that of the study of human anatomy, can be highly involved. Presented at the level of major gross anatomical systems, this paper will focus on network backbone implementation and perimeter defenses, then diagnostic tools, and finally the user practices (the human element). Physical security measures, though significant, have been defined as beyond the scope of this presentation.

  8. Straight-chain halocarbon forming fluids for TRISO fuel kernel production - Tests with yttria-stabilized zirconia microspheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, M. P.; King, J. C.; Gorman, B. P.; Braley, J. C.

    2015-03-01

    Current methods of TRISO fuel kernel production in the United States use a sol-gel process with trichloroethylene (TCE) as the forming fluid. After contact with radioactive materials, the spent TCE becomes a mixed hazardous waste, and high costs are associated with its recycling or disposal. Reducing or eliminating this mixed waste stream would not only benefit the environment, but would also enhance the economics of kernel production. Previous research yielded three candidates for testing as alternatives to TCE: 1-bromotetradecane, 1-chlorooctadecane, and 1-iodododecane. This study considers the production of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) kernels in silicone oil and the three chosen alternative formation fluids, with subsequent characterization of the produced kernels and used forming fluid. Kernels formed in silicone oil and bromotetradecane were comparable to those produced by previous kernel production efforts, while those produced in chlorooctadecane and iodododecane experienced gelation issues leading to poor kernel formation and geometry.

  9. Efficacy of surgical hand scrub products based on chlorhexidine is largely overestimated without neutralizing agents in the sampling fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampf, Günter; Reichel, Mirja; Hollingsworth, Angela; Bashir, Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    Surgical hand antiseptics often contain chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG). There are doubts that the full effect measured for these products might only be achieved after sampling because of a lack of valid neutralizing agents (NAs) in the sampling fluid. We measured the efficacy of Avagard CHG and Hibiclens for 11 applications over 5 days according to the manufacturers' instructions. NAs were added to the sampling fluid and the dilution fluid (group 1) or to only the dilution fluid (group 2). In a third group, NAs were added to the dilution fluid only, and cream was applied after the final scrub on days 1 to 4. Neutralization was validated according to American Society for Testing and Materials International standard 1054 using Staphylococcus epidermidis. When NAs were not added to the sampling fluid, both products were very effective, with a mean log(10) reduction in flora of 3.32 ± 0.53 for Avagard and 3.68 ± 0.52 for Hibiclens on day 5. When NAs were included in the sampling fluid, however, the immediate efficacy was significantly lower, at 2.75 ± 0.55 and 3.14 ± 0.50, respectively. A lack of NAs in the sampling fluid resulted in overestimation of efficacy by a factor of between 0.3 and 1.1 log(10). Efficacy studies carried out without NAs in the sampling fluid for products with CHG should be critically assessed. Copyright © 2013 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. 中国国内生产总值及其相关因素分析%The Study of the Gross Domestic Product of China and the Analysis of Various Determining Factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纪跃芝; 邓波; 董小刚; 赵雅玲

    2011-01-01

    自1978年改革开放以来,中国国内生产总值连续高速增长.基于对1978-2008年共31年来中国国内生产总值、固定资产投资、能源消费总量、进出口贸易总额、居民消费、人口数、财政收入等因素的关系研究,提出一个更为合适的对数线性模型,同时给出了该模型中参数的估计方法.研究表明:截止至2008年,中国国内生产总值的增长是不均衡的,而是分阶段的,而且在不同阶段,影响国内生产总值的因素有所不同,并且从经济学角度对所建立的模型给出了合理的解释,结论符合中国实际.%Since the Economic Reform in 1978, the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of China grows continuously and rapidly. This article studies the relationship among factors such as GDP, fixed assets investment, the total energy expense, total import and export trade, consumer, population, financial income etc in the past 31 years, brings out a more reasonable log-linear model and provides the analysis of the modes in the model. The research shows that till 2008, the growth of GDP is not even but depends on different stages, in different stages; the factors that affect the GDP are different. Moreover, the article provides a reasonable explanation on the built model from an economic perspective and the conclusion matches the real situation in China.

  11. Effect of temperate climate tree species on gross ammonification, gross nitrification and N2O formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüggemann, N.; Rosenkranz, P.; Papen, H.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.

    2003-04-01

    Microbial nitrogen turnover processes in the soil, like ammonification, nitrification and denitrification, play an important role in the formation of nitrous oxide (N2O): (i) ammonification, because it releases nitrogen from organic material in the form of ammonium (NH4+), which in turn can serve as substrate for nitrification; (ii) nitrification itself (i.e. the turnover of NH4+ to nitrate, NO3-), during which nitric oxide (NO) and N2O can be released as by-products at varying ratios; (iii) denitrification, in which NO3- serves as electron acceptor and is converted to molecular nitrogen (N2) via NO and N2O as intermediates, that can also be partially lost to the atmosphere. Temperate forest soils are a substantial source of atmospheric N2O contributing up to 10% to the total atmospheric N2O budget. However, this figure is afflicted with a huge uncertainty due to a number of factors governing the soil N2O formation, consumption, release and uptake, which are not fully understood at present. To one of these factors belongs the influence of the tree species on nitrogen turnover processes in the soil and the formation of N trace gases related with them. The aim of the present work was to analyse this tree species effect for the temperate climate region. For this purpose the effect of five different temperate tree species, having the same age and growing on the same soil in direct vicinity to each other, on gross ammonification and gross nitrification as well as on N2O formation was investigated. The trees (common beech, Fagus sylvatica; pedunculate oak, Quercus robur; Norway spruce, Picea abies; Japanese larch, Larix leptolepis; mountain pine, Pinus mugo) were part of a species trial in Western Jutland, Denmark, established in 1965 on a former sandy heathland. Samples from the soil under these five tree species were taken in spring and in summer 2002, respectively, differentiating between organic layer and mineral soil. The gross rates of ammonification as well of

  12. Mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions in the production of fluid milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasula, Peggy M; Nutter, Darin W

    2011-01-01

    Global climate change, driven by the buildup of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the atmosphere, is challenging the dairy industries in the United States and throughout the world to develop sustainable initiatives to reduce their environmental impact. The U.S. dairy industry has committed to lowering the GHG emissions, primarily CH(4), N(2)O, and CO(2), in each sector of the fluid milk supply chain which extends from the farm, to the processing plant, and to distribution of the packaged product, where it is refrigerated by the retailer and then the consumer. This chapter provides an overview of the life cycle analysis (LCA) technique and its use in identifying the GHG emissions in each sector of the fluid milk supply chain, from cradle to grave, and the best practices and research that is currently being conducted to reduce or mitigate GHG emissions in each sector. We also discuss the use of on-farm and off-farm process simulation as tools for evaluating on-farm mitigation techniques, off-farm alternative processing scenarios, and use of alternative energy management practices.

  13. Production of Natural Gas and Fluid Flow in Tight Sand Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maria Cecilia Bravo

    2006-06-30

    This document reports progress of this research effort in identifying relationships and defining dependencies between macroscopic reservoir parameters strongly affected by microscopic flow dynamics and production well performance in tight gas sand reservoirs. These dependencies are investigated by identifying the main transport mechanisms at the pore scale that should affect fluids flow at the reservoir scale. A critical review of commercial reservoir simulators, used to predict tight sand gas reservoir, revealed that many are poor when used to model fluid flow through tight reservoirs. Conventional simulators ignore altogether or model incorrectly certain phenomena such as, Knudsen diffusion, electro-kinetic effects, ordinary diffusion mechanisms and water vaporization. We studied the effect of Knudsen's number in Klinkenberg's equation and evaluated the effect of different flow regimes on Klinkenberg's parameter b. We developed a model capable of explaining the pressure dependence of this parameter that has been experimentally observed, but not explained in the conventional formalisms. We demonstrated the relevance of this, so far ignored effect, in tight sands reservoir modeling. A 2-D numerical simulator based on equations that capture the above mentioned phenomena was developed. Dynamic implications of new equations are comprehensively discussed in our work and their relative contribution to the flow rate is evaluated. We performed several simulation sensitivity studies that evidenced that, in general terms, our formalism should be implemented in order to get more reliable tight sands gas reservoirs' predictions.

  14. Virus and bacteria enhance histamine production in middle ear fluids of children with acute otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chonmaitree, T; Patel, J A; Lett-Brown, M A; Uchida, T; Garofalo, R; Owen, M J; Howie, V M

    1994-06-01

    Histamine levels were measured in 677 middle ear fluid (MEF) samples from 248 children (aged 2 months to 7 years) with acute otitis media (AOM); of these, 116 (47%) had documented viral infection. Histamine content was higher in bacteria-positive than in bacteria-negative MEF samples (P = .007) and higher in samples from patients with viral infection than in those from patients with no viral infection (P = .002). Bacteria and viruses together had an additive effect on histamine content in MEF. Histamine concentration in the initial MEF sample tended to be higher in patients with persistent otitis than in those with good response to treatment (P = .14). Results suggest that viruses, bacteria, or both induce histamine production, which leads to increased inflammation in the middle ear. Antihistaminic drugs may be beneficial. Large, prospective, controlled trials of the effects of antihistamine as an adjunct therapy in bacterial and viral AOM are required before recommendations can be made.

  15. On the production behavior of enhanced geothermal systems with CO2as working fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruess, K.

    2007-05-31

    Numerical simulation is used to evaluate mass flow and heatextraction rates from enhanced geothermal injection-production systemsthat are operated using either CO2 or water as heat transmission fluid.For a model system patterned after the European hot dry rock experimentat Soultz, we find significantly greater heat extraction rates for CO2 ascompared to water. The strong dependence of CO2 mobility (=density/viscosity) upon temperature and pressure may lead to unusualproduction behavior, where heat extraction rates can actually increasefor a time, even as the reservoir is subject to thermal depletion. Wepresent the first-ever three-dimensional simulations of CO2injection-production systems. These show strong effects of gravity onmass flow and heat extraction, due to the large contrast of CO2 densitybetween cold injection and hot production conditions. The tendency forpreferential flow of cold, dense CO2 along the reservoir bottom can leadto premature thermal breakthrough. The problem can be avoided byproducing from only a limited depth interval at the top of thereservoir.

  16. Increased Cerebrospinal Fluid Production as a Possible Mechanism Underlying Caffeine's Protective Effect against Alzheimer's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Wostyn

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD, the most common type of dementia among older people, is characterized by the accumulation of β-amyloid (Aβ senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles composed of hyperphosphorylated tau in the brain. Despite major advances in understanding the molecular etiology of the disease, progress in the clinical treatment of AD patients has been extremely limited. Therefore, new and more effective therapeutic approaches are needed. Accumulating evidence from human and animal studies suggests that the long-term consumption of caffeine, the most commonly used psychoactive drug in the world, may be protective against AD. The mechanisms underlying the suggested beneficial effect of caffeine against AD remain to be elucidated. In recent studies, several potential neuroprotective effects of caffeine have been proposed. Interestingly, a recent study in rats showed that the long-term consumption of caffeine increased cerebrospinal fluid (CSF production, associated with the increased expression of Na+-K+ ATPase and increased cerebral blood flow. Compromised function of the choroid plexus and defective CSF production and turnover, with diminished clearance of Aβ, may be one mechanism implicated in the pathogenesis of late-onset AD. If reduced CSF turnover is a risk factor for AD, then therapeutic strategies to improve CSF flow are reasonable. In this paper, we hypothesize that long-term caffeine consumption could exert protective effects against AD at least in part by facilitating CSF production, turnover, and clearance. Further, we propose a preclinical experimental design allowing evaluation of this hypothesis.

  17. Nanoparticles in the pharmaceutical industry and the use of supercritical fluid technologies for nanoparticle production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheth, Pratik; Sandhu, Harpreet; Singhal, Dharmendra; Malick, Waseem; Shah, Navnit; Kislalioglu, M Serpil

    2012-05-01

    Poor aqueous solubility of drug candidates is a major challenge for the pharmaceutical scientists involved in drug development. Particle size reduction appears as an effective and versatile option for solubility improvement. Nanonization is an attractive solution to improve the bioavailability of the poorly soluble drugs, improved therapies, in vivo imaging, in vitro diagnostics and for the production of biomaterials and active implants. In drug delivery, application of nanotechnology is commonly referred to as Nano Drug Delivery Systems (NDDS). In this article, commercially available nanosized drugs, their dosage forms and proprietors, as well as the methods used for preparation like milling, high pressure homogenization, vacuum deposition, and high temperature evaporation were listed. Unlike the traditional methods used for the particle size reduction, supercritical fluid-processing techniques offer advantages ranging from superior particle size control to clean processing. The primary focus of this review article is the use of supercritical CO2 based technologies for small particle generation. Particles that have the smooth surfaces, small particle size and distribution and free flowing can be obtained with particular SCF techniques. In almost all techniques, the dominating process variables may be thermodynamic and aerodynamic in nature, and the design of the particle collection environment. Rapid Expansion of Supercritical Solutions (RESS), Supercritical Anti Solvent (SAS) and Particles from Gas Saturated Solutions (PGSS) are three groups of processes which lead to the production of fine and monodisperse powders. Few of them may also control crystal polymorphism. Among the aforementioned processes, RESS involves dissolving a drug in a supercritical fluid (SCF) and passing it through an appropriate nozzle. Rapid depressurization of this solution causes an extremely rapid nucleation of the product. This process has been known for a long time but its application

  18. Verification of energy dissipation rate scalability in pilot and production scale bioreactors using computational fluid dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Chris; Natarajan, Venkatesh; Antoniou, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Suspension mammalian cell cultures in aerated stirred tank bioreactors are widely used in the production of monoclonal antibodies. Given that production scale cell culture operations are typically performed in very large bioreactors (≥ 10,000 L), bioreactor scale-down and scale-up become crucial in the development of robust cell-culture processes. For successful scale-up and scale-down of cell culture operations, it is important to understand the scale-dependence of the distribution of the energy dissipation rates in a bioreactor. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations can provide an additional layer of depth to bioreactor scalability analysis. In this communication, we use CFD analyses of five bioreactor configurations to evaluate energy dissipation rates and Kolmogorov length scale distributions at various scales. The results show that hydrodynamic scalability is achievable as long as major design features (# of baffles, impellers) remain consistent across the scales. Finally, in all configurations, the mean Kolmogorov length scale is substantially higher than the average cell size, indicating that catastrophic cell damage due to mechanical agitation is highly unlikely at all scales.

  19. Measures of Gross National Happiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruut Veenhoven

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Happiness is rising on the political agenda and this calls for measures of how well nations perform in creating great happiness for a great number, analogous to measures of success in creating wealth, such as GDP. Happiness is defined as subjective enjoyment of one’s life as-a-whole and this can be measured using self-reports. Question on happiness are currently used in large scale surveys of the general population in nations. As a result we have now comparable data on happiness in 144 contemporary nations and time-series of 25 years and longer on 11 developed nations. These data can be aggregated in different ways: If the aim is simply greater happiness for a greater number of citizens, Average happiness (AH is an appropriate measure. If the focus is on enduring happiness, it is better to combine average happiness with longevity in an index of Happy Life Years (HLY. If the aim is to reduce disparity among citizens a relevant indicator is the Inequality of Happiness (IH in the nations as measured with the standard deviation. Average and dispersion can also be combined in an index of Inequality-Adjusted Happiness (IAH. Comparison across nations shows sizable differences on all these measures of gross national happiness and these differences correspond with societal characteristics that can be influenced by policy makers, such as freedom and justice. Comparison over time shows major improvement during the last decade.

  20. Straight-chain halocarbon forming fluids for TRISO fuel kernel production – Tests with yttria-stabilized zirconia microspheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, M.P. [Nuclear Science and Engineering Program, Metallurgical and Materials Engineering Department, Colorado School of Mines, 1500 Illinois St., Golden, CO 80401 (United States); King, J.C., E-mail: kingjc@mines.edu [Nuclear Science and Engineering Program, Metallurgical and Materials Engineering Department, Colorado School of Mines, 1500 Illinois St., Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Gorman, B.P. [Metallurgical and Materials Engineering Department, Colorado Center for Advanced Ceramics, Colorado School of Mines, 1500 Illinois St., Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Braley, J.C. [Nuclear Science and Engineering Program, Chemistry and Geochemistry Department, Colorado School of Mines, 1500 Illinois St., Golden, CO 80401 (United States)

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • YSZ TRISO kernels formed in three alternative, non-hazardous forming fluids. • Kernels characterized for size, shape, pore/grain size, density, and composition. • Bromotetradecane is suitable for further investigation with uranium-based precursor. - Abstract: Current methods of TRISO fuel kernel production in the United States use a sol–gel process with trichloroethylene (TCE) as the forming fluid. After contact with radioactive materials, the spent TCE becomes a mixed hazardous waste, and high costs are associated with its recycling or disposal. Reducing or eliminating this mixed waste stream would not only benefit the environment, but would also enhance the economics of kernel production. Previous research yielded three candidates for testing as alternatives to TCE: 1-bromotetradecane, 1-chlorooctadecane, and 1-iodododecane. This study considers the production of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) kernels in silicone oil and the three chosen alternative formation fluids, with subsequent characterization of the produced kernels and used forming fluid. Kernels formed in silicone oil and bromotetradecane were comparable to those produced by previous kernel production efforts, while those produced in chlorooctadecane and iodododecane experienced gelation issues leading to poor kernel formation and geometry.

  1. Inhibition of oncostatin M in osteoarthritic synovial fluid enhances GAG production in osteoarthritic cartilage repair

    OpenAIRE

    Beekhuizen, M.; GJVM van Osch; AGJ Bot; MCL Hoekstra; DBF Saris; WJA Dhert; LB Creemers

    2013-01-01

    Mediators in the synovial fluid are thought to play a major role in osteoarthritic cartilage turnover. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the role of oncostatin M (OSM) in osteoarthritis (OA) by evaluating the presence of the cytokine and its receptors in the OA joint and interfering with its activity in synovial fluid co-cultured with cartilage explants. OSM levels were increased in the synovial fluid of osteoarthritic patients compared to healthy donors. Immunohistochemistr...

  2. The Mechanics of Gross Moist Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeljka Fuchs

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The gross moist stability relates the net lateral outflow of moist entropy or moist static energy from an atmospheric convective region to some measure of the strength of the convection in that region. If the gross moist stability can be predicted as a function of the local environmental conditions, then it becomes the key element in understanding how convection is controlled by the large-scale flow. This paper provides a guide to the various ways in which the gross moist stability is defined and the subtleties of its calculation from observations and models. Various theories for the determination of the gross moist stability are presented and its roles in current conceptual models for the tropical atmospheric circulation are analyzed. The possible effect of negative gross moist stability on the development and dynamics of tropical disturbances is currently of great interest.

  3. Production of Natural Gas and Fluid Flow in Tight Sand Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maria Cecilia Bravo; Mariano Gurfinkel

    2005-06-30

    This document reports progress of this research effort in identifying possible relationships and defining dependencies between macroscopic reservoir parameters strongly affected by microscopic flow dynamics and production well performance in tight gas sand reservoirs. Based on a critical review of the available literature, a better understanding of the main weaknesses of the current state of the art of modeling and simulation for tight sand reservoirs has been reached. Progress has been made in the development and implementation of a simple reservoir simulator that is still able to overcome some of the deficiencies detected. The simulator will be used to quantify the impact of microscopic phenomena in the macroscopic behavior of tight sand gas reservoirs. Phenomena such as, Knudsen diffusion, electro-kinetic effects, ordinary diffusion mechanisms and water vaporization are being considered as part of this study. To date, the adequate modeling of gas slippage in porous media has been determined to be of great relevance in order to explain unexpected fluid flow behavior in tight sand reservoirs.

  4. Supercritical fluid extraction of Eucalyptus globulus bark-A promising approach for triterpenoid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues, Rui M A; Oliveira, Eduardo L G; Freire, Carmen S R; Couto, Ricardo M; Simões, Pedro C; Neto, Carlos P; Silvestre, Armando J D; Silva, Carlos M

    2012-01-01

    Eucalyptus bark contains significant amounts of triterpenoids with demonstrated bioactivity, namely triterpenic acids and their acetyl derivatives (ursolic, betulinic, oleanolic, betulonic, 3-acetylursolic, and 3-acetyloleanolic acids). In this work, the supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of Eucalyptus globulus deciduous bark was carried out with pure and modified carbon dioxide to recover this fraction, and the results were compared with those obtained by Soxhlet extraction with dichloromethane. The effects of pressure (100-200 bar), co-solvent (ethanol) content (0, 5 and 8% wt), and multistep operation were studied in order to evaluate the applicability of SFE for their selective and efficient production. The individual extraction curves of the main families of compounds were measured, and the extracts analyzed by GC-MS. Results pointed out the influence of pressure and the important role played by the co-solvent. Ethanol can be used with advantage, since its effect is more important than increasing pressure by several tens of bar. At 160 bar and 40 °C, the introduction of 8% (wt) of ethanol greatly improves the yield of triterpenoids more than threefold.

  5. Lignin depolymerisation in supercritical carbon dioxide/acetone/water fluid for the production of aromatic chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosselink, Richard J A; Teunissen, Wouter; van Dam, Jan E G; de Jong, Ed; Gellerstedt, Göran; Scott, Elinor L; Sanders, Johan P M

    2012-02-01

    Valorisation of lignin plays a key role in further development of lignocellulosic biorefinery processes the production of biofuels and bio-based materials. In the present study, organosolv hardwood and wheat straw lignins were converted in a supercritical fluid consisting of carbon dioxide/acetone/water (300-370°C, 100bar) to a phenolic oil consisting of oligomeric fragments and monomeric aromatic compounds with a total yield of 10-12% based on lignin. These yields are similar to the state-of-the-art technologies such as base-catalysed thermal processes applied for lignin depolymerisation. Addition of formic acid increases the yield of monomeric aromatic species by stabilizing aromatic radicals. Supercritical depolymerisation of wheat straw and hardwood lignin yielded monomeric compounds in different compositions with a maximum yield of 2.0% for syringic acid and 3.6% for syringol, respectively. The results of the present study showed that under the applied conditions competition occurred between lignin depolymerisation and recondensation of fragments.

  6. Identification and characterization of psychrotolerant sporeformers associated with fluid milk production and processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivy, Reid A; Ranieri, Matthew L; Martin, Nicole H; den Bakker, Henk C; Xavier, Bruno M; Wiedmann, Martin; Boor, Kathryn J

    2012-03-01

    Psychrotolerant spore-forming bacteria represent a major challenge to the goal of extending the shelf life of pasteurized dairy products. The objective of this study was to identify prominent phylogenetic groups of dairy-associated aerobic sporeformers and to characterize representative isolates for phenotypes relevant to growth in milk. Analysis of sequence data for a 632-nucleotide fragment of rpoB showed that 1,288 dairy-associated isolates (obtained from raw and pasteurized milk and from dairy farm environments) clustered into two major divisions representing (i) the genus Paenibacillus (737 isolates, including the species Paenibacillus odorifer, Paenibacillus graminis, and Paenibacillus amylolyticus sensu lato) and (ii) Bacillus (n = 467) (e.g., Bacillus licheniformis sensu lato, Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus weihenstephanensis) and genera formerly classified as Bacillus (n = 84) (e.g., Viridibacillus spp.). When isolates representing the most common rpoB allelic types (ATs) were tested for growth in skim milk broth at 6°C, 6/9 Paenibacillus isolates, but only 2/8 isolates representing Bacillus subtypes, grew >5 log CFU/ml over 21 days. In addition, 38/40 Paenibacillus isolates but only 3/47 Bacillus isolates tested were positive for β-galactosidase activity (including some isolates representing Bacillus licheniformis sensu lato, a common dairy-associated clade). Our study confirms that Paenibacillus spp. are the predominant psychrotolerant sporeformers in fluid milk and provides 16S rRNA gene and rpoB subtype data and phenotypic characteristics facilitating the identification of aerobic spore-forming spoilage organisms of concern. These data will be critical for the development of detection methods and control strategies that will reduce the introduction of psychrotolerant sporeformers and extend the shelf life of dairy products.

  7. On the Relationship between Fluid Intelligence, Gesture Production, and Brain Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wartenburger, Isabell; Kuhn, Esther; Sassenberg, Uta; Foth, Manja; Franz, Elizabeth A.; van der Meer, Elke

    2010-01-01

    Individuals scoring high in fluid intelligence tasks generally perform very efficiently in problem solving tasks and analogical reasoning tasks presumably because they are able to select the task-relevant information very quickly and focus on a limited set of task-relevant cognitive operations. Moreover, individuals with high fluid intelligence…

  8. Gross Domestic Product (GDP per capita and geographical distribution of ophthalmologists in Brazil Produto Interno Bruto (PIB per capita e a distribuição geográfica dos oftalmologistas no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina de Souza Carvalho

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To assess the number of ophthalmologists in Brazil, their regional distribution, ophthalmologist/habitant ratio, and the relation between ophthalmologist and State Gross Domestic Product (GDP per capita to aid public health policies. METHODS: An ecologic study was conducted. Data were obtained from the "Census 2011 Brazilian Ophthalmology Council", from "Demographic Census of Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE 2010 and from "Brazilian Regional Accounts, 2005-2009"- Ministry of Planning, Budget and Management - IBGE. RESULTS: The number of ophthalmologists in Brazil is 15,719. Considering the performance in more than one municipality, the number of ophthalmologists in service is 17,992, that is, one ophthalmologist for 10,601; the ophthalmologist/site ratio vary among the States from a minimum of 1/51,437 (Amapá to a maximum of 1/4,279 (Distrito Federal. There is a correlation among State GDP per capita and the number of ophthalmologists/habitant: the higher the GDP per capita, the larger is the number of ophthalmologists acting in the State (pOBJETIVO: Analisar o número de médicos que exercem a Oftalmologia no Brasil, sua distribuição regional; relação oftalmologista por habitante e Produto Interno Bruto (PIB Estadual per capita, para auxiliar as políticas de saúde pública. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado um estudo ecológico. Os dados foram obtidos do "Censo 2011 - Conselho Brasileiro de Oftalmologia", do "Censo Demográfico do Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE 2010 e do "Contas Regionais do Brasil, 2005-2009"- Ministério do Planejamento, Orçamento e Gestão - Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística - IBGE. RESULTADOS: O número de oftalmologistas no Brasil é de 15.719. Considerando a atuação em mais de um município, o número de oftalmologistas em atendimento é de 17.992, isto é um oftalmologista para 10.601; as relações oftalmologista/local de atendimento, variam entre os

  9. Stimuli-Responsive/Rheoreversible Hydraulic Fracturing Fluids as a Greener Alternative to Support Geothermal and Fossil Energy Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Hun Bok; Carroll, KC; Kabilan, Senthil; Heldebrant, David J.; Hoyt, David W.; Zhong, Lirong; Varga, Tamas; Stephens, Sean A.; Adams, Lexor; Bonneville, Alain; Kuprat, Andrew P.; Fernandez, Carlos A.

