WorldWideScience

Sample records for gross export trade

  1. 75 FR 11842 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... the Export Trade Activities and Methods of Operation described below in the following Export Trade and...; foreign trade and business protocol; consulting; market research and analysis; collection of information on trade opportunities; marketing; negotiations; joint ventures; shipping; export management;...

  2. 77 FR 28853 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-16

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of issuance of an Export....S. Department of Commerce issued an amended Export Trade Certificate of Review Alaska Longline Cod... number) or email at etca@trade.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title III of the Export Trading Company...

  3. 26 CFR 1.971-1 - Definitions with respect to export trade corporations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... equal to 6 percent of the gross selling price of all personal property shipped by M Corporation as a... export trade assets. (d) Export promotion expenses—(1) In general. For purposes of sections 970 through 972 and §§ 1.970-1 to 1.972-1, inclusive, the term “export promotion expenses” means, subject to...

  4. 78 FR 1837 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-09

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of issuance of an Export.... Department of Commerce issued an amended Export Trade Certificate of Review to Northwest Fruit Exporters on... Export Trading Company Act of 1982 (15 U.S.C. 4001-21) authorizes the Secretary of Commerce to issue...

  5. 78 FR 53727 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-30

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Issuance of an Export Trade Certificate of Review to Northwest Fruit Exporters, Application No. 84-24A12. SUMMARY: The U.S. Department of Commerce issued an amended Export Trade Certificate of Review to Northwest Fruit Exporters...

  6. 76 FR 27994 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Application (84-22A12) to Amend the Export Trade Certificate of Review Issued to Northwest Fruit Exporters, Application No... Trade Administration, Department of Commerce, has received an application to amend an Export Trade...

  7. 78 FR 59004 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-25

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Application for an Export Trade Certificate of Review to Emporia Trading LLC, Application No. 13-00001. SUMMARY: The Export... Administration, Department of Commerce, has received an application for an Export Trade Certificate of Review...

  8. 75 FR 44761 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-29

    ... opportunities for sales of canned salmon in the Export Markets, selling strategies for the Export Markets, sales... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Application for an Export Trade Certificate of Review From Canned Wild Salmon Export Council, LLC (``CWSEC''). SUMMARY:...

  9. 77 FR 58809 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-24

    ... Operation described below in the following Export Trade and Export Markets. Export Trade COL-RICE plans to... Export Trade Activities and Methods of Operation: 1. Purpose: COL-RICE will manage on an open tender..., incluso pulido o glaseado); 1006.4000--broken rice (arroz partido). Export Market The Republic of...

  10. 77 FR 53865 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-04

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of issuance of an Export Trade Certificate of Review to Colombia Poultry Export Quota, Inc. (``COLOM-PEQ)'') (Application 12-00004). SUMMARY: On August 14, 2012, the U.S. Department of Commerce issued an Export Trade Certificate...

  11. 75 FR 65449 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-25

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of issuance of an amended export trade certificate of review to Florida Citrus Exports L.C. (``FCE'') (Application 94-4A007). SUMMARY: The U.S. Department of Commerce issued an amended Export Trade Certificate of Review to Florida...

  12. 77 FR 61744 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-11

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Issuance of an Export... September 27, 2012, the U.S. Department of Commerce issued an amended Export Trade Certificate of Review to... INFORMATION: Title III of the Export Trading Company Act of 1982 (15 U.S.C. 4001-21) authorizes the Secretary...

  13. 77 FR 2036 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-13

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of issuance of an Export...). SUMMARY: The U.S. Department of Commerce issued an amended Export Trade Certificate of Review to Aerospace... Register on December 7, 2010 (75 FR 75963). The original Export Trade Certificate of Review No. 92-0001 was...

  14. 75 FR 8040 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Application for an Export Trade Certificate of Review from Alaska Longline Cod Commission (``ALCC'') SUMMARY: The Export... Administration, Department of Commerce, has received an application for an Export Trade Certificate of Review...

  15. 75 FR 35441 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-22

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Issuance ( 99-4A005) of an Amended Export Trade Certificate of Review to the California Almond Export Association, LLC. SUMMARY: The U.S. Department of Commerce issued an amended Export Trade Certificate of Review to...

  16. 77 FR 12562 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Application (10-2A001) to Amend the Export Trade Certificate of Review Issued to Alaska Longline Cod Commission (``ALCC... International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce, has received an application to amend an Export Trade...

  17. 75 FR 25207 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Application ( 88-12A16..., Application no. 88-00016. SUMMARY: Export Trading Company Affairs (``ETCA'') of the International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce, has received an application to amend an Export Trade Certificate...

  18. Fixed export cost heterogeneity, trade and welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jan Guldager; Schröder, Philipp J.H.

    2008-01-01

    -country intra-industry trade model where firms are of two different marginal costs types and where fixed export costs are heterogeneous across firms. This model traces many of the stylized facts of international trade. However, we find that with heterogeneous fixed export costs there exists a positive bilateral......Recent literature on the workhorse model of intra-industry trade has explored heterogeneous cost structures at the firm level. These approaches have proven to add realism and predictive power. This paper presents a new and simple heterogeneous-firms specification. We develop a symmetric two...

  19. 26 CFR 1.970-1 - Export trade corporations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export trade corporations. 1.970-1 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Export Trade Corporations § 1.970-1 Export trade corporations. (a) In general. Sections 970 through 972 provide in general that if a controlled foreign corporation is an export...

  20. 75 FR 28235 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-20

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Application ( 85-16A18) to Amend the Export Trade Certificate of Review Issued to U.S. Shippers Association, Application No. 85-00018. SUMMARY: The Export Trading Company Affairs unit, Office of Competition and Economic...

  1. 75 FR 55739 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-14

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Application ( 92-9A001) to amend an export trade certificate of review previously issued to Aerospace Industries Association... Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce, has received an application to amend an Export Trade Certificate of...

  2. 78 FR 36747 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-19

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Application to amend the Export Trade Certificate of Review Issued to Outdoor Power Equipment Institute, Inc., Application no. 89... Administration, Department of Commerce, has received an application to amend an Export Trade Certificate...

  3. 77 FR 72324 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-05

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Application to Amend the Export Trade Certificate of Review Issued to U.S. Shippers Association No. 85-17A18. SUMMARY: The Office... of Commerce, has received an application to amend an Export ] Trade Certificate of...

  4. 78 FR 62585 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Application to amend the Export Trade Certificate of Review Issued to Outdoor Power Equipment Institute, Inc. (Application No. 89... Administration, Department of Commerce, has received an application to amend an Export Trade Certificate...

  5. 75 FR 11118 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-10

    ... Trading Company Affairs, International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce, Room 7021X... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Application ( 99-4A005..., Application no. 99-00005. SUMMARY: The Export Trading Company Affairs unit, Office of Competition and...

  6. 78 FR 31517 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-24

    ...: 2013-12489] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [Application No. 99-5A002] Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Issuance of an amended Export Trade Certificate of Review to California Almond Export Association, LLC (``CAEA'') (Application 99-5A002). SUMMARY: The U.S...

  7. 75 FR 80456 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ... of Review to engage in the Export Trade Activities and Methods of Operation described below in the... federal programs; foreign trade and business protocol; consulting; market research and analysis; collection of information on trade opportunities; marketing; negotiations; joint ventures; shipping;...

  8. Foreign Value-added in China's Manufactured Exports: Implications for China's Trade Imbalance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Zhang; Dongbo Tang; Yubo Zhan

    2012-01-01

    Economists have recently become interested in weighting how much domestic value-added is actually included in China' s exports.Formally,the proportion of foreign and domestic contents could be identified by calculating the vertical specialization share using noncompetitive input-output tables.Applying such a method to the Chinese case,however,would result in a big measurement bias because China has a large share of processing exports,which utilize a disproportionately high percentage of imported intermediates.This paper,by directly employing 2008 trade data for which imported intermediates in both processing and non-processing trade could be identified by means of various trade patterns,provides a simplified way to estimate the share of foreign/domestic value-added included in industry-level manufactured exports.This paper finds that the vertical specialization share of China 's processing exports was about 56percent in 2008,compared to about 10 percent for ordinary exports.It also finds that the sectors that experienced fast expansion of processing exports have a much higher share of foreign contents.Since processing exports accoant for about half of Chinese exports,the prevailing trade statistics,which focus on gross values rather than the value-added of exports and imports,has obviously overstated the bilateral trade imbalances,especially between China and the USA.

  9. 76 FR 81914 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-29

    ... issue Export Trade Certificates of Review. An Export Trade Certificate of Review protects the holder and... determining whether or not to issue the Certificate. Comments should refer to this application as ``Export... BV (Netherlands))'' 7. ``Noble Logistics USA Inc., Portland, Oregon'' should be corrected to read...

  10. 78 FR 72865 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-04

    ... Trade Certificate of Review would result in the following membership list: 3M Company, St. Paul, MN AAR... Export Trading Company Act of 1982 (15 U.S.C. 4001-21) authorizes the Secretary of Commerce to issue... compliance with its terms and conditions. Section 302(b)(1) of the Export Trading Company Act of 1982 and 15...

  11. 76 FR 10885 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-28

    ... Rights into the Export Markets; 9. Provide accounting, tax, legal and consulting assistance and services... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Application ( 11-00001... (``LAMAC''). SUMMARY: The Office of Competition and Economic Analysis, International Trade...

  12. Estimating Trade Elasticities for World Capital Goods Exports

    OpenAIRE

    Thorbecke, Willem

    2012-01-01

    Capital goods exports exceed $3 trillion and are volatile. This paper estimates trade elasticities for capital goods exports. For the UK and the U.S., exports depend on exchange rates. For Germany and France they do not. For Japan, exports to non-Asian countries depend on exchange rates and exports to Asian countries depend on Asia's exports to the rest of the world. For all countries, capital exports depend on GDP in the importing countries. These results imply that U.S. exports tumbled in 2...

  13. 75 FR 35441 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-22

    ...; market research and analysis; collection of information on trade opportunities; marketing; negotiations... Certified Conduct EFS is certified to engage in the Export Trade Activities and Methods of Operation... Activities and Methods of Operation 1. With respect to the export of Products and Services, licensing...

  14. 26 CFR 1.924(a)-1T - Temporary regulations; definition of foreign trading gross receipts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... trading gross receipts. 1.924(a)-1T Section 1.924(a)-1T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... United States § 1.924(a)-1T Temporary regulations; definition of foreign trading gross receipts. (a) In general. The term “foreign trading gross receipts” means any of the five amounts described in...

  15. 77 FR 37385 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-21

    ... required by law (including appropriate disclosure in connection with the arbitration of a dispute). Q... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Application for an... of Competition and Economic Analysis, International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce, has...

  16. Shrimp export from Bangladesh: Effect of war and trade liberalization

    OpenAIRE

    Sabur, S.A.; Palash, M S; Awal, M.A.; Rahman, K.T

    2010-01-01

    The study estimates the growth rates of frozen food, shrimp and total export, and instability of export earnings. The study evaluates the export marketing of frozen food; shrimp and fish by using time series aggregated data from the year of 1972-73 to 2005-06. The growth rates of frozen food were 44%, 11%, and 10% during post-war period (1972- 73 to 1982-83), pre-trade liberalization (1983-84 to 1992-93) and post-trade liberalization period (1993-94 to 2005-06) respectively. The export growth...

  17. Intermediation in Foreign Trade: When do Exporters Rely on Intermediaries?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Trabold, H.; Trübswetter, P.

    2005-01-01

    The paper explores the question of why trade intermediaries (TIs) are frequently used as agents for exports to some countries but not to others. First, we adapt a standard intra-industry trade model with variable export costs (e.g. transport) and fixed export costs (e.g. market access) to include...... a TI that is able to pool market access cost. This framework suggests explanatory factors for the TI share in a country's exports, which are largely in line with the literature. Second, we test these explanatory factors with a new data set based on French customs information. The paper finds that: (i......) higher market access costs increase the TI share, (ii) smaller export markets feature a larger TI share, (iii) network effects are important determinants of trade intermediation....

  18. Intermediation in Foreign Trade: When do Exporters Rely on Intermediaries?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp; Trabold, Harald; Trübswetter, Parvati

    2003-01-01

    The paper explores theoretically and empirically why trade intermediaries (TIs) are frequently used as agents for exports to some countries but not to others. We adapt a standard intra-industry trade model with variable export costs (e.g. transport) and fixed export costs (e.g. market access......) to include a TI that is able to pool market access cost. From this framework explanatory factors for the TI share in a country's exports are derived and subsequently tested with a new data set based on French customs information. The paper finds that: (i) higher market access costs increase the TI share, (ii......) smaller export markets feature a larger TI share, (iii) the TI share is independent from variable (distance-dependent) export costs....

  19. The structural characteristics of world trade and the merchandise exports of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovačević Radovan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the world merchandise trade structure and the structure of Serbian merchandise exports. The analysis shows that the prominent characteristic of post-World War II world trade is more dynamic growth in the volume of manufactured goods as compared to agricultural goods. Due to the lessening share of agricultural products world merchandise trade has decreased and rapid industrialization has been fostered in developing countries. An increased share for developing countries followed the developed countries' decreasing share in world manufacturing trade. The developing countries' increased share was strongest in telecom and office equipment exports. These sectors are characterized by production fragmentation, which is being realized by transnational companies. Serbia, like the other South East European countries, has not yet managed to significantly integrate into international production networks. Serbia's most important exports are manufactured products with a low level of added value . In addition, Serbia still has a high share of primary products in its exports. A higher share of exports of goods and services in the gross domestic products (GDP cannot be achieved without increasing imports of new technologies and equipment, i.e. without a higher investment share of the GDP. The main conclusion of this article is that the creation of a favorable investment climate and an increase in Serbia's international credit rating are the preconditions for stronger foreign direct investment (FDI, which would be the main channel for restructuring in the real sector. Creation of new small and medium enterprises (SMEs through greenfield investment and their integration into the international production networks is the starting point for the restructuring of Serbian industrial production and merchandise export, i.e. the way of increasing the share of merchandise exports in the GDP.

  20. Influences and Countermeasures of Green Trade Barrier on Export Trade of Chinese Agricultural Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    With the worsening of environment, many countries pay more attention to the environmental protection. Green (organic) trade barrier gradually attracts more attention to the non-tariff barrier in the international trade. However, according to the economic levels of different countries, great differences exist in environment standards of these countries which resulted in the appearance of green trade barriers as trade protection. This study classified the connotations and characteristics of green trade barrier, gave the descriptions on the development and type of green trade barrier, and analysed the influences on China's export and put forward some countermeasures which aimed at stimulating the development of our foreign trade.

  1. 78 FR 5778 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-28

    ... 325.2(l) of the Regulations (15 CFR 325.2(l)): 3M Company (St. Paul, MN); Aireon LLC (McLean, VA... INFORMATION: Title III of the Export Trading Company Act of 1982 (15 U.S.C. 4001-21) authorizes the Secretary... Trading Company Act of 1982 and 15 CFR 325.6(a) require the Secretary to publish a notice in the Federal...

  2. The long run relationship between foreign direct investments, exports, and gross domestic product: panel data implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet ERYİĞİT

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Foreign direct investment (FDI is defined as establishing a new company or branch of a foreign company by foreign investor or share acquisitions of a company established in host country (any percentage of shares acquired outside the stock exchange or 10 percent or more of the shares or voting power of a company acquired through the stock exchange (UNCTAD, 2012. This study investigated the long-term relationship between FDI and export volume, FDI and Gross Domestic Products (GDP, and export volume and GDP through cointegration tests. It is conducted the panel data analysis using data for the period of 2000-2010 from 15 countries making direct investment in Turkey regularly since year 2000. Panel unit-root tests showed that variables are stationary for the first difference level. Residual based and error correction based cointegration tests revealed that there is long-term relationship between FDI and export volume, FDI and GDP, and export volume and GDP.

  3. 78 FR 25060 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-29

    ... within the meaning of section 325.2(1) of the Regulations (15 CFR 325.2(1)): 3M Company (St. Paul, MN... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title III of the Export Trading Company Act of 1982 (15 U.S.C. 4001-21) authorizes... following companies as Members of AIAA's Certificate: AirDat LLC; AMSAFE Aviation; ANSYS Inc.; Armorworks...

  4. Fixed export cost heterogeneity, trade and welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jan Guldager; Schröder, Philipp J.H.

    2008-01-01

    Recent literature on the workhorse model of intra-industry trade has explored heterogeneous cost structures at the firm level. These approaches have proven to add realism and predictive power. This paper presents a new and simple heterogeneous-firms specification. We develop a symmetric two...

  5. Export Prices, Trade Dynamics and Economic Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.H. van Heuvelen (Harro)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractThis thesis focuses on international trade and the economic development of the Philippines. The Philippines is a country that is often said to be stuck in the Middle-Income Trap. Indicating that the Philippines has been unable to move up to the highest income group. The author c

  6. 78 FR 22843 - Foreign-Trade Zone 33-Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, Authorization of Export Production Activity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-17

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 33--Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, Authorization of Export... December 4, 2012, Tsudis Chocolate Company, submitted a notification of proposed export production activity... liquid chocolate admitted to FTZ 33 must be re-exported. Dated: April 11, 2013. Andrew...

  7. 76 FR 4001 - Foreign Trade Regulations (FTR): Mandatory Automated Export System Filing for All Shipments...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-21

    ... Commerce Census Bureau 15 CFR Part 30 Foreign Trade Regulations (FTR): Mandatory Automated Export System... Foreign Trade Regulations (FTR): Mandatory Automated Export System Filing for All Shipments Requiring... Automated Export System (AES) or through AESDirect for all shipments of used self-propelled...

  8. 78 FR 67927 - Foreign Trade Regulations (FTR): Mandatory Automated Export System Filing for All Shipments...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-13

    ... Export System Filing for All Shipments Requiring Shipper's Export Declaration Information: Substantive... the Automated Export System (AES) under control number 0607-0152. DATES: The effective date of the... instrument used for collecting export trade data, which is used by the Census Bureau for statistical...

  9. The Export Trading Company Act of 1982 and the photovoltaics industry: An assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enfield, S.; Laporta, C.

    1983-01-01

    The potential advantages of recent export promotion legislation for the U.S. photovoltaics industry were assessed. The provisions of the Export Trading Company Act of 1982 were reviewed and the export trade sector was surveyed to determine what impact the Act is haviang on export company activity. The photovoltaics industry was then studied to determine whether the Act offers particular advantages for promoting its product overseas.

  10. 76 FR 19174 - State Trade and Export Promotion (STEP) Pilot Grant Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION State Trade and Export Promotion (STEP) Pilot Grant Program AGENCY: Office of International Trade; U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA) ACTION: SBA Program Announcement No....

  11. Trade Promotion Organizations (TPOs Role in Laying the Groundwork for an Export Promotion Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OCTAVIAN-LIVIU OLARU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Most countries focus on strategies for export development and promotion, given the importance of national goals and, in many cases, limited resources. A TPO has a significant role in laying the groundwork for an export promotion program. TPOs should pay close attention to the trade information needs of exporters and have appropriate mechanisms for acquiring such information systematically and disseminating it in a timely way. Moreover, a TPO provides basic and useful support to the export community if it can facilitate contacts between foreign buyers and exporters. Developing the export promotion program is one of the basic requirements when the TPO formulates its support program for the export sector.

  12. Export Potentials of Pakistan: Evidence from the Gravity Model of Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasir Tariq Mohmand

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the gravity model of trade is used to analyze the export environment of Pakistan. As clear from trade data, Pakistan’s share in world exports is marginal and imports dominate the trade balance. The inability of diversification both in terms of products and markets is regarded as the main cause behind this trade deficit. This research highlights the main influencing factors affecting the export environment of Pakistan. The results of the gravity equation are used to calculate the export potentials of Pakistan with its partner countries. The results suggest Pakistan still has plenty of export potential with most of the partner countries and as such Pakistan can possibly reduce or control the trade deficit by targeting these countries.

  13. 77 FR 59591 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-28

    ..., Suppliers or other persons based on orders, export markets, territories, customers, or any other basis Sun... exclusively in a particular export market for the export of Products; 13. Enter into agreements with customers in the Export Markets in which the customer may agree to purchase Products exclusively from...

  14. Quantifying export flows of used electronics: advanced methods to resolve used goods within trade data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Huabo; Miller, T Reed; Gregory, Jeremy; Kirchain, Randolph

    2014-03-18

    There is limited convincing quantitative data on the export of used electronics from the United States (U.S.). Thus, we advance a methodology to quantify the export flows of whole units of used electronics from the U.S. using detailed export trade data, and demonstrate the methodology using laptops. Since used electronics are not explicitly identified in export trade data, we hypothesize that exports with a low unit value below a used-new threshold specific to a destination world region are used. The importance of using the most disaggregated trade data set available when resolving used and new goods is illustrated. Two detailed U.S. export trade data sets were combined to arrive at quantities and unit values for each port, mode of transport, month, trade partner country, and trade code. We add rigor to the determination of the used-new threshold by utilizing both the Neighborhood valley-emphasis method (NVEM) and published sales prices. This analysis found that 748 to 1199 thousand units of used laptops were exported from the U.S. in 2010, of which 78-81% are destined for non-OECD countries. Asia was found to be the largest destination of used laptop exports across all used-new threshold methods. Latin American and the Caribbean was the second largest recipient of these exports. North America and Europe also received used laptops from the U.S. Only a small fraction of used laptops was exported to Africa. However, these quantities are lower bound estimates because not all shipments of used laptops may be shipped using the proper laptop trade code. Still, this approach has the potential to give insight into the quantity and destinations of the exports if applied to all used electronics product types across a series of years.

  15. 77 FR 15091 - Application To Export Electric Energy; DTE Energy Trading, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-14

    ... Application To Export Electric Energy; DTE Energy Trading, Inc. AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and... Trading) has applied to renew its authority to transmit electric energy from the United States to Canada... Order No. EA-211, which authorized DTE Energy Trading to transmit electric energy from the United...

  16. TRADE POLICY AND MAJOR TRENDS IN CHILEAN EXPORTS UNDER DEMOCRACY, 1990-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Llorca-Jaña

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with trade policy and the principal trends in Chilean exports after the return to democracy in 1990. During this period, both exports and imports expanded significantly in Chile. As far as exports are concerned, this boom is mainly due to an effective trade policy of additive regionalism, booming copper prices, export diversification and the economic dynamism of China, the principal beneficiary of Chilean exports. On the negative side, the country is still too dependant on copper and a few other primary products. In addition, nowadays, in relative terms Chile is exporting more copper minerals and less refined copper than it used to do in the 1990s, while Chilean exports remained highly concentrated in a few companies only, many of which belong to foreign nationals.

  17. Measuring the Export Subsidy Equivalents (ESEs) through Price Discrimination Generated by Exporting State Trading Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Suzuki, Nobuhiko; Kinoshita, Junko; FUJII, Toshiaki; Kaise, Harry M.

    2005-01-01

    The Doha Round framewoek agreements state that all forms of export sucsides should be eliminated, which includes not only export subsides through food aid and export credits, but also "consumer financed" ones through exporting STEs. Therefore, one needs a theoretical definition and practical measurements of "hidden" export subsides unregulated under the current WTO rules. This paper proposes a basic definition for the "consumer financed" export subsidy equivalent (ESE) created by STEs' price ...

  18. 19 CFR 351.412 - Levels of trade; adjustment for difference in level of trade; constructed export price offset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... difference in level of trade; constructed export price offset. (a) Introduction. In comparing United States... different levels of trade if they are made at different marketing stages (or their equivalent). Substantial... a difference in the stage of marketing. Some overlap in selling activities will not preclude...

  19. Assessment of trading partners for China's rare earth exports using a decision analytic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chunyan; Lei, Yalin; Ge, Jianping

    2014-01-01

    Chinese rare earth export policies currently result in accelerating its depletion. Thus adopting an optimal export trade selection strategy is crucial to determining and ultimately identifying the ideal trading partners. This paper introduces a multi-attribute decision-making methodology which is then used to select the optimal trading partner. In the method, an evaluation criteria system is established to assess the seven top trading partners based on three dimensions: political relationships, economic benefits and industrial security. Specifically, a simple additive weighing model derived from an additive utility function is utilized to calculate, rank and select alternatives. Results show that Japan would be the optimal trading partner for Chinese rare earths. The criteria evaluation method of trading partners for China's rare earth exports provides the Chinese government with a tool to enhance rare earth industrial policies.

  20. Unilateral Trade Preferences in the EU: An Empirical Assessment for the Case of Mozambican Exports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Cirera

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Unilateral trade preferences are one of the most important instruments offered by developed countries to foster developing country exports. This paper analyzes the impact of unilateral trade preferences on developing countries by focusing on the experience of Mozambique. In this paper, we analyze whether unilateral preferences offered by the EU are “valuable” for Mozambican exporters based on the impact on preferential margins, utilization rates, and export prices. We use a detailed dataset with cif unit values at HS8-digits level covering the period 2000–2007. Our findings indicate that (i for a large number of product lines, export margins are zero; (ii utilization rates are generally high; however, (iii this does not translate into a positive price margins captured by Mozambican exporters compared to MFN competitors. These findings cast doubts on the “value” of preferences and their potential impact on developing country exports.

  1. Processing Trade Tariff Reductions Lead to a Decline in Copper Smelting Enterprises’ Export Cost

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>The Notice of the Ministry of Finance and the State Administration of Taxation on Labor VAT and Consumption Tax Policy on Export Goods(Cai Shui 〔 2012 〕 39) was released. Three percent consolidated tax on copper concentrate processing export trade under the proc-

  2. EXPORT PROMOTION POLICY, PREREQUISITE OF AN EFFICIENT NATIONAL FOREIGN TRADE STRATEGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OCTAVIAN-LIVIU OLARU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The importance of international trade is widely recognized not only by the business sector, but also by governments. Governments all over the world have reviewed and streamlined their foreign trade strategies during the last decades. Nearly all countries have adopted special export promotion and development programmes. These programmes have focused on providing more efficient trade support services in areas such as trade information, financing, logistics, customs procedures and communications. Trade Promotion Organizations (TPOs have a broad mandate to provide or coordinate trade support services in the above mentioned area.

  3. Trade and Development When Exports Lack Diversification: A Case Study From Malawi

    OpenAIRE

    Persaud, Suresh Chand; Meade, Birgit Gisela Saager

    2009-01-01

    Developing countries, particularly those that depend heavily on a small number of agricultural exports, are vulnerable to domestic and international shocks. These countries often have difficulty achieving sustained economic growth. This analysis uses Malawi, a country that earns most of its foreign exchange from tobacco, as a case study of export concentration and heavy exposure to volatility. The econometric results suggest that the decline in Malawi’s gross domestic product (GDP) when tobac...

  4. Adjusting export tax rebates to reduce the environmental impacts of trade: Lessons from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Peng; Mao, Xianqiang; Corsetti, Gabriel

    2015-09-15

    Export tax rebates are an important policy instrument for stimulating exports, which many developing countries make use of. However, excessive export tax rebates and inappropriate structural arrangements can lead to over-production in highly polluting industries and cause the environment to deteriorate. This paper, taking China as the study case, tests and verifies the statistical significance of the causal relationship between export tax rebates and pollution emissions. With a computable general equilibrium modeling, the current study further analyzes the effectiveness of export tax rebate adjustments aimed at alleviating environmental pressure for different time periods. It is found that before 2003, export tax rebates primarily promoted exports and boosted foreign exchange reserves, and highly polluting sectors enjoyed above-average export tax rebates, which led to increased pollution emissions. Between 2003 and 2010, the export tax rebate system was reformed to reduce support for the highly polluting export sectors, which led to decreases in emissions. Canceling export tax rebates for highly polluting sectors is shown to be the most favorable policy choice for improving the environmental performance of China's international trade. This study can serve as reference for other developing countries which similarly rely on export tax rebates, so that they can adjust their policies so as to combine economic growth with pollution control.

  5. 76 FR 10082 - Office of International Trade; State Trade and Export Promotion (STEP) Grant Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-23

    ... increase direct and indirect supply chain exporting; export match- making events; formation of export outreach teams composed of State, local, Federal, etc. personnel; sector-specific projects unique to...

  6. 75 FR 12737 - Applications To Export Electric Energy; Noble Energy Marketing and Trade Corp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-17

    ... Applications To Export Electric Energy; Noble Energy Marketing and Trade Corp. AGENCY: Office of Electricity... applications, Noble Energy Marketing and Trade Corp. (NEMT) has applied for authority to transmit electric... electric energy from the United States to Mexico and from the United States to Canada as a power...

  7. 75 FR 75994 - Application To Export Electric Energy; Sempra Energy Trading LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... Application To Export Electric Energy; Sempra Energy Trading LLC AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and... applied to renew its authority to transmit electric energy from the United States to Canada pursuant to... authorized Sempra Energy Trading Corp. (SETC) to transmit electric energy from the United States to...

  8. Empirical Analysis on the Impacts of Technical Barrier to Trade on Chinese Agro-products Export

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In view of the impacts on Chinese agro-products export caused by various technical barriers to trade,the academic circles analyzed them from the costs and quantity of exported agro-products.On the basis of the status quo of Chinese agro-products,the gravity model is introduced to analyze the impacts on Chinese agro-product export caused by technical barriers to trade.The results show that as long as the quality of Chinese agro-products can achieve the standard set by developed countries,for one thing,the health of Chinese consumers can be ensured,for another thing,the export of Chinese agro-products will be more smooth,which can provide reference for our government to make decisions and solve trade dispute.

  9. The North American Free Trade Agreement: What it means for US coal exports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phelleps, M.

    The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) is an unprecedented trade agreement that provides rules, guidelines, and procedures for eliminating barriers to trade and investment between the United States, Canada, and Mexico. It includes schedules for reducing and eventually eliminating tariff and nontariff barriers to trade, rules for converting nontariff barriers to trade barriers, rules for determining the origin of traded goods, provisions for facilitating investments, and exceptions to the general terms and conditions outlined in the text of the agreement. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the opportunities for the United States' coal industry in Mexico. This paper examines the Mexican coal industry, current and future coal use in Mexico, opportunities for US exports to Mexico, other coal-related export opportunities, and information sources on NAFTA implementation.

  10. 76 FR 15294 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    ... analysis; collection of information on trade opportunities; marketing; negotiations; joint ventures.... Engage in promotional and marketing activities and collect information on trade opportunities in the.... Definition ``Supplier'' means a person who produces, provides, or sells Products, Services, and/or...

  11. Performance of African Agricultural Exports and External Market Access Conditions under International Trade Reforms

    OpenAIRE

    Nyangito, Hezron Omare

    2004-01-01

    Sub Saharan African agriculture is currently facing challenges in international trade with respect to external market access conditions and competition in world markets as a result of trade liberalization efforts under the world trade organization (WTO) agreements and in particular the agreement on agriculture (AoA). This paper presents the performance of agricultural exports for selected countries and indicates external market barriers faced and the resulting implications of the barriers on ...

  12. The energy-intensity of China’s export trade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘强; 庄幸; 姜克隽; 韩文科; 胡秀莲

    2008-01-01

    China is one of the world’s major importers and exporters. On the one hand, massive exports have created enormous economic value and employment opportunities for Chinese and become one of the vital forces underpinning the country’s economic growth. On the other hand, exports have caused a huge amount of energy resource consumption and carbon emissions and added pressure to the country for a sustainable growth. China exports a wide variety of products, each of which is attached to a different industry chain with different energy consumptions. Therefore, the evolution of the product structure has become one of the key factors affecting China’s future energy consumption and economic growth. To further promote nationwide energy conservation and emission reduction, reduce the pressure exerted by economic growth on energy consumption and the environment and win more space for sustainable economic growth, it is imperative to understand energy consumption and carbon emissions embodied in export products and provide support for China’s export policy adjustment. This study attempts to calculate, compare and analyze the embodied energy and carbon emissions in 46 major export products using the full life cycle assessment method, and concludes by offering policy recommendations.

  13. THE EVOLUTION OF THE INTERNATIONAL TRADE AND ITS IMPACT ON THE ROMANIAN EXPORTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TRIPA Simona

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the impact of the financial and economic crisis on the evolution of international trade and implicitly on Romanian exports during 2000-2014. Methods of the research that have been employed in the paper are analysis and summarizing of scientific literature, mathematic calculations and comparative analysis of statistic dates. This paper presents in the first part the quantitative evolution of world exports and highlights the role of international trade in both the financial and economic crisis propagation, and in process of economic recovery in the world in the coming years. It continues with the manner in which international trade evolution and structural changes that have occurred in the world economy in the last two decades or reflected in trade of Romania not only from a quantitative but also structurally. Quantitatively was noted that Romanian exports have followed the trend recorded worldwide and from the structural viewpoint were identified the dominant characteristics of the evolution of trade in Romanian, the past two decades, namely the dynamic growth of trade flows of processed products (in particular Machinery and transport equipment as well as their share in total trade and increased exports on the markets outside the EU in proportions higher than the growth in intra EU market.

  14. The Great Trade Collapse and the Spanish Export Miracle: Firm-level Evidence from the Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eppinger, Peter S.; Meythaler, Nicole; Sindlinger, Marc-Manuel

    no adverse effects of the financial crisis on foreign market entry or exit, but a considerable increase in the export intensity of firms after the financial crisis. Moreover, we find that those firms that entered the crisis as exporters (and continued exporting throughout the crisis years) were more......We provide novel evidence on the micro-structure of international trade during the 2008 financial crisis and subsequent global recession exploring a rich firm-level data set from Spain. The analysis is motivated by the surprisingly strong export performance of Spain in the aftermath of the great...... resilient to the crisis than those firms that restricted their sales to the domestic market. Finally, in contrast to exporters, non-exporters experienced a significant deterioration in their total factor productivity, which led to an overall decline in the productivity of a significant number of industries...

  15. 75 FR 25206 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... transactions. SEI will provide market research, strategic planning, and initiatives for exporting goods and... one-on-one basis regarding that Supplier's inventories and near- term production schedules in order...

  16. 78 FR 78818 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ...; export licensing; provisions of overseas sales and distribution facilities and overseas sales staff; legal; accounting and tax assistance; development and application of management information systems..., invoicing (billing) foreign buyers; collecting (letters of credit and other financial instruments)...

  17. Export Trade Performance of Indian Economy during and Following the Global Financial Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Sumanjeet Singh

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Towards the end of 2008 the effects of global recession started getting reflectedin international trade. The fall in global demand and the slowing-down ineconomic growth translated into a substantial reduction in internationaltrade. It affected the cross-border trade of virtually all countries and economicsectors. Indian exports trade could not remain unaffected in a situation whereexternal demand was dwindling globally. The present paper reviews India’sexport performance during and following the global financial crisis. Indianexports started to decline in July 2008. It declined from US$ 17,095 millionin July 2008 to US$ 11,516 million in March 2009, which accounts for almost33 per cent decline. This growth contraction has come after a robust 25 percent-plus average export growth since 2003. But, as a result of governmentpolicy measures and recovery in global economy, India’s exports growthturned positive and exports grew by a whopping 54.1 per cent in March 2010and recorded the highest growth rate among the world’s top 70 economiesin merchandise exports. India’s merchandise exports during April 2010 at US$16.9 billion recorded a growth of 36.3 per cent as compared with a declineof 32.8 per cent registered in April 2009. Exports witnessed huge annualizedgrowth of 56.9 per cent to $25.9 billion in May 2011 in a bright spot for theIndian economy, which is battling high inflation amid signs of a slowdown.

  18. Relevance of trade facilitation in emerging countries exports

    OpenAIRE

    Martí Selva, María Luisa; Puertas Medina, Rosa María; García Menéndez, Leandro

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this article is to analyse trade flows in emerging nations with a maritime boundary, where trade facilitation plays a decisive role in their international development. In order to detect possible patterns in performance, we apply the economic approach of gravity models using the World Bank Logistic Performance Index (LPI) as a good proxy of trade facilitation. The results of the estimation lead to the conclusion that the more complex the transportation of goods is, the more i...

  19. Analysis of China's Export Trade and Environmental Problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Ziqi

    2016-01-01

    Along with the reform and opening up,China's foreign trade develops rapidly,now becoming the world's largest trading power.However, as China is the largest developing country in the world, she is limited to insufficient advanced science and technology and imperfect system which stir up acute problems to it’s environment. The relationship between trade and environment has gradually aroused people's attention and become the focus of discussion.

  20. Social absorption capability, systems of innovation and manufactured export response to preferential trade incentives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Na-Allah, Abdelrasaq; Muchie, Mammo

    2012-01-01

    in the process is relegated to the background. This paper argues that social absorption capability of a beneficiary's economy as expressed in her incumbent systems of innovation is a crucial determinant of export performance response. The experience of Sub-Saharan African countries under the US African Growth...... & Opportunity Act apparel trade incentive is used as a classical illustration of this proposition. It is shown that the comparative efficiency of Lesetho, despite emerging from a relatively weak trade performance potential background, in recording the highest level of export success among beneficiaries...

  1. 75 FR 44760 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-29

    ... analysis; collection of information on trade opportunities; marketing; negotiations; joint ventures... development; management and labor strategies; transfer of technology; transportation; and facilitating the... Operation 1. With respect to the sale of Products and Services, licensing of Technology Rights and provision...

  2. Implications of the US -South Korea Free Trade Agreement on Agricultural Exports from the US

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasa Konduru

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The United States-S. Korea Free Trade Agreement (KORUS FTA became effective in 2012 and is expected to create new opportunities and improve access for one another’s markets. It is expected to benefit the US agricultural sector particularly as S. Korea maintains high trade barriers for agricultural imports. This paper analyses the impact of KORUS FTA on the agricultural exports from the US with an example of table grapes. The results obtained by using the Import demand estimation method show that table grape exports will become more competitive in S. Korea due to the KORUS FTA. The paper also calculates preference indices for various agricultural imports from the US and rest of the world before and after the free trade agreement in S. Korean agricultural markets. This will help in understanding the implications of KORUS FTA not only on the US-S. Korean agricultural trade, but also between S. Korea and the rest of the world.

  3. The impact of trade costs on rare earth exports : a stochastic frontier estimation approach.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanyal, Prabuddha; Brady, Patrick Vane; Vugrin, Eric D.

    2013-09-01

    The study develops a novel stochastic frontier modeling approach to the gravity equation for rare earth element (REE) trade between China and its trading partners between 2001 and 2009. The novelty lies in differentiating betweenbehind the border' trade costs by China and theimplicit beyond the border costs' of China's trading partners. Results indicate that the significance level of the independent variables change dramatically over the time period. While geographical distance matters for trade flows in both periods, the effect of income on trade flows is significantly attenuated, possibly capturing the negative effects of financial crises in the developed world. Second, the total export losses due tobehind the border' trade costs almost tripled over the time period. Finally, looking atimplicit beyond the border' trade costs, results show China gaining in some markets, although it is likely that some countries are substituting away from Chinese REE exports.

  4. 75 FR 22578 - Application To Export Electric Energy; Centre Lane Trading Limited

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-29

    ... Application To Export Electric Energy; Centre Lane Trading Limited AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and... applied for authority to transmit electric energy from the United States to Canada pursuant to section 202... application from CLT for authority to transmit electric energy from the United States to Canada as a...

  5. 75 FR 57911 - Application to Export Electric Energy; EDF Trading North America, LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-23

    ... Application to Export Electric Energy; EDF Trading North America, LLC AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery... (EDF) has applied for authority to transmit electric energy from the United States to Mexico pursuant... application from EDF for authority to transmit electric energy from the United States to Mexico for five...

  6. 75 FR 26202 - Application To Export Electric Energy; EDF Trading North America, LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-11

    ... Application To Export Electric Energy; EDF Trading North America, LLC AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery... (EDF) has applied for authority to transmit electric energy from the United States to Canada pursuant... application from EDF for authority to transmit electric energy from the United States to Canada as a...

  7. Causality between Exports and Economic Growth: Investigating Suitable Trade Policy for Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shujaat ABBAS

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates causal relationship between GDP and exports for the period of 1975 to 2010. The aim of this study is to check affectivity of export promotion policy adopted by Pakistan during 1990s. Johansen test of Cointegration and Granger Causality employed to determine short run and long run causality. The result of Cointegration reveals existence of one positive cointegrating equation. The result of Causality test show short run and long run causality run from GDP to exports. The result concludes that both in short and long run only growth in production cause exports growth. Government should attempt to develop production side, which in long run develop trade and economy.

  8. NAFTA and the diversification of Mexico's exports: Emprical investigation on the predictions of the heterogeneous firms trade models

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Using NAFTA's effect on Mexico's exports as a natural experiment, this paper conducts an empirical analysis on the explanatory power of the two strands of heterogeneous firms trade models: the heterogeneous firms trade (HFT) model and the quality heterogeneous firms trade (QHFT) model. The paper first discusses the common prediction of the two models on new goods' exports and on the contrasting prediction on unit price evolution. An empirical analysis shows a strong supportive evidence on the...

  9. Exporting obesity: US farm and trade policy and the transformation of the Mexican consumer food environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Sarah E; Hawkes, Corinna; Murphy, Sophia M E; Hansen-Kuhn, Karen A; Wallinga, David

    2012-01-01

    Obesity has reached epidemic proportions, in the United States as well as among its trade partners such as Mexico. It has been established that an "obesogenic" (obesity-causing) food environment is one influence on obesity prevalence. To isolate the particular role of NAFTA, the North American Free Trade Agreement, in changing Mexico's food environment, we plotted the flow of several key products between the United States and Mexico over the 14-year NAFTA period (1994-2008) and situated them in a broader historical context. Key sources of USDA data include the Foreign Agricultural Service's Global Agricultural Trade System, its official repository for current and historical data on imports, exports and re-exports, and its Production, Supply, and Distribution online database. US export data were queried for agricultural products linked to shifting diet patterns including: corn, soybeans, sugar and sweeteners, consumer-oriented products, and livestock products. The Bureau of Economic Analysis' Balance of Payments and Direct Investment Position Data in their web-based International Economic Accounts system also helped determine changes in US direct investment abroad from 1982 to 2009. Directly and indirectly, the United States has exported increasing amounts of corn, soybeans, sugar, snack foods, and meat products into Mexico over the last two decades. Facilitated by NAFTA, these exports are one important way in which US agriculture and trade policy influences Mexico's food system. Because of significant US agribusiness investment in Mexico across the full spectrum of the latter's food supply chain, from production and processing to distribution and retail, the Mexican food system increasingly looks like the industrialized food system of the United States.

