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Sample records for gross domestic product-offer

  1. 9 CFR 381.208 - Poultry products offered for entry and entered to be handled and transported as domestic; entry...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Poultry products offered for entry and entered to be handled and transported as domestic; entry into official establishments; transportation. 381.208 Section 381.208 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND...

  2. Sectoral contributions to Nigerian gross domestic product using a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences ... This study analyzed sectoral contributions to Gross Domestic Product by Agriculture, Industry and services ... KEYWORDS: Granger causality, Unit root, VAR model and sectoral contribution ...

  3. GLOBALIZATION AND GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT CONSTRUCTION IN ASEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Sri Wahyudi Suliswanto

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available There is no more doubt about the importance of economic growth, which can be calculated fromGross Domestic Product (GDP. This research analyzes the role of globalization on GDP inASEAN-5 by estimating panel data. It uses a fixed effect approach to accommodate various characteristicsin the countries. To accommodate such variation, it assumes that the intercepts variesacross these countries, while the slopes remain similar. Based on the estimation result, it suggeststhat net export and foreign direct investment represent the globalization process. Both have positiveand significant influences on GDP in the corresponding countries.Keywords: Globalization, international trade, foreign direct investment, gross domestic productJEL classification numbers: E01, F51, F43

  4. Labor Absorption and Its Impact on Gross Regional Domestic Product

    OpenAIRE

    Made Ika Prastyadewi; Agus Suman; Devanto Shasta Pratomo

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the determinants of labor absorption in the trade, hotel and restaurant sector and its impact on Gross Regional Domestic Product/GRDP at Bali Province. This study is important due to the fact that the GRDP in this sector is the highest compared to other sector but the labor absorption is lower than the agriculture sector. This study used panel data comprising 9 regencies/cities at Bali Province in the period 2003-2009 including fixed effect model and ...

  5. Characterizing the development of sectoral gross domestic product composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Raphael; Spies, Michael; Reusser, Dominik E; Kropp, Jürgen P; Rybski, Diego

    2013-07-01

    We consider the sectoral composition of a country's gross domestic product (GDP), i.e., the partitioning into agrarian, industrial, and service sectors. Exploring a simple system of differential equations, we characterize the transfer of GDP shares between the sectors in the course of economic development. The model fits for the majority of countries providing four country-specific parameters. Relating the agrarian with the industrial sector, a data collapse over all countries and all years supports the applicability of our approach. Depending on the parameter ranges, country development exhibits different transfer properties. Most countries follow three of eight characteristic paths. The types are not random but show distinct geographic and development patterns.

  6. Labor Absorption and Its Impact on Gross Regional Domestic Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Made Ika Prastyadewi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to examine the determinants of labor absorption in the trade, hotel and restaurant sector and its impact on Gross Regional Domestic Product/GRDP at Bali Province. This study is important due to the fact that the GRDP in this sector is the highest compared to other sector but the labor absorption is lower than the agriculture sector. This study used panel data comprising 9 regencies/cities at Bali Province in the period 2003-2009 including fixed effect model and simultaneous equation model of Two-Stage Least Square. The results showed that GRDP, working age population, and the minimum wage have positive effect on employment, while the educated unemployment has no significant effect on the employment in the trade, hotel and restaurant sector. In addition, increases in employment and workers productivity have positive and significant effects the GRDP in the trade, hotel and restaurant sector at Bali Province.

  7. World distribution of gross domestic product per-capita

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustos-Guajardo, R.; Moukarzel, Cristian F.

    2015-05-01

    It is shown that the world distribution of gross domestic products per capita (GDPpc) is well described by a trade-investment model that combines yard-sale (YS) exchange and random multiplicative noise (RMN). We first derive analytically the typical value w(r, t) of the ranked wealths for a system evolving under YS exchange and RMN. The resulting analytical expressions are fitted to data for the GDPpc of up to 200 countries, in the period 1960-2013. Our model fits the data significantly better than previously proposed approaches that consider either Noise or Trade alone. Analysis of the resulting values for the fitting parameters, and of their time dependence, suggests that: (a) International trade conditions have (from 1960 to 2008) a statistical bias towards favoring richer countries. (b) Biased international commerce is the main cause for the observed divergence of GDPpc values from 1960 to 2008. (c) After 2008, the distribution of GDPpc starts to converge, and the world product per capita stops growing.

  8. Evaluation of the contributions of four components of gross domestic product in various regions in China.

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    Sanmang Wu

    Full Text Available Four major components influence the growth of the gross domestic product in Chinese provinces: consumption, investment, transnational exports, and inter-provincial exports. By splitting a competitive input-output table into a non-competitive input-output table, this study used an input-output model to measure the contributions of the four components of gross domestic product in various regions in China. We found that international exports drove the growth of the gross domestic product more strongly in the eastern region than in other regions. Investment and inter-provincial exports were the major impetus for gross domestic product growth in the central and western regions. We also found that consumption played a minimal role in driving the growth of the gross domestic product in all regions in China. According to these findings, although various regions can share much in terms of policies to transform the impetus for economic growth, there should be different foci for different regions. Their shared policy is to increase the role of final consumption in stimulating economic growth. Region-specific policies mandate that the eastern region should strengthen the driving force provided by international exports and that the central and western regions should strengthen indigenous growth capabilities by improving scientific innovation, industrial support, and institutional innovation.

  9. Financial Variables Effect on the U.S. Gross Private Domestic Investment (GPDI) 1959-2001

    CERN Document Server

    Bell, Byron E

    2007-01-01

    I studied what role the US stock markets and money markets have possibly played in the Gross Private Domestic Investment (GPDI) of the United States from the year 1959 to the year 2001, Gross Private Domestic Investment refers to the total amount of investment spending by businesses and firms located within the borders of a nation. It includes both the values of the purchases of non-residential fixed investment, which include capital goods used for production, and the values of the purchases of residential fixed investment, which include construction spending for factories or offices. And I created a Multiple Linear Regression Model of the GDPI. To see if companies and private citizens use the stock market and money markets as a way of financing capital projects (business ventures, buying commercial and noncommercial property, etc). Keywords: Gross Private Domestic Investment, Pearson Correlation, SP 500, TB3

  10. Macroeconomic Models used in the Structural Analysis of the Gross Domestic Product

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    Constantin Anghelache

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a use case for macro economical models, the objective being the structural analysis of the Gross Domestic Product. The authors offer a snapshot on GDP evolution, the econometric models proposed for analysis are designed with the help of EViews software. Its performances are determined through the optics of the statistical tests.

  11. G7 country Gross Domestic Product (GDP) time correlations. A graph network analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Mi'skiewicz, J

    2005-01-01

    The correlation between G7 countries has been analysed on the basis of Gross Domestic Product using different distance functions i.e. discrete, linear correlation and distribution distance. The distance matrics is analysed by various graph methods and the percolation threshold is calculated. The globalization process understood as increas of correlation has been observed. The applications of different distance function discussed.

  12. Using Wavelets to Understand the Relationship between Mortgages and Gross Domestic Product in Spain

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    C. González-Concepción

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We use wavelet multiresolution decomposition and cross-wavelet analysis to reveal certain properties in financial data related to mortgages to households and gross domestic product data in Spain. Wavelet techniques possess many desirable properties, some of which are useful as a vehicle for analysing economic and financial data. In our case, wavelets are useful for drawing conclusions both in the time and frequency domains and for obtaining information on the different phases through which the study variables progress.

  13. Analysis of the Evolution of the Gross Domestic Product by Means of Cyclic Regressions

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    Catalin Angelo Ioan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we will carry out an analysis on the regularity of the Gross Domestic Product of a country, in our case the United States. The method of analysis is based on a new method of analysis – the cyclic regressions based on the Fourier series of a function. Another point of view is that of considering instead the growth rate of GDP the speed of variation of this rate, computed as a numerical derivative. The obtained results show a cycle for this indicator for 71 years, the mean square error being 0.93%. The method described allows an prognosis on short-term trends in GDP.

  14. Developments of regional gross domestic product and the unemployment rate in Romania during 2000 - 2012

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    Schonauer (Sacală Corina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Economic development of territorial units can be characterized by measuring the ability of producing goods and services and by measuring labor force in the area. The capacity of producing goods and services is measured by calculating the gross domestic product indicator. This article presents a comparative analysis of the evolution of regional GDP and the ILO unemployment rate at the level of the eight regions in Romania for a period of 13 years. The presented data come from the National Institute of Statistics of Romania.

  15. EuroMInd-D: A Density Estimate of Monthly Gross Domestic Product for the Euro Area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Proietti, Tommaso; Marczak, Martyna; Mazzi, Gianluigi

    EuroMInd-D is a density estimate of monthly gross domestic product (GDP) constructed according to a bottom–up approach, pooling the density estimates of eleven GDP components, by output and expenditure type. The components density estimates are obtained from a medium-size dynamic factor model...... parameters, and conditional simulation filters for simulating from the predictive distribution of GDP. Both algorithms process sequentially the data as they become available in real time. The GDP density estimates for the output and expenditure approach are combined using alternative weighting schemes...

  16. Econometric Analysis of the Nexus of Exchange Rate Deregulation and Agricultural Share of Gross Domestic Product in Nigeria

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    O. Oyinbo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the relationship between exchange rate deregulation and the agricultural share of gross domestic product in Nigeria from an econometric perspective using time series data. The data were analysed using augmented dickey fuller unit root test, unrestricted vector autoregression and pairwise granger causality. The results of the data analysis revealed the existence of unidirectional causality from exchange rate to agricultural share of gross domestic production in Nigeria and this implies that market driven exchange rate policy has been significant in influencing the trend in agricultural share of gross domestic production in Nigeria. However, it is recommended that the monetary authority of Nigeria should closely monitor the movement of the market driven exchange rate so that exchange rate deregulation does not become counterproductive through unhealthy price distortions on agricultural production, international trade and foreign direct investment in the agricultural sector of Nigeria’s economy.

  17. The Correlation Between Gross Domestic Product and Unemployment in Romania Starting with 1995

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    Octavia - Maria Gibescu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available It is known that until the late 1980s, in Romania, the term “unemployed” was practically unused, the centralized economy having as major goal the complete occupancy. Starting with 1990, this phenomenon was manifested itself in our country as well, as a result of the imbalance of the labor market. To understand and represent the macroeconomic phenomena better, the paper presents the analysis of the relationship between the Gross domestic product and the unemployment, as well as the current influences. The conclusions show the fact that beginning with 1995, their dynamics included a relationship, broken by the effects of the world economic crisis present in our country as well.

  18. Seasonal Forecasting of Agriculture Gross Domestic Production in Iran: Application of Periodic Autoregressive Model

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    Mohammad Ghahremanzadeh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture as one of the major economic sectors of Iran, has an important role in Gross Domestic Production by providing about 14% of GDP. This study attempts to forecast the value of the agriculture GDP using Periodic Autoregressive model (PAR, as the new seasonal time series techniques. To address this aim, the quarterly data were collected from March 1988 to July 1989. The collected data was firstly analyzed using periodic unit root test Franses & Paap (2004. The analysis found non-periodic unit root in the seasonal data. Second, periodic seasonal behavior (Boswijk & Franses, 1996 was examined. The results showed that periodic autoregressive model fits agriculture GDP well. This makes an accurate forecast of agriculture GDP possible. Using the estimated model, the future value of quarter agricultural GDP from March 2011 to July 2012was forecasted. With consideration to the fair fit of this model with agricultural GDP, It is recommended to use periodic autoregressive model for the future studies.

  19. The long run relationship between foreign direct investments, exports, and gross domestic product: panel data implications

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    Mehmet ERYİĞİT

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Foreign direct investment (FDI is defined as establishing a new company or branch of a foreign company by foreign investor or share acquisitions of a company established in host country (any percentage of shares acquired outside the stock exchange or 10 percent or more of the shares or voting power of a company acquired through the stock exchange (UNCTAD, 2012. This study investigated the long-term relationship between FDI and export volume, FDI and Gross Domestic Products (GDP, and export volume and GDP through cointegration tests. It is conducted the panel data analysis using data for the period of 2000-2010 from 15 countries making direct investment in Turkey regularly since year 2000. Panel unit-root tests showed that variables are stationary for the first difference level. Residual based and error correction based cointegration tests revealed that there is long-term relationship between FDI and export volume, FDI and GDP, and export volume and GDP.

  20. Statistical Analysis of the Correlation between the Happy Planet Index and the Gross Domestic Product Per Capita, in Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriela OPAIT

    2016-01-01

    This paper reflects the architecture of the methodology for to achieve the statistical modeling of the trend concerning the correlation between the Happy Planet Index and the Gross Domestic Product per capita in Romania, between 2006-2013. with the help of the „Least Squares Method”. Also, this paper reflects the manner in which we can to measure the intensity of the correlation between the Happy Planet Index and the Gross Domestic Product per capita in Romania, between 2006-2013 with the h...

  1. Statistical Analysis of the Correlation between the Happy Planet Index and the Gross Domestic Product Per Capita, in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela OPAIT

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reflects the architecture of the methodology for to achieve the statistical modeling of the trend concerning the correlation between the Happy Planet Index and the Gross Domestic Product per capita in Romania, between 2006-2013. with the help of the „Least Squares Method”. Also, this paper reflects the manner in which we can to measure the intensity of the correlation between the Happy Planet Index and the Gross Domestic Product per capita in Romania, between 2006-2013 with the help of the Correlation Raport.

  2. Gross domestic product, science interest, and science achievement: a person × nation interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker-Drob, Elliot M; Cheung, Amanda K; Briley, Daniel A

    2014-11-01

    Maximizing science achievement is a critical target of educational policy and has important implications for national and international economic and technological competitiveness. Previous research has identified both science interest and socioeconomic status (SES) as robust predictors of science achievement, but little research has examined their joint effects. In a data set drawn from approximately 400,000 high school students from 57 countries, we documented large Science Interest × SES and Science Interest × Per Capita Gross Domestic Product (GDP) interactions in the prediction of science achievement. Student interest in science is a substantially stronger predictor of science achievement in higher socioeconomic contexts and in higher-GDP nations. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that in higher-opportunity contexts, motivational factors play larger roles in learning and achievement. They add to the growing body of evidence indicating that substantial cross-national differences in psychological effect sizes are not simply a logical possibility but, in many cases, an empirical reality. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Impact of disaster-related mortality on gross domestic product in the WHO African Region

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    Aldis William

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disaster-related mortality is a growing public health concern in the African Region. These deaths are hypothesized to have a significantly negative effect on per capita gross domestic product (GDP. The objective of this study was to estimate the loss in GDP attributable to natural and technological disaster-related mortality in the WHO African Region. Methods The impact of disaster-related mortality on GDP was estimated using double-log econometric model and cross-sectional data on various Member States in the WHO African Region. The analysis was based on 45 of the 46 countries in the Region. The data was obtained from various UNDP and World Bank publications. Results The coefficients for capital (K, educational enrolment (EN, life expectancy (LE and exports (X had a positive sign; while imports (M and disaster mortality (DS were found to impact negatively on GDP. The above-mentioned explanatory variables were found to have a statistically significant effect on GDP at 5% level in a t-distribution test. Disaster mortality of a single person was found to reduce GDP by US$0.01828. Conclusions We have demonstrated that disaster-related mortality has a significant negative effect on GDP. Thus, as policy-makers strive to increase GDP through capital investment, export promotion and increased educational enrolment, they should always keep in mind that investments made in the strengthening of national capacity to mitigate the effects of national disasters expeditiously and effectively will yield significant economic returns.

  4. Happiness and age in European adults: The moderating role of gross domestic product per capita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Jessica; Robinson, Oliver; Thompson, Trevor

    2015-09-01

    Studies of happiness levels across the life span have found support for two rival hypotheses. The positivity effect states that as people get older, they increasingly attend to positive information, which implies that happiness remains stable or increases with age, whereas the U-shaped hypothesis posits a curvilinear shape resulting from a dip during midlife. Both have been presented as potentially universal hypotheses that relate to cognitive and/or biological causes. The current study examined the happiness-age relationship across 29 European nations (N = 46,301) to explore whether it is moderated by national wealth, as indexed by Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita. It was found that eudaimonic and hedonic happiness remained relatively stable across the life span only in the most affluent nations; in poorer nations, there was either a fluctuating or steady age-associated decline. These findings challenge the cultural universality of the happiness-age relationship and suggest that models of how age relates to happiness should include the socioeconomic level of analysis. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. A multifactor approach to forecasting Romanian gross domestic product (GDP) in the short run

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armeanu, Daniel; Lache, Leonard; Panait, Mirela

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the application of a generalized dynamic factor model (GDFM) based on dynamic principal components analysis to forecasting short-term economic growth in Romania. We have used a generalized principal components approach to estimate a dynamic model based on a dataset comprising 86 economic and non-economic variables that are linked to economic output. The model exploits the dynamic correlations between these variables and uses three common components that account for roughly 72% of the information contained in the original space. We show that it is possible to generate reliable forecasts of quarterly real gross domestic product (GDP) using just the common components while also assessing the contribution of the individual variables to the dynamics of real GDP. In order to assess the relative performance of the GDFM to standard models based on principal components analysis, we have also estimated two Stock-Watson (SW) models that were used to perform the same out-of-sample forecasts as the GDFM. The results indicate significantly better performance of the GDFM compared with the competing SW models, which empirically confirms our expectations that the GDFM produces more accurate forecasts when dealing with large datasets. PMID:28742100

  6. Modeling the Philippines' real gross domestic product: A normal estimation equation for multiple linear regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrutia, Jackie D.; Tampis, Razzcelle L.; Mercado, Joseph; Baygan, Aaron Vito M.; Baccay, Edcon B.

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this research is to formulate a mathematical model for the Philippines' Real Gross Domestic Product (Real GDP). The following factors are considered: Consumers' Spending (x1), Government's Spending (x2), Capital Formation (x3) and Imports (x4) as the Independent Variables that can actually influence in the Real GDP in the Philippines (y). The researchers used a Normal Estimation Equation using Matrices to create the model for Real GDP and used α = 0.01.The researchers analyzed quarterly data from 1990 to 2013. The data were acquired from the National Statistical Coordination Board (NSCB) resulting to a total of 96 observations for each variable. The data have undergone a logarithmic transformation particularly the Dependent Variable (y) to satisfy all the assumptions of the Multiple Linear Regression Analysis. The mathematical model for Real GDP was formulated using Matrices through MATLAB. Based on the results, only three of the Independent Variables are significant to the Dependent Variable namely: Consumers' Spending (x1), Capital Formation (x3) and Imports (x4), hence, can actually predict Real GDP (y). The regression analysis displays that 98.7% (coefficient of determination) of the Independent Variables can actually predict the Dependent Variable. With 97.6% of the result in Paired T-Test, the Predicted Values obtained from the model showed no significant difference from the Actual Values of Real GDP. This research will be essential in appraising the forthcoming changes to aid the Government in implementing policies for the development of the economy.

  7. RANKING OF LOCAL AND DOMESTIC FUEL-ENERGY RECOURSES IN GROSS CONSUMPTION OF BELARUSSIAN FUEL-ENERGY RECOURSES

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    Y. N. Rumiantsava

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Local and domestic fuel-energy recourses of theRepublicofBelarusin gross consumption of fuel-energy  recourses  has  been ranked on the  basis of the  analysis of scientific  literature,  statistical information and also fundamental documentation in the sphere of energy policy and power saving. The paper proposes to give a special emphasis on usage of products after processing domestically manufactured fuel-energy recourses that have been obtained from local and imported raw-materials with the purpose to estimate a power security level of the Republic from a new point of view.

  8. Product Offerings Testing through Customer Satisfaction

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    Tina Vukasovic

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Consumer satisfaction is imperative to a successful business, the reason for the choice of topic for this paper being explained thereby. Market changes have resulted in consumer’s enormous growth of power, which was recognized by many companies who adapted their business to meeting those expectations. Adaptation, however, also resulted in the need for constant measuring and evaluation. According to the above-mentioned, this paper measures consumer satisfaction with the product offer of the drugstore chain X The survey results have shown that X’s offer has not completely come up to the expectations of a smaller number of interviewees. In relation to the measuring ranks of consumer satisfaction defined, the greatest number of consumers has turned out to be satisfied with the product offer, whereas the percentage of those who find it excellent is smaller than the percentage of those who assess it as average.

  9. DYNAMICS OF THE SHARE OF EDUCATION EXPENDITURES WITHIN ROMANIA’S GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT - ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL EFFECTS

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    ADRIAN MĂCRIŞ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper fundamentally starts from a generally accepted truth, namely the one stating that education is the basic foundation of social, cultural, and economic development, the guarantee of building a future when young generations are going to benefit from new abilities, knowledge, and ideals; its financing represents a key issue in accomplishing its long term mission in society. The hereby approach deals with an analysis of the evolution of education expenditures within Romania’s gross domestic product which mainly determine the basic economic and social effects.

  10. Gross N transformation rates after application of household compost or domestic sewage sludge to agricultural soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambus, P.; Kure, L.K.; Jensen, E.S.

    2002-01-01

    Gross N mineralization and immobilization was examined in soil amended with compost and sewage sludge on seven occasions during a year using N-15 pool dilution and enrichment techniques. Gross N mineralization was initially stimulated with both wastes and accelerated through the first 112 days...... of incubation, peaking at 5 mg N.kg(-1).d(-1) with compost compared with 4 mg N.kg(-1).d(-1) in control and sludge-treated soil. The magnitudes of mineralization rates exceeded those of immobilization by on average 6.3 ( compost) and 11.4 ( sludge) times, leading to a persistent net N mineralization cumulating...... up to 160 mg N.kg(-1) soil(compost) and 54 mg N.kg(-1) soil (sludge) over the season from May to November. The numerical model FLUAZ comprehensively predicted rates of gross mineralization and immobilization. Sludge exhibited an early season N-release, whereas compost released only 10% of the N...

  11. Analysis of The Gross Domestic Product (G.D.P) of Nigeria:1960-2012

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. OLIVER OSUAGWA

    2015-06-01

    Jun 1, 2015 ... Abstract. In this work, data on Nigerian Goss Domestic Product was collected online from the portal ... are the Value Added (or Production) approach and the Income (or By .... process that vary as time passes. Observation.

  12. Estimation and Forecasting the Gross Domestic Product´s Growth Rate in Ecuador: a Short-term Vision

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    Yadier Alberto Torres−Sánchez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ecuador is the seventh largest economy in Latin America. From 2000 to 2012, the country has been expanding at an average rate of 1,15 % on a quarter over quarter basis, mostly due to a rise in exports. Ecuador´s economy is highly dependent on oil exports. In order to reach its full growth potential, the country needs to reduce its dependence on oil revenue; increase the tax base; achieve political stability and reduce the levels of poverty and inequality. The main objective of this research is specifically marked in estimate and forecast the Gross Domestic Product´s Growth Rate in Ecuador, applying for this Box – Jenkins´ Methodology for ARIMA models. It was obtained a forecast of 3,96 % approximately, that represents a logical result according with the time series.

  13. Growth in US health spending remained slow in 2010; health share of gross domestic product was unchanged from 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Anne B; Lassman, David; Washington, Benjamin; Catlin, Aaron

    2012-01-01

    Medical goods and services are generally viewed as necessities. Even so, the latest recession had a dramatic effect on their utilization. US health spending grew more slowly in 2009 and 2010-at rates of 3.8 percent and 3.9 percent, respectively-than in any other years during the fifty-one-year history of the National Health Expenditure Accounts. In 2010 extraordinarily slow growth in the use and intensity of services led to slower growth in spending for personal health care. The rates of growth in overall US gross domestic product (GDP) and in health spending began to converge in 2010. As a result, the health spending share of GDP stabilized at 17.9 percent.

  14. Disparities in rheumatoid arthritis disease activity according to gross domestic product in 25 countries in the QUEST-RA database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sokka, T; Kautiainen, H; Pincus, T

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyse associations between the clinical status of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and the gross domestic product (GDP) of their resident country. METHODS: The Quantitative Standard Monitoring of Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis (QUEST-RA) cohort includes clinical......-related variables were analysed according to GDP per capita, including 14 "high GDP" countries with GDP per capita greater than US$24,000 and 11 "low GDP" countries with GDP per capita less than US$11,000. RESULTS: Disease activity DAS28 ranged between 3.1 and 6.0 among the 25 countries and was significantly...... associated with GDP (r = -0.78, 95% CI -0.56 to -0.90, r(2) = 61%). Disease activity levels differed substantially between "high GDP" and "low GDP" countries at much greater levels than according to whether patients were currently taking or not taking methotrexate, prednisone and/or biological agents...

  15. An Analysis of the Co-integration and Causality Relationship between Electricity Consumption and Gross Domestic Product (GDP in the Developing Countries: An Empirical Study of Turkey

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    Ayhan Kapusuzoglu

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, long term relationship and causality relationship between electricity consumption and gross domestic product in Turkey for the period 1975-2006 were investigated. As a result of the co-integration analysis made firstly in this study, the long term relationship between the electricity consumption and gross domestic product was found. According to the result of Granger causality analysis made in accordance with vector error correction model, it was determined that there was unidirectional causality relationship between electricity consumption and gross domestic product. According to the findings, it can be said that in the process of economic growth in Turkey, gross domestic product amount was an important variable which affected the electricity consumption positively in the long term and therefore it can be said that it is important to provide the primary energy sources used in electricity energy production and electricity energy in the long term and in time without any interaction for preventing the failures which may arise during the process of economic growth and for the stability of the economic production and consumption process

  16. Looking for non-linear relation evidences between Brazilian gross domestic product (GDP) and fixed capital stock (K)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamimura, A.; Guerra, S. M. G.; Sauer, I. L.

    2004-02-01

    This paper deals with the epistemologic problem of searching for experimental evidences of a particular economic model theory. The difficulties of such tasks are well-known due to the peculiarities of the economic system, mainly related to the non-repetitiousness of experiments. Thus, indirect evidence and other related parameter correlations must be looked for. In the present case, a Brazilian macroeconomic historical data set is analysed and some particular phenomena relating correlation between gross domestic production (GDP), fixed capital stock and electricity consumption (EC) and their respectives elasticities are presented. Developed countries, in general, present different behaviour of these variables, compared to emerging economies, not only from the point of view of absolute value aspect, but also from the point of view internal dynamic interaction process. The celebrated correlation between EC and GDP, easily verified in the data of developed countries, becomes actually a myth for the emerging countries. However, this “bad” result could be an evidence of a model proposed by the authors.

  17. Multivariate time series analysis on the dynamic relationship between Class B notifiable diseases and gross domestic product (GDP) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Yin, Fei; Zhou, Ting; Zhang, Xing-Yu; Li, Xiao-Song

    2016-12-23

    The surveillance of infectious diseases is of great importance for disease control and prevention, and more attention should be paid to the Class B notifiable diseases in China. Meanwhile, according to the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the annual growth of Chinese gross domestic product (GDP) would decelerate below 7% after many years of soaring. Under such circumstances, this study aimed to answer what will happen to the incidence rates of infectious diseases in China if Chinese GDP growth remained below 7% in the next five years. Firstly, time plots and cross-correlation matrices were presented to illustrate the characteristics of data. Then, the multivariate time series (MTS) models were proposed to explore the dynamic relationship between incidence rates and GDP. Three kinds of MTS models, i.e., vector auto-regressive (VAR) model for original series, VAR model for differenced series and error-correction model (ECM), were considered in this study. The rank of error-correction term was taken as an indicator for model selection. Finally, our results suggested that four kinds of infectious diseases (epidemic hemorrhagic fever, pertussis, scarlet fever and syphilis) might need attention in China because their incidence rates have increased since the year 2010.

  18. Analysis of El Niño-Southern Oscillation Phenomena's Effect on the Gross Domestic Product of Western Pacific Nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, M.; Lewis, A.; Mezzafonte, D.

    2014-12-01

    El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is a climatological phenomenon that occurs in the tropical Pacific Ocean which has a direct influence on the climate of western Pacific nations. This study evaluated the meteorological effects of ENSO on the economies of Indonesia and the Philippines. It was hypothesized that decreased precipitation in the western Tropical Pacific region during El Niño events causes decreases in agricultural production in the region resulting in a negative effect on a nation's Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Furthermore, during La Niña events, when precipitation increases, an increase in the nation's agricultural GDP and overall GDP is expected. Annual GDP data were obtained from the World Bank and the Bank of Indonesia for 1960-2012. Sea surface temperatures (SST) data, in the Niño 3.4 region, were obtained from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Climate Data Center. Data of the agricultural and total GDP of Indonesia and the Philippines had inconclusive correlations with ENSO signal data. By examining data between smaller time segments of the overall 1960-2012 timeframe, more conclusive results could not be discerned. Indonesia's quarterly non-oil GDP for 2000-2009 was independently correlated with ENSO providing better insight on the variables' relationship during discrete ENSO phenomena. The results provided strong correlation coefficients of 0.831 and 0.624 in support of the antithesis as well as -0.421 in support of the hypothesis. An economic anomaly known as the East Asian Financial Crisis may have been the cause of the unexpected correlations however more data is needed to be certain. Overall, the results demonstrated weak to moderate correlations between studied variables. However, more data is needed to reach substantial conclusions.

  19. Disparities in rheumatoid arthritis disease activity according to gross domestic product in 25 countries in the QUEST–RA database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokka, T; Kautiainen, H; Pincus, T; Toloza, S; da Rocha Castelar Pinheiro, G; Lazovskis, J; Hetland, M L; Peets, T; Immonen, K; Maillefert, J F; Drosos, A A; Alten, R; Pohl, C; Rojkovich, B; Bresnihan, B; Minnock, P; Cazzato, M; Bombardieri, S; Rexhepi, S; Rexhepi, M; Andersone, D; Stropuviene, S; Huisman, M; Sierakowski, S; Karateev, D; Skakic, V; Naranjo, A; Baecklund, E; Henrohn, D; Gogus, F; Badsha, H; Mofti, A; Taylor, P; McClinton, C; Yazici, Y

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To analyse associations between the clinical status of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and the gross domestic product (GDP) of their resident country. Methods: The Quantitative Standard Monitoring of Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis (QUEST–RA) cohort includes clinical and questionnaire data from 6004 patients who were seen in usual care at 70 rheumatology clinics in 25 countries as of April 2008, including 18 European countries. Demographic variables, clinical characteristics, RA disease activity measures, including the disease activity score in 28 joints (DAS28), and treatment-related variables were analysed according to GDP per capita, including 14 “high GDP” countries with GDP per capita greater than US$24 000 and 11 “low GDP” countries with GDP per capita less than US$11 000. Results: Disease activity DAS28 ranged between 3.1 and 6.0 among the 25 countries and was significantly associated with GDP (r  =  −0.78, 95% CI −0.56 to −0.90, r2  =  61%). Disease activity levels differed substantially between “high GDP” and “low GDP” countries at much greater levels than according to whether patients were currently taking or not taking methotrexate, prednisone and/or biological agents. Conclusions: The clinical status of patients with RA was correlated significantly with GDP among 25 mostly European countries according to all disease measures, associated only modestly with the current use of antirheumatic medications. The burden of arthritis appears substantially greater in “low GDP” than in “high GDP” countries. These findings may alert healthcare professionals and designers of health policy towards improving the clinical status of patients with RA in all countries. PMID:19643759

  20. Trend of Gross Beta Radioactivity in Air Particles and Rainwater of around the Domestic Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeom, Jungmin; Shin, Daeyewn; Kim, Soongpyung; Ju, Sundong [Chosun Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); OH, Youngsoo; Kim, Byunggyu; Kim, Sunsik [Hanbit Nuclear Power Site, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Investigating items can be distinguished into two parts, regional radiation and concentrations of environmental radioactivity, and in environmental radioactivity, to access the internal exposure dose, gross beta-radioactivity of particles in air and rainwater specimen are being tested. Gross beta-radioactivity quickly shows whether radiation is unusual or no since most of nuclide released in radioactive emergency while operating an atomic energy facility emits beta rays, and the method used to test it is simple. Looking at the years of analyzed results of particles in air and rainwater around the facility for gross beta-radioactivity, they have a constant trend. The cause of the trend was investigated with a doubt that something else rather than operation of a nuclear power plant might have caused this trend. Due to high gross beta radioactivity concentration in winter, sometimes, radioactivity concentration five times higher than reported last five years average gross beta radioactivity concentration is detected. Looking at the contents investigated above, we can see nuclear power plants have correlation with surrounding gross beta radioactivity concentration. Precipitation has negative correlation, and the weight of air particles and concentration of component element have positive correlation. Our country is influenced by northwest wind in winter. China which is located northwest, has heavy air pollution and smog due to industrialization and there was a report saying it is affecting Korea. Therefore, not because of management of power plants but because of change in season, it can be misunderstood that operating power plants is causing the increased gross beta radioactivity concentration. Based on this investigation, more research to find various causes of gross beta radioactivity concentration in winter is necessary.

  1. 77 FR 18707 - USPS Package Intercept-New Product Offerings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR Part 111 USPS Package Intercept--New Product Offerings AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION: Final rule with comments. ] SUMMARY: The Postal Service proposes to revise Mailing Standards of the United States Postal...

  2. The association of fatigue, comorbidity burden, disease activity, disability and gross domestic product in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Results from 34 countries participating in the Quest-RA program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøn, Kathrine Lederballe; Ørnbjerg, Lykke Midtbøll; Hetland, Merete Lund

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim is to assess the prevalence of comorbidities and to further analyse to which degree fatigue can be explained by comorbidity burden, disease activity, disability and gross domestic product (GDP) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: Nine thousands eight hundred s...

  3. PENGARUH GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT, INFLASI, SUKU BUNGA, MONEY SUPPLY, CURRENT ACCOUNT DAN CAPITAL ACCOUNT TERHADAP NILAI KURS RUPIAH INDONESIA – DOLLAR AMERIKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunika Murdayanti

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Since free-floating exchange rate system has been applied in Indonesia on August 1998, the accumulation of depreciation of rupiah against the US dollar has been about 48,7% until December 2001. This condition brings many argumentation about the reasons behind the exchange rate instability faced by Indonesia among many experts whether it is caused by economic factors or by non-economic factors. By recognizing the causes, it will be easier for the experts and government of Indonesia to formulate the solution. This research is intended to analyze the influence of economic variables, i.e. Gross Domestic Product, money supply, interest rate, inflation rate, Current Account & Capital Account in both Indonesia and The United State of America, as well as the position of the balance of international payment of Indonesia to the exchange rate movement in order to give contributions to solve the problem. Based on the result money supply becomes the only variable which has a multicollinearity and excluded from the regression linear. Also only current account is not significant influence on the exchange rate movement, instead of the other variables. Coefficient of determination of the research model is 84.4 %, means that other factors, not accommodated in this research, give 15.6 % influence to the exchange rate movement. These other factors can be categorized as other economic factors or non-economic factors.

