WorldWideScience

Sample records for gross energy confinement

  1. Magnetic confinement fusion energy research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grad, H

    1977-03-01

    Controlled Thermonuclear Fusion offers probably the only relatively clean energy solution with completely inexhaustible fuel and unlimited power capacity. The scientific and technological problem consists in magnetically confining a hot, dense plasma (pressure several to hundreds of atmospheres, temperature 10/sup 8/ degrees or more) for an appreciable fraction of a second. The scientific and mathematical problem is to describe the behavior, such as confinement, stability, flow, compression, heating, energy transfer and diffusion of this medium in the presence of electromagnetic fields just as we now can for air or steam. Some of the extant theory consists of applications, routine or ingenious, of known mathematical structures in the theory of differential equations and in traditional analysis. Other applications of known mathematical structures offer surprises and new insights: the coordination between sub-supersonic and elliptic-hyperbolic is fractured; supersonic propagation goes upstream; etc. Other completely nonstandard mathematical structures with significant theory are being rapidly uncovered (and somewhat less rapidly understood) such as non-elliptic variational equations and new types of weak solutions. It is these new mathematical structures which one should expect to supply the foundation for the next generation's pure mathematics, if history is a guide. Despite the substantial effort over a period of some twenty years, there are still basic and important scintific and mathematical discoveries to be made, lying just beneath the surface.

  2. Gross efficiency and energy expenditure in kayak ergometer exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, B B; Mourão, L; Massart, A; Figueiredo, P; Vilas-Boas, J P; Santos, A M C; Fernandes, R J

    2012-08-01

    We purposed to study energy expenditure, power output and gross efficiency during kayak ergometer exercise in 12 elite sprint kayakers. 6 males (age 24.2±4.8 years, height 180.4±4.8 cm, body mass 79.7±8.5 kg) and 6 females (age 24.3±4.5 years, height 164.5±3.9 cm, body mass 65.4±3.5 kg), performed an incremental intermittent protocol on kayak ergometer with VO2 and blood lactate concentration assessment, a non-linear increase between power output and energy expenditure being observed. Paddling power output, energy expenditure and gross efficiency corresponding to VO2max averaged 199.92±50.41 W, 75.27±6.30 ml.kg - 1.min - 1, and 10.10±1.08%. Male kayakers presented higher VO2max, power output and gross efficiency at the VO2max, and lower heart rate and maximal lactate concentration than females, but no differences were found between genders regarding energy expenditure at VO2max. Aerobic and anaerobic components of energy expenditure evidenced a significant contribution of anaerobic energy sources in sprint kayak performance. Results also suggested the dependence of the gross efficiency on the changes in the amount of the aerobic and anaerobic contributions, at heavy and severe intensities. The inter-individual variance of the relationship between energy expenditure and the corresponding paddling power output revealed a relevant tracking for females (FDγ=0.73±0.06), conversely to the male group (FDγ=0.27±0.08), supporting that some male kayakers are more skilled in some paddling intensities than others.

  3. Threshold power and energy confinement for ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takizuka, T.

    1996-12-31

    In order to predict the threshold power for L-H transition and the energy confinement performance in ITER, assembling of database and analyses of them have been progressed. The ITER Threshold Database includes data from 10 divertor tokamaks. Investigation of the database gives a scaling of the threshold power of the form P{sub thr} {proportional_to} B{sub t} n{sub e}{sup 0.75} R{sup 2} {times} (n{sub e} R{sup 2}){sup +-0.25}, which predicts P{sub thr} = 100 {times} 2{sup 0{+-}1} MW for ITER at n{sub e} = 5 {times} 10{sup 19} m{sup {minus}3}. The ITER L-mode Confinement Database has also been expanded by data from 14 tokamaks. A scaling of the thermal energy confinement time in L-mode and ohmic phases is obtained; {tau}{sub th} {approximately} I{sub p} R{sup 1.8} n{sub e}{sup 0.4{sub P{sup {minus}0.73}}}. At the ITER parameter, it becomes about 2.2 sec. For the ignition in ITER, more than 2.5 times of improvement will be required from the L-mode. The ITER H-mode Confinement Database is expanded from data of 6 tokamaks to data of 11 tokamaks. A {tau}{sub th} scaling for ELMy H-mode obtained by a standard regression analysis predicts the ITER confinement time of {tau}{sub th} = 6 {times} (1 {+-} 0.3) sec. The degradation of {tau}{sub th} with increasing n{sub e} R{sup 2} (or decreasing {rho}{sub *}) is not found for ELMy H-mode. An offset linear law scaling with a dimensionally correct form also predicts nearly the same {tau}{sub th} value.

  4. Simulation of Spheromak Evolution and Energy Confinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Bruce I.

    2004-11-01

    Electron temperatures near 400 eV were observed transiently in the Los Alamos CTX spheromak experiment.[1] Temperatures of 100-200 eV have been observed in the SSPX spheromak.[2] Understanding the energy confinement in these experiments is a challenging problem. Results from numerical simulations with the NIMROD nonlinear resistive MHD code (at zero or finite plasma pressure) have shown that closed flux surfaces with net current can arise only after electrostatic drive is reduced.[3,4] Computations in the last year have directly investigated the importance of inductive effects on energy confinement including the evolution of the temperature and number density using thermal transport coefficients, electrical resistivity, and Ohmic heating that are appropriate for collisional plasmas. In conditions with sustained coaxial electrostatic drive, the cold edge plasma impedes parallel thermal conduction to the wall, despite the chaotic magnetic topology, allowing the plasma core temperature to reach tens of eVs. When the drive is temporarily removed, relatively symmetric closed flux surfaces form. Magnetic reconnection occurs rapidly in the cold outer plasma, and core temperatures increase toward 100 eV or more. Applying a second current pulse, as in some SSPX discharges,[5] is shown to improve performance by delaying the onset of MHD modes that are resonant in the closed-flux region, and higher current, increased magnetic fields, and larger volumes of closed flux can be achieved. The simulations reveal the sensitivity with respect to symmetry-breaking magnetic fluctuations of the magnetic surfaces and the energy confinement. We present a detailed comparison of results from nonlinear simulations with laboratory measurements from SSPX[5,6] and assess transport mechanisms through computational diagnostics. The simulation results are yielding electron temperatures and other features agreeing well with SSPX observations. [1] T. R. Jarboe, Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 36, 945

  5. Energy confinement scaling from the international stellarator database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroth, U. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Murakami, M.; Dory, R.A.; Yamada, H.; Okamura, S.; Sano, F.; Obiki, T.

    1995-09-01

    An international stellarator database on global energy confinement is presented comprising data from the ATF, CHS and Heliotron E heliotron/torsatrons and the W7-A and W7-AS shearless stellarators. Regression expressions for the energy confinement time are given for the individual devices and the combined dataset. A comparison with tokamak L mode confinement is discussed on the basis of various scaling expressions. In order to make this database available to interested colleagues, the structure of the database and the parameter list are explained in detail. More recent confinement results incorporating data from enhanced confinement regimes such as H mode are reported elsewhere. (author).

  6. The implications of particle energy and acidic media on gross alpha and gross beta determination using liquid scintillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zapata-Garcia, D. [Laboratori de Radiologia Ambiental (LRA), Departament de Quimica Analitica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques, 1-11 Planta 3, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Llaurado, M., E-mail: montse.llaurado@ub.edu [Laboratori de Radiologia Ambiental (LRA), Departament de Quimica Analitica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques, 1-11 Planta 3, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Rauret, G. [Laboratori de Radiologia Ambiental (LRA), Departament de Quimica Analitica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques, 1-11 Planta 3, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2012-04-15

    The interaction of humans with radioactivity present in the environment from natural and artificial sources necessitates an evaluation of its risk on human health. Gross alpha and gross beta activities can provide a rapid evaluation of the radioactive content of a sample and can be simultaneously determined by using liquid scintillation counters. However, calibration of the liquid scintillation counter is required and is affected by many factors, such as particle energy and the acidity of the media. This study investigates what effect the particle energy used for calibration has on misclassification and how to account for this misclassification in routine measurements. The variability in measurement produced by the final pH, as well as any acids used in sample treatment, was also studied. These results showed that the most commonly used acid for these types of analyses, HNO{sub 3}, produced a high amount of misclassifications at very low pH. The results improved when HCl was used to adjust the sample to low pH. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We study the effect of alpha and beta energies on PSA optimisation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The optimum PSA shifts to higher values as the alpha energy increases. Beta energies do not affect it. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We study the effect of pH on the simultaneous determination of gross alpha/beta activities. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HNO{sub 3} produces a high amount of misclassification at very low pH. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The results improve when HCl is used to adjust the sample to low pH.

  7. Acoustic Focusing and Energy Confinement Based on Multilateral Metasurfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Shuibao; Li, Yong; Assouar, Badreddine

    2017-05-01

    Metamaterial-based acoustic wave manipulation shows great potential in effective acoustic energy confinement and low-frequency acoustic isolation. We numerically and theoretically propose here a concept based on multilateral metasurfaces for reflected acoustic focusing and energy confinement. The theoretical phase-shift profile required for reflected wave focusing and governed by the generalized Snell's law can be discretely realized by appropriately arraying the labyrinthine units in the right sequences. Based on this design, multilateral metasurfaces for acoustic wave focusing and energy confinement under point-source incidence are considered and sufficiently investigated. The coupling effects and multiple reflections between or among metasurfaces, which play a significant role in the energy confinement, are initially analyzed and discussed. We show that the acoustic focusing and confinement increase with the sides of the multilateral metasurfaces as anticipated. In addition to the contribution of the first reflection, multiple reflections also contribute to the acoustic focusing and energy confinement, especially when the metasurfaces are configured in parallel. The proposed multilateral metasurfaces should have excellent performance in acoustic energy confinement in various situations due to the variable designs and strong acoustic focusing capabilities.

  8. Storage of energy in confined quantum systems

    OpenAIRE

    Malbouisson, A. P. C.

    2002-01-01

    Using the non-perturbative method of {\\it dressed} states introduced in previous publications [N.P.Andion, A.P.C. Malbouisson and A. Mattos Neto, J.Phys.{\\bf A34}, 3735, (2001); G. Flores-Hidalgo, A.P.C. Malbouisson, Y.W. Milla, Phys. Rev. A, {\\bf 65}, 063314 (2002)], we study the evolution of a confined quantum mechanical system embedded in a {\\it ohmic} environment. Our approach furnishes a theoretical mechanism to control inhibition of the decay of excited quantum systems in cavities, in b...

  9. energy use and gross margin analysis for sesame production in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    As the negative impacts of energy by-products affect the climate, the knowledge and efficient use of ... Diesel and labour energy inputs dominated the total energy inputs for the two systems. .... such as output of sesame, quantity and type of.

  10. Investigation of energy confinement during ICRF heating on EAST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y. Q.; Zhang, X. J.; Zhao, Y. P.; Qin, C. M.; Cheng, Y.; Mao, Y. Z.; Yang, H.; Yuan, S.; Wang, L.; Ju, S. Q.; Chen, G.; Zhang, J. H.; Wang, J. H.; Chen, Z.; Wan, B. N.; Gong, X. Z.; Qian, J. P.; Zhang, T.; Li, J. G.; Song, Y. T.; Lin, Y.; Taylor, G.; Hosea, J. C.; Perkins, R. J.; Wukitch, S.; Noterdaeme, J. M.; Kumazawa, R.; Seki, T.; Saito, K.; Kasahara, H.

    2017-09-01

    A summary is given on recent experiments in L-mode with ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) of hydrogen minority in deuterium plasmas on EAST. Experiments show a degradation of confinement with increasing power. Furthermore, the energy confinement time increases with plasma current and magnetic field, whereas it is insensitive to line averaged density. Minority heating has been found to be efficient, and parameters were optimized to maximize its efficiency. ICRH in lower hybrid waves heated plasma was also investigated.

  11. Preliminary Analysis of HL-2A Global Energy Confinement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Chunfeng; CUI Zhengying; JI Xiaoquan; ZHOU Hangyu; FENG Beibin; SUN Hongjuan; LI Yonggao; YANG Qingwei

    2009-01-01

    Energy confinement time taken from 135 discharges of the 2006 campaign in HL-2A is studied.The.data obtained from the measurements are verified by comparing diamagnetic energy with the electronic kinetic energy calculated from both the electron temperature and density profiles.Two data sets for supporting the ITER L-Mode confinement database are generated from the 2006 campaign.The dependence of гE on the line-averaged electron density during ohmic phases is analysed.The comparison of гE in electron cyclotron resonance heating(ECRH) plasma as well as the existing ITER L-mode scalings is made.The results show that the energy confinement time is consistent with the ITER L-mode scalings.

  12. Improved energy confinement with nonlinear isotope effects in magnetically confined plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia, J; Jenko, F

    2016-01-01

    The efficient production of electricity from nuclear fusion in magnetically confined plasmas relies on a good confinement of the thermal energy. For more than thirty years, the observation that such confinement depends on the mass of the plasma isotope and its interaction with apparently unrelated plasma conditions has remained largely unexplained and it has become one of the main unsolved issues. By means of numerical studies based on the gyrokinetic theory, we quantitatively show how the plasma microturbulence depends on the isotope mass through nonlinear multiscale microturbulence effects involving the interplay between zonal flows, electromagnetic effects and the torque applied. This finding has crucial consequences for the design of future reactors since, in spite of the fact that they will be composed by multiple ion species, their extrapolation from present day experiments heavily relies on the knowledge obtained from a long experimental tradition based in single isotope plasmas.

  13. Interannual consistency of gross energy in red oak acorns

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.G. Leach; R.M. Kaminski; J.N. Straub; A.W. Ezell; T.S. Hawkins; T.D. Leininger

    2013-01-01

    Red oak Quercus spp., Subgenus Erythrobalanus acorns are forage for mallards Anas platyrhyncos, wood ducks Aix sponsa, and other wildlife that use bottomland hardwood forests in the southeastern United States. However, annual variation in true metabolizable energy from acorns would affect carrying-capacity estimates of bottomland hardwood forests for wintering ducks....

  14. Zero-point energy of confined fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milton, K.A.

    1980-01-01

    A closed form for the reduced Green's function of massless fermions in the interior of a spherical bag is obtained. In terms of this Green's function, the corresponding zero-point or Casimir energy is computed. It is proposed that a resulting quadratic divergence can be absorbed by renormalizing a suitable parameter in the bag model (that is, absorbed by a contact term). The residual Casimir stress is attractive, but smaller than the repulsive Casimir stress of gluons in the model. The result for the total zero-point energy is in substantial disagreement with bag model phenomenological values.

  15. Experimental Studies on Turbulence Kinetic Energy in Confined Vortex Flows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L.Yan; G.H.Vatistas; 等

    2000-01-01

    Turbulence kinetic energies in confined vortex flows have been studied.The studies were based on the experiments performed in a vortex chamber,In the experiments,a Laser Doppler Anemometry(LDA) was used to perform flow measurements inside the vortex chamber,which provided the data for the kinetic energy analysis.The studies concentrated on the influences of the contraction ratio and the inlet air flow rate on the kinetic energy,and analyzed the characteristics of the kinetic energy in the confined vortex flows,including the distributions of the tangential component,radial component and total turbulence kinetic energy,In the paper,both the experimental techniques and the experimental results were presented.Based on a similarity analyis and the experimental data,an empirical scaling formula was proposed so that the tangential component of the turbulence kinetic energy was dependent only on the parameter of the contraction ratio.

  16. Calculation of gross energy consumption[in a building]; Beregning af bruttoenergiforbrug

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelund Thomsen, Kirsten; Aggerholm, Soeren

    2000-07-01

    This bulletin presents a method for calculating the gross energy consumption of a building. The net heat demand for space heating, ventilation and domestic hot water should be calculated. Next converted to gross energy consumption, i.e. the amount of energy that is required to supply, for instance, a gas furnace in order that it produces the calculated amount of heat. First the electricity consumption required for ventilation, appliances and lighting is calculated, taking into consideration the daylight utilisation in commercial buildings. The point of departure is the existing method for calculating the net heat demand of buildings. The method includes heat supply from persons, lighting and appliances. This calculating method was later extended to include a method for calculating the energy demand for domestic hot water and addition of non-utilised heat loss from pipes and heat producing installations. This loss is calculated on the basis of loss in hot water tanks, heat and hot water pipes. Heat supply from solar collectors is calculated and deducted from the heat demand. The calculated end result is called gross heat requirement. Next the gross energy consumption for heating, ventilation and domestic hot water is determined by means of annual efficiency for heating installations. An inventory of the environmental impact is calculated based on the energy consumption measured by the total CO{sub 2} production per m{sup 2} floor area. The CO{sub 2} emission is calculated on the basis of the calculated gross energy consumption of heating and electricity, and on standard values for CO{sub 2} contents in the fuels used and emissions from electricity production issued by the Danish Energy Agency. The gross energy consumption is calculated for three examples of buildings: a single-family house, an administration building and a multi-storey building. The examples show that it is feasible to do calculations for typical buildings. Heat consumption for space heating and

  17. Clusters, Quantum Confinement and Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connerade, Jean-Patrick

    One of the challenges posed by the demand for clean urban transportation is the compact and cyclically recoverable storage of energy in quantities sufficient for propulsion. Promising routes, such as the reversible insertion of Li+ ions inside solids for `rocking chair' batteries, require a deformable host material with no irreversibility. Such `soft' deformations are in general highly complex, but the compressibility of atoms or larger systems can be studied directly in situations with simpler symmetry. Thus, the search for `soft' materials leads one to consider certain types of cluster, as well as linear or nearly-spherical structures (chains of metallofullerenes, for example) whose deformations can be computed from the Schrodinger equation. Extended or `giant' atomic models allow one to construct compression-dilation cycles analogous in a rough sense to the Carnot cycle of classical thermodynamics. This simplified approach suggests that, even for idealised systems, there are constraints on the reversible storage and recovery of energy, and that (when applied to realistic structures) modelling based on such principles might help in the selection of appropriate materials.

  18. Energy confinement scaling and the extrapolation to ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    The fusion performance of ITER is predicted using three different techniques; statistical analysis of the global energy confinement data, a dimensionless physics parameter similarity method and the full 1-D modeling of the plasma profiles. Although the three methods give overlapping predictions for the performance of ITER, the confidence interval of all of the techniques is still quite wide.

  19. Effects of winter flooding on mass and gross energy of bottomland hardwood acorns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan G. Leach; Jacob N. Straub; Richard M. Kaminski; Andrew W. Ezell; Tracy S. Hawkins; Theodor D. Leininger

    2012-01-01

    Decomposition of red oak acorns (Quercus spp.; Section Erythrobalanus) could decrease forage biomass and gross energy (GE) available to wintering ducks from acorns. We estimated changes in mass and GE for 3 species of red oak acorns in flooded and non-flooded bottomland hardwood forests in Mississippi during winter 2009–2010. Mass...

  20. Taboo search by successive confinement: Surveying a potential energy surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chekmarev, Sergei F.

    2001-09-01

    A taboo search for minima on a potential energy surface (PES) is performed by means of confinement molecular dynamics: the molecular dynamics trajectory of the system is successively confined to various basins on the PES that have not been sampled yet. The approach is illustrated for a 13-atom Lennard-Jones cluster. It is shown that the taboo search radically accelerates the process of surveying the PES, with the probability of finding a new minimum defined by a propagating Fermi-like distribution.

  1. Polymer ejection from bacteriophages is fully determined by confinement energy

    CERN Document Server

    Piili, J

    2015-01-01

    The ejection dynamics through a nanoscale pore of a flexible polymer that is initially strongly confined inside a spherical capsid is examined. By extensive simulations using the stochastic rotation dynamics method we show that the time for an individual monomer to eject grows exponentially with the number of ejected monomers under constant initial monomer density. This dependence is a consequence of the excess free energy of the polymer due to confinement growing exponentially with the initial monomer number inside the capsid, which we address to strong monomer-monomer interactions. Consequently, for sufficiently strong initial confinement and long polymers ejection times for polymers of different lengths depend linearly on the length. At polymer lengths amenable to computer simulations the dependence is superlinear due to the finite-size effect related to the retraction of polymer tails at final stages of ejection.

  2. High-Energy Electron Confinement in a Magnetic Cusp Configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jaeyoung; Krall, Nicholas A.; Sieck, Paul E.; Offermann, Dustin T.; Skillicorn, Michael; Sanchez, Andrew; Davis, Kevin; Alderson, Eric; Lapenta, Giovanni

    2015-04-01

    We report experimental results validating the concept that plasma confinement is enhanced in a magnetic cusp configuration when β (plasma pressure/magnetic field pressure) is of order unity. This enhancement is required for a fusion power reactor based on cusp confinement to be feasible. The magnetic cusp configuration possesses a critical advantage: the plasma is stable to large scale perturbations. However, early work indicated that plasma loss rates in a reactor based on a cusp configuration were too large for net power production. Grad and others theorized that at high β a sharp boundary would form between the plasma and the magnetic field, leading to substantially smaller loss rates. While not able to confirm the details of Grad's work, the current experiment does validate, for the first time, the conjecture that confinement is substantially improved at high β . This represents critical progress toward an understanding of the plasma dynamics in a high-β cusp system. We hope that these results will stimulate a renewed interest in the cusp configuration as a fusion confinement candidate. In addition, the enhanced high-energy electron confinement resolves a key impediment to progress of the Polywell fusion concept, which combines a high-β cusp configuration with electrostatic fusion for a compact, power-producing nuclear fusion reactor.

  3. High-Energy Electron Confinement in a Magnetic Cusp Configuration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaeyoung Park

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We report experimental results validating the concept that plasma confinement is enhanced in a magnetic cusp configuration when β (plasma pressure/magnetic field pressure is of order unity. This enhancement is required for a fusion power reactor based on cusp confinement to be feasible. The magnetic cusp configuration possesses a critical advantage: the plasma is stable to large scale perturbations. However, early work indicated that plasma loss rates in a reactor based on a cusp configuration were too large for net power production. Grad and others theorized that at high β a sharp boundary would form between the plasma and the magnetic field, leading to substantially smaller loss rates. While not able to confirm the details of Grad’s work, the current experiment does validate, for the first time, the conjecture that confinement is substantially improved at high β. This represents critical progress toward an understanding of the plasma dynamics in a high-β cusp system. We hope that these results will stimulate a renewed interest in the cusp configuration as a fusion confinement candidate. In addition, the enhanced high-energy electron confinement resolves a key impediment to progress of the Polywell fusion concept, which combines a high-β cusp configuration with electrostatic fusion for a compact, power-producing nuclear fusion reactor.

  4. Dietary lipid and gross energy affect protein utilization in the rare minnow Gobiocypris rarus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Benli; Xiong, Xiaoqin; Xie, Shouqi; Wang, Jianwei

    2016-07-01

    An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to detect the optimal dietary protein and energy, as well as the effects of protein to energy ratio on growth, for the rare minnow ( Gobiocypris rarus), which are critical to nutrition standardization for model fish. Twenty-four diets were formulated to contain three gross energy (10, 12.5, 15 kJ/g), four protein (20%, 25%, 30%, 35%), and two lipid levels (3%, 6%). The results showed that optimal dietary E/P was 41.7-50 kJ/g for maximum growth in juvenile rare minnows at 6% dietary crude lipid. At 3% dietary lipid, specific growth rate (SGR) increased markedly when E/P decreased from 62.5 kJ/g to 35.7 kJ/g and gross energy was 12.5 kJ/g, and from 75 kJ/g to 42.9 kJ/g when gross energy was 15.0 kJ/g. The optimal gross energy was estimated at 12.5 kJ/g and excess energy decreased food intake and growth. Dietary lipid exhibited an apparent protein-sparing effect. Optimal protein decreased from 35% to 25%-30% with an increase in dietary lipid from 3% to 6% without adversely effecting growth. Dietary lipid level affects the optimal dietary E/P ratio. In conclusion, recommended dietary protein and energy for rare minnow are 20%-35% and 10-12.5 kJ/g, respectively.

  5. RANKING OF LOCAL AND DOMESTIC FUEL-ENERGY RECOURSES IN GROSS CONSUMPTION OF BELARUSSIAN FUEL-ENERGY RECOURSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. N. Rumiantsava

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Local and domestic fuel-energy recourses of theRepublicofBelarusin gross consumption of fuel-energy  recourses  has  been ranked on the  basis of the  analysis of scientific  literature,  statistical information and also fundamental documentation in the sphere of energy policy and power saving. The paper proposes to give a special emphasis on usage of products after processing domestically manufactured fuel-energy recourses that have been obtained from local and imported raw-materials with the purpose to estimate a power security level of the Republic from a new point of view.

  6. Low-energy phase change memory with graphene confined layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chengqiu; Ma, Jun; Ge, Xiaoming; Rao, Feng; Ding, Keyuan; Lv, Shilong; Wu, Liangcai; Song, Zhitang

    2016-06-01

    How to reduce the Reset operation energy is the key scientific and technological problem in the field of phase change memory (PCM). Here, we show in the Ge2Sb2Te5 based PCM cell, inserting an additional graphene monolayer in the Ge2Sb2Te5 layer can remarkably decrease both the Reset current and energy. Because of the small out-of-plane electrical and thermal conductivities of such monolayer graphene, the Set resistance and the heat dissipation towards top TiN electrode of the modified PCM cell are significantly increased and decreased, respectively. The mushroom-typed larger active phase transition volume thus can be confined inside the underlying thinner GST layer, resulting in the lower power consumption.

  7. Turbulence and energy confinement in TORE SUPRA ohmic discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garbet, X.; Payan, J.; Laviron, C.; Devynck, P.; Saha, S.K.; Capes, H.; Chen, X.P.; Coulon, J.P.; Gil, C.; Harris, G.; Hutter, T.; Pecquet, A.L. [Association Euratom-CEA, Centre d`Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee; Truc, A.; Hennequin, P.; Gervais, F.; Quemeneur, A. [Ecole Polytechnique, 91 - Palaiseau (France)

    1992-06-01

    Results on confinement and turbulence from a set of ohmic discharges in Tore Supra are discussed. The attention is focused on the saturation of the energy confinement time and it is emphasized that this saturation could be explained by a saturation of the electron heat diffusivity. Ion behaviour is indeed governed by dilution and equipartition effects. Although the ion heat transport is never neoclassical, there is no enhanced degradation at the saturation. This behaviour is confirmed by turbulence measurements given by CO{sub 2} laser coherent scattering. The density fluctuations level follows the electron heat diffusivity variations with the average density. Waves propagating in the ion diamagnetic direction are always present in turbulence frequency spectra. Thus, the saturation cannot be explained by the onset of an ion turbulence. The existence of an ion turbulence at the edge at all densities cannot be excluded. However, this ion feature in scattering spectra could be explained by a Doppler shift associated to an inversion point of the radial electric field at the edge.

  8. Non-ideal feedforward torque control of wind turbines: Impacts on annual energy production & gross earnings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackl, Christoph; Schechner, Korbinian

    2016-09-01

    We discuss non-ideal torque control in wind turbine systems. Most high-level controllers generate a reference torque which is then send to the underlying electrical drive system (generator+inverter) of the wind turbine system to steer the turbine/generator to its optimal operation point (depending on the wind speed). The energy production heavily depends on the mechanical power (i.e. the product of rotational speed and generator torque). However, since torque sensors in the MW range are not available or extremely expensive, the underlying torque control system is implemented as feedforward control and, therefore, is inherently sensitive to parameter variations/uncertainties. Based on real wind data and a wind turbine system model, we discuss causes and impacts of non-ideal feedforward torque control on the energy production and the annual gross earnings.

  9. THE ANALYSIS OF THE MAIN CHARACTERISTICS CONSIDERED FOR THE GROUPING EU MEMBER STATES ACCORDING TO GROSS INLAND ENERGY CONSUMPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POPESCU Catalin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Gross inland energy consumption represents the quantity of energy necessary to satisfy inland consumption of the geographical entity under consideration. It describes the total energy needs of a country. According to some Eurostat reports from 2013 and 2014, over the last two decades, gross inland energy consumption in the EU28, as can be noted, has changed pretty much: in 1990 cumulated 1670 million tonnes of oil equivalent (Mtoe, rose to a peak of 1830 Mtoe in 2006 and then decreased to 1680 Mtoe in 2012. These contradictory values required a comprehensive analysis and therefore, present paper describes the main characteristics related to the grouping EU Member States according to gross inland energy consumption in order to discover some common patterns among EU member states.

  10. Load profile impact on the gross energy requirement of stand-alone photovoltaic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiaux, Y.; Seigneurbieux, J.; Multon, B.; Ben Ahmed, H. [SATIE, ENS CACHAN Bretagne, CNRS, UEB, Avenue Robert Schuman, F-35170 Bruz (France)

    2010-03-15

    The sizing optimization of a Stand-Alone Photovoltaic system (SAPV) is a very complex issue. Therefore, a compromise solution must be made between having an acceptable energy and economic cost for the consumer, and a relatively correct energy supply quality. The Gross Energy Requirement (GER) of an SAPV system corresponds to the primary energy total amount required for the production, the maintenance and the recycling of this system. Reducing the GER is thus, an effective way to promote the development of SAPV systems. Therefore, the load profile management, in order to get closer to the ideal 'solar' consumer, allows the downsizing of the system. In this paper, a methodology for studying the impact of load profiles on GER is proposed. Two different modifications parameters have been considered theoretically on idealized load and production profiles: the load shifting which seems simpler to implement in the reality, and the amplitude modulation. Furthermore, the NSGA-II genetic algorithm has been used to confirm theoretical outcomes and to optimize SAPV system sizing for three realistic load profiles, with the aim of quantifying the GER reduction, by minimizing the storage capacity (taking into account the replacements due to cycling) which is one of the weak points of such a system, and by PV panels downsizing. (author)

  11. Effect of energetic ion loss on ICRF heating efficiency and energy confinement time in heliotrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murakami, S.; Nakajima, N.; Okamoto, M. [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan); Nuehrenberg, J.

    1999-06-01

    ICRF heating efficiency and the global energy confinement time during ICRF heating are investigated including the effect of energetic ion loss in heliotrons. The approximate formula of ICRF heating efficiency is derived using the results based on Monte Carlo simulations. The global energy confinement time including energetic ion effect can be expressed in terms of ICRF heating power, plasma density, and magnetic field strength in heliotrons. Our results in the CHS plasma show the systematic decrement of the global energy confinement time due to the energetic ion loss from the assumed energy confinement scaling law, which is consistent with the experimental observations. Also we apply our model to the ICRF minority heating in the LHD plasma in two cases of typical magnetic configurations. The clear increment of the global energy confinement time due to the stored energy of energetic tail ions is obtained in the `orbit improved` configuration, while the decrement is observed in the `standard` configuration. (author)

  12. The role of correlation in the ground state energy of confined helium atom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aquino, N. [Departamento de Física, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Apartado Postal 55-534, 09340 México Distrito Federal (Mexico)

    2014-01-14

    We analyze the ground state energy of helium atom confined by spherical impenetrable walls, and the role of the correlation energy in the total energy. The confinement of an atom in a cavity is one way in which we can model the effect of the external pressure on an atom. The calculations of energy of the system are carried out by the variational method. We find that the correlation energy remains almost constant for a range values of size of the boxes analyzed.

  13. A simple local correlation energy functional for spherically confined atoms from ab initio correlation energy density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyboishchikov, Sergei F

    2017-09-03

    We propose a simple method of calculating the electron correlation energy density e_c(r) and the correlation potential V_c(r) from second-order Møller-Plesset amplitudes and its generalization for the case of a Configuration Interaction wavefunction, based on Nesbet's theorem. The correlation energy density obtained by this method for free and spherically confined Be and He atoms was employed to fit a local analytical density functional based on Wigner's functional. The functional is capable to reproduce a strong increase of the correlation energy with decreasing the confined radius for the Be atom. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Energy confinement and magnetic field generation in the SSPX spheromak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, B; McLean, H S; Wood, R D; Hooper, E B; Hill, D N; Jayakumar, J; Moller, J; Romero-Talamas, C; Casper, T A; LoDestro, L L; Pearlstein, L D; Johnson, III, J A; Mezonlin, E

    2008-02-11

    The Sustained Spheromak Physics Experiment (SSPX) [E.B. Hooper, et. al., Nuclear Fusion, Vol. 39, No. 7] explores the physics of efficient magnetic field buildup and energy confinement, both essential parts of advancing the spheromak concept. Extending the spheromak formation phase increases the efficiency of magnetic field generation with the maximum edge magnetic field for a given injector current (B/I) from 0.65 T/MA previously to 0.9 T/MA. We have achieved the highest electron temperatures (T{sub e}) recorded for a spheromak with T{sub e} > 500 eV, toroidal magnetic field {approx}1 T and toroidal current ({approx}1 MA) [R.D. Wood, D.N. Hill, H.S. McLean, E.B. Hooper, B.F. Hudson, J.M. Moller, 'Improved magnetic field generation efficiency and higher temperature spheromak plasmas', submitted to Physical Review Letters]. Extending the sustainment phase to > 8 ms extends the period of low magnetic fluctuations (< 1 %) by 50%. The NIMROD 3-D resistive MHD code [C.R. Sovinec, T.A. Gianakon, E.D. Held, S.E. Kruger and D.D. Schnack, The NIMROD Team, Phys. Plasmas 10, 1727 (2003)] reproduces the observed flux amplification {Psi}{sub pol}/{Psi}{sub gun}. Successive gun pulses are demonstrated to maintain the magnetic field in a quasi-steady state against resistive decay. Initial measurements of neutral particle flux in multi-pulse operation show charge-exchange power loss < 1% of gun input power and dominantly collisional majority ion heating. The evolution of electron temperature shows a distinct and robust feature of spheromak formation: a hollow-to-peaked T{sub e}(r) associated with q {approx} 1/2.

  15. Control of 2D Flexible Structures by Confinement of Vibrations and Regulation of Their Energy Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakhreddine Landolsi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the control of 2D flexible structures by vibration confinement and the regulation of their energy flow along prespecified spatial paths. A discretized-model-based feedback strategy, aiming at confining and suppressing simultaneously the vibration, is proposed. It is assumed that the structure consists of parts that are sensitive to vibrations. The control design introduces a new pseudo-modal matrix derived from the computed eigenvectors of the discretized model. Simulations are presented to show the efficacy of the proposed control law. A parametric study is carried out to examine the effects of the different control parameters on the simultaneous confinement and suppression of vibrations. In addition, we conducted a set of simulations to investigate the flow control of vibrational energy during the confinement-suppression process. We found that the energy flow can be regulated via a set of control parameters for different confinement configurations.

  16. High Energy Electron Confinement in a Magnetic Cusp Configuration

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Jaeyoung; Sieck, Paul E; Offermann, Dustin T; Skillicorn, Michael; Sanchez, Andrew; Davis, Kevin; Alderson, Eric; Lapenta, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    We report experimental results validating the concept that plasma confinement is enhanced in a magnetic cusp configuration when beta (plasma pressure/magnetic field pressure) is order of unity. This enhancement is required for a fusion power reactor based on cusp confinement to be feasible. The magnetic cusp configuration possesses a critical advantage: the plasma is stable to large scale perturbations. However, early work indicated that plasma loss rates in a reactor based on a cusp configuration were too large for net power production. Grad and others theorized that at high beta a sharp boundary would form between the plasma and the magnetic field, leading to substantially smaller loss rates. The current experiment validates this theoretical conjecture for the first time and represents critical progress toward the Polywell fusion concept which combines a high beta cusp configuration with an electrostatic fusion for a compact, economical, power-producing nuclear fusion reactor.

  17. Energy Spectra of the Confined Atoms Obtained by Using B-Splines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Ting-Yun; BAO Cheng-Guang; LI Bai-Wen

    2001-01-01

    We have calculated the energy spectra of one- and two-electron atoms (ions) centered in an impenetrable spherical box by variational method with B-splines as basis functions. Accurate results are obtained for both large and small radii of confinement. The critical box radius of confined hydrogen atom is also calculated to show the usefulness of our method. A partial energy degeneracy in confined hydrogen atom is found when the radius of spherical box is equal to the distance at which a node of single-node wavefunctions of free hydrogen atom is located.

  18. Correlation energy, correlated electron density, and exchange-correlation potential in some spherically confined atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyboishchikov, Sergei F

    2016-12-05

    We report correlation energies, electron densities, and exchange-correlation potentials obtained from configuration interaction and density functional calculations on spherically confined He, Be, Be(2+) , and Ne atoms. The variation of the correlation energy with the confinement radius Rc is relatively small for the He, Be(2+) , and Ne systems. Curiously, the Lee-Yang-Parr (LYP) functional works well for weak confinements but fails completely for small Rc . However, in the neutral beryllium atom the CI correlation energy increases markedly with decreasing Rc . This effect is less pronounced at the density-functional theory level. The LYP functional performs very well for the unconfined Be atom, but fails badly for small Rc . The standard exchange-correlation potentials exhibit significant deviation from the "exact" potential obtained by inversion of Kohn-Sham equation. The LYP correlation potential behaves erratically at strong confinements. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Enhanced coupling of optical energy during liquid-confined metal ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Hyun Wook, E-mail: wkang@pknu.ac.kr [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Pukyong National University, Busan, South Korea and Center for Marine-integrated Biomedical Technology (MIBT), Pukyong National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Welch, Ashley J. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas, 78712 (United States)

    2015-10-21

    Liquid-confined laser ablation was investigated with various metals of indium, aluminum, and nickel. Ablation threshold and rate were characterized in terms of surface deformation, transient acoustic responses, and plasma emissions. The surface condition affected the degree of ablation dynamics due to variations in reflectance. The liquid confinement yielded up to an order of larger ablation crater along with stronger acoustic transients than dry ablation. Enhanced ablation performance resulted possibly from effective coupling of optical energy at the interface during explosive vaporization, plasma confinement, and cavitation. The deposition of a liquid layer can induce more efficient ablation for laser metal processing.

  20. Methodological proposal for territorial distribution of the percentage reduction in gross inland energy consumption according to the EU energy policy strategic goal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolon-Becerra, A.; Lastra-Bravo, X. [University of Almeria, Ctra Sacramento s/n. La Canada de San Urbano. C.P. 04120, Almeria (Spain); Botta, G.F. [University of Buenos Aires, Av. San Martin 4453, C.P. 1427, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2010-11-15

    A 20% reduction in the consumption of energy is one of the main goals of the European Union's (EU) 20/20/20 Energy Strategy. But the uniform application of this overall goal to all of the countries is neither fair nor equitable, as it does not take into consideration the characteristics of the energy system in each Member State. This article therefore proposes a nonlinear distribution methodology with objective, dynamic goals for reducing gross inland energy consumption, according to the context and characteristics of each member state. We hope it will open discussion on how these overall goals can be weighted. Then we analyse the situation of the energy indicators related to energy efficiency in the reference year (2005) used by the EU for reaching its goal of reducing the gross inland consumption by 20% by 2020, and its progress from 1996 to 2007. Finally, the methodology proposed is applied to the year 2020 on the NUTS0 territorial level, that is, to members of the EU, according to the EUROSTAT Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics (NUTS). Weighting is done based on energy intensity, per capita gross inland consumption and per capita energy intensity in two scenarios, the EU-15 and EU-27. (author)

  1. Energies and densities of electrons confined in elliptical and ellipsoidal quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halder, Avik; Kresin, Vitaly V.

    2016-10-01

    We consider a droplet of electrons confined within an external harmonic potential well of elliptical or ellipsoidal shape, a geometry commonly encountered in work with semiconductor quantum dots and other nanoscale or mesoscale structures. For droplet sizes exceeding the effective Bohr radius, the dominant contribution to average system parameters in the Thomas-Fermi approximation comes from the potential energy terms, which allows us to derive expressions describing the electron droplet’s shape and dimensions, its density, total and capacitive energy, and chemical potential. The analytical results are in very good agreement with experimental data and numerical calculations, and make it possible to follow the dependence of the properties of the system on its parameters (the total number of electrons, the axial ratios and curvatures of the confinement potential, and the dielectric constant of the material). An interesting feature is that the eccentricity of the electron droplet is not the same as that of its confining potential well.

  2. Effect of external fields on the energies of hydrogenic donor with the anharmonic confinement potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aciksoz, E.; Bayrak, O. [Department of Physics, Akdeniz University, 07058 Antalya (Turkey); Soylu, A., E-mail: asimsoylu@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Nigde University, 51240 Nigde (Turkey)

    2015-01-01

    The impurity binding energy in the GaAs−Ga{sub 1−x}Al{sub x}As system is studied with an anharmonic type confinement potential by taking into account the influence of the external electric and magnetic fields within the framework of the effective mass approximation and asymptotic iteration method (AIM). The influence of the external electromagnetic fields and anharmonicity on a donor binding energy is examined systematically. It is shown that the donor binding energy is highly dependent on the external electric and magnetic fields and the confinement potential shapes. Both the electric and magnetic fields are increased, the binding energies increase for each of them. However, the behaviors of increase in the weak and strong fields’ regimes have different character a bit. Furthermore, when the more anharmonicity is considered, the binding energy of donor slightly increases as well.

  3. Turbulent transport of impurities and their effect on energy confinement

    CERN Document Server

    Pusztai, I; Fulop, T; Candy, J

    2012-01-01

    By presenting linear and nonlinear gyrokinetic similarity studies, based on a balanced neutral beam injection deuterium discharge from the DIII-D tokamak, we demonstrate that impurities alter the scaling of the transport on the charge and mass of the main species, and even more importantly, they can dramatically change the energy transport even in relatively small quantities. A poloidally varying equilibrium electrostatic potential can lead to a strong reduction or sign change of the impurity peaking factor due to the combined effect of the in-out impurity density asymmetry and the EXB drift of impurities. We present an approximate expression for the impurity peaking factor and demonstrate that impurity peaking is not significantly affected by impurity self-collisions.

  4. Radiation protection in the geothermal energy facility of the German genetic research center (GFZ) Potsdam in Gross Schoenebeck (Brandenburg); Strahlenschutz in der Geothermieanlage des Deutschen Geoforschungszentrums (GFZ) Potsdam in Gross Schoenebeck (Brandenburg)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dilling, Joerg; Doering, Joachim; Ebert, Monika; Mielcarek, Juergen [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Berlin (Germany); Regenspurg, Simona [Helmholtz-Zentrum Potsdam Deutsches Geoforschungszentrum, Potsdam (Germany)

    2014-10-01

    About 70% of the geothermal energy originates from radioactive decay. For the utilization of geothermal energy water is used as working fluid. The efficiency of a geothermal energy facility is correlated to the water temperature. In the geothermal energy facility of Gross Schoenebeck the thermal water has a temperature of 150 C. The salty water (265 g/l) contains a complex mixture of dissolved components that might precipitate during cooling (scale formation). The deposits can include radioactive materials (isotopes from the uranium and thorium decay series and K-40). The thermal water from the production bore holes is filtered on the surface.

  5. Asymmetric GaAs/AlGaAs T wires with large confinement energies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gislason, Hannes; Langbein, Wolfgang Werner; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    1996-01-01

    We report on the design and growth of asymmetric T-shaped quantum wires with large one-dimensional confinement energies. Prior to growth, the optimal structure for a given (110) well width is determined by a calculation, The structures are made by molecular beam epitaxy cleaved edge overgrowth. We...

  6. Scaling of energy confinement time in the Globus-M spherical tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurskiev, G. S.; Gusev, V. K.; Sakharov, N. V.; Bakharev, N. N.; Iblyaminova, A. D.; Shchegolev, P. B.; Avdeeva, G. F.; Kiselev, E. O.; Minaev, V. B.; Mukhin, E. E.; Patrov, M. I.; Petrov, Yu V.; Telnova, A. Yu; Tolstyakov, S. Yu

    2017-04-01

    The paper is devoted to an energy confinement study at the Globus-M spherical tokamak (ST). Experiments were performed in single null divertor configuration with elongation as high as 1.8–1.9 for variable plasma current and fixed toroidal magnetic field. The confinement time (τ E) dependence on density for ohmic-heated (OH) deuterium plasma is presented. It was found that τ E rises linearly with plasma current in H-mode with pure ohmic heating. Pronounced electron and ion heating was achieved in discharges with neutral beam injection at a moderate density level. The dependence of τ E on absorbed power was weak.

  7. Comparison of analytical and predictive methods for water, protein, fat, sugar, and gross energy in marine mammal milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oftedal, O T; Eisert, R; Barrell, G K

    2014-01-01

    Mammalian milks may differ greatly in composition from cow milk, and these differences may affect the performance of analytical methods. High-fat, high-protein milks with a preponderance of oligosaccharides, such as those produced by many marine mammals, present a particular challenge. We compared the performance of several methods against reference procedures using Weddell seal (Leptonychotes weddellii) milk of highly varied composition (by reference methods: 27-63% water, 24-62% fat, 8-12% crude protein, 0.5-1.8% sugar). A microdrying step preparatory to carbon-hydrogen-nitrogen (CHN) gas analysis slightly underestimated water content and had a higher repeatability relative standard deviation (RSDr) than did reference oven drying at 100°C. Compared with a reference macro-Kjeldahl protein procedure, the CHN (or Dumas) combustion method had a somewhat higher RSDr (1.56 vs. 0.60%) but correlation between methods was high (0.992), means were not different (CHN: 17.2±0.46% dry matter basis; Kjeldahl 17.3±0.49% dry matter basis), there were no significant proportional or constant errors, and predictive performance was high. A carbon stoichiometric procedure based on CHN analysis failed to adequately predict fat (reference: Röse-Gottlieb method) or total sugar (reference: phenol-sulfuric acid method). Gross energy content, calculated from energetic factors and results from reference methods for fat, protein, and total sugar, accurately predicted gross energy as measured by bomb calorimetry. We conclude that the CHN (Dumas) combustion method and calculation of gross energy are acceptable analytical approaches for marine mammal milk, but fat and sugar require separate analysis by appropriate analytic methods and cannot be adequately estimated by carbon stoichiometry. Some other alternative methods-low-temperature drying for water determination; Bradford, Lowry, and biuret methods for protein; the Folch and the Bligh and Dyer methods for fat; and enzymatic and reducing

  8. Quantum-Confinement Effects on Binding Energies and Optical Properties of Excitons in Quantum Dots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘晖

    2004-01-01

    Quantum-confinement effects on the binding energy and the linear optical susceptibility of excitons in quantum dots are studied. It is found that the binding energy and the linear optical susceptibility are sensitive to the barrier height and the dot size. For an infinite barrier, the binding energy of excitons decreases monotonically with the increasing dot radius, and the absorption intensity has almost the same amplitude with the increasing photon energy. For a finite barrier, the binding energy has a maximum value with the increasing dot radius, and the absorption intensity damps rapidly with the increasing photon energy. The effective mass ratio is also found to have an influence on the binding energy. The results could be confirmed by future experiments on excitons in quantum dots.

  9. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: Promethean Homes — Gross-Shepard Residence, Charlottesville, VA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-09-01

    This is the first DOE Zero Energy Ready Home for this builder, who earned a Custom Builder honor in the 2014 Housing Innovation Awards. The home included rigid mineral wool board insulation over house wrap and plywood on the 2x6 advanced framed walls, achieving HERS 33 without PV.

  10. Calculation of Energies of the Ground and Low Excited States of a Confined Helium Atom in a Spherical Parabolic Well

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Wen-Fang

    2006-01-01

    @@ Making use of the adiabatic hyperspherical approach, we report a calculation for the energy spectrum of the ground and low-excited states of the confined helium atom in a spherical parabolic well. We find that the energies of a spherical parabolic well are in good agreement with those of an impenetrable spherical box for the larger confined potential radius. However, the energy values of a spherical parabolic well are much lower than those of an impenetrable spherical box for small values of re. We also find that the confinement may cause accidental degeneracies between levels with different low-excited states and the inversion of the energy values.

  11. Energy spectrum of an electron confined in the hexagon-shaped quantum well

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu.; V.; VOROBIEV; V.; R.; VIEIRA; P.; P.; HORLEY; P.; N.; GORLEY; J.; GONZLEZ-HERNNDEZ

    2009-01-01

    Considering the hexagonal-shaped quantum-scale formations on the surface of thin semiconductor films, a methodology was developed to obtain the analytical solution of the Schrdinger equation when impenetrable walls of a quantum well are treated as mirrors. The results obtained allowed the calculation of the space probability distributions and the energy spectrum of the particle confined in a hex-agonal-shaped well.

  12. Energy spectrum of an electron confined in the hexagon-shaped quantum well

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu.V.VOROBIEV; V.R.VlEIRA; P.P.HORLEY; P.N.GORLEY; J.GONZ(A)LEZ-HERN(A)NDEZ

    2009-01-01

    Considering the hexagonal-shaped quantum-scale formations on the surface of thin semiconductor films, a methodology was developed to obtain the analytical solution of the Schr(o)dinger equation when impenetrable walls of a quantum well are treated as mirrors. The results obtained allowed the calcula-tion of the space probability distributions and the energy spectrum of the particle confined in a hex-agonal-shaped well.

  13. Confinement and non-universality of anomalous heat transport and superdiffusion of energy in low-dimensional systems

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    We provide molecular dynamics simulation of heat transport and thermal energy diffusion in one-dimensional molecular chains with different interparticle pair potentials at zero and non-zero temperature. We model the thermal conductivity (TC) and energy diffusion in the coupled rotator chain and in the Lennard-Jones chain either without or with the confining parabolic interatomic potential. The considered chains without the confining potential have normal TC and energy diffusion, while the cor...

  14. Vibration confinement and energy harvesting in flexible structures using collocated absorbers and piezoelectric devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouled Chtiba, M.; Choura, S.; Nayfeh, A. H.; El-Borgi, S.

    2010-03-01

    We propose an optimal design for supplementing flexible structures with a set of absorbers and piezoelectric devices for vibration confinement and energy harvesting. We assume that the original structure is sensitive to vibrations and that the absorbers are the elements where the vibration energy is confined and then harvested by means of piezoelectric devices. The design of the additional mechanical and electrical components is formulated as a dynamic optimization problem in which the objective function is the total energy of the uncontrolled structure. The locations, masses, stiffnesses, and damping coefficients of these absorbers and capacitances, load resistances, and electromechanical coupling coefficients are optimized to minimize the total energy of the structure. We use the Galerkin procedure to discretize the equations of motion that describe the coupled dynamics of the flexible structure and the added absorbers and harvesting devices. We develop a numerical code that determines the unknown parameters of a pre-specified set of absorbers and harvesting components. We input a set of initial values for these parameters, and the code updates them while minimizing the total energy in the uncontrolled structure. To illustrate the proposed design, we consider a simply supported beam with harmonic external excitations. Here, we consider two possible configurations for each of the additional piezoelectric devices, either embedded between the structure and the absorbers or between the ground and absorbers. We present simulations of the harvested power and associated voltage for each pair of collocated absorber and piezoelectric device. The simulated responses of the beam show that its energy is confined and harvested simultaneously.

  15. Analysis of Electron and Antineutrino Energy Spectra from Fissile Samples under Irradiation based on Gross Theory of Beta-decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, T.; Tachibana, T.; Chiba, S.

    2016-06-01

    We applied the gross theory of β-decay to calculate the reactor electron and antineutrino ({{{bar ν }}{e}}) spectra emitted from 235,238U and 239,241Pu by summing up all the contributions from a large number of decaying fission-products (FPs). We make it clear what kinds of transition types and FP nuclides are important to shape the lepton spectra. After taking the ambiguity in the current data for fission yields and Qβ-values into account, we suggested a possibility that the high-energy part of the widely referred electron-spectra by Schreckenbach et al., almost only one experimental data set available now, might possibly be too low. Arguments on a special role of the odd(Z)-odd(N) nuclides and on the consistency between U-238 and other fissiles in the experimental data lead to the importance of a new and independent measurement of electron energy spectra which could be converted into the reactor {{{bar ν }}{e}} spectra.

  16. Superior pseudocapacitive behavior of confined lignin nanocrystals for renewable energy-storage materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Kon; Kim, Yun Ki; Lee, Hyunjoo; Lee, Sang Bok; Park, Ho Seok

    2014-04-01

    Strong demand for high-performance energy-storage devices has currently motivated the development of emerging capacitive materials that can resolve their critical challenge (i.e., low energy density) and that are renewable and inexpensive energy-storage materials from both environmental and economic viewpoints. Herein, the pseudocapacitive behavior of lignin nanocrystals confined on reduced graphene oxides (RGOs) used for renewable energy-storage materials is demonstrated. The excellent capacitive characteristics of the renewable hybrid electrodes were achieved by synergizing the fast and reversible redox charge transfer of surface-confined quinone and the interplay with electron-conducting RGOs. Accordingly, pseudocapacitors with remarkable rate and cyclic performances (~96 % retention after 3000 cycles) showed a maximum capacitance of 432 F g(-1), which was close to the theoretical capacitance of 482 F g(-1) and sixfold higher than that of RGO (93 F g(-1)). The chemical strategy delineated herein paves the way to develop advanced renewable electrodes for energy-storage applications and understand the redox chemistry of electroactive biomaterials. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Accurate calculation of conformational free energy differences in explicit water: the confinement-solvation free energy approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esque, Jeremy; Cecchini, Marco

    2015-04-23

    The calculation of the free energy of conformation is key to understanding the function of biomolecules and has attracted significant interest in recent years. Here, we present an improvement of the confinement method that was designed for use in the context of explicit solvent MD simulations. The development involves an additional step in which the solvation free energy of the harmonically restrained conformers is accurately determined by multistage free energy perturbation simulations. As a test-case application, the newly introduced confinement/solvation free energy (CSF) approach was used to compute differences in free energy between conformers of the alanine dipeptide in explicit water. The results are in excellent agreement with reference calculations based on both converged molecular dynamics and umbrella sampling. To illustrate the general applicability of the method, conformational equilibria of met-enkephalin (5 aa) and deca-alanine (10 aa) in solution were also analyzed. In both cases, smoothly converged free-energy results were obtained in agreement with equilibrium sampling or literature calculations. These results demonstrate that the CSF method may provide conformational free-energy differences of biomolecules with small statistical errors (below 0.5 kcal/mol) and at a moderate computational cost even with a full representation of the solvent.

  18. Confinement of water in hydrophobic nanopores: effect of the geometry on the energy of intrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbowiak, Thomas; Weber, Guy; Bellat, Jean-Pierre

    2014-01-14

    Water confinement in the hydrophobic nanopores of highly siliceous zeolite having MFI and CHA topology is investigated by high pressure manometry coupled to differential calorimetry. Surprisingly, the intrusion of water is endothermic for MFI but exothermic for CHA. This phase transition depends on the geometry of the environment in which water is confined: channels (MFI) or cavities (CHA). The energy of intrusion is mainly governed by the change in the coordination of water molecules when they are forced to enter the nanopores and to adopt a weaker, hydrogen-bonded structure. At such a nanoscale, the properties of the molecules are governed strongly by geometrical restraints. This implies that the use of classical macroscopic equations such as Laplace-Washburn will have limitations at the molecular level.