  10. Export experience and key success factors in cross-border trade: Evidence from Southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shepherd Dhliwayo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Cross-border trade (CBT is an important economic activity that contributes to the development of many economies of the developing world.Research purpose:  The two primary aims of the study were to find out the major factors needed to succeed in cross-border trading and whether the importance of these factors significantly decreased with export experience.Motivation for the study: The economic contribution of cross-border trade (CBT is often understated. As a result, it does not get the attention it deserves.Research design, approach and method: Data were collected in Gauteng from 146 cross-border traders from 10 Southern African Development Community (SADC countries. A cross-sectional research design was used.Main findings: The major key success factors were found to be skills/knowledge in; markets and supplies; financial management; and border issues. The importance of these factors was found to not significantly change with levels of export experience.Practical/managerial implications:  Stakeholders should know that small firms of differing export experience require the same interventions to succeed. Interventions should empower traders to better access markets and supplies, improve their financial management skills and ease border constraints.Contribution/value-add: Few studies on cross border trading have been carried out in the Southern African Development Community region. The key success factors and the constraints in this type of trade had not been adequately explored. The economic contribution of CBT, which usually goes unnoticed, was highlighted. Interventions to appropriately address the challenges faced, such as trading legitimacy and border harassment, were suggested.

  11. Re-export Intensity and Trade Costs: Port Facilities and Services

    OpenAIRE

    Belaid Rettab; Azzeddine Azzam

    2008-01-01

    With falling tariff and non-tariff barriers, lowering other trade costs related to the logistics of moving goods through ports is key to further facilitation of world trade. Such costs are now part of the language of several GATT articles of importance to WTO negotiations. This paper estimates the effect of various port costs on re-export intensity in six major Asian ports: Dubai, Manama, Mumbai, Bandar Abbas, Damman, and Hong Kong. What we find is that the cost of transportation and logistic...

  12. Why don't All Exporters Benefit from Free Trade Agreements?: Estimating Utilization Costs

    OpenAIRE

    Ulloa, Alfie; Wagner, Rodrigo

    2012-01-01

    Free Trade Agreements (FTA) attract significant interest, but after these treaties are signed not all exporters use them. We provide a model of heterogeneous utilization, also developing a novel method to estimate treaty-utilization costs. We later apply the model to estimate the evolution utilization costs for the FTA between the US and a small open economy, Chile. Consistent with other studies, we find that utilization is indeed partial (on average 67% on the first year of the treaty, with ...

  13. Vietnamese footwear export: The direction of trade and determinants of firms’ market penetration

    OpenAIRE

    VU, Van Hanh; Doan, Hung

    2016-01-01

    We investigate determinants of firms’ direction of trade by using panel data of Vietnam’s footwear firms for the 2006-2010 period. Since no variance was found between firms, a pooled multinomial logit model is consequently preferable. Notably, the economies of scale show positive and significant effects for footwear firms serving the USA and EU markets. Although Vietnamese footwear firms are less likely to export to the ASEAN countries, they tend to focus on the diversification of products in...

  14. ANALYSIS OF EXPORTS OF GOODS ON TRADE CREDIT CONSIGNMENT FROM AN ACCOUNTING PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PALIU - POPA LUCIA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available With the continuing diversification of international transactions, foreign trade companies (FTCs are constantly preoccupied with using those ways allowing them to obtain higher results, even if, in case of complex exports of high volume and complexity, the lack of financial resources of foreign buyers leads to crediting of supply, either by the producing entities for export on consignment, or by FTC, for the export made on its own. In this context, always taking into account the specificities of the various forms of conducting the exports of goods, which, as we found in the research conducted, influence the accounting procedures, the target of achieving a critical study on accounting and taxation of the supplies of goods outside the Community area, aiming at identifying those forms and modalities that have a positive impact on the return of a FTC and on the statement of assets and cash flows, determined us to translate the entire research into accounting and tax analysis containing relevant conclusions for the proposed objective and purpose. Thus the management decisions of FTCs may be directed to those forms to carry out foreign trade transactions that, after analysis, are deemed to be the best

  15. Green light: gross primary production influences seasonal stream N export by controlling fine-scale temporal N dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, S.; Lupon, A.; Sabater, F.; Martí Roca, E.

    2015-12-01

    The contribution of in-stream processes to nitrogen (N) exports remains unclear because stream water chemistry integrates biogeochemical processes occurring at different spatial and temporal scales within upland, riparian and aquatic ecosystems. Monitoring nutrient concentrations at fine-scale temporal resolution can provide insights on in-stream N processing. Yet, the mechanisms underlying fine-scale temporal nutrient dynamics and their implications for flux budgets at catchment scale are still poorly understood. Here, we investigated patterns and controls of diel variation in stream nitrate (NO3-) concentration and the influence of these on N fluxes along a stream continuum with increasing riparian area and channel width. We tested two alternative hypotheses: that diel variation in stream NO3- concentration is driven (a) by stream metabolism, or (b) by riparian groundwater inputs. Although productivity in this stream was extremely low, patterns of diel variation in stream NO3- concentration emerged in early-spring and they were highly correlated with the daily regime of irradiance and gross primary production (GPP). In addition, diel NO3- patterns agreed with those predicted from GPP and biofilm C:N ratios, but not with diel variations predicted from changes in riparian groundwater inputs. These results point at in-stream photoautotrophic N uptake as the most likely driver of diel fluctuations in stream NO3- concentration. From a network perspective, the occurrence of diel variations in stream NO3- concentration, and thus their influence on stream N fluxes, increased along the stream continuum likely because of increases in light inputs and water temperature. This study evidences that monitoring of nutrient concentrations at fine-scale temporal resolution can provide mechanistic explanations about the relevance of in-stream and terrestrial processes on regulating stream N dynamics and their contribution to N export at catchment scale.

  16. African Countries’ Agricultural Trade Value Chain Assessment Case study: Tanzania (Cashew nut exports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Krepl

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sub-Saharan Africa lost its status as a net exporter of agricultural products in the early 1980s when prices for raw commodities fell and local production stagnated. Since then, agricultural imports have grown faster than agricultural exports. In order to get to the bottom of this critical issue, UNIDO in partnership with the AU, IFAD, AfDB, FAO, and UNECA, developed the African Agribusiness and Agro-Industries Development Initiative (3ADI. The major objective of the 3ADI is to increase private sector investment flows going into the agriculture sector in Africa by mobilizing resources for agribusiness and agro-industrial development from the domestic, regional or international financial systems. This formed the basis of research with the objective of assessing the value addition chain for some vital agricultural commodities in the 3ADI focus countries. UNIDO is developing several action plans in a few African countries – one of them is Tanzania. In the case of Tanzania, the findings show the potential in cashew nuts. The paper’s main goal is to propose a plan or set of steps leading to the improvement of added value generation in the area of agricultural trade in Tanzania. The paper is focused on one commodity Cashew-nuts. Tanzania boosts high volumes of local supply of this commodity, which is the key prerequisite for the value addition chain through local processing. The results from the analysis prove significant economic losses related to the current structure of Tanzanian trade in cashew nuts. The main problem of the current cashew nut trade activities is the very low added value of exported cashew nuts. The paper analyses the structure of value added activities related to the cashew nut trade and proposes a plan for increasing the share of processed cashew nuts at a much higher unit price in comparison to raw cashew nuts. The simulated development in the cashew sector in Tanzania to the year 2030 is based on two expectations a 5

  17. Trade Barriers and Countermeasures for Export of China’s Agricultural Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lijing; WU

    2013-01-01

    At present,export of China’s agricultural products is faced with many trade barriers,especially technological barriers.Trade barriers include(1)technological barriers(such as quarantine and inspection barrier,identity certification/authentication barrier and labeling rules barrier);(2)trade remedy barrier;(3)other non-tariff barriers(NTB).Through positioning and analysis of trade barriers of China’s agricultural products,it is known that technological barriers should not be deemed unreasonable totally.Some barriers also have certain positive significance.To respond to trade barriers,it comes up with countermeasures and recommendations from the perspective of agricultural producers and government.Agricultural producers should actively improve product quality,abide by requirement of importers,and treat quarantine and inspection in a rational manner;government should supply information and issue early warning,assist domestic producers in responding to lawsuits,and take advantage of WTO platform to solve trade disputes.

  18. North Africa - Working paper - Trade Volume and Economic Growth in the MENA Region: Goods or Services?

    OpenAIRE

    Jacob Kolster

    2015-01-01

    Key messages • The relatively important trade barriers do not only have a negative impact on service trade, but also on the competitiveness of manufacturing, especially that some services such as transport and telecommunication services as well as financial services are complementary to goods production and exports. • The study underline that trade in services and trade in goods both do increase gross domestic product as trade policy openness and higher ratios of trade volumes to gross domest...

  19. Entropy of international trades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Chang-Young; Lee, D.-S.

    2017-05-01

    The organization of international trades is highly complex under the collective efforts towards economic profits of participating countries given inhomogeneous resources for production. Considering the trade flux as the probability of exporting a product from a country to another, we evaluate the entropy of the world trades in the period 1950-2000. The trade entropy has increased with time, and we show that it is mainly due to the extension of trade partnership. For a given number of trade partners, the mean trade entropy is about 60% of the maximum possible entropy, independent of time, which can be regarded as a characteristic of the trade fluxes' heterogeneity and is shown to be derived from the scaling and functional behaviors of the universal trade-flux distribution. The correlation and time evolution of the individual countries' gross-domestic products and the number of trade partners show that most countries achieved their economic growth partly by extending their trade relationship.

  20. The Changing Pattern in International Trade and Capital Flows of the Gulf Cooperation Council Countries in Comparison with other Oil-Exporting Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marga PEETERS

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study provides an overview of the pattern of the gross capital flows of the current and capital accounts of the balance of payments of the group of six Gulf Cooperation Council countries during the last decade that includes the global crisis years. As a comprehensive overview is lacking in the literature, while this country group has gained in importance in the global economy in particular in the years before the global crisis, this study tries to fill this gap. It benchmarks the GCC countries with the other oil-exporting OPEC countries that have a comparable size of natural resources. The GCC countries’ high investments in the world economy financed by their abundant income from oil revenues, showed their remarkably high degree of trade and financial integration in the world economy. Thanks to policies geared towards opening up borders, the GCC countries have imparted a significant stimulus to the world economy, to a much greater extent than other oil exporting countries in similar conditions. Aspects of globalization, trade and financial integration,such as the dependence on oil, “Dutch disease”, regional integration, foreign direct investment and cross-border assets and loans are addressed. The results show that the impact of the crisis has reverted international capital flows of the GCC, in particular cross-border bank loans, deposits and foreign direct investment. Current and future global policymaking needs however moretimely and consistent statistical information.

  1. Implications of lifting the ban on the export of Alaskan crude oil: Price and trade impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-06-26

    This study addresses the issue of the ban on exports of Alaskan crude oil. At present almost all crude oil production from Alaska must be sold in the United States, i.e., it may not be exported. This study examines the impact, mainly on the West Coast, of eliminating this export restraint. The study concentrates on two time periods. These are 1988, the most recent year for which complete data are available, and 1995, a year in which Alaskan production is projected to be substantially less than at present. This is the Energy Information Administration's (EIA's) second report on this subject. The first was released earlier in 1990. They differ principally in the years for which results are presented and in the models used to generate quantitative results. The first report was limited to 1988. The quantitative results for that year were based on use of a single region model and therefore did not take into account petroleum interactions among all areas of the world. Because of this limitation, quantitative results were limited to Alaskan crude oil prices. All other price and trade flow results were qualitative. In contrast, the present report covers both 1988 and 1995. The quantitative results are generated with use of a more comprehensive model, one which does take into account petroleum interactions among all areas of the world. The model-generated results cover both crude and product prices as well as petroleum trade flows. The quantitative results in the present report therefore supersede those in the first, although both sets are generally consistent.

  2. Production and Trade Situation in Iran and USA and Impact of Exchange rate Volatility on the Exports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Salarpour

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, pistachio production and trade and influential factors on its exports in Iran and the USA are compared the the .Using the annual data from 1970 to 2011; this study aimed to analyze the effects of pistachio price and the effects of food security. Moreover, the relationship between exchange rate and pistachio export in the Iranian economy was analyzed through examining a non linear relation between the two factors. Therefore, the hypothesis validation upon nonlinearity relationship between exchange rate and pistachio export was analyzed using smooth transition autoregressive model (STAR. The results of smooth transition model (STAR show that there is a nonlinear Granger causality between exchange rate and pistachio export and vice versa. It is therefore recommended ,in order to determine the threshold level of potential benefits of pistachio exports, the existence of the nonlinear relationship between the dynamic exchange rate and pistachio exports should be considered. Furthermore, in order to maintain market share in the international level, understanding target markets of export and achieving complete information upon the position of the major competitors in the production and trade of Pistachio is essential.

  3. COMPETITIVE POSITION OF THE MAIN PRODUCERS AND EXPORTERS OF OILSEEDS AND VEGETABLE OILS IN THE INTRA-EU TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Pawlak

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper was to assess the competitive position of the main producers and exporters of oilseeds and vegetable oils in the intra-EU trade in 2004 and 2012. The competitiveness was assessed with the use of a selected set of quantitative measures of international competitive position. Moreover, some shares of the analysed countries in the intra-EU trade, as well as relative export intensity of oilseeds and vegetable oils in these countries were estimated. On the basis of the conducted analyses it is possible to conclude that apart from Germany in trade in rapeseed and soya beans, as well as the Netherlands in trade in rapeseed and sunflower-seed, the main producers and exporters of oilseeds were competitive on the Single European Market. Excluding soya-bean oil produced in the EU mainly from imported raw material, competitive advantage of most of the countries decreased together with the level of processing and was lower in trade in vegetable oils.

  4. Material Consumption in the Czech Republic: Focus on Foreign Trade and Raw Material Equivalents of Imports and Exports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kovanda

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a comparison of indicators based on an economy-wide material flow analysis, namely imports, exports, domestic material consumption, raw material equivalents of imports, raw material equivalents of exports and raw material consumption. These indicators were calculated for the Czech Republic for 1995-2010 using, besides economy-wide material flow analysis, the hybrid input-output life cycle assessment method, which allows for a calculation of raw material equivalents of imports and exports. The results showed that calculation of indicators including raw material equivalents is useful, as they provided some important information which was not obvious from imports, exports and domestic material consumption. This includes the facts that the latter indicators tended to underestimate environmental pressure related to consumption of materials, high dependency of the Czech production system on metal ores from abroad and quite unequal and unfair distribution of environmental pressures between the Czech Republic and its trading partners.

  5. A study on effect of world trade organization on Iran's membership on export of Iranian handmade carpet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoureh Golmeymi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available World Trade Organization (WTO has been established to facilitate fringe trade in the world and there are many studies associated with the effect of WTO membership on export of various countries. This paper presents an empirical investigation to find the effect of WTO membership on export of Iranian handmade carpet. The survey uses insights from 80 experts who have at least ten years of related job experiences in carpet industry by performing an expletory and using descriptive and quantitative method for analyzing the data. The results of the survey indicate that Iran's membership in WTO will most likely reduce the sales price of handmade carpet. In addition, Iran's membership in WTO will increase scientific and professional power in handmade carpet. It will also help industry get more exposure into international market.

  6. 75 FR 81152 - Export Control Modernization: Strategic Trade Authorization License Exception

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ... Bureau of Industry and Security 15 CFR Parts 732, 738, 740, 743, 758, and 774 RIN 0694-AF03 Export... error in the address for submitting e-mail comments that appeared in a proposed rule, ``Export Control... comments was incorrectly stated under the ADDRESSES caption of a proposed rule entitled ``Export...

  7. 78 FR 45969 - Trade Barriers That U.S. Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises Perceive as Affecting Exports to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-30

    ... COMMISSION Trade Barriers That U.S. Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises Perceive as Affecting Exports to the... and Medium- sized Enterprises Perceive as Affecting Exports to the European Union. DATES: September 13... ). Persons with mobility impairments who will need special assistance in gaining access to the...

  8. 78 FR 51746 - Trade Barriers That U.S. Small and Medium-sized Enterprises Perceive as Affecting Exports to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-21

    ... COMMISSION Trade Barriers That U.S. Small and Medium-sized Enterprises Perceive as Affecting Exports to the... Barriers that U.S. Small and Medium-sized Enterprises Perceive as Affecting Exports to the European Union... ). Persons with mobility impairments who will need special assistance in gaining access to the...

  9. Trade related business climate and manufacturing export performance in Africa: A firm-level analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Lawrence; Balchin, Neil

    2008-01-01

    Africa continues to be marginalised in world trade of manufactured goods, despite reductions in tariffs and non-tariff barriers. This paper investigates whether high business and trade costs associated with Africa’s trade-related infrastructure, trade institutions and the regulatory environment have contributed towards its mediocre trade performance. The paper focuses on eight African countries - Egypt, Kenya, Madagascar, Mauritius, Morocco, South Africa, Tanzania and Zambia - using the World...

  10. Encounters & Responses Trade Protectionism——Export of Chinese Electronic Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cao Naicheng

    2009-01-01

    @@ After several months' downtrend,the export market of Chinese flat-panel TV began to recover in the first quarter,with 5.815 million LCD TV sets exported to overseas,increasing by 17.7% from the same time of a year ago,and 132.000 plasma TV sets exported,up by 1.5% with the same comparison.

  11. Education Imports and Exports in the Framework of the World Trade Organization and Adjustments of Education Legislation and Policy Making in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansheng, Zhou

    2009-01-01

    Commitments on trade in education services constitute a vital part of China's promises after securing World Trade Organization (WTO) membership. This paper provides a detailed analysis of the forms of educational imports and exports in the framework of WTO and examines the Chinese government's efforts to adjust education legislation and policy…

  12. 78 FR 66950 - Trade Barriers That U.S. Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises Perceive as Affecting Exports to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-07

    ... COMMISSION Trade Barriers That U.S. Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises Perceive as Affecting Exports to the... ). Persons with mobility impairments who will need special assistance in gaining access to the Commission... prepare a report that catalogs trade barriers that U.S. small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs)...

  13. 75 FR 24969 - China's Agricultural Trade: Competitive Conditions and Effects on U.S. Exports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-06

    ... of China's MFN tariffs, preferential tariffs negotiated under China's free trade agreements, and... with which China has negotiated trade agreements; (4) A description of the principal measures affecting... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL...

  14. 贸易信贷对我国出口影响的实证分析%Empirical Analysis on Influence of Trade Credit on China's Export

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉龙; 袁其刚; 朱学昌

    2013-01-01

    Trade credit as a way of external financing can relieve enterprises' financing constraints. Starting from the current situation of trade credit, this article analyzes the mechanism of its influence on China's export. The empirical results show that trade credit have important catalytic role for export, and China should step up the catalytic role of trade credit on export.%  贸易信贷作为一种外部融资方式,可以缓解企业融资约束。本文从贸易信贷现状出发,分析其对我国出口影响的机制,实证结果表明贸易信贷对出口有重要促进作用,我国应加大贸易信贷对出口的促进作用。

  15. Importing and exporting gametes and embryos under the Infertility Treatment Act 1995 (Vic): an unconstitutional restraint on free trade?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Solomon

    2003-11-01

    Since the introduction of the Infertility Treatment Act 1995 (Vic), it has been illegal to import into or export from Victoria a gamete or embryo outside the human body without the approval of the Infertility Treatment Authority. But is s 56 unconstitutional and therefore invalid by reason of contravening the freedom of interstate trade guarantee by s 92 of the Commonwealth Constitution? By exploring the nature and effect of s 56 this article demonstrates that s 56 may impose a "discriminatory" and "protectionist" burden that renders s 56 invalid.

  16. Trading forests: land-use change and carbon emissions embodied in production and exports of forest-risk commodities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henders, Sabine; Persson, U. Martin; Kastner, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    Production of commercial agricultural commodities for domestic and foreign markets is increasingly driving land clearing in tropical regions, creating links and feedback effects between geographically separated consumption and production locations. Such teleconnections are commonly studied through calculating consumption footprints and quantifying environmental impacts embodied in trade flows, e.g., virtual water and land, biomass, or greenhouse gas emissions. The extent to which land-use change (LUC) and associated carbon emissions are embodied in the production and export of agricultural commodities has been less studied. Here we quantify tropical deforestation area and carbon emissions from LUC induced by the production and the export of four commodities (beef, soybeans, palm oil, and wood products) in seven countries with high deforestation rates (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Papua New Guinea). We show that in the period 2000-2011, the production of the four analyzed commodities in our seven case countries was responsible for 40% of total tropical deforestation and resulting carbon losses. Over a third of these impacts was embodied in exports in 2011, up from a fifth in 2000. This trend highlights the growing influence of global markets in deforestation dynamics. Main flows of embodied LUC are Latin American beef and soybean exports to markets in Europe, China, the former Soviet bloc, the Middle East and Northern Africa, whereas embodied emission flows are dominated by Southeast Asian exports of palm oil and wood products to consumers in China, India and the rest of Asia, as well as to the European Union. Our findings illustrate the growing role that global consumers play in tropical LUC trajectories and highlight the need for demand-side policies covering whole supply chains. We also discuss the limitations of such demand-side measures and call for a combination of supply- and demand-side policies to effectively limit tropical

  17. 77 FR 77016 - Foreign-Trade Zone 33 - Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania Notification of Proposed Export Production...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    ... shipments to Canada or Mexico, production under FTZ procedures could allow reduced duty treatment under NAFTA Duty Deferral requirements. For shipments to other export markets, FTZ procedures could exempt...

  18. The impact of trade liberalization on Ethiopian Export, Import and GDP

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed, Sied Hassen

    2008-01-01

    Following the 1970’s and 1980’s economic and debt crisis in the developing countries, major aid donors like World Bank and IMF change their aid policies to these countries. They recommend a policy package called Structural Adjustment program (SAP) which included reduction of trade barriers and opening of international trade to foreign competition, and amongst other long-term growth and development strategies. Ethiopia adopts SAP in 1992 as recommend by World Bank. Trade liberalization is one ...

  19. U. S. Trade and Development Program, Guayabo-Siquirres hydroelectric project, Costa Rica. Definitional-mission report. Export trade information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, E.L.

    1992-06-01

    The Guayabo-Siquirres project is on the Caribbean slopes of the cordillera, east of San Jose. It consists of two linked systems: Guayabo comprising a low dam and intake on the Rio Reventazon, a 10-km power tunnel, penstock and surface powerhouse which discharges into the Rio Pacuare upstream of the Siquirres reservoir, and Siquirres comprising a high dam, a 3-km power tunnel and surface powerhouse. A Definitional Mission was carried out. The objective was to evaluate the project, develop and cost out the scope of work for a feasibility study, estimate the potential exports of U.S. equipment and services during project implementation, and provide TDP with an overview of the current international competitiveness of the U.S.

  20. Unexpected Interactions between Agricultural and Forest Sectors through International Trade: Wood Pallets and Agricultural Exports in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaline Jadin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available International market forces have played an increasingly important role in shaping land use dynamics through complex supply chains. In Costa Rica, the shift from a net loss to a net gain in forest cover was facilitated by forest plantations and the replacement of extensive cropland and pastures by export-oriented, high-yielding crops. However, agricultural intensification generated several feedbacks affecting forests. We analyzed the interactions between Costa Rica’s agricultural and forestry sectors associated with the use of wood pallets for commodity exports over 1985–2013. Wood pallets for growing agricultural exports created a demand for domestic tree plantations. The annual land demand for tree plantations to produce these wood pallets increased by 669%, reaching 17,606 ha in 2013 and representing 28% of the increase in demand for cropland for agricultural exports over 1994–2013. Wood supplied from plantations failed to fully substitute for wood from natural forests, only allowing for a relative substitution and preventing a major sparing of these forests. The dominant use of wood from plantations for production of low-value pallets de-incentivized investments in sustainable plantations. We showed that, beyond the typical interactions between agriculture and forestry through direct competition for land, international trade generated unexpected feedback where agricultural activities and supply chains affected forestry by triggering new demand and profound changes in forestry management. Land systems behave as complex systems, calling for integrated approaches to study the outcomes of forest conservation, reforestation programs, and development of land-based businesses.

  1. Fixed Export Costs and Export Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Castro, Luis; Li, Ben; Keith E. Maskus; Xie, Yiqing

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides a direct test of how fixed export costs and productivity jointly determine firm-level export behavior. Using Chilean data, we construct indices of fixed export costs for each industry-region-year triplet and match them to domestic firms. Our empirical results show that firms facing higher fixed export costs are less likely to export, while those with higher productivity export more. These outcomes are the foundation of the widely-used sorting mechanism in the trade models ...

  2. 26 CFR 1.972-1 - Consolidation of group of export trade corporations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., including any minority interests owned directly or indirectly by such shareholder in second-tier and third... shareholders (as defined in section 951(b)) owning (within the meaning of section 958(a)) or who are considered... gross income of such shareholders under section 951(a)(1)(A)(ii) with respect to such a...

  3. Impact of Transport Costs on International Trade: The Case of Spanish Ceramic Exports

    OpenAIRE

    I. Martínez-Zarzoso; L García-Menéndez; C. Suárez-Burguet

    2003-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate the determinants of maritime and overland transport costs and the role they play in deterring trade across countries. We estimate a transport cost function using data on maritime and overland transport of the ceramic sector (tiles) obtained from interviews held with Spanish logistics operators. We also study the relationship between transport costs and trade and estimate an import demand model for ceramic products. Additionally, we present a discussion on the se...

  4. Geographical Indications and the Trade Related Property Rights Agreement: A Case Study of Basmati Rice Exports

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    The recent controversy over the granting of patenting rights to three new strains of Basmati rice by the US Patent and Trademark Office is used as a case study to analyze the impact of incomplete protection of intellectual property. Results suggest that there is evidence that the introduction of a competing product that may infringe on India's geographical indicator has harmed Indian producers in key export markets.

  5. The Potential Impact on Farmer Health of Enhanced Export Horticultural Trade between the U.K. and Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Cross

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The export of vegetables from African countries to European markets presents consumers with an ethical dilemma: should they support local, but relatively well-off farmers, or poorer farmers from distant countries? This paper considers the issue of farm worker health in the U.K. and Uganda, and considers the dilemma facing U.K. consumers if Uganda achieves their aim of exporting more vegetables to the U.K. Self-reported health scores of 1,200 farm workers in the U.K. and Uganda were measured with the internationally recognised SF-36 questionnaire and compared to an international population norm. The age-corrected health status of U.K. farm workers was significantly lower than the population norm, whereas Ugandans scored significantly higher (indicating good health for physical health and lower for mental health. If Ugandan produce enters U.K. markets, then consumers may wish to consider both the potential benefits that enhanced trade could offer Ugandan farmers compared with its impacts on U.K. workers.

  6. Impact of trade on viability and exporter selection with heterogeneous fixed cost in the Melitz model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chang, H.H.; van Marrewijk, C.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a model aim to reconcile the discrepancy between the theoretical and empirical depiction of the productivity distribution. The Melitz (2003) while being able to reflect on the asymmetric selection of heterogeneous firms in trade, the model strictly truncate the least productive f

  7. Foreign Trade

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Foreign Trade database has monthly volume and value information for US imports, exports, and re-exports of fishery or fishery derived products. Data is...

  8. The informal economy employment impacts of trade liberalization & increased competition in export markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    and privatization processes were implemented at the international level by the WTO's, at regional level by the establishment of free trade agreements between individual states on the southern and eastern Mediterranean rim and the EU [under the Barcelona Process] and by bilateral agreements as the one signed between...... to focus on the impacts of restructuring in the formal textile and clothing sectors (TC) which is the major employer in three Maghrib countries: Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia. The textile and clothing sectors have been particularly exposed to increased competition in foreign and/or domestic markets...

  9. Druzhba feasibility study: Barsukov and Tarasov fields, 1995. Workover procedures. Export trade information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-03

    The study, conducted by NEFT, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency. The report shows the results of a feasibility study conducted for the rehabilitation of oil wells in Baruskov and Tarasov fields. The objectives of the study include a plan for improving well and waterflood performance, and to determine materials and equipment needed. The report also covers capital and operating costs, as well as an evaluation of project economics based on Russian law. This is Volume 3 of the study containing the Workover Procedures for wells in both Barsukov and Tarasov fields.

  10. Druzhba feasibility study: Barsukov and Tarasov fields, 1995. Main report. Export trade information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-03

    The study, conducted by NEFT, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency. The report shows the results of a feasibility study conducted for the rehabilitation of oil wells in Baruskov and Tarasov fields. The objectives of the study include a plan for improving well and waterflood performance, and to determine materials and equipment needed. The report also covers capital and operating costs, as well as an evaluation of project economics based on Russian law. This is Volume 1 of the study containing the Main Report. It is divided into the following sections: (1) Figures; (2) Tables; (3) Economic Tables; (4) Maps; (5) Environmental Safety.

  11. Study on the Interaction between Financial Development and Export Trade%金融发展与出口贸易间的双向影响机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴昊; 冉光和

    2011-01-01

    The paper established two mathematical model to elaborate Interaction between finance and export trade. Financial development Influences export commodity structure through comparative advantage by increasing external financing of the capital - intensive industry. Export trade directly promotes the overall level of financial development. Model shows that Financial system affects the production activity of the entrepreneur by reducing research costs. Conclusion provide theory support for coordinated development between export trade and financial development, also facilitating policy formulation.%建立两个数学模型分析了发展中国家金融发展与出口贸易间的双向影响机制。理论模型显示:金融发展通过影响一国资本密集型出口行业比较优势促进出口结构优化;贸易开放通过增加一国资本、技术密集型行业融资需求,直接推动一国金融发展。研究为金融与出口贸易协调发展提供了理论支持,可为统筹金融与贸易政策的制定提供决策参考。

  12. Econometric Modelling of the Variations of Norway’s Export Trade across Continents and over Time: The Two-Stage Non-Full Rank Hierarchical Linear Econometric Model Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohannes Yebabe Tesfay

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper applies the two-stage hierarchical non-full rank linear econometric model to make a deep analysis based on revenue generated from key Norwegian export items over the world’s continents. The model’s ability to analyse the variation of Norway’s export trade gives us the following interesting details: (1 for each continent intra- and intervariation of export items, (2 access to deep knowledge about the characteristics of the Norway’s export items revenue, (3 quantifying the economic importance and sustainability of export items within continents; and finally (4 comparing a given export item economic importance across continents. The results suggest the following important policy implications for Norway. First, Europe is the most important trade partner for Norway. In fact, 81.5% of Norwegian export items are transported to Europe. Second, there is a structural shift in Norwegian exports from North and Central America to Asia and Oceania. Third, the new importance of Asia and Oceania is also emphasized by the 85% increase in export revenues over the period 1988–2012. The trade pattern has changed and trade policy must change accordingly. The analysis has shown that in 2012 there are two important export continents for Norway: Europe and Asia and Oceania.

  13. Feasibility study for biomass power plants in Thailand. Volume 1. Main report. Export trade information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    This study, conducted by Black & Veatch, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency. The report presents a technical and commercial analysis for the development of three nearly identical electricity generating facilities (biomass steam power plants) in the towns of Chachoengsao, Suphan Buri, and Pichit in Thailand. The Main Report is divided into the following sections: (1.0) Executive Study; (2.0) Project Objectives; (3.0) Review of Combustion Technology for Biomass Fueled Steam Generator Units; (4.0) Conceptual Design; (5.0) Plant Descriptions; (6.0) Plant Operations Staffing; (7.0) Project Schedule; (8.0) Project Cost Estimate; (9.0) Financial Analysis; Appendix - Financial Analysis.

  14. The bilateral trade agreements and export performance of South Asian nations with special reference to India Sri Lanka Free Trade Agreement

    OpenAIRE

    Suhail P; Sreejesh S

    2011-01-01

    The regional trade agreements (RTA) have been one of the important developments in the world trading system in 1990s. There are number of studies on the effects trade agreements in different contexts. This study is an attempt to analyse the effects of bilateral trade agreements in the intraregional trade in the SAARC region with special reference to the Free Trade Agreements (FTA) between India Sri Lanka. The study uses a panel regression analysis by using balance panel data. The study conclu...

  15. Interim report of the interagency coal export task force: draft for public comment. [Trade by country 1960-1979; general forecasting to 1985, 1990 and 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-01-01

    The Interagency Coal Export Task Force was formed in the Spring of 1980 at the direction of the President, in support of the international efforts of the United States, encouraging the use of coal. Its purpose was to report on possible courses of action to increase United States steam coal exports in a manner consistent with other national policies, including our commitment to environmental protection. The Task Force assembled existing data, developed significant new information regarding the international coal market and undertook analyses of apparent problems underlying coal exports. The Task Force contributed to a public awareness of the fact that increased coal exports will serve both the domestic and international interests of the United States. Based upon extensive, independent field studies in Europe and the Far East, the Task Force concludes that there will be significant growth in world demand for steam coal. Such growth has already begun, has contributed to the almost seven-fold increase in United States overseas steam coal exports for 1990 over 1979, and is expected to continue beyond the end of this century. The growth in world steam coal trade projected in the report does not guarantee United States coal exporters a large or expanding share of the market. The United States' role depends on the buying strategies of the consuming countries, the policies and prices of competing exporters, and the actions taken by the United States to maintain reasonable prices, prompt delivery and dependable quality. Projections of United States steam coal exports, therefore, rest upon a number of highly uncertain factors which are discussed in some detail.

  16. Trade integration and trade imbalances in the European Union: a network perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Krings, Gautier M; Delvenne, Jean-Charles

    2013-01-01

    We study the ever more integrated and ever more unbalanced trade relationships between European countries. To better capture the complexity of economic networks, we propose two global measures that assess the trade integration and the trade imbalances of the European countries. These measures are the network (or indirect) counterparts to traditional (or direct) measures such as the trade-to-GDP (Gross Domestic Product) and trade deficit-to-GDP ratios. Our indirect tools account for the European inter-country trade structure and follow (i) a decomposition of the global trade flow into elementary flows that highlight the long-range dependencies between exporting and importing economies and (ii) the commute-time distance for trade integration,which measures the impact of a perturbation in the economy of a country on another country, possibly through intermediate partners by domino effect. Our application addresses the impact of the launch of the Euro. We find that the indirect imbalance measures better identify ...

  17. 河南省出口贸易环境效应研究%Study on the Environment Effect of Henan's Export Trade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨雪; 雎永文; 王菲; 刘丹青

    2011-01-01

    This paper used the data of 37 industrial export trade and carbon emission during 2000-2008 to study the effect of Henan's export trade on the environment,including structural effect,technique effect,and scale effect.The paper concludes as follows: firstly,at present,the structural effect of Henan's export trade is negative,the industrial structure of Henan's export should be optimized;Secondly,trade enabled Henan to obtain the best pollution abatement technology,which dropped the density of carbon emissions,technique effect reduces the emission of pollution and improve the environment;finally,the scale effect is negative because of the expanding of export scale,the negative accumulation of structural effect and scale effect is far more than the positive effect of technology,so the total effect of export trade on the environment is negative.%笔者采用2000—2008年河南省37个行业出口和碳排放数据,就贸易自由化对河南省出口行业碳排放的结构效应、技术效应和规模效应进行了研究。结果表明:首先,目前河南省出口对环境的结构效应为负,需继续优化出口产业结构;其次,贸易促进了河南省环保技术的进步,导致碳排放密度减少,由此产生的技术效应减少了污染排放,改善了环境;最后,出口规模扩大产生的规模效应为负,规模效应和结构效应的积累负效应远远超过了正的技术效应,所以贸易对环境的总效应为负。

  18. The Customs Regulation of Export-Import Operations in the Context of the Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Area between Ukraine and the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuzmin Oleh Ye.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The article is concerned with the problems of reforming the customs regulation of export-import operations in the context of the Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Area between Ukraine and the EU. Both the goods and the territorial structures of Ukraine’s export-import activities with the EU Member States were analyzed. Trends in the cooperation of the foreign economic actors in the Lviv region with the EU counterparts were explored. The key activities carried out in Ukraine in the sphere of customs regulation in the context of implementation of the Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Area between Ukraine and the EU have been outlined and characterized, in particular: administration of tariff quotas, issuance of certificates by the customs authorities for the transport of EUR 1 goods, granting of the status of authorized exporter to economic entities, launching of an automated system of customs services «One-stop window», transition to electronic declaration, etc. The results, problematic issues and benefits of implementing the above activities in the sphere of customs regulation of the export-import activities of enterprises have been characterized.

  19. 中国茶叶出口贸易现状及对策研究%Status quo and Countermeasures of Tea Export Trade of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桂燕玲

    2015-01-01

    分析了中国茶叶出口的总体状况,包括出口规模、出口地区和国家、产品结构等,探讨了影响茶叶出口的综合原因,深入分析了未来我国茶叶国际贸易发展趋势。针对世界政治与经济形势发生深刻转变的形势,以及“一带一路”国家战略的实施,提出了中国茶叶国际贸易新的思路与对策。%The research analyzed status quo of Chinese tea export, including export scale, exporting countries and regions, product structure, explored factors affecting tea export, and detailed international trade development of Chinese teas. On basis of global politics and economic situations, the research proposed new thoughts and countermeasures of global trades of Chinese teas with application of the Belt and Road lnitiative strategy.

  20. The bilateral trade agreements and export performance of South Asian nations with special reference to India Sri Lanka Free Trade Agreement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhail P

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The regional trade agreements (RTA have been one of the important developments in the world trading system in 1990s. There are number of studies on the effects trade agreements in different contexts. This study is an attempt to analyse the effects of bilateral trade agreements in the intraregional trade in the SAARC region with special reference to the Free Trade Agreements (FTA between India Sri Lanka. The study uses a panel regression analysis by using balance panel data. The study concludes that the FTA between India and Sri Lanka has brought positive results in the trade between these two nations by improving the bilateral trade in goods. The results of the study are important in the context of looking for the prospects of a free trade area in the region by member nations.

  1. 绿色贸易壁垒对我国服装出口的影响%Effect of Green Trade Barrier on China's Clothing Exports

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高翔宇

    2015-01-01

    世界贸易自由化的发展进程中,随着传统贸易壁垒的逐渐弱化,绿色贸易壁垒正在迅速成为一种新的非关税壁垒。服装产业是我国一大产业。纺织服装一直是我国非常重要而且多变的市场。我国的服装出口量每年位居世界第一,这是符合我国的国情,满足国际市场对中低挡服装的需求和适应国际市场的需求。但由于绿色服装的意识和能力比较脆弱,致使出口屡屡受阻于发达国家的绿色贸易壁垒。本文分析了我国服装出口的现状,我国服装出口遭遇绿色壁垒的原因,以及绿色壁垒对我国服装出口影响,最后对我国服装出口应对绿色壁垒提出相应的对策。%In the development process of world trade liberalization, with the gradual weakening of the traditional barriers to trade, green trade barriers are rapidly becoming a new kind of non-tariff barriers. Garment industry is a big industry in China. Textile and clothing is very important and changing market to China. China's clothing export volume ranked first in the world each year, which is in line with China's national conditions, meets the international market demand for clothing in the low and medium block and adapts to the needs of the international market. However, because the awareness and ability of green clothing is relatively weak, export has been hampered by green trade barriers in developed countries. This paper analyzes the current situation of China's garment exports, the reasons for green barriers of China's garment exports and the effect of green barriers on China's garment exports, and at last it proposes appropriate countermeasures.

  2. The Analysis of Change Characters in Fujian Eel Product Export Trade%福建鳗鱼制品出口贸易变动特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑思宁; 孙骏; 戴晓霞; 蔡贤恩

    2012-01-01

    The paper analyzed the change of export value, export structure and export price of river eel product by using trade data from 1997 to 2010 on Fujian export statistics and FAOSTAT-Fisheries. The results showed that eel product export in Fujian played an important role in international market, and export value has shown downward trend in resent ten years, but had a large increase in 2010. The export market was highly concentrated in Japanese market, but the market concentration has been decreasing during recent years. There was strong relationship between Fujian export price and the international market price, and the supply and demand of this product in international market was in balance. Moreover, there was no product differentiation in international market. At last, according to the analysis, the policy recommendation was proposed to promote Fujian eel product export, such as opening up new market, strengthening the inspection and quarantine measures, acquiring international market pricing and marking strategy of product differentiation .%利用福建鳗鱼制品出口贸易数据和FAO渔业统计数据,分析1997-2010年福建鳗鱼制品出口贸易额、出口结构以及出口价格变动.结果表明:福建该类产品在国际市场中占据重要地位,其出口额在近10年呈现下降趋势,但2010年有较大的提升;出口市场高度集中于日本市场,但近些年集中度有所下降;福建鳗鱼制品的出口价格和该类产品的国际市场价格存在很强的相关关系,该产品国际市场供需基本平衡,不存在产品差异性.最后,根据以上分析,提出了开拓新兴市场、加强检验检疫措施、获得国际市场定价权以及产品差异性的营销策略等政策建议.

  3. Exports to Imports

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    China covers ground as it attempts to balance imports and exports after a trade deficit in the first quarter As China gears up to rebalance its economy,a key factor will be weaning its reliance on exports.The vigorous efforts are paying off as the country reported a trade deficit in the first

  4. The Value-added Content of Trade:New Insights for the US-China Imbalance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Robert Johnson; Guillermo Noguera

    2011-01-01

    @@ Trade in intermediate inputs accounts for roughly two-thirds of international trade.This input trade reflects the increasing fragmentation of production processes across borders.It also creates two distinct challenges for measuring international interdependence. First, conventional gross trade statistics tally the gross value of goods at each border crossing, rather than the net value added between border crossings. This well-known "double-counting" problem means that conventional data overstate the domestic value-added content of exports.Using input-output tables for individual G7 countries, existing estimates suggest that the import content of exports is 20%-30% and rising over time.Estimates for countries heavily engaged in processing trade (e.g.China) are on the order of 50%.