  4. Estimation of Gross Domestic Product Using Multi-Sensor Remote Sensing Data: A Case Study in Zhejiang Province, East China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenze Yue

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available There exists a spatial mismatch between socioeconomic data, such as Gross Domestic Product (GDP, and physical and environmental datasets. This study provides a dasymetric approach for GDP estimation at a fine scale by combining the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program Operational Linescan System (DMSP/OLS nighttime imagery, enhanced vegetation index (EVI, and land cover data. Despite the advantages of DMSP/OLS nighttime imagery in estimating human activities, its drawbacks, including coarse resolution, overglow, and saturation effects, limit its application. Hence, high-resolution EVI data were integrated with DMSP/OLS in this study to create a Human Settlement Index (HSI for estimating the GDP of secondary and tertiary industries. The GDP of the primary industry was then estimated on the basis of land cover data, and the area with the GDP of the primary industry was classified by a threshold technique (DN ≤ 8. The regression model for GDP distribution estimation was implemented in Zhejiang Province in southeast China, and a GDP density map was generated at a resolution of 250 m × 250 m. Compared with the outcome of taking DMSP/OLS as a unique parameter, estimation errors obviously decreased. This study offers a low-cost and accurate approach for rapidly estimating high-resolution GDP distribution to construct an important database for the government when formulating developmental strategies.

  5. Combining high-resolution gross domestic product data with home and personal care product market research data to generate a subnational emission inventory for Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Juliet Elizabeth Natasha; Vamshi, Raghu; Holmes, Christopher; Rowson, Matthew; Miah, Taqmina; Price, Oliver Richard

    2014-04-01

    Environmental risk assessment of chemicals is reliant on good estimates of product usage information and robust exposure models. Over the past 20 to 30 years, much progress has been made with the development of exposure models that simulate the transport and distribution of chemicals in the environment. However, little progress has been made in our ability to estimate chemical emissions of home and personal care (HPC) products. In this project, we have developed an approach to estimate subnational emission inventory of chemical ingredients used in HPC products for 12 Asian countries including Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Pakistan, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Vietnam (Asia-12). To develop this inventory, we have coupled a 1 km grid of per capita gross domestic product (GDP) estimates with market research data of HPC product sales. We explore the necessity of accounting for a population's ability to purchase HPC products in determining their subnational distribution in regions where wealth is not uniform. The implications of using high resolution data on inter- and intracountry subnational emission estimates for a range of hypothetical and actual HPC product types were explored. It was demonstrated that for low value products (500 US$ per capita/annum required to purchase product) the implications on emissions being assigned to subnational regions can vary by several orders of magnitude. The implications of this on conducting national or regional level risk assessments may be significant. Further work is needed to explore the implications of this variability in HPC emissions to enable the HPC industry and/or governments to advance risk-based chemical management policies in emerging markets. © 2013 SETAC.

  6. Inequality in the distribution of rheumatologists in Brazil: correlation with local of medical residency, Gross Domestic Product and Human Development Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Albuquerque, Cleandro Pires

    2014-01-01

    To assess the distribution of rheumatologists in Brazil and their correlation with Medical Residency specialization offer, Gross Domestic Product (Gdp) And Municipal Human Development Index (HDI-M) of units of the federation (UFs). Query to various official databases, data summarization by techniques for descriptive statistics and cross-referenced information. For correlation analysis, we used the Spearman correlation coefficient (r). There were 1229 rheumatologists regularly registered in the country. The Northern region had only 3.6% of the total (n = 44), while the Southeast had 42.2% (n = 519). The State capitals, added to the five largest municipalities in each UF, concentrated 75.8% of these specialists (n = 931). In total, 49.9% of rheumatologists offered treatment at SUS. A general ratio of 157,809 inhabitants per rheumatologist in Brazil was determined, but with wide variation among UFs with respect to this ratio. In the years 2000-2012, there were 593 Rheumatology Residency graduated physicians in Brazil. We observed a positive correlation among number of rheumatologists compared with GDP (r = 0.94), HDI-M of the State capitals (r = 0.77) and number of Rheumatology Residency graduated physicians (r = 0.79) in UFs. We noted a strong concentration of rheumatologists in State capitals and larger municipalities, with noticeable inequalities also between UFs and country regions. The distribution of these professionals accompanied GDP, HDI-M of the State capital and number of Rheumatology Residency graduated physicians, suggesting that factors related to income opportunities and human development and the place of speciality training may influence the geographical fixation of rheumatologists.

  7. Renewable energy sources and their contribution to gross domestic energy consumption in Italy in years 1992 and 1993; Censimento per il territorio italiano dei dati relativi alle fonti rinnovabili di energia ed al loro contributo al bilancio energetico per gli anni 1992 e 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menna, P. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche, Portici (Italy). Dip. Energia

    1995-11-01

    In 1992, the gross domestic energy consumption in Italy was 167.5 MTOE (including bunkers) while in 1993 it decreased to 165.9 MTOE. The overall electricity demand passed from 244.8 TWh in 1992 to 246.6 TWh in 1993. In the same period, the overall contribution from Renewable Energy Sources (RES) kept almost constant at 5.y consumption. The RES contribution represented a share larger than gross National production of energy in 1992.

  8. La inversión extranjera directa, las exportaciones, el producto interno bruto y el mercado laboral en Puerto Rico Foreign direct investment, exports, Gross Domestic Product and the labor market in Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel L. Ruiz Mercado

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se utiliza un modelo de vectores autorregresivos (VAR para examinar la interrelación entre la entrada de flujos de inversión extranjera directa (EFIED, las exportaciones, el producto interno bruto (PIB, la tasa de desempleo (TD y la tasa de participación laboral (TPL en Puerto Rico. Los datos utilizados incluyen los años fisca- les de 1980 al 2010. Se encontraron cuatro vectores cointegrados en el sistema, que evidencian la existencia de una relación de largo plazo entre las variables. Los hallazgos sugieren que aumentos consecutivos en la EFIED podrían reducir significativamente la TD e incrementar el interés de los puertorriqueños por ingresar en la fuerza laboral. El mismo resultado se refleja con relación a los incrementos en el nivel de exportaciones. Las variaciones en el PIB se explican principalmente en el largo plazo por la TD.In this paper, a vector autorregresive model (VAR is applied to examine the interrelationship among foreign direct investment, exports, Gross Domestic Product (GDP, unemployment rate and labor force participation rate in Puerto Rico, taking into account a time period that includes the fiscal years from 1980 to 2010.  Four cointegrating vectors were found in the system which indicates that there is a long run relationship between the variables. The findings suggest that consecutive increases in foreign direct investment inflows could significantly reduce the unemployment rate and increase interest in joining the labor force in Puerto Rico.  The same result also applies to increases in export levels.  The variations in Gross Domestic Product are mainly explained in the long run by the unemployment rate.

  9. Renewable energy sources and their contribution to the gross domestic energy consumption in Italy in the year 1994; Censimento per il territorio italiano dei dati relativi alle fonti rinnovabili di energia ed al loro contributo al bilancio energetico per l`anno 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menna, P.; Manzo, R. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Portici, Naples (Italy). Dip. Energia

    1996-11-01

    The gross domestic energy consumption in 1994 (including bunkers) decreased to 165.8 Mtoe from the 1993 figure of 166.6 Mtoe. At the same time the overall electricity demand reached 253.6 TWh from 246.6 TWh, closely reflecting the 2 contribution of renewable energy sources (hydroelectricity, geothermal, biomasses, solar, wind) to the national energy consumption has been 9 1994. It represented more than 34% of the domestic energy production.

  10. 9 CFR 327.23 - Compliance procedure for cured pork products offered for entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... procedure for cured pork products offered for entry. (a) Definitions. For the purposes of this section: (1... group. (5) The Absolute Minimum PFF Requirement is that no laboratory result of an individual sample for... of all cured pork products from the country must be equal to or greater than zero. The count for...

  11. Gross motor control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross motor control is the ability to make large, general movements (such as waving an arm or lifting a leg). ... Gross motor control is a milestone in the development of an infant. Infants develop gross motor control before they develop ...

  12. 中国国内生产总值及其相关因素分析%The Study of the Gross Domestic Product of China and the Analysis of Various Determining Factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纪跃芝; 邓波; 董小刚; 赵雅玲

    2011-01-01

    自1978年改革开放以来,中国国内生产总值连续高速增长.基于对1978-2008年共31年来中国国内生产总值、固定资产投资、能源消费总量、进出口贸易总额、居民消费、人口数、财政收入等因素的关系研究,提出一个更为合适的对数线性模型,同时给出了该模型中参数的估计方法.研究表明:截止至2008年,中国国内生产总值的增长是不均衡的,而是分阶段的,而且在不同阶段,影响国内生产总值的因素有所不同,并且从经济学角度对所建立的模型给出了合理的解释,结论符合中国实际.%Since the Economic Reform in 1978, the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of China grows continuously and rapidly. This article studies the relationship among factors such as GDP, fixed assets investment, the total energy expense, total import and export trade, consumer, population, financial income etc in the past 31 years, brings out a more reasonable log-linear model and provides the analysis of the modes in the model. The research shows that till 2008, the growth of GDP is not even but depends on different stages, in different stages; the factors that affect the GDP are different. Moreover, the article provides a reasonable explanation on the built model from an economic perspective and the conclusion matches the real situation in China.

  13. 9 CFR 381.204 - Marking of poultry products offered for entry; official import inspection marks and devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marking of poultry products offered...; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported Poultry Products § 381.204 Marking of poultry products offered for...

  14. NM Gross Receipts Baseline

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  15. Gross National Happiness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giri, Krishna Prasad; Kjær-Rasmussen, Lone Krogh

    This paper investigates practices related to the ideology of infusing Gross National Happiness (GNH) into school curriculum, the effectiveness of the meditation and mind training and the implication of GNH for school environment. It also explores how GNH ambience has been managed and practiced...... of Gross National Happiness and Educating for Gross National happiness....

  16. Gross Domestic Product (GDP per capita and geographical distribution of ophthalmologists in Brazil Produto Interno Bruto (PIB per capita e a distribuição geográfica dos oftalmologistas no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina de Souza Carvalho

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To assess the number of ophthalmologists in Brazil, their regional distribution, ophthalmologist/habitant ratio, and the relation between ophthalmologist and State Gross Domestic Product (GDP per capita to aid public health policies. METHODS: An ecologic study was conducted. Data were obtained from the "Census 2011 Brazilian Ophthalmology Council", from "Demographic Census of Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE 2010 and from "Brazilian Regional Accounts, 2005-2009"- Ministry of Planning, Budget and Management - IBGE. RESULTS: The number of ophthalmologists in Brazil is 15,719. Considering the performance in more than one municipality, the number of ophthalmologists in service is 17,992, that is, one ophthalmologist for 10,601; the ophthalmologist/site ratio vary among the States from a minimum of 1/51,437 (Amapá to a maximum of 1/4,279 (Distrito Federal. There is a correlation among State GDP per capita and the number of ophthalmologists/habitant: the higher the GDP per capita, the larger is the number of ophthalmologists acting in the State (pOBJETIVO: Analisar o número de médicos que exercem a Oftalmologia no Brasil, sua distribuição regional; relação oftalmologista por habitante e Produto Interno Bruto (PIB Estadual per capita, para auxiliar as políticas de saúde pública. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado um estudo ecológico. Os dados foram obtidos do "Censo 2011 - Conselho Brasileiro de Oftalmologia", do "Censo Demográfico do Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE 2010 e do "Contas Regionais do Brasil, 2005-2009"- Ministério do Planejamento, Orçamento e Gestão - Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística - IBGE. RESULTADOS: O número de oftalmologistas no Brasil é de 15.719. Considerando a atuação em mais de um município, o número de oftalmologistas em atendimento é de 17.992, isto é um oftalmologista para 10.601; as relações oftalmologista/local de atendimento, variam entre os

  17. 9 CFR 381.202 - Poultry products offered for entry; reporting of findings to customs; handling of articles...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Poultry products offered for entry; reporting of findings to customs; handling of articles refused entry; appeals, how made; denaturing procedures. 381.202 Section 381.202 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND...

  18. 9 CFR 381.200 - Poultry products offered for entry, retention in customs custody; delivery under bond; movement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Poultry products offered for entry, retention in customs custody; delivery under bond; movement prior to inspection; handling; facilities and assistance. 381.200 Section 381.200 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION...

  19. 9 CFR 590.945 - Foreign egg products offered for importation; reporting of findings to customs; handling of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Foreign egg products offered for... Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.945 Foreign...

  20. Investigating impacts of economic growth on the environment using remote sensing tools: A case study of gross domestic product and net primary production in China from 2001 to 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Naizhuo

    Pursuing sustainable co-development of economy and environment has been established as a basic national policy by the present Chinese government. However, studies regarding actual outcomes of the co-development policy at the whole Chinese scale are still limited. Detecting China's economic growth and changes of environmental quality will not only contribute to evaluation of outcomes of the co-development policy but more importantly is an opportunity to examine the suitability of the IPAT model and improve our understanding of human-environment interactions. The core of the IPAT theory is an equation where I=PxAxT that models human impact on the environment as a function of changes to population (P), affluence ( A), and technology (T). The IPAT theory emphasizes that economic growth will inevitably produce negative impacts on the environment. Thus, if China's environmental quality declined while economic growth occurred, then the IPAT theory will be substantiated. Otherwise, the suitability of the IPAT theory will be called into question and its tenets must be reconsidered. In this dissertation research I selected gross domestic product (GDP) and net primary production (NPP) as indicators to evaluate production of social and ecological systems respectively. The main study objectives are (1) to develop a methodology to facilitate integration of the two indicators derived from demographic data sources and satellite imagery at different geographic scales, (2) to jointly explore changing patterns of China's economic and ecological production (i.e., spatially and temporally coincident patterns of change in GDP and NPP) across different spatial scales, (3) to analyze whether economic growth has produced negative impacts on ecosystem production and whether the impacts correlate to the economic growth, and finally (4) to discuss whether the IPAT theory is suitable for explaining the joint changes of GDP and NPP in China or if it is in need of modification. To fulfill the

  1. Loovkirjutamist õpetab Philip Gross

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    T.S. Elioti luulepreemia laureaat Philip Gross on Tallinna Ülikooli talvekooli rahvusvahelise kursuse "Poetry: A Conversation between Words and Silence" läbiviija. Oma seminarides keskendub ta lisaks loovkirjutamisele ka loova lugemise vajadusele

  2. Gross Sales Tax Collections

    Data.gov (United States)

    City of Jackson, Mississippi — This data is captured directly from the MS Department of Revenue and specific to the City of Jackson. It is compiled from Gross Sales Tax reported by taxpayers each...

  3. The main objective of this paper is to determine the effect of Foreign Direct Investment on the hospitality sector in the Colombian economic growth. This is estimated using a method that uses the Gross Domestic Product –GDP- per capita and its disaggreg Impacto de la inversión extranjera directa en el sector hotelero colombiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Uribe Montoya

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to determine the effect of Foreign Direct Investment on the hospitality sector in the Colombian economic growth. This is estimated using a method that uses the Gross Domestic Product –GDP- per capita and its disaggregated data according to the different economic sectors, providing an ex post assessment of the contribution of tourism on GDP growth. The results show that Colombia has competitive levels in tourism contribution to GDP, although its level is low compared to countries where the sector is the most active player in their economies.El objetivo de este estudio es determinar el efecto de la Inversión Extranjera Directa en el sector hotelero en el crecimiento económico colombiano. Para ello, se estima utilizando un método que utiliza el crecimiento del Producto Interno Bruto –PIB- real per cápita y se desagrega según los diferentes sectores económicos, lo cual brinda una estimación ex post de la contribución del turismo sobre el crecimiento del PIB.  Los resultados muestran que Colombia presenta niveles competitivos de contribución del sector turismo al PIB, aunque su nivel sea bajo con respecto a países cuyo sector es el más activo y protagonista en sus economías

  4. Domestic Violence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙犁

    2014-01-01

    <正>Most of the attention on domestic violence is on the violence perpetrated by the husband towards the wife.It seems that little attention is paid on the infliction of domestic violence on children.Domestic violence on children should not be neglected.Domestic violence on children is everywhere.A survey

  5. Gross decontamination experiment report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, R.; Kinney, K.; Dettorre, J.; Gilbert, V.

    1983-07-01

    A Gross Decontamination Experiment was conducted on various levels and surfaces of the TMI - Unit 2 reactor building in March 1982. The polar crane, D-rings, missile shields, refueling canals, refueling bridges, equipment, and elevations 305' and 347'-6'' were flushed with low pressure water. Additionally, floor surfaces on elevation 305' and floor surfaces and major pieces of equipment on elevation 347'-6'' were sprayed with high pressure water. Selective surfaces were decontaminated with a mechanical scrubber and chemicals. Strippable coating was tested and evaluated on equipment and floor surfaces. The effectiveness, efficiency, and safety of several decontamination techniques were established for the large, complex decontamination effort. Various decontamination equipment was evaluated and its effectiveness was documented. Decontamination training and procedures were documented and evaluated, as were the support system and organization for the experiment.

  6. Domestic Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domestic violence is a type of abuse. It usually involves a spouse or partner, but it can also be ... child, elderly relative, or other family member. Domestic violence may include Physical violence that can lead to ...

  7. 26 CFR 1.199-3 - Domestic production gross receipts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... out of scrap, salvage, or junk material as well as from new or raw material by processing... of Columbia, the territorial waters of the United States, and the seabed and subsoil of those submarine areas that are adjacent to the territorial waters of the United States and over which the...

  8. GROSS CAPITAL FORMATION AND ECONOMIC GROWTH DURING EARLY 2000’S IN EU-MEMBER AND CANDIDATES STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin-Marius PAVELESCU

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to reveal the correlation between the gross capital formation and the gross domestic product in countries of the European Union in 2007, during the period 1999-2006. The evaluation is made both on demand side and on supply side. On the demand side we take into account the gross capital formation dynamics and structure and the gross domestic product dynamics. On the supply side calculate the capital accumulation efficiency, through modification of the formulae resulted from Domar’s economic growth model in order to emphasise the impact of domestic demand and net export changes. In the end we present some conclusions and proposals for gross capital formation contribution to economic growth methodology improvement.

  9. Gross job flows and firms

    OpenAIRE

    Scott Schuh; Robert K. Triest

    1999-01-01

    This paper extends the work of Dunne, Roberts, and Samuelson [3] and Davis, Haltiwanger, and Schuh [2] on gross job flows among manufacturing plants. Gross job creation, destruction, and reallocation have been shown to be important in understanding the birth, growth, and death of plants, and the relation of plant life cycles to the business cycle. However, little is known about job flows between firms or how job flows among plants occur within firms (corporate restructuring). We use informati...

  10. The costs of diabetes among Australians aged 45–64 years from 2015 to 2030: projections of lost productive life years (PLYs), lost personal income, lost taxation revenue, extra welfare payments and lost gross domestic product from Health&WealthMOD2030

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Deborah; Shrestha, Rupendra N; Cunich, Michelle M; Veerman, Lennert; Tanton, Robert; Kelly, Simon J

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To project the number of people aged 45–64 years with lost productive life years (PLYs) due to diabetes and related costs (lost income, extra welfare payments, lost taxation revenue); and lost gross domestic product (GDP) attributable to diabetes in Australia from 2015 to 2030. Design A simulation study of how the number of people aged 45–64 years with diabetes increases over time (based on population growth and disease trend data) and the economic losses incurred by individuals and the government. Cross-sectional outputs of a microsimulation model (Health&WealthMOD2030) which used the Australian Bureau of Statistics’ Survey of Disability, Ageing and Carers 2003 and 2009 as a base population and integrated outputs from two microsimulation models (Static Incomes Model and Australian Population and Policy Simulation Model), Treasury's population and labour force projections, and chronic disease trends data. Setting Australian population aged 45–64 years in 2015, 2020, 2025 and 2030. Outcome measures Lost PLYs, lost income, extra welfare payments, lost taxation revenue, lost GDP. Results 18 100 people are out of the labour force due to diabetes in 2015, increasing to 21 400 in 2030 (18% increase). National costs consisted of a loss of $A467 million in annual income in 2015, increasing to $A807 million in 2030 (73% increase). For the government, extra annual welfare payments increased from $A311 million in 2015 to $A350 million in 2030 (13% increase); and lost annual taxation revenue increased from $A102 million in 2015 to $A166 million in 2030 (63% increase). A loss of $A2.1 billion in GDP was projected for 2015, increasing to $A2.9 billion in 2030 attributable to diabetes through its impact on PLYs. Conclusions Individuals incur significant costs of diabetes through lost PLYs and lost income in addition to disease burden through human suffering and healthcare costs. The government incurs extra welfare payments, lost taxation revenue and

  11. The costs of diabetes among Australians aged 45-64 years from 2015 to 2030: projections of lost productive life years (PLYs), lost personal income, lost taxation revenue, extra welfare payments and lost gross domestic product from Health&WealthMOD2030.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Deborah; Shrestha, Rupendra N; Cunich, Michelle M; Passey, Megan E; Veerman, Lennert; Tanton, Robert; Kelly, Simon J

    2017-01-09

    To project the number of people aged 45-64 years with lost productive life years (PLYs) due to diabetes and related costs (lost income, extra welfare payments, lost taxation revenue); and lost gross domestic product (GDP) attributable to diabetes in Australia from 2015 to 2030. A simulation study of how the number of people aged 45-64 years with diabetes increases over time (based on population growth and disease trend data) and the economic losses incurred by individuals and the government. Cross-sectional outputs of a microsimulation model (Health&WealthMOD2030) which used the Australian Bureau of Statistics' Survey of Disability, Ageing and Carers 2003 and 2009 as a base population and integrated outputs from two microsimulation models (Static Incomes Model and Australian Population and Policy Simulation Model), Treasury's population and labour force projections, and chronic disease trends data. Australian population aged 45-64 years in 2015, 2020, 2025 and 2030. Lost PLYs, lost income, extra welfare payments, lost taxation revenue, lost GDP. 18 100 people are out of the labour force due to diabetes in 2015, increasing to 21 400 in 2030 (18% increase). National costs consisted of a loss of $A467 million in annual income in 2015, increasing to $A807 million in 2030 (73% increase). For the government, extra annual welfare payments increased from $A311 million in 2015 to $A350 million in 2030 (13% increase); and lost annual taxation revenue increased from $A102 million in 2015 to $A166 million in 2030 (63% increase). A loss of $A2.1 billion in GDP was projected for 2015, increasing to $A2.9 billion in 2030 attributable to diabetes through its impact on PLYs. Individuals incur significant costs of diabetes through lost PLYs and lost income in addition to disease burden through human suffering and healthcare costs. The government incurs extra welfare payments, lost taxation revenue and lost GDP, along with direct healthcare costs. Published by the BMJ

  12. On a question of Gross

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Abhijit

    2007-03-01

    Using the notion of weighted sharing of sets we prove two uniqueness theorems which improve the results proved by Fang and Qiu [H. Qiu, M. Fang, A unicity theorem for meromorphic functions, Bull. Malaysian Math. Sci. Soc. 25 (2002) 31-38], Lahiri and Banerjee [I. Lahiri, A. Banerjee, Uniqueness of meromorphic functions with deficient poles, Kyungpook Math. J. 44 (2004) 575-584] and Yi and Lin [H.X. Yi, W.C. Lin, Uniqueness theorems concerning a question of Gross, Proc. Japan Acad. Ser. A 80 (2004) 136-140] and thus provide an answer to the question of Gross [F. Gross, Factorization of meromorphic functions and some open problems, in: Proc. Conf. Univ. Kentucky, Lexington, KY, 1976, in: Lecture Notes in Math., vol. 599, Springer, Berlin, 1977, pp. 51-69], under a weaker hypothesis.

  13. "Domestic violence".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidhizar, Ruth; Giger, Joy Newman

    2002-01-01

    Domestic violence is no respector of persons but may involve spouses or cohabiting adults across all socioeconomic, ethnic, and religious groups. It is no respect or of community. The abuse can be physical, sexual, or emotional/psychological. It can be economic and be demonstrated by neglect. Nursing care for the problem of domestic abuse needs to be directed at primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention. Care for victims and victimizers of domestic violence involves a collaborative relationship with other professionals as well as interagency cross referrals that involve health, welfare, refuge, and judicial protective services.

  14. Domestic Violence Encountered among Kurdish Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Sirwan Kamil

    2015-01-01

    Background and objective; There is growing recognition that violence against women has a large public health impact, in addition to being a gross violation of women's human rights. The study's aims were: To show the types of domestic abuse encountered by Kurdish women, and study the relationship between them. Methods; The study conducted in the…

  15. NM Gross Receipts July - December 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  16. NM Gross Receipts January - June 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  17. NM Gross Receipts January - June 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  18. NM Gross Receipts January - June 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  19. NM Gross Receipts January - June 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  20. NM Gross Receipts July - December 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  1. Domestic Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    T.J. Pempel

    2013-01-01

    In the wake of major domestic and international changes, most especially the end of the Cold War and 9/11 for all, but additionally the collapse of the asset bubble in Japan and the transition from military authoritarianism to democratization in the ROK and Taiwan, all of the countries in question saw sharply divided domestic coalitions pressing for often diametrically opposed courses in national security and foreign policy. This brief begins by noting the limits of classical realist inte...

  2. Domestic Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lapierre, Simon

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1960s, there has been growing awareness regarding the issue of domestic violence as a form of violence against women, which has been largely influenced by the work of feminist activist and scholars in North America and Europe (Dobash and Dobash 1992. Other terms have been used to describe the same phenomenon, including domestic abuse, spousal abuse, wife battering, marital violence, intimate partner violence. Though there is no doubt that this problem has existed for much more than five decades, the tendency to label it as ‘private matters’ or ‘marital disagreements’ has obscured the reality of women living with abuse in their home. At a general level, domestic violence can be defined as the means used by a man in order to assert his control and domination over his intimate partner, whether they are married or not (Mullender 1996. It can involve incidents of physical and sexual violence, as well as verbal, psychological and financial abuse. Though some of its manifestations may be associated with particular cultural or religious groups – e.g. forced marriage and honour killing in South-Asian communities – domestic violence affects women from all classes and backgrounds.

  3. Gross anatomy of network security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Thomas J.

    2002-01-01

    Information security involves many branches of effort, including information assurance, host level security, physical security, and network security. Computer network security methods and implementations are given a top-down description to permit a medically focused audience to anchor this information to their daily practice. The depth of detail of network functionality and security measures, like that of the study of human anatomy, can be highly involved. Presented at the level of major gross anatomical systems, this paper will focus on network backbone implementation and perimeter defenses, then diagnostic tools, and finally the user practices (the human element). Physical security measures, though significant, have been defined as beyond the scope of this presentation.

  4. MODELLING OF THE IMPACT OF THE ENERGY FACTOR ON THE DYNAMICS OF CHANGE OF THE GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT OF RUSSIA Моделирование влияния энергетического фактора на динамику изменения валового внутреннего продукта России

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khabibrakhmanov R. R.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The global financial crisis has had a negative impact on the domestic economy, resulting in a much more complicated task of achieving the most important indicators specified in the Concept of long-term socio-economic development of the Russian Federation until 2020. Implementation of the goals depends on a number of factors, including, how successful energy efficiency policy in Russia will be implemented. In this regard, actual task is to analyze the impact of the energy factor on the dynamics of change of gross domestic product in Russia

  5. Evaluation of gross radioactivity in foodstuffs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zorer, Oezlem Selcuk; Oeter, Cigdem [Yuzuncu Yil Univ., Van (Turkey). Dept. of Chemistry

    2015-05-15

    The paper presents the results of radiological investigations of food products sampled in the summer and fall of 2011 and 2012 in different parts of Van, Turkey. Gross radioactivity measurements in food products were evaluated. Food items were divided into eight groups: (1) water, (2) fish, (3) cheese products, (4) fruits, (5) vegetables, (6) herbs, (7) walnut and (8) rock salt. The levels of the gross alpha and gross beta radioactivity in all food samples varied widely ranging from 0.070 to 10.885 Bq/g and from 0.132 to 48.285 Bq/g on dry mass basis, respectively. In one sample, gross alpha and gross beta activity concentrations were found to be relatively high according to the other samples and in all samples, the gross alpha radioactivity was measured lower than the gross beta radioactivity. The gross α and gross β activities were measured by using α/β counter of the multi-detector low background system (PIC MPC-9604).

  6. Measures of Gross National Happiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruut Veenhoven

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Happiness is rising on the political agenda and this calls for measures of how well nations perform in creating great happiness for a great number, analogous to measures of success in creating wealth, such as GDP. Happiness is defined as subjective enjoyment of one’s life as-a-whole and this can be measured using self-reports. Question on happiness are currently used in large scale surveys of the general population in nations. As a result we have now comparable data on happiness in 144 contemporary nations and time-series of 25 years and longer on 11 developed nations. These data can be aggregated in different ways: If the aim is simply greater happiness for a greater number of citizens, Average happiness (AH is an appropriate measure. If the focus is on enduring happiness, it is better to combine average happiness with longevity in an index of Happy Life Years (HLY. If the aim is to reduce disparity among citizens a relevant indicator is the Inequality of Happiness (IH in the nations as measured with the standard deviation. Average and dispersion can also be combined in an index of Inequality-Adjusted Happiness (IAH. Comparison across nations shows sizable differences on all these measures of gross national happiness and these differences correspond with societal characteristics that can be influenced by policy makers, such as freedom and justice. Comparison over time shows major improvement during the last decade.

  7. Domestic violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiurski Jasmina

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article author examines a definition of a family, the role of a family as a social and legal institution as well as state reaction in a situation of mal function of a family. Special attention is given to a definition of a family, its protective function and criminal law in modern legal systems. Author also analyzes recent reform of our legislation firstly new criminal offence (Article 118a of the Criminal Code of Republic of Serbia - Domestic Violence - and its relation to other similar criminal offences. Finally, author gives an overview of up-to-now practice from District and Municipal Prosecutors Offices in Belgrade and suggestions for solving observed problems in implementation of this criminal offence.

  8. The Mechanics of Gross Moist Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeljka Fuchs

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The gross moist stability relates the net lateral outflow of moist entropy or moist static energy from an atmospheric convective region to some measure of the strength of the convection in that region. If the gross moist stability can be predicted as a function of the local environmental conditions, then it becomes the key element in understanding how convection is controlled by the large-scale flow. This paper provides a guide to the various ways in which the gross moist stability is defined and the subtleties of its calculation from observations and models. Various theories for the determination of the gross moist stability are presented and its roles in current conceptual models for the tropical atmospheric circulation are analyzed. The possible effect of negative gross moist stability on the development and dynamics of tropical disturbances is currently of great interest.

  9. Calculation of gross energy consumption[in a building]; Beregning af bruttoenergiforbrug

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelund Thomsen, Kirsten; Aggerholm, Soeren

    2000-07-01

    This bulletin presents a method for calculating the gross energy consumption of a building. The net heat demand for space heating, ventilation and domestic hot water should be calculated. Next converted to gross energy consumption, i.e. the amount of energy that is required to supply, for instance, a gas furnace in order that it produces the calculated amount of heat. First the electricity consumption required for ventilation, appliances and lighting is calculated, taking into consideration the daylight utilisation in commercial buildings. The point of departure is the existing method for calculating the net heat demand of buildings. The method includes heat supply from persons, lighting and appliances. This calculating method was later extended to include a method for calculating the energy demand for domestic hot water and addition of non-utilised heat loss from pipes and heat producing installations. This loss is calculated on the basis of loss in hot water tanks, heat and hot water pipes. Heat supply from solar collectors is calculated and deducted from the heat demand. The calculated end result is called gross heat requirement. Next the gross energy consumption for heating, ventilation and domestic hot water is determined by means of annual efficiency for heating installations. An inventory of the environmental impact is calculated based on the energy consumption measured by the total CO{sub 2} production per m{sup 2} floor area. The CO{sub 2} emission is calculated on the basis of the calculated gross energy consumption of heating and electricity, and on standard values for CO{sub 2} contents in the fuels used and emissions from electricity production issued by the Danish Energy Agency. The gross energy consumption is calculated for three examples of buildings: a single-family house, an administration building and a multi-storey building. The examples show that it is feasible to do calculations for typical buildings. Heat consumption for space heating and

  10. The future of gross anatomy teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malamed, S; Seiden, D

    1995-01-01

    A survey of U.S. departments of anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry shows that 39% of the respondent anatomy departments reported declines in the numbers of graduate students taking the human gross anatomy course. Similarly, 42% of the departments reported decreases in the numbers of graduate students teaching human gross anatomy. These decreases were greater in anatomy than in physiology and in biochemistry. The percentages of departments reporting increases in students taking or teaching their courses was 6% for human gross anatomy and 0% to 19% for physiology and biochemistry courses. To reverse this trend the establishment of specific programs for the training of gross anatomy teachers is advocated. These new teachers will be available as the need for them is increasingly recognized in the future.

  11. FUZZY ECCENTRICITY AND GROSS ERROR IDENTIFICATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The dominant and recessive effect made by exceptional interferer is analyzed in measurement system based on responsive character, and the gross error model of fuzzy clustering based on fuzzy relation and fuzzy equipollence relation is built. The concept and calculate formula of fuzzy eccentricity are defined to deduce the evaluation rule and function of gross error, on the base of them, a fuzzy clustering method of separating and discriminating the gross error is found. Utilized in the dynamic circular division measurement system, the method can identify and eliminate gross error in measured data, and reduce measured data dispersity. Experimental results indicate that the use of the method and model enables repetitive precision of the system to improve 80% higher than the foregoing system, to reach 3.5 s, and angle measurement error is less than 7 s.

  12. Validating the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Downs, Jenny; Stahlhut, Michelle; Wong, Kingsley;

    2016-01-01

    Rett syndrome is a pervasive neurodevelopmental disorder associated with a pathogenic mutation on the MECP2 gene. Impaired movement is a fundamental component and the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale was developed to measure gross motor abilities in this population. The current study investigated...... the validity and reliability of the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale. Video data showing gross motor abilities supplemented with parent report data was collected for 255 girls and women registered with the Australian Rett Syndrome Database, and the factor structure and relationships between motor scores, age...... and genotype were investigated. Clinical assessment scores for 38 girls and women with Rett syndrome who attended the Danish Center for Rett Syndrome were used to assess consistency of measurement. Principal components analysis enabled the calculation of three factor scores: Sitting, Standing and Walking...

  13. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia presenting with gross hematuria

    OpenAIRE

    Kalbani, Naifain Al; Weitzman, Sheila; Abdelhaleem, Mohamed; Carcao, Manuel; Abla, Oussama

    2007-01-01

    A case of a six-year-old boy presenting with gross hematuria is reported. Investigations revealed the etiology of the hematuria to be thrombocytopenia in the setting of newly diagnosed acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The diagnosis of leukemia was confirmed by bone marrow examination. The patient’s hematuria completely resolved with platelet transfusions. Although thrombocytopenia is a very common presenting feature of acute lymphoblastic leukemia, gross hematuria is exceedingly rare. Thus, thro...