  19. Dynamic gluon confinement in high energy processes within effective QCD field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Kinder-Geiger, Klaus

    1994-01-01

    An effective Lagrangian approach to describe the dynamics of confinement and symmetry breaking in the process of quark-gluon to hadron conversion is proposed. The deconfined quark and gluon degrees of freedom of the perturbative QCD vacuum are coupled to color neutral condensate fields representing the non-perturbative vacuum with broken scale and chiral symmetry. As a first application the evolution of gluons emitted by a fragmenting high energy q\\bar q pair from the perturbative to the non-perturbative regime with confinement is studied. For reasonable parameter choice the solution of the equations of motion leads to flux tube configurations with a string tension t \\simeq 1 GeV/fm.

  20. Experimental and numerical investigations of the energy confinement times in the stellarator TJ-K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Ahmed; Koehn, Alf; Munoz, Alejandro; Holzhauer, Eberhard; Ramisch, Mirko [Institute of Interfacial Process Engineering and Plasma Technology IGVP, Uni Stuttgart, Stuttgart (Germany); Birkenmeier, Gregor [Max-Planck Institute fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany)

    2015-05-01

    A particle and power balance model has been employed to numerically simulate and qualitatively understand transport processes, which determine equilibrium density and temperature profiles in the stellarator TJ-K. To quantify losses by these processes, the e-folding time of density and energy after switching off the heating source is used as a measure of the corresponding confinement times. For comparison with numerical simulation, both quantities are investigated experimentally in TJ-K. The particle confinement can be directly deduced from an interferometer or from Langmuir probes measuring the ion-saturation current. A commercial satellite receiver is used to measure the emitted radiation around 12 GHz, which is assumed to be dominated by Bremsstrahlung. In addition, the signal from a fast diode, which is sensitive in the visible range of light, is used. Results of the comparative numerical and experimental studies are presented.

  1. An energy efficiency clustering routing protocol for WSNs in confined area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Yanjing; He Yanjun; Zhang Beibei; Liu Xue

    2011-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are important application for safety monitoring in underground coal mines,which are difficult to monitor due to natural conditions.Based on the characteristic of limited energy for WSNs in confined underground area such as coal face and laneway,we presents an energy-efficient clustering routing protocol based on weight (ECRPW) to prolong the lifetime of networks.ECRPW takes into consideration the nodes' residual energy during the election process of cluster heads.The constraint of distance threshold is used to optimize cluster scheme.Furthermore,the protocol also sets up a routing tree based on cluster heads' weight.The results show that ECRPW had better performance in energy consumption,death ratio of node and network lifetime.

  2. Measurements of gross energy consumption in new buildings meeting Danish building Regulations 2005. Project summary; Maeling af bruttoenergiforbrug i nybyggeri svarende til BR2005 energikrav. Projektresume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tommerup, H.

    2004-07-01

    During the heating season of 2003/2004, gross energy measurements have been made on a number of single-family houses that represent ordinary building systems in Denmark and meet future stricter energy requirements in new energy regulations of the building regulations. All the houses have floor heating and mechanical ventilation with heat recovery. When new energy regulations are introduced in the building regulations, the primary energy requirements on buildings will be based on the gross energy consumption, corresponding to the total energy consumption except electricity consumption for appliances. In relation to this, the object of the project has been to document and analyse the test result that have come to light and to compare with future requirements on the gross energy consumption. The electricity consumption of appliances is interesting too, however, as this has an effect on the heat demand. The object of the project has therefore also been to gather operation experience for the electricity consuming equipment in general with a view to throwing light on its influence on the heat demand, including to investigate how large a part of the electricity consumption proves of use in the heating of the house, and more overriding how the electricity consumption influences the heat consumption. (au)

  3. Simple Method Obtaining Analytical Expressions of Particle and Kinetic-Energy Densities for One-Dimensional Confined Fermi Gases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG XiaoXue; WU Ying

    2002-01-01

    We develop a simple approach to obtain explicitly exact analytical expressions of particle and kinetic-energy densities for noninteracting Fermi gases in one-dimensional harmonic confinement, and in one-dimensional boxconfinement as well.

  4. Fusion energy in an inertial electrostatic confinement device using a magnetically shielded grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedditch, John, E-mail: john.hedditch@sydney.edu.au; Bowden-Reid, Richard, E-mail: rbow3948@physics.usyd.edu.au; Khachan, Joe, E-mail: joe.khachan@sydney.edu.au [School of Physics, The University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Whales 2006 (Australia)

    2015-10-15

    Theory for a gridded inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) fusion system is presented, which shows a net energy gain is possible if the grid is magnetically shielded from ion impact. A simplified grid geometry is studied, consisting of two negatively biased coaxial current-carrying rings, oriented such that their opposing magnetic fields produce a spindle cusp. Our analysis indicates that better than break-even performance is possible even in a deuterium-deuterium system at bench-top scales. The proposed device has the unusual property that it can avoid both the cusp losses of traditional magnetic fusion systems and the grid losses of traditional IEC configurations.

  5. High energy cosmic ray self-confinement close to extragalactic sources

    CERN Document Server

    Blasi, P; D'Angelo, M

    2015-01-01

    The ultra-high energy cosmic rays observed at the Earth are most likely accelerated in extra-galactic sources. For the typical luminosities invoked for such sources, the electric current associated to the flux of cosmic rays that leave them is large. The associated plasma instabilities create magnetic fluctuations that can efficiently scatter particles. We argue that this phenomenon forces cosmic rays to be self-confined in the source proximity for energies $Econfined close to their sources for energies $E

  6. Polymer segregation under confinement: Free energy calculations and segregation dynamics simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polson, James M.; Montgomery, Logan G.

    2014-10-01

    Monte Carlo simulations are used to study the behavior of two polymers under confinement in a cylindrical tube. Each polymer is modeled as a chain of hard spheres. We measure the free energy of the system, F, as a function of the distance between the centers of mass of the polymers, λ, and examine the effects on the free energy functions of varying the channel diameter D and length L, as well as the polymer length N and bending rigidity κ. For infinitely long cylinders, F is a maximum at λ = 0, and decreases with λ until the polymers are no longer in contact. For flexible chains (κ = 0), the polymers overlap along the cylinder for low λ, while above some critical value of λ they are longitudinally compressed and non-overlapping while still in contact. We find that the free energy barrier height, ΔF ≡ F(0) - F(∞), scales as ΔF/kBT ˜ ND-1.93 ± 0.01, for N ⩽ 200 and D ⩽ 9σ, where σ is the monomer diameter. In addition, the overlap free energy appears to scale as F/kBT = Nf(λ/N; D) for sufficiently large N, where f is a function parameterized by the cylinder diameter D. For channels of finite length, the free energy barrier height increases with increasing confinement aspect ratio L/D at fixed volume fraction ϕ, and it decreases with increasing ϕ at fixed L/D. Increasing the polymer bending rigidity κ monotonically reduces the overlap free energy. For strongly confined systems, where the chain persistence length P satisfies D ≪ P, F varies linearly with λ with a slope that scales as F'(λ) ˜ -kBTD-βP-α, where β ≈ 2 and α ≈ 0.37 for N = 200 chains. These exponent values deviate slightly from those predicted using a simple model, possibly due to insufficiently satisfying the conditions defining the Odijk regime. Finally, we use Monte Carlo dynamics simulations to examine polymer segregation dynamics for fully flexible chains and observe segregation rates that decrease with decreasing entropic force magnitude, f ≡ |dF/dλ|. For both

  7. Polymer segregation under confinement: free energy calculations and segregation dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polson, James M; Montgomery, Logan G

    2014-10-28

    Monte Carlo simulations are used to study the behavior of two polymers under confinement in a cylindrical tube. Each polymer is modeled as a chain of hard spheres. We measure the free energy of the system, F, as a function of the distance between the centers of mass of the polymers, λ, and examine the effects on the free energy functions of varying the channel diameter D and length L, as well as the polymer length N and bending rigidity κ. For infinitely long cylinders, F is a maximum at λ = 0, and decreases with λ until the polymers are no longer in contact. For flexible chains (κ = 0), the polymers overlap along the cylinder for low λ, while above some critical value of λ they are longitudinally compressed and non-overlapping while still in contact. We find that the free energy barrier height, ΔF ≡ F(0) - F(∞), scales as ΔF/k(B)T ∼ ND(-1.93 ± 0.01), for N ⩽ 200 and D ⩽ 9σ, where σ is the monomer diameter. In addition, the overlap free energy appears to scale as F/k(B)T = Nf(λ/N; D) for sufficiently large N, where f is a function parameterized by the cylinder diameter D. For channels of finite length, the free energy barrier height increases with increasing confinement aspect ratio L/D at fixed volume fraction ϕ, and it decreases with increasing ϕ at fixed L/D. Increasing the polymer bending rigidity κ monotonically reduces the overlap free energy. For strongly confined systems, where the chain persistence length P satisfies D ≪ P, F varies linearly with λ with a slope that scales as F'(λ) ∼ -k(B)TD(-β)P(-α), where β ≈ 2 and α ≈ 0.37 for N = 200 chains. These exponent values deviate slightly from those predicted using a simple model, possibly due to insufficiently satisfying the conditions defining the Odijk regime. Finally, we use Monte Carlo dynamics simulations to examine polymer segregation dynamics for fully flexible chains and observe segregation rates that decrease with decreasing entropic force magnitude, f ≡ |d

  8. Confining interparticle potential makes both heat transport and energy diffusion anomalous in one-dimensional phononic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosevich, Yuriy A.; Savin, Alexander V.

    2016-10-01

    We provide molecular dynamics simulation of heat transport and energy diffusion in one-dimensional molecular chains with different interparticle pair potentials at zero and non-zero temperature. We model the thermal conductivity (TC) and energy diffusion (ED) in the chain of coupled rotators and in the Lennard-Jones chain either without or with the confining parabolic interparticle potential. The considered chains without the confining potential have normal TC and ED at non-zero temperature, while the corresponding chains with the confining potential are characterized by anomalous (diverging with the system length) TC and superdiffusion of energy. Similar effect is produced by the anharmonic quartic confining pair potential. We confirm in such a way that, surprisingly, the confining pair potential makes both heat transport and energy diffusion anomalous in one-dimensional phononic systems. We show that the normal TC is always accompanied by the normal ED in the thermalized anharmonic chains, while the superdiffusion of energy occurs in the thermalized chains with only anomalous heat transport.

  9. Exploring the potential high energy locations and intensities in confined work spaces of waveguide dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Ricardo; Lewis, Winston G.

    2014-07-01

    review visits the likelihood for potential energy build-up due to RF propagation in confined spaces that are of waveguide design but with larger dimensions. Such confined spaces include silos, tanks, pipes, manholes, air-condition ducts, tunnels, wells, engine rooms and operator rooms on board vessels. In these confined spaces waves reflect off of the walls and combine constructively or destructively with incident waves producing reinforcement or cancellation respectively. Where there is reinforcement, the intensity of the wave for a particular distance in accordance with the standard, may exceed the exposure limit for this distance from the source thereby exposing the worker to larger intensities than the accepted limit and presenting a potential health and safety threat.

  10. High confinement and high density with stationary plasma energy and strong edge radiation in the TEXTOR-94 tokamak

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Messiaen, A. M.; Ongena, J.; Samm, U.; Unterberg, B.; van Wassenhove, G.; Durodie, F.; R. Jaspers,; Tokar, M. Z.; Vandenplas, P. E.; Van Oost, G.; Winter, J.; Wolf, G. H.; Bertschinger, G.; Bonheure, G.; Dumortier, P.; Euringer, H.; Finken, K.H.; Fuchs, G.; Giesen, B.; Koch, R.; Konen, L.; Konigs, C.; Koslowski, H. R.; KramerFlecken, A.; Lyssoivan, A.; Mank, G.; Rapp, J.; Schoon, N.; Telesca, G.; Uhlemann, R.; Vervier, M.; Waidmann, G.; Weynants, R. R.

    1996-01-01

    Stationary high energy confinement is observed on TEXTOR-94 for times limited only by the flux swing of the transformer using strong edge radiation cooling. Necessary tools are the feedback control of the radiated power and of the plasma energy content. At the highest densities obtained (up to 1.2

  11. Magnetic Reconnection Rates and Energy Release in a Confined X-class Flare

    CERN Document Server

    Veronig, A M

    2015-01-01

    We study the energy-release process in the confined X1.6 flare that occurred on 22 October 2014 in AR 12171. Magnetic-reconnection rates and reconnection fluxes are derived from three different data sets: space-based data from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) 1600 {\\AA} filter onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) and ground-based H$\\alpha$ and Ca II K filtergrams from Kanzelh\\"ohe Observatory. The magnetic-reconnection rates determined from the three data sets all closely resemble the temporal profile of the hard X-rays measured by the Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI), which are a proxy for the flare energy released into high-energy electrons. The total magnetic-reconnection flux derived lies between $4.1 \\times 10^{21}$ Mx (AIA 1600 {\\AA}) and $7.9 \\times 10^{21}$ Mx (H$\\alpha$), which corresponds to about 2 to 4% of the total unsigned flux of the strong source AR. Comparison of the magnetic-reconnection flux dependence on the GOES class for 27 eruptive events collected fr...

  12. High Confinement and High Density with Stationary Plasma Energy and Strong Edge Radiation in the TEXTOR-94 Tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messiaen, A.M.; Ongena, J.; Samm, U.; Unterberg, B.; Van Wassenhove, G.; Durodie, F.; Jaspers, R.; Tokar, M.Z.; Vandenplas, P.E.; Van Oost, G.; Winter, J.; Wolf, G.H.; Bertschinger, G.; Bonheure, G.; Dumortier, P.; Euringer, H.; Finken, K.H.; Fuchs, G.; Giesen, B.; Koch, R.; Koenen, L.; Koenigs, C.; Koslowski, H.R.; Kraemer-Flecken, A.; Lyssoivan, A.; Mank, G.; Rapp, J.; Schoon, N.; Telesca, G.; Uhlemann, R.; Vervier, M.; Waidmann, G.; Weynants, R.R. [Laboratoire de Physique des Plasmas-Laboratorium voor Plasmafysica, Association ``EURATOM-Belgian State,`` Ecole Royale Militaire, B-1040 Brussels, Koninklijke Militaire School (Belgium)]|[Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, GmbH Association ``Euratom-KFA,`` D-52425 Juelich (Federal Republic of Germany)]|[FOM Instituut voor Plasmafysica Rijnhuizen, Associatie ``FOM-EURATOM,`` Nieuwegein (The Netherlands)

    1996-09-01

    Stationary high energy confinement is observed on TEXTOR-94 for times limited only by the flux swing of the transformer using strong edge radiation cooling. Necessary tools are the feedback control of the radiated power and of the plasma energy content. At the highest densities obtained (up to 1.2 times the Greenwald limit), energy confinement exceeds the edge-localized-mode-free {ital H}-mode scaling ITERH93-P by more than 20{percent}. {beta} limits of TEXTOR-94 are reached with {ital f}{sub H89}/{ital q}{sub {ital a}}{approx_equal}0.6. No detrimental effect of the seeded impurity is seen. These high confinement discharges meet many conditions necessary for a fusion reactor regime. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  13. Confinement of solar thermal energy by Nesa film; Nesa maku ni yoru taiyo netsu energy no fujikome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, A.; Yano, K.; Kasuga, M.; Daigo, Y. [Yamanashi University, Yamanashi (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-11-25

    This paper reports a Nesa (SnO2) film as selective transmissive film for effective confinement of solar thermal energy. Solar light spectrum ranges from 0.3 to 2.0{mu}m, while thermal radiation from bodies at 100-200degC is infrared ray more than 2{mu}m. Consequently, a solar water heater using the film which can pass rays below 2.0{mu}m while reflect rays over 2.0{mu}m for windows is very efficient. The Nesa film reflects rays with wavelengths more than plasma wavelengths (controllable from 1 to several {mu}m) by plasma action of free electrons. The Nesa films with different carrier densities were fabricated by spraying deposition method at dopant rates (Sb/Sn) from 0 to 2mol%. The solar water heaters were prepared using normal glass and specific glass coated with the Nesa film as selective transmissive film. The heater using the glass coated with the Nesa film of 2{mu}m plasma wavelength for windows could efficiently confine solar heat. The Nesa film of 700nm plasma wavelength which can pass visible light while reflect infrared ray was effective to reduce cooling/heating losses. 3 refs., 6 figs.

  14. Bound state energies and wave functions of spherical quantum dots in presence of a confining potential model

    CERN Document Server

    Ikhdair, Sameer M

    2011-01-01

    We obtain the exact energy spectra and corresponding wave functions of the radial Schr\\"odinger equation (RSE) for any (n,l) state in the presence of a combination of psudoharmonic, Coulomb and linear confining potential terms using an exact analytical iteration method. The interaction potential model under consideration is Cornell-modified plus harmonic (CMpH) type which is a correction form to the harmonic, Coulomb and linear confining potential terms. It is used to investigates the energy of electron in spherical quantum dot and the heavy quarkonia (QQ-onia).

  15. Gross motor control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross motor control is the ability to make large, general movements (such as waving an arm or lifting a leg). ... Gross motor control is a milestone in the development of an infant. Infants develop gross motor control before they develop ...

  16. MoS2 nanocrystals confined in a DNA matrix exhibiting energy transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Nirmal; Giri, Anupam; Pal, Samir Kumar

    2013-09-10

    We report the wet chemical synthesis of MoS2 nanocrystals (NCs), a transition-metal dichalcogenide, using DNA as a host matrix. As evidenced from transmission electron microscopy (TEM), the NCs are highly crystalline, with an average diameter of ~5 nm. Ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) absorption studies along with band gap calculations confirm that NCs are in quantum confinement. A prominent red shift of the optical absorption bands has been observed upon formation of the thin film using hexadecyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTAC), i.e., in the case of MoS2@DNA-CTAC. In the thin film, strong electron-phonon coupling arises because of the resonance effect, which is reflected from the emergence of intense first-, second-, and third-order Raman peaks, whenever excited with the 488 nm line. We have established that our as-synthesized MoS2 NCs quench the fluorescence of a well-known DNA minor groove binding probe, Hoechst 33258. Unprecedented fluorescence quenching (94%) of donor (Hoechst 33258) emission and efficient energy transfer (89%) between Hoechst 33258 and MoS2 NCs (acceptor) are obtained. The donor-acceptor distance of these conjugates has been described by a Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based model. Furthermore, employing a statistical method, we have estimated the probability of the distance distribution between the donor and acceptor. We believe that the study described herein may enable substantial advances in fields of optoelectronics, photovoltaics, catalysis, and many others.

  17. Confinement studies in TFTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murakami, M.; Arunasalam, V.; Bell, J.D.; Bell, M.G.; Bitter, M.; Blanchard, W.R.; Boody, F.; Boyd, D.; Bretz, N.; Bush, C.E.

    1985-06-01

    The paper describes the present (end of February 1985) status of the plasma confinement studies in the TFTR tokamak with emphasis on those with neutral beam injection (NBI). Recent improvements in the device capabilities have substantially extended operating parameters: B/sub T/ increased to 4.0 T, I/sub p/ to 2.0 MA, injection power (P/sub b/) to 5 MW with H/sup 0/ or D/sup 0/ beams anti n/sub e/ to 5 x 10/sup 19/ m/sup -3/, and Z/sub eff/ reduced to 1.4. With ohmic heating (OH) alone, the previously established scaling for gross energy confinement time (tau/sub E/ = anti n/sub e/q) has been confirmed at higher I/sub p/ and B/sub T/, and the maximum tau/sub E/ of 0.4 sec has been achieved. With NBI at P/sub b/ substantially (by factor >2) higher than P/sub OH/, excellent power and particle accountability have been established. This suggests that the less-than-expected increase in stored energy with NBI is not due to problems of power delivery, but due to problems of confinement deterioration. tau/sub E/ is observed to scale approximately as I/sub p/ P/sub b//sup -0.5/ (independent of anti n/sub e/), consistent with previous L-mode scalings. With NBI we have achieved the maximum tau/sub E/ of 0.2 sec and the maximum T/sub i/(o) of 4.4 keV in the normal operating regime, and even higher T/sub i/(o) in the energetic-ion regime with low-n/sub e/ and low-I/sub p/ operation.

  18. Heavy Inertial Confinement Energy: Interactions Involoving Low charge State Heavy Ion Injection Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DuBois, Robert D

    2006-04-14

    During the contract period, absolute cross sections for projectile ionization, and in some cases for target ionization, were measured for energetic (MeV/u) low-charge-state heavy ions interacting with gases typically found in high and ultra-high vacuum environments. This information is of interest to high-energy-density research projects as inelastic interactions with background gases can lead to serious detrimental effects when intense ion beams are accelerated to high energies, transported and possibly confined in storage rings. Thus this research impacts research and design parameters associated with projects such as the Heavy Ion Fusion Project, the High Current and Integrated Beam Experiments in the USA and the accelerator upgrade at GSI-Darmstadt, Germany. Via collaborative studies performed at GSI-Darmstadt, at the University of East Carolina, and Texas A&M University, absolute cross sections were measured for a series of collision systems using MeV/u heavy ions possessing most, or nearly all, of their bound electrons, e.g., 1.4 MeV/u Ar{sup +}, Xe{sup 3+}, and U{sup 4,6,10+}. Interactions involving such low-charge-state heavy ions at such high energies had never been previously explored. Using these, and data taken from the literature, an empirical model was developed for extrapolation to much higher energies. In order to extend our measurements to much higher energies, the gas target at the Experimental Storage Ring in GSI-Darmstadt was used. Cross sections were measured between 20 and 50 MeV/u for U{sup 28+}- H{sub 2} and - N{sub 2}, the primary components found in high and ultra-high vacuum systems. Storage lifetime measurements, information inversely proportional to the cross section, were performed up to 180 MeV/u. The lifetime and cross section data test various theoretical approaches used to calculate cross sections for many-electron systems. Various high energy density research projects directly benefit by this information. As a result, the general

  19. Classical and Mexican hat-type potential energy curve for the hydrogen molecule from a confined Kratzer oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hooydonk, G.

    2016-03-01

    We review harmonic oscillator theory for closed, stable quantum systems. The H2 potential energy curve (PEC) of Mexican hat-type, calculated with a confined Kratzer oscillator, is better than the Rydberg-Klein-Rees (RKR) H2 PEC. Compared with QM, the theory of chemical bonding is simplified, since a confined Kratzer oscillator can also lead to the long sought for universal function, once called the Holy Grail of Molecular Spectroscopy. This is validated by reducing PECs for different bonds H2, HF, I2, N2 and O2 to a single one. The equal probability for H2, originating either from HA + HB or HB + HA, is quantified with a Gauss probability density function. At the Bohr scale, a confined harmonic oscillator behaves properly at the extremes of bound two-nucleon quantum systems.

  20. Optimization of the confinement energy of quantum-wire states in T-shaped GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langbein, Wolfgang Werner; Gislason, Hannes; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    1996-01-01

    We report on an optimization of the wire confinement energies of the confined electronic states at the T-shaped intersection of GaAs and AlxGa1-xAs quantum wells. These structures can be produced by the cleaved edge overgrowth technique. We present an analytical model for the confinement to give......-shaped intersection due to the large and anisotropic hole effective masses. Employing optimized sample parameters, confinement energies for the free-electron-hole pairs are nearly doubled compared to symmetric structures, and 34 meV are predicted for a 3-nm overgrown GaAs well. This is expected to be further enhanced...

  1. The great transformation of global energy supply. Central messages of the world energy congress; Die Grosse Transformation der Weltenergieversorgung. Zentrale Botschaften des World Energy Congress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiffer, Hans-Wilhelm [World Energy Council, London (United Kingdom). World Energy Resources

    2016-12-15

    The 23rd World Energy Congress, held in Istanbul from October 9 to 13, 2016, brought together some 4500 delegates from around the world. It is the world's largest international energy conference held every three years by the World Energy Council in changing world regions. The congress was a unique opportunity to present a comprehensive view of current and long-term global energy issues. [German] Der 23. Weltenergie-Kongress, veranstaltet vom 9. bis 13.10.2016 in Istanbul, brachte etwa 4500 Delegierte aus der ganzen Welt zusammen. Es ist die weltweit groesste internationale Energiekonferenz, die alle drei Jahre vom World Energy Council in wechselnden Weltregionen ausgerichtet wird. Mit dem Kongress wurde die einzigartige Gelegenheit wahrgenommen, einen umfassenden Blick sowohl auf die aktuellen als auch auf die langfristig global relevanten Energiethemen zu richten.

  2. NM Gross Receipts Baseline

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  3. Stability theory of a confined toroidal plasma. Part II. Modified energy principle and growth rate. Technical summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurence, P.; Shen, M.C.

    1982-03-01

    Based upon the existence and uniqueness of a solution to the linearized Lundquist equations established previously, the modified energy principle for the sigma-stability of a confined toroidal plasma is rigorously justified. A variational principle is developed to find the infimum of sigma, and an estimate for the maximum growth rate is obtained. The results are also extended to a diffuse pinch and a multiple tori plasma.

  4. Gross National Happiness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giri, Krishna Prasad; Kjær-Rasmussen, Lone Krogh

    This paper investigates practices related to the ideology of infusing Gross National Happiness (GNH) into school curriculum, the effectiveness of the meditation and mind training and the implication of GNH for school environment. It also explores how GNH ambience has been managed and practiced...... of Gross National Happiness and Educating for Gross National happiness....

  5. Climate energy policy. How a great irritation makes the themes climate and energy inseperably; Klimergiepolitik. Wie eine grosse Verwirrung die Themen Klima und Energie unzertrennlich macht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stalder, Meinhard

    2012-07-01

    The focus of the book under consideration is the equalization of the politically and economically closely interconnected issues carbon, climate and energy. Since the Neolithic Age, more carbon was released worldwide by clearing of forests than by consumption of fossil energy sources. In the good old time, nearly 15% of the bread cereals is fed to horses. The perfect energy source was found by means of the upcoming petroleum industry. Already the First World War was decided by petroleum. The Second World War anyway. Also thereafter, two oil crises and two Gulf Wars kept us in suspense. Petroleum is there sufficiently, but it becomes expensive increasingly. Instead of working on the reduction of energy costs such as in the year 1979, not our appetite but the exhaust gases are pilloried. Thereby the report of the International Panel on Climate Change contains a lot of technical faults. Its content is technically motivated and became an end in itself in the meantime. At the end, it is no longer about carbon dioxide but about 'coal'. This is because, behind all pseudo-science there is a sophisticated system which annually collects 100 billion dollar worldwide and distributes this fair beyond the impoverished nations of this world.

  6. Optical probing of MgZnO/ZnO heterointerface confinement potential energy levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solovyev, V. V.; Van' kov, A. B.; Kukushkin, I. V. [Institute of Solid State Physics, RAS, Chernogolovka 142432 (Russian Federation); Max-Planck-Institut für Festkörperforschung, Heisenbergstrasse 1, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Falson, J.; Kozuka, Y. [Department of Applied Physics and Quantum-Phase Electronics Center (QPEC), University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Zhang, D.; Smet, J. H. [Max-Planck-Institut für Festkörperforschung, Heisenbergstrasse 1, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Maryenko, D. [RIKEN Center for Emergent Matter Science (CEMS), Wako 351-0198 (Japan); Tsukazaki, A. [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); PRESTO, Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), Tokyo 102-0075 (Japan); Kawasaki, M. [Department of Applied Physics and Quantum-Phase Electronics Center (QPEC), University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); RIKEN Center for Emergent Matter Science (CEMS), Wako 351-0198 (Japan)

    2015-02-23

    Low-temperature photoluminescence and reflectance measurements were employed to study the optical transitions present in two-dimensional electron systems confined at Mg{sub x}Zn{sub 1–x}O/ZnO heterojunctions. Transitions involving A- and B-holes and electrons from the two lowest subbands formed within the confinement potential are detected. In the studied density range of 2.0–6.5 × 10{sup 11 }cm{sup −2}, the inter-subband splitting is measured and the first excited electron subband is shown to be empty of electrons.

  7. BOOK REVIEW: Inertial confinement fusion: The quest for ignition and energy gain using indirect drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, C.

    1999-06-01

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) is an alternative way to control fusion which is based on scaling down a thermonuclear explosion to a small size, applicable for power production, a kind of thermonuclear internal combustion engine. This book extends many interesting topics concerning the research and development on ICF of the last 25 years. It provides a systematic development of the physics basis and also various experimental data on radiation driven implosion. This is a landmark treatise presented at the right time. It is based on the article ``Development of the indirect-drive approach to inertial confinement fusion and the target physics basis for ignition and gain'' by J.D. Lindl, published in Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 2, November 1995, pp. 3933-4024. As is well known, in the United States of America research on the target physics basis for indirect drive remained largely classified until 1994. The indirect drive approaches were closely related to nuclear weapons research at Lawrence Livermore and Los Alamos National Laboratories. In Japan and other countries, inertial confinement fusion research for civil energy has been successfully performed to achieve DT fuel pellet compression up to 1000 times normal density, and indirect drive concepts, such as the `Cannon Ball' scheme, also prevailed at several international conferences. In these circumstances the international fusion community proposed the Madrid Manifesto in 1988, which urged openness of ICF information to promote international collaboration on civil energy research for the future resources of the human race. This proposal was also supported by some of the US scientists. The United States Department of Energy revised its classification guidelines for ICF six years after the Madrid Manifesto. This first book from the USA treating target physics issues, covering topics from implosion dynamics to hydrodynamic stability, ignition physics, high-gain target design and the scope for energy applications is

  8. Effect of magnetic field on quantum state energies of an electron confined in the core of a double walled carbon nanotube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Khurshed A.; Bhat, Bashir Mohi Ud Din

    2016-10-01

    In this paper we report the effect of external magnetic field and core radius on the excited quantum state energies of an electron confined in the core of a double walled carbon nanotube. The goal is accomplished by using Wentzel-Kramers-Brillioun (WKB) approximation method within the effective mass approximation and confinement potential. All numerical analysis were carried out in a strong confinement regime. The results show that the electron energy increases with the increase in external magnetic field at a given core radii. The electron energy is also found to increase as the core radius of the CNT decreases and for core radius a > 5 nm the energy becomes almost zero. The effect of magnetic field on the excited state energies of the confined electron is more evident for smaller core radius acarbon nanotube quantum dot devices [1].

  9. Crystalline Confinement

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, D; Jiang, F -J; Wiese, U -J

    2013-01-01

    We show that exotic phases arise in generalized lattice gauge theories known as quantum link models in which classical gauge fields are replaced by quantum operators. While these quantum models with discrete variables have a finite-dimensional Hilbert space per link, the continuous gauge symmetry is still exact. An efficient cluster algorithm is used to study these exotic phases. The $(2+1)$-d system is confining at zero temperature with a spontaneously broken translation symmetry. A crystalline phase exhibits confinement via multi-stranded strings between charge-anti-charge pairs. A phase transition between two distinct confined phases is weakly first order and has an emergent spontaneously broken approximate $SO(2)$ global symmetry. The low-energy physics is described by a $(2+1)$-d $\\mathbb{R}P(1)$ effective field theory, perturbed by a dangerously irrelevant $SO(2)$ breaking operator, which prevents the interpretation of the emergent pseudo-Goldstone boson as a dual photon. This model is an ideal candidat...

  10. An Overview of the Los Alamos Inertial Confinement Fusion and High-Energy-Density Physics Research Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batha, Steven H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Physics Division

    2016-07-15

    The Los Alamos Inertial Confinement Fusion and Science Programs engage in a vigorous array of experiments, theory, and modeling. We use the three major High Energy Density facilities, NIF, Omega, and Z to perform experiments. These include opacity, radiation transport, hydrodynamics, ignition science, and burn experiments to aid the ICF and Science campaigns in reaching their stewardship goals. The ICF program operates two nuclear diagnostics at NIF, the neutron imaging system and the gamma reaction history instruments. Both systems are being expanded with significant capability enhancements.

  11. Renewable energy sources and their contribution to gross domestic energy consumption in Italy in years 1992 and 1993; Censimento per il territorio italiano dei dati relativi alle fonti rinnovabili di energia ed al loro contributo al bilancio energetico per gli anni 1992 e 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menna, P. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche, Portici (Italy). Dip. Energia

    1995-11-01

    In 1992, the gross domestic energy consumption in Italy was 167.5 MTOE (including bunkers) while in 1993 it decreased to 165.9 MTOE. The overall electricity demand passed from 244.8 TWh in 1992 to 246.6 TWh in 1993. In the same period, the overall contribution from Renewable Energy Sources (RES) kept almost constant at 5.y consumption. The RES contribution represented a share larger than gross National production of energy in 1992.

  12. Large amplitude spatial fluctuations in the boundary region of the Bose-Einstein condensate in the Gross-Pitaevskii regime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuszynski, J. A.; Middleton, J.; Portet, S.

    2003-01-01

    is found which are characterised by pronounced large-amplitude oscillations close to the boundary of the condensate. The limiting case within this class is a nodeless ground state which is known from recent investigations as an extension of the Thomas-Fermi approximation. We have found the energies......The Gross-Pitaevskii regime of a Bose-Einstein condensate is investigated using a fully non-linear approach. The confining potential first adopted is that of a linear ramp. An infinite class of new analytical solutions of this linear ramp potential approximation to the Gross-Pitaevskii equation...... of the oscillatory states to lie above the ground state energy but recent experimental work, especially on spatially confined superconductors, indicates that such states may be easily occupied and made manifest at finite temperatures. We have also investigated their stability using a Poincare section analysis...

  13. Dynamics of the electron thermal diffusivity at improved energy confinement during lower hybrid plasma heating in the FT-2 tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouprienko, D. V.; Altukhov, A. B.; Gurchenko, A. D.; Gusakov, E. Z.; Kantor, M. Yu.; Lashkul, S. I.; Esipov, L. A.

    2010-05-01

    The dynamics of electron heat transport at improved energy confinement during lower hybrid plasma heating in the FT-2 tokamak was studied experimentally. Evolution of the profiles of the electron temperature and density was thoroughly investigated under conditions of fast variation in the plasma parameters. The energy balance in the electron channel is calculated with the help of the ASTRA code by using the measured plasma parameters. Correlation is revealed between the dynamics of electron heat transport and the behavior of small-scale drift turbulence measured using the enhanced scattering correlation diagnostics. The suppression of heat transfer and turbulence agrees well with the increase in the shear of poloidal plasma rotation calculated from experimental data in the neoclassical approximation.

  14. Water, Energy, and Carbon with Artificial Neural Networks (WECANN): a statistically based estimate of global surface turbulent fluxes and gross primary productivity using solar-induced fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamed Alemohammad, Seyed; Fang, Bin; Konings, Alexandra G.; Aires, Filipe; Green, Julia K.; Kolassa, Jana; Miralles, Diego; Prigent, Catherine; Gentine, Pierre

    2017-09-01

    A new global estimate of surface turbulent fluxes, latent heat flux (LE) and sensible heat flux (H), and gross primary production (GPP) is developed using a machine learning approach informed by novel remotely sensed solar-induced fluorescence (SIF) and other radiative and meteorological variables. This is the first study to jointly retrieve LE, H, and GPP using SIF observations. The approach uses an artificial neural network (ANN) with a target dataset generated from three independent data sources, weighted based on a triple collocation (TC) algorithm. The new retrieval, named Water, Energy, and Carbon with Artificial Neural Networks (WECANN), provides estimates of LE, H, and GPP from 2007 to 2015 at 1° × 1° spatial resolution and at monthly time resolution. The quality of ANN training is assessed using the target data, and the WECANN retrievals are evaluated using eddy covariance tower estimates from the FLUXNET network across various climates and conditions. When compared to eddy covariance estimates, WECANN typically outperforms other products, particularly for sensible and latent heat fluxes. Analyzing WECANN retrievals across three extreme drought and heat wave events demonstrates the capability of the retrievals to capture the extent of these events. Uncertainty estimates of the retrievals are analyzed and the interannual variability in average global and regional fluxes shows the impact of distinct climatic events - such as the 2015 El Niño - on surface turbulent fluxes and GPP.

  15. Application of symbolic regression to the derivation of scaling laws for tokamak energy confinement time in terms of dimensionless quantities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murari, A.; Peluso, E.; Lungaroni, M.; Gelfusa, M.; Gaudio, P.

    2016-02-01

    In many scientific applications, it is important to investigate how certain properties scale with the parameters of the systems. The experimental studies of scalings have traditionally been addressed with log regression, which limits the results to power laws and to theoretical and not data-driven dimensionless quantities. This has also been the case in nuclear fusion, in which the scaling of the energy confinement time is a crucial aspect in understanding the physics of transport and in the design of future devices. Traditionally two main assumptions are at the basis of the most widely accepted empirical scaling laws for the confinement time: (a) the dimensionless variables used are the ones derived from the symmetries of the Vlasov equation; (b) the final scalings have the mathematical form of power laws. In this paper, it is shown how symbolic regression (SR), implemented with genetic programming (GP) techniques, can be used to test these hypotheses. Neither assumption is confirmed by the available data of the multi-machine International Tokamak Physics Activity (ITPA) of validated tokamak discharges. The statistically soundest expressions are not power laws and cannot be formulated in terms of the traditional dimensionless quantities. The consequences of the data-driven scaling laws obtained are both practical and theoretical: the confinement time for the ITER can be significantly shorter than foreseen by power laws and different dimensionless variables should be considered for theoretical investigations. On the other hand, higher quality databases should be built to reduce the uncertainties in the extrapolations. It is also worth emphasising that the proposed methodology is fully general and therefore can be applied to any field of science.

  16. The Mechanics of Gross Moist Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeljka Fuchs

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The gross moist stability relates the net lateral outflow of moist entropy or moist static energy from an atmospheric convective region to some measure of the strength of the convection in that region. If the gross moist stability can be predicted as a function of the local environmental conditions, then it becomes the key element in understanding how convection is controlled by the large-scale flow. This paper provides a guide to the various ways in which the gross moist stability is defined and the subtleties of its calculation from observations and models. Various theories for the determination of the gross moist stability are presented and its roles in current conceptual models for the tropical atmospheric circulation are analyzed. The possible effect of negative gross moist stability on the development and dynamics of tropical disturbances is currently of great interest.

  17. A measurement of the change of the energy dependence of the total cross-section of phase II solid methane from confinement in aerogel glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, H., E-mail: haiyan@umail.iu.ed [Department of Physics, Indiana University/IUCF, 2401 Milo B. Sampson Lane, Bloomington, IN 47408 (United States); Baxter, D.V.; Jiang, C.Y.; Kaiser, H.; Shin, Y.C.; Snow, W.M.; Tong, X. [Department of Physics, Indiana University/IUCF, 2401 Milo B. Sampson Lane, Bloomington, IN 47408 (United States)

    2011-02-15

    We report measurements of the energy dependence of the total neutron scattering cross-section of CH{sub 4} both in bulk and confined in aerogel glass for neutron energies between {approx}0.3and {approx}200 meV. Solid CH{sub 4} in phase II is an effective slow neutron moderation medium. Aerogel glass is one example of a broad class of disordered porous media with a large internal surface area. Many disordered materials possess excess low energy modes which have been seen in neutron scattering, and it is known that the confinement of materials inside porous media can produce modifications of the thermodynamic and excitation properties large enough to influence the neutron scattering cross-section. Our measurement shows that the confinement of the methane in pores of aerogel modifies the energy dependence total cross-section relative to bulk CH{sub 4}.

  18. Simple Method Obtaining Analytical Expressions of Particle and Kinetic—Energy Densities for One—Dimensional Confined Fermi Gases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANGXiao-Xue; WUYing

    2002-01-01

    We develop a simple approach to obtain explicitly exact analytical expressions of particle and kineticenergy densities for noninteracting Fermi gases in one-dimensional harmonic confinement,and in one-dimensional box confinement as well.

  19. Loovkirjutamist õpetab Philip Gross

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    T.S. Elioti luulepreemia laureaat Philip Gross on Tallinna Ülikooli talvekooli rahvusvahelise kursuse "Poetry: A Conversation between Words and Silence" läbiviija. Oma seminarides keskendub ta lisaks loovkirjutamisele ka loova lugemise vajadusele

  20. Gross Sales Tax Collections

    Data.gov (United States)

    City of Jackson, Mississippi — This data is captured directly from the MS Department of Revenue and specific to the City of Jackson. It is compiled from Gross Sales Tax reported by taxpayers each...

  1. The Dependence of H-mode Energy Confinement and Transport on Collisionality in NSTX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaye, S. M.; Gerhardt, S.; Guttenfelder, W.; Maingi, R.; Bell, R. E.; Diallo, A.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Podesta, M.

    2012-11-27

    Understanding the dependence of confi nement on collisionality in tokamaks is important for the design of next-step devices, which will operate at collisionalities at least one order of magnitude lower than in present generation. A wide range of collisionality has been obtained in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) by employing two different wall conditioning techniques, one with boronization and between-shot helium glow discharge conditioning (HeGDC+B), and one using lithium evaporation (Li EVAP). Previous studies of HeGDC+B plasmas indicated a strong and favorable dependence of normalized con nement on collisionality. Discharges with lithium conditioning discussed in the present study gen- erally achieved lower collisionality, extending the accessible range of collisionality by almost an order of unity. While the confinement dependences on dimensional, engineering variables of the HeGDC+B and Li EVAP datasets differed, collisionality was found to unify the trends, with the lower collisionality lithium conditioned discharges extending the trend of increasing normalized confi nement time with decreasing collisionality when other dimension less variables were held as fi xed as possible. This increase of confi nement with decreasing collisionality was driven by a large reduction in electron transport in the outer region of the plasma. This result is consistent with gyrokinetic calculations that show microtearing and Electron Temperature Gradient modes to be more stable for the lower collisionality discharges. Ion transport, near neoclassical at high collisionality, became more anomalous at lower collisionality, possibly due to the growth of hybrid TEM/KBM modes in the outer regions of the plasma.

  2. The Dependence of H-mode Energy Confinement and Transport on Collisionality in NSTX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaye, S. M.; Gerhardt, S.; Guttenfelder, W.; Maingi, R.; Bell, R. E.; Diallo, A.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Podesta, M.

    2012-11-28

    Understanding the dependence of confi nement on collisionality in tokamaks is important for the design of next-step devices, which will operate at collisionalities at least one order of magnitude lower than in present generation. A wide range of collisionality has been obtained in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) by employing two different wall conditioning techniques, one with boronization and between-shot helium glow discharge conditioning (HeGDC+B), and one using lithium evaporation (Li EVAP). Previous studies of HeGDC+B plasmas indicated a strong and favorable dependence of normalized con nement on collisionality. Discharges with lithium conditioning discussed in the present study gen- erally achieved lower collisionality, extending the accessible range of collisionality by almost an order of unity. While the confinement dependences on dimensional, engineering variables of the HeGDC+B and Li EVAP datasets differed, collisionality was found to unify the trends, with the lower collisionality lithium conditioned discharges extending the trend of increasing normalized confi nement time with decreasing collisionality when other dimension less variables were held as fi xed as possible. This increase of confi nement with decreasing collisionality was driven by a large reduction in electron transport in the outer region of the plasma. This result is consistent with gyrokinetic calculations that show microtearing and Electron Temperature Gradient modes to be more stable for the lower collisionality discharges. Ion transport, near neoclassical at high collisionality, became more anomalous at lower collisionality, possibly due to the growth of hybrid TEM/KBM modes in the outer regions of the plasma

  3. HYPERFUSE: a hypervelocity inertial confinement system for fusion energy production and fission waste transmutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makowitz, H.; Powell, J.R.; Wiswall, R.

    1980-01-01

    Parametric system studies of an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) reactor system to transmute fission products from a LWR economy have been carried out. The ICF reactors would produce net power in addition to transmuting fission products. The particular ICF concept examined is an impact fusion approach termed HYPERFUSE, in which hypervelocity pellets, traveling on the order of 100 to 300 km/sec, collide with each other or a target block in a reactor chamber and initiate a thermonuclear reaction. The DT fusion fuel is contained in a shell of the material to be transmuted, e.g., /sup 137/Cs, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 129/I, /sup 99/Tc, etc. The 14-MeV fusion neutrons released during the pellet burn cause transmutation reactions (e.g., (n,2n), (n,..cap alpha..), (n,..gamma..), etc.) that convert the long-lived fission products (FP's) either to stable products or to species that decay with a short half-life to a stable product. The transmutation parametric studies conclude that the design of the hypervelocity projectiles should emphasize the achievement of high densities in the transmutation regions (greater than the DT fusion fuel density), as well as the DT ignition and burn criterion (rho R = 1.0 to 3.0) requirements. These studies also indicate that masses on the order of 1.0 g at densities of rho greater than or equal to 500.0 g/cm/sup 3/ are required for a practical fusion-based fission product transmutation system.

  4. Pore-Confined Light Metal Hydrides for Energy Storage and Catalysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bramwell, P.L.

    2017-01-01

    Light metal hydrides have enjoyed several decades of attention in the field of hydrogen storage, but their applications have recently begun to diversify more and more into the broader field of energy storage. For example, light metal hydrides have shown great promise as battery materials, in sensors

  5. Energy Spectrum of Helium Confined to a Two-Dimensional Space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIEWen-Fang

    2005-01-01

    Making use of the adiabatic hyperspherical approach, we report a calculation for the energy spectrum of the ground and low-excited states of a two-dimensional helium in a magnetic field. The results show that the ground and low-excited states of helium in low-dimensional space are more stable than those in three-dimensional space and there may exist more bound states.

  6. Binding Energy of D- and D0 Centers Confined by Spherical Quantum Dots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAO Yuan-Peng; XIE Wen-Fang

    2008-01-01

    We study a negative donor center, a neutral donor in a spherical Gaussian potential quantum dot by using the matrix diagonalization of Hamiltonian within the effective-mass approximation. We calculate the energy E(D-) as functions of Gaussian potential size and depth, the same calculations as performed with the parabolic approximation. The dependence of the ground state of the neutral shallow donor and the negatively charged donor on the dot size and the potential depth is investigated.

  7. Energy Buildup, Flux Confinement and Helicity Accumulation in the Solar Corona

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    You-Qiu Hu; Wen Li

    2006-01-01

    Starting from a dipole field and a given distribution of footpoint displacement of field lines on the photosphere, we find axisymmetric, force-free field solutions in spherical coordinates that have the same distribution of normal field on the photosphere and magnetic topology as the dipole field. A photospheric shear is introduced in the azimuthal direction in a region that strides across the equator and ends at latitude λs. The footpoint displacement has a sine distribution in latitude and a peak amplitude of ψm. The magnetic energy E, azimuthal flux Fψ, and magnetic helicity HT in the solar corona are then calculated for each force-free field solution. It is found that for a given shear region range λs, all of the three quantities increase monotonically with increasing ψm. In particular, both Fψ and HT have a linear dependence on ψm. When ψm reaches a certain critical value ψmc, the force-free field loses equilibrium, leading to a partial opening of the field and the appearance of a current sheet in the equatorial plane. At this point, E, Fψ and HT reach their maximum values,Ec, Fψc and HTc. Ec increases, and Fψc and HTc decrease with decreasing λs. It is found that Ec is always smaller than the open field energy, in agreement with the Aly conjecture. Of the three critical parameters, Ec has the weakest dependence on λs. Therefore, if one is interested in the transition of a magnetic configuration from a stable state to a dynamic one, the magnetic energy is probably the most appropriate marker of the transition.

  8. H-mode pedestal characteristics, ELMs, and energy confinement in ITER shape discharges on DIII-D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborne, T.H.; Groebner, R.J.; Lao, L.L.; Leonard, A.W.; Miller, R.L.; Thomas, D.M.; Waltz, R.E. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Maingi, R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Porter, G.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-12-01

    The H-mode confinement enhancement factor, H, is found to be strongly correlated with the height of the edge pressure pedestal in ITER shape discharges. In discharges with Type I ELMs the pedestal pressure is set by the maximum pressure gradient before the ELM and the width of the H-mode transport barrier. The pressure gradient before Type I ELMs is found to scale as would be expected for a stability limit set by ideal ballooning modes, but with values significantly in excess of that predicted by stability code calculations. The width of the H-mode transport barrier is found to scale equally well with pedestal P(POL)(2/3) or B(POL)(1/2). The improved H value in high B(POL) discharges may be due to a larger edge pressure gradient and wider H-mode transport barrier consistent with their higher edge ballooning mode limit. Deuterium puffing is found to reduce H consistent with the smaller pedestal pressure which results from the reduced barrier width and critical pressure gradient. Type I ELM energy loss is found to be proportional to the change in the pedestal energy.

  9. Low-Energy Charge and Spin Dynamics in Quantum Confined Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, William D.

    Condensed matter systems exhibit a variety of dynamical phenomena at low energy scales, from gigahertz (GHz) to terahertz (THz) frequencies in particular, arising from complex interplay between charge, spin, and lattice. A large number of collective and elementary excitations in solids occur in this frequency range, which are further modified and enriched by scattering, interactions, and disorder. Recent advancements in spectroscopic methods for probing low-energy dynamics allow us to investigate novel aspects of charge and spin dynamics in solids. In this dissertation work, we used direct current (DC) conductivity, GHz, THz, and mid-infrared (MIR) techniques to provide significant new insights into interaction and disorder effects in low-dimensional systems. Specifically, we have studied temperature-dependent magnetoresistance (MR) and electron spin resonance (ESR) in single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), intra-exciton scattering in InGaAs quantum wells, and high-field MIR-induced band gaps in graphene. Temperature-dependent resistance and MR were measured in an ensemble of SWCNTs from 0.3 to 350 K. The resistance temperature behavior followed a 3D variable range hopping (VRH) behavior from 0.3 to ˜100 K. A positive MR was observed at temperatures above 25 K and could be fit with a spin-dependent VRH model; negative MR was seen at low temperatures. In the GHz regime, the ESR linewidth for SWCNTs was observed to narrow by as much as 50% as the temperature was increased from 3 to 300 K, a phenomenon known as motional narrowing, suggesting that we are detecting the ESR of hopping spins. From the linewidth change versus temperature, we find the hopping frequency to be 285 GHz. For excitons in InGaAs quantum wells, we demonstrate the manipulation of intra-excitonic populations using intense, narrow-band THz pulses. The THz radiation temporarily quenches the 1s emission, which is then followed by an enhancement and subsequent decay of 2s emission. After the quenching

  10. Tailoring electron energy distribution functions through energy confinement in dual radio-frequency driven atmospheric pressure plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Neill, C.; Waskoenig, J. [Centre for Plasma Physics, School of Maths and Physics, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Gans, T. [Centre for Plasma Physics, School of Maths and Physics, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); York Plasma Institute, Department of Physics, University of York, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom)

    2012-10-08

    A multi-scale numerical model based on hydrodynamic equations with semi-kinetic treatment of electrons is used to investigate the influence of dual frequency excitation on the effective electron energy distribution function (EEDF) in a radio-frequency driven atmospheric pressure plasma. It is found that variations of power density, voltage ratio, and phase relationship provide separate control over the electron density and the mean electron energy. This is exploited to directly influence both the phase dependent and time averaged effective EEDF. This enables tailoring the EEDF for enhanced control of non-equilibrium plasma chemical kinetics at ambient pressure and temperature.

  11. Discovery of stationary operation of quiescent H-mode plasmas with net-zero neutral beam injection torque and high energy confinement on DIII-D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrell, K. H.; Barada, K.; Chen, X.; Garofalo, A. M.; Groebner, R. J.; Muscatello, C. M.; Osborne, T. H.; Petty, C. C.; Rhodes, T. L.; Snyder, P. B.; Solomon, W. M.; Yan, Z.; Zeng, L.

    2016-05-01

    Recent experiments in DIII-D [J. L. Luxon et al., in Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research 1996 (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, 1987), Vol. I, p. 159] have led to the discovery of a means of modifying edge turbulence to achieve stationary, high confinement operation without Edge Localized Mode (ELM) instabilities and with no net external torque input. Eliminating the ELM-induced heat bursts and controlling plasma stability at low rotation represent two of the great challenges for fusion energy. By exploiting edge turbulence in a novel manner, we achieved excellent tokamak performance, well above the H98y2 international tokamak energy confinement scaling (H98y2 = 1.25), thus meeting an additional confinement challenge that is usually difficult at low torque. The new regime is triggered in double null plasmas by ramping the injected torque to zero and then maintaining it there. This lowers E × B rotation shear in the plasma edge, allowing low-k, broadband, electromagnetic turbulence to increase. In the H-mode edge, a narrow transport barrier usually grows until MHD instability (a peeling ballooning mode) leads to the ELM heat burst. However, the increased turbulence reduces the pressure gradient, allowing the development of a broader and thus higher transport barrier. A 60% increase in pedestal pressure and 40% increase in energy confinement result. An increase in the E × B shearing rate inside of the edge pedestal is a key factor in the confinement increase. Strong double-null plasma shaping raises the threshold for the ELM instability, allowing the plasma to reach a transport-limited state near but below the explosive ELM stability boundary. The resulting plasmas have burning-plasma-relevant βN = 1.6-1.8 and run without the need for extra torque from 3D magnetic fields. To date, stationary conditions have been produced for 2 s or 12 energy confinement times, limited only by external hardware constraints. Stationary operation with

  12. Neutron Transport and Nuclear Burnup Analysis for the Laser Inertial Confinement Fusion-Fission Energy (LIFE) Engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, K J; Latkowski, J F; Abbott, R P; Boyd, J K; Powers, J J; Seifried, J E

    2008-10-24

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is currently developing a hybrid fusion-fission nuclear energy system, called LIFE, to generate power and burn nuclear waste. We utilize inertial confinement fusion to drive a subcritical fission blanket surrounding the fusion chamber. It is composed of TRISO-based fuel cooled by the molten salt flibe. Low-yield (37.5 MJ) targets and a repetition rate of 13.3 Hz produce a 500 MW fusion source that is coupled to the subcritical blanket, which provides an additional gain of 4-8, depending on the fuel. In the present work, we describe the neutron transport and nuclear burnup analysis. We utilize standard analysis tools including, the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) transport code, ORIGEN2 and Monteburns to perform the nuclear design. These analyses focus primarily on a fuel composed of depleted uranium not requiring chemical reprocessing or enrichment. However, other fuels such as weapons grade plutonium and highly-enriched uranium are also under consideration. In addition, we have developed a methodology using {sup 6}Li as a burnable poison to replace the tritium burned in the fusion targets and to maintain constant power over the lifetime of the engine. The results from depleted uranium analyses suggest up to 99% burnup of actinides is attainable while maintaining full power at 2GW for more than five decades.