  5. My Humble Opinion on China's Export and the Trade Environment%我国出口贸易与环境之管见

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安士婧

    2012-01-01

    The opening up of China has entered into a new phase with enormous changes in import and export trade and in the two-way investment status and function. Along with the acceleration of globalization, the economic environment protection waves are surging, import and export trade and environmental problems are attracting more attention from economic organizations and governments in the world. Es- pecially the green barrier and trade protectionism, to some extent, res~ct China's export trade development. We must adapt to the new cir- cumstance and create new ideas for export trade and economy to shape the new expert structure. Meanwhile, formulate and improve do- mestic environmental protection regulations and laws to integrate with the international environmental conventions and ensure sustainable and profound expert development.%我国对外开放已进入新阶段,进出口贸易、双向投资的地位和作用发生了深刻变化。伴随着世界经济一体化进程的加快,全球经济环境保护浪潮涌动,进出口贸易与环境问题越来越受到世界经济组织和各国政府的关注。尤其是绿色壁垒和贸易保护主义作崇,不同程度的制约了我国出口贸易的顺利发展。我们必须适应新形势,创新对外经贸的新思路,形成我国出口贸易的新格局。要制定和完善我国的环境保护法规。实现与国际环境法规的惯例接轨,保障我国出口贸易持续、深化发展。

  6. Recognition and ranking of customer financing methods in international trade: An approach to customers’ satisfaction in the Export Development Bank of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Heidari

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important events in the present era is the rapid development of international trade and the presence of countries in different areas of international trade. This issue has posed various new challenges for countries in recent years. Management of these challenges has mostly been done with the intention to achieve two objectives of economic development and promotion to different areas of international economics and global trade. Nowadays, getting customers’ satisfaction is one of the most important principles in the competition among customer-oriented organizations because customers are the main motive for commercial organizations which seek major improvements for progress. Therefore, in this kind of market-based economy, banking system which is thought as one of the main constituents of the economy of every country and bears great responsibilities is not an exception to the above-mentioned principle. The purpose of this study was recognizing and ranking of customer’s financing methods in international trade with an approach to customers’ satisfaction. To achieve this purpose, the research questions were tested in a descriptive method of survey type. The statistical population of this study consisted of all the staff working in all branches of the Export Development Bank of Iran. The sample of the study which was selected according to cluster random sampling method consisted of 217 staff of the Export Development Bank. The data gathering instrument for this study was a questionnaire including 16 questions with a reliability of 0.85. According to the findings, the indexes of open account, prepayment, letter of credit, and documentary collection are considered as customer financing methods in international trade. Based on the ranking presented by the method of TOPSIS, open account and prepayment had the respective higher ranks at the traditional payment system and letter of credit and documentary collection took priority over

  7. La inversión extranjera directa, las exportaciones, el producto interno bruto y el mercado laboral en Puerto Rico Foreign direct investment, exports, Gross Domestic Product and the labor market in Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel L. Ruiz Mercado

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se utiliza un modelo de vectores autorregresivos (VAR para examinar la interrelación entre la entrada de flujos de inversión extranjera directa (EFIED, las exportaciones, el producto interno bruto (PIB, la tasa de desempleo (TD y la tasa de participación laboral (TPL en Puerto Rico. Los datos utilizados incluyen los años fisca- les de 1980 al 2010. Se encontraron cuatro vectores cointegrados en el sistema, que evidencian la existencia de una relación de largo plazo entre las variables. Los hallazgos sugieren que aumentos consecutivos en la EFIED podrían reducir significativamente la TD e incrementar el interés de los puertorriqueños por ingresar en la fuerza laboral. El mismo resultado se refleja con relación a los incrementos en el nivel de exportaciones. Las variaciones en el PIB se explican principalmente en el largo plazo por la TD.In this paper, a vector autorregresive model (VAR is applied to examine the interrelationship among foreign direct investment, exports, Gross Domestic Product (GDP, unemployment rate and labor force participation rate in Puerto Rico, taking into account a time period that includes the fiscal years from 1980 to 2010.  Four cointegrating vectors were found in the system which indicates that there is a long run relationship between the variables. The findings suggest that consecutive increases in foreign direct investment inflows could significantly reduce the unemployment rate and increase interest in joining the labor force in Puerto Rico.  The same result also applies to increases in export levels.  The variations in Gross Domestic Product are mainly explained in the long run by the unemployment rate.

  8. 中韩牡蛎贸易变动趋势研究%Changing tendency of import and export trade for oyster of China and Republic of Korea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁浩; 刘邦海; 慕永通

    2016-01-01

    论文旨在从进出口量、额和均价的角度,理清中、韩牡蛎进出口贸易的变动趋势。研究结果显示:1992-2011年,中国牡蛎进口贸易前期(1992-2006)波动上升,其后下降(2006-2008)再上升(2008-2011),进口价格震荡上升;1984-2011年,出口贸易在2000-2005年呈现明显高峰,出口价格有波动,但1998-2007年长期处于低谷;1976-2011年,韩国牡蛎进口贸易1993年开始急速上升,至1997年达到峰值,1998年又急速下降,其他时间虽有波动但相对稳定;出口贸易以2000年为界,此前波动上升,其后波动下降;牡蛎出口价格呈现上升(1984-1995)下降(1995-2002)再回升(2002-2011)的变动趋势;两国牡蛎进出口贸易自2008年前后均有上升迹象。%this paper introduces the changing tendency of import and export trade for oyster of China and Republic of Korea from the aspects of quantity ,amount and average price .The result indicates that the import trade for oyster of China appeared fluctuant increasing trend from 1992 to 2006 ,then decreasing before 2008 and rising up again after that , the import price of oyster increased on the w hole .During 1984 to 2011 ,the export trade presented obvious peak in 2000-2005 ,the export price kept fluctuate except the long -term lower level during 1998 to 2007 .In 1993 the import trade for oyster of South Korea began to rise sharply untill arrived the peak in 1997 ,then fell sharply in 1998 , during other time between 1976-2011 ,it kept fluctuate but relatively stable ,the export trade rose be‐fore 2000 ,followed by falling ,the changing tendency of export prices was also fluctuate .The import and export trade for oyster of both countries showed the sign of recovery since 2008 .

  9. Multiple Factors Analysis of Export Trade in Liaoning Province%辽宁省出口贸易的多因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐红明; 孔子悦; 郝思婷; 史丹妮

    2015-01-01

    In order to better development of export trade in Liaoning province, using econometric measurement method and E-views software, for exports and GDP of Liaoning province, Liaoning province, the RMB exchange rate ( average per person per year, the dollar) , the consumer price index, the town of new fixed assets by regression analysis, and the model of time series stationarity, multicollinearity test, heteroscedasticity and autocorrelation. It is concluded that the final model, analysis shows that the consumer price index, the RMB exchange rate to the product export has a high correlation, followed by GDP, town of new fixed assets also impact on export trade in Liaoning.%为了更好的发展辽宁省出口贸易,运用计量经济学的计量方法以及E-views软件,对辽宁省出口额、辽宁省地区生产总值、人民币汇率(人均年平均数,对美元)、居民消费价格指数、城镇新增固定资产进行回归分析,并且对模型的时间序列平稳性、多重共线性、异方差以及自相关进行检验。得出最终模型,分析表明居民消费价格指数、人民币汇率对产品出口具有很高的相关性,其次是地区生产总值,城镇新增固定资产也对辽宁出口贸易产生影响。

  10. Model Estimates Of Gross Domestic Product In Relation to Export And Import Of Fuels, Focused on the Elasticity and Determination Of Directly and Indirectly Associated Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Săvoiu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is based on several interrogative assumptions related to the positive impact of the crises and the recession on determinations in the econometric models of Romania’s GDP as a variable dependent in relation to the export and import of fuels. After a short introductory section, which details, in a relative manner, the overall goal and the objectives of the paper, a first section makes use of elasticity and the modern solutions of building the coefficient of elasticity, proposing an original alternative to existing variants, and afterwards the next section builds on these statistical tools in the econometric modeling of Romania’s GDP, starting from the ratios and value indicators and offering a few original models where the export and import of fuels are the key initial explanatory factors. The final remarks reinterpret the role of the energy resources, as well as that of the related flows, in enhancing statistical connections, and especially the role of crises and recessions in validating econometric models, by raising their degree of predictability.

  11. To China's Foreign Trade magazine for her 50th anniversary & the Organizers of the 100th Session of the Chinese Export Commodities Fair:

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Robert Goldberg

    2006-01-01

    @@ On behalf of the United States of America,U.S.Ambassador Clark T.Randt,Jr.and the American Embassy in Beijing and for the U.S.Consulate General in Guangzhou,I am pleased to extend congratulations on the occasion of the 50th anniversary of China's Foreign Trade magazine and the 100th Session of the Chinese Export Commodities Fair.Fifty years have passed since the 1st Session of the Trade Fair and the changes have been significant,but the intent - providing China with an opportunity to exhibit its increasingly sophisticated wares and an appreciative global market - remains the same.Moreover,during this time,China has moved from a command economy guided by administrative decree to one which is largely market-oriented and is now the fourth-largest economy in the world.This is a tremendous achievement.

  12. 外部融资依赖、金融发展与出口贸易增长%External Financing Dependence, Financial Development and Export Trade Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾璐璐

    2015-01-01

    基于2001—2012年中国29个省区的面板数据,分析在不同的外部融资依赖度条件下两种主要的外源性资金(银行信贷和外商直接投资)对地区出口贸易产生的影响,研究结果显示:银行信贷和外商直接投资是影响地区出口贸易的显著因素,且外商直接投资对出口贸易的作用效果更强;外部融资依赖特征不同的地区,不同融资渠道对出口贸易产生的影响也不一样;在外资依赖度较高(大于0.07%)的地区较高的信贷密度(大于0.35%)更有利于出口增长,而在外资依赖度较低的地区需要寻找适宜的信贷密度与之相匹配;在外资密度较高(大于1.64%)的地区信贷依赖有利于出口增长,而在外资密度较低的地区信贷依赖会给出口带来不利影响。%Based on the panel data of 29 Chinese provinces and municipalities during 2001⁃2012, this paper analyzes the influence of two main external capitals (“bank credit” and “Foreign Direct Investment”) on regional export trade under the different external financing dependence conditions, and the research results show that the significant factor affecting regional export trade is bank credit and FDI, furthermore, the effect of FDI on export trade is stronger, that the impact of the different regions and the different channels with the different features of external financing dependence on export trade is different, that the high credit density ( more than 0.35%) in the regions with high foreign capital dependence ( more than 0.07%) is more helpful for the export growth, however, the suitable credit density should be sought to match the regions with low foreign capital dependence, that the credit dependence of the regions with high foreign capital density (1.64%) is conducive to the export growth, however, the credit dependence in the regions with low foreign capital density can bring the adverse impact on the export.

  13. An Econometric Study of Economic Growth, Energy and Exports in Mauritius: Implications for Trade and Climate Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riad Sultan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available While electricity from fossil fuels is among a major source of greenhouse gases and global warming, it is also a key resource in the industrial sector geared towards exports and economic growth. This study attempts to examine the export-GDP nexus and electricity-GDP nexus in addition to a supplementary hypothesis between exports and electricity in Mauritius for the period of 1970-2009. An augmented neo-classical aggregate production model is used. The ARDL bounds test and the Johansen cointegration test confirm the existence of a long-run relationship between these variables. The multivariate Granger-causality analysis indicates that electricity and exports Granger-cause economic growth in the long-run. Electricity remains a significant causal variable in the short-run and is also found to lead exports. The empirical findings suggest that conserving electricity as a climate policy may not be conducive for exports and economic growth. The use of renewable sources for electricity may be the right option.

  14. 2011年中国原油进出口贸易回顾%A Review of China’s Crude Oil Export & Import Trade in 2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马俊睿

    2012-01-01

    The article reviews and analyzes China's crude oil export import trade situation in 2011.Its main characteristics were as follows:although import growth rate slowed down,the reliance of crude oil on import enhanced;import amount from important regions and important countries was huge;the rising margin of import unit-price was lower than the rising margin of international oil price and import cost increased;trade approaches were diversified and import management was strict;and export kept reducing.%回顾并分析了2011年中国原油进出口贸易情况,其主要特点为:进口增速虽趋缓,但依存度提高;重点地区和重点国家进口量可观;进口单价涨幅低于国际油价涨幅,进口成本增加;贸易途径多元化,进口管理严格;出口保持下降等。

  15. Henan province agriculture export trade development problem research%河南省农产品出口贸易发展问题研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨丽君

    2012-01-01

    Henan province is the biggest province of grain produce,and also the important province of oil,tobacco and other agricultural products' produce,but Henan is only a small province of agricultural products export trade,we can not help considering all these problems.There are such problems as the control of trade barriers,more and more international agricultural product market competition,the inadaptable the international market demand,the over high concentration degree of export market,the export structure unfailing to give full play to the advantage of Henan and so on.It is great important for the agriculture of foreign exchange by export to research such problems and take measures to resolve it: actively responding to trade barriers,strengthening the quality and safety management and brand building,building a diversified market,playing their own advantages.%河南省是我国第一产粮大省,也是全国油料、烟叶等农产品的重要生产大省,但河南省只是农产品出口小省,这种反差不得不引起我们反思。河南省农产品出口贸易存在诸如贸易壁垒的束缚、国际农产品市场竞争加剧、农产品的生产不能适应出口市场需求、出口市场集中度较高、出口结构未能充分发挥河南优势等多种问题。研究河南省农产品出口贸易存在的问题,进而有针对性的采取措施:积极应对贸易壁垒、加强质量安全管理和品牌建设、构建多元化的市场格局、发挥自身优势等来应对,对促进河南省创汇农业的发展意义重大。

  16. GLOBALIZATION AND GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT CONSTRUCTION IN ASEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Sri Wahyudi Suliswanto

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available There is no more doubt about the importance of economic growth, which can be calculated fromGross Domestic Product (GDP. This research analyzes the role of globalization on GDP inASEAN-5 by estimating panel data. It uses a fixed effect approach to accommodate various characteristicsin the countries. To accommodate such variation, it assumes that the intercepts variesacross these countries, while the slopes remain similar. Based on the estimation result, it suggeststhat net export and foreign direct investment represent the globalization process. Both have positiveand significant influences on GDP in the corresponding countries.Keywords: Globalization, international trade, foreign direct investment, gross domestic productJEL classification numbers: E01, F51, F43

  17. Growing Exports by Signaling Product Quality: Trade Competition and the Cross-National Diffusion of ISO 9000 Quality Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xun; Prakash, Aseem

    2011-01-01

    Trade policy is an important topic in global public policy. It is recognized that trade is hampered when buyers have incomplete information about the offered products, a problem accentuated in the international markets by the physical and cultural distances between buyers and sellers. Buyers look for proxies to assess product quality, and…

  18. Growing Exports by Signaling Product Quality: Trade Competition and the Cross-National Diffusion of ISO 9000 Quality Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xun; Prakash, Aseem

    2011-01-01

    Trade policy is an important topic in global public policy. It is recognized that trade is hampered when buyers have incomplete information about the offered products, a problem accentuated in the international markets by the physical and cultural distances between buyers and sellers. Buyers look for proxies to assess product quality, and…

  19. 中国机电产品出口贸易安全问题及应对策略研究%Research on the Safety Problem of Export Trade in China Electromechanical Products and Its Adaptive Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左红艳; 刘慧

    2015-01-01

    Starting from the present situation of export trade in china electromechanical products;this paper analyzes characteristic,trend and gergraphic structure of export trade in china electromechanical products,points out it must be faced up to the safety problem of export trade in china electromechanical products.And some coping strategies are given in the paper.%从中国机电产品出口贸易现状出发,分析中国机电产品出口贸易的特点、动态、区域结构,指出应该正视中国机电产品出口贸易安全问题,并提出相应的应对策略。

  20. 湖南农产品出口贸易结构现状及其优化对策研究%On Situation of Hunan's Agricultural Product Export Trade Structure and Optimized Countermeasure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖黎; 邓旭霞

    2012-01-01

    湖南是个农业大省,但湖南农产品出口贸易与之很不相称,其年农产品出口总值占全国农产品出口总值的比重极低,只有1%左右,关键原因是湖南农产品出口贸易结构不合理。解决对策就是要调整优化农产品出口贸易结构:实施市场多元化战略,加强农业产业化基地和深加工基地建设,生产具有出口竞争优势的特色产品,支持和引导农产品出口企业发展自有品牌,强化农产品质量安全管理,创新扩大农产品出口贸易结构优化的政策支持体系等。%Hunan is a major agricultural province.But the Hunan export trade of agricultural products is not proportionate to the annual agricultural exports,accounted for very low share of agricultural exports,only around 1%,the key reason is the irrational structure of Hunan agricultural export trade.Solution is to adjust agricultural export trade structure: Implementing the strategy of market diversification,strengthening the construction of agricultural industrialization base and processing bases,production featured product export competitive advantages,support and guide development of own-brand agricultural products export enterprises,strengthening of agricultural product quality safety management,innovation policy to expand agricultural export trade structure optimization support system.

  1. 15 CFR 752.15 - Export clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export clearance. 752.15 Section 752.15 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU... COMPREHENSIVE LICENSE § 752.15 Export clearance. (a) Shipper's Export Declaration (SED) or Automated...

  2. Water Footprint and Virtual Water Trade of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente de Paulo R. da Silva

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater scarcity has increased at an alarming rate worldwide; improved water management plays a vital role in increasing food production and security. This study aims to determine the water footprint of Brazil’s national food consumption, the virtual water flows associated with international trade in the main agricultural commodities, as well as water scarcity, water self-sufficiency and water dependency per Brazilian region. While previous country studies on water footprints and virtual water trade focused on virtual water importers or water-scarce countries, this is the first study to concentrate on a water-abundant virtual water-exporting country. Besides, it is the first study establishing international virtual water trade balances per state, which is relevant given the fact that water scarcity varies across states within the country, so the origin of virtual water exports matters. The results show that the average water footprint of Brazilian food consumption is 1619 m3/person/year. Beef contributes most (21% to this total. We find a net virtual water export of 54.8 billion m3/year, mainly to Europe, which imports 41% of the gross amount of the virtual water exported from Brazil. The northeast, the region with the highest water scarcity, has a net import of virtual water. The southeast, next in terms of water scarcity, shows large virtual water exports, mainly related to the export of sugar. The north, which has the most water, does not show a high virtual water export rate.

  3. Research on Influence Factors of Export Trade Competitiveness for Chinese Sports Goods%我国体育用品出口贸易竞争力影响因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王兆红; 钟华梅

    2014-01-01

    利用回归分析法定量分析我国2009年至2012年体育用品出口贸易竞争力的影响因素。研究结果表明:我国体育用品制造业出口具有极强的比较优势;在八类体育用品的出口贸易中,运动用球类器材器械的出口贸易竞争力比较优势较弱;体育用品制造业总产值与体育用品出口竞争力呈显著负相关;汇率与体育用品出口竞争力正相关,但不具有显著性;出口退税与体育用品出口竞争力呈显著正相关;贸易差额与体育用品出口竞争力呈显著正相关。%Regression analysis method was employed to analyze the influence factors of export trade competitiveness of Chinese sports goods from 2009 to 2012 .The results showed that the outlet had extremely strong comparative advantages of Chinese sporting goods manufacturing industry .In eight kinds of sports goods in export trade ,sports equipment instrument export competitiveness was comparative advantage .Sporting goods manufacturing industry output value and sporting goods export competitiveness had signifi-cant negative correlation .Exchange rate and sports products export competitiveness was related ,but not significantly .Export tax rebates and sporting goods export competitiveness had significant positive correlation .Balance of trade and sports goods export com-petitiveness had significant positive correlation .

  4. Demand Uncertainty: Exporting Delays and Exporting Failures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Daniel Xuyen

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a model of trade that explains why firms wait to export and why many exporters fail. Firms face uncertain demands that are only realized after the firm enters the destination. The model retools the timing of the resolution of uncertainty found in models with heterogeneity...... to forecast unknown demands in untested destinations. The option to forecast demands causes firms to delay exporting in order to gather more information about foreign demand. Third, since uncertainty is resolved after entry, many firms enter a destination and then exit after learning that they cannot profit....... This prediction reconciles the high rate of exit seen in the first years of exporting. Finally, when faced with multiple destinations to which they can export, many firms will choose to sequentially export in order to slowly learn more about its chances for success in untested markets....

  5. 中俄两国进出口食品近年来的贸易概况及通报情况%Trade and notification situation on food import and export between China and Russia in recent years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂雪梅; 李立; 孙利; 高飞

    2013-01-01

    Since Russia entered into the world trade organization (WTO) in December 2011, Russian reg-ulations have gradually been geared to international conventions. This would help China to expand its food export trade to Russia, and provide a broader market for Chinese food export trade . This article analyzed the food import-export trade situation between China and Russia in 2007~2011, and described Russian food notifi-cation status from the EU and China. It could help China to face up to the current trade status between China and Russia, and to provide reference for food export trade to Russia, which would contribute to the Si-no-Russian trade development.%  俄罗斯自2011年12月加入世界贸易组织后,其各项法规政策正逐步与国际接轨,这必将更有利于中国扩大对俄罗斯的食品出口贸易,为我国食品的出口贸易提供一个更加广阔的市场。本文对2007~2011年中俄两国的食品进出口贸易情况进行了简要分析,并对欧盟和我国对俄罗斯的食品通报情况进行了阐述,这将有助于我国正视中俄两国贸易现状,为对俄食品出口贸易提供借鉴,促进中俄贸易正常发展。

  6. Influences of Green Trade Barrier to Apple Export of Shandong Province and Countermeasures%绿色贸易壁垒对山东苹果出口的影响及对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王春华; 杨芳雪

    2015-01-01

    The apple export of China was heavily affected by green trade barrier.Shandong as the largest apple export province suffered the most limitation and the most serious harm.According to the current situation of apple export of Shandong Province,the influences of green trade barrier to apple export were analyzed.And several practical countermeasures were proposed,such as improving the quality and safety system,reducing the cost of green export,developing the export enterprises with international competitiveness and improving the early warning mechanism and legal system.%我国苹果出口业深受绿色贸易壁垒影响,山东省是我国苹果出口最大的省份,所以受限最多、受害最严重。本文根据山东省苹果出口现状,分析绿色贸易壁垒对山东苹果出口的影响,并提出了完善质量安全保障体系、减少苹果绿色出口成本、发展有国际竞争力的苹果出口企业、完善绿色贸易壁垒的预警机制和法律应对体系等应对策略。

  7. Strong Support for Exporters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ The sweeping international financial crisis has taken its toll on the Chinese economy,especially in the export sector.On the one hand,overseas demand has plummeted,while on the other,with the worsening credit environment and emerging trade protectionism,export enterprises are suffering from rising credit risks to the point where some dare not even accept orders.

  8. Feasibility study for biomass power plants in Thailand. Volume 2. appendix: Detailed financial analysis results. Export trade information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    This study, conducted by Black & Veatch, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency. The report presents a technical and commercial analysis for the development of three nearly identical electricity generating facilities (biomass steam power plants) in the towns of Chachgoengsao, Suphan Buri, and Pichit in Thailand. Volume 2 of the study contains the following appendix: Detailed Financial Analysis Results.

  9. Trade integration and trade imbalances in the European Union: a network perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gautier M Krings

    Full Text Available We study the ever more integrated and ever more unbalanced trade relationships between European countries. To better capture the complexity of economic networks, we propose two global measures that assess the trade integration and the trade imbalances of the European countries. These measures are the network (or indirect counterparts to traditional (or direct measures such as the trade-to-GDP (Gross Domestic Product and trade deficit-to-GDP ratios. Our indirect tools account for the European inter-country trade structure and follow (i a decomposition of the global trade flow into elementary flows that highlight the long-range dependencies between exporting and importing economies and (ii the commute-time distance for trade integration, which measures the impact of a perturbation in the economy of a country on another country, possibly through intermediate partners by domino effect. Our application addresses the impact of the launch of the Euro. We find that the indirect imbalance measures better identify the countries ultimately bearing deficits and surpluses, by neutralizing the impact of trade transit countries, such as the Netherlands. Among others, we find that ultimate surpluses of Germany are quite concentrated in only three partners. We also show that for some countries, the direct and indirect measures of trade integration diverge, thereby revealing that these countries (e.g. Greece and Portugal trade to a smaller extent with countries considered as central in the European Union network.

  10. Trade integration and trade imbalances in the European Union: a network perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krings, Gautier M; Carpantier, Jean-François; Delvenne, Jean-Charles

    2014-01-01

    We study the ever more integrated and ever more unbalanced trade relationships between European countries. To better capture the complexity of economic networks, we propose two global measures that assess the trade integration and the trade imbalances of the European countries. These measures are the network (or indirect) counterparts to traditional (or direct) measures such as the trade-to-GDP (Gross Domestic Product) and trade deficit-to-GDP ratios. Our indirect tools account for the European inter-country trade structure and follow (i) a decomposition of the global trade flow into elementary flows that highlight the long-range dependencies between exporting and importing economies and (ii) the commute-time distance for trade integration, which measures the impact of a perturbation in the economy of a country on another country, possibly through intermediate partners by domino effect. Our application addresses the impact of the launch of the Euro. We find that the indirect imbalance measures better identify the countries ultimately bearing deficits and surpluses, by neutralizing the impact of trade transit countries, such as the Netherlands. Among others, we find that ultimate surpluses of Germany are quite concentrated in only three partners. We also show that for some countries, the direct and indirect measures of trade integration diverge, thereby revealing that these countries (e.g. Greece and Portugal) trade to a smaller extent with countries considered as central in the European Union network.

  11. Influence and Countermeasures of Foreign Technical Barriers to Export Trade of Zhejiang%国外技术性贸易措施对浙江出口的影响与对策研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜鹰; 潘洋; 朱培武

    2011-01-01

    近年来,浙江出口贸易受国际技术性贸易措施的影响呈较快增长.2005~ 2009年间,全省年均有36.9%的出口企业不同程度地受其影响,年均出口贸易直接损失额高达25 76亿美元,占年平均贸易出口总额的2 2%在重点分析了浙江机电和纺织服装等大宗优势出口产业遭受技术性贸易措施的影响的基础上,建议相关部门加强研究、建立应对示范区,加快重点产业转型升级等,提升浙江应对技术性贸易措施的能力.%In recent years, Zhejiang has experienced more and more technical barriers on export trade. During 2005 -2009, 36. 9 percent annual year of the export enterprises has different affected, with an annual direct export trade loss 25. 76 billion US dollars, up to an average annual trade exports value 2. 2%. The paper analyzed the technical harriers to trade on export of Zhejiang mechanical and electrical, textile clothing and other large sums of advantage industries. It suggested that some relevant departments should strengthen the research, establish the demonstration zone, and accelerate the transformation and upgrading of key industries, to lift Zhejiang to cope with ability of technical barriers to trade.

  12. 现代物流业对进出口贸易影响的实证研究%Empirical Study on Influence of Logistics on Import and Export Trade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金芳芳

    2012-01-01

    In order to verify the impact of modern logistics on import & export trade, the relevant data in 1986 -2009 of Zhejiang turnover volume of freight traffic and import & export is applied to carry out regressions. Then, flexibility model is used to analyze the contribution ratio of logistics to the import & export trade. The result shows that; the development of lo-gistics positively promotes the import & export trade; the 1% increase of logistics would mean that the trade amount of im-port and export will increase 2. 90% in Zhejiang. Finally, some suggestions for developing modern logistics to promoting foreign trade are put forward.%基于浙江省1986-2009年货物周转量与进出口贸易的相关数据进行回归分析,以验证现代物流业对进出口贸易是否有影响.接着,根据弹性理论建立计算模型,定量测算物流产业对进出口贸易增长的促进程度.结果表明:物流业发展对进出口贸易增长具有显著的促进作用;就浙江而言,物流业发展水平每提高1%,进出口贸易额平均提高2.90%;物流发展对进出口贸易的促进程度随时间变化有所差异.最后,提出若干建议.

  13. Composition of Exports and Export Performance of Eurozone Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wierts, Peter; Van Kerkhoff, Henk; De Haan, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates to what extent the composition of exports is related to the export performance of eurozone countries using a data set on exports from the oldest eurozone countries to their top 20 trade partners for the period 1988-2009. The results suggest that a higher share of high techn

  14. 人民币升值对我国出口贸易的影响%An Analysis of the Influence of RMB Appreciation on Chinas Export Trade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘新英; 肖蓓

    2012-01-01

    汇率是一个国家进行国际经济活动时最重要的综合性价格指标,它的变动对一国出口贸易有深刻的影响。在人民币汇率不断升值的背景下,为了避免汇率改革的影响,文章选取了2005年7月至2010年6月的月度数据作为研究样本,利用协整检验和回归分析,验证了人民币汇率对我国出口贸易的影响。结果表明,人民币实际有效汇率与我国出口贸易存在正相关性,这一结果也与我国的出口退税政策以及我国的贸易结构等很多因素有很大的关联,并且,在以上分析的基础上提出了可行性的建议。%As an important comprehensive price index in the international economic activities, fluctuations of exchange rate have profound effect on a country' s export. Owing to the appreciation of RMB and in order to avoid the influence of exchange rate reform, we choose the monthly data of RMB from July 2005 to June 2010, and we are to use the co-integration test as well as the regression analysis to verify the influence of RMB exchange rate on China' s export. The result shows that the real effective exchange rate is positively correlated with China' s export. Besides, the result is also highly correlated with China' s export tax refund policy, China' s trade structure and many other factors. Some applicable propositions are submitted based on the analysis.

  15. 中国出口贸易中的隐含碳估算%Embodied Carbon Emission in China' s Export Trade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘帅; 邱晓苓

    2011-01-01

    本文基于长期动态视角,引入资本折旧最终也将转化为碳排放的概念,通过调整系数去除进口中间产品的影响,利用投入产出分析方法测算了2000—2009年中国对外贸易出口产品中的隐含碳。研究结果表明,加入世界贸易组织以来,中国出口产品中包含的碳排放占中国国内碳排放总量的比重从2000年的27%上升到2006年的43%,于2007年开始下降,2009年回落到32%。2000--2009年,出口碳排放量占国内总排放量的36%。中国出口产业仍然处于环境库兹涅茨曲线的上升阶段,除机械行业外,其他主要出口行业的单位能耗已经有非常大的降低。%Based on long-term dynamic perspective, by introducing the concept that capital depreciation will eventually translate into carbon emission, and removing the impact of imports of intermediate products through the adjustment factor, this paper uses the input-output analysis to estimate the embodied carbon in Chinese export goods between 2000 and 2009. Results of this study show that since the accession to the World Trade Organization, embodied carbon emissions in China' s exports increased from 27% of the total emission in 2000 to 43% in 2006, when it is a summit, and dropped to 32% in 2009. The total embodied carbon emission between 2000 and 2009 accounted for 36%. China' s export industry is still in the fast upswing on the environment Kuznets curve. Unit production capacity of energy consumption in China' S export industries, except the machine industry, experienced great improvement.

  16. Trade Advantages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mei Xinyu

    2012-01-01

    As the world's largest trading nation,its largest exporter and second largest importer,China wields extensive influence on global trade and the world economy,China's advantages of course lie not only in the stable foreign trade policy decided by the recently held Central Economic Work Conference,but also in the strength and resilience of a broadbased and fast-growing economy.

  17. Analysis on the Problems and Countermeasures of Chinese Walnut Import and Export Trade%中国核桃进出口贸易问题与对策研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任欢; 马惠兰; 唐洪松

    2015-01-01

    Based on the Chinese walnut import and export trade data from from 2003 to 2013, from on total import and export, import and export volume, import and export price and import and export trade, direction and other aspects, analyzed the Chinese walnut import and export market variation characteristics and trend. And from the walnut cultivation cost is higher, walnut quality is poor, walnut deep processing products lack, walnut export market is shrinking and so on, in terms of these analyze the problems of Chinese walnut import and export trade. Then put forward some countermeasures as follows:achieve the walnut large-scale, mechanized production, reduce the production cost;the implementation of scientific management, improve the quality of walnut; the introduction of advanced technology, develop the deep processing products of walnut, walnut industry chain to establish the perfect measures, is good to the Chinese walnut import and export trade market.%利用2003—2013年中国核桃进出口贸易数据,从核桃进出口总量、进出口总额、进出口价格以及进出口贸易方向等方面,分析了中国核桃进出口市场变化特征和趋势。并从核桃种植成本较高、核桃品质较差、核桃深加工产品缺乏、核桃出口市场缩小等方面分析了中国核桃进出口贸易的问题。提出实现核桃规模化、机械化生产,降低生产成本;实行科学规范的生产管理,提升核桃品质;引进先进技术,开发核桃深加工产品,建立完善的核桃产业链等解决措施,有利于中国核桃进出口贸易市场向着良好的方向发展。

  18. 15 CFR 758.1 - The Shipper's Export Declaration (SED) or Automated Export System (AES) record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) or Automated Export System (AES) record. 758.1 Section 758.1 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations... (SED) or Automated Export System (AES) record. (a) The Shipper's Export Declaration (SED) or Automated Export System (AES) record. The SED (Form 7525-V, Form 7525-V-Alt, or Automated Export System record)...

  19. 论非关税贸易壁垒对我国农产品出口的影响及应对措施%On non tariff trade barriers impact on China's exports of agricultural products and measures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张琦

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural products has accounted for a large proportion in our country's export products, the trade of agricultural products has also been a high-profile problem in international trade. With the gradual weakening of the role of traditional tariff barriers, non-tariff barriers to trade have increasingly become the main measure of a country's trade protection. Therefore, it is necessary to influence of non tariff trade barriers on China's agricultural product export trade are analyzed, in order to better take corresponding measures to reduce the loss.%农产品在我国对外出口的产品中一直占有很大的比重,农产品贸易也一直是国际贸易中备受瞩目的问题。随着传统的关税壁垒作用的逐渐弱化,非关税贸易壁垒日益成为一国贸易保护的主要措施。因此,有必要对非关税贸易壁垒对我国农产品出口贸易的影响进行分析,以利于更好的采取相应的措施以减少损失。

  20. Analysis of International Competitiveness of China's Vegetables Export Trade Based on "10+3" FTA Framework%基于“10+3”FTA框架的中国蔬菜国际竞争力分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董莹; 穆月英

    2012-01-01

    The integration of the East Asia region and its regional liberalization are constantly influencing the development of China's vegetable export trade, and make the analysis of China's international competitiveness of vegetable export extremely significant. On analyzing the basic characteristics of China's vegetable export trade, this paper used price comparison within the region, the regional revealed comparative advantages and trade competitiveness index to carry out preliminary analysis. Finally the CMS model is applied to analyze the structural reasons for the changes in comparativeness. The results show that our vegetable export share to Japan and South Korea is declining, while that to ASEAN is continuously rising, but within the international and "10+3" range, the revealed comparative advantage of our vegetable export is weakening. Under "10+3" FTA framework, the demands for our vegetable export still show the trend of sustainable expansion. The export share and amount decline in mainly due to the improper structure of our vegetable export trade commodity.%东亚区域一体化与区域自由化的国际环境在不断影响着中国蔬菜出口贸易的发展,使得对作为世界上蔬菜贸易大国的中国的蔬菜国际竞争力成为分析的重点.本文在分析中国蔬菜出口贸易基本特点的基础上,首先运用区域性价格比较、区域显示性比较优势以及贸易竞争力指数对蔬菜国际竞争力进行初步分析,最后运用CMS模型对蔬菜国际竞争力变动的结构原因进行分解分析.得出主要结论:我国对日本、韩国蔬菜出口份额不断下降,而对东盟蔬菜出口份额持续上升;我国蔬菜出口在国际和“10+3”范围的显示性比较优势存在减弱趋势;“10+3”FTA框架下,我国出口蔬菜需求存在持续扩张趋势,但由于我国出口蔬菜贸易商品结构不当,造成出口份额与出口额的下降.

  1. Public announcement concerning the obligation to procure an export licence under para. 5d of the Foreign Trade Ordinance. As of April 6, 1992. Bekanntmachung ueber die Ausfuhrgenehmigungspflicht gemaess Para. 5d AWV. Vom 6. April 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-08

    The export of goods and documents for the manufacture of goods is subject to licensing if they are intended for the construction or operation of or for assembly in installations serving purposes of nuclear engineering, are destined for or to be purchased by or assembled in Algeria, India, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Lybia, North Korea, Pakistan, South Africa, Syria or Taiwan and if the exporter knows of these circumstances (restriction pursuant to para. 7 sec. 1 of the Foreign Trade Law). (orig./HP).

  2. Analysis of the factors of China's service trade exports in the information technology era%在科技信息时代下对我国服务贸易出口的因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    On the background of the improvement of science and technology,the exports of Service Trade is developing.This paper mainly discusses the influence factors of exports of Service Trade and makes an empirical analysis of these factors with Grey Correlation Analysis and the data used in this paper is from 2008 to 2012.The paper analyses five main factors including the degree of market liberalization、the level of urbanization、the level of service development、FDI and exports of Goods Trade.These factors have effects on the exports of Service Trade.The result of the Grey Correlation Analysis shows that exports of Goods Trade affects more than other influencing factors, then is degree of market liberalization、FDI、the level of service development、the level of urbanization respectively.This will offer some useful strategies to enlarge the exports Service Trade.%  在科技信息时代背景之下,科学技术不断迅猛发展,利用信息技术手段,我国服务贸易出口得到了不断发展。本文分析了科技信息时代下影响中国服务贸易出口的因素,并对这些因素运用灰色关联分析法进行分析,采用2008-2012年的数据,分析了服务市场的开放程度、城市化水平、服务业的发展水平、外商对华的直接投资以及货物贸易出口额等五个影响因素对服务贸易出口影响的大小。最后提出利用科技信息扩大服务贸易出口的相应对策。

  3. POTENTIALS OF EGYPT AGRICULTURAL BILATERAL TRADE WITH THE ARAB COUNTRIES: GRAVITY MODEL EVIDENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ahmed Said

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at evaluating the determinants of agricultural bilateral trade flows of Egypt with the Arab countries. A gravity model has been used in addition to some other indicators such as relative importance of intra-trade, tendency to export and import, and degree of openness. Two models have been estimated; one is for the Egyptian agricultural exports and the other is for the imports. The biggest Arab partners who represent the majority of the Egyptian bilateral trade are; KSA, Syria, Libya, Sudan, Jordan, UAE, Kuwait, Lebanon, and Iraq. The main features of the gravity model have been introduced well. The gross domestic product has a positive impact on both agricultural exports and imports, and the distance between Egypt and the target countries has a negative impact. Both factors are statistically significant. It's recommended that Egypt encourage foreign investment within the agriculture sector and maintain the road transportation with Arab countries.

  4. Druzhba feasibility study: Barsukov and Tarasov fields, 1995. Barsukov and Tarasov production histories western equipment. Export trade information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-03

    The study, conducted by NEFT, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency. The report shows the results of a feasibility study conducted for the rehabilitation of oil wells in Baruskov and Tarasov fields. The objectives of the study include a plan for improving well and waterflood performance, and to determine materials and equipment needed. The report also covers capital and operating costs, as well as an evaluation of project economics based on Russian law. This is Volume 2 of the study containing Production Histories-Western Equipment. It is divided into the following sections: (1) Job Descriptions; (2) Barsukov Histories/Logs; (3) Tarasov Histories/Logs; (4) Taxes Paid by PNG; (5) Vendors Literature; (6) Rigs; (7) Liners; (8) Directional Drilling; (9) Mechanical Perforating; (10) Camps; (11) Pumps; (12) Fishing; (13) Downhole Oil/Water Separator; (14) Plastic.

  5. Effects of trade openness and market scale on different regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Renqu; Yang, Zisheng

    2017-04-01

    This paper revisits the relationship between growth, trade openness and market scale. Empirical studies have provided that area develops lopsided problem in China is increasingly serious, while large trade openness and market scale bring about more economic growth. We use a number of data set from province-level’s gross domestic product and socio-economic, as well as statistical methods panel ordinary least squares and instrumental variables estimation techniques to explore the effects of trade openness and regional market scale on the three major economic regions. The results indicate: Firstly, the impact of market scale and trade openness on economic growth is found to be positive. Secondly, the overall regional disparity is owing to the trade openness, market scale and macroeconomic policies. Thirdly, midland and western region should take advantage of regional geographical location and resource to expand exports and narrow the regional difference.

  6. Research on the Influencing Factors and Export Potential of China’s Auto IndustryExport Trade Potential---Based on Empirical Analysis of Panel Data Models%我国汽车行业出口贸易的影响因素及出口潜力研究--基于面板数据模型的实证分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何奕; 程凯

    2016-01-01

    自新中国成立以来,我国汽车行业经过了几十年的发展,现在已经开始大量走出国门。本文利用与我国汽车贸易最密切的34个国家,通过构建扩张的引力模型,对影响我国汽车出口的因素进行了实证分析。结果表明:距离、GDP、互惠贸易、总产量等都对我国汽车行业出口贸易有显著影响。在此基础上,对我国汽车行业的出口潜力进行预测,并提出相应的对策建议。%From the People’s Republic of China founded , Chinese automobile industry had developed in decades , it started to go abroad in great quantities , and this paper is to study the influence factors of China’s auto industry export trade and export potential . This article uses the automobile trade with China’s closest 34 countries , building the expansion of gravity model , the effect factors of China’s au-to exports has carried on the empirical analysis . The results found that distance , GDP , fair trade , production for export trade has signifi-cant impact on China’s automobile industry . On this basis , the potential for the export of China’s auto industry has carried on the simple prediction , and finally puts forward that China should develop the domestic industry and its economy , actively promoted a free trade agree-ment to reduce the distance factors hinder the role of trade between the two countries , and open up new markets , efforts to find opportuni-ties for the export of Chinese auto industry .

  7. 苏北地区中小企业出口贸易收汇风险及应对措施%North Jiangsu SME Export Trade Foreign Exchange Risks and Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘尧飞

    2015-01-01

    The SMEs play a decisive role in the economic and social development in Northern Jiangsu area, as the continuous development of Northern Jiangsu and open in recent years, SMEs in foreign trade is very active, but they are also facing many risks in the process of export receipts of foreign exchange, including financial risk, business risk and environment risk. Investigate its reason, which mainly due to the drab trade way, ex-concentrated export market, single settlement way, the weak exporter risk awareness, and lack of professional talents of foreign trade and other factors. In view of this, the countermeasures should be adopted including to strengthen the scientific and technological innovation, improve the export commodity competitiveness in the international market, implement the diversification strategy, optimize the export market structure, make full use of trade financing policy, avoid settlement risk rationally, improve the credit guarantee system, improve the export risk awareness, culture external simultaneously, and create high-quality foreign trade staff.%中小企业在苏北地区经济社会发展中占有举足轻重的地位,随着近年来苏北的不断开发和开放,中小企业在对外贸易中表现得十分活跃,但它们在出口收汇过程中也面临着许多风险,主要包括金融风险、商业风险和环境风险。究其原因,主要是由于贸易方式过于单调、出口市场过于集中、结算方式过于单一、出口商风险意识不强以及外贸专业人才缺乏等因素造成的。鉴于此,应采取的对策包括:加强科技创新,提高出口商品的国际市场竞争力;实行多元化战略,优化出口市场结构;充分利用贸易融资政策,合理规避结算风险;完善信用保障体系,提高出口商风险意识;内培外引并举,打造高素质外贸人员队伍。

  8. 金融危机下湖北省出口贸易的现状及对策%Status Quo & Countermeasures of Hubei's Export Trade under the Pressure of Financial Crisis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨明强

    2011-01-01

    湖北省出口贸易受金融危机的影响呈现出明显的“V”型波动,与整个中国、其它省市相比又有自己的特点。针对湖北省出口贸易波动的特征和进一步发展存在的突出问题,应该在“敢开放、真开放、先开放、全开放”的大开放战略下制定差异化的区域出口贸易发展战略,采取加快承接产业转移、利用自由贸易区优惠政策扩大出口、促进出口产业转型升级、整合供应链和创新出口模式等措施,从而推动湖北省出口贸易可持续发展。%Influenced by financial crisis, Hubei's export trade obviously reveals a sort of "V" fluctuation. Compared with other provinces in China, it possesses its own particular features. The article makes an in-depth analysis of the characteristics of Hubei's export trade and the existing prominent problems for the sake of its further development. The author suggests that to promote the sustainable development of Hubei's export trade, open differential development strategies should be made which contain "daring to open, truely open, first open & totally open". Measures should be taken to speed up efforts to receive industrial transfer, make use of the preferential policies of FIA to expand export, promote industry transformation and upgrading and integrate supply chain with innovative export pattern.