  14. Validating the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Jenny; Stahlhut, Michelle; Wong, Kingsley; Syhler, Birgit; Bisgaard, Anne-Marie; Jacoby, Peter; Leonard, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Rett syndrome is a pervasive neurodevelopmental disorder associated with a pathogenic mutation on the MECP2 gene. Impaired movement is a fundamental component and the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale was developed to measure gross motor abilities in this population. The current study investigated the validity and reliability of the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale. Video data showing gross motor abilities supplemented with parent report data was collected for 255 girls and women registered with the Australian Rett Syndrome Database, and the factor structure and relationships between motor scores, age and genotype were investigated. Clinical assessment scores for 38 girls and women with Rett syndrome who attended the Danish Center for Rett Syndrome were used to assess consistency of measurement. Principal components analysis enabled the calculation of three factor scores: Sitting, Standing and Walking, and Challenge. Motor scores were poorer with increasing age and those with the p.Arg133Cys, p.Arg294* or p.Arg306Cys mutation achieved higher scores than those with a large deletion. The repeatability of clinical assessment was excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient for total score 0.99, 95% CI 0.93-0.98). The standard error of measurement for the total score was 2 points and we would be 95% confident that a change 4 points in the 45-point scale would be greater than within-subject measurement error. The Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale could be an appropriate measure of gross motor skills in clinical practice and clinical trials.

  15. From crop domestication to super-domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, D A; Balázs, E; Heslop-Harrison, J S

    2007-11-01

    Research related to crop domestication has been transformed by technologies and discoveries in the genome sciences as well as information-related sciences that are providing new tools for bioinformatics and systems' biology. Rapid progress in archaeobotany and ethnobotany are also contributing new knowledge to understanding crop domestication. This sense of rapid progress is encapsulated in this Special Issue, which contains 18 papers by scientists in botanical, crop sciences and related disciplines on the topic of crop domestication. One paper focuses on current themes in the genetics of crop domestication across crops, whereas other papers have a crop or geographic focus. One feature of progress in the sciences related to crop domestication is the availability of well-characterized germplasm resources in the global network of genetic resources centres (genebanks). Germplasm in genebanks is providing research materials for understanding domestication as well as for plant breeding. In this review, we highlight current genetic themes related to crop domestication. Impressive progress in this field in recent years is transforming plant breeding into crop engineering to meet the human need for increased crop yield with the minimum environmental impact - we consider this to be 'super-domestication'. While the time scale of domestication of 10 000 years or less is a very short evolutionary time span, the details emerging of what has happened and what is happening provide a window to see where domestication might - and can - advance in the future.

  16. The domestic resource gap and current transaction deficit in Indonesia in 2010-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anhulaila M. Palampanga

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between domestic financial resource gaps and current account balance in Indonesia by using data from 2010 to 2014. Gaps in the domestic economy are classified into three types: 1 the domestic absorptive capacity of the national income gap (GNP, 2 gross national savings and investment gap, 3 private sector gap (private saving minus private investment, and public sector gap (tax minus government spending. By using a concept of open economy that is described in a theoretical framework, the study results show that: 1 the gap absorption of domestic and GNP, 2 the gap between gross national saving and gross national investments, 3 the gap in private sector and government sector resulting in deficit in the current account during Indonesia on 2010-2014 periods.

  17. Concurrent Validity of Preschooler Gross Motor Quality Scale with Test of Gross Motor Development-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shih-Heng; Sun, Hsiao-Ling; Zhu, Yi-Ching; Huang, Li-chi; Hsieh, Yueh-Ling

    2011-01-01

    Preschooler Gross Motor Quality Scale (PGMQ) was recently developed to evaluate motor skill quality of preschoolers. The purpose of this study was to establish the concurrent validity of PGMQ using Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (TGMD-2) as the gold standard. One hundred and thirty five preschool children aged from three to six years were…

  18. BOREAS HYD-8 Gross Precipitation Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Richard; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Knapp, David E. (Editor); Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Hydrology (HYD)-08 team made measurements of surface hydrological processes at the Southern Study Area-Old Black Spruce (SSA-OBS) Tower Flux site to support its research into point hydrological processes and the spatial variation of these processes. Data collected may be useful in characterizing canopy interception, drip, throughfall, moss interception, drainage, evaporation, and capacity during the growing season at daily temporal resolution. This particular data set contains the gross precipitation measurements for July to August 1996. Gross precipitation is the precipitation that falls that is not intercepted by tree canopies. These data are stored in ASCII text files. The HYD-08 gross precipitation data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  19. 7 CFR 1424.7 - Gross payable units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Biodiesel producers will be eligible for payments on gross payable units for all biodiesel production from... rates. Unless otherwise determined by CCC, gross payable units for biodiesel production from eligible... biodiesel production gross payable units. (3) Adding the APP and BPP to determine biodiesel gross...

  20. Multiregional estimation of gross internal migration flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot, D K; Milne, W J

    1989-01-01

    "A multiregional model of gross internal migration flows is presented in this article. The interdependence of economic factors across all regions is recognized by imposing a non-stochastic adding-up constraint that requires total inmigration to equal total outmigration in each time period. An iterated system estimation technique is used to obtain asymptotically consistent and efficient parameter estimates. The model is estimated for gross migration flows among the Canadian provinces over the period 1962-86 and then is used to examine the likelihood of a wash-out effect in net migration models. The results indicate that previous approaches that use net migration equations may not always be empirically justified."

  1. The Gross conjecture over rational function fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OUYANG; Yi

    2005-01-01

    We study the Gross conjecture for the cyclotomic function field extension k(∧f)/k where k = Fq(t) is the rational function field and f is a monic polynomial in Fq[t].We prove the conjecture in the Fermat curve case(i.e., when f = t(t - 1)) by a direct calculation. We also prove the case when f is irreducible, which is analogous to the Weil reciprocity law. In the general case, we manage to show the weak version of the Gross conjecture here.

  2. Gross Revenue risk in Swiss dairy farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benni, El N.; Finger, R.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated how agricultural policy reforms, including market liberalization and market deregulation, have influenced gross revenue risk of Swiss dairy producers using farm-level panel data between 1990 and 2009. Based on detrended data, variance decomposition was applied to assess how o

  3. Gross Revenue risk in Swiss dairy farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benni, El N.; Finger, R.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated how agricultural policy reforms, including market liberalization and market deregulation, have influenced gross revenue risk of Swiss dairy producers using farm-level panel data between 1990 and 2009. Based on detrended data, variance decomposition was applied to assess how

  4. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF PROFITABILITY DETERMINANTS OF DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN ISLAMIC BANKS IN MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamad Muda

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper is conducted to compare the determinants of profitability of the domestic and foreign Islamic banks operating in Malaysia. The Generalized Least Square (GLS is employed with unbalanced panel data on seventeen Islamic banks, using quarterly data for the period of 2007 to 2010. In order to find out the differences in the profitability determinants, the sample of banks is divided into two sub-samples (domestic and foreign. The results reveal that domestic Islamic banks are more profitable than foreign Islamic banks. The results also show that the profitability determinants of domestic banks are different from those of foreign banks. The overhead expenses, loans, efficiency, gross domestic product growth rate and bank size have a significant effect in determining banks’ profitability, in which case applicable to the domestic banks only. In turn, the gross domestic product per capita has a significant effect in determining banks’ profitability of only the foreign banks. The study finds that, deposits, capital and reserves, inflation and banks’ age have a significant effect in determining banks’ profitability of both domestic and foreign banks. Meanwhile, liquidity and concentration are not able to explain the variability of domestic and foreign Islamic banks’ profitability. The findings indicate that the profitability of domestic banks is affected by the global financial crisis while, the profitability of foreign banks is not affected.

  5. Activity level of gross α and gross β in airborne aerosol samples around the Qinshan NPP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Bin; YE Jida; CHEN Qianyuan; WU Xiaofei; SONG Weili; WANG Hongfeng

    2007-01-01

    The monitoring results of gross α and gross β activity from 2001 to 2005 for environmental airborne aerosol samples around the Qinshan NPP base are presented in this paper. A total of 170 aerosol samples were collected from monitoring sites of Caichenmen village, Qinlian village, Xiajiawan village and Yangliucun village around the Qinshan NPP base. The measured specific activity of gross α and gross β are in the range of 0.02 ~ 0.38 mBq/m3 and 0.10 ~ 1.81 mBq/m3, respectively, with an average of 0.11 mBq/m3 and 0.45mBq/m3, respectively. They are lower than the average of 0.15 mBq/m3 and 0.52mBq/m3, of reference site at Hangzhou City. It is indicated that the specific activity of gross α and gross β for environmental aerosol samples around the Qinshan NPP base had not been increased in normal operating conditions of the NPP.

  6. Noncommutative complex Grosse-Wulkenhaar model

    CERN Document Server

    Hounkonnou, Mahouton Norbert

    2012-01-01

    This paper stands for an application of the noncommutative (NC) Noether theorem, given in our previous work [AIP Proc 956 (2007) 55-60], for the NC complex Grosse-Wulkenhaar model. It provides with an extension of a recent work [Physics Letters B 653 (2007) 343-345]. The local conservation of energy-momentum tensors (EMTs) is recovered using improvement procedures based on Moyal algebraic techniques. Broken dilatation symmetry is discussed. NC gauge currents are also explicitly computed.

  7. De-domestication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamborg, Christian; Gemmen, Bart; Christiansen, Stine Billeschou;

    2010-01-01

    De-domestication is the deliberate establishment of a population of domesticated animals or plants in the wild. In time, the population should be able to reproduce, becoming self-sustainable and incorporating 'wild' animals. Often de-domestication is part of a larger nature restoration scheme......, aimed at creating landscapes anew, or re-creating former habitats. De-domestication is taken up in this paper because it both engages and raises questions about the major norms governing animals and nature. The debate here concerns whether animals undergoing de-domestication should be looked upon...... as wild or non-wild and the effect this has on questions about how they should be treated. It also concerns the value of nature, and the kind and degree of nature management considered appropriate. The paper first describes actual de-domestication practices and considers the character of human duties...

  8. Domestic violence against children

    OpenAIRE

    Mihić Biljana D.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper the author is analysing definitions and basic notions related to domestic violence against children, as one of the most serious forms of violence. The special chapter deals with effects of violence against children and causes of domestic violence against them. Also, the author is analysing different forms of social reaction and considering the problem of legal regulation of mandatory reporting domestic violence against children.

  9. De-domestication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamborg, Christian; Gemmen, Bart; Christiansen, Stine Billeschou

    2010-01-01

    as wild or non-wild and the effect this has on questions about how they should be treated. It also concerns the value of nature, and the kind and degree of nature management considered appropriate. The paper first describes actual de-domestication practices and considers the character of human duties...... to animals in process of de-domestication. Secondly, the paper explores the implications of de-domestication for nature management, focusing on notions of naturalness and wildness. Finally, because the current division of ethical topics, with its dependence upon whether animals and nature are domesticated...

  10. Product Offerings in Malicious Hacker Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Marin, Ericsson; Diab, Ahmad; Shakarian, Paulo

    2016-01-01

    Marketplaces specializing in malicious hacking products - including malware and exploits - have recently become more prominent on the darkweb and deepweb. We scrape 17 such sites and collect information about such products in a unified database schema. Using a combination of manual labeling and unsupervised clustering, we examine a corpus of products in order to understand their various categories and how they become specialized with respect to vendor and marketplace. This initial study prese...

  11. Product Offerings in Malicious Hacker Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Marin, Ericsson; Diab, Ahmad; Shakarian, Paulo

    2016-01-01

    Marketplaces specializing in malicious hacking products - including malware and exploits - have recently become more prominent on the darkweb and deepweb. We scrape 17 such sites and collect information about such products in a unified database schema. Using a combination of manual labeling and unsupervised clustering, we examine a corpus of products in order to understand their various categories and how they become specialized with respect to vendor and marketplace. This initial study prese...

  12. The Gross Motor Skills of Children with Mild Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonis, Karen P.; Jernice, Tan Sing Yee

    2014-01-01

    Many international studies have examined the gross motor skills of children studying in special schools while local studies of such nature are limited. This study investigated the gross motor skills of children with Mild Learning Disabilities (MLD; n = 14, M age = 8.93 years, SD = 0.33) with the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (TGMD-2, Ulrich,…

  13. 7 CFR 1410.44 - Average adjusted gross income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Average adjusted gross income. 1410.44 Section 1410... Average adjusted gross income. (a) Benefits under this part will not be available to persons or legal entities whose average adjusted gross income exceeds $1,000,000 or as further specified in part...

  14. 7 CFR 701.17 - Average adjusted gross income limitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9003), each applicant must meet the provisions of the Adjusted Gross Income Limitations at 7 CFR part... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Average adjusted gross income limitation. 701.17... RELATED PROGRAMS PREVIOUSLY ADMINISTERED UNDER THIS PART § 701.17 Average adjusted gross income...

  15. Baryons in Massive Gross-Neveu Models

    CERN Document Server

    Thies, M; Thies, Michael; Urlichs, Konrad

    2005-01-01

    Baryons in the large N limit of (1+1)-dimensional Gross-Neveu models with either discrete or continuous chiral symmetry have long been known. We generalize their construction to the case where the symmetry is explicitly broken by a bare mass term in the Lagrangian. In the discrete symmetry case, the exact solution is found for arbitrary bare fermion mass, using the Hartree-Fock approach. In the continuous symmetry case, a derivative expansion allows us to rederive a formerly proposed Skyrme-type model and to compute systematically corrections to the leading order description based on an effective sine-Gordon theory.

  16. Domestic violence against men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Christopher F

    This article reviews the literature relating to domestic violence against men and examines some of the reasons why men are reluctant to report violent episodes. The article focuses on men as the victims and women as the perpetrators of domestic violence and identifies gaps in service provision. The role of the nurse in supporting male victims is also discussed.

  17. The Impacts of Political Terrorism on Gross Domestic Product in Eurasia: A Spatial Data Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseyin ALTAY

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate impact of political terrorism on GDP for Eurasia region countries by using spatial statistics in the period of 1996-2013. For this purpose, quantile maps, Moran’s Scotterplots, LISA (Local Indicators of Spatial Association statistics are performed. We firstly found that there are the negative impacts of political terrorism on GDP. Secondly, countries as Iceland, Ireland, UK, Portugal, Spain, Norway, Sweden, Italy, Austria, Czech Rep., Denmark, Slovenia, Belgium, France, Germany, Luxemburg, Switzerland, Finland, and Netherland are determined as the strongest positive attraction centers in all Europe countries. Thirdly, Asian countries as India, Uzbekistan, Afghanistan, Kyrgyzstan, Nepal, Tajikistan, Bangladesh and Myanmar are obtained as the strongest negative attraction centers for Asia. The rest of countries in Asia have been negatively affected by these negative attraction centers. Finally, for the big part of Asia (exclude countries as Japan, South Korea regions, political terrorism is one of the biggest factors of poorness and weakness of per capita GDP

  18. 26 CFR 1.199-4 - Costs allocable to domestic production gross receipts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... Use of standard cost method. X, a calendar year taxpayer, manufactures item A in a factory located in the United States and item B in a factory located in Country Y. Item A is produced by X within the... engaged in the trade or business of farming that is not required to use the accrual method of accounting...

  19. Analysis of per capita income dynamics of the USA and Russia gross domestic product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor' Il'ich Pichurin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper represents a judgment that the relator of per capita income of the countries is a rough indicator of the ratio of labor productivity in these countries. Accordingly, the analysis of the dynamics of per capita income in the United States and Russia for the period from 1861 to present time is made. The described statistical data shows that the ratio of per capita income in the U. S. and Russia has not changed from 1861 to 1913. Consequently, the nowadays widespread claim that capitalist development in Russia led the country into the category of rapidly developing countries for 50 years after the abolition of serfdom is not true. The gap in labor productivity in Russia compared to the United States, Germany, Britain and other developed countries remained unchanged. The sharp decline in per capita income was based on the country's industrialization and appropriate agricultural sphere mechanization. As a result, the gap has narrowed to the mid-sixties of the XX century up to two times, despite the fact those ten years of this period fell out from the normal development in connection with the Second World War and post-war reconstruction of the nationaleconomy. After thecollapse of thesocialisteconomy, this gap increased up to fivetimes in 2000, and now after the first decade of the XXI century it is about threetimes. Thereasons for these changes in respect to per capita income are analyzed in this paper.

  20. FORECASTING OF THE GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT İN TURKEY VIA NEURAL NETWORKS USING MACROECONOMIC FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmas Anli AK

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada, mevduat faizi, kredi hacmi, İstanbul Menkul Kıymetler Borsası (IMKB-100 endeksi, kapsite kullanım oranı, net uluslararası rezervler, üretici fiyat endeksi, US dolar oranı, M1, M2 M2Y ihracat, ithalat, iç borç stoğu ve dış borç stoğu gibi makro ekonomik faktörler kullanılarak Tükiye' nin gayri safi yurtiçi hasılasının tahmin edilebilmesini araştırıldı. 1991-2004 yılları arasındaki 168 aylık makro ekonomik veri, geri beslemeli yapay sinir ağı ile eğitildi. Toplam 64 farklı yapı uygulanarak en düşük toplam hataya yakınsayanı seçildi. 2005 yılı aylık datası yapay sinir ağının tahmin kapasitesini test etmek için kullanıldı.

  1. ECONOMETRICAL INTERPRETATION OF THE INTERDEPENDECE BETWEEN FISCALITY RATE- FISCAL INCOMES- GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CODREANU DIANA

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Econometrics has come into being and grown as a result of the need to set up instruments of investigation and increase of the methods to organize, conduct and manage the economy, and on the other hand, due to the successful statistical and mathematical me

  2. A pertinent analytic method to correctly measure contributions to growth in gross domestic product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brunet Antoine

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, Antoine Brunet questions the OECD method in calculating contributions to GDP growth. He tries to show this method induces the users to seriously misjudge the contribution of external trade balance to GDP growth. He shows there is an alternative method, i.e. the AB method which is mathematically as correct as the OECD one. And this method is much more pertinent and allows the users to distinguish between two kinds of countries: on the one hand, the mercantilist countries and on the other hand, the non-mercantilist countries.

  3. Gross Domestic Product (GDP and productivity of schizophrenia trials: an ecological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenton Mark

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 5000 randomised controlled trials (RCTs in the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's database affords an opportunity to research for variables related to the differences between nations of their output of schizophrenia trials. Methods Ecological study – investigating the relationship between four economic/demographic variables and number of schizophrenia RCTs per country. The variable with closest correlation was used to predict the expected number of studies. Results GDP closely correlated with schizophrenia trial output, with 76% of the total variation about the Y explained by the regression line (r = 0.87, 95% CI 0.79 to 0.92, r2 = 0.76. Many countries have a strong tradition of schizophrenia trials, exceeding their predicted output. All nations with no identified trial output had GDPs that predicted zero trial activity. Several nations with relatively small GDPs are, nevertheless, highly productive of trials. Some wealthy countries seem either not to have produced the expected number of randomised trials or not to have disseminated them to the English-speaking world. Conclusions This hypothesis-generating study could not investigate causal relationships, but suggests, that for those seeking all relevant studies, expending effort searching the scientific literature of Germany, Italy, France, Brazil and Japan may be a good investment.

  4. Determinant of gross regional domestic product (GRDP) in Yogyakarta special province

    OpenAIRE

    Nur Feriyanto

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the influence of employment, investment and the number of tourists towards GRDP in Yogyakarta. The data used in this research is a time series data for the period of 1999-2013. This research employed multiple regression and dynamic regression, namely partial adjustment model. The multiple regression estimation shows that employment has negative effect to GRDP, meanwhile the investment and the number of tourists have a positive relation towards dependent var...

  5. Determinant of gross regional domestic product (GRDP in Yogyakarta special province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Feriyanto

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to analyze the influence of employment, investment and the number of tourists towards GRDP in Yogyakarta. The data used in this research is a time series data for the period of 1999-2013. This research employed multiple regression and dynamic regression, namely partial adjustment model. The multiple regression estimation shows that employment has negative effect to GRDP, meanwhile the investment and the number of tourists have a positive relation towards dependent variable. Moreover, based on partial adjustment model, adjustment process also influences the output accumulation in Yogyakarta. Therefore, to develop the local economy, the government may invite more tourists as well as increase investment in Yogyakarta. 

  6. Determination of gross-β and γ-ray activity concentrations of human tooth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Hayun Ja [Dept. of Dental Hygene, Daegu Health College, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Hyun Kyung [Dept. of Dental Hygene, Silla University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung Hwan [Dept. of Radiological Science, Cheongju University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    The γ-ray concentration and gross-β activity by age group were measured in the teeth of males and females of the domestic residents. They were divided into 7 age groups from 10s to the age of 70s. The gross-β activity concentration was measured by using the Tennelec XLB measuring instrument filled with P10 gas (argon 90%, methane 10%). The γ-ray was measured through the γ-ray spectroscopic analytical method by using the high purity germanium (HPGe) radiation detector. The range of gross-β activity concentration was measured 0.089 to 0.32 Bq/kg in females and 0.13 to 0.26 Bq/kg in males. From the γ-ray spectroscopic analysis of the teeth, the natural radioactive isotopes of '4{sup 0}K, {sup 208}Tl, {sup 228}Ac and {sup 234}Th were detected and their measured γ-ray activity concentrations were found to be 20.7, 21.9, 3.88 and 5.24 Bq/kg, respectively.

  7. Electric wiring domestic

    CERN Document Server

    Coker, A J

    1992-01-01

    Electric Wiring: Domestic, Tenth Edition, is a clear and reliable guide to the practical aspects of domestic electric wiring. Intended for electrical contractors, installation engineers, wiremen and students, its aim is to provide essential up to date information on modern methods and materials in a simple, clear, and concise manner. The main changes in this edition are those necessary to bring the work into line with the 16th Edition of the Regulations for Electrical Installations issued by the Institution of Electrical Engineers. The book begins by introducing the basic features of domestic

  8. [Gross anatomy dissection and the legal control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashina, Shohei; Shibata, Yosaburo

    2010-12-01

    In Japan, dissection of human body is generally prohibited by the Penal Code, i.e. the criminal law. However, the Postmortem Examination and Corpse Preservation Act allows for the dissection of the body in very limited situations, that include gross anatomy dissection and pathological and forensic autopsy in medical and dental schools. Growing numbers of co-medical schools have been founded more recently in Japan, and not a small number of co-medical schools try to adopt human body dissection in the course of anatomy education. The present short communication reminds us of the ways of thinking of the Postmortem Examination and Corpse Preservation Act and the Act on Body Donation for Medical and Dental Education in order that anatomy education in medical as well as co-medical schools takes place under the regulation by these two laws.

  9. Domestic Demand Will Work

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    China can invigorate its economy by expanding domestic demand and boosting consumption chinese bankers are preparing to set up finance companies that provide consumer loans in major cities like Beijing and Shanghai.

  10. Domestic Communication Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Andrew

    1974-01-01

    A discussion of the Federal Communications Commission's new policy on domestic satellites in light of our 1) military and economic history; 2) corporate interests; 3) citizen surveillance; and 4) media control. (HB)

  11. Robust Principal Component Test in Gross Error Detection and Identification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Principle component analysis (PCA) based chi-square test is more sensitive to subtle gross errors and has greater power to correctly detect gross errors than classical chi-square test. However, classical principal component test (PCT) is non-robust and can be very sensitive to one or more outliers. In this paper, a Huber function liked robust weight factor was added in the collective chi-square test to eliminate the influence of gross errors on the PCT. Meanwhile, robust chi-square test was applied to modified simultaneous estimation of gross error (MSEGE) strategy to detect and identify multiple gross errors. Simulation results show that the proposed robust test can reduce the possibility of type Ⅱ errors effectively. Adding robust chi-square test into MSEGE does not obviously improve the power of multiple gross error identification, the proposed approach considers the influence of outliers on hypothesis statistic test and is more reasonable.

  12. Exposure of bighorn sheep to domestic goats colonized with Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae induces sub-lethal pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besser, Thomas E; Cassirer, E Frances; Potter, Kathleen A; Foreyt, William J

    2017-01-01

    Bronchopneumonia is a population limiting disease of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) that has been associated with contact with domestic Caprinae. The disease is polymicrobial but is initiated by Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae, which is commonly carried by both domestic sheep (O. aries) and goats (Capra aegagrus hircus). However, while previous bighorn sheep comingling studies with domestic sheep have resulted in nearly 100% pneumonia mortality, only sporadic occurrence of fatal pneumonia was reported from previous comingling studies with domestic goats. Here, we evaluated the ability of domestic goats of defined M. ovipneumoniae carriage status to induce pneumonia in comingled bighorn sheep. In experiment 1, three bighorn sheep naïve to M. ovipneumoniae developed non-fatal respiratory disease (coughing, nasal discharge) following comingling with three naturally M. ovipneumoniae-colonized domestic goats. Gross and histological lesions of pneumonia, limited to small areas on the ventral and lateral edges of the anterior and middle lung lobes, were observed at necropsies conducted at the end of the experiment. A control group of three bighorn sheep from the same source housed in isolation during experiment 1 remained free of observed respiratory disease. In experiment 2, three bighorn sheep remained free of observed respiratory disease while comingled with three M. ovipneumoniae-free domestic goats. In experiment 3, introduction of a domestic goat-origin strain of M. ovipneumoniae to the same comingled goats and bighorn sheep used in experiment 2 resulted in clinical signs of respiratory disease (coughing, nasal discharge) in both host species. At the end of experiment 3, gross and histological evidence of pneumonia similar to that observed in experiment 1 bighorn sheep was observed in both affected bighorn sheep and domestic goats. M. ovipneumoniae strains carried by domestic goats were transmitted to comingled bighorn sheep, triggering development of pneumonia. However

  13. Effect of temperate climate tree species on gross ammonification, gross nitrification and N2O formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüggemann, N.; Rosenkranz, P.; Papen, H.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.

    2003-04-01

    Microbial nitrogen turnover processes in the soil, like ammonification, nitrification and denitrification, play an important role in the formation of nitrous oxide (N2O): (i) ammonification, because it releases nitrogen from organic material in the form of ammonium (NH4+), which in turn can serve as substrate for nitrification; (ii) nitrification itself (i.e. the turnover of NH4+ to nitrate, NO3-), during which nitric oxide (NO) and N2O can be released as by-products at varying ratios; (iii) denitrification, in which NO3- serves as electron acceptor and is converted to molecular nitrogen (N2) via NO and N2O as intermediates, that can also be partially lost to the atmosphere. Temperate forest soils are a substantial source of atmospheric N2O contributing up to 10% to the total atmospheric N2O budget. However, this figure is afflicted with a huge uncertainty due to a number of factors governing the soil N2O formation, consumption, release and uptake, which are not fully understood at present. To one of these factors belongs the influence of the tree species on nitrogen turnover processes in the soil and the formation of N trace gases related with them. The aim of the present work was to analyse this tree species effect for the temperate climate region. For this purpose the effect of five different temperate tree species, having the same age and growing on the same soil in direct vicinity to each other, on gross ammonification and gross nitrification as well as on N2O formation was investigated. The trees (common beech, Fagus sylvatica; pedunculate oak, Quercus robur; Norway spruce, Picea abies; Japanese larch, Larix leptolepis; mountain pine, Pinus mugo) were part of a species trial in Western Jutland, Denmark, established in 1965 on a former sandy heathland. Samples from the soil under these five tree species were taken in spring and in summer 2002, respectively, differentiating between organic layer and mineral soil. The gross rates of ammonification as well of

  14. TERATOGENIC EFFECTS OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES: GROSS ANOMALIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Prakash

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available BACK GROUND: Prenatal exposure of AgNPs can induces devastative and detrimental effect in the organogenesis period of the developing embryos and foetuses. Organogenesis period is highly condemnatory and persuadable. Any injury to embryo during this period leads to dysmorphogenesis or even death AIM: The present study means to evaluate the gross anomalies on developing f o etus subsequent to silver nanoparticle ingestion during the gestational period. MATERIAL & METHOD: Random selections of pregnant Swiss albino mice were selected. AgNPs, of 20 - 100 nm size ra nge, were administered to pregnant mice by repeated oral gavages at concentra tions of 0.5, 1, 5, 10, 15 & 20 mg/kg/day during 4 - 17 gestational day. All dams were subjected to exteriorization on GD 18. The fetuses were evaluated for body malformation effects . RESULTS: Repeated oral gavages treatment with AgNPs at a concentration of 0.5mg/kg/day caused resorption (4.61% and intra uterine growth retardation (7.69% with no gross morphology alteration. 1 mg/kg/day caused resorption (9.23% and intra uterine growth retardation (10.76% with a rare case of haemorrhagic conception (1.53%, 5mg/kg/day caused limb malformation (7.01% resorption (17.54% and intra uterine growth retardation (17.54%, closed type Neural tube deformity (5.26%, 10mg/kg/day caused 20 % of limb malformation including Amelia, foot and tail vein hemorrhages and simple tail vein haemorrhage (3.50% each, resorption (22.80%, intra uterine growth retardation (29.82%, 15mg/kg/day caused severe hemorrhage within the entire body (22.80%, lim b anomaly including syndactyly and oligodactyly (8.77%, resorption (42.10%, intra uterine growth retardation (45.61%, 20mg/kg/day caused Omphalocele (3.27%, Bidiscoidal placental anomaly (9.83%, resorption (29.50% and intra uterine growth retardation (62.29%. CONCLUSION: The results show that a repeated oral dose of AgNPs during pregnancy caused fetal body dysmorphogenesis which is dose

  15. Gross revenue risk in Swiss dairy farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Benni, N; Finger, R

    2013-02-01

    This study investigated how agricultural policy reforms, including market liberalization and market deregulation, have influenced gross revenue risk of Swiss dairy producers using farm-level panel data between 1990 and 2009. Based on detrended data, variance decomposition was applied to assess how output prices and yields contributed to revenue risk over 3 different periods: the whole period (1990-2009), the first decade (1990-1999), and the second decade (1999-2009). In addition, the effect of expected changes in animal-based support for roughage-consuming cattle and price volatility on revenue risk was evaluated using a simulation model. Prices were the main contributor to revenue risk, even if the importance of yield risk increased over time. Swiss dairy producers can profit from natural hedge but market deregulation and market liberalization have reduced the natural hedge at the farm level. An increase in price volatility would substantially increase revenue risk and would, together with the abandonment of direct payments, reduce the comparative advantage of dairy production for risk-averse decision makers. Depending on other available risk management strategies, price risk management instruments might be a valuable solution for Swiss dairy producers in the future.

  16. Domestic violence in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bash, K L; Jones, F

    1994-09-01

    Domestic violence is an underrecognized problem of immense cost. It is a crime; its victims must be identified and protected. The medical and judicial communities share responsibility in addressing this issue and providing support for victims. The role of health care workers in recognizing and preventing domestic violence cannot be overestimated. Direct questioning of patients, especially about the source of any injuries and about safety at home, is the first step in uncovering abuse. Educational programs for health care providers and the general public can change society's view and tolerance of this problem. Physicians must take an active role in changing community attitudes about domestic violence and in instituting programs to reduce its incidence. Medical treatment of the injuries resulting from domestic violence is not sufficient. Abused women need the care of a team of professionals who can address psychological, emotional, and physical injuries. They must also be provided with safe housing and financial and legal assistance in order to escape the abusive relationship. Physicians and legislators must work together to effect change. Domestic violence is a public health menace. We need to break the cycle of abuse that has become an integral part of our society.

  17. Guidelines for Standard Photography in Gross and Clinical Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barut, Cagatay; Ertilav, Hakan

    2011-01-01

    Photography has a widespread usage in medicine and anatomy. In this review, authors focused on the usage of photography in gross and clinical anatomy. Photography in gross and clinical anatomy is not only essential for accurate documentation of morphological findings but also important in sharing knowledge and experience. Photographs of cadavers…

  18. 26 CFR 1.61-4 - Gross income of farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Gross income of farmers. (a) Farmers using the cash method of accounting. A farmer using the cash receipts and disbursements method of accounting shall include in his gross income for the taxable year— (1) The amount of cash and the value of merchandise or other property received during the taxable...

  19. Guidelines for Standard Photography in Gross and Clinical Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barut, Cagatay; Ertilav, Hakan

    2011-01-01

    Photography has a widespread usage in medicine and anatomy. In this review, authors focused on the usage of photography in gross and clinical anatomy. Photography in gross and clinical anatomy is not only essential for accurate documentation of morphological findings but also important in sharing knowledge and experience. Photographs of cadavers…

  20. Psychiatric Symptoms in Children with Gross Motor Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emck, Claudia; Bosscher, Ruud J.; van Wieringen, Piet C. W.; Doreleijers, Theo; Beek, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Children with psychiatric disorders often demonstrate gross motor problems. This study investigates if the reverse also holds true by assessing psychiatric symptoms present in children with gross motor problems. Emotional, behavioral, and autism spectrum disorders (ASD), as well as psychosocial problems, were assessed in a sample of 40 children…

  1. The Gross Anatomy Course: An Analysis of Its Importance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockers, Anja; Jerg-Bretzke, Lucia; Lamp, Christoph; Brinkmann, Anke; Traue, Harald C.; Bockers, Tobias M.

    2010-01-01

    The gross anatomy dissection course is a cost-intensive piece of undergraduate medical education that students and professionals alike describe as very important within the overall medical curriculum. We sought to understand more explicitly students' valuation of gross anatomy as an "important" course and so developed a quantitative…

  2. Domestication genomics: evidence from animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guo-Dong; Xie, Hai-Bing; Peng, Min-Sheng; Irwin, David; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2014-02-01

    Animal domestication has far-reaching significance for human society. The sequenced genomes of domesticated animals provide critical resources for understanding the genetic basis of domestication. Various genomic analyses have shed a new light on the mechanism of artificial selection and have allowed the mapping of genes involved in important domestication traits. Here, we summarize the published genomes of domesticated animals that have been generated over the past decade, as well as their origins, from a phylogenomic point of view. This review provides a general description of the genomic features encountered under a two-stage domestication process. We also introduce recent findings for domestication traits based on results from genome-wide association studies and selective-sweep scans for artificially selected genomic regions. Particular attention is paid to issues relating to the costs of domestication and the convergent evolution of genes between domesticated animals and humans.

  3. Domestic Violence - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... English Dating Violence - español (Spanish) MP4 Healthy Roads Media Domestic Violence: MedlinePlus Health Topic - English Violencia doméstica: Tema de ... Abuse (An Introduction) - español (Spanish) PDF Healthy Roads Media Healthy Living Toolkit: Violence In the Home - English Healthy Living Toolkit: Violence ...

  4. Foreign Firms, Domestic Wages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Markusen, James R.; Schjerning, Bertel

    large domestic firms. The empirical implications of the model are tested on matched employer-employee data from Denmark. Consistent with the theory, we find considerable evidence of higher wages and wage growth in large and/or foreign-owned firms. These effects survive controlling for individual...