  13. Studies of thermal energy confinement scaling in PDX plasmas: D/sup 0/. -->. H/sup +/ limiter discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaye, S.M.; Goldston, R.J.; Bell, M.; Bol, K.; Bitter, M.; Fonck, R.; Grek, B.; Hawryluk, R.J.; Johnson, D.; Kaita, R.

    1984-06-01

    Experiments were performed on the PDX tokamak to study plasma heating and ..beta.. scaling with higher power, near-perpendicular neutral beam injection. The data taken during these experiments were analyzed using a time-dependent data interpretation code (TRANSP) to study the transport and thermal confinement scaling over a wide range of plasma parameters. This study focuses on results from experiments with D/sup 0/ injection into H/sup +/ plasmas using graphite rail limiters, a = 40 to 44 cm, R = 143 cm, I/sub p/ = 200 to 480 kA, B/sub T/ = 0.7 to 2.2 T, and typically anti n/sub e/ = 2.5 to 4.2 x 10/sup 13/ cm/sup -3/. The results of this study indicate that for both ohmic and neutral beam heated discharges the energy flow out of the plasma is dominated by anomalous electron losses, attributed to electron thermal conduction. The ion conduction losses are well described to electron thermal conduction. The ion conduction losses are well described by neoclassical theory; however, the total ion loss influences the power balance significantly only at high toroidal fields and high plasma currents.

  14. Anharmonicity and Confinement in Zeolites: Structure, Spectroscopy and Adsorption Free Energy of Ethanol in H-ZSM-5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexopoulos, Konstantinos; Lee, Mal Soon; Liu, Yue; Zhi, Yuchun; Liu, Yuanshuai; Reyniers, Marie-Francoise; Marin, Guy B.; Glezakou, Vassiliki Alexandra; Rousseau, Roger J.; Lercher, Johannes A.

    2016-04-07

    To account for thermal and entropic effects caused by the dynamics of the motion of the reaction intermediates, ethanol adsorption on the Brønsted acid site of the H-ZSM-5 catalyst has been studied at different temperatures and ethanol loadings using ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations, infrared (IR) spectroscopy and calorimetric measurements. At low temperatures (T ≤ 400 K) and ethanol loading, a single ethanol molecule adsorbed in H-ZSM-5 forms a Zundel-like structure where the proton is equally shared between the oxygen of the zeolite and the oxygen of the alcohol. At higher ethanol loading, a second ethanol molecule helps to stabilize the protonated ethanol at all temperatures by acting as a solvating agent. The vibrational density of states (VDOS), as calculated from the AIMD simulations, are in excellent agreement with measured IR spectra for C2H5OH, C2H5OD and C2D5OH isotopomers and support the existence of both monomers and dimers. A quasi-harmonic approximation (QHA), applied to the VDOS obtained from the AIMD simulations, provides estimates of adsorption free energy within ~10 kJ/mol of the experimentally determined quantities, whereas the traditional approach, employing harmonic frequencies from a single ground state minimum, strongly overestimates the adsorption free energy by at least ~30 kJ/mol. This discrepancy is traced back to the inability of the harmonic approximation to represent the contributions to the vibrational motions of the ethanol molecule upon confinement in the zeolite. KA, MFR, GBM were supported by the Long Term Structural Methusalem Funding by the Flemish Government – grant number BOF09/01M00409. MSL, VAG, RR and JAL were supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences. PNNL is a multiprogram national laboratory operated for DOE by Battelle. Computational resources were provided at W. R. Wiley Environmental

  15. H2: entanglement, probability density function, confined Kratzer oscillator, universal potential and (Mexican hat- or bell-type) potential energy curves

    CERN Document Server

    Van Hooydonk, G

    2011-01-01

    We review harmonic oscillator theory for closed, stable quantum systems. The H2 potential energy curve (PEC) of Mexican hat-type, calculated with a confined Kratzer oscillator, is better than the Rydberg-Klein-Rees (RKR) H2 PEC. Compared with QM, the theory of chemical bonding is simplified, since a confined Kratzer oscillator gives the long sought for universal function, once called the Holy Grail of Molecular Spectroscopy. This is validated with HF, I2, N2 and O2 PECs. We quantify the entanglement of spatially separated H2 quantum states, which gives a braid view. The equal probability for H2, originating either from HA+HB or HB+HA, is quantified with a Gauss probability density function. At the Bohr scale, confined harmonic oscillators behave properly at all extremes of bound two-nucleon quantum systems and are likely to be useful also at the nuclear scale.

  16. Access conditions, energy and particle confinement of the I-mode regime on Alcator C-Mod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Amanda

    2015-11-01

    Experiments on C-Mod have shown an extended operating range for I-mode at higher magnetic fields, offering options for high-performance, ELM-suppressed operation in future devices. Stationary regimes without significant ELMs are a requirement for ITER and other large burning devices. The I-mode regime offers one potential solution. It features a strong Te and Ti pedestal, up to 1 keV, without a density pedestal. I-mode has been demonstrated on the C-Mod, ASDEX Upgrade and DIII-D tokamaks, over increasingly wide parameter ranges. On C-Mod, global energy confinement is comparable to H-mode, with H98 between 0.7 and 1.2. Scaling of τE with Pheat-0 . 3 is more favorable than H-mode. This lack of saturation and the natural stability to ELMs can now be understood in terms of pedestal stability, with pressure and current gradients well away from stability limits. Impurity confinement τimp is similar in level and scaling to that in L-mode, 15-30 ms for both Ca and Mo, vs 0.1-1 s in H-mode. Key questions for extrapolation to other devices are the conditions for L-I transitions and for avoiding transitions to H-mode. An important new result is that the L-I threshold is independent of field, while the upper range of power for I-mode increases with BT leading to a wider operating space; at 5 T and above, many discharges remain in stationary I-mode with the full heating power of 5 MW. Scaling thresholds with size suggests that I-mode should be obtainable on ITER. Some I-modes have been observed up to 8 T. Another key question for any regime is compatibility with boundary solutions. In usual operation with Bxgrad drift away from the X-point, heat flux is predominantly to the inner divertor leg. Impurity seeding is used to reduce the flux, taking advantage of low τimp. I-modes have now been extended to near-balanced double null. Supported by DOE Award DEFC02- 99ER54512-CMOD.

  17. A Wave-Based Model for Cross-Beam Energy Transfer in Direct-Drive Inertial Confinement Fusion Implosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myatt, J. F.

    2016-10-01

    Cross-beam energy transfer (CBET) is thought to be responsible for an 30 % reduction in hydrodynamic coupling efficiency on OMEGA and up to 50% at the ignition scale for direct-drive (DD) implosions. These numbers are determined by ray-based models that have been developed and integrated within the radiation-hydrodynamics codes LILAC (1-D) and DRACO (2-D). However, ray-based modeling of CBET in an inhomogeneous plasma assumes a steady-state plasma response, does not include the effects of beam speckle, and ray caustics are treated in an ad hoc manner. Nevertheless, simulation results are in good qualitative agreement with implosion experiments on OMEGA (when combined with a model for nonlocal heat transport). The validity of the modeling for ignition-scale implosions has not yet been determined. To address the physics shortcomings, which have important implications for DD inertial confinement fusion, a new wave-based model has been constructed. It solves the time-enveloped Maxwell equations in three-dimensions, including polarization effects, plasma inhomogeneity, and open-boundary conditions with the ability to prescribe beams incident at arbitrary angles. Beams can be made realistic with respect to laser speckle, polarization smoothing, and laser bandwidth. This, coupled to a linearized low-frequency plasma response that does not assume a steady state, represents the most-complete model of CBET to date. New results will be presented and the implications for CBET modeling and mitigation will be described. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DENA0001944, in collaboration with J. G. Shaw, R. K. Follett, and D. H. Edgell (LLE).

  18. Renewable energy sources and their contribution to the gross domestic energy consumption in Italy in the year 1994; Censimento per il territorio italiano dei dati relativi alle fonti rinnovabili di energia ed al loro contributo al bilancio energetico per l`anno 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menna, P.; Manzo, R. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Portici, Naples (Italy). Dip. Energia

    1996-11-01

    The gross domestic energy consumption in 1994 (including bunkers) decreased to 165.8 Mtoe from the 1993 figure of 166.6 Mtoe. At the same time the overall electricity demand reached 253.6 TWh from 246.6 TWh, closely reflecting the 2 contribution of renewable energy sources (hydroelectricity, geothermal, biomasses, solar, wind) to the national energy consumption has been 9 1994. It represented more than 34% of the domestic energy production.

  19. 隔离型换热节能系统的粗大误差检测研究%Research on gross error detection in isolated heat exchange energy-saving system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑞华; 王普

    2012-01-01

    In the process of real-time optimization of isolated heat exchange energy-saving system,the gross error detection is an important research part. In order to solve the problem of gross error detection in the system output variables, the generation of gross error and the significance of detection,moreover the characteristics of several detection criterions are introduced. Based on the features of real-time and on-line running,dixon criterion is used to detect the gross error in the system output variables. Using practical data in field,experiment research is carried out. The experiment result shows that the method is feasible and it is fit for being used on-line.%在对隔离型换热节能系统进行实时优化的过程中,数据的粗大误差检测是一个重要的研究内容.为了解决系统输出变量的粗大误差检测问题,对粗大误差的产生、检测的意义和几种检测准则的特点进行了介绍.针对系统实时在线运行特点,提出采用狄克逊准则对系统输出变量的粗大误差进行检测,同时利用实际现场采集的数据进行了实验研究.实验结果表明,文中所采用方法是可行的,并且适合在线应用.

  20. The big experimental manual of Free Energy. Cold Fusion - Tesla-Waves - Space-Quantum-Energy - a.o.; Das grosse Freie Energie Experimentier-Handbuch. Kalte Fusion - Tesla-Wellen - Raum-Quanten-Energie - u.v.m.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lay, P.; Chmela, H.; Wiedergut, W.

    2004-07-01

    The main topics of the lectures are: Experiments on cold fusion; Information on space-quantum energy; phenomena of rotating magnets; advanced electrostatic motors; generation of scalar waves; complex rotating fields and levitation from an advanced view; free energy converters. (GL)

  1. Plasma confinement

    CERN Document Server

    Hazeltine, R D

    2003-01-01

    Detailed and authoritative, this volume examines the essential physics underlying international research in magnetic confinement fusion. It offers readable, thorough accounts of the fundamental concepts behind methods of confining plasma at or near thermonuclear conditions. Designed for a one- or two-semester graduate-level course in plasma physics, it also represents a valuable reference for professional physicists in controlled fusion and related disciplines.

  2. Energy-loss rate of hot electrons due to confined acoustic phonon modes in a semiconductor quantum wire under transverse electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanyan, A.; Yeranosyan, M.; Vardanyan, L.; Asatryan, A.; Kirakosyan, A.; Vartanian, A.

    2017-08-01

    The hot-electron energy-loss rate via the acoustic-phonons in an embedded semiconductor quantum wire of circular cross section in the presence of external electric field has been investigated using deformation potential theory. Dimensional confinement effect on modifying acoustic-phonon modes are taken into account. The energy-loss rate as a function of electric field strength, electron density and electron temperature is obtained. Our calculations show that the electric field applied perpendicularly to the wire axis can be used as an important tool for the control of the energy-loss processes in nanowires.

  3. Magnetic confinement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batistoni, Paola; De Marco, Francesco; Pieroni, Leonardo (ed.)

    2005-07-01

    The Frascati Tokamak Upgrade (FTU) is a compact, high-magnetic-field tokamak capable of operating at density and magnetic field values similar to, or even encompassing, those of International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) and therefore provides a unique opportunity to explore physics issues that are directly relevant to ITER. During 2004 the experimental activities were focussed on fully exploiting the lower hybrid system (for generating and controlling the plasma current) and the electron cyclotron heating system (joint experiment with the Institute of Plasma Physics of the National Research Council, Milan). With all four gyrotrons in operation, full electron cyclotron power was achieved up to a record level of 1.5 MW. By simultaneously injecting lower hybrid waves, to tailor the plasma current radial profile, and electron cyclotron waves, to heat the plasma centre, good confinement regimes with internal transport barriers were obtained at the highest plasma density values ever achieved for this operation regime (n {approx}1.5X10{sup 20}m{sup -3}). Specific studies were devoted to optimising the coupling of lower hybrid waves to the plasma (by real-time control of the plasma position) and to generating current by electron cyclotron current drive. The new scanning CO{sub 2} interferometer (developed by the Reversed Field Experiment Consortium) for high spatial and time resolution (1 cm/50 {mu}s) density profile measurements was extensively used. The Thomson scattering diagnostic was upgraded and enabled observation of scattered signals associated with the Confinement background plasma dynamics. As for theoretical studies on the dynamics of turbulence in plasmas, the transition from Bohm-like scaling to gyro-Bohm scaling of the local plasma diffusivity was demonstrated on the basis of a generalised four wave model (joint collaboration with Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory and the University of California at Irvine). The transition from weak to strong

  4. Gross decontamination experiment report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, R.; Kinney, K.; Dettorre, J.; Gilbert, V.

    1983-07-01

    A Gross Decontamination Experiment was conducted on various levels and surfaces of the TMI - Unit 2 reactor building in March 1982. The polar crane, D-rings, missile shields, refueling canals, refueling bridges, equipment, and elevations 305' and 347'-6'' were flushed with low pressure water. Additionally, floor surfaces on elevation 305' and floor surfaces and major pieces of equipment on elevation 347'-6'' were sprayed with high pressure water. Selective surfaces were decontaminated with a mechanical scrubber and chemicals. Strippable coating was tested and evaluated on equipment and floor surfaces. The effectiveness, efficiency, and safety of several decontamination techniques were established for the large, complex decontamination effort. Various decontamination equipment was evaluated and its effectiveness was documented. Decontamination training and procedures were documented and evaluated, as were the support system and organization for the experiment.

  5. High confinement and high density with stationary plasma energy and strong edge radiation cooling in the upgraded Torus Experiment for Technology Oriented Research (TEXTOR-94)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messiaen, A.M.; Ongena, J.; Unterberg, B.; Boedo, J.; Fuchs, G.; Jaspers, R.; Konen, L.; Koslowski, H.R.; Mank, G.; Rapp, J.; Samm, U.; Vandenplas, P.E.; Van Oost, G.; Van Wassenhove, G.; Waidmann, G.; Weynants, R.R.; Wolf, G.H.; Bertschinger, G.; Bonheure, G.; Brix, M.; Dumortier, P.; Durodie, F.; Finken, K.H.; Giesen, B.; Hillis, D.; Hutteman, P.; Koch, R.; Kramer-Flecken, A.; Lyssoivan, A.; Mertens, P.; Pospieszczyk, A.; Post-Zwicker, A.; Sauer, M.; Schweer, B.; Schwelberger, J.; Telesca, G.; Tokar, M.Z.; Uhlemann, R.; Vervier, M.; Winter, J. [Laboratoire de Physique des Plasmas, Laboratorium voor Plasmafysica, Association EURATOM-Belgian State, Ecole Royale Militaire-B-1000 Brussels, Koninklijke Militaire School (Belgium)]|[Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH Association Euratom-KFA, D-52425 Juelich (Germany)]|[Fusion Energy Research Program, Mechanical Engineering Division, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States)]|[FOM Instituut voor Plasmafysica Rijnhuizen Associatie FOM-EURATOM, Nieuwegein (The Netherlands)]|[Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)

    1997-05-01

    An overview of the results obtained so far for the radiative I-mode regime on the upgraded Torus Experiment for Technology Oriented Research (TEXTOR-94) [{ital Proceedings of the 16th IEEE Symposium on Fusion Engineering} (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, NJ, 1995), Vol. 1, p. 470] is given. This regime is obtained under quasistationary conditions with edge neon seeding in a pumped limiter tokamak with circular cross section. It combines high confinement and high {beta} (up to a normalized beta, {beta}{sub n}=2) with low edge q values (down to q{sub a}=2.8) and high density even above the Greenwald limit together with dominant edge radiative heat exhaust, and therefore shows promise for the future of fusion research. Bulk and edge properties of these discharges are described, and a detailed account is given of the energy and particle confinement and their scaling. Energy confinement scales linearly with density as for the nonsaturated Ohmic Neo-Alcator scaling, but the usual degradation with total power remains. No deleterious effects of the neon seeding on fusion reactivity and plasma stability have been observed. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  6. Dielectric confinement on exciton binding energy and nonlinear optical properties in a strained Zn1-xinMgxinSe/Zn1-xoutMgxoutSe quantum well

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J. Abraham Hudson Mark; A. John Peter

    2012-01-01

    The band offsets for a Zn1-xinMgxin Se/Zn1-xoutMgxout Se quantum well heterostructure are determined using the model solid theory.The heavy hole exciton binding energies are investigated with various Mg alloy contents.The effect of mismatch between the dielectric constants between the well and the barrier is taken into account.The dependence of the excitonic transition energies on the geometrical confinement and the Mg alloy is discussed.Non-linear optical properties are determined using the compact density matrix approach.The linear,third order non-linear optical absorption coefficient values and the refractive index changes of the exciton are calculated for different concentrations of magnesium.The results show that the occurred blue shifts of the resonant peak due to the Mg incorporation give the information about the variation of two energy levels in the quantum well width.

  7. No confinement without Coulomb confinement

    CERN Document Server

    Zwanziger, D

    2003-01-01

    We compare the physical potential $V_D(R)$ of an external quark-antiquark pair in the representation $D$ of SU(N), to the color-Coulomb potential $V_{\\rm coul}(R)$ which is the instantaneous part of the 44-component of the gluon propagator in Coulomb gauge, $D_{44}(\\vx,t) = V_{\\rm coul}(|\\vx|) \\delta(t)$ + (non-instantaneous). We show that if $V_D(R)$ is confining, $\\lim_{R \\to \\infty}V_D(R) = + \\infty$, then the inequality $V_D(R) \\leq - C_D V_{\\rm coul}(R)$ holds asymptotically at large $R$, where $C_D > 0$ is the Casimir in the representation $D$. This implies that $ - V_{\\rm coul}(R)$ is also confining.

  8. Noncommutative complex Grosse-Wulkenhaar model

    CERN Document Server

    Hounkonnou, Mahouton Norbert

    2012-01-01

    This paper stands for an application of the noncommutative (NC) Noether theorem, given in our previous work [AIP Proc 956 (2007) 55-60], for the NC complex Grosse-Wulkenhaar model. It provides with an extension of a recent work [Physics Letters B 653 (2007) 343-345]. The local conservation of energy-momentum tensors (EMTs) is recovered using improvement procedures based on Moyal algebraic techniques. Broken dilatation symmetry is discussed. NC gauge currents are also explicitly computed.

  9. Analysis of the relation between energy, population and gross domestic product in Mercosul; Analisis de la relacion energia-poblacion-producto bruto interno (PBI) en el Mercosur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerra, Sinclair M.-G.; Tapia, Julia E.S. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica

    1996-12-31

    This paper discusses the relation between end-use energy and population in Mercosul. The first part of the paper analysis the selected variables by the historical point of view during the time period of 1970-1993, considering five study unities: each country which is a member of Mercosul and Mercosul as a whole. In the second part a future energy demand for the years 2000 and 2005 is projected considering a determined population and most probable economic evolution scenarios 11 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  10. Theoretical and experimental studies of the radiative properties of matter at high energy densities and their application to the problems of inertial confinement fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denisov, O. B.; Orlov, N. Yu. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Joint Institute for High Temperatures (Russian Federation)

    2011-09-15

    The paper presents the results of theoretical and experimental studies of the radiative properties of plasmas produced by heating and compression of various materials to high energy densities. The specific features of the theoretical plasma model known as the ion model, which is used to calculate the radiative characteristics of plasmas of complex chemical composition, are discussed. The theoretical approach based on this model is applied to the plasma produced during the explosion of the X-pinch wires. The theoretical estimate of the radiation efficiency is compared with the experimental data on the total energy yield from an X-pinch made of two different wires (NiCr and Alloy 188). The radiative characteristics of (C12 H16 O8) and (C8 H12 O6) plasmas are calculated for the temperature diagnostics of plasmas produced from porous targets employed in inertial confinement fusion experiments with the use of laser radiation and heavy-ion beams.

  11. Gross job flows and firms

    OpenAIRE

    Scott Schuh; Robert K. Triest

    1999-01-01

    This paper extends the work of Dunne, Roberts, and Samuelson [3] and Davis, Haltiwanger, and Schuh [2] on gross job flows among manufacturing plants. Gross job creation, destruction, and reallocation have been shown to be important in understanding the birth, growth, and death of plants, and the relation of plant life cycles to the business cycle. However, little is known about job flows between firms or how job flows among plants occur within firms (corporate restructuring). We use informati...

  12. Confined-Volume Effect on the Thermal Properties of Encapsulated Phase Change Materials for Thermal Energy Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Castro, Paula F; Ahmed, Adham; Shchukin, Dmitry G

    2016-03-18

    We have encapsulated the heat exchange material, n-docosane, into polyurethane capsules of different sizes. Decreasing the size of the capsules leads to changes of the crystallinity of phase-change material as well as melting/crystallization temperature. The novelty of the paper includes 1) protection of the nanostructured energy-enriched materials against environment during storage and controlled release of the encapsulated energy on demand and 2) study of the structure and surface-to-volume properties of the energy-enriched materials dispersed in capsules of different sizes. The stability of energy nanomaterials, influence of capsule diameter on their energy capacity, homogeneity and operation lifetime are investigated.

  13. Bio-energy utilizes surplusses at the agricultural commodity markets. Large potentials of the biomass; Bioenergie verwertet Ueberschuesse an den Agrarmaerkten. Grosse Potenziale der Biomasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-03-19

    At the beginning of spring in the northern hemisphere, the situation in agricultural markets relaxes visibly. After the year 2012 was characterized by periods of drought in the United States and some Eastern European countries, in recent months good harvests in major producing countries in the southern hemisphere have provided that the stocks of major agricultural commodities are grown again. Thus, enough resources are still available for the supply of food and energy. There still exists land potential in Europe and on other continents for the use of bio-energy. In addition to new power plant crops, known arable crop cultures contribute to the exploration of such a potential: An example of this is the sugar beet. The view on the global supply balance in agricultural goods inter alia the major staple food rice shows that there exist large surpluses on the food markets. However, these surpluses do not benefit the hungry persons in the world. Hunger is a problem of distribution which is not associated with the growth of bio-energy.

  14. Estimating the gross moist stability in shallow and deep convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C. A.; Jong, B. T.; Chou, C.

    2015-12-01

    Gross moist stability has been used to study the link between tropical deep convection and large scale circulation in a moist static energy (MSE) budget. Here we aim to calculate the gross moist stability from more realistic profiles of vertical velocity and extend it beyond deep convection, adding shallow convection. Based on a principal component analysis, we were able to decompose the vertical velocity into two leading modes, which are dominated by deep and shallow convection, respectively. According to the deep and shallow modes, we calculate the gross moist stability for these two modes and discuss the roles of deep and shallow convection in the MSE budget. The gross moist stability of deep convection tends to be positive in the tropics, while that of shallow convection is negative over most areas of the tropics. This implies that deep convection exports MSE to stabilize the atmosphere and shallow convection imports MSE to enhance deep convection and destabilize the atmosphere. Based on the spatial distribution, moisture tends to reduce the gross moist stability of deep convection, while dry static energy has little impact. Deeper deep convection tends to have greater gross moist stability. For shallow convection, on the other hand, the gross moist stability is affected not only by low-level moisture but also mid-level moisture. Both moister low-level and drier mid-level moisture reduce the gross moist stability of shallow convection. Greater low-level dry static energy, which is associated with warmer sea surface temperature, also tends to reduce gross moist stability.

  15. Confined helium on Lagrange meshes

    CERN Document Server

    Baye, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The Lagrange-mesh method has the simplicity of a calculation on a mesh and can have the accuracy of a variational method. It is applied to the study of a confined helium atom. Two types of confinement are considered. Soft confinements by potentials are studied in perimetric coordinates. Hard confinement in impenetrable spherical cavities is studied in a system of rescaled perimetric coordinates varying in [0,1] intervals. Energies and mean values of the distances between electrons and between an electron and the helium nucleus are calculated. A high accuracy of 11 to 15 significant figures is obtained with small computing times. Pressures acting on the confined atom are also computed. For sphere radii smaller than 1, their relative accuracies are better than $10^{-10}$. For larger radii up to 10, they progressively decrease to $10^{-3}$, still improving the best literature results.

  16. Observation of fatigue unrelated to gross energy reserve of skeletal muscle during tetanic contraction--an application of 31P-MRS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takata, S; Takai, H; Ikata, T; Miura, I

    1988-11-30

    The mechanism of muscle fatigue was studied by 31P-MRS. During tetanic contraction for 2 minutes(min), the tension measured with a strain gauge and Phosphocreatine(PCr)/Inorganic phosphate(Pi)+ Phosphomonoester(PME) ratio decreased to 31.5 +/- 4.4% of the control value and 0.6 +/- 0.1, respectively. The intracellular pH(pH) also decreased to 6.62 +/- 0.04. Toward the end of the stimulation, the tension decreased to 25.3 +/- 1.9% of the control value. However, during 20min stimulation, the PCr/(Pi+PME) ratio increased to 2.5 +/- 0.5 and the pH to 6.91 +/- 0.04. These results show that muscular fatigue is ascribable not to a decreased level of high energy metabolites required for actomyosin ATPase, but to an increase in the threshold intensity of excitation in excitation-contraction coupling.

  17. On a question of Gross

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Abhijit

    2007-03-01

    Using the notion of weighted sharing of sets we prove two uniqueness theorems which improve the results proved by Fang and Qiu [H. Qiu, M. Fang, A unicity theorem for meromorphic functions, Bull. Malaysian Math. Sci. Soc. 25 (2002) 31-38], Lahiri and Banerjee [I. Lahiri, A. Banerjee, Uniqueness of meromorphic functions with deficient poles, Kyungpook Math. J. 44 (2004) 575-584] and Yi and Lin [H.X. Yi, W.C. Lin, Uniqueness theorems concerning a question of Gross, Proc. Japan Acad. Ser. A 80 (2004) 136-140] and thus provide an answer to the question of Gross [F. Gross, Factorization of meromorphic functions and some open problems, in: Proc. Conf. Univ. Kentucky, Lexington, KY, 1976, in: Lecture Notes in Math., vol. 599, Springer, Berlin, 1977, pp. 51-69], under a weaker hypothesis.

  18. Confined Energy State Based Hypothetical Observations about Device Parameters of AlGaN / GaN HEMT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palash Das

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the gate threshold voltage of AlGaN / GaN HEMT devices has been analytically predicted based on the calculated energy levels inside triangular quantum well at the hetero-interface and found to be comparable with experimental data. The conceptual explanation of device linearity in large signal applications has been presented in terms of quantized energy levels in the quantum well. The dependence of threshold voltage and linear operable gate voltage range on a newly introduced parameter named “Surface Factor” is analyzed as well.

  19. Emissions from Brazilian cattle animal husbandry, mitigation measurements and energy generation: potentialities of confinement and semi-confinement; Emissoes da pecuaria bovina brasileira, medidas mitigatorias e geracao de energia: potencialidades do confinamento e do semi-confinamento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palermo, Giuseppe Cernicchiaro; D' Avignon, Alexandre Louis de Almeida [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (PPE/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Planejamento Energetico], Emails: giuseppecp@gmail.com, davignon@lima.coppe.ufrj.br

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents three scenarios of the space handling by the culture of beef cattle, and the potentially removal of carbon from the atmosphere through growing of reforesting vegetal biomass. The results suggests the piquet and rotation of pastures presents the greatest potential of carbon sequestration, followed by the total confinement and associated with vegetables.

  20. Negative activation energy and dielectric signatures of excitons and excitonic Mott transitions in quantum confined laser structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhunia, Amit; Bansal, Kanika; Henini, Mohamed; Alshammari, Marzook S.; Datta, Shouvik

    2016-10-01

    Mostly, optical spectroscopies are used to investigate the physics of excitons, whereas their electrical evidences are hardly explored. Here, we examined a forward bias activated differential capacitance response of GaInP/AlGaInP based multi-quantum well laser diodes to trace the presence of excitons using electrical measurements. Occurrence of "negative activation energy" after light emission is understood as thermodynamical signature of steady state excitonic population under intermediate range of carrier injections. Similar corroborative results are also observed in an InGaAs/GaAs quantum dot laser structure grown by molecular beam epitaxy. With increasing biases, the measured differential capacitance response slowly vanishes. This represents gradual Mott transition of an excitonic phase into an electron-hole plasma in a GaInP/AlGaInP laser diode. This is further substantiated by more and more exponentially looking shapes of high energy tails in electroluminescence spectra with increasing forward bias, which originates from a growing non-degenerate population of free electrons and holes. Such an experimental correlation between electrical and optical properties of excitons can be used to advance the next generation excitonic devices.

  1. Confining Strings with Topological Term

    CERN Document Server

    Diamantini, M Cristina; Trugenberger, Carlo Andrea

    1997-01-01

    We consider several aspects of `confining strings', recently proposed to describe the confining phase of gauge field theories. We perform the exact duality transformation that leads to the confining string action and show that it reduces to the Polyakov action in the semiclassical approximation. In 4D we introduce a `$\\theta$-term' and compute the low-energy effective action for the confining string in a derivative expansion. We find that the coefficient of the extrinsic curvature (stiffness) is negative, confirming previous proposals. In the absence of a $\\theta$-term, the effective string action is only a cut-off theory for finite values of the coupling e, whereas for generic values of $\\theta$, the action can be renormalized and to leading order we obtain the Nambu-Goto action plus a topological `spin' term that could stabilize the system.

  2. Impulsive energy release and non-thermal emission in a confined M4.0 flare triggered by rapidly evolving magnetic structures

    CERN Document Server

    Kushwaha, Upendra; cho, Kyung-suk; Veronig, Astrid; Tiwari, Sanjiv Kumar; Mathew, S K

    2014-01-01

    We present observations of a confined M4.0 flare from NOAA 11302 on 2011 September 26. Observations at high temporal, spatial, and spectral resolution from Solar Dynamics Observatory, Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager, and Nobeyama Radioheliograph enabled us to explore the possible triggering and energy release processes of this flare despite its very impulsive behavior and compact morphology. The flare light curves exhibit an abrupt rise of non-thermal emission with co-temporal hard X-ray (HXR) and microwave (MW) bursts that peaked instantly without any precursor emission. This stage was associated with HXR emission up to 200 keV that followed a power law with photon spectral index ($\\delta$) $\\sim$3. Another non-thermal peak, observed 32 s later, was more pronounced in the MW flux than the HXR profiles. Dual peaked structure in the MW and HXR light curves suggest a two-step magnetic reconnection process. Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) images exhibit a sequential evolution of the inner and oute...

  3. The potential of imposed magnetic fields for enhancing ignition probability and fusion energy yield in indirect-drive inertial confinement fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, L. J.; Ho, D. D.-M.; Logan, B. G.; Zimmerman, G. B.; Rhodes, M. A.; Strozzi, D. J.; Blackfield, D. T.; Hawkins, S. A.

    2017-06-01

    We examine the potential that imposed magnetic fields of tens of Tesla that increase to greater than 10 kT (100 MGauss) under implosion compression may relax the conditions required for ignition and propagating burn in indirect-drive inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets. This may allow the attainment of ignition, or at least significant fusion energy yields, in presently performing ICF targets on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) that today are sub-marginal for thermonuclear burn through adverse hydrodynamic conditions at stagnation [Doeppner et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 055001 (2015)]. Results of detailed two-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamic-burn simulations applied to NIF capsule implosions with low-mode shape perturbations and residual kinetic energy loss indicate that such compressed fields may increase the probability for ignition through range reduction of fusion alpha particles, suppression of electron heat conduction, and potential stabilization of higher-mode Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities. Optimum initial applied fields are found to be around 50 T. Given that the full plasma structure at capsule stagnation may be governed by three-dimensional resistive magneto-hydrodynamics, the formation of closed magnetic field lines might further augment ignition prospects. Experiments are now required to further assess the potential of applied magnetic fields to ICF ignition and burn on NIF.

  4. Quark confinement potential examined by excitation energy of the Lambda_c and Lambda_b baryons in a quark-diquark model

    CERN Document Server

    Jido, Daisuke

    2016-01-01

    The possibility to have diquark configuration in heavy baryons, such as Lambda_c and Lambda_b, is examined by a nonrelativistic potential model with a heavy quark and a light scalar diquark. Assuming that the Lambda_c and Lambda_b baryons are composed of the heavy quark and the scalar-isoscalar ud diquark, we solve the two-body Schrodinger equation with the Coulomb plus linear potential and obtain the energy spectra for the heavy baryons. Contrary to our expectation, it is found that the potential determined by the quarkonium spectra fails to reproduce the excitation spectra of the Lambda_c and Lambda_b in the quark-diquark picture, while the Lambda_c and Lambda_b spectra is reproduced with a half strength of the confinement string tension than for the quarkonium. The Xi_c excitation energy is also calculated and is found to be smaller than Lambda_c in the quark-diquark model. This is not consistent with the experimental observation. These puzzles should be solved when one takes the quark-diquark picture for ...

  5. Quark confinement potential examined by excitation energy of the Λc and Λb baryons in a quark-diquark model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jido, Daisuke; Sakashita, Minori

    2016-08-01

    The possibility of having a diquark configuration in heavy baryons, such as Λ and Λ, is examined by a nonrelativistic potential model with a heavy quark and a light scalar diquark. Assuming that the Λ and Λ baryons are composed of the heavy quark and the point-like scalar-isoscalar ud diquark, we solve the two-body Schrödinger equation with the Coulomb plus linear potential and obtain the energy spectra for the heavy baryons. Contrary to our expectation, it is found that the potential determined by the quarkonium spectra fails to reproduce the excitation spectra of the Λ and Λ in the quark-diquark picture, while the Λ and Λ spectra are reproduced with half the strength of the confinement string tension than for the quarkonium. The finite size effect of the diquark is also examined and it is found that the introduction of a finite size diquark would resolve the failure of the spectrum reproduction. The Ξ excitation energy is also calculated and is found to be smaller than Λ in the quark-diquark model. This is not consistent with experimental observations.

  6. Hadrosynthesis and Quark Confinement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satz Helmut

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Multihadron production in high energy collisions, from e+e− annihilation to heavy ion interactions, shows remarkable thermal behaviour, specified by a universal “Hagedorn” temperature. We argue that this hadronic radiation is formed by tunnelling through the event horizon of colour confinement, i.e., that it is the QCD counterpart of Hawking-Unruh radiation from black holes. It is shown to be emitted at a universal temperature TH ≃ (σ/2π1/2, where σ denotes the string tension. Since the event horizon does not allow information transfer, the radiation is thermal “at birth”.

  7. Radiation sources with planar wire arrays and planar foils for inertial confinement fusion and high energy density physics research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kantsyrev, V. L.; Safronova, A. S.; Esaulov, A. A.; Shrestha, I.; Astanovitsky, A.; Osborne, G. C.; Shlyaptseva, V. V.; Weller, M. E.; Keim, S.; Stafford, A.; Cooper, M. [Department of Physics, University of Nevada, Reno, Nevada 89557 (United States); Chuvatin, A. S. [Laboratorie de Physique des Plasmas, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Rudakov, L. I. [Icarus Research Inc., Bethesda, Maryland 20824 (United States); Velikovich, A. L. [Plasma Physics Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

    2014-03-15

    This article reports on the joint success of two independent lines of research, each of them being a multi-year international effort. One of these is the development of innovative sources, such as planar wire arrays (PWAs). PWAs turned out to be a prolific radiator, which act mainly as a resistor, even though the physical mechanism of efficient magnetic energy conversion into radiation still remains unclear. We review the results of our extensive studies of PWAs. We also report the new results of the experimental comparison PWAs with planar foil liners (another promising alternative to wire array loads at multi-mega-ampere generators). Pioneered at UNR, the PWA Z-pinch loads have later been tested at the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) on the Saturn generator, on GIT-12 machine in Russia, and on the QiangGuang-1 generator in China, always successfully. Another of these is the drastic improvement in energy efficiency of pulsed-power systems, which started in early 1980s with Zucker's experiments at Naval Research Laboratory (NRL). Successful continuation of this approach was the Load Current Multiplier (LCM) proposed by Chuvatin in collaboration with Rudakov and Weber from NRL. The 100 ns LCM was integrated into the Zebra generator, which almost doubled the plasma load current, from 0.9 to 1.7 MA. The two above-mentioned innovative approaches were used in combination to produce a new compact hohlraum radiation source for ICF, as jointly proposed by SNL and UNR [Jones et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 125001 (2010)]. The first successful proof-of-the-principle experimental implementation of new hohlraum concept at university-scale generator Zebra/LCM is demonstrated. A numerical simulation capability with VisRaD code (from PRISM Co.) established at UNR allowed for the study of hohlraum coupling physics and provides the possibility of optimization of a new hohlraum. Future studies are discussed.

  8. Radiation sources with planar wire arrays and planar foils for inertial confinement fusion and high energy density physics research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantsyrev, V. L.; Chuvatin, A. S.; Safronova, A. S.; Rudakov, L. I.; Esaulov, A. A.; Velikovich, A. L.; Shrestha, I.; Astanovitsky, A.; Osborne, G. C.; Shlyaptseva, V. V.; Weller, M. E.; Keim, S.; Stafford, A.; Cooper, M.

    2014-03-01

    This article reports on the joint success of two independent lines of research, each of them being a multi-year international effort. One of these is the development of innovative sources, such as planar wire arrays (PWAs). PWAs turned out to be a prolific radiator, which act mainly as a resistor, even though the physical mechanism of efficient magnetic energy conversion into radiation still remains unclear. We review the results of our extensive studies of PWAs. We also report the new results of the experimental comparison PWAs with planar foil liners (another promising alternative to wire array loads at multi-mega-ampere generators). Pioneered at UNR, the PWA Z-pinch loads have later been tested at the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) on the Saturn generator, on GIT-12 machine in Russia, and on the QiangGuang-1 generator in China, always successfully. Another of these is the drastic improvement in energy efficiency of pulsed-power systems, which started in early 1980s with Zucker's experiments at Naval Research Laboratory (NRL). Successful continuation of this approach was the Load Current Multiplier (LCM) proposed by Chuvatin in collaboration with Rudakov and Weber from NRL. The 100 ns LCM was integrated into the Zebra generator, which almost doubled the plasma load current, from 0.9 to 1.7 MA. The two above-mentioned innovative approaches were used in combination to produce a new compact hohlraum radiation source for ICF, as jointly proposed by SNL and UNR [Jones et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 125001 (2010)]. The first successful proof-of-the-principle experimental implementation of new hohlraum concept at university-scale generator Zebra/LCM is demonstrated. A numerical simulation capability with VisRaD code (from PRISM Co.) established at UNR allowed for the study of hohlraum coupling physics and provides the possibility of optimization of a new hohlraum. Future studies are discussed.

  9. Land of unlimited possibilities, disappointments inclusive. In Romania, energy from biomass is still not very important. Potential is existing; Land der grossen Moeglichkeiten, Enttaeuschungen inklusive. In Rumaenien spielt Energie aus Biomasse noch keine grosse Rolle. Potential gibt es

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomsen, Astrid

    2013-02-01

    Renewable raw materials and bio energy in Romania? There are a lot of examples for successful projects, but these projects are not in the focus of the public interest. Regarding to the environmentally friendly energy supply the politics aspires to the abundantly available hydro-electric power as well as to wind power and solar energy.

  10. NM Gross Receipts July - December 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  11. NM Gross Receipts January - June 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  12. NM Gross Receipts January - June 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  13. NM Gross Receipts January - June 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  14. NM Gross Receipts January - June 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  15. NM Gross Receipts July - December 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  16. A Study of a Confined Hydrogen Negative Ion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Wen-Fang

    2007-01-01

    The ground and three low-excited states of the hydrogen negative ion confined by a spherical harmonic oscillator potential are studied employing the adiabatic hyperspherical approach method. Total energies are obtained as a function of the confined potential radii. We find that the confinement may cause accidental degeneracies between levels with different low-excited states and the inversion of the energy values.

  17. Gross anatomy of network security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Thomas J.

    2002-01-01

    Information security involves many branches of effort, including information assurance, host level security, physical security, and network security. Computer network security methods and implementations are given a top-down description to permit a medically focused audience to anchor this information to their daily practice. The depth of detail of network functionality and security measures, like that of the study of human anatomy, can be highly involved. Presented at the level of major gross anatomical systems, this paper will focus on network backbone implementation and perimeter defenses, then diagnostic tools, and finally the user practices (the human element). Physical security measures, though significant, have been defined as beyond the scope of this presentation.

  18. Requerimientos de proteína y energía bruta en juveniles de camarón rosado Farfantepenaeus paulensis (Pérez-Farfante, 1967 sometidos a diferentes salinidades Gross protein and energy requirements for pink shrimp Farfantepenaeus paulensis (Pérez-Farfante, 1967 juvenile under different salinities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Ramos

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Se determinó el requerimiento de proteína (PB y energía bruta (EB y su relación óptima en dietas prácticas para juveniles de camarón rosado Farfantepenaeus paulensis en diferentes salinidades. Se sembraron camarones con peso promedio de 0,353 g en 54 estanques de PVC con densidad inicial de 40 ind m-2. El experimento fue factorial, con tres niveles de proteína bruta 24, 35 y 48%, tres salinidades 10, 20 y 30 psu y dos niveles de energía bruta 3200 y 4200 kcal kg-1 de dieta, con tres réplicas, en un período experimental de 25 días. Los resultados indicaron que la salinidad y la proteína tuvieron un efecto significativo (P 0,05 sobre la sobrevivencia, tasa de crecimiento específica y ganancia en peso. La respuesta de los camarones a las necesidades de proteína y energía bruta en las salinidades probadas fue diferente. En la salinidad de 10 psu los requerimientos fueron 35% PB y 4200 kcal kg-1 (83,3 mg PB kcal-1, mientras que en salinidades de 20 y 30 psu fueron 25% de PB y 3200 kcal kg-1 (75,0 mg PB kcal-1.The requirement of gross protein and energy and the optimal ratio of these in practical diets for pink shrimp (Farfantepenaeus paulensis juveniles in different salinities were determined. Shrimp with a mean initial weight of 0.353 g were stocked in 54 plastic tanks at initial densities of 40 ind m-2. The experiment was factorial, with three levels of gross protein (24, 35, 48%, three levels of salinities (10, 20, 30 psu, and two levels of gross energy (3200, 4200 kcal kg-1; the experiment lasted 25 days and considered three replicates. The results showed that salinity and protein had a significant effect (P < 0.05 on weight gain and the specific growth rate, but did not influence on survival. The energy had no significant effect on survival, growth rate, or weight gain. The response of the shrimp to the gross energy and protein level showed different requirements according to the different salinities tested. At salinity of 10 psu

  19. Bipolaron in different configuration of quantum confinement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阮永红; 陈庆虎; 焦正宽

    2004-01-01

    The authors used Landau-Pekar variational method to investigate a strong-coupling singlet optical bipolaron in different configuration of quantum confinement.Numerical and analytical results showed that when configuration changes from quantum dot and wire to well,confinement shows different effect on the formation of a bipolaron.In contrast to a bipolaron in a quantum dot or wire,the binding energy of a bipolaron in a quantum well increases with increasing confinement,indicating that confinement favors bipolaron formation in a quantum well.

  20. Bipolaron in different configuration of quantum confinement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阮永红; 陈庆虎; 焦正宽

    2004-01-01

    The authors used Landau-Pekar variational method to investigate a strong-coupling singlet optical bipolaron in different configuration of quantum confinement. Numerical and analytical results showed that when configuration changes from quantum dot and wire to well, confinement shows different effect on the formation of a bipolaron. In contrast to a bipolaron in a quantum dot or wire, the binding energy of a bipolaron in a quantum well increases with increasing con-finement, indicating that confinement favors bipolaron formation in a quantum well.

  1. 中国区域畜禽粪便能源潜力及总量控制研究%Biogas energy potential for livestock manure and gross control of animal feeding in region level of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿维; 胡林; 崔建宇; 卜美东; 张蓓蓓

    2013-01-01

      为了评估中国畜禽粪便资源总量及其对环境的影响,以环保部、统计局和农业部发布的区域畜禽产排污系数为基础,利用2010年的统计数据,研究了中国及各省的畜禽粪便资源总量、能源潜力及农地的氮磷负荷,并以欧盟的农地氮磷施用标准对中国畜禽养殖的环境容量和污染风险进行了初步评估.结果表明,2010年,中国畜禽粪便总量达22.35亿 t,可产沼气1072.75亿 m3,山东等6省市粪便资源超过1.00亿 t;全国单位面积农地氮磷平均负荷为43.73 kg/hm2(TN)和9.16 kg/hm2(TP),北京等6省市农地氮磷负荷超标;全国畜禽养殖环境容量为129.56亿头猪当量(以 N 为基准),159.74亿头猪当量(以 P 为基准),实际养殖总量约占环境容量的1/4,考虑化肥施用的影响,约有20个省超过本省50%环境容量.研究结果为区域畜禽养殖总量控制、合理布局和粪污的综合利用提供决策依据.%With the increasing demand for meat products, animal husbandry industry has developed rapidly in China in the past decade. Large amount of animal manure were produced, which would be an important sources of biogas energy production or serious pollutant sources to soil and water body, if discharged into the environment without appropriate processing. It is very meaningful to assess the impacts of animal manure on environment in China. Based on the pollutant excretion coefficient of livestock and poultry that was officially released by the Ministry of National Environmental Protection of China, and the latest statistical data from statistical year book of China in 2011 that was released by the National Bureau of Statistics and Ministry of Agriculture, the gross amount of animal manure and the biogas energy potential by animal manure in different regions of China were evaluated in this study. The whole country was divided into six regions and the major 10 species of livestock and poultry were selected. Meanwhile

  2. Quantum Confinement in Hydrogen Bond

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, Carlos da Silva dos; Ricotta, Regina Maria

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the quantum confinement effect is proposed as the cause of the displacement of the vibrational spectrum of molecular groups that involve hydrogen bonds. In this approach the hydrogen bond imposes a space barrier to hydrogen and constrains its oscillatory motion. We studied the vibrational transitions through the Morse potential, for the NH and OH molecular groups inside macromolecules in situation of confinement (when hydrogen bonding is formed) and non-confinement (when there is no hydrogen bonding). The energies were obtained through the variational method with the trial wave functions obtained from Supersymmetric Quantum Mechanics (SQM) formalism. The results indicate that it is possible to distinguish the emission peaks related to the existence of the hydrogen bonds. These analytical results were satisfactorily compared with experimental results obtained from infrared spectroscopy.

  3. Three Dimensional Confinement WKB Revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Sinha, A K

    2002-01-01

    We develop an alternate formalism for radially confined quantum mechanical systems, in the framework of Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (WKB) approximation, without considering the Langer correction for the centrifugal term. Rather, following the analysis the Hainz and Grabert, we expand the centrifugal term perturbatively (in powers of $\\hbar$), decomposing it into 2 terms -- the classical centrifugal potential and a quantum correction. To test the validity of our formalism, we apply it explicitly to study the energy spectrum of certain physically relevant, radially confined quantum mechanical systems, viz., the 3-dimensional harmonic oscillator, the hydrogen atom, and the Hulthen potential. As observed by Hainz and Grabert, this approach gives better estimates than the conventional WKB approximation technique (based on Langer modification), even for spatially confined systems.

  4. Confinement optimisation by plasma shaping on TCV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moret, J.M.; Behn, R.; Franke, S.; Hofmann, F.; Weisen, H. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale, Lausanne (Switzerland). Centre de Recherche en Physique des Plasma (CRPP)

    1997-06-01

    Any improvement in the energy confinement time of a tokamak reactor may facilitate its access to ignition. TCV has the unique capability of creating a wide variety of plasma shapes and can therefore investigate to which extent an appropriate choice of the plasma shape can improve the energy confinement time. For simple shapes defined only by their elongation and triangularity, it has already been observed on TCV that the confinement properties of the plasma depend strongly on the shape. This previous work has now been extended to include more complex shapes and higher elongations, in order firstly to test the applicability of the previously proposed explanation for the shape dependence of the confinement time and secondly to propose new shapes which offer a substantial gain on their confinement characteristics. (author) 4 figs., 1 tab., 2 refs.

  5. A Study of Confined Helium Atom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The helium atom confined by a spherical parabolic potential well is studied employing the adiabatic hyperspherical approach method. Total energies of the ground and three low-excited states are obtained as a function of the confined potential radii. We find that the energies of a spherical parabolic potential well are in good agreement with those of an impenetrable spherical box for the larger confined potential radius. We find also that the confinement may cause accidental degeneracies between levels with different low-excited states and the inversion of the energy values. The results for the three-dimensional spherical potential well and the two-dimensional disc-like potential well are compared with each other. We find that the energy difference between states in a two-dimensional parabolic potential is also obviously larger than the corresponding levels for a spherical parabolic potential.

  6. Evaluation of gross radioactivity in foodstuffs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zorer, Oezlem Selcuk; Oeter, Cigdem [Yuzuncu Yil Univ., Van (Turkey). Dept. of Chemistry

    2015-05-15

    The paper presents the results of radiological investigations of food products sampled in the summer and fall of 2011 and 2012 in different parts of Van, Turkey. Gross radioactivity measurements in food products were evaluated. Food items were divided into eight groups: (1) water, (2) fish, (3) cheese products, (4) fruits, (5) vegetables, (6) herbs, (7) walnut and (8) rock salt. The levels of the gross alpha and gross beta radioactivity in all food samples varied widely ranging from 0.070 to 10.885 Bq/g and from 0.132 to 48.285 Bq/g on dry mass basis, respectively. In one sample, gross alpha and gross beta activity concentrations were found to be relatively high according to the other samples and in all samples, the gross alpha radioactivity was measured lower than the gross beta radioactivity. The gross α and gross β activities were measured by using α/β counter of the multi-detector low background system (PIC MPC-9604).

  7. Measures of Gross National Happiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruut Veenhoven

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Happiness is rising on the political agenda and this calls for measures of how well nations perform in creating great happiness for a great number, analogous to measures of success in creating wealth, such as GDP. Happiness is defined as subjective enjoyment of one’s life as-a-whole and this can be measured using self-reports. Question on happiness are currently used in large scale surveys of the general population in nations. As a result we have now comparable data on happiness in 144 contemporary nations and time-series of 25 years and longer on 11 developed nations. These data can be aggregated in different ways: If the aim is simply greater happiness for a greater number of citizens, Average happiness (AH is an appropriate measure. If the focus is on enduring happiness, it is better to combine average happiness with longevity in an index of Happy Life Years (HLY. If the aim is to reduce disparity among citizens a relevant indicator is the Inequality of Happiness (IH in the nations as measured with the standard deviation. Average and dispersion can also be combined in an index of Inequality-Adjusted Happiness (IAH. Comparison across nations shows sizable differences on all these measures of gross national happiness and these differences correspond with societal characteristics that can be influenced by policy makers, such as freedom and justice. Comparison over time shows major improvement during the last decade.

  8. Confinement versus asymptotic freedom

    CERN Document Server

    Dubin, A Yu

    2002-01-01

    I put forward the low-energy confining asymptote of the solution $$ (valid for large macroscopic contours C of the size $>>1/\\Lambda_{QCD}$) to the large N Loop equation in the D=4 U(N) Yang-Mills theory with the asymptotic freedom in the ultraviolet domain. Adapting the multiscale decomposition characteristic of the Wilsonean renormgroup, the proposed Ansatz for the loop-average is composed in order to sew, along the lines of the bootstrap approach, the large N weak-coupling series for high-momentum modes with the $N\\to{\\infty}$ limit of the recently suggested stringy representation of the 1/N strong-coupling expansion Dub4 applied to low-momentum excitations. The resulting low-energy stringy theory can be described through such superrenormalizable deformation of the noncritical Liouville string that, being devoid of ultraviolet divergences, does not possess propagating degrees of freedom at short-distance scales $<<1/{\\sqrt{\\sigma_{ph}}}$, where $\\sigma_{ph}\\sim{(\\Lambda_{QCD})^{2}}$ is the physical s...

  9. Space-Confined Synthesis of Three-Dimensional Boron/Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Nanotubes/Carbon Nanosheets Line-in-Wall Hybrids and Their Electrochemical Energy Storage Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Shan; Li, Jiajun; Li, Qingfeng

    2016-01-01

    This research demonstrates a flexible one-pot strategy for fabricating three-dimensional (3D) boron/nitrogen-doped networks of carbon nanotubes(CNTs)/carbon nanosheets "Line-in-Wall" hybrids (LIWNB) based on the space-confined template method. In the synthesis, the high rate of freezing step...... and CNTs in this unique pattern, the LIW-NB integrates advantages of three aspects: first, the doped heteroatoms enhancing electrochemical properties of carbon matrix; second, the warp-proof nanosheets supplying high specific surface area; and the extracted and embedded CNTs serving as electron conductive...... and freeze-dried process enable the CNTs and carbon-heteroatoms sources confined in the limited space of the self-assembled NaCl salts, which are then heat-treated to obtain a B/N-doped network constructed by "Line-in-Wall" type of carbon hybrids. By combining the 3D B/N-doped carbon nanosheets network...

  10. Electrofreezing of confined water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zangi, R; Mark, AE

    2004-01-01

    We report results from molecular dynamics simulations of the freezing transition of TIP5P water molecules confined between two parallel plates under the influence of a homogeneous external electric field, with magnitude of 5 V/nm, along the lateral direction. For water confined to a thickness of a

  11. Confinement Aquaculture. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaplaine School District, AR.

    The Delaplaine Agriculture Department Confinement Project, begun in June 1988, conducted a confinement aquaculture program by comparing the growth of channel catfish raised in cages in a pond to channel catfish raised in cages in the Black River, Arkansas. The study developed technology that would decrease costs in the domestication of fish, using…

  12. Dynamics in geometrical confinement

    CERN Document Server

    Kremer, Friedrich

    2014-01-01

    This book describes the dynamics of low molecular weight and polymeric molecules when they are constrained under conditions of geometrical confinement. It covers geometrical confinement in different dimensionalities: (i) in nanometer thin layers or self supporting films (1-dimensional confinement) (ii) in pores or tubes with nanometric diameters (2-dimensional confinement) (iii) as micelles embedded in matrices (3-dimensional) or as nanodroplets.The dynamics under such conditions have been a much discussed and central topic in the focus of intense worldwide research activities within the last two decades. The present book discusses how the resulting molecular mobility is influenced by the subtle counterbalance between surface effects (typically slowing down molecular dynamics through attractive guest/host interactions) and confinement effects (typically increasing the mobility). It also explains how these influences can be modified and tuned, e.g. through appropriate surface coatings, film thicknesses or pore...