  9. Strategies of Coping with Trade Barriers to China ’s Ceramic Exports%我国陶瓷产品出口应对贸易壁垒策略探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴姣

    2015-01-01

    我国是陶瓷的发源地,素有“陶瓷之都”的美誉。随着我国对外贸易的发展,中国陶瓷产品出口更是呈现出持续并稳定发展的趋势,出口创汇有了很大程度的增长。由于资源和劳动力丰富,使得我国陶瓷产品在出口方面比其他国家更具优势。然而,伴随着我国陶瓷出口规模的扩大,我国陶瓷产品出口遭遇的贸易壁垒也不断增加,这不利于我国陶瓷产业的可持续发展。本文对我国陶瓷产品出口遭遇主要贸易壁垒的情况进行了分析,并提出了一些应对策略。%China is the birthplace of ceramics, known as “ceramics capital” of the world. With the development of China's foreign trade, China ceramic products export is showing a sustainable and stable development trend, and foreign exchange earnings of export have been in continuing growth. Due to the rich resources and strong labor force, China's ceramic products have a greater comparative advantage in export over other countries. However, with the expansion of the scale of China's ceramic exports, the export of ceramic products in China has been encountering ever strong trade barriers, which is not conducive to the sustainable development of China's ceramic industry. This paper analyzes the major barriers to China's ceramic products exports and puts forward some countermeasures.

  10. Economic Growth Factor in Nigeria: The Role of Global Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Gowon Edoumiekumo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the contributions of international trade (proxied with export and import values to economic growth in Nigeria measured by real gross domestic product (RGDP. We used time series data obtained from CBN for a period of 27 years. Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF test was used for the unit root test and the variables were stationary at levels I(0. Johansen’s co-integration test was also conducted to establish short and long run relationships between the two variables. The result shows two co-integrating equations which establish the existence of long run relationship among the variables. Ordinary Least Square statistical technique was used to assess the degree of influence the variables have on each other. The results show that positive relationship exists between the variables, RGDP, export and import. The export parameter is insignificant at 5 percent. The overall model is significant at 5 percent. Finally, we used Granger causality test to study the causality between the variables and realized a uni-directional relationship. Real GDP Granger cause export and import Granger cause RGDP and export. Nigeria needs to increase or diversify her export goods to enjoy more of the benefits of international trade. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA

  11. 日本TBT对我国输日农产品的贸易效应分析%Analysis on the Trade Effect of Japanese TBT on Chinese Agricultural Export to Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玲; 任大廷

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, TBT from Japan is more and more severe, which has caused serious impact on China' s agricultural trade. The TBT's trade effects on China's agriculture were analyzed theoretically, and it was empirically analyzed based on onion trade of Sino-Japanese. The results showed that Japan' s TBT would prevented the agriculture export to Japan that led to the worse of the terms of trade in short-term, and caused damages to social welfare; it would made the competitiveness of agriculture export from China to Japan decrease in Mid-term, and would promoted the agriculture export to Japan, then created trade-promoting effects in long-term.%近年来,日本技术性贸易壁垒(TBT)越来越苛刻,给我国农产品贸易造成了严重影响.对日本TBT给我国农产品出口产生的贸易效应进行了理论分析,并以中日大葱贸易为案例进行了实证分析.结果表明,日本TBT短期内会阻碍我国农产品对日出口,导致贸易条件恶化,社会福利受损;中期内会导致我国农产品对日出口竞争力下降;但长期来看,日本TBT会促进我国农产品对日出口,产生贸易促进效应.

  12. China's Export Expansion, Export Structure and Energy Consumption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lan Yisheng; Ning Xuemin

    2011-01-01

    Since the reform and opening up, China's export trade has maintained a rapid growth; meanwhile, China's energy consumption has been increasing sharply. "High export and high energy consumption" has become the feature of China's trade and economic development. In this paper, based on the input-output analysis approach, the authors have conducted an empirical study on the export trade and energy consumption of 21 trade industrial sectors. The results show that, China is a big net exporter of embodied energy. Assuming that the export growth rate of embodied energy maintains to be about 23.6%, the average annual growth rate of the past 32 years, and based on the input-output data of 2005, by 2030 China's net export of embodied energy would be over eight times more than the aggregate energy production, which is obviously infeasible. As a country of very low per capita en- ergy, China must change its export pattern, encourage or restrain the export of different industrial sectors according to their energy consumption intensity, and promote structural change of energy- efficient exported products, so as to achieve the sustainable development. Accordingly, the authors put forward some suggestions.

  13. 中国知识产权出口贸易影响因素的实证研究%An Empirical Study of Factors Influencing China ’ s Export of Intellectual Property Trade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾晓燕; 史新和

    2014-01-01

    知识产权贸易促进了创新链、产业链、市场链的有效衔接,推进了创新驱动战略的实施。基于2000~2012年的省际面板数据,通过单位根检验、协整检验,建立随机效应模型,对全国、东、中、西部知识产权出口贸易的影响因素作了实证分析。全国层面的结论表明,知识产权创造、知识产权运用、外商直接投资、出口导向度对知识产权出口贸易都有显著的正影响,知识产权保护水平对知识产权出口贸易有显著的负影响,进而提出了推进知识产权出口贸易的政策建议。%Intellectual property trade promotes the effective convergence of innovation chain , industrial chain and market chain , and promotes the implementation of the innovation -driven strategy.This paper analyzes the fac-tors influencing export of intellectual property trade from the perspective of the whole country , the eastern , the cen-tral and the western.We establish a random effect model based on the provincial panel data , using ADF test and cointegration test.The conclusion shows that creation of intellectual property , application of intellectual property , foreign direct investment and the export -oriented degree have significant positive impacts on the export of intellec-tual property trade.Level of intellectual property rights protection has a significant negative impact on the export of intellectual property trade.Finally , we put forward policy recommendations to promote export of intellectual proper-ty trade.

  14. On the Rise and Fall of Modern Sichuan Bristle Export Trade%近代四川猪鬃出口贸易兴衰的原因探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仝瑞中

    2015-01-01

    Bristle is one of the important raw materials in modern industry.Since the end of the 19th centu-ry, Sichuan bristle exporting trade grew rapidly.Bristle, the waste material in the past, gradually became important export commodities of Sichuan, an important strategic materials.The rise of Sichuan bristle trade was promoted by opening of Chongqing and Sichuan shipping company, as well as the world market demand. Rich resources, excellent quality and protection law for the development of trade laid a solid foundation for its exports and provided a convenient conditions .Sound organization system , integrated trade and distribution system, enabled the Sichuan bristle to be popular in the international market .Although Sichuan bristle ac-quired highly reputation in the global market , exports still fluctuated , for the negative factors that affected its exporting, such as harsh duties, tough international competition situation , and the backward processing tech-nology and the way of trade, etc.%自19世纪末开始,四川猪鬃的出口贸易迅速兴起,猪鬃成为四川重要的出口商品、战时的重要战略物资。四川猪鬃出口贸易的兴起受到重庆开埠、川航开辟的推动与世界市场需求的拉动;丰富的资源、优良的品质及保护发展商品贸易的法令为其出口打下了雄厚的基础,提供了便利的条件。四川猪鬃健全的商品组织体系、完整的贸易及运销体系,使其能够远渡重洋,畅销国际市场。尽管川鬃在国际市场上极有声誉,但出口量仍然起伏不定,究其原因,影响其出口的消极因素有苛捐杂税繁重、国际竞争严峻、加工技术和贸易方式落后等。

  15. New Curbs on Processing Trade for A New Trade Pattern

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ China recently announced a new policy that seeks to rein in the development of processing trade in restricted commodities, in a bid to optimize the country's exporting structure, put strong curbs on the export of "high-energy-consuming, highpolluting and resource-dependent"products, and discourage the export of commodities with low added value and poor technology content, so as to gradually eliminate trade frictions,and promote trade balance to ease tension caused by the too wide trade surplus. The change is instrumental in upgrading the present processing trade system, transforming the pattern of foreign trade growth mode,and promoting the sustainable development of social economy.

  16. Green Trade Barriers on China’s Exported Forest Products%中国林产品出口面临的绿色贸易壁垒1)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

      近年来,随着关税壁垒和传统非关税壁垒作用的弱化,绿色贸易壁垒在国际贸易领域日益盛行,其作用和影响不断强化,对世界经济和国际贸易产生深远影响。作为世界林产品生产和贸易大国,我国林产品出口贸易发展受到绿色贸易壁垒的严重制约,以绿色技术标准、卫生检验检疫制度和各种认证制度为主要形式的绿色贸易壁垒已经成为我国林产品出口的重要障碍。防范和破解绿色贸易壁垒是一项系统工程,需要政府、行业协会和企业的协同应对,从而保证我国林产品出口贸易的可持续发展。%Since the tariff barriers and traditional non-tariff barriers become weaker, the green trade barriers are becoming in-creasingly popular in the international trade.With the growing role and influence, the green trade barriers play a signifi-cant impact on the world economy and international trade.As one of the production and trade powers in forest products, China’s forest product exports is severely constrained from development by the green trade barriers.The main forms of green trade barriers are the major impediment to china’s exports of forest products in the forms of strict green technology standards, stringent sanitary and phytosanitary measures and various forms of certification systems.Preventing and crack-ing green trade barriers need a coordinated response of governments, industry associations and enterprises to ensure the sustainable development of China’s exports of forest products.

  17. Technical Barriers to Trade in Food Exports and Food Safety%食品技术贸易壁垒与食品安全

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝威; 齐欣

    2014-01-01

    我国出口食品受到发达国家日趋严重的压制,其中欧盟利用《食品安全白皮书》和有效的技术进行食品保障,美国FDA从多方面对进口食品进行要求,日本的“肯定列表制度”使我国处于被动的局面。我国面临市场准入困难、占有率降低、生产成本升高等不良影响。鉴于此,我国只有掌握、利用先进的国际安全标准,完善监督检验制度,并从企业角度出发切实保障食品安全,才能在国际食品贸易中占据有利地位。%China's exports of food is under several kinds of severe repression,including the European Union using the 'White Paper on Food Safety' and effective technology for food security ,the U.S. FDA on imported foods from the various requirements and the Japan's 'positive list' system make our country in a passive situation. China is facing difficulties in market access,market share decreased,increased production costs and other adverse effects. In this case,we can only master the use of advanced international safety standards,improve supervision and inspection system,and from a business point of view to guarantee food safety,in order to occupy a favorable position in the international food trade.

  18. 中国农产品出口贸易比较优势研究%Study on Comparative Advantage of Agricultural Products Export Trade in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    古力娜尔·肉孜

    2015-01-01

    采用2000-2012年时间序列数据,按国际贸易农产品分类标准,分析中国农产品出口贸易比较优势。分析结果与中国农业实际情况相互融合,也一定程度上反映了中国农业结构转变趋势。在中国农产品出口贸易中,鱼、蔬菜与水果具有极强的比较优势,呈现递增趋势;肉及肉制品、乳制品和鸟蛋、谷物和谷物制品等农产品具有较弱的比较优势,呈现递减趋势。%According to classification standard of the international agricultural products, this paper analyzed the comparative advantage of agricultural products export trade in our county by time series data from 2000 to 2012. The results suited to actual situation of agriculture and partly reflected the changing trends agricultural structure in our county. The main conclusion was as followed: fish, vegetables and fruits presented a strong comparative advantage and emerged the increasing trend;the other agricultural products such as meat and meat products, dairy products and eggs, grains and grain products such as has a weak comparative advantage and showed a trend of decline.

  19. 76 FR 52935 - President's Export Council, Subcommittee on Export Administration; Notice of Open Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-24

    ... Bureau of Industry and Security President's Export Council, Subcommittee on Export Administration; Notice of Open Meeting The President's Export Council Subcommittee on Export Administration (PECSEA) will... Administration Act, as amended, that deal with United States policies of encouraging trade with all...

  20. 贸易摩擦对中国钢铁产品出口影响的实证研究%An Empirical Study on the Impact of Trade Friction on China’s Export of Steel Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪五一; 滕蔚然; 刘鹏

    2015-01-01

    随着中国钢铁产业快速的发展和世界经济环境的变化,涉华钢铁产品贸易摩擦日趋激烈。文章分析了中国钢铁产品出口贸易摩擦的概况,运用理论分析与实证分析相结合的方法,详细分析贸易摩擦对中国钢铁产品出口规模、出口市场结构以及国际竞争力的影响,对贸易摩擦的影响进行了总结:负面影响主要是出口规模的萎缩、限制相关企业的发展和提高出口贸易的成本,正面影响主要是促进贸易地理方向的多元化、产生优胜劣汰效应和促进技术创新。%With the rapid development of China’s steel industry and the changes of world economic environment,the trade friction related to China’s steel products is increasingly showing a fierce trend. This paper analyzes the situation of trade friction in China’s export of steel products,and makes a detailed study on the impacts of trade friction on China’s export scale,market structure and international competitiveness of steel products by both theoretical and empirical analyses. The paper summarizes the impacts of trade friction as follows: The negative impact is to reduce export scale,place restrictions on the development of related enterprises and raise the cost of export trade. The positive impact is to promote the diversification of trade geographic direction,lead to the survival of the fittest effect and advance technology innovation.

  1. Trade Supervision Adjustment in 2012

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    China revised its supervision policies on import and export trades again, with 13 notices approved by related government ministries and administrations as well as 15 catalogues of import and export licenses being involved.

  2. An Empirical Analysis of the Relationship Between Technology Spillover Effects of Export Trade and Economic Growth——Taking Export Trade Technology of Zhejiang Province as Example%出口贸易技术外溢效应与经济增长相互关系的实证分析——以浙江省出口贸易技术为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄秉杰; 孙旭杰

    2012-01-01

    通过对Feder两部门模型进行扩展,将经济系统划分为非出口部门、初级产品出口部门与工业制成品出口部门,构建了三部门的出口贸易技术外溢效应模型,对浙江省1994-2010年出口贸易的技术外溢效应与经济增长的关系进行了实证分析.研究结果表明,浙江省出口贸易的技术外溢效应主要集中在工业制成品出口部门,其通过要素边际生产率差异引起的资源重新优化配置效应和对非出口部门的技术外溢效应两条渠道来影响浙江省经济增长.%Based on expanding Feder's two-sector model ,the economic system is divided into the non-export sector, primary goods export sector and manufactured goods export sector. The empirical analysis on the technology spillover effects and Zhejiang Province's economic growth from 1994 to 2010 is carried out,by constituting three sectors' export trade technology spillover effects model. The empirical analysis concludes: the technology spillover effects of Zhejiang Province mostly happen in manufactured goods export sector, and the manufactured goods export sector promotes Zhejiang Province' s economic growth through the two channels (resource' s re-optimal allocation effect caused by the marginal productivity differences and technology spillover effects on non-export sector).

  3. 出口退税政策与出口型外贸企业现金流运行均衡管理研究%A Research on Export Tax Rebate Policy and Balanced Management of Cash Flow of Export-oriented Foreign Trade Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶云龙; 施汉忠; 章贵桥

    2014-01-01

    The previous studies on export tax rebate pay much more attention to the regulatory role of export tax rebate policy in macro-economy,there is little research literature on how the policy conducts and affects cash flow of microscopic export enter-prises. The paper starts from analyzing and comparing the export tax rebate policy before and after the financial crisis,based on this,then it analyzes how the export tax rebate policy adjusted comprehensively affects cash flow run of microscopic export-ori-ented foreign trade enterprises. It tentatively explores the rules and characteristics of cash flow of China’s export-oriented for-eign trade enterprises based on the export tax rebate policy after the financial crisis, in order to generalize and summarize the general characteristics of how the export tax rebate policy conducts and influences cash flow of export-oriented foreign trade en-terprises. The paper also puts forward different cash flow management measures and strategies for different situations in order to provide some insights for export-oriented foreign trade enterprises to achieve balanced management of cash flow and prevent the drying up risk of cash flow in the post-crisis era.%对于出口退税研究以往较多关注出口退税政策对宏观经济调控作用,但其如何传导及影响微观出口型企业现金流,学者们对此领域的研究文献却不多见,文章分析与比较了危机前后的出口退税政策,并以此展开研究,分析调整后的出口退税政策如何综合作用于微观外贸出口型企业现金流运行。尝试性探索金融危机后基于我国出口退税政策特质出口型外贸企业现金流运行规律与特征,以期归纳与总结出出口退税政策如何传导并作用于出口型外贸企业现金流运行的一般特性,并针对性提出不同现金流管理措施与策略,以期为后危机时代外贸出口型企业实现现金流运行均衡管理,防范现金流运行

  4. 78 FR 12719 - President's Export Council: Meeting of the President's Export Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-25

    ... services agreement, bilateral investment treaties, U.S.- Canada trade facilitation, the UNIDROIT Cape Town... International Trade Administration President's Export Council: Meeting of the President's Export Council AGENCY: International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of an Open Meeting. SUMMARY: The...

  5. Gross motor control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross motor control is the ability to make large, general movements (such as waving an arm or lifting a leg). ... Gross motor control is a milestone in the development of an infant. Infants develop gross motor control before they develop ...

  6. Argentina : trade patterns and challenges ahead

    OpenAIRE

    Anos-Casero, Paloma; Rollo, Valentina

    2010-01-01

    Argentinean export growth was impressive during the recent economic boom (2003-2007). However, decomposing export growth reveals that the extensive margin (increases in exports of existing products to existing markets) dominates, while the intensive margin (increases in exports of new products or new markets) contributes little to export growth. Argentina's trade product concentration has ...

  7. 台州农产品出口应对技术性贸易壁垒研究%Research on Responding Technical Trade Barriers for Export of Taizhou Agricultural Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阮建女

    2012-01-01

    从台州农产品出口现状入手,分析了技术性贸易壁垒对台州农产品出口的影响,并提出了六项对策:一是以贸易壁垒反求管理水平,实现农产品出口经营模式优化;二是健全农产品出口的质量追溯和保障体系,提高出口农产品认证水平;三是产业集聚助推技术创新,促进农工技贸协调发展;四是加强国外市场的开拓促销工作,树立农产品安全品牌形象;五是选择农产品区域细分市场,促进出口市场多元化;六是全方位多渠道收集壁垒信息,建立高效统一的快速反应机制.%Starting from the status quo of export of Taizhou agricultural products, impact of technical trade barriers on exports of agricultural products in Taizhou was analyzed, and six countenneasures were prposed: ①Taking trade barriers to reversely pursue management level, so as to achieve optimization agricultural products' export business model; ②Perfecting improve agricultural exports' the quality of traceability and security system, improving the level of certification of agricultural products' export; ③ Industrial agglomeration boost technological innovation to promote coordinated development of agro-industrial technology and trade; ④Strengthening the development and sales promotion of overseas market, building the brand image of safety of agricultural products;⑤ Choosing agricultural products' regional market segments to promote the diversification of export markets;⑥ Collecting barriers information comprehensively and the establishing unified and efficient rapid response mechanisms.

  8. 中国纺织服装业出口贸易增加值核算与评价%The Added Value Accounting and Evaluation of Chinese Textile Clothing Export Trade Business

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜延书; 何思浩

    2016-01-01

    根据WIOD数据库1995-2011年数据,本文对中国纺织服装业出口贸易增加值进行核算,并通过GVC指数和RCA_ GVC指数对中国纺织服装业出口贸易增加值进行合理评价,发现中国纺织服装业出口贸易增加值率的整体趋势是下降的且程度最大,但中国纺织服装业出口贸易区域内增加值增长速度最快且总额最大;中国对其他区域纺织服装业出口贸易增加值的贡献力度明显大于其他区域对中国纺织服装业出口贸易增加值的贡献;中国纺织服装业出口贸易增加值影响力系数小于1,而感应力系数大于1,其综合作用为负;中国纺织服装业GVC地位要高于其他区域,但中国纺织服装业出口贸易竞争力并不强。%According to the WIOD database data from 1995 to 2011, this paper accounted and evaluated the added value of Chinese textile clothing export trade through the GVC and RCA_ GVC index. The results showed that: the overall trend of Chinese textile clothing export trade value rate is falling, and down most, but Chinese textile clothing export re-gional added value is the fastest-growing and largest total;China to the other area, the contribution strength of the added value of textile clothing export trade and growth is significantly greater than other areas to China′s;the impact coefficient of Chinese textile clothing export trade value is less than 1, while the induction coefficient is greater than 1, its role is negative;the GVC index of Chinese textile clothing is more than the other areas, but the competitiveness of Chinese tex-tile clothing is not strong.

  9. Une évaluation de l’impact des politiques de l’administration Bush sur les exportations canadiennes dans le contexte de l’Accord de libre-échange nord-américain An Assessment of Bush Administration Policies on Canadian Exports in the Context of the North American Free Trade Agreement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Vaillancourt

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Du point de vue du Canada, qui dépend des États-Unis pour 70-80 % de son commerce extérieur, l’évolution des échanges commerciaux est une dimension majeure d’un bilan des années Bush. Notre étude vise à évaluer l’impact du libre-échange sur les exportations canadiennes vers les États-Unis et en particulier l’impact des mesures prises sous la présidence Bush. Nous commençons par un survol de l’évolution des flux de commerce entre le Canada et ses partenaires nord-américains. La deuxième section porte sur la mise en place de l’Accord de libre-échange canado-américain (ALE et de l’Accord de libre-échange nord-américain (ALENA. La troisième section traite de la plus récente période, qui s’amorce au lendemain des attentats terroristes du 11 septembre 2001. Nous évaluons les effets des politiques américaines de sécurité adoptées suite à ces événements, qui ont semblé reléguer le partenariat économique de la région au second plan. La dernière section présente les résultats de notre modélisation économétrique des impacts des accords de libre-échange et du resserrement des politiques de sécurité à la frontière sur les exportations canadiennes vers les États-Unis. Dans l’ensemble, nous observons que l’ALENA a eu un impact positif important sur les exportations canadiennes et que cet impact bénéfique s’est maintenu pendant les années Bush. Toutefois, le resserrement des contrôles à la frontière des États-Unis a représenté l’équivalent d’un tarif sur les exportations vers ce pays et un fardeau non négligeable pour les entreprises canadiennes.Viewed from Canada, which conducts 70-80 percent of its foreign trade with the United States, the evolution of commercial flows is a major component in assessing the George W. Bush presidency. This study evaluates the impact of trade agreements on Canadian exports to the US, with a particular emphasis on the effects of measures taken by

  10. 安徽出口贸易、经济增长与能源消费关系的实证分析%An empirical research on anhui's export trade,economic growth and energy consumption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章秀琴

    2011-01-01

    Based on the data of 1978~2007,the methods of cointegration analysis and Granger causality test are used to empirically study the relationship of Anhui's economic growth,export value and energy consumption.The conclusion shows that the three variables have long-term cointegration relationship;export trade is not the double-direction causality of energy consumption,while economic growth is the double-direction causality of energy consumption,and export trade is the single-direction causality of economic growth.In view of the above conclusion,suggestions are put forward.%以1978-2007年间安徽省生产总值、出口总额和能源消费总量的数据为基础,运用协整分析和Granger因果检验对三者关系进行了实证研究.结果显示:3个变量间存在长期协整关系;安徽出口贸易与其能源消耗之间不存在双向因果关系,而安徽经济增长与其能源消耗之间则存在双向因果关系,安徽出口贸易与安徽经济增长之间呈单向因果关系.

  11. Trade Liberalization,Intermediate Input and the Quality of Export Products%贸易自由化、中间投入品与出口产品质量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张峰

    2016-01-01

    我国出口贸易在取得巨大成就的同时,也面临着出口产品质量整体不高的严峻现实。本文正是基于这样的经济背景,从贸易自由化的视角,分析中间品和最终品贸易自由化对中国出口产品质量的影响。本文利用2001-2007年的中国微观经济数据,运用系统GMM方法实证分析了进口中间品和最终品的关税削减对出口产品质量的影响。研究发现,中间品和最终品贸易自由化显著提高了中国出口产品质量,并且中间品贸易自由化对出口产品质量的促进作用更大,进一步地,这一结论对不同方法测度的出口产品质量都较为稳健。因此继续推进和深化贸易自由化改革,对于改善我国的贸易条件和提高我国在全球价值链分工中的国际地位都是一项意义重大的政策举措。%China has made great achievements in export trade,whiie it is aiso facing the grim reaiity that the quai-ity of export products is not high. Based on the economic background,this paper empiricaiiy anaiyzes the effect of trade iiberaiization on the quaiity of export products,by appiying systematic GMM regression to the firm-ievei mi-cro data of China between 2001 and 2007. The resuit shows that trade iiberaiization has a significant positive impact on the upgrade of export products quaiity,and intermediate inputs tariff is more effective. So we shouid continue to promote and deepen the reform of trade iiberaiization,to improve Chinaˊs trade conditions and enhance the interna-tionai division status of Chinaˊs manufacturing industry in the giobai vaiue chains.

  12. Minimum quality standards and exports

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the interaction of a minimum quality standard and exports in a vertical product differentiation model when firms sell global products. If ex ante quality of foreign firms is lower (higher) than the quality of exporting firms, a mild minimum quality standard in the home market hinders (supports) exports. The minimum quality standard increases quality in both markets. A welfare maximizing minimum quality standard is always lower under trade than under autarky. A minimum quali...

  13. Insurability of export credit risks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alsem, K.J.; Antufjew, J.; Huizingh, K.R.E.; Koning, Ruud H.; Sterken, E.; Woltil, M.

    2003-01-01

    Firms exporting their goods and services abroad face risks that are different from the risks faced by firms who do not engage in international trade. It is common practice to allow the receiving party to pay in instalments. The exporting firm faces credit risk, but as in most countries, Dutch firms

  14. Insurability of export credit risks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alsem, K.J.; Antufjew, J.; Huizingh, K.R.E.; Koning, Ruud H.; Sterken, E.; Woltil, M.

    2003-01-01

    Firms exporting their goods and services abroad face risks that are different from the risks faced by firms who do not engage in international trade. It is common practice to allow the receiving party to pay in instalments. The exporting firm faces credit risk, but as in most countries, Dutch firms

  15. Sinosure Helping to Stabilize Exports

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The unfolding international financial crisis is taking its toll on China’s economy, especially China’s exports. On one hand, overseas demand has plummeted, while on the other, with the worsening credit environment and emerging trade protectionism, export enter-prises are suffering from rising credit risks, to the point where some of them dare not even accept orders.

  16. Analysis and forecast on trade of import-export edible vegetable oil in Guangxi%广西进出口食用植物油贸易分析与展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄振彬

    2013-01-01

    Recently,some edible lipin processing plants were settled in Guangxi coastal areas,and the trade of import-export edible vegetable oil in Guangxi has changed with these plants. Stastics on the trade of import-export edible vegetable oil in Guangxi from 2005 to 2012 were from the software CIQ2000,and the trade situation was analysed and forecasted in this paper.%  近年来,陆续有大型食用油脂加工企业落户广西沿海,广西的食用植物油进出口贸易也随着这些企业的发展而变化。文章通过CIQ2000系统对2005-2012年广西食用植物油进出口贸易进行统计,对进出口贸易情况进行分析,并对未来几年广西食用植物油进出口贸易形势进行展望。

  17. Firm Based Trade Models and Turkish Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilüfer ARGIN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Among all international trade models, only The Firm Based Trade Models explains firm’s action and behavior in the world trade. The Firm Based Trade Models focuses on the trade behavior of individual firms that actually make intra industry trade. Firm Based Trade Models can explain globalization process truly. These approaches include multinational cooperation, supply chain and outsourcing also. Our paper aims to explain and analyze Turkish export with Firm Based Trade Models’ context. We use UNCTAD data on exports by SITC Rev 3 categorization to explain total export and 255 products and calculate intensive-extensive margins of Turkish firms.

  18. 食品安全标准的贸易效应分析--以中国农产品出口为例%Trade Effect of Food Safety Standards---Take China's Agricultural Products Export as an Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭俊芳; 武拉平

    2014-01-01

    Food safety standards have been the main obstacle of China's agricultural products export. Gravity model and panel data were applied to proof the influence of food safety standards on China's agricultural products export in this paper. The results showed that, food safety standards could contain trade in the short term and support trade in the long term. Hence, it is necessary to understand the potential effect of the food safety standards on China's agricultural products export. We need expand the market that food safety standards was looser and diversify export markets in the short term, and in the long term improve the quality of the products constantly.%食品安全标准已经成为中国农产品出口的主要障碍。运用扩展引力模型,使用面板数据分析了食品安全标准对中国农产品出口的影响。结果表明,短期内,食品安全标准抑制贸易,长期内则促进贸易。因此,应充分理解食品安全标准对中国农产品出口的潜在影响,短期内可开拓食品安全标准较宽松的市场,使出口市场多元化;长期内需要不断提高产品的质量水平。

  19. The Position of China’s Export Industries in global value chains---The Evidence from the Value-added Trade%中国出口产业在全球价值链中的地位--来自增加值贸易的证据

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵登峰; 牛芳; 曹秋静

    2014-01-01

    从一国出口贸易的国内增加值中可以观察到该国在全球产业链中的真实地位。通过将全值贸易额分解成不同的增加值单元,可以构建一国在全球价值链中的位置指数、参与度指数及相对牵引力指数,运用OECD-WTO增加值贸易数据库和KPWW分解法,测算中国、美国、德国、日本、韩国和墨西哥六国十八个行业的全球价值链指数值及其变动幅度,结果显示,尽管中国在全球价值链中的位置较低、利益较少,但中国在全球价值链上获取的利益在逐步增加,中国正朝着产业价值链的高端位置攀升,中国的电气器材等产业在部分领域实现了全球价值链跨越式升级。%It is possible to assess a country’s real position in the global industrial chains from its domestic value-added in gross exports. We construct a country’s PSI, PTI and TFI index in the global value chains by decomposing its gross exports into value-added components and calculate the index change range in 18 industries in China, the United States, Germany, Japan, Korea and Mexico by OECD-WTO TiVA database and KRWW decomposition analysis. Although China is in the downstream of the global value chains at average industry level and hence benefits less from the global trades, the results also show that China is trending up in the global value chains and gaining gradually a larger share of benefits. It is especially worth noting that China’s electronic equipment industry has dramatically improved its position in the global value chains.

  20. 基于投入产出法的中国出口贸易碳结构测算%Study on Estimating Carbon Structure of Chinese Export Trade Based on Input-Output Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐沛豪; 马莉莉

    2015-01-01

    本文利用投入产出分析法,测算了2005—2012年我国商品出口中的隐含碳排放量。结果表明,高能耗部门是隐含碳的主要来源,并且我国出口商品贸易的隐含碳排放量呈持续增长态势。所以,本文提出我国需要实施“低碳化”的外贸对策,即外贸商品结构需要向结构多元化和产品高级化方向转型,鼓励高能效商品出口,不断提升商品科技含量和附加值。%T his paper ,by using input -output analysis method ,calculates the embodied carbon emissions in China 2005-2012 of merchandise exports .The results show that the high energy consuming sector is a major source of carbon emissions embodied ,and embodied carbon amount in China’s export trade was the continued grow th trend .T herefore ,this article proposed our country need to implement "the foreign trade strategy of low carbon",namely the structure of foreign trade goods need to transition to the diversifica‐tion and product advanced direction ,encourage the export of high energy efficiency products and constantly improve the technology content and added value of goods .

  1. 27 CFR 28.154 - Export marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export marks. 28.154..., for Exportation or Transfer to a Foreign-Trade Zone § 28.154 Export marks. In addition to the marks... provisions of part 19 of this chapter, the proprietor shall mark the word “Export” on the Government side of...

  2. Slowed Exports Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Ⅲ. Slowed export recovery in the second half Since the beginning of this year, global trade has maintained a recovery growth thanks to the worldwide economic rally.From January to April, the imports of three major Economics--the United States, the euro zone and Japan--rose 17.5 percent on average from a year ago. Import growths for the United States, the euro zone and Japan were 20.9 percent, 4.8 percent and 29 percent, respectively, which spurred China's exports to those regions. From January to June this year, China's exports totaled $705.09 billion, up 35.2 percent from the same period in 2009 and were 5.8 percent higher than the first half of 2008 when the crisis had yet to begin. Those figures indicated China's exports had rebounded to precrisis levels.

  3. Evaluation of trade influence on economic growth rate by computational intelligence approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov-Mladenović, Svetlana; Milovančević, Milos; Mladenović, Igor

    2017-01-01

    In this study was analyzed the influence of trade parameters on the economic growth forecasting accuracy. Computational intelligence method was used for the analyzing since the method can handle highly nonlinear data. It is known that the economic growth could be modeled based on the different trade parameters. In this study five input parameters were considered. These input parameters were: trade in services, exports of goods and services, imports of goods and services, trade and merchandise trade. All these parameters were calculated as added percentages in gross domestic product (GDP). The main goal was to select which parameters are the most impactful on the economic growth percentage. GDP was used as economic growth indicator. Results show that the imports of goods and services has the highest influence on the economic growth forecasting accuracy.

  4. 中小企业应对出口贸易非关税壁垒研究%Research of export trade non-tariff barriers for Small and Medium Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林云芳

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzes the SMEs in the export trade frequently encountered technical barriers to trade, green trade barriers, non-tariff trade barriers blue, for different types of non-tariff barriers from the government and corporate level are proposed to establish conform to international standards of technical standards, and actively participate in national technical measures to review and develop, improve environmental protection legal system, countermeasures and suggestions to strengthen international cooperation and international certification standards of production.%文章分析了我国中小企业在出口贸易时经常遭遇的技术性贸易壁垒、绿色贸易壁垒、蓝色贸易壁垒等非关税壁垒,针对不同种类的非关税壁垒,从政府和企业层面分别提出了建立与国际标准相符合的技术标准体系、积极参与国家技术性措施评议与制定、完善环保法律体系、加强产品生产的国际标准认证和国际合作等对策和建议。

  5. 15 CFR 30.16 - Export Administration Regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export Administration Regulations. 30... OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FOREIGN TRADE REGULATIONS Export Control and Licensing Requirements § 30.16 Export Administration Regulations. The EAR issued by the U.S. Department of Commerce,...

  6. 15 CFR 758.2 - Automated Export System (AES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Automated Export System (AES). 758.2... CLEARANCE REQUIREMENTS § 758.2 Automated Export System (AES). The Census Bureau's Foreign Trade Statistics...) electronically using the Automated Export System (AES). In order to use AES, you must apply directly to...

  7. THE CURRENT STATE OF CLOTHING TRADE IN THE BALKAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TRIPA Simona

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The study presented here is aimed at analysing the current state of clothing trade in the Balkan states. The dynamics of change over a 15‐year period following economic reforms are revealed. The clothing industries play a significant role and continue to contribute to the economic prosperity of countries with an inexpensive labour force. For most Balkan States clothing’s export plays an important role in promoting economic growth and development – for example, exports of garments Albania was in 2015, 16.81% of its exports, Republic of Macedonia 11.75% of its exports, in Turkey10.51% etc. The main factors which influence the level of competitiveness of clothing products from the Balkans are the gross value added per employee and wages. When the producers of the Balkan countries will create products with higher added value in garment industry the competitiveness of these countries will decrease. Also rising wages in this industry, as a result of trade union pressure or government policy, will lead to decreasing competitiveness of these products on the EU market and implicitly to the decrease of exports of garments from these countries. The main challenges that must face the Balkan States are related to restructuring of economic system, changing trade markets and patterns, declining of domestic demand of most merchandise, reduction of competitive ability, narrow export base, and lower economies of scale. The main opportunities that most of these countries can exploit are related to their geographical position, membership of the EU market, infrastructure in garment sector, and highly skilled workforce.

  8. Chilly Trade Winds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Traders brave the ill effects of the global economic crisis in one of China’s largest export centers Hongye Cartons Packing Salesroom in Yiwu sells carton packages just across the street from Yiwu International Trade City,a mam-

  9. Globalisation and Ireland s Export Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Ruane, Frances; Siedschlag, Iulia; Murphy, Gavin

    2013-01-01

    PUBLISHED This paper provides empirical evidence on Ireland?s export performance in the context of increased globalisation over the past ten years. Using insights from recent contributions to international trade and economic growth theories, we first examine patterns and changes of revealed comparative advantages for Ireland?s exports of goods and services. We then investigate whether Irish exports have specialised in fast growing industries and markets in world exports over the period. Th...

  10. NM Gross Receipts Baseline

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  11. The "S" Curve Relationship between Export Diversity and Economic Size of Countries

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Lunchao; Wang, Xin; Zhang, Jiang

    2011-01-01

    The highly detailed international trade data among all countries in the world during 1971-2000 shows that the kinds of export goods and the logarithmic GDP (gross domestic production) of a country has an S-shaped relationship. This indicates all countries can be divided into three stages accordingly. First, the poor countries always export very few kinds of products as we expect. Second, once the economic size (GDP) of a country is beyond a threshold, its export diversity may increase dramatically. However, this is not the case for rich countries because a ceiling on the export diversity is observed when their GDPs are higher than another threshold. This pattern is very stable for different years although the concrete parameters of the fitting sigmoid functions may change with time. In addition, we also discussed other relationships such as import diversity with respect to logarithmic GDP, diversity of exporters with respect to the number of export goods etc., all of these relationships show S-shaped or power...

  12. Global impacts of Russian log export restrictions and the Canada–U.S. lumber dispute: Modeling trade in logs and lumber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooten, van G.C.; Johnston, C.

    2014-01-01

    Forest product trade analysis is complicated by the inter-relationships among forest products. This paper deals with the development and application of an integrated log-lumber trade model that divides the globe into 20 regions. These regions play a significant role as producers and/or consumers of

  13. Exporter Price Response to Exchange Rate Changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosse, Henrik Barslund

    Firms exporting to foreign markets face a particular challenge: to price their exports in a foreign market when the exchange rate changes. This paper takes on pricing- to-market using a unique data set that covers rm level monthly trade at great detail. As opposed to annual trade ows, monthly trade...... theoretical contributions to the litterature on pricing-to-market and exchange rate pass-through....

  14. Trade Back on Track

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU YUNYUN

    2010-01-01

    @@ China is taking up a larger piece of the global trade pie as its 2009 exports accounted for almost one 10th of the world total that year.The Ministry of Commerce (MOFCOM)released a report on April 27 summarizing foreign trade in 2009 and the first quarter of 2010.MOFCOM also cautioned exporters of international market volatili ties in the next half of 2010.

  15. Gross National Happiness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giri, Krishna Prasad; Kjær-Rasmussen, Lone Krogh

    This paper investigates practices related to the ideology of infusing Gross National Happiness (GNH) into school curriculum, the effectiveness of the meditation and mind training and the implication of GNH for school environment. It also explores how GNH ambience has been managed and practiced...... of Gross National Happiness and Educating for Gross National happiness....

  16. Financial Crisis and the Stability of Fujian's Export Trade -Based on the Comparative Analysis of Jiangsu and Fujian%金融危机与福建出口贸易发展的稳定性分析——基于福建和江苏的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张明志; 周磊

    2012-01-01

    入世以来,较之于江苏出口贸易的强劲发展势头,福建则表现出明显的增长乏力特征。在国际金融危机期间,相对于江苏而言,福建的出口贸易遭受冲击的程度相对小些。研究表明,在中国融入经济全球化程度逐步加深的今天,出口波动性小的地区的贸易发展并不意味着一定优于出口波动性大的。%Based on the basic statistical data, we found that the export trade of Fujian was obviously weaker than that of Jiangsu since China entered into WTO in 2001. Under the background of international financial crisis, the fluctuation of Jiangsu's export trade is greater than that of Fujian no matter we considered the situation from the point of the degree of impact or the intensity of recovery. The strong stability of Fujian's export trade during the period of financial crisis can be explained from the structure of export products, export competitiveness, trade patterns and export markets. Based on the research we got the following inference: those regions that have less export volatility do not necessarily mean more advantage than those which have more export fluctuation under the background of China's deepening into economic globalization nowadays.

  17. The Expansion of Henan Textile and Clothing Export Trade and Countermeasures%扩大河南省纺织服装贸易出口的对策研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐琪

    2012-01-01

    改革开放以来,河南省纺织服装贸易出口有了一定的发展,也对河南省经济的发展起到了很大作用。由于河南省纺织服装贸易起步晚、规模小、发展慢,也存在着很多值得重视的问题。文章通过研究河南省纺织服装贸易的发展现状,分析河南省在纺织服装贸易出口过程中存在的问题,提出解决问题的对策。%Since reform and open up,Henan's textile and clothing trade export has made a certain development and it also has played a big role in the economic development of Henan province.Because Henan provincial textile and clothing trade started late,it has a small size,develops very slow and there also exist many problems that are worth to take seriously.This article,through the research of current situation of Henan province's textile and clothing trade development and analysis of the existing problems,proposes the countermeasures to solve the problems.