    2015-01-01

    Cost-effective yet safe creation of high-permeability reservoirs within deep bedrock is the primary challenge for the viability of enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) and unconventional oil/gas recovery. Although fracturing fluids are commonly used for oil/gas, standard fracturing methods are not developed or proven for EGS temperatures and pressures. Furthermore, the environmental impacts of currently used fracturing methods are only recently being determined. Widespread concerns about the environmental contamination have resulted in a number of regulations for fracturing fluids advocating for greener fracturing processes. To enable EGS feasibility and lessen environmental impact of reservoir stimulation, an environmentally benign, CO2-activated, rheoreversible fracturing fluid that enhances permeability through fracturing (at significantly lower effective stress than standard fracturing fluids) due to in situ volume expansion and gel formation is investigated herein. The chemical mechanism, stability, phase-change behavior, and rheology for a novel polyallylamine (PAA)-CO2 fracturing fluid was characterized at EGS temperatures and pressures. Hydrogel is formed upon reaction with CO2 and this process is reversible (via CO2 depressurization or solubilizing with a mild acid) allowing removal from the formation and recycling, decreasing environmental impact. Rock obtained from the Coso geothermal field was fractured in laboratory experiments under various EGS temperatures and pressures with comparison to standard fracturing fluids, and the fractures were characterized with imaging, permeability measurement, and flow modeling. This novel fracturing fluid and process may vastly reduce water usage and the environmental impact of fracturing practices and effectively make EGS production and unconventional oil/gas exploitation cost-effective and cleaner.

  10. Ultra high-temperature solids-free insulating packer fluid for oil and gas production, steam injection and geothermal wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ezell, R.G.; Harrison, D.J. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Canadian Section, Calgary, AB (Canada)]|[Halliburton Energy Services, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-10-15

    Uncontrolled heat transfer from production/injection tubing during thermal oil recovery via steam injection can be detrimental to the integrity of the casing and to the quality of the steam that is injected into the reservoir. An aqueous-based insulating packer fluid (IPF) was introduced to improve the steam injection process by controlling the total heat loss from the produced fluids to the surrounding wellbore, internal annuli and formation. The IPF was developed for elevated temperature environments through extensive investigation across multidisciplinary technology. The innovative system delivers performance beyond conventional systems of comparable thermal conductivity. Its density range and conductivity measurements were presented in this paper. High-temperature static aging tests showed superior gel integrity without any phase separation after exposure to temperatures higher than 260 degrees C. The new fluids are hydrate inhibitive, non-corrosive and pass oil and grease testing. They are considered to be environmentally sound by Gulf of Mexico standards. It was concluded that the new ultra high-performance insulating packer fluid (HTIPF) reduced the heat loss significantly by both conduction and convection. Heat transfer within the aqueous-based HTIPF was 97 per cent less than that of pure water. It was concluded that the HTIPF can be substituted for conventional packer fluids without compromising any well control issues. 21 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.

  11. The entropy production at the multi-fluid MHD solar wind termination shock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahr, Hans Joerg; Siewert, Mark [Argelander Institut fuer Astronomie, Universitaet Bonn, Auf dem Huegel 71, 53121 Bonn (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    It has become evident meanwhile that the MHD solar wind termination shock needs a multifluid theoretical approach to adequately describe the intertwisted physical complexity in the interaction between fields and particles. In this approach here we treat the passage of three separate fluids over the MHD shock, namely solar wind protons, pickup protons and electrons. Connected with the different downstream pressures of three fluids we also calculate the different fluid entropies that are produced at the shock passage. As we can show the most relevant contribution to the total particle entropy is connected with the electron pressure which actually by far dominates the downstream plasma pressure.

  12. PROSPECTS FOR USE OF CONDENSED GASES AND SUPERCRITICAL FLUIDS IN PHYTOCHEMICAL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demyanenko DV

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the given review article analysis of the literature and patent sources concerning main methods for intensification of extraction processes of medicinal vegetative raw materials – use of condensed gases and supercritical fluids (SCF on more acceptable extractants has been carried out for last 20 years. Urgency of the specified technologies consists in need for replacement of traditional extraction methods on power- and time-saving ones, and also in use of nontoxic, fire-proof and low-boiling solvents because the most of routine organic solvents (ethanol, methanol, acetone, chloroform, ethylacetate, etc. are toxic and/or flammable or expansive and rather hard to evaporate out from extracts obtained. The abovementioned trends are the most universal for intensification of extraction processes and sometimes purification of final or intermediate products acceptable for commercial scale of manufacture. The main advantages and disadvantages of the given methods are compared for different plant species and groups of biologically active substances (BAS. It has been shown that in most cases supercritical СО2 (SC-СО2 are inferior in its dissolving ability to number of condensed gases and, besides, such technology is much more expensive. The range of BAS taken with SC-СО2 is limited to mainly lipophilic compounds because of zero electrical dipole moment of SC-СО2 and its low polarity. As extractants alternative to SC-СО2 with higher dissolving ability SC - ethane, nitrogen monoxide, freons - R134а, R23, R32, R408 and number of others can be used. Also to enlarge range of extractable BAS it is possible to add different cosolvents, mainly ethanol or methanol in quantity up to 20%. At the same time in phytochemical production prospective alternatives to liquid or supercritical СО2 are certain condensed gases with wider range of physico-chemical properties: fluorinated derivatives of hydrocarbons (freons, liquid ammonia, dimethyl ether (DME

  13. Gross revenue risk in Swiss dairy farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Benni, N; Finger, R

    2013-02-01

    This study investigated how agricultural policy reforms, including market liberalization and market deregulation, have influenced gross revenue risk of Swiss dairy producers using farm-level panel data between 1990 and 2009. Based on detrended data, variance decomposition was applied to assess how output prices and yields contributed to revenue risk over 3 different periods: the whole period (1990-2009), the first decade (1990-1999), and the second decade (1999-2009). In addition, the effect of expected changes in animal-based support for roughage-consuming cattle and price volatility on revenue risk was evaluated using a simulation model. Prices were the main contributor to revenue risk, even if the importance of yield risk increased over time. Swiss dairy producers can profit from natural hedge but market deregulation and market liberalization have reduced the natural hedge at the farm level. An increase in price volatility would substantially increase revenue risk and would, together with the abandonment of direct payments, reduce the comparative advantage of dairy production for risk-averse decision makers. Depending on other available risk management strategies, price risk management instruments might be a valuable solution for Swiss dairy producers in the future.

  14. The future of gross anatomy teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malamed, S; Seiden, D

    1995-01-01

    A survey of U.S. departments of anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry shows that 39% of the respondent anatomy departments reported declines in the numbers of graduate students taking the human gross anatomy course. Similarly, 42% of the departments reported decreases in the numbers of graduate students teaching human gross anatomy. These decreases were greater in anatomy than in physiology and in biochemistry. The percentages of departments reporting increases in students taking or teaching their courses was 6% for human gross anatomy and 0% to 19% for physiology and biochemistry courses. To reverse this trend the establishment of specific programs for the training of gross anatomy teachers is advocated. These new teachers will be available as the need for them is increasingly recognized in the future.

  15. FUZZY ECCENTRICITY AND GROSS ERROR IDENTIFICATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The dominant and recessive effect made by exceptional interferer is analyzed in measurement system based on responsive character, and the gross error model of fuzzy clustering based on fuzzy relation and fuzzy equipollence relation is built. The concept and calculate formula of fuzzy eccentricity are defined to deduce the evaluation rule and function of gross error, on the base of them, a fuzzy clustering method of separating and discriminating the gross error is found. Utilized in the dynamic circular division measurement system, the method can identify and eliminate gross error in measured data, and reduce measured data dispersity. Experimental results indicate that the use of the method and model enables repetitive precision of the system to improve 80% higher than the foregoing system, to reach 3.5 s, and angle measurement error is less than 7 s.

  16. Validating the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Downs, Jenny; Stahlhut, Michelle; Wong, Kingsley;

    2016-01-01

    Rett syndrome is a pervasive neurodevelopmental disorder associated with a pathogenic mutation on the MECP2 gene. Impaired movement is a fundamental component and the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale was developed to measure gross motor abilities in this population. The current study investigated...... the validity and reliability of the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale. Video data showing gross motor abilities supplemented with parent report data was collected for 255 girls and women registered with the Australian Rett Syndrome Database, and the factor structure and relationships between motor scores, age...... and genotype were investigated. Clinical assessment scores for 38 girls and women with Rett syndrome who attended the Danish Center for Rett Syndrome were used to assess consistency of measurement. Principal components analysis enabled the calculation of three factor scores: Sitting, Standing and Walking...

  17. Production of lysophosphatidic acid in blister fluid: involvement of a lysophospholipase D activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazereeuw-Hautier, Juliette; Gres, Sandra; Fanguin, Madie; Cariven, Clotilde; Fauvel, Josette; Perret, Bertrand; Chap, Hugues; Salles, Jean-Pierre; Saulnier-Blache, Jean-Sébastien

    2005-09-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is present in abundance in serum resulting from platelet activation and is also found in other biological fluids. LPA controls numerous cellular responses and plays a role in specific functions such as wound healing, especially in the skin. Nevertheless, its presence in the skin has never been investigated. Since re-epithelialization occurs after blister rupture, we tested the presence of endogenous LPA in blister fluid and investigated a possible mechanism for its biosynthesis and biological functions. Using a radioenzymatic assay, LPA was detected in 33 blister fluids originating from 24 bullous dermatoses, and at higher concentrations than in plasma. In parallel, blister fluids contained a lysophospholipase D (LPLD) activity but no detectable phospholipase A2 activity. The expressions of the LPLD autotaxin (ATX) and of LPA1-receptor (LPA1-R) were greatly increased in blister skin when compared with normal skin. Finally, LPA was found to have a positive effect on the migration of cultured keratinocytes. These results show that LPA is present in blister fluid synthesized by the LPLD ATX. Due to its ability to enhance keratinocyte migration, LPA in blister fluid could, via the LPA1-R, play an important role in re-epithelialization occurring after blister rupture.

  18. Medical Grade Water Generation for Intravenous Fluid Production on Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederhaus, Charles E.; Barlow, Karen L.; Griffin, DeVon W.; Miller, Fletcher J.

    2008-01-01

    This document describes the intravenous (IV) fluids requirements for medical care during NASA s future Exploration class missions. It further discusses potential methods for generating such fluids and the challenges associated with different fluid generation technologies. The current Exploration baseline mission profiles are introduced, potential medical conditions described and evaluated for fluidic needs, and operational issues assessed. Conclusions on the fluid volume requirements are presented, and the feasibility of various fluid generation options are discussed. A separate report will document a more complete trade study on the options to provide the required fluids.At the time this document was developed, NASA had not yet determined requirements for medical care during Exploration missions. As a result, this study was based on the current requirements for care onboard the International Space Station (ISS). While we expect that medical requirements will be different for Exploration missions, this document will provide a useful baseline for not only developing hardware to generate medical water for injection (WFI), but as a foundation for meeting future requirements. As a final note, we expect WFI requirements for Exploration will be higher than for ISS care, and system capacity may well need to be higher than currently specified.

  19. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia presenting with gross hematuria

    OpenAIRE

    Kalbani, Naifain Al; Weitzman, Sheila; Abdelhaleem, Mohamed; Carcao, Manuel; Abla, Oussama

    2007-01-01

    A case of a six-year-old boy presenting with gross hematuria is reported. Investigations revealed the etiology of the hematuria to be thrombocytopenia in the setting of newly diagnosed acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The diagnosis of leukemia was confirmed by bone marrow examination. The patient’s hematuria completely resolved with platelet transfusions. Although thrombocytopenia is a very common presenting feature of acute lymphoblastic leukemia, gross hematuria is exceedingly rare. Thus, thro...

  20. Validating the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Jenny; Stahlhut, Michelle; Wong, Kingsley; Syhler, Birgit; Bisgaard, Anne-Marie; Jacoby, Peter; Leonard, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Rett syndrome is a pervasive neurodevelopmental disorder associated with a pathogenic mutation on the MECP2 gene. Impaired movement is a fundamental component and the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale was developed to measure gross motor abilities in this population. The current study investigated the validity and reliability of the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale. Video data showing gross motor abilities supplemented with parent report data was collected for 255 girls and women registered with the Australian Rett Syndrome Database, and the factor structure and relationships between motor scores, age and genotype were investigated. Clinical assessment scores for 38 girls and women with Rett syndrome who attended the Danish Center for Rett Syndrome were used to assess consistency of measurement. Principal components analysis enabled the calculation of three factor scores: Sitting, Standing and Walking, and Challenge. Motor scores were poorer with increasing age and those with the p.Arg133Cys, p.Arg294* or p.Arg306Cys mutation achieved higher scores than those with a large deletion. The repeatability of clinical assessment was excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient for total score 0.99, 95% CI 0.93-0.98). The standard error of measurement for the total score was 2 points and we would be 95% confident that a change 4 points in the 45-point scale would be greater than within-subject measurement error. The Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale could be an appropriate measure of gross motor skills in clinical practice and clinical trials.

  1. Stimuli Responsive/Rheoreversible Hydraulic Fracturing Fluids for Enhanced Geothermal Energy Production (Part II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonneville, Alain; Jung, Hun Bok; Shao, Hongbo; Kabilan, Senthil; Um, Wooyong; Carroll, Kenneth C.; Varga, Tamas; Suresh, Niraj; Stephens, Sean A.; Fernandez, Carlos A.

    2014-12-14

    We have used an environmentally friendly and recyclable hydraulic fracturing fluid - diluted aqueous solutions of polyallylamine or PAA – for reservoir stimulation in Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS). This fluid undergoes a controlled and large volume expansion with a simultaneous increase in viscosity triggered by CO2 at EGS temperatures. We are presenting here the results of laboratory-scale hydraulic fracturing experiment using the fluid on small cylindrical rock cores (1.59 cm in diameter and 5.08 cm in length) from the Coso geothermal field in California. Rock samples consisted of Mesozoic diorite metamorphosed to greenschist facies. The experiments were conducted on 5 samples for realistic ranges of pressures (up to 275 bar) and temperatures (up to 210 °C) for both the rock samples and the injected fluid. After fracturing, cores were subjected to a CO2 leakage test, injection of KI solution, and X-ray microtomography (XMT) scanning to examine the formation and distribution of fractures. The design and conduct of these experiments will be presented and discussed in details. Based on the obtained XMT images, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations were then performed to visualize hydraulic fractures and compute the bulk permeability. OpenFOAM (OpenCFD Ltd., Reading, UK), was used to solve the steady state simulation. The flow predictions, based upon the laminar, 3-D, incompressible Navier-Stokes equations for fluid mass and momentum, show the remarkable stimulation of the permeability in the core samples and demonstrate the efficiency of such a CO2 triggered fluid in EGS.

  2. Procedure for controlling the extraction of production fluid from a production well; Fremgangsmaate for aa styre uttrekking av produksjonsfluid fra en produksjonsbroenn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curlett, H.B.

    1996-06-17

    Basic well drilling techniques have not changed throughout the years: a number of drill pipes connected into a drill column are rotated along with a drill bit in the ground formation. It has been difficult to obtain instant information on the local parameters during the drilling operation. Such information is required by the drilling operator for efficient operation. The present invention concerns controlling the extraction of production fluids from a production well, characterized by externally monitoring local well parameters by means of signals from sensors in the well. If the signals indicate that defined limiting values of one or more parameters have been exceeded, one or more of different fluids are pumped simultaneously and independently down individually assigned conduits to restore the parameters to within their normal ranges. 28 figs.

  3. PREDICTION OF GROSS FEED EFFICIENCY IN ITALIAN HOLSTEIN FRIESIAN BULLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaella Finocchiaro

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to predict gross feed efficiency of Italian Holstein Friesian bulls selected for production, functional and type traits. A total of 12,238 bulls, from the April 2015 genetic evaluation, were used. Predicted daily gross feed efficiency (pFE was obtained as ratio between milk yield (MY and predicted dry matter intake (pDMI. Phenotypic trend for MY, predicted body weight (pBW and pFE were calculated by the bull birth year. The results suggest that pFE can be successfully selected to increase profitability of dairy cattle using the current milk recording system. Direct measurements on DMI should be considered to confirm results of pFE obtained in the present study.

  4. Cosmology with bulk viscosity and the gravitino problem. Consequences of imperfect fluids on gravitino production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buoninfante, L.; Lambiase, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica ' ' E.R. Caianiello' ' Universita di Salerno, Fisciano (Italy); INFN-Gruppo Collegato di Salerno, Fisciano (Italy)

    2017-05-15

    The gravitino problem is revisited in the framework of cosmological models in which the primordial cosmic matter is described by a relativistic imperfect fluid. Dissipative effects (or bulk viscosity effects) arise owing to the different cooling rates of the fluid components. We show that the effects of the bulk viscosity allow one to avoid the late abundance of gravitinos. In particular, for particular values of the parameters characterizing the cosmological model, the gravitino abundance turns out to be weakly depending on the reheating temperature. (orig.)

  5. Fluid versus global model approach for the modeling of active species production by streamer discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levko, Dmitry; Raja, Laxminarayan L.

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we seek to validate the zero-dimensional (global) model approach for the modeling of the plasma composition in high pressure reactive streamer discharges. We focus on streamers typical of dielectric barrier discharge that are widely used, for instance, for plasma-assisted reforming of greenhouse gases. However, our conclusions can be extended to the streamers used in plasma-assisted ignition/combustion and other related systems. First, we perform two-dimensional fluid simulations for streamers with positive and negative trigger voltages and analyze the difference between the breakdown mechanisms of these two modes. Second, we use the time evolution of the electron heating term obtained from the fluid simulations as the input parameter of the global model and compare the plasma component content predicted by this model with the results of the fluid model. We obtain a very good agreement between fluid and global models for all species generated in plasma. However, we conclude that streamers initiated by the positive and negative trigger voltage cannot be considered as symmetrical which is usually done in global models of barrier discharge reactors.

  6. Computational fluid dynamics approaches in quality and hygienic production of semisolid low-moisture foods: a review of critical factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Arpita; Buchanan, Robert L; Lo, Y Martin

    2014-10-01

    Low-moisture foods have been responsible for a number of salmonellosis outbreaks worldwide over the last few decades, with cross contamination from contaminated equipment being the most predominant source. To date, actions have been focused on stringent hygienic practices prior to production, namely periodical sanitization of the processing equipment and lines. Not only does optimum sanitization require in-depth knowledge on the type and source of contaminants, but also the heat resistance of microorganisms is unique and often dependent on the heat transfer characteristics of the low-moisture foods. Rheological properties, including viscosity, degree of turbulence, and flow characteristics (for example, Newtonian or non-Newtonian) of both liquid and semisolid foods are critical factors impacting the flow behavior that consequently interferes heat transfer and related control elements. The demand for progressively more accurate prediction of complex fluid phenomena has called for the employment of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to model mass and heat transfer during processing of various food products, ranging from drying to baking. With the aim of improving the quality and safety of low-moisture foods, this article critically reviewed the published literature concerning microbial survival in semisolid low-moisture foods, including chocolate, honey, and peanut butter. Critical rheological properties and state-of-the-art CFD application relevant to quality production of those products were also addressed. It is anticipated that adequate prediction of specific transport properties during optimum sanitization through CFD could be used to solve current and future food safety challenges.

  7. Concurrent Validity of Preschooler Gross Motor Quality Scale with Test of Gross Motor Development-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shih-Heng; Sun, Hsiao-Ling; Zhu, Yi-Ching; Huang, Li-chi; Hsieh, Yueh-Ling

    2011-01-01

    Preschooler Gross Motor Quality Scale (PGMQ) was recently developed to evaluate motor skill quality of preschoolers. The purpose of this study was to establish the concurrent validity of PGMQ using Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (TGMD-2) as the gold standard. One hundred and thirty five preschool children aged from three to six years were…

  8. BOREAS HYD-8 Gross Precipitation Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Richard; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Knapp, David E. (Editor); Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Hydrology (HYD)-08 team made measurements of surface hydrological processes at the Southern Study Area-Old Black Spruce (SSA-OBS) Tower Flux site to support its research into point hydrological processes and the spatial variation of these processes. Data collected may be useful in characterizing canopy interception, drip, throughfall, moss interception, drainage, evaporation, and capacity during the growing season at daily temporal resolution. This particular data set contains the gross precipitation measurements for July to August 1996. Gross precipitation is the precipitation that falls that is not intercepted by tree canopies. These data are stored in ASCII text files. The HYD-08 gross precipitation data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  9. Multiregional estimation of gross internal migration flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot, D K; Milne, W J

    1989-01-01

    "A multiregional model of gross internal migration flows is presented in this article. The interdependence of economic factors across all regions is recognized by imposing a non-stochastic adding-up constraint that requires total inmigration to equal total outmigration in each time period. An iterated system estimation technique is used to obtain asymptotically consistent and efficient parameter estimates. The model is estimated for gross migration flows among the Canadian provinces over the period 1962-86 and then is used to examine the likelihood of a wash-out effect in net migration models. The results indicate that previous approaches that use net migration equations may not always be empirically justified."

  10. The Gross conjecture over rational function fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OUYANG; Yi

    2005-01-01

    We study the Gross conjecture for the cyclotomic function field extension k(∧f)/k where k = Fq(t) is the rational function field and f is a monic polynomial in Fq[t].We prove the conjecture in the Fermat curve case(i.e., when f = t(t - 1)) by a direct calculation. We also prove the case when f is irreducible, which is analogous to the Weil reciprocity law. In the general case, we manage to show the weak version of the Gross conjecture here.

  11. Extrema principles of entropy production and energy dissipation in fluid mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, W. Clifton; Karamcheti, Krishnamurty

    1988-01-01

    A survey is presented of several extrema principles of energy dissipation as applied to problems in fluid mechanics. An exact equation is derived for the dissipation function of a homogeneous, isotropic, Newtonian fluid, with terms associated with irreversible compression or expansion, wave radiation, and the square of the vorticity. By using entropy extrema principles, simple flows such as the incompressible channel flow and the cylindrical vortex are identified as minimal dissipative distributions. The principal notions of stability of parallel shear flows appear to be associated with a maximum dissipation condition. These different conditions are consistent with Prigogine's classification of thermodynamic states into categories of equilibrium, linear nonequilibrium, and nonlinear nonequilibrium thermodynamics; vortices and acoustic waves appear as examples of dissipative structures. The measurements of a typical periodic shear flow, the rectangular wall jet, show that direct measurements of the dissipative terms are possible.

  12. Extrema principles of entrophy production and energy dissipation in fluid mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, W. Clifton; Karamcheti, Krishnamurty

    1988-01-01

    A survey is presented of several extrema principles of energy dissipation as applied to problems in fluid mechanics. An exact equation is derived for the dissipation function of a homogeneous, isotropic, Newtonian fluid, with terms associated with irreversible compression or expansion, wave radiation, and the square of the vorticity. By using entropy extrema principles, simple flows such as the incompressible channel flow and the cylindrical vortex are identified as minimal dissipative distributions. The principal notions of stability of parallel shear flows appears to be associated with a maximum dissipation condition. These different conditions are consistent with Prigogine's classification of thermodynamic states into categories of equilibrium, linear nonequilibrium, and nonlinear nonequilibrium thermodynamics; vortices and acoustic waves appear as examples of dissipative structures. The measurements of a typical periodic shear flow, the rectangular wall jet, show that direct measurements of the dissipative terms are possible.

  13. Early chest tube removal after video-assisted thoracic surgery lobectomy with serous fluid production up to 500 ml/day

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Lars S; Jensen, Katrine; Petersen, Rene Horsleben

    2014-01-01

    In fast-track pulmonary resections, we removed chest tubes after video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) lobectomy with serous fluid production up to 500 ml/day. Subsequently, we evaluated the frequency of recurrent pleural effusions requiring reintervention.......In fast-track pulmonary resections, we removed chest tubes after video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) lobectomy with serous fluid production up to 500 ml/day. Subsequently, we evaluated the frequency of recurrent pleural effusions requiring reintervention....

  14. Determination of respiration, gross nitrification and denitrification in soil profile using BaPS system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Shu-tao; HUANG Yao

    2006-01-01

    A facility of BaPS (Barometric Process Separation) was used to determine soil respiration, gross nitrification and denitrification in a winter wheat field with depths of 0-7, 7-14 and 14-21 cm. N2O production was determined by a gas chromatograph. Crop root mass and relevant soil parameters were measured. Results showed that soil respiration and gross nitrification decreased with the increase of soil depth, while denitrification did not change significantly. In comparison with no-plowing plot, soil respiration increased significantly in plowing plot, especially in the surface soil of 0-7 cm, while gross nitrification and denitrification rates were not affected by plowing. Cropping practice in previous season was found to affect soil gross nitrification in the following wheat-growing season. Higher gross nitrification rate occurred in the filed plot with preceding crop of rice compared with that of maize for all the three depths of 0-7, 7-14 and 14-21 cm. A further investigation indicated that the nitrification for all the cases accounted for about 76% of the total nitrogen transformation processes of nitrification and denitrification and the N2O production correlated with nitrification significantly, suggesting that nitrification is a key process of soil N2O production in the wheat field. In addition, the variations of soil respiration and gross nitrification were exponentially dependent on root mass (P<0.001).

  15. Lactulose efficacy in reduction of nitrogen products, blood potassium and fluid overload in patients with end-stage renal failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negin Aleagha

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chronic kidney disease (CKD is a major public health problem that often goes unrecognized until its late-stage. Patients with chronic kidney disease face uremic toxins and hyperkalemia. Also, fluid overload in CKD patients is associated with rapid decline in kidney function. Lactulose is a hyperosmotic agent and as a prebiotic, it plays an important role in regulating serum urea and potassium levels and has some effects on fluid overload. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of lactulose on serum levels of biochemical products in patients with CKD. Materials and Methods: In this interventional study, 17 patients with end stage of CKD ( 76.47 % men; mean age 65.88 ± 13.4 were evaluated.All patients received lactulose, 10 ml, 3 times per day for 3 months. Blood samples from all participants were collected before and at the end of intervention to examine changes in biochemical parameters, including potassium, urea, creatinine and uric acid. Results: Lactulose significantly decreased urea levels (p=0.001, blood potassium (0.001 and fluid overload(considering the patient’s weight p=0.001 in patients with end-stage renal failure. The decrease in serum creatinine and uric acid were not significant. Conclusion: Lactulose administration in CKD patients could decrease levels of various deleterious elements, especially urea and blood potassium and its daily use can be recommended in these patients.