  13. Particle Confinement Improvement with Current Ramp in the HL-IM Tokamak

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Long-Wen; WANG En-Yao; QIAN Jun; CHEN Liao-Yuan; LIU Yong

    2003-01-01

    Particle confinement with current ramp is investigated in the HL-IM tokamak. The ratio of particle confinement time to energy confinement time is used to determine confinement improvement. It increases a factor of 3 after the current rises twofold. An optimization density range to improve particle confinement is (1.5-3.5) XlO19 m~3. Particle confinement improvement during current ramp-up is beneficial to the startup of fusion reactors.

  14. Toroidal membrane vesicles in spherical confinement

    CERN Document Server

    Bouzar, Lila; Müller, Martin Michael

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the morphology of a toroidal fluid membrane vesicle confined inside a spherical container. The equilibrium shapes are assembled in a geometrical phase diagram as a function of scaled area and reduced volume of the membrane. For small area the vesicle can adopt its free form. When increasing the area, the membrane cannot avoid contact and touches the confining sphere along a circular contact line, which extends to a zone of contact for higher area. The elastic energies of the equilibrium shapes are compared to those of their confined counterparts of spherical topology to predict under which conditions a topology change is favored energetically.

  15. Toroidal membrane vesicles in spherical confinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzar, Lila; Menas, Ferhat; Müller, Martin Michael

    2015-09-01

    We investigate the morphology of a toroidal fluid membrane vesicle confined inside a spherical container. The equilibrium shapes are assembled in a geometrical phase diagram as a function of scaled area and reduced volume of the membrane. For small area the vesicle can adopt its free form. When increasing the area, the membrane cannot avoid contact and touches the confining sphere along a circular contact line, which extends to a zone of contact for higher area. The elastic energies of the equilibrium shapes are compared to those of their confined counterparts of spherical topology to predict under which conditions a topology change is favored energetically.

  16. Intersubband optical transition energy in a CdTe/Zn{sub 0.2}Cd{sub 0.8}Te/ZnTe core/shell/shell spherical quantum dot with Smorodinsky–Winternitz confinement potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christina lily Jasmine, P. [Dept. of Physics, N.M.S. Sermathai Vasan College for Women, Madurai 625 012 (India); John Peter, A., E-mail: a.john.peter@gmail.com [P.G. and Research Dept. of Physics, Government Arts College, Melur, 625 106 Madurai (India); Lee, Chang Woo [Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, Kyung Hee University, 1732 Deogyeong-daero, Gihung, Yongin, Gyeonggi 446-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-01

    Highlights: • Optical properties of a hydrogenic donor impurity in CdTe/Zn{sub 0.2}Cd{sub 0.8}Te/ZnTe core/shell/shell dot are discussed. • Two parametrical potential of Smorodinsky–Winternitz are considered in this problem. • The dielectric mismatch is included in the Hamiltonian. • The position dependent effective mass is applied. • The intersubband optical absorption, oscillator strength and radiative life time are studied. - Abstract: Electronic and optical properties of a hydrogenic donor impurity in a CdTe/Zn{sub 0.2}Cd{sub 0.8}Te/ZnTe core/shell/shell quantum dot are discussed taking into consideration of geometrical confinement effect. The confining potentials on both the sides of the barrier are different and a two parametrical potential of Smorodinsky–Winternitz is considered in this problem. The dielectric mismatch is included in the Hamiltonian. The position dependent effective mass is applied. The electronic properties are studied using variational method and the optical properties are investigated using the density matrix approach. The intersubband optical absorption, the oscillator strength and the radiative life time between ground and the excited states are studied based on the wave functions and the confined energies with and without the impurity with various dot radii. The results show that the absorption wavelength in type-II core and shell semiconducting nanomaterials can be tuned over a wider range of wavelengths by altering their size and the composition.

  17. Intersubband optical transition energy in a CdTe/Zn0.2Cd0.8Te/ZnTe core/shell/shell spherical quantum dot with Smorodinsky-Winternitz confinement potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christina lily Jasmine, P.; John Peter, A.; Lee, Chang Woo

    2015-05-01

    Electronic and optical properties of a hydrogenic donor impurity in a CdTe/Zn0.2Cd0.8Te/ZnTe core/shell/shell quantum dot are discussed taking into consideration of geometrical confinement effect. The confining potentials on both the sides of the barrier are different and a two parametrical potential of Smorodinsky-Winternitz is considered in this problem. The dielectric mismatch is included in the Hamiltonian. The position dependent effective mass is applied. The electronic properties are studied using variational method and the optical properties are investigated using the density matrix approach. The intersubband optical absorption, the oscillator strength and the radiative life time between ground and the excited states are studied based on the wave functions and the confined energies with and without the impurity with various dot radii. The results show that the absorption wavelength in type-II core and shell semiconducting nanomaterials can be tuned over a wider range of wavelengths by altering their size and the composition.

  18. Gravitationally confined relativistic neutrinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vayenas, C. G.; Fokas, A. S.; Grigoriou, D.

    2017-09-01

    Combining special relativity, the equivalence principle, and Newton’s universal gravitational law with gravitational rather than rest masses, one finds that gravitational interactions between relativistic neutrinos with kinetic energies above 50 MeV are very strong and can lead to the formation of gravitationally confined composite structures with the mass and other properties of hadrons. One may model such structures by considering three neutrinos moving symmetrically on a circular orbit under the influence of their gravitational attraction, and by assuming quantization of their angular momentum, as in the Bohr model of the H atom. The model contains no adjustable parameters and its solution, using a neutrino rest mass of 0.05 eV/c2, leads to composite state radii close to 1 fm and composite state masses close to 1 GeV/c2. Similar models of relativistic rotating electron - neutrino pairs give a mass of 81 GeV/c2, close to that of W bosons. This novel mechanism of generating mass suggests that the Higgs mass generation mechanism can be modeled as a latent gravitational field which gets activated by relativistic neutrinos.

  19. Consequences of Confinement in Zeolite Acid Catalysis

    OpenAIRE

    Gounder, Rajamani Pachayappan

    2011-01-01

    The catalytic consequences of confinement within zeolite voids were examined for several elimination (alkane cracking and dehydrogenation, alkene cracking, alkanol dehydration) and addition (alkene hydrogenation, alkylation and oligomerization) reactions catalyzed by Brønsted solid acids. These reactions are mediated by cationic transition states that are confined within voids of molecular dimensions (0.4-1.3 nm) and proceed at rates that reflect the Gibbs free energies of late ion-pairs at t...

  20. ANALYSIS OF SEEPAGE FLOW IN A CONFINED AQUIFER WITH A STANDING COLUMN WELL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Min; DIAO Nai-ren; FANG Zhao-hong

    2007-01-01

    The standing column well for ground source heat pump systems is a promising technology with high efficiency and environmental benefit, where groundwater is drawn from the bottom of a well and then re-injected to its top after transferring heat with heat pumps. Heat transfer analysis of great significance and aquifer involves complex problems. Determining the groundwater seepage flow is a precondition to solve the energy equation describing the heat transfer of the system. Only when piezometric head is obtained, the seepage velocity can be determined according to Darcy's law. In this article the groundwater seepage flow in an axial symmetrical geometry was studied under the assumption that gross groundwater flow is neglected. An analytical solution of the groundwater seepage flow for a confined aquifer was acquired by using the integral transform method, which may provide a foundation for heat transfer analysis of the standing column well system.

  1. Magnetic Fusion Energy Plasma Interactive and High Heat Flux Components: Volume 5, Technical assessment of critical issues in the steady state operation of fusion confinement devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    Critical issues for the steady state operation of plasma confinement devices exist in both the physics and technology fields of fusion research. Due to the wide range and number of these issues, this technical assessment has focused on the crucial issues associated with the plasma physics and the plasma interactive components. The document provides information on the problem areas that affect the design and operation of a steady state ETR or ITER type confinement device. It discusses both tokamaks and alternative concepts, and provides a survey of existing and planned confinement machines and laboratory facilities that can address the identified issues. A universal definition of steady state operation is difficult to obtain. From a physics point of view, steady state is generally achieved when the time derivatives approach zero and the operation time greatly exceeds the characteristic time constants of the device. Steady state operation for materials depends on whether thermal stress, creep, fatigue, radiation damage, or power removal are being discussed. For erosion issues, the fluence and availability of the machine for continuous operation are important, assuming that transient events such as disruptions do not limit the component lifetimes. The panel suggests, in general terms, that steady state requires plasma operation from 100 to 1000 seconds and an availability of more than a few percent, which is similar to the expectations for an ETR type device. The assessment of critical issues for steady state operation is divided into four sections: physics issues; technology issues; issues in alternative concepts; and devices and laboratory facilities that can address these problems.

  2. The future of gross anatomy teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malamed, S; Seiden, D

    1995-01-01

    A survey of U.S. departments of anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry shows that 39% of the respondent anatomy departments reported declines in the numbers of graduate students taking the human gross anatomy course. Similarly, 42% of the departments reported decreases in the numbers of graduate students teaching human gross anatomy. These decreases were greater in anatomy than in physiology and in biochemistry. The percentages of departments reporting increases in students taking or teaching their courses was 6% for human gross anatomy and 0% to 19% for physiology and biochemistry courses. To reverse this trend the establishment of specific programs for the training of gross anatomy teachers is advocated. These new teachers will be available as the need for them is increasingly recognized in the future.

  3. FUZZY ECCENTRICITY AND GROSS ERROR IDENTIFICATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The dominant and recessive effect made by exceptional interferer is analyzed in measurement system based on responsive character, and the gross error model of fuzzy clustering based on fuzzy relation and fuzzy equipollence relation is built. The concept and calculate formula of fuzzy eccentricity are defined to deduce the evaluation rule and function of gross error, on the base of them, a fuzzy clustering method of separating and discriminating the gross error is found. Utilized in the dynamic circular division measurement system, the method can identify and eliminate gross error in measured data, and reduce measured data dispersity. Experimental results indicate that the use of the method and model enables repetitive precision of the system to improve 80% higher than the foregoing system, to reach 3.5 s, and angle measurement error is less than 7 s.

  4. Validating the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Downs, Jenny; Stahlhut, Michelle; Wong, Kingsley;

    2016-01-01

    Rett syndrome is a pervasive neurodevelopmental disorder associated with a pathogenic mutation on the MECP2 gene. Impaired movement is a fundamental component and the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale was developed to measure gross motor abilities in this population. The current study investigated...... the validity and reliability of the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale. Video data showing gross motor abilities supplemented with parent report data was collected for 255 girls and women registered with the Australian Rett Syndrome Database, and the factor structure and relationships between motor scores, age...... and genotype were investigated. Clinical assessment scores for 38 girls and women with Rett syndrome who attended the Danish Center for Rett Syndrome were used to assess consistency of measurement. Principal components analysis enabled the calculation of three factor scores: Sitting, Standing and Walking...

  5. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia presenting with gross hematuria

    OpenAIRE

    Kalbani, Naifain Al; Weitzman, Sheila; Abdelhaleem, Mohamed; Carcao, Manuel; Abla, Oussama

    2007-01-01

    A case of a six-year-old boy presenting with gross hematuria is reported. Investigations revealed the etiology of the hematuria to be thrombocytopenia in the setting of newly diagnosed acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The diagnosis of leukemia was confirmed by bone marrow examination. The patient’s hematuria completely resolved with platelet transfusions. Although thrombocytopenia is a very common presenting feature of acute lymphoblastic leukemia, gross hematuria is exceedingly rare. Thus, thro...

  6. Validating the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Jenny; Stahlhut, Michelle; Wong, Kingsley; Syhler, Birgit; Bisgaard, Anne-Marie; Jacoby, Peter; Leonard, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Rett syndrome is a pervasive neurodevelopmental disorder associated with a pathogenic mutation on the MECP2 gene. Impaired movement is a fundamental component and the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale was developed to measure gross motor abilities in this population. The current study investigated the validity and reliability of the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale. Video data showing gross motor abilities supplemented with parent report data was collected for 255 girls and women registered with the Australian Rett Syndrome Database, and the factor structure and relationships between motor scores, age and genotype were investigated. Clinical assessment scores for 38 girls and women with Rett syndrome who attended the Danish Center for Rett Syndrome were used to assess consistency of measurement. Principal components analysis enabled the calculation of three factor scores: Sitting, Standing and Walking, and Challenge. Motor scores were poorer with increasing age and those with the p.Arg133Cys, p.Arg294* or p.Arg306Cys mutation achieved higher scores than those with a large deletion. The repeatability of clinical assessment was excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient for total score 0.99, 95% CI 0.93-0.98). The standard error of measurement for the total score was 2 points and we would be 95% confident that a change 4 points in the 45-point scale would be greater than within-subject measurement error. The Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale could be an appropriate measure of gross motor skills in clinical practice and clinical trials.

  7. The confining trailing string

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiritsis, Elias [APC, Université Paris 7, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/IRFU, Obs. de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cité,Bâtiment Condorcet, F-75205, Paris Cedex 13 (UMR du CNRS 7164) (France); Theory Group, Physics Department, CERN,CH-1211, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Crete Center for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics, University of Crete,71003 Heraklion (Greece); Mazzanti, Liuba [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University,3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands); Nitti, Francesco [APC, Université Paris 7, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/IRFU, Obs. de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cité,Bâtiment Condorcet, F-75205, Paris Cedex 13 (UMR du CNRS 7164) (France)

    2014-02-19

    We extend the holographic trailing string picture of a heavy quark to the case of a bulk geometry dual to a confining gauge theory. We compute the classical trailing confining string solution for a static as well as a uniformly moving quark. The trailing string is infinitely extended and approaches a confining horizon, situated at a critical value of the radial coordinate, along one of the space-time directions, breaking boundary rotational invariance. We compute the equations for the fluctuations around the classical solutions, which are used to obtain boundary force correlators controlling the Langevin dynamics of the quark. The imaginary part of the correlators has a non-trivial low-frequency limit, which gives rise to a viscous friction coefficient induced by the confining vacuum. The vacuum correlators are used to define finite-temperature dressed Langevin correlators with an appropriate high-frequency behavior.

  8. The confining trailing string

    CERN Document Server

    Kiritsis, E; Nitti, F

    2014-01-01

    We extend the holographic trailing string picture of a heavy quark to the case of a bulk geometry dual to a confining gauge theory. We compute the classical trailing confining string solution for a static as well as a uniformly moving quark. The trailing string is infinitely extended and approaches a confining horizon, situated at a critical value of the radial coordinate, along one of the space-time directions, breaking boundary rotational invariance. We compute the equations for the fluctuations around the classical solutions, which are used to obtain boundary force correlators controlling the Langevin dynamics of the quark. The imaginary part of the correlators has a non-trivial low-frequency limit, which gives rise to a viscous friction coefficient induced by the confining vacuum. The vacuum correlators are used to define finite-temperature dressed Langevin correlators with an appropriate high-frequency behavior.

  9. Gross-Pitaevski map as a chaotic dynamical system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarneri, Italo

    2017-03-01

    The Gross-Pitaevski map is a discrete time, split-operator version of the Gross-Pitaevski dynamics in the circle, for which exponential instability has been recently reported. Here it is studied as a classical dynamical system in its own right. A systematic analysis of Lyapunov exponents exposes strongly chaotic behavior. Exponential growth of energy is then shown to be a direct consequence of rotational invariance and for stationary solutions the full spectrum of Lyapunov exponents is analytically computed. The present analysis includes the "resonant" case, when the free rotation period is commensurate to 2 π , and the map has countably many constants of the motion. Except for lowest-order resonances, this case exhibits an integrable-chaotic transition.

  10. Motion of Confined Particles

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, David E

    2016-01-01

    We carry out numerical evaluations of the motion of classical particles in Minkowski Space $\\mathbb{M}^{4}$ which are confined to the inside of a bag. In particular, we analyze the structure of the paths evolving from the breaking of the dilatation symmetry, the conformal symmetry and the combination of both together. The confining forces arise directly from the corresponding nonconserved currents. We demonstrate in our evaluations that these particles under certain initial conditions move toward the interior of the bag.

  11. Quark confinement mechanism for baryons

    CERN Document Server

    Goncharov, Yu P

    2013-01-01

    The confinement mechanism proposed earlier and then successfully applied to meson spectroscopy by the author is extended over baryons. For this aim the wave functions of baryons are built as tensorial products of those corresponding to the 2-body problem underlying the confinement mechanism of two quarks. This allows one to obtain the Hamiltonian of the quark interactions in a baryon and, accordingly, the possible energy spectrum of the latter. Also one may construct the electric and magnetic form factors of baryon in a natural way which entails the expressions for the root-mean-square radius and anomalous magnetic moment. To ullustrate the formalism in the given Chapter for the sake of simplicity only symmetrical baryons (i.e., composed from three quarks of the same flavours) $\\Delta^{++}$, $\\Delta^{-}$, $\\Omega^-$ are considered. For them the masses, the root-mean-square radii and anomalous magnetic moments are expressed in an explicit analytical form through the parameters of the confining SU(3)-gluonic fi...

  12. Holographic confinement in inhomogeneous backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marolf, Donald; Wien, Jason

    2016-08-01

    As noted by Witten, compactifying a d-dimensional holographic CFT on an S 1 gives a class of ( d - 1)-dimensional confining theories with gravity duals. The proto-typical bulk solution dual to the ground state is a double Wick rotation of the AdS d+1 Schwarzschild black hole known as the AdS soliton. We generalize such examples by allowing slow variations in the size of the S 1, and thus in the confinement scale. Coefficients governing the second order response of the system are computed for 3 ≤ d ≤ 8 using a derivative expansion closely related to the fluid-gravity correspondence. The primary physical results are that i) gauge-theory flux tubes tend to align orthogonal to gradients and along the eigenvector of the Hessian with the lowest eigenvalue, ii) flux tubes aligned orthogonal to gradients are attracted to gradients for d ≤ 6 but repelled by gradients for d ≥ 7, iii) flux tubes are repelled by regions where the second derivative along the tube is large and positive but are attracted to regions where the eigenvalues of the Hessian are large and positive in directions orthogonal to the tube, and iv) for d > 3, inhomogeneities act to raise the total energy of the confining vacuum above its zeroth order value.

  13. Holographic collisions in confining theories

    CERN Document Server

    Cardoso, Vitor; Mateos, David; Pani, Paolo; Rocha, Jorge V

    2013-01-01

    We study the gravitational dual of a high-energy collision in a confining gauge theory. We consider a linearized approach in which two point particles traveling in an AdS-soliton background suddenly collide to form an object at rest (presumably a black hole for large enough center-of-mass energies). The resulting radiation exhibits the features expected in a theory with a mass gap: late-time power law tails of the form t^(-3/2), the failure of Huygens' principle and distortion of the wave pattern as it propagates. The energy spectrum is exponentially suppressed for frequencies smaller than the gauge theory mass gap. Consequently, we observe no memory effect in the gravitational waveforms. At larger frequencies the spectrum has an upward-stairway structure, which corresponds to the excitation of the tower of massive states in the confining gauge theory. We discuss the importance of phenomenological cutoffs to regularize the divergent spectrum, and the aspects of the full non-linear collision that are expected ...

  14. Comparison between Major Confined and Eruptive Flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalswamy, N.; Yashiro, S.; Mäkelä, P.; Dennis, B. R.

    2012-05-01

    Statistical studies have shown that a large fraction of major solar flares (42% M-class and 15% X-class) are not associated with coronal mass ejections (CMEs). The CME-less flares are confined flares as opposed to the eruptive flares associated with CMEs. Confined flares are certainly good particle accelerators as inferred from intense microwave, hard X-ray, and gamma-ray emissions. Note that a single acceleration mechanism operates in confined flares, whereas eruptive flares can have both flare-resident and shock accelerations (the shock acceleration is due to energetic CMEs). In this paper, we report on a statistical study of more than two dozen confined flares with soft X-ray flare size exceeding M5 in comparison with a control sample of eruptive flares with similar soft X-ray flare size. We compare the microwave and X-ray emission characteristics in the two populations; these emissions correspond to sunward energy flow. For a given X-ray flare size, the microwave flux is scattered over a wider range for the eruptive flares when compared to the confined flares. We also compare the metric and longer wavelength radio bursts between the two populations; these emissions correspond to the flow of nonthermal electrons away from the Sun. We find that almost all the confined flares lack metric radio bursts, suggesting that there is very little flow of energy into the interplanetary medium. On the other hand, there is high degree of association between eruptive flares and metric radio bursts. This suggests that in confined flares the accelerated electrons have no access to open magnetic field lines. Finally, we examined the association of EUV waves with the two flare populations. While we find EUV waves in most of the eruptive flares, there was no confined flare with EUV waves. This suggests that CMEs is a necessary condition for the generation of global waves.

  15. Simulations of Enhanced Confinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorland, W.; Kotschenreuther, M.; Liu, Q. P.; Jones, C. S.; Beer, M. A.; Hammett, G. W.

    1996-11-01

    Most existing tokamaks routinely achieve enhanced confinement regimes. Designs for new, larger tokamaks therefore are typically predicated upon reliable enhanced confinement performance. However, most enhanced confinement regimes rely (to some degree) upon sheared E×B flows to stabilize the turbulence that otherwise limits the confinement. For example, the pedestal H-mode transport barrier is typically attributed to shear stabilization [Biglari, Diamond and Terry, Phys. Fl. B, 2 1 (1990)]. Unfortunately, it is easily shown that sheared E×B stabilization of microinstabilities such as the ITG mode does not scale favorably with machine size. Here, using nonlinear gyrofluid simulations in general geometry, we attempt to quantify the confinement enhancement that can be expected from velocity shear stabilization for conventional reactor plasmas. We also consider other microinstability stabilization mechanisms(See related presentations by Beer, Kotschenreuther, Manickam, and Ramos, this conference.) (strong density peaking, Shafranov shift stabilization, dots) and unconventional reactor configurations.^2 Experimental datasets from JET, DIII-D, C-Mod and TFTR are analyzed, and ITER operation is considered.

  16. Concurrent Validity of Preschooler Gross Motor Quality Scale with Test of Gross Motor Development-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shih-Heng; Sun, Hsiao-Ling; Zhu, Yi-Ching; Huang, Li-chi; Hsieh, Yueh-Ling

    2011-01-01

    Preschooler Gross Motor Quality Scale (PGMQ) was recently developed to evaluate motor skill quality of preschoolers. The purpose of this study was to establish the concurrent validity of PGMQ using Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (TGMD-2) as the gold standard. One hundred and thirty five preschool children aged from three to six years were…

  17. BOREAS HYD-8 Gross Precipitation Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Richard; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Knapp, David E. (Editor); Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Hydrology (HYD)-08 team made measurements of surface hydrological processes at the Southern Study Area-Old Black Spruce (SSA-OBS) Tower Flux site to support its research into point hydrological processes and the spatial variation of these processes. Data collected may be useful in characterizing canopy interception, drip, throughfall, moss interception, drainage, evaporation, and capacity during the growing season at daily temporal resolution. This particular data set contains the gross precipitation measurements for July to August 1996. Gross precipitation is the precipitation that falls that is not intercepted by tree canopies. These data are stored in ASCII text files. The HYD-08 gross precipitation data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  18. Confined Brownian ratchets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malgaretti, Paolo; Pagonabarraga, Ignacio; Rubi, J Miguel

    2013-05-21

    We analyze the dynamics of Brownian ratchets in a confined environment. The motion of the particles is described by a Fick-Jakobs kinetic equation in which the presence of boundaries is modeled by means of an entropic potential. The cases of a flashing ratchet, a two-state model, and a ratchet under the influence of a temperature gradient are analyzed in detail. We show the emergence of a strong cooperativity between the inherent rectification of the ratchet mechanism and the entropic bias of the fluctuations caused by spatial confinement. Net particle transport may take place in situations where none of those mechanisms leads to rectification when acting individually. The combined rectification mechanisms may lead to bidirectional transport and to new routes to segregation phenomena. Confined Brownian ratchets could be used to control transport in mesostructures and to engineer new and more efficient devices for transport at the nanoscale.

  19. Biopolymer organization upon confinement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marenduzzo, D [SUPA, School of Physics, University of Edinburgh, Mayfield Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JZ (United Kingdom); Micheletti, C [SISSA, International School for Advanced Studies, CNR-INFM Democritos and Italian Institute of Technology, SISSA Unit via Bonomea, 265, Trieste (Italy); Orlandini, E [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Padova and Sezione INFN Padova, Via Marzolo 8, 35131, Padova (Italy)

    2010-07-21

    Biopolymers in vivo are typically subject to spatial restraints, either as a result of molecular crowding in the cellular medium or of direct spatial confinement. DNA in living organisms provides a prototypical example of a confined biopolymer. Confinement prompts a number of biophysics questions. For instance, how can the high level of packing be compatible with the necessity to access and process the genomic material? What mechanisms can be adopted in vivo to avoid the excessive geometrical and topological entanglement of dense phases of biopolymers? These and other fundamental questions have been addressed in recent years by both experimental and theoretical means. A review of the results, particularly of those obtained by numerical studies, is presented here. The review is mostly devoted to DNA packaging inside bacteriophages, which is the best studied example both experimentally and theoretically. Recent selected biophysical studies of the bacterial genome organization and of chromosome segregation in eukaryotes are also covered. (topical review)

  20. 7 CFR 1424.7 - Gross payable units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Biodiesel producers will be eligible for payments on gross payable units for all biodiesel production from... rates. Unless otherwise determined by CCC, gross payable units for biodiesel production from eligible... biodiesel production gross payable units. (3) Adding the APP and BPP to determine biodiesel gross...

  1. Multiregional estimation of gross internal migration flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot, D K; Milne, W J

    1989-01-01

    "A multiregional model of gross internal migration flows is presented in this article. The interdependence of economic factors across all regions is recognized by imposing a non-stochastic adding-up constraint that requires total inmigration to equal total outmigration in each time period. An iterated system estimation technique is used to obtain asymptotically consistent and efficient parameter estimates. The model is estimated for gross migration flows among the Canadian provinces over the period 1962-86 and then is used to examine the likelihood of a wash-out effect in net migration models. The results indicate that previous approaches that use net migration equations may not always be empirically justified."

  2. The Gross conjecture over rational function fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OUYANG; Yi

    2005-01-01

    We study the Gross conjecture for the cyclotomic function field extension k(∧f)/k where k = Fq(t) is the rational function field and f is a monic polynomial in Fq[t].We prove the conjecture in the Fermat curve case(i.e., when f = t(t - 1)) by a direct calculation. We also prove the case when f is irreducible, which is analogous to the Weil reciprocity law. In the general case, we manage to show the weak version of the Gross conjecture here.

  3. Spin wave confinement

    CERN Document Server

    2008-01-01

    This book presents recent scientific achievements in the investigation of magnetization dynamics in confined magnetic systems. Introduced by Bloch as plane waves of magnetization in unconfined ferromagnets, spin waves currently play an important role in the description of very small magnetic systems ranging from microelements, which form the basis of magnetic sensors, to magnetic nano-contacts. The spin wave confinement effect was experimentally discovered in the 1990s in permalloy microstripes. The diversity of systems where this effect is observed has been steadily growing since then, and

  4. Order, Disorder and Confinement

    CERN Document Server

    D'Elia, M; Pica, C

    2006-01-01

    Studying the order of the chiral transition for $N_f=2$ is of fundamental importance to understand the mechanism of color confinement. We present results of a numerical investigation on the order of the transition by use of a novel strategy in finite size scaling analysis. The specific heat and a number of susceptibilities are compared with the possible critical behaviours. A second order transition in the O(4) and O(2) universality classes are excluded. Substantial evidence emerges for a first order transition. Results are in agreement with those found by studying the scaling properties of a disorder parameter related to the dual superconductivity mechanism of color confinement.

  5. DFT reactivity indices in confined many-electron atoms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jorge Garza; Rubicelia Vargas; Norberto Aquino; K D Sen

    2005-09-01

    The density functional descriptors of chemical reactivity given by electronegativity, global hardness and softness are reported for a representative set of spherically confined atoms of IA, IIA, VA and VIIIA series in the periodic table. The atomic electrons are confined within the impenetrable spherical cavity defined by a given radius of confinement satisfying the Dirichlet boundary condition such that the electron density vanishes at the radius of confinement. With this boundary condition the non-relativistic spin-polarized Kohn-Sham equations were solved. The electronegativity in a confined atom is found to decrease as the radius of confinement is reduced suggesting that relative to the free state the atom loses its capacity to attract electrons under confined conditions. While the global hardness of a confined atom increases as the radius of confinement decreases, due to the accompanying orbital energy level crossing, it does not increase infinitely. At a certain confinement radius, the atomic global hardness is even reduced due to such crossover. General trends of the atomic softness parameter under spherically confined conditions are reported and discussed.

  6. Gross shell structure at high spin in heavy nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Deleplanque, M A; Pashkevich, V V; Chu, S Y; Unzhakova, A

    2004-01-01

    Experimental nuclear moments of inertia at high spins along the yrast line have been determined systematically and found to differ from the rigid-body values. The difference is attributed to shell effects and these have been calculated microscopically. The data and quantal calculations are interpreted by means of the semiclassical Periodic Orbit Theory. From this new perspective, features in the moments of inertia as a function of neutron number and spin, as well as their relation to the shell energies can be understood. Gross shell effects persist up to the highest angular momenta observed.

  7. Gross shell structure at high spin in heavy nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deleplanque, Marie-Agnes; Frauendorf, Stefan; Pashkevich, Vitaly V.; Chu, S.Y.; Unzhakova, Anja

    2003-10-07

    Experimental nuclear moments of inertia at high spins along the yrast line have been determined systematically and found to differ from the rigid-body values. The difference is attributed to shell effect and these have been calculated microscopically. The data and quantal calculations are interpreted by means of the semiclassical Periodic Orbit Theory. From this new perspective, features in the moments of inertia as a function of neutron number and spin, as well as their relation to the shell energies can be understood. Gross shell effects persist up to the highest angular momenta observed.

  8. Confinement for More Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kipnusu, Wycliffe K.; Elsayed, Mohamed; Kossack, Wilhelm

    2015-01-01

    Broadband dielectric spectroscopy and positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy are employed to study the molecular dynamics and effective free volume of 2-ethyl-1-hexanol (2E1H) in the bulk state and when confined in unidirectional nanopores with average diameters of 4, 6, and 8 nm. Enhanced α...

  9. Fractional statistics and confinement

    CERN Document Server

    Gaete, P; Gaete, Patricio; Wotzasek, Clovis

    2004-01-01

    It is shown that a pointlike composite having charge and magnetic moment displays a confining potential for the static interaction while simultaneously obeying fractional statistics in a pure gauge theory in three dimensions, without a Chern-Simons term. This result is distinct from the Maxwell-Chern-Simons theory that shows a screening nature for the potential.

  10. Confinement from Merons

    CERN Document Server

    Lenz, F; Thies, M

    2003-01-01

    It is shown that an effective theory with meron degrees of freedom produces confinement in SU(2) Yang Mills theory. This effective theory is compatible with center symmetry. When the scale is set by the string tension, the action density and topological susceptibility are similar to those arising in lattice QCD.

  11. Explicit energy density functional for the Crandall two-electron model atom with harmonic confinement and inverse square law inter-particle repulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amovilli, C., E-mail: amovilli@dcci.unipi.it [Dipartimento di Chimica e Chimica Industriale, Università di Pisa, Via Risorgimento 35, 56126 Pisa (Italy); March, N.H. [Department of Physics, University of Antwerp, Antwerp (Belgium); University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2014-05-01

    Though density functional theory is already developed in useful practical numerical forms, no explicit simple ground-state energy density functional exists. Here, towards establishing such a theory, we present the ground-state energy of the Crandall et al.'s two-electron spin-compensated model atom in terms of ∇{sup 2}ρ(r)/ρ(r) evaluated at r=0, where ρ(r) is the electron density.

  12. Explicit energy density functional for the Crandall two-electron model atom with harmonic confinement and inverse square law inter-particle repulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amovilli, C.; March, N. H.

    2014-05-01

    Though density functional theory is already developed in useful practical numerical forms, no explicit simple ground-state energy density functional exists. Here, towards establishing such a theory, we present the ground-state energy of the Crandall et al.'s two-electron spin-compensated model atom in terms of ∇2ρ(r)/ρ(r) evaluated at r=0, where ρ(r) is the electron density.

  13. Gross Revenue risk in Swiss dairy farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benni, El N.; Finger, R.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated how agricultural policy reforms, including market liberalization and market deregulation, have influenced gross revenue risk of Swiss dairy producers using farm-level panel data between 1990 and 2009. Based on detrended data, variance decomposition was applied to assess how o

  14. Gross Revenue risk in Swiss dairy farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benni, El N.; Finger, R.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated how agricultural policy reforms, including market liberalization and market deregulation, have influenced gross revenue risk of Swiss dairy producers using farm-level panel data between 1990 and 2009. Based on detrended data, variance decomposition was applied to assess how

  15. On condensation of topological defects and confinement

    CERN Document Server

    Gaete, P; Gaete, Patricio; Wotzasek, Clovis

    2004-01-01

    We study the static quantum potential for a theory of anti-symmetric tensor fields that results from the condensation of topological defects, within the framework of the gauge-invariant but path-dependent variables formalism. Our calculations show that the interaction energy is the sum of a Yukawa and a linear potentials, leading to the confinement of static probe charges.

  16. 7 CFR 1400.501 - Determination of average adjusted gross income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... renewable energy; (4) The sale, including the sale of easements and development rights, of farm, ranch... renewable energy; (7) The feeding, rearing, or finishing of livestock; (8) The sale of land that has been..., and farm operations. (c) Except as otherwise provided in this subpart, adjusted gross income means:...

  17. Feature of a Confined Positronium Negative Ion by a Spherical Parabolic Potential

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Wen-Fang

    2007-01-01

    The ground and three low-excited states of the positronium negative ion confined by a spherical harmonic oscillator potential are studied employing the adiabatic hyperspherical approach method. Total energies are obtained as a function of the confined potential radii. We find that the confinement may cause accidental degeneracies between levels with different Iow-excited states and the inversion of the energy values.

  18. A novel technique for single-shot energy-resolved 2D X-ray imaging of plasmas relevant for the Inertial Confinement Fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Labate, L; Levato, T; Gizzi, L A

    2012-01-01

    A novel X-ray diagnostic of laser-fusion plasmas is described, allowing 2D monochromatic images of hot, dense plasmas to be obtained in any X-ray photon energy range, over a large domain, on a single-shot basis. The device (named Energy-encoded Pinhole Camera - EPiC) is based upon the use of an array of many pinholes coupled to a large area CCD camera operating in the single-photon mode. The available X-ray spectral domain is only limited by the Quantum Efficiency of scientific-grade X-ray CCD cameras, thus extending from a few keV up to a few tens of keV. Spectral 2D images of the emitting plasma can be obtained at any X-ray photon energy provided that a sufficient number of photons had been collected at the desired energy. Results from recent ICF related experiments will be reported in order to detail the new diagnostic.

  19. Is the spin connection confined or condensed?

    CERN Document Server

    Donoghue, John F

    2016-01-01

    The spin connection enters the theory of gravity as a nonabelian gauge field associated with local Lorentz transformations. Normally it is eliminated from making an extra assumption - that of the metricity of the vierbein field. However, treated by itself with the usual gauge action, it has a negative beta function, implying that it is asymptotically free. I suggest that the spin connection could be confined (or perhaps partially confined) in the same way as other nonabelian gauge fields. This would remove the need to make the extra assumption of metricity, as the spin connection would not be present in the low energy theory, leaving the symmetry to be realized only using metric variables.

  20. Inertial Confinement Fusion Materials Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamza, A V

    2004-06-01

    Demonstration of thermonuclear ignition and gain on a laboratory scale is one of science's grand challenges. The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is committed to achieving inertial confinement fusion (ICF) by 2010. Success in this endeavor depends on four elements: the laser driver performance, target design, experimental diagnostics performance, and target fabrication and target materials performance. This article discusses the current state of target fabrication and target materials performance. The first three elements will only be discussed insofar as they relate to target fabrication specifications and target materials performance. Excellent reviews of the physics of ICF are given by Lindl [Lindl 1998] and Lindl et al. [Lindl 2004]. To achieve conditions under which inertial confinement is sufficient to achieve thermonuclear burn, an imploded fuel capsule is compressed to conditions of high density and temperature. In the laboratory a driver is required to impart energy to the capsule to effect an implosion. There are three drivers currently being considered for ICF in the laboratory: high-powered lasers, accelerated heavy ions, and x rays resulting from pulsed power machines. Of these, high-powered lasers are the most developed, provide the most symmetric drive, and provide the most energy. Laser drive operates in two configurations. The first is direct drive where the laser energy impinges directly on the ICF capsule and drives the implosion. The second is indirect drive, where the energy from the laser is first absorbed in a high-Z enclosure or hohlraum surrounding the capsule, and the resulting x-rays emitted by the hohlraum material drives the implosion. Using direct drive the laser beam energy is absorbed by the electrons in the outer corona of the target. The electrons transport the energy to the denser shell region to provide the ablation and the resulting implosion. Laser direct drive is generally less efficient and more hydrodynamically unstable

  1. Totally confined explosive welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bement, L. J. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    The undesirable by-products of explosive welding are confined and the association noise is reduced by the use of a simple enclosure into which the explosive is placed and in which the explosion occurs. An infrangible enclosure is removably attached to one of the members to be bonded at the point directly opposite the bond area. An explosive is completely confined within the enclosure at a point in close proximity to the member to be bonded and a detonating means is attached to the explosive. The balance of the enclosure, not occupied by explosive, is filled with a shaped material which directs the explosive pressure toward the bond area. A detonator adaptor controls the expansion of the enclosure by the explosive force so that the enclosure at no point experiences a discontinuity in expansion which causes rupture. The use of the technique is practical in the restricted area of a space station.

  2. Activity level of gross α and gross β in airborne aerosol samples around the Qinshan NPP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Bin; YE Jida; CHEN Qianyuan; WU Xiaofei; SONG Weili; WANG Hongfeng

    2007-01-01

    The monitoring results of gross α and gross β activity from 2001 to 2005 for environmental airborne aerosol samples around the Qinshan NPP base are presented in this paper. A total of 170 aerosol samples were collected from monitoring sites of Caichenmen village, Qinlian village, Xiajiawan village and Yangliucun village around the Qinshan NPP base. The measured specific activity of gross α and gross β are in the range of 0.02 ~ 0.38 mBq/m3 and 0.10 ~ 1.81 mBq/m3, respectively, with an average of 0.11 mBq/m3 and 0.45mBq/m3, respectively. They are lower than the average of 0.15 mBq/m3 and 0.52mBq/m3, of reference site at Hangzhou City. It is indicated that the specific activity of gross α and gross β for environmental aerosol samples around the Qinshan NPP base had not been increased in normal operating conditions of the NPP.

  3. Unidimensional reduction of the 3D Gross-Pitaevskii equation with two- and three-body interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Cardoso, W B; Bazeia, D

    2010-01-01

    We deal with the three-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation, which is used to describe a cloud of dilute bosonic atoms that interact under competing two- and three-body scattering potentials. We study the case where the cloud of atoms is strongly confined in two spatial dimensions, allowing us to build an unidimensional nonlinear equation, controlled by the nonlinearities and the confining potentials that trap the system along the longitudinal coordinate. We focus attention on specific limits, dictated by the cubic and quintic coefficients, and we implement numerical simulations to help us to quantify the validity of the procedure.

  4. Topological confinement and superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-hassanieh, Dhaled A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Batista, Cristian D [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    We derive a Kondo Lattice model with a correlated conduction band from a two-band Hubbard Hamiltonian. This mapping allows us to describe the emergence of a robust pairing mechanism in a model that only contains repulsive interactions. The mechanism is due to topological confinement and results from the interplay between antiferromagnetism and delocalization. By using Density-Matrix-Renormalization-Group (DMRG) we demonstrate that this mechanism leads to dominant superconducting correlations in aID-system.

  5. Confining gauge fields

    CERN Document Server

    Lenz, F

    2009-01-01

    By superposition of regular gauge instantons or merons, ensembles of gauge fields are constructed which describe the confining phase of SU(2) Yang-Mills theory. Various properties of the Wilson loops, the gluon condensate and the topological susceptibility are found to be in qualitative agreement with phenomenology or results of lattice calculations. Limitations in the application to the glueball spectrum and small size Wilson loops are discussed.

  6. Nanorheology of confined polymer films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Paul; Ilton, Mark; McGraw, Joshua D.; Dalnoki-Veress, Kari

    Liquid films with a non-uniform thickness flatten in order minimize surface energy, a process driven by surface tension and mediated by viscosity. For a viscous thin film, the time evolution of the film height profile is accurately described with lubrication theory by the capillary-driven thin film equation. Previous experiments have successfully applied the thin film equation to measure the rheological properties of polymeric liquids. Here we probe confinement effects in thin polymer films. We measure the viscosity by tracking the levelling of surface perturbations with AFM. For films with thicknesses thinner than the end-to-end distance of the molecule we observe deviations from a thin film model with bulk viscosity.

  7. Positive binding energy of a biexciton confined in a localization center formed in a single InxGa1-xN/GaN quantum disk

    OpenAIRE

    Bardoux, R.; Kaneta, A.; Funato, M.; Kawakami, Y.; Kikuchi, A; Kishino, K.

    2009-01-01

    We report microphotoluminescence spectroscopy performed on individual and ensemble InGaN/GaN quantum disks (Q-disks). The typical spectrum of a single Q-disk exhibited the contribution of localization centers (LCs) formed in the InGaN active layer of the Q-disks, characterized by sharp lines appearing on the low energy side of the spectra. In addition, a broader emission peak identified as the luminescence of the quasi-two-dimensional (2D) InGaN active layer surrounding the LCs appears system...

  8. Hydrogenic Donor in a Spherical Quantum Dot with Different Confinements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A. John Peter; K. Navaneethakrishnan

    2009-01-01

    Binding energies of a hydrogenic donor in a spherical GaAs quantum dot surrounded by Ga1-xAlxAs matrix are calculated. The results are presented for realistic barrier heights corresponding to different values of x (x < 0.4). The calculations are performed under two different conditions: (i) a spherical dot with square well confinement and (ii) a dot with parabolic potential well confinement. The results show that (i) the donor ionization energies are always higher under parabolic confinement as compared to a dot of the same radius under square well confinement and (ii) the oscillator strengths coupling ground state with excited states are two orders larger under parabolic confinement. Our results are in agreement with the results of other researchers.

  9. Inertial-confinement fusion with lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betti, R.; Hurricane, O. A.

    2016-05-01

    The quest for controlled fusion energy has been ongoing for over a half century. The demonstration of ignition and energy gain from thermonuclear fuels in the laboratory has been a major goal of fusion research for decades. Thermonuclear ignition is widely considered a milestone in the development of fusion energy, as well as a major scientific achievement with important applications in national security and basic sciences. The US is arguably the world leader in the inertial confinement approach to fusion and has invested in large facilities to pursue it, with the objective of establishing the science related to the safety and reliability of the stockpile of nuclear weapons. Although significant progress has been made in recent years, major challenges still remain in the quest for thermonuclear ignition via laser fusion. Here, we review the current state of the art in inertial confinement fusion research and describe the underlying physical principles.

  10. Working under confinement

    CERN Document Server

    Malgaretti, Paolo; Rubi, J Miguel

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the performance of a Brownian ratchet in the presence of geometrical constraints. A two-state model that describes the kinetics of molecular motors is used to characterize the energetic cost when the motor proceeds under confinement, in the presence of an external force. We show that the presence of geometrical constraints has a strong effect on the performance of the motor. In particular, we show that it is possible to enhance the ratchet performance by a proper tuning of the parameters characterizing the environment. These results open the possibility of engineering entropically-optimized transport devices.

  11. Confinement Vessel Dynamic Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Robert Stevens; Stephen P. Rojas

    1999-08-01

    A series of hydrodynamic and structural analyses of a spherical confinement vessel has been performed. The analyses used a hydrodynamic code to estimate the dynamic blast pressures at the vessel's internal surfaces caused by the detonation of a mass of high explosive, then used those blast pressures as applied loads in an explicit finite element model to simulate the vessel's structural response. Numerous load cases were considered. Particular attention was paid to the bolted port connections and the O-ring pressure seals. The analysis methods and results are discussed, and comparisons to experimental results are made.

  12. Confinement Contains Condensates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; Roberts, Craig D.; Shrock, Robert; Tandy, Peter C.

    2012-03-12

    Dynamical chiral symmetry breaking and its connection to the generation of hadron masses has historically been viewed as a vacuum phenomenon. We argue that confinement makes such a position untenable. If quark-hadron duality is a reality in QCD, then condensates, those quantities that have commonly been viewed as constant empirical mass-scales that fill all spacetime, are instead wholly contained within hadrons; i.e., they are a property of hadrons themselves and expressed, e.g., in their Bethe-Salpeter or light-front wave functions. We explain that this paradigm is consistent with empirical evidence, and incidentally expose misconceptions in a recent Comment.

  13. The Gross Motor Skills of Children with Mild Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonis, Karen P.; Jernice, Tan Sing Yee

    2014-01-01

    Many international studies have examined the gross motor skills of children studying in special schools while local studies of such nature are limited. This study investigated the gross motor skills of children with Mild Learning Disabilities (MLD; n = 14, M age = 8.93 years, SD = 0.33) with the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (TGMD-2, Ulrich,…

  14. 7 CFR 1410.44 - Average adjusted gross income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Average adjusted gross income. 1410.44 Section 1410... Average adjusted gross income. (a) Benefits under this part will not be available to persons or legal entities whose average adjusted gross income exceeds $1,000,000 or as further specified in part...

  15. 7 CFR 701.17 - Average adjusted gross income limitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9003), each applicant must meet the provisions of the Adjusted Gross Income Limitations at 7 CFR part... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Average adjusted gross income limitation. 701.17... RELATED PROGRAMS PREVIOUSLY ADMINISTERED UNDER THIS PART § 701.17 Average adjusted gross income...

  16. Experimental study of the structure of flow regions with negative turbulent kinetic energy production in confined three-dimensional shear flows with and without buoyancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberzon, A.; Lüthi, B.; Guala, M.; Kinzelbach, W.; Tsinober, A.

    2005-09-01

    Regions of negative turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) production are observed and studied in two different flows, namely in turbulent thermal Rayleigh-Bénard convection in a cubic cell, and in a mechanically agitated shear flow in absence of buoyancy, with a main focus on the small scale structure of the flow. The experimental investigation is performed using three-dimensional (3D) particle tracking velocimetry, which allows for measuring the three velocity components and the full tensor of velocity derivatives in a finite 3D volume. The capability to compute the TKE production term in its complete form P =-⟨uiuj⟩Sij is crucial due to the three dimensionality of the flows. A comparative analysis of four different flow situations is performed in regions with positive and negative TKE production with and without buoyancy effects. In both, convective shear flow and shear flow without buoyancy, negative TKE production is associated with the unusual, more pronounced alignment of the velocity vector u with the first eigenvector λ1S of the mean rate-of-strain tensor, related to the stretching eigenvalue, Λ1S, in contrast to the positive TKE production associated with the alignment with the third eigenvector (i.e., related to the negative, compressing eigenvalue). In the negative TKE production region of convective flow we find (i) increased values for mean strain, (ii) increased values of the first contribution PΛ1 in the eigenframe of the mean rate-of-strain tensor, and decreased values of the vertical contribution to the production term in a fixed frame of reference, (iii) stronger anisotropy of u, (iv) higher levels of fluctuating strain s2 and enstrophy ω2, as well as (v) higher rates of their production, -sijsjkski and ωiωjsij, compared to the respective values in positive TKE production region. In the shear flow without buoyancy, all the mentioned quantities are lower in the negative TKE production region than in the positive TKE production region. From this

  17. Kinetic Thomas-Fermi solutions of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation

    OpenAIRE

    Ölschläger, M.; Wirth, G.; Smith, C. Morais; Hemmerich, A.

    2010-01-01

    Approximate solutions of the Gross-Pitaevskii (GP) equation, obtained upon neglection of the kinetic energy, are well known as Thomas-Fermi solutions. They are characterized by the compensation of the local potential by the collisional energy. In this article we consider exact solutions of the GP-equation with this property and definite values of the kinetic energy, which suggests the term "kinetic Thomas-Fermi" (KTF) solutions. We point out that a large class of light-shift potentials gives ...

  18. 鸡内源总能的变异及其对饲料原料真代谢能值的影响%Variation of Gross Endogenous Energy and Its Effect on Value of Ture Metabolizable Energy of Feedstuffs in Roosters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨霞; 党方昆; 赵峰; 李珂; 张虎; 王钰明; 李黛琳; 尹丽婷; 张宏福

    2016-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the variation of gross endogenous energy ( GEE ) in different seasons and different batches of determination and its effect on the value of true metabolizable energy ( TME) of feedstuffs in roosters. The single⁃factor completely randomized design was used in the experiment, GEE of 12 batches in roosters was determined across the spring, summer and autumn, and its effect on the val⁃ue of TME of feedstuffs was studied with 4 replicates per batch and 3 birds per replicate. The feedstuffs con⁃tained 3 corn, 3 corn distillers dried grains ( DDGS) , 3 cassava slice and 3 cassava meal. The mean of GEE determined all batches in each season was used as the GEE of each season, and its effect of different seasons on the TME of 4 different feedstuffs was calculated. The results showed as follows:1) significant differences were observed on GEE in 48 hours among 12 batches ( P0.05) . Thus, the values of GEE in 48 hours of different batches in the same season can be merged for a mean as GEE in 48 hours in the season. 2) Contrasted GEE in 48 hours of 3 seasons, the GEE in 48 hours in autumn (67.97 kJ/bird) was significantly lower than that in spring (83.07 kJ/bird) and summer (79.90 kJ/bird) (P0.05) . 3) The GEE in 48 hours had extremely significant positive correlation with the endogenous dry matter excretion in 48 hours in the same season ( r≥0.91, P<0.01). 4) In 4 feedstuffs, the ratio of maximum variation of GEE in 48 hours to the excretion of feed gross energy in different seasons were 7.36% to 8.38%,2.68% to 2.94%,7.92% to 10.86% and 3.53%to 3.96% for corn, corn DDGS, cassava slice and cassava meal, respectively. The values of TME of feedstuffs were caused by the variation of GEE in 48 hours in different seasons were ranged from 0.28 to 0.36 kJ/g. In conclusion, there is a small variation of GEE in different seasons, but the variation has no significant effect on the TME of feedstuffs in roosters.%本试验旨在研究

  19. Baryons in Massive Gross-Neveu Models

    CERN Document Server

    Thies, M; Thies, Michael; Urlichs, Konrad

    2005-01-01

    Baryons in the large N limit of (1+1)-dimensional Gross-Neveu models with either discrete or continuous chiral symmetry have long been known. We generalize their construction to the case where the symmetry is explicitly broken by a bare mass term in the Lagrangian. In the discrete symmetry case, the exact solution is found for arbitrary bare fermion mass, using the Hartree-Fock approach. In the continuous symmetry case, a derivative expansion allows us to rederive a formerly proposed Skyrme-type model and to compute systematically corrections to the leading order description based on an effective sine-Gordon theory.

  20. Gross-beta activity in ground water: natural sources and artifacts of sampling and laboratory analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Alan H.

    1995-01-01

    beta-emitting radionuclides during sample holding times can contribute to gross-beta activity, particularly in ground water with gross-beta activities > 10 pCi/L. Ingrowth of beta-emitting progeny of238U, specifically234Pa and234Th, contributes much of the measured gross-beta activity in ground water from 4 of the 5 areas studied. Consequently, gross-beta activity measurements commonly overestimate the abundance of beta-emitting radionuclides actually present in ground water. Differing sample holding times before analysis lead to differing amounts of ingrowth of the two progeny. Therefore, holding times can affect observed gross-beta measurements, particularly in ground water with238U activities that are moderate to high compared with the activity of40K plus228Ra. Uncertainties associated with counting efficiencies for beta particles with different energies further complicate the interpretation of gross-beta measurements.

  1. Spatial patterns for the three species Gross-Pitaevskii system in the plane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Squassina

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we highlight some particular spatial patterns of ground state solutions for the three species Gross-Pitaevskii system in the plane having physical coefficients with particular attention to the cases where the inter-species coefficients become large. The solutions models least energy stationary states of a mixture of three Bose-Einstein condensates.

  2. Amoeboid motion in confined geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Hao; Hu, Wei-Fan; Farutin, Alexander; Rafaï, Salima; Lai, Ming-Chih; Peyla, Philippe; Misbah, Chaouqi

    2015-01-01

    Cells of the immune system, as well as cancer cells, migrating in confined environment of tissues undergo frequent shape changes (described as amoeboid motion) that enable them to move forward through these porous media without the assistance of adhesion sites. In other words, they perform amoeboid swimming (AS) while using extracellular matrices and cells of tissues as support. We introduce a simple model of AS in a confined geometry solved by means of 2D numerical simulations. We find that confinement promotes AS, unless being so strong that it restricts shape change amplitude. A straight AS trajectory in the channel is found to be unstable, and ample lateral excursions of the swimmer prevail. For weak confinement, these excursions are symmetric, while they become asymmetric at stronger confinement, whereby the swimmer is located closer to one of the two walls. This is a spontaneous symmetry-breaking bifurcation. We find that there exists an optimal confinement for migration. We provide numerical results as...

  3. Fermion Superfluidity And Confining Interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Galal, A A

    2004-01-01

    We study the pairing of Fermi systems with long-range, confining interparticle interactions. We solve the Cooper problem for a pair of fermions interacting via a regularized harmonic oscillator potential and determine the s-wave spectrum of bound states. Using a model of two interacting species of fermions, we calculate the ground state energy of the normal phase in the Hartree-Fock approximation and find that it is infrared (IR) divergent, due to a combination of the sharpness of the Fermi sea and the long-range nature of the interaction. We calculate the correlation energy in the normal phase using the random phase approximation (RPA) and demonstrate the cancellation of infrared divergences between the Hartree-Fock and RPA contributions. Introducing a variational wavefunction to study the superfluid phase, we solve the BCS equations using a Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (HFB) analysis to determine the wave-function, excitation gap, and other parameters of the superfluid phase. We show that the system crosses over...

  4. No First-Order Phase Transition in the Gross-Neveu Model?

    CERN Document Server

    Brzoska, A; Brzoska, Andrej; Thies, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Within a variational calculation we investigate the role of baryons for the structure of dense matter in the Gross-Neveu model. We construct a trial ground state at finite baryon density which breaks translational invariance. Its scalar potential interpolates between widely spaced kinks and antikinks at low density and the value zero at infinite density. Its energy is lower than the one of the standard Fermi gas at all densities considered. This suggests that the discrete gamma_5 symmetry of the Gross-Neveu model does not get restored in a first order phase transition at finite density, at variance with common wisdom.