  18. Empirical Study on Ecological Footprint of China's Import and Export Trade based on Emergy Theory%基于能值理论的中国进出口贸易生态足迹实证研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢长庚; 赵翌辰

    2013-01-01

    生态足迹可以用来定量地分析国际贸易的生态影响和可持续性.传统的生态足迹测算法具有参数不稳定性且忽略了各地区之间真正的生态比较优势,测算的结果误差较大.提出用能值理论模型测算国际贸易中内涵的生态足迹.能值理论模型所使用的能量折算系数、能值转换率等参数在自然生态系统中相对稳定,测算结果相对更加准确.为了反映国际贸易的生态资源利益分配,基于测算的贸易足迹定义了生态贸易条件.对1991-2010年中国贸易足迹的实际测算显示,1991-1995年中国进出口贸易足迹基本平衡,生态贸易条件在波动中趋于上升;而1995年以后进口足迹增长远快于出口足迹增长,净进口足迹不断增大,生态贸易条件不断下降.对净进口足迹影响因素的实证分析表明,总人口、人均收入、每千美元GDP的能源使用量对净进口足迹有显著的正向作用,而第三产业比重对净进口足迹也有不太显著的正向影响.%Ecological footprint can be uesd to study ecological effects and sustainability of international trade quantitatively.Traditional ecological footprint accounting methods have the shortcomings of unstable parameters and neglecting ecological comparative advantage of different areas,thus leading to a relatively great accounting error.This paper initially uses Emergy Model to account ecological footprint embodied in international trade.The parameters used in Emergy Model,like Coefficient of energy conversion and Emergy conversion rate,are relatively stable in natural ecosystem,thus bringing a relatively accurate accounting of ecological footprint.Besides,to reflect the ecological interests distribution of international trade,this paper defines Ecological Terms of Trade(ETT),using ecological footprint embodied in trade.The accounting of Ecological Footprint of China's Import and Export Trade from 1991 to 2010 shows that China's trade footprint

  19. Execute the Function of Policy-Based Credit Insurance,Support the Export of China's Auto

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

      It has been four years since China Ex-port &Credit Insurance Corporation was founded. Under the concern of relevant departments, the support of all the enterprises, the scale of credit insurance for export support has expended rapidly. In 2005, China Export & Credit Insurance Corporation supported foreign economy and trade export US$21.2 billion. The function of Export & Credit Insurance in the development of our foreign economy and trade export is showing up.……

  20. Execute the Function of Policy-Based Credit Insurance, Support the Export of China's Auto

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ It has been four years since China Export & Credit Insurance Corporation was founded. Under the concern of relevant departments, the support of all the enterprises, the scale of credit insurance for export support has expended rapidly. In 2005, China Export & Credit Insurance Corporation supported foreign economy and trade export US$21.2billion. The function of Export & Credit Insurance in the development of our foreign economy and trade export is showing up.

  1. Execute the Function of Policy-Based Credit Insurance, Support the Export of China's Auto

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

      It has been four years since China Export & Credit Insurance Corporation was founded. Under the concern of relevant departments, the support of all the enterprises, the scale of credit insurance for export support has expended rapidly. In 2005, China Export & Credit Insurance Corporation supported foreign economy and trade export US$21.2billion. The function of Export & Credit Insurance in the development of our foreign economy and trade export is showing up.……

  2. Execute the Function of Policy-Based Credit Insurance,Support the Export of China's Auto

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ It has been four years since China Ex-port &Credit Insurance Corporation was founded. Under the concern of relevant departments, the support of all the enterprises, the scale of credit insurance for export support has expended rapidly. In 2005, China Export & Credit Insurance Corporation supported foreign economy and trade export US$21.2 billion. The function of Export & Credit Insurance in the development of our foreign economy and trade export is showing up.

  3. Mozambique. Export perespectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Sitz-Kuleszo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Destroyed by wars, military and internal conflicts economy of Republic of Mozambique since more than a decade is constantly growing. This 36th biggest country in the world became the object of interest for investment and trade for many developed economies, mostly from Asia. Nowadays investments in Mozambique are focused mostly on rich carbon and gas sources that has been discovered during last decade. Poland is not important trade partner for Mozambique, however could intensify exchange in upcoming years as, if the development will continue, Republic of Mozambique would need for its economy Polish export specialties.

  4. Entering new country and product markets: Does export promotion help?

    OpenAIRE

    Martincus, Christian Volpe; Carballo, Jerónimo

    2010-01-01

    Entering new export markets is primarily a discrete choice. Even though several empirical papers have used modeling strategies consistent with this fact, no study has examined the effects of public policies aimed at affecting this decision within this setting. In this paper we assess the impact of trade promotion activities on export outcomes using trade support and highly disaggregated export data for the whole population of exporters of a small developing country, Uruguay, over the period 2...

  5. A Trade Off

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    China’s growing trade surplus has become a major concern for some of its major trade partners, such as the United States and the European Union. As the latest statistics from China’s Customs Administration suggest, while the country’s export growth rate fell 1.2 percentage points and that of imports rose 2.4

  6. Trade Back on Track

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    China’s foreign trade gains momentum but still face suncertainties China is taking up a larger piece’of the global trade pie as its 2009 I exports accounted for almost one’10th of the world total that year. The Ministry of Commerce(MOFCOM)

  7. How Does Trade Liberalization Affect the Quality of China’s Export Goods?A Perspective of a Decline in Trade Policy Uncertainty%贸易自由化是如何影响我国出口产品质量的?*--基于贸易政策不确定性下降的视角

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏理梅; 彭冬冬; 兰宜生

    2016-01-01

    传统理论认为贸易自由化会促进出口产品的质量升级,但我国加入W TO后的情况却并非如此。文章基于贸易政策不确定性的视角,利用我国加入W TO前后美国对我国产品进行关税调整这一自然实验,通过倍差法分析了贸易自由化对我国出口产品质量的影响。研究表明:(1)在贸易自由化的过程中,贸易政策不确定性的下降会拉低我国的出口产品质量,且这一结论在改变质量测度方法、控制成本效应以及使用不同的产品属性、贸易对象和样本的情况下依然稳健;(2)贸易政策不确定性主要是通过广延边际上的质量调整降低了我国出口产品的总体质量,即在贸易政策不确定性下降幅度越大的产品中,有越多的生产低质量产品的企业进入出口市场;(3)在集约边际上,存续企业并未针对贸易政策不确定性的下降做出及时的产品质量调整,从而无法改变我国的产品质量在短期内下降的趋势。文章为我国如何在推行贸易自由化的同时实现出口产品质量升级提供了启示。%There is a conventional view that trade liberalization would promote the quality upgrading of export goods ,which is ,however ,at odds with the case after China’s access to the WTO .From a perspective of trade policy uncertainty ,this paper employs the natural experiment that U .S .A has adjusted its tariff policy for China’s products before and after China’s access to the WTO to analyze the impact of trade liberalization on the quality of China’s export goods by difference-in-difference model .It draw s the results as follow s :firstly ,in the process of trade liberalization ,a decline in trade policy uncertainty has degraded the quality of China’s export goods to U S. .A ;and this result is robust under the conditions of different quality measurement ,the control of costs effects and the use of differentiated products ,trade

  8. Foreign Direct Investment and Electronics Exports: Exploratory Empirical Evidence from Malaysia's Top Five Electronics Exports

    OpenAIRE

    Tuck Cheong Tang; Koi Nyen Wong

    2007-01-01

    The foreign direct investment (FDI) has contributed significantly to Malaysia's electronics exports as well as the growth and development of the electronics industry as a result of the export-oriented industrialization initiatives undertaken since 1970s. The aim of this study is to explore the causation between FDI and electronics exports by using Malaysia''s top five electronics exports by SITC (Standard International Trade Classification) product groups. The findings show a bi-directional c...

  9. Influences on Export Building Ceramics and Sanitary Wares by Technical Trade Barriers and Countermeasures%技术性贸易壁垒对出口建筑卫生陶瓷的影响和对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘亚民; 杨鹏; 梁柏清; 肖景红; 袁芳丽; 赵江伟

    2011-01-01

    This article concluds worldwide evaluation standard procedure and qualification regulation for building ceramics and sanitary wares, and analyse the influences on export building ceramics and sanitary wares by technical trade barriers, encourage the related company to face up to it positively.%主要总结了近年来世界各国对建筑卫生陶瓷出台的一系列合格评定程序、认证法规等,分析了技术性贸易壁垒对出口建筑卫生陶瓷造成的影响,鼓励相关企业积极面对,并提出了相应的应对措施.

  10. The Role of Intellectual Property Rights in Seed Technology Transfer through Trade – Evidence from U.S. Field Crop Seed Exports

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Minyu; Sheldon, Ian M.

    2013-01-01

    To investigate whether intellectual property rights (IPRs) promote or hinder seed technology diffusion through trade, we use panel data for 134 countries over the period 1985-2010 to evaluate the impact of a country’s IPRs on its seed imports from the U.S. by estimating a gravity equation using both linear and nonlinear (Poisson) fixed effects methods. In both the static and dynamic models, the variable for WTO member countries that have implemented the TRIPs (Trade-Related Aspects of Intelle...

  11. Danish Exports and Danish Bilateral Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik; Rand, John

    countries. This Evaluation Study presents an econometric analysis of Danish exports to 144 countries over the period from 1981 to 2010. The analysis is based on the gravity model of bilateral trade; a structural model developed over decades and now the central model in analyses of bilateral trade flows...... and trade policies. The main result of the study is that Danish bilateral aid has a positive and statistically significant impact on Danish exports to the recipient countries. Bilateral development assistance may affect exports through several channels. Three of the main channels are direct aid tying......; increasing recipient income where higher income leads to higher imports, and decreased trade costs, say due to improved information about cultural and administrative customs and practices. Thus, as for preferential trade arrangements, bilateral aid has two potential economic effects; trade creation working...

  12. Climate Change Creates Trade Opportunity in India

    OpenAIRE

    Dinda, Soumyananda

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is an emerging challenge to developing economy like India however it also creates opportunity to grow through climate friendly goods production and new direction of trade. This paper focuses India’s potential export trade in climate friendly goods. The estimated gravity model is defined as the potential trade and potential trade gap is measured as how well a bilateral trade flow performs relative to the mean as predicted by the model. Potential trade gap means that actual trade...

  13. Export strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Thorbjørn; Koed Madsen, Tage

    2002-01-01

    It is argued here that traditional export strategy research (encompassing the study of internationalization processes and export performance) is characterized by weak theoretical foundations and could benefit from a reorientation towards a dynamic capabilities perspective (DCP). We seek to draw...... on insights from DCP in order to devise a theoretical basis that could enrich export strategy research. Although our development of DCP insights builds on previous work, it also adds a crucial distinction between knowledge stocks and informational architecture. Changes in architecture are of greater...... importance. Following this elaboration of the dynamic capabilities perspective, we outline some implications and guidelines for future export strategy research....

  14. Book Trade Research and Statistics. Prices of U.S. and Foreign Published Materials; Book Title Output and Average Prices: 2001 Final and 2002 Preliminary Figures; Book Sales Statistics, 2002: AAP Preliminary Estimates; U.S. Book Exports and Imports:2002; Number of Book Outlets in the United States and Canada; Review Media Statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Sharon G.; Grabois, Andrew; Greco, Albert N.

    2003-01-01

    Includes six reports related to book trade statistics, including prices of U.S. and foreign materials; book title output and average prices; book sales statistics; book exports and imports; book outlets in the U.S. and Canada; and numbers of books and other media reviewed by major reviewing publications. (LRW)

  15. NEW APPROACHES TO EXPORT COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Petronela NEGREA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The economic literature and the political discourse typically look at international competitiveness mainly by the means of export market shares. However, globalisation, production fragmentation and the growing importance of global value chains (GVCs increasingly challenge traditional approaches of export competitiveness and call for a more accurate and disaggregated level of analysis. Due to the growing fragmentation of production, a country exports now include a significant amount of imports of intermediate goods which are part of the export value. In this case, a simple analysis of the evolution of exports can distort the international competitive position of a country. The article suggests a new approach based on the value-added content of international trade measured by means of global value chain analysis.

  16. Second Thoughts on Exporter Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Allan; Schröder, Philipp J.H.

    Empirical literature has established a positive link between firm productivity and export status, yet notable exceptions exist. The present paper shows that the underlying theory (Melitz, 2003) is in fact able to accommodate the rule as well as the exception. The fulcrum of the argument is the te......Empirical literature has established a positive link between firm productivity and export status, yet notable exceptions exist. The present paper shows that the underlying theory (Melitz, 2003) is in fact able to accommodate the rule as well as the exception. The fulcrum of the argument...... is the tension between empirical work measuring productivity based on average cost information, and theoretical work representing productivity by marginal cost. In a heterogeneous firms trade model, we compute productivity based on average cost and find that around the export-indifferent firm, exporters...... will be less productive than non-exporters. Furthermore, we show that this effect may feed through at the industry level....

  17. NEW APPROACHES TO EXPORT COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Petronela NEGREA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The economic literature and the political discourse typically look at international competitiveness mainly by the means of export market shares. However, globalisation, production fragmentation and the growing importance of global value chains (GVCs increasingly challenge traditional approaches of export competitiveness and call for a more accurate and disaggregated level of analysis. Due to the growing fragmentation of production, a country exports now include a significant amount of imports of intermediate goods which are part of the export value. In this case, a simple analysis of the evolution of exports can distort the international competitive position of a country. The article suggests a new approach based on the value-added content of international trade measured by means of global value chain analysis.

  18. The Effect of Exchange Rate Volatility on Iran’s Raisin Export

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Exchange rate volatility is one of the effective and ambiguous factors in agricultural product export. Considering the importance of agricultural trade to avoid single-product economy, the main aim of this study was to investigate the impact of exchange rate volatility on the Raisin export of Iran during the years1959-2011. For this purpose, exchange rate volatility index was estimated using Moving Average Standard Deviation (MASD. Then, the impact of exchange rate volatility on the value of Raisin export was examined using Johansen's and Juselius's cointegration method and Vector Error Correction Model (VECM.The results showed that in the long-term and short-term there is a significant relationship between Raisin exports and its main variables (weighted average of Gross income of importers, Wholesale Prices, real exchange rate, Value-added of agricultural sector; as according to the theory it has negative relationship with exchange rate volatility. The error correction coefficient sentence ECM (-1 significantly and its sign was negative as expected. The value of this coefficient is equal to the -0/20 and indicates that about 20 percent of Raisin exports imbalance from its long-term value, after of a period will be Elapse.

  19. Chinese Textile Industry Still Taking Advantage on Export ( Part B )

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Diversified export marketsWith China’s textile export markets -- particularlythose in the US -- being strongly affected by the adverseeffects of the ongoing global financial crisis, diversifyingexport markets has become the motto of China’stextile foreign trade policy, a safe way to provide newopportunities to Chinese exporters. In 2008, Chinesetextile exported to 226 countries and regions, of which,38 countries and regions achieved export value of over 1

  20. 中国商品出口贸易发展研究--基于主要贸易伙伴经济发展的视角%The Study of the Development of China's Goods Export Trade---Based on the Economic Development of the Main Trading Partners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈银忠; 许劲

    2015-01-01

    危机后世界经济恢复缓慢,外部需求持续低迷,中国商品出口贸易发展增速逐年放缓,为了深入探讨危机后中国商品出口贸易的发展,文章在分析主要贸易伙伴国(地区)经济发展的周期波动与中国商品出口贸易发展之间关系的基础上,建立了包含经济发展周期波动因素的面板数据模型,定量地研究了主要贸易伙伴国(地区)经济发展对中国商品出口贸易发展的影响效应。研究结果表明:主要贸易伙伴国(地区)的经济发展对中国商品出口贸易发展具有重要的影响,但在经济发展的不同周期阶段,其影响效应具有非对称性,经济发展处于繁荣阶段的拉动效应大于衰退阶段。最后分别从积极参与国际经济事务、促进产业结构转型升级等三个方面,对后危机时期中国商品出口贸易的发展提出了相应的建议。%After the crisis, the recovery of world's economy was slow, the foreign demand substantially downturn and the develop-ment of China's goods export was slowdown year after year. In order to study the development of China's goods export in post-crisis period , the paper analyzed the relationship between the business cycle of the main trading partners and the development of China's goods export , then established a panel data model which include the factor of business cycle, empirical research the effect of the main trading partners (regional)'s economic development on the China's goods export. The results showed that the main trading partners (regional)'s economic development had important effect on the development of China's goods export. But in the different economic development state , its effect on the China's goods export was asymmetry, the stimulating effect of boom state was greater than decline one. Finally, the paper proposed two recommendations for the development of China's goods export in the post-crisis period:actively participated

  1. 76 FR 31935 - District Export Council Nomination Opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-02

    ...-1376. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: As lead organizations serving the international business community... to providing international trade leadership and guidance to the local business community and... International Trade Administration District Export Council Nomination Opportunity AGENCY: International...

  2. 78 FR 32622 - District Export Council Nomination Opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-31

    ... organizations serving the international business community, and working together with USEACs, the mission of the... dedicated to providing international trade leadership and guidance to the local business community and...; ] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration District Export Council Nomination...

  3. 中哈贸易出口效率及潜力研究--基于随机前沿引力模型%A Study of Sino-Kazakh Export Trade Efficiency and Potential---Based on Stochastic Frontier Gravity Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩延玲; 陈三景

    2016-01-01

    Under the background of“Silk Road Economic Zone”, China and Central Asian trade have become the hot topic. This paper selects the panel data of trade between China and 31 countries from 1995 to 2014, using the stochastic frontier gravity mod-el to study the export trade efficiency and trade potential of China and Kazakhstan. Results showed that: although Kazakhstan’ s export trade efficiency in each year is on the rise, average efficiency of 0. 214, export trade efficiency is still low, export potential is larger, the average export trade to expand the space for the 245. 18%, shows that China and Kazakhstan’ s foreign trade still has a lot of upside. Therefore,we present policy recommendations with exploring the export potential as the aim.%内容提在“丝绸之路经济带”背景下,中国与中亚贸易研究成为热点话题。本文选取了1995年—2014年中国与31个国家的贸易面板数据,运用随机前沿引力模型重点对中国与哈萨克斯坦的出口贸易效率以及贸易潜力进行研究。结果表明:中哈两国出口贸易效率虽然每年呈上升趋势,平均效率为0.214,但出口贸易效率仍较低,说明出口潜力较大;出口平均贸易拓展空间为245.18%,说明我国与哈萨克斯坦的对外贸易仍有很大的上升空间。为此,本文以挖掘出口贸易潜力为目标,提出了相应的政策建议。

  4. 安徽省中药材出口贸易现状与发展对策--以亳州药材为例%Chinese Herbal Medicine Export Trade Situation and Development Strategy of Anhui Province:A Case Study of Bozhou Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯晶; 王萍; 侯博

    2014-01-01

    本文首先简要介绍了我国中药行业的出口现状,然后以安徽亳州为例,介绍安徽省中药材产业发展及出口情况,最后分析安徽省中药材出口贸易的优劣势,对中药出口存在的问题提出合理化建议。%This paper briefly describes the status of the export of Chinese herbal medicine industry, then by taking Bozhou in Anhui for example, describes the development and export of Chinese herbal medicine industry in Anhui Province, and finally analyzes the advantages and disadvantages of Anhui medicines export trade and proposes rational proposals for the problems of Chinese herbal medicine export.

  5. From an accounting point of view of cost control challenges current export foreign trade enterprises%从会计成本控制的角度分析当前外贸企业出口挑战

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴哲敏

    2016-01-01

    As a cost control basic functions of accounting personnel, has a very important impact on daily business operations and cost savings. At this stage of international development trend, especially foreign trade enterprises in the face of all kinds of domestic and foreign markets dynamic challenges of cost control means, methods, results and other concerns, naturally become the pursuit of sustainable development an important starting point. In the current paper the impact of various types of foreign trade enterprises business factors of cost control, such as raising the cost of human resources, marketing costs increased rapidly, energy price fluctuations as the analysis starting point for analysis, and strive to provide some advice to optimize trade and export policy opinion.%成本控制作为会计人员的基本职能,对企业的日常运营及成本节约具有极为重要的影响。现阶段在我国国际化发展的大趋势下,尤其是外贸企业在面对国内外市场的各类动态性挑战中,对成本控制的方式、方法、成效等关注,自然就成为企业谋求可持续发展的重要切入点。文中以当前影响外贸企业贸易成本控制的各类因素,如人力资源成本的提升、营销费用快速递增、能源价格波动等作为分析的切入点进行分析,力求为外贸企业出口策略的优化提供一定建议和意见。

  6. WTO: Global Trade Volume to Grow 13% in 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    WTO recently released the latest global trade environment report and analyzed the varous data from Dec. 2009 to Oct. 2010, including trade situation, employment market, GDP, regional trade protocols and trade barriers. World Trade Organization forecasted that global trade volume (including goods trade and service trade) would grow 13% in 2010. The statistics show that the global export growth has exceeded the output growth. From 2000 to 2007, the world export trade rose at the pace of 6%, but dropped to 2% in 2008, even negative growth in 2009. The falling pace was 12%. Not untill July 2010, did the world trade recover the precrisis level of June 2008.

  7. İnternetin Uluslararası Ticaret Üzerindeki Etkileri: OECD Ülkeleri Örneği = The Effect of the Internet on International Trade: the Case of OECD Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyfettin ARTAN

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with the effects of the internet on international trade for 30 OECD countries including Turkey. For this purpose, Countries’ host and internet user numbers were taken into account as a proxy of internet. Augmented gravity model and panel data analysis were used for evaluation of data. According to the results; it was found that gross domestic products, indicating countries’ size is an important determinant of international trade and it affects the trade between countries in a positive way. Moreover, the effect of internet on international trade was found positive and significant. Likewise, a 10 % increase of host and internet users in exporter countries increases their international trade 1.6 % and 6.8 % respectively. This result shows that a policy maker who wants to increase the international trade is to develop information and communication technologies.

  8. 15 CFR 30.60 - Confidentiality of Electronic Export Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confidentiality of Electronic Export Information. 30.60 Section 30.60 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FOREIGN TRADE REGULATIONS General Administrative...

  9. Significant drivers of the virtual water trade evaluated with a multivariate regression analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamea, Stefania; Laio, Francesco; Ridolfi, Luca

    2014-05-01

    International trade of food is vital for the food security of many countries, which rely on trade to compensate for an agricultural production insufficient to feed the population. At the same time, food trade has implications on the distribution and use of water resources, because through the international trade of food commodities, countries virtually displace the water used for food production, known as "virtual water". Trade thus implies a network of virtual water fluxes from exporting to importing countries, which has been estimated to displace more than 2 billions of m3 of water per year, or about the 2% of the annual global precipitation above land. It is thus important to adequately identify the dynamics and the controlling factors of the virtual water trade in that it supports and enables the world food security. Using the FAOSTAT database of international trade and the virtual water content available from the Water Footprint Network, we reconstructed 25 years (1986-2010) of virtual water fluxes. We then analyzed the dependence of exchanged fluxes on a set of major relevant factors, that includes: population, gross domestic product, arable land, virtual water embedded in agricultural production and dietary consumption, and geographical distance between countries. Significant drivers have been identified by means of a multivariate regression analysis, applied separately to the export and import fluxes of each country; temporal trends are outlined and the relative importance of drivers is assessed by a commonality analysis. Results indicate that population, gross domestic product and geographical distance are the major drivers of virtual water fluxes, with a minor (but non-negligible) contribution given by the agricultural production of exporting countries. Such drivers have become relevant for an increasing number of countries throughout the years, with an increasing variance explained by the distance between countries and a decreasing role of the gross

  10. Loovkirjutamist õpetab Philip Gross

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    T.S. Elioti luulepreemia laureaat Philip Gross on Tallinna Ülikooli talvekooli rahvusvahelise kursuse "Poetry: A Conversation between Words and Silence" läbiviija. Oma seminarides keskendub ta lisaks loovkirjutamisele ka loova lugemise vajadusele

  11. Gross Sales Tax Collections

    Data.gov (United States)

    City of Jackson, Mississippi — This data is captured directly from the MS Department of Revenue and specific to the City of Jackson. It is compiled from Gross Sales Tax reported by taxpayers each...

  12. A Strong Backbone For Export

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    China Export & Credit Insurance Corp., founded in 2001, is the country’s only policy-oriented credit insurance company. In line with the state’s diplomatic, foreign trade and industrial policies, it supports the country’s commodity, technology and servic

  13. Improvement of food exports from Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babić Jasna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the analysis of food exports from Serbia and safety food management system. The food is an important export opportunity for Serbia. Food exports recorded robust growth, higher than the growth of total Serbian exports, with positive balance in foreign trade. In order to exploit identified opportunities, it is necessary to improve domestic production, provide basic quality requirements and develop marketing aspects of export supply. This paper presents the necessary standards of a quality related to the food segment and the most important directions for improving marketing export competitiveness factors of agricultural and food products. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the importance of food safety management system certification in the entire food chain and importance of marketing strategies for export development of these products.

  14. 77 FR 29314 - Meeting of the President's Export Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    ... International Trade Administration Meeting of the President's Export Council AGENCY: International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of an open meeting. SUMMARY: The President's Export Council will hold a meeting to discuss topics and provide recommendations related to the National...

  15. China's High-tech Exports: Myth and Reality

    OpenAIRE

    Xing, Yuqing

    2011-01-01

    China’s leading position in high-tech exports is a myth created by outdated trade statistics, which are inconsistent with the trade based on global supply chains. Assembled high-tech products, made with imported key parts and components, accounted for 82% of China’s high-tech exports. Current trade statistics mistakenly credit entire values of these assembled products to China, thus greatly inflate the export value. For instance, in 2009 China’s export in the iPhone amounted US$4.6 billion, o...

  16. Export Management Specialist. A Training Program. Instructor's Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This publication provides instructors with materials for an export management specialist (EMS) training program. The objective of the training program is to assist companies in reaching their export goals by educating current and potential managers about the basics of exporting. It provides a foundation for considering international trade and for…

  17. Impact of Russian Log Export Tariffs on China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Based on the introduction of the Sino-Russian timber trade and the history about timber export in Russia,the paper gives the reasons for the adjustment in Russian timber export and its influence on timber import in China.Finally countermeasures against Russian adjustment in timber export tariffs are proposed.

  18. 77 FR 37346 - Export Control Reform Transition Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-21

    ... Parts 120, 121, 123, 124, 125, 126, 127, 128, 129, and 130 ] Export Control Reform Transition Plan... the President's export control reform initiative, the Directorate of Defense Trade Controls (DDTC..., items not subject to the export control jurisdiction of the ITAR are subject to the jurisdiction of the...

  19. Fixed export costs and multi-product firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Creusen, H.; Smeets, R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper has two aims. First, we uncover some salient components of fixed export costs, which play a crucial role in recent heterogeneous firms models of international trade. Second, we investigate whether the importance of these fixed export costs varies with the size of a firms export product

  20. 22 CFR 123.5 - Temporary export licenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Temporary export licenses. 123.5 Section 123.5 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS LICENSES FOR THE EXPORT OF DEFENSE ARTICLES § 123.5 Temporary export licenses. (a) The Directorate of Defense Trade Controls...

  1. 27 CFR 28.295 - Exception for export of beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... beer. 28.295 Section 28.295 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Alternate Procedures § 28.295 Exception for export of beer. The provisions of this subpart do not apply in the case of beer when the exporter or claimant obtains proof of exportation other than...

  2. The Export Promoting Effect of Emigration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hiller, Sanne

    . This paper provides a first attempt to identify the export-promoting effect of emigration on the firm level. Using detailed Danish firm-level data, we can parsimoniously control for export determinants other than emigration, unobserved heterogeneity at the firm level, as well as for self-selection of firms...... into exporting. Additionally accounting for taste similarity between Denmark and its trade partners, our findings suggest a positive effect of emigration on Danish manufacturing trade within Europe, thereby corroborating preceding studies on aggregate data. Nevertheless, as a novel insight, our analysis reveals...

  3. Second Thoughts on the Exporter Productivity Premium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp; Sørensen, Allan

    2012-01-01

    Contrary to the prevailing interpretation, this paper shows that the central models of trade with heterogeneous firms [Melitz (2003) and Bernard et al.(2003)] exhibit ambiguous predictions for the exporter productivity premium. This prospect arises due to differences between theoretical and empir......Contrary to the prevailing interpretation, this paper shows that the central models of trade with heterogeneous firms [Melitz (2003) and Bernard et al.(2003)] exhibit ambiguous predictions for the exporter productivity premium. This prospect arises due to differences between theoretical...... for empirical research on exporter performance including learning, and the role of non-parametric regressions (stochastic dominance, quantile regressions), fixed costs and productivity distributions....

  4. Extensive Margins of Offshoring and Exporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laugesen, Anders Rosenstand

    This paper derives new comparative statics within a two-country version of the recent offshoring model by Antràs, Fort, and Tintelnot (2014) with nonprohibitive costs of exporting final goods. One key finding is that an asymmetric trade liberalisation might very well imply that the fractions...... of offshorers and exporters increase in one country and decrease in the other country. This model outcome occurs when competition enhances in a country experiencing a decline in its costs of international trade. The fractions of offshorers and exporters certainly increase in a small open economy experiencing...

  5. Import-push or Export-pull?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jäkel, Ina Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Does the selection effect of trade work solely through competition from imports, or does the export market further contribute to firm selection? This paper provides a re-interpretation of the different mechanisms in terms of selection on profitability - rather than productivity - and derives novel...... predictions regarding the export market and the role of product differentiation. Empirical results for a sample of Danish manufacturing industries confirm the import- "push" hypothesis as well as the export- "pull" hypothesis, but also reveal differences across industries. The selection effect of trade...

  6. Analysis of Export Commodity Structure in China-Based on the Measurement of Value Added in Trade%我国出口商品结构分析--基于贸易增加值测算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹秋菊; 李宁奇

    2015-01-01

    本文通过采用国际非竞争型投入产出表,对我国主要出口商品的增加值率分行业进行了测算,并在此基础上对出口商品结构进行分析。增加值率的测算结果表明:中国作为世界出口额最多的国家,其出口商品的增值率都不高,但保持着在平稳中略有上升的势头;具体来说,我国在出口贸易中所占份额较大的工业制成品的增值率比份额较小的初级商品的增值率低,而就工业制成品来说,出口份额较大的资本及技术密集型产品的出口增值率要低于出口份额较小的劳动及资源密集型产品。根据测算结果,本文分析了我国出口商品结构存在的问题,并提出相应的对策建议。%By using international non-competitive input-output table, this paper calculates the added-value rate of China's main export commodities which is divided into different industries; and based on it, the paper analyzes the structure of export commodities. The result of the added-value rate shows that: As a leader of international trade, the added-value rate of all commodities in China is not high, but the rate remains slightly higher in stability. To be specific, the added-value rate of manufacturing products, which takes up a larger proportion, is lower than primary commodities, which takes up a smaller share. In terms of internal products of manufacturing commodities, the high-tech manufacturing products which take up a larger proportion have a lower added-value rate than the labor and resource intensive products which take up a smaller share. According to the results, the paper analyzes the problems of structure of main export commodities, and comes up with corresponding countermeasures and suggestions.

  7. Monetary Policy and Trade Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Dudley Cooke

    2010-01-01

    I develop a two country general equilibrium model with heterogeneous price-setting firms to understand how shocks to monetary policy and aggregate labor productivity impact trade integration, which I capture through the (inverse) average productivity of exporting firms. A contractionary domestic monetary policy shock raises the average productivity of domestic exporting firms but lowers the average productivity of foreign exporting firms. The magnitude of these changes is greater when governm...

  8. 欧洲债务危机对吉林省对外贸易的影响%The Impact of European Debt Crisis on Import and Export Trade of Jilin Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘越; 吴迪

    2011-01-01

    2009年12月欧洲债务危机爆发以来,希腊、比利时、意大利和西班牙等国先后陷入危机,多国面临国际信用评级下调。目前,欧债危机愈演愈烈,由于吉林省对外贸易往来中欧盟份额较大,其中进口比重已超过60%,因此此次欧债危机对吉林省对外贸易影响不容忽视。相关企业如何积极趋利避害,因势利导,有效应对危机,相关管理部门如何宣传引导,鼎力扶持,促进吉林省对外贸易健康发展,值得密切关注与思考。%Since December 2009, some European Countries, such as Greece, Belgium, Italy and Spain, have been trapped in government debt crisis. Currently, the European debt crisis intensified. There is a large share in EU in the total amount of export and import trade of Jilin Province, which accounts for more than 60% of imports. So the debt crisis has impact on Jilin province’s foreign trade can not be ignored. Related companies should take measures to avoid disadvantages; the relevant administrative departments should promote and guide, give full support for relevant companies.

  9. A Road to Free Trade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU JIANREN

    2010-01-01

    @@ The concept of CAFTA dates back to the Fourth China-ASEAN Summit in November 2000. At the summit, ASEAN member nations raised concerns that China's exports would be dramatically strengthened after it entered the World Trade Organization (WTO), thus threaten-ing their interests, as the ASEAN economy was export-oriented.

  10. Soviet energy export prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scanlan, Tony

    1991-05-01

    The Soviet Union produces 20% of world energy but since 1988 this is in decline. Awakening consumerism and a sea-change in the structure of foreign trade and internal investment are placing this key industry into unprecedented uncertainty. The difference between success and failure goes beyond the 1988 peak of six million barrels daily of exports in oil equivalent. The article quantifies the key areas of energy uncertainty as equal in volume to total OPEC output and sees the long-term changes of success more than ever dependent on coordinated planning and investment as well as on market reality. (Author).

  11. An Export Promotion Policy after Financial Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingyo Cheong

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Although the Korean government puts in place various export support policies after the financial crisis, Korean export is still in stagnation because the foreign-oriented economic conditions, such as the continual ripple effect of the Eastern Asia financial crisis and the American economy which is slowing down, are deteriorating. After the financial crisis, Korean trading circle considered the difficulties in financing and the buying of raw material to be the most important factors which blocked the export. This thesis first analyzed the change of the actual export results, then analyzed the policy the government brought forward as the solution of the difficulties in financing and raw material buying. Meanwhile, this thesis brought forward alternative policies like taking auto-rediscount and signing Free Trade Agreement with major trade states.

  12. 从贸易结构角度看全球经济波动对中国出口贸易的影响——基于中国和主要贸易伙伴国面板数据的实证研究%Influence of Global Economic Fluctuations on Export Trade of China from the Perspective of Trade Structure: an Empirical Study on the Panel Data of China and the Main Mercantile Partnership

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩琳琳; 覃正

    2011-01-01

    从产品技术附加值角度对中国出口贸易结构进行了分析.在此基础上,对2000~ 2008年主要贸易伙伴国经济波动对中国出口贸易影响程度进行了度量.研究结果表明:美国经济波动对中国低、中、高等附加值产品出口影响最大、俄罗斯最小,新兴经济体经济波动对中国低、中、高附加值产品出口影响程度通常小于发达经济体.从产品技术附加值角度看,除日本、俄罗斯外,各国经济波动对中国低附加值产品出口影响大于中、高等附加值产品.最后,根据当前中国出口贸易结构情况,提出了针对出口国具体情况适度调节出口贸易结构以及加大面向新兴经济体出口的对策建议.%This paper analyzes the export trade structure of China from the perspective of technological additional value of goods. On this basis, the influence of the main mercantile partnership on China export trade is measured based on the panel data from 2000 to 2008. The results show that the economic fluctuations of the United States have the greatest impact on China' s export of low, middle and high value - added products, while the minimum impact comes from Russia. Compared with the developed countries, the economic fluctuations in emerging economies have less impact on China' s export of low, middle and high value - added products. From the perspective of technological additional value of goods, except for Japan and Russia, the economic fluctuations of the studied countries impose larger effects on the export of low value - added products than that of middle and high value -added products. At last, the paper proposes policy suggestions on the adjustment of export trade structure based on the situation of China' s export.

  13. ROMANIAN EXPORT COMPETITIVENESS ON THE EUROPEAN MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Clipa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Exports of a nation can form a large part of its commercial card on the international market. Global consumer, according to the quality of exports, may associate a certain image about the country of origin. This article aims at explaining the relationship between exports and competitiveness of a nation, the analysis focuses on the nature and intensity of intra-Community exports of Romania. To this end we considered a number of performance indicators that are able to reveal the positioning of trade from Romania to the EU.

  14. Quality and the Great Trade Collapse

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    We explore whether the global financial crisis has had heterogeneous effects on traded goods differentiated by quality. Combining a dataset of Argentinean firm-level destination-specific wine exports with quality ratings, we show that higher quality exports grew faster before the crisis, but this trend reversed during the recession. Quantitatively, the effect is large: up to nine percentage points difference in trade performance can be explained by the quality composition of exports. This fli...

  15. Risk Mitigation Measures for Tax Rebate Practices in Export Trade Enterprises%浅议外贸企业出口退税实务管控风险及对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙志奇

    2014-01-01

    本文针对外贸企业出口退税现状、政策变迁以及实务管控过程中必要的风险分析,提出应对对策,有助于企业出口退税财务人员在办理退税时抓住关键控制点,避免出现不必要的延缓或者不能退税的情况发生,为企业在办理出口退税过程中节约成本和提高出口退税效率。%Based on risk analysis of export trade companies in tax rebate, policy development, and accounting and auditing practices, the risk mitigation measures are proposed with the aim of helping accountants to seize key points in tax rebate practice, to avoid delay or rebate failures and hence to ensure cost-saving and tax rebate efficiency in the process.

  16. 人民币汇率变化对我国进出口贸易的影响%The Influence of the Changes of RMB Exchange Rate on Import and Export Trade in Our Country

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊园杰

    2015-01-01

    As an important index in international finance, exchange rate is a tool which realizes and evaluate the economy of a country. To promote the development of the economy, China has tried to keep stable RMB exchange rate through controlling the floating of exchange rate. This paper, based on the changes of RMB exchange rate, analyzed its influence on the development of e-conomy from import and export trade, employment level and price level, and put forwards the suggestions about the influence of ex-change rate.%汇率作为国际金融的重要指标,是实现和衡量一国经济内外均衡的工具。为了促进经济发展,我国一直通过控制汇率的浮动机制政策保持人民币汇率的稳定。本文以人民币汇率变化为数据基础,从进出口贸易、就业水平和物价水平三个方面来分析人民币汇率变化对经济发展的影响及途径,并针对汇率影响问题提出相应的述议。

  17. The Influence of Anti-social Dumping to China's Export Trade and Strategies%反“社会倾销”对我国出口贸易的影响及策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄晓喆

    2011-01-01

    当前,发达国家出现了一种”社会倾销论”,并由此作为反倾销的理由.我们应从反社会倾销的实质进行分析,对我国出口贸易的影响科学评估,寻找出解决问题的途径,并从转变经济发展方式,加强职业安全管理、逆向采购角度,提出我国应对反社会倾销的总体性策略.%At present, developed countries take "social dumping" theory as the reason of anti-dumping. We should analyze the essence of anti-social dumping, scientifically evaluate its effect on China's export trade, and find the solution to the problem. The overall strategy of China's response to antisocial dumping is put forward from the point of view of transforming the mode of economic development, strengthening occupational safety management and reverse purchasing.

  18. Veterinary export certification: potential barriers to Dutch exports in world markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterbosch, T.J.; Rau, M.L.

    2010-01-01

    The official veterinary export certificate is a comprehensive instrument to regulate risks of animal disease transmission in global food trade. This paper documents how veterinary health attestation by public veterinary service in the Netherlands prevents export impediments. In order to maintain the

  19. Veterinary export certification: potential barriers to Dutch exports in world markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterbosch, T.J.; Rau, M.L.

    2010-01-01

    The official veterinary export certificate is a comprehensive instrument to regulate risks of animal disease transmission in global food trade. This paper documents how veterinary health attestation by public veterinary service in the Netherlands prevents export impediments. In order to maintain the

  20. 技术性贸易壁垒对我国出口贸易影响的实证研究%Empirical Research on Effects of Technical Barriers to China' s Export Trade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张秀娥; 张波

    2012-01-01

    受2007年爆发的金融危机影响,2009年全球货物贸易出现二战以来最大降幅,国际贸易保护主义急剧升温.技术性贸易壁垒作为我国出口面临的第一大非贸易关税壁垒,严重阻碍了中国对外贸易的正常发展.在此背景下,我国应对技术性贸易壁垒面临的形势更为复杂.论文介绍了金融危机背景下技术性贸易壁垒呈现的特点;定量和定性地分析了金融危机背景下技术性贸易壁垒对我国各类行业、各种产品的影响,不同国家对我国实施技术性贸易壁垒的情况以及我国部分省份受技术性贸易壁垒影响的情况;最后,从政府、行业协会、企业角度提出切实可行的我国应对技术性贸易壁垒的对策.%Affected by global financial crisis, the global goods trade in 2009 appeared the biggest decline, and global trade protectionism was rapidly growing. Technical barrier as the largest non - trade tariff barrier that China' s export faces, brings bad effects to China's economy. Under this background, the situation that China responds to technical barriers is serious. This thesis introduces characteristics of technical barrier under the background of financial crisis; it deeply analyzes the impacts of technical barriers to China' s different industries and products, the cases of different countries in implementing technical barriers to China and the situations of some provinces affected by technical barriers. Lastly, it prompts countermeasures of China' s response to technical barriers under the background of financial crisis.

  1. 中国制造业出口贸易方式碳排放--基于投入产出法的分析%CO2 Emissions in Export by Trade Methods of Chinas Manufacturing Industry---Analysis Based on an Input-output Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡小娟; 赵倩

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses the situation about CO2 emissions in export of Chinas manufacturing industry from 2006 to 2010 by applying an input-output approach and carries out a comparative analysis on CO2 emissions in export by general trade and processing trade.When calculating CO2 emissions in export by processing trade,the paper divides the whole into parts that produced by imported intermediate products and that actually occur domestically.At the same time the paper studies the situation about CO2 emissions in export of manufacturing industry sectors in 2007 .Finally,corresponding policy recommendations about decreasing CO2 emissions in export of Chinas manufacturing industry are made according to conclusions of the research.%文章采用投入产出法分析了2006~2010年中国制造业出口碳排放情况,并对一般贸易和加工贸易出口碳排放进行了比较分析,在计算加工贸易出口碳排放时分离出进口中间产品碳排放和国内实际碳排放,同时研究了2007年制造业各部门的出口碳排放情况,最后基于各项研究结论对中国制造业出口碳减排提出了相应的政策建议。

  2. Determinants of exports diversifications around the world: 1962 - 2000

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Agosin; Roberto Álvarez; Claudio Bravo-Ortega; Esteban Puentes

    2010-01-01

    Using a large dataset of countries during the last forty years, this paper analyzes the main determinants of export diversification. We explore the role of several factors and we use three different indicators of export diversification. We find robust evidence across specifications and indicators that trade openness induces higher specialization and does not favor export diversification. In contrast, financial development helps countries to diversify their exports. Looking at the effects of e...

  3. 15 CFR 754.5 - Horses for export by sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Horses for export by sea. 754.5... CONTROLS § 754.5 Horses for export by sea. (a) License requirement. As indicated by the letters “SS” in the... No. 1 to part 774 of the EAR) a license is required for the export of horses exported by sea to...

  4. NAFTA and the diversification of Mexico’s exports

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Using NAFTA’s effect on Mexico’s exports as a natural experiment, this paper conducts an empirical analysis on the explanatory power of the two strands of heterogeneous firms trade models: the heterogeneous firms trade (HFT) model and the quality heterogeneous firms trade (QHFT) model. The paper first discusses the common prediction of the two models on ‘new’ goods’ exports and on the contrasting prediction on unit price evolution. An empirical analysis shows a strong supportive evidence on t...