  16. Gross Revenue risk in Swiss dairy farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benni, El N.; Finger, R.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated how agricultural policy reforms, including market liberalization and market deregulation, have influenced gross revenue risk of Swiss dairy producers using farm-level panel data between 1990 and 2009. Based on detrended data, variance decomposition was applied to assess how o

  17. Gross Revenue risk in Swiss dairy farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benni, El N.; Finger, R.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated how agricultural policy reforms, including market liberalization and market deregulation, have influenced gross revenue risk of Swiss dairy producers using farm-level panel data between 1990 and 2009. Based on detrended data, variance decomposition was applied to assess how

  18. Impacts of antioxidants on hydroxyl radical production from individual and mixed transition metals in a surrogate lung fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charrier, Jessica G.; Anastasio, Cort

    2011-12-01

    Inhalation of ambient particulate matter causes morbidity and mortality in humans. One hypothesized mechanism of toxicity is the particle-induced formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) - including the highly damaging hydroxyl radical ( rad OH) - followed by inflammation and a variety of diseases. While past studies have found correlations between ROS formation and a variety of metals, there are no quantitative measurements of rad OH formation from transition metals at concentrations relevant to 24-hour ambient particulate exposure. This research reports specific and quantitative measurements of rad OH formation from 10 individual transition metals (and several mixtures) in a cell-free surrogate lung fluid (SLF) with four antioxidants: ascorbate, citrate, glutathione, and uric acid. We find that Fe and Cu can produce rad OH under all antioxidant conditions as long as ascorbate is present and that mixtures of the two metals synergistically increase rad OH production. Manganese and vanadium can also produce rad OH under some conditions, but given that their ambient levels are typically very low, these metals are not likely to chemically produce significant levels of rad OH in the lung fluid. Cobalt, chromium, nickel, zinc, lead, and cadmium do not produce rad OH under any of our experimental conditions. The antioxidant composition of our SLF significantly affects rad OH production from Fe and Cu: ascorbate is required for rad OH formation, citrate increases rad OH production from Fe, and both citrate and glutathione suppress rad OH production from Cu. MINTEQ ligand speciation modeling indicates that citrate and glutathione affect rad OH production by changing metal speciation, altering the reactivity of the metals. In the most realistic SLF (i.e., with all four antioxidants), Fe generates approximately six times more rad OH than does the equivalent amount of Cu. Since levels of soluble Fe in PM are typically higher than those of Cu, our results suggest that Fe

  19. The response of gross nitrogen mineralization to labile carbon inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtson, Per

    2014-05-01

    Input of labile carbon sources to forest soils commonly result in priming, i.e. an increase in the microbial decomposition of soil organic matter. Efforts aimed at quantifying the extent of priming have, to date, largely focused on soil organic matter decomposition manifested as soil respiration. Less is known about how gross nitrogen mineralization responds to input of labile carbon. It is often assumed that increased priming results in decreased soil carbon stocks. However, microbial mineralization of organic nitrogen into plant available forms is a major factor limiting primary production in forests. If increased decomposition of soil organic matter in response to labile carbon is accompanied by a concurrent increased nitrogen mineralization, this could result in elevated primary production and higher rates of plant derived organic matter input to soils. Therefore, in order to fully understand the effect of priming on net ecosystem exchange and soil carbon stocks, it is vital to consider if increased decomposition of soil organic matter caused by priming also results in increased nitrogen mineralization. Here I present the results from a series of experiments aimed at determining if, and to which extent, gross nitrogen mineralization is stimulated by input of labile carbon. The results suggest that it is by no means uncommon to find an increase in gross N mineralization rates in response to labile carbon inputs. The magnitude of the increase seems dependent on the nitrogen status of the soil, as well as the concentration and rate of labile carbon inputs. However, continuous input of labile carbon sources that also contains nitrogen, e.g. amino acids, seems to inhibit rather than increase the mineralization of organic nitrogen. These findings suggest that there is a potential for a positive feedback between priming and primary production that needs to be considered in order to fully understand the influence of priming on net ecosystem exchange and soil carbon

  20. Radioimmunoassay for anaphylatoxins: a sensitive method for determining complement activation products in biological fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, J.L.; Hugli, T.E.

    1984-01-01

    Activation of the blood complement system generates bioactive fragments called anaphylatoxins. The three anaphylatoxins C3a, C4a, and C5a are released during classical pathway activation while only C3a and C5a are released when the alternative pathway of complement is activated. Radioimmunoassays were designed to individually detect and quantitate the activation fragments C3a, C4a, and C5a in biological fluids without interference from the precursor molecules C3, C4, and C5. Kinetics of complement activation in fresh human serum exposed to the activators zymosan, heat-aggregated immunoglobulin, or cobra venom factor were monitored using the radioimmunoassay technique. For the first time, activation of components C3, C4, and C5 was followed simultaneously in a single serum sample. Analysis of the patterns and extent of anaphylatoxin formation during activation in serum may be used to screen for deficiencies or defects in the complement cascade. Levels of the anaphylatoxins in freshly drawn serum were much higher than levels detected in EDTA-plasma. Detection of low-level complement activation in patient's blood, urine, or synovial fluid, using anaphylatoxin formation as an indicator, may prove useful in signaling numerous forms of inflammatory reactions. The demonstration of anaphylatoxins in clinical samples is being recognized as a valuable diagnostic tool in monitoring the onset of immune disease.

  1. Genome-Centric Analysis of Microbial Populations Enriched by Hydraulic Fracture Fluid Additives in a Coal Bed Methane Production Well.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Steven J; Evans, Paul N; Parks, Donovan H; Golding, Suzanne D; Tyson, Gene W

    2016-01-01

    Coal bed methane (CBM) is generated primarily through the microbial degradation of coal. Despite a limited understanding of the microorganisms responsible for this process, there is significant interest in developing methods to stimulate additional methane production from CBM wells. Physical techniques including hydraulic fracture stimulation are commonly applied to CBM wells, however the effects of specific additives contained in hydraulic fracture fluids on native CBM microbial communities are poorly understood. Here, metagenomic sequencing was applied to the formation waters of a hydraulically fractured and several non-fractured CBM production wells to determine the effect of this stimulation technique on the in-situ microbial community. The hydraulically fractured well was dominated by two microbial populations belonging to the class Phycisphaerae (within phylum Planctomycetes) and candidate phylum Aminicenantes. Populations from these phyla were absent or present at extremely low abundance in non-fractured CBM wells. Detailed metabolic reconstruction of near-complete genomes from these populations showed that their high relative abundance in the hydraulically fractured CBM well could be explained by the introduction of additional carbon sources, electron acceptors, and biocides contained in the hydraulic fracture fluid.

  2. Fluid and Rock Property Controls On Production And Seismic Monitoring Alaska Heavy Oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liberatore, Matthew [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Herring, Andy [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Prasad, Manika [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Dorgan, John [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Batzle, Mike [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)

    2012-10-30

    The goal of this project is to improve recovery of Alaskan North Slope (ANS) heavy oil resources in the Ugnu formation by improving our understanding of the formation's vertical and lateral heterogeneities via core evaluation, evaluating possible recovery processes, and employing geophysical monitoring to assess production and modify production operations.

  3. Maximizing light olefins production in fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) units; Maximizacao de olefinas leves em unidades de craqueamento catalitico fluido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pimenta, Ricardo D.M.; Pinho, Andrea de Rezende [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The Fluid Catalytic Cracking (FCC) process is widely spread over the ten PETROBRAS refineries in its thirteen industrial units. The importance of the FCC process resides on its high gasoline output, being the main supplier of this important product to the system. Additionally, FCC process is the main source of light hydrocarbons in the LPG range, including light olefins. The increasing demand for ethylene, propylene and butylenes was encouraging to concentrate the research efforts on studies about alternatives for the traditional FCC process. In the present work, the proposals from main licensors (UOP, KBR, Stone and Webster) for a light-olefins-driven FCC process (Petrochemical FCC) will be compared. Furthermore, the catalytic route for light olefins production in FCC units is also described. An additive based on ZSM- 5 zeolite, which is produced following a PETROBRAS proprietary technology, is being largely applied into the catalyst inventories of all FCC units. An analysis of different scenarios was performed to estimate the maximum potential of light olefins production from the highest possible ZSM-5 additive usage. More specifically for the case of ethylene, which production is also boosted by the same type of additive, studies are being conducted with the objective of recovering it from a C2 stream using specific units to do the splitting (UPGR). The search for increasing light olefins production in the refining processes is in line with PETROBRAS strategic plan which targeted for the company a more intense activity in the Brazilian petrochemical market (author)

  4. Maximizing light olefins production in fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) units; Maximizacao de olefinas leves em unidades de craqueamento catalitico fluido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pimenta, Ricardo D.M.; Pinho, Andrea de Rezende [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The Fluid Catalytic Cracking (FCC) process is widely spread over the ten PETROBRAS refineries in its thirteen industrial units. The importance of the FCC process resides on its high gasoline output, being the main supplier of this important product to the system. Additionally, FCC process is the main source of light hydrocarbons in the LPG range, including light olefins. The increasing demand for ethylene, propylene and butylenes was encouraging to concentrate the research efforts on studies about alternatives for the traditional FCC process. In the present work, the proposals from main licensors (UOP, KBR, Stone and Webster) for a light-olefins-driven FCC process (Petrochemical FCC) will be compared. Furthermore, the catalytic route for light olefins production in FCC units is also described. An additive based on ZSM- 5 zeolite, which is produced following a PETROBRAS proprietary technology, is being largely applied into the catalyst inventories of all FCC units. An analysis of different scenarios was performed to estimate the maximum potential of light olefins production from the highest possible ZSM-5 additive usage. More specifically for the case of ethylene, which production is also boosted by the same type of additive, studies are being conducted with the objective of recovering it from a C2 stream using specific units to do the splitting (UPGR). The search for increasing light olefins production in the refining processes is in line with PETROBRAS strategic plan which targeted for the company a more intense activity in the Brazilian petrochemical market (author)

  5. GROSS CAPITAL FORMATION AND ECONOMIC GROWTH DURING EARLY 2000’S IN EU-MEMBER AND CANDIDATES STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin-Marius PAVELESCU

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to reveal the correlation between the gross capital formation and the gross domestic product in countries of the European Union in 2007, during the period 1999-2006. The evaluation is made both on demand side and on supply side. On the demand side we take into account the gross capital formation dynamics and structure and the gross domestic product dynamics. On the supply side calculate the capital accumulation efficiency, through modification of the formulae resulted from Domar’s economic growth model in order to emphasise the impact of domestic demand and net export changes. In the end we present some conclusions and proposals for gross capital formation contribution to economic growth methodology improvement.

  6. Enhanced Wellbore Stabilization and Reservoir Productivity with Aphron Drilling Fluid Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fred Growcock

    2004-03-31

    During this second Quarter of the Project, the first four tasks of Phase I--all focusing on the behavior of aphrons--were continued: (a) Aphron Visualization--evaluate and utilize various methods of monitoring and measuring aphron size distribution at elevated pressure; (b) Fluid Density--investigate the effects of pressure, temperature and chemical composition on the survivability of aphrons; (c) Aphron Air Diffusivity--determine the rate of loss of air from aphrons during pressurization; and (d) Pressure Transmissibility--determine whether aphron bridges created in fractures and pore throats reduce fracture propagation. The project team expanded the laboratory facilities and purchased a high-pressure system to measure bubble size distribution, a dissolved oxygen (DO) probe and computers for data acquisition. Although MASI Technologies LLC is not explicitly ISO-certified, all procedures are being documented in a manner commensurate with ISO 9001 certification, including equipment inventory and calibration, data gathering and reporting, chemical inventory and supplier data base, waste management procedures and emergency response plan. Several opportunities presented themselves to share the latest aphron drilling fluid technology with potential clients, including presentation of papers and working exhibit booths at the IADC/SPE Drilling Conference and the SPE Coiled Tubing Conference & Exhibition. In addition, a brief trip to the Formation Damage Symposium resulted in contacts for possible collaboration with ActiSystems, the University of Alberta and TUDRP/ACTS at the University of Tulsa. Preliminary results indicate that the Aphron Visualization and Pressure Transmissibility tasks should be completed on time. Although the Aphron Air Diffusivity task has been impeded by the lack of a suitable DO probe, it is hoped to be completed on time, too. The Fluid Density task, on the other hand, has had significant delays caused by faulty equipment and will likely require an

  7. Activity level of gross α and gross β in airborne aerosol samples around the Qinshan NPP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Bin; YE Jida; CHEN Qianyuan; WU Xiaofei; SONG Weili; WANG Hongfeng

    2007-01-01

    The monitoring results of gross α and gross β activity from 2001 to 2005 for environmental airborne aerosol samples around the Qinshan NPP base are presented in this paper. A total of 170 aerosol samples were collected from monitoring sites of Caichenmen village, Qinlian village, Xiajiawan village and Yangliucun village around the Qinshan NPP base. The measured specific activity of gross α and gross β are in the range of 0.02 ~ 0.38 mBq/m3 and 0.10 ~ 1.81 mBq/m3, respectively, with an average of 0.11 mBq/m3 and 0.45mBq/m3, respectively. They are lower than the average of 0.15 mBq/m3 and 0.52mBq/m3, of reference site at Hangzhou City. It is indicated that the specific activity of gross α and gross β for environmental aerosol samples around the Qinshan NPP base had not been increased in normal operating conditions of the NPP.

  8. Evaluation of free i-applications for tertiary level gross anatomy education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew F. Pollard

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe use of electronic resources in education, including i-applications used on portable handheld devices, is increasing. Apple® handheld devices are popular, with free applications the most prevalent download form. Many gross anatomy i-applications are available, however no information on the quality of free anatomy products is available. Rating such products could therefore guide product recommendations.AimTo evaluate the quality and range of free iPod® applications that are applicable for tertiary level gross anatomy education.MethodsA search of the iTunes® Application Store with keywords anatomy, free, medical, functional, clinical, gross, and human was performed, with inclusion based on free applications containing human gross anatomy usable for tertiary education purposes. Application specification was noted; each was trialled independently and rated for usability, specification, academic level, and quality (image and programme.ResultsSixty-three applications were identified and eleven met inclusion criteria. Two provided gross anatomy of the entire body, nine examined specific regions or systems. Five were judged introductory in academic level, five intermediate, and one advanced. One application was rated low quality, and four excellent. None were considered difficult to use (six easy, five medium. Application size ranged between 1.2MB and 229MB (mean 27MB.ConclusionsThere are few free i-applications for learning gross anatomy and most concentrate on individual body systems, with the academic level and usability of all products well rated. Results suggest some free I-applications could be suitable adjuncts for gross anatomy education at both an undergraduate and graduate level.

  9. Biogas production from pretreated coffee-pulp waste by mixture of cow dung and rumen fluid in co-digestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliastuti, Sri Rachmania; Widjaja, Tri; Altway, Ali; Iswanto, Toto

    2017-05-01

    Coffee is an excellent commodity in Indonesia that has big problem in utilizing its wastes. As the solution, the abundant coffee pulp waste from processing of coffee bean industry has been used as a substrate of biogas production. Coffee pulp waste (CPW) was approximately 48% of total weight, consisting 42% of the coffee pulp and 6% of the seed coat. CPW holds good composition as biogas substrate that is consist of cellulose (63%), hemicellulose (2.3%) and protein (11.5%). Methane production from coffee pulp waste still has much problems because of toxic chemicals content such as caffeine, tannin, and total phenol which can inhibit the biogas production. In this case, CPW was pretreated by ethanol/water (50/50, v/v) at room temperature to remove those inhibitors. This study was to compare the methane production by microbial consortium of cow dung and rumen fluid mixture coffee pulp waste as a substrate with and without pretreatment. The pretreated CPW was fermented with mixture of Cow Dung (CD) and Rumen Fluid (RF) in anaerobic co-digestion for 30 days at mesophilic temperature (30-40°C) and the pH was maintained from 6.8 to 7.2 on a reactor with working volume of 3.6 liters. There were two reactors with each containing the mixture of CPW without pretreatment, cow dung and rumen fluid (CD+RF+CPW) and then compared with the CPW with pretreatment (CD+RF+PCPW) reactor. The measured parameters included the decreasing of inhibitor compound concentration, Volatile Fatty Acids (VFAs), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Total Solid (TS), Volatile Solid (VS), Methane and the Calorific value of gas (heating value) were studied as well. The result showed a decrease in inhibitor component concentration due to methanol pretreatment was 90% of caffeine; 78% of polyphenols (total phenol) and 66% of tannins. The highest methane content in biogas was produced in CD+RF+PCPW digester with concentration amounted of 44.56% with heating value of 27,770 BTU/gal.

  10. Noncommutative complex Grosse-Wulkenhaar model

    CERN Document Server

    Hounkonnou, Mahouton Norbert

    2012-01-01

    This paper stands for an application of the noncommutative (NC) Noether theorem, given in our previous work [AIP Proc 956 (2007) 55-60], for the NC complex Grosse-Wulkenhaar model. It provides with an extension of a recent work [Physics Letters B 653 (2007) 343-345]. The local conservation of energy-momentum tensors (EMTs) is recovered using improvement procedures based on Moyal algebraic techniques. Broken dilatation symmetry is discussed. NC gauge currents are also explicitly computed.

  11. The interactive effect of the degradation of cotton clothing and decomposition fluid production associated with decaying remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueland, Maiken; Nizio, Katie D; Forbes, Shari L; Stuart, Barbara H

    2015-10-01

    Textiles are a commonly encountered source of evidence in forensic cases. In the past, most research has been focused on how textiles affect the decomposition process while little attention has been paid to how the decomposition products interact with the textiles. While some studies have shown that the presence of remains will have an effect on the degradation of clothing associated with a decaying body, very little work has been carried out on the specific mechanisms that prevent or delay textile degradation when in contact with decomposing remains. In order to investigate the effect of decomposition fluid on textile degradation, three clothed domestic pig (Sus scrofa domesticus) carcasses were placed on a soil surface, textile specimens were collected over a period of a year and were then analysed using ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and GC-MS. Multivariate statistical analysis was used to analyse the data. Cotton specimens not associated with remains degraded markedly, whereas the samples exposed to decomposition fluids remained relatively intact over the same time frame. An investigation of the decomposition by-products found that the protein-related bands remained stable and unchanged throughout the experiment. Lipid components, on the other hand, demonstrated a significant change; this was confirmed with the use of both ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and GC-MS. Through an advanced statistical approach, information about the decomposition by-products and their characteristics was obtained. There is potential that the lipid profile in a textile specimen could be a valuable tool used in the examination of clothing located at a crime scene.

  12. The costs of diabetes among Australians aged 45-64 years from 2015 to 2030: projections of lost productive life years (PLYs), lost personal income, lost taxation revenue, extra welfare payments and lost gross domestic product from Health&WealthMOD2030.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Deborah; Shrestha, Rupendra N; Cunich, Michelle M; Passey, Megan E; Veerman, Lennert; Tanton, Robert; Kelly, Simon J

    2017-01-09

    To project the number of people aged 45-64 years with lost productive life years (PLYs) due to diabetes and related costs (lost income, extra welfare payments, lost taxation revenue); and lost gross domestic product (GDP) attributable to diabetes in Australia from 2015 to 2030. A simulation study of how the number of people aged 45-64 years with diabetes increases over time (based on population growth and disease trend data) and the economic losses incurred by individuals and the government. Cross-sectional outputs of a microsimulation model (Health&WealthMOD2030) which used the Australian Bureau of Statistics' Survey of Disability, Ageing and Carers 2003 and 2009 as a base population and integrated outputs from two microsimulation models (Static Incomes Model and Australian Population and Policy Simulation Model), Treasury's population and labour force projections, and chronic disease trends data. Australian population aged 45-64 years in 2015, 2020, 2025 and 2030. Lost PLYs, lost income, extra welfare payments, lost taxation revenue, lost GDP. 18 100 people are out of the labour force due to diabetes in 2015, increasing to 21 400 in 2030 (18% increase). National costs consisted of a loss of $A467 million in annual income in 2015, increasing to $A807 million in 2030 (73% increase). For the government, extra annual welfare payments increased from $A311 million in 2015 to $A350 million in 2030 (13% increase); and lost annual taxation revenue increased from $A102 million in 2015 to $A166 million in 2030 (63% increase). A loss of $A2.1 billion in GDP was projected for 2015, increasing to $A2.9 billion in 2030 attributable to diabetes through its impact on PLYs. Individuals incur significant costs of diabetes through lost PLYs and lost income in addition to disease burden through human suffering and healthcare costs. The government incurs extra welfare payments, lost taxation revenue and lost GDP, along with direct healthcare costs. Published by the BMJ

  13. Mechanism of inhibitory actions of minocycline and doxycycline on ascitic fluid production induced by mouse fibrosarcoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakai, K; Ohmura, E; Satoh, T; Murakami, H; Isozaki, O; Emoto, N; Demura, H; Shizume, K; Tsushima, T

    1994-01-01

    Semisynthetic tetracyclines (TCNs) are used for the management of malignant pleural effusions as sclerosing agents. However, their precise mechanism of actions are uncertain. In the present study, the mechanism of inhibitory effects of minocycline (MINO) and doxycycline (DOXY), on the accumulation of ascitic fluid induced by mouse fibrosarcoma (Meth-A) cells were investigated using male mice. Meth-A cells inoculated intraperitoneally elicited 2.5-4 ml of bloody ascites 10 days after implantation. The production of ascitic fluid was suppressed in a dose-related manner by daily intraperitoneal injections of MINO or DOXY, whereas vehicle (normal saline with 0.01N HCl) did not exert a significant effect. The inhibitory activity of these two substances was quite similar; one mg/mouse of MINO or DOXY inhibited the accumulation of fluid by 87% and 84%, respectively. The survival rate of Meth-A-bearing mice treated with MINO or DOXY was higher than that of the controls. Macroscopic examination of the peritoneal cavity did not reveal any obvious effects, such as adhesions, in mice treated with either MINO or DOXY. In vitro studies showed that MINO and DOXY suppressed Meth-A cell growth with IC50s of 5 microM and 8 microM, respectively. Maximal suppression (95%) was achieved at MINO and DOXY concentrations of 25 microM. The above observations suggest that MINO and DOXY inhibit the accumulation of ascites by a direct effect on Meth-A cell growth. Therefore, it appears that TCNs injected into the pleural cavity to manage malignant effusions in man exert their activity, at least in part, by suppressing malignant cell growth.

  14. Similarities and differences among fluid milk products: traditionally produced, extended shelf life and ultrahigh-temperature processed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, N T; Ahlfeld, B; Brix, A; Hagemann, A; von Münchhausen, C; Klein, G

    2013-06-01

    Extended shelf life milk is a relatively new kind of fluid milk, generally manufactured by high-temperature treatment and/or micro-filtration. Being advertised as 'pasteurized milk with an extended shelf life', its flavour, compositional quality and labelling was questioned. Extended shelf life (high-temperature treatment), pasteurized ('traditionally produced') and ultrahigh-temperature milk were, therefore, compared at the beginning and end of shelf life. In triangle tests, panellists distinguished clearly between all products. High-temperature treatment milk's flavour was closer to ultrahigh-temperature and traditionally produced milk in the beginning and at the end of shelf life, respectively. Physicochemically and bacteriologically, all three types could be distinguished. Since 'extended shelf life' comprises many process varieties (each affecting flavour differently), consumer information and appropriate package labelling beyond 'long-lasting' is necessary, e.g. by mentioning the heat treatment applied.

  15. The Gross Motor Skills of Children with Mild Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonis, Karen P.; Jernice, Tan Sing Yee

    2014-01-01

    Many international studies have examined the gross motor skills of children studying in special schools while local studies of such nature are limited. This study investigated the gross motor skills of children with Mild Learning Disabilities (MLD; n = 14, M age = 8.93 years, SD = 0.33) with the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (TGMD-2, Ulrich,…

  16. 7 CFR 1410.44 - Average adjusted gross income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Average adjusted gross income. 1410.44 Section 1410... Average adjusted gross income. (a) Benefits under this part will not be available to persons or legal entities whose average adjusted gross income exceeds $1,000,000 or as further specified in part...

  17. 7 CFR 701.17 - Average adjusted gross income limitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9003), each applicant must meet the provisions of the Adjusted Gross Income Limitations at 7 CFR part... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Average adjusted gross income limitation. 701.17... RELATED PROGRAMS PREVIOUSLY ADMINISTERED UNDER THIS PART § 701.17 Average adjusted gross income...

  18. The costs of diabetes among Australians aged 45–64 years from 2015 to 2030: projections of lost productive life years (PLYs), lost personal income, lost taxation revenue, extra welfare payments and lost gross domestic product from Health&WealthMOD2030

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Deborah; Shrestha, Rupendra N; Cunich, Michelle M; Veerman, Lennert; Tanton, Robert; Kelly, Simon J

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To project the number of people aged 45–64 years with lost productive life years (PLYs) due to diabetes and related costs (lost income, extra welfare payments, lost taxation revenue); and lost gross domestic product (GDP) attributable to diabetes in Australia from 2015 to 2030. Design A simulation study of how the number of people aged 45–64 years with diabetes increases over time (based on population growth and disease trend data) and the economic losses incurred by individuals and the government. Cross-sectional outputs of a microsimulation model (Health&WealthMOD2030) which used the Australian Bureau of Statistics’ Survey of Disability, Ageing and Carers 2003 and 2009 as a base population and integrated outputs from two microsimulation models (Static Incomes Model and Australian Population and Policy Simulation Model), Treasury's population and labour force projections, and chronic disease trends data. Setting Australian population aged 45–64 years in 2015, 2020, 2025 and 2030. Outcome measures Lost PLYs, lost income, extra welfare payments, lost taxation revenue, lost GDP. Results 18 100 people are out of the labour force due to diabetes in 2015, increasing to 21 400 in 2030 (18% increase). National costs consisted of a loss of $A467 million in annual income in 2015, increasing to $A807 million in 2030 (73% increase). For the government, extra annual welfare payments increased from $A311 million in 2015 to $A350 million in 2030 (13% increase); and lost annual taxation revenue increased from $A102 million in 2015 to $A166 million in 2030 (63% increase). A loss of $A2.1 billion in GDP was projected for 2015, increasing to $A2.9 billion in 2030 attributable to diabetes through its impact on PLYs. Conclusions Individuals incur significant costs of diabetes through lost PLYs and lost income in addition to disease burden through human suffering and healthcare costs. The government incurs extra welfare payments, lost taxation revenue and

  19. The possible influence of micro-organisms and putrefaction in the production of GHB in post-mortem biological fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Simon; Lowe, Pauline; Symonds, Amanda

    2004-01-28

    In recent years, the post-mortem production of the drug of abuse gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) in biological fluids (e.g. blood and urine) has caused various interpretative problems for toxicologists. Previously, other researchers have shown certain microbial species (Pseudomonas spp. and Clostridium aminobutyricum) possess the necessary enzymes to convert GABA to GHB. A preliminary investigation involving putrefied post-mortem blood indicated there was no observed relationship between "endogenous" GHB concentrations and concentrations of common putrefactive markers (tryptamine and phenyl-2-ethylamine). Microbiological analysis identified the presence of various micro-organisms: Clostridia spp., Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Enterococcus faecalis and Aeromonoas spp. Equine plasma, human blood and urine samples were inoculated with these and an additional micro-organism (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and incubated at 22 degrees C for 1 month. Following comparison with control samples and pre-inoculation concentrations, the data indicated an apparent production of GHB in unpreserved P. aeruginosa inoculated blood (2.3 mg/l). All other fluoride-preserved and unpreserved samples (including controls) had GHB concentrations post-mortem GHB concentrations, this paper proposes a potential microbial production of GHB with time.