  5. Thermonuclear reactions with magnetical confined plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinkau, K.; Schumacher, U.

    1982-09-01

    As the result of intensive research activities in the plasma physics one can expect that in future an independent burning plasma can be produced. The focal point of fusion research then will crescent shift on the answer of the question whether the technological development the design of a commercial working energy systems allows. The authors report on thermonuclear devices, plasma confinement, plasma heating, thermonuclear reactions and safety.

  6. Deforming baryons into confining strings

    CERN Document Server

    Hartnoll, S A; Hartnoll, Sean A.; Portugues, Ruben

    2004-01-01

    We find explicit probe D3-brane solutions in the infrared of the Maldacena-Nunez background. The solutions describe deformed baryon vertices: q external quarks are separated in spacetime from the remaining N-q. As the separation is taken to infinity we recover known solutions describing infinite confining strings in ${\\mathcal{N}}=1$ gauge theory. We present results for the mass of finite confining strings as a function of length. We also find probe D2-brane solutions in a confining type IIA geometry, the reduction of a G_2 holonomy M theory background. The interpretation of these solutions as deformed baryons/confining strings is not as straightforward.

  7. Dynamical properties of nimodipine molecules confined in SBA-15 matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiwilsza, A.; Pajzderska, A.; Mielcarek, J.; Jenczyk, J.; Wąsicki, J.

    2016-08-01

    The paper reports results of 13C and 1H ssNMR for nimodipine confined in mesopores of SBA-15 for the samples (i) containing nimodipine molecules inside and on the external surface of silica, (ii) containing nimodipine only inside pores forming an incomplete monolayer on the surface (iii) for bulk nimodipine. The measurements permitted comparison of the dynamics of nimodipine bulk and confined in pores. The confined nimodipine is in an amorphous state and has additional degrees of rotational freedom with respect to the bulk one. The height of the energy barrier related to the rotation of methyl groups in confined nimodipine is lower than in bulk nimodipine. The higher mobility of nimodipine molecules confined in silica pores can explain the higher release rate of nimodipine from silica matrix than dissolution rate of bulk drug.

  8. [Gross anatomy dissection and the legal control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashina, Shohei; Shibata, Yosaburo

    2010-12-01

    In Japan, dissection of human body is generally prohibited by the Penal Code, i.e. the criminal law. However, the Postmortem Examination and Corpse Preservation Act allows for the dissection of the body in very limited situations, that include gross anatomy dissection and pathological and forensic autopsy in medical and dental schools. Growing numbers of co-medical schools have been founded more recently in Japan, and not a small number of co-medical schools try to adopt human body dissection in the course of anatomy education. The present short communication reminds us of the ways of thinking of the Postmortem Examination and Corpse Preservation Act and the Act on Body Donation for Medical and Dental Education in order that anatomy education in medical as well as co-medical schools takes place under the regulation by these two laws.

  9. THREE-DIMENSIONAL MEAN AND TURBULENCE CHARACTERISTICS OF AN IMPINGING DENSITY JET IN A CONFINED CROSSFLOW IN NEAR FIELD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Jing-yu; WANG Dao-zeng; ZHANG Yan

    2004-01-01

    The three-dimensional mean and turbulence characteristics of an impinging density jet in a confined crossflow were numerically investigated using the RNG turbulence model. The comparison of the subregion structures and gross features between the numerical results and the experimental data show good agreement. The velocity, Turbulent Kinetic Energy (TKE) and concentration distributions of the impinging jet in near field were obtained and analyzed. The results indicate that the flow and concentration fields of the impinging jet in the crossflow exhibit distinguished three-dimensionality in the near field. There exist upstream wall vortices and downstream wall jet zones in the impinging region, and the TKE and concentration decays are asymmetrical in relation to the stagnation point. The lateral concentration distribution range in the impinging region spreads considerably. The enhanced entrainment and mixing of the impinging jet in the confined crossflow are mostly associated with the impinging action and lateral expansion in the impinging region. The presence of the bottom wall restrains the formation of the spanwise rollers in the transverse jet region and vertical entrainment and mixing in the impinging region and the transition region.

  10. Ice-Confined Basaltic Lava Flows: Review and Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skilling, I.; Edwards, B. R.

    2012-12-01

    Basaltic lavas that are interpreted as having been emplaced in subglacial or ice-confined subaerial settings are known from several localities in Iceland, British Columbia and Antarctica. At least four different types of observations have been used to date to identify emplacement of basaltic lavas in an ice-rich environment: i) gross flow morphology, ii) surface structures, iii) evidence for ice-confined water during emplacement, and iv) lava fracture patterns. Five types of ice-confined lava are identified: sheets, lobes, mounds, linear ridges and sinuous ridges. While the appearance of lavas is controlled by the same factors as in the submarine environment, such as the geometry and configuration of vents and lava tubes, flow rheology and rates, and underlying topography, the presence of ice can lead to distinct features that are specific to the ice-confined setting. Other types have very similar or identical equivalents in submarine environment, albeit with some oversteepening/ice contact surfaces. Ice-confined lavas can form as (1) subaerial or subaqueous lavas emplaced against ice open to the air, (2) subaqueous lavas emplaced into pre-existing sub-ice drainage networks, and (3) subaqueous lavas emplaced into ponded water beneath ice. Their surface structures reflect the relationship between rates of lava flow emplacement at the site of ice-water-lava contact, ice melting and water drainage. Variations in local lava flow rates could be due to lava cooling, constriction, inflation, tube development, ice melting, ice collapse, lava collapse, changes in eruption rate etc. Episodes of higher lava flow rate would favour direct ice contact and plastic compression against the ice, generating oversteepened and/or overthickened chilled margins, cavities in the lava formed by melting of enveloped ice blocks (cryolith cavities) and structures such as flattened pillows and lava clasts embedded into the glassy margins. Melting back of the confining ice generates space to

  11. Robust Principal Component Test in Gross Error Detection and Identification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Principle component analysis (PCA) based chi-square test is more sensitive to subtle gross errors and has greater power to correctly detect gross errors than classical chi-square test. However, classical principal component test (PCT) is non-robust and can be very sensitive to one or more outliers. In this paper, a Huber function liked robust weight factor was added in the collective chi-square test to eliminate the influence of gross errors on the PCT. Meanwhile, robust chi-square test was applied to modified simultaneous estimation of gross error (MSEGE) strategy to detect and identify multiple gross errors. Simulation results show that the proposed robust test can reduce the possibility of type Ⅱ errors effectively. Adding robust chi-square test into MSEGE does not obviously improve the power of multiple gross error identification, the proposed approach considers the influence of outliers on hypothesis statistic test and is more reasonable.

  12. Ion-mediated RNA structural collapse: effect of spatial confinement

    CERN Document Server

    Tan, Zhi-Jie

    2013-01-01

    RNAs are negatively charged molecules residing in macromolecular crowding cellular environments. Macromolecular confinement can influence the ion effects in RNA folding. In this work, using the recently developed tightly bound ion model for ion fluctuation and correlation, we investigate the confinement effect on the ion-mediated RNA structural collapse for a simple model system. We found that, for both Na$^+$ and Mg$^{2+}$, ion efficiencies in mediating structural collapse/folding are significantly enhanced by the structural confinement. Such an enhancement in the ion efficiency is attributed to the decreased electrostatic free energy difference between the compact conformation ensemble and the (restricted) extended conformation ensemble due to the spatial restriction.

  13. Quantum Confined Semiconductors for High Efficiency Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, Matthew

    2014-03-01

    Semiconductor nanostructures, where at least one dimension is small enough to produce quantum confinement effects, provide new pathways for controlling energy flow and therefore have the potential to increase the efficiency of the primary photon-to-free energy conversion step. In this discussion, I will present the current status of research efforts towards utilizing the unique properties of colloidal quantum dots (NCs confined in three dimensions) in prototype solar cells and demonstrate that these unique systems have the potential to bypass the Shockley-Queisser single-junction limit for solar photon conversion. The solar cells are constructed using a low temperature solution based deposition of PbS or PbSe QDs as the absorber layer. Different chemical treatments of the QD layer are employed in order to obtain good electrical communication while maintaining the quantum-confined properties of the QDs. We have characterized the transport and carrier dynamics using a transient absorption, time-resolved THz, and temperature-dependent photoluminescence. I will discuss the interplay between carrier generation, recombination, and mobility within the QD layers. A unique aspect of our devices is that the QDs exhibit multiple exciton generation with an efficiency that is ~ 2 to 3 times greater than the parental bulk semiconductor.

  14. Effect of temperate climate tree species on gross ammonification, gross nitrification and N2O formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüggemann, N.; Rosenkranz, P.; Papen, H.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.

    2003-04-01

    Microbial nitrogen turnover processes in the soil, like ammonification, nitrification and denitrification, play an important role in the formation of nitrous oxide (N2O): (i) ammonification, because it releases nitrogen from organic material in the form of ammonium (NH4+), which in turn can serve as substrate for nitrification; (ii) nitrification itself (i.e. the turnover of NH4+ to nitrate, NO3-), during which nitric oxide (NO) and N2O can be released as by-products at varying ratios; (iii) denitrification, in which NO3- serves as electron acceptor and is converted to molecular nitrogen (N2) via NO and N2O as intermediates, that can also be partially lost to the atmosphere. Temperate forest soils are a substantial source of atmospheric N2O contributing up to 10% to the total atmospheric N2O budget. However, this figure is afflicted with a huge uncertainty due to a number of factors governing the soil N2O formation, consumption, release and uptake, which are not fully understood at present. To one of these factors belongs the influence of the tree species on nitrogen turnover processes in the soil and the formation of N trace gases related with them. The aim of the present work was to analyse this tree species effect for the temperate climate region. For this purpose the effect of five different temperate tree species, having the same age and growing on the same soil in direct vicinity to each other, on gross ammonification and gross nitrification as well as on N2O formation was investigated. The trees (common beech, Fagus sylvatica; pedunculate oak, Quercus robur; Norway spruce, Picea abies; Japanese larch, Larix leptolepis; mountain pine, Pinus mugo) were part of a species trial in Western Jutland, Denmark, established in 1965 on a former sandy heathland. Samples from the soil under these five tree species were taken in spring and in summer 2002, respectively, differentiating between organic layer and mineral soil. The gross rates of ammonification as well of

  15. New confining force solution of QCD axion domain wall problem

    OpenAIRE

    Barr, S. M.; Kim, Jihn E.

    2014-01-01

    The serious cosmological problems created by the axion-string/axion-domain-wall system in standard axion models are alleviated by positing the existence of a new confining force. The instantons of this force can generate an axion potential that erases the axion strings long before QCD effects become important, thus preventing QCD-generated axion walls from ever appearing. Axion walls generated by the new confining force would decay so early as not to contribute significantly to the energy in ...

  16. Quantum Confinement in Hydrogen Bond of DNA and RNA

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, da Silva dos; Ricotta, Regina Maria

    2015-01-01

    The hydrogen bond is a fundamental ingredient to stabilize the DNA and RNA macromolecules. The main contribution of this work is to describe quantitatively this interaction as a consequence of the quantum confinement of the hydrogen. The results for the free and confined system are compared with experimental data. The formalism to compute the energy gap of the vibration motion used to identify the spectrum lines is the Variational Method allied to Supersymmetric Quantum Mechanics.

  17. Evaluation of Enzymatic Hydrolysate Gross Energy of Glyphosate?Tolerant Corn and Transgenic Bt Corn Using Simulative Digestion System%仿生法评定抗草甘膦玉米和转Bt基因玉米的酶水解物能值的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟儒清; 陈亮; 高理想; 黄庆华; 刘蕾; 张宏福

    2015-01-01

    ?quivalence of genetically modified crops using the SDS. A single factorial completely randomized design with 3 corn ingredients ( isogenic non?transgenic corn, glyphosate?tolerant corn, and transgenic Bt corn) and corre?sponding 3 corn diets ( isogenic non?transgenic corn diet, glyphosate?tolerant corn diet, and transgenic Bt corn diet) was adapted. The digestion in the stomach and total tract were simulated respectively. The in vitro dry matter digestibility ( DMD) , in vitro gross energy digestibility ( GED) , and enzymatic hydrolysate gross ener?gy ( EHGE) were determined of corn ingredients and diets. The results showed that the nutrient concentration was similar between the corn ingredients and diets. As a whole, the gastric and total tract DMD, the gastric and total tract GED and the EHGH were not affected by the corn ingredient treatments (P>0.05). However, the GED of transgenic Bt corn were lower than the GED of isogenic non?transgenic corn ( P=0.03, coefficient of variation=0.50%) , when the EHGE of transgenic Bt corn diet were greater than the EHGE of isogenic non?transgenic corn diet ( P=0.02, coefficient of variation=1.12%) . But, above two coefficient of variations were all less than the coefficient of variation of feed ingredients using the SDS (coefficient of variation≤1.64%). These results suggest that in vitro gastric and total tract digestibility of dry matter and gross energy for glypho?sate?tolerant corn is similar to that for isogenic non?transgenic corn, with transgenic Bt corn has some statistical differences. These differences are all within the test error of the SDS, via next animal testing test and verify. The SDS may supply a new method for evaluating the nutritional substantial equivalence of genetically modified crops.

  18. Statistical physics of dyons and confinement

    CERN Document Server

    Diakonov, Dmitri

    2008-01-01

    We present a semiclassical description of the SU(N) Yang--Mills theory whose partition function at nonzero temperatures is approximated by that of an ensemble of N kinds of interacting dyons. The ensemble is mathematically described by an exactly solvable 3d quantum field theory, allowing calculation of correlations functions relevant to confinement. We show that all known criteria of confinement are satisfied in this semiclassical approximation: (i) the average Polyakov line is zero below some critical temperature, and nonzero above it, (ii) static quarks in any nonzero N-ality representation have linear rising potential energy, (iii) the average spatial Wilson loop falls off exponentially with the area, (iv) N^2 gluons are canceled out from the spectrum, (v) the critical temperature is in good agreement with lattice data.

  19. Confinement of antihydrogen for 1000 seconds

    CERN Document Server

    Andresen, G B; Baquero-Ruiz, M; Bertsche, W; Butler, E; Cesar, C L; Deller, A; Eriksson, S; Fajans, J; Friesen, T; Fujiwara, M C; Gill, D R; Gutierrez, A; Hangst, J S; Hardy, W N; Hayano, R S; Hayden, M E; Humphries, A J; Hydomako, R; Jonsell, S; Kemp, S; Kurchaninov, L; Madsen, N; Menary, S; Nolan, P; Olchanski, K; Olin, A; Pusa, P; Rasmussen, C Ø; Robicheaux, F; Sarid, E; Silveira, D M; So, C; Storey, J W; Thompson, R I; van der Werf, D P; Wurtele, J S; Yamazaki, Y

    2011-01-01

    Atoms made of a particle and an antiparticle are unstable, usually surviving less than a microsecond. Antihydrogen, made entirely of antiparticles, is believed to be stable, and it is this longevity that holds the promise of precision studies of matter-antimatter symmetry. We have recently demonstrated trapping of antihydrogen atoms by releasing them after a confinement time of 172 ms. A critical question for future studies is: how long can anti-atoms be trapped? Here we report the observation of anti-atom confinement for 1000 s, extending our earlier results by nearly four orders of magnitude. Our calculations indicate that most of the trapped anti-atoms reach the ground state. Further, we report the first measurement of the energy distribution of trapped antihydrogen which, coupled with detailed comparisons with simulations, provides a key tool for the systematic investigation of trapping dynamics. These advances open up a range of experimental possibilities, including precision studies of CPT symmetry and ...

  20. Stretching p -wave molecules by transverse confinements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lihong; Cui, Xiaoling

    2017-09-01

    We revisit the confinement-induced p -wave resonance in quasi-one-dimensional (quasi-1D) atomic gases and study the induced molecules near resonance. We derive the reduced 1D interaction parameters and show that they can well predict the binding energy of shallow molecules in quasi-1D system. Importantly, these shallow molecules are found to be much more spatially extended compared to those in three dimensions (3D) without transverse confinement. Our results strongly indicate that a p -wave interacting atomic gas can be much more stable in quasi-1D near the induced p -wave resonance, where most weight of the molecule lies outside the short-range regime and thus the atom loss could be suppressed.

  1. BY FRUSTUM CONFINING VESSEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Khazaei

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Helical piles are environmentally friendly and economical deep foundations that, due to environmental considerations, are excellent additions to a variety of deep foundation alternatives available to the practitioner. Helical piles performance depends on soil properties, the pile geometry and soil-pile interaction. Helical piles can be a proper alternative in sensitive environmental sites if their bearing capacity is sufficient to support applied loads. The failure capacity of helical piles in this study was measured via an experimental research program that was carried out by Frustum Confining Vessel (FCV. FCV is a frustum chamber by approximately linear increase in vertical and lateral stresses along depth from top to bottom. Due to special geometry and applied bottom pressure, this apparatus is a proper choice to test small model piles which can simulate field stress conditions. Small scale helical piles are made with either single helix or more helixes and installed in fine grained sand with three various densities. Axial loading tests including compression and tension tests were performed to achieve pile ultimate capacity. The results indicate the helical piles behavior depends essentially on pile geometric characteristics, i.e. helix configuration and soil properties. According to the achievements, axial uplift capacity of helical model piles is about equal to usual steel model piles that have the helixes diameter. Helical pile compression bearing capacity is too sufficient to act as a medium pile, thus it can be substituted other piles in special geoenvironmental conditions. The bearing capacity also depends on spacing ratio, S/D, and helixes diameter.

  2. TERATOGENIC EFFECTS OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES: GROSS ANOMALIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Prakash

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available BACK GROUND: Prenatal exposure of AgNPs can induces devastative and detrimental effect in the organogenesis period of the developing embryos and foetuses. Organogenesis period is highly condemnatory and persuadable. Any injury to embryo during this period leads to dysmorphogenesis or even death AIM: The present study means to evaluate the gross anomalies on developing f o etus subsequent to silver nanoparticle ingestion during the gestational period. MATERIAL & METHOD: Random selections of pregnant Swiss albino mice were selected. AgNPs, of 20 - 100 nm size ra nge, were administered to pregnant mice by repeated oral gavages at concentra tions of 0.5, 1, 5, 10, 15 & 20 mg/kg/day during 4 - 17 gestational day. All dams were subjected to exteriorization on GD 18. The fetuses were evaluated for body malformation effects . RESULTS: Repeated oral gavages treatment with AgNPs at a concentration of 0.5mg/kg/day caused resorption (4.61% and intra uterine growth retardation (7.69% with no gross morphology alteration. 1 mg/kg/day caused resorption (9.23% and intra uterine growth retardation (10.76% with a rare case of haemorrhagic conception (1.53%, 5mg/kg/day caused limb malformation (7.01% resorption (17.54% and intra uterine growth retardation (17.54%, closed type Neural tube deformity (5.26%, 10mg/kg/day caused 20 % of limb malformation including Amelia, foot and tail vein hemorrhages and simple tail vein haemorrhage (3.50% each, resorption (22.80%, intra uterine growth retardation (29.82%, 15mg/kg/day caused severe hemorrhage within the entire body (22.80%, lim b anomaly including syndactyly and oligodactyly (8.77%, resorption (42.10%, intra uterine growth retardation (45.61%, 20mg/kg/day caused Omphalocele (3.27%, Bidiscoidal placental anomaly (9.83%, resorption (29.50% and intra uterine growth retardation (62.29%. CONCLUSION: The results show that a repeated oral dose of AgNPs during pregnancy caused fetal body dysmorphogenesis which is dose

  3. A Helium Atom Confined by a Spherical Gaussian Potential Well

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Liang; XIE Wen-Fang; WANG An-Min

    2008-01-01

    The helium atom confined by a non-impenetrable spherical box, i.e., a spherical Gaussian potential well which possesses finite height and range, is studied employing the exact diagonalization method. Total energies of the ground and three low-excited states are obtained as a function of the confined potential radii. We find that the confinement may cause accidental degeneracies between levels with different low-excited states and the inversion of the energy values. The results for the three-dimensional spherical potential well and the two-dimensional disc-like potential well are compared with each other: in general, the energies of the states decrease and the energy intervals between states increase with the reduction of the space dimensions.

  4. Spatial confinement of muonium atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaw, K. S.; Antognini, A.; Prokscha, T.; Kirch, K.; Liszkay, L.; Salman, Z.; Crivelli, P.

    2016-08-01

    We report the achievement of spatial confinement of muonium atoms (the bound state of a positive muon and an electron). Muonium emitted into a vacuum from mesoporous silica reflects between two SiO2 confining surfaces separated by 1 mm. From the data, one can extract that the reflection probability on the confining surfaces kept at 100 K is about 90% and the reflection process is well described by a cosine law. This technique enables new experiments with this exotic atomic system and is a very important step towards a measurement of the 1 S -2 S transition frequency using continuous-wave laser spectroscopy.

  5. Spatial confinement of muonium atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Khaw, K S; Prokscha, T; Kirch, K; Liszkay, L; Salman, Z; Crivelli, P

    2016-01-01

    We report the achievement of spatial confinement of muonium atoms (the bound state of a positive muon and an electron). Muonium emitted into vacuum from mesoporous silica is forced to bounce back and forth between two SiO$_2$ confining surfaces separated by 1 mm. From the data, one can extract that the reflection on the confining surfaces is well described by a cosine law. This technique opens up a way to perform new experiments with this exotic atomic system and is a very important step towards a measurement of the 1S-2S transition frequency using continuous wave laser spectroscopy.

  6. Gross revenue risk in Swiss dairy farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Benni, N; Finger, R

    2013-02-01

    This study investigated how agricultural policy reforms, including market liberalization and market deregulation, have influenced gross revenue risk of Swiss dairy producers using farm-level panel data between 1990 and 2009. Based on detrended data, variance decomposition was applied to assess how output prices and yields contributed to revenue risk over 3 different periods: the whole period (1990-2009), the first decade (1990-1999), and the second decade (1999-2009). In addition, the effect of expected changes in animal-based support for roughage-consuming cattle and price volatility on revenue risk was evaluated using a simulation model. Prices were the main contributor to revenue risk, even if the importance of yield risk increased over time. Swiss dairy producers can profit from natural hedge but market deregulation and market liberalization have reduced the natural hedge at the farm level. An increase in price volatility would substantially increase revenue risk and would, together with the abandonment of direct payments, reduce the comparative advantage of dairy production for risk-averse decision makers. Depending on other available risk management strategies, price risk management instruments might be a valuable solution for Swiss dairy producers in the future.

  7. Many Body Diffusion and Interacting Electrons in a Harmonic Confinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luczak, F.; Brosens, F.; Devreese, J. T.; Lemmens, L. F.

    2001-06-01

    We present numerically exact energy estimates for two-dimensional electrons in a parabolic confinement. By application of an extension of the recently introduced many-body diffusion algorithm, the ground-state energies are simulated very efficiently. The new algorithm relies on partial antisymmetrization under permutation of particle coordinates. A comparison is made with earlier theoretical results for that system.

  8. Alternative approaches to plasma confinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    The paper discusses 20 plasma confinement schemes each representing an alternative to the tokamak fusion reactor. Attention is given to: (1) tokamak-like devices (TORMAC, Topolotron, and the Extrap concept), (2) stellarator-like devices (Torsatron and twisted-coil stellarators), (3) mirror machines (Astron and reversed-field devices, the 2XII B experiment, laser-heated solenoids, the LITE experiment, the Kaktus-Surmac concept), (4) bumpy tori (hot electron bumpy torus, toroidal minimum-B configurations), (5) electrostatically assisted confinement (electrostatically stuffed cusps and mirrors, electrostatically assisted toroidal confinement), (6) the Migma concept, and (7) wall-confined plasmas. The plasma parameters of the devices are presented and the advantages and disadvantages of each are listed.

  9. Magnetic freezing of confined water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guangyu; Zhang, Weiwei; Dong, Huijuan

    2010-10-07

    We report results from molecular dynamic simulations of the freezing transition of liquid water in the nanoscale hydrophobic confinement under the influence of a homogeneous external magnetic field of 10 T along the direction perpendicular to the parallel plates. A new phase of bilayer crystalline ice is obtained at an anomalously high freezing temperature of 340 K. The water-to-ice translation is found to be first order. The bilayer ice is built from alternating rows of hexagonal rings and rhombic rings parallel to the confining plates, with a large distortion of the hydrogen bonds. We also investigate the temperature shifts of the freezing transition due to the magnetic field. The freezing temperature, below which the freezing of confined water occurs, shifts to a higher value as the magnetic field enhances. Furthermore, the temperature of the freezing transition of confined water is proportional to the denary logarithm of the external magnetic field.

  10. Magnetic-confinement fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongena, J.; Koch, R.; Wolf, R.; Zohm, H.

    2016-05-01

    Our modern society requires environmentally friendly solutions for energy production. Energy can be released not only from the fission of heavy nuclei but also from the fusion of light nuclei. Nuclear fusion is an important option for a clean and safe solution for our long-term energy needs. The extremely high temperatures required for the fusion reaction are routinely realized in several magnetic-fusion machines. Since the early 1990s, up to 16 MW of fusion power has been released in pulses of a few seconds, corresponding to a power multiplication close to break-even. Our understanding of the very complex behaviour of a magnetized plasma at temperatures between 150 and 200 million °C surrounded by cold walls has also advanced substantially. This steady progress has resulted in the construction of ITER, a fusion device with a planned fusion power output of 500 MW in pulses of 400 s. ITER should provide answers to remaining important questions on the integration of physics and technology, through a full-size demonstration of a tenfold power multiplication, and on nuclear safety aspects. Here we review the basic physics underlying magnetic fusion: past achievements, present efforts and the prospects for future production of electrical energy. We also discuss questions related to the safety, waste management and decommissioning of a future fusion power plant.

  11. Guidelines for Standard Photography in Gross and Clinical Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barut, Cagatay; Ertilav, Hakan

    2011-01-01

    Photography has a widespread usage in medicine and anatomy. In this review, authors focused on the usage of photography in gross and clinical anatomy. Photography in gross and clinical anatomy is not only essential for accurate documentation of morphological findings but also important in sharing knowledge and experience. Photographs of cadavers…

  12. 26 CFR 1.61-4 - Gross income of farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Gross income of farmers. (a) Farmers using the cash method of accounting. A farmer using the cash receipts and disbursements method of accounting shall include in his gross income for the taxable year— (1) The amount of cash and the value of merchandise or other property received during the taxable...

  13. Guidelines for Standard Photography in Gross and Clinical Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barut, Cagatay; Ertilav, Hakan

    2011-01-01

    Photography has a widespread usage in medicine and anatomy. In this review, authors focused on the usage of photography in gross and clinical anatomy. Photography in gross and clinical anatomy is not only essential for accurate documentation of morphological findings but also important in sharing knowledge and experience. Photographs of cadavers…

  14. Psychiatric Symptoms in Children with Gross Motor Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emck, Claudia; Bosscher, Ruud J.; van Wieringen, Piet C. W.; Doreleijers, Theo; Beek, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Children with psychiatric disorders often demonstrate gross motor problems. This study investigates if the reverse also holds true by assessing psychiatric symptoms present in children with gross motor problems. Emotional, behavioral, and autism spectrum disorders (ASD), as well as psychosocial problems, were assessed in a sample of 40 children…

  15. The Gross Anatomy Course: An Analysis of Its Importance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockers, Anja; Jerg-Bretzke, Lucia; Lamp, Christoph; Brinkmann, Anke; Traue, Harald C.; Bockers, Tobias M.

    2010-01-01

    The gross anatomy dissection course is a cost-intensive piece of undergraduate medical education that students and professionals alike describe as very important within the overall medical curriculum. We sought to understand more explicitly students' valuation of gross anatomy as an "important" course and so developed a quantitative…

  16. DNA Confined in Nanochannels and Nanoslits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tree, Douglas R.

    It has become increasingly apparent in recent years that next-generation sequencing (NGS) has a blind spot for large scale genomic variation, which is crucial for understanding the genotype-phenotype relationship. Genomic mapping methods attempt to overcome the weakesses of NGS by providing a coarse-grained map of the distances between restriction sites to aid in sequence assembly. From such methods, one hopes to realize fast and inexpensive de novo sequencing of human and plant genomes. One of the most promising methods for genomic mapping involves placing DNA inside a device only a few dozen nanometers wide called a nanochannel. A nanochannel stretches the DNA so that the distance between fluorescently labeled restriction sites can be measured en route to obtaining an accurate genome map. Unfortunately for those who wish to design devices, the physics of how DNA stretches when confined in a nanochannel is still an active area of research. Indeed, despite decades old theories from polymer physics regarding weakly and strongly stretched polymers, seminal experiments in the mid-2000s have gone unexplained until very recently. With a goal of creating a realistic engineering model of DNA in nanochannels, this dissertation addresses a number of important outstanding research topics in this area. We first discuss the physics of dilute solutions of DNA in free solution, which show distinctive behavior due to the stiff nature of the polymer. We then turn our attention to the equilibrium regimes of confined DNA and explore the effects of stiff chains and weak excluded volume on the confinement free energy and polymer extension. We also examine dynamic properties such as the diffusion coefficient and the characteristic relaxation time. Finally, we discuss a sister problem related to DNA confined in nanoslits, which shares much of the same physics as DNA confined in channels. Having done this, we find ourselves with a well-parameterized wormlike chain model that is

  17. The Confinement of Neptune's Ring Arcs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porco, C.; Namouni, F.

    2002-09-01

    The stability of the narrow ring arcs of Neptune has been a puzzle since their discovery. First detected in 1984 from the Earth in stellar occultations and imaged by the Voyager spacecraft in 1989, the 5 arcs spanning approximately 40 deg in longitude are apparently confined against the rapid azimuthal and radial spreading that results from energy dissipation in inter-particle collisions. Voyager data were used to argue in favor of an arc confinement model (Goldreich et al. AJ 1986; Porco, Science 1991) that relies on both the vertical and mean angular motions of the nearby Neptunian moon, Galatea, to produce a pair of Lindblad (LR) and corotation inclination (CIR) resonances capable of trapping ring particles into a sequence of arcs. However, HST and Earth-based observations taken in 1998 (Dumas et al. Nature 1999; Sicardy et al. Nature 1999) indicate a revised arc mean angular motion which displaces the arcs away from the CIR, leaving their stability once again unexplained. In this presentation, we will discuss the workings of a hitherto neglected resonance which relies on Galatea's orbital eccentricity and which, together with the LR, is likely responsible for the angular confinement of the arcs. The action of this resonance, which operates through the precession of Galatea's eccentric orbit forced by the arcs' inertia, will allow a determination of the arcs' mass from future measurements of Galatea's eccentricity. We acknowledge the financial support of NASA's Planetary Geology and Geophysics Program and the Southwest Research Institute's Internal Research Grant program.

  18. Computer simulation of polypeptides in a confinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikorski, Andrzej; Romiszowski, Piotr

    2007-02-01

    A coarse-grained model of polypeptide chains confined in a slit formed by two parallel impenetrable surfaces was studied. The chains were flexible heteropolymers (polypeptides) built of two kinds of united atoms-hydrophobic and hydrophilic. The positions of the united atoms were restricted to the vertices of a [310] lattice. The force field consisted of a rigorous excluded volume, a long-distance potential between a pair of amino-acid residues and a local preference for forming secondary structure (helices). The properties of the chains were studied at a wide range of temperatures from good to bad solvent conditions. Monte-Carlo simulations were carried out using the algorithm based on the chain's local changes of conformation and employing the Replica Exchange technique. The influence of the chain length, the distances between the confining surfaces, the temperature and the force field on the dimension and the structure of chains were studied. It was shown that the presence of the confinement chain complicates the process of the chain collapse to low-temperature structures. For some conditions, one can find a rapid decrease of chain size and a second transition indicated by the rapid decrease of the total energy of the system.

  19. Reatividade animal Confinement reactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walsiara Estanislau Maffei

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A reatividade é definida como a reação do animal quando contido num ambiente de contenção móvel. Ela é quantificada por meio do teste de reatividade animal em ambiente de contenção móvel - REATEST®. Este teste consiste num dispositivo eletrônico acoplado à balança e num software específico. O dispositivo capta a movimentação que o animal provoca na balança, durante 20 segundos e a envia para o software que a processa determinando a reatividade do animal numa escala contínua de pontos. Pontuações maiores são de animais mais reativos (mais agressivo. A reatividade foi criada com os objetivos de solucionar os problemas até então existentes na seleção para temperamento e de permitir estimação de parâmetros genéticos mais confiáveis. Ela é uma característica objetiva que tem grande variabilidade fenotípica e é de quantificação rápida, fácil e segura, além de poder ser quantificada em qualquer tipo de balança, o que permite maior aplicabilidade. Ela não interfere nas práticas de manejo das fazendas porque é quantificada no momento da pesagem dos animais. Sua herdabilidade na raça Nelore é de 0,39 ao ano e 0,23 ao sobreano e suas correlações genéticas com ganho de peso diário são de -0,28 do nascimento até desmama e de -0,49 do desmame até ano. Já suas correlações genéticas com desenvolvimento do perímetro escrotal do ano ao sobreano variam de -0,25 e -0,41.The confinement reactivity (CR has been used as a measure of temperament in Brazil and it is defined as the animal reaction when contained in the scale. It is quantified through the animal reactivity test - REATEST®. This test consists of an electronic device coupled to the scale and of specific software. The device captures the movement that the animal provokes in the scale, during 20 seconds and sends it for the software that processes this movement and determines the animal CR in a continuous scale of points. Higher punctuations belong to

  20. Confined-but-Connected Quantum Solids via Controlled Ligand Displacement

    KAUST Repository

    Baumgardner, William J.

    2013-07-10

    Confined-but-connected quantum dot solids (QDS) combine the advantages of tunable, quantum-confined energy levels with efficient charge transport through enhanced electronic interdot coupling. We report the fabrication of QDS by treating self-assembled films of colloidal PbSe quantum dots with polar nonsolvents. Treatment with dimethylformamide balances the rates of self-assembly and ligand displacement to yield confined-but-connected QDS structures with cubic ordering and quasi-epitaxial interdot connections through facets of neighboring dots. The QDS structure was analyzed by a combination of transmission electron microscopy and wide-angle and small-angle X-ray scattering. Excitonic absorption signatures in optical spectroscopy confirm that quantum confinement is preserved. Transport measurements show significantly enhanced conductivity in treated films. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  1. Beam ion confinement on NSTX-U

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, D.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Hao, G. Z.; Podesta, M.; Darrow, D. S.; Fredrickson, E. D.

    2016-10-01

    A second and more tangential neutral beam line is a major upgrade component of the National Spherical Torus Experiment - Upgrade (NSTX-U) with the purpose of improving neutral beam current drive efficiency and providing more flexibility in current/pressure profile control. Good beam ion confinement is essential to achieve the anticipated improvements in performance. In the planned beam ion confinement experiment, various short and long (relative to fast ion slowing-down time) neutral beam (NB) pulses from six neutral beam sources will be injected into center-stack limited L-mode plasmas to characterize the beam ion confinement and distribution function produced by the new and the existing NBI lines. The neutron rate decay after the turn-off of short NB pulses will be used to estimate the beam ion confinement time and to investigate its dependence on NB source/geometry, injection energy, and plasma current. The tangential and vertical Fast-Ion D-Alpha (FIDA) diagnostics and multi-view Solid State Neutral Particle Analyzer (SSNPA) arrays will be used to measure beam ion slowing-down distribution function and spatial profile during the injection of relatively long NB pulses. Beam ion prompt losses will be monitored with a scintillator Fast Lost Ion Probe (sFLIP) diagnostic. The experimental data and comparisons with classical predictions from NUBEAM modeling will be presented. Work supported by U.S. DOE DE-AC0209CH11466, DE-FG02-06ER54867, and DE-FG03-02ER54681.

  2. Consumo e digestibilidade total e parcial de dietas utilizando farelo de girassol e três fontes de energia em novilhos confinados Intake, total and partial digestibility of diets with sunflower meal and three energy sources in confined steers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rosália Mendes

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se o consumo alimentar, a digestibilidade parcial e total e o balanço de nitrogênio, em novilhos confinados. Foram utilizados três novilhos de corte cruzados, canulados no rúmen e no duodeno, distribuídos em dois delineamentos em quadrado latino 3 x 3. As dietas experimentais foram constituídas de 60% de silagem de milho, tendo como fonte de proteína o farelo de girassol e, como fonte de energia, o milho (MI. O milho foi substituído parcialmente pela casca de soja (CS ou pelo farelo de gérmen de milho (FGM. Quatro indicadores internos (lignina e FDA, FDN e lignina indigestíveis foram submetidos a 144 horas de digestão in vitro, para estimativa da digestibilidade parcial e total das dietas. Houve maior ingestão dos componentes fibrosos na dieta CS, porém não foi observado efeito sobre o consumo de matéria seca. A lignina subestimou significativamente a digestibilidade. A utilização da FDAi, FDNi e lignina-i para estimar a digestibilidade total é viável, no entanto, a FDAi e lignina-i não estimaram adequadamente as digestibilidades parciais. Houve efeito significativo na digestibilidade ruminal da FDA, com valores mais elevados para CS e semelhantes para FGM, em relação à dieta MI. A digestibilidade total da FDA foi maior na dieta CS, porém, as digestibilidades dos demais componentes não foram afetadas pelas diferentes fontes energéticas. Não houve diferença significativa para a digestibilidade da energia e nos valores obtidos de NDT, com média de 61,5%. A casca de soja e o farelo de gérmen de milho, em substituição parcial do milho, mostraram-se fontes alternativas satisfatórias para a inclusão na dieta de bovinos.Feed intake, partial and total digestibility and nitrogen balance were evaluated in confined steers. Three crossbreed steers, rumen and duodenum cannulated, were allotted to two 3 x 3 Latin square experimental design. The experimental diets were composed by corn silage (60% and concentrate

  3. Segregation of Polymers in Confined Spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Ya

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the motion of two overlapping polymers with self-avoidance confined in a narrow 2d box. A statistical model is constructed using blob free-energy arguments. We find spontaneous segregation under the condition: $L > R_{//}$, and mixing under $L < R_{//}$, where L is the length of the box, and $R_{//}$ the polymer extension in an infinite slit. Segregation time scales are determined by solving a mean first-passage time problem, and by performing Monte Carlo simulations. Predictions of the two methods show good agreement. Our results may elucidate a driving force for chromosomes segregation in bacteria.

  4. Polymer escape from a confining potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mökkönen, Harri, E-mail: harri.mokkonen@aalto.fi [Department of Applied Physics and COMP CoE, Aalto University School of Science, P.O. Box 11100, FIN-00076 Aalto, Espoo (Finland); Faculty of Physical Sciences, University of Iceland, Reykjavík (Iceland); Ikonen, Timo [Department of Applied Physics and COMP CoE, Aalto University School of Science, P.O. Box 11100, FIN-00076 Aalto, Espoo (Finland); VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044 VTT (Finland); Jónsson, Hannes [Department of Applied Physics and COMP CoE, Aalto University School of Science, P.O. Box 11100, FIN-00076 Aalto, Espoo (Finland); Faculty of Physical Sciences, University of Iceland, Reykjavík (Iceland); Department of Physics, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02912-1843 (United States); Ala-Nissila, Tapio [Department of Applied Physics and COMP CoE, Aalto University School of Science, P.O. Box 11100, FIN-00076 Aalto, Espoo (Finland); Department of Physics, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02912-1843 (United States)

    2014-02-07

    The rate of escape of polymers from a two-dimensionally confining potential well has been evaluated using self-avoiding as well as ideal chain representations of varying length, up to 80 beads. Long timescale Langevin trajectories were calculated using the path integral hyperdynamics method to evaluate the escape rate. A minimum is found in the rate for self-avoiding polymers of intermediate length while the escape rate decreases monotonically with polymer length for ideal polymers. The increase in the rate for long, self-avoiding polymers is ascribed to crowding in the potential well which reduces the free energy escape barrier. An effective potential curve obtained using the centroid as an independent variable was evaluated by thermodynamic averaging and Kramers rate theory then applied to estimate the escape rate. While the qualitative features are well reproduced by this approach, it significantly overestimates the rate, especially for the longer polymers. The reason for this is illustrated by constructing a two-dimensional effective energy surface using the radius of gyration as well as the centroid as controlled variables. This shows that the description of a transition state dividing surface using only the centroid fails to confine the system to the region corresponding to the free energy barrier and this problem becomes more pronounced the longer the polymer is. A proper definition of a transition state for polymer escape needs to take into account the shape as well as the location of the polymer.

  5. Twisted Grosse-Wulkenhaar $\\phi^{\\star 4}$ model: dynamical noncommutativity and Noether currents

    CERN Document Server

    Hounkonnou, Mahouton Norbert

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses the computation of Noether currrents for the renormalizable Grosse-Wulkenhaar (GW) $\\phi^{\\star 4}$ model subjected to a dynamical noncomutativity realized through a twisted Moyal product. The noncommutative (NC) energy-momentum tensor (EMT), angular momentum tensor (AMT) and the dilatation current (DC) are explicitly derived. The breaking of translation and rotation invariances has been avoided via a constraint equation.

  6. Trend of Gross Beta Radioactivity in Air Particles and Rainwater of around the Domestic Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeom, Jungmin; Shin, Daeyewn; Kim, Soongpyung; Ju, Sundong [Chosun Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); OH, Youngsoo; Kim, Byunggyu; Kim, Sunsik [Hanbit Nuclear Power Site, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Investigating items can be distinguished into two parts, regional radiation and concentrations of environmental radioactivity, and in environmental radioactivity, to access the internal exposure dose, gross beta-radioactivity of particles in air and rainwater specimen are being tested. Gross beta-radioactivity quickly shows whether radiation is unusual or no since most of nuclide released in radioactive emergency while operating an atomic energy facility emits beta rays, and the method used to test it is simple. Looking at the years of analyzed results of particles in air and rainwater around the facility for gross beta-radioactivity, they have a constant trend. The cause of the trend was investigated with a doubt that something else rather than operation of a nuclear power plant might have caused this trend. Due to high gross beta radioactivity concentration in winter, sometimes, radioactivity concentration five times higher than reported last five years average gross beta radioactivity concentration is detected. Looking at the contents investigated above, we can see nuclear power plants have correlation with surrounding gross beta radioactivity concentration. Precipitation has negative correlation, and the weight of air particles and concentration of component element have positive correlation. Our country is influenced by northwest wind in winter. China which is located northwest, has heavy air pollution and smog due to industrialization and there was a report saying it is affecting Korea. Therefore, not because of management of power plants but because of change in season, it can be misunderstood that operating power plants is causing the increased gross beta radioactivity concentration. Based on this investigation, more research to find various causes of gross beta radioactivity concentration in winter is necessary.

  7. Turbulent jet in confined counterflow

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Sivapragasam; M D Deshpande; S Ramamurthy; P White

    2014-06-01

    The mean flowfield of a turbulent jet issuing into a confined, uniform counterflow was investigated computationally. Based on dimensional analysis, the jet penetration length was shown to scale with jet-to-counterflow momentum flux ratio. This scaling and the computational results reproduce the well-known correct limit of linear growth of the jet penetration length for the unconfined case when the momentum flux ratio is small. However, for the high momentum flux ratio case corresponding to the confinement, the jet penetration length is shown to reach an asymptotic limit of about 3.57 times the confining duct diameter. This conclusion is contrary to the existing results which predict indefinite growth. A simple modification of an existing similarity solution for the jet in an unconfined counterflow provides a convenient framework for presenting the results of the flowfield and jet penetration length.

  8. CORRELATIONS IN CONFINED QUANTUM PLASMAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DUFTY J W

    2012-01-11

    This is the final report for the project 'Correlations in Confined Quantum Plasmas', NSF-DOE Partnership Grant DE FG02 07ER54946, 8/1/2007 - 7/30/2010. The research was performed in collaboration with a group at Christian Albrechts University (CAU), Kiel, Germany. That collaboration, almost 15 years old, was formalized during the past four years under this NSF-DOE Partnership Grant to support graduate students at the two institutions and to facilitate frequent exchange visits. The research was focused on exploring the frontiers of charged particle physics evolving from new experimental access to unusual states associated with confinement. Particular attention was paid to combined effects of quantum mechanics and confinement. A suite of analytical and numerical tools tailored to the specific inquiry has been developed and employed

  9. Blood biochemical parameters, nitrogen balance and gross energy metabolizability in pigs fed with different dietary electrolyte balancesParâmetros bioquímicos sanguíneos, balanço de nitrogênio e metabolizabilidade da energia bruta em suínos alimentados com dietas contendo diferentes balanços eletrolíticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Daniel Giusti Bruno

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate different dietary electrolyte balance (DEB on the blood biochemical parameters, nitrogen balances and crude metabolizable energy of swine in the initial phase. Sixteen barrows were used, averaging 27.95 kg of initial weight, allotted individually in metabolic cages in a randomized blocks design with four treatments (DEB of 160, 208, 257 and 305 mEq/kg and 4 replicates. The blood biochemical parameters analyzed were chloride, potassium, sodium and urea in blood. Urine pH was also evaluated, and the parameters evaluated in nitrogen (N balance were N intake, fecal N, N excreted in urine, absorbed N, N retention, retained N/absorbed N and total excretion of N. The gross energy digestibility and metabolizibility coefficients were determined, and the respectives values of digestible and metabolizable energy. The values of urinary pH increased (P 0.05 between the evaluated DEB. A linear increase (P Objetivou-se com esse trabalho avaliar diferentes balanços eletrolíticos das dietas (BED sobre os parâmetros bioquímicos sanguíneos, balanços de nitrogênio e a metabolizabilidade da energia bruta, de suínos na fase inicial. Foram utilizados 16 suínos, machos castrados, com peso inicial de 27,95 kg, distribuídos individualmente em gaiolas metabólicas, em um delineamento experimental em blocos ao acaso com quatro tratamentos (BED de 160, 208, 257 e 305 mEq/kg e quatro repetições. Os parâmetros bioquímicos sanguíneos avaliados foram cloretos, potássio, sódio e uréia no soro. O pH da urina também foi avaliado, e as variáveis utilizadas no balanço de nitrogênio (N foram o N ingerido, N excretado nas fezes, N excretado na urina, N absorvido, N retido, N retido/N absorvido e excreção total de N. Foram determinados os coeficientes de digestibilidade e metabolizabilidade da energia bruta e seus respectivos valores de energia digestível e metabolizável. Os valores de pH urinário aumentaram (P 0,05 entre

  10. Confinement: G(2) group case

    CERN Document Server

    Cossu, G; Di Giacomo, A; Lucini, B; Pica, C

    2007-01-01

    The gauge group being centreless, $G_2$ gauge theory is a good laboratory for studying the role of the centre of the group for colour confinement in Yang-Mills gauge theories. In this paper, we investigate $G_2$ pure gauge theory at finite temperature on the lattice. By studying the finite size scaling of the plaquette, the Polyakov loop and their susceptibilities, we show that a deconfinement phase transition takes place. The analysis of the pseudocritical exponents give strong evidence of the deconfinement transition being first order. Implications of our findings for scenarios of colour confinement are discussed.

  11. Particle confinement and density profile behaviour on HL-1M

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiao Yi-Ming; Zhou Yan; Deng Zhong-Chao; Ding Xuan-Tong; Liu Yong; Wang En-Yao

    2005-01-01

    In this paper the density profile behaviour and the particle confinement operation regime on HL-1M have been studied under the pellet injection (PI), supersonic molecular beam injection (SMBI), gas puffing (GP) and lower hybrid current drive experimental situations. The relationships between density profile, particle confinement time and edge safe factor have been explored. The density profile, which is measured by six-channel far-infrared ray laser interferometer has been analysed by using the peaking coefficient calculation code. Changes of the outward and inward diffusion velocities before and after the peaking of the central density profile have been calculated using the global particle balance equations. The particle confinement operation regimes have been discussed. The peaking density profile can be easily obtained under the condition of efficient fuelling. In ohmic discharges, confinement time increases as the peaking density profile factor rises, and is saturated at a critical value related to the fuelling efficiency. The particle confinement time of SMBI lies between the values of GP and PI, and its value is about 3-5 times of the energy confinement time.

  12. Sectoral contributions to Nigerian gross domestic product using a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences ... This study analyzed sectoral contributions to Gross Domestic Product by Agriculture, Industry and services ... KEYWORDS: Granger causality, Unit root, VAR model and sectoral contribution ...

  13. Apparatus for magnetic and electrostatic confinement of plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rostoker, Norman; Binderbauer, Michl

    2016-07-05

    An apparatus and method for containing plasma and forming a Field Reversed Configuration (FRC) magnetic topology are described in which plasma ions are contained magnetically in stable, non-adiabatic orbits in the FRC. Further, the electrons are contained electrostatically in a deep energy well, created by tuning an externally applied magnetic field. The simultaneous electrostatic confinement of electrons and magnetic confinement of ions avoids anomalous transport and facilitates classical containment of both electrons and ions. In this configuration, ions and electrons may have adequate density and temperature so that upon collisions ions are fused together by nuclear force, thus releasing fusion energy. Moreover, the fusion fuel plasmas that can be used with the present confinement system and method are not limited to neutronic fuels only, but also advantageously include advanced fuels.

  14. Premedical anatomy experience and student performance in medical gross anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondrashov, Peter; McDaniel, Dalton J; Jordan, Rebecca M

    2017-04-01

    Gross anatomy is considered one of the most important basic science courses in medical education, yet few medical schools require its completion prior to matriculation. The effect of taking anatomy courses before entering medical school on performance in medical gross anatomy has been previously studied with inconsistent results. The effect of premedical anatomy coursework on performance in medical gross anatomy, overall medical school grade point average (GPA), and Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing Examination Level 1 (COMLEX 1) score was evaluated in 456 first-year osteopathic medical students along with a survey on its perceived benefits on success in medical gross anatomy course. No significant differences were found in gross anatomy grade, GPA, or COMLEX 1 score between students with premedical anatomy coursework and those without. However, significant differences and higher scores were observed in students who had taken three or more undergraduate anatomy courses including at least one with cadaveric laboratory. There was significantly lower perceived benefit for academic success in the medical gross anatomy course (P<.001) from those students who had taken premedical anatomy courses (5.9 of 10) compared with those who had not (8.2 of 10). Results suggest that requiring any anatomy course as a prerequisite for medical school would not have significant effect on student performance in the medical gross anatomy course. However, requiring more specific anatomy coursework including taking three or more undergraduate anatomy courses, one with cadaveric laboratory component, may result in higher medical gross anatomy grades, medical school GPA, and COMLEX 1 scores. Clin. Anat. 30:303-311, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Utilisation of fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) composites in the confinement of concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Ciupala, Mihaela Anca; Pilakoutas, K.; Mortazavi, A.A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental investigation carried out on concrete cylinders\\ud confined with fibre reinforced polymers (FRP), subjected to monotonic and cyclic loading.\\ud Carbon fibres (CFRP) were used as confining material for the concrete specimens. The failure\\ud mode, reinforcement ratio based on jacket thickness and type of loading are examined. The study\\ud shows that external confinement of concrete can enhance its strength and ductility as well as result\\ud in large energy ab...

  16. Duality and confinement in D=3 models driven by condensation of topological defects

    CERN Document Server

    Wotzasek, P G C; Wotzasek, Patricio and Gaete Clovis

    2005-01-01

    We study the interplay of duality and confinement in certain three-dimensional models induced by the condensation of topological defects. To this end we check for the confinement phenomenon, in both sides of the duality, using the static quantum potential within the framework of the gauge-invariant but path-dependent variables formalism. Our calculations show that the interaction energy contains a linear term leading to the confinement of static probe charges.

  17. Gross Motor Profile and Its Association with Socialization Skills in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardiono D. Pusponegoro

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: Children with ASD had lower gross motor skills compared to typically developing children. Gross motor impairments were found in 20% of the ASD children, and these children also had lower socialization skills than those without gross motor impairments.

  18. Inertial Confinement Fusion and the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, P.

    2012-08-29

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) seeks to provide sustainable fusion energy by compressing frozen deuterium and tritium fuel to extremely high densities. The advantages of fusion vs. fission are discussed, including total energy per reaction and energy per nucleon. The Lawson Criterion, defining the requirements for ignition, is derived and explained. Different confinement methods and their implications are discussed. The feasibility of creating a power plant using ICF is analyzed using realistic and feasible numbers. The National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is shown as a significant step forward toward making a fusion power plant based on ICF. NIF is the world’s largest laser, delivering 1.8 MJ of energy, with a peak power greater than 500 TW. NIF is actively striving toward the goal of fusion energy. Other uses for NIF are discussed.

  19. Confined Quantum Time of Arrivals

    CERN Document Server

    Galapon, E A; Galapon, Eric A.; Bahague, Ricardo T.

    2003-01-01

    We show that the non-self-adjoint free time of arrival operator in free space defines a class of compact, self-adjoint, and canonical operators for a spatially confined particle. We analytically and numerically study the qualitative behaviors of these operators, and demonstrate that their eigenfunctions and eigenvalues are consistent with the interpretation that they are time of arrival operators.

  20. Dynamical conductivity of confined water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artemov, V. G.

    2017-01-01

    The electrodynamic response of water confined in nanoporous MCM-41 is measured in the frequency range 1 MHz-3 THz at room temperature. The results are analyzed in the context of a recently proposed ionic model of water. We found an increase in dc-conductivity of confined water by 3 orders of magnitude (3.3 · 10-3 Ω-1 · m-1) compared to bulk water (5.5 · 10-6 Ω-1 · m-1). This is attributed to the increase of H3O+ and OH- ion mobility, due to a decrease of the effective potential amplitude by walls of the confining environment. We found that the absorption in the microwave frequency range is much smaller in the medium with confined water than in the bulk water, and the quadratic dependence of the conductivity (σ) on frequency (ω) becomes less steep and tends to σ ~ ω. The results are of fundamental importance and can be used for understanding of the proton transport in systems with water in the nanoconfined state.

  1. Effective viscosity of confined hydrocarbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivebæk, Ion Marius; Samoilov, V.N.; Persson, B.N.J.

    2012-01-01

    We present molecular dynamics friction calculations for confined hydrocarbon films with molecular lengths from 20 to 1400 carbon atoms. We find that the logarithm of the effective viscosity ηeff for nanometer-thin films depends linearly on the logarithm of the shear rate: log ηeff=C-nlog γ̇, where...