  5. Technological Progress, Exit and Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp; Sørensen, Allan

    The dynamics of export market exit and firm closure have found limited attention in heterogeneous-firms trade models. Accordingly, several of the predictions on exit stemming from new-new trade theory are at odds with the stylized facts. Empirically, higher productivity firms survive longer, higher...... productivity exporters are more likely to continue to export, and market exit is typically preceded by periods of contracting market shares. We show that the simple inclusion of exogenous economy wide technological progress into the standard Melitz (2003) model generates a tractable dynamic framework...

  6. Export spillovers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choquette, Eliane; Meinen, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    -industry linkages. We do so by exploiting a unique data set covering the universe of manufacturing firms in Denmark for the period 1995–2006 which combines transaction-level export data, firm accounting data, employer–employee linked data and information from yearly input–output tables. We corroborate...

  7. Price and Income Elasticities of Russian Exports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardina Algieri

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper gauges export demand elasticities for Russia using an Error Correction technique within a cointegration framework. An extended version of the Imperfect Substitutes Model has been implemented to estimate the sensitivity of Russian exports without oil components to price and to Russian and world income. Our results suggest a robust and negative long run cointegration relationship between the real effective exchange rate, defined as the weighted average of the rouble’s exchange rates versus a basket of the three currencies with the largest share in the trade turnover adjusted to incorporate inflation rate differences (the ratio of the domestic price indices to the foreign price indices, and Russian exports. An increase in exports by 24% is caused by a real depreciation by 10%. Furthermore, a 10% growth in world income leads to a 33% rise in exports. Finally, exports drop by 14% whenever a 10% increase in domestic income occurs

  8. INTERNATIONAL TRADE WITH ONIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Lucian PÂNZARU

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper refers to the global trade situation with onion, 2008-2010. Besides presenting the existing situation of the five units continents (Africa, America, Asia, Europe and Oceania study shows worldwide level of imports and exports, as well as its contribution to the performing acts of international exchange. Quantitative aspects of trade are filled with values data, that allowed the preparation of trade exchanges for this product. The main importer (in quantitative terms is represented by Asia, followed by Europe and at greater distance by the America, while the value of imports was dominated by operations performed in Europe, Asia and America - weights of 39.7 , 38.1 and 18.6% respective (of the world total. Concerning the quantity, the major players on the market exports are represented by Asia and Europe. They have dominated the world market, achieving 45.6 and respective 30.8% of world exports. America ranks third with a share of 17.4%. In terms of value, world exports were dominated by Asia, Europe and America (33.5, 32.7 and respective 26.7%, with a downward trend in the share of Asia and increasing European weights and American (compared to the specific situation of the quantities exported

  9. Does corruption discourage international trade?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, E. de; Bogmans, C.W.J.

    2011-01-01

    We use measures of trade-related corruption to investigate the effects of corruption on international trade and compare the results with those of corruption in general. We distinguish corruption in an exporting economy from that in an importing economy. Both distinctions appear to be important. Corr

  10. Technological Progress, Exit and Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp; Sørensen, Allan

    The dynamics of export market exit and firm closure have found limited attention in heterogeneous-firms trade models. Accordingly, several of the predictions on exit stemming from new-new trade theory are at odds with the stylized facts. Empirically, higher productivity firms survive longer, higher...

  11. Sinopec and PetroChina Among China's Top 10 Import-Export Traders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ The Chinese Ministry of Commerce recently released the list of China's top 200 exporters and 500 largest import-export traders in 2003 in terms of trade volume, which involved larger trading companies and more foreign-invested traders. Sinopec International Co Ltd was China's largest foreign trader in 2003, with a total trading volume of US$15.89 billion.

  12. Lithuanian export competitiveness before economic recession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jone Kalendiene

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The research paper discusses the concept of competitiveness of economy and analyzes export as an indicator of it. The analysis is started by the historical review of export development. Statistical data show that three Baltic countries have been following different path of export growth since Russian crisis. Different export market orientation and manufacturing sector's longer reorientation process provide an explanation. Furthermore, the historical analysis shows that export growth relation with foreign demand growth and GDP growth is not as strong as it might be expected. In order to estimate possible long-run GDP growth prospects, the structural analysis of trade is performed. The conclusions of the latter revealed high dependence of trade on conjuncture in foreign markets and supported the need of further price and non-price competitiveness analysis. Surprisingly, the results of the former indicate that price indicators do little to explain export development. Conversely, the results of the latter, based on CMSA methodology, show that market orientation of Lithuanian exports adds the most to its competitiveness; meanwhile the product orientation is generally unfavorable. Finally, the relation between FDI structure by countries and trade flows of processed industrial supplies is analyzed. Although data analysis does not reject the existence of such hypothesis, a more detail analysis should be conducted in the future.

  13. Alberta: evaluating a decade's experience with the Canada - U.S. Free Trade Agreement (FTA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chambers, E.J.; Mirus, R.; Scholnick, B. [Western Centre for Economic Research, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    1999-07-01

    With a decade of experience available, there is a period of sufficient duration to allow a broad assessment of the Canada-US Free Trade Agreement's (FTA) impact on the Alberta economy. The disposition of three classes of exports - energy, agricultural and non-energy/non-agricultural to individual US states is examined. Besides creating a new range of market opportunities for Alberta companies, the FTA helped diversification within the energy industry by guaranteeing US market access for natural gas producers. The major sections of the report deal with: the FTA experience from 1988 to 1998, exports, overview of the Alberta export sector, employment variability in Alberta, inward foreign direct investment since the FTA: data and implications and an assessment of the impact of tariff reductions under the FTA. Alberta's international export sector increased over this period in size and in relative importance. Goods exported to foreign countries as a share of the provincial Gross Domestic Product rose from a 1/4 in 1988 to 1/3 in 1998. This absolute and relative growth in the export sector coincided with the rise in the importance of shipments to the U.S. market.

  14. DISMAYED OVER TRADE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Seventeen. That’s the number of China’s actual working days in February, largely due to the Spring Festival. Yet somehow, in such a short working month, exports soared to new highs, causing the trade surplus to boom once again. According to statistics fr

  15. Intra-industry trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.G.M. van Marrewijk (Charles)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractIntra-industry trade arises if a country simultaneously imports and exports similar types of goods or services. Similarity is identified here by the goods or services being classified in the same “sector”. Suppose, for the sake of argument, that we focus on the sector “cars”. Intra-indus

  16. Trade Facilitation in Ethiopia:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tilahun_EK

    The longer the time taken for import/export procedures or journey, the more expensive ... , p10 (Last accessed April 2014). 7 Jean-Paul .... environment, product standards, technical barriers to trade etc. in order to lower cost of moving ..... consumer electronics, and auto spare parts. For all other ...

  17. Employment Growth and International Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Rikke; Warzynski, Frederic; Westergård-Nielsen, Niels Chr.

    In this paper, we use a detailed dataset containing information about all international trade transactions of the population of Danish ?rms over more than a decade to analyze the relationship between export and import decisions and employment growth. We further distinguish between imports of ?nal...... goods and imports of intermedi­ate products. We ?nd that both imports and exports decisions are positively related to employment growth. Interestingly, both ?nished goods and intermediate goods imports have a positive link. We also control for the re-exporting process, i.e. ?rms importing ?nal goods...... to re-export them afterwards....

  18. Trade in tourism services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Camilla; Zhang, Jie

    2013-01-01

    The article addresses two questions related with tourism as a service trade. Can tourism be explained as other export activities? Does service liberalisation have a positive or negative impact on tourism receipts in destination countries? Previous research has either focused on the demand side...... factors (i.e. factors of demand in the origin countries) or on tourism as a long-run factor of economic growth. The research shows that a complementary perspective such as that offered by trade in a supply side perspective can render additional insights towards understanding tourism. This approach can...... explain why countries have absolute and comparative advantage. Another finding is that tourism as an export can be explained by some of the same destination factors that explain other service exports. Using different panel estimators the importance of supply side factors that are to some extent exclusive...

  19. Trade in tourism services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Camilla; Zhang, Jie

    2013-01-01

    The article addresses two questions related with tourism as a service trade. Can tourism be explained as other export activities? Does service liberalisation have a positive or negative impact on tourism receipts in destination countries? Previous research has either focused on the demand side...... factors (i.e. factors of demand in the origin countries) or on tourism as a long-run factor of economic growth. The research shows that a complementary perspective such as that offered by trade in a supply side perspective can render additional insights towards understanding tourism. This approach can...... explain why countries have absolute and comparative advantage. Another finding is that tourism as an export can be explained by some of the same destination factors that explain other service exports. Using different panel estimators the importance of supply side factors that are to some extent exclusive...

  20. The second batch of RE export quota in 2009 released/Brief News

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ In accordance with"Regulation on Import and Export of Commodities of the People's Republic of China",the Ministry of Commerce released the second batch of RE export quota of common trade in 2009 on June 29.

  1. Development of Exports and Imports of Kosova with European Union Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ph. D. Myrvete Badivuku-Pantina

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Kosova, within the nine years period, has moved from a post conflict country to a country considered to be in transition. Kosova has passed from its determination for reconstruction of the country to the orientation towards economic development and integration to European structures. But economic development is not yet sufficient in order to address challenges that Kosova is facing, such as high percentage of unemployment and high deficit of trade exchange. The unemployment rate in Kosova is the most concerning economic issue. Unemployment norms move from about 30 % (IMF to 40% (SOK, 2006. High deficit of recurrent accounts also present a great concern for Kosova economy, which has been evaluated to be 17.3% of gross domestic production (GDP following receipt of assistance from abroad, and decrease of trade deficit remains one of economic priorities in Kosova. Current ways of cooperation between countries are based on ignoring existing borders and mutual cooperation among people of the world, based on freedom and equality among entities of market economy. Kosova supports open economic policies and it achieved to sign some of Free Trade Agreements (FTA with regional countries of western Balkans. It is expected that Kosova will endorse other FTA also with other countries in the region and wider since these actions are to be taken in order to support economic development of Kosova. In the post war period, the main trade partner of Kosova has been European Union (Germany, Greece, Slovenia, Italy, and Austria, whose participation in general import of Kosova for 2004 was 26.7%, while this integration in general export of Kosova in 2004 was 28.7%. The purpose of this study is that I wanted to present importance of trade cooperation of Kosova with UE countries and offer information of the course of imports and exports of Kosova with EU countries, as well as to analyze possibilities and advantages that this cooperation offers for economic development of

  2. The effects of NAFTA expansion on US forest products exports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey P. Prestemon

    1997-01-01

    When Mexico began liberalizing its domestic market and foreign trade a decade ago, the U.S. Government hoped U.S. exporters would gain easier access to the Nation's third most important foreign market, after Japan and Canada. Having just completed a free trade accord with Canada, U.S. trade officials sought to solidify changes in Mexico and encourage further...

  3. Interaction of Export Instability and Openness-Growth Nexus In East Asia and Pacific Countries (1990-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamanian Gholamreza

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Because of the importance of the relation between instability of economic variables and making decision for determinants, this is so considerable to find the interaction between instability and economic variables’ activity. Approach: One of the efficacious factors to have a positive trade balance is export that is a factor of GNP growth too. Moreover, openness is an important factor for stimulus export. Results: For above reasons and to survey that what’s the relation of these factors, in this study we try to investigate the effect of Investment and export instability on growth of 22 East Asia and Pacific countries that is a new subject of done articles. We apply panel data method because this method allows us to use more countries in a shorter period of time series data. Using data span is from 1990-2006 (WDI 2008. The result showed that a co-integration relationship between growth and its determinants is supported in the model. The results of panel Random Effect model that is estimated by using data show that: (1 There is a negative relationship between growth and export instability of this set of countries, (2 According to the studied investigation, coefficient of export is about 0.5 that mean the factor of export has greater effect on growth in these countries rather than other factors, (3 The impact of gross fixed capital and labor force is positive on growth in this set of countries. Conclusion/Recommendations: The results of study recommend that the policy of export stability must be to attend in decision of policy makers in these countries.

  4. Tariffs and Firm-Level Heterogeneous Fixed Export Costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Jørgensen, Jan Guldager

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a two country intra-industry trade model with bilateral ad valorem tariffs and fixed export costs that are heterogeneous across firms. In this model not all firms will choose to export. We examine the effects of reciprocal changes in the tariff and the fixed export barrier...... on the number of firms, firm profits, tariff revenue and consumer welfare. We show that both types of trade barriers reduce (increase) the number of exporting (pure domestic) firms. However, the sum of available home and foreign varieties may actually increase for small tariffs. Firm profits fall for both...... the tariff and the fixed export barrier. Tariff revenue falls for an increase in fixed exporting costs whereas we have a Laffer curve effect for the tariff. Finally, we establish that welfare falls with fixed export costs and large tariffs but increases for small tariffs, i.e. there exist a welfare...

  5. THE IMPORTANCE OF PRACTICAL EXPORT SKILLS: SOME EVIDENCE FROM CANADIAN AGRIBUSINESS

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, Donald G.; Whalen, Michael P.

    1999-01-01

    This paper compares the practical export skills needed by Canadian Agribusiness for sales to the U.S. with those for Overseas markets. Seventy skills in global entrepreneurship, international marketing, international finance, and international trade logistics were ranked and used to gauge the influence of export market on practical international trade skills. The findings show that practical export skill requirements vary substantially by firm and export market. Generally, basic management, m...

  6. THE IMPORTANCE OF PRACTICAL EXPORT SKILLS: SOME EVIDENCE FROM CANADIAN AGRIBUSINESS

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    This paper compares the practical export skills needed by Canadian Agribusiness for sales to the U.S. with those for Overseas markets. Seventy skills in global entrepreneurship, international marketing, international finance, and international trade logistics were ranked and used to gauge the influence of export market on practical international trade skills. The findings show that practical export skill requirements vary substantially by firm and export market. Generally, basic management, m...

  7. Tariffs and Firm-Level Heterogeneous Fixed Export Costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Jørgensen, Jan Guldager

    2006-01-01

    on the number of firms, firm profits, tariff revenue and consumer welfare. We show that both types of trade barriers reduce (increase) the number of exporting (pure domestic) firms. However, the sum of available home and foreign varieties may actually increase for small tariffs. Firm profits fall for both......This paper presents a two country intra-industry trade model with bilateral ad valorem tariffs and fixed export costs that are heterogeneous across firms. In this model not all firms will choose to export. We examine the effects of reciprocal changes in the tariff and the fixed export barrier...

  8. 广西农产品进出口贸易十年(2000~2010年)变化史与发展对策%Import & Export Trade Change History and Development Countermeasures of Agricultural Products in Ten Years(2000-2010) of Guangxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭绪全

    2011-01-01

    The import and export data over the yean of agricultural products of Guangxi wer analyzed. During 2000 to 2010, the import and export of agricultural products had undergone tremendous changes in Guangxi, the total value of import increased rapidly, yet the total value of export increased slowly, the trade balance turned surplus into adverse, and the deficit increased annually. The import and export of agricultural products to ASEAN increased markedly in Guangxi, the import and export share of general trade mode increased gradually, and the import and export share of border minor value trade mode decreased markedly. The main factors which restricted the development of the import and export of agricultural products in Guangxi included the lag of quality safety management, the deep processing of agricultural products fell behind, the science & technology content and the added value of agriculture was low, and the strict technical barriers from foreign countries. It was suggested to strengthen agricultural production quality safety management and standardization construction, devote major efforts to cultivate leading enterprises in agricultural exports, adjust and optimize the export structure of agricultural products, and improve multilevel export promotion system of agricultural products, and promote the development of import and export of agricultural products in Guangxi.%以广西历年农产品进出口数据为分析资料,结合定性方法进行研究.在2000 ~2010年间,广西农产品进出口发生了巨大变化,进口总额高速增长,出口总额增长相对平缓,贸易格局由顺差转为逆差,并逐年扩大.广西对东盟农产品进出口明显升温,一般贸易方式进出口份额逐步增加,边境小额贸易方式进出口份额明显减少.制约广西农产品进出口发展的主要因素是质量安全管理滞后、农产品深加工水平落后、农业科技含量和附加值较低及国外严格的技

  9. Import-push or Export-pull?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jäkel, Ina Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Does the selection effect of trade work solely through competition from imports, or does the export market further contribute to firm selection? This paper provides a re-interpretation of the different mechanisms in terms of selection on profitability - rather than productivity - and derives novel...... predictions regarding the export market and the role of product differentiation. Empirical results for a sample of Danish manufacturing industries confirm the import- "push" hypothesis as well as the export- "pull" hypothesis, but also reveal differences across industries. The selection effect of trade...... is mainly driven by the "import-push" if product differentiation is high, whereas it is driven by the "export-pull" if goods are homogeneous....

  10. Import-push or Export-pull?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jäkel, Ina Charlotte

    Does the selection effect of trade work solely through competition from imports, or does the export market further contribute to firm selection? This paper provides a re-interpretation of the different mechanisms in terms of selection on profitability - rather than productivity - and derives novel...... predictions regarding the export market and the role of product differentiation. Empirical results for a sample of Danish manufacturing industries confirm the import-"push" hypothesis as well as the export-"pull" hypothesis, but also reveal differences across industries. The selection effect of trade...... is mainly driven by the "import-push" if product differentiation is high, whereas it is driven by the "export-pull" if goods are homogeneous....

  11. 生产率与中国高技术企业出口相关性研究——基于异质企业贸易理论的视角%Research on Correlation between Productivity and China's High-tech Enterprises' Export ——From the Perspective of Heterogeneous Enterprise Trade Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海洋; 罗洋

    2012-01-01

    高技术产业出口近年来迅速增加,容易使人得出我国贸易结构升级,国际竞争力加强的结论。我国2008年近两万家高技术企业的微观数据分析表明企业出口与生产率呈现负相关关系,这一现象不符合异质企业贸易理论。研究发现企业性质、企业资本劳动比才是出口的主要影响因素。高技术产业中加工贸易企业的大量存在是造成其违反异质企业贸易理论的根本原因。%The rapid increase in export of high-tech industries in recent years makes people easily draw the conclusion that China's trade structure has been upgraded and its international competitiveness has been strengthened.However,based on the micro data analysis of nearly 20,000 high-tech enterprises in China in 2008,it is found that high-tech enterprise export has a negative correlation with productivity,which is not consistent with the heterogeneous enterprise trade theory.The research found that the nature of an enterprise and the ratio of capital and labor are the major factors influencing export.The large number of processing trade high-tech enterprises is the fundamental reason for its inconsistence with the heterogeneous enterprise trade theory.

  12. Two Contrasting Phenomena in Textile Exports

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ As the two traditional markets for China's textile and clothing exports,the U.S.and Europe have recently shown a huge contrast. The 103rd China Import and Export Fair,also known as the Canton Fair,the largest trade fair in China,has closed its closed its doors,impacted by the rising costs of raw materials,appreciation of the RMB,decreased demand from U.S.customers and other factors.

  13. Textile Machinery Import and Export in 2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Along with the rebounded international market, in the year of 2011, the foreign trade of textile machinery industry preserved a stable development: the import amount saw a slightly decrease, while the total import and export value kept an increasing trend. According to the Customs, the export and import of textile machinery totalized 2.245 billion USD and 5.364 billion USD, increasing by 27.81% and 24.70%, respectively, comparing with the same period of time in 2010.

  14. Advancing Sustainable Development in Global Trade and Multilateral Negotiations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Christophe Bellmann; Ahmed Abdel Latif; Jonathan Hepburn

    2011-01-01

    Published by Palgrave MacmillanWorld exports and imports are quickly recovering after the 2008-09 sharp decline in merchandise trade, as illustrated by global trade performances in the first and second quarters of 2010...

  15. 77 FR 7131 - Addendum to Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-10

    ... International Trade Administration Addendum to Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee Public... Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee (ETTAC) will be changed to include additional topics. DATES... administration of programs to expand U.S. exports of environmental technologies, goods, services, and...

  16. EXPORT STRATEGY BASED ON MARKET RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavian-Liviu OLARU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A strategy is a general plan aimed to develop a business. Even export firm that wants to develop and prosper needs some form of strategy. A company's strategic fit with the trading environment has to be continuously reconsidered because it is likely to erode. Managers should be well informed in order to develop their judgment and understanding of the driving forces that shape the business environment. The greatest mistakes are made by exporters who think they know a foreign market as well as they know their local one, only to find after an ill-fated export launch, that they do not.

  17. Evaluation of the contributions of four components of gross domestic product in various regions in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanmang Wu

    Full Text Available Four major components influence the growth of the gross domestic product in Chinese provinces: consumption, investment, transnational exports, and inter-provincial exports. By splitting a competitive input-output table into a non-competitive input-output table, this study used an input-output model to measure the contributions of the four components of gross domestic product in various regions in China. We found that international exports drove the growth of the gross domestic product more strongly in the eastern region than in other regions. Investment and inter-provincial exports were the major impetus for gross domestic product growth in the central and western regions. We also found that consumption played a minimal role in driving the growth of the gross domestic product in all regions in China. According to these findings, although various regions can share much in terms of policies to transform the impetus for economic growth, there should be different foci for different regions. Their shared policy is to increase the role of final consumption in stimulating economic growth. Region-specific policies mandate that the eastern region should strengthen the driving force provided by international exports and that the central and western regions should strengthen indigenous growth capabilities by improving scientific innovation, industrial support, and institutional innovation.

  18. Learning-by-Exporting and Destination Effects: Evidence from African SMEs

    OpenAIRE

    Boermans, Martijn Adriaan

    2010-01-01

    Vast empirical evidence underscores that exporting firms are more productive than non-exporters. As governments accordingly pursue export-promoting policies we are interested in the firmness of these conclusions with respect to African small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) and the influence of the destination of export trade. Using a micro-panel dataset from five African countries we confirm the self-selection. We apply propensity scores to match exporters and use a difference-in-differen...

  19. Development Strategy of Anhui Garments Import&Export Co.Ltd

    OpenAIRE

    Tu, Liang

    2012-01-01

    Textiles are important export goods in China, and they played a key role in the economic development of China, but in recent years, domestic and international export environmental degradation leads textile export enterprises to face new difficulties. Anhui Garments Import & Export Co. Ltd. is a garment foreign trade export enterprise with certain strengths. The company is facing both opportunities and challenges in the current situation. The thesis was based on Anhui Garments Import & Exp...

  20. Trade, TRIPS, and pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Richard D; Correa, Carlos; Oh, Cecilia

    2009-02-21

    The World Trade Organization's Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) set global minimum standards for the protection of intellectual property, substantially increasing and expanding intellectual-property rights, and generated clear gains for the pharmaceutical industry and the developed world. The question of whether TRIPS generates gains for developing countries, in the form of increased exports, is addressed in this paper through consideration of the importance of pharmaceuticals in health-care trade, outlining the essential requirements, implications, and issues related to TRIPS, and TRIPS-plus, in which increased restrictions are imposed as part of bilateral free-trade agreements. TRIPS has not generated substantial gains for developing countries, but has further increased pharmaceutical trade in developed countries. The unequal trade between developed and developing countries (ie, exporting and importing high-value patented drugs, respectively) raises the issue of access to medicines, which is exacerbated by TRIPS-plus provisions, although many countries have not even enacted provision for TRIPS flexibilities. Therefore this paper focuses on options that are available to the health community for negotiation to their advantage under TRIPS, and within the presence of TRIPS-plus.

  1. Revision of Import and Export Requirements for Controlled Substances, Listed Chemicals, and Tableting and Encapsulating Machines, Including Changes To Implement the International Trade Data System (ITDS); Revision of Reporting Requirements for Domestic Transactions in Listed Chemicals and Tableting and Encapsulating Machines; and Technical Amendments. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-30

    The Drug Enforcement Administration is updating its regulations for the import and export of tableting and encapsulating machines, controlled substances, and listed chemicals, and its regulations relating to reports required for domestic transactions in listed chemicals, gamma-hydroxybutyric acid, and tableting and encapsulating machines. In accordance with Executive Order 13563, the Drug Enforcement Administration has reviewed its import and export regulations and reporting requirements for domestic transactions in listed chemicals (and gamma-hydroxybutyric acid) and tableting and encapsulating machines, and evaluated them for clarity, consistency, continued accuracy, and effectiveness. The amendments clarify certain policies and reflect current procedures and technological advancements. The amendments also allow for the implementation, as applicable to tableting and encapsulating machines, controlled substances, and listed chemicals, of the President's Executive Order 13659 on streamlining the export/import process and requiring the government-wide utilization of the International Trade Data System (ITDS). This rule additionally contains amendments that implement recent changes to the Controlled Substances Import and Export Act (CSIEA) for reexportation of controlled substances among members of the European Economic Area made by the Improving Regulatory Transparency for New Medical Therapies Act. The rule also includes additional substantive and technical and stylistic amendments.

  2. Estimating the gross moist stability in shallow and deep convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C. A.; Jong, B. T.; Chou, C.

    2015-12-01

    Gross moist stability has been used to study the link between tropical deep convection and large scale circulation in a moist static energy (MSE) budget. Here we aim to calculate the gross moist stability from more realistic profiles of vertical velocity and extend it beyond deep convection, adding shallow convection. Based on a principal component analysis, we were able to decompose the vertical velocity into two leading modes, which are dominated by deep and shallow convection, respectively. According to the deep and shallow modes, we calculate the gross moist stability for these two modes and discuss the roles of deep and shallow convection in the MSE budget. The gross moist stability of deep convection tends to be positive in the tropics, while that of shallow convection is negative over most areas of the tropics. This implies that deep convection exports MSE to stabilize the atmosphere and shallow convection imports MSE to enhance deep convection and destabilize the atmosphere. Based on the spatial distribution, moisture tends to reduce the gross moist stability of deep convection, while dry static energy has little impact. Deeper deep convection tends to have greater gross moist stability. For shallow convection, on the other hand, the gross moist stability is affected not only by low-level moisture but also mid-level moisture. Both moister low-level and drier mid-level moisture reduce the gross moist stability of shallow convection. Greater low-level dry static energy, which is associated with warmer sea surface temperature, also tends to reduce gross moist stability.

  3. 出口贸易、企业异质性和生产率:一个比较优势的分析框架%Export Trade,Productivity and Technical Progress:an Empirical Analysis of China's Manufacturing Enterprises Under the Perspective of Heterogeneous

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付建

    2012-01-01

    In this view,that introducing heterogeneity into comparative advantage philosophy to analyze the relationship between productivity growth and international trade,the afore mentioned fact constitutes an effect mechanism of export trade on productivity.This article introduces a mathematical model which analyzes the interrelationship among export trade,comparative advantage and productivity,and confirms this relationship through quantitative analysis.%引入比较优势理念分析贸易与行业生产率增长之间的关系,构成企业异质性视野下出口贸易影响生产率的机理。通过数理模型构建出口贸易、比较优势与生产率之间关系的模型,并通过企业微观数据和行业层面数据对此关系进行实证检验。

  4. THE EFFECT OF CREDIT FINANCING ON HETEROGENEOUS FIRMS’ EXPORT PARTICIPATION---An Theoretical and Empirical Analysis from the Angles of Trade Credit and Bank Credit%信贷融资对异质性企业出口参与的影响∗--基于商业信贷和银行信贷角度的理论和实证分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张彬; 孔祥贞; 杨勇

    2015-01-01

    This paper studied the effect of credit financing on firms’export participation based on trade credit and bank credit using the framework of new trade theory focusing on the promoting effect of trade credit on bank credit,which provided microscopic financial evidence of Chinese export growth “miracle”from the firm angle.The credit financing was put into a heterogeneous firm export model to prove the im-provement of trade credit and bank credit will affect the export by easing export cost constraint.An empir-ical analysis using Chinese manufacturing firms and IVprobit model was adopted to confirm our results. The findings were the following.Firstly,the improvement of trade credit and bank credit may increase the probability of the firms’export.Secondly,the positive effect of trade credit on bank credit is helpful for firms to participate in export.Thirdly,the influence of trade credit on firms’export participation is not varied with firms’size,ownership,industrial competitive level and export fixed cost.But the role of bank credit is influenced by the above factors.The role of the positive effect of trade credit on bank credit is af-fected by firms’size and ownership.In conclusion,the developing of the credit financing,the setting up of the mutual exchange mechanism of trade credit and the bank credit are important methods to speed up Chi-nese export growth.%本文在新新贸易理论框架下,基于商业信贷和银行信贷的综合视角,系统研究了信贷融资对异质性企业出口参与的影响。本文重点围绕商业信贷对银行信贷的促进作用展开分析,从企业层面为中国出口增长“奇迹”提供来自金融视角的证据。本文在异质企业出口模型中引入商业信贷和银行信贷,论证商业信贷和银行信贷通过缓解出口成本融资约束影响企业出口参与,并运用中国制造业企业和 IVprobit 估计方法进行实证检验。本文发现:(1)改善商业信贷和银

  5. 基于促进外向型经济的湖南外贸英语人才培养策略研究%Based on the promotion of export-oriented economy of human foreign trade English talent cultivation strategy research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    荣海龙

    2015-01-01

    近年来,随着湖南省对外经济交流不断加强,湖南省外贸经济发展对外贸英语专业人才的需求不断提升.本文主要研究外贸英语人才对湖南省外向型经济的影响,湖南省外贸型经济人才培养存在的问题以及湖南省加强外贸英语人才培养的策略.%In recent years, along with human province's foreign economic exchanges continue to strengthen, foreign trade economic development in human province to improve the demand for professional talents of foreign trade English. This paper mainly studies the effect of foreign trade English talents of export-oriented economy of human province, human province foreign trade economy problems in personnel training and strengthening of human province foreign trade English talents training strategy.

  6. Markups and Firm-Level Export Status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Loecker, Jan; Warzynski, Frederic

    Estimating markups has a long tradition in industrial organization and international trade. Economists and policy makers are interested in measuring the effect of various competition and trade policies on market power, typically measured by markups. The empirical methods that were developed in em...... in opening up the productivity-export black box, and provide a potential explanation for the big measured productivity premia for firms entering export markets.......Estimating markups has a long tradition in industrial organization and international trade. Economists and policy makers are interested in measuring the effect of various competition and trade policies on market power, typically measured by markups. The empirical methods that were developed...... in empirical industrial organization often rely on the availability of very detailed market-level data with information on prices, quantities sold, characteristics of products and more recently supplemented with consumer-level attributes. Often, both researchers and government agencies cannot rely...

  7. Gross decontamination experiment report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, R.; Kinney, K.; Dettorre, J.; Gilbert, V.

    1983-07-01

    A Gross Decontamination Experiment was conducted on various levels and surfaces of the TMI - Unit 2 reactor building in March 1982. The polar crane, D-rings, missile shields, refueling canals, refueling bridges, equipment, and elevations 305' and 347'-6'' were flushed with low pressure water. Additionally, floor surfaces on elevation 305' and floor surfaces and major pieces of equipment on elevation 347'-6'' were sprayed with high pressure water. Selective surfaces were decontaminated with a mechanical scrubber and chemicals. Strippable coating was tested and evaluated on equipment and floor surfaces. The effectiveness, efficiency, and safety of several decontamination techniques were established for the large, complex decontamination effort. Various decontamination equipment was evaluated and its effectiveness was documented. Decontamination training and procedures were documented and evaluated, as were the support system and organization for the experiment.

  8. Exchange rate movements and export market dynamics: evidence from China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xiaobing Huang

    2017-01-01

    This paper highlights the relationship between foreign exchange rate fluctuations and firms' export market dynamics using a Chinese firm-level production data and a firm-level trade data over the period of 2000-2006...

  9. 17 CFR 1.58 - Gross collection of exchange-set margins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gross collection of exchange-set margins. 1.58 Section 1.58 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION GENERAL REGULATIONS UNDER THE COMMODITY EXCHANGE ACT Miscellaneous § 1.58 Gross collection of exchange-set...

  10. The Study on the Effects of China's OFDI on Export Trade---Based on the Empirical Research of Stochastic Frontier Gravity Model%我国对外直接投资(OFDI)的出口效应研究--基于随机前沿引力模型分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈恩; 曾纪斌

    2014-01-01

    本文采用随机前沿引力模型,以2003~2012年我国对25个国家(地区)的对外直接投资(OFDI )和出口等面板数据实证分析我国OFDI对出口效率的影响;实证结果表明, OFDI能显著促进我国出口效率提高, OFDI每增加1%会促进出口效率提高0.2436%,即OFDI具有出口互补效应;本文还简单的分析了OFDI提高出口效率的机理,认为我国市场拓展型OFDI、资源寻求型OFDI和创新资产寻求型OF-DI对出口都具有促进作用;我国应积极实施“走出去”战略,鼓励企业对外投资,以此促进出口增长和经济发展。%This paper studies the panel data of Chinese outward foreign direct investment (OFDI) and export trade of 25 states from 2003 to 2012 by formulating a stochastic frontier gravity model to find the relationship of OFDI and export efficiency . The results show that , OFDI can significantly improve export efficiency , OFDI increased 1% will promote exports efficiency increased 0.2436% ;so OFDI have complementary effect on export ;the paper also simplely analysis the way of OFDI improve export efficiency , that the market-seeking OF-DI , resource-seeking OFDI and innovative asset -seeking OFDI can promote exports ;in order to promote export growth and economic development , China should actively implement the “going out” strategy , encourage enterprises to invest overseas .

  11. China Textile Export Increased Slightly in the First Three Quarters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The General Administration of Customs released the latest information about China's foreign trade. According to the customs statistics, in the first quarters of this year, China's import and export value reached $2.84247 triUion, an increase of 6.2% against the same period last year, including $1.49539 trillion of exports, an increased of 7.4%, $1.34708 trillion of imports, up 4.8%, and $148.31 billion of trade surplus. In terms of the export products, the textile and garment exports grew slightly. In the first three quarters, the garment exports reached $116.06 billion, an increase of 0.7%; textile exports realized $71.05 billion, an increase of 0.2%, and the footwear reached $34.63 billion.

  12. International trade and employment: trade partner country effects on jobs and wages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fortanier, F.N.; Jaarsma, M.; Korvorst, M.

    2011-01-01

    Recent academic research has consistently identified trading firms - both exporters and importers - to be larger, and to pay higher wages than their non-trading counterparts. However, not all trade is equal: imports from low-wage countries may destroy employment, particularly among low-skilled worke

  13. The Three Amigos, energy trade and NAFTA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, Alexander

    1999-07-01

    This article examines the effect of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) on the energy sectors in the US, Canada and Mexico with the general opening of borders to trade and business opportunities. Details are given of Mexico joining GATT in 1986, and the bilateral trade agreement of Canada and the US which incorporates GATT rules for energy trade. Foreign investment, export restrictions, environmental concerns, and dispute resolution are discussed, and the advantages of the NAFTA agreement are outlined. (UK)

  14. A Chicken Game of Intraindustry Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Colombo, L.; P. Labrecciosa; Lambertini, L.

    2005-01-01

    We study the strategic interaction between two firms competing in quantites which decide whether exporting into each other market. The product is homogeneous and production entails constant returns to scale. Scope effects are present. By dealing with two types of trade costs, namely per unit and ad valorem trade costs, we characterize the set of Nash equilibria showing that one way trade is a possible outcome of the trade game. In particular, despite the assumption on symmetry between firms, ...

  15. Determinants of Export Diversificationaround the World: 1962 - 2000

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel R. Agosin; Roberto Alvarez; Claudio Bravo-Ortega

    2011-01-01

    Using a large dataset of countries, covering the period 1962-2000, this paper analyzes the main determinants of export diversification (concentration). We explore the role of several factors and we use three different indicators of export concentration. We find robust evidence across specifications and indicators that trade openness induces higher specialization. In contrast, financial development does not seem to help countries to diversify their exports. Looking at the effects of exchange r...

  16. Globalization and the demand for skill: An Export Based Channel

    OpenAIRE

    Maurin, Eric; Thesmar, David; Thoenig, Mathias

    2002-01-01

    This Paper shows that international trade affects the demand for skill through an export-based channel. Our working hypothesis is that the very act of exporting requires an effort of skill upgrading, in particular among occupations related to marketing and development. Using firm level data, we estimate a model that breaks down production into two stages: product development and marketing, and actual production. Once we correct for biases arising from the endogeneity of export decision, we fi...

  17. International trade gets a physical boost

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Manufacturers and service providers are being urged to grab exports worth nearly 200 million pounds, at a seminar 'Why Sell to CERN', organised by the international trade team at Birmingham Chamber of Commerce and Industry.

  18. Insider trading

    OpenAIRE

    Šatanová, Martina

    2013-01-01

    The thesis is dealing with trading based on nonpublic information (insider trading). It contains development of insider trading regulation and describes specifics of american, czech, japanese and chinese market consodering insider trading. It is focused on regulation, investigation and evidence.

  19. Export and Import Situation of Refractories in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    China has been the biggest country in production and exporting of refractories. The article describes the problems in the export and import and suggestions on development of refractories. In the future, China will expand its cooperation with world refractories community in science, technology, economy and trade to play a more important role in the international and domestic markets.

  20. Expanding Exports: Can Tennessee Double Its Exports?

    OpenAIRE

    Steven G. Livingston

    2010-01-01

    In this year's State of the Union Address, President Obama announced a National Export Initiative to double American exports over the next five years. He claimed that this could add two million jobs to the American economy. Could Tennessee actually double its exports over this period? And what would be the impact if it did?

  1. Enabling participation of SMEs in international trade and production networks: Trade facilitation, trade finance and communication technology

    OpenAIRE

    Duval, Yann; Utoktham, Chorthip

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed at identifying key factors affecting SME participation in direct export and international production networks (IPNs), both globally and in Asia and the Pacific. A global dataset of firm-level data from developing countries was analyzed to identify the main obstacles to establishment and operation of direct and indirect small and medium size exporters. Logit models of SME export and IPN participation revealed the importance of several trade facilitation and related factors. Th...

  2. Research on dynamic relationships between China's modem logistics efficiency, economic growth and import and export trade by VAR model%基于VAR模型的现代物流效率、经济增长和我国进出口贸易的动态关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王兆密; 刘满芝

    2012-01-01

    本文利用我国1991-2010年的现代物流效率、经济增长和进出口贸易的对数差分序列建立VAR模型研究三者间的动态关系。分析认为,进出口与国民经济增长是现代物流效率提升的格兰杰原因,进出口和国民经济增长互为因果关系。长期内进出口和国民经济之间的互相拉动作用比较明显,物流效率的提升也得益于二者的发展。短期内物流效率的提升有助于国民经济的发展并在长期内促进进出口的发展。最后,给出结论并对三者的和谐发展提出建议。%Building on China's 1991-2010 modem logistics efficiency, economic development and import and export trade logarithm difference sequence we develop the VAR model to explore dynamic relationships be- tween the three ones. Analysis shows that import and export and economic growth are Granger causes of modem logistics efficiency. Import, export and national economic growth are mutually reinforcing. In long term, import and export and national economy mutually drawing function is obvious and the twos development will accelerate logistics efflcieney promotion. Ascension of logistics efficiency in short run is advantageous in the national econo- my development and import and export development in the long run. Finally, we draw the conclusion and give some practical suggestions for the three ones harmonious development.

  3. 15 CFR 30.9 - Transmitting and correcting Electronic Export Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transmitting and correcting Electronic Export Information. 30.9 Section 30.9 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FOREIGN TRADE REGULATIONS General...

  4. International Trade: A Small Business Primer. Growing Businesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axtell, Roger E.

    The United States' declining share of world trade is connected with the fact that hundreds of thousands of medium- and small-sized businesses are ignoring trade and exports. The cure for their fear of the unknown is information and education. Exports have a number of advantages: increased profits, spread of overhead costs, smooth seasonal…

  5. Research on Measures for TBT of Pork Export

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua; YU; Yubao; YAN; Pengbo; CUI

    2014-01-01

    With the deepening of economic globalization and increasingly fierce competition of trade liberalization in WTO member countries,the effect of traditional trade protection measures is gradually weakening or even removed. In recent years,Technical Barriers to Trade( TBT)as a category of nontariff barriers to trade,are the widely divergent measures that countries use to regulate markets,protect their consumers,or preserve their natural resources( among other objectives),but they also can be used( or perceived by foreign countries) to discriminate against imports in order to protect domestic industries. These directly or indirectly lead to gradual rise of trade friction of China’s pork export. This paper analyzed background and significance of measures for TBT of pork export,current situations of researches on TBT both at home and abroad,and came up with new ideas and viewpoints for further strengthening measures for TBT of pork export.

  6. Secret in Exchange Rate & Foreign Trade?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Jintao

    2009-01-01

    @@ China's import and export growth in November has dropped drastically.Year-on-year export growth rate dropped from 19.2 percent to -2.2percent and the year-on-year import growth rate dropped from 15.6 percent to -17.9 percent. The trade surplus amounted to 40.09billion U.S. dollars. This is the first time in China's exports monthly negative growth dating back to June 2001 (see Chart 1 ).

  7. THE ROMANIAN EXTERNAL TRADE AND THE FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENTS INFLOWS AFTER 2007. A CRITICAL SURVEY.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giurgiu Adriana

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Focusing more on the evolution of the Romanian external trade and FDI inflows after 2007 - the year of Romania's EU integration - the paper provides insights in the trade and FDI inflows determinants in the context of the convergence process and also in relation to the financial global crisis. As the statistic data envisage, Romanian exports and imports were high over the period 2000-2010, and there were also large FDI inflows in the economy, mostly until 2008. Although the data appear to be encouraging, it seems that Romania did not succeed to maximize the benefits which should result from such a situation. Moreover, the situation after 2008 shows that Romania is in a deep recession accelerated and maintained by uninspired government policy measures with a strong negative impact on the Romanian economy. The aim of this paper is to empirically investigate Romanian export and import demand functions after the year 2007, and to compare them with those of the period 2000-2006, using quarterly data, in correlation with the FDI inflows. The main contribution of the paper is that it is an empirical analysis on Romania's FDI and external trade, providing the impact of the main determinants of export and import of Romania, by using the Engle-Granger two step method. Following Allard (2009 rather than just providing the elasticity, this method combines the elasticity with the evolution of the explanatory variables to quantify their impact during the analysed period. The analysis aim to cover all possible factors underlying the external sector performance of Romania and thus, they are complemented with country specific analysis. The empirical analysis will therefore provide some interesting insights not only in the context of the convergence process of the country with the Eurozone but also in relation to the exchange rate regime. The theoretical framework relies on the 'imperfect substitutes' model (Goldstein and Khan; 1985, and it is used in the paper

  8. Trade Liberalisation and Vertical Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Peter Arendorf; Laugesen, Anders

    -good producers face decisions on exporting, vertical integration of intermediate-input production, and whether the intermediate-input production should be offshored to a low-wage country. We find that the fractions of final-good producers that pursue either vertical integration, offshoring, or exporting are all...... increasing when intermediate-input or final-goods trade is liberalised and when the fixed cost of vertical integration is reduced. At the same time, one observes firms that shift away from either vertical integration, offshoring, or exporting. Further, we provide guidance for testing the open...