  20. Unlocking the potential of supported liquid phase catalysts with supercritical fluids: low temperature continuous flow catalysis with integrated product separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franciò, Giancarlo; Hintermair, Ulrich; Leitner, Walter

    2015-12-28

    Solution-phase catalysis using molecular transition metal complexes is an extremely powerful tool for chemical synthesis and a key technology for sustainable manufacturing. However, as the reaction complexity and thermal sensitivity of the catalytic system increase, engineering challenges associated with product separation and catalyst recovery can override the value of the product. This persistent downstream issue often renders industrial exploitation of homogeneous catalysis uneconomical despite impressive batch performance of the catalyst. In this regard, continuous-flow systems that allow steady-state homogeneous turnover in a stationary liquid phase while at the same time effecting integrated product separation at mild process temperatures represent a particularly attractive scenario. While continuous-flow processing is a standard procedure for large volume manufacturing, capitalizing on its potential in the realm of the molecular complexity of organic synthesis is still an emerging area that requires innovative solutions. Here we highlight some recent developments which have succeeded in realizing such systems by the combination of near- and supercritical fluids with homogeneous catalysts in supported liquid phases. The cases discussed exemplify how all three levels of continuous-flow homogeneous catalysis (catalyst system, separation strategy, process scheme) must be matched to locate viable process conditions.

  1. Mechanical loading by fluid shear stress of myotube glycocalyx stimulates growth factor expression and nitric oxide production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juffer, Petra; Bakker, Astrid D; Klein-Nulend, Jenneke; Jaspers, Richard T

    2014-07-01

    Skeletal muscle fibers have the ability to increase their size in response to a mechanical overload. Finite element modeling data suggest that mechanically loaded muscles in vivo may experience not only tensile strain but also shear stress. However, whether shear stress affects biological pathways involved in muscle fiber size adaptation in response to mechanical loading is unknown. Therefore, our aim was twofold: (1) to determine whether shear stress affects growth factor expression and nitric oxide (NO) production by myotubes, and (2) to explore the mechanism by which shear stress may affect myotubes in vitro. C2C12 myotubes were subjected to a laminar pulsating fluid flow (PFF; mean shear stress 0.4, 0.7 or 1.4 Pa, 1 Hz) or subjected to uni-axial cyclic strain (CS; 15 % strain, 1 Hz) for 1 h. NO production during 1-h PFF or CS treatment was quantified using Griess reagent. The glycocalyx was degraded using hyaluronidase, and stretch-activated ion channels (SACs) were blocked using GdCl3. Gene expression was analyzed immediately after 1-h PFF (1.4 Pa, 1 Hz) and at 6 h post-PFF treatment. PFF increased IGF-I Ea, MGF, VEGF, IL-6, and COX-2 mRNA, but decreased myostatin mRNA expression. Shear stress enhanced NO production in a dose-dependent manner, while CS induced no quantifiable increase in NO production. Glycocalyx degradation and blocking of SACs ablated the shear stress-stimulated NO production. In conclusion, shear stress activates signaling pathways involved in muscle fiber size adaptation in myotubes, likely via membrane-bound mechanoreceptors. These results suggest that shear stress exerted on myofiber extracellular matrix plays an important role in mechanotransduction in muscle.

  2. Production of polyhydroxyalkanoates from spent coffee grounds oil obtained by supercritical fluid extraction technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Madalena V; Paiva, Alexandre; Lisboa, Pedro; Freitas, Filomena; Alves, Vítor D; Simões, Pedro; Barreiros, Susana; Reis, Maria A M

    2014-04-01

    Spent coffee grounds (SCG) oil was obtained by supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) extraction in a pilot plant apparatus, with an oil extraction yield of 90% at a 35kgkg(-1) CO2/SCG ratio. Cupriavidus necator DSM 428 was cultivated in 2L bioreactor using extracted SCG oil as sole carbon source for production of polyhydroxyalkanoates. The culture reached a cell dry weight of 16.7gL(-1) with a polymer content of 78.4% (w/w). The volumetric polymer productivity and oil yield were 4.7gL(-1)day(-1) and 0.77gg(-1), respectively. The polymer produced was a homopolymer of 3-hydroxybutyrate with an average molecular weight of 2.34×10(5) and a polydispersity index of 1.2. The polymer exhibited brittle behaviour, with very low elongation at break (1.3%), tensile strength at break of 16MPa and Young's Modulus of 1.0GPa. Results show that SCG can be a bioresource for polyhydroxyalkanoates production with interesting properties. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Novel CO{sub 2}-emulsified viscoelastic surfactant fracturing fluid system enables commercial production from bypassed pay in the Olmos Formation of south Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semmelbeck, M.E.; Deupree, W.E.; Von Plonski, J.K. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Canadian Section, Calgary, AB (Canada)]|[Escondido Resources, Calgary, AB (Canada); Mueller, F.A.; Chen, Y.; Lewis, J.W.; Keto, L.K.; Fairhurst, D.L.; Pope, T.L. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Canadian Section, Calgary, AB (Canada)]|[Schlumberger Canada Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    This paper described the Olmos Formation in the Caterina southwest field in Texas, along with its properties, such as permeabilities, production levels and the number of wells drilled and completed in the area. In order to improve the Olmos production, a new carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emulsified viscoelastic surfactant fluid system (VES) was implemented. The VES-CO{sub 2} has highly retainable proppant rock permeability and its rheological behavior is controllable. The Olmos Formation consists of three Upper Cretaceous clastic wedges deposited in the Maverick Basin of the Rio Grande embayment. The Olmos production comprises several oil and gas reservoirs occurring as multiple stacks in low-relief anticlinal traps. Stimulation of the Olmos Formation was also presented along with a discussion on reservoir stimulation, stimulation considerations, rheological behavior, and case history of the area. It was concluded that when compared to polymer-based fluids energized with carbon dioxide, a VES surfactant-based fluid energized with carbon dioxide had better production. The study also revealed that a carbon dioxide-based fracturing fluid that is compatible with VES technology can be developed using the same low-viscosity and proppant transport characteristics found in former VES-based fluid systems. 8 refs., 12 figs.

  4. Optimization of Deep Drilling Performance--Development and Benchmark Testing of Advanced Diamond Product Drill Bits & HP/HT Fluids to Significantly Improve Rates of Penetration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alan Black; Arnis Judzis

    2003-10-01

    This document details the progress to date on the OPTIMIZATION OF DEEP DRILLING PERFORMANCE--DEVELOPMENT AND BENCHMARK TESTING OF ADVANCED DIAMOND PRODUCT DRILL BITS AND HP/HT FLUIDS TO SIGNIFICANTLY IMPROVE RATES OF PENETRATION contract for the year starting October 2002 through September 2002. The industry cost shared program aims to benchmark drilling rates of penetration in selected simulated deep formations and to significantly improve ROP through a team development of aggressive diamond product drill bit--fluid system technologies. Overall the objectives are as follows: Phase 1--Benchmark ''best in class'' diamond and other product drilling bits and fluids and develop concepts for a next level of deep drilling performance; Phase 2--Develop advanced smart bit--fluid prototypes and test at large scale; and Phase 3--Field trial smart bit--fluid concepts, modify as necessary and commercialize products. Accomplishments to date include the following: 4Q 2002--Project started; Industry Team was assembled; Kick-off meeting was held at DOE Morgantown; 1Q 2003--Engineering meeting was held at Hughes Christensen, The Woodlands Texas to prepare preliminary plans for development and testing and review equipment needs; Operators started sending information regarding their needs for deep drilling challenges and priorities for large-scale testing experimental matrix; Aramco joined the Industry Team as DEA 148 objectives paralleled the DOE project; 2Q 2003--Engineering and planning for high pressure drilling at TerraTek commenced; 3Q 2003--Continuation of engineering and design work for high pressure drilling at TerraTek; Baker Hughes INTEQ drilling Fluids and Hughes Christensen commence planning for Phase 1 testing--recommendations for bits and fluids.

  5. Baryons in Massive Gross-Neveu Models

    CERN Document Server

    Thies, M; Thies, Michael; Urlichs, Konrad

    2005-01-01

    Baryons in the large N limit of (1+1)-dimensional Gross-Neveu models with either discrete or continuous chiral symmetry have long been known. We generalize their construction to the case where the symmetry is explicitly broken by a bare mass term in the Lagrangian. In the discrete symmetry case, the exact solution is found for arbitrary bare fermion mass, using the Hartree-Fock approach. In the continuous symmetry case, a derivative expansion allows us to rederive a formerly proposed Skyrme-type model and to compute systematically corrections to the leading order description based on an effective sine-Gordon theory.

  6. Green biodiesel production: a review on feedstock, catalyst, monolithic reactor, and supercritical fluid technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizo Edwin Gumba

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The advancement of alternative energy is primarily catalyzed by the negative environmental impacts and energy depletion caused by the excessive usage of fossil fuels. Biodiesel has emerged as a promising substitute to petrodiesel because it is biodegradable, less toxic, and reduces greenhouse gas emission. Apart from that, biodiesel can be used as blending component or direct replacements for diesel fuel in automotive engines. A diverse range of methods have been reported for the conversion of renewable feedstocks (vegetable oil or animal fat into biodiesel with transesterification being the most preferred method. Nevertheless, the cost of producing biodiesel is higher compared to fossil fuel, thus impeding its commercialization potentials. The limited source of reliable feedstock and the underdeveloped biodiesel production route have prevented the full-scale commercialization of biodiesel in many parts of the world. In a recent development, a new technology that incorporates monoliths as support matrices for enzyme immobilization in supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2 for continuous biodiesel production has been proposed to solve the problem. The potential of SC-CO2 system to be applied in enzymatic reactors is not well documented and hence the purpose of this review is to highlight the previous studies conducted as well as the future direction of this technology.

  7. Wine as a biological fluid: history, production, and role in disease prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleas, G J; Diamandis, E P; Goldberg, D M

    1997-01-01

    Wine has been part of human culture for 6,000 years, serving dietary and socio-religious functions. Its production takes place on every continent, and its chemical composition is profoundly influenced by enological techniques, the grape cultivar from which it originates, and climatic factors. In addition to ethanol, which in moderate consumption can reduce mortality from coronary heart disease by increasing high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and inhibiting platelet aggregation, wine (especially red wine) contains a range of polyphenols that have desirable biological properties. These include the phenolic acids (p-coumaric, cinnamic, caffeic, gentisic, ferulic, and vanillic acids), trihydroxy stilbenes (resveratrol and polydatin), and flavonoids (catechin, epicatechin, and quercetin). They are synthesized by a common pathway from phenylalanine involving polyketide condensation reactions. Metabolic regulation is provided by competition between resveratrol synthase and chalcone synthase for a common precursor pool of acyl-CoA derivatives. Polymeric aggregation gives rise, in turn to the viniferins (potent antifungal agents) and procyanidins (strong antioxidants that also inhibit platelet aggregation). The antioxidant effects of red wine and of its major polyphenols have been demonstrated in many experimental systems spanning the range from in vitro studies (human low-density lipoprotein, liposomes, macrophages, cultured cells) to investigations in healthy human subjects. Several of these compounds (notably catechin, quercetin, and resveratrol) promote nitric oxide production by vascular endothelium; inhibit the synthesis of thromboxane in platelets and leukotriene in neutrophils, modulate the synthesis and secretion of lipoproteins in whole animals and human cell lines, and arrest tumour growth as well as inhibit carcinogenesis in different experimental models. Target mechanisms to account for these effects include inhibition of phospholipase A2 and cyclo

  8. Fluid Flow Patterns During Production from Gas Hydrates in the Laboratory compared to Field Settings: LARS vs. Mallik

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauch, B.; Heeschen, K. U.; Priegnitz, M.; Abendroth, S.; Spangenberg, E.; Thaler, J.; Schicks, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    The GFZ's LArge Reservoir Simulator LARS allows for the simulation of the 2008 Mallik gas hydrate production test and the comparison of fluid flow patterns and their driving forces. Do we see the gas flow pattern described for Mallik [Uddin, M. et al., J. Can. Petrol Tech, 50, 70-89, 2011] in a pilot scale test? If so, what are the driving forces? LARS has a network of temperature sensors and an electric resistivity tomography (ERT) enabling a good spatial resolution of gas hydrate occurrences, water and gas distribution, and changes in temperature in the sample. A gas flow meter and a water trap record fluid flow patterns and a backpressure valve has controlled the depressurization equivalent to the three pressure stages (7.0 - 5.0 - 4.2 MPa) applied in the Mallik field test. The environmental temperature (284 K) and confining pressure (13 MPa) have been constant. The depressurization induced immediate endothermic gas hydrate dissociation until re-establishment of the stability conditions by a consequent temperature decrease. Slight gas hydrate dissociation continued at the top and upper lateral border due to the constant heat input from the environment. Here transport pathways were short and permeability higher due to lower gas hydrate saturation. At pressures of 7.0 and 5.0 MPa the LARS tests showed high water flow rates and short irregular spikes of gas production. The gas flow patterns at 4.2 MPa and 3.0MPa resembled those of the Mallik test. In LARS the initial gas surges overlap with times of hydrate instability while water content and lengths of pathways had increased. Water production was at a minimum. A rapidly formed continuous gas phase caused the initial gas surges and only after gas hydrate dissociation decreased to a minimum the single gas bubbles get trapped before slowly coalescing again. In LARS, where pathways were short and no additional water was added, a transport of microbubbles is unlikely to cause a gas surge as suggested for Mallik.

  9. Development of a fluid bed granulation process control strategy based on real-time process and product measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burggraeve, Anneleen; Silva, Ana F T; Van den Kerkhof, Tom; Hellings, Mario; Vervaet, Chris; Remon, Jean Paul; Vander Heyden, Yvan; De Beer, Thomas

    2012-10-15

    This article describes the results of three case studies conducted consecutively, in order to develop a process control strategy for a top-spray fluid bed granulation process. The use of several real-time particle size (i.e., spatial filter velocimetry and focused beam reflectance measurement) and moisture (i.e., near infrared (NIR) and Lighthouse near infrared spectroscopy) analyzers was examined. A feed-forward process control method was developed, where in-line collected granulation information during the process spraying phase was used to determine the optimum drying temperature of the consecutive drying phase. Via real-time monitoring of process (i.e., spraying temperature and spray rate) and product (i.e., granule size distribution and moisture) parameters during the spraying period, the batch bulk density was predicted at the end of the spraying cycle, using a PLS model. When this predicted bulk density was not meeting the desired value, the developed control method allowed the calculation of an adjusted drying temperature leading to the desired batch bulk density at the end of the granulation process. Besides the development of the feed-forward control strategy, a quantitative PLS model for in-line moisture content prediction of the granulated end product was built using the NIR data.

  10. Industrial resin inspection for display production using automated fluid-inspection based on multimodal optical detection techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijesinghe, Ruchire Eranga; Park, Kibeom; Jung, Yeongri; Kim, Pilun; Jeon, Mansik; Kim, Jeehyun

    2017-09-01

    The large-scale liquid-crystal display (LCD) industry requires an accurate inspection system for identifying defects, as the LCD quality can be drastically degraded because of defects. In particular, the refractive index of LCD panels can be changed by internal micrometer-range substances, which form as a result of defectiveness and the insufficient solidification of industrial liquid resins. Intrinsically, the defect inspection of the raw materials must be performed prior to the LCD manufacturing process. Thus, optical coherence tomography (OCT) based automated fluid-inspection (AFI) methodology was introduced to demarcate and enumerate the defects in industrial liquid resins and the final product (LCD smartphone). The accuracy of the method was enhanced by implementing an intensity-detection algorithm. Subsequently, the optimal solidification rates of liquid resins were investigated using a fluorescence sensor-based ultraviolet hardening method to prevent the formation of defects between the internal layers of the LCD panel. Therefore, AFI can be implemented as an effective and cost-saving method in the smartphone industry for improving the quality of the final product.

  11. Effect of Morinda citrifolia leaf as saponin sources on fermentation characteristic, protozoa defaunated, gas and methane production of ruminal fluid in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendra Herdian

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have reported that the Morinda citrifolia (pace plant was a useful material for human health. However the exploration of this plant on rumen fermentation is still needed. Therefore, a research was done to study the effect of M. citrifolia leaf on fermentation characteristics of rumen fluid consisted of protozoa defaunated process, VFA composition, NH3 content, rumen microbial protein content, gas and methane production using in vitro techniques. Rumen fluid obtained from two fistulated Ongole crossbreed cattle fed with forage and concentrate feed ration (70 : 30. The fluid was incubated at 39ºC for 48 hours. The treatment on the rumen fluid consisted of control treatment: 100% (200 mg DM kolonjono forage substrate (Penisetum purpureum and M. citrifolia treatments: kolonjono forage plus M. citrifolia (equivalent saponin 3; 6; 9; and 12 mg DM, respectively. The treatment of M. citrifolia leaf addition showed declined patterns in the number of protozoa population (P 0.05. Microbial protein content in rumen fluid increased (P 0.05 compared to control, while M. citrifolia treatments reduced the methane gas production of (P < 0.05 compared to control. It was concluded that M. citrifolia leaf has potential as a limiting agent of protozoa population and methane gas production in rumen.

  12. Identifying chemicals of concern in hydraulic fracturing fluids used for oil production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringfellow, William T; Camarillo, Mary Kay; Domen, Jeremy K; Sandelin, Whitney L; Varadharajan, Charuleka; Jordan, Preston D; Reagan, Matthew T; Cooley, Heather; Heberger, Matthew G; Birkholzer, Jens T

    2017-01-01

    Chemical additives used for hydraulic fracturing and matrix acidizing of oil reservoirs were reviewed and priority chemicals of concern needing further environmental risk assessment, treatment demonstration, or evaluation of occupational hazards were identified. We evaluated chemical additives used for well stimulation in California, the third largest oil producing state in the USA, by the mass and frequency of use, as well as toxicity. The most frequently used chemical additives in oil development were gelling agents, cross-linkers, breakers, clay control agents, iron and scale control agents, corrosion inhibitors, biocides, and various impurities and product stabilizers used as part of commercial mixtures. Hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acids, used for matrix acidizing and other purposes, were reported infrequently. A large number and mass of solvents and surface active agents were used, including quaternary ammonia compounds (QACs) and nonionic surfactants. Acute toxicity was evaluated and many chemicals with low hazard to mammals were identified as potentially hazardous to aquatic environments. Based on an analysis of quantities used, toxicity, and lack of adequate hazard evaluation, QACs, biocides, and corrosion inhibitors were identified as priority chemicals of concern that deserve further investigation.

  13. Laboratory exposures of invertebrate and vertebrate species to concentrations of IA-35 (Petro-Canada) drill mud fluid, production water, and Hibernia mud cuttings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Payne, J.; Fancey, L.; Andrews, C.; Meade, J.; Power, F.; Veinot, G. [Department of Fisheries and Oceans, St. John' s, NF (Canada). Science Branch; Lee, K. [Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Mont-Joli, PQ (Canada). Maurice Lamontagne Inst.; Cook, A. [Environment Canada, Moncton, NB (Canada). Environmental Quality Laboratory

    2001-04-01

    The authors studied the short term effects on brine shrimp nauplii (Artemia franciscana), capelin larvae (Mallotus villosus), marine copepods (Calanus finmarchicus), juvenile yellowtail flounder (Limanda ferruginea) and ctenophores (Pleurobrachius pileus) of synthetic drill mud fluid, produced water and drill mud cuttings. In this report, they presented the data collected, including data on the water solubility of Petro-Canada drill mud fluid IA-35 and metal analysis of production water from the Sable Island Offshore Exploration Project. Low acute toxicity potential for drill mud fluid, production water and Hibernia drill cuttings for the species and life stages tested were revealed. The hypothesis to the effect that wastes pose very little or no risk of an acute toxic nature to the marine environment were reinforced by the results from this study. 5 refs., 25 tabs.

  14. Product Analysis and Design Engineering Approach for MScand PhD Students´ Research and Self-Learning Competence in Mechatronics and Fluid Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn; Andersen, T. O.; Hansen, M. R.

    2002-01-01

    The paper deals with engineering education having the focus on research skills as well as experimental based project organised didactic self-learning within the area of design of mechatronic products and systems, in particular intelligent fluid power components and systems. Experiences with inter......The paper deals with engineering education having the focus on research skills as well as experimental based project organised didactic self-learning within the area of design of mechatronic products and systems, in particular intelligent fluid power components and systems. Experiences...... working within mechatronics and fluid power in order to make successful business in companies as well as at universities. Most of the projects are in cooperation with companies....

  15. A review of thermally stable gels for fluid diversion in petroleum production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moradi-Araghi, A. [103 GB Philips Research Center, Phillips Petroleum Company, Bartlesville, OK (United States)

    2000-05-01

    The use of water-soluble polymers coupled with proper concentration of cross-linker(s) as flow-diverting agents have become a common practice in recent years for oil recovery applications. In such practice a solution containing the polymer and cross-linker(s), referred to as gelant, is injected in desired zones and allowed sufficient time to set into a solid gel. These gels are used in injection wells to divert the flow of injected water or gas (CO{sub 2}) to un-swept zones where additional oil can be recovered. The gels are also used to shut off the flow of water that strongly interferes with hydrocarbon production and substantially reduces the profitability of wells. There are a number of gelling systems available for treatment of lower temperature reservoirs. However, gels that can tolerate the harsh conditions of elevated temperatures and high salinity and divalent cations commonly present in deeper reservoirs are limited. When high molecular weight polyacrylamides are cross-linked to treat these hot reservoirs, their acrylamide groups will thermally hydrolyze. The resulting gel will further cross-link with the divalent cations available in the media, shrinking it to a fraction of its original volume. This process, which is referred to syneresis, can be avoided by selection of acrylamide-based polymers that are protected from extensive thermal hydrolysis. While other remedies such as lower-molecular-weight polyacrylamides, retarding agents or cooling of the target zones are attempted; these options often create unintended results. Recent studies include gelation of high molecular weight polyacrylamides with hydroquinone (HQ) and hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA) or terephtalaldehyde, terphthalic acid with hyroquinone, dihydroxynaphthalene and dibasic esters. These gelling systems are often prepared in seawater and require 2% sodium bicarbonate for their stability. Due to health and environmental concerns, the use of compounds such as HQ and formaldehyde is

  16. Terrestrial gross carbon dioxide uptake: Global distribution and covariation with climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beer, C.; Veenendaal, E.M.

    2010-01-01

    Terrestrial gross primary production (GPP) is the largest global CO2 flux driving several ecosystem functions. We provide an observation-based estimate of this flux at 123 ± 8 petagrams of carbon per year (Pg C year-1) using eddy covariance flux data and various diagnostic models. Tropical forests

  17. The impact of unit cost reductions on gross profit: Increasing or decreasing returns?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ely Dahan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We suggest that marketers actively participate in reducing unit costs during new product development, consistent with the theme of integrated marketing and manufacturing. Most marketing managers misjudge the impact on gross profit of reducing variable unit manufacturing costs, mistakenly believing that such cost reductions yield decreasing or linear returns while they actually generate increasing returns.

  18. Anaemia in chronic heart failure is not only related to impaired renal perfusion and blunted erythropoietin production, but to fluid retention as well

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westenbrink, B. Daan; Visser, Folkert W.; Voors, Adriaan A.; Smilde, Tom D. J.; Lipsic, Erik; Navis, Gerjan; Hillege, Hans L.; van Gilst, Wiek H.; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.

    2007-01-01

    Aims Anaemia is prevalent in the chronic heart failure (CHF) population, but its cause is often unknown. The present study aims to investigate the relation between anaemia, renal perfusion, erythropoietin production, and fluid retention in CHF patients. Methods and results We studied 97 patients wit

  19. Effects of plant antioxidants and natural vicinal diketones on methane production, studied in vitro with rumen fluid and a polylactate as maintenance substrate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becker, P.M.; Wikselaar, van P.G.

    2011-01-01

    In a simplified model of methane production, lactate based maintenance substrates provided primary metabolites and H2, for methanogenic reduction of CO2, to a rumen fluid inoculum. In batch incubation assays, the polylactate Hydrogen Release Compound eXtended® (HRC-X) as maintenance substrate caused

  20. Anaemia in chronic heart failure is not only related to impaired renal perfusion and blunted erythropoietin production, but to fluid retention as well

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westenbrink, B. Daan; Visser, Folkert W.; Voors, Adriaan A.; Smilde, Tom D. J.; Lipsic, Erik; Navis, Gerjan; Hillege, Hans L.; van Gilst, Wiek H.; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.

    2007-01-01

    Aims Anaemia is prevalent in the chronic heart failure (CHF) population, but its cause is often unknown. The present study aims to investigate the relation between anaemia, renal perfusion, erythropoietin production, and fluid retention in CHF patients. Methods and results We studied 97 patients wit

  1. [Gross anatomy dissection and the legal control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashina, Shohei; Shibata, Yosaburo

    2010-12-01

    In Japan, dissection of human body is generally prohibited by the Penal Code, i.e. the criminal law. However, the Postmortem Examination and Corpse Preservation Act allows for the dissection of the body in very limited situations, that include gross anatomy dissection and pathological and forensic autopsy in medical and dental schools. Growing numbers of co-medical schools have been founded more recently in Japan, and not a small number of co-medical schools try to adopt human body dissection in the course of anatomy education. The present short communication reminds us of the ways of thinking of the Postmortem Examination and Corpse Preservation Act and the Act on Body Donation for Medical and Dental Education in order that anatomy education in medical as well as co-medical schools takes place under the regulation by these two laws.