  2. Color confinement multi quark resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Fan [Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Joint Center for Particle Nuclear Physics and Cosmology, Nanjing University and Pupil Mountain Observatory, Nanjing, 210008 (China); Ping, J.L. [Department of Physics, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing, 210097 (China); Pang, H.R. [Department of Physics, Southeast University, Nanjing, 210008 (China); Chen, L.Z. [Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Joint Center for Particle Nuclear Physics and Cosmology, Nanjing University and Pupil Mountain Observatory, Nanjing, 210008 (China)

    2007-06-15

    A new kind microscopic resonance, the color confinement multi quark resonance is proposed and studied. The quark delocalization color screening model is compared to one of the chiral quark model, the Salamanca model, and a new mechanism of the intermediate range NN interaction, the mutual distortion of interacting nucleons, is checked to be similar to the {sigma} meson exchange.

  3. Two flavor QCD and Confinement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Elia, M.; Di Giacomo, A.; Pica, Claudio

    2005-01-01

    We argue that the order of the chiral transition for N_f=2 is a sensitive probe of the QCD vacuum, in particular of the mechanism of color confinement. A strategy is developed to investigate the order of the transition by use of finite size scaling analysis. An in-depth numerical investigation is...

  4. Cut-and-join description of generalized Brezin-Gross-Witten model

    CERN Document Server

    Alexandrov, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the Brezin-Gross-Witten model, a tau-function of the KdV hierarchy, and its natural one-parameter deformation, the generalized Brezin-Gross-Witten tau-function. In particular, we derive the Virasoro constraints, which completely specify the partition function. We solve them in terms of the cut-and-join operator. The Virasoro constraints lead to the loop equations, which we solve in terms of the correlation functions. Explicit expressions for the coefficients of the tau-function and the free energy are derived, and a compact formula for the genus zero contribution is conjectured. A family of polynomial solutions of the KdV hierarchy, given by the Schur functions, is obtained for the half-integer values of the parameter. The quantum spectral curve and its classical limit are discussed.

  5. Interplay between quantum confinement and dielectric mismatch for ultrashallow dopants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, J.A.; Salfi, J.; Miwa, J.A.; Simmons, M.Y.; Rogge, S.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the electronic properties of dopants near an interface is a critical challenge for nanoscale devices. We have determined the effect of dielectric mismatch and quantum confinement on the ionization energy of individual acceptors beneath a hydrogen passivated silicon (100) surface. While

  6. Variational Perturbation Treatment of the Confined Hydrogen Atom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, H. E., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    The Schrodinger equation for the ground state of a hydrogen atom confined at the centre of an impenetrable cavity is treated using variational perturbation theory. Energies calculated from variational perturbation theory are comparable in accuracy to the results from a direct numerical solution. The goal of this exercise is to introduce the…

  7. The Confined Hydrogen Atom with a Moving Nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Francisco M.

    2010-01-01

    We study the hydrogen atom confined to a spherical box with impenetrable walls but, unlike earlier pedagogical articles on the subject, we assume that the nucleus also moves. We obtain the ground-state energy approximately by means of first-order perturbation theory and show that it is greater than that for the case in which the nucleus is clamped…

  8. Variational Perturbation Treatment of the Confined Hydrogen Atom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, H. E., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    The Schrodinger equation for the ground state of a hydrogen atom confined at the centre of an impenetrable cavity is treated using variational perturbation theory. Energies calculated from variational perturbation theory are comparable in accuracy to the results from a direct numerical solution. The goal of this exercise is to introduce the…

  9. The Confined Hydrogen Atom with a Moving Nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Francisco M.

    2010-01-01

    We study the hydrogen atom confined to a spherical box with impenetrable walls but, unlike earlier pedagogical articles on the subject, we assume that the nucleus also moves. We obtain the ground-state energy approximately by means of first-order perturbation theory and show that it is greater than that for the case in which the nucleus is clamped…

  10. Stationary and Dynamical Solutions of the Gross-Pitaevskii Equation for a Bose-Einstein Condensate in a PT symmetric Double Well

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger Cartarius

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the Gross-Pitaevskii equation for a Bose-Einstein condensate in a PT symmetric double-well potential by means of the time-dependent variational principle and numerically exact solutions. A one-dimensional and a fully three-dimensional setup are used. Stationary states are determined and the propagation of wave function is investigated using the time-dependent Gross-Pitaevskii equation. Due to the nonlinearity of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation the potential dependson the wave function and its solutions decide whether or not the Hamiltonian itself is PT symmetric. Stationary solutions with real energy eigenvalues fulfilling exact PT symmetry are found as well as PT broken eigenstates with complex energies. The latter describe decaying or growing probability amplitudes and are not true stationary solutions of the time-dependent Gross-Pitaevskii equation. However, they still provide qualitative information about the time evolution of the wave functions.

  11. Energy Savers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The government has mandated a reduction in energy use this year, but many wonder whether and how that goal can be achieved Pressure is mounting for China to reduce its energy consumption, but many say the government's target of cutting energy use per unit of gross domestic product (GDP) by 4 percent this year will be a major hurdle. Nearly half of the provinces and

  12. Impact of the Pedestal on Global Performance and Confinement Scalings in I-mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walk, John; Hughes, Jerry; Hubbard, Amanda; Whyte, Dennis; White, Anne; Alcator C-Mod Team

    2015-11-01

    The I-mode is a novel high-confinement regime pioneered on Alcator C-Mod, notable for its strong temperature pedestal without the accompanying density pedestal found in conventional H-modes. This separation in transport channels gives the desired improved energy confinement while maintaining low particle confinement, avoiding excessive impurity accumulation. Moreover, I-mode operation is naturally free of deleterious Edge-Localized Modes (ELMs). Recent experiments on Alcator C-Mod have characterized the pedestal structure in I-mode. The impact of the pedestal response (particularly to fueling and heating power) and core profile stiffness on global performance and confinement have demonstrated confinement metrics competitive with H-mode operation on Alcator C-Mod, and consistent with concepts for I-mode access & operation on ITER. Following the practice of the ITER89 and ITER98 scaling laws for L- and H-mode energy confinement, an initial, illustrative attempt at an I-mode confinement scaling has also been developed. The initial characterization from C-Mod data is consistent with the observed pedestal properties in I-mode, particularly the weak degradation of energy confinement with heating power, and comparatively strong positive response to fueling and increased magnetic field. Supported by U.S. Department of Energy award DE-FC02-99ER54512, using Alcator C-Mod, a DOE Office of Science User Facility.

  13. Quantum confinement and Coulomb blockade in isolated nanodiamond crystallites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolker, Asaf; Saguy, Cecile; Tordjman, Moshe; Kalish, Rafi

    2013-07-01

    We present direct experimental evidence of quantum confinement effects in single isolated nanodiamonds by scanning tunneling spectroscopy. For grains smaller than 4.5 nm, the band gap was found to increase with decreasing nanodiamond size and a well-defined, evenly spaced, 12-peak structure was observed on the conduction band side of the conductance curves. We attribute these peaks to the Coulomb blockade effect, reflecting the 12-fold degeneracy of the first electron-energy level in the confined nanodiamond. The present results shed light on the size dependence of the electronic properties of single nanodiamonds and are of major importance for future nanodiamond-based applications.

  14. Generalized Bogoliubov Transformation for Confined Fields Applications in Casimir Effect

    CERN Document Server

    Silva, J C; Neto, A M; Santana, A E

    2002-01-01

    The Bogoliubov transformation in thermofield dynamics, an operator formalism for the finite-temperature quantum-field theory, is generalized to describe a field in arbitrary confined regions of space and time. Starting with the scalar field, the approach is extended to the electromagnetic field and the energy-momentum tensor is written via the Bogoliubov transformation. In this context, the Casimir effect is calculated for zero and non-zero temperature, and therefore it can be considered as a vacuum condensation effect of the electromagnetic field. This aspect opens an interesting perspective for using this procedure as an effective scheme for calculations in the studies of confined fields, including the interacting fields.

  15. Proving Nontrivial Topology of Pure Bismuth by Quantum Confinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, S.; Feng, B.; Arita, M.; Takayama, A.; Liu, R.-Y.; Someya, T.; Chen, W.-C.; Iimori, T.; Namatame, H.; Taniguchi, M.; Cheng, C.-M.; Tang, S.-J.; Komori, F.; Kobayashi, K.; Chiang, T.-C.; Matsuda, I.

    2016-12-01

    The topology of pure Bi is controversial because of its very small (˜10 meV ) band gap. Here we perform high-resolution angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy measurements systematically on 14-202 bilayer Bi films. Using high-quality films, we succeed in observing quantized bulk bands with energy separations down to ˜10 meV . Detailed analyses on the phase shift of the confined wave functions precisely determine the surface and bulk electronic structures, which unambiguously show nontrivial topology. The present results not only prove the fundamental property of Bi but also introduce a capability of the quantum-confinement approach.

  16. Proving Nontrivial Topology of Pure Bismuth by Quantum Confinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, S; Feng, B; Arita, M; Takayama, A; Liu, R-Y; Someya, T; Chen, W-C; Iimori, T; Namatame, H; Taniguchi, M; Cheng, C-M; Tang, S-J; Komori, F; Kobayashi, K; Chiang, T-C; Matsuda, I

    2016-12-02

    The topology of pure Bi is controversial because of its very small (∼10  meV) band gap. Here we perform high-resolution angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy measurements systematically on 14-202 bilayer Bi films. Using high-quality films, we succeed in observing quantized bulk bands with energy separations down to ∼10  meV. Detailed analyses on the phase shift of the confined wave functions precisely determine the surface and bulk electronic structures, which unambiguously show nontrivial topology. The present results not only prove the fundamental property of Bi but also introduce a capability of the quantum-confinement approach.

  17. Strong quantum confinement effects in thin zinc selenide films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskoutas, S.; Poulopoulos, P.; Karoutsos, V.; Angelakeris, M.; Flevaris, N. K.

    2006-01-01

    Thin Zinc Selenide films in the thickness range 3-50 nm have been prepared on high quality glass substrates by e-beam evaporation under ultrahigh vacuum conditions. Optical absorption spectroscopy experiments reveal a systematically increasing blue shift of the effective bandgap energy as the film thickness decreases, reaching a maximum value of 0.32 eV for the thinner film. The experimental results, which indicate the presence of strong quantum confinement effects, are fairly well described by theoretical calculations based on the potential morphing method, using as a confining potential the finite square well potential with height of the barriers equal to 5 eV.

  18. Métodos de coleta de fezes e determinação dos coeficientes de digestibilidade da fração protéica e da energia de alimentos para o pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887 Fecal collection methods and determination of crude protein and of gross energy digestibility coefficients of feedstuffs for pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Gianini Abimorad

    2004-10-01

    concentrados protéicos pode ser utilizada como ótimas fontes de proteína, com exceção da farinha de sangue e a levedura, enquanto os alimentos energéticos confirmaram-se como excelentes fontes de energia em dietas para o pacu.To improve the pacu (Piaracatus mesopotamicus feeding in the growth phase, it's necessary to know the digestibility of the ingredients used in his diets. Initially, four fecal collection methods were analyzed (dissection, stripping, Guelph and modified Guelph, based on precision and versatility and also the most efficient time among fecal collection of the Guelph sedimentation systems, through crude protein digestibility coefficient of pacu basic diet. There was no difference among the fecal collection methods while the intervals of time among the collections were significantly different, which may interfere in the protein digestibility results. In a second stage, five proteins concentrated of animal origin, five of vegetable origin and four energetic were studied for estimating protein and energy digestibility coefficients using the stripping method. The rations contained 69.5% of a reference diet, 30.0% of the ingredient test and 0.5% of Cr2O3. In a general way, crude protein digestibility coefficients were high and did not differ from the wheat meal (93.89% and feather flour (75.73%, respectively. However, blood and yeast showed lower crude protein digestibility (57.72% and 68.86%, respectively. Gross energy digestibility coefficients varied considerably among the feedstuffs, showing high values (above 90% for the sorghum, rice meal and raw and toasted soy and lower values (smaller than 70% for poultry by-product and blood meal, soybean meal, cotton and yeast. However, with regard to the fecal collection methods, the results showed that anyone can be adopted with safety for digestibility determination, if used accurately. In a general way, most of protein concentrate can be used as a very good protein source, except for blood meal and the yeast

  19. Variation of the Method for Determining the Enzyme Hydrolysate Gross Energy of Feedstuff by in Vitro Bionic Digestion Based on Simulated Digestion System for Broilers%基于单胃动物仿生消化系统的鸡仿生消化法测定饲料酶水解物能值变异程度的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵峰; 米宝民; 任立芹; 王钰明; 张宏福

    2014-01-01

    Variation of the method for determining the enzyme hydrolysate gross energy(EHGE)of feedstuff using in vitro bionic digestion was investigated to confirm the precision of assay and evaluate the factors con-tributed to the variation of determined values. A single factorial completely randomized design was adapted. Three computer-controlled simulated digestion system( SDS-2)were randomly selected to determine the dry matter digestibility( DMD)and EHGE in corn,wheat,rapeseed meal and cottonseed meal. Each feedstuff was repeatedly determined for the DMD and EHGE in 3 batches. Each batch contained 5 replicates with 1 di-gestion tube per replicate. The variation coefficients of variables for determining the DMD and EHGE were cal-culated and the correlation between these variables and DMD or EHGE were developed. The results showed as follows:1)the intra-batch,inter-batch and total coefficient of variation( CV)were all less than 1.00% for DMD and EHGE in corn,wheat and cottonseed meal. The intra-batch,inter-batch and total CV were all less than 1.00% for DMD and 1. 64% for EHGE in rapeseed meal,respectively. In bionic digestion,the intra-batch,inter-batch and total CV were all less than 0.40%,4.16%,4.17% and 2.08% for sample weight,resi-dues weight,residues energy and residues energy content,respectively. 2)Correlation between sample weight and DMD was not significant for corn,wheat and rapeseed meal( P > 0.05),also low for cottonseed meal ( | r| 0.05). However,high correlation between residues weight and DMD,and between residues energy and EHGE were observed for all feedstuffs( | r| >0.95,P0.05). In conclusion,the precision is acceptable for the method to determine DMD and EHGE of feedstuffs u-sing bionic digestion based on SDS-2. The variation of residues weight is the main factor contributed to the var-iation of DMD and EHGE.%本试验旨在探讨仿生消化法测定鸡饲料酶水解物能值( EHGE)的变异程度,为确定该方法的测试精度与变异因

  20. Water clusters confined in icosahedral fullerene cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez-Rojas, J., E-mail: jhrojas@ull.es [Departamento de F Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I Acute-Accent sica Fundamental II and IUdEA, Universidad de La Laguna, 38205 Tenerife (Spain); Monteseguro, V. [Departamento de F Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I Acute-Accent sica Fundamental II and IUdEA, Universidad de La Laguna, 38205 Tenerife (Spain); Breton, J., E-mail: jbreton@ull.es [Departamento de F Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I Acute-Accent sica Fundamental II and IUdEA, Universidad de La Laguna, 38205 Tenerife (Spain); Gomez Llorente, J.M., E-mail: jmgomez@ull.es [Departamento de F Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I Acute-Accent sica Fundamental II and IUdEA, Universidad de La Laguna, 38205 Tenerife (Spain)

    2012-05-03

    Graphical abstract: Black-Square Display Omitted Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We model the interaction energy of water clusters confined in fullerene cavities. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer C{sub 60} and C{sub 180} are chosen as icosahedral cavities. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The rigid TIP4P and flexible q-TIP4P/F water-water potentials are used. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer While C{sub 60} can confine exothermically only one water molecule, C{sub 180} does up to 17. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New global minimum structures are reported for water clusters inside C{sub 180}. - Abstract: Likely candidates for the global energy minima of endohedral (H{sub 2}O){sub N}-C{sub 60} and (H{sub 2}O){sub N}-C{sub 180}, and exohedral (H{sub 2}O){sub N}C{sub 180} water-fullerene clusters with N Less-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To 20, are found using basin-hopping global optimization. The potential energy surfaces are constructed using both the rigid TIP4P and the flexible q-TIP4P/F potentials to model the water-water interaction, together with a Lennard-Jones potential for the water-fullerene interaction. In agreement with previous ab initio studies, we find that the small C{sub 60} cavity is able to encapsulate exothermically only one water molecule. On the other hand, the larger C{sub 180} cavity can encapsulate up to 17 water molecules exothermically. This threshold value is higher than that reported in a previous ab initio study (N Less-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To 12). New confined water cluster structures are found. One which is particularly interesting is the structure of (H{sub 2}O){sub 14}-C{sub 180}, with the water molecules forming an internal cage in which six oxygen atoms are located at the vertices of an almost regular octahedron and the eight remaining ones lie on top of the octahedron faces. For N Greater-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To 15 one water molecule is always present at the center of the water cage, which is distorted to accommodate the extra molecules.

  1. Beta-decay rate and beta-delayed neutron emission probability of improved gross theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koura, Hiroyuki

    2014-09-01

    A theoretical study has been carried out on beta-decay rate and beta-delayed neutron emission probability. The gross theory of the beta decay is based on an idea of the sum rule of the beta-decay strength function, and has succeeded in describing beta-decay half-lives of nuclei overall nuclear mass region. The gross theory includes not only the allowed transition as the Fermi and the Gamow-Teller, but also the first-forbidden transition. In this work, some improvements are introduced as the nuclear shell correction on nuclear level densities and the nuclear deformation for nuclear strength functions, those effects were not included in the original gross theory. The shell energy and the nuclear deformation for unmeasured nuclei are adopted from the KTUY nuclear mass formula, which is based on the spherical-basis method. Considering the properties of the integrated Fermi function, we can roughly categorized energy region of excited-state of a daughter nucleus into three regions: a highly-excited energy region, which fully affect a delayed neutron probability, a middle energy region, which is estimated to contribute the decay heat, and a region neighboring the ground-state, which determines the beta-decay rate. Some results will be given in the presentation. A theoretical study has been carried out on beta-decay rate and beta-delayed neutron emission probability. The gross theory of the beta decay is based on an idea of the sum rule of the beta-decay strength function, and has succeeded in describing beta-decay half-lives of nuclei overall nuclear mass region. The gross theory includes not only the allowed transition as the Fermi and the Gamow-Teller, but also the first-forbidden transition. In this work, some improvements are introduced as the nuclear shell correction on nuclear level densities and the nuclear deformation for nuclear strength functions, those effects were not included in the original gross theory. The shell energy and the nuclear deformation for

  2. Theory of rheology in confinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerov, Artem A; Krüger, Matthias

    2015-10-01

    The viscosity of fluids is generally understood in terms of kinetic mechanisms, i.e., particle collisions, or thermodynamic ones as imposed through structural distortions upon, e.g., applying shear. Often the latter are more relevant, which allows a simpler theoretical description, and, e.g., (damped) Brownian particles can be considered good fluid model systems. We formulate a general theoretical approach for rheology in confinement, based on microscopic equations of motion and classical density functional theory. Specifically, we discuss the viscosity for the case of two parallel walls in relative motion as a function of the wall-to-wall distance, analyzing its relation to the slip length found for a single wall. The previously observed [A. A. Aerov and M. Krüger, J. Chem. Phys. 140, 094701 (2014).] deficiency of inhomogeneous (unphysical) stresses under naive application of shear in confinement is healed when hydrodynamic interactions are included.

  3. Soft Confinement for Polymer Solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Oya, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    As a model of soft confinement for polymers, we investigated equilibrium shapes of a flexible vesicle that contains a phase-separating polymer solution. To simulate such a system, we combined the phase field theory (PFT) for the vesicle and the self-consistent field theory (SCFT) for the polymer solution. We observed a transition from a symmetric prolate shape of the vesicle to an asymmetric pear shape induced by the domain structure of the enclosed polymer solution. Moreover, when a non-zero spontaneous curvature of the vesicle is introduced, a re-entrant transition between the prolate and the dumbbell shapes of the vesicle is observed. This re-entrant transition is explained by considering the competition between the loss of conformational entropy and that of translational entropy of polymer chains due to the confinement by the deformable vesicle. This finding is in accordance with the recent experimental result reported by Terasawa, et al.

  4. Gross Pollutant Traps: Wet Load Assessment at Sungai Kerayong, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Shah, M. R.; Zahari, N. M.; Said, N. F. Md; Sidek, L. M.; Basri, H.; Noor, M. S. F. Md; Husni, M. M. Mohammad; Jajarmizadeh, Milad; Roseli, ZA; Mohd. Dom, N.

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this project is to carry out assessment on the effectiveness and performance of Gross Pollutant Traps (GPTs) stormwater quality control in the urban areas. The study aims to provide a management and planning tool for effective management of the gross pollutants in the urban areas specifically in River of Life (ROL) project. ROL project is a Malaysian Government initiative under the Economic Transformation Program. One of the program in the greater Klang Valley is to transform Klang River into a vibrant and livable waterfront by the year 2020. The main river in ROL catchment is Sungai Klang (upper catchment), with main tributaries Sungai Gombak, Sungai Batu, Sungai Jinjang, Sungai Keroh, Sungai Bunus, Sungai Ampang and Sungai Kerayong. This paper objective is to study the gross pollutant wet load at Sungai Kerayong 1 and Sungai Kerayong 2 which is located at the downstream location of the ROL project. The result shows that Sungai Kerayong 2 produced higher gross pollutant wet load (8025.33 kg/ha/yr) than Sungai Kerayong 1 (4695.12 kg/ha/yr). This could be due to high contributions amounts of gross pollutant traps from residential area, the degree of develop area, and also the location of the river itself related to climate and rainfall.

  5. Gross efficiency during rowing is not affected by stroke rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmijster, Mathijs J; Van Soest, Arthur J; De Koning, Jos J

    2009-05-01

    It has been suggested that the optimal stroke rate in rowing is partly determined by the stroke-rate dependence of internal power losses. This should be reflected in a stroke-rate dependency of gross efficiency (e(gross)). The purpose of this study was to investigate if e(gross) is affected by stroke rate. A second aim was to determine whether internal power losses can be estimated by the negative power output during the stroke cycle (P(negative)). Seventeen well-trained female rowers participated in this study. They rowed three trials on a modified rowing ergometer on slides at a submaximal intensity, with a respiratory exchange ratio of 1 or close to 1. Stroke rates were 28, 34, and 40 strokes per minute. The trials were fully randomized. Power transfer to the flywheel was kept constant whereas e(gross) was determined during each trial. No significant differences in e(gross) were found between conditions. This finding suggests that in rowing internal power losses are not influenced by stroke rate. Furthermore, although P(negative) increased at increasing stroke rate (P measure to estimate internal power losses. This study shows that within the range of stroke rates applied in competitive rowing, internal power losses are unrelated to rowing cycle frequency.

  6. Quark confinement and the renormalization group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogilvie, Michael C

    2011-07-13

    Recent approaches to quark confinement are reviewed, with an emphasis on their connection to renormalization group (RG) methods. Basic concepts related to confinement are introduced: the string tension, Wilson loops and Polyakov lines, string breaking, string tension scaling laws, centre symmetry breaking and the deconfinement transition at non-zero temperature. Current topics discussed include confinement on R(3)×S(1), the real-space RG, the functional RG and the Schwinger-Dyson equation approach to confinement.

  7. Quark Confinement and the Renormalization Group

    CERN Document Server

    Ogilvie, Michael C

    2010-01-01

    Recent approaches to quark confinement are reviewed, with an emphasis on their connection to renormalization group methods. Basic concepts related to confinement are introduced: the string tension, Wilson loops and Polyakov lines, string breaking, string tension scaling laws, center symmetry breaking, and the deconfinement transition at non-zero temperature. Current topics discussed include confinement on $R^3\\times S^1$, the real-space renormalization group, the functional renormalization group, and the Schwinger-Dyson equation approach to confinement.

  8. The relation of edge confinement to global confinement in ASDEX Upgrade (Axially Symmetric Divertor Experiment)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitcher, C.S.; Boozer, A.H.; Murmann, H.; Schweinzer, J.; Suttrop, W.; Salzmann, H. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, IPP-EURATOM Association, D--85748 Garching (Germany); ASDEX Upgrade Team% NBI Group

    1997-07-01

    Experimental evidence is presented from the ASDEX Upgrade (Axially Symmetric Divertor Experiment) tokamak [{ital Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research 1993} (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, 1994), Vol. I, p. 127] of a robust relation between the edge radial pressure gradient and the global confinement of the plasma. This relation transcends the power flowing across flux surfaces near the edge and thus suggests that the usual model of cross-field heat transport, where local gradients increase with increasing local power flow, is not appropriate. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  9. Is ion channel selectivity mediated by confined water?

    CERN Document Server

    Prada-Gracia, Diego

    2012-01-01

    Ion channels form pores across the lipid bilayer, selectively allowing inorganic ions to cross the membrane down their electrochemical gradient. While the study of ion desolvation free-energies have attracted much attention, the role of water inside the pore is less clear. Here, molecular dynamics simulations of a reduced model of the KcsA selectivity filter indicate that the equilibrium position of Na+, but not of K+, is strongly influenced by confined water. The latter forms a stable complex with Na+, moving the equilibrium position of the ion to the plane of the backbone carbonyls. Almost at the centre of the binding site, the water molecule is trapped by favorable electrostatic interactions and backbone hydrogen-bonds. In the absence of confined water the equilibrium position of both Na+ and K+ is identical. Our observations strongly suggest a previously unnoticed active role of confined water in the selectivity mechanism of ion channels.

  10. Microfluidic Induced Controllable Microdroplets Assembly in Confined Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Wang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We report on the microfluidic induced monodispersed microdroplet generation and assembly in confined microchannels. Two and three dimensional close-packed droplet lattices were obtained in microfluidic devices by adjusting the channel geometry, the fluidic flow rates and the monodispersed droplet size. The droplet packing was mainly caused by the volumetric effect and capillarity in confined microchannels. Polymerizable fluids were also investigated to demonstrate the effect of fluidic properties on the microdroplet generation and assembly, which could find interesting applications in the future. This approach would be helpful to fundamentally understand the mechanism of self-assembly process of particles in confined microstructures, and practically be applied in sensing and energy storage devices.

  11. FRACTAL CHARACTERISTICS OF FRAGMENTATION AND CORRELATION WITH ENERGY OF MARBLE UNDER UNLOADING WITH HIGH CONFINING PRESSURE%高围压卸荷条件下大理岩破碎块度分形特征及其与能量相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄达; 谭清; 黄润秋

    2012-01-01

    The mechanical response and unloading mechanism of rock are the key issues to evaluate and control stability for rock mass engineering excavated under high geostress. Based on the unloading confining pressure tests with triaxial high stress under conditions of different unloading rates and different initial confining pressures, combining the fractal theory and energy principle, the distribution rule of rupture fragmentation of marble specimens and its correlation with strain energy transformation are investigated. The characteristics of fragment fractal of marble specimens fractured is obvious locality under unloading confining pressure with triaxial high stress; and only in the range of sizes which is smaller than a certain features scale(fractal feature sizes threshold), it presents good fractal property. The fractal dimensions of all fragmentation are greater than 2 in the test. The fractal dimension monotonously decreases with unloading rate increasing; and the influence of initial confining pressure on it closely relates to the unloading rate. Comparing with conventional triaxial compression test specimens, the dissipation and storage strain energies of rock specimens under high confining pressure near peak point are much smaller; but the rates of strain energy transformation before and after peak point under high confining pressure are much larger; especially the rates of elastic strain energy release and strain energy dissipation by confining deformation. The unloading rate is faster and the initial confining pressure is higher, the time of damage before peak and whole crack rupturing after peak are shorter; the dissipation strain energy and storage elastic energy are larger; the transformation rate of energy before and after peak is faster; the threshold of characteristics size of fractal for broken rock sample is bigger; the fractal dimension is smaller and tensile fracture is more obvious.%高应力条件下,岩石卸荷的力学响应特征及发生机

  12. Contributions on Laser Driven Inertial Confinement Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinrich Hora

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The following modified preprint of a chapter in the forthcoming book by Guillermo Velarde and Natividad Carpintero Santamaria Inertial Confinement Nuclear Fusion: A Historical Approach by its Pioneers with personal comments is presented here as an example about the long years difficult developments towards the aim for producing unlimited, safe and clean nuclear energy in the same way as it is the energy source of the sun. There are arguments that the most recent developments with the plasma block ignition using petawatt-picosecond laser pulses may lead to a fusion power station with a highly simplified operation such that the cost of electricity may be three or more times lower than any energy source on earth, opening the golden age with dramatic consequences for human life and the environment. Applied sciences in all fields, economics and politics may be stimulated just by considering these consequences though these new results on Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE need to be further examined and developed on a broad basis.

  13. Gross functional anatomy: Integumentary system: Chapter 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Diane G.; Ostrander, Gary K.

    2000-01-01

    The integument or skin of a fish is the envelope for the body that separates and protects the animal from its environment, but it also provides the means through which most of the contacts with the outer world are made. The integument is continuous with the lining of all the body openings, and also covers the fins. The skin of a fish is a multifunctional organ, and may serve important roles in protection, communication, sensory perception, locomotion, respiration, ion regulation, excretion, and thermal regulation. The most obvious functions of fish integument are protective. For example, mucous secretions help to keep the skin surface free of pathogens by means of constant sloughing and renewal and the presence of antimicrobial substances. Integumentary features can assist a fish during locomotion. The slippery mucus of some fishes has marked friction-reducing properties that enable a fish to move at greater speed with less expenditure of energy. The integument is an important adjunct to the breathing equipment of some fish species. Gas exchange across the skin is known to play a significant role in the respiration of larval fish.

  14. Gross municipal product: the design procedure and application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Vasilevich Kolechkov

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the actual problem to find the adequate methods to assess the economic performance of municipalities conditioned by their growing independence and role in the development of regional economy. Nowadays many researchers are working on the practical application and testing of various approaches to assessing theterritory economicresults based on thecalculation of gross municipal product (GМP. However, the development of methodological reasonable calculation tools is still at an early stage. In this article presents a simplified method of calculating the gross municipal product, an analysis of the dynamics and territorialindustrial structure GМP, implemented in terms of grouping areas GМP methods hierarchical cluster analysis of the economic characteristics of the obtained clustersbased on systematic occurring in the economic literature, methodological developments in the calculation of gross municipal product, determination of strengths and weaknesses of different methodological approaches

  15. Anatomy of the Gross Intestine of the Capybara (Hydrochoerus Hydrochaeris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelia Vazquez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The anatomy of the gross intestine and its mesentery of the capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris have not been described completely. Approach: In the present study, eight adult capybaras were studied using gross dissection. Results: The cecum was the largest part of the intestine and was divided into base, body and apex. The cecocolic fold joined the cecum to the full extent of the proximal loop of ascending colon. The ascending colon was divided into two ansae, one proximal and one distal or spiral. The distal ansa had a spiral arrangement and was placed cranially to the right, covered ventrally by the apex of the cecum. This ansa had a centripetal gyrus to the left, a central flexure and a centrifugal gyrus turning to the right that was continuous with the transverse colon in the right colic flexure. Conclusion: The gross intestine of the capybara was different to other previously studied rodents.

  16. Potato production in Europe - a gross margin analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren Marcus; Bizik, Jan; Costa, Luisa Dalla;

    The purpose of this paper is to examine different cropping practices, cost structures and gross margins for producing conventional table potatoes in 6 different regions within the European Union: Czech Republic, Denmark, Italy, Poland, Portugal and Slovakia. Findings from this study show that pot......The purpose of this paper is to examine different cropping practices, cost structures and gross margins for producing conventional table potatoes in 6 different regions within the European Union: Czech Republic, Denmark, Italy, Poland, Portugal and Slovakia. Findings from this study show...... that potato cropping practices varies signifi-cantly between these countries with major differences in yields and costs. Italy and Denmark are the two regions with highest gross margins due to high yields and reve-nues. Poland is by far the largest potato producing country among the 6 countries ex...

  17. Quantum behavior of water nano-confined in beryl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Y.; Moreh, R.; Shang, S. L.; Wang, Y.; Liu, Z. K.

    2017-03-01

    The proton mean kinetic energy, Ke(H), of water confined in nanocavities of beryl (Be3Al2Si6O18) at 5 K was obtained by simulating the partial vibrational density of states from density functional theory based first-principles calculations. The result, Ke(H) = 104.4 meV, is in remarkable agreement with the 5 K deep inelastic neutron scattering (DINS) measured value of 105 meV. This is in fact the first successful calculation that reproduces an anomalous DINS value regarding Ke(H) in nano-confined water. The calculation indicates that the vibrational states of the proton of the nano-confined water molecule distribute much differently than in ordinary H2O phases, most probably due to coupling with lattice modes of the hosting beryl nano-cage. These findings may be viewed as a promising step towards the resolution of the DINS controversial measurements on other H2O nano-confining systems, e.g., H2O confined in single and double walled carbon nanotubes.

  18. Issues in tokamak/stellarator transport and confinement enhancement mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perkins, F.W.

    1990-08-01

    At present, the mechanism for anomalous energy transport in low-{beta} toroidal plasmas -- tokamaks and stellarators -- remains unclear, although transport by turbulent E {times} B velocities associated with nonlinear, fine-scale microinstabilities is a leading candidate. This article discusses basic theoretical concepts of various transport and confinement enhancement mechanisms as well as experimental ramifications which would enable one to distinguish among them and hence identify a dominant transport mechanism. While many of the predictions of fine-scale turbulence are born out by experiment, notable contradictions exist. Projections of ignition margin rest both on the scaling properties of the confinement mechanism and on the criteria for entering enhanced confinement regimes. At present, the greatest uncertainties lie with the basis for scaling confinement enhancement criteria. A series of questions, to be answered by new experimental/theoretical work, is posed to resolve these outstanding contradictions (or refute the fine-scale turbulence model) and to establish confinement enhancement criteria. 73 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. A survey of gross alpha and gross beta activity in soil samples in Kinta District, Perak, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Siak Kuan; Wagiran, Husin; Ramli, Ahmad Termizi

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the gross alpha and gross beta activity concentrations from the different soil types found in the Kinta District, Perak, Malaysia. A total of 128 soil samples were collected and their dose rates were measured 1 m above the ground. Gross alpha and gross beta activity measurements were carried out using gas flow proportional counter, Tennelec Series 5 LB5500 Automatic Low Background Counting System. The alpha activity concentration ranged from 15 to 9634 Bq kg(-1) with a mean value of 1558±121 Bq kg(-1). The beta activity concentration ranged from 142 to 6173 Bq kg(-1) with a mean value of 1112±32 Bq kg(-1). High alpha and beta activity concentrations are from the same soil type. The results of the analysis show a strong correlation between the gross alpha activity concentration and dose rate (R = 0.92). The data obtained can be used as a database for each soil type.

  20. Ludwik Gross, Sarah Stewart, and the 1950s discoveries of Gross murine leukemia virus and polyoma virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Gregory J

    2014-12-01

    The Polish-American scientist Ludwik Gross made two important discoveries in the early 1950s. He showed that two viruses - murine leukemia virus and parotid tumor virus - could cause cancer when they were injected into susceptible animals. At first, Gross's discoveries were greeted with skepticism: it seemed implausible that viruses could cause a disease as complex as cancer. Inspired by Gross's initial experiments, similar results were obtained by Sarah Stewart and Bernice Eddy who later renamed the parotid tumor virus SE polyoma virus after finding it could cause many different types of tumors in mice, hamsters, and rats. Eventually the "SE" was dropped and virologists adopted the name "polyoma virus." After Gross's work was published, additional viruses capable of causing solid tumors or blood-borne tumors in mice were described by Arnold Graffi, Charlotte Friend, John Moloney and others. By 1961, sufficient data had been accumulated for Gross to confidently publish an extensive monograph--Oncogenic Viruses--the first history of tumor virology, which became a standard reference work and marked the emergence of tumor virology as a distinct, legitimate field of study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Type Ia Supernova Explosion: Gravitationally Confined Detonation

    CERN Document Server

    Plewa, T; Lamb, D

    2004-01-01

    We present a new mechanism for Type Ia supernova explosions in massive white dwarfs. The proposed scenario follows from relaxing the assumption of symmetry in the model and involves a detonation created in an unconfined environment. The explosion begins with an essentially central ignition of stellar material initiating a deflagration. This deflagration results in the formation of a buoyantly-driven bubble of hot material that reaches the stellar surface at supersonic speeds. The bubble breakout forms a strong pressure wave that laterally accelerates fuel-rich outer stellar layers. This material, confined by gravity to the white dwarf, races along the stellar surface and is focused at the location opposite to the point of the bubble breakout. These streams of nuclear fuel carry enough mass and energy to trigger a detonation just above the stellar surface. The flow conditions at that moment support a detonation that will incinerate the white dwarf and result in an energetic explosion. The stellar expansion fol...

  2. Fabrication issues of oxide-confined VCSELs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geib, K.M.; Choquette, K.D.; Hou, H.Q.; Hammons, B.E.

    1997-04-01

    To insert high-performance oxide-confined vertical-cavity surface- emitting lasers (VCSELs) into the manufacturing arena, we have examined the critical parameters that must be controlled to establish a repeatable and uniform wet thermal oxidation process for AlGaAs. These parameters include the AlAs mole fraction, sample temperature, carrier gas flow, and bubbler water temperature. Knowledge of these parameters has enable the compilation of oxidation rate data for AlGaAs which exhibits an Arrhenius rate dependence. The compositionally dependent activation energies for Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}As layers of x=1.00, 0.98, and 0.92 are found to be 1.24, 1.75, and 1.88 eV, respectively. 7 figs, 1 tab, 14 refs.

  3. Strong Optical Confinement between Flat Dielectric Gratings

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Jingjing; Fiorentino, Marco; Beausoleil, Raymond G

    2011-01-01

    We present a novel type of optical micro-cavity based on a Fabry-Perot resonance between parallel high contrast gratings with non-periodic patterns. Tight lateral confinement is obtained via the phase front distortion properties of these gratings. In such cavities, energy stored in the optical field resides primarily in free space, therefore is readily accessible to particles (atoms, molecules, nanocrystals, etc.) for sensing, trapping, or spectroscopic applications. We describe the physics of these resonators, and propose a design method based on stochastic optimization. We present numerical simulations of two and three dimensional cavities that have diffraction-limited mode volumes with quality factors in the range of $10^4$--$10^6$. The cavity has a purely planar geometry and can be fabricated in silicon for near-infrared applications using standard CMOS processes. These ideas can be extended to the visible domain using commonly available III-V materials.

  4. Gauge/string duality in confining theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edelstein, J.D. [Departamento de Fi sica de Particulas, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela and Instituto Galego de Fisica de Altas Enerxias (IGFAE), 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Instituto de Fisica de La Plata (IFLP), Universidad Nacional de La Plata, La Plata (Argentina); Centro de Estudios Cientificos (CECS), Casilla 1469, Valdivia (Chile); Portugues, R. [Centro de Estudios Cientificos (CECS), Casilla 1469, Valdivia (Chile)

    2006-07-03

    This is the content of a set of lectures given at the ''XIII Jorge Andre Swieca Summer School on Particles and Fields'', Campos do Jordao, Brazil in January 2005. They intend to be a basic introduction to the topic of gauge/gravity duality in confining theories. We start by reviewing some key aspects of the low energy physics of non-Abelian gauge theories. Then, we present the basics of the AdS/CFT correspondence and its extension both to gauge theories in different spacetime dimensions with sixteen supercharges and to more realistic situations with less supersymmetry. We discuss the different options of interest: placing D-branes at singularities and wrapping D-branes in calibrated cycles of special holonomy manifolds. We finally present an outline of a number of non-perturbative phenomena in non-Abelian gauge theories as seen from supergravity. (Abstract Copyright [2006], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  5. Gauge/String Duality in Confining Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Edelstein, J D; Edelstein, Jose D.; Portugues, Ruben

    2006-01-01

    This is the content of a set of lectures given at the XIII Jorge Andre Swieca Summer School on Particles and Fields, held in Campos do Jordao, Brazil in January 2005. They intend to be a basic introduction to the topic of gauge/gravity duality in confining theories. We start by reviewing some key aspects of the low energy physics of non-Abelian gauge theories. Then, we present the basics of the AdS/CFT correspondence and its extension both to gauge theories in different spacetime dimensions with sixteen supercharges and to more realistic situations with less supersymmetry. We discuss the different options of interest: placing D-branes at singularities and wrapping D-branes in calibrated cycles of special holonomy manifolds. We finally present an outline of a number of non-perturbative phenomena in non-Abelian gauge theories as seen from supergravity.

  6. Numerical simulation for the Gross-Pitaevskii equation based on the lattice Boltzmann method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huimin

    2017-09-01

    A lattice Boltzmann model for the Gross-Pitaevskii equation is proposed in this paper. Some numerical tests for one- and two-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation have been conducted. The waves of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation are simulated. Numerical results show that the lattice Boltzmann method is an effective method for the wave of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation.

  7. 29 CFR 779.259 - What is included in annual gross volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is included in annual gross volume. 779.259 Section... Coverage Annual Gross Volume of Sales Made Or Business Done § 779.259 What is included in annual gross volume. (a) The annual gross volume of sales made or business done of an enterprise consists of its...

  8. 29 CFR 794.122 - Ascertainment of “annual” gross sales volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ascertainment of âannualâ gross sales volume. 794.122... Annual Gross Volume of Sales § 794.122 Ascertainment of “annual” gross sales volume. The annual gross volume of sales of an enterprise engaged in the wholesale or bulk distribution of petroleum...

  9. Happy Life Years: a measure of Gross National Happiness

    OpenAIRE

    Veenhoven, Ruut

    2004-01-01

    textabstractHappiness is defined as the degree to which a person enjoys his or her life-as-a-whole. Accordingly ‘Gross National Happiness’ is defined as the degree to which citizens in a country enjoy the life they live. Individual happiness can be measured by self-report on a single standard question. Hence Gross National Happiness can be measured by the average response to such questions in general populations surveys. Survey data on average self-report of happiness can be combined with est...

  10. The Impact of Investments and Gross Value Added upon Earnings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa APARASCHIVEI

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we tried to capture the impact of investments and gross value added, but also the impact of the employment on the average wage. The analysis refers to the period 1998- 2008 and we are using data on the activities of the Romanian economy. The results of this study confirm the negative influence of the employment, being consistent with the theory. Also, the impact of investments and that of gross value added came out to be positive and significant.

  11. Revised Phase Diagram of the Gross-Neveu Model

    CERN Document Server

    Thies, M; Thies, Michael; Urlichs, Konrad

    2003-01-01

    We confirm earlier hints that the conventional phase diagram of the discrete chiral Gross-Neveu model in the large N limit is deficient at non-zero chemical potential. We present the corrected phase diagram constructed in mean field theory. It has three different phases, including a kink-antikink crystal phase. All transitions are second order. The driving mechanism for the new structure of baryonic matter in the Gross-Neveu model is an Overhauser type instability with gap formation at the Fermi surface.

  12. Phenomenological sizes of confinement regions in baryons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, G.E.; Klimt, S.; Weise, W.; Rho, M.

    1988-10-01

    Standard order of magnitude estimates from QCD indicate that the radius of the quark-gluon core in the nucleon is ..lambda../sup -1//sub QCD/ > or approx. 1 fm. However, in work with the chiral bag model, we have found that the effective confinement size for low energy reactions can be as small as approx. = 1/2 fm or smaller. This shrinking of the effective confinement size has been attributed to the pressure of the pion cloud surrounding the quark core. The concept of confinement size is evidently subtle in light-quark systems, due to the chiral vacuum structure. This is indicated by the 'Cheshire Cat' phenomenon, in which physical observables tend to be insensitive to the bag radius R. We suggest that when strange quarks are present, a qualitative change occurs in the Cheshire Cat picture; in particular, we propose that strangeness provides an obstruction to this picture. We present a phenomenological indication that when strange quarks are present, the bag radius R is frozen at a value substantially larger than 0.5 fm by as much as a factor of two. Roughly speaking, the Cheshire Cat picture emerges from a near cancellation between repulsive quark kinetic and attractive pion-cloud energies in the case of the nucleon. In the ..lambda.. and ..sigma.. particles, however, replacement of one up or down quark by a strange quark removes part of the attraction from the coupling of the quarks to the pion cloud. This upsets the balance needed for the Cheshire Cat phenomenon and makes larger strange baryons more favorable energetically than the 0.5 fm ones appropriate for pure u- and d-systems. We find that magnetic moments of strange baryons favor a bag radius R approx. = 1.1 fm. We find that the excited states of the ..lambda..-hyperons favor similarly large bag radii. Somewhat less convincingly, due to perturbative effects - the bag radius appropriate to the ..delta..(1232) lies intermediate between that of the nucleon and of the stran

  13. Compressive Behavior of Concrete Confined with GFRP Tubes and Steel Spirals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Huang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the experimental results and analytical modeling of the axial compressive behavior of concrete cylinders confined by both glass fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP tube and inner steel spiral reinforcement (SR. The concrete structure is termed as GFRP–SR confined concrete. The number of GFRP layers (1, 2, and 3 layers and volumetric ratios of SR (1.5% and 3% were the experimental variables. Test results indicate that both GFRP tube and SR confinement remarkably increase the ultimate compressive strength, energy dissipation capacity, and ductility of concrete. The volumetric ratio of SR has a more pronounced influence on the energy dissipation capacity of confined concrete with more GFRP layers. In addition, a stress–strain model is presented to predict the axial compressive behavior of GFRP–SR confined concrete. Comparisons between the analytical results obtained using the proposed model and experimental results are also presented.

  14. Measurements of energetic confined alphas and tritons on TFTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medley, S.S.; Duong, H.H.; McChesney, J.M. [and others

    1995-08-01

    In a collaboration involving General Atomics, the A. F. Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, and the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, the energy distribution of the fast-confined alpha particles in DT experiments on TFIR is being measured by active neutral particle analysis using the ablation cloud surrounding an injected impurity pellet as the neutralizer. Recent papers reported the first measurements of the energy distribution fast confined alpha particles and examined the influence of magnetic field ripple and sawtooth oscillations on the behavior of the alpha energy spectra and radial density distributions. This paper focuses on alpha and triton measurements in the core of quiescent TFTR discharges where the expected classical slowing down and pitch angle scattering effects are not complicated by stochastic ripple diffusion and sawtooth activity.

  15. The Texas Experimental Tokamak: A plasma research facility. A proposal submitted to the Department of Energy in response to Program Notice 95-10: Innovations in toroidal magnetic confinement systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-12

    The Fusion Research Center (FRC) at the University Texas will operate the tokamak TEXT-U and its associated systems for experimental research in basic plasma physics. While the tokamak is not innovative, the research program, diagnostics and planned experiments are. The fusion community will reap the benefits of the success in completing the upgrades (auxiliary heating, divertor, diagnostics, wall conditioning), developing diverted discharges in both double and single null configurations, exploring improved confinement regimes including a limiter H-mode, and developing unique, critical turbulence diagnostics. With these new regimes, the authors are poised to perform the sort of turbulence and transport studies for which the TEXT group has distinguished itself and for which the upgrade was intended. TEXT-U is also a facility for collaborators to perform innovative experiments and develop diagnostics before transferring them to larger machines. The general philosophy is that the understanding of plasma physics must be part of any intelligent fusion program, and that basic experimental research is the most important part of any such program. The emphasis of the proposed research is to provide well-documented plasmas which will be used to suggest and evaluate theories, to explore control techniques, to develop advanced diagnostics and analysis techniques, and to extend current drive techniques. Up to 1 MW of electron cyclotron heating (ECH) will be used not only for heating but as a localized, perturbative tool. Areas of proposed research are: (1) core turbulence and transport; (2) edge turbulence and transport; (3) turbulence analysis; (4) improved confinement; (5) ECH physics; (6) Alfven wave current drive; and (7) diagnostic development.

  16. Quantum Confinement Effects in Strained SiGe/Si Multiple Quantum Wells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Strained SiGe/Si multiple quantum wells (MQWs) were grown by cold-wall ultrahigh vacuum chemical vapor deposition (UHV/CVD). Photoluminescence measurement was performed to study the exciton energies of strained Si0.84 Ge0.16/Si MQWs with SiGe well widths ranging from 4.2nm to 25.4nm. The confinement energy of 43meV is found in the Si0.84Ge0.16/Si MQWs with well width of 4.2nm. The confinement energy was calculated by solving the problem of a particle confined in a single finite rectangular poteintial well using one band effect mass model. Experimental and theoretical confinement energies are in good agreement

  17. Monitoring of gross alpha, gross beta and actinides activities in exhaust air released from the waste isolation pilot plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thakur, P., E-mail: pthakur@cemrc.org [Carlsbad Environmental Monitoring and Research Center, 1400 University Drive, Carlsbad, New Mexico 88220 (United States); Mulholland, G.P. [Carlsbad Environmental Monitoring and Research Center, 1400 University Drive, Carlsbad, New Mexico 88220 (United States)

    2011-09-15

    The simultaneous measurements of gross alpha and beta activities is one of the simplest radioanalytical technique used as a method for screening samples of both high and low activities of alpha and beta emitting radionuclides in environmental and bioassay samples. Such measurements are of great interest from both a radiological, waste disposal viewpoint, and to establish a trend of radioactivity based on long term monitoring. At the WIPP (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant) site, unfiltered exhaust air from the underground repository is the most important effluent. As part of its monitoring program, the particulates from WIPP exhaust air are collected everyday at a location typically called the Fixed Air Sampler (FAS) site or Station A, this site is located at the release point for aerosol effluents from the underground to the environment. The measurements of gross alpha and beta activity on air filter samples were performed using an ultra low level counter, PIC-MPC 9604-{alpha}/{beta}, from Protean Instrument Corporation. The high sensitivity of the gross alpha and beta instrument enables detection of low value activity from the air filters. In 2009, the values of gross alpha and beta activity concentrations ranged from Simultaneous measurements of gross alpha and gross beta activities in the particulates from WIPP exhaust air were performed. > Ultra low level counter, PIC-MPC 9604-{alpha}/{beta} counter was used for the measurements. > Values of gross alpha activity concentrations ranged from Values of gross beta activity concentrations ranged from

  18. Liquid Spreading under Nanoscale Confinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checco, Antonio

    2009-03-01

    Dynamic atomic force microscopy in the noncontact regime is used to study the morphology of a nonvolatile liquid (squalane) as it spreads along wettable nanostripes embedded in a nonwettable surface. Results show that the liquid profile depends on the amount of lateral confinement imposed by the nanostripes, and it is truncated at the microscopic contact line in good qualitative agreement with classical mesoscale hydrodynamics. However, the width of the contact line is found to be significantly larger than expected theoretically. This behavior may originate from small chemical inhomogeneity of the patterned stripes as well as from thermal fluctuations of the contact line.

  19. Wicking a confined micropillar array

    CERN Document Server

    Texier, Baptiste Darbois; Stoukatch, Serguei; Dorbolo, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    This study considers the spreading of a Newtonian and perfectly wetting liquid in a square array of cylindric micropillars confined between two plates. We show experimentally that the dynamics of the contact line follows a Washburn-like law which depends on the characteristics of the micropillar array (height, diameter and pitch). The presence of pillars can either enhanced or slow down the motion of the contact line. A theoretical model based on capillary and viscous forces has been developed in order to rationalize our observations. Finally, the impact of pillars on the volumic flow rate of liquid which is pumped in the microchannel is inspected.

  20. Electromelting of Confined Monolayer Ice

    CERN Document Server

    Qiu, Hu

    2013-01-01

    In sharp contrast to the prevailing view that electric fields promote water freezing, here we show by molecular dynamics simulations that monolayer ice confined between two parallel plates can melt into liquid water under perpendicularly applied electric field. The melting temperature of the monolayer ice decreases with the increasing strength of the external field due to field-induced disruption of the water-wall interaction induced well-ordered network of hydrogen bond. This electromelting process should add an important new ingredient to the physics of water.

  1. Thermoelectricity in confined liquid electrolytes

    CERN Document Server

    Dietzel, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    The electric field in an extended phase of a liquid electrolyte exposed to a temperature gradient is attributed to different thermophoretic mobilities of the ion species. As shown herein, such Soret-type ion thermodiffusion is not required to induce thermoelectricity even in the simplest electrolyte if it is confined between charged walls. The space charge of the electric double layer leads to selective ion diffusion driven by a temperature-dependent electrophoretic ion mobility, which -for narrow channels- may cause thermo-voltages larger in magnitude than for the classical Soret equilibrium.

  2. Frictional properties of confined polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivebæk, Ion Marius; Samoilov, Vladimir N; Persson, Bo N J

    2008-01-01

    We present molecular dynamics friction calculations for confined hydrocarbon solids with molecular lengths from 20 to 1400 carbon atoms. Two cases are considered: a) polymer sliding against a hard substrate, and b) polymer sliding on polymer. In the first setup the shear stresses are relatively...... independent of molecular length. For polymer sliding on polymer the friction is significantly larger, and dependent on the molecular chain length. In both cases, the shear stresses are proportional to the squeezing pressure and finite at zero load, indicating an adhesional contribution to the friction force...

  3. Radiation and confinement in 0D fusion systems codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lux, H.; Kemp, R.; Fable, E.; Wenninger, R.

    2016-07-01

    In systems modelling for fusion power plants, it is essential to robustly predict the performance of a given machine design (including its respective operating scenario). One measure of machine performance is the energy confinement time {τ\\text{E}} that is typically predicted from experimentally derived confinement scaling laws (e.g. IPB98(y,2)). However, the conventionally used scaling laws have been derived for ITER which—unlike a fusion power plant—will not have significant radiation inside the separatrix. In the absence of a new high core radiation relevant confinement scaling, we propose an ad hoc correction to the loss power {{P}\\text{L}} used in the ITER confinement scaling and the calculation of the stored energy {{W}\\text{th}} by the radiation losses from the ‘core’ of the plasma {{P}\\text{rad,\\text{core}}} . Using detailed ASTRA / TGLF simulations, we find that an appropriate definition of {{P}\\text{rad,\\text{core}}} is given by 60% of all radiative losses inside a normalised minor radius {ρ\\text{core}}=0.75 . We consider this an improvement for current design predictions, but it is far from an ideal solution. We therefore encourage more detailed experimental and theoretical work on this issue.

  4. Wall depletion length of a channel-confined polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Guo Kang; Li, Xiaolan; Dorfman, Kevin D.

    2017-02-01

    Numerous experiments have taken advantage of DNA as a model system to test theories for a channel-confined polymer. A tacit assumption in analyzing these data is the existence of a well-defined depletion length characterizing DNA-wall interactions such that the experimental system (a polyelectrolyte in a channel with charged walls) can be mapped to the theoretical model (a neutral polymer with hard walls). We test this assumption using pruned-enriched Rosenbluth method (PERM) simulations of a DNA-like semiflexible polymer confined in a tube. The polymer-wall interactions are modeled by augmenting a hard wall interaction with an exponentially decaying, repulsive soft potential. The free energy, mean span, and variance in the mean span obtained in the presence of a soft wall potential are compared to equivalent simulations in the absence of the soft wall potential to determine the depletion length. We find that the mean span and variance about the mean span have the same depletion length for all soft potentials we tested. In contrast, the depletion length for the confinement free energy approaches that for the mean span only when depletion length no longer depends on channel size. The results have implications for the interpretation of DNA confinement experiments under low ionic strengths.