  9. 76 FR 29139 - World Trade Week, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    ... States of America A Proclamation American businesses embody the ingenuity and entrepreneurship that has... services. Millions of jobs in the United States are tied to exports, and our world continues to grow more... trade agenda that emphasizes exports and domestic job growth. Last year, my Administration launched...

  10. Knowledge Spillovers and Entrepreneurs’ Export Orientation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. de Clercq (Dirk); S.J.A. Hessels (Jolanda); A.J. van Stel (André)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractWe draw on knowledge spillover literature to suggest that a country’s level of foreign direct investment (FDI) and international trade may influence the export orientation of its entrepreneurs, which in turn may relate to the country’s total level of entrepreneurial activity. Macro-level

  11. Second Thoughts on the Exporter Productivity Premium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp; Sørensen, Allan

    2012-01-01

    and empirical representations of firm productivity. Instead of marginal productivity we examine in both models the theoretical equivalent of empirically observable productivity (value-added per employee). Given the presence of fixed export costs or heterogeneous mark-ups and trade costs, the observable...

  12. China's Crude Exports to Japan Suspended

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ The stalemate of the trade negotiation between China and Japan has recently aroused extensive attention in the two nations. China has suspended oil exports to Japan due to the divergences arising from in the sales negotiation, risking the future of a three-decade long oil shipment program.

  13. Gender Inequality and Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Busse, Matthias; Spielmann, Christian

    2005-01-01

    The paper empirically explores the international linkages between gender inequality and trade flows of a sample of 92 developed and developing countries. The focus is on comparative advantage in labour-intensive manufactured goods. The results indicate that gender wage inequality is positively associated with comparative advantage in labour-intensive goods, that is, countries with a larger gender wage gap have higher exports of these goods. Also, gender inequality in labour force activity rat...

  14. South Africa - record exports defy market misery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, J.

    1999-03-01

    Dry cargo continues to form the backbone of South Africa`s commodities trades, comprising more than 70% of overall import and export activity. Despite economic stagnation in many global markets and poor prospects for any significant recovery in prices, most of South Africa`s dry bulk ports have experienced sustained tonnage levels in 1998, and are focusing on facility improvements to meet future growth expectation. Coal exports in 1998 increased by 2.8 mt to a record 66.7 mt. The main rise in exports was achieved by Richards Bay Coal Terminal (RBCT) but Durban`s BMA terminal and Portnet`s Dry Bulk Terminal or Richards Bay, and the upgraded Maputo Terminals at Mozambique also handled more trade. Expansion projects at RBCT are also mentioned. 1 fig., 1 tab., 2 photos.

  15. The Rewards and Challenges of Export-Led Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hany H. MAKHLOUF

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The economic achievements of post- WWII Japan and Germany, the success of the Asian Four Tigers in the 1970s and 1980s, and the impressive growth of China, after adopting an export-led strategy in 1978, have caused many nations to view the export-ledmodel as the fastestroute to economic growth and financial stability. As a result, many governments started to promote and protect their countries’ exports,and mix politics, diplomacy and trade as well as seek greater access to friendly countries’ markets. Export-led development strategies, however, carry some risks, such as increased dependence on foreign markets and political forces that are beyond the exporters’ control. Global market forces, at times, cause export-dependent countries to have a sudden decline in their export revenues as the oil exporting countries have been experiencing as a result of a sharp decline in the world price of crude oil since 2014. This paper examines the main benefits, costs, and risks associated with export-led strategies, particularly as adopted by developing countries. It further explores the motives and risks faced by individual companies as they sell some of their products outside their home markets.Keywords. Import substitution, Trade liberalization, Infant industries, Export promotion, Foreign investment, Export infrastructure.JEL. F10, F16, F17, F41.

  16. The effects of competing trade regimes on bilateral trade flows: case of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Predrag Bjelić

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate the effects of competing trade regimes on Serbian trade with its most significant (traditional partners, like European Union and CEFTA 2006 signatories, and other untraditional trade partners with favourable trade regime, like the USA. To this end, gravity model with bilateral and time effects is estimated by Hausman-Taylor AR(1 instrumental variable estimator, using panel data on bilateral trade between Serbia and its main trade partners during the period 2001-2010. The results indicate that overall level of development and difference in factor endowments stimulate Serbia’s exports, which is in accordance with theoretical foundation that inter-industry trade is predominant in exports of less developed countries. Moreover, competing trade regimes appear as important determinant of Serbia’s trade relations, whereas additional liberalization of trade regime with the USA as untraditional trade partner, even asymmetrical to Serbia’s favour, cannot divert trade flows from traditional partners in the long-run. This could mean that distance plays more prominent role in bilateral trade than the degree of liberalization of trade regimes in case of Serbia. The result could be due to the contemporaneous effects of trade preferences granted to Serbia by the EU and other CEFTA 2006 signatories, main trading partners of Serbia.

  17. 75 FR 11845 - Exporters' Textile Advisory Committee; Notice of Open Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... International Trade Administration Exporters' Textile Advisory Committee; Notice of Open Meeting A meeting of the Exporters' Textile Advisory Committee will be held on Tuesday, April 20th, 2010. The meeting will... officials on the identification and surmounting of barriers to the expansion of textile exports, and...

  18. 76 FR 4089 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Automated Export System (AES) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-24

    ... basis for the official U.S. export trade statistics. These statistics are used to determine the balance... policies that affect the economy. These data also enable U.S. businesses to develop practical export... economy. These data collected from the AES record are also used for export control purposes under Title 50...

  19. 15 CFR 1300.1 - Reporting of exports of technology to nonmarket economy countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... nonmarket economy countries. 1300.1 Section 1300.1 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to... § 1300.1 Reporting of exports of technology to nonmarket economy countries. (a) For purposes of complying... the export of technology to a nonmarket economy country, exporters of such technology shall be...

  20. Does AFTA Create More Trade for Thailand? An Investigation of Some Key Trade Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piriya Pholphirul

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines whether the ASEAN Free Trade Agreement (AFTA creates trade for Thailand or actually diverts it away from the country. It does this by analyzing various trade indicators: the Export Similarity Index, the Intra-Industry Trade Index, and Revealed Comparative Advantage (RCA rank correlation. By examining the patterns of trade between Thailand and other members of ASEAN, it reveals a high degree of similarity regarding the trade structure between Thailand and AFTA, which indicates that there will be fewer trade-creation benefits from AFTA and a greater likelihood of trade diversion once the AFTA scheme has been fully implemented. This similarity pattern explains the reasons for future collaboration among member countries and supportive arguments for the future extension of ASEAN ("ASEAN+". Market-penetration and development strategies should be employed by Thai exporters when accessing the ASEAN market.

  1. 77 FR 29443 - 60-Day Notice of Two Proposed Directorate of Defense Trade Controls Information Collections...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    ... collection: The export, temporary import, temporary export and brokering of defense articles, defense... Export Control Act. Those of the public who manufacture or export defense articles, defense services, and... personal delivery. Dated: May 14, 2012. Robert S. Kovac, Managing Director of Defense Trade...

  2. Analysis of exports of the brazilian mineral sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Geovani Schwingel Franck

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to analyze the pattern of specialization of exports of brazilian mineral sector, identifying the most dynamic productive sectors in the period between 1999 and 2015. For this purpose, the Import Coverage Ratio was calculated, as well as the Intra-industry Trade rate (IIT, and the Sector Concentration of Exports. Data were collected from the Foreign Trade Information Analysis System (Alice Web. The results indicated that Brazil has a few competitive mineral groups in its export basket, and that it is concentrated in a few sectors. It was found that the most competitive sectors were Niobium ore, iron, manganese, gold, aluminum, other semimanufaturado and copper.

  3. The characteristics of soil N transformations regulate the composition of hydrologic N export from terrestrial ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinbo; Tian, Peng; Tang, Jialiang; Yuan, Lei; Ke, Yun; Cai, Zucong; Zhu, Bo; Müller, Christoph

    2016-06-01

    It is important to clarify the quantity and composition of hydrologic N export from terrestrial ecosystem and its primary controlling factors, because it affected N availability, productivity, and C storage in natural ecosystems. The most previous investigations were focused on the effects of N deposition and human disturbance on the composition of hydrologic N export. However, few studies were aware of whether there were significant differences in the concentrations and composition of hydrologic N export from natural ecosystems in different climate zones and what is the primary controlling factor. In the present study, three natural forest ecosystems and one natural grassland ecosystem that were located in different climate zones and with different soil pH range were selected. The concentrations of total dissolved N, dissolved organic nitrogen (DON), NH4+, NO3- in soil solution and stream water, soil properties, and soil gross N transformation rates were measured to answer above questions. Our results showed that NO3- concentrations and the composition pattern of hydrologic N export from natural ecosystems varied greatly in the different climate zones. The NO3- concentrations in stream water varied largely, ranging from 0.1 mg N L-1 to 1.6 mg N L-1, while DON concentration in stream water, ranging from 0.1 to 0.9 mg N L-1, did not differ significantly, and the concentrations of NH4+ were uniformly low (average 0.1 mg N L-1) in all studied sites. There was a trade-off relationship between the proportions of NO3- and DON to total dissolved N in stream water. In subtropical strongly acidic forests soil site, DON was the dominance in total dissolved N in stream water, while NO3--N became dominance in temperate acidic forests soil site, subtropical alkaline forests soil region, and the alpine meadow sites on the Tibetan Plateau. The proportions of NO3- to total dissolved N in both soil solution and stream water significantly increased with the increasing of the gross

  4. China's export of boats valued at over200million USD in2010%China's export of boats valued at over 200 million USD in 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Shouchun

    2011-01-01

    @@ In 2010, China's economy saw a relatively good recovery.The economic operation of the shipbuilding industry was better than expected and the import and export trade of ships developed at high speeds.According to the statistics of China's custom house, thetotal value of the import and export of boats was 295 million USD, up 40.75% from a year ago; the total quantity in import and export trade was 2057200 boats, up 15.26% in quantity from a year ago. Last year, the value of China's export of boats was 204 million USD, up 19.64%;2028700 boats were exported, up 14.79% in the quantity of boats from a year ago.The ratio of the export of boats to the export of ships in 2010 was 1%; the increase rate of boat export was much lower than that of ship export, which was 42.7%.In the first half of 2010, the export trade of boats showed a highspeed increase with monthly average export value of 14.655 million USD while in August and September, export decreased at a significant rate with the lowest value of 9.7324 million USD in September.

  5. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ROMANIAN EXPORTS AND ECONOMIC GROWTH AFTER THE ADHESION TO EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Dumitriu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the relationship between the quarterly values of the Romanian exports and of the Gross Domestic Product for the period 2007 – 2014, which was marked by the consequences of the adhesion to European Union and by the global crisis. In this analysis we employ cointegration tests, Vector Autoregression (VAR and Granger causality techniques. The results indicate no cointegration between the two variables but a causal effect of exports on the Gross Domestic Product.

  6. Export-led Growth Hypothesis: Turkey Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail KÜÇÜKAKSOY

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to investigate validity of “Export-led Growth Hypothesis” for Turkey using quarterly data in period from 2003:Q1 to 2015:Q1. Hypothesis argues that there is causality relationship from real export to real Gross Domestic Product (GDP. Johansen cointegration test, Gregory-Hansen cointegration test, Toda-Yamamoto causality test, Fully Modified Ordinary Least Squares (FMOLS, Canonical cointegrating regression (CCR and Dynamic ordinary least squares (DOLS methods were used in this study. Findings can be summarized as follows: a According to Johansen cointegration test there is no relationship among variables in the long-run whereas Gregory-Hansen cointegration test has determined relationship in the long-run; b According to Toda-Yamamoto causality test there is bidirectional causality between real export and real GDP. This finding proves the validity of “Export-led Growth Hypothesis” for Turkey; c According to FMOLS, CCR, DOLS methods a 1% increase in the real export increases the real GDP by 1.5195%, 1.5552%, 1.3171% respectively in the long-run. These methods prove the validity of “Export-led Growth Hypothesis” for Turkey.

  7. Trade Credits and Bank Credits in International Trade: Substitutes or Complements?

    OpenAIRE

    Engemann, Martina; Eck, Katharina; Schnitzer, Monika

    2011-01-01

    Trade credits are an important financing tool for internationally active firms. This is surprising, as trade credits are generally more expensive than bank credits and thus a costly substitute for bank financing. In this paper, we investigate the relation between trade credits and bank credits for exporting firms. We develop a theoretical model and show that trade credits convey a quality signal which reduces the risk of the transaction and may thus facilitate obtaining additional bank credit...

  8. 50 CFR 21.21 - Import and export permits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora)). (3) Each raptor must be... International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES)). (b) Exception to the import permit..., Exportation, and Transportation of Wildlife); (3) 15......

  9. The wise use of dummies in gravity models: export potentials in the Euromed region

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Ruiz; Josep M. Vilarrubia

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we estimate a gravity equation properly accounting for omitted exporter and importer’s overall trade resistance, through country yearly dummies for exporter and importer countries. We find that the omission of time varying multilateral trade resistance terms in the estimation of a gravity equation introduces important biases in the results, although correcting them means we can only compute differences between actual and predicted export shares, instead of levels, as usually do...

  10. Trade Finance and Trade Collapse during the Global Financial Crisis: Evidence from the Republic of Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Young Song

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the role of trade finance in the trade collapse of 2008-09 from the perspective of the Korean economy. We use two approaches. Firstly, as background to a more formal analysis, we make a casual observation on the behavior of aggregate data on trade finance, on which Korea has relatively abundant data. Aggregate data do not convincingly support the view that trade finance played an active role in causing the trade collapse. The measures of trade finance and the value of trade both dropped sharply, but the ratio of trade finance over trade was stable and in some cases increased during the crisis period. Secondly, using quarterly data on listed firms in Korea, we conduct panel estimations to test whether firms that are more dependent on external finance experienced greater export contraction during the crisis. Our regression analysis suggests that the financial vulnerability of firms, measured by various financial ratios, did not contribute to export contraction during the financial crisis. This observation largely applies even to smaller firms, who are usually thought of as being more vulnerable financially. However, we find that small exporters that relied heavily on cross-border trade payables or receivables suffered larger drops in export growth during the crisis.

  11. Coordinating quality practices in Direct Trade coffee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holland, Emil; Kjeldsen, Chris; Kerndrup, Søren

    2016-01-01

    Over the past few decades, many food niches have emerged with a specific focus on quality. In specialty coffee, micro roasters have brought about Direct Trade coffee as a way of organising an alternative around new tastes and qualities through ongoing and ‘direct’ relations to farmers...... and cooperatives. But Direct Trade also involves exporters. We ask, how do exporters and roasters work together in these new coffee relations, and what do they work on? We observe and participate in a situation where Colombian coffee exporters visit Danish roasters. They tour the roasting facilities and taste...

  12. Export industry structure upgrading and China's vertical specialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yinghua

    2011-10-01

    We computed the ratio of China's vertical specialization with revising method of Hummels et al. (2001). We found that China's export has the traits of processing trade, and Asian countries are the main exporter of intermediate goods to China; there is strong positive relationship between export ratio and ratio of China's vertical specialization, indicates that importing of intermediate goods play an important role in China's industry upgrading, China's comparative advantage of export still lies in low price of labor; even if China's production still locates in low value added stage in international supply chain, but China has began to advance its industry structure, and change the mode of production and trade that rely processing trade too much.

  13. EXPORT POTENTIAL OF THE AGRICULTURE OF RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klimova N. V.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Export of the food production is undoubtedly one of the most important strategic problems of Russia. The agricultural capacity of our country allows it not only to be fully self-sufficient in terms of food but also turns it into the leading exporter of foodstuffs in the world. The solution of this task requires the effective solution of many problems such as bringing the food industries to a new higher technical and technological level, the creation of the export infrastructure and mechanisms of the financial support to food producers. The fulfilling of the export potential of the domestic agrarian and industrial complex will not only help Russian economy to find the faster way out of the crisis but also will let our country play a major role in the international food trade and, respectively, in the struggle against hunger in the poorest countries of the world. In this article, the essence and the structure of the Russian agricultural export are considered. The three scenarios of the export development (pessimistic, realistic and optimistic and the conditions of their realization are analyzed. The analysis of the main indicators characterizing the current economic state of the agricultural production export is carried out. Based on the drawn conclusions, we have offered the ways of the solution of the given problem

  14. The People's Republic of China's high-tech exports: Myth and reality

    OpenAIRE

    Xing, Yuqing

    2012-01-01

    Trade statistics portray the People's Republic of China (PRC) as the largest exporter of high-tech products. In this paper I will argue that the PRC's leading position in high-tech exports is a myth created by outdated trade statistics which are inconsistent with trade based on global supply chains. Current trade statistics mistakenly credit entire values of assembled high-tech products to the PRC, thus greatly inflating its exports. In 2009, the PRC's value-added accounted for only about 3% ...

  15. determinants of intra-industry trade between zambia and it's trading ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eyerusalem

    IIT between Zambia and its trading partners in the SADC region and to identify .... preference for diversity but because of economies of scale, it is not profitable to ... Historically, Asia was the largest export market for Zambian commodities, ...

  16. International red meat trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brester, Gary W; Marsh, John M; Plain, Ronald L

    2003-07-01

    The maturation of the US beef and pork markets and increasing consumer demands for convenience, safety, and nutrition suggests that the beef and pork industries must focus on product development and promotion. New marketing arrangements are developing that help coordinate production with consumer demands. The relative high levels of incomes in the United States are likely to increase the demands for branded products rather than increase total per capita consumption. Foreign markets represent the greatest opportunity for increased demand for commodity beef and pork products. Increasing incomes in developing countries will likely allow consumers to increase consumption of animal-source proteins. Real prices of beef and pork have declined substantially because of sagging domestic demand and increasing farm-level production technologies. Increasing US beef and pork exports have obviated some of the price declines. Pork attained a net export position from a quantity perspective in 1995. The United States continues to be a net importer of beef on a quantity basis but is close to becoming a net exporter in terms of value. By-products continue to play a critical role in determining the red meat trade balance and producer prices. The United States, however, must continue to become cost, price, and quality competitive with other suppliers and must secure additional market access if it is to sustain recent trade trends. Several trade tensions remain in the red meat industry. For example, mandated COOL will undoubtedly have domestic and international effects on the beef and pork sectors. Domestically, uncertainty regarding consumer demand responses or quality perceptions regarding product origin, as well as added processor-retailer costs will be nontrivial. How these factors balance out in terms of benefits versus costs to the industry is uncertain. From an international perspective, some beef and pork export suppliers to the United States could view required labeling as a

  17. Guarding Against the Risks under FOB Term in Export

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔红霞

    2008-01-01

    The FOB contract becomes more and more in export trade in China recently.However,the case which the enter-prise suffers loss is more and more correspondingly,even causes the exporters to lose money and articles under FOB term.So, exporters should alarm risks and take corresponding measures to guard against the potential risks,which is significant in expan-ding foreign business suocessfidly.This paper will discuss risks that exporters face under FOB term from the four aspects:mar-ket,connection of vessel and article,documents and payment,then arise the precautionary methods accordingly.

  18. 78 FR 4401 - Orders Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas, To Import and Export Liquefied...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-22

    ...) TRADING LTD......... 12-104-NG PEMEX GAS Y PETROQUIMICA BASICA 12-110-NG NORTH WESTERN CORPORATION d/b/a.../ (Canada) Trading export natural gas Ltd. from/to Canada. 3154 10/04/12 12-110-NG Pemex Gas y Order...

  19. 金融发展、FDI与中国制造业出口绩效——基于新新贸易理论的实证分析%Financial Development, FDI and Manufacturing Export Performance of China: Empirical Analysis Based on New New Trade Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟夏; 陈磊

    2012-01-01

    Base on new new trade theory,this paper classified 80 million pieces of Chinese manufacturing export datas into the national economy industry classification. Then we use Probit model and Heckman selection model to test the dual margin impact of finance and FDI. Study shows that credit constraints is an important factor of export decisions, and financial development helps companies ease financing constraints,maked them producting in the best state,enabling them to enter the export market,expanding the share of exports, have a positive impact on the intensive margin and extensive margin. Meanwhile,FDI also ease the credit constraints of China' s export enterprises and promote exports of dual marginal of high - finance - dependent sectors, play the same role of financial development. Further estimates suggest that FDI functions through substitution of bank credit.%本文以新近发展的新新贸易理论为基础,将中国80余万条制造业出口数据归类到我国国民经济分类制造业.分别使用Probit模型和Heckman选择模型检验了金融发展和FDI对中国制造业出口二元边际的影响。研究表明,在控制其他影响因素的前提下,融资约束是影响企业出口决策的重要因素,而金融发展有助于企业缓解融资约束,使其能够在最优状态下生产,不仅有利其进入出口市场,还扩大了其出口份额,从而对贸易的扩展边际和集约边际都有积极的影响。此外,FDI缓解了我国出口企业面临的信贷约束,促进融资依赖性行业出口的二元边际,一定程度上发挥了与金融发展同样的作用,进一步的估计表明,FDI是通过替代银行信贷而发挥作用的。

  20. Learning by Exporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cruz, Antonio; Newman, Carol; Rand, John

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we analyse the learning-by-exporting (LBE) hypothesis in the Mozambican context. Due to the presence of the ‘Born-Global’ phenomenon among exporters, we address the endogeneity introduced by self-selection, combining a generalised Blinder–Oaxaca approach with results from...... traditional matching techniques. Our results show that very few manufacturing firms export, and that export participation is highly persistent. There is also evidence supporting the LBE hypothesis and the results suggest a significant export premium of between 17 and 21%, controlling for differences...... in observable characteristics between exporters and non-exporters. Finally, qualitative information on non-exporters seeking new markets suggests that ‘lack of knowledge of potential markets’ is the most severe constraint to international market entry. We conclude that the Mozambican Export Promotion Institute...

  1. Optimun and Revenue Maximizing Trade Taxes in a Multicountry Framework Optimun and Revenue Maximizing Trade Taxes in a Multicountry Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Maurice Schiff; Arvind Panagariya

    1995-01-01

    The traditional literature derives optimum and revenue-maximizing export taxes within two-country models. with one exporter and one importer (Johnson 1950-51, Tower 1977). In reality, most products, including primary products. are exported by several countries. In this paper, we present a theory of trade taxes in a three-country framework. This enables us to deal with strategic interactions among exporting countries. We show that (i) if one of the countries is a Stackelberg leader, both count...

  2. Trade Surplus Drops,more Rebate Cutting?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Almost everyone was surprised when the China Customs released the latest export and import statistics on April, 10th:6.87 billion US dollars,China’s favorable balance of trade in March.But only one month earlier,the trade surplus

  3. Foreign experience of regulating international trade transactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klymenko L. V.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the international experience of state regulating international trade transactions; nature, directions and contradictions of contemporary processes of globalization are defined; components of regulatory and incentive means in system of state supporting foreign trade activity of commodity producers are considered; general provisions for the improvement of state regulation mechanisms of export-import activities in Ukraine are determined.

  4. Emission Trading

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    The work concerns Emission Trading Scheme from perspektive of taxes and accounting. I should show problems with emission trading. The work concerns practical example of trading with emission allowance.

  5. India's Trade in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Shailendra

    2015-01-01

    India has had an extremely adverse balance of trade in education. Though only a minor education exporter through Mode 2, India is the world's second largest student-sending country. Nevertheless, given English as the medium of instruction especially in apex institutions, low tuition and cost of living, quite a few world-class institutions, and a…

  6. India's Trade in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Shailendra

    2015-01-01

    India has had an extremely adverse balance of trade in education. Though only a minor education exporter through Mode 2, India is the world's second largest student-sending country. Nevertheless, given English as the medium of instruction especially in apex institutions, low tuition and cost of living, quite a few world-class institutions, and a…

  7. Gross job flows and firms

    OpenAIRE

    Scott Schuh; Robert K. Triest

    1999-01-01

    This paper extends the work of Dunne, Roberts, and Samuelson [3] and Davis, Haltiwanger, and Schuh [2] on gross job flows among manufacturing plants. Gross job creation, destruction, and reallocation have been shown to be important in understanding the birth, growth, and death of plants, and the relation of plant life cycles to the business cycle. However, little is known about job flows between firms or how job flows among plants occur within firms (corporate restructuring). We use informati...

  8. Extracting Geography from Trade Data

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Yuke; Marshall, Nicholas; Steinerberger, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    The gravity equation has been successful in establishing a connection between the amount of trade between two countries, their respective gross domestic products and "distance" (a complex notion including geographical, historical, linguistic and sociological components). We take the inverse route and show that it is possible to construct a meaningful 'distance' without any external information simply from knowing the bilateral trade volumes between countries. The main tool is a non-standard interpretation of trade flows data as a set of high-dimensional points and the use of mathematical tools to perform dimensionality reduction. This may have further applications for problems in long-term economic analysis, cartel detection and others.

  9. The Fluctuation Characteristics of Export Trade in Jiangsu Province and Its Development Strategic Transformation%江苏出口贸易的波动特征及战略转变

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘正良

    2011-01-01

    江苏的出口增长是在长期的收缩过程中实现的,出口波动的周期正由短周期转向中周期,由高位收缩转向低位收缩,出口增长的稳定性和持续性都难以为继。后金融危机时期的江苏应该由开放型经济转向创新型经济,推进出口结构战略调整。%The export increase in Jiangsu province is realized in the long-term shrinkage process. The fluctuation period of export is being changed from a short one to a middle one, from high shrinkage to low shrinkage. It is difficult to continue the stability and persistence of export growth in Jiangsu. After financial crisis, it is necessary for Jiangsu to change from the opening-oriented economy to innovation-oriented one, thus pushing forward the strategy adjustment of export structure.

  10. Rare Earth Export Quota in the Second Half of 2008 Promulgated

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ On July the 4th of 2008, in accordance with "Commodities Import and Export Statute of the People's Republic of China", rare earth export quota for ordinary trade in the second half year of 2008 was promulgated by the Ministry of Commerce of P.R.C. Rare earth export quota in the second half of 2008 was distributed to those enterprises that were qualified for the application of rare earth export quota in 2008.

  11. New Insights on US Aggregate and State Level Trade with the China Region%New Insights on US Aggregate and State Level Trade with the China Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Catherine Y. Co

    2011-01-01

    Aggregate trade data with breakdown into related and non-related party components show that US multinational enterprises use different trading strategies in the China region relative to other countries. US trade with the China region in 2002-007 is characterized by arm 's- length transactions. State-level trade data show great variability in state engagement with the region through trade: exports to the region range from 1 to 28 percent of state exports. In addition, compared to exports to other countries, exports to the region are highly concentrated. At the extreme, for some states, 96-98 percent of exports to the region are computer and electronic products. Finally, gravity regressions show that state exports to Hong Kong are posflively associated with the relative size of the ltong Kong-born population in the states. There is no evidence that stricter labor regimes lead to lower state exports.

  12. Entorno institucional y comercio exterior: el efecto del riesgo político en las exportaciones de Castilla y León = Institutional aspects and foreign trade: results of political risk in exports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Jiménez Palmero

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLa ampliación de la Unión Europea (UE a 27 miembros, ha supuesto unos mayores incentivos para comenzar o intensificar las actividades de exportación de las empresas. Además, las exportaciones les pueden permitir obtener diversas ventajas competitivas frente a aquellas otras puramente domésticas. El presente estudio analiza los determinantes de la evolución de las exportaciones castellano-leonesas hacia los distintos países miembros de la UE, prestando especial atención a los condicionantes institucionales y al efecto del riesgo político, ya que constituyen una de las mayores diferencias persistentes aún entre las características de los países recientemente adheridos y las de los demás miembros. Los resultados demuestran que en las provincias castellano-leonesas, las exportaciones son muy dependientes del ciclo económico, pero se presta una atención escasa al riesgo político, contrariamente a la tendencia de las exportaciones españolas.AbstractThe enlargement of the European Union (EU to 27 members has increased the incentives to start or intensify exports. In addition, exports may facilitate competitive advantages not available to domestic firms. This study analyses the determinants of the evolution of exports from Castilla and Leon towards the country members of the EU, paying special attention to the relevance of institutional aspects and political risk, one of the main persistent differences in the characteristics of the new members compared to the other states. The results show that in the provinces of Castilla and Leon, exports are very dependent of the economic cycle, but little attention is paid to political risk, in spite of the opposite happening for national Spanish exports.

  13. INTERNATIONAL COMMERCIAL TRADE WITH POTATOES (2009 - 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragoş Mihai MEDELETE

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper refers to the situation related to the potato world trade, 2009-2011. Defining aspects of this issue begin by presenting the sequence of continental entities defined by the FAO (Africa, Americas, Asia, Europe and Oceania, and then presents the study of global imports and exports, and positioning Romania in performing acts of international exchange - in the context of those mentioned above. During the material, given the composition of the trade balance of international trade presents strict export and import situation - in terms of value, subject to quantitative aspects of other scientific approaches. This (look value is more relevant to what is happening on the international market.

  14. Trade Performance: Highlights in the Crisis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Figure On January 13, China Customs issued the annual profile of China's foreign trade,including import and export, in 2008. According to the Customs statistics, trade volume last year amounted to US$2.562trillion, a year-on-year growth of 17.8%.In the total amount, value of US$1.42 trillion goes for China's export growth, 17.2% up, while the import takes up US$1.13trillion, 18.5% up. The trade surplus stood at US$295.47 billion in 2008, increased by 12.5% year-on-year, with the net increase value of US$32.83 billion.

  15. Trade Imbalance,Conflict and Prospect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yantai Chen; Yong Yang

    2009-01-01

    @@ A brief review of Sino-US trade conflicts: from 1978 to 2005 From the standpoint of USA, as one of the largest export-ers of low-cost labor-intensive goods, China presents some-what of a dilemma to the US in terms of its potential for caus-ing material injury to US domestic markets. As a response, the US has appealed to trade remedy measures such as the imposi-tion of anti-dumping duties, which are designed to offset 'un-fair' trade practices.

  16. An Analysis on Strategies to Improve The Business Ability to Foreign Trade Merchandisers---Taking Ningbo Yumei Import and Export co., LTD., for Example%外贸跟单员业务能力提升的策略分析--以宁波雨美世纪进出口有限公司为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石丹静; 曾虹

    2015-01-01

    外贸出口合同签订后,需要跟单员跟进整个贸易流程直至安全收汇。对产品不够熟悉,与其他部门沟通合作不畅,个人工作使命感不强等问题的存在阻碍了跟单员跟单业务的顺利开展。通过结合公司实际,针对这些问题提出了解决对策,以期给外贸跟单员一些启示和帮助。%After signing a foreign trade export contract,the merchandiser shall follow up the whole trade process until they exchange the product safely.Unfamiliarity with products,difficulties in communicating and cooperating with other departments,weak individual work responsibility and the existence of other problems hindered the merchandisers' documentary from going on smoothly.This paper combined the reality of the company,put forward the countermeasures to solve these problems,hoping to give some enlightenment and assistance to foreign trade merchandisers.

  17. Contributions to improve accounting and financial reporting of exports of goods and services

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolae Paul Virag; Gheorghe Claudiu Feieş; Marian Socoliuc

    2012-01-01

    Foreign trade is a form of foreign economic activity and simultaneously a form of trade in general. Basic forms of trade determines the existence of their methodology to account for flows. At the first level of imports and exports accounting methodology is based on general patterns of purchases and sales records locally, but is supplemented with specific elements of the tax, customs and currency. This paper proposes an approach to exports of goods and services in terms of accounting and taxat...

  18. The Effect of International Trade on Rule of Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junsok Yang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we look at the relationship between international trade and the rule of law, using the World Justice Project Rule of Law Index, which include index figures on human rights, limits on government powers, transparency and regulatory efficiency. Based on regression analyses using the rule of law index figures and international trade figures (merchandise trade, service trade, exports and importsIn this paper, we look at the relationship between international trade and the rule of law, using the World Justice Project Rule of Law Index, which include index figures on human rights, limits on government powers, transparency and regulatory efficiency. Based on regression analyses using the rule of law index figures and international trade figures (merchandise trade, service trade, exports and imports as percentage of GDP, international trade and basic human rights seem to have little relationship; but trade has a close positive relationship with strong order and security. Somewhat surprisingly, regulatory transparency and effective implementation seems to have little or no effect on international trade and vice versa. International trade shows a clear positive relationship with the country’s criminal justice system, but the relationship with the civil justice system is not as clear as such. For regulatory implementation and civil justice, services trade positively affect these institutions, but these institutions in turn affect exports more strongly than services trade. Finally, the effect of trade on rule of law is stronger on a medium to long term (10-20 year time horizon.

  19. Permit trading and credit trading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boom, Jan-Tjeerd; R. Dijstra, Bouwe

    This paper compares emissions trading based on a cap on total emissions (permit trading) and on relative standards per unit of output (credit trading). Two types of market structure are considered: perfect competition and Cournot oligopoly. We find that output, abatement costs and the number...... of firms are higher under credit trading. Allowing trade between permit-trading and credit-trading sectors may increase in welfare. With perfect competition, permit trading always leads to higher welfare than credit trading. With imperfect competition, credit trading may outperform permit trading....... Environmental policy can lead to exit, but also to entry of firms. Entry and exit have a profound impact on the performance of the schemes, especially under imperfect competition. We find that it may be impossible to implement certain levels of total industry emissions. Under credit trading several levels...

  20. Cultural similarity and international trade in a panel of nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E-G Hwang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Using a gravity model and the data of a panel of eight nations, we present evidence that supports the views that geographical influence on trade had increased from 1985 to 1997. In both years, linguistic influence on trade is found to exist in export but not in import. The estimated results show a positive relation between religious similarity and international trade for the year 1985 but not for the year 1997. However, there is an indication that, for 1997, the religious dissimilarity tends to discourage international trade with low-income countries and regions and to encourage international trade with high-income countries. We also find that, for low-income trade partners, religious dissimilarity retards imports more than exports; by contrast, for high-income trade partners, it encourages exports more than imports.

  1. 2003年我国家禽进出口情况%Poultry import and export in china in 2003

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文真

    2004-01-01

    In 2003, china saw the increased poultry product import and the decreased export. The total value of import and export trade of poultry products was composed of 3.3% of that of the national agricultural products, in which, export value made up 4.0% of the total export value of the Chinese agricultural products, and import value accounted for 2.5%.

  2. Firm and Product Heterogeneity in China's Automotive Exports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to provide an in-depth analysis of the anatomy of China's automotive exports, relying on the literature on firm and product heterogeneity. For this purpose, we use highly disaggregated HS 8-digit product-category level data collected by the Chinese Customs Office for 2000 and 2008, and we distinguish between foreign firms, domestic public firms, and domestic private firms. We also decompose automotive products into autos and auto parts and components (P/C. We then calculate both the extensive margins – number of products exported – and intensive margins – average value of exports per product – of China's automotive exports. We estimate gravity equations to assess the determinants of China's exports of autos and auto P/C. Overall, our analysis yields a number of new, interesting stylized facts about China's automotive exports by confirming the need for taking into account different types of heterogeneity in analyzing international trade.

  3. Logistics and Exports

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Drawing on a new and comprehensive measure of logistics quality, our gravity model suggests logistics in the exporting and partner-country can have an important impact on bilateral exports. A one standard deviation improvement in the exporter’s logistics quality, which for example would improve Gabon to the level of Guinea, would raise exports by almost 60%. Landlocked countries’ exports depend on their neighbours’ logistics, but their own logistics quality is not as important as for other co...

  4. Tainted Food, Low-Quality Products and Trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M.A. Viaene (Jean-Marie); L. Zhao (Ling)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThis paper examines international trade in tainted food and other low-quality products. We first find that for a large class of environments, free trade is the trading system that conveys the highest incentives to produce non-tainted high-quality goods by foreign exporters. However, free

  5. Tainted Food, Low-Quality Products and Trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M.A. Viaene (Jean-Marie); L. Zhao (Ling)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThis paper examines international trade in tainted food and other low-quality products. We first find that for a large class of environments, free trade is the trading system that conveys the highest incentives to produce non-tainted high-quality goods by foreign exporters. However, free

  6. 78 FR 21909 - Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-12

    ... International Trade Administration Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee; Public Meeting AGENCY... notice sets forth the schedule and proposed agenda of a meeting of the Environmental Technologies Trade... administration of programs to expand U.S. exports of environmental technologies, goods, services, and...

  7. Oil Deals to Widen Trade Deficit with Russia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    @@ The US$ 150 billion oil deal between China and Russia will expand bilateral trade and China's huge trade deficit with Russia, according to Chinese experts. China's exports to Russia may have increased rapidly in recent years but the nation is expected to see its trade deficit with Russia widen for the foreseeable future.

  8. 外贸出口虚拟污染及其“十二五”节能减排潜力分析%Analysis of Export Virtual Pollution and Potential in Energy-Saving and Emission-Reduction in Foreign Trade for the 12th Five Year Plan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹春苗; 胡涛; 庞军

    2011-01-01

    我国对外贸易强劲发展,但在贸易价值量顺差的同时,出口引致的资源环境逆差日益凸显。本文通过投入产出模型,定量核算不同年度出口产值、虚拟SO2、CO2排放量,并分析其对经济增长与污染排放的影响。研究表明:外贸出口产值及虚拟污染占国内较大比重,且其经济贡献小于污染贡献,这在典型行业体现得尤为明显。截至2007年,多数典型行业"值污比"小于1。外贸行业污染贡献不容忽视,节能减排潜力更值得"挖掘"。2005年-2007年,外贸虚拟SO2排放量降幅10.4%,出口虚拟CO2排放强度降幅21%。分析表明:结合《十二五规划纲要》节能减排硬性约束要求,外贸行业在规模、结构与技术效应方面,具有巨大的节能减排潜力。%As a big country in foreign trade,China has been dramatically developing,and obtained enormous trade surplus in terms of monetary value.However,the environment deficit in terms of environmental indicators has become increasingly prominent and serious,gradually forming the situation of "exporting products abroad and remaining pollution at home".An input-output model was used to calculate the export monetary value and virtual emissions of sulfur dioxide(SO2),carbon dioxide(CO2) embedded in products in foreign trade in 2002,2005,and 2007.Inter-annual changes in them and the impact on economic growth and emissions of pollutants,from foreign trade and typical industries,and from five dimensions of the export monetary value,virtual emissions of SO2,CO2 virtual pollution intensity,and contribution of "economy and pollution" were investigated.Results show that the export monetary value and emissions of export virtual pollutants were huge,and had a great proportion in GDP and national total emissions.Furthermore,the economic contribution was less than that of pollution contribution,especially in the typical industries.For 2007,the "economy-pollution ratio" in

  9. THE EUROPEAN UNION`S TRADE RELATIONS WITH AUSTRALIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila Borta

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The European Union is a major player in the world economy and also the largest trading player on the global scene, accounting for about 20% of world imports and exports. The elimination of trade barriers within the EU confirmed its commitment to global trade liberalisation as it is an important part of multilateral trade negotiations. Apart from WTO trade agreements, the European Union concluded a number of bilateral trade agreements with certain countries and regions in the world. The aim of this paper is to present the EU-Australia trade relationship, Australia being an important trading partner of the EU. The trade flows between them includes both agricultural and non-agricultural products. The database that has been used is represented by the information published by the European Commission and the Australian Government. In conclusion, we found that both EU imports from Australia and EU exports to Australia are dominated by non-agricultural products.

  10. Government Regulation and Dual Margins of China’ s Rare-earth Product Export Growth-Based on the Micro Trade Data from 2001-2012%政府规制与中国稀土产品出口增长的二元边际∗--对2001-2012年微观贸易数据的实证分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张群卉

    2015-01-01

    采用HS⁃6位数级微观贸易数据,计算2001—2012年中国稀土产品出口增长的二元边际,并进一步分析相对出口规制程度、相对产量与出口增长二元边际之间的相互影响,结果表明:中国稀土产品出口规制政策对稀土产品出口增长的集约边际和扩展边际都有促进作用,其中对集约边际的影响更大;而相对产量对二元边际有负面影响。在中国经济新常态下,随着稀土产品出口规制政策的逐步弱化,应加强对稀土产业的生产规制,提高产品附加值,实现从规模速度型粗放增长向质量效率型集约增长的转变;并积极开拓新的出口市场,促进稀土产业的良性扩张。%This paper calculates the dual margins of China’ s export growth with HS⁃6 digit micro trade data of rare⁃earth industry from 2001 to 2012, and analyzes the impact of export regulation and relative yield on these dual margins. The results show that export regulation can improve extensive and intensive margins, and the impact on intensive margin is greater, while relative yield negatively influences dual margins. Under China’ s economic new normal situation, with the play⁃down of rare⁃earth product export regulation, regulations on the production of rare earth industry should be strengthened and additional value of product should be improved to realize the shift from extensive growth of size and speed to intensive growth of quality and efficiency. Export market should be expanded to promote the health expansion of rare⁃earth industry.

  11. Export situation of China' s refractory raw materials and countermeasures to current trade friction%中国耐火原料出口情况及当前贸易摩擦的应对

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王沅江

    2012-01-01

    综述了我国耐火原料出口情况和特点,指出了存在的问题,提出了应对措施,总结了今后工作的重点.%Export situation and characteristics of China's refractory raw materials were reviewed,problems were pointed out,contermeasures were put forward,and work emphasis in the future was summarized.

  12. APLICATION OF GRAVITY MODEL FOR ANALYSIS OF BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA EXPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladan Nastić

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last two decades, the gravity model has become very popular in analysis of bilateral trade, regardless of the real limitations of econometrics methods in estimation of model parameters. In this research we analyzed Bosnia and Herzegovina export in period from 2002 to 2011, using gravity model of trade. Gravity model is constructed on the basis of experience from previous empirical and theoretical research, and on the basis of achieved exports results of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The resulting gravity model of exports is used as the basis for the analysis of potential export growth opportunities and identifying potential markets which are not fully utilized. At the same time we got information about the risk of a possible reduction of exports in some countries. Research results should be used as the basis for the adjustment measures of foreign trade policy of Bosnia and Herzegovina in order to use the potential export indicated by this analysis.

  13. ROMANIAN WINE TRADE IN THE PERIOD 2007-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Georgiana LADARU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper is based on a research that aimed to analyze the wine exports of Romania by top destination countries in the period 2007-2013. The research method was based on statistical interpretations of the trade data provided by International Trade Center. In value terms the Romanian wine exports increased each year during this period, the main export destination being Germania, United Kingdom and China. Spain was the main exporter of wine for Romania, this country taking advantage of reduced Romanian wine production and Romanian domestic market potential for wine sales.