  5. Dominance in domestic dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borg, Van Der J.A.M.; Schilder, M.B.H.; Vinke, C.M.; Vries, De Han; Petit, Odile

    2015-01-01

    A dominance hierarchy is an important feature of the social organisation of group living animals. Although formal and/or agonistic dominance has been found in captive wolves and free-ranging dogs, applicability of the dominance concept in domestic dogs is highly debated, and quantitative data are

  6. Dominance in domestic dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borg, Van Der J.A.M.; Schilder, M.B.H.; Vinke, C.M.; Vries, De Han; Petit, Odile

    2015-01-01

    A dominance hierarchy is an important feature of the social organisation of group living animals. Although formal and/or agonistic dominance has been found in captive wolves and free-ranging dogs, applicability of the dominance concept in domestic dogs is highly debated, and quantitative data are

  7. Estimating the gross moist stability in shallow and deep convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C. A.; Jong, B. T.; Chou, C.

    2015-12-01

    Gross moist stability has been used to study the link between tropical deep convection and large scale circulation in a moist static energy (MSE) budget. Here we aim to calculate the gross moist stability from more realistic profiles of vertical velocity and extend it beyond deep convection, adding shallow convection. Based on a principal component analysis, we were able to decompose the vertical velocity into two leading modes, which are dominated by deep and shallow convection, respectively. According to the deep and shallow modes, we calculate the gross moist stability for these two modes and discuss the roles of deep and shallow convection in the MSE budget. The gross moist stability of deep convection tends to be positive in the tropics, while that of shallow convection is negative over most areas of the tropics. This implies that deep convection exports MSE to stabilize the atmosphere and shallow convection imports MSE to enhance deep convection and destabilize the atmosphere. Based on the spatial distribution, moisture tends to reduce the gross moist stability of deep convection, while dry static energy has little impact. Deeper deep convection tends to have greater gross moist stability. For shallow convection, on the other hand, the gross moist stability is affected not only by low-level moisture but also mid-level moisture. Both moister low-level and drier mid-level moisture reduce the gross moist stability of shallow convection. Greater low-level dry static energy, which is associated with warmer sea surface temperature, also tends to reduce gross moist stability.

  8. Domestication process of yaks revealed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ In his monumental work "Origin of Species," Charles Darwin suggested that all domestic animals originated from their wild ancestors through artificial selection and evolution. However, he did not give the details of how human beings domesticate these species.

  9. Domestication and plant genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Haibao; Sezen, Uzay; Paterson, Andrew H

    2010-04-01

    The techniques of plant improvement have been evolving with the advancement of technology, progressing from crop domestication by Neolithic humans to scientific plant breeding, and now including DNA-based genotyping and genetic engineering. Archeological findings have shown that early human ancestors often unintentionally selected for and finally fixed a few major domestication traits over time. Recent advancement of molecular and genomic tools has enabled scientists to pinpoint changes to specific chromosomal regions and genetic loci that are responsible for dramatic morphological and other transitions that distinguish crops from their wild progenitors. Extensive studies in a multitude of additional crop species, facilitated by rapid progress in sequencing and resequencing(s) of crop genomes, will further our understanding of the genomic impact from both the unusual population history of cultivated plants and millennia of human selection.

  10. Premedical anatomy experience and student performance in medical gross anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondrashov, Peter; McDaniel, Dalton J; Jordan, Rebecca M

    2017-04-01

    Gross anatomy is considered one of the most important basic science courses in medical education, yet few medical schools require its completion prior to matriculation. The effect of taking anatomy courses before entering medical school on performance in medical gross anatomy has been previously studied with inconsistent results. The effect of premedical anatomy coursework on performance in medical gross anatomy, overall medical school grade point average (GPA), and Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing Examination Level 1 (COMLEX 1) score was evaluated in 456 first-year osteopathic medical students along with a survey on its perceived benefits on success in medical gross anatomy course. No significant differences were found in gross anatomy grade, GPA, or COMLEX 1 score between students with premedical anatomy coursework and those without. However, significant differences and higher scores were observed in students who had taken three or more undergraduate anatomy courses including at least one with cadaveric laboratory. There was significantly lower perceived benefit for academic success in the medical gross anatomy course (P<.001) from those students who had taken premedical anatomy courses (5.9 of 10) compared with those who had not (8.2 of 10). Results suggest that requiring any anatomy course as a prerequisite for medical school would not have significant effect on student performance in the medical gross anatomy course. However, requiring more specific anatomy coursework including taking three or more undergraduate anatomy courses, one with cadaveric laboratory component, may result in higher medical gross anatomy grades, medical school GPA, and COMLEX 1 scores. Clin. Anat. 30:303-311, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Gross Motor Profile and Its Association with Socialization Skills in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardiono D. Pusponegoro

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: Children with ASD had lower gross motor skills compared to typically developing children. Gross motor impairments were found in 20% of the ASD children, and these children also had lower socialization skills than those without gross motor impairments.

  12. Domestic wastewater heat recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Veijola, T.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to study and explain the purpose and the function of drain water heat exchangers. The thesis goes over theory behind heat transfer and heat exchangers and presents the general solutions of domestic drain water heat recovery systems. Systems gone over in detail are the different general shower drain water heat recovery systems. Another part of the thesis is a case study of an actual shower drain water heat recovery system of a Finnish household. The purpose of th...

  13. Genetic analysis of wheat domestication and evolution under domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleg, Zvi; Fahima, Tzion; Korol, Abraham B; Abbo, Shahal; Saranga, Yehoshua

    2011-10-01

    Wheat is undoubtedly one of the world's major food sources since the dawn of Near Eastern agriculture and up to the present day. Morphological, physiological, and genetic modifications involved in domestication and subsequent evolution under domestication were investigated in a tetraploid recombinant inbred line population, derived from a cross between durum wheat and its immediate progenitor wild emmer wheat. Experimental data were used to test previous assumptions regarding a protracted domestication process. The brittle rachis (Br) spike, thought to be a primary characteristic of domestication, was mapped to chromosome 2A as a single gene, suggesting, in light of previously reported Br loci (homoeologous group 3), a complex genetic model involved in spike brittleness. Twenty-seven quantitative trait loci (QTLs) conferring threshability and yield components (kernel size and number of kernels per spike) were mapped. The large number of QTLs detected in this and other studies suggests that following domestication, wheat evolutionary processes involved many genomic changes. The Br gene did not show either genetic (co-localization with QTLs) or phenotypic association with threshability or yield components, suggesting independence of the respective loci. It is argued here that changes in spike threshability and agronomic traits (e.g. yield and its components) are the outcome of plant evolution under domestication, rather than the result of a protracted domestication process. Revealing the genomic basis of wheat domestication and evolution under domestication, and clarifying their inter-relationships, will improve our understanding of wheat biology and contribute to further crop improvement.

  14. Animal evolution during domestication: the domesticated fox as a model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trut, Lyudmila; Oskina, Irina; Kharlamova, Anastasiya

    2009-03-01

    We review the evolution of domestic animals, emphasizing the effect of the earliest steps of domestication on its course. Using the first domesticated species, the dog (Canis familiaris), for illustration, we describe the evolutionary peculiarities during the historical domestication, such as the high level and wide range of diversity. We suggest that the process of earliest domestication via unconscious and later conscious selection of human-defined behavioral traits may accelerate phenotypic variations. The review is based on the results of a long-term experiment designed to reproduce early mammalian domestication in the silver fox (Vulpes vulpes) selected for tameability or amenability to domestication. We describe changes in behavior, morphology and physiology that appeared in the fox during its selection for tameability, which were similar to those observed in the domestic dog. Based on the data of the fox experiment and survey of relevant data, we discuss the developmental, genetic and possible molecular genetic mechanisms underlying these changes. We ascribe the causative role in evolutionary transformation of domestic animals to the selection for behavior and to the neurospecific regulatory genes it affects.

  15. Gross Pollutant Traps: Wet Load Assessment at Sungai Kerayong, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Shah, M. R.; Zahari, N. M.; Said, N. F. Md; Sidek, L. M.; Basri, H.; Noor, M. S. F. Md; Husni, M. M. Mohammad; Jajarmizadeh, Milad; Roseli, ZA; Mohd. Dom, N.

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this project is to carry out assessment on the effectiveness and performance of Gross Pollutant Traps (GPTs) stormwater quality control in the urban areas. The study aims to provide a management and planning tool for effective management of the gross pollutants in the urban areas specifically in River of Life (ROL) project. ROL project is a Malaysian Government initiative under the Economic Transformation Program. One of the program in the greater Klang Valley is to transform Klang River into a vibrant and livable waterfront by the year 2020. The main river in ROL catchment is Sungai Klang (upper catchment), with main tributaries Sungai Gombak, Sungai Batu, Sungai Jinjang, Sungai Keroh, Sungai Bunus, Sungai Ampang and Sungai Kerayong. This paper objective is to study the gross pollutant wet load at Sungai Kerayong 1 and Sungai Kerayong 2 which is located at the downstream location of the ROL project. The result shows that Sungai Kerayong 2 produced higher gross pollutant wet load (8025.33 kg/ha/yr) than Sungai Kerayong 1 (4695.12 kg/ha/yr). This could be due to high contributions amounts of gross pollutant traps from residential area, the degree of develop area, and also the location of the river itself related to climate and rainfall.

  16. Gross efficiency during rowing is not affected by stroke rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmijster, Mathijs J; Van Soest, Arthur J; De Koning, Jos J

    2009-05-01

    It has been suggested that the optimal stroke rate in rowing is partly determined by the stroke-rate dependence of internal power losses. This should be reflected in a stroke-rate dependency of gross efficiency (e(gross)). The purpose of this study was to investigate if e(gross) is affected by stroke rate. A second aim was to determine whether internal power losses can be estimated by the negative power output during the stroke cycle (P(negative)). Seventeen well-trained female rowers participated in this study. They rowed three trials on a modified rowing ergometer on slides at a submaximal intensity, with a respiratory exchange ratio of 1 or close to 1. Stroke rates were 28, 34, and 40 strokes per minute. The trials were fully randomized. Power transfer to the flywheel was kept constant whereas e(gross) was determined during each trial. No significant differences in e(gross) were found between conditions. This finding suggests that in rowing internal power losses are not influenced by stroke rate. Furthermore, although P(negative) increased at increasing stroke rate (P measure to estimate internal power losses. This study shows that within the range of stroke rates applied in competitive rowing, internal power losses are unrelated to rowing cycle frequency.

  17. Core questions in domestication research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeder, Melinda A

    2015-03-17

    The domestication of plants and animals is a key transition in human history, and its profound and continuing impacts are the focus of a broad range of transdisciplinary research spanning the physical, biological, and social sciences. Three central aspects of domestication that cut across and unify this diverse array of research perspectives are addressed here. Domestication is defined as a distinctive coevolutionary, mutualistic relationship between domesticator and domesticate and distinguished from related but ultimately different processes of resource management and agriculture. The relative utility of genetic, phenotypic, plastic, and contextual markers of evolving domesticatory relationships is discussed. Causal factors are considered, and two leading explanatory frameworks for initial domestication of plants and animals, one grounded in optimal foraging theory and the other in niche-construction theory, are compared.

  18. Selection signature in domesticated animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhangyuan, Pan; Xiaoyun, He; Xiangyu, Wang; Xiaofei, Guo; Xiaohan, Cao; Wenping, Hu; Ran, Di; Qiuyue, Liu; Mingxing, Chu

    2016-12-20

    Domesticated animals play an important role in the life of humanity. All these domesticated animals undergo same process, first domesticated from wild animals, then after long time natural and artificial selection, formed various breeds that adapted to the local environment and human needs. In this process, domestication, natural and artificial selection will leave the selection signal in the genome. The research on these selection signals can find functional genes directly, is one of the most important strategies in screening functional genes. The current studies of selection signal have been performed in pigs, chickens, cattle, sheep, goats, dogs and other domestic animals, and found a great deal of functional genes. This paper provided an overview of the types and the detected methods of selection signal, and outlined researches of selection signal in domestic animals, and discussed the key issues in selection signal analysis and its prospects.

  19. Gross municipal product: the design procedure and application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Vasilevich Kolechkov

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the actual problem to find the adequate methods to assess the economic performance of municipalities conditioned by their growing independence and role in the development of regional economy. Nowadays many researchers are working on the practical application and testing of various approaches to assessing theterritory economicresults based on thecalculation of gross municipal product (GМP. However, the development of methodological reasonable calculation tools is still at an early stage. In this article presents a simplified method of calculating the gross municipal product, an analysis of the dynamics and territorialindustrial structure GМP, implemented in terms of grouping areas GМP methods hierarchical cluster analysis of the economic characteristics of the obtained clustersbased on systematic occurring in the economic literature, methodological developments in the calculation of gross municipal product, determination of strengths and weaknesses of different methodological approaches

  20. Anatomy of the Gross Intestine of the Capybara (Hydrochoerus Hydrochaeris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelia Vazquez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The anatomy of the gross intestine and its mesentery of the capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris have not been described completely. Approach: In the present study, eight adult capybaras were studied using gross dissection. Results: The cecum was the largest part of the intestine and was divided into base, body and apex. The cecocolic fold joined the cecum to the full extent of the proximal loop of ascending colon. The ascending colon was divided into two ansae, one proximal and one distal or spiral. The distal ansa had a spiral arrangement and was placed cranially to the right, covered ventrally by the apex of the cecum. This ansa had a centripetal gyrus to the left, a central flexure and a centrifugal gyrus turning to the right that was continuous with the transverse colon in the right colic flexure. Conclusion: The gross intestine of the capybara was different to other previously studied rodents.

  1. Potato production in Europe - a gross margin analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren Marcus; Bizik, Jan; Costa, Luisa Dalla;

    The purpose of this paper is to examine different cropping practices, cost structures and gross margins for producing conventional table potatoes in 6 different regions within the European Union: Czech Republic, Denmark, Italy, Poland, Portugal and Slovakia. Findings from this study show that pot......The purpose of this paper is to examine different cropping practices, cost structures and gross margins for producing conventional table potatoes in 6 different regions within the European Union: Czech Republic, Denmark, Italy, Poland, Portugal and Slovakia. Findings from this study show...... that potato cropping practices varies signifi-cantly between these countries with major differences in yields and costs. Italy and Denmark are the two regions with highest gross margins due to high yields and reve-nues. Poland is by far the largest potato producing country among the 6 countries ex...

  2. A survey of gross alpha and gross beta activity in soil samples in Kinta District, Perak, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Siak Kuan; Wagiran, Husin; Ramli, Ahmad Termizi

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the gross alpha and gross beta activity concentrations from the different soil types found in the Kinta District, Perak, Malaysia. A total of 128 soil samples were collected and their dose rates were measured 1 m above the ground. Gross alpha and gross beta activity measurements were carried out using gas flow proportional counter, Tennelec Series 5 LB5500 Automatic Low Background Counting System. The alpha activity concentration ranged from 15 to 9634 Bq kg(-1) with a mean value of 1558±121 Bq kg(-1). The beta activity concentration ranged from 142 to 6173 Bq kg(-1) with a mean value of 1112±32 Bq kg(-1). High alpha and beta activity concentrations are from the same soil type. The results of the analysis show a strong correlation between the gross alpha activity concentration and dose rate (R = 0.92). The data obtained can be used as a database for each soil type.

  3. Ludwik Gross, Sarah Stewart, and the 1950s discoveries of Gross murine leukemia virus and polyoma virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Gregory J

    2014-12-01

    The Polish-American scientist Ludwik Gross made two important discoveries in the early 1950s. He showed that two viruses - murine leukemia virus and parotid tumor virus - could cause cancer when they were injected into susceptible animals. At first, Gross's discoveries were greeted with skepticism: it seemed implausible that viruses could cause a disease as complex as cancer. Inspired by Gross's initial experiments, similar results were obtained by Sarah Stewart and Bernice Eddy who later renamed the parotid tumor virus SE polyoma virus after finding it could cause many different types of tumors in mice, hamsters, and rats. Eventually the "SE" was dropped and virologists adopted the name "polyoma virus." After Gross's work was published, additional viruses capable of causing solid tumors or blood-borne tumors in mice were described by Arnold Graffi, Charlotte Friend, John Moloney and others. By 1961, sufficient data had been accumulated for Gross to confidently publish an extensive monograph--Oncogenic Viruses--the first history of tumor virology, which became a standard reference work and marked the emergence of tumor virology as a distinct, legitimate field of study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Numerical simulation for the Gross-Pitaevskii equation based on the lattice Boltzmann method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huimin

    2017-09-01

    A lattice Boltzmann model for the Gross-Pitaevskii equation is proposed in this paper. Some numerical tests for one- and two-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation have been conducted. The waves of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation are simulated. Numerical results show that the lattice Boltzmann method is an effective method for the wave of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation.

  5. 29 CFR 779.259 - What is included in annual gross volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is included in annual gross volume. 779.259 Section... Coverage Annual Gross Volume of Sales Made Or Business Done § 779.259 What is included in annual gross volume. (a) The annual gross volume of sales made or business done of an enterprise consists of its...

  6. 29 CFR 794.122 - Ascertainment of “annual” gross sales volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ascertainment of âannualâ gross sales volume. 794.122... Annual Gross Volume of Sales § 794.122 Ascertainment of “annual” gross sales volume. The annual gross volume of sales of an enterprise engaged in the wholesale or bulk distribution of petroleum...

  7. Happy Life Years: a measure of Gross National Happiness

    OpenAIRE

    Veenhoven, Ruut

    2004-01-01

    textabstractHappiness is defined as the degree to which a person enjoys his or her life-as-a-whole. Accordingly ‘Gross National Happiness’ is defined as the degree to which citizens in a country enjoy the life they live. Individual happiness can be measured by self-report on a single standard question. Hence Gross National Happiness can be measured by the average response to such questions in general populations surveys. Survey data on average self-report of happiness can be combined with est...

  8. The Impact of Investments and Gross Value Added upon Earnings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa APARASCHIVEI

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we tried to capture the impact of investments and gross value added, but also the impact of the employment on the average wage. The analysis refers to the period 1998- 2008 and we are using data on the activities of the Romanian economy. The results of this study confirm the negative influence of the employment, being consistent with the theory. Also, the impact of investments and that of gross value added came out to be positive and significant.

  9. Revised Phase Diagram of the Gross-Neveu Model

    CERN Document Server

    Thies, M; Thies, Michael; Urlichs, Konrad

    2003-01-01

    We confirm earlier hints that the conventional phase diagram of the discrete chiral Gross-Neveu model in the large N limit is deficient at non-zero chemical potential. We present the corrected phase diagram constructed in mean field theory. It has three different phases, including a kink-antikink crystal phase. All transitions are second order. The driving mechanism for the new structure of baryonic matter in the Gross-Neveu model is an Overhauser type instability with gap formation at the Fermi surface.

  10. [Domestic violence: any progress?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrion, Roger

    2014-01-01

    Since the publication of the French national survey of violence against women in 2000, the fight against domestic violence has made steady progress. Knowledge of the phenomenon has significantly improved. A nationwide study of murders and manslaughters perpetrated by one partner of a couple against the other has been published annually since 2006. In 2012, domestic violence resulted in the deaths of 314 persons: 166 women, 31 men, 25 children, 9 collateral victims, 14 rivals, and two former spouses killed by their ex-fathers in law. In addition, 67 perpetrators committed suicide (51 men and3 women). The number of victims fluctuates from year to year but has remained fairly stable since 2006 (n=168). Legislation has improved significantly: eight new laws have been passed since 2004, all designed to protect women and to ensure that violent men are restrained and treated. New measures to inform and protect women have been implemented and others have been improved, such as the anonymous helpline (phone no 3919, "domestic violence information"). An inter-ministerial committee on the protection of women from violence and the prevention of human trafficking (MIPROF) was created on 3 January 2013. A website entitled "Stop violence against women " (Stop violences faites aux femmes) is now available. The "Imminent Danger" mobile phone system, designed to alert police if a suspected or known perpetrator breaches restraint conditions, will be extended to the entire country from January 2014. Referees charged with coordinating comprehensive long-tern care of women victims have been deployed at the county level. Information centers on the rights of women and families (CIDFF) now form a local nationwide network. Routine interviews with a midwife during the fourth month of pregnancy, focusing on the woman's emotional, economic and social conditions, have been implemented in 21 % of maternity units and should gradually be generalized. The authorities who have enforced the law have

  11. Dermoid cyst in a domestic shorthair cat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Akhtardanesh B; Kheirandish R; Azari O

    2012-01-01

    A 5-year-old neutered male domestic shorthair cat was presented for examination of a subcutaneous mass in his tail. The mass was firm, non-painful, oval, and approximately 2.5 × 3.5 cm. Surgical exploration revealed a well-circumscribed, encapsulated mass. The mass was removed and sectioned for histopathological examination. In gross section, it was filled with numerous dark hairs. Histologically the mass was consisted of haired skin with dermal cystic structures lined by stratified squamous epithelium. The cyst lumen contained squamous debris and filled with keratinous material. Numerous hair shafts were extended from the wall of the cyst. The sebaceous and apocrine gland adnexal structures were also observed which confirmed the diagnosis of dermoid cyst. No tumor recurrence was observed after surgery in fallowing checkups. Cutaneous or subcutaneous cysts of all types are considered rare in cats and to our knowledge this is the third reported case of cutaneous dermoid cyst of cats in veterinary literature which is different from the other cases because it occurred in dorsal midline in tail area whereas others occurred in flank area.

  12. Domestic Violence as Everyday Terrorism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooper-Cunningham, Dean

    2016-01-01

    Seeing bride kidnapping and domestic violence as everyday terrorism unpacks the political nature of so-called “private” phenomena and how they reify patriarchal society.......Seeing bride kidnapping and domestic violence as everyday terrorism unpacks the political nature of so-called “private” phenomena and how they reify patriarchal society....

  13. Monitoring of gross alpha, gross beta and actinides activities in exhaust air released from the waste isolation pilot plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thakur, P., E-mail: pthakur@cemrc.org [Carlsbad Environmental Monitoring and Research Center, 1400 University Drive, Carlsbad, New Mexico 88220 (United States); Mulholland, G.P. [Carlsbad Environmental Monitoring and Research Center, 1400 University Drive, Carlsbad, New Mexico 88220 (United States)

    2011-09-15

    The simultaneous measurements of gross alpha and beta activities is one of the simplest radioanalytical technique used as a method for screening samples of both high and low activities of alpha and beta emitting radionuclides in environmental and bioassay samples. Such measurements are of great interest from both a radiological, waste disposal viewpoint, and to establish a trend of radioactivity based on long term monitoring. At the WIPP (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant) site, unfiltered exhaust air from the underground repository is the most important effluent. As part of its monitoring program, the particulates from WIPP exhaust air are collected everyday at a location typically called the Fixed Air Sampler (FAS) site or Station A, this site is located at the release point for aerosol effluents from the underground to the environment. The measurements of gross alpha and beta activity on air filter samples were performed using an ultra low level counter, PIC-MPC 9604-{alpha}/{beta}, from Protean Instrument Corporation. The high sensitivity of the gross alpha and beta instrument enables detection of low value activity from the air filters. In 2009, the values of gross alpha and beta activity concentrations ranged from Simultaneous measurements of gross alpha and gross beta activities in the particulates from WIPP exhaust air were performed. > Ultra low level counter, PIC-MPC 9604-{alpha}/{beta} counter was used for the measurements. > Values of gross alpha activity concentrations ranged from Values of gross beta activity concentrations ranged from

  14. Plant domestication slows pest evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcotte, Martin M; Lochab, Amaneet K; Turley, Nash E; Johnson, Marc T J

    2015-09-01

    Agricultural practices such as breeding resistant varieties and pesticide use can cause rapid evolution of pest species, but it remains unknown how plant domestication itself impacts pest contemporary evolution. Using experimental evolution on a comparative phylogenetic scale, we compared the evolutionary dynamics of a globally important economic pest - the green peach aphid (Myzus persicae) - growing on 34 plant taxa, represented by 17 crop species and their wild relatives. Domestication slowed aphid evolution by 13.5%, maintained 10.4% greater aphid genotypic diversity and 5.6% higher genotypic richness. The direction of evolution (i.e. which genotypes increased in frequency) differed among independent domestication events but was correlated with specific plant traits. Individual-based simulation models suggested that domestication affects aphid evolution directly by reducing the strength of selection and indirectly by increasing aphid density and thus weakening genetic drift. Our results suggest that phenotypic changes during domestication can alter pest evolutionary dynamics.

  15. 26 CFR 1.555-2 - Additions to gross income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Corporation sells 90percent of its stock in the Y Corporation and thus is a minority shareholder in the Y... on which the required United States group exists, and (2) Such foreign corporation is a shareholder... the gross income of its shareholders, whether United States shareholders or other foreign...

  16. Comments on the research article by Gross et al. (2012)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guntur, Srinivas; Sørensen, Niels N.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this Letter to the Editor is to present a discussion on the physics of rotational augmentation based on existing work. One of the latest works by Gross et al. (2012) is highlighted here, and its conclusions are discussed. Based on the existing understanding of rotational augmentati...

  17. Effective Collaboration among the Gross Motor Assessment Team Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menear, Kristi S.; Davis, Timothy D.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the gross motor assessment team (GMAT) members' roles and collaborative approach to making appropriate decisions and modifications when addressing the needs of individuals with disabilities in physical education. Case studies of students are used to demonstrate effective uses of the GMAT. The primary outcome of the GMAT's…

  18. 40 CFR 403.15 - Net/Gross calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... STANDARDS GENERAL PRE-TREAT-MENT REGULATIONS FOR EXIST-ING AND NEW SOURCES OF POLLUTION § 403.15 Net/Gross... pollutants in the Industrial User's intake water in accordance with this section. Any Industrial User wishing... of the Industrial User, the applicable Standard will be calculated on a “net” basis (i.e., adjusted...

  19. Rubriek 'Meten in de praktijk': Gross Motor Function Measure.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenhof, C.; Ketelaar, M.

    2004-01-01

    De Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) is een instrument dat de grof-motorische vaardigheden meet van kinderen met cerebrale parese. De GMFM is expliciet ontwikkeld als evaluatief meetinstrument, wat betekent dat het bedoeld is om veranderingen over de tijd of verandering en die optreden na behandel

  20. Development of the Gross Motor Function Classification System (1997)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    To address the need for a standardized system to classify the gross motor function of children with cerebral palsy, the authors developed a five-level classification system analogous to the staging and grading systems used in medicine. Nominal group process and Delphi survey consensus methods were used to examine content validity and revise the…

  1. Effective Collaboration among the Gross Motor Assessment Team Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menear, Kristi S.; Davis, Timothy D.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the gross motor assessment team (GMAT) members' roles and collaborative approach to making appropriate decisions and modifications when addressing the needs of individuals with disabilities in physical education. Case studies of students are used to demonstrate effective uses of the GMAT. The primary outcome of the GMAT's…

  2. Assessing Gross Motor Skills of Kosovar Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shala, Merita

    2009-01-01

    In the light of the new developments in preschool education in Kosovo, this study attempts to carry out an assessment of the development of gross motor skills of preschool children attending institutional education. The emphasis is on creating a set of tests to measure the motor attainments of these children by conducting assessments of the…

  3. 78 FR 26575 - Gross Combination Weight Rating; Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-07

    ... Weight Rating; Definition AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION... definition of ``gross combination weight rating'' (or GCWR) to clarify that a GCWR is the greater of: the....regulations.gov . Fax: 1-202-493-2251. Mail: Docket Management Facility (M-30), U.S. Department of...

  4. Gross and Microscopic Lesions in Corals from Micronesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, T M; Aeby, G S; Hughen, K A

    2016-01-01

    The authors documented gross and microscopic morphology of lesions in corals on 7 islands spanning western, southern, and eastern Micronesia, sampling 76 colonies comprising 30 species of corals among 18 genera, with Acropora, Porites, and Montipora dominating. Tissue loss comprised the majority of gross lesions sampled (41%), followed by discoloration (30%) and growth anomaly (29%). Of 31 cases of tissue loss, most lesions were subacute (48%), followed by acute and chronic (26% each). Of 23 samples with discoloration, most were dark discoloration (40%), with bleaching and other discoloration each constituting 30%. Of 22 growth anomalies, umbonate growth anomalies composed half, with exophytic, nodular, and rugose growth anomalies composing the remainder. On histopathology, for 9 cases of dark discoloration, fungal infections predominated (77%); for 7 bleached corals, depletion of zooxanthellae from the gastrodermis made up a majority of microscopic diagnoses (57%); and for growth anomalies other than umbonate, hyperplasia of the basal body wall was the most common microscopic finding (63%). For the remainder of the gross lesions, no single microscopic finding constituted >50% of the total. Host response varied with the agent present on histology. Fragmentation of tissues was most often associated with algae (60%), whereas necrosis dominated (53%) for fungi. Two newly documented potentially symbiotic tissue-associated metazoans were seen in Porites and Montipora. Findings of multiple potential etiologies for a given gross lesion highlight the importance of incorporating histopathology in coral disease surveys. This study also expands the range of corals infected with cell-associated microbial aggregates.

  5. Gross and microscopic lesions in corals from Micronesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, Thierry M.; Aeby, Greta S.; Hughen, Konrad A.

    2015-01-01

    The authors documented gross and microscopic morphology of lesions in corals on 7 islands spanning western, southern, and eastern Micronesia, sampling 76 colonies comprising 30 species of corals among 18 genera, with Acropora, Porites, and Montipora dominating. Tissue loss comprised the majority of gross lesions sampled (41%), followed by discoloration (30%) and growth anomaly (29%). Of 31 cases of tissue loss, most lesions were subacute (48%), followed by acute and chronic (26% each). Of 23 samples with discoloration, most were dark discoloration (40%), with bleaching and other discoloration each constituting 30%. Of 22 growth anomalies, umbonate growth anomalies composed half, with exophytic, nodular, and rugose growth anomalies composing the remainder. On histopathology, for 9 cases of dark discoloration, fungal infections predominated (77%); for 7 bleached corals, depletion of zooxanthellae from the gastrodermis made up a majority of microscopic diagnoses (57%); and for growth anomalies other than umbonate, hyperplasia of the basal body wall was the most common microscopic finding (63%). For the remainder of the gross lesions, no single microscopic finding constituted >50% of the total. Host response varied with the agent present on histology. Fragmentation of tissues was most often associated with algae (60%), whereas necrosis dominated (53%) for fungi. Two newly documented potentially symbiotic tissue-associated metazoans were seen in Porites and Montipora. Findings of multiple potential etiologies for a given gross lesion highlight the importance of incorporating histopathology in coral disease surveys. This study also expands the range of corals infected with cell-associated microbial aggregates.

  6. Happy Life Years: a measure of Gross National Happiness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractHappiness is defined as the degree to which a person enjoys his or her life-as-a-whole. Accordingly ‘Gross National Happiness’ is defined as the degree to which citizens in a country enjoy the life they live. Individual happiness can be measured by self-report on a single standard

  7. 77 FR 51706 - Gross Combination Weight Rating (GCWR); Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration 49 CFR Parts 383 and 390 RIN 2126-AB53 Gross Combination Weight Rating (GCWR); Definition AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Direct final rule; request for comments. SUMMARY: The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration...

  8. Strategic improvements for gross anatomy web-based teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marker, David R; Juluru, Krishna; Long, Chris; Magid, Donna

    2012-01-01

    Current generations of graduate students have been immersed in technology from their early school years and have high expectations regarding digital resources. To better meet the expectations of Gross Anatomy students at our institution, electronic radiology teaching files for first-year coursework were organized into a web site. The web site was custom designed to provide material that directly correlated to the Gross Anatomy dissection and lectures. Quick links provided sets of images grouped by anatomic location. Additionally, Lab and Study Companions provided specific material for the students to review prior to and after lectures and gross dissections. Student opinions of this education resource were compared to student opinions of the prior year's digital teaching files. The new content was ranked as more user friendly (3.1 points versus 2.3 points) and more useful for learning anatomy (3.3 points versus 2.6 points). Many students reported that using the web portal was critical in helping them to better understand relationships of anatomical structures. These findings suggest that a well-organized web portal can provide a user-friendly, valuable educational resource for medical students who are studying Gross Anatomy.

  9. Fine and Gross Motor Ability in Males with ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Both fine and gross motor abilities were evaluated in 10-year-old males with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and compared to a group of control children at the School of Psychology, Curtin University of Technology, Perth, Australia.

  10. Construction of 2-dimensional Grosse-Wulkenhaar Model

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Zhituo

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we construct the noncommutative Grosse-Wulkenhaar model on 2-dimensional Moyal plane with the method of loop vertex expansion. We treat renormalization with this new tool, adapt Nelson's argument and prove Borel summability of the perturbation series. This is the first non-commutative quantum field theory model to be built in a non-perturbative sense.

  11. Monopol suretab kohaliku loomakasvataja / Oleg Gross ; interv . Illar Mõttus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Gross, Oleg, 1952-

    2005-01-01

    Väike-Maarja jäätmetehase monopoolse seisundi vastu sõna võtnud OG Elektra omanik Oleg Gross on kindel, et jäätmetehasega suretatakse kohalikud väiksemad lihatootjad välja. Kommenteerivad talupidaja Jüri Järvet ja Rakvere Lihakombinaadi direktor Olle Horm

  12. ɛ-expansion in the Gross-Neveu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, Avinash

    2016-10-01

    We use the recently developed CFT techniques of Rychkov and Tan to compute anomalous dimensions in the O( N ) Gross-Neveu model in d = 2 + ɛ dimensions. To do this, we extend the "cowpie contraction" algorithm of arXiv:1506.06616 to theories with fermions. Our results match perfectly with Feynman diagram computations.

  13. Barn music at St Donat's castle / Philip Gross

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Gross, Philip, 1952-

    2011-01-01

    Muusikafestivalist "Vale of Glamorgan", mis oli 2010. a. pühendatud Arvo Pärdile. Eesti kammermuusikaansambli Resonabilis kavas oli ka festivali tellimusel valminud uelsi helilooja Gareth Peredur Churchilli "Vocable", mille teksti kirjutas Philip Gross. Festivalikontsertide muljeid leiab Grossi luuletsüklis "Barn music" (avaldatud samas ajakirjanumbris, lk. 42-43)

  14. Samuel D. Gross: the nestor of American surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo-Pereyra, Luis H

    2006-01-01

    Samuel David Gross (1805-1884) represented the most notable surgeon of his generation and was honored with the title of "The Nestor of American Surgeon" by surgeon biographer Isaac Minis Hays. Of Pennsylvania Dutch stock, he was born on the family farm near Easton, Pennsylvania. He attended Wilkebarré Academy and Lawrenceville High School, noted private institutions of the day. He apprenticed under Doctor Joseph K. Swift of Easton and later with Professor George McClellan while in Philadelphia. In 1828, he graduated from Jefferson Medical College and remained for a short time in Philadelphia. Professor Gross focused his professional pursuits in the cities of Easton (1830-1833), Cincinnati (1833-1840), Louisville (1840-1856), and Philadelphia (1856-1882). He retired from Jefferson Medical College two years before his death in 1884. Samuel D. Gross' contributions to surgery were numerous and diverse. He was recognized as a prolific author of classic texts of pathology, surgery, and history, an educator, a leader, a surgical researcher, and a pioneer surgeon practitioner. His influence in national affairs was immense, and his recognition as a respected surgeon was unmatched. He remains the most distinguished surgeon of his times. History values him as a hard working, honest, highly competent, and committed individual. His capacity for work and his dedication to a single cause were unrivaled. Doctor Gross integrated the best that surgery could give to future generations of surgical professionals.