  2. Financial Variables Effect on the U.S. Gross Private Domestic Investment (GPDI) 1959-2001

    CERN Document Server

    Bell, Byron E

    2007-01-01

    I studied what role the US stock markets and money markets have possibly played in the Gross Private Domestic Investment (GPDI) of the United States from the year 1959 to the year 2001, Gross Private Domestic Investment refers to the total amount of investment spending by businesses and firms located within the borders of a nation. It includes both the values of the purchases of non-residential fixed investment, which include capital goods used for production, and the values of the purchases of residential fixed investment, which include construction spending for factories or offices. And I created a Multiple Linear Regression Model of the GDPI. To see if companies and private citizens use the stock market and money markets as a way of financing capital projects (business ventures, buying commercial and noncommercial property, etc). Keywords: Gross Private Domestic Investment, Pearson Correlation, SP 500, TB3

  3. Levels of Soluble Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products in Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid in Patients with Various Inflammatory Lung Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamo, Tetsuro; Tasaka, Sadatomo; Tokuda, Yuriko; Suzuki, Shoji; Asakura, Takanori; Yagi, Kazuma; Namkoong, Ho; Ishii, Makoto; Hasegawa, Naoki; Betsuyaku, Tomoko

    2015-01-01

    Receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is a multiligand receptor of S100/calgranulins, high-mobility group box 1, and others, and it is associated with the pathogenesis of various inflammatory and circulatory diseases. The soluble form of RAGE (sRAGE) is a decoy receptor and competitively inhibits membrane-bound RAGE activation. In this study, we measured sRAGE levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of 78 patients, including 41 with interstitial pneumonia, 11 with sarcoidosis, 9 with respiratory infection, 7 with ARDS, 5 with lung cancer, and 5 with vasculitis. Among them, sRAGE was detectable in BALF of 73 patients (94%). In patients with ARDS and vasculitis, the sRAGE levels were significantly higher than in the control subjects and those with interstitial pneumonia. The sRAGE levels were positively correlated with total cell counts in BALF and serum levels of surfactant protein-D, lactate dehydrogenase, and C-reactive protein. There was an inverse correlation between PaO2/FIO2 ratio and sRAGE levels. These results indicate that sRAGE in BALF might be considered as a biomarker of lung inflammatory disorders, especially ARDS and vasculitis. PMID:27147899

  4. Improving the mixing performances of rice straw anaerobic digestion for higher biogas production by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Fei; Tian, Libin; Yuan, Hairong; Pang, Yunzhi; Chen, Shulin; Zou, Dexun; Zhu, Baoning; Liu, Yanping; Li, Xiujin

    2013-10-01

    As a lignocellulose-based substrate for anaerobic digestion, rice straw is characterized by low density, high water absorbability, and poor fluidity. Its mixing performances in digestion are completely different from traditional substrates such as animal manures. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation was employed to investigate mixing performances and determine suitable stirring parameters for efficient biogas production from rice straw. The results from CFD simulation were applied in the anaerobic digestion tests to further investigate their reliability. The results indicated that the mixing performances could be improved by triple impellers with pitched blade, and complete mixing was easily achieved at the stirring rate of 80 rpm, as compared to 20-60 rpm. However, mixing could not be significantly improved when the stirring rate was further increased from 80 to 160 rpm. The simulation results agreed well with the experimental results. The determined mixing parameters could achieve the highest biogas yield of 370 mL (g TS)(-1) (729 mL (g TS(digested))(-1)) and 431 mL (g TS)(-1) (632 mL (g TS(digested))(-1)) with the shortest technical digestion time (T 80) of 46 days. The results obtained in this work could provide useful guides for the design and operation of biogas plants using rice straw as substrates.

  5. Survival of Listeria monocytogenes during Production and ripening of traditional Turkish Savak tulum cheese and in synthetic gastric fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikici, Abdullah; Calicioglu, Mehmet

    2013-10-01

    This study investigated the survival and acid tolerance of Listeria monocytogenes during the 2-day processing stage and 90-day ripening of Savak tulum cheese, a traditional cheese in Turkey. Experimental Savak tulum cheese was produced from raw sheep's milk that was inoculated with a L. monocytogenes mixture consisting of five strains (average 7.0 log CFU/ml) and was ripened at 6°C for 90 days. Microbiological and chemical analyses and acid exposure experiments in synthetic gastric fluid (SGF) (pH 1.5 to 2.5) were carried out on days 1 and 2 during processing and on days 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, and 90 during ripening. The numbers of L. monocytogenes did not decrease during processing, but a total of 4.1 log CFU/g reduction was observed during ripening. Throughout the ripening period, L. monocytogenes cells survived direct 90-min exposures of the cheese samples to SGF. These results suggest that, although the pathogen numbers decreased in Savak tulum cheese ripened at 6°C for 90 days, a sublethal environment may have occurred in the cheese during the production stage, activating the acid-tolerance mechanisms of the pathogen and allowing L. monocytogenes to maintain its viability in the SGF for 90 min.

  6. First results for fluid dynamics, neutronics and fission product behavior in HTR applying the HTR code package (HCP) prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allelein, H.-J., E-mail: h.j.allelein@fz-juelich.de [Forschungszentrum Jülich, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Institute for Reactor Safety and Reactor Technology, RWTH Aachen University, 52064 Aachen (Germany); Kasselmann, S.; Xhonneux, A.; Tantillo, F.; Trabadela, A.; Lambertz, D. [Forschungszentrum Jülich, 52425 Jülich (Germany)

    2016-09-15

    To simulate the different aspects of High Temperature Reactor (HTR) cores, a variety of specialized computer codes have been developed at Forschungszentrum Jülich (IEK-6) and Aachen University (LRST) in the last decades. In order to preserve knowledge, to overcome present limitations and to make these codes applicable to modern computer clusters, these individual programs are being integrated into a consistent code package. The so-called HTR code package (HCP) couples the related and recently applied physics models in a highly integrated manner and therefore allows to simulate phenomena with higher precision in space and time while at the same time applying state-of-the-art programming techniques and standards. This paper provides an overview of the status of the HCP and reports about first benchmark results for an HCP prototype which couples the fluid dynamics and time dependent neutronics code MGT-3D, the burn up code TNT and the fission product release code STACY. Due to the coupling of MGT-3D and TNT, a first step towards a new reactor operation and accident simulation code was made, where nuclide concentrations calculated by TNT lead to new cross sections, which are fed back into MGT-3D. Selected operation scenarios of the HTR-Module 200 concept plant and the HTTR were chosen to be simulated with the HCP prototype. The fission product release during normal operation conditions will be calculated with STACY based on a core status derived from SERPENT and MGT-3D. Comparisons will be shown against data generated by SERPENT and the legacy codes VSOP99/11, NAKURE and FRESCO-II.

  7. Robust Principal Component Test in Gross Error Detection and Identification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Principle component analysis (PCA) based chi-square test is more sensitive to subtle gross errors and has greater power to correctly detect gross errors than classical chi-square test. However, classical principal component test (PCT) is non-robust and can be very sensitive to one or more outliers. In this paper, a Huber function liked robust weight factor was added in the collective chi-square test to eliminate the influence of gross errors on the PCT. Meanwhile, robust chi-square test was applied to modified simultaneous estimation of gross error (MSEGE) strategy to detect and identify multiple gross errors. Simulation results show that the proposed robust test can reduce the possibility of type Ⅱ errors effectively. Adding robust chi-square test into MSEGE does not obviously improve the power of multiple gross error identification, the proposed approach considers the influence of outliers on hypothesis statistic test and is more reasonable.

  8. One-Step Production of Protein-Loaded PLGA Microparticles via Spray Drying Using 3-Fluid Nozzle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wan, Feng; Maltesen, Morten Jonas; Andersen, Sune Klint;

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of using a spray-dryer equipped with a 3-fluid nozzle to microencapsulate protein drugs into polymeric microparticles.......The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of using a spray-dryer equipped with a 3-fluid nozzle to microencapsulate protein drugs into polymeric microparticles....

  9. The main objective of this paper is to determine the effect of Foreign Direct Investment on the hospitality sector in the Colombian economic growth. This is estimated using a method that uses the Gross Domestic Product –GDP- per capita and its disaggreg Impacto de la inversión extranjera directa en el sector hotelero colombiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Uribe Montoya

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to determine the effect of Foreign Direct Investment on the hospitality sector in the Colombian economic growth. This is estimated using a method that uses the Gross Domestic Product –GDP- per capita and its disaggregated data according to the different economic sectors, providing an ex post assessment of the contribution of tourism on GDP growth. The results show that Colombia has competitive levels in tourism contribution to GDP, although its level is low compared to countries where the sector is the most active player in their economies.El objetivo de este estudio es determinar el efecto de la Inversión Extranjera Directa en el sector hotelero en el crecimiento económico colombiano. Para ello, se estima utilizando un método que utiliza el crecimiento del Producto Interno Bruto –PIB- real per cápita y se desagrega según los diferentes sectores económicos, lo cual brinda una estimación ex post de la contribución del turismo sobre el crecimiento del PIB.  Los resultados muestran que Colombia presenta niveles competitivos de contribución del sector turismo al PIB, aunque su nivel sea bajo con respecto a países cuyo sector es el más activo y protagonista en sus economías

  10. TERATOGENIC EFFECTS OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES: GROSS ANOMALIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Prakash

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available BACK GROUND: Prenatal exposure of AgNPs can induces devastative and detrimental effect in the organogenesis period of the developing embryos and foetuses. Organogenesis period is highly condemnatory and persuadable. Any injury to embryo during this period leads to dysmorphogenesis or even death AIM: The present study means to evaluate the gross anomalies on developing f o etus subsequent to silver nanoparticle ingestion during the gestational period. MATERIAL & METHOD: Random selections of pregnant Swiss albino mice were selected. AgNPs, of 20 - 100 nm size ra nge, were administered to pregnant mice by repeated oral gavages at concentra tions of 0.5, 1, 5, 10, 15 & 20 mg/kg/day during 4 - 17 gestational day. All dams were subjected to exteriorization on GD 18. The fetuses were evaluated for body malformation effects . RESULTS: Repeated oral gavages treatment with AgNPs at a concentration of 0.5mg/kg/day caused resorption (4.61% and intra uterine growth retardation (7.69% with no gross morphology alteration. 1 mg/kg/day caused resorption (9.23% and intra uterine growth retardation (10.76% with a rare case of haemorrhagic conception (1.53%, 5mg/kg/day caused limb malformation (7.01% resorption (17.54% and intra uterine growth retardation (17.54%, closed type Neural tube deformity (5.26%, 10mg/kg/day caused 20 % of limb malformation including Amelia, foot and tail vein hemorrhages and simple tail vein haemorrhage (3.50% each, resorption (22.80%, intra uterine growth retardation (29.82%, 15mg/kg/day caused severe hemorrhage within the entire body (22.80%, lim b anomaly including syndactyly and oligodactyly (8.77%, resorption (42.10%, intra uterine growth retardation (45.61%, 20mg/kg/day caused Omphalocele (3.27%, Bidiscoidal placental anomaly (9.83%, resorption (29.50% and intra uterine growth retardation (62.29%. CONCLUSION: The results show that a repeated oral dose of AgNPs during pregnancy caused fetal body dysmorphogenesis which is dose

  11. Refrigerating fluids; Fluides frigorigenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1999-03-01

    Refrigerating fluids are experiencing a real revolution since few years. CFCs with their destructive effect on the ozone layer are now prohibited while HCFCs will be progressively eliminated and replaced by HFCs. However, HFCs can contribute to the increase of the greenhouse effect. The solutions proposed by thermal engineering professionals consist in the confinement of air-conditioning installations (elimination of recurrent leaks) and in the improvement of installations efficiency. HCFC fluids like the R 22 are still widely used in air-conditioning but they are supposed to be replaced by HFC fluids like the R 134a, the R 407C or the R 410A. This short paper gives a brief presentation of these fluids and of their chemical characteristics. (J.S.)

  12. An Industry/DOE Program to Develop and Benchmark Advanced Diamond Product Drill Bits and HP/HT Drilling Fluids to Significantly Improve Rates of Penetration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TerraTek

    2007-06-30

    A deep drilling research program titled 'An Industry/DOE Program to Develop and Benchmark Advanced Diamond Product Drill Bits and HP/HT Drilling Fluids to Significantly Improve Rates of Penetration' was conducted at TerraTek's Drilling and Completions Laboratory. Drilling tests were run to simulate deep drilling by using high bore pressures and high confining and overburden stresses. The purpose of this testing was to gain insight into practices that would improve rates of penetration and mechanical specific energy while drilling under high pressure conditions. Thirty-seven test series were run utilizing a variety of drilling parameters which allowed analysis of the performance of drill bits and drilling fluids. Five different drill bit types or styles were tested: four-bladed polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC), 7-bladed PDC in regular and long profile, roller-cone, and impregnated. There were three different rock types used to simulate deep formations: Mancos shale, Carthage marble, and Crab Orchard sandstone. The testing also analyzed various drilling fluids and the extent to which they improved drilling. The PDC drill bits provided the best performance overall. The impregnated and tungsten carbide insert roller-cone drill bits performed poorly under the conditions chosen. The cesium formate drilling fluid outperformed all other drilling muds when drilling in the Carthage marble and Mancos shale with PDC drill bits. The oil base drilling fluid with manganese tetroxide weighting material provided the best performance when drilling the Crab Orchard sandstone.

  13. 26 CFR 1.199-3 - Domestic production gross receipts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... out of scrap, salvage, or junk material as well as from new or raw material by processing... of Columbia, the territorial waters of the United States, and the seabed and subsoil of those submarine areas that are adjacent to the territorial waters of the United States and over which the...

  14. Release of Active Peptidyl Arginine Deiminases by Neutrophils Can Explain Production of Extracellular Citrullinated Autoantigens in Rheumatoid Arthritis Synovial Fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spengler, Julia; Lugonja, Božo; Jimmy Ytterberg, A.; Zubarev, Roman A.; Creese, Andrew J.; Pearson, Mark J.; Grant, Melissa M.; Milward, Michael; Lundberg, Karin; Buckley, Christopher D.; Filer, Andrew; Raza, Karim; Cooper, Paul R.; Chapple, Iain L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective In the majority of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), antibodies specifically recognize citrullinated autoantigens that are generated by peptidylarginine deiminases (PADs). Neutrophils express high levels of PAD and accumulate in the synovial fluid (SF) of RA patients during disease flares. This study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that neutrophil cell death, induced by either NETosis (extrusion of genomic DNA–protein complexes known as neutrophil extracellular traps [NETs]) or necrosis, can contribute to production of autoantigens in the inflamed joint. Methods Extracellular DNA was quantified in the SF of patients with RA, patients with osteoarthritis (OA), and patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA). Release of PAD from neutrophils was investigated by Western blotting, mass spectrometry, immunofluorescence staining, and PAD activity assays. PAD2 and PAD4 protein expression, as well as PAD enzymatic activity, were assessed in the SF of patients with RA and those with OA. Results Extracellular DNA was detected at significantly higher levels in RA SF than in OA SF (P < 0.001) or PsA SF (P < 0.05), and its expression levels correlated with neutrophil concentrations and PAD activity in RA SF. Necrotic neutrophils released less soluble extracellular DNA compared to NETotic cells in vitro (P < 0.05). Higher PAD activity was detected in RA SF than in OA SF (P < 0.05). The citrullinated proteins PAD2 and PAD4 were found attached to NETs and also freely diffused in the supernatant. PAD enzymatic activity was detected in supernatants of neutrophils undergoing either NETosis or necrosis. Conclusion Release of active PAD isoforms into the SF by neutrophil cell death is a plausible explanation for the generation of extracellular autoantigens in RA. PMID:26245941

  15. Supercritical fluid assisted production of micrometric powders of the labile trypsin and chitosan/trypsin composite microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yu-Bin; Guan, Yi-Xin; Yao, Shan-Jing

    2015-07-15

    Supercritical fluid assisted atomization introduced by a hydrodynamic cavitation mixer (SAA-HCM) was used to prepare micrometric particles of a labile protein, i.e., trypsin from aqueous solution without use of any organic solvents. The trypsin particles precipitated had various morphologies under different process conditions, with particle diameters ranging from 0.2 to 4 μm. FTIR, SDS-PAGE, CD and fluorescence spectra were performed to analyze the structural stability of the protein, and trypsin retained above 70% of the biological activity. Besides, chitosan was selected as the polymer carrier in an effort to prepare trypsin composite microparticles via SAA-HCM process. The influences of chitosan molecular weight, polymer/protein ratio and solution concentration on the particle morphology and size distribution were investigated in detail. Non-coalescing spherical composite microparticles with a narrow particle distribution (0.2-3 μm) could be obtained. The SAA-HCM prepared particles were amorphous as demonstrated by XRD and had a loading efficiency about 90%. The protein release profiles of the composite microparticles were evaluated using both the immersion condition and a Franz diffusion cell. Finally, the distribution of the protein within the particles was characterized through CLSM analysis of FITC-labeled trypsin-loaded chitosan microparticles. The SAA-HCM process is demonstrated to be a protein-friendly and promising technique for production of protein and polymer/protein composite particles formulations from aqueous solutions for drug delivery systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Guidelines for Standard Photography in Gross and Clinical Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barut, Cagatay; Ertilav, Hakan

    2011-01-01

    Photography has a widespread usage in medicine and anatomy. In this review, authors focused on the usage of photography in gross and clinical anatomy. Photography in gross and clinical anatomy is not only essential for accurate documentation of morphological findings but also important in sharing knowledge and experience. Photographs of cadavers…

  17. 26 CFR 1.61-4 - Gross income of farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Gross income of farmers. (a) Farmers using the cash method of accounting. A farmer using the cash receipts and disbursements method of accounting shall include in his gross income for the taxable year— (1) The amount of cash and the value of merchandise or other property received during the taxable...

  18. Guidelines for Standard Photography in Gross and Clinical Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barut, Cagatay; Ertilav, Hakan

    2011-01-01

    Photography has a widespread usage in medicine and anatomy. In this review, authors focused on the usage of photography in gross and clinical anatomy. Photography in gross and clinical anatomy is not only essential for accurate documentation of morphological findings but also important in sharing knowledge and experience. Photographs of cadavers…

  19. Psychiatric Symptoms in Children with Gross Motor Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emck, Claudia; Bosscher, Ruud J.; van Wieringen, Piet C. W.; Doreleijers, Theo; Beek, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Children with psychiatric disorders often demonstrate gross motor problems. This study investigates if the reverse also holds true by assessing psychiatric symptoms present in children with gross motor problems. Emotional, behavioral, and autism spectrum disorders (ASD), as well as psychosocial problems, were assessed in a sample of 40 children…

  20. The Gross Anatomy Course: An Analysis of Its Importance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockers, Anja; Jerg-Bretzke, Lucia; Lamp, Christoph; Brinkmann, Anke; Traue, Harald C.; Bockers, Tobias M.

    2010-01-01

    The gross anatomy dissection course is a cost-intensive piece of undergraduate medical education that students and professionals alike describe as very important within the overall medical curriculum. We sought to understand more explicitly students' valuation of gross anatomy as an "important" course and so developed a quantitative…

  1. Postoperative Urinary Retention With Gross Vulvar Edema After Use of 4% Icodextrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Beverly; Robinson, Randal

    2015-07-01

    4% icodextrin is a fluid that can be instilled laparoscopically to prevent adhesion formation. There are few complications reported in the literature associated with its use. A 38-year-old woman, gravida 2, para 0, abortus 2 underwent laparoscopic salpingectomy. 4% icodextrin was instilled in an effort to prevent adhesion formation. Postoperatively, the patient experienced urinary retention and gross vulvar edema that required foley catheter use until the 4% icodextrin solution had absorbed. Postoperative complications that may be associated with the use of 4% icodextrin include urinary retention and vulvar edema. Reprint & Copyright © 2015 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  2. Expression of nitric oxide synthases and effects of L-arginine and L-NMMA on nitric oxide production and fluid transport in collagenous colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perner, A; Andresen, Lars; Normark, M;

    2001-01-01

    Luminal nitric oxide (NO) is greatly increased in the colon of patients with collagenous and ulcerative colitis. To define the source and consequence of enhanced NO production we have studied expression of NO synthase (NOS) isoforms and nitrotyrosine in mucosal biopsies from these patients....... In addition, effects on colonic fluid transfer caused by manipulating the substrate of NOS were studied in patients with collagenous colitis....

  3. On the stability of the production of bubbles in yield-stress fluid using flow-focusing and T-junction devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laborie, B.; Rouyer, F.; Angelescu, D. E.; Lorenceau, E.

    2016-06-01

    We investigate experimentally the stability of bubble production in yield-stress fluids (YSF) and highly viscous silicone oil, using flow-focusing and T-junction devices. When the exit channel is initially pre-filled with the fluid and the gas is pressure-driven, the production is highly unstable, despite a regular frequency of bubble production in the junction. As observed for pressure-driven bubble trains in Newtonian fluids, we report that two mechanisms can explain these observations: (i) drastic reduction of the hydrodynamic pressure drop along the channel during the transient bubble production, which induces a rapid increase of the gas flow rate and (ii) thin film deposition resulting in a cascade of plug break-up and bubble coalescence. While the drastic reduction of the pressure drop is inevitable in such two-phase flows, we show that modifying the surfaces of the channel can help to stabilize the system when the continuous phase is a YSF. To do so, we measure the thickness of the film deposited on the channel wall for rough and smooth channels. Our results are rationalized by introducing the inverse of the Bingham number Bi-1 comparing the viscous stress to the yield stress. For Bi-1 ≥ 1, a fast fluidization process associated to efficient deposition of YSF on the channel wall leads to a rapid destabilization of bubble production. However, for Bi-1 regime of Bi-1 and for smooth surfaces, the length of the plugs barely vanishes, thus the start-up flow is less prone to destabilization. These results therefore potentially open routes to steady production of aerated YSF on smooth channels in the regime of small Bi-1.

  4. Amniotic fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... carefully. Removing a sample of the fluid through amniocentesis can provide information about the sex, health, and development of the fetus. Images Amniocentesis Amniotic fluid Polyhydramnios Amniotic fluid References Cunningham FG, ...

  5. Determinação por sensoriamento remoto da produtividade primária bruta do perímetro irrigado São Gonçalo - PB Assessment of gross primary production - GPP in the irrigated perimeter São Gonçalo - PB using remote sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Barbosa da Silva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento da produtividade primária bruta - GPP (do inglês Gross Primary Production é de fundamental importância nos estudos de mudanças climáticas, por estar diretamente relacionada ao carbono efetivamente extraído da atmosfera pelos diferentes ecossistemas terrestres. O presente trabalho objetivou determinar a GPP no perímetro irrigado São Gonçalo (PB, localizado no Semiárido brasileiro, com imagens TM - Landsat 5 e dados complementares de superfície. Foram adquiridas imagens TM - Landsat 5, sem presença de nuvens no ano de 2008, para obtenção da GPP diária em cinco dias selecionados. O modelo utilizado expressa a GPP em função da radiação fotossinteticamente ativa absorvida e da eficiência de uso da luz pela vegetação. Os resultados obtidos foram comparados aos valores da GPP extraídos do produto MOD17A2. As diferenças entre os valores da GPP obtida segundo as duas técnicas resultaram em Desvio Absoluto Médio - DAM de 0,91 g C m-2 dia-1, Desvio Percentual Médio - DPM de 11,82% e Raiz do Desvio Quadrático Médio - RDQM de 1,12 g C m-2 dia-1. A integração da GPP em todo o Perímetro Irrigado São Gonçalo, durante os cinco dias selecionados, resultou na fixação de 200,3 a 295,3 ton C dia-1.The Gross Primary Production (GPP assessment and monitoring by remote sensing is of crucial importance in the climate changes studies given its direct connection to the effectively extracted carbon from the atmosphere by numerous earth ecosystems. The present work aims to assess the GPP in a Brazilian semi-arid irrigated area, using TM - Landsat 5 images and complementary surface meteorological data. Cloudless TM images were acquired from the year 2008 and were used to obtain daily GPP for five selected days. This model expresses GPP as a function of the absorbed photosynthetic active radiation and the efficiency of light use by vegetation. A comparison is made between the obtained results with TM images and GPP from MOD

  6. Calculation of gross energy consumption[in a building]; Beregning af bruttoenergiforbrug

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelund Thomsen, Kirsten; Aggerholm, Soeren

    2000-07-01

    This bulletin presents a method for calculating the gross energy consumption of a building. The net heat demand for space heating, ventilation and domestic hot water should be calculated. Next converted to gross energy consumption, i.e. the amount of energy that is required to supply, for instance, a gas furnace in order that it produces the calculated amount of heat. First the electricity consumption required for ventilation, appliances and lighting is calculated, taking into consideration the daylight utilisation in commercial buildings. The point of departure is the existing method for calculating the net heat demand of buildings. The method includes heat supply from persons, lighting and appliances. This calculating method was later extended to include a method for calculating the energy demand for domestic hot water and addition of non-utilised heat loss from pipes and heat producing installations. This loss is calculated on the basis of loss in hot water tanks, heat and hot water pipes. Heat supply from solar collectors is calculated and deducted from the heat demand. The calculated end result is called gross heat requirement. Next the gross energy consumption for heating, ventilation and domestic hot water is determined by means of annual efficiency for heating installations. An inventory of the environmental impact is calculated based on the energy consumption measured by the total CO{sub 2} production per m{sup 2} floor area. The CO{sub 2} emission is calculated on the basis of the calculated gross energy consumption of heating and electricity, and on standard values for CO{sub 2} contents in the fuels used and emissions from electricity production issued by the Danish Energy Agency. The gross energy consumption is calculated for three examples of buildings: a single-family house, an administration building and a multi-storey building. The examples show that it is feasible to do calculations for typical buildings. Heat consumption for space heating and

  7. Estimating the gross moist stability in shallow and deep convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C. A.; Jong, B. T.; Chou, C.