  5. 26 CFR 1.555-2 - Additions to gross income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Corporation sells 90percent of its stock in the Y Corporation and thus is a minority shareholder in the Y... on which the required United States group exists, and (2) Such foreign corporation is a shareholder... the gross income of its shareholders, whether United States shareholders or other foreign...

  6. Comments on the research article by Gross et al. (2012)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guntur, Srinivas; Sørensen, Niels N.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this Letter to the Editor is to present a discussion on the physics of rotational augmentation based on existing work. One of the latest works by Gross et al. (2012) is highlighted here, and its conclusions are discussed. Based on the existing understanding of rotational augmentati...

  7. Effective Collaboration among the Gross Motor Assessment Team Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menear, Kristi S.; Davis, Timothy D.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the gross motor assessment team (GMAT) members' roles and collaborative approach to making appropriate decisions and modifications when addressing the needs of individuals with disabilities in physical education. Case studies of students are used to demonstrate effective uses of the GMAT. The primary outcome of the GMAT's…

  8. 40 CFR 403.15 - Net/Gross calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... STANDARDS GENERAL PRE-TREAT-MENT REGULATIONS FOR EXIST-ING AND NEW SOURCES OF POLLUTION § 403.15 Net/Gross... pollutants in the Industrial User's intake water in accordance with this section. Any Industrial User wishing... of the Industrial User, the applicable Standard will be calculated on a “net” basis (i.e., adjusted...

  9. Rubriek 'Meten in de praktijk': Gross Motor Function Measure.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenhof, C.; Ketelaar, M.

    2004-01-01

    De Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) is een instrument dat de grof-motorische vaardigheden meet van kinderen met cerebrale parese. De GMFM is expliciet ontwikkeld als evaluatief meetinstrument, wat betekent dat het bedoeld is om veranderingen over de tijd of verandering en die optreden na behandel

  10. Development of the Gross Motor Function Classification System (1997)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    To address the need for a standardized system to classify the gross motor function of children with cerebral palsy, the authors developed a five-level classification system analogous to the staging and grading systems used in medicine. Nominal group process and Delphi survey consensus methods were used to examine content validity and revise the…

  11. Effective Collaboration among the Gross Motor Assessment Team Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menear, Kristi S.; Davis, Timothy D.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the gross motor assessment team (GMAT) members' roles and collaborative approach to making appropriate decisions and modifications when addressing the needs of individuals with disabilities in physical education. Case studies of students are used to demonstrate effective uses of the GMAT. The primary outcome of the GMAT's…

  12. Assessing Gross Motor Skills of Kosovar Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shala, Merita

    2009-01-01

    In the light of the new developments in preschool education in Kosovo, this study attempts to carry out an assessment of the development of gross motor skills of preschool children attending institutional education. The emphasis is on creating a set of tests to measure the motor attainments of these children by conducting assessments of the…

  13. 78 FR 26575 - Gross Combination Weight Rating; Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-07

    ... Weight Rating; Definition AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION... definition of ``gross combination weight rating'' (or GCWR) to clarify that a GCWR is the greater of: the....regulations.gov . Fax: 1-202-493-2251. Mail: Docket Management Facility (M-30), U.S. Department of...

  14. Gross and Microscopic Lesions in Corals from Micronesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, T M; Aeby, G S; Hughen, K A

    2016-01-01

    The authors documented gross and microscopic morphology of lesions in corals on 7 islands spanning western, southern, and eastern Micronesia, sampling 76 colonies comprising 30 species of corals among 18 genera, with Acropora, Porites, and Montipora dominating. Tissue loss comprised the majority of gross lesions sampled (41%), followed by discoloration (30%) and growth anomaly (29%). Of 31 cases of tissue loss, most lesions were subacute (48%), followed by acute and chronic (26% each). Of 23 samples with discoloration, most were dark discoloration (40%), with bleaching and other discoloration each constituting 30%. Of 22 growth anomalies, umbonate growth anomalies composed half, with exophytic, nodular, and rugose growth anomalies composing the remainder. On histopathology, for 9 cases of dark discoloration, fungal infections predominated (77%); for 7 bleached corals, depletion of zooxanthellae from the gastrodermis made up a majority of microscopic diagnoses (57%); and for growth anomalies other than umbonate, hyperplasia of the basal body wall was the most common microscopic finding (63%). For the remainder of the gross lesions, no single microscopic finding constituted >50% of the total. Host response varied with the agent present on histology. Fragmentation of tissues was most often associated with algae (60%), whereas necrosis dominated (53%) for fungi. Two newly documented potentially symbiotic tissue-associated metazoans were seen in Porites and Montipora. Findings of multiple potential etiologies for a given gross lesion highlight the importance of incorporating histopathology in coral disease surveys. This study also expands the range of corals infected with cell-associated microbial aggregates.

  15. Gross and microscopic lesions in corals from Micronesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, Thierry M.; Aeby, Greta S.; Hughen, Konrad A.

    2015-01-01

    The authors documented gross and microscopic morphology of lesions in corals on 7 islands spanning western, southern, and eastern Micronesia, sampling 76 colonies comprising 30 species of corals among 18 genera, with Acropora, Porites, and Montipora dominating. Tissue loss comprised the majority of gross lesions sampled (41%), followed by discoloration (30%) and growth anomaly (29%). Of 31 cases of tissue loss, most lesions were subacute (48%), followed by acute and chronic (26% each). Of 23 samples with discoloration, most were dark discoloration (40%), with bleaching and other discoloration each constituting 30%. Of 22 growth anomalies, umbonate growth anomalies composed half, with exophytic, nodular, and rugose growth anomalies composing the remainder. On histopathology, for 9 cases of dark discoloration, fungal infections predominated (77%); for 7 bleached corals, depletion of zooxanthellae from the gastrodermis made up a majority of microscopic diagnoses (57%); and for growth anomalies other than umbonate, hyperplasia of the basal body wall was the most common microscopic finding (63%). For the remainder of the gross lesions, no single microscopic finding constituted >50% of the total. Host response varied with the agent present on histology. Fragmentation of tissues was most often associated with algae (60%), whereas necrosis dominated (53%) for fungi. Two newly documented potentially symbiotic tissue-associated metazoans were seen in Porites and Montipora. Findings of multiple potential etiologies for a given gross lesion highlight the importance of incorporating histopathology in coral disease surveys. This study also expands the range of corals infected with cell-associated microbial aggregates.

  16. Happy Life Years: a measure of Gross National Happiness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractHappiness is defined as the degree to which a person enjoys his or her life-as-a-whole. Accordingly ‘Gross National Happiness’ is defined as the degree to which citizens in a country enjoy the life they live. Individual happiness can be measured by self-report on a single standard

  17. 77 FR 51706 - Gross Combination Weight Rating (GCWR); Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration 49 CFR Parts 383 and 390 RIN 2126-AB53 Gross Combination Weight Rating (GCWR); Definition AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Direct final rule; request for comments. SUMMARY: The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration...

  18. Strategic improvements for gross anatomy web-based teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marker, David R; Juluru, Krishna; Long, Chris; Magid, Donna

    2012-01-01

    Current generations of graduate students have been immersed in technology from their early school years and have high expectations regarding digital resources. To better meet the expectations of Gross Anatomy students at our institution, electronic radiology teaching files for first-year coursework were organized into a web site. The web site was custom designed to provide material that directly correlated to the Gross Anatomy dissection and lectures. Quick links provided sets of images grouped by anatomic location. Additionally, Lab and Study Companions provided specific material for the students to review prior to and after lectures and gross dissections. Student opinions of this education resource were compared to student opinions of the prior year's digital teaching files. The new content was ranked as more user friendly (3.1 points versus 2.3 points) and more useful for learning anatomy (3.3 points versus 2.6 points). Many students reported that using the web portal was critical in helping them to better understand relationships of anatomical structures. These findings suggest that a well-organized web portal can provide a user-friendly, valuable educational resource for medical students who are studying Gross Anatomy.

  19. Fine and Gross Motor Ability in Males with ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Both fine and gross motor abilities were evaluated in 10-year-old males with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and compared to a group of control children at the School of Psychology, Curtin University of Technology, Perth, Australia.

  20. Construction of 2-dimensional Grosse-Wulkenhaar Model

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Zhituo

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we construct the noncommutative Grosse-Wulkenhaar model on 2-dimensional Moyal plane with the method of loop vertex expansion. We treat renormalization with this new tool, adapt Nelson's argument and prove Borel summability of the perturbation series. This is the first non-commutative quantum field theory model to be built in a non-perturbative sense.

  1. Monopol suretab kohaliku loomakasvataja / Oleg Gross ; interv . Illar Mõttus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Gross, Oleg, 1952-

    2005-01-01

    Väike-Maarja jäätmetehase monopoolse seisundi vastu sõna võtnud OG Elektra omanik Oleg Gross on kindel, et jäätmetehasega suretatakse kohalikud väiksemad lihatootjad välja. Kommenteerivad talupidaja Jüri Järvet ja Rakvere Lihakombinaadi direktor Olle Horm

  2. ɛ-expansion in the Gross-Neveu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, Avinash

    2016-10-01

    We use the recently developed CFT techniques of Rychkov and Tan to compute anomalous dimensions in the O( N ) Gross-Neveu model in d = 2 + ɛ dimensions. To do this, we extend the "cowpie contraction" algorithm of arXiv:1506.06616 to theories with fermions. Our results match perfectly with Feynman diagram computations.

  3. Barn music at St Donat's castle / Philip Gross

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Gross, Philip, 1952-

    2011-01-01

    Muusikafestivalist "Vale of Glamorgan", mis oli 2010. a. pühendatud Arvo Pärdile. Eesti kammermuusikaansambli Resonabilis kavas oli ka festivali tellimusel valminud uelsi helilooja Gareth Peredur Churchilli "Vocable", mille teksti kirjutas Philip Gross. Festivalikontsertide muljeid leiab Grossi luuletsüklis "Barn music" (avaldatud samas ajakirjanumbris, lk. 42-43)

  4. Samuel D. Gross: the nestor of American surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo-Pereyra, Luis H

    2006-01-01

    Samuel David Gross (1805-1884) represented the most notable surgeon of his generation and was honored with the title of "The Nestor of American Surgeon" by surgeon biographer Isaac Minis Hays. Of Pennsylvania Dutch stock, he was born on the family farm near Easton, Pennsylvania. He attended Wilkebarré Academy and Lawrenceville High School, noted private institutions of the day. He apprenticed under Doctor Joseph K. Swift of Easton and later with Professor George McClellan while in Philadelphia. In 1828, he graduated from Jefferson Medical College and remained for a short time in Philadelphia. Professor Gross focused his professional pursuits in the cities of Easton (1830-1833), Cincinnati (1833-1840), Louisville (1840-1856), and Philadelphia (1856-1882). He retired from Jefferson Medical College two years before his death in 1884. Samuel D. Gross' contributions to surgery were numerous and diverse. He was recognized as a prolific author of classic texts of pathology, surgery, and history, an educator, a leader, a surgical researcher, and a pioneer surgeon practitioner. His influence in national affairs was immense, and his recognition as a respected surgeon was unmatched. He remains the most distinguished surgeon of his times. History values him as a hard working, honest, highly competent, and committed individual. His capacity for work and his dedication to a single cause were unrivaled. Doctor Gross integrated the best that surgery could give to future generations of surgical professionals.

  5. Attitudes of Healthcare Students on Gross Anatomy Laboratory Sessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashiro, Yukiko; Anahara, Reiko; Kohno, Toshihiko; Mori, Chisato; Matsuno, Yoshiharu

    2009-01-01

    At Chiba University, gross anatomy laboratory sessions ("laboratories") are required for physical therapy students. Though most physical therapy schools require their students to participate in laboratories so that they will better understand the structure of the human body, few data exist on the value of these laboratories specifically…

  6. Uniqueness of Meromorphic Functions and Question of Gross

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仪洪勋

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, we deal with the problem of uniqueness of meromorphic functions. It is shown that there exist two finite sets Sj (j=1, 2) such that any two nonconstant meromorphic functions f and g satisfying Ef(Sj)=Eg(Sj) for j = 1,2 must be identical, which answers a question posed by Gross.

  7. Interlimb Coordination: An Important Facet of Gross-Motor Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobbio, Tatiana; Gabbard, Carl; Cacola, Priscila

    2009-01-01

    Motor development attains landmark significance during early childhood. Although early childhood educators may be familiar with the gross-motor skill category, the subcategory of interlimb coordination needs greater attention than it typically receives from teachers of young children. Interlimb coordination primarily involves movements requiring…

  8. Barn music at St Donat's castle / Philip Gross

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Gross, Philip, 1952-

    2011-01-01

    Muusikafestivalist "Vale of Glamorgan", mis oli 2010. a. pühendatud Arvo Pärdile. Eesti kammermuusikaansambli Resonabilis kavas oli ka festivali tellimusel valminud uelsi helilooja Gareth Peredur Churchilli "Vocable", mille teksti kirjutas Philip Gross. Festivalikontsertide muljeid leiab Grossi luuletsüklis "Barn music" (avaldatud samas ajakirjanumbris, lk. 42-43)

  9. 75 FR 15610 - Exclusions From Gross Income of Foreign Corporations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 Exclusions From Gross Income of Foreign Corporations CFR Correction In Title 26 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 1 (Sec. Sec. 1.851 to 1.907), revised as...

  10. Gross Motor Development, Movement Abnormalities, and Early Identification of Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozonoff, Sally; Young, Gregory S.; Goldring, Stacy; Greiss-Hess, Laura; Herrera, Adriana M.; Steele, Joel; Macari, Suzanne; Hepburn, Susan; Rogers, Sally J.

    2008-01-01

    Gross motor development (supine, prone, rolling, sitting, crawling, walking) and movement abnormalities were examined in the home videos of infants later diagnosed with autism (regression and no regression subgroups), developmental delays (DD), or typical development. Group differences in maturity were found for walking, prone, and supine, with…

  11. Outcomes of a Rotational Dissection System in Gross Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshak, David W.; Oakes, Joanne; Hsieh, Pei-Hsuan; Chuang, Alice Z.; Cleary, Leonard J.

    2015-01-01

    At the University of Texas Houston Medical School, a rotational dissection system was introduced to improve coordination between the Gross Anatomy and the Introduction to Clinical Medicine (ICM) courses. Six students were assigned to each cadaver and divided into two teams. For each laboratory, one team was assigned to dissect and the other to…

  12. Strategic Improvements for Gross Anatomy Web-Based Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Marker

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Current generations of graduate students have been immersed in technology from their early school years and have high expectations regarding digital resources. To better meet the expectations of Gross Anatomy students at our institution, electronic radiology teaching files for first-year coursework were organized into a web site. The web site was custom designed to provide material that directly correlated to the Gross Anatomy dissection and lectures. Quick links provided sets of images grouped by anatomic location. Additionally, Lab and Study Companions provided specific material for the students to review prior to and after lectures and gross dissections. Student opinions of this education resource were compared to student opinions of the prior year’s digital teaching files. The new content was ranked as more user friendly (3.1 points versus 2.3 points and more useful for learning anatomy (3.3 points versus 2.6 points. Many students reported that using the web portal was critical in helping them to better understand relationships of anatomical structures. These findings suggest that a well-organized web portal can provide a user-friendly, valuable educational resource for medical students who are studying Gross Anatomy.

  13. An effective electrostatic-confinement based fusion approach

    CERN Document Server

    Paul, R K

    2013-01-01

    The paper reports a new electrostatic-confinement based fusion approach, where, a new non-equilibrium distribution function for an ion-beam, compressed by an external electric force, has been derived. This distribution function allows the system to possess appreciably low and insignificant thermal energy irrespective of the energy per particle. The spread in the energy among the particles is attributed to the collisions in presence of the external force, whereas; for equilibrium, the spreading in energy is due to the absence of the force. The reactivity for a deuterium-deuterium fusion, using the proposed distribution function, has been computed. It is shown that the fusion time is comparable to the energy confinement time, collision time and transit time of the ion for beam energy greater than 160 keV. The estimated energy gain Q (ratio of fusion power to the power consumed by the system) is around 10 for beam energy 160 keV and ion density 1018 cm-3. The energy loss due to particle scattering is estimated a...

  14. Holographic confinement in inhomogenous backgrounds

    CERN Document Server

    Marolf, Donald

    2016-01-01

    As noted by Witten, compactifying a $d$-dimensional holographic CFT on an $S^1$ gives a class of $(d-1)$-dimensional confining theories with gravity duals. The prototypical bulk solution dual to the ground state is a double Wick rotation of the AdS$_{d+1}$ Schwarzschild black hole known as the AdS soliton. We generalize such examples by allowing slow variations in the size of the $S^1$, and thus in the confinement scale. Coefficients governing the second order response of the system are computed for $3 \\le d \\le 8$ using a derivative expansion closely related to the fluid-gravity correspondence. The primary physical results are that i) gauge-theory flux tubes tend to align orthogonal to gradients and along the eigenvector of the Hessian with the lowest eigenvalue, ii) flux tubes aligned orthogonal to gradients are attracted to gradients for $d \\le 6$ but repelled by gradients for $d \\ge 7$, iii) flux tubes are repelled by regions where the second derivative along the tube is large and positive but are attract...

  15. Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Foland, Andrew Dean

    2007-01-01

    Energy is the central concept of physics. Unable to be created or destroyed but transformable from one form to another, energy ultimately determines what is and isn''t possible in our universe. This book gives readers an appreciation for the limits of energy and the quantities of energy in the world around them. This fascinating book explores the major forms of energy: kinetic, potential, electrical, chemical, thermal, and nuclear.

  16. Methodology for full comparative assessment of direct gross glycerin combustion in a flame tube furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maturana, Aymer Yeferson; Pagliuso, Josmar D. [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering. Sao Carlos School of Engineering. University of Sao Paulo, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)], e-mails: aymermat@sc.usp.br, josmar@sc.usp.br

    2010-07-01

    This study is to develop a methodology to identify and evaluate the emissions and heat transfer associated to combustion of gross glycerin a by-product of the Brazilian biodiesel manufacture process as alternative energy source. It aims to increase the present knowledge on the matter and to contribute to the improvement of the economic and environmental perspective of biodiesel industry. This methodology was considered to be used for assessment of gross glycerin combustion from three different types of biodiesel (bovine tallow, palm and soy). The procedures for evaluation and quantification of emissions of sulphur and nitrogen oxides, total hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and acrolein were analyzed, described and standardized. Experimental techniques for mutagenic and toxic effects assessment of gases similarly were analyzed and standardized, as well as the calorific power, the associate heat transfer and fundamentals operational parameters. The methodology was developed, using a full-instrumented flame tube furnace, continuous gas analyzers, a chromatograph, automatic data acquisition systems and other auxiliary equipment. The mutagenic and toxic effects of the study was based on Tradescantia clone KU-20, using chambers of intoxication and biological analytical techniques previously developed and others were specially adapted. The benchmark for the initial set up was based on the performance evaluation of the previous equipment tested with diesel considering its behavior during direct combustion. Finally, the following factors were defined for the combustion of crude glycerin, configurations of equipment types, operational parameters such as air fuel ratio adiabatic temperature and other necessary aspect for successful application of the methodology. The developed and integrated methodology was made available to the concern industry, environmental authorities and researchers as procedures to access the viability of gross glycerin or similar fuels as

  17. Runaway electrons and magnetic island confinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boozer, Allen H.

    2016-08-01

    The breakup of magnetic surfaces is a central feature of ITER planning for the avoidance of damage due to runaway electrons. Rapid thermal quenches, which lead to large accelerating voltages, are thought to be due to magnetic surface breakup. Impurity injection to avoid and to mitigate both halo and runaway electron currents utilizes massive gas injection or shattered pellets. The actual deposition is away from the plasma center, and the breakup of magnetic surfaces is thought to spread the effects of the impurities across the plasma cross section. The breakup of magnetic surfaces would prevent runaway electrons from reaching relativistic energies were it not for the persistence of non-intercepting flux tubes. These are tubes of magnetic field lines that do not intercept the walls. In simulations and in magnetic field models, non-intercepting flux tubes are found to persist near the magnetic axis and in the cores of magnetic islands even when a large scale magnetic surface breakup occurs. As long as a few magnetic surfaces reform before all of the non-intercepting flux tubes dissipate, energetic electrons confined and accelerated in these flux tubes can serve as the seed electrons for a transfer of the overall plasma current from thermal to relativistic carriers. The acceleration of electrons is particularly strong because of the sudden changes in the poloidal flux that naturally occur in a rapid magnetic relaxation. The physics of magnetic islands as non-intercepting flux tubes is studied. Expressions are derived for (1) the size of islands required to confine energetic runaway electrons, (2) the accelerating electric field in an island, (3) the increase or reduction in the size of an island by the runaway electron current, (4) the approximate magnitude of the runaway current in an island, and (5) the time scale for the evolution of an island.

  18. Spatially confined assembly of nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lin; Chen, Xiaodong; Lu, Nan; Chi, Lifeng

    2014-10-21

    an increasingly important role in the controllable assembly of NPs. In this Account, we summarize our approaches and progress in fabricating spatially confined assemblies of NPs that allow for the positioning of NPs with high resolution and considerable throughput. The spatially selective assembly of NPs at the desired location can be achieved by various mechanisms, such as, a controlled dewetting process, electrostatically mediated assembly of particles, and confined deposition and growth of NPs. Three nanofabrication techniques used to produce prepatterns on a substrate are summarized: the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) patterning technique, e-beam lithography (EBL), and nanoimprint lithography (NPL). The particle density, particle size, or interparticle distance in NP assemblies strongly depends on the geometric parameters of the template structure due to spatial confinement. In addition, with smart design template structures, multiplexed NPs can be assembled into a defined structure, thus demonstrating the structural and functional complexity required for highly integrated and multifunction applications.

  19. Einstein's Photoemission from Quantum Confined Superlattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debbarma, S; Ghatak, K P

    2016-01-01

    This paper is dedicated to the 83th Birthday of Late Professor B. R. Nag, D.Sc., formerly Head of the Departments of Radio Physics and Electronics and Electronic Science of the University of Calcutta, a firm believer of the concept of theoretical minimum of Landau and an internationally well known semiconductor physicist, to whom the second author remains ever grateful as a student and research worker from 1974-2004. In this paper, an attempt is made to study, the Einstein's photoemission (EP) from III-V, II-VI, IV-VI, HgTe/CdTe and strained layer quantum well heavily doped superlattices (QWHDSLs) with graded interfaces in the presence of quantizing magnetic field on the basis of newly formulated electron dispersion relations within the frame work of k · p formalism. The EP from III-V, II-VI, IV-VI, HgTe/CdTe and strained layer quantum wells of heavily doped effective mass superlattices respectively has been presented under magnetic quantization. Besides the said emissions, from the quantum dots of the aforementioned heavily doped SLs have further investigated for the purpose of comparison and complete investigation in the context of EP from quantum confined superlattices. Using appropriate SLs, it appears that the EP increases with increasing surface electron concentration and decreasing film thickness in spiky manners, which are the characteristic features of such quantized hetero structures. Under magnetic quantization, the EP oscillates with inverse quantizing magnetic field due to Shuvnikov-de Haas effect. The EP increases with increasing photo energy in a step-like manner and the numerical values of EP with all the physical variables are totally band structure dependent for all the cases. The most striking features are that the presence of poles in the dispersion relation of the materials in the absence of band tails create the complex energy spectra in the corresponding HD constituent materials of such quantum confined superlattices and effective electron

  20. Methods for two-dimensional cell confinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Berre, Maël; Zlotek-Zlotkiewicz, Ewa; Bonazzi, Daria; Lautenschlaeger, Franziska; Piel, Matthieu

    2014-01-01

    Protocols described in this chapter relate to a method to dynamically confine cells in two dimensions with various microenvironments. It can be used to impose on cells a given height, with an accuracy of less than 100 nm on large surfaces (cm(2)). The method is based on the gentle application of a modified glass coverslip onto a standard cell culture. Depending on the preparation, this confinement slide can impose on the cells a given geometry but also an environment of controlled stiffness, controlled adhesion, or a more complex environment. An advantage is that the method is compatible with most optical microscopy technologies and molecular biology protocols allowing advanced analysis of confined cells. In this chapter, we first explain the principle and issues of using these slides to confine cells in a controlled geometry and describe their fabrication. Finally, we discuss how the nature of the confinement slide can vary and provide an alternative method to confine cells with gels of controlled rigidity.

  1. Engineered Models of Confined Cell Migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Colin D.; Hung, Wei-Chien; Wirtz, Denis; Konstantopoulos, Konstantinos

    2017-01-01

    Cells in the body are physically confined by neighboring cells, tissues, and the extracellular matrix. Although physical confinement modulates intracellular signaling and the underlying mechanisms of cell migration, it is difficult to study in vivo. Furthermore, traditional two-dimensional cell migration assays do not recapitulate the complex topographies found in the body. Therefore, a number of experimental in vitro models that confine and impose forces on cells in well-defined microenvironments have been engineered. We describe the design and use of microfluidic microchannel devices, grooved substrates, micropatterned lines, vertical confinement devices, patterned hydrogels, and micropipette aspiration assays for studying cell responses to confinement. Use of these devices has enabled the delineation of changes in cytoskeletal reorganization, cell–substrate adhesions, intracellular signaling, nuclear shape, and gene expression that result from physical confinement. These assays and the physiologically relevant signaling pathways that have been elucidated are beginning to have a translational and clinical impact. PMID:27420571

  2. Inertial Confinement Fusion R&D and Nuclear Proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert J. Goldston

    2011-04-28

    In a few months, or a few years, the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory may achieve fusion gain using 192 powerful lasers to generate x-rays that will compress and heat a small target containing isotopes of hydrogen. This event would mark a major milestone after decades of research on inertial confinement fusion (ICF). It might also mark the beginning of an accelerated global effort to harness fusion energy based on this science and technology. Unlike magnetic confinement fusion (ITER, 2011), in which hot fusion fuel is confined continuously by strong magnetic fields, inertial confinement fusion involves repetitive fusion explosions, taking advantage of some aspects of the science learned from the design and testing of hydrogen bombs. The NIF was built primarily because of the information it would provide on weapons physics, helping the United States to steward its stockpile of nuclear weapons without further underground testing. The U.S. National Academies' National Research Council is now hosting a study to assess the prospects for energy from inertial confinement fusion. While this study has a classified sub-panel on target physics, it has not been charged with examining the potential nuclear proliferation risks associated with ICF R&D. We argue here that this question urgently requires direct and transparent examination, so that means to mitigate risks can be assessed, and the potential residual risks can be balanced against the potential benefits, now being assessed by the NRC. This concern is not new (Holdren, 1978), but its urgency is now higher than ever before.

  3. Quark confinement in a constituent quark model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langfeld, K.; Rho, M. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Service de Physique Theorique

    1995-07-01

    On the level of an effective quark theory, we define confinement by the absence of quark anti-quark thresholds in correlation function. We then propose a confining Nambu-Jona-Lasinio-type model. The confinement is implemented in analogy to Anderson localization in condensed matter systems. We study the model`s phase structure as well as its behavior under extreme conditions, i.e. high temperature and/or high density.

  4. Quark Confinement and Force Unification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stone R. A. Jr.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available String theory had to adopt a bi-scale approach in order to produce the weakness of gravity. Taking a bi-scale approach to particle physics along with a spin connection produces 1 the measured proton radius, 2 a resolution of the multiplicity of measured weak angle values 3 a correct theoretical value for the Z 0 4 a reason that h is a constant and 5 a “neutral current” source. The source of the “neutral current” provides 6 an alternate solution to quark confinement, 7 produces an effective r like potential, and 8 gives a reason for the observed but unexplained Regge trajectory like J M 2 behavior seen in quark composite particle spin families.

  5. Walking droplets in confined geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filoux, Boris; Mathieu, Olivier; Vandewalle, Nicolas

    2014-11-01

    When gently placing a droplet onto a vertically vibrated bath, coalescence may be avoided: the drop bounces permanently. Upon increasing forcing acceleration, a drop interacts with the wave it generates, and becomes a ``walker'' with a well defined velocity. In this work, we investigate the confinement of a walker in a mono-dimensional geometry. The system consists of linear submarine channels used as waveguides for a walker. By studying the dynamics of walkers in those channels, we discover some 1D-2D transition. We also propose a model based on an analogy with ``Quantum Wires.'' Finally, we consider the situation of a walker in a circular submarine channel, and examine the behavior of several walking droplets in this system. We show the quantization of the drop distances, and correlate it to their bouncing modes.

  6. Two flavor QCD and Confinement

    CERN Document Server

    D'Elia, M; Pica, C

    2005-01-01

    We argue that the order of the chiral transition for N_f=2 is a sensitive probe of the QCD vacuum, in particular of the mechanism of color confinement. A strategy is developed to investigate the order of the transition by use of finite size scaling analysis. An in-depth numerical investigation is performed with staggered fermions on lattices with N_t=4 and N_s=12,16,20,24,32 and quark masses am_q ranging from 0.01335 to 0.307036. The specific heat and a number of susceptibilities are measured and compared with the expectations of an O(4) second order and of a first order phase transition. A second order transition in the O(4) and O(2) universality classes are excluded. Substantial evidence emerges for a first order transition. A detailed comparison with previous works is performed.

  7. Quantum confinement of excitons in wurtzite InP nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pemasiri, K.; Jackson, H. E.; Smith, L. M.; Wong, B. M.; Paiman, S.; Gao, Q.; Tan, H. H.; Jagadish, C.

    2015-05-01

    Exciton resonances are observed in photocurrent spectra of 80 nm wurtzite InP nanowire devices at low temperatures, which correspond to transitions between the A, B, and C valence bands and the lower conduction band. Photocurrent spectra for 30 nm WZ nanowires exhibit shifts of the exciton resonances to higher energy, which are consistent with finite element calculations of wavefunctions of the confined electrons and holes for the various bands.

  8. Monopole Condensation and Confinement in SU(2) QCD (1)

    CERN Document Server

    Shiba, H; Shiba, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Tsuneo

    1993-01-01

    An effective monopole action is derived from vacuum configurations after abelian projection in the maximally abelian gauge in $SU(2)$ QCD. Entropy dominance over energy of monopole loops is seen on the renormalized lattice with the spacing $b>b_c\\simeq 5.2\\times10^{-3} \\Lambda_L^{-1}$ when the physical volume of the system is large enough. QCD confinement may be interpreted as the (dual) Meissner effect due to the monopole condensation.

  9. A double-layer based model of ion confinement in electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mascali, D., E-mail: davidmascali@lns.infn.it; Neri, L.; Celona, L.; Castro, G.; Gammino, S.; Ciavola, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Torrisi, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Università Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria, Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell’Informazione, delle Infrastrutture e dell’Energia Sostenibile, Via Graziella, I-89100 Reggio Calabria (Italy); Sorbello, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Università degli Studi di Catania, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Elettrica Elettronica ed Informatica, Viale Andrea Doria 6, 95125 Catania (Italy)

    2014-02-15

    The paper proposes a new model of ion confinement in ECRIS, which can be easily generalized to any magnetic configuration characterized by closed magnetic surfaces. Traditionally, ion confinement in B-min configurations is ascribed to a negative potential dip due to superhot electrons, adiabatically confined by the magneto-static field. However, kinetic simulations including RF heating affected by cavity modes structures indicate that high energy electrons populate just a thin slab overlapping the ECR layer, while their density drops down of more than one order of magnitude outside. Ions, instead, diffuse across the electron layer due to their high collisionality. This is the proper physical condition to establish a double-layer (DL) configuration which self-consistently originates a potential barrier; this “barrier” confines the ions inside the plasma core surrounded by the ECR surface. The paper will describe a simplified ion confinement model based on plasma density non-homogeneity and DL formation.

  10. New results on structure of low beta confinement Polywell cusps simulated by comsol multiphysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdavipour, B.; Salar Elahi, A.

    The Inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) is one of the ways for fusion approaches. It is one of the various methods which can be used to confine hot fusion plasma. The advantage of IEC is that the IEC experiments could be done in smaller size facilities than ITER or NIF, costing less money and moving forward faster. In IEC fusion, we need to trap adequate electrons to confine the desired ion density which is needed for a fusion reactor. Polywell is a device which uses the magnetic cusp system and traps the required amount of electrons for fusion reactions. The purpose of this device is to create a virtual cathode in order to achieve nuclear fusion using inertial electrostatic confinement (Miley and Krupakar Murali, 2014). In this paper, we have simulated the low beta Polywell. Then, we examined the effects of coil spacing, coils current, electron injection energy on confinement time.

  11. Strongly confined fluids: Diverging time scales and slowing down of equilibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Rolf

    2016-06-01

    The Newtonian dynamics of strongly confined fluids exhibits a rich behavior. Its confined and unconfined degrees of freedom decouple for confinement length L →0 . In that case and for a slit geometry the intermediate scattering functions Sμ ν(q ,t ) simplify, resulting for (μ ,ν )≠(0 ,0 ) in a Knudsen-gas-like behavior of the confined degrees of freedom, and otherwise in S∥(q ,t ) , describing the structural relaxation of the unconfined ones. Taking the coupling into account we prove that the energy fluctuations relax exponentially. For smooth potentials the relaxation times diverge as L-3 and L-4, respectively, for the confined and unconfined degrees of freedom. The strength of the L-3 divergence can be calculated analytically. It depends on the pair potential and the two-dimensional pair distribution function. Experimental setups are suggested to test these predictions.

  12. Confinement and dynamical regulation in two-dimensional convective turbulence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bian, N.H.; Garcia, O.E.

    2003-01-01

    In this work the nature of confinement improvement implied by the self-consistent generation of mean flows in two-dimensional convective turbulence is studied. The confinement variations are linked to two distinct regulation mechanisms which are also shown to be at the origin of low-frequency bur......In this work the nature of confinement improvement implied by the self-consistent generation of mean flows in two-dimensional convective turbulence is studied. The confinement variations are linked to two distinct regulation mechanisms which are also shown to be at the origin of low......-frequency bursting in the fluctuation level and the convective heat flux integral, both resulting in a state of large-scale intermittency. The first one involves the control of convective transport by sheared mean flows. This regulation relies on the conservative transfer of kinetic energy from tilted fluctuations...... to the mean component of the flow. Bursting can also result from the quasi-linear modification of the linear instability drive which is the mean pressure gradient. For each bursting process the relevant zero-dimensional model equations are given. These are finally coupled in a minimal model of convection...

  13. Rovibrational states of Wigner molecules in spherically symmetric confining potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cioslowski, Jerzy

    2016-08-01

    The strong-localization limit of three-dimensional Wigner molecules, in which repulsively interacting particles are confined by a weak spherically symmetric potential, is investigated. An explicit prescription for computation of rovibrational wavefunctions and energies that are asymptotically exact at this limit is presented. The prescription is valid for systems with arbitrary angularly-independent interparticle and confining potentials, including those involving Coulombic and screened (i.e., Yukawa/Debye) interactions. The necessary derivations are greatly simplified by explicit constructions of the Eckart frame and the parity-adapted primitive wavefunctions. The performance of the new formalism is illustrated with the three- and four-electron harmonium atoms at their strong-correlation limits. In particular, the involvement of vibrational modes with the E symmetry is readily pinpointed as the origin of the "anomalous" weak-confinement behavior of the 1S+ state of the four-electron species that is absent in its 1D+ companion of the strong-confinement regime.

  14. Vast Portfolio Selection with Gross-exposure Constraints*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jianqing; Zhang, Jingjin; Yu, Ke

    2012-01-01

    We introduce the large portfolio selection using gross-exposure constraints. We show that with gross-exposure constraint the empirically selected optimal portfolios based on estimated covariance matrices have similar performance to the theoretical optimal ones and there is no error accumulation effect from estimation of vast covariance matrices. This gives theoretical justification to the empirical results in Jagannathan and Ma (2003). We also show that the no-short-sale portfolio can be improved by allowing some short positions. The applications to portfolio selection, tracking, and improvements are also addressed. The utility of our new approach is illustrated by simulation and empirical studies on the 100 Fama-French industrial portfolios and the 600 stocks randomly selected from Russell 3000. PMID:23293404

  15. Vast Portfolio Selection with Gross-exposure Constraints().

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jianqing; Zhang, Jingjin; Yu, Ke

    2012-01-01

    We introduce the large portfolio selection using gross-exposure constraints. We show that with gross-exposure constraint the empirically selected optimal portfolios based on estimated covariance matrices have similar performance to the theoretical optimal ones and there is no error accumulation effect from estimation of vast covariance matrices. This gives theoretical justification to the empirical results in Jagannathan and Ma (2003). We also show that the no-short-sale portfolio can be improved by allowing some short positions. The applications to portfolio selection, tracking, and improvements are also addressed. The utility of our new approach is illustrated by simulation and empirical studies on the 100 Fama-French industrial portfolios and the 600 stocks randomly selected from Russell 3000.

  16. The San Andreas fault experiment. [gross tectonic plates relative velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D. E.; Vonbun, F. O.

    1973-01-01

    A plan was developed during 1971 to determine gross tectonic plate motions along the San Andreas Fault System in California. Knowledge of the gross motion along the total fault system is an essential component in the construction of realistic deformation models of fault regions. Such mathematical models will be used in the future for studies which will eventually lead to prediction of major earthquakes. The main purpose of the experiment described is the determination of the relative velocity of the North American and the Pacific Plates. This motion being so extremely small, cannot be measured directly but can be deduced from distance measurements between points on opposite sites of the plate boundary taken over a number of years.

  17. GLOBALIZATION AND GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT CONSTRUCTION IN ASEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Sri Wahyudi Suliswanto

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available There is no more doubt about the importance of economic growth, which can be calculated fromGross Domestic Product (GDP. This research analyzes the role of globalization on GDP inASEAN-5 by estimating panel data. It uses a fixed effect approach to accommodate various characteristicsin the countries. To accommodate such variation, it assumes that the intercepts variesacross these countries, while the slopes remain similar. Based on the estimation result, it suggeststhat net export and foreign direct investment represent the globalization process. Both have positiveand significant influences on GDP in the corresponding countries.Keywords: Globalization, international trade, foreign direct investment, gross domestic productJEL classification numbers: E01, F51, F43

  18. PREDICTION OF GROSS FEED EFFICIENCY IN ITALIAN HOLSTEIN FRIESIAN BULLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaella Finocchiaro

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to predict gross feed efficiency of Italian Holstein Friesian bulls selected for production, functional and type traits. A total of 12,238 bulls, from the April 2015 genetic evaluation, were used. Predicted daily gross feed efficiency (pFE was obtained as ratio between milk yield (MY and predicted dry matter intake (pDMI. Phenotypic trend for MY, predicted body weight (pBW and pFE were calculated by the bull birth year. The results suggest that pFE can be successfully selected to increase profitability of dairy cattle using the current milk recording system. Direct measurements on DMI should be considered to confirm results of pFE obtained in the present study.

  19. Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Robertson, William C

    2002-01-01

    Confounded by kinetic energy? Suspect that teaching about simple machines isn t really so simple? Exasperated by electricity? If you fear the study of energy is beyond you, this entertaining book will do more than introduce you to the topic. It will help you actually understand it. At the book s heart are easy-to-grasp explanations of energy basics work, kinetic energy, potential energy, and the transformation of energy and energy as it relates to simple machines, heat energy, temperature, and heat transfer. Irreverent author Bill Robertson suggests activities that bring the basic concepts of energy to life with common household objects. Each chapter ends with a summary and an applications section that uses practical examples such as roller coasters and home heating systems to explain energy transformations and convection cells. The final chapter brings together key concepts in an easy-to-grasp explanation of how electricity is generated. Energy is the second book in the Stop Faking It! series published by NS...

  20. Constructive Renormalization of 2-dimensional Grosse-Wulkenhaar Model

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Zhituo

    2012-01-01

    In this talk we briefly report the recent work on the construction of the 2-dimensional Grosse-Wulkenhaar model with the method of loop vertex expansion. We treat renormalization with this new tool, adapt Nelson's argument and prove Borel summability of the perturbation series. This is the first non-commutative quantum field theory model to be built in a non-perturbative sense.

  1. On the Well-Posedness and Scattering for the Gross-Pitaevskii Hierarchy via Quantum de Finetti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Thomas; Hainzl, Christian; Pavlović, Nataša; Seiringer, Robert

    2014-07-01

    We prove the existence of scattering states for the defocusing cubic Gross-Pitaevskii (GP) hierarchy in . Moreover, we show that an exponential energy growth condition commonly used in the well-posedness theory of the GP hierarchy is, in a specific sense, necessary. In fact, we prove that without the latter, there exist initial data for the focusing cubic GP hierarchy for which instantaneous blowup occurs.

  2. Bounds on the tight-binding approximation for the Gross-Pitaevskii equation with a periodic potential

    CERN Document Server

    Pelinovsky, Dmitry

    2007-01-01

    We justify the validity of the discrete nonlinear Schrodinger equation for the tight-binding approximation in the context of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation with a periodic potential. Our construction of the periodic potential and the associated Wannier functions is based on the previous work, while our analysis involving energy estimates and Gronwall's inequality addresses time-dependent localized solutions on large but finite time intervals.

  3. Carbohydrate derived energy and gross energy absorption in preterm infants fed human milk or formula.

    OpenAIRE

    Curtis, M.; Senterre, J; Rigo, J; Putet, G.

    1986-01-01

    Significant production of breath hydrogen has been shown in premature infants, suggesting limited intestinal capacity for digestion of carbohydrate. To evaluate net absorption of carbohydrate 24 three day balance studies were carried out in seven preterm infants fed pasteurised banked human milk and in 17 preterm infants fed a formula containing 75% lactose and 25% glucose polymers. Because carbohydrate reaching the colon may be converted to organic acids by bacterial flora, carbohydrate net ...

  4. Proposal of the confinement strategy of radioactive and hazardous materials for the European DEMO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, X. Z.; Carloni, D.; Stieglitz, R.; Ciattaglia, S.; Johnston, J.; Taylor, N.

    2017-04-01

    Confinement of radioactive and hazardous materials is one of the fundamental safety functions in a nuclear fusion facility, which has to limit the mobilisation and dispersion of sources and hazards during normal, abnormal and accidental situations. In a first step energy sources and radioactive source have been assessed for a conceptual DEMO configuration. The confinement study for the European DEMO has been investigated for the main systems at the plant breakdown structure (PBS) level 1 taking a bottom-up approach. Based on the identification of the systems possessing a confinement function, a confinement strategy has been proposed, in which DEMO confinement systems and barriers have been defined. In addition, confinement for the maintenance has been issued as well. The assignment of confinement barriers to the identified sources under abnormal and accidental conditions has been performed, and the DEMO main safety systems have been proposed as well. Finally, confinement related open issues have been pointed out, which need to be resolved in parallel with DEMO development.

  5. Landscape History of Grosses Moos, NW Swiss Alpine Foreland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joanna Heer, Aleksandra; Adamiec, Grzegorz; Veit, Heinz; May, Jan-Hendrik; Novenko, Elena; Hajdas, Irka

    2017-04-01

    The western Swiss Plateau with Lake Neuchâtel is part of the alpine foreland and among the key areas for the reconstruction of environmental changes since the last postglacial. This study was carried out in a landscape located NE of the lake and called Grosses Moos (The Large Fen) - currently designated the Swiss largest, continuous farming area, after the fen was drained in course of landscape engineering projects performed in Switzerland at the end of the 19th century. The study contributes new results from nine excavations of littoral ridges identified in Grosses Moos, and integrates sedimentology, paleo-environmental analysis and three independent chronological methods. Radiocarbon dating, pollen analysis and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) were applied to the sediments. While pollen and radiocarbon follow the standard procedures, the evaluation of the luminescence age estimates demanded adjustment according to the physical and microdosimetric properties of the alpine quartz, and consideration of the peculiarities of the changing littoral environments of Grosses Moos. The Grosses Moos landscape developed on the temporary surface of the post-Last Glacial sedimentary infill of the over-deepened glacial Aare valley. In this study the landscape history has been fitted into the existing supraregional time scales of NGRIP, the Swiss bio-zones system and the human history based on archaeological and historic records and covers a time span of up to 15'000 yr b2k. The wide-ranging suite of geomorphic features and sedimentary sequences, including littoral lake sediments, beach ridges, dunes, palaeo-channels, peat and colluvial deposits, enable the extensive reconstruction of spatially and temporally variable natural shaping processes. In addition, our results indicate remobilization of soil, colluvium, and sediment due to human settlement activities since the Neolithic - with an important increase in sediment load and spatial variability since the Bronze Age

  6. Deviations from Boltzmann-Gibbs Statistics in Confined Optical Lattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dechant, Andreas; Kessler, David A; Barkai, Eli

    2015-10-23

    We investigate the semiclassical phase-space probability distribution P(x,p) of cold atoms in a Sisyphus cooling lattice with an additional harmonic confinement. We pose the question of whether this nonequilibrium steady state satisfies the equivalence of energy and probability. This equivalence is the foundation of Boltzmann-Gibbs and generalized thermostatic statistics, and a prerequisite for the description in terms of a temperature. At large energies, P(x,p) depends only on the Hamiltonian H(x,p) and the answer to the question is yes. In distinction to the Boltzmann-Gibbs state, the large-energy tails are power laws P(x,p)∝H(x,p)(-1/D), where D is related to the depth of the optical lattice. At intermediate energies, however, P(x,p) cannot be expressed as a function of the Hamiltonian and the equivalence between energy and probability breaks down. As a consequence the average potential and kinetic energy differ and no well-defined temperature can be assigned. The Boltzmann-Gibbs state is regained only in the limit of deep optical lattices. For strong confinement relative to the damping, we derive an explicit expression for the stationary phase-space distribution.

  7. Large amplitude spatial fluctuations in the boundary region of the Bose-Einstein condensate in the Gross-Pitaevskii regime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuszynski, J. A.; Middleton, J.; Portet, S.

    2003-01-01

    of the oscillatory states to lie above the ground state energy but recent experimental work, especially on spatially confined superconductors, indicates that such states may be easily occupied and made manifest at finite temperatures. We have also investigated their stability using a Poincare section analysis...

  8. Probing the properties of confined liquids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beer, de Sissi Jacoba Adrianus

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis we describe Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) measurements and Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulation of the static and dynamic properties of layered liquids confined between two solid surfaces. Liquid molecules in the proximity of a solid surface assemble into layers. When a fluid is confine

  9. Ground state of a confined Yukawa plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Henning, C; Block, D; Bonitz, M; Golubnichiy, V; Ludwig, P; Piel, A

    2006-01-01

    The ground state of an externally confined one-component Yukawa plasma is derived analytically. In particular, the radial density profile is computed. The results agree very well with computer simulations on three-dimensional spherical Coulomb crystals. We conclude in presenting an exact equation for the density distribution for a confinement potential of arbitrary geometry.

  10. Catalytic capsids: The art of confinement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minten, Inge J.; Claessen, Victor I.; Blank, Kerstin; Rowan, Alan E.; Nolte, Roeland J.M.; Cornelissen, Jeroen Johannes Lambertus Maria

    2011-01-01

    In the cell, enzymes are almost always spatially confined in crowded and tightly controlled cellular compartments. The entrapment of enzymes in artificial nanoreactors as biomimetic systems can be expected to contribute to the understanding of the activity and the interactions of enzymes in confined

  11. Confinement of charge carriers in bilayer graphene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goossens, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis we investigate the fundamental properties of electronic transport in bilayer graphene. We do this by confining electrons to narrow constrictions and small islands. Our key result is the fabrication and measurement of nanoscale devices that permit confinement with electric fields in b

  12. Confinement of charge carriers in bilayer graphene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goossens, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis we investigate the fundamental properties of electronic transport in bilayer graphene. We do this by confining electrons to narrow constrictions and small islands. Our key result is the fabrication and measurement of nanoscale devices that permit confinement with electric fields in b

  13. Colloidal dynamics in flow and confinement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghosh, Somnath

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to understand how the diffusive dynamics and flow behaviors of colloidal hard spheres are influenced by the confinement of nearby walls. The Brownian motion of hard spheres in quiescent bulk fluids is well known, but the presence of confining walls generate new physical phe

  14. Bimetallic Microswimmers Speed Up in Confining Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang; Zhou, Chao; Wang, Wei; Zhang, H. P.

    2016-11-01

    Synthetic microswimmers are envisioned to be useful in numerous applications, many of which occur in tightly confined spaces. It is therefore important to understand how confinement influences swimmer dynamics. Here we study the motility of bimetallic microswimmers in linear and curved channels. Our experiments show swimmer velocities increase, up to 5 times, with the degree of confinement, and the relative velocity increase depends weakly on the fuel concentration and ionic strength in solution. Experimental results are reproduced in a numerical model which attributes the swimmer velocity increase to electrostatic and electrohydrodynamic boundary effects. Our work not only helps to elucidate the confinement effect of phoretic swimmers, but also suggests that spatial confinement may be used as an effective control method for them.

  15. Confinement and screening in tachyonic matter

    CERN Document Server

    Brito, F A; Serafim, W

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we consider confinement and screening of the electric field. We study the behavior of a static electric field coupled to a dielectric function with the intent of obtaining an electrical confinement similar to what happens with the field of gluons that bind quarks in hadronic matter. For this we use the phenomenon of `anti-screening' in a medium with exotic dielectric. We show that tachyon matter behaves like an exotic way whose associated dielectric function modifies the Maxwell's equations and affects the fields which results in confining and Coulombian-like potentials in three spatial dimensions. We note that the confining regime coincides with the tachyon condensation, which resembles the effect of confinement due to condensation of magnetic monopoles. The Coulombian-like regime is developed at large distance which is associated with {a screening phase

  16. Confinement and screening in tachyonic matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brito, F.A. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Departamento de Fisica, Campina Grande, Paraiba (Brazil); Freire, M.L.F. [Universidade Estadual da Paraiba, Departamento de Fisica, Campina Grande, Paraiba (Brazil); Serafim, W. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Departamento de Fisica, Campina Grande, Paraiba (Brazil); Universidade Federal de Alagoas, Instituto de Fisica, Maceio, Alagoas (Brazil)

    2014-12-01

    In this paper we consider confinement and screening of the electric field. We study the behavior of a static electric field coupled to a dielectric function with the intent of obtaining an electrical confinement similar to what happens with the field of gluons that bind quarks in hadronic matter. For this we use the phenomenon of 'anti-screening' in a medium with exotic dielectric. We show that tachyon matter behaves like in an exotic way whose associated dielectric function modifies the Maxwell equations and affects the fields which results in confining and Coulombian-like potentials in three spatial dimensions. We note that the confining regime coincides with the tachyon condensation, which resembles the effect of confinement due to the condensation of magnetic monopoles. The Coulombian-like regime is developed at large distance, which is associated with a screening phase. (orig.)

  17. Understanding and improving confinement in CNT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Paul; Pedersen, Thomas; Sarasola, Xabier; Durand de Gevigney, Benoit; Traverso, Peter

    2010-11-01

    Confinement studies in the Columbia Non-neutral Torus (CNT) are providing new insights into the physics of pure electron plasmas confined on magnetic surfaces. The confinement of pure electron plasmas has now been measured in the absence of internal objects . These transient plasmas exhibit confinement times that are shorter than expected and have a strong dependence on neutral pressure. Plasmas created by electron emission in one direction have been compared to those created by emission in two directions. The confinement is significantly longer when emitting in only one direction, suggesting that a two-stream instability is present and affects the radial transport rate. Progress on verifying the existence of a two-stream instability will be presented. Experimental results from previously unexplored stellarator configurations, with low shear and large islands will also be shown.

  18. Relationship Between Gross Motor Function and Daily Functional Skill in Children With Cerebral Palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Kwon, Tae Gun; Yi, Sook-Hee; Kim, Tae Won; Chang, Hyun Jung; Kwon, Jeong-Yi

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between gross motor function and daily functional skill in children with cerebral palsy (CP) and to explore how this relationship is moderated by the Gross Motor Function Classification System, Bimanual Fine Motor Function (BFMF), neuromotor types, and limb distribution of CP. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 112 children with CP (range, 4 years to 7 years and 7 months) was performed. Gross motor function was assessed with the Gross Motor Function ...

  19. Cell migration in confined environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irimia, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    We describe a protocol for measuring the speed of human neutrophils migrating through small channels, in conditions of mechanical confinement comparable to those experienced by neutrophils migrating through tissues. In such conditions, we find that neutrophils move persistently, at constant speed for tens of minutes, enabling precise measurements at single cells resolution, for large number of cells. The protocol relies on microfluidic devices with small channels in which a solution of chemoattractant and a suspension of isolated neutrophils are loaded in sequence. The migration of neutrophils can be observed for several hours, starting within minutes after loading the neutrophils in the devices. The protocol is divided into four main steps: the fabrication of the microfluidic devices, the separation of neutrophils from whole blood, the preparation of the assay and cell loading, and the analysis of data. We discuss the practical steps for the implementation of the migration assays in biology labs, the adaptation of the protocols to various cell types, including cancer cells, and the supplementary device features required for precise measurements of directionality and persistence during migration.

  20. Ring polymers in confined geometries

    CERN Document Server

    Usatenko, Z; Kuterba, P

    2016-01-01

    The investigation of a dilute solution of phantom ideal ring polymers and ring polymers with excluded volume interactions (EVI) in a good solvent confined in a slit geometry of two parallel repulsive walls and in a solution of colloidal particles of big size were performed. Taking into account the correspondence between the field theoretical $\\phi^4$ $O(n)$-vector model in the limit $n\\to 0$ and the behavior of long-flexible polymer chains in a good solvent the correspondent depletion interaction potentials, depletion forces and the forces which exert phantom ideal ring and ring polymer chains with EVI on the walls were obtained in the framework of the massive field theory approach at fixed space dimensions d=3 up to one-loop order. Additionally, the investigation of a dilute solution of phantom ideal ring polymers in a slit geometry of two inert walls and mixed walls with one repulsive and other one inert wall were performed and correspondent depletion interaction potentials and the depletion forces were cal...