  15. Attitudes of Healthcare Students on Gross Anatomy Laboratory Sessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashiro, Yukiko; Anahara, Reiko; Kohno, Toshihiko; Mori, Chisato; Matsuno, Yoshiharu

    2009-01-01

    At Chiba University, gross anatomy laboratory sessions ("laboratories") are required for physical therapy students. Though most physical therapy schools require their students to participate in laboratories so that they will better understand the structure of the human body, few data exist on the value of these laboratories specifically…

  16. Uniqueness of Meromorphic Functions and Question of Gross

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仪洪勋

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, we deal with the problem of uniqueness of meromorphic functions. It is shown that there exist two finite sets Sj (j=1, 2) such that any two nonconstant meromorphic functions f and g satisfying Ef(Sj)=Eg(Sj) for j = 1,2 must be identical, which answers a question posed by Gross.

  17. Interlimb Coordination: An Important Facet of Gross-Motor Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobbio, Tatiana; Gabbard, Carl; Cacola, Priscila

    2009-01-01

    Motor development attains landmark significance during early childhood. Although early childhood educators may be familiar with the gross-motor skill category, the subcategory of interlimb coordination needs greater attention than it typically receives from teachers of young children. Interlimb coordination primarily involves movements requiring…

  18. Barn music at St Donat's castle / Philip Gross

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Gross, Philip, 1952-

    2011-01-01

    Muusikafestivalist "Vale of Glamorgan", mis oli 2010. a. pühendatud Arvo Pärdile. Eesti kammermuusikaansambli Resonabilis kavas oli ka festivali tellimusel valminud uelsi helilooja Gareth Peredur Churchilli "Vocable", mille teksti kirjutas Philip Gross. Festivalikontsertide muljeid leiab Grossi luuletsüklis "Barn music" (avaldatud samas ajakirjanumbris, lk. 42-43)

  19. 75 FR 15610 - Exclusions From Gross Income of Foreign Corporations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 Exclusions From Gross Income of Foreign Corporations CFR Correction In Title 26 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 1 (Sec. Sec. 1.851 to 1.907), revised as...

  20. Gross Motor Development, Movement Abnormalities, and Early Identification of Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozonoff, Sally; Young, Gregory S.; Goldring, Stacy; Greiss-Hess, Laura; Herrera, Adriana M.; Steele, Joel; Macari, Suzanne; Hepburn, Susan; Rogers, Sally J.

    2008-01-01

    Gross motor development (supine, prone, rolling, sitting, crawling, walking) and movement abnormalities were examined in the home videos of infants later diagnosed with autism (regression and no regression subgroups), developmental delays (DD), or typical development. Group differences in maturity were found for walking, prone, and supine, with…

  1. Outcomes of a Rotational Dissection System in Gross Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshak, David W.; Oakes, Joanne; Hsieh, Pei-Hsuan; Chuang, Alice Z.; Cleary, Leonard J.

    2015-01-01

    At the University of Texas Houston Medical School, a rotational dissection system was introduced to improve coordination between the Gross Anatomy and the Introduction to Clinical Medicine (ICM) courses. Six students were assigned to each cadaver and divided into two teams. For each laboratory, one team was assigned to dissect and the other to…

  2. Strategic Improvements for Gross Anatomy Web-Based Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Marker

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Current generations of graduate students have been immersed in technology from their early school years and have high expectations regarding digital resources. To better meet the expectations of Gross Anatomy students at our institution, electronic radiology teaching files for first-year coursework were organized into a web site. The web site was custom designed to provide material that directly correlated to the Gross Anatomy dissection and lectures. Quick links provided sets of images grouped by anatomic location. Additionally, Lab and Study Companions provided specific material for the students to review prior to and after lectures and gross dissections. Student opinions of this education resource were compared to student opinions of the prior year’s digital teaching files. The new content was ranked as more user friendly (3.1 points versus 2.3 points and more useful for learning anatomy (3.3 points versus 2.6 points. Many students reported that using the web portal was critical in helping them to better understand relationships of anatomical structures. These findings suggest that a well-organized web portal can provide a user-friendly, valuable educational resource for medical students who are studying Gross Anatomy.

  3. The Puzzle of Rice Domestication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Sang; Song Ge

    2007-01-01

    The origin of cultivated rice has puzzled plant biologists for decades. This is due, at least in part, to the complex evolutionary dynamics in rice cultivars and wild progenitors, particularly rapid adaptive differentiation and continuous gene flow within and between cultivated and wild rice. The long-standing controversy over single versus multiple and annual versus perennial origins of cultivated rice has been brought into shaper focus with the rapid accumulation of genetic and phylogenetic data. Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed ancient genomic differentiation between rice cultivars, suggesting that they were domesticated from divergent wild populations. However, the recently cloned domestication gene sh4, responsible for the reduction of grain shattering from wild to cultivated rice, seems to have originated only once. Herein, we propose two models to reconcile apparently conflicting evidence regarding rice domestication. The snow-balling model considers a single origin of cultivated rice. In this model, a core of critical domestication alleles was fixed in the founding cultivar and then acted to increase the genetic diversity of cultivars through hybridization with wild populations. The combination model considers multiple origins of cultivated rice. In this model, initial cultivars were domesticated from divergent wild populations and fixed different sets of domestication alleles. Subsequent crosses among these semi-domesticated cultivars resulted in the fixation of a similar set of critical domestication alleles in the contemporary cultivars. In both models, introgression has played an important role in rice domestication. Recent and future introgression of beneficial genes from the wild gene pool through conventional and molecular breeding programs can be viewed as the continuation of domestication.

  4. Vast Portfolio Selection with Gross-exposure Constraints*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jianqing; Zhang, Jingjin; Yu, Ke

    2012-01-01

    We introduce the large portfolio selection using gross-exposure constraints. We show that with gross-exposure constraint the empirically selected optimal portfolios based on estimated covariance matrices have similar performance to the theoretical optimal ones and there is no error accumulation effect from estimation of vast covariance matrices. This gives theoretical justification to the empirical results in Jagannathan and Ma (2003). We also show that the no-short-sale portfolio can be improved by allowing some short positions. The applications to portfolio selection, tracking, and improvements are also addressed. The utility of our new approach is illustrated by simulation and empirical studies on the 100 Fama-French industrial portfolios and the 600 stocks randomly selected from Russell 3000. PMID:23293404

  5. Vast Portfolio Selection with Gross-exposure Constraints().

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jianqing; Zhang, Jingjin; Yu, Ke

    2012-01-01

    We introduce the large portfolio selection using gross-exposure constraints. We show that with gross-exposure constraint the empirically selected optimal portfolios based on estimated covariance matrices have similar performance to the theoretical optimal ones and there is no error accumulation effect from estimation of vast covariance matrices. This gives theoretical justification to the empirical results in Jagannathan and Ma (2003). We also show that the no-short-sale portfolio can be improved by allowing some short positions. The applications to portfolio selection, tracking, and improvements are also addressed. The utility of our new approach is illustrated by simulation and empirical studies on the 100 Fama-French industrial portfolios and the 600 stocks randomly selected from Russell 3000.

  6. Gross-Pitaevski map as a chaotic dynamical system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarneri, Italo

    2017-03-01

    The Gross-Pitaevski map is a discrete time, split-operator version of the Gross-Pitaevski dynamics in the circle, for which exponential instability has been recently reported. Here it is studied as a classical dynamical system in its own right. A systematic analysis of Lyapunov exponents exposes strongly chaotic behavior. Exponential growth of energy is then shown to be a direct consequence of rotational invariance and for stationary solutions the full spectrum of Lyapunov exponents is analytically computed. The present analysis includes the "resonant" case, when the free rotation period is commensurate to 2 π , and the map has countably many constants of the motion. Except for lowest-order resonances, this case exhibits an integrable-chaotic transition.

  7. The San Andreas fault experiment. [gross tectonic plates relative velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D. E.; Vonbun, F. O.

    1973-01-01

    A plan was developed during 1971 to determine gross tectonic plate motions along the San Andreas Fault System in California. Knowledge of the gross motion along the total fault system is an essential component in the construction of realistic deformation models of fault regions. Such mathematical models will be used in the future for studies which will eventually lead to prediction of major earthquakes. The main purpose of the experiment described is the determination of the relative velocity of the North American and the Pacific Plates. This motion being so extremely small, cannot be measured directly but can be deduced from distance measurements between points on opposite sites of the plate boundary taken over a number of years.

  8. PREDICTION OF GROSS FEED EFFICIENCY IN ITALIAN HOLSTEIN FRIESIAN BULLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaella Finocchiaro

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to predict gross feed efficiency of Italian Holstein Friesian bulls selected for production, functional and type traits. A total of 12,238 bulls, from the April 2015 genetic evaluation, were used. Predicted daily gross feed efficiency (pFE was obtained as ratio between milk yield (MY and predicted dry matter intake (pDMI. Phenotypic trend for MY, predicted body weight (pBW and pFE were calculated by the bull birth year. The results suggest that pFE can be successfully selected to increase profitability of dairy cattle using the current milk recording system. Direct measurements on DMI should be considered to confirm results of pFE obtained in the present study.

  9. Economically viable domestic roofwater harvesting

    OpenAIRE

    Martinson, Brett; Thomas, T

    2003-01-01

    The virtues of domestic roofwater harvesting (DRWH) are well known. However against these virtues, whose value varies greatly with location, must be set a weakness of DRWH, namely that it is usually unsuitable as the sole source of domestic water. This is partly because the total resource available to a household (the product of rainfall and the house's roof area) is limited but mainly because storing water in very large cisterns is expensive. At present the capital cost of a DRWH system that...

  10. Quantitative Analysis of Dynamic Behaviours of Rural Areas at Provincial Level Using Public Data of Gross Domestic Product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yi; Zhang, Guangfeng; Li, Yiyang

    2013-01-01

    A spatial approach that incorporates three economic components and one environmental factor has been developed to evaluate the dynamic behaviours of the rural areas at a provincial level. An artificial fish swarm algorithm with variable population size (AFSAVP) is proposed for the spatial problem......, and the results have shown that the modelling method based on GDP data can assess the spatial dynamic behaviours and can be taken as an operational tool for the policy planners....

  11. Labelled drug-related public expenditure in relation to gross domestic product (GDP) in Europe: a luxury good?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Prieto, Luis

    2010-01-01

    "Labelled drug-related public expenditure" is the direct expenditure explicitly labelled as related to illicit drugs by the general government of the state. As part of the reporting exercise corresponding to 2005, the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction\\'s network of national focal points set up in the 27 European Union (EU) Member States, Norway, and the candidates countries to the EU, were requested to identify labelled drug-related public expenditure, at the country level. This was reported by 10 countries categorised according to the functions of government, amounting to a total of EUR 2.17 billion. Overall, the highest proportion of this total came within the government functions of Health (66%), and Public Order and Safety (POS) (20%). By country, the average share of GDP was 0.023% for Health, and 0.013% for POS. However, these shares varied considerably across countries, ranging from 0.00033% in Slovakia, up to 0.053% of GDP in Ireland in the case of Health, and from 0.003% in Portugal, to 0.02% in the UK, in the case of POS; almost a 161-fold difference between the highest and the lowest countries for Health, and a 6-fold difference for POS. Why do Ireland and the UK spend so much in Health and POS, or Slovakia and Portugal so little, in GDP terms? To respond to this question and to make a comprehensive assessment of drug-related public expenditure across countries, this study compared Health and POS spending and GDP in the 10 reporting countries. Results found suggest GDP to be a major determinant of the Health and POS drug-related public expenditures of a country. Labelled drug-related public expenditure showed a positive association with the GDP across the countries considered: r = 0.81 in the case of Health, and r = 0.91 for POS. The percentage change in Health and POS expenditures due to a one percent increase in GDP (the income elasticity of demand) was estimated to be 1.78% and 1.23% respectively. Being highly income elastic, Health and POS expenditures can be considered luxury goods; as a nation becomes wealthier it openly spends proportionately more on drug-related health and public order and safety interventions.

  12. Analisis Pengaruh Perdagangan Internasional dan Utang Luar Negeri Terhadap Gross Domestic Product Indonesia (Periode 1990 – 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ria Yani Fatmawati

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of the study were to determine: (1 the short term effect of export, import, and external debt to the GDP of Indonesia years 1990 -2010, (2 the most dominant variable which affect to GDP of Indonesia years 1990–2010. The present study is explanatory research. The data were collection of the study is secondary data. Besides, the secondary data source of the study is taken from ADB (Asian Development Bank. Meanwhile, the data were collected through documentation. Based on the ECM, it is known that export affects positively and significantly to the GDP either long term or short term, import affects negatively and significantly to the GDP either long term or short term and external debt affect insignificantly to the GDP in a short term yet in a long term it affects negatively and significantly to GDP.

  13. Ecologic Footprints versus Gross Domestic Product: how indicators of societal development appear and operate in public media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Kjerulf

    Public communication about societal concerns and challenges revolve to a large extent around different indicators, the prominence and use of which may reveal the status of social values and discourses, including sustainability values and environmental discourses. This paper presents a study of one...... in different ways by serving as an alarm, assessing policies, prompting appeals etc., but it does not give a strong voice to sustainable development. It is rarely mentioned, and its operations in media texts tend to be vague, it speaks in terms of potentials, appeals and urgings, and it does not connect much...

  14. Spatio-Temporal Features of China’s Urban Fires: An Investigation with Reference to Gross Domestic Product and Humidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenbo Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Frequent fire accidents pose a serious threat to human life and property. The spatio-temporal features of China’s urban fires, and their drivers should be investigated. Based on the Spatio-temporal Dynamic panel data Model (SDM, and using fire data gathered from 337 Chinese cities in 2000 to 2009, the influence of spatio-temporal factors on the frequency of urban fires was analyzed. The results show that (1 the overall fire incidence of China increased annually before 2002 and reduced significantly after 2003, and then high fire incidence increased in western China; (2 Spatio-temporal factors play a significant role in the frequency of Chinese urban fires; specifically, the fire assimilation effect, fire inertia effect and fire caution effect. The ratio of fire incidence of China has reduced significantly, and the focus of fire incidence moved towards the western region of China. GDP and humidity have a significant effect on urban fire situation change in China, and these effects may be referred to as “fire assimilation effects”, “fire inertia effects” and “fire caution effects”.

  15. Labelled drug-related public expenditure in relation to gross domestic product (GDP) in Europe: a luxury good?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, Luis

    2010-05-17

    "Labelled drug-related public expenditure" is the direct expenditure explicitly labelled as related to illicit drugs by the general government of the state. As part of the reporting exercise corresponding to 2005, the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction's network of national focal points set up in the 27 European Union (EU) Member States, Norway, and the candidates countries to the EU, were requested to identify labelled drug-related public expenditure, at the country level. This was reported by 10 countries categorised according to the functions of government, amounting to a total of EUR 2.17 billion. Overall, the highest proportion of this total came within the government functions of Health (66%), and Public Order and Safety (POS) (20%). By country, the average share of GDP was 0.023% for Health, and 0.013% for POS. However, these shares varied considerably across countries, ranging from 0.00033% in Slovakia, up to 0.053% of GDP in Ireland in the case of Health, and from 0.003% in Portugal, to 0.02% in the UK, in the case of POS; almost a 161-fold difference between the highest and the lowest countries for Health, and a 6-fold difference for POS. Why do Ireland and the UK spend so much in Health and POS, or Slovakia and Portugal so little, in GDP terms? To respond to this question and to make a comprehensive assessment of drug-related public expenditure across countries, this study compared Health and POS spending and GDP in the 10 reporting countries. Results found suggest GDP to be a major determinant of the Health and POS drug-related public expenditures of a country. Labelled drug-related public expenditure showed a positive association with the GDP across the countries considered: r = 0.81 in the case of Health, and r = 0.91 for POS. The percentage change in Health and POS expenditures due to a one percent increase in GDP (the income elasticity of demand) was estimated to be 1.78% and 1.23% respectively. Being highly income elastic, Health and POS expenditures can be considered luxury goods; as a nation becomes wealthier it openly spends proportionately more on drug-related health and public order and safety interventions.

  16. Spatio-Temporal Features of China’s Urban Fires: An Investigation with Reference to Gross Domestic Product and Humidity

    OpenAIRE

    Zhenbo Wang; Xiaorui Zhang; Bo Xu

    2015-01-01

    Frequent fire accidents pose a serious threat to human life and property. The spatio-temporal features of China’s urban fires, and their drivers should be investigated. Based on the Spatio-temporal Dynamic panel data Model (SDM), and using fire data gathered from 337 Chinese cities in 2000 to 2009, the influence of spatio-temporal factors on the frequency of urban fires was analyzed. The results show that (1) the overall fire incidence of China increased annually before 2002 and reduced signi...

  17. Gross efficiency and energy expenditure in kayak ergometer exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, B B; Mourão, L; Massart, A; Figueiredo, P; Vilas-Boas, J P; Santos, A M C; Fernandes, R J

    2012-08-01

    We purposed to study energy expenditure, power output and gross efficiency during kayak ergometer exercise in 12 elite sprint kayakers. 6 males (age 24.2±4.8 years, height 180.4±4.8 cm, body mass 79.7±8.5 kg) and 6 females (age 24.3±4.5 years, height 164.5±3.9 cm, body mass 65.4±3.5 kg), performed an incremental intermittent protocol on kayak ergometer with VO2 and blood lactate concentration assessment, a non-linear increase between power output and energy expenditure being observed. Paddling power output, energy expenditure and gross efficiency corresponding to VO2max averaged 199.92±50.41 W, 75.27±6.30 ml.kg - 1.min - 1, and 10.10±1.08%. Male kayakers presented higher VO2max, power output and gross efficiency at the VO2max, and lower heart rate and maximal lactate concentration than females, but no differences were found between genders regarding energy expenditure at VO2max. Aerobic and anaerobic components of energy expenditure evidenced a significant contribution of anaerobic energy sources in sprint kayak performance. Results also suggested the dependence of the gross efficiency on the changes in the amount of the aerobic and anaerobic contributions, at heavy and severe intensities. The inter-individual variance of the relationship between energy expenditure and the corresponding paddling power output revealed a relevant tracking for females (FDγ=0.73±0.06), conversely to the male group (FDγ=0.27±0.08), supporting that some male kayakers are more skilled in some paddling intensities than others.

  18. Constructive Renormalization of 2-dimensional Grosse-Wulkenhaar Model

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Zhituo

    2012-01-01

    In this talk we briefly report the recent work on the construction of the 2-dimensional Grosse-Wulkenhaar model with the method of loop vertex expansion. We treat renormalization with this new tool, adapt Nelson's argument and prove Borel summability of the perturbation series. This is the first non-commutative quantum field theory model to be built in a non-perturbative sense.

  19. Floating Offshore Wind in California: Gross Potential for Jobs and Economic Impacts from Two Future Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speer, Bethany [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Keyser, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tegen, Suzanne [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-04-18

    Construction of the first offshore wind farm in the United States began in 2015, using fixed platform structures that are appropriate for shallow seafloors, like those located off of the East Coast and mid-Atlantic. However, floating platforms, which have yet to be deployed commercially, will likely need to anchor to the deeper seafloor if deployed off of the West Coast. To analyze the employment and economic potential for floating offshore wind along the West Coast, the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) has commissioned the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to analyze two hypothetical, large-scale deployment scenarios for California: 16 GW of offshore wind by 2050 (Scenario A) and 10 GW of offshore wind by 2050 (Scenario B). The results of this analysis can be used to better understand the general scales of economic opportunities that could result from offshore wind development. Results show total state gross domestic product (GDP) impacts of $16.2 billion in Scenario B or $39.7 billion in Scenario A for construction; and $3.5 billion in Scenario B or $7.9 billion in Scenario A for the operations phases.

  20. Gross anatomy of the ringed seal (Pusa hispida) gastro-intestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smodlaka, H; Henry, R W

    2014-06-01

    The gross anatomical structure of the ringed seal (Pusa hispida) gastrointestinal tract is poorly described and often veterinary anatomical terminology is not used. Although the basic abdominal visceral pattern corresponded to domestic carnivores, significant differences were noted. The stomach was an elongated sharply bent tube (u-shaped) with the pylorus and fundus juxtaposed. The elongated jejunum measured up to 15.6 times body length and had 37 jejunal arteries from the cranial mesenteric artery. The pancreas was asymmetrical with a small right lobe and a large left lobe. The unusually short greater omentum negated formation of deep and superficial leaves. The most remarkable difference was the separation of the liver parenchyma into three physically separate masses, held together by hepatic ducts, veins and arteries. The topography and position of the liver was dependent on the amount of blood in the hepatic sinus (distended hepatic veins and hepatic portion of vena cava). Thus, as the hepatic sinus filled, the lateral liver masses separate from the central mass by moving caudolaterally. This was facilitated by modified coronary and triangular ligaments which did not attach directly to the liver, but instead to the hepatic sinus. These anatomical adaptations are apparently advantageous to ringed seal's survival in a deep marine environment. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Mutualism breakdown in breadfruit domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Xiaoke; Koch, Alexander M; Jones, A Maxwell P; Ragone, Diane; Murch, Susan; Hart, Miranda M

    2012-03-22

    During the process of plant domestication, below-ground communities are rarely considered. Some studies have attempted to understand the changes in root symbionts owing to domestication, but little is known about how it influences mycorrhizal response in domesticated crops. We hypothesized that selection for above-ground traits may also result in decreased mycorrhizal abundance in roots. Breadfruit (Artocarpus sp.) has a long domestication history, with a strong geographical movement of cultivars from west to east across the Melanesian and Polynesian islands. Our results clearly show a decrease in arbuscular mycorrhizas (AMs) along a domestication gradient from wild to recently derived cultivars. We showed that the vesicular and arbuscular colonization rate decreased significantly in more recently derived breadfruit cultivars. In addition, molecular analyses of breadfruit roots indicated that AM fungal species richness also responded along the domestication gradient. These results suggest that human-driven selection for plant cultivars can have unintended effects on below-ground mutualists, with potential impacts on the stress tolerance of crops and long-term food security.

  2. Mutualism breakdown in breadfruit domestication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Xiaoke; Koch, Alexander M.; Jones, A. Maxwell P.; Ragone, Diane; Murch, Susan; Hart, Miranda M.

    2012-01-01

    During the process of plant domestication, below-ground communities are rarely considered. Some studies have attempted to understand the changes in root symbionts owing to domestication, but little is known about how it influences mycorrhizal response in domesticated crops. We hypothesized that selection for above-ground traits may also result in decreased mycorrhizal abundance in roots. Breadfruit (Artocarpus sp.) has a long domestication history, with a strong geographical movement of cultivars from west to east across the Melanesian and Polynesian islands. Our results clearly show a decrease in arbuscular mycorrhizas (AMs) along a domestication gradient from wild to recently derived cultivars. We showed that the vesicular and arbuscular colonization rate decreased significantly in more recently derived breadfruit cultivars. In addition, molecular analyses of breadfruit roots indicated that AM fungal species richness also responded along the domestication gradient. These results suggest that human-driven selection for plant cultivars can have unintended effects on below-ground mutualists, with potential impacts on the stress tolerance of crops and long-term food security. PMID:21920983

  3. A Factor Analytic Model of Economic Growth Basing on Domestic and Foreign Resource and a Positive Study of Korean Economy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍青生; 蔡来兴; 李湛

    2001-01-01

    The most popular and traditional method to analyze the source of economic growth is created by Robert. M.Solow, but it has some localizations and is not very precise in some sense. In this paper, we will classify all sources of economic growth into domestic part and foreign part. Gross domestic products (GDP) growth is decomposed into labor input, domestic capital formation, imported foreign capital formation, and total factor productivity (TFP) growth. TFP growth is again divided into scale economies, capital utilization, human capital, domestic research and development (R&D)effort, and imported foreign technology. In this way,foreign resources include imported foreign capital formation and foreign technology. By model and demonstration, we analyze the impact of foreign resource to an economy, and the contribution of each factor (especially technological progress) to economic growth.

  4. The Application of Domestication in Cultural Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏洁

    2015-01-01

    Domestication does have its reason for existence in the field of translation. It is indispensable to cultural transmission. Domestication is the further extension of free translation. It helps the target language reader gain a better understanding of the source language. The lack of domestication will disillusion of our hope of attaining cultural transmission. In translation history domestication plays a positive role.

  5. Landscape History of Grosses Moos, NW Swiss Alpine Foreland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joanna Heer, Aleksandra; Adamiec, Grzegorz; Veit, Heinz; May, Jan-Hendrik; Novenko, Elena; Hajdas, Irka

    2017-04-01

    The western Swiss Plateau with Lake Neuchâtel is part of the alpine foreland and among the key areas for the reconstruction of environmental changes since the last postglacial. This study was carried out in a landscape located NE of the lake and called Grosses Moos (The Large Fen) - currently designated the Swiss largest, continuous farming area, after the fen was drained in course of landscape engineering projects performed in Switzerland at the end of the 19th century. The study contributes new results from nine excavations of littoral ridges identified in Grosses Moos, and integrates sedimentology, paleo-environmental analysis and three independent chronological methods. Radiocarbon dating, pollen analysis and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) were applied to the sediments. While pollen and radiocarbon follow the standard procedures, the evaluation of the luminescence age estimates demanded adjustment according to the physical and microdosimetric properties of the alpine quartz, and consideration of the peculiarities of the changing littoral environments of Grosses Moos. The Grosses Moos landscape developed on the temporary surface of the post-Last Glacial sedimentary infill of the over-deepened glacial Aare valley. In this study the landscape history has been fitted into the existing supraregional time scales of NGRIP, the Swiss bio-zones system and the human history based on archaeological and historic records and covers a time span of up to 15'000 yr b2k. The wide-ranging suite of geomorphic features and sedimentary sequences, including littoral lake sediments, beach ridges, dunes, palaeo-channels, peat and colluvial deposits, enable the extensive reconstruction of spatially and temporally variable natural shaping processes. In addition, our results indicate remobilization of soil, colluvium, and sediment due to human settlement activities since the Neolithic - with an important increase in sediment load and spatial variability since the Bronze Age

  6. Relationship Between Gross Motor Function and Daily Functional Skill in Children With Cerebral Palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Kwon, Tae Gun; Yi, Sook-Hee; Kim, Tae Won; Chang, Hyun Jung; Kwon, Jeong-Yi

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between gross motor function and daily functional skill in children with cerebral palsy (CP) and to explore how this relationship is moderated by the Gross Motor Function Classification System, Bimanual Fine Motor Function (BFMF), neuromotor types, and limb distribution of CP. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 112 children with CP (range, 4 years to 7 years and 7 months) was performed. Gross motor function was assessed with the Gross Motor Function ...

  7. Medicolegal characteristics of domestic violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antović Aleksandra R.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction/Objective. Domestic violence is a phenomenon as old as the history of human civilization, present in all cultures, epochs and social systems. Despite the fact that domestic violence represents a dangerous and unacceptable social phenomenon, as well as a significant medical problem, there are still no precise data on the prevalence of this phenomenon in our country. This study aims to determine the elementary forensic characteristics of domestic violence that would represented the basis for future medical research in this field. Methods. A total of 4,593 records of forensic autopsy (n = 3,120 and clinical forensic medical examinations (n = 1,473 were analyzed in the 1996–2005 period in order to determine the cases of domestic violence. Results. The analysis encompassed 300 cases (6.5% of clinically examined (n = 211; 70.3% and autopsied (n = 89; 29.7% victims of domestic violence. A statistically significant increase in domestic violence cases (χ2 = 12.74; p = 0.00036 was determined in the observed period. The victims were mostly females (78%, with the mean age of 45.8 years (min = 0.3; max = 85; SD = 17.7, married (45%, with personal income (74.4%, and urban residence (66.3%. The majority of abusers were males (89.3%. Intimate partner violence was present in 58.3% of the cases. Physical abuse was the most common form of violence (97.7%, while sexual violence (2.3% and child abuse (4.3% were rarely recorded. Conclusion. The results of this research indicate that forensic medicine can be of great help in designing appropriate standards for conducting clinical medical examination, preventive programs, and strategies in fighting domestic violence.

  8. 26 CFR 1.927(b)-1T - Temporary regulations; Definition of gross receipts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Temporary regulations; Definition of gross...(b)-1T Temporary regulations; Definition of gross receipts. (a) General rule. Under section 927(b.... The FSC's gross receipts for purposes of computing its profit under the administrative pricing...

  9. The relationship between gross motor skills and academic achievement in children with learning disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westendorp, Marieke; Hartman, Esther; Houwen, Suzanne; Smith, Joanne; Visscher, Chris

    2011-01-01

    The present study compared the gross motor skills of 7- to 12-year-old children with learning disabilities (n = 104) with those of age-matched typically developing children (n = 104) using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2. Additionally, the specific relationships between subsets of gross motor

  10. 46 CFR 130.110 - Internal communications on OSVs of less than 100 gross tons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Internal communications on OSVs of less than 100 gross... Internal communications on OSVs of less than 100 gross tons. Each vessel of less than 100 gross tons... have a fixed means of communication between the pilothouse and the place where the auxiliary means...

  11. The relationship between gross motor skills and academic achievement in children with learning disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westendorp, Marieke; Hartman, Esther; Houwen, Suzanne; Smith, Joanne; Visscher, Chris

    2011-01-01

    The present study compared the gross motor skills of 7- to 12-year-old children with learning disabilities (n = 104) with those of age-matched typically developing children (n = 104) using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2. Additionally, the specific relationships between subsets of gross motor

  12. 26 CFR 1.872-1 - Gross income of nonresident alien individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gross income of nonresident alien individuals. 1...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Nonresident Aliens and Foreign Corporations § 1.872-1 Gross income of nonresident alien individuals. (a) In general—(1) Inclusions. The gross income of a nonresident...

  13. 26 CFR 20.2031-1 - Definition of gross estate; valuation of property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., except that if the executor elects the alternate valuation method under section 2032, it is the fair... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definition of gross estate; valuation of... § 20.2031-1 Definition of gross estate; valuation of property. (a) Definition of gross estate. Except...

  14. 26 CFR 1.924(a)-1T - Temporary regulations; definition of foreign trading gross receipts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... trading gross receipts. 1.924(a)-1T Section 1.924(a)-1T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... United States § 1.924(a)-1T Temporary regulations; definition of foreign trading gross receipts. (a) In general. The term “foreign trading gross receipts” means any of the five amounts described in...

  15. Multi-perpetrator domestic violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, Michael

    2014-04-01

    A significant proportion of reports of domestic violence against women involve multiple perpetrators. Although the number of perpetrators has been consistently identified as a measure of abuse severity, only a minority of studies of domestic violence examine the role of multiple offenders. Data on multi-perpetrator domestic violence (MDV) is frequently removed from analysis in domestic violence studies, or multi-perpetrator incidents are treated as single-perpetrator incidents. However, the available research links MDV to negative mental and physical health outcomes, intimate partner homicide, homelessness among women, and severe mental illness and suicidality. This article reviews the available prevalence data on MDV and draws together research on the contexts in which MDV takes place. It highlights two groups that are particularly vulnerable to MDV: (1) girls and women partnered to members of gangs and organized crime groups and (2) girls and women in some ethnic minority communities. While discussions of honor in relation to domestic violence are often racialized in Western media, this article highlights the cross-cultural role of masculine honor in collective violence against women in the working class and impoverished communities of majority cultures as well as in migrant and ethnic minority communities. It is clear that such complex forms of violence present a range of challenges for intervention and treatment and the article emphasizes the need for specialized and coordinated modes of investigation, support, and care.

  16. The response of gross nitrogen mineralization to labile carbon inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtson, Per

    2014-05-01

    Input of labile carbon sources to forest soils commonly result in priming, i.e. an increase in the microbial decomposition of soil organic matter. Efforts aimed at quantifying the extent of priming have, to date, largely focused on soil organic matter decomposition manifested as soil respiration. Less is known about how gross nitrogen mineralization responds to input of labile carbon. It is often assumed that increased priming results in decreased soil carbon stocks. However, microbial mineralization of organic nitrogen into plant available forms is a major factor limiting primary production in forests. If increased decomposition of soil organic matter in response to labile carbon is accompanied by a concurrent increased nitrogen mineralization, this could result in elevated primary production and higher rates of plant derived organic matter input to soils. Therefore, in order to fully understand the effect of priming on net ecosystem exchange and soil carbon stocks, it is vital to consider if increased decomposition of soil organic matter caused by priming also results in increased nitrogen mineralization. Here I present the results from a series of experiments aimed at determining if, and to which extent, gross nitrogen mineralization is stimulated by input of labile carbon. The results suggest that it is by no means uncommon to find an increase in gross N mineralization rates in response to labile carbon inputs. The magnitude of the increase seems dependent on the nitrogen status of the soil, as well as the concentration and rate of labile carbon inputs. However, continuous input of labile carbon sources that also contains nitrogen, e.g. amino acids, seems to inhibit rather than increase the mineralization of organic nitrogen. These findings suggest that there is a potential for a positive feedback between priming and primary production that needs to be considered in order to fully understand the influence of priming on net ecosystem exchange and soil carbon

  17. The Schroedinger functional for Gross-Neveu models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leder, B.

    2007-04-18

    Gross-Neveu type models with a finite number of fermion flavours are studied on a two-dimensional Euclidean space-time lattice. The models are asymptotically free and are invariant under a chiral symmetry. These similarities to QCD make them perfect benchmark systems for fermion actions used in large scale lattice QCD computations. The Schroedinger functional for the Gross-Neveu models is defined for both, Wilson and Ginsparg-Wilson fermions, and shown to be renormalisable in 1-loop lattice perturbation theory. In two dimensions four fermion interactions of the Gross-Neveu models have dimensionless coupling constants. The symmetry properties of the four fermion interaction terms and the relations among them are discussed. For Wilson fermions chiral symmetry is explicitly broken and additional terms must be included in the action. Chiral symmetry is restored up to cut-off effects by tuning the bare mass and one of the couplings. The critical mass and the symmetry restoring coupling are computed to second order in lattice perturbation theory. This result is used in the 1-loop computation of the renormalised couplings and the associated beta-functions. The renormalised couplings are defined in terms of suitable boundary-to-boundary correlation functions. In the computation the known first order coefficients of the beta-functions are reproduced. One of the couplings is found to have a vanishing betafunction. The calculation is repeated for the recently proposed Schroedinger functional with exact chiral symmetry, i.e. Ginsparg-Wilson fermions. The renormalisation pattern is found to be the same as in the Wilson case. Using the regularisation dependent finite part of the renormalised couplings, the ratio of the Lambda-parameters is computed. (orig.)