    2015-12-01

    Gross moist stability has been used to study the link between tropical deep convection and large scale circulation in a moist static energy (MSE) budget. Here we aim to calculate the gross moist stability from more realistic profiles of vertical velocity and extend it beyond deep convection, adding shallow convection. Based on a principal component analysis, we were able to decompose the vertical velocity into two leading modes, which are dominated by deep and shallow convection, respectively. According to the deep and shallow modes, we calculate the gross moist stability for these two modes and discuss the roles of deep and shallow convection in the MSE budget. The gross moist stability of deep convection tends to be positive in the tropics, while that of shallow convection is negative over most areas of the tropics. This implies that deep convection exports MSE to stabilize the atmosphere and shallow convection imports MSE to enhance deep convection and destabilize the atmosphere. Based on the spatial distribution, moisture tends to reduce the gross moist stability of deep convection, while dry static energy has little impact. Deeper deep convection tends to have greater gross moist stability. For shallow convection, on the other hand, the gross moist stability is affected not only by low-level moisture but also mid-level moisture. Both moister low-level and drier mid-level moisture reduce the gross moist stability of shallow convection. Greater low-level dry static energy, which is associated with warmer sea surface temperature, also tends to reduce gross moist stability.

  8. Twisted Grosse-Wulkenhaar $\\phi^{\\star 4}$ model: dynamical noncommutativity and Noether currents

    CERN Document Server

    Hounkonnou, Mahouton Norbert

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses the computation of Noether currrents for the renormalizable Grosse-Wulkenhaar (GW) $\\phi^{\\star 4}$ model subjected to a dynamical noncomutativity realized through a twisted Moyal product. The noncommutative (NC) energy-momentum tensor (EMT), angular momentum tensor (AMT) and the dilatation current (DC) are explicitly derived. The breaking of translation and rotation invariances has been avoided via a constraint equation.

  9. Optimization of organo clay production for applications in based oil drilling fluid; Otimizacao do processo de organofilizacao para aplicacoes em fluidos de perfuracao base oleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Heber S.; Martins, Alice B.; Costa, Danubia L. da; Ferreira, Heber C.; Neves, Gelmires de A.; Melo, Tomas J.A. de [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil); Teixeira Neto, Erico [Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC), Santo Andre, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The organophilic clays are widely used as an agent dispersed in the composition of oil based drilling fluids. The organophilic clays are gotten from bentonite clays treated, in watery way, with ionic surfactants, that are adsorbed in the surface of interlayer of the clays, re-covered them with a organic layer. A fundamental stage of production of the organophilic clays is the dispersion of bentonite clays, in way that variables like: speed of agitation, temperature and time of cure, influences directly in plastic and apparent viscosities of these dispersions, together with other variables of organophilization process, like, temperature and time of cure of organophilization, has direct influence in efficiency of the organophilization process. This work considers a study of these variable, using bentonite clays: Brasgel PA{sup R} and Cloisite Na{sup +R}, treated with the ionic surfactant Praepagem WB{sup R}. The organophilic clays gotten had been characterized by rays X diffraction, Foster's swelling, and the results were compared with the commercial organophilic clay VG-69{sup R}, industrially treated with ionic surfactant. Viscosities plastic and apparent of the dispersions had been measured in the midst of organic dispersant diesel oil used to obtain the oil based drilling fluids. Preliminary results of Foster's swelling and preparation of fluids show that the clays have affinity with the means liquid organic dispersants, and the fluids meet specifications of PETROBRAS (N-22581-1997 and N-2259 to 1997) for use in the of diesel oil based drilling fluids. (author)

  10. Premedical anatomy experience and student performance in medical gross anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondrashov, Peter; McDaniel, Dalton J; Jordan, Rebecca M

    2017-04-01

    Gross anatomy is considered one of the most important basic science courses in medical education, yet few medical schools require its completion prior to matriculation. The effect of taking anatomy courses before entering medical school on performance in medical gross anatomy has been previously studied with inconsistent results. The effect of premedical anatomy coursework on performance in medical gross anatomy, overall medical school grade point average (GPA), and Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing Examination Level 1 (COMLEX 1) score was evaluated in 456 first-year osteopathic medical students along with a survey on its perceived benefits on success in medical gross anatomy course. No significant differences were found in gross anatomy grade, GPA, or COMLEX 1 score between students with premedical anatomy coursework and those without. However, significant differences and higher scores were observed in students who had taken three or more undergraduate anatomy courses including at least one with cadaveric laboratory. There was significantly lower perceived benefit for academic success in the medical gross anatomy course (P<.001) from those students who had taken premedical anatomy courses (5.9 of 10) compared with those who had not (8.2 of 10). Results suggest that requiring any anatomy course as a prerequisite for medical school would not have significant effect on student performance in the medical gross anatomy course. However, requiring more specific anatomy coursework including taking three or more undergraduate anatomy courses, one with cadaveric laboratory component, may result in higher medical gross anatomy grades, medical school GPA, and COMLEX 1 scores. Clin. Anat. 30:303-311, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Gross Motor Profile and Its Association with Socialization Skills in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardiono D. Pusponegoro

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: Children with ASD had lower gross motor skills compared to typically developing children. Gross motor impairments were found in 20% of the ASD children, and these children also had lower socialization skills than those without gross motor impairments.

  12. Development of chiral and achiral supercritical fluid chromatographic methods for the characterization of ophthalmic drug substances and drug products

    OpenAIRE

    Marley, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    With the global drive for faster, more environmentally friendly separation techniques, the aim of this research was to demonstrate the potential of Supercritical Fluid Chromatography (SFC) as a viable alternative or complementary technique to High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) in the highly regulated world of the Quality Control (QC) laboratory. SFC methods capable of meeting QC method performance expectations in accordance with current guidance were therefore developed and v...

  13. Phase structure of the massive chiral Gross-Neveu model from Hartree-Fock

    CERN Document Server

    Boehmer, Christian; Kraus, Sebastian; Thies, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The phase diagram of the massive chiral Gross-Neveu model (the massive Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model in 1+1 dimensions) is constructed. In the large N limit, the Hartree-Fock approach can be used. We find numerically a chiral crystal phase separated from a massive Fermi gas phase by a 1st order transition. Using perturbation theory, we also construct the critical sheet where the homogeneous phase becomes unstable in a 2nd order transition. A tricritical curve is located. The phase diagram is mapped out as a function of fermion mass, chemical potential and temperature and compared with the one of the discrete chiral Gross-Neveu model. As a by-product, we illustrate the crystal structure of matter at zero temperature for various densities and fermion masses.

  14. Gross Pollutant Traps: Wet Load Assessment at Sungai Kerayong, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Shah, M. R.; Zahari, N. M.; Said, N. F. Md; Sidek, L. M.; Basri, H.; Noor, M. S. F. Md; Husni, M. M. Mohammad; Jajarmizadeh, Milad; Roseli, ZA; Mohd. Dom, N.

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this project is to carry out assessment on the effectiveness and performance of Gross Pollutant Traps (GPTs) stormwater quality control in the urban areas. The study aims to provide a management and planning tool for effective management of the gross pollutants in the urban areas specifically in River of Life (ROL) project. ROL project is a Malaysian Government initiative under the Economic Transformation Program. One of the program in the greater Klang Valley is to transform Klang River into a vibrant and livable waterfront by the year 2020. The main river in ROL catchment is Sungai Klang (upper catchment), with main tributaries Sungai Gombak, Sungai Batu, Sungai Jinjang, Sungai Keroh, Sungai Bunus, Sungai Ampang and Sungai Kerayong. This paper objective is to study the gross pollutant wet load at Sungai Kerayong 1 and Sungai Kerayong 2 which is located at the downstream location of the ROL project. The result shows that Sungai Kerayong 2 produced higher gross pollutant wet load (8025.33 kg/ha/yr) than Sungai Kerayong 1 (4695.12 kg/ha/yr). This could be due to high contributions amounts of gross pollutant traps from residential area, the degree of develop area, and also the location of the river itself related to climate and rainfall.

  15. Gross efficiency during rowing is not affected by stroke rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmijster, Mathijs J; Van Soest, Arthur J; De Koning, Jos J

    2009-05-01

    It has been suggested that the optimal stroke rate in rowing is partly determined by the stroke-rate dependence of internal power losses. This should be reflected in a stroke-rate dependency of gross efficiency (e(gross)). The purpose of this study was to investigate if e(gross) is affected by stroke rate. A second aim was to determine whether internal power losses can be estimated by the negative power output during the stroke cycle (P(negative)). Seventeen well-trained female rowers participated in this study. They rowed three trials on a modified rowing ergometer on slides at a submaximal intensity, with a respiratory exchange ratio of 1 or close to 1. Stroke rates were 28, 34, and 40 strokes per minute. The trials were fully randomized. Power transfer to the flywheel was kept constant whereas e(gross) was determined during each trial. No significant differences in e(gross) were found between conditions. This finding suggests that in rowing internal power losses are not influenced by stroke rate. Furthermore, although P(negative) increased at increasing stroke rate (P measure to estimate internal power losses. This study shows that within the range of stroke rates applied in competitive rowing, internal power losses are unrelated to rowing cycle frequency.

  16. Fluid Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drazin, Philip

    1987-01-01

    Outlines the contents of Volume II of "Principia" by Sir Isaac Newton. Reviews the contributions of subsequent scientists to the physics of fluid dynamics. Discusses the treatment of fluid mechanics in physics curricula. Highlights a few of the problems of modern research in fluid dynamics. Shows that problems still remain. (CW)

  17. Fluid Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus Marius

    2001-01-01

    Fluid interaction, interaction by the user with the system that causes few breakdowns, is essential to many user interfaces. We present two concrete software systems that try to support fluid interaction for different work practices. Furthermore, we present specificity, generality, and minimality...... as design goals for fluid interfaces....

  18. Fluid Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drazin, Philip

    1987-01-01

    Outlines the contents of Volume II of "Principia" by Sir Isaac Newton. Reviews the contributions of subsequent scientists to the physics of fluid dynamics. Discusses the treatment of fluid mechanics in physics curricula. Highlights a few of the problems of modern research in fluid dynamics. Shows that problems still remain. (CW)

  19. Anatomy of the Gross Intestine of the Capybara (Hydrochoerus Hydrochaeris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelia Vazquez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The anatomy of the gross intestine and its mesentery of the capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris have not been described completely. Approach: In the present study, eight adult capybaras were studied using gross dissection. Results: The cecum was the largest part of the intestine and was divided into base, body and apex. The cecocolic fold joined the cecum to the full extent of the proximal loop of ascending colon. The ascending colon was divided into two ansae, one proximal and one distal or spiral. The distal ansa had a spiral arrangement and was placed cranially to the right, covered ventrally by the apex of the cecum. This ansa had a centripetal gyrus to the left, a central flexure and a centrifugal gyrus turning to the right that was continuous with the transverse colon in the right colic flexure. Conclusion: The gross intestine of the capybara was different to other previously studied rodents.

  20. Monitoring of spatiotemporal patterns of Net and Gross Primary Productivity (NPP & GPP) and their ratios (NPP/GPP) derived from MODIS data: assessment natural drivers and their effects on NDVI anomalies in arid and semi-arid zones of Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aralova, Dildora; Jarihani, Ben; Khujanazarov, Timur; Toderich, Kristina; Gafurov, Dilshod; Gismatulina, Liliya

    2017-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that precipitation anomalies and raising of temperature trends were deteriorate affected on large-scale of vegetation surveys in Central Asia (CA). Nowadays, remote sensing techniques can provide estimation of Net and Gross Primary Productivity (NPP & GPP) for regional and global scales, and selected zones in CA (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan) dominated by C4 plants (biomes) what it reveals more accurately simulate C4 carbon. The estimation of NPP & GPP from source (MOD17A2/A3) would be beneficial to determine natural driver factors, whether on rangeland ecosystem is a carbon sink or source, such as a vast area of the selected zones incorporates exacerbate regional drought-risk factors nowadays. Generally, we have combined last available NPP & GPP (2000-2015) with 1 km resolution from MODIS, with investigation of long-term vegetation patterns under Normalized Difference Vegetation Indices (NDVI) with 8 km resolution from AVHRR-GIMMS 3g sources (2001-2015) within aim to estimate potential values of rangeland ecosystems. Interaction ratios of NPP/GPP are integrating more accurately describe carbon sink process under natural or anthropogenic factors, specifically last results of NDVI trends were described as decreasing trends due to climate anomalies, besides the eastern and northern parts of CA (mostly boreal forest zones) where accumulated or indicated of raising trends of NDVI in last three years (2012-2015). Results revealed that, in CA were averaged annually value NDVI ranges from 0.19-0.21; (Kyrgyzstan: 0.23-0.26; Kazakhstan: 0.21-0.24; Tajikistan: 0.19-0.21); and resting countries as low NDVI accumulated areas were Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan ranges 0.13-0.16; Comparing datasets of GPP given the response dynamic change structures of NDVI values and explicit carbon uptake (CO2) in arid ecosystems and average GPPyearlyin CA ranges 2.42 kg C/m2; including to Tajikistan, Uzbekistan (3.09 kg C/m2) and

  1. A survey of gross alpha and gross beta activity in soil samples in Kinta District, Perak, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Siak Kuan; Wagiran, Husin; Ramli, Ahmad Termizi

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the gross alpha and gross beta activity concentrations from the different soil types found in the Kinta District, Perak, Malaysia. A total of 128 soil samples were collected and their dose rates were measured 1 m above the ground. Gross alpha and gross beta activity measurements were carried out using gas flow proportional counter, Tennelec Series 5 LB5500 Automatic Low Background Counting System. The alpha activity concentration ranged from 15 to 9634 Bq kg(-1) with a mean value of 1558±121 Bq kg(-1). The beta activity concentration ranged from 142 to 6173 Bq kg(-1) with a mean value of 1112±32 Bq kg(-1). High alpha and beta activity concentrations are from the same soil type. The results of the analysis show a strong correlation between the gross alpha activity concentration and dose rate (R = 0.92). The data obtained can be used as a database for each soil type.

  2. Ludwik Gross, Sarah Stewart, and the 1950s discoveries of Gross murine leukemia virus and polyoma virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Gregory J

    2014-12-01

    The Polish-American scientist Ludwik Gross made two important discoveries in the early 1950s. He showed that two viruses - murine leukemia virus and parotid tumor virus - could cause cancer when they were injected into susceptible animals. At first, Gross's discoveries were greeted with skepticism: it seemed implausible that viruses could cause a disease as complex as cancer. Inspired by Gross's initial experiments, similar results were obtained by Sarah Stewart and Bernice Eddy who later renamed the parotid tumor virus SE polyoma virus after finding it could cause many different types of tumors in mice, hamsters, and rats. Eventually the "SE" was dropped and virologists adopted the name "polyoma virus." After Gross's work was published, additional viruses capable of causing solid tumors or blood-borne tumors in mice were described by Arnold Graffi, Charlotte Friend, John Moloney and others. By 1961, sufficient data had been accumulated for Gross to confidently publish an extensive monograph--Oncogenic Viruses--the first history of tumor virology, which became a standard reference work and marked the emergence of tumor virology as a distinct, legitimate field of study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Catalytic pyrolysis of atmospheric residue on a fluid catalytic cracking catalyst for the production of light olefins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Lian-guo; MENG Xiang-hai; XU Chun-ming; GAO Jin-sen; LIU Zhi-chang

    2009-01-01

    Catalytic pyrolysis of Chinese Daqing atmospheric residue on a commercial fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) catalyst was investigated in a confined fluidized bed reactor. The results show that the commercial FCC catalyst has good capability of cracking atmospheric residue to light olefins. The analysis of gas samples shows that the content of total light olefins in cracked gas is above 80%. The analysis of liquid samples shows that the content of aromatics in liquid samples ranges from 60% to 80%, and it increases with the enhancement of reaction temperature. The yield of total light olefins shows a maximum with the increase of reaction temperature, the weight ratios of catalyst-to-oil and steam-to-oil, respectively. The optimal reaction temperature, the weight ratios of catalyst-to-oil and steam-to-oil are about 650℃, 15 and 0.75, respectively.

  4. Degeneration of the long biceps tendon: comparison of MRI with gross anatomy and histology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Florian M; Grehn, Holger; Hilbe, Monika; Pfirrmann, Christian W A; Manzanell, Silvana; Hodler, Jürg

    2009-11-01

    The objective of our study was to relate alterations in biceps tendon diameter and signal on MR images to gross anatomy and histology. T1-weighted, T2-weighted fat-saturated, and proton density-weighted fat-saturated spin-echo sequences were acquired in 15 cadaveric shoulders. Biceps tendon diameter (normal, flattened, thickened, and partially or completely torn) and signal intensity (compared with bone, fat, muscle, and joint fluid) were graded by two readers independently and in a blinded fashion. The distance of tendon abnormalities from the attachment at the glenoid were noted in millimeters. MRI findings were related to gross anatomic and histologic findings. On the basis of gross anatomy, there were six normal, five flattened, two thickened, and two partially torn tendons. Reader 1 graded nine diameter changes correctly, missed two, and incorrectly graded four. The corresponding values for reader 2 were seven, one, and five, respectively, with kappa = 0.75. Histology showed mucoid degeneration (n = 13), lipoid degeneration (n = 7), and fatty infiltration (n = 6). At least one type of abnormality was found in each single tendon. Mucoid degeneration was hyperintense compared with fatty infiltration on T2-weighted fat-saturated images and hyperintense compared with magic-angle artifacts on proton density-weighted fat-saturated images. MRI-based localization of degeneration agreed well with histologic findings. Diameter changes are specific but not sensitive in diagnosing tendinopathy of the biceps tendon. Increased tendon signal is most typical for mucoid degeneration but should be used with care as a sign of tendon degeneration.

  5. Numerical simulation for the Gross-Pitaevskii equation based on the lattice Boltzmann method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huimin

    2017-09-01

    A lattice Boltzmann model for the Gross-Pitaevskii equation is proposed in this paper. Some numerical tests for one- and two-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation have been conducted. The waves of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation are simulated. Numerical results show that the lattice Boltzmann method is an effective method for the wave of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation.

  6. 29 CFR 779.259 - What is included in annual gross volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is included in annual gross volume. 779.259 Section... Coverage Annual Gross Volume of Sales Made Or Business Done § 779.259 What is included in annual gross volume. (a) The annual gross volume of sales made or business done of an enterprise consists of its...

  7. 29 CFR 794.122 - Ascertainment of “annual” gross sales volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ascertainment of âannualâ gross sales volume. 794.122... Annual Gross Volume of Sales § 794.122 Ascertainment of “annual” gross sales volume. The annual gross volume of sales of an enterprise engaged in the wholesale or bulk distribution of petroleum...

  8. Happy Life Years: a measure of Gross National Happiness

    OpenAIRE

    Veenhoven, Ruut

    2004-01-01

    textabstractHappiness is defined as the degree to which a person enjoys his or her life-as-a-whole. Accordingly ‘Gross National Happiness’ is defined as the degree to which citizens in a country enjoy the life they live. Individual happiness can be measured by self-report on a single standard question. Hence Gross National Happiness can be measured by the average response to such questions in general populations surveys. Survey data on average self-report of happiness can be combined with est...

  9. The Impact of Investments and Gross Value Added upon Earnings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa APARASCHIVEI

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we tried to capture the impact of investments and gross value added, but also the impact of the employment on the average wage. The analysis refers to the period 1998- 2008 and we are using data on the activities of the Romanian economy. The results of this study confirm the negative influence of the employment, being consistent with the theory. Also, the impact of investments and that of gross value added came out to be positive and significant.

  10. Revised Phase Diagram of the Gross-Neveu Model

    CERN Document Server

    Thies, M; Thies, Michael; Urlichs, Konrad

    2003-01-01

    We confirm earlier hints that the conventional phase diagram of the discrete chiral Gross-Neveu model in the large N limit is deficient at non-zero chemical potential. We present the corrected phase diagram constructed in mean field theory. It has three different phases, including a kink-antikink crystal phase. All transitions are second order. The driving mechanism for the new structure of baryonic matter in the Gross-Neveu model is an Overhauser type instability with gap formation at the Fermi surface.

  11. Application des fluides supercritiques à la production d'hydrocarbures. Exploitation des gisements par récupération assistée et applications diverses : pétrole, sables, schistes, charbons Application of Supercritical Fluids to Hydrocarbon Production. Enhanced Oi Recovery and Miscellaneous Applications: Oil, Tar Sands, Shales, Coals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behar E.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Le taux moyen de récupération par drainage naturel des gisements pétroliers atteint à peine 30 %. La récupération assistée désigne l'ensemble des procédés d'exploitation qui permettent d'accroître très sensiblement ce taux. Parmi ces procédés, l'injection de fluides supercritiques joue un rôle prometteur. Les principaux fluides actuellement utilisés sont : le méthane (ou plus généralement les gaz hydrocarbures dits pauvres , l'azote et enfin le gaz carbonique. Les domaines d'application et les mécanismes thermodynamiques mis en jeu sont brièvement exposés, les sources de fluides supercritiques disponibles au voisinage des gisements pétroliers sont rapidement répertoriées et certains problèmes d'exploitation évoqués. Outre leur application en récupération assistée, les fluides supercritiques sont également impliqués dans des procédés de raffinage et d'extraction divers. C'est le procédé de désasphaltage de fractions pétrolières lourdes qui, en 1956, a fait l'objet de la première application industrielle exploitant les fortes variations du pouvoir solvant d'un fluide au voisinage de son point critique. Ce procédé connaît, depuis une dizaine d'années, un regain d'intérêt du fait de l'économie d'énergie qu'il permet de réaliser. D'autre part, les schistes bitumineux, les sables asphaltiques et les charbons, sources d'hydrocarbures considérables pour l'avenir, constituent des domaines d'applications potentielles originales des fluides supercritiques. Les procédés spécifiques, pour la plupart en cours de développement au stade pilote, sont passés en revue. The average recovery by natural drainage from oil fields is barely 30%. Enhanced recovery includes all production processes which appreciably increase this rate. Among such processes, supercritical fluid flooding is quite promising. The main fluids now used are methane (or, more generally, so-called leangaseous hydrocarbons, nitrogen and carbon

  12. A plan to reduce volatile organic compound emissions from consumer products in Canada (excluding windshield washer fluid and surface coatings) : final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-12-01

    This report highlights the recommendations made by the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment for the development of a guideline to provide a means by which to reduce (VOC) emissions from consumer products (excluding windshield washer fluid and surface coatings) in Canada. VOCs and nitrogen oxides react photochemically in the presence of sunlight to create ground-level ozone, a primary component of urban smog which has a detrimental effect on human health, agricultural crops and building materials. In recent years, most urban areas of Canada have shown an annual increase in the maximum acceptable air quality levels for ground level ozone. Reducing emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from consumer products was first suggested in 1990 by the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment in phase one of their program entitled the 'Management plan for nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds'. Phase 2 of the program was implemented in 1997 to harmonize the emissions reduction program with the United States Environmental Protection Agency regulations. The Canadian Environmental Protection Agency (CEPA) recommended the following control options: (1) a CEPA guideline should be developed which states the maximum VOC and high-volatility organic compound (HVOC) content in Canadian consumer products including hair care products, herbicides, insecticides, air fresheners, deodorants, fungicides, surface cleaners, fragrance products, anti-microbial agents, laundry products and automotive detailing products. These limits should be identical to those found in the 1998 U.S. Final Rule for Consumer Products, (2) the CEPA guideline should require that records specifying VOC content in weight-per cent be maintained for a period of three years, (3) the CEPA guideline should include a declaration procedure for Canadian importers and manufacturers of consumer products to report to Environment Canada regarding the VOC content of their products, and

  13. Biodiesel production from various oils under supercritical fluid conditions by Candida antartica lipase B using a stepwise reaction method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong Ho; Kwon, Cheong Hoon; Kang, Jeong Won; Park, Chulhwan; Tae, Bumseok; Kim, Seung Wook

    2009-05-01

    In this study, we evaluate the effects of various reaction factors, including pressure, temperature, agitation speed, enzyme concentration, and water content to increase biodiesel production. In addition, biodiesel was produced from various oils to establish the optimal enzymatic process of biodiesel production. Optimal conditions were determined to be as follows: pressure 130 bar, temperature 45 degrees C, agitation speed 200 rpm, enzyme concentration 20%, and water contents 10%. Among the various oils used for production, olive oil showed the highest yield (65.18%) upon transesterification. However, when biodiesel was produced using a batch system, biodiesel conversion yield was not increased over 65%; therefore, a stepwise reaction was conducted to increase biodiesel production. When a reaction medium with an initial concentration of methanol of 60 mmol was used and adjusted to maintain this concentration of methanol every 1.5 h during biodiesel production, the conversion yield of biodiesel was 98.92% at 6 h. Finally, reusability was evaluated using immobilized lipase to determine if this method was applicable for industrial biodiesel production. When biodiesel was produced repeatedly, the conversion rate was maintained at over 85% after eight reuses.

  14. Real-time PCR detection of Paenibacillus spp. in raw milk to predict shelf life performance of pasteurized fluid milk products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranieri, Matthew L; Ivy, Reid A; Mitchell, W Robert; Call, Emma; Masiello, Stephanie N; Wiedmann, Martin; Boor, Kathryn J

    2012-08-01

    Psychrotolerant sporeformers, specifically Paenibacillus spp., are important spoilage bacteria for pasteurized, refrigerated foods such as fluid milk. While Paenibacillus spp. have been isolated from farm environments, raw milk, processing plant environments, and pasteurized fluid milk, no information on the number of Paenibacillus spp. that need to be present in raw milk to cause pasteurized milk spoilage was available. A real-time PCR assay targeting the 16S rRNA gene was designed to detect Paenibacillus spp. in fluid milk and to discriminate between Paenibacillus and other closely related spore-forming bacteria. Specificity was confirmed using 16 Paenibacillus and 17 Bacillus isolates. All 16 Paenibacillus isolates were detected with a mean cycle threshold (C(T)) of 19.14 ± 0.54. While 14/17 Bacillus isolates showed no signal (C(T) > 40), 3 Bacillus isolates showed very weak positive signals (C(T) = 38.66 ± 0.65). The assay provided a detection limit of approximately 3.25 × 10(1) CFU/ml using total genomic DNA extracted from raw milk samples inoculated with Paenibacillus. Application of the TaqMan PCR to colony lysates obtained from heat-treated and enriched raw milk provided fast and accurate detection of Paenibacillus. Heat-treated milk samples where Paenibacillus (≥1 CFU/ml) was detected by this colony TaqMan PCR showed high bacterial counts (>4.30 log CFU/ml) after refrigerated storage (6°C) for 21 days. We thus developed a tool for rapid detection of Paenibacillus that has the potential to identify raw milk with microbial spoilage potential as a pasteurized product.