  1. Confinement Physics in Quantum Chromodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Suganuma, H; Amemiya, K; Tanaka, A; Suganuma, Hideo; Ichie, Hiroko; Amemiya, Kazuhisa; Tanaka, Atsunori

    1998-01-01

    We study the confinement physics in QCD in the maximally abelian (MA) gauge using the SU(2) lattice QCD, based on the dual-superconductor picture. In the MA gauge, off-diagonal gluon components are forced to be small, and the off-diagonal angle variable $\\chi_\\mu(s)$ tends to be random. Within the random-variable approximation for $\\chi_\\mu(s)$, we analytically prove the perimeter law of the off-diagonal gluon contribution to the Wilson loop in the MA gauge, which leads to abelian dominance on the string tension. To clarify the origin of abelian dominance for the long-range physics, we study the charged-gluon propagator in the MA gauge using the lattice QCD, and find that the effective mass $m_{ch} \\simeq 0.9 {\\rm GeV}$ of the charged gluon is induced by the MA gauge fixing. In the MA gauge, there appears the macroscopic network of the monopole world-line covering the whole system, which would be identified as monopole condensation at a large scale. To prove monopole condensation in the field-theoretical mann...

  2. Fluid viscosity under confined conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudyak, V. Ya.; Belkin, A. A.

    2014-12-01

    Closed equations of fluid transfer in confined conditions are constructed in this study using ab initio methods of nonequilibrium statistical mechanics. It is shown that the fluid viscosity is not determined by the fluid properties alone, but becomes a property of the "fluid-nanochannel walls" system as a whole. Relations for the tensor of stresses and the interphase force, which specifies the exchange by momentum of fluid molecules with the channel-wall molecules, are derived. It is shown that the coefficient of viscosity is now determined by the sum of three contributions. The first contribution coincides with the expression for the coefficient of the viscosity of fluid in the bulk being specified by the interaction of fluid molecules with each other. The second contribution has the same structure as the first one but is determined by the interaction of fluid molecules with the channel-wall molecules. Finally, the third contribution has no analog in the usual statistical mechanics of transport processes of a simple fluid. It is associated with the correlation of intermolecular forces of the fluid and the channel walls. Thus, it is established that the coefficient of viscosity of fluid in sufficiently small channels will substantially differ from its bulk value.

  3. Self-assembly of lamella-forming diblock copolymers confined in nanochannels: Effect of confinement geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bin; Deng, Jian-Hua; Wang, Zheng; Li, Bao-Hui; Shi, An-Chang

    2015-04-01

    The self-assembly of symmetric diblock copolymers confined in the channels of variously shaped cross sections (regular triangles, squares, and ellipses) is investigated using a simulated annealing technique. In the bulk, the studied symmetric diblock copolymers form a lamellar structure with period LL. The geometry and surface property of the confining channels have a large effect on the self-assembled structures and the orientation of the lamellar structures. Stacked perpendicular lamellae with period LL are observed for neutral surfaces regardless of the channel shape and size, but each lamella is in the shape of the corresponding channel's cross section. In the case of triangle-shaped cross sections, stacked parallel lamellae are the majority morphologies for weakly selective surfaces, while morphologies including a triangular-prism-shaped B-cylinder and multiple tridentate lamellae are obtained for strongly selective surfaces. In the cases of square-shaped and ellipse-shaped cross sections, concentric lamellae are the signature morphology for strongly selective surfaces, whereas for weakly selective surfaces, stacked parallel lamellae, and several types of folding lamellae are obtained in the case of square-shaped cross sections, and stacked parallel lamellae are the majority morphologies in the case of ellipse-shaped cross sections when the length of the minor axis is commensurate with the bulk lamellar period. The mean-square end-to-end distance, the average contact number between different species and the surface concentration of the A-monomers are computed to elucidate the mechanisms of the formation of the different morphologies. It is found that the resulting morphology is a consequence of competition among the chain stretching, interfacial energy, and surface energy. Our results suggest that the self-assembled morphology and the orientation of lamellae can be manipulated by the shape, the size, and the surface property of the confining channels. Project

  4. Two Interacting Electrons in a Spherical Gaussian Confining Potential Quantum Well

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Wen-Fang

    2004-01-01

    Two-electron states of a three-dimensional spherical GaAs quantum dot (QD) with a Gaussian confining potential confinement are studied. Calculations are made by using the method of few-body physics within the effectivemass approximation. We have calculated the energy levels of single and triplet states as functions of the range and depth of the confining potential well in the spherical QDs. The same calculations performed with the parabolic approximation of the Gaussian potential lead to the results, which are qualitatively and quantitatively different.

  5. Plasma confinement time in trimix-M galatea multipole magnetic trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishaev, A. M.; Bugrova, A. I.; Kozintseva, M. V.; Lipatov, A. S.; Sigov, A. S.; Kharchevnikov, V. K.

    2010-05-01

    The confinement time of hydrogen plasma trapped in a Trimix-M magnetic multipole galatea was studied in a range of plasma densities (1 × 1016 - 6 × 1018 m-3) and ion energies (˜100-300 eV). It is established that (i) the confinement time increases with decreasing plasma density in the trap and (ii) as the barrier magnetic field is increased, the plasma confinement time grows faster than according to a linear law. The obtained results are indicative of a collisional character of plasma diffusion through the barrier field in the trap.

  6. Confinement of Mg-MgH2 systems into carbon nanotubes changes hydrogen sorption energetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jian-jie; Kung, W-C Paul

    2005-09-29

    The density functional theory (DFT) method was used to study the effect of nanoconfinement on the energetics of Mg-MgH2 systems. Varying levels of loading of the Mg/MgH2 particles into a (10,10) carbon nanotube were examined, and the corresponding energetics were computed. A clear trend was observed that, as the level of loading increases (increasing confinement), the net energy change in the hydrogen sorption/desorption processes decreases to a significant level when the loading approaches the maximum. The confinement was found not to depend on the tube length of the confining nanotubes.

  7. 26 CFR 1.927(b)-1T - Temporary regulations; Definition of gross receipts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Temporary regulations; Definition of gross...(b)-1T Temporary regulations; Definition of gross receipts. (a) General rule. Under section 927(b.... The FSC's gross receipts for purposes of computing its profit under the administrative pricing...

  8. The relationship between gross motor skills and academic achievement in children with learning disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westendorp, Marieke; Hartman, Esther; Houwen, Suzanne; Smith, Joanne; Visscher, Chris

    2011-01-01

    The present study compared the gross motor skills of 7- to 12-year-old children with learning disabilities (n = 104) with those of age-matched typically developing children (n = 104) using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2. Additionally, the specific relationships between subsets of gross motor

  9. 46 CFR 130.110 - Internal communications on OSVs of less than 100 gross tons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Internal communications on OSVs of less than 100 gross... Internal communications on OSVs of less than 100 gross tons. Each vessel of less than 100 gross tons... have a fixed means of communication between the pilothouse and the place where the auxiliary means...

  10. The relationship between gross motor skills and academic achievement in children with learning disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westendorp, Marieke; Hartman, Esther; Houwen, Suzanne; Smith, Joanne; Visscher, Chris

    2011-01-01

    The present study compared the gross motor skills of 7- to 12-year-old children with learning disabilities (n = 104) with those of age-matched typically developing children (n = 104) using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2. Additionally, the specific relationships between subsets of gross motor

  11. 26 CFR 1.872-1 - Gross income of nonresident alien individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gross income of nonresident alien individuals. 1...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Nonresident Aliens and Foreign Corporations § 1.872-1 Gross income of nonresident alien individuals. (a) In general—(1) Inclusions. The gross income of a nonresident...

  12. 26 CFR 20.2031-1 - Definition of gross estate; valuation of property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., except that if the executor elects the alternate valuation method under section 2032, it is the fair... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definition of gross estate; valuation of... § 20.2031-1 Definition of gross estate; valuation of property. (a) Definition of gross estate. Except...

  13. 26 CFR 1.924(a)-1T - Temporary regulations; definition of foreign trading gross receipts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... trading gross receipts. 1.924(a)-1T Section 1.924(a)-1T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... United States § 1.924(a)-1T Temporary regulations; definition of foreign trading gross receipts. (a) In general. The term “foreign trading gross receipts” means any of the five amounts described in...

  14. The Effect of Confined Hindrance in Polyphenylbenzenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Carlos F R A C; Rodrigues, Ana S M C; Santos, Luis M N B F

    2017-03-07

    A comprehensive thermodynamic study of the whole ortho-polyphenylbenzenes series, from biphenyl (n=1) to hexaphenylbenzene (n=6), is presented. Combustion calorimetry and phase equilibria measurements for 1,2,3,4-tetraphenylbenzene (n=4) and pentaphenylbenzene (n=5), together with literature data, were used to understand and quantify the constraint effect of ortho- substitution on the molecular energetics and phase stability of polyaromatic compounds. All the derived thermodynamic properties (enthalpy of sublimation, entropy of sublimation, and gas phase molecular energetics) show a marked trend shift at n=4 to n=5, which is related with the change of the degree of molecular flexibility after 1,2,3,4-tetraphenylbenzene (n=4). The greater intramolecular constraint in the more crowded members of the series (n=5 and n=6) leads to a significant change in the molecular properties and cohesive energy. The trend shift in the molecular properties is related with the decrease of molecular flexibility, which leads to lower molecular entropy and destabilization of the intramolecular interaction potential due to the increased hindrance in a confined molecular space.

  15. Density fluctuations and correlations of confined fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varea, C.; Robledo, A.

    The density fluctuations about the equilibrium structure of fluids confined by parallel planar walls are analyzed for the cases of identical and symmetrically opposed fields at the walls. We determine the stability matrix (of the second derivatives of the free energy functional with respect to the density) for conditions both above and below the wetting transition temperature Tw of the semi-infinite system and corroborate in all cases that the equilibrium configurations are stable. We identify the fluctuations close to the walls and in the middle of the slab and discuss their effect when the wall separation L diverges. For competing walls above Tw the localized fluctuation with lowest eigenvalue describes the displacements of the incipient wetting films that become unimpeded interfacial translations for L→∞. Below Tw the fluctuations with lowest eigenvalue correspond to stiffer deformations extended across the slab. For identical walls above Tw coexisting states display incipient prewetting films and the lowest eigenvalue describes the nature of their growth as L increases. We also calculate the pair correlation function for the inhomogeneous states and, for symmetrically opposed walls, we obtain standard Ornstein-Zernike (OZ) behavior at the walls, but find significant deviations from this law at the interface-like region in the middle of the slab. To model fluids with short-ranged forces we use a ferromagnetic Ising-type Hamiltonian in mean-field approximation.

  16. Burning analysis on the improved confinement mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tateishi, Gonta [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Science, Kyushu Univ., Kasuga, Fukuoka (Japan); Yagi, Masatoshi; Itoh, Sanae-I.

    1999-10-01

    1-D transport code is used to examine the ignition of plasma on the improved confinement mode and impact of profile effect on the burning performance. Energy transport, He-ash particle transport and poloidal magnetic field transport equations are solved with a thermal diffusivity of current diffusive ballooning mode model. The ratio of a thermal diffusivity and a He-ash diffusivity is introduced as a parameter and assumed to be constant. For a fixed current profile, the existence of the ignited state is shown. An internal transport barrier is formed autonomously even if parameters lie in the L-mode boundary condition. It is found that the sensitivity of the ignition condition on the density is strong and there is no margin of ignition for the density limit when density profile is flat. However, if a peaked profile of density is chosen, solutions which satisfy the density limit exist. The long time sustainment of ignition is also shown, solving poloidal magnetic field transport simultaneously. It is shown that the ignition is sustained within the time scale of burn-time, however, MHD stability should be considered in the time scale of current diffusion. (author)

  17. The Role of Bag Surface Tension in Color Confinement

    CERN Document Server

    Bugaev, K A

    2011-01-01

    We discuss here the novel view at the color confinement which, on the one hand, allows us to find out the surface tension coefficient of quark gluon bags and, under a plausible assumption, to determine the endpoint temperature of the QCD phase diagram, on the other hand. The present model considers the confining color tube as the cylindrical quark gluon bag with non-zero surface tension. A close inspection of the free energies of elongated cylindrical bag and the confining color tube that connects the static quark-antiquark pair allows us to find out the string tension in terms of the surface tension, thermal pressure and the bag radius. Using the derived relation it is possible to estimate the bag surface tension at zero temperature directly from the lattice QCD data and to estimate the (tri)critical endpoint temperature. In the present analysis the topological free energy of the cylindrical bag is accounted for the first time. The requirement of positive entropy density of such bags leads to negative values...

  18. Ice-like Behavior of Ultra-Confined Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prisk, Timothy; Kolesnikov, Alexander; Mamontov, Eugene; Anovitz, Lawrence

    2015-03-01

    Water confined within microporous minerals presents an extreme example of fluid confinement, where the water molecule is trapped within cages or pore channels which are not much larger than the water molecule itself. Hemimorphite Zn4Si2O7(OH)2 .H2O is a microporous silicate mineral containing confined molecular water which interacts with the crystal structure by means of hydrogen bonding. The water molecule forms a set of coplanar hydrogen bonds with the hydroxyl groups, forming a system of two-dimensional ice within the pore channel. In this presentation, we report quasi-elastic and inelastic neutron scattering studies of water and hydroxyl proton dynamics within hemimorphite. The scattering data reveal strong anisotropy in the vibrational behavior of the water molecule, with the scissors and stretching normal mode motions occurring only on a single crystallographic plane. The effective density of states of the protons extracted from the scattering data reproduces the water contribution to the mineral's heat capacity. This research conducted at the Spallation Neutron Source was sponsored by the Scientific User Facilities Division, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, U.S. Department of Energy.

  19. Improved gross efficiency during long duration submaximal cycling following a short-term high carbohydrate diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, M; Coleman, D; Hopker, J; Wiles, J

    2014-03-01

    To assess the effect of dietary manipulation on gross efficiency (GE), 15 trained male cyclists completed 3×2 h tests at submaximal exercise intensity (60% Maximal Minute Power). Using a randomized, crossover design participants consumed an isoenergetic diet (~4 000 kcal.day-1) in the 3 days preceding each test, that was either high in carbohydrate (HighCHO, [70% of the total energy derived from carbohydrate, 20% fat, 10% protein]), low in carbohydrate (LowCHO, [70% fat, 20% carbohydrate, 10% protein]) or contained a moderate amount of carbohydrate (ModCHO, [45% carbohydrate, 45% fat, 10% protein]). GE along with blood lactate and glucose were assessed every 30 min, and heart rate was measured at 5 s intervals throughout. Mean GE was significantly greater following the HighCHO than the ModCHO diet (HighCHO=20.4%±0.1%, ModCHO=19.6±0.2%; PDiet had no effect on blood glucose or lactate (P>0.05). This study suggests that before the measurement of gross efficiency, participants' diet should be controlled and monitored to ensure the validity of the results obtained.

  20. A finite-element toolbox for the stationary Gross-Pitaevskii equation with rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergez, Guillaume; Danaila, Ionut; Auliac, Sylvain; Hecht, Frédéric

    2016-12-01

    We present a new numerical system using classical finite elements with mesh adaptivity for computing stationary solutions of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. The programs are written as a toolbox for FreeFem++ (www.freefem.org), a free finite-element software available for all existing operating systems. This offers the advantage to hide all technical issues related to the implementation of the finite element method, allowing to easily code various numerical algorithms. Two robust and optimized numerical methods were implemented to minimize the Gross-Pitaevskii energy: a steepest descent method based on Sobolev gradients and a minimization algorithm based on the state-of-the-art optimization library Ipopt. For both methods, mesh adaptivity strategies are used to reduce the computational time and increase the local spatial accuracy when vortices are present. Different run cases are made available for 2D and 3D configurations of Bose-Einstein condensates in rotation. An optional graphical user interface is also provided, allowing to easily run predefined cases or with user-defined parameter files. We also provide several post-processing tools (like the identification of quantized vortices) that could help in extracting physical features from the simulations. The toolbox is extremely versatile and can be easily adapted to deal with different physical models.

  1. Condensation of p-branes and generalized Higgs/confinement duality

    CERN Document Server

    Quevedo, Fernando; Quevedo, Fernando; Trugenberger, Carlo

    1996-01-01

    We review our recent work on the low-energy actions and the realizations of strong-weak coupling dualities in non-perturbative phases of compact antisymmetric tensor field theories due to p-brane condensation. As examples we derive and discuss the confining string and confining membrane actions obtained from compact vector and tensor theories in 4D. We also mention the relevance of our results for the description of the Hagedorn phase transition of finite temperature strings.

  2. Exact diagonalization of the D-dimensional spatially confined quantum harmonic oscillator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunle Adegoke

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the existing literature various numerical techniques have been developed to quantize the confined harmonic oscillator in higher dimensions. In obtaining the energy eigenvalues, such methods often involve indirect approaches such as searching for the roots of hypergeometric functions or numerically solving a differential equation. In this paper, however, we derive an explicit matrix representation for the Hamiltonian of a confined quantum harmonic oscillator in higher dimensions, thus facilitating direct diagonalization.

  3. Spatially Confined Propagation of Intense Ultraviolet Radiation in Plasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiaomei

    X-ray amplification requires a high energy deposition rate in a high aspect-ratio volume. High power lasers for x-ray laser pumping have become available with the development of the short pulse and high intensity laser technology capable of producing pulses with a peak power as high as 10^{12} watts. Short pulses of high intensity x-ray have been observed in laser -plasma interactions, which encurages many scientists actively pursuing the goal of constructing practical x-ray lasers. Our approach has concentrated on producing high aspect ratio x-ray amplifying medium by spatially confined propagation of high power laser pulse in plasmas. A high intensity laser beam induces nonlinear refractive index changes in plasma. In the case of subpicosecond ultrahigh power laser-plasma interaction, the dominant mechanisms responsible for the refractive index change in plasmas are: (1) the relativistic free electron mass increase due to the increase of electron oscillation velocity in the intense electromagnetic field of the laser pulses; and (2) displacement of free electrons out of the high intensity region of the laser beam by ponderomotive force. Both of the above effects lead to a refractive index change of the plasma, which in turn has a positive lensing effect on the beam. If the focusing effect is strong enough to overcome diffraction the beam will stay in a spatially confined mode of propagation. This confined propagation provides an effective method of concentrating energy. The field intensity associated with the confined propagation is so high that the highly excited medium with high aspect ratio suitable for x-ray amplification can be achieved. In this research we have successfully demonstrated spatially confined propagation of 500 GW subpicosecond laser pulse in laser induced plasma. The measured diameter of the propagation is less than 2 μm and the aspect ratio of the confined propagation is over 1000. The filed intensity associated with the propagation is

  4. Controlling Carrier Dynamics using Quantum-Confined Semiconductor Nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beard, Matthew C.; Klimov, Victor I.

    2016-06-01

    The articles included in this special issue of Chemical Physics explore the use of quantum-confined semiconductor nanocrystals to control the flow of energy and/or charge. Colloidal quantum-confined semiconductor nanostructures are an emerging class of functional materials being developed for novel opto-electronic applications. In the last few years numerous examples in the literature have emerged where novel nanostructures have been tailored such as to achieve a specific function thus moving the field from the stage of discovery of novel behaviors to that of control of nanostructure properties. In addition to the internal structure of the NCs their assemblies can be tailored to achieve emergent properties and add additional control parameters that determine the final opto-electronic properties. These principles are explored via variations in shape, size, surface ligands, heterostructuring, morphology, composition, and assemblies and are demonstrated through measurements of excited state processes, such as Auger recombination; photoluminescence; charge separation and charge transport.

  5. Load-Induced Confinement Activates Diamond Lubrication by Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilibotti, G.; Corni, S.; Righi, M. C.

    2013-10-01

    Tribochemical reactions are chemical processes, usually involving lubricant or environment molecules, activated at the interface between two solids in relative motion. They are difficult to be monitored in situ, which leaves a gap in the atomistic understanding required for their control. Here we report the real-time atomistic description of the tribochemical reactions occurring at the interface between two diamond films in relative motion, by means of large scale ab initio molecular dynamics. We show that the load-induced confinement is able to catalyze diamond passivation by water dissociative adsorption. Such passivation decreases the energy of the contacting surfaces and increases their electronic repulsion. At sufficiently high coverages, the latter prevents surface sealing, thus lowering friction. Our findings elucidate effects of the nanoscale confinement on reaction kinetics and surface thermodynamics, which are important for the design of new lubricants.

  6. Confinement in single walled carbon nanotubes investigated by spectroscopic ellipsometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battie, Y., E-mail: yann.battie@univ-lorraine.fr [LCP-A2MC, Institut Jean Barriol, Université de Lorraine, 1 Bd Arago, 57070 Metz (France); Jamon, D. [Université de Lyon, Université Jean Monnet, EA 3523, Laboratoire Télécom Claude Chappe, 25 rue du Dr Rémy Annino, 42000 Saint Etienne (France); Lauret, J.S. [Laboratoire Aimé Cotton, UPR 3321, ENS Cachan, 94245 Cachan (France); Gu, Q.; Gicquel-Guézo, M. [FOTON, UMR 6082, INSA, Avenue des Buttes de Coësmes, 35043 Rennes (France); En Naciri, A. [LCP-A2MC, Institut Jean Barriol, Université de Lorraine, 1 Bd Arago, 57070 Metz (France); Loiseau, A. [Laboratoire d' étude des microstructures, ONERA-CNRS UMR 104, 29 Av. de la Division Leclerc, 92322 Chatillon (France)

    2014-11-28

    Thick films of single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) with different diameter and chirality distributions are characterized by combining transmission electron microscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry. The dependence of the dielectric function with the increase of the SWCNT diameter occurs with a drastic redshift of the S{sub 11}, S{sub 22} and M{sub 11} transition energies. The transfer integral parameter γ{sub 0} of SWCNT is also evaluated and analyzed. We demonstrate that parts of the optical properties of SWCNTs are attributed to a one dimensional confinement effect. - Highlights: • Ellipsometric measurements are performed on carbon nanotube thick films. • The complex dielectric functions of conventional carbon nanotubes are given. • Confinement effects explain the variations of dielectric function of nanotubes.

  7. The response of gross nitrogen mineralization to labile carbon inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtson, Per

    2014-05-01

    Input of labile carbon sources to forest soils commonly result in priming, i.e. an increase in the microbial decomposition of soil organic matter. Efforts aimed at quantifying the extent of priming have, to date, largely focused on soil organic matter decomposition manifested as soil respiration. Less is known about how gross nitrogen mineralization responds to input of labile carbon. It is often assumed that increased priming results in decreased soil carbon stocks. However, microbial mineralization of organic nitrogen into plant available forms is a major factor limiting primary production in forests. If increased decomposition of soil organic matter in response to labile carbon is accompanied by a concurrent increased nitrogen mineralization, this could result in elevated primary production and higher rates of plant derived organic matter input to soils. Therefore, in order to fully understand the effect of priming on net ecosystem exchange and soil carbon stocks, it is vital to consider if increased decomposition of soil organic matter caused by priming also results in increased nitrogen mineralization. Here I present the results from a series of experiments aimed at determining if, and to which extent, gross nitrogen mineralization is stimulated by input of labile carbon. The results suggest that it is by no means uncommon to find an increase in gross N mineralization rates in response to labile carbon inputs. The magnitude of the increase seems dependent on the nitrogen status of the soil, as well as the concentration and rate of labile carbon inputs. However, continuous input of labile carbon sources that also contains nitrogen, e.g. amino acids, seems to inhibit rather than increase the mineralization of organic nitrogen. These findings suggest that there is a potential for a positive feedback between priming and primary production that needs to be considered in order to fully understand the influence of priming on net ecosystem exchange and soil carbon

  8. The Schroedinger functional for Gross-Neveu models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leder, B.

    2007-04-18

    Gross-Neveu type models with a finite number of fermion flavours are studied on a two-dimensional Euclidean space-time lattice. The models are asymptotically free and are invariant under a chiral symmetry. These similarities to QCD make them perfect benchmark systems for fermion actions used in large scale lattice QCD computations. The Schroedinger functional for the Gross-Neveu models is defined for both, Wilson and Ginsparg-Wilson fermions, and shown to be renormalisable in 1-loop lattice perturbation theory. In two dimensions four fermion interactions of the Gross-Neveu models have dimensionless coupling constants. The symmetry properties of the four fermion interaction terms and the relations among them are discussed. For Wilson fermions chiral symmetry is explicitly broken and additional terms must be included in the action. Chiral symmetry is restored up to cut-off effects by tuning the bare mass and one of the couplings. The critical mass and the symmetry restoring coupling are computed to second order in lattice perturbation theory. This result is used in the 1-loop computation of the renormalised couplings and the associated beta-functions. The renormalised couplings are defined in terms of suitable boundary-to-boundary correlation functions. In the computation the known first order coefficients of the beta-functions are reproduced. One of the couplings is found to have a vanishing betafunction. The calculation is repeated for the recently proposed Schroedinger functional with exact chiral symmetry, i.e. Ginsparg-Wilson fermions. The renormalisation pattern is found to be the same as in the Wilson case. Using the regularisation dependent finite part of the renormalised couplings, the ratio of the Lambda-parameters is computed. (orig.)

  9. Verbal priming and taste sensitivity make moral transgressions gross.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herz, Rachel S

    2014-02-01

    The aims of the present study were to assess whether: (a) visceral and moral disgust share a common oral origin (taste); (b) moral transgressions that are also viscerally involving are evaluated accordingly as a function of individual differences in taste sensitivity; (c) verbal priming interacts with taste sensitivity to alter how disgust is experienced in moral transgressions; and (d) whether gender moderates these effects. Standard tests of disgust sensitivity, a questionnaire developed for this research assessing different types of moral transgressions (nonvisceral, implied-visceral, visceral) with the terms "angry" and "grossed-out," and a taste sensitivity test of 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) were administered to 102 participants. Results confirmed past findings that the more sensitive to PROP a participant was the more disgusted they were by visceral, but not moral, disgust elicitors. Importantly, the findings newly revealed that taste sensitivity had no bearing on evaluations of moral transgressions, regardless of their visceral nature, when "angry" was the emotion primed. However, when "grossed-out" was primed for evaluating moral violations, the more intense PROP tasted to a participant the more "grossed-out" they were by all transgressions. Women were generally more disgust sensitive and morally condemning than men, but disgust test, transgression type, and priming scale modulated these effects. The present findings support the proposition that moral and visceral disgust do not share a common oral origin, but show that linguistic priming can transform a moral transgression into a viscerally repulsive event and that susceptibility to this priming varies as a function of an individual's sensitivity to the origins of visceral disgust-bitter taste.

  10. Aerofractures in Confined Granular Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Fredrik K.; Turkaya, Semih; Toussaint, Renaud; Måløy, Knut J.; Flekkøy, Eirik G.

    2015-04-01

    We will present the optical analysis of experimental aerofractures in confined granular media. The study of this generic process may have applications in industries involving hydraulic fracturing of tight rocks, safe construction of dams, tunnels and mines, and in earth science where phenomena such as mud volcanoes and sand injectites are results of subsurface sediment displacements driven by fluid overpressure. It is also interesting to increase the understanding the flow instability itself, and how the fluid flow impacts the solid surrounding fractures and in the rest of the sample. Such processes where previously studied numerically [Niebling 2012a, Niebling 2012b] or in circular geometries. We will here explore experimentally linear geometries. We study the fracturing patterns that form when air flows into a dense, non-cohesive porous medium confined in a Hele-Shaw cell - i.e. into a packing of dry 80 micron beads placed between two glass plates separated by ~1mm. The cell is rectangular and fitted with a semi-permeable boundary to the atmosphere - blocking beads but not air - on one short edge, while the other three edges are impermeable. The porous medium is packed inside the cell between the semi-permeable boundary and an empty volume at the sealed side where the air pressure can be set and kept at a constant overpressure (1-2bar). Thus, for the air trapped inside the cell to release the overpressure it has to move through the solid. At high enough overpressures the air flow deforms the solid and increase permeability in some regions along the air-solid interface, which results in unstable flow and aerofracturing. Aerofractures are thought to be an analogue to hydrofractures, and an advantage of performing aerofracturing experiments in a Hele-Shaw cell is that the fracturing process can easily be observed in the lab. Our experiments are recorded with a high speed camera with a framerate of 1000 frames per second. In the analysis, by using various image

  11. Mobility in geometrically confined membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domanov, Yegor A; Aimon, Sophie; Toombes, Gilman E S; Renner, Marianne; Quemeneur, François; Triller, Antoine; Turner, Matthew S; Bassereau, Patricia

    2011-08-02

    Lipid and protein lateral mobility is essential for biological function. Our theoretical understanding of this mobility can be traced to the seminal work of Saffman and Delbrück, who predicted a logarithmic dependence of the protein diffusion coefficient (i) on the inverse of the size of the protein and (ii) on the "membrane size" for membranes of finite size [Saffman P, Delbrück M (1975) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 72:3111-3113]. Although the experimental proof of the first prediction is a matter of debate, the second has not previously been thought to be experimentally accessible. Here, we construct just such a geometrically confined membrane by forming lipid bilayer nanotubes of controlled radii connected to giant liposomes. We followed the diffusion of individual molecules in the tubular membrane using single particle tracking of quantum dots coupled to lipids or voltage-gated potassium channels KvAP, while changing the membrane tube radius from approximately 250 to 10 nm. We found that both lipid and protein diffusion was slower in tubular membranes with smaller radii. The protein diffusion coefficient decreased as much as 5-fold compared to diffusion on the effectively flat membrane of the giant liposomes. Both lipid and protein diffusion data are consistent with the predictions of a hydrodynamic theory that extends the work of Saffman and Delbrück to cylindrical geometries. This study therefore provides strong experimental support for the ubiquitous Saffman-Delbrück theory and elucidates the role of membrane geometry and size in regulating lateral diffusion.

  12. Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Canada, Britain, and Spain. We found that the energy industry is not in crisis ; however, U.S. government policies, laws, dollars, and even public...CEIMAT (Centro de Investagaciones Energeticas , Medioambeintales y Tecnologicas) Research and development Page 3 of 28ENERGY 8/10/04http://www.ndu.edu...meet an emerging national crisis (war), emergency (natural disaster), or major impact event (Y2K). Certain resources are generally critical to the

  13. Complex saddles in the Gross-Witten-Wadia matrix model

    CERN Document Server

    Álvarez, Gabriel; Medina, Elena

    2016-01-01

    We give an exhaustive characterization of the complex saddle point configurations of the Gross-Witten-Wadia matrix model in the large-N limit. In particular, we characterize the cases in which the saddles accumulate in one, two, or three arcs, in terms of the values of the coupling constant and of the fraction of the total unit density that is supported in one of the arcs, and derive an explicit condition for gap closing associated to nonvacuum saddles. By applying the idea of large-N instanton we also give direct analytic derivations of the weak-coupling and strong-coupling instanton actions.

  14. Pathology Gross Photography: The Beginning of Digital Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampy, B Alan; Glassy, Eric F

    2015-06-01

    The underutilized practice of photographing anatomic pathology specimens from surgical pathology and autopsies is an invaluable benefit to patients, clinicians, pathologists, and students. Photographic documentation of clinical specimens is essential for the effective practice of pathology. When considering what specimens to photograph, all grossly evident pathology, absent yet expected pathologic features, and gross-only specimens should be thoroughly documented. Specimen preparation prior to photography includes proper lighting and background, wiping surfaces of blood, removing material such as tubes or bandages, orienting the specimen in a logical fashion, framing the specimen to fill the screen, positioning of probes, and using the right-sized scale.

  15. Four loop renormalization of the Gross-Neveu model

    CERN Document Server

    Gracey, J A; Schroder, Y

    2016-01-01

    We renormalize the SU(N) Gross-Neveu model in the modified minimal subtraction (MSbar) scheme at four loops and determine the beta-function at this order. The theory ceases to be multiplicatively renormalizable when dimensionally regularized due to the generation of evanescent 4-fermi operators. The first of these appears at three loops and we correctly take their effect into account in deriving the renormalization group functions. We use the results to provide estimates of critical exponents relevant to phase transitions in graphene.

  16. Labor Absorption and Its Impact on Gross Regional Domestic Product

    OpenAIRE

    Made Ika Prastyadewi; Agus Suman; Devanto Shasta Pratomo

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the determinants of labor absorption in the trade, hotel and restaurant sector and its impact on Gross Regional Domestic Product/GRDP at Bali Province. This study is important due to the fact that the GRDP in this sector is the highest compared to other sector but the labor absorption is lower than the agriculture sector. This study used panel data comprising 9 regencies/cities at Bali Province in the period 2003-2009 including fixed effect model and ...

  17. Characterizing the development of sectoral gross domestic product composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Raphael; Spies, Michael; Reusser, Dominik E; Kropp, Jürgen P; Rybski, Diego

    2013-07-01

    We consider the sectoral composition of a country's gross domestic product (GDP), i.e., the partitioning into agrarian, industrial, and service sectors. Exploring a simple system of differential equations, we characterize the transfer of GDP shares between the sectors in the course of economic development. The model fits for the majority of countries providing four country-specific parameters. Relating the agrarian with the industrial sector, a data collapse over all countries and all years supports the applicability of our approach. Depending on the parameter ranges, country development exhibits different transfer properties. Most countries follow three of eight characteristic paths. The types are not random but show distinct geographic and development patterns.

  18. Effect of plasma shape on confinement and MHD behaviour in TCV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weisen, H.; Alberti, S.; Barry, S. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale, Lausanne (Switzerland). Centre de Recherche en Physique des Plasma (CRPP)] [and others

    1997-06-01

    The TCV tokamak has produced a wide variety of plasma configurations, both diverted and limited, with elongations {kappa}{sub a} ranging from 0.9 to 2.58, triangularities {delta}{sub a} from -0.7 to 1 as well as discharges nearly rectangular cross sections. Plasma currents of 1 MA have been obtained in elongated discharges ({kappa}{sub a}{approx_equal}2.3). Ohmic discharges with {delta}{sub a} <0 have smaller sawteeth and higher levels of MHD mode activity than plasmas with {delta}>0. The main change in MHD behaviour when elongation is increased beyond 2 is an increase in the relative importance of modes with m,n>1 and a reduction of sawtooth amplitudes. Confinement is strongly dependent on plasma shape. In ohmic limiter L-modes energy confinement times improve typically by a factor of 2 as the plasma triangularity is reduced from 0.5 to 0 at constant q{sub a}. There also is an improvement of confinement as the elongation is increased. In most discharges the changes in confinement are explained by a combination of geometrical effects and power degradation. A global factor of merit H{sub s}(shape enhancement factor) has been introduced to quantify the effect of flux surface geometry. The introduction of H{sub s} into well known confinement scaling expressions such Neo-Alcator and Rebut-Lallia-Watkins scaling leads to improved descriptions of the effect of shape for a given confinement mode. In some cases with {kappa}{sub a}{>=}1.7 limited ohmic L-modes undergo a slow transition to a confinement regime with an energy confinement improved by a factor of up to 1.5 and higher particle confinement. First experiments to study the effect of shape in ECRH at a frequency of 83 GHz (second harmonic) have been undertaken with 500 kW of additional power. (author) 10 figs., refs.

  19. Controlling Confinement with Induced Toroidal Current in the Flexible Heliac TJ-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, J. A.; Lopez-Bruna, D.; Lopez-Fraguas, A.; Ascasibar, E.; TJ-II Team

    2002-07-01

    A method to control plasma particle an energy confinement in the TJ-II Heliac devices is reported A small toroidal current is induced in the plasma with the aid of a 0.2 Wb air core transformer. Plasma particle and energy confinement improve (degrade) with negative (positive) plasma current. For typical TJ-II discharges plasma density and temperature broaden considerably when plasma current is sufficiently negative, accounting for a 40% increase in stored energy. The experimental results agree qualitatively with the paradigm of instability growth rate modifications with magnetic shear. (Author) 18 refs.

  20. Monthly energy review, March 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-29

    The Monthly Energy Review provides information on production, distribution, consumption, prices, imports, and exports for the following US energy sources: petroleum; petroleum products; natural gas; coal; electricity; and nuclear energy. The section on international energy contains data for world crude oil production and consumption, petroleum stocks in OECD countries, and nuclear electricity gross generation.

  1. Diamagnetic susceptibility of a confined donor in inhomogeneous quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, K.; Zorkani, I.; Jorio, A.

    2011-03-01

    The binding energy and diamagnetic susceptibility χdia are estimated for a shallow donor confined to move in GaAs-GaAlAs inhomogeneous quantum dots. The calculation was performed within the effective mass approximation and using the variational method. The results show that the binding energy and the diamagnetic susceptibility χdia depend strongly on the core radius and the shell radius. We have demonstrated that there is a critical value of the ratio of the inner radius to the outer radius which may be important for nanofabrication techniques. The binding energy Eb shows a minimum for a critical value of this ratio depending on the value of the outer radius and shows a maximum when the donor is placed at the center of the spherical layer. The diamagnetic susceptibility is more sensitive to variations of the radius for a large spherical layer. The binding energy and diamagnetic susceptibility depend strongly on the donor position.

  2. Electronic Quantum Confinement in Cylindrical Potential Well

    CERN Document Server

    Baltenkov, A S

    2016-01-01

    The effects of quantum confinement on the momentum distribution of electrons confined within a cylindrical potential well have been analyzed. The motivation is to understand specific features of the momentum distribution of electrons when the electron behavior is completely controlled by the parameters of a non-isotropic potential cavity. It is shown that studying the solutions of the wave equation for an electron confined in a cylindrical potential well offers the possibility to analyze the confinement behavior of an electron executing one- or two-dimensional motion in the three-dimensional space within the framework of the same mathematical model. Some low-lying electronic states with different symmetries have been considered and the corresponding wave functions have been calculated; the behavior of their nodes and their peak positions with respect to the parameters of the cylindrical well has been analyzed. Additionally, the momentum distributions of electrons in these states have been calculated. The limi...

  3. Controlling the Electromagnetic Field Confinement with Metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonache, Jordi; Zamora, Gerard; Paredes, Ferran; Zuffanelli, Simone; Aguilà, Pau; Martín, Ferran

    2016-11-01

    The definition of a precise illumination region is essential in many applications where the electromagnetic field should be confined in some specific volume. By using conventional structures, it is difficult to achieve an adequate confinement distance (or volume) with negligible levels of radiation leakage beyond it. Although metamaterial structures and metasurfaces are well-known to provide high controllability of their electromagnetic properties, this feature has not yet been applied to solve this problem. We present a method of electromagnetic field confinement based on the generation of evanescent waves by means of metamaterial structures. With this method, the confinement volume can be controlled, namely, it is possible to define a large area with an intense field without radiation leakage. A prototype working in the microwave region has been implemented, and very good agreement between the measurements and the theoretical prediction of field distribution has been obtained.

  4. Theory of Confined Quantum Time of Arrivals

    CERN Document Server

    Galapon, E A

    2005-01-01

    We extend the concept of confined quantum time of arrival operators, first developed for the free particle [E.A. Galapon, R. Caballar, R. Bahague {\\it Phys. Rev. Let.} {\\bf 93} 180406 (2004)], to arbitrary potentials.

  5. Colloidal cholesteric liquid crystal in spherical confinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yunfeng; Jun-Yan Suen, Jeffrey; Prince, Elisabeth; Larin, Egor M.; Klinkova, Anna; Thérien-Aubin, Héloïse; Zhu, Shoujun; Yang, Bai; Helmy, Amr S.; Lavrentovich, Oleg D.; Kumacheva, Eugenia

    2016-08-01

    The organization of nanoparticles in constrained geometries is an area of fundamental and practical importance. Spherical confinement of nanocolloids leads to new modes of packing, self-assembly, phase separation and relaxation of colloidal liquids; however, it remains an unexplored area of research for colloidal liquid crystals. Here we report the organization of cholesteric liquid crystal formed by nanorods in spherical droplets. For cholesteric suspensions of cellulose nanocrystals, with progressive confinement, we observe phase separation into a micrometer-size isotropic droplet core and a cholesteric shell formed by concentric nanocrystal layers. Further confinement results in a transition to a bipolar planar cholesteric morphology. The distribution of polymer, metal, carbon or metal oxide nanoparticles in the droplets is governed by the nanoparticle size and yields cholesteric droplets exhibiting fluorescence, plasmonic properties and magnetic actuation. This work advances our understanding of how the interplay of order, confinement and topological defects affects the morphology of soft matter.

  6. Plasma confinement system and methods for use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarboe, Thomas R.; Sutherland, Derek

    2017-09-05

    A plasma confinement system is provided that includes a confinement chamber that includes one or more enclosures of respective helicity injectors. The one or more enclosures are coupled to ports at an outer radius of the confinement chamber. The system further includes one or more conductive coils aligned substantially parallel to the one or more enclosures and a further set of one or more conductive coils respectively surrounding portions of the one or more enclosures. Currents may be provided to the sets of conductive coils to energize a gas within the confinement chamber into a plasma. Further, a heat-exchange system is provided that includes an inner wall, an intermediate wall, an outer wall, and pipe sections configured to carry coolant through cavities formed by the walls.

  7. A model for melting of confined DNA

    CERN Document Server

    Werner, E; Ambjörnsson, T; Mehlig, B

    2015-01-01

    When DNA molecules are heated they denature. This occurs locally so that loops of molten single DNA strands form, connected by intact double-stranded DNA pieces. The properties of this "melting" transition have been intensively investigated. Recently there has been a surge of interest in this question, caused by experiments determining the properties of partially bound DNA confined to nanochannels. But how does such confinement affect the melting transition? To answer this question we introduce, and solve a model predicting how confinement affects the melting transition for a simple model system by first disregarding the effect of self-avoidance. We find that the transition is smoother for narrower channels. By means of Monte-Carlo simulations we then show that a model incorporating self-avoidance shows qualitatively the same behaviour and that the effect of confinement is stronger than in the ideal case.

  8. Computer simulation of confined liquid crystal dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Webster, R E

    2001-01-01

    are performed of the formation of structures in confined smectic systems where layer tilt is induced by an imposed surface pretilt. Results show that bookshelf, chevron and tilled layer structures are observable in a confined Gay-Berne system. The formation and stability of the chevron structure are shown to be influenced by surface slip. Results are presented from a series of simulations undertaken to determine whether dynamic processes observed in device-scale liquid crystal cells confined between aligning substrates can be simulated in a molecular system using parallel molecular dynamics of the Gay-Berne model. In a nematic cell, on removal of an aligning field, initial near-surface director relaxation can induce flow, termed 'backflow' in the liquid. This, in turn, can cause director rotation, termed 'orientational kickback', in the centre of the cell. Simulations are performed of the relaxation in nematic systems confined between substrates with a common alignment on removal of an aligning field. Results...

  9. Assessment of Methods for Development of Confinement Model of Low Strength Reinforced Concrete Columns: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asif Ali

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Reinforced Concrete is composed of concrete and steel, where compressive strength of concrete and tensile strength of steel are utilized to achieve the required member strength. The high tensile property of steel is thus used to confine and increase compressive strength and ductility of RC columns. Confined concrete is defined as concrete that is restrained laterally by any internal or external means i.e. reinforcement consisting of steel stirrups or spirals, Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP, Circular Concrete Filled Steel Tube, RC shell jacketing etc. An appropriate amount of confinement increases the strength, ductility and energy dissipation capacity of RC members. This paper focuses on finding out strength and ductility enhancement of low strength RC columns by reinforcement using existing confinement models. Confinement models are stress-strain curves developed for concrete compression member under uniaxial or dynamic loading, confined with transverse reinforcement. Different models along with their experimental validations are discussed in this paper to get state of the art knowledge of confinement studies possible for low strength concrete. The models recommended from this study are used to evaluate existing structures made with low strength concrete

  10. Proximate analysis, backwards stepwise regression between gross calorific value, ultimate and chemical analysis of wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telmo, C; Lousada, J; Moreira, N

    2010-06-01

    The gross calorific value (GCV), proximate, ultimate and chemical analysis of debark wood in Portugal were studied, for future utilization in wood pellets industry and the results compared with CEN/TS 14961. The relationship between GCV, ultimate and chemical analysis were determined by multiple regression stepwise backward. The treatment between hardwoods-softwoods did not result in significant statistical differences for proximate, ultimate and chemical analysis. Significant statistical differences were found in carbon for National (hardwoods-softwoods) and (National-tropical) hardwoods in volatile matter, fixed carbon, carbon and oxygen and also for chemical analysis in National (hardwoods-softwoods) for F and (National-tropical) hardwoods for Br. GCV was highly positively related to C (0.79 * * *) and negatively to O (-0.71 * * *). The final independent variables of the model were (C, O, S, Zn, Ni, Br) with R(2)=0.86; F=27.68 * * *. The hydrogen did not contribute statistically to the energy content.

  11. Decoupling of Confined Normal 3He

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimov, S. G.; Bennett, R. G.; Ilic, B.; Verbridge, S. S.; Levitin, L. V.; Fefferman, A. D.; Casey, A.; Saunders, J.; Parpia, J. M.

    2010-01-01

    Anodic bonding was used to fabricate a 10 mm diameter × 640 nm tall annular geometry suitable for torsion pendulum studies of confined 3He. For pure 3He at saturated vapor pressure the inertia of the confined fluid was seen to be only partially coupled to the pendulum at 160 mK. Below 100 mK the liquid’s inertial contribution was negligible, indicating a complete decoupling of the 3He from the pendulum.

  12. Structure of polymer chains under confinement

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jyotsana Lal

    2008-11-01

    We observe by SANS the structure of neutral polystyrene and charged polystyrene sulphonate chains in semi-dilute solutions confined in a model nanoporous glass, Vycor. The size of the free chains in solution is always larger than the pore diameter, 70. The use of a suitable mixture of hydrogenated and deuterated solvents and polymers enables us to measure directly the form factor of one single chain among the others. Single chain form factor was observed both for bulk and confined chains using the condition of zero average contrast. Our measurements on neutral polymer chains are in agreement with the theoretical predictions established by Daoud and de Gennes for chains confined in a cylindrical pore when the chains are entangled and laterally squeezed but remain ideal at large scale along the cylinder axis because of the screening of the excluded volume interactions (so-called regime of ``semi-dilute cigars"). For confined charged polymers, a peak is observed whose intensity increases with molecular weight and the asymptotic 1/ scattering region is extended compared to the bulk. We infer that the chains are sufficiently extended, under the influence of confinement, to highlight the large scale disordered structure of Vycor even under contrast matched conditions. The asymptotic behaviour of the observed interchain structure factor is ≈ 1/2 and ≈ 1/ for free and confined chains respectively.

  13. Confined Space Evaluation Student Manual, #19613

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilmot, David Ezekiel [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2016-08-29

    Many workplaces contain spaces that are considered to be “confined” because their configuration hinders the activities of employees who must enter into, work in, and exit from them. In general, the permit-required confined spaces (PRCSs) Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standard requires that Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) evaluate the workplace to determine if any spaces are PRCSs. The standard specifies strict procedures for the evaluation and atmospheric testing of a space before and during an entry by workers. The OSHA PRCS standard provides for alternative (less stringent than full-permit) entry procedures in cases where the only hazard in a space is atmospheric and the hazard can be controlled by forced air. At LANL, all confined spaces or potential confined spaces on LANL-owned or -operated property must be identified and evaluated by a confined space evaluator accompanied by a knowledgeable person. This course provides the information needed by confined space evaluators to make judgements about whether a space is a confined space, and if so, whether the space will require a permit for entry.

  14. Improved mixed integer optimization approach for data rectification with gross error candidates%带显著误差集的改进MILP数据协调方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李笕列; 荣冈

    2009-01-01

    Mixed integer linear programming(MILP)approach for simultaneous gross error detection and data reconciliation has been proved as an efficient Way to adjust process data with material,energy,and other balance constrains.BUt the efficiency will decrease significantly when this method IS applied in a large-scale problem because there are too many binary variables involved.In this article, an improved method IS proposed in order to generate gross error candidates with reliability factors before data rectification.Candidates are used in the MILP objectivc function to improve the emciency and accuracy by reducing the number of binary variables and gwmg accurate weights for suspected gross errors candidates.Performance of this improved method IS compared and discussed by applying the algorithm in a widely used industrial example.

  15. Progress toward the creation of magnetically confined pair plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saitoh, Haruhiko [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik (Germany); The University of Tokyo (Japan); Hergenhahn, Uwe; Paschkowski, Norbert; Stanja, Juliane; Stenson, Eve V. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik (Germany); Niemann, Holger; Sunn Pedersen, Thomas [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik (Germany); Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universitaet Greifswald (Germany); Stoneking, Matthew R. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik (Germany); Lawrence University (United States); Hugenschmidt, Christoph; Piochacz, Christian; Vohburger, Sebastian [Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Schweikhard, Lutz [Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universitaet Greifswald (Germany); Danielson, James R.; Surko, Clifford M. [University of California, San Diego (United States)

    2016-07-01

    The PAX (Positron Accumulation eXperiment) and APEX (A Positron Electron eXperiment) projects aim to experimentally study the unique wave propagation and stability properties of pair plasmas. We plan to accumulate a large number of positrons in a multicell-type trap system (PAX) and to confine them with electrons in APEX, a levitated dipole or stellarator configuration, operated at the NEPOMUC facility, the world's most intense positron source. In this contribution, we report on recent results from PAX and APEX. We have conducted electron experiments with a 2.3 T Penning-Malmberg trap; confinement for more than 1 hour and observation of a collective mode were demonstrated. At NEPOMUC, we have characterized the positron beam for a wide energy range. In a prototype permanent-magnet dipole trap, efficient (38%) injection of the remoderated 5 eV positron beam was realized using E x B drifts. Based on these results, design studies on the confinement of pair-plasmas in a levitated dipole trap are ongoing.

  16. An application of LSC method for the measurement of gross alpha and beta activities in spiked water and drinking water samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çakal Gaye Özgür

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, after the pulse shape calibration of a liquid scintillation counting (LSC spectrometer (Quantulus 1220, the effi ciency was determined depending on sample quenching parameters. Then, gross alpha and beta activities in two spiked water samples obtained from International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA were used for the validation of the ASTM D7283-06 method, which is a standard test method for alpha and beta activity in water by LSC. Later, the drinking water samples (35 tap water and 9 bottled water obtained from different districts of Ankara, Turkey, were measured. The maximum gross alpha activities are measured to be 0.08 Bq/L for tap waters and 0.13 Bq/L for bottled waters, whereas the maximum gross beta activities are found to be 0.18 Bq/L for tap waters and 0.16 Bq/L for bottled waters. These results indicate that these drinking water samples are below the required limits, which are 0.1 Bq/L for alpha emitting radionuclides and 1 Bq/L for beta emitting radionuclides. As a result, gross alpha and beta activities in drinking water of Ankara were determined accurately by this validated LSC method. It is also worth noting that LSC is a rapid and accurate method for the determination of gross alpha and beta activities without requiring a tedious sample preparation.

  17. BOOK REVIEW: Instabilities in a confined plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasser, A. H.

    1999-05-01

    , at least in the USA, to encounter this material first in a course on general relativity, which they might not have taken previously when specializing in plasma physics. While good efforts are made by the author to provide an intuitive understanding of the many analytical results, this is often done with such brevity that a substantial level of maturity is required to comprehend the ideas. Another quote from the preface is, ``The book is based on analytical approaches and should therefore be useful for everybody who is interested in the topic.'' In a field where complex geometry and dynamics and the importance of practical results have required much novel and creative computational work over the past 25 years, there is no mention, no acknowledgment, no hint of its importance. The analytical approach presented here certainly fills an important need, and there is no need for the same work to cover numerical work in depth, but some recognition of the importance of numerical work and its relationship with the analytical side of the theory might have been justified. Despite these shortcomings, this book is a major and welcome addition to the literature on plasma instabilities which I heartily recommend. Contents: 1. Equilibrium of a plasma in toroidal confinement systems; 2. Internal magnetohydrodynamic modes in the cylindrical approximation; 3. Small-scale magnetohydrodynamic instabilities in toroidal confinement systems; 4. Magnetohydrodynamic internal kink modes in toroidal geometry; 5. Magnetohydrodynamic modes in collisionless and neoclassical regimes; 6. Drift-magnetohydrodynamic modes; 7. External kink modes; 8. Alfvén eigenmodes and their interaction with high-energy particles; References; Index.

  18. Phase Transformations in Confined Nanosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shield, Jeffrey E. [Department of Mechanical & Materials Engineering; Belashchenko, Kirill [Department of Physics & Astronomy

    2014-04-29

    This project discovered that non-equilibrium structures, including chemically ordered structures not observed in bulk systems, form in isolated nanoscale systems. Further, a generalized model was developed that effectively explained the suppression of equilibrium phase transformations. This thermodynamic model considered the free energy decrease associated with the phase transformation was less than the increase in energy associated with the formation of an interphase interface, therefore inhibiting the phase transformation. A critical diameter exists where the system transitions to bulk behavior, and a generalized equation was formulated that successfully predicted this transition in the Fe-Au system. This provided and explains a new route to novel structures not possible in bulk systems. The structural characterization was accomplished using transmission electron microscopy in collaboration with Matthew Kramer of Ames Laboratory. The PI and graduate student visited Ames Laboratory several times a year to conduct the experiments.

  19. Fluctuation pressure on a bio-membrane confined within a parabolic potential well

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L. B. Freund

    2012-01-01

    A compliant bio-membrane with a nominally flat reference configuration is prone to random transverse deflections when placed in water,due primarily to the Brownian motion of the water molecules.On the average,these fluctuations result in a state of thermodynamic equilibrium between the entropic energy of the water and the total free energy of the membrane.When the membrane is in close proximity to a parallel surface,that surface restricts the fluctuations of the membrane which,in turn,results in an increase in its free energy.The amount of that increase depends on the degree of confinement,and the resulting gradient in free energy with degree of confinement implies the existence of a confining pressure.In the present study,we assume that the confinement is in the form of a continuous parabolic potential well resisting fluctuation.Analysis leads to a closed form expression for the mean pressure resulting from this confinement,and the results are discussed within the broader context of results in this area.In particular,the results provide insights into the roles of membrane stiffness,number of degrees of freedom in the model of the membrane and other system parameters.

  20. Experimental Phenomena of Improved Ohmic Confinement Induced by Modulated Toroidal Current on the HT-7 Tokamak

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛剑珊; 罗家融; P.Phillips; 赵君煜; 揭银先; 吴振伟; 胡立群; 李建刚

    2002-01-01

    The phenomena of improved ohmic confinement have been observed during the modulation of the toroidal curranton the Hefei superconducting Tokamak-7 (HT-7). In the experiment, the programming ohmic heating field wasmodulated. A toroidal frequency-modulated current induced by modulated loop voltage was added on the plasmaequilibrium current. The ratio of ac amplitude of the plasma current to the main plasma current is about 12-30%.These improved plasma confinement phenomena include the facts that the average electron density and the centralelectron temperature both increase, the Dα radiation from the edge is reduced, the magnetohydrodynamics isobviously suppressed by oscillating plasma current, eand the global energy confinement time increases by 27-45%o.It is found that the faster the modulation is, the more effective the improved ohmic confinement phase.