  18. Verbal priming and taste sensitivity make moral transgressions gross.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herz, Rachel S

    2014-02-01

    The aims of the present study were to assess whether: (a) visceral and moral disgust share a common oral origin (taste); (b) moral transgressions that are also viscerally involving are evaluated accordingly as a function of individual differences in taste sensitivity; (c) verbal priming interacts with taste sensitivity to alter how disgust is experienced in moral transgressions; and (d) whether gender moderates these effects. Standard tests of disgust sensitivity, a questionnaire developed for this research assessing different types of moral transgressions (nonvisceral, implied-visceral, visceral) with the terms "angry" and "grossed-out," and a taste sensitivity test of 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) were administered to 102 participants. Results confirmed past findings that the more sensitive to PROP a participant was the more disgusted they were by visceral, but not moral, disgust elicitors. Importantly, the findings newly revealed that taste sensitivity had no bearing on evaluations of moral transgressions, regardless of their visceral nature, when "angry" was the emotion primed. However, when "grossed-out" was primed for evaluating moral violations, the more intense PROP tasted to a participant the more "grossed-out" they were by all transgressions. Women were generally more disgust sensitive and morally condemning than men, but disgust test, transgression type, and priming scale modulated these effects. The present findings support the proposition that moral and visceral disgust do not share a common oral origin, but show that linguistic priming can transform a moral transgression into a viscerally repulsive event and that susceptibility to this priming varies as a function of an individual's sensitivity to the origins of visceral disgust-bitter taste.

  19. Cohabitation Duration and Transient Domesticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golub, Andrew; Reid, Megan; Strickler, Jennifer; Dunlap, Eloise

    2013-01-01

    Research finds that many impoverished urban Black adults engage in a pattern of partnering and family formation involving a succession of short cohabitations yielding children, a paradigm referred to as transient domesticity. Researchers have identified socioeconomic status, cultural adaptations, and urbanicity as explanations for aspects of this pattern. We used longitudinal data from the 2001 Survey of Income and Program Participation to analyze variation in cohabitation and marriage duration by race/ethnicity, income, and urban residence. Proportional hazards regression indicated that separation risk is greater among couples that are cohabiting, below 200% of the federal poverty line, and Black but is not greater among urban dwellers. This provides empirical demographic evidence to support the emerging theory of transient domesticity and suggests that both socioeconomic status and race explain this pattern. We discuss the implications of these findings for understanding transient domesticity and make recommendations for using the Survey of Income and Program Participation to further study this family formation paradigm.

  20. Complex saddles in the Gross-Witten-Wadia matrix model

    CERN Document Server

    Álvarez, Gabriel; Medina, Elena

    2016-01-01

    We give an exhaustive characterization of the complex saddle point configurations of the Gross-Witten-Wadia matrix model in the large-N limit. In particular, we characterize the cases in which the saddles accumulate in one, two, or three arcs, in terms of the values of the coupling constant and of the fraction of the total unit density that is supported in one of the arcs, and derive an explicit condition for gap closing associated to nonvacuum saddles. By applying the idea of large-N instanton we also give direct analytic derivations of the weak-coupling and strong-coupling instanton actions.

  1. Pathology Gross Photography: The Beginning of Digital Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampy, B Alan; Glassy, Eric F

    2015-06-01

    The underutilized practice of photographing anatomic pathology specimens from surgical pathology and autopsies is an invaluable benefit to patients, clinicians, pathologists, and students. Photographic documentation of clinical specimens is essential for the effective practice of pathology. When considering what specimens to photograph, all grossly evident pathology, absent yet expected pathologic features, and gross-only specimens should be thoroughly documented. Specimen preparation prior to photography includes proper lighting and background, wiping surfaces of blood, removing material such as tubes or bandages, orienting the specimen in a logical fashion, framing the specimen to fill the screen, positioning of probes, and using the right-sized scale.

  2. Four loop renormalization of the Gross-Neveu model

    CERN Document Server

    Gracey, J A; Schroder, Y

    2016-01-01

    We renormalize the SU(N) Gross-Neveu model in the modified minimal subtraction (MSbar) scheme at four loops and determine the beta-function at this order. The theory ceases to be multiplicatively renormalizable when dimensionally regularized due to the generation of evanescent 4-fermi operators. The first of these appears at three loops and we correctly take their effect into account in deriving the renormalization group functions. We use the results to provide estimates of critical exponents relevant to phase transitions in graphene.

  3. Gross shell structure at high spin in heavy nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Deleplanque, M A; Pashkevich, V V; Chu, S Y; Unzhakova, A

    2004-01-01

    Experimental nuclear moments of inertia at high spins along the yrast line have been determined systematically and found to differ from the rigid-body values. The difference is attributed to shell effects and these have been calculated microscopically. The data and quantal calculations are interpreted by means of the semiclassical Periodic Orbit Theory. From this new perspective, features in the moments of inertia as a function of neutron number and spin, as well as their relation to the shell energies can be understood. Gross shell effects persist up to the highest angular momenta observed.

  4. Gross shell structure at high spin in heavy nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deleplanque, Marie-Agnes; Frauendorf, Stefan; Pashkevich, Vitaly V.; Chu, S.Y.; Unzhakova, Anja

    2003-10-07

    Experimental nuclear moments of inertia at high spins along the yrast line have been determined systematically and found to differ from the rigid-body values. The difference is attributed to shell effect and these have been calculated microscopically. The data and quantal calculations are interpreted by means of the semiclassical Periodic Orbit Theory. From this new perspective, features in the moments of inertia as a function of neutron number and spin, as well as their relation to the shell energies can be understood. Gross shell effects persist up to the highest angular momenta observed.

  5. Superheroes and masterminds of plant domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Ainsworth, Natalia E; Tenaillon, Maud I

    2016-01-01

    Domestication is one of the most fundamental changes in the evolution of human societies. The geographical origins of domesticated plants are inferred from archaeology, ecology and genetic data. Scenarios vary among species and include single, diffuse or multiple independent domestications. Cultivated plants present a panel of traits, the "domestication syndrome" that distinguish them from their wild relatives. It encompasses yield-, food usage-, and cultivation-related traits. Most genes underlying those traits are "masterminds" affecting the regulation of gene networks. Phenotypic convergence of domestication traits across species or within species between independently domesticated forms rarely coincides with convergence at the gene level. We review here current data/models that propose a protracted transition model for domestication and investigate the impact of mating system, life cycle and gene flow on the pace of domestication. Finally, we discuss the cost of domestication, pointing to the importance of characterizing adaptive functional variation in wild resources.

  6. Stop Domestic Violence Against Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    IN the beautiful autumn of 1995, women from all over the world gathered at the NGO Forum of the UN Fourth World Conference on Women in Beijing to discuss the ugly topic of "women and violence." An American woman said angrily that domestic violence was "as common as giving birth to babies." She denounced the prevalence of the violent behavior that was hidden in families and called upon the participants to strive for women’s dignity and safety. The participants all recognized that domestic violence had become a global

  7. Domestic connectivity: media, gender and the domestic sphere in Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Jessica

    2017-01-01

    This article explores how increased media access influences Kenyan women’s everyday life and alters the domestic space. The study, which is set in Uasin Gishu County, Kenya, is based on 30 in-depth interviews with women. The article demonstrates that women have incorporated newly attained media i...... their traditional gender roles....

  8. The implications of particle energy and acidic media on gross alpha and gross beta determination using liquid scintillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zapata-Garcia, D. [Laboratori de Radiologia Ambiental (LRA), Departament de Quimica Analitica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques, 1-11 Planta 3, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Llaurado, M., E-mail: montse.llaurado@ub.edu [Laboratori de Radiologia Ambiental (LRA), Departament de Quimica Analitica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques, 1-11 Planta 3, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Rauret, G. [Laboratori de Radiologia Ambiental (LRA), Departament de Quimica Analitica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques, 1-11 Planta 3, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2012-04-15

    The interaction of humans with radioactivity present in the environment from natural and artificial sources necessitates an evaluation of its risk on human health. Gross alpha and gross beta activities can provide a rapid evaluation of the radioactive content of a sample and can be simultaneously determined by using liquid scintillation counters. However, calibration of the liquid scintillation counter is required and is affected by many factors, such as particle energy and the acidity of the media. This study investigates what effect the particle energy used for calibration has on misclassification and how to account for this misclassification in routine measurements. The variability in measurement produced by the final pH, as well as any acids used in sample treatment, was also studied. These results showed that the most commonly used acid for these types of analyses, HNO{sub 3}, produced a high amount of misclassifications at very low pH. The results improved when HCl was used to adjust the sample to low pH. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We study the effect of alpha and beta energies on PSA optimisation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The optimum PSA shifts to higher values as the alpha energy increases. Beta energies do not affect it. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We study the effect of pH on the simultaneous determination of gross alpha/beta activities. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HNO{sub 3} produces a high amount of misclassification at very low pH. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The results improve when HCl is used to adjust the sample to low pH.

  9. Domestic Violence. Technical Assistance Packet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Join Together, Boston, MA.

    Substance abuse has long been recognized as a precipitating factor in many domestic violence incidents. The main type of substance abuse is alcohol usage. Forty-six percent of the offenders reported being dependent on or abusing alcohol, while another 28% were found to be dependent on opiates, cocaine, marijuana, or inhalants. Nearly two-fifths of…

  10. International Justice through Domestic Courts:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Yi Shin

    2015-01-01

    of Human Rights immediately followed with an opposing view in the Araguaia case, declaring that the amnesty law lacks effect under the American Convention on Human Rights. Brazilian society now faces an unprecedented challenge: can it expect its domestic courts to implement such international obligations...

  11. Energy optimisation of domestic refrigerators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Arne; Rasmussen, Bjarne D.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the main results of a research project with the objective of reducing the energy consumption of domestic refrigerators by increasing the efficiency of the refrigeration system. The improvement of the system efficiency was to be obtained by:1) Introducing continuous operation...

  12. Premier Wen on Domestic Policies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The Second Session of the 11th National People’s Congress held a press conference at the Great Hall of the People on March 13. Premier Wen Jiabao answered questions from the Chinese and foreign press. Below are highlights of his answers on domestic policies.

  13. Girl domestic workers in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mzungu, M

    1999-03-01

    This article exposes the conditions among children who are forced by their poor families to assume domestic work in households in Kenya. It is an accepted practice for parents to place daughters in households to help with housework and baby-sitting. The Sinaga Women and Child Labor Resource Center in Nairobi finds this exploitative and part of a wider practice that institutionalizes violence against women. The Center was established in 1995 to challenge the practice of child domestic labor. The Center's research reveals that child domestic workers tend to come from large, poor, and rural families or from urban slums. Wages are low or exchanged for shoes, clothes, and food. The hours of work are long. Mistreatment may include sexual molestation by male household members, beatings, verbal abuse, and mistrust. There is little recourse. Complaints from child workers or others outside the household can result in further mistreatment. Action against mistreatment is complicated by the prevailing image of activists as frustrated women with vendettas against men. The Center focuses on rehabilitation, literacy training, marketable skill development, and awareness creation. Counseling includes parents, children, and employers. Public awareness campaigns have resulted in employer referrals of youth workers for training. Other groups are joining the effort to improve conditions for child domestic workers.

  14. Domestic Needs,International Relations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DREW; THOMPSON

    2009-01-01

    Washington listens closely to values and interests of domestic audiences when shaping its policy toward China Longtime Speakerof the House TipO’ Neil once fa-Lmously said, "Allpolitics is local." Whilehe was reflecting on rep-resentative governmentand the nature of elec-tions in America, public

  15. Duck viral enteritis in domestic muscovy ducks in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, S.; Converse, K.A.; Hamir, A.N.; Eckroade, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    Duck viral enteritis (DVE) outbreaks occurred at two different locations in Pennsylvania in 1991 and 1992. In the first outbreak, four ducks died out of a group of 30 domestic ducks; in the second outbreak, 65 ducks died out of a group of 114 domestic ducks, and 15 domestic geese died as well. A variety of species of ducks were present on both premises, but only muscovy ducks (Cairina moschata) died from the disease. On necropsy, gross lesions included hepatomegaly with petechial hemorrhages, petechial hemorrhages in the abdominal fat, petechial hemorrhages on the epicardial surface of the heart, and multifocal to coalescing areas of fibrinonecrotic material over the mucosal surface of the trachea, esophagus, intestine, and cloaca. Histologically, the liver had random multifocal areas of necrosis and eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies in hepatocytes. DVE virus was isolated and identified using muscovy duck embryo fibroblast inoculation and virus neutralization. /// En dos sitios diferentes se presentaron brotes de enteritis viral de los patos en el estados de Pensilvania en los a??os 1991 y 1992. En el primer brote, cuatro de un lote de 30 patos murieron mientras que en el segundo brote murieron 65 patos de un lote de 114 patos y 15 gansos. En ambas localidades exist?-a una variedad de especies de patos, sin embargo, s??lamente los patos almizcleros (Cairina moschata) murieron. A la necropsia, las lesiones macrosc??picas incluyeron hepatomegalia con hemorragias petequiales, hemorragias petequiales en la grasa abdominal y en la superficie del epicardio, y ?!reas multifocales o coalescentes de material fibrinonecr??tico sobre la superficie de la mucosa de la tr?!quea, es??fago, intestino y cloaca. Histol??gicamente, el h?-gado mostraba ?!reas multifocales de necrosis y cuerpos de inclusi??n intranucleares eosinof?-licos en los hepatocitos. El virus de la enteritis viral de los patos fue aislado e identificado usando fibroblasto de embriones de pato almizclero

  16. Rice domestication: histories and mysteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Briana L

    2012-09-01

    Domesticated rice (Oryza sativa) is one of the world's most important food crops, culturally, nutritionally and economically (Khush 1997). Thus, it is no surprise that there is intense curiosity about its genetic and geographical origins, its response to selection under domestication, and the genetic structure of its wild relative, Oryza rufipogon. Studies of Oryza attempting to answer these questions have accompanied each stage of the development of molecular markers, starting with allozymes and continuing to genome sequencing. While many of these studies have been restricted to small sample sizes, in terms of either the number of markers used or the number and distribution of the accessions, costs are now low enough that researchers are including large numbers of molecular markers and accessions. How will these studies relate to previous findings and long-held assumptions about rice domestication and evolution? If the paper in this issue of Molecular Ecology (Huang et al. 2012) is any indication, there will be some considerable surprises in store. In this study, a geographically and genomically thorough sampling of O. rufipogon and O. sativa revealed two genetically distinct groups of wild rice and also indicated that only one of these groups appears to be related to domesticated rice. While this fits well with previous studies indicating that there are genetic subdivisions within O. rufipogon, it stands in contrast to previous findings that the two major varieties of O. sativa (indica and japonica) were domesticated from two (or more) subpopulations of wild rice.

  17. presence of cryptococcus species in domestic chicken

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-05-25

    May 25, 2009 ... Conclusion: Domestic chicken (Gallus gallus) harbor Pathogenic ... diseases from domestic Chickens for example avian ... emerged as the major cause of death in HIV/AIDS .... The mechanism by which the birds' excreta get.

  18. Domestic Hypermedia: Mixed Media in the Home

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbæk, Kaj; Petersen, Marianne Graves

    2004-01-01

    , domestic materials, such as photos, music, messages. become digitized. Based on the analyses we propose a Domestic Hypermedia infrastructure combining spatial, context-aware and physical hypermedia to support collaborative structuring and ambient presentation of materials in homes....

  19. Storytelling and story testing in domestication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerbault, Pascale; Allaby, Robin G; Boivin, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    The domestication of plants and animals marks one of the most significant transitions in human, and indeed global, history. Traditionally, study of the domestication process was the exclusive domain of archaeologists and agricultural scientists; today it is an increasingly multidisciplinary...

  20. Gross Anatomy of Pampas Deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus, Linnaeus 1758) Mouth and Pharynx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, W; Vazquez, N; Ungerfeld, R

    2017-04-01

    The aims of this study were to describe the anatomy of the mouth and pharynx of the pampas deer, and to consider its evolutionary feeding niche according to those characteristics. Gross dissections of the mouth and pharynx were performed in 15 animals, 10 adult females and five young animals under 1 year (three males and two females), all dead by causes unrelated to this anatomical region. The upper lip entered in the constitution of a pigmented nasolabial plane. The masseter muscles weighed 43.8 ± 3.5 g and represented 0.23% of body weight, which corresponds to ruminants of feeders intermediate to grazers and browsers. Parotid glands represented 0.08% of the body weight, characteristic that also categorize the pampas deer as belonging to the intermediate feeding group. The dental formula was the same of the domestic ruminants. The upper incisors and canines were absent, and instead of them, there was a dental pad (Pulvinus dentalis). The upper canine teeth were present only in the deciduous dentition. The existence of a brachydont dentition turns Ozotoceros very vulnerable to continuous use as there is no compensatory teeth growth. The particular anatomy of the mouth and lips of this animal was adapted to a very selective feeding, taking highly nutritious sprouts beyond plant category. In conclusion and in addition to previous studies of anatomy of the digestive organs in this species, pampas deer may be categorized as belonging to the intermediate type of feeding. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. 210Po in Nevada groundwater and its relation to gross alpha radioactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, R.L.

    2011-01-01

    Polonium-210 (210Po) is a highly toxic alpha emitter that is rarely found in groundwater at activities exceeding 1 pCi/L. 210Po activities in 63 domestic and public-supply wells in Lahontan Valley in Churchill County in northern Nevada, United States, ranged from 0.01 ± 0.005 to 178 ± 16 pCi/L with a median activity of 2.88 pCi/L. Wells with high 210Po activities had low dissolved oxygen concentrations (less than 0.1 mg/L) and commonly had pH greater than 9. Lead-210 activities are low and aqueous 210Po is unsupported by 210Pb, indicating that the 210Po is mobilized from aquifer sediments. The only significant contributors to alpha particle activity in Lahontan Valley groundwater are 234/238U, 222Rn, and 210Po. Radon-222 activities were below 1000 pCi/L and were uncorrelated with 210Po activity. The only applicable drinking water standard for 210Po in the United States is the adjusted gross alpha radioactivity (GAR) standard of 15 pCi/L. 210Po was not volatile in a Nevada well, but volatile 210Po has been reported in a Florida well. Additional information on the volatility of 210Po is needed because GAR is an inappropriate method to screen for volatile radionuclides. About 25% of the samples had 210Po activities that exceed the level associated with a lifetime total cancer risk of 1× 10−4 (1.1 pCi/L) without exceeding the GAR standard. In cases where the 72-h GAR exceeds the uranium activity by more than 5 to 10 pCi/L, an analysis to rule out the presence of 210Po may be justified to protect human health even though the maximum contaminant level for adjusted GAR is not exceeded.

  2. Gross Motor Profile and Its Association with Socialization Skills in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusponegoro, Hardiono D; Efar, Pustika; Soedjatmiko; Soebadi, Amanda; Firmansyah, Agus; Chen, Hui-Ju; Hung, Kun-Long

    2016-12-01

    While social impairment is considered to be the core deficit in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a large proportion of these children have poor gross motor ability, and gross motor deficits may influence socialization skills in children with ASD. The objectives of this study were to compare gross motor skills in children with ASD to typically developing children, to describe gross motor problems in children with ASD, and to investigate associations between gross motor and socialization skills in children with ASD. This was a cross-sectional study including 40 ASD children aged from 18 months to 6 years and 40 age-matched typically developing controls. Gross motor and socialization skills were scored using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, 2(nd) edition (Vineland-II). Below average gross motor function was found in eight of 40 (20%) ASD children. The mean gross motor v-scale score in the ASD group was 15.1 [standard deviation (SD) 3.12], significantly lower than in the control group [18.7, SD 2.09, p = 0.0001; 95% confidence intervals (CI) from -4.725 to -2.525]. The differences were most prominent in ball throwing and catching, using stairs, jumping, and bicycling. The ASD children with gross motor impairments had a mean socialization domain score of 66.6 (SD 6.50) compared to 85.7 (SD 10.90) in those without gross motor impairments (p = 0.0001, 95% CI from -25.327 to -12.736). Children with ASD had lower gross motor skills compared to typically developing children. Gross motor impairments were found in 20% of the ASD children, and these children also had lower socialization skills than those without gross motor impairments. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Modelling and forecasting Australian domestic tourism

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we model and forecast Australian domestic tourism demand. We use a regression framework to estimate important economic relationships for domestic tourism demand. We also identify the impact of world events such as the 2000 Sydney Olympics and the 2002 Bali bombings on Australian domestic tourism. To explore the time series nature of the data, we use innovation state space models to forecast the domestic tourism demand. Combining these two frameworks, we build innovation state s...

  4. Optimal Bilinear Control of Gross--Pitaevskii Equations

    KAUST Repository

    Hintermüller, Michael

    2013-01-01

    A mathematical framework for optimal bilinear control of nonlinear Schrödinger equations of Gross--Pitaevskii type arising in the description of Bose--Einstein condensates is presented. The obtained results generalize earlier efforts found in the literature in several aspects. In particular, the cost induced by the physical workload over the control process is taken into account rather than the often used L^2- or H^1-norms for the cost of the control action. Well-posedness of the problem and existence of an optimal control are proved. In addition, the first order optimality system is rigorously derived. Also a numerical solution method is proposed, which is based on a Newton-type iteration, and used to solve several coherent quantum control problems.

  5. Gross National Happiness: Ideology versus practices in Bhutanese Seconday Schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær-Rasmussen, Lone Krogh; Giri, Krishna Prasad

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates practices related to the ideology of infusing Gross National Happiness (GNH) into school curriculum, the effectiveness of the meditation and mind training and the implication of GNH for school environment. It also explores how GNH ambience has been managed and practiced......, the influence of the concept of GNH in school life generally and specifically and the effects on teachers and students of mindfull training in the class, how does it work? The investigation is based on empirical data from eight selected secondary schools spread all over Bhutan. Principals, teachers, students...... and parents were interviewed in 2012/2013 individually and in groups. Further more classroom observations took place. Finally the investigation is based on literature review and readings of documents, which describe and analyse policies, principles, strategies and philosophies related to the implementation...

  6. Measurement and Quantification of Gross Human Shoulder Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy T. Newkirk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The shoulder girdle plays an important role in the large pointing workspace that humans enjoy. The goal of this work was to characterize the human shoulder girdle motion in relation to the arm. The overall motion of the human shoulder girdle was characterized based on motion studies completed on test subjects during voluntary (natural/unforced motion. The collected data from the experiments were used to develop surface fit equations that represent the position and orientation of the glenohumeral joint for a given humeral pointing direction. These equations completely quantify gross human shoulder girdle motion relative to the humerus. The equations are presented along with goodness-of-fit results that indicate the equations well approximate the motion of the human glenohumeral joint. This is the first time the motion has been quantified for the entire workspace, and the equations provide a reference against which to compare future work.

  7. Specific features of measuring the ecologically adjusted gross regional product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douginets Ganna V.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article formulates a necessity of deepening and improvement of ecological and economic indicators and considers the existing indices and indicators of sustainable development. It conducts a comparative analysis of existing norms of calculation of the ecological tax and fees for environmental pollution. It marks main problems of nature management in Ukraine and their consequences, namely, negative impact on health of the population. It offers methods of measurement of the ecologically adjusted gross regional product (EGRP on the basis of improvement of the cost method. It analyses dependence of the regional welfare on the state of environment with the help of measuring the EGRP of Ukrainian regions. It studies the pressure on Ukrainian regions by components: pollution of aquatic environment, atmospheric air, land resources and rates of waste formation. It conducts grouping of regions by EGRP per capita with specification of positive and negative dynamics of the indicator.

  8. Stimulation of gross dimethylsulfide (DMS) production by solar radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galí, Martí; Saló, Violeta; Almeda, Rodrigo; Calbet, Albert; Simó, Rafel

    2011-08-01

    Oceanic gross DMS production (GP) exerts a fundamental control on the concentration and the sea-air flux of this climatically-active trace gas. However, it is a poorly constrained process, owing to the complexity of the microbial food web processes involved and their interplay with physical forcing, particularly with solar radiation. The “inhibitor method”, using dimethyldisulfide (DMDS) or other compounds to inhibit bacterial DMS consumption, has been frequently used to determine GP in dark incubations. In the work presented here, DMDS addition was optimized for its use in light incubations. By comparing simultaneous dark and light measurements of GP in meso- to ultraoligotrophic waters, we found a significant enhancement of GP in natural sunlight in 7 out of 10 experiments. Such stimulation, which was generally between 30 and 80% on a daily basis, occurred throughout contrasting microbial communities and oceanographic settings.

  9. Full Phase Diagram of the Massive Gross-Neveu Model

    CERN Document Server

    Schnetz, O; Urlichs, K; Schnetz, Oliver; Thies, Michael; Urlichs, Konrad

    2006-01-01

    The massive Gross-Neveu model is solved in the large N limit at finite temperature and chemical potential. The scalar potential is given in terms of Jacobi elliptic functions. It contains three parameters which are determined by transcendental equations. Self-consistency of the scalar potential is proved. The phase diagram for non-zero bare quark mass is found to contain a kink-antikink crystal phase as well as a massive fermion gas phase featuring a cross-over from light to heavy effective fermion mass. For zero bare quark mass we recover the three known phases kink-antikink crystal, massless fermion gas, and massive fermion gas. All phase transitions are shown to be of second order. Equations for the phase boundaries are given and solved numerically. Implications on condensed matter physics are indicated where our results generalize the bipolaron lattice in non-degenerate conducting polymers to finite temperature.

  10. A pipeline strategy for grain crop domestication

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent decades, in the interest of diversifying the global food system, improving human nutrition, or making agriculture more sustainable, there have been many proposals for domesticating or completing the domestication of wild plants or semi-domesticated “orphan” crops. However, very few new cro...

  11. Risk factors for domestic violence in Curacao

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, van N.Ph.L.; Bruijn, de J.G.M.

    2012-01-01

    One out of three people (25% of men, 38% of women) in Curacao have experienced some form of domestic violence at some point in their adult lives. The most significant risk factors for domestic violence in Curacao are the female gender, a young age, low education, and experiencing domestic violence v

  12. 25 CFR 11.454 - Domestic violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Domestic violence. 11.454 Section 11.454 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.454 Domestic violence. (a) A person who commits domestic violence...

  13. Single Epoch GPS Deformation Signals Extraction and Gross Error Detection Technique Based on Wavelet Transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jian; GAO Jingxiang; XU Changhui

    2006-01-01

    Wavelet theory is efficient as an adequate tool for analyzing single epoch GPS deformation signal. Wavelet analysis technique on gross error detection and recovery is advanced. Criteria of wavelet function choosing and Mallat decomposition levels decision are discussed. An effective deformation signal extracting method is proposed, that is wavelet noise reduction technique considering gross error recovery, which combines wavelet multi-resolution gross error detection results. Time position recognizing of gross errors and their repairing performance are realized. In the experiment, compactly supported orthogonal wavelet with short support block is more efficient than the longer one when discerning gross errors, which can obtain more finely analyses. And the shape of discerned gross error of short support wavelet is simpler than that of the longer one. Meanwhile, the time scale is easier to identify.

  14. Genetic testing in domestic cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Leslie A

    2012-12-01

    Varieties of genetic tests are currently available for the domestic cat that support veterinary health care, breed management, species identification, and forensic investigations. Approximately thirty-five genes contain over fifty mutations that cause feline health problems or alterations in the cat's appearance. Specific genes, such as sweet and drug receptors, have been knocked-out of Felidae during evolution and can be used along with mtDNA markers for species identification. Both STR and SNP panels differentiate cat race, breed, and individual identity, as well as gender-specific markers to determine sex of an individual. Cat genetic tests are common offerings for commercial laboratories, allowing both the veterinary clinician and the private owner to obtain DNA test results. This article will review the genetic tests for the domestic cat, and their various applications in different fields of science. Highlighted are genetic tests specific to the individual cat, which are a part of the cat's genome.

  15. Abused domestic workers in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenum, Helle

    This study analyses au pair arrangements in six EU Member States (Denmark, Germany, Ireland, the Netherlands, Poland and Spain) through descriptions of national and international legal frameworks and practices of au pairing. The findings show different patterns of au pair migration and different ...... situations of au pairing as well as different strategies to protect the au pairs. The overall recommendation is to separate current au pair immigration into two programmes: one of cultural exchange and one of domestic and care work....

  16. State Support of Domestic Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amy Wright

    2007-12-30

    This project was developed in response to a cooperative agreement offering by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) under the State Support of Domestic Production DE-FC26-04NT15456. The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) performed efforts in support of State programs related to the security, reliability and growth if our nation's domestic production of oil and natural gas. The project objectives were to improve the States ability to monitor the security of oil and gas operations; to maximize the production of domestic oil and natural gas thereby minimizing the threat to national security posed by interruptions in energy imports; to assist States in developing and maintaining high standards of environmental protection; to assist in addressing issues that limit the capacity of the industry; to promote the deployment of the appropriate application of technology for regulatory efficiency; and to inform the public about emerging energy issues.

  17. Artificial cloning of domestic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefer, Carol L

    2015-07-21

    Domestic animals can be cloned using techniques such as embryo splitting and nuclear transfer to produce genetically identical individuals. Although embryo splitting is limited to the production of only a few identical individuals, nuclear transfer of donor nuclei into recipient oocytes, whose own nuclear DNA has been removed, can result in large numbers of identical individuals. Moreover, clones can be produced using donor cells from sterile animals, such as steers and geldings, and, unlike their genetic source, these clones are fertile. In reality, due to low efficiencies and the high costs of cloning domestic species, only a limited number of identical individuals are generally produced, and these clones are primarily used as breed stock. In addition to providing a means of rescuing and propagating valuable genetics, somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) research has contributed knowledge that has led to the direct reprogramming of cells (e.g., to induce pluripotent stem cells) and a better understanding of epigenetic regulation during embryonic development. In this review, I provide a broad overview of the historical development of cloning in domestic animals, of its application to the propagation of livestock and transgenic animal production, and of its scientific promise for advancing basic research.

  18. Effect of physical therapy frequency on gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun-Young

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] This study attempted to investigate the effect of physical therapy frequency based on neurodevelopmental therapy on gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy. [Subjects and Methods] The study sample included 161 children with cerebral palsy who attended a convalescent or rehabilitation center for disabled individuals or a special school for children with physical disabilities in South Korea. Gross Motor Function Measure data were collected according to physical therapy frequency based on neurodevelopmental therapy for a period of 1 year. [Results] The correlation between physical therapy frequency and Gross Motor Function Measure scores for crawling and kneeling, standing, walking, running and jumping, and rolling, and the Gross Motor Function Measure total score was significant. The differences in gross motor function according to physical therapy frequency were significant for crawling, kneeling, standing, and Gross Motor Function Measure total score. The differences in gross motor function according to frequency of physical therapy were significant for standing in Gross Motor Function Classification System Level V. [Conclusion] Intensive physical therapy was more effective for improving gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy. In particular, crawling and kneeling, and standing ability showed greater increases with intensive physical therapy.

  19. Effect of physical therapy frequency on gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun-Young

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study attempted to investigate the effect of physical therapy frequency based on neurodevelopmental therapy on gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy. [Subjects and Methods] The study sample included 161 children with cerebral palsy who attended a convalescent or rehabilitation center for disabled individuals or a special school for children with physical disabilities in South Korea. Gross Motor Function Measure data were collected according to physical therapy frequency based on neurodevelopmental therapy for a period of 1 year. [Results] The correlation between physical therapy frequency and Gross Motor Function Measure scores for crawling and kneeling, standing, walking, running and jumping, and rolling, and the Gross Motor Function Measure total score was significant. The differences in gross motor function according to physical therapy frequency were significant for crawling, kneeling, standing, and Gross Motor Function Measure total score. The differences in gross motor function according to frequency of physical therapy were significant for standing in Gross Motor Function Classification System Level V. [Conclusion] Intensive physical therapy was more effective for improving gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy. In particular, crawling and kneeling, and standing ability showed greater increases with intensive physical therapy. PMID:27390440

  20. Directions for the development of domestic tourism in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Martseniuk

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Each country of the world pays great attention to the development of tourism in the country, since a significant part of revenues comprises the revenues from providing the tourist services. Ukraine faced the problem of a significant reduction in the volume of tourist flows, aging of capital fund, lack of investments for its renovation. Purpose of the article is to develop an optimal control mechanism of tourist flows, justifying the need for the development of inbound and domestic tourism. Methodology. A system analysis of the competitiveness problem of the tourism industry in the area of passenger rail transportations, theoretical principles of economics in the field of domestic tourism efficiency and management of tourist flows are the theoretical and methodological basis of the research. Findings. The authors developed an improved mechanism for managing tourist flows. It differs from the existing one by the expansion of services for tourists in the territory of Ukraine. The development analysis of inbound and domestic tourism, restoration narrow-gauge railways, as well as the creation of special tourist trains were proposed. As a result the following objectives should be achieved: 1 increase in the share of tourism and resorts in the structure of gross domestic product up to the level of developed countries; 2 the number of employees in tourism and resorts equal to the level of developed countries; 3 increase in total number of rooms in hotels and other certified accommodation facilities up to the level of developed countries; 4 creation of the effective system of monitoring the quality of tourist services; 5 creating an investment climate to attract the investments into development of the tourism, engineering, transport and communal infrastructure; 6 improvement of tourists safety, providing effective protection of their rights, legal interests and property. Originality. The author presented the theoretical generalization and new

  1. Assessment outcomes: computerized instruction in a human gross anatomy course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowski, Elaine L

    2002-01-01

    New and traditional educational media were used to study alternative methods of instruction in a human gross anatomy course. Three consecutive entry-level physical therapy (PT) classes (55 students total) participated in this study. No other anatomy course was available to these students during this time. During the first year, all entering PT students (n = 18) completed a traditional cadaver anatomy course. This traditional group attended weekly lectures and dissection laboratories for 15 weeks. During the second year, the next entering class of PT students (n = 17) completed a self-study, computerized noncadaver anatomy course. This self-study group attended an introductory session to receive course objectives and instruction in using the computer package chosen for the study. After the introductory session, this group worked independently for the remainder of their 15-week course. During the third year, the entering class of PT students (n = 20) attended weekly lectures and completed a self-study, computerized non-cadaver laboratory course. This lecture and self-study group attended an introductory session to review course objectives and receive instruction in using the computer package. For the remainder of their 15-week course, this group attended a weekly lecture and worked independently on the computer for the laboratory portion of their course. All groups kept time logs, recording class and study time for each day of the course. The time logs were collected on the last day of each course. Each group's performance in anatomy-based system courses was followed through the remainder of the PT curricula, including clinical rotations, and through the completion of the state board licensure examination. Data were analyzed using a multivariate analysis of variance and a Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance. There was no significant difference in anatomy course class means, class study times, performance throughout the remainder of the PT curricula, and performance

  2. Gross congenital malformation at birth in a government hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Sachdeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A hospital-based cross-sectional study was undertaken to determine proportion of gross congenital malformation (GCMF occurring at intramural births. Rate of GCMF was found to be 16.4/1000 consecutive singleton births (>28 weeks with three leading malformation as anencephaly (44.68%, talipes equinovarus (17.02% and meningomyelocele (10.63%. Higher risk of malformed births were noticed amongst un-booked (2.07% in-comparison to booked (1.01% mothers; women with low level of education (up to 8 years [2.14%] vs. at least 9 years of schooling [0.82%]; gravida status of at least 3 (2.69% followed by 1 (1.43% and 2 (1.0% respectively; pre-term (5.13% vs. term (0.66%; cesarean section (4.36% versus vaginal delivery (0.62%. Mortality was significantly higher among congenitally malformed (17.35% than normal (0.34% newborns. With-in study limitation, emergence of neural tube defect as the single largest category of congenital malformation indicates maternal malnutrition (especially folic acid that needs appropriate attention and management.