  15. Monitoring of gross alpha, gross beta and actinides activities in exhaust air released from the waste isolation pilot plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thakur, P., E-mail: pthakur@cemrc.org [Carlsbad Environmental Monitoring and Research Center, 1400 University Drive, Carlsbad, New Mexico 88220 (United States); Mulholland, G.P. [Carlsbad Environmental Monitoring and Research Center, 1400 University Drive, Carlsbad, New Mexico 88220 (United States)

    2011-09-15

    The simultaneous measurements of gross alpha and beta activities is one of the simplest radioanalytical technique used as a method for screening samples of both high and low activities of alpha and beta emitting radionuclides in environmental and bioassay samples. Such measurements are of great interest from both a radiological, waste disposal viewpoint, and to establish a trend of radioactivity based on long term monitoring. At the WIPP (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant) site, unfiltered exhaust air from the underground repository is the most important effluent. As part of its monitoring program, the particulates from WIPP exhaust air are collected everyday at a location typically called the Fixed Air Sampler (FAS) site or Station A, this site is located at the release point for aerosol effluents from the underground to the environment. The measurements of gross alpha and beta activity on air filter samples were performed using an ultra low level counter, PIC-MPC 9604-{alpha}/{beta}, from Protean Instrument Corporation. The high sensitivity of the gross alpha and beta instrument enables detection of low value activity from the air filters. In 2009, the values of gross alpha and beta activity concentrations ranged from Simultaneous measurements of gross alpha and gross beta activities in the particulates from WIPP exhaust air were performed. > Ultra low level counter, PIC-MPC 9604-{alpha}/{beta} counter was used for the measurements. > Values of gross alpha activity concentrations ranged from Values of gross beta activity concentrations ranged from

  16. Synthetic Base Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M.; Fotheringham, J. D.; Hoyes, T. J.; Mortier, R. M.; Orszulik, S. T.; Randles, S. J.; Stroud, P. M.

    The chemical nature and technology of the main synthetic lubricant base fluids is described, covering polyalphaolefins, alkylated aromatics, gas-to-liquid (GTL) base fluids, polybutenes, aliphatic diesters, polyolesters, polyalkylene glycols or PAGs and phosphate esters.Other synthetic lubricant base oils such as the silicones, borate esters, perfluoroethers and polyphenylene ethers are considered to have restricted applications due to either high cost or performance limitations and are not considered here.Each of the main synthetic base fluids is described for their chemical and physical properties, manufacture and production, their chemistry, key properties, applications and their implications when used in the environment.

  17. A modified lattice Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook model for convection heat transfer in porous media

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Liang; Guo, Zhaoli

    2015-01-01

    The lattice Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (LBGK) model has become the most popular one in the lattice Boltzmann method for simulating the convection heat transfer in porous media. However, the LBGK model generally suffers from numerical instability at low fluid viscosities and effective thermal diffusivities. In this paper, a modified LBGK model is developed for incompressible thermal flows in porous media at the representative elementary volume scale, in which the shear rate and temperature gradient are incorporated into the equilibrium distribution functions. With two additional parameters, the relaxation times in the collision process can be fixed at a proper value invariable to the viscosity and the effective thermal diffusivity. In addition, by constructing a modified equilibrium distribution function and a source term in the evolution equation of temperature field, the present model can recover the macroscopic equations correctly through the Chapman-Enskog analysis, which is another key point different from pre...

  18. 26 CFR 1.555-2 - Additions to gross income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Corporation sells 90percent of its stock in the Y Corporation and thus is a minority shareholder in the Y... on which the required United States group exists, and (2) Such foreign corporation is a shareholder... the gross income of its shareholders, whether United States shareholders or other foreign...

  19. Comments on the research article by Gross et al. (2012)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guntur, Srinivas; Sørensen, Niels N.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this Letter to the Editor is to present a discussion on the physics of rotational augmentation based on existing work. One of the latest works by Gross et al. (2012) is highlighted here, and its conclusions are discussed. Based on the existing understanding of rotational augmentati...

  20. Effective Collaboration among the Gross Motor Assessment Team Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menear, Kristi S.; Davis, Timothy D.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the gross motor assessment team (GMAT) members' roles and collaborative approach to making appropriate decisions and modifications when addressing the needs of individuals with disabilities in physical education. Case studies of students are used to demonstrate effective uses of the GMAT. The primary outcome of the GMAT's…

  1. 40 CFR 403.15 - Net/Gross calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... STANDARDS GENERAL PRE-TREAT-MENT REGULATIONS FOR EXIST-ING AND NEW SOURCES OF POLLUTION § 403.15 Net/Gross... pollutants in the Industrial User's intake water in accordance with this section. Any Industrial User wishing... of the Industrial User, the applicable Standard will be calculated on a “net” basis (i.e., adjusted...

  2. Rubriek 'Meten in de praktijk': Gross Motor Function Measure.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenhof, C.; Ketelaar, M.

    2004-01-01

    De Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) is een instrument dat de grof-motorische vaardigheden meet van kinderen met cerebrale parese. De GMFM is expliciet ontwikkeld als evaluatief meetinstrument, wat betekent dat het bedoeld is om veranderingen over de tijd of verandering en die optreden na behandel

  3. Development of the Gross Motor Function Classification System (1997)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    To address the need for a standardized system to classify the gross motor function of children with cerebral palsy, the authors developed a five-level classification system analogous to the staging and grading systems used in medicine. Nominal group process and Delphi survey consensus methods were used to examine content validity and revise the…

  4. Effective Collaboration among the Gross Motor Assessment Team Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menear, Kristi S.; Davis, Timothy D.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the gross motor assessment team (GMAT) members' roles and collaborative approach to making appropriate decisions and modifications when addressing the needs of individuals with disabilities in physical education. Case studies of students are used to demonstrate effective uses of the GMAT. The primary outcome of the GMAT's…

  5. Assessing Gross Motor Skills of Kosovar Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shala, Merita

    2009-01-01

    In the light of the new developments in preschool education in Kosovo, this study attempts to carry out an assessment of the development of gross motor skills of preschool children attending institutional education. The emphasis is on creating a set of tests to measure the motor attainments of these children by conducting assessments of the…

  6. 78 FR 26575 - Gross Combination Weight Rating; Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-07

    ... Weight Rating; Definition AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION... definition of ``gross combination weight rating'' (or GCWR) to clarify that a GCWR is the greater of: the....regulations.gov . Fax: 1-202-493-2251. Mail: Docket Management Facility (M-30), U.S. Department of...

  7. Gross and Microscopic Lesions in Corals from Micronesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, T M; Aeby, G S; Hughen, K A

    2016-01-01

    The authors documented gross and microscopic morphology of lesions in corals on 7 islands spanning western, southern, and eastern Micronesia, sampling 76 colonies comprising 30 species of corals among 18 genera, with Acropora, Porites, and Montipora dominating. Tissue loss comprised the majority of gross lesions sampled (41%), followed by discoloration (30%) and growth anomaly (29%). Of 31 cases of tissue loss, most lesions were subacute (48%), followed by acute and chronic (26% each). Of 23 samples with discoloration, most were dark discoloration (40%), with bleaching and other discoloration each constituting 30%. Of 22 growth anomalies, umbonate growth anomalies composed half, with exophytic, nodular, and rugose growth anomalies composing the remainder. On histopathology, for 9 cases of dark discoloration, fungal infections predominated (77%); for 7 bleached corals, depletion of zooxanthellae from the gastrodermis made up a majority of microscopic diagnoses (57%); and for growth anomalies other than umbonate, hyperplasia of the basal body wall was the most common microscopic finding (63%). For the remainder of the gross lesions, no single microscopic finding constituted >50% of the total. Host response varied with the agent present on histology. Fragmentation of tissues was most often associated with algae (60%), whereas necrosis dominated (53%) for fungi. Two newly documented potentially symbiotic tissue-associated metazoans were seen in Porites and Montipora. Findings of multiple potential etiologies for a given gross lesion highlight the importance of incorporating histopathology in coral disease surveys. This study also expands the range of corals infected with cell-associated microbial aggregates.

  8. Gross and microscopic lesions in corals from Micronesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, Thierry M.; Aeby, Greta S.; Hughen, Konrad A.

    2015-01-01

    The authors documented gross and microscopic morphology of lesions in corals on 7 islands spanning western, southern, and eastern Micronesia, sampling 76 colonies comprising 30 species of corals among 18 genera, with Acropora, Porites, and Montipora dominating. Tissue loss comprised the majority of gross lesions sampled (41%), followed by discoloration (30%) and growth anomaly (29%). Of 31 cases of tissue loss, most lesions were subacute (48%), followed by acute and chronic (26% each). Of 23 samples with discoloration, most were dark discoloration (40%), with bleaching and other discoloration each constituting 30%. Of 22 growth anomalies, umbonate growth anomalies composed half, with exophytic, nodular, and rugose growth anomalies composing the remainder. On histopathology, for 9 cases of dark discoloration, fungal infections predominated (77%); for 7 bleached corals, depletion of zooxanthellae from the gastrodermis made up a majority of microscopic diagnoses (57%); and for growth anomalies other than umbonate, hyperplasia of the basal body wall was the most common microscopic finding (63%). For the remainder of the gross lesions, no single microscopic finding constituted >50% of the total. Host response varied with the agent present on histology. Fragmentation of tissues was most often associated with algae (60%), whereas necrosis dominated (53%) for fungi. Two newly documented potentially symbiotic tissue-associated metazoans were seen in Porites and Montipora. Findings of multiple potential etiologies for a given gross lesion highlight the importance of incorporating histopathology in coral disease surveys. This study also expands the range of corals infected with cell-associated microbial aggregates.

  9. Happy Life Years: a measure of Gross National Happiness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractHappiness is defined as the degree to which a person enjoys his or her life-as-a-whole. Accordingly ‘Gross National Happiness’ is defined as the degree to which citizens in a country enjoy the life they live. Individual happiness can be measured by self-report on a single standard

  10. 77 FR 51706 - Gross Combination Weight Rating (GCWR); Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration 49 CFR Parts 383 and 390 RIN 2126-AB53 Gross Combination Weight Rating (GCWR); Definition AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Direct final rule; request for comments. SUMMARY: The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration...

  11. Strategic improvements for gross anatomy web-based teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marker, David R; Juluru, Krishna; Long, Chris; Magid, Donna

    2012-01-01

    Current generations of graduate students have been immersed in technology from their early school years and have high expectations regarding digital resources. To better meet the expectations of Gross Anatomy students at our institution, electronic radiology teaching files for first-year coursework were organized into a web site. The web site was custom designed to provide material that directly correlated to the Gross Anatomy dissection and lectures. Quick links provided sets of images grouped by anatomic location. Additionally, Lab and Study Companions provided specific material for the students to review prior to and after lectures and gross dissections. Student opinions of this education resource were compared to student opinions of the prior year's digital teaching files. The new content was ranked as more user friendly (3.1 points versus 2.3 points) and more useful for learning anatomy (3.3 points versus 2.6 points). Many students reported that using the web portal was critical in helping them to better understand relationships of anatomical structures. These findings suggest that a well-organized web portal can provide a user-friendly, valuable educational resource for medical students who are studying Gross Anatomy.

  12. Fine and Gross Motor Ability in Males with ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Both fine and gross motor abilities were evaluated in 10-year-old males with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and compared to a group of control children at the School of Psychology, Curtin University of Technology, Perth, Australia.

  13. Construction of 2-dimensional Grosse-Wulkenhaar Model

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Zhituo

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we construct the noncommutative Grosse-Wulkenhaar model on 2-dimensional Moyal plane with the method of loop vertex expansion. We treat renormalization with this new tool, adapt Nelson's argument and prove Borel summability of the perturbation series. This is the first non-commutative quantum field theory model to be built in a non-perturbative sense.

  14. Monopol suretab kohaliku loomakasvataja / Oleg Gross ; interv . Illar Mõttus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Gross, Oleg, 1952-

    2005-01-01

    Väike-Maarja jäätmetehase monopoolse seisundi vastu sõna võtnud OG Elektra omanik Oleg Gross on kindel, et jäätmetehasega suretatakse kohalikud väiksemad lihatootjad välja. Kommenteerivad talupidaja Jüri Järvet ja Rakvere Lihakombinaadi direktor Olle Horm

  15. ɛ-expansion in the Gross-Neveu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, Avinash

    2016-10-01

    We use the recently developed CFT techniques of Rychkov and Tan to compute anomalous dimensions in the O( N ) Gross-Neveu model in d = 2 + ɛ dimensions. To do this, we extend the "cowpie contraction" algorithm of arXiv:1506.06616 to theories with fermions. Our results match perfectly with Feynman diagram computations.

  16. Barn music at St Donat's castle / Philip Gross

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Gross, Philip, 1952-

    2011-01-01

    Muusikafestivalist "Vale of Glamorgan", mis oli 2010. a. pühendatud Arvo Pärdile. Eesti kammermuusikaansambli Resonabilis kavas oli ka festivali tellimusel valminud uelsi helilooja Gareth Peredur Churchilli "Vocable", mille teksti kirjutas Philip Gross. Festivalikontsertide muljeid leiab Grossi luuletsüklis "Barn music" (avaldatud samas ajakirjanumbris, lk. 42-43)

  17. Samuel D. Gross: the nestor of American surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo-Pereyra, Luis H

    2006-01-01

    Samuel David Gross (1805-1884) represented the most notable surgeon of his generation and was honored with the title of "The Nestor of American Surgeon" by surgeon biographer Isaac Minis Hays. Of Pennsylvania Dutch stock, he was born on the family farm near Easton, Pennsylvania. He attended Wilkebarré Academy and Lawrenceville High School, noted private institutions of the day. He apprenticed under Doctor Joseph K. Swift of Easton and later with Professor George McClellan while in Philadelphia. In 1828, he graduated from Jefferson Medical College and remained for a short time in Philadelphia. Professor Gross focused his professional pursuits in the cities of Easton (1830-1833), Cincinnati (1833-1840), Louisville (1840-1856), and Philadelphia (1856-1882). He retired from Jefferson Medical College two years before his death in 1884. Samuel D. Gross' contributions to surgery were numerous and diverse. He was recognized as a prolific author of classic texts of pathology, surgery, and history, an educator, a leader, a surgical researcher, and a pioneer surgeon practitioner. His influence in national affairs was immense, and his recognition as a respected surgeon was unmatched. He remains the most distinguished surgeon of his times. History values him as a hard working, honest, highly competent, and committed individual. His capacity for work and his dedication to a single cause were unrivaled. Doctor Gross integrated the best that surgery could give to future generations of surgical professionals.

  18. Attitudes of Healthcare Students on Gross Anatomy Laboratory Sessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashiro, Yukiko; Anahara, Reiko; Kohno, Toshihiko; Mori, Chisato; Matsuno, Yoshiharu

    2009-01-01

    At Chiba University, gross anatomy laboratory sessions ("laboratories") are required for physical therapy students. Though most physical therapy schools require their students to participate in laboratories so that they will better understand the structure of the human body, few data exist on the value of these laboratories specifically…

  19. Uniqueness of Meromorphic Functions and Question of Gross

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仪洪勋

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, we deal with the problem of uniqueness of meromorphic functions. It is shown that there exist two finite sets Sj (j=1, 2) such that any two nonconstant meromorphic functions f and g satisfying Ef(Sj)=Eg(Sj) for j = 1,2 must be identical, which answers a question posed by Gross.

  20. Interlimb Coordination: An Important Facet of Gross-Motor Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobbio, Tatiana; Gabbard, Carl; Cacola, Priscila

    2009-01-01

    Motor development attains landmark significance during early childhood. Although early childhood educators may be familiar with the gross-motor skill category, the subcategory of interlimb coordination needs greater attention than it typically receives from teachers of young children. Interlimb coordination primarily involves movements requiring…

  1. Barn music at St Donat's castle / Philip Gross

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Gross, Philip, 1952-

    2011-01-01

    Muusikafestivalist "Vale of Glamorgan", mis oli 2010. a. pühendatud Arvo Pärdile. Eesti kammermuusikaansambli Resonabilis kavas oli ka festivali tellimusel valminud uelsi helilooja Gareth Peredur Churchilli "Vocable", mille teksti kirjutas Philip Gross. Festivalikontsertide muljeid leiab Grossi luuletsüklis "Barn music" (avaldatud samas ajakirjanumbris, lk. 42-43)

  2. 75 FR 15610 - Exclusions From Gross Income of Foreign Corporations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 Exclusions From Gross Income of Foreign Corporations CFR Correction In Title 26 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 1 (Sec. Sec. 1.851 to 1.907), revised as...

  3. Gross Motor Development, Movement Abnormalities, and Early Identification of Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozonoff, Sally; Young, Gregory S.; Goldring, Stacy; Greiss-Hess, Laura; Herrera, Adriana M.; Steele, Joel; Macari, Suzanne; Hepburn, Susan; Rogers, Sally J.

    2008-01-01

    Gross motor development (supine, prone, rolling, sitting, crawling, walking) and movement abnormalities were examined in the home videos of infants later diagnosed with autism (regression and no regression subgroups), developmental delays (DD), or typical development. Group differences in maturity were found for walking, prone, and supine, with…

  4. Outcomes of a Rotational Dissection System in Gross Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshak, David W.; Oakes, Joanne; Hsieh, Pei-Hsuan; Chuang, Alice Z.; Cleary, Leonard J.

    2015-01-01

    At the University of Texas Houston Medical School, a rotational dissection system was introduced to improve coordination between the Gross Anatomy and the Introduction to Clinical Medicine (ICM) courses. Six students were assigned to each cadaver and divided into two teams. For each laboratory, one team was assigned to dissect and the other to…

  5. Strategic Improvements for Gross Anatomy Web-Based Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Marker

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Current generations of graduate students have been immersed in technology from their early school years and have high expectations regarding digital resources. To better meet the expectations of Gross Anatomy students at our institution, electronic radiology teaching files for first-year coursework were organized into a web site. The web site was custom designed to provide material that directly correlated to the Gross Anatomy dissection and lectures. Quick links provided sets of images grouped by anatomic location. Additionally, Lab and Study Companions provided specific material for the students to review prior to and after lectures and gross dissections. Student opinions of this education resource were compared to student opinions of the prior year’s digital teaching files. The new content was ranked as more user friendly (3.1 points versus 2.3 points and more useful for learning anatomy (3.3 points versus 2.6 points. Many students reported that using the web portal was critical in helping them to better understand relationships of anatomical structures. These findings suggest that a well-organized web portal can provide a user-friendly, valuable educational resource for medical students who are studying Gross Anatomy.

  6. Conquer the FPSO (Floating Production Storage and Off loading) separation challenge using CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) and laboratory experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristoffersen, Astrid R.; Hannisdal, Andreas; Amarzguioui, Morad; Wood, Deborah; Tor Andersen [Aibel, Stavanger (Norway)

    2008-07-01

    To have the necessary confidence in a separators' performance, the design must be based on more than simple design rules. A combination of separation testing, computer modelling, and general knowledge of the process is needed. In addition, new technologies can provide enhanced overall performance when it is required. This paper describes how all of these techniques can be combined to get the most out of separator design. We will describe how Aibel has used Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), together with laboratory testing, multi-disciplinary knowledge and new technology in order to revolutionize the way we design separators. This paper will present a study of separation performance for one of our customers. A CFD simulation was performed to predict the internal waves inside a separator located on a FPSO, and how these affect separation phenomena. The performance of the theoretical CFD model was verified by laboratory wave experiments. Separation tests were performed to test new solutions which could increase the performance of the process. Based on the CFD simulations and the separation tests, a modification of the separator was proposed. (author)

  7. Fluid mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Kundu, Pijush K; Dowling, David R

    2011-01-01

    Fluid mechanics, the study of how fluids behave and interact under various forces and in various applied situations-whether in the liquid or gaseous state or both-is introduced and comprehensively covered in this widely adopted text. Revised and updated by Dr. David Dowling, Fluid Mechanics, 5e is suitable for both a first or second course in fluid mechanics at the graduate or advanced undergraduate level. Along with more than 100 new figures, the text has been reorganized and consolidated to provide a better flow and more cohesion of topics.Changes made to the

  8. Expression of nitric oxide synthases and effects of L-arginine and L-NMMA on nitric oxide production and fluid transport in collagenous colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perner, A; Andresen, L; Normark, M;

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Luminal nitric oxide (NO) is greatly increased in the colon of patients with collagenous and ulcerative colitis. To define the source and consequence of enhanced NO production we have studied expression of NO synthase (NOS) isoforms and nitrotyrosine in mucosal biopsies from...... these patients. In addition, effects on colonic fluid transfer caused by manipulating the substrate of NOS were studied in patients with collagenous colitis. PATIENTS: Eight patients with collagenous colitis, nine with active ulcerative colitis, and 10 with uninflamed bowel were included. METHODS: Expression....../nitrate (NOx) was measured by Griess' reaction. RESULTS: Both in collagenous and ulcerative colitis, expression of iNOS was 10(2)-10(3) higher (p

  9. Climate change amplifies gross nitrogen turnover in montane grasslands of Central Europe both in summer and winter seasons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhe; Wang, Changhui; Unteregelsbacher, Sebastian; Lu, Haiyan; Gschwendtner, Silvia; Gasche, Rainer; Kolar, Allison; Schloter, Michael; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus; Dannenmann, Michael

    2016-04-01

    The carbon and nitrogen rich soils of montane grasslands are exposed to above average warming and to altered precipitation patterns as a result of global change. In order to investigate the consequences of climatic change for soil nitrogen turnover, we translocated intact plant-soil mesocosms along an elevational gradient. Following three years of equilibration, we monitored the dynamics of gross nitrogen turnover and ammonia oxidizing microbes over an entire year. Gross nitrogen turnover and gene levels of ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and archaea (AOA) showed pronounced seasonal dynamics. While both summer and winter periods equally contributed to cumulative annual N turnover, the highest gross N turnover and abundance of ammonia oxidizers were observed in frozen soil of climate change sites due to physical liberation of organic substrates and their rapid turnover in the unfrozen soil water film. The control site never experienced soil freezing due to a significant insulating snowpack. Climate change conditions accelerated gross N mineralization by 250% on average. The AOB community benefited more from increased soil ammonium production under climate change conditions than the AOA community and thus accounted for a significant increase in gross nitrification rates. Climate change impacts were restricted to the 2-6 cm topsoil and rarely occurred at 12-16 cm depth, where generally much lower N turnover was observed. Mineralization pulses in a changing climate may result in soil organic matter loss with their associated negative impacts on key soil functions. In this context, N cycling processes in frozen soil can be a hot spot for gross N turnover and thus be of paramount importance for understanding seasonal patterns, annual sum of N turnover and possible climate change feedbacks.

  10. Technical note: Bacterial diversity and fermentation end products in rumen fluid samples collected via oral lavage or rumen cannula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodge-Ivey, S L; Browne-Silva, J; Horvath, M B

    2009-07-01

    A study was conducted to determine if sampling rumen contents via a ruminal cannula or oral lavage tube would yield similar denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiles of the bacterial community. Two species of ruminally cannulated animals were used for this study (cattle, n = 2; sheep, n = 3). All animals were allowed ad libitum access to feed. Cattle were fed baled unprocessed sorghum-sudan hay (12% CP, 68% NDF; DM basis), whereas sheep were maintained on chopped alfalfa (18% CP, 40% NDF; DM basis). Ruminal fluid was collected (approximately 20 mL) once per week for 3 wk from each animal using a poly tube equipped with a suction strainer with a hand-held suction pump through the rumen cannula or oral cavity. The denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis demonstrates that yield of bacterial diversity was not different between the 2 sampling methods (P = 0.73). When samples were grouped according to band pattern similarity, groups were most stable according to individual animal and species rather than sampling method. Total VFA and molar proportions of individual VFA did not differ by sampling method (P > 0.40). Additionally, rumen ammonia concentrations were similar for both sampling methods (19.3 vs. 19.1 mM +/- 8.0 for cannula vs. lavage, respectively; P = 0.98). These data indicate that rumen samples collected via oral lavage or rumen cannula yield similar results. This knowledge will allow sample collection from a greater population of animals and an ability to maintain the value of research livestock that can be lost due to the surgical implantation of a ruminal cannula.

  11. Highly sensitive and rapid profiling method for carotenoids and their epoxidized products using supercritical fluid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, Atsuki; Uchikata, Takato; Shinohara, Masakazu; Nishiumi, Shin; Yoshida, Masaru; Fukusaki, Eiichiro; Bamba, Takeshi

    2012-06-01

    Epoxy carotenoids, which are products of carotenoid oxidation, are potential oxidative stress markers. However, it is difficult to profile epoxy carotenoids owing to their small amount and difficulty in their separation from hydroxy carotenoids. In this study, a high-performance analytical system based on supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) was developed for the simultaneous analysis of carotenoids and epoxy carotenoids. SFC is an effective separation technique for hydrophobic compounds, by which major carotenoids in human serum and their epoxidation products can be analyzed within 20 min. The use of MS/MS increased the sensitivity; the detection limit for each carotenoid was of the sub-fmol order. When the constructed method was applied to biological samples such as human serum and low-density lipoprotein (LDL), the precise detection of the target carotenoids was disturbed by several isomers. However, highly selective detection of epoxy carotenoids was performed by targeting product ions that were generated with a structure-specific neutral loss of 80Da. Furthermore, the sample volume needed for the analysis was only 0.1ml for the serum, indicating the efficiency of this system in performing small-scale analyses. Using the analytical system developed in this study, highly sensitive and selective analysis of epoxy carotenoids could be performed in a short time. These features show the usefulness of this system in application to screening analysis of carotenoid profiles that are easily modified by oxidative stress.