  14. On a question of Gross

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Abhijit

    2007-03-01

    Using the notion of weighted sharing of sets we prove two uniqueness theorems which improve the results proved by Fang and Qiu [H. Qiu, M. Fang, A unicity theorem for meromorphic functions, Bull. Malaysian Math. Sci. Soc. 25 (2002) 31-38], Lahiri and Banerjee [I. Lahiri, A. Banerjee, Uniqueness of meromorphic functions with deficient poles, Kyungpook Math. J. 44 (2004) 575-584] and Yi and Lin [H.X. Yi, W.C. Lin, Uniqueness theorems concerning a question of Gross, Proc. Japan Acad. Ser. A 80 (2004) 136-140] and thus provide an answer to the question of Gross [F. Gross, Factorization of meromorphic functions and some open problems, in: Proc. Conf. Univ. Kentucky, Lexington, KY, 1976, in: Lecture Notes in Math., vol. 599, Springer, Berlin, 1977, pp. 51-69], under a weaker hypothesis.

  15. Fair Trade

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    This paper deals with the behavior of fair trade organizations in an oligopolistic setting in which the vertically integrated fair trade firm produces a commodity which is a weak substitute for another commodity. Profit-maximizing oligopolists are vertically disintegrated and produce for both markets and the fair trade firm can charge a premium to consumers due to a "warm glow effect" that depends on the wage paid to fair trade producers. We show that trade integration will unambiguously incr...

  16. The topology of African exports: Emerging patterns on spanning trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Tanya; Ferreira, Manuel Ennes

    2016-11-01

    This paper is a contribution to interweaving two lines of research that have progressed in separate ways: network analysis of international trade and the literature on African trade and development. Gathering empirical data on African countries has important limitations and so does the space occupied by African countries in the analysis of trade networks. Here, these limitations are dealt with by the definition of two independent bipartite networks: a destination share network and a commodity share network. These networks-together with their corresponding minimal spanning trees-allow to uncover some ordering emerging from African exports in the broader context of international trade. The emerging patterns help to understand important characteristics of African exports and its binding relations to other economic, geographic and organizational concerns as the recent literature on African trade, development and growth has shown.

  17. Empirical Analysis of the Structure of Sino-US Agricultural Trade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yingmei Zheng; Jianhong Qi

    2007-01-01

    This paper empirically analyzes the structure of agricultural trade between China and the USA from 1996 to 2005, using different trade indexes such as the Grubel-Lloyd Index, the Revealed Comparative Advantage Index, the Finger-Kreinin Similitude Index and the Export Diversification Index, with a focus on the issues impeding Sino-US agricultural trade. We found that over the period of 1996 to 2005, inter-industry trade outweighed intra-industry trade in Sino-US agricultural trade, and that bilateral trade was more complementary than competitive. At the same time, China's agricultural exports were more diversified than USA exports, but China's degree of diversification steadily declined during the sample period.The findings indicate that there exists great potential for further development of agricultural trade between China and the USA, and that positive and effective trade policies will result in maximization of potential agricultural trade development and will bring forth mutual benefits to both countries.

  18. 78 FR 44934 - Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-25

    ... natural gas (non-FTA countries) with which trade is not prohibited by U.S. law or policy. SPL requests... for trade in natural gas (non-FTA countries) with which trade is not prohibited by U.S. law or policy... Pass Liquefaction, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas...

  19. 15 CFR 30.4 - Electronic Export Information filing procedures, deadlines, and certification statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Electronic Export Information filing procedures, deadlines, and certification statements. 30.4 Section 30.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FOREIGN...

  20. Determinants of Export Diversification in Nigeria: Any Special Role for Foreign Direct Investment (FDI?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damilola Felix Arawomo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The importance of export diversification is presently taking a center stage in trade literature. This paper contributed to the evolving literature by examining the extent of export diversification in Nigeria and also analyzed the impact of foreign direct investment on it. Two major methods of export diversification: export count (horizontal and Herfindahl Index were used. Nigeria’s exports flows based on 4-digit SICT product classification were used. The Generalized Moment Methods (GMM was used to analyze our specified model. Empirical analysis showed that foreign direct investment discourages export diversification in Nigeria, while domestic investment promotes it. Exchange rate and democratic accountability are other factors that discourage export diversification in Nigeria. No evidence was found on the impact of per capita GDP, trade openness and natural resource.

  1. Labor Absorption and Its Impact on Gross Regional Domestic Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Made Ika Prastyadewi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to examine the determinants of labor absorption in the trade, hotel and restaurant sector and its impact on Gross Regional Domestic Product/GRDP at Bali Province. This study is important due to the fact that the GRDP in this sector is the highest compared to other sector but the labor absorption is lower than the agriculture sector. This study used panel data comprising 9 regencies/cities at Bali Province in the period 2003-2009 including fixed effect model and simultaneous equation model of Two-Stage Least Square. The results showed that GRDP, working age population, and the minimum wage have positive effect on employment, while the educated unemployment has no significant effect on the employment in the trade, hotel and restaurant sector. In addition, increases in employment and workers productivity have positive and significant effects the GRDP in the trade, hotel and restaurant sector at Bali Province.

  2. On Deepening Reform of Processing Trade Regulations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The Processing trade has,since 1996,Taken half of the total import and export trade value for a consecutive six years.Despite the impact and influence of the Asian financial crisis,it has maintained a momentum of steady growth.In the five years from 1997 to 2001.import and export value through the processing trade grew at an annual average rate of 10.5 percent,with exports growing at an annual average rate of 11.8 percent.This good growth momentum continued into the first ten months of 2002,when the value of imports and exports grew 24.1 percent,with exports growing 20.6 percent and imports,29.7 percent.1 Rapid growth is expected for 2002 and in the first half of 2003,thanks to a rise in imports through the processing trade and the impact of the processing cycle.It has ,therefore,become an important subject of study in the further opeing up and accelerating of China's economic development to deepen reform of processing trade regulations to keep up with the new situation.

  3. Evaluating the effect of domestic support on international trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urban, Kirsten; Brockmeier, Martina; Jensen, Hans Grinsted

    to 2007, the results indicate a decrease in trade distortion stemming from the implementation of decoupled support in the EU. The trade-equivalent protection rate determined under the index shows that domestic support payments restrict trade more than tariffs and export subsidies. Additionally, the index...... indicates that reducing WTO amber box domestic support payments would lead to decreased trade restrictiveness.......We use the Mercantilist Trade Restrictiveness Index (MTRI) to develop an extended index that measures the overall trade effects of domestic support payments in a general equilibrium framework environment. Our index is capable of analyzing the development of the trade restrictiveness of domestic...

  4. Export Products and Services Quality Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanta Aurelia Chitiba

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Quality became the management imperative in the last time and will continue to be the key to success in the future. We often see the words “quality first”, and demands for quality invade every sphere of activity, from the motor vehicles we drive, to the domestic appliances we use, the food we eat and, of course, the products and services we import and export. Quality represents the goal of every business and it is focused on the customer. Satisfying the requirements of the customer is a dynamic activity: both customers and their needs are changing continuous and the suppliers have to recognize this. When it comes to international trade, no exporting country can afford to compromise on quality. The current global economic climate calls for export marketing and promotion efforts with assurances of superior and consistent quality in products and services, rather associated with lower prices.

  5. Learning by Exporting, Importing or Both?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smeets, Valérie; Warzynski, Frederic

    In this paper, we analyze the relationship between exporting/importing status and firm productivity. We use a rich product-firm-level dataset providing both revenue and quantities of all products for a large panel of Danish manufacturing firms over the period 1998-2005 and link it to another...... dataset describing firms' international trade transactions by product. We use our detailed product level information to compute a firm level deflator and avoid the criticism of biased estimates due to the use of industry level deflator. We find that both importing and exporting behaviours are strongly...... to more distant OECD economies is more strongly associated to productivity than exporting to neighboring or other EU countries, especially when controlling for the price specific effect....

  6. 15 CFR 764.7 - Activities involving items that may have been illegally exported or reexported to Libya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... have been illegally exported or reexported to Libya. 764.7 Section 764.7 Commerce and Foreign Trade... items that may have been illegally exported or reexported to Libya. (a) Introduction. As set forth in... have been illegally exported or reexported to Libya before the comprehensive embargo on Libya...

  7. 15 CFR 30.71 - False or fraudulent reporting on or misuse of the Automated Export System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... misuse of the Automated Export System. 30.71 Section 30.71 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations... REGULATIONS Penalties § 30.71 False or fraudulent reporting on or misuse of the Automated Export System. (a... or indirectly, to the U.S. Government, false or misleading export information through the AES,...

  8. International trade and specialisation between Europe and Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Otte

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to analyze, quantify and explain trade patterns and international specialisation within fur skin and fur garments focusing on Europa and Asia as two major trading partners. Data is provided from international trade statistics, national statistical institutions...... and organizations. The analyses combine international trade theories with trade statistics and in this way results and conclusions are presented. The analyses show that international trade with fur skin products between Asia and Europe has increased remarkably during the recent decades. Europe accounts for a major...... share of world production and export of raw fur skin, and Asia accounts for the major part of the subsequent processing. This means that there is a significant export of raw fur skin from Europe to Asia, and a major export of fur garments from Asia to Europe including Russia. The conclusion is...

  9. Further Optimization of the Import and Export Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ According to customs statistics,Chinese trade imports and exports totaled US$ 1,759.32 billion from January to October this year, representing an increase of 23.5 percent over the same period last year,and nearly equal to the total amount of imports and exports from all of last year. Exports were US$ 985.84 billion dollars, increasing by 26.5 percent, while imports accounted for US$ 773.48 billion dollars,increasing by 19.8 percent. Trade surplus has grown over the last ten months to US$ 212.36 billion, increasing by 59 percent, which is 10.2 percent slower than the growth rate of the trade surplus in the 9 months previous to that.

  10. Study of the Effects of Globalization on Iranian Caviar Export

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolghasem Barghandan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Globalization is integration of national economies in globaleconomy and infers on increasing the flow of goods andservices. In this study the consequences of globalization werestudied through the analysis of Level of International Tradeindex (LIT in the caviar export equation. The required datawere gathered from Statistical Yearbook of Foreign Trade,Statistical Yearbook of fisheries, Statistical Yearbook of the International Monetary Fund, United Nations Food and AgricultureOrganization and different issues of Central Bank of Iran over1974-2007. The results showed that domestic production ofcaviar have significant and positive effects on its export. Inaddition, sign of level of international trade variable in theestimated model is positive and indicates trade restrictionsremove lead to increase in caviar export.

  11. Marketing instruments of foreign trade promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjelić Predrag

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Instruments of promotion as a part of marketing mix are usually associated with companies but more and more countries use this instrument in order to boost their exports. These foreign trade promotion instruments are now popular in many countries in the world since their use is not opposed to any World Trade Organization rules. Marketing instruments of trade promotions are the most important. They include National Exhibitions and National labels of origin and quality. In order to coordinate the application of these instruments countries have established national bodies for trade promotion. Many studies in the past had argued that national Agencies established to promote export did not had any real success, but recent studies indicate that they could have a significant impact on country export promotion. The result of this rise in impact of national export promotion agencies is due to international effort spearheaded by International Trade Center. The aim of this paper is to point out types and methods of marketing instruments application in trade promotion and to present the effectiveness of these instruments applications.

  12. Reducing pollution by adjusting China’s trade mix—A case study using SO2 emissions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈利生; 唐志

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of foreign trade on China’s pollution emissions using an input-output model. Generally speaking,as exports are more pollution-intensive than imports,foreign trade helps reduce China’s emissions. Given the huge surplus of trade in goods and declines in the ratio of import/export emission intensities,an emission deficit emerged in China’s foreign trade.The fundamental cause is the worsening product mix of foreign trade.With technical progress outpaced by foreign trade growth,however,total emissions of export goods have been on the rise.

  13. A Study of Comparative Advantage and Intra-Industry Trade in the Pharmaceutical Industry of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusefzadeh, Hassan; Rezapour, Aziz; Lotfi, Farhad; Ebadifard Azar, Farbod; Nabilo, Bahram; Abolghasem Gorji, Hassan; Hadian, Mohammad; Shahidisadeghi, Niusha; Karami, Atiyeh

    2015-04-23

    Drug costs in Iran accounts for about 30% of the total health care expenditure. Moreover, pharmaceutical business lies among the world's greatest businesses. The aim of this study was to analyze Iran's comparative advantage and intra-industry trade in pharmaceuticals so that suitable policies can be developed and implemented in order to boost Iran's trade in this field. To identify Iran's comparative advantage in pharmaceuticals, trade specialization, export propensity, import penetration and Balassa and Vollrath indexes were calculated and the results were compared with other pharmaceutical exporting countries. The extent and growth of Iran's intra-industry trade in pharmaceuticals were measured and evaluated using the Grubel-Lloyd and Menon-Dixon indexes. The required data was obtained from Iran's Customs Administration, Iran's pharmaceutical Statistics, World Bank and International Trade Center. The results showed that among pharmaceutical exporting countries, Iran has a high level of comparative disadvantage in pharmaceutical products because it holds a small share in world's total pharmaceutical exports. Also, the low extent of bilateral intra-industry trade between Iran and its trading partners in pharmaceuticals shows the trading model of Iran's pharmaceutical industry is mostly inter-industry trade rather than intra-industry trade. In addition, the growth of Iran's intra-industry trade in pharmaceuticals is due to its shares of imports from pharmaceutical exporting countries to Iran and exports from Iran to its neighboring countries. The results of the analysis can play a valuable role in helping pharmaceutical companies and policy makers to boost pharmaceutical trade.

  14. THE TRADE POSITION OF POLAND IN THE ICT SERVICES SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Talar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper includes analysis and assessment of trade in the ICT services performance of Poland. This study is looked at the trade position, essentially on the basis of the share in the world ICT services exports, revealed comparative advantage (RCA, and trade coverage ratio. It also identifies trends of the world trade in the ICT services. The statistics are derived from the basis of UNCTAD and Eurostat. International trade in the ICT ser-vices sector has specific characteristics and the interpretation of results of this trade is to take account of the particular nature of the ICT services. Poland is currently not revealed comparative advantage in the ICT services exports, but has had positive balance. Practically all trade indicators for Poland show very strong growth, which indicate a significant improvement in its ICT services trade position.

  15. Do exporting firms benefit from retail internationalization? Evidence from France

    OpenAIRE

    Cheptea, Angela; Emlinger, Charlotte; Latouche, Karine

    2015-01-01

    We explore the link between globalization of the retail sector and the export activity of firms from their origin country. In a previous paper (Cheptea et al., 2015), we showed that exporting firms from countries with internationalized retail companies benefit more from this process than firms from other countries. Two mechanisms can explain this effect: a trade cost advantage for retailers’ domestic suppliers, or a shift in foreign demand from which benefit all origin country firms. In this ...

  16. Product Standards, Exports and Employment An Analytical Study

    OpenAIRE

    ACHARYYA, Rajat

    2004-01-01

    Through the process of globalization, trade dependence and interdependence of the developing countries have increased phenomenally than ever before. The characteristic of this late twentieth-century globalization process has been the new technological revolution that has led to a high rate of world exports of electronics and other high-technology products. This has marginalized most of the developing countries exporting largely the low quality and low value-addition manufacturing and primary ...

  17. China Adjusts Customs Tax for Aluminum Import & Export

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正> China has made further adjustments over theimport and export tax for some aluminumproducts.The most significantly affectedproducts are as follows:the customs tax foralumina imported by means of general trade isreduced to 8 percent this year from 10 percentin 2003.The export tax refund rate foraluminum ingots and aluminum alloy ingots isreduced to 8 percent this year from 17 percentin 2003.In addition,the import tax for

  18. Farther Export Tariff Laid on Some RE Metallic Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ To further regulate the export of high-energy-consumption and high-pollution products and resources products, promote the import of energy products, resource products and key components and facilitate the trade balance, and approved by the 9th Meeting of Tariff Regulations Commission of the State Council, China would adjust the import and export tariff rate of some commodities since June 1st, 2007.

  19. The Position of Suitcase Trading in Turkey’s Foreign Trade and Growth-Suitcase Trading Connection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinem YAPAR SAÇIK

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Suitcase trading which is defined as a purchasing process of merchandises in a country that is implemented by travelers (nonresidents to sell those merchandises in their own country; it has started to take place in balance of payments of Turkey since 1996. After the collapse of USSR in 1991 Turkey became a net exporter in suitcase trading so the country reached significant figures occasionally. In this paper the position of suitcase trading in Turkey’s foreign trade is analyzed in consideration of statistical indicators. According to the findings acquired from the study, suitcase trading is a significant variable for Turkey to have currency and to close foreign deficits. Suitcase trading and growth connection is also analyzed by econometric method which is co-integration test and the result is affirmative. And also it is found that this connection is unilateral causation from growth towards suitcase trading according to the findings of Granger causality test

  20. Sustainable Development of Export: Theoretical Meaning, Evaluation Model, and Empirical Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Nianli

    2008-01-01

    With the effect of the human trade doctrine in the international trade field, almost all the countries have paid more attention to the sustainable development of international trade. This article chose the export sustainable development as the research object. On the basis of the analysis of the theoretical connotation of the export sustainable development, this article tried to establish an evaluation indices system and set up an evaluation model of the export sustainable development level, and finally made some empirical research on China. The result indicates that the comprehensive level of the export sustainable development in China showed a tendency to rise from 1985 to 2003 and the export sustainable development level of China in these years can be divided into four grades: excellent, good, moderate and poor. In most years, the social economic benefits of export was obtained at the cost of the deterioration of environment and the depletion of resources, and the economic profit of export did not increase with the enlargement of the export scale because of the deterioration of the terms of trade. Therefore, China should be careful about the problem of poverty accompanied by the increase of export.

  1. Paying a visit: The Dalai Lama Effect on international trade

    OpenAIRE

    Fuchs, Andreas; Klann, Nils-Hendrik

    2011-01-01

    Is political compliance a precondition for healthy trade relations with China? The Chinese government frequently threatens that meetings between its trading partners' officials and the Dalai Lama will be met with animosity and ultimately harm trade ties with China. We run a gravity model of exports to China from 159 partner countries between 1991 and 2008 to test the extent to which bilateral tensions affect trade with autocratic China. In particular, we investigate empirically whether countr...

  2. The Eurovision Song Contest, Preferences and European Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokko, Ari; Tingvall, Patrik Gustavsson

    Already Beckerman (1956) and Linder (1961) suggested that international trade is not determined by supply side factors alone - perceptions about foreign countries and country preferences matter. We explore the relation between exports, cultural distance, income differences and country preferences...... as revealed by voting in the European Song Contest. We conclude that preferences influence trade through several channels, and that results of the European Song Contest are a robust predictor of bilateral trade.......Already Beckerman (1956) and Linder (1961) suggested that international trade is not determined by supply side factors alone - perceptions about foreign countries and country preferences matter. We explore the relation between exports, cultural distance, income differences and country preferences...

  3. Cointegration and Causality Test Among Export, Import, and Foreign Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haryono Subiyakto

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The rupiah exchange rate, import, and export are the important indicators in economy, including the Indonesia economy. The debate regarding the relationship among the exchange rate, import, and export has been persisting for several decades. Some researchers found that there is a relationship among those three and others explained that there is no correlation among them. The aim of this research is to obtain the empirical evidence of the causal relationship among the export, import, and foreign exchange rate by using the monthly data from January 2010 to April 2014. The export and import data are the export and import values in US dollar. The exchange rate data is the median exchange rates of the Indonesian Bank. The Johansen Cointegration Test and the Granger Causality Test are used to analyze the data. The research result shows that export and import have no causal relationship at five percent. Next, the foreign exchange rate influences the export and import at 10 percent level. The result indicates that the foreign exchange rate has small effects on the export and import. Based on the results, the government should control the balance of trade and should not make any policy that is based on the exchange rate values. Finally, it can be said that the exchange rate policy is not effective in increasing the exports and reducing the imports.

  4. Does Immigrant Employment Matter for Exports? Evidence From Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hiller, Sanne

    evidence on the adjustment of firms’ product portfolio in response to immigration. Our results show that firms can reap the benefits from immigration only through hiring foreigners. This implies that the trade-cost reducing intercultural knowledge embedded in foreign expatriates can only be accessed via......Immigration impacts the economy in ample ways: it affects growth, wages and total factor productivity. This study deals with the effects of immigration on firm exports. Can firms benefit from hiring immigrants to expand their export sales? Or do immigrants who live in the firm’s region affect trade...

  5. 中国出口商品的技术结构与贸易竞争力研究--对1995-2012年10类商品MS、RCA、TC和IIT的综合评价%Research on Technical Structure and Trade Competitiveness of China’ s Export Commodities-Comprehensive Review of MS, RCA, TC and IIT of 10 Types of Commodities During 1995-2012

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘艳; 王诏怡; 黄苹

    2015-01-01

    The commodity classification is conducted according to trade products technological classification system proposed by Lall (2000), furthermore, the international market sharing (MS), revealed comparative advantage ( RCA) index, trade competence ( TC) index and intra⁃industry trade ( IIT) index of 10 types of the commodities of China during 1995—2012 are calculated. The analysis shows that the technical structure and trade competitiveness of China exported products is significantly promoted, that the export of medium and hi⁃tech products makes breakthrough while products of low technology still remain competitive, and “market for technologies” strategy is basically successful. However, the competitiveness of commodity trade mainly lies in low labor cost, furthermore, the industrial agglomeration degree of the exported products is too high and these products still stay at the low end of the global value chain. Thus, China should boost the development of all kinds of hi⁃tech industries, struggle for the high end of their value chain, especially make breakthrough in some medium and hi⁃tech industries and promote the trade competence.%根据Lall(2000)提出的贸易产品技术分类体系进行商品分类,进而分别测算中国1995—2012年10类商品的国际市场占有率( MS)、显示比较优势指数( RCA)、贸易竞争力指数( TC)和产业内贸易指数( IIT),分析表明:中国出口商品的技术结构和贸易竞争力都得到了很大提升,在保持传统低技术制成品强大竞争力的同时,部分中高技术制成品的出口取得突破性进展,以市场换技术的发展战略基本成功;但商品贸易竞争力仍主要来自劳动力成本优势,且出口商品的产业集中度过高,仍处于全球价值链的低端。应促进各类高技术产业的发展,抢占其价值链的高端,并在某些中高技术产业重点突破,提高整体贸易竞争力。

  6. 76 FR 28754 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Notice of Intent To Renew Collection 3038-0026, Gross...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION Agency Information Collection Activities: Notice of Intent To Renew Collection 3038-0026, Gross Collection of Exchange-Set Margins for Omnibus Accounts AGENCY: Commodity Futures Trading Commission....

  7. Im/Ex in April: Small Trade Surplus Resurged

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ On May 10,2010,General Administration of Customs of the People's Republic of China(GAC)released the profile of China foreign trade import and export in April and the first four months of this year.

  8. Virtual water trade and the contestation of hydrosocial territories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Jeroen; Hinojosa, Leonith

    2016-01-01

    Growing trade in virtual water – the water used to produce exported products from agriculture and mining sectors – affects local communities and the environment, and transforms hydrosocial territories. National and international water regulations reshape communities’ hydrosocial territories by chang

  9. China's Textile Export Reached 140 billion USD in 2006

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Shuang

    2007-01-01

    @@ Statistics released by China Customs shows that the export value of the Chinese textile and apparel in 2006 totaled over 144 billion US dollars. Among them, the export value of garments was 95.19 billion US dollars, with a rise of 28.9% compared with the previous year. The export value of yarns, fabrics and finished products was 48.8 billion US dollars, and it went up 18.7%. If small volume trades were accounted, the total value would be around 146 US dollars.

  10. DYNAMICS OF AGRICULTURAL EXPORTS IN SUB-SAHARA AFRICA: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY OF RUBBER AND COCOA FROM NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ifeanyi Ndubuto Nwachukwu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available ithin 1961 – 2010. It specifically estimated the determinants of their export performance and determined the degree of export diversification of the agricultural sector. Both export crops were chosen because they remained the most exported agricultural commodities after the number of agricultural exports commodities shrank from the traditional 12–15 commodities of the 1960s. Published national aggregates on specific trade and macroeconomic variables from reputable secondary sources were used. In the course of data analysis, descriptive statistics, diversification index and Error Correction Model (ECM were employed. Prior to estimation, Unit root and Cointegration tests were conducted. The results revealed that export supply of cocoa was found to be influenced by export cost and rainfall in the long run while output, cost of production and export affected it in the short run. Rubber export supply was influenced by cost of export and exchange rate in the long run while world export-output ratio and cost of export affected it in the short run. The study results further revealed that export diversification measure showed that the sector experienced fluctuations with varying Hirschman indices which ranged from 1.3 x 10-7 to 5.1 x 10-7 , depicting decreasing concentration. Invariably, this implies increasing leanness of the export basket. On the basis of the result, it is necessary to explore policy options such as export financing and foreign exchange policies to promote production in the export subsector of agriculture and industrial sector to diversify the national export basket.

  11. CONCENTRATION OF WORLD EXPORTS OF FOREST PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Moreira Coelho Junior

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509812353This study analyzed the degree of concentration in worldwide exports of forest products in the period rangingfrom 1961 to 2008. The data used are available at the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization(FAO. The concentration was determined by the concentration ratio [HR (k], the Herfindahl-HirschmanIndex (HHI, Theil Entropy Index (E and the Gini index (G. The main conclusions were: The aggregateBrazilian share in the world exports of forest products is increasing over time; the most important sectors inthe aggregate world exports of forest products, in decreasing order, were pulp, lumber, paper and cardboard,wooden panels, saw and fire wood. According to Bain, the concentration ratio of the four and eight largestexporters of forest products is moderately low; the HHI and Theil Entropy (E show a reduction in theconcentration of world exports of forest products and greater competition among the countries that sell suchproducts; the Gini index indicates that despite the increase in export of forest products over the period ofanalysis, a smaller number of competitors concentrate increasingly larger shares of international exports of these products; summary indices (HHI, E and G indicated that increased competition has not led to a moreequitable distribution of forest products so as to bring down inequalities and concentration of profits in thesector; despite the downward trend in CR (4 and CR (8, there is an increase in G, probably because theeconomies of scale in the international trade have been held by few competitors; caution is recommendedin the analysis of summary indices (HHI, E and G which had better be checked jointly with the partialindices [CR (k] in order to avoid wrong conclusions; countries with a significant share in total exports, suchas Brazil, should seek business strategies to retain competitive advantages, especially those arising fromeconomies of scale.

  12. Trade Facilitation Provisions in Regional Trade Agreements: Discriminatory or Non-discriminatory?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Innwon Park

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The RTAs with trade facilitation provisions have been expected to generate a larger net trade-creating effect and complement the discriminatory feature of RTAs but have yet to be empirically proven. Recognizing the limitations of existing studies, we conducted a quantitative analysis on the effects of RTAs with and without trade facilitation provisions on both intra- and extra-bloc trade by using a modified gravity equation. We applied the Poisson Pseudo-Maximum Likelihood (PPML estimation with time varying exporter and importer fixed effect method to panel data consisting of 45,770 country pairs covering 170 countries for 2000-2010. We found that the trade facilitation provisions in existing RTAs are non-discriminatory by generating more intra- and extra-bloc trade in general. In particular, we found that the trade effects of RTAs in the APEC region are much stronger than the general case covering all RTAs in the world. In addition, as we control the trade effect of a country's trade facilitation, which is ranked by the World Bank's logistic performance index, RTAs consisting of trade facilitation provisions are discriminatory for trade in final goods and non-discriminatory for trade in intermediate goods. Overall, we endeavor to "explain," instead of "hypothesizing," why most of the recent RTAs contain trade facilitation provisions, especially in light of the deepening regional interdependence through trade in parts and components under global value chains and support the necessity of multilateralizing RTAs by implementing non-discriminatory trade facilitation provisions.

  13. Trade Relationship between Oman and Its Major Trading Asian Partners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdusalam F. Yahia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: No empirical research exists that examines the interdependence of trade between Oman and its five major trading Asian partners (Emirates, Japan, South-Korea, Thailand and Mainland China. This study attempted to fill this gap in the literature by examining the interaction of trade between Oman and its major trading Asian partner. Particularly, this study attempted to answer the very important question that is there any feedback effect of the trade relationship between Oman and its major trading Asian partners. Approach: A simultaneous-equations model with a double-log form was developed and tested in this study in order to achieve its objectives. Results: The model was estimated using the Two Stage Least Square (2SLS procedure of estimation and the main findings of the analysis revealed that the price of oil does not seem to be the major determinant of Omani exports to its major trading partners with exception of Japan. The short-term elasticity of Omani imports from its major trading partners with respect to its income seems to be higher (e.g., ranging from 0.55-2.0 in all cases. Conclusion: This study brought new empirical evidence on the trade interdependence and suggested that there is a significant impact (a feedback effect on the level of GDP of Omani's four major trading partners namely Emirates, Japan and South Korea. Therefore, policy maker in sultanate of Oman should be aware of such interdependence and consider the degree of feedback effect of trade in any economic programming that linked and related to these countries.

  14. The Cost of Trade Restraints: The Case of Japanese Automobile Exports to the United States (Le coût des obstacles au commerce: étude du cas des exportations d'automobiles japonaises aux Etats-Unis) (El costo de las limitaciones del comercio: El caso de la exportación de automóviles japoneses a los Estados Unidos)

    OpenAIRE

    Charles Collyns; Steven Dunaway

    1987-01-01

    This paper assesses the extent to which restraints on exports of Japanese automobiles to the United States affected car sales and prices in the period 1981-84. The estimates are obtained using a model of the U.S. automobile sector that explicitly allows for the effects of the quotas on the average quality of cars purchased. By distinguishing between pure price effects and quality effects, it is possible to assess the welfare costs and income transfers resulting from the imposition of the rest...

  15. [Import and export of licorice and its products in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shuai; Wang, Nuo; Yang, Guang; Que, Ling

    2017-06-01

    Licorice is an important harmonic drug which has been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine since ancient times. However, with the increasing demand of industrial production, the licorice resources in our country have been reduced rapidly and we have to import licorice resources from Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan consequently. In order to find out the trade flow of licorice resources and evaluate the status of Chinese licorice in the world trade, the trade situation of licorice and its products from 2011 to 2015 May in Chinese customs was investigated and analyzed in this paper. The import and export volumes of licorice were declining; the import and export volumes of licorice were relatively concentrated in international trade, with greater risks of trade; and export quota management was not well executed. As one of the strategic resources of medicine, licorice resources must be based on domestic development, and we should adjust the export quota management from passive quota to active quota management and improve the intrinsic value of licorice resources to establish the international market position of our licorice and control the pricing power in international market. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  16. 拓展中国与主要新兴经济体国家的贸易关系——基于制成品出口技术结构的比较分析%Expanding Trade Relationship of China and Major Emerging Market Countries Based on Comparative Analysis of the Manufactured Exports Technical Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪世勤; 刘厚俊; 叶玲; 程永文

    2012-01-01

    Along with the increasingly fierce European debt crisis, China which has excessive reliance on European and American markets is stepping up to emerging markets, especially in developing countries markets. In order to improve the international competitiveness of China's export products in emerging markets, this paper calculates SITC Rev3 to 5 digital 2600 kinds of manufactured goods technical complexity through the measure of export commodities technical complexity index. Based on manufactured goods technical complexity, each kind of manufactured goods is arranged and classified from small to large according to its technical complexity. Finally, export share of China and 11 emerging economies in every category of products is calculated, construct of export technical structure of each economy. The paper analyzes trade competition domain, trade development space and potential as well as dynamic change of the mutual trade alternative domain and mutual trade development space between China and emerging economies. Results show that: since China's entry into WTO, technical structure of manufactured goods export has been updated, but the speed lagged behind India. India is a potential competitor. Compared with India and Vietnam, China doesn 't have an advantage over low technical manufactured goods. Compared with Russia, Singapore, South Korea, Malaysia, Brazil and Mexico, China is in a disadvantage position over high technical and above-average technical manufactured goods. Under this circumstances, China has a risk of falling into middle-income trap. Accordingly, the authors put forward policy suggestions of optimizing technical structure of export between China and each emerging economies and stepoing over middle-income trap.%随着欧债危机愈演愈烈,过度依赖欧美市场的中国正在加紧对新兴市场的开拓步伐。为了提高中国出口商品在新兴市场的国际竞争力,本文通过测度出口商品技术复杂

  17. WORLD MERCHANDISE TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serghei MĂRGULESCU

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This article is mainly based on the most recent statistical data of the World Trade Organization and some aspects related to the evolution of world merchandise trade, in terms of volume and value, in 2015. The volume of world merchandise trade continued to grow slowly in 2015 while the dollar value of it declined sharply as exports fell 14 per cent to US$ 16 trillion, down from US$ 19 trillion in the previous year. It presents also the contribution of the volume change and of the change in unit values (which account for fluctuations in prices and exchange rates to the value trade growth (in current dollar terms. The discrepancy between trade growth in 2015 in terms of volume and value was mostly attributable to swings in commodity prices and exchange rates The course of economic globalization is also shortly looked on based on some data and considerations of Credit Suisse analysts. Three different scenarios were taken into account in this respect. First one in which globalization continues in the form we know it over the past thirty years, second one in which a multipolar world is a better representation of the state of affairs and third, a scenario in which globalization ends due to the rise of anti-globalization political movements. The second scenario seems to provide a better reflection of reality today, despite the fact that a certain slowdown is observable when taking into account the diminishing growth rate of physical trade, the slower penetration of foreign assets of the developed market companies and signs of reshoring of some business back home. Globalization remains intact in terms of consumption and marketing patterns, while companies seem more reluctant to invest abroad.

  18. The Effects It Has Had the Romanian Accession to the European Union on Trading Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru-George Marcu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available It reveals that imports have increased in the last decade compared to exports, which had an importance quite special, and taken the fact that for two decades, every year, the trade balance of Romania was deficient in terms of exports and politics foreign trade. Moreover, the balance has increased exponentially in recent times.

  19. Canadian energy development under the Free Trade Agreement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McRae, R.N. (Calgary Univ., AB (CA). Dept. of Economics)

    1991-06-01

    The Free Trade Agreements between Canada and the USA endorses the status quo as far as energy trade is concerned; but it provides an important guarantee of future access, as far as Canada is concerned. This is especially critical for natural gas and electricity exports, since they are expected to increase. This article will demonstrate that an increase in energy exports benefits not only the energy sector but also provides favourable macroeconomic responses. (author).

  20. Im/Ex in April:Small Trade Surplus Resurged

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ On May 10,2010,General Administration of Customs of the Peole's Republic of China (GAC) released the Profile of China of foreign trade import and export in April and the first four months of this year China returned to a trade surplus in April on strong exports growth after posting its first monthly deficit in almost six years in March ,the General Administration of Customs (GAC) announced.

  1. Ukrainian cereals and oilseeds trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Б. В. Духницький

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To analyze peculiarities of Ukrainian cereals and oilseeds trade, the situation on the world market, and determine future prospects of its development. Methods. Analysis and synthesis, comparative evaluation, graphic procedure. Results. The role and place of Ukraine in a total grain supply to the world market was determined. Ukraine is a world’s top ten grain producer. Among domestic agricultural products, cereals, oilseeds and sunflower oil are in the highest demand in the world. In recent years, our state has reinforced its status as one of the leading exporters of cereals. The commodity pattern of cereals and oilseeds export was analyzed with specifying most in-demand positions and the main countries purchasing these pro­ducts. According to the results of 2015, Ukraine obtained the highest foreign currency revenue from export of corn, wheat and barley (in grain structure including soybeans and rapeseed (among oil crops. Key domestic and multinational operators are the main exporters of cereals and oilseeds in Ukraine and still hold their leading position. It was found a significant excess of import price of seeds as compared with export price of crops grown in Ukraine. Assortment of maize and sunflower seeds offered by major companies-producers in Ukraine was studied. Main trends of the world grain market development are considered. Conclusions. It was established that Ukraine is one of the major exporters of cereals and oilseeds. However, volatility of their prices significantly affects the export revenue that was decreasing even with increasing export quantities in kind. The dependence of domestic grain industry development on high-quality imported seed of maize and sunflower hybrids was recorded. It is expected that in the years to come Ukraine will maintain its strong positions in the world’s grain market.

  2. Welfare-Reducing Trade Liberalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Jørgensen, Jan G.

    Recent literature on the workhorse model of intra-industry trade has explored heterogeneous cost structures at the firm level. These approaches have proven to add realism and predictive power. This paper shows, however, that this added realism also implies that there may exist a positive bilateral...... tariff that maximizes national and world welfare. Applying one of the simplest specifications possible, namely a symmetric two-country intra-industry trade model with fixed export costs that are heterogeneous across firms, we find that the reciprocal reduction of small tariffs reduces welfare....

  3. Welfare-Reducing Trade Liberalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Jørgensen, Jan G.

    Recent literature on the workhorse model of intra-industry trade has explored heterogeneous cost structures at the firm level. These approaches have proven to add realism and predictive power. This note shows, however, that this added realism also implies that there may exist a positive bilateral...... tariff that maximizes national and world welfare. Applying one of the simplest specifications possible, namely a symmetric two-country intra-industry trade model with fixed export costs that are heterogeneous across firms, we find that the reciprocal reduction of small tariffs reduces welfare. We explore...

  4. Endogenous Markups, Firm Productivity and International Trade:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellone, Flora; Musso, Patrick; Nesta, Lionel

    In this paper, we test key micro-level theoretical predictions ofMelitz and Ottaviano (MO) (2008), a model of international trade with heterogenous firms and endogenous mark-ups. At the firm-level, the MO model predicts that: 1) firm markups are negatively related to domestic market size; 2......) markups are positively related to firm productivity; 3) markups are negatively related to import penetration; 4) markups are positively related to firm export intensity and markups are higher on the export market than on the domestic ones in the presence of trade barriers and/or if competitors...

  5. Trade Canton Fair Hits Century Mark

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAN LIXIN

    2006-01-01

    @@ Originally intended to break the blockade against China and develop trade relations and exchanges between China and the rest of the world, the Exhibition of Chinese Export Commodities(the precedent of Chinese Export Commodities Fair) was inaugurated in the spring of 1957. At that time most Western countries were imposing sanctions against China and the number of countries with diplomatic relations with China numbered only about 20. Thus the Fair was China's only channel of contact with the outside world, whether in trade, cultural exchanges,or even politics.

  6. NM Gross Receipts July - December 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  7. NM Gross Receipts January - June 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  8. NM Gross Receipts January - June 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  9. NM Gross Receipts January - June 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  10. NM Gross Receipts January - June 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  11. NM Gross Receipts July - December 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  12. Firm Exit, Technological Progress and Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp; Sørensen, Allan

    productivity firms survive longer, most firm closures are young firms, higher productivity exporters are more likely to continue to export compared to less productive exporters and market exits as well as firm closures are typically preceded by periods of contracting market shares. The present paper shows...... that the simple inclusion of exogenous economy wide technological progress into the standard Melitz (2003) model generates a tractable dynamic framework that generates endogenous exit decisions of firms in line with the stylized facts. Furthermore, we derive the effects of faster technological progress and trade...

  13. Canton Fair:Foreign Trade Enterprises Fight Against Difficulties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Zijun; Cui Xiaoling

    2011-01-01

    @@ The 110th Chinese Export Commodities Fair, also called Canton Fair, was held in Pazhou International Exhibition Center in October this year which marks the tenth anniversary of Chinas accession to the WTO.China's foreign trade enterprises are facing a grim situation featured by declining exports and other pressure, and feel the need to develop new ideas and strategies to survive.

  14. Is free trade in minerals a myth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, J.I.

    1983-01-01

    Central governments are influencing the location of metal mines and processing units and their resultant international trade flows. They are doing so through a combination of special arrangements--export performance requirements and develop-for-import commitments--and linked special incentives to encourage fulfilling their commitments. These special incentives--subsidies, tax and investment credits and import entitlments--interfere with the orderly functioning of international market forces, just as more direct quotas and subsidies. Because many central governments apply export performance requirements on a case-by-case basis, without publicity, it is nearly impossible to estimate the share of world trade in metals currently subject to export performance requirements and their related incentives. Develop-for-import commitments, on the other hand, are publicized. The share of world trade in metals covered by develop-for-import commitments can be estimated. As export performance requirements are complemented with special incentives so too are develop-for-import commitments. Those willing to undertake develop-for-import ventures receive subsidized credits and loans. The share of metal trade covered by develop-for-import commitments is still a minor part of world trade, but if current trends continue, the share will rise significantly. The combined effect of export performance requirements and develop-for-import arrangements is to diminish the portion of metals trade responsive to international market forces. In other words, international trade in metals is becoming less competitive day by day as subsidies and subsidy-like incentives distort and blunt the free play of international market forces to serve the needs of central governments.

  15. Exporter Price Premia?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jäkel, Ina Charlotte; Sørensen, Allan

    -cut prediction on the sign of the exporter price premium. However, the model unambiguously predicts a negative exporter price premium in terms of quality-adjusted prices, i.e. prices per unit of quality. This prediction is broadly borne out in the Danish data: while the magnitude of the premium varies across...

  16. Industrialisation, Exports and Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabolo, Yves

    1980-01-01

    After reviewing trends in industrial production, exports, and employment in the Third World since 1960, the author discusses industrialization strategies based on the local processing of raw materials for export. Such processing has proved to be a major factor in job creation. (Author/SK)

  17. Developing Refractories for Exporting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PANShang-xin

    1996-01-01

    The total output of China refractory products and export volume of China refractory raw materials rank the first in the world,In future the task is to improve the quality of the products to enlarge the variety and to expand export.

  18. Markups and Exporting Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Loecker, Jan; Warzynski, Frederic Michel Patrick

    2012-01-01

    estimates of plant- level markups without specifying how firms compete in the product market. We rely on our method to explore the relationship be- tween markups and export behavior. We find that markups are estimated significantly higher when controlling for unobserved productivity; that exporters charge...

  19. 50 CFR 23.19 - What CITES documents are required to export Appendix-I plants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN ENDANGERED SPECIES OF WILD FAUNA AND FLORA (CITES) Prohibitions, Exemptions, and Requirements § 23.19...

  20. US Antidumping Petitions and Revealed Comparative Advantage of Shrimp Exporting Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael); D.K. Nguyen (Dank-Khoa)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThe paper explores the trade competitiveness of seven major shrimp exporting countries, namely Vietnam, China, Thailand, Ecuador, India, Indonesia and Mexico, to the USA. Specifically, we investigate whether the United States (US) antidumping petitions impact upon the bilateral