  3. Progestogen-related gross and microscopic changes in female Beagles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, L W; Kelly, W A

    1976-01-01

    Long-term studies of megestrol acetate and chlormadinone acetate in 100 female dogs are in progress. Doses of zero, one, 10 and 25 times the expected human dose of megestrol acetate and 25 times the expected human dose of chlormadinone acetate (on a milligram per kilogram body weight basis) are being given daily. During the first 4 years, eight dogs from each of the five groups were killed. The principal gross findings included enlarged uteri with mucoid material in the lumina, mammary development in dogs given middle and high doses of megestrol acetate and chlormadinone acetate, and thickened gallbladder walls in dogs given high doses of each. Histologic evaluation showed inhibition of ovulation for progestogen-treated dogs and suppression of ovarian follicular development with the high doses. Cystic endometrial hyperplasia was slight in the low-dose dogs and moderate to severe in most of the high-dose dogs; a few also had ulcerative endometritis and pyometra. The mammary glands of dogs given the middle and high doses produced lobules, acini, and secretion exceeding natural metestrus. Slight to marked cystic mucinous hyperplasia occurred in the gallbladders of most dogs given the high doses. Tow high-dose megestrol dogs had clinical signs and microscopic pancreatic, renal, and ocular changes indicative of diabetes mellitus.

  4. Stratospheric sulfate geoengineering enhances terrestrial gross primary productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, L.; Robock, A.; Tilmes, S.; Neely, R. R., III

    2015-09-01

    Stratospheric sulfate geoengineering could impact the terrestrial carbon cycle by enhancing the carbon sink. With an 8 Tg yr-1 injection of SO2 to balance a Representative Concentration Pathway 6.0 (RCP6.0) scenario, we conducted climate model simulations with the Community Earth System Model, with the Community Atmospheric Model 4 fully coupled to tropospheric and stratospheric chemistry (CAM4-chem). During the geoengineering period, as compared to RCP6.0, land-averaged downward visible diffuse radiation increased 3.2 W m-2 (11 %). The enhanced diffuse radiation combined with the cooling increased plant photosynthesis by 2.4 %, which could contribute to an additional 3.8 ± 1.1 Gt C yr-1 global gross primary productivity without nutrient limitation. This increase could potentially increase the land carbon sink. Suppressed plant and soil respiration due to the cooling would reduce natural land carbon emission and therefore further enhance the terrestrial carbon sink during the geoengineering period. This beneficial impact of stratospheric sulfate geoengineering would need to be balanced by a large number of potential risks in any future decisions about implementation of geoengineering.

  5. Stratospheric sulfate geoengineering enhances terrestrial gross primary productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Xia

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Stratospheric sulfate geoengineering could impact the terrestrial carbon cycle by enhancing the carbon sink. With an 8 Tg yr−1 injection of SO2 to balance a Representative Concentration Pathway 6.0 (RCP6.0 scenario, we conducted climate model simulations with the Community Earth System Model, with the Community Atmospheric Model 4 fully coupled to tropospheric and stratospheric chemistry (CAM4-chem. During the geoengineering period, as compared to RCP6.0, land-averaged downward visible diffuse radiation increased 3.2 W m−2 (11 %. The enhanced diffuse radiation combined with the cooling increased plant photosynthesis by 2.4 %, which could contribute to an additional 3.8 ± 1.1 Gt C yr−1 global gross primary productivity without nutrient limitation. This increase could potentially increase the land carbon sink. Suppressed plant and soil respiration due to the cooling would reduce natural land carbon emission and therefore further enhance the terrestrial carbon sink during the geoengineering period. This beneficial impact of stratospheric sulfate geoengineering would need to be balanced by a large number of potential risks in any future decisions about implementation of geoengineering.

  6. Horava-Lifshitz-like Gross-Neveu model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, A. M.; Mariz, T.; Martinez, R.; Nascimento, J. R.; Petrov, A. Yu.; Ribeiro, R. F.

    2017-03-01

    We describe a Horava-Lifshitz-like reformulated four-fermion Gross-Neveu model describing the dynamics of two-component spinors in (2 +1 )-dimensional space-time. Within our study, we introduce the Lagrange multiplier, study the gap equation (including the finite temperature case) which turns out to display essentially distinct behaviors for even and odd values of the critical exponent z , and show that the dynamical parity breaking occurs only for the odd z . We demonstrate that for any odd z , there exists a critical temperature at which the dynamical parity breaking disappears. Besides of this, we obtain the effective propagator and show that the resulting effective theory is renormalizable within the framework of the 1/N expansion for all values of z . As one more application of the dynamical parity breaking, we consider coupling of the vector field to the fermions in the case of a simplified spinor-vector coupling and discuss the generation of the Chern-Simons term.

  7. Large historical growth in global terrestrial gross primary production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, J. E.; Berry, J. A.; Seibt, U.; Smith, S. J.; Montzka, S. A.; Launois, T.; Belviso, S.; Bopp, L.; Laine, M.

    2017-04-01

    Growth in terrestrial gross primary production (GPP)—the amount of carbon dioxide that is ‘fixed’ into organic material through the photosynthesis of land plants—may provide a negative feedback for climate change. It remains uncertain, however, to what extent biogeochemical processes can suppress global GPP growth. As a consequence, modelling estimates of terrestrial carbon storage, and of feedbacks between the carbon cycle and climate, remain poorly constrained. Here we present a global, measurement-based estimate of GPP growth during the twentieth century that is based on long-term atmospheric carbonyl sulfide (COS) records, derived from ice-core, firn and ambient air samples. We interpret these records using a model that simulates changes in COS concentration according to changes in its sources and sinks—including a large sink that is related to GPP. We find that the observation-based COS record is most consistent with simulations of climate and the carbon cycle that assume large GPP growth during the twentieth century (31% ± 5% growth; mean ± 95% confidence interval). Although this COS analysis does not directly constrain models of future GPP growth, it does provide a global-scale benchmark for historical carbon-cycle simulations.

  8. Large historical growth in global terrestrial gross primary production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, J. E.; Berry, J. A.; Seibt, U.; Smith, S. J.; Montzka, S. A.; Launois, T.; Belviso, S.; Bopp, L.; Laine, M.

    2017-04-05

    Growth in terrestrial gross primary production (GPP) may provide a feedback for climate change, but there is still strong disagreement on the extent to which biogeochemical processes may suppress this GPP growth at the ecosystem to continental scales. The consequent uncertainty in modeling of future carbon storage by the terrestrial biosphere constitutes one of the largest unknowns in global climate projections for the next century. Here we provide a global, measurement-based estimate of historical GPP growth using long-term atmospheric carbonyl sulfide (COS) records derived from ice core, firn, and ambient air samples. We interpret these records using a model that relates changes in the COS concentration to changes in its sources and sinks, the largest of which is proportional to GPP. The COS history was most consistent with simulations that assume a large historical GPP growth. Carbon-climate models that assume little to no GPP growth predicted trajectories of COS concentration over the anthropogenic era that differ from those observed. Continued COS monitoring may be useful for detecting ongoing changes in GPP while extending the ice core record to glacial cycles could provide further opportunities to evaluate earth system models.

  9. A boy with fever, cough and gross haematuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzi, Giorgio; Maschio, Massimo; Poillucci, Gabriele; Pennesi, Marco; Barbi, Egidio

    2017-08-28

    A 5 year-old boy presented with 2-days of fever and cough. On examination, he had mild dyspnoea and chest pain, with crackles and hypoventilation at the right lung base. Blood tests showed: WBC 39.1×10(9)/L; N 28.9×10(9)/L; Hb 11.3gr/dL; PLT 375×10(9)/L; CRP 28.7mg/dL; ESR 41mm/h. Chest x-ray confirmed a pulmonary consolidation in the right lower lobe (figure 1), with an associated pleural effusion. Bacterial pneumonia was diagnosed and intravenous ceftriaxone 100mg/kg/die was started. The following day, he developed palpebral oedema and his urine became tea coloured. His blood pressure was 126/82mmHg (>99th percentile).(1) Serum creatinine rose from 0.45mg/dl to 1.09mg/dl (39.8µmol/L - 93.4µmol/L) and C3 was 9mg/dl (n.r. 90-180mg/dl). Urinalysis revealed gross hematuria and 3+ proteinuria, with microscopicy showing dysmorphic red blood cells with casts. Ultrasounds showed enlarged kidneys with increased echogenicity. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. Peer-Assisted Learning in a Gross Anatomy Dissection Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Eui-Ryoung; Chung, Eun-Kyung; Nam, Kwang-Il

    2015-01-01

    Peer-assisted learning encourages students to participate more actively in the dissection process and promotes thoughtful dissection. We implemented peer-assisted dissection in 2012 and compared its effects on students' self-assessments of learning and their academic achievement with those of faculty-led dissection. All subjects performed dissections after a lecture about upper-limb gross anatomy. Experimental group (n = 134) dissected a cadaver while guided by peer tutors who had prepared for the dissection in advance, and control group (n = 71) dissected a cadaver after the introduction by a faculty via prosection. Self-assessment scores regarding the learning objectives related to upper limbs were significantly higher in experimental group than in control group. Additionally, experimental group received significantly higher academic scores than did control group. The students in peer-assisted learning perceived themselves as having a better understanding of course content and achieved better academic results compared with those who participated in faculty-led dissection. Peer-assisted dissection contributed to self-perception and to the ability to retain and explain anatomical knowledge.

  11. [Major domestication traits in Asian rice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Shu-Jun; Wang, Hong-Ru; Chu, Cheng-Cai

    2012-11-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is an excellent model plant in elucidation of cereal domestication. Loss of seed shattering, weakened dormancy, and changes in plant architecture were thought to be three key events in the rice domestication and creating the high-yield, uniform-germinating, and densely-planting modern rice. Loss of shattering is considered to be the direct morphological evidence for identifying domesticated rice. Two major shattering QTLs, Sh4 and qSH1, have displayed different domestication histories. Weakened seed dormancy is essential for synchronous germination in agricultural production. Genes Sdr4, qSD7-1, and qSD12 impose a global and complementary adaptation strategies in controlling seed dormancy. The prostate growth habit of wild rice is an adaptation to disturbed habitats, while the erect growth habit of rice cultivars meet the needs of compact planting, and such a plant architecture is mainly controlled by PROG1. The outcrossing habit of wild rice promotes propagation of domestication genes among different populations, while the self-pollinating habit of cultivated rice facilitates fixation of domestication genes. Currently, the researches on rice domestication mainly focus on individual genes or multiple neutral markers, and much less attention has been paid to the evolution of network controlling domestication traits. With the progress in functional genomics research, the molecular mechanism of domestication traits is emerging. Rice domestication researches based on network will be more comprehensive and better reflect rice domestica-tion process. Here, we reviewed most progresses in molecular mechanisms of rice domestication traits, in order to provide the new insights for rice domestication and molecular breeding.

  12. [Atopic dermatitis and domestic animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, M

    2000-09-01

    Several arguments are raised attributing to aeroallergens an important role in atopic dermatitis. The aeroallergens that penetrate the epidermis could be fixed by IgE on the Langerhans cells and then induce a cellular mediator reaction comparable to that of allergic contact eczema. Patch tests have been developed to evaluate the role of aeroallergens (dust mites, animal dander, etc.). Preventive anti-dust mites measures in the home of atopic patients are recommended. Eviction of domestic animals (cat, dog, etc.) or avoidance measures for animal dander in the home can produce improvement in atopic dermatitis. Oral specific immunotherapy is being validated as a treatment for this disease.

  13. 20 CFR 418.1115 - What are the modified adjusted gross income ranges?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... gross income range amounts by any percentage increase in the Consumer Price Index rounded to the nearest...) of this section. We will use your modified adjusted gross income amount together with your tax filing... from his/her spouse for the entire tax year for the year we use to make our income-related...

  14. Balloon-occluded percutaneous transheptic obliteration of isolated vesical varices causing gross hematuria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Dong Hoon; Kim, Dong Hyun; Kim, Min Seok; Kim, Chul Sung [Department of Urology, College of Medicine, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-01-15

    Gross hematuria secondary to vesical varices is an unusual presentation. We report such a case recurrent gross hematuria in a male patient who had a history of bladder substitution with ileal segments that had been treated by balloon-occluded percutaneous transhepatic obliteration of vesical varices.

  15. De Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM): een onderzoek naar de responsiviteit van de Nederlandse vertaling.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenhof, C.; Ketelaar, M.; Petegem-van Beek, E. van; Vermeer, A.

    2003-01-01

    This article is about the psychometric characteristics of the Dutch translation of the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM). It describes the responsiveness to change. The article "Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM): a reliability study of the Dutch translation" focuses on the reliability of the GMF

  16. De Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM): een onderzoek naar de betrouwbaarheid van de Nederlandse vertaling.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenhof, C.; Ketelaar, M.; Petegem-van Beek, E. van

    2003-01-01

    This article is about the psychometric characteristics of the Dutch translation of the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM). It describes the reliability of the instrument. The article "Gross Motor Function Measure" (GMFM): a validity study of the Dutch translation focusses on the responsiveness of t

  17. Brief Assessment of Motor Function: Content Validity and Reliability of the Upper Extremity Gross Motor Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cintas, Holly Lea; Parks, Rebecca; Don, Sarah; Gerber, Lynn

    2011-01-01

    Content validity and reliability of the Brief Assessment of Motor Function (BAMF) Upper Extremity Gross Motor Scale (UEGMS) were evaluated in this prospective, descriptive study. The UEGMS is one of five BAMF ordinal scales designed for quick documentation of gross, fine, and oral motor skill levels. Designed to be independent of age and…

  18. Fixed Point of Generalized Eventual Cyclic Gross in Fuzzy Norm Spaces for Contractive Mappings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. M. Mohsenialhosseini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We define generalized eventual cyclic gross contractive mapping in fuzzy norm spaces, which is a generalization of the eventual cyclic gross contractions. Also we prove the existence of a fixed point for this type of contractive mapping on fuzzy norm spaces.

  19. 46 CFR 129.315 - Power sources for OSVs of 100 or more gross tons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Power sources for OSVs of 100 or more gross tons. 129.315 Section 129.315 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 129.315 Power sources for OSVs of 100 or more gross tons. (a) The...

  20. Combined climate factors alleviate changes in gross soil nitrogen dynamics in heathlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjorsne, Anna-Karin; Rutting, Tobias; Ambus, Per

    2014-01-01

    of exposure to three climate change factors, i.e. warming, elevated CO2 (eCO(2)) and summer drought, applied both in isolation and in combination. By conducting laboratory N-15 tracing experiments we show that warming increased both gross N mineralization and nitrification rates. In contrast, gross...

  1. 26 CFR 1.1332-1 - Inclusion in gross income of war loss recoveries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Inclusion in gross income of war loss recoveries. 1.1332-1 Section 1.1332-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES War Loss Recoveries § 1.1332-1 Inclusion in gross income of...

  2. Comparison of Gross Anatomy Test Scores Using Traditional Specimens vs. Quicktime Virtual Reality Animated Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maza, Paul Sadiri

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, technological advances such as computers have been employed in teaching gross anatomy at all levels of education, even in professional schools such as medical and veterinary medical colleges. Benefits of computer based instructional tools for gross anatomy include the convenience of not having to physically view or dissect a…

  3. The Effects of Basketball Basic Skills Training on Gross Motor Skills Development of Female Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayazit, Betul

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of basketball basic skills training on gross motor skills development of female children in Turkey. For that purpose, 40 female children took part in the study voluntarily. Basketball basic skills test was used to improve the gross motor skills of the female children in the study. Also,…

  4. The Effects of Basketball Basic Skills Training on Gross Motor Skills Development of Female Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayazit, Betul

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of basketball basic skills training on gross motor skills development of female children in Turkey. For that purpose, 40 female children took part in the study voluntarily. Basketball basic skills test was used to improve the gross motor skills of the female children in the study. Also,…

  5. 25 CFR 215.21 - Payment of gross production tax on lead and zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Payment of gross production tax on lead and zinc. 215.21... ZINC MINING OPERATIONS AND LEASES, QUAPAW AGENCY § 215.21 Payment of gross production tax on lead and zinc. The superintendent of the Quapaw Indian Agency is hereby authorized and directed to pay at...

  6. 26 CFR 1.61-3 - Gross income derived from business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gross income derived from business. 1.61-3 Section 1.61-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME... Taxable Income § 1.61-3 Gross income derived from business. (a) In general. In a...

  7. 26 CFR 1.804-3 - Gross investment income of a life insurance company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... law) shall be excluded from the gross investment income of a life insurance company. However, section... company. 1.804-3 Section 1.804-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... insurance company. (a) Gross investment income defined. For purposes of part I, subchapter L, chapter 1 of...

  8. 17 CFR 1.58 - Gross collection of exchange-set margins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gross collection of exchange-set margins. 1.58 Section 1.58 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION GENERAL REGULATIONS UNDER THE COMMODITY EXCHANGE ACT Miscellaneous § 1.58 Gross collection of exchange-set...

  9. Comparison of Gross Anatomy Test Scores Using Traditional Specimens vs. Quicktime Virtual Reality Animated Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maza, Paul Sadiri

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, technological advances such as computers have been employed in teaching gross anatomy at all levels of education, even in professional schools such as medical and veterinary medical colleges. Benefits of computer based instructional tools for gross anatomy include the convenience of not having to physically view or dissect a…

  10. Gross Motor Development of Malaysian Hearing Impaired Male Pre- and Early School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawi, Khairi; Lian, Denise Koh Choon; Abdullah, Rozlina Tan

    2014-01-01

    Acquisition of gross motor skill is a natural developmental process for children. This aspect of human development increases with one's chronological age, irrespective of any developmental conditions. The purpose of this study was to assess the level of gross motor skill development among pre- and early school-aged children with motor disability.…

  11. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Test of Gross Motor Development-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ka Yee Allison; Cheung, Siu Yin

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the underlying structure of the second edition of the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (Ulrich, 2000) as applied to Chinese children. The Test of Gross Motor Development-2 was administered to 626 Hong Kong Chinese children. The outlier test with standard scoring was utilized. After data screening, a total…

  12. Developmental and physical-fitness associations with gross motor coordination problems in Peruvian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Chaves, Raquel Nichele; Bustamante Valdívia, Alcibíades; Nevill, Alan; Freitas, Duarte; Tani, Go; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Maia, José António Ribeiro

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this cross-sectional study were to examine the developmental characteristics (biological maturation and body size) associated with gross motor coordination problems in 5193 Peruvian children (2787 girls) aged 6-14 years from different geographical locations, and to investigate how the probability that children suffer with gross motor coordination problems varies with physical fitness. Children with gross motor coordination problems were more likely to have lower flexibility and explosive strength levels, having adjusted for age, sex, maturation and study site. Older children were more likely to suffer from gross motor coordination problems, as were those with greater body mass index. However, more mature children were less likely to have gross motor coordination problems, although children who live at sea level or at high altitude were more likely to suffer from gross motor coordination problems than children living in the jungle. Our results provide evidence that children and adolescents with lower physical fitness are more likely to have gross motor coordination difficulties. The identification of youths with gross motor coordination problems and providing them with effective intervention programs is an important priority in order to overcome such developmental problems, and help to improve their general health status.

  13. Can Clinical Assessment of Locomotive Body Function Explain Gross Motor Environmental Performance in Cerebral Palsy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz Mengibar, Jose Manuel; Santonja-Medina, Fernando; Sanchez-de-Muniain, Paloma; Canteras-Jordana, Manuel

    2016-03-01

    Gross Motor Function Classification System has discriminative purposes but does not assess short-term therapy goals. Locomotion Stages (LS) classify postural body functions and independent activity components. Assessing the relation between Gross Motor Function Classification System level and Locomotion Stages will make us understand if clinical assessment can explain and predict motor environmental performance in cerebral palsy. A total of 462 children were assessed with both scales. High reliability and strong negative correlation (-0.908) for Gross Motor Function Classification System and Locomotion Stages at any age was found. Sensitivity was 83%, and specificity and positive predictive value were 100% within the same age range. Regression analysis showed detailed probabilities for the realization of the Gross Motor Function Classification System depending on the Locomotion Stages and the age group. Postural body function measure with Locomotion Stages is reliable, sensitive, and specific for gross motor function and able to predict environmental performance.

  14. The effects of training on gross efficiency in cycling: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopker, J; Passfield, L; Coleman, D; Jobson, S; Edwards, L; Carter, H

    2009-12-01

    There has been much debate in the recent scientific literature regarding the possible ability to increase gross efficiency in cycling via training. Using cross-sectional study designs, researchers have demonstrated no significant differences in gross efficiency between trained and untrained cyclists. Reviewing this literature provides evidence to suggest that methodological inadequacies may have played a crucial role in the conclusions drawn from the majority of these studies. We present an overview of these studies and their relative shortcomings and conclude that in well-controlled and rigorously designed studies, training has a positive influence upon gross efficiency. Putative mechanisms for the increase in gross efficiency as a result of training include, muscle fibre type transformation, changes to muscle fibre shortening velocities and changes within the mitochondria. However, the specific mechanisms by which training improves gross efficiency and their impact on cycling performance remain to be determined.

  15. Genetics and consequences of crop domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint-Garcia, Sherry A

    2013-09-01

    Phenotypic variation has been manipulated by humans during crop domestication, which occurred primarily between 3000 and 10000 years ago in the various centers of origin around the world. The process of domestication has profound consequences on crops, where the domesticate has moderately reduced genetic diversity relative to the wild ancestor across the genome, and severely reduced diversity for genes targeted by domestication. The question that remains is whether reduction in genetic diversity has affected crop production today. A case study in maize ( Zea mays ) demonstrates the application of understanding relationships between genetic diversity and phenotypic diversity in the wild ancestor and the domesticate. As an outcrossing species, maize has tremendous genetic variation. The complementary combination of genome-wide association mapping (GWAS) approaches, large HapMap data sets, and germplasm resources is leading to important discoveries of the relationship between genetic diversity and phenotypic variation and the impact of domestication on trait variation.

  16. Toward understanding dog evolutionary and domestication history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galibert, Francis; Quignon, Pascale; Hitte, Christophe; André, Catherine

    2011-03-01

    Dog domestication was probably started very early during the Upper paleolithic period (~35,000 BP), thus well before any other animal or plant domestication. This early process, probably unconscious, is called proto-domestication to distinguish it from the real domestication process that has been dated around 14,000 BC. Genomic DNA analyses have shown recently that domestication started in the Middle East and rapidly expanded into all human populations. Nowadays, the dog population is fragmented in several hundreds of breeds well characterized by their phenotypes that offer a unique spectrum of polymorphism. More recent studies detect genetic signatures that will be useful to highlight breed history as well as the impact of domestication at the DNA level.

  17. Human trafficking in domestic legislature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skakavac Zdravko

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Human trafficking is an occurrence that, even in our time, is present in alarming proportions, in its actuality and consequences. It is a phenomenon with a long history and has been qualified as a serious international problem and is the object of interest for a large number of international subjects. However, the key international document that defines this phenomenon is the Convention against Transnational Organized Crime from Palermo 2000; specifically its Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, especially Women and Children. After its adoption, intensive actions were undertaken to regulate the phenomenon on the level of national legislature. It's done so in the local legislature too. According to the criminal law of the republic of Serbia, besides the concrete law against human trafficking, a number of other crimes are connected to human trafficking. This paper deals with the most important ones. The purpose of this paper is to review the legislature on the phenomenon in the domestic law, then the accordance of incrimination with international standards, as well as to indicate the need for further changes in domestic legislature.

  18. DOMESTIC DEVELOPMENT IN THE LABYRINTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnoldo Oscar, Delgado

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Since its installation in our country, domestic development theory and practice have been object of diverse assimilation that, at times, contributed to dilute an essential feature of those clusters of Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs that founded the domestic interest in 1970’s: the continuous innovation of products and production processes, possible only by the imprint of cultural factors in the establishment of a socio-institutional environment self-regulated to benefit it. The stage begun in 2003 seems to be at a similar risk: in order to reverse the terrible consequences of the previous decade and achieving a growth with an inclusion, now it assimilates into the social economy trying to go beyond mere social welfares and form a socio/productive mesh based on solidarity and cooperation ties. Beyond the legitimacy of the pose, the precariousness of the underlying setting demonstrates a gap that still separates us from the ideal model, requiring from us to agree seriously with the medium and long term state policy to promote the territorial development according to the contemporary society requirements.

  19. Germline modification of domestic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, L; González, R; Dobrinski, I

    2015-01-01

    Genetically-modified domestic animal models are of increasing significance in biomedical research and agriculture. As authentic ES cells derived from domestic animals are not yet available, the prevailing approaches for engineering genetic modifications in those animals are pronuclear microinjection and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT, also known as cloning). Both pronuclear microinjection and SCNT are inefficient, costly, and time-consuming. In animals produced by pronuclear microinjection, the exogenous transgene is usually inserted randomly into the genome, which results in highly variable expression patterns and levels in different founders. Therefore, significant efforts are required to generate and screen multiple founders to obtain animals with optimal transgene expression. For SCNT, specific genetic modifications (both gain-of-function and loss-of-function) can be engineered and carefully selected in the somatic cell nucleus before nuclear transfer. SCNT has been used to generate a variety of genetically modified animals such as goats, pigs, sheep and cattle; however, animals resulting from SCNT frequently suffer from developmental abnormalities associated with incomplete nuclear reprogramming. Other strategies to generate genetically-modified animals rely on the use of the spermatozoon as a natural vector to introduce genetic material into the female gamete. This sperm mediated DNA transfer (SMGT) combined with intracytoplasmatic sperm injection (ICSI) has relatively high efficiency and allows the insertion of large DNA fragments, which, in turn, enhance proper gene expression. An approach currently being developed to complement SCNT for producing genetically modified animals is germ cell transplantation using genetically modified male germline stem cells (GSCs). This approach relies on the ability of GSCs that are genetically modified in vitro to colonize the recipient testis and produce donor derived sperm upon transplantation. As the genetic change

  20. Gross Nitrogen Mineralization in Surface Sediments of the Yangtze Estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xianbiao; Hou, Lijun; Liu, Min; Li, Xiaofei; Yin, Guoyu; Zheng, Yanling; Deng, Fengyu

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen mineralization is a key biogeochemical process transforming organic nitrogen to inorganic nitrogen in estuarine and coastal sediments. Although sedimentary nitrogen mineralization is an important internal driver for aquatic eutrophication, few studies have investigated sedimentary nitrogen mineralization in these environments. Sediment-slurry incubation experiments combined with 15N isotope dilution technique were conducted to quantify the potential rates of nitrogen mineralization in surface sediments of the Yangtze Estuary. The gross nitrogen mineralization (GNM) rates ranged from 0.02 to 5.13 mg N kg(-1) d(-1) in surface sediments of the study area. The GNM rates were generally higher in summer than in winter, and the relative high rates were detected mainly at sites near the north branch and frontal edge of this estuary. The spatial and temporal distributions of GNM rates were observed to depend largely on temperature, salinity, sedimentary organic carbon and nitrogen contents, and extracellular enzyme (urease and L-glutaminase) activities. The total mineralized nitrogen in the sediments of the Yangtze Estuary was estimated to be about 6.17 × 10(5) t N yr(-1), and approximately 37% of it was retained in the estuary. Assuming the retained mineralized nitrogen is totally released from the sediments into the water column, which contributed 12-15% of total dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) sources in this study area. This result indicated that the mineralization process is a significant internal nitrogen source for the overlying water of the Yangtze Estuary, and thus may contribute to the estuarine and coastal eutrophication.

  1. Gross Nitrogen Mineralization in Surface Sediments of the Yangtze Estuary.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianbiao Lin

    Full Text Available Nitrogen mineralization is a key biogeochemical process transforming organic nitrogen to inorganic nitrogen in estuarine and coastal sediments. Although sedimentary nitrogen mineralization is an important internal driver for aquatic eutrophication, few studies have investigated sedimentary nitrogen mineralization in these environments. Sediment-slurry incubation experiments combined with 15N isotope dilution technique were conducted to quantify the potential rates of nitrogen mineralization in surface sediments of the Yangtze Estuary. The gross nitrogen mineralization (GNM rates ranged from 0.02 to 5.13 mg N kg(-1 d(-1 in surface sediments of the study area. The GNM rates were generally higher in summer than in winter, and the relative high rates were detected mainly at sites near the north branch and frontal edge of this estuary. The spatial and temporal distributions of GNM rates were observed to depend largely on temperature, salinity, sedimentary organic carbon and nitrogen contents, and extracellular enzyme (urease and L-glutaminase activities. The total mineralized nitrogen in the sediments of the Yangtze Estuary was estimated to be about 6.17 × 10(5 t N yr(-1, and approximately 37% of it was retained in the estuary. Assuming the retained mineralized nitrogen is totally released from the sediments into the water column, which contributed 12-15% of total dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN sources in this study area. This result indicated that the mineralization process is a significant internal nitrogen source for the overlying water of the Yangtze Estuary, and thus may contribute to the estuarine and coastal eutrophication.

  2. GROSS ANATOMY AND BLOOD SUPPLY OF SMALL INTESTINE IN FOETUSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwer Unisa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM OF STUDY: To develop charts of length and width of small intestine, origin, length and branching pattern of celiac trunk and Superior mesenteric artery. This will help us to know any congenital anomaly in the small intestine, and abnormal origin, length, variation i n the branching pattern. MATERIALS AND METHOD S: The material used for the present study of 100 foetuses of different stages of gestation collected from Government maternity Hospital, Hanamkonda, ChandaKantha Memorial Hospital Warangal and private nursing h omes of Warangal D istrict of Andhra Pradesh within 10 hours of death. The dead foetuses were preserved in the hospital in 10% formalin. The foetuses were embalmed by injecting with 20 cc to 100 cc 10% formalin in to the cranial cavity and trunk depending o n the stage of gestation. Foetuses were dissected to expose small intestine and the blood vessels which supply it systematically in the following manner. OBSERVATIONS: The present study conducted has shown that length, width of small intestine was found to be increasing with foetal age. The length of celiac trunk, the length of superior mesenteric artery was found to increase proportionality with the foetal age. The causes of death in foetuses related to small intestine are intussusceptions intestional malr otation such as ladd’s bands, volvulus, cystic fibrosis, intestional infections and necrotizing enterocolitis. Knowledge related to gross anatomy and blood supply of small intestine is important because of these causes which may lead to death in foetus e s. In the present study no anomalies related to small intestine are found.

  3. Extreme events in gross primary production: a characterization across continents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Zscheischler

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate extremes can affect the functioning of terrestrial ecosystems, for instance via a reduction of the photosynthetic capacity or alterations of respiratory processes. Yet the dominant regional and seasonal effects of hydrometeorological extremes are still not well documented. Here we quantify and characterize the role of large spatiotemporal extreme events in gross primary production (GPP as triggers of continental anomalies. We also investigate seasonal dynamics of extreme impacts on continental GPP anomalies. We find that the 50 largest positive (increase in uptake and negative extremes (decrease in uptake on each continent can explain most of the continental variation in GPP, which is in line with previous results obtained at the global scale. We show that negative extremes are larger than positive ones and demonstrate that this asymmetry is particularly strong in South America and Europe. Most extremes in GPP start in early summer. Our analysis indicates that the overall impacts and the spatial extents of GPP extremes are power law distributed with exponents that vary little across continents. Moreover, we show that on all continents and for all data sets the spatial extents play a more important role than durations or maximal GPP anomaly when it comes to the overall impact of GPP extremes. An analysis of possible causes implies that across continents most extremes in GPP can best be explained by water scarcity rather than by extreme temperatures. However, for Europe, South America and Oceania we identify also fire as an important driver. Our findings are consistent with remote sensing products. An independent validation against a literature survey on specific extreme events supports our results to a large extent.

  4. Gross and Histomorphological Studies of Femoral Head Resurfacing in Dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Sharifi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The foetal skull bone as a biological graft was investigated. This study was conducted on Fifteen adult mixed - breed normal dogs 12 to 24 months with weighing 21.4=3.6 Kg .Dogs were randomly divided into 3 groups of 5 animals each. The foetal skull bone of 45 days old was collected from one pregnant bitch via cesarean method. The right femoral head cartilage was removed completely in all dogs of 3 groups.. Group I acted as control one, whereas in II group, resurfacing was done by using foetal skull bone which was fixed by using 0.8 mm cerclage wire in criss-cross fashion, but in III group, it was done similar to II group and the hip joint additionally was fixed by using 2 mm steinmenn pin.The clinical observations was made accordingly for 60 days in all groups. The gross changes of femoral head in group I & II were quite smooth and slippy, but in III group were uneven and rough due to secondary changes and ankylosis, but on micropscopic interpertation there was a remarkable compatibility of the graft with femoral head.The reconstruction of articular cartilage was faster in group II and even group III animals than group I animals. There was single row of chondrocyte in scatter area of samples in group . The complete and uniform hyaline cartilage in group II and fibro - cartilage and mixture of connective tissues in group III animals were observed. The results indicated that the foetal skull bone due to its pleuripotent calvarium easily can orient itself into the chondrocytes and cartilagenous tissues in articular surface of the hip joint, if there is suitable enviroment before complete ossification,so that normal joint motion could expect.

  5. The nature of selection during plant domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purugganan, Michael D; Fuller, Dorian Q

    2009-02-12

    Plant domestication is an outstanding example of plant-animal co-evolution and is a far richer model for studying evolution than is generally appreciated. There have been numerous studies to identify genes associated with domestication, and archaeological work has provided a clear understanding of the dynamics of human cultivation practices during the Neolithic period. Together, these have provided a better understanding of the selective pressures that accompany crop domestication, and they demonstrate that a synthesis from the twin vantage points of genetics and archaeology can expand our understanding of the nature of evolutionary selection that accompanies domestication.

  6. Mothers, domestic violence, and child protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Heather; Walsh, Tamara

    2010-05-01

    This article explores the relationship between understandings of domestic violence and the child protection response drawing on material gathered in focus groups with workers who support mothers dealing with both domestic violence and child protection issues. The interviewees expressed concern that the dynamics of domestic violence are often misunderstood and inappropriately responded to by child protection workers. This article critically examines the interviewees' concerns and concludes that to properly protect children, it is crucial that child protection workers have a clear understanding of the dynamics of and issues related to domestic violence.