  12. Lower cerebrospinal fluid/plasma fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21 ratios and placental FGF21 production in gestational diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bee K Tan

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Circulating Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 (FGF21 levels are increased in insulin resistant states such as obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM. In addition, GDM is associated with serious maternal and fetal complications. We sought to study human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and corresponding circulating FGF21 levels in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM and in age and BMI matched control subjects. We also assessed FGF21 secretion from GDM and control human placental explants. DESIGN: CSF and corresponding plasma FGF21 levels of 24 women were measured by ELISA [12 GDM (age: 26-47 years, BMI: 24.3-36.3 kg/m(2 and 12 controls (age: 22-40 years, BMI: 30.1-37.0 kg/m(2]. FGF21 levels in conditioned media were secretion from GDM and control human placental explants were also measured by ELISA. RESULTS: Glucose, HOMA-IR and circulating NEFA levels were significantly higher in women with GDM compared to control subjects. Plasma FGF21 levels were significantly higher in women with GDM compared to control subjects [234.3 (150.2-352.7 vs. 115.5 (60.5-188.7 pg/ml; P<0.05]. However, there was no significant difference in CSF FGF21 levels in women with GDM compared to control subjects. Interestingly, CSF/Plasma FGF21 ratio was significantly lower in women with GDM compared to control subjects [0.4 (0.3-0.6 vs. 0.8 (0.5-1.6; P<0.05]. FGF21 secretion into conditioned media was significantly lower in human placental explants from women with GDM compared to control subjects (P<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: The central actions of FGF21 in GDM subjects maybe pivotal in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance in GDM subjects. The significance of FGF21 produced by the placenta remains uncharted and maybe crucial in our understanding of the patho-physiology of GDM and its associated maternal and fetal complications. Future research should seek to elucidate these points.

  13. Fluid Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorsen, Michael

    These lecture notes are intended mainly for the 7th semester course "Fluid Dynamics" offered by the Study Committee on Civil Engineering, Aalborg University.......These lecture notes are intended mainly for the 7th semester course "Fluid Dynamics" offered by the Study Committee on Civil Engineering, Aalborg University....

  14. Micromachined Fluid Inertial Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiqiang Liu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Micromachined fluid inertial sensors are an important class of inertial sensors, which mainly includes thermal accelerometers and fluid gyroscopes, which have now been developed since the end of the last century for about 20 years. Compared with conventional silicon or quartz inertial sensors, the fluid inertial sensors use a fluid instead of a solid proof mass as the moving and sensitive element, and thus offer advantages of simple structures, low cost, high shock resistance, and large measurement ranges while the sensitivity and bandwidth are not competitive. Many studies and various designs have been reported in the past two decades. This review firstly introduces the working principles of fluid inertial sensors, followed by the relevant research developments. The micromachined thermal accelerometers based on thermal convection have developed maturely and become commercialized. However, the micromachined fluid gyroscopes, which are based on jet flow or thermal flow, are less mature. The key issues and technologies of the thermal accelerometers, mainly including bandwidth, temperature compensation, monolithic integration of tri-axis accelerometers and strategies for high production yields are also summarized and discussed. For the micromachined fluid gyroscopes, improving integration and sensitivity, reducing thermal errors and cross coupling errors are the issues of most concern.

  15. Application of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to a gas heater used for the drying of agricultural products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Douglas Romeu da; Coradi, Paulo Carteri; Visser, Evan Michael; Martins, Marcio Aredes [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate a gas heater used for the drying of agricultural products. The effects of fuel, primary air and secondary air flows on the distribution on temperature and velocity in a heater were evaluated with the objective of rationalizing combustion fuel. LPG was used as the energy source to provide heated air for drying. The Navier-Stokes equations were used to resolve the problem of air and fuel flow, respecting the energy conservation, equations in the heater. From the results generated, it was confirmed that greater temperature were obtained with the convection coefficient was minimal (h = 0.01). Velocity presented a parabolic, fully developed profile. The greatest velocity was encountered in the central region of the flow, obtained when the Reynolds number was at its greatest. CFD software proved to be applicable in order to resolve heat and mass transfer problems in heaters. (author)

  16. Vast Portfolio Selection with Gross-exposure Constraints*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jianqing; Zhang, Jingjin; Yu, Ke

    2012-01-01

    We introduce the large portfolio selection using gross-exposure constraints. We show that with gross-exposure constraint the empirically selected optimal portfolios based on estimated covariance matrices have similar performance to the theoretical optimal ones and there is no error accumulation effect from estimation of vast covariance matrices. This gives theoretical justification to the empirical results in Jagannathan and Ma (2003). We also show that the no-short-sale portfolio can be improved by allowing some short positions. The applications to portfolio selection, tracking, and improvements are also addressed. The utility of our new approach is illustrated by simulation and empirical studies on the 100 Fama-French industrial portfolios and the 600 stocks randomly selected from Russell 3000. PMID:23293404

  17. Vast Portfolio Selection with Gross-exposure Constraints().

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jianqing; Zhang, Jingjin; Yu, Ke

    2012-01-01

    We introduce the large portfolio selection using gross-exposure constraints. We show that with gross-exposure constraint the empirically selected optimal portfolios based on estimated covariance matrices have similar performance to the theoretical optimal ones and there is no error accumulation effect from estimation of vast covariance matrices. This gives theoretical justification to the empirical results in Jagannathan and Ma (2003). We also show that the no-short-sale portfolio can be improved by allowing some short positions. The applications to portfolio selection, tracking, and improvements are also addressed. The utility of our new approach is illustrated by simulation and empirical studies on the 100 Fama-French industrial portfolios and the 600 stocks randomly selected from Russell 3000.

  18. Gross-Pitaevski map as a chaotic dynamical system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarneri, Italo

    2017-03-01

    The Gross-Pitaevski map is a discrete time, split-operator version of the Gross-Pitaevski dynamics in the circle, for which exponential instability has been recently reported. Here it is studied as a classical dynamical system in its own right. A systematic analysis of Lyapunov exponents exposes strongly chaotic behavior. Exponential growth of energy is then shown to be a direct consequence of rotational invariance and for stationary solutions the full spectrum of Lyapunov exponents is analytically computed. The present analysis includes the "resonant" case, when the free rotation period is commensurate to 2 π , and the map has countably many constants of the motion. Except for lowest-order resonances, this case exhibits an integrable-chaotic transition.

  19. The San Andreas fault experiment. [gross tectonic plates relative velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D. E.; Vonbun, F. O.

    1973-01-01

    A plan was developed during 1971 to determine gross tectonic plate motions along the San Andreas Fault System in California. Knowledge of the gross motion along the total fault system is an essential component in the construction of realistic deformation models of fault regions. Such mathematical models will be used in the future for studies which will eventually lead to prediction of major earthquakes. The main purpose of the experiment described is the determination of the relative velocity of the North American and the Pacific Plates. This motion being so extremely small, cannot be measured directly but can be deduced from distance measurements between points on opposite sites of the plate boundary taken over a number of years.

  20. A STUDY ON BIOELECTRICITY PRODUCTION BY THE SYNERGISTIC ACTION OF BACILLUS TEQUILENSIS DMR-5 AND PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA DMR-3 ISOLATED FROM RUMEN FLUID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jothinathan Deepika

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study focuses on the bioelectricity production from pure culture of Bacillus tequilensis DMR-5 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa DMR-3. Both the cultures were isolated from the anodic biofilm of pre-run MFC’s with rumen fluid as anodic substance. They were checked for the power production for 10 days both as pure isolates and co-culture. Bacillus tequilensis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa produced 250 mV and 20 mA, 310 mV and 10 mA respectively. Both these bacteria when used as mixed culture (110×105CFU/mL produced 450 mV and 40 mA. The biofilm of the anode was taken for cyclic voltammetry study and the oxidation and reduction peaks observed in both forward and reverse scan confirmed the electrochemical nature of the bacteria. Based on the power readings measured and cyclic voltammograms obtained, it has been found that the co-culture produced more power than the pure cultures when used individually in the Microbial fuel cell.

  1. In vitro gas production in rumen fluid of buffalo as affected by urea-calcium mixture in high-quality feed block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherdthong, Anusorn; Wanapat, Metha

    2014-04-01

    This study aimed to determine the effect of urea-calcium sulphate mixture (U-cas) levels in high-quality feed block (HQFB) on ruminal digestibility, fermentation and gas kinetics in rumen fluid of swamp buffalo by using in vitro techniques. The treatments were seven levels of U-cas incorporated in HQFB at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 and 18% and the experimental design was a completely randomized design. Gas production rate constants for the insoluble fraction, potential extent of gas and cumulative gas were linearly increased with increasing levels of U-cas in HQFB. The in vitro dry matter digestibility, in vitro organic matter digestibility, true digestibility and microbial mass were altered by treatments and were greatest at 18% U-cas supplementation. Concentrations of propionate were linearly increased with increasing levels of U-cas and was highest with U-cas supplementation at 18%. The NH3 -N concentration was highest when urea was added in the HQFB while NH3 -N concentration tended to be reduced with increasing level of U-cas. The findings suggest supplementation of 18% U-cas in HQFB improves kinetics of gas production, rumen fermentation, digestibility and microbial mass as well as controlling the rate of N degradation in the rumen of swamp buffalo.

  2. Automated analytical standard production with supercritical fluid chromatography for the quantification of bioactive C17-polyacetylenes: a case study on food processing waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijttebier, Sebastiaan; D'Hondt, Els; Noten, Bart; Hermans, Nina; Apers, Sandra; Exarchou, Vassiliki; Voorspoels, Stefan

    2014-12-15

    Food processing enterprises produce enormous amounts of organic waste that contains valuable phytochemicals (e.g. C17-polyacetylenes). Knowledge on the phytochemicals content is a first step towards valorisation. Quantification of C17-polyacetylenes is however often hampered by the lack of commercially available standards or by tedious multistep in-house standard production procedures. In the current study, a new and straightforward supercritical fluid chromatography purification procedure is described for the simultaneous production of 2 analytical C17-polyacetylene standards. Respectively, 5 and 6 mg of falcarinol and falcarindiol were purified in 17 h on analytical scale. After confirming the identity and quality (97% purity) by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, accurate mass-Mass Spectrometry (am-MS) and Photo Diode Array (PDA) detection the C17-polyacetylene standards were used for the analysis of industrial vegetable waste with Liquid Chromatography coupled to PDA and am-MS detection. Measurements showed varying concentrations of C17-polyacetylenes in the organic waste depending on its nature and origin.

  3. Gross efficiency and energy expenditure in kayak ergometer exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, B B; Mourão, L; Massart, A; Figueiredo, P; Vilas-Boas, J P; Santos, A M C; Fernandes, R J

    2012-08-01

    We purposed to study energy expenditure, power output and gross efficiency during kayak ergometer exercise in 12 elite sprint kayakers. 6 males (age 24.2±4.8 years, height 180.4±4.8 cm, body mass 79.7±8.5 kg) and 6 females (age 24.3±4.5 years, height 164.5±3.9 cm, body mass 65.4±3.5 kg), performed an incremental intermittent protocol on kayak ergometer with VO2 and blood lactate concentration assessment, a non-linear increase between power output and energy expenditure being observed. Paddling power output, energy expenditure and gross efficiency corresponding to VO2max averaged 199.92±50.41 W, 75.27±6.30 ml.kg - 1.min - 1, and 10.10±1.08%. Male kayakers presented higher VO2max, power output and gross efficiency at the VO2max, and lower heart rate and maximal lactate concentration than females, but no differences were found between genders regarding energy expenditure at VO2max. Aerobic and anaerobic components of energy expenditure evidenced a significant contribution of anaerobic energy sources in sprint kayak performance. Results also suggested the dependence of the gross efficiency on the changes in the amount of the aerobic and anaerobic contributions, at heavy and severe intensities. The inter-individual variance of the relationship between energy expenditure and the corresponding paddling power output revealed a relevant tracking for females (FDγ=0.73±0.06), conversely to the male group (FDγ=0.27±0.08), supporting that some male kayakers are more skilled in some paddling intensities than others.

  4. Constructive Renormalization of 2-dimensional Grosse-Wulkenhaar Model

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Zhituo

    2012-01-01

    In this talk we briefly report the recent work on the construction of the 2-dimensional Grosse-Wulkenhaar model with the method of loop vertex expansion. We treat renormalization with this new tool, adapt Nelson's argument and prove Borel summability of the perturbation series. This is the first non-commutative quantum field theory model to be built in a non-perturbative sense.

  5. Fluid dynamics of dilatant fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakanishi, Hiizu; Nagahiro, Shin-ichiro; Mitarai, Namiko

    2012-01-01

    A dense mixture of granules and liquid often shows a severe shear thickening and is called a dilatant fluid. We construct a fluid dynamics model for the dilatant fluid by introducing a phenomenological state variable for a local state of dispersed particles. With simple assumptions for an equation...... of the state variable, we demonstrate that the model can describe basic features of the dilatant fluid such as the stress-shear rate curve that represents discontinuous severe shear thickening, hysteresis upon changing shear rate, and instantaneous hardening upon external impact. An analysis of the model...... reveals that the shear thickening fluid shows an instability in a shear flow for some regime and exhibits the shear thickening oscillation (i.e., the oscillatory shear flow alternating between the thickened and the relaxed states). The results of numerical simulations are presented for one- and two...

  6. Synovial fluid mononuclear cells provide an environment for long-term survival of antibody-secreting cells and promote the spontaneous production of anti-citrullinated protein antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerkman, Priscilla F; Kempers, Ayla C; van der Voort, Ellen I H; van Oosterhout, Maikel; Huizinga, Tom W J; Toes, René E M; Scherer, Hans U

    2016-12-01

    In rheumatoid arthritis (RA), observations point to a crucial role for (autoreactive) B cells in disease pathogenesis. Here, we studied whether cells from the synovial environment impact on the longevity of autoreactive B cell responses against citrullinated antigens. Synovial fluid mononuclear cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (SFMC/PBMC) were obtained from patients with established RA and assessed for the presence of B cell subpopulations. Cells spontaneously secreting anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA-IgG) directly ex vivo were detected by antigen-specific Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSpot (ELISpot) assay. SFMC and PBMC were cultured to assess the degree of spontaneous ACPA-IgG secretion. Cells surviving for several weeks were characterised by carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester (CFSE) labelling and Ki-67 staining. Cells spontaneously secreting ACPA-IgG were readily detectable in peripheral blood and synovial fluid (SF) of patients with ACPA-positive RA. SFMC showed an up to 200-fold increase in ex vivo ACPA-IgG secretion compared with PBMC despite lower numbers of B cells in SFMC. ELISpot confirmed the presence of spontaneously ACPA-IgG-secreting cells, accounting for up to 50% (median 12%) of all IgG-secreting cells in SF. ACPA-IgG secretion was remarkably stable in SFMC cultures, maintained upon depletion of the CD20(+) B cell compartment and detectable for several months. CFSE labelling and Ki-67 staining confirmed the long-term survival of non-dividing plasma cells (PCs). This study demonstrates a high frequency of differentiated, spontaneously ACPA-IgG-secreting cells in SF. These cells are supported by SFMC for prolonged survival and autoantibody secretion, demonstrating that the synovial compartment is equipped to function as inflammatory niche for PC survival. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  7. Advanced glycation end-products in the peritoneal fluid and in the peritoneal membrane of continuous ambulant peritoneal dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahiout, A; Ehlerding, G; Brunkhorst, R

    1996-01-01

    In patients on continuous ambulant peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) treatment, the peritoneal membrane is continuously exposed to the high glucose concentration contained in the dialysate. This may lead to the local generation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs). To test this hypothesis we evaluated the plasma and dialysate AGE concentrations in five CAPD patients. The dialysate was measured after a 1 h and after a 12 h dwell time. Additionally, in two patients an immunohistochemical investigation of the peritoneal membrane for AGE was performed. For the determination of AGE an ELISA using a polyclonal antibody against AGE bovine serum albumin was used; the immunohistochemical staining was performed using the streptavidin-biotin complex method. We found only low concentrations of AGE in the dialysate after a 1 h dwell time; after 12 h, however, the dialysate AGE was even greater than the plasma concentration. In both peritoneal specimens we found positive staining for AGE in the interstitium of the mesothelial layer. The dialysate AGE contained a high proportion of high-molecular-weight AGE proteins and low-molecular-weight AGE was found to be in the same concentration range as the total serum AGE. We conclude that there is local generation of AGE in the peritoneal membrane and a 'washing out' of AGE from the peritoneal membrane during longer dwell times. We speculate that the accumulation of AGE might lead to some of the functional and morphological alterations observed after long-term CAPD.

  8. Landscape History of Grosses Moos, NW Swiss Alpine Foreland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joanna Heer, Aleksandra; Adamiec, Grzegorz; Veit, Heinz; May, Jan-Hendrik; Novenko, Elena; Hajdas, Irka

    2017-04-01

    The western Swiss Plateau with Lake Neuchâtel is part of the alpine foreland and among the key areas for the reconstruction of environmental changes since the last postglacial. This study was carried out in a landscape located NE of the lake and called Grosses Moos (The Large Fen) - currently designated the Swiss largest, continuous farming area, after the fen was drained in course of landscape engineering projects performed in Switzerland at the end of the 19th century. The study contributes new results from nine excavations of littoral ridges identified in Grosses Moos, and integrates sedimentology, paleo-environmental analysis and three independent chronological methods. Radiocarbon dating, pollen analysis and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) were applied to the sediments. While pollen and radiocarbon follow the standard procedures, the evaluation of the luminescence age estimates demanded adjustment according to the physical and microdosimetric properties of the alpine quartz, and consideration of the peculiarities of the changing littoral environments of Grosses Moos. The Grosses Moos landscape developed on the temporary surface of the post-Last Glacial sedimentary infill of the over-deepened glacial Aare valley. In this study the landscape history has been fitted into the existing supraregional time scales of NGRIP, the Swiss bio-zones system and the human history based on archaeological and historic records and covers a time span of up to 15'000 yr b2k. The wide-ranging suite of geomorphic features and sedimentary sequences, including littoral lake sediments, beach ridges, dunes, palaeo-channels, peat and colluvial deposits, enable the extensive reconstruction of spatially and temporally variable natural shaping processes. In addition, our results indicate remobilization of soil, colluvium, and sediment due to human settlement activities since the Neolithic - with an important increase in sediment load and spatial variability since the Bronze Age

  9. Fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Bernard, Peter S

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a focused, readable account of the principal physical and mathematical ideas at the heart of fluid dynamics. Graduate students in engineering, applied math, and physics who are taking their first graduate course in fluids will find this book invaluable in providing the background in physics and mathematics necessary to pursue advanced study. The book includes a detailed derivation of the Navier-Stokes and energy equations, followed by many examples of their use in studying the dynamics of fluid flows. Modern tensor analysis is used to simplify the mathematical derivations, thus allowing a clearer view of the physics. Peter Bernard also covers the motivation behind many fundamental concepts such as Bernoulli's equation and the stream function. Many exercises are designed with a view toward using MATLAB or its equivalent to simplify and extend the analysis of fluid motion including developing flow simulations based on techniques described in the book.

  10. Elevated serum and synovial fluid TNF-like ligand 1A (TL1A) is associated with autoantibody production in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, X; Zhao, J; Liu, R; Jia, R; Sun, L; Li, X; Li, Z

    2013-01-01

    Tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-like ligand 1A (TL1A) is involved in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) but its clinical relevance in RA has not been fully elucidated. We analysed TL1A levels in the serum and synovial fluid (SF) of RA patients and investigated its clinical significance. TL1A levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in 109 RA patients, 29 patients with osteoarthritis (OA), and 126 healthy controls. Anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) antibodies and rheumatoid factor immunoglobulin G (RF-IgG) were tested by ELISA. RF-IgM, anti-keratin antibody (AKA), and anti-perinuclear factor (APF) antibodies, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), and immunoglobulins were measured by standard laboratory techniques. The associations between TL1A and the clinical and serological features of RA were analysed. TL1A concentrations were significantly elevated in both serum and SF of RA patients compared with OA patients and healthy controls. TL1A levels in RA SF were significantly higher than those in matched serum. A positive correlation was found between SF and serum TL1A levels. Serum TL1A concentrations were associated with RA-specific autoantibodies including RFs (RF-IgG, RF-IgM) and anti-citrullinated protein antibodies. Antibody production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from RA patients was elevated upon TL1A stimulation. However, there was no correlation between serum or SF TL1A levels and RA disease activity. TL1A levels are significantly elevated in RA serum and SF and positively correlated with autoantibody production in RA, but failed as a disease activity marker. TL1A promotes antibody production by PBMCs from RA patients. The role of TL1A in the humoral autoimmune response may be important in the development of RA.

  11. Thermal-Hydraulic Analyses of Heat Transfer Fluid Requirements and Characteristics for Coupling A Hydrogen Production Plant to a High-Temperature Nuclear Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. B. Davis; C. H. Oh; R. B. Barner; D. F. Wilson

    2005-06-01

    The Department of Energy is investigating the use of high-temperature nuclear reactors to produce hydrogen using either thermochemical cycles or high-temperature electrolysis. Although the hydrogen production processes are in an early stage of development, coupling either of these processes to the hightemperature reactor requires both efficient heat transfer and adequate separation of the facilities to assure that off-normal events in the production facility do not impact the nuclear power plant. An intermediate heat transport loop will be required to separate the operations and safety functions of the nuclear and hydrogen plants. A next generation high-temperature reactor could be envisioned as a single-purpose facility that produces hydrogen or a dual-purpose facility that produces hydrogen and electricity. Early plants, such as the proposed Next Generation Nuclear Plant, may be dual-purpose facilities that demonstrate both hydrogen and efficient electrical generation. Later plants could be single-purpose facilities. At this stage of development, both single- and dual-purpose facilities need to be understood. Seven possible configurations for a system that transfers heat between the nuclear reactor and the hydrogen and/or electrical generation plants were identified. These configurations included both direct and indirect cycles for the production of electricity. Both helium and liquid salts were considered as the working fluid in the intermediate heat transport loop. Methods were developed to perform thermalhydraulic and cycle-efficiency evaluations of the different configurations and coolants. The thermalhydraulic evaluations estimated the sizes of various components in the intermediate heat transport loop for the different configurations. The relative sizes of components provide a relative indication of the capital cost associated with the various configurations. Estimates of the overall cycle efficiency of the various configurations were also determined. The

  12. Relationship Between Gross Motor Function and Daily Functional Skill in Children With Cerebral Palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Kwon, Tae Gun; Yi, Sook-Hee; Kim, Tae Won; Chang, Hyun Jung; Kwon, Jeong-Yi

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between gross motor function and daily functional skill in children with cerebral palsy (CP) and to explore how this relationship is moderated by the Gross Motor Function Classification System, Bimanual Fine Motor Function (BFMF), neuromotor types, and limb distribution of CP. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 112 children with CP (range, 4 years to 7 years and 7 months) was performed. Gross motor function was assessed with the Gross Motor Function ...

  13. Nutritive value and nutrient digestibility of ensiled mango by-products

    OpenAIRE

    Sompong Sruamsiri

    2009-01-01

    Mango canning by-products (seed and peel) together with ensiled mango peel were subjected to analysis of dry matter (DM), ash, crude protein (CP), crude fibre (CF), ether extract (EE), nitrogen-free extract (NFE), gross energy (GE), neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and acid detergent fibre (ADF). In vitro digestibility of DM (IVDMD), ADF (IVADFD) and NDF (IVNDFD) was determined after digesting the by-products in buffered rumen fluid for 24 or 48 h in an incubator. CP content in peel, seed and p...

  14. Methodology for full comparative assessment of direct gross glycerin combustion in a flame tube furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maturana, Aymer Yeferson; Pagliuso, Josmar D. [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering. Sao Carlos School of Engineering. University of Sao Paulo, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)], e-mails: aymermat@sc.usp.br, josmar@sc.usp.br

    2010-07-01

    This study is to develop a methodology to identify and evaluate the emissions and heat transfer associated to combustion of gross glycerin a by-product of the Brazilian biodiesel manufacture process as alternative energy source. It aims to increase the present knowledge on the matter and to contribute to the improvement of the economic and environmental perspective of biodiesel industry. This methodology was considered to be used for assessment of gross glycerin combustion from three different types of biodiesel (bovine tallow, palm and soy). The procedures for evaluation and quantification of emissions of sulphur and nitrogen oxides, total hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and acrolein were analyzed, described and standardized. Experimental techniques for mutagenic and toxic effects assessment of gases similarly were analyzed and standardized, as well as the calorific power, the associate heat transfer and fundamentals operational parameters. The methodology was developed, using a full-instrumented flame tube furnace, continuous gas analyzers, a chromatograph, automatic data acquisition systems and other auxiliary equipment. The mutagenic and toxic effects of the study was based on Tradescantia clone KU-20, using chambers of intoxication and biological analytical techniques previously developed and others were specially adapted. The benchmark for the initial set up was based on the performance evaluation of the previous equipment tested with diesel considering its behavior during direct combustion. Finally, the following factors were defined for the combustion of crude glycerin, configurations of equipment types, operational parameters such as air fuel ratio adiabatic temperature and other necessary aspect for successful application of the methodology. The developed and integrated methodology was made available to the concern industry, environmental authorities and researchers as procedures to access the viability of gross glycerin or similar fuels as

  15. 26 CFR 1.927(b)-1T - Temporary regulations; Definition of gross receipts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Temporary regulations; Definition of gross...(b)-1T Temporary regulations; Definition of gross receipts. (a) General rule. Under section 927(b.... The FSC's gross receipts for purposes of computing its profit under the administrative pricing...

  16. The relationship between gross motor skills and academic achievement in children with learning disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westendorp, Marieke; Hartman, Esther; Houwen, Suzanne; Smith, Joanne; Visscher, Chris

    2011-01-01

    The present study compared the gross motor skills of 7- to 12-year-old children with learning disabilities (n = 104) with those of age-matched typically developing children (n = 104) using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2. Additionally, the specific relationships between subsets of gross motor

  17. 46 CFR 130.110 - Internal communications on OSVs of less than 100 gross tons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Internal communications on OSVs of less than 100 gross... Internal communications on OSVs of less than 100 gross tons. Each vessel of less than 100 gross tons... have a fixed means of communication between the pilothouse and the place where the auxiliary means...

  18. The relationship between gross motor skills and academic achievement in children with learning disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westendorp, Marieke; Hartman, Esther; Houwen, Suzanne; Smith, Joanne; Visscher, Chris

    2011-01-01

    The present study compared the gross motor skills of 7- to 12-year-old children with learning disabilities (n = 104) with those of age-matched typically developing children (n = 104) using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2. Additionally, the specific relationships between subsets of gross motor

  19. 26 CFR 1.872-1 - Gross income of nonresident alien individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gross income of nonresident alien individuals. 1...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Nonresident Aliens and Foreign Corporations § 1.872-1 Gross income of nonresident alien individuals. (a) In general—(1) Inclusions. The gross income of a nonresident...

  20. 26 CFR 20.2031-1 - Definition of gross estate; valuation of property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., except that if the executor elects the alternate valuation method under section 2032, it is the fair... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definition of gross estate; valuation of... § 20.2031-1 Definition of gross estate; valuation of property. (a) Definition of gross estate. Except...