  7. Changed Identities and Unchanged Social Hierarchy-From Domestic Slaves to Domestic Employees

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐小辉

    2013-01-01

    Before emancipation, most balck women worked for the whites as domestic slaves; After emancipation, most balck women, as domestic emloyees, still had to do hard domestic work for survival, though they had a little freedom and property. Balck women’s identities changed literally, but the social hierarchy of whites’supremacy to blacks and men’s supremacy to women still unchanged.

  8. 76 FR 36512 - USDA Increases the Domestic Sugar Overall Allotment Quantity, Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-22

    ... Office of the Secretary USDA Increases the Domestic Sugar Overall Allotment Quantity, Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments, and Increases the Fiscal Year 2011 Raw Sugar Tariff-Rate Quota AGENCY: Office of... in the domestic sugar Overall Allotment Quantity (OAQ); a reassignment of surplus sugar under...

  9. Modeling the Determinats of Domestic Private Investments in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. Ambaye

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the determinants of domestic private investment in Ethiopia using a time series data over the period 1992-2010. The study employed an Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL model and applied the bounds test approach in modeling the long run determinants of domestic private investment. The study found exchange rate, domestic saving and domestic credit as key factors having negative and significant impact on domestic private investment. External debt and government expenditure are found to have significant and positive effect on domestic private investment. The results imply that government expenditure stimulates domestic private investment while domestic credit and domestic saving have a constrained effect on the sector.

  10. Domestic violence in Gulu, Northern Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DELL

    2Lecturer in Department of Paediatrics and child health, faculty of medicine, Gulu ... 5Lecturer in the Department of History, faculty of Education & Humanity, Gulu University ..... of domestic violence among the elderly (>50 years) in this community. It ... times higher risk of recent domestic violence than women whose partners ...

  11. Helping Children Exposed to Domestic Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Families Guide - Search Spanish Facts for Families Guide Domestic Violence and Children No. 109; Updated April 2013 As many as ... get the help they need. When there is domestic violence between partners, there is often child abuse as well. Sometimes children get hurt accidentally. ...

  12. Toxoplasmosis in wild and domestic animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxoplasma gondii is widely distributed in wild and domestic animals. The present chapter reviews toxoplasmosis in wild and domestic animals. Coverage in wild animal species is limited to confirmed cases of toxoplasmosis, cases with parasite isolation, cases with parasite detection by PCR, and exper...

  13. Domestic Violence and Poverty: Some Women's Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slabbert, Ilze

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Domestic violence poses a major challenge to social workers. Low-income families are significantly more likely to have to contend with domestic violence, as poverty can act as a fuelling factor in this type of conflict. The objective of this study was to explore and describe the experiences of low-income abused women. Method: A…

  14. Evolutionary genomics of peach and almond domestication

    Science.gov (United States)

    The domesticated almond [Prunus dulcis (L.) Batsch] and peach [P. persica (Mill.) D. A. Webb] originate on opposite sides of Asia and were independently domesticated approximately 5000 years ago. While interfertile, they possess alternate mating systems and di er in a number of morphological and ph...

  15. Responding to Domestic Violence against Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalans, Loretta J.; Lurigio, Arthur J.

    1995-01-01

    Gives an overview of issues related to domestic violence against women as a social problem: changing responses from the legal system and the community over the course of history, possible causes of domestic violence against women, current perspectives and trends, prevalence, seriousness, and our response as a society. (LKS)

  16. Domestic Violence against Married Women in Edirne

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokuc, Burcu; Ekuklu, Galip; Avcioglu, Serap

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence and risk factors of domestic violence against married women in Edirne, Turkey. This is a cross-sectional study which included a representative sample of the married women living in the Provincial Center of Edirne. The total past year prevalence of some forms of physical domestic violence is 34% in…

  17. Benchmarking set for domestic smart grid management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosman, M.G.C.; Bakker, Vincent; Molderink, Albert; Hurink, Johann L.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we propose a benchmark for domestic smart grid management. It consists of an in-depth description of a domestic smart grid, in which local energy consumers, producers and buffers can be controlled. First, from this description a general benchmark framework is derived, which can be used

  18. Domestic Violence and Poverty: Some Women's Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slabbert, Ilze

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Domestic violence poses a major challenge to social workers. Low-income families are significantly more likely to have to contend with domestic violence, as poverty can act as a fuelling factor in this type of conflict. The objective of this study was to explore and describe the experiences of low-income abused women. Method: A…

  19. WILDLIFE-BASED DOMESTIC TOURISM IN TANZANIA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Osondu

    But domestic tourism in many developing countries is nearly non-existent, with local ... Key words: Domestic tourism, local communities, northern circuit, Tanzania, wildlife ..... on wildlife and conservation issues than their rural .... and books (13.6 %), and TV and Radios (15%). .... Opportunities and Challenges in Agricultural.

  20. Drinking Water Temperature Modelling in Domestic Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moerman, A.; Blokker, M.; Vreeburg, J.; Van der Hoek, J.P.

    2014-01-01

    Domestic water supply systems are the final stage of the transport process to deliver potable water to the customers’ tap. Under the influence of temperature, residence time and pipe materials the drinking water quality can change while the water passes the domestic drinking water system. According

  1. The Effect of Divorce on Domestic Crime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolzenberg, Lisa; D'Alessio, Stewart J.

    2007-01-01

    Social scientists remain unsure as to whether divorce acts to alleviate domestic violence or whether ex-spouses become the targets of the displaced violence. Using data from the National Incident-Based Reporting System and the Census, this study investigates the relationship between the divorce rate and the domestic crime rate. The study…

  2. Empowering Women with Domestic Violence Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anczewska, Marta; Roszczynska-Michta, Joanna; Waszkiewicz, Justyna; Charzynska, Katarzyna; Czabala, Czeslaw

    2012-01-01

    It is generally held that it has been only recently that domestic violence gained appropriate attention as a major social problem. However several approaches, drawn from different theories are applicable in explaining the origin of this negative phenomenon. It is well recognized that trauma of domestic violence has destructive impact on somatic…

  3. Behavior genetics and the domestication of animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Per

    2014-02-01

    Across species, a similar suite of traits tends to develop in response to domestication, including modifications in behavior. Reduced fear and increased stress tolerance were central in early domestication, and many domestication-related behaviors may have developed as traits correlated to reduced fear. Genetic mechanisms involved in domestication of behavior can be investigated by using top-down or bottom-up approaches, either starting from the behavior variation and searching for underlying genes or finding selected loci and then attempting to identify the associated phenotypes. Combinations of these approaches have proven powerful, and examples of results from such studies are presented and discussed. This includes loci associated with tameness in foxes and dogs, as well as loci correlated with reduced aggression and increased sociality in chickens. Finally, some examples are provided on epigenetic mechanisms in behavior, and it is suggested that selection of favorable epigenetic variants may have been an important mechanism in domestication.

  4. A population genetics view of animal domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Greger; Burger, Joachim

    2013-04-01

    The fundamental shift associated with the domestication of plants and animals allowed for a dramatic increase in human population sizes and the emergence of modern society. Despite its importance and the decades of research devoted to studying it, questions regarding the origins and processes of domestication remain. Here, we review recent theoretical advances and present a perspective that underscores the crucial role that population admixture has played in influencing the genomes of domestic animals over the past 10000 years. We then discuss novel approaches to generating and analysing genetic data, emphasising the importance of an explicit hypothesis-testing approach for the inference of the origins and subsequent evolution and demography of domestic animals. By applying next-generation sequencing technology alongside appropriate biostatistical methodologies, a substantially deeper understanding of domestication is on the horizon.

  5. Getting domestication straight: ramosa1 in maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempewolf, Hannes

    2010-04-01

    Knowledge of the identities and characteristics of genes that govern the dramatic phenotypic differences between cultivated plants and their wild ancestors has greatly enhanced our understanding of the domestication process. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Sigmon & Vollbrecht report the discovery of a new maize domestication gene, ramosa1, which encodes a putative transcription factor in the ramosa developmental pathway. Ramosa1 appears to be instrumental in determining the straightness of kernel rows on the maize cob. The key domestication alleles at ramosa1 are prevalent in landraces of maize. These results reinforce findings from previous studies of crop evolution by highlighting the importance of standing genetic variation and changes in transcriptional regulators in domestication. The evolutionary genetics of domestication also provides a framework for predicting the evolutionary response of organisms to strong human-induced selection pressures over limited time intervals.

  6. The Near Eastern origin of cat domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Carlos A; Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn; Roca, Alfred L; Hupe, Karsten; Johnson, Warren E; Geffen, Eli; Harley, Eric H; Delibes, Miguel; Pontier, Dominique; Kitchener, Andrew C; Yamaguchi, Nobuyuki; O'brien, Stephen J; Macdonald, David W

    2007-07-27

    The world's domestic cats carry patterns of sequence variation in their genome that reflect a history of domestication and breed development. A genetic assessment of 979 domestic cats and their wild progenitors-Felis silvestris silvestris (European wildcat), F. s. lybica (Near Eastern wildcat), F. s. ornata (central Asian wildcat), F. s. cafra (southern African wildcat), and F. s. bieti (Chinese desert cat)-indicated that each wild group represents a distinctive subspecies of Felis silvestris. Further analysis revealed that cats were domesticated in the Near East, probably coincident with agricultural village development in the Fertile Crescent. Domestic cats derive from at least five founders from across this region, whose descendants were transported across the world by human assistance.

  7. Domestic violence and child nutrition in Liberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobkoviak, Rudina M; Yount, Kathryn M; Halim, Nafisa

    2012-01-01

    Domestic violence against women is endemic globally and is an important social problem in its own right. A compounding concern is the impact of domestic violence against mothers on the nutritional status of their children. Liberia is an apt setting to examine this understudied topic, given the poor nutritional status of young children, high rate of domestic violence against women, and prolonged period of conflict that included systematic sexual violence against women. We expected that maternal exposure to domestic violence would predict lower anthropometric z-scores and higher odds of stunting, wasting, and underweight in children less than five years. Using data from 2467 mother-child dyads in the 2007 Liberia Demographic and Health Survey (LDHS) undertaken between December 24, 2006 and April 19, 2007, we conducted descriptive and multivariate analyses to examine the total, unadjusted and adjusted associations of maternal exposure to domestic violence with these anthropometric measures in children. Maternal reports of sexual domestic violence in the prior year predicted lower adjusted z-scores for height-for-age and weight-for-height as well as higher odds of stunting and underweight. The findings underscore the needs to (1) enhance and enforce conventional and customary laws to prevent the occurrence of domestic violence; (2) treat maternal survivors of domestic violence and screen their children for nutritional deficits; (3) heighten awareness of the intergenerational implications especially of recent sexual domestic violence; and (4) clarify the biological and behavior pathways by which domestic violence may influence child growth, thereby mitigating early growth failure and its adverse implications into adulthood. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. 5 CFR 890.1112 - Denial of continuation of coverage due to involuntary separation for gross misconduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... involuntary separation for gross misconduct. 890.1112 Section 890.1112 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF... involuntary separation for gross misconduct. (a) Notice of denial. (1) When an employing office determines that the offense for which an employee is being removed constitutes gross misconduct for the purpose...

  9. Effects of land use change on soil gross nitrogen transformation rates in subtropical acid soils of Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yongbo; Xu, Zhihong

    2015-07-01

    Land use change affects soil gross nitrogen (N) transformations, but such information is particularly lacking under subtropical conditions. A study was carried out to investigate the potential gross N transformation rates in forest and agricultural (converted from the forest) soils in subtropical China. The simultaneously occurring gross N transformations in soil were quantified by a (15)N tracing study under aerobic conditions. The results showed that change of land use types substantially altered most gross N transformation rates. The gross ammonification and nitrification rates were significantly higher in the agricultural soils than in the forest soils, while the reverse was true for the gross N immobilization rates. The higher total carbon (C) concentrations and C / N ratio in the forest soils relative to the agricultural soils were related to the greater gross N immobilization rates in the forest soils. The lower gross ammonification combined with negligible gross nitrification rates, but much higher gross N immobilization rates in the forest soils than in the agricultural soils suggest that this may be a mechanism to effectively conserve available mineral N in the forest soils through increasing microbial biomass N, the relatively labile organic N. The greater gross nitrification rates and lower gross N immobilization rates in the agricultural soils suggest that conversion of forests to agricultural soils may exert more negative effects on the environment by N loss through NO3 (-) leaching or denitrification (when conditions for denitrification exist).

  10. Genetic architecture of domestication-related traits in maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong directional selection occurred during the domestication of maize from its wild ancestor teosinte, reducing its genetic diversity, particularly at genes controlling domestication-related traits. Nevertheless, variability for some domestication-related traits is maintained in maize. The genet...

  11. How the World Trade Organisation is shaping domestic policies in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, D; Pollock, A M; Shaoul, J

    1999-11-27

    High up on the agenda of the World Trade Organisation (WTO) is the privatisation of education, health, welfare, social housing and transport. The WTO's aim is to extend the free market in the provision of traditional public services. Governments in Europe and the US link the expansion of trade in public services to economic success, and with the backing of powerful medico-pharmaceutical, insurance, and service corporations, the race is on to capture the share of gross domestic product that governments currently spend on public services. They will open domestic European services and domestic markets to global competition by government procurement agreements, dispute-settlement procedures, and the investment rules of global financial institutions. The UK has already set up the necessary mechanisms: the introduction of private-sector accounting rules to public services; the funding of public-sector investment via private-public partnerships or the private finance initiative; and the change to capitation funding streams, which allows the substitution of private for public funds and services. We explain the implications of these changes for European public-health-care systems and the threat they pose to universal coverage, solidarity through risk-pooling, equity, comprehensive care, and democratic accountability.

  12. Longitudinal Association Between Gross Motor Capacity and Neuromusculoskeletal Function in Children and Youth With Cerebral Palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Rimke C.; Becher, Jules G.; Voorman, Jeanine M.; Gorter, Jan Willem; van Eck, Mirjam; van Meeteren, Jetty; Smits, Dirk Wouter; Twisk, Jos W.; Dallmeijer, Annet J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To examine associations over longitudinal measurements between neuromusculoskeletal function and gross motor capacity in children and youth with cerebral palsy (CP). Design: A prospective cohort study. Setting: Rehabilitation departments of university medical centers and rehabilitations c

  13. Longitudinal Association Between Gross Motor Capacity and Neuromusculoskeletal Function in Children and Youth With Cerebral Palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Rimke C.; Becher, Jules G.; Voorman, Jeanine M.; Gorter, Jan Willem; van Eck, Mirjam; van Meeteren, Jetty; Smits, Dirk Wouter; Twisk, Jos W.; Dallmeijer, Annet J.; van Schie, P. E M; Schuengel, C.; Ketelaar, M.; Lindeman, E.; Jongmans, M.; Roebroeck, M. E.; Tan, S. S.; Wiegerink, D. J H G; Reinders-Messelink, H. A.; Verheijden, J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine associations over longitudinal measurements between neuromusculoskeletal function and gross motor capacity in children and youth with cerebral palsy (CP). Design A prospective cohort study. Setting Rehabilitation departments of university medical centers and rehabilitations cent

  14. The central role of trunk control in the gross motor function of children with cerebral palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Curtis, Derek John; Butler, Penny; Saavedra, Sandy;

    2015-01-01

    Aim Improvement of gross motor function and mobility are primary goals of physical therapy in children with cerebral palsy (CP). The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between segmental control of the trunk and the corresponding gross motor function in children with CP....... Method This retrospective cross-sectional study was based on 92 consecutive referrals of children with CP in Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels I to V, 39 females, 53 males (median age 4y [range 1–14y]), and 77, 12, and 3 with spastic, dyskinetic, and ataxic CP respectively....... The participants were tested using the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM), the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI), and the Segmental Assessment of Trunk Control (SATCo). Results Linear regression analysis showed a positive relationship between the segmental level of trunk control and age...

  15. Longitudinal Association Between Gross Motor Capacity and Neuromusculoskeletal Function in Children and Youth With Cerebral Palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Rimke C.; Becher, Jules G.; Voorman, Jeanine M.; Gorter, Jan Willem; van Eck, Mirjam; van Meeteren, Jetty; Smits, Dirk Wouter; Twisk, Jos W.; Dallmeijer, Annet J.

    Objective: To examine associations over longitudinal measurements between neuromusculoskeletal function and gross motor capacity in children and youth with cerebral palsy (CP). Design: A prospective cohort study. Setting: Rehabilitation departments of university medical centers and rehabilitations

  16. Longitudinal Association Between Gross Motor Capacity and Neuromusculoskeletal Function in Children and Youth With Cerebral Palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Rimke C.; Becher, Jules G.; Voorman, Jeanine M.; Gorter, Jan Willem; van Eck, Mirjam; van Meeteren, Jetty; Smits, Dirk Wouter; Twisk, Jos W.; Dallmeijer, Annet J.; van Schie, P. E M; Schuengel, C.; Ketelaar, M.; Lindeman, E.; Jongmans, M.; Roebroeck, M. E.; Tan, S. S.; Wiegerink, D. J H G; Reinders-Messelink, H. A.; Verheijden, J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine associations over longitudinal measurements between neuromusculoskeletal function and gross motor capacity in children and youth with cerebral palsy (CP). Design A prospective cohort study. Setting Rehabilitation departments of university medical centers and rehabilitations

  17. Envelope Periodic Solutions to One-Dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii Equation in Bose-Einstein Condensation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Shi-Kuo; GAO Bin; FU Zun-Tao; LIU Shi-Da

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, applying the dependent and independent variables transformations as well as the Jacobi elliptic function expansion method, the envelope periodic solutions to one-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation in Bose-Einstein condensates are obtained.

  18. Groundwater quality from private domestic water-supply wells in the vicinity of petroleum production in southwestern Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risch, Martin R.; Silcox, Cheryl A.

    2016-06-02

    The U.S. Geological Survey provided technical support to the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry for site selection and sample collection and analysis in a 2012 investigation of groundwater quality from 29 private domestic water-supply wells in the vicinity of petroleum production in southwestern Indiana. Petroleum hydrocarbons, oil and grease, aromatic volatile organic compounds, methane concentrations greater than 8,800 micrograms per liter, chloride concentrations greater than 250 milligrams per liter, and gross alpha radioactivity greater than 15 picocuries per liter were reported in the analysis of groundwater samples from 11 wells.

  19. Effect of physical therapy frequency on gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Eun-Young

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study attempted to investigate the effect of physical therapy frequency based on neurodevelopmental therapy on gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy. [Subjects and Methods] The study sample included 161 children with cerebral palsy who attended a convalescent or rehabilitation center for disabled individuals or a special school for children with physical disabilities in South Korea. Gross Motor Function Measure data were collected according to physical therapy fr...

  20. Analysis of historical gross gamma logging data from BY tank farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MYERS, D.A.

    1999-10-13

    Gross gamma ray logs, recorded from January 1975 through mid-year 1994 as part of the Single-Shell Tank Farm Dry Well Surveillance Program, have been reanalyzed for the BY tank farm to locate the presence of mobile radionuclides in the subsurface. This report presents the BY tank farm gross gamma ray data in such a way as to assist others in their study of vadose zone mechanisms.

  1. Current usage and future trends in gross digital photography in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Christopher L; DeKoning, Lawrence; Klonowski, Paul; Naugler, Christopher

    2014-01-14

    The purpose of this study was to assess the current usage, utilization and future direction of digital photography of gross surgical specimens in pathology laboratories across Canada. An online survey consisting of 23 multiple choice and free-text questions regarding gross digital photography was sent out to via email to laboratory staff across Canada involved in gross dissection of surgical specimens. Sixty surveys were returned with representation from most of the provinces. Results showed that gross digital photography is utilized at most institutions (90.0%) and the primary users of the technology are Pathologists (88.0%), Pathologists' Assistants (54.0%) and Pathology residents (50.0%). Most respondents felt that there is a definite need for routine digital imaging of gross surgical specimens in their practice (80.0%). The top two applications for gross digital photography are for documentation of interesting/ complex cases (98.0%) and for teaching purposes (84.0%). The main limitations identified by the survey group are storage space (42.5%) and security issues (40.0%). Respondents indicated that future applications of gross digital photography mostly include teaching (96.6%), presentation at tumour boards/ clinical rounds (89.8%), medico-legal documentation (72.9%) and usage for consultation purposes (69.5%). The results of this survey indicate that pathology staff across Canada currently utilizes gross digital images for regular documentation and educational reasons. They also show that the technology will be needed for future applications in teaching, consultation and medico-legal purposes.

  2. Class numbers of cyclic 2-extensions and Gross conjecture over Q

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The Gross conjecture over Q was first claimed by Aoki in 1991.However,the original proof contains too many mistakes and false claims to be considered as a serious proof.This paper is an attempt to find a sound proof of the Gross conjecture under the outline of Aoki.We reduce the conjecture to an elementary conjecture concerning the class numbers of cyclic 2-extensions of Q.

  3. Gross changes in reconstructions of historic land cover/use for Europe between 1900 and 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Richard; Herold, Martin; Verburg, Peter H; Clevers, Jan G P W; Eberle, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    Historic land-cover/use change is important for studies on climate change, soil carbon, and biodiversity assessments. Available reconstructions focus on the net area difference between two time steps (net changes) instead of accounting for all area gains and losses (gross changes). This leads to a serious underestimation of land-cover/use dynamics with impacts on the biogeochemical and environmental assessments based on these reconstructions. In this study, we quantified to what extent land-cover/use reconstructions underestimate land-cover/use changes in Europe for the 1900-2010 period by accounting for net changes only. We empirically analyzed available historic land-change data, quantified their uncertainty, corrected for spatial-temporal effects and identified underlying processes causing differences between gross and net changes. Gross changes varied for different land classes (largest for forest and grassland) and led to two to four times the amount of net changes. We applied the empirical results of gross change quantities in a spatially explicit reconstruction of historic land change to reconstruct gross changes for the EU27 plus Switzerland at 1 km spatial resolution between 1950 and 2010. In addition, the reconstruction was extended back to 1900 to explore the effects of accounting for gross changes on longer time scales. We created a land-change reconstruction that only accounted for net changes for comparison. Our two model outputs were compared with five commonly used global reconstructions for the same period and area. In our reconstruction, gross changes led in total to a 56% area change (ca. 0.5% yr(-1)) between 1900 and 2010 and cover twice the area of net changes. All global reconstructions used for comparison estimated fewer changes than our gross change reconstruction. Main land-change processes were cropland/grassland dynamics and afforestation, and also deforestation and urbanization. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Phylogeography and domestication of Chinese swamp buffalo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Xiang-Peng; Li, Ran; Xie, Wen-Mei; Xu, Ping; Chang, Ti-Cheng; Liu, Li; Cheng, Feng; Zhang, Run-Feng; Lan, Xian-Yong; Chen, Hong; Lei, Chu-Zhao

    2013-01-01

    To further probe into whether swamp buffaloes were domesticated once or multiple times in China, this survey examined the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) Control Region (D-loop) diversity of 471 individuals representing 22 populations of 455 Chinese swamp buffaloes and 16 river buffaloes. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Chinese swamp buffaloes could be divided into two distinct lineages, A and B, which were defined previously. Of the two lineages, lineage A was predominant across all populations. For predominant lineage A, Southwestern buffalo populations possess the highest genetic diversity among the three hypothesized domestication centers (Southeastern, Central, and Southwestern China), suggesting Southwestern China as the most likely location for the domestication of lineage A. However, a complex pattern of diversity is detected for the lineage B, preventing the unambiguous pinpointing of the exact place of domestication center and suggesting the presence of a long-term, strong gene flow among swamp buffalo populations caused by extensive migrations of buffaloes and frequent human movements along the Yangtze River throughout history. Our current study suggests that Southwestern China is the most likely domestication center for lineage A, and may have been a primary center of swamp buffalo domestication. More archaeological and genetic evidence is needed to show the process of domestication.

  5. The Genetic Architecture of Domestication in Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Dominic

    2015-01-01

    Domestication has been essential to the progress of human civilization, and the process itself has fascinated biologists for hundreds of years. Domestication has led to a series of remarkable changes in a variety of plants and animals, in what is termed the "domestication phenotype." In domesticated animals, this general phenotype typically consists of similar changes in tameness, behavior, size/morphology, color, brain composition, and adrenal gland size. This domestication phenotype is seen in a range of different animals. However, the genetic basis of these associated changes is still puzzling. The genes for these different traits tend to be grouped together in clusters in the genome, though it is still not clear whether these clusters represent pleiotropic effects, or are in fact linked clusters. This review focuses on what is currently known about the genetic architecture of domesticated animal species, if genes of large effect (often referred to as major genes) are prevalent in driving the domestication phenotype, and whether pleiotropy can explain the loci underpinning these diverse traits being colocated.

  6. Origin and Domestication of Native Amazonian Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doriane Picanço-Rodrigues

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Molecular analyses are providing new elements to decipher the origin, domestication and dispersal of native Amazonian crops in an expanding archaeological context. Solid molecular data are available for manioc (Manihot esculenta, cacao (Theobroma cacao, pineapple (Ananas comosus, peach palm (Bactris gasipaes and guaraná (Paullinia cupana, while hot peppers (Capsicum spp., inga (Inga edulis, Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa and cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum are being studied. Emergent patterns include the relationships among domestication, antiquity (terminal Pleistocene to early Holocene, origin in the periphery, ample pre-Columbian dispersal and clear phylogeographic population structure for manioc, pineapple, peach palm and, perhaps, Capsicum peppers. Cacao represents the special case of an Amazonian species possibly brought into domestication in Mesoamerica, but close scrutiny of molecular data suggests that it may also have some incipiently domesticated populations in Amazonia. Another pattern includes the relationships among species with incipiently domesticated populations or very recently domesticated populations, rapid pre- or post-conquest dispersal and lack of phylogeographic population structure, e.g., Brazil nut, cupuassu and guaraná. These patterns contrast the peripheral origin of most species with domesticated populations with the subsequent concentration of their genetic resources in the center of the basin, along the major white water rivers where high pre-conquest population densities developed. Additional molecular genetic analyses on these and other species will allow better examination of these processes and will enable us to relate them to other historical ecological patterns in Amazonia.

  7. The relationship between spasticity and gross motor capability in nonambulatory children with spastic cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katusic, Ana; Alimovic, Sonja

    2013-09-01

    Spasticity has been considered as a major impairment in cerebral palsy (CP), but the relationship between this impairment and motor functions is still unclear, especially in the same group of patients with CP. The aim of this investigation is to determine the relationship between spasticity and gross motor capability in nonambulatory children with spastic CP. Seventy-one children (30 boys, 41 girls) with bilateral spastic cerebral palsy and with Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels IV (n=34) and V (n=37) were included in the study. The spasticity level in lower limbs was evaluated using the Modified Modified Ashworth Scale and the gross motor function with the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM-88). Spearman's correlation analysis was used to determine the nature and the strength of the relationship. The results showed a moderate correlation between spasticity and gross motor skills (ρ=0.52 for the GMFCS level; ρ=0.57 for the GMFM-88), accounting for less than 30% of the explained variance. It seems that spasticity is just one factor among many others that could interfere with gross motor skills, even in children with severe forms of spastic CP. Knowledge of the impact of spasticity on motor skills may be useful in the setting of adequate rehabilitation strategies for nonambulatory children with spastic CP.

  8. Determination of respiration, gross nitrification and denitrification in soil profile using BaPS system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Shu-tao; HUANG Yao

    2006-01-01

    A facility of BaPS (Barometric Process Separation) was used to determine soil respiration, gross nitrification and denitrification in a winter wheat field with depths of 0-7, 7-14 and 14-21 cm. N2O production was determined by a gas chromatograph. Crop root mass and relevant soil parameters were measured. Results showed that soil respiration and gross nitrification decreased with the increase of soil depth, while denitrification did not change significantly. In comparison with no-plowing plot, soil respiration increased significantly in plowing plot, especially in the surface soil of 0-7 cm, while gross nitrification and denitrification rates were not affected by plowing. Cropping practice in previous season was found to affect soil gross nitrification in the following wheat-growing season. Higher gross nitrification rate occurred in the filed plot with preceding crop of rice compared with that of maize for all the three depths of 0-7, 7-14 and 14-21 cm. A further investigation indicated that the nitrification for all the cases accounted for about 76% of the total nitrogen transformation processes of nitrification and denitrification and the N2O production correlated with nitrification significantly, suggesting that nitrification is a key process of soil N2O production in the wheat field. In addition, the variations of soil respiration and gross nitrification were exponentially dependent on root mass (P<0.001).

  9. Control challenges in domestic heating systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thybo, Honglian; Larsen, Lars F. S.; Weitzmann, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to analyze domestic heating applications and identify unfavorable building constructions and control challenges to be addressed by high performance heating control systems. Heating of domestic houses use a large amount of the total energy consumption in Scandinavia....... Hence the potential of reducing energy consumption by applying high performance control is vast. Indoor climate issues are becoming more in focus, which also leads to a demand for high performance heating systems. The paper presents an analysis of how the building elements of today's domestic houses...

  10. Characteristics and consequences of psychopathic domestic violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radulović Danka M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Domestic violence is a problem to which more attention is paid today. However, in its theoretical consideration, as well as in practical reaction, one must not lose sight of characteristics of domestic violence of one, rather numerous category of perpetrators who have psychopathic structure of personality. Domestic violence which offenders are psychopaths must be treated very carefully, because each mistake in intervention can cause much bigger damage to the victim than absence of reaction at all. Due to that, before any intervention, it would be necessary to make a diagnosis on whether the perpetrator has psychopathic structure of personality or not.

  11. The domestic natural gas shortage in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ting

    This thesis analyzes the domestic shortage in the Chinese natural gas market. Both the domestic supply and demand of natural gas are growing fast in China. However, the supply cannot catch up with the demand. Under the present pricing mechanism, the Chinese natural gas market cannot get the equilibrium by itself. Expensive imports are inadequate to fill the increasing gap between the domestic demand and supply. Therefore, the shortage problem occurs. Since the energy gap can result in the arrested development of economics, the shortage problem need to be solved. This thesis gives three suggestions to solve the problem: the use of Unconventional Gas, Natural Gas Storage and Pricing Reform.

  12. Gross-beta activity in ground water: natural sources and artifacts of sampling and laboratory analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Alan H.

    1995-01-01

    Gross-beta activity has been used as an indicator of beta-emitting isotopes in water since at least the early 1950s. Originally designed for detection of radioactive releases from nuclear facilities and weapons tests, analysis of gross-beta activity is widely used in studies of naturally occurring radioactivity in ground water. Analyses of about 800 samples from 5 ground-water regions of the United States provide a basis for evaluating the utility of this measurement. The data suggest that measured gross-beta activities are due to (1) long-lived radionuclides in ground water, and (2) ingrowth of beta-emitting radionuclides during holding times between collection of samples and laboratory measurements.Although40K and228Ra appear to be the primary sources of beta activity in ground water, the sum of40K plus228Ra appears to be less than the measured gross-beta activity in most ground-water samples. The difference between the contribution from these radionuclides and gross-beta activity is most pronounced in ground water with gross-beta activities > 10 pCi/L, where these 2 radionuclides account for less than one-half the measured ross-beta activity. One exception is groundwater from the Coastal Plain of New Jersey, where40K plus228Ra generally contribute most of the gross-beta activity. In contrast,40K and228Ra generally contribute most of beta activity in ground water with gross-beta activities measure all beta activity in ground water. Although3H contributes beta activity to some ground water, it is driven from the sample before counting and therefore is not detected by gross-beta measurements. Beta-emitting radionuclides with half-lives shorter than a few days can decay to low values between sampling and counting. Although little is known about concentrations of most short-lived beta-emitting radionuclides in environmental ground water (water unaffected by direct releases from nuclear facilities and weapons tests), their activities are expected to be low.Ingrowth of

  13. Origin and domestication of Lactuca sativa L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de I.M.

    1997-01-01

    The domestication of lettuce, Lactuca sativa L. is described on the basis of literature study. The centre of origin is discussed. A historical survey is made of the distribution of the groups of Lactuca cultivars over the world.

  14. Molecular mechanisms involved in convergent crop domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenser, Teresa; Theißen, Günter

    2013-12-01

    Domestication has helped to understand evolution. We argue that, vice versa, novel insights into evolutionary principles could provide deeper insights into domestication. Molecular analyses have demonstrated that convergent phenotypic evolution is often based on molecular changes in orthologous genes or pathways. Recent studies have revealed that during plant domestication the causal mutations for convergent changes in key traits are likely to be located in particular genes. These insights may contribute to defining candidate genes for genetic improvement during the domestication of new plant species. Such efforts may help to increase the range of arable crops available, thus increasing crop biodiversity and food security to help meet the predicted demands of the continually growing global population under rapidly changing environmental conditions.

  15. Origin and domestication of Lactuca sativa L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de I.M.

    1997-01-01

    The domestication of lettuce, Lactuca sativa L. is described on the basis of literature study. The centre of origin is discussed. A historical survey is made of the distribution of the groups of Lactuca cultivars over the world.

  16. Toxic effects of domestic sewage on zooplankton

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gajbhiye, S.N.; Nair, V.R.; Desai, B.N.

    The toxic effects of raw domestic sewage on different groups of zooplank-ton, was tested in the laboratory for evaluating acute toxicity. 24 hr., LC-50 values for larvae of stomatopods, gastropods and chaetognaths (2-7% concentration) indicated...

  17. Translation Strategy of Domestication and Foreignization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张瑛

    2012-01-01

    In recent years,domestication and foreignization have been discussing heatedly in translation field More outcomes have sprung up.It pushes the topic to a greater depth.Here the common phenomenon of them will be discussed.

  18. EU agricultural domestic support in GTAP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boulanger, Pierre; Philippidis, George; Jensen, Hans Grinsted

    The engagement of JRC IPTS in the GTAP contributing team to the EU domestic support has opened up the opportunity to use the CATS database when compiling EU domestic support payments by member state, which are subsequently calibrated into the GTAP database. To maintain consistency, the GTAP version...... 9 includes EU domestic support which follows the approach adopted in the previous releases (Jensen, 2009, 2010). The difference is for pillar 1 support for which the CATS data are used (in previous GTAP database releases, pillar 1 support was based on EAGF financial reports). All together EU...... domestic support amounts to 66,530 million euros in 2011 (i.e. pillar 1 expenditures from CATS, pillar 2 and national expenditures from Producer Support Estimate (PSE) by OECD). In addition, minor improvements to the allocation of payments have been proposed for the version 9 release. On the other hand...

  19. Training for Internationalization through Domestic Geographical Dispersion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santangelo, Grazia D.; Stucchi, Tamara

    Traditionally created to deal with the unfriendly domestic environment, business groups (BGs) are increasingly internationalizing. However, how BGs can reconcile their strictly domestic orientation with an international dimension still remains an open question. Drawing on arguments from...... organizational learning, we seek to solve this puzzle in relation to the internationalization of Indian BGs. In particular, we argue that in heterogeneous domestic emerging markets BG’s geographical dispersion across sub-national states provides training for internationalization. To internationalize successfully......, BGs need to develop the capability of managing geographically dispersed units in institutional heterogeneous contexts. Domestic geographical dispersion would indeed help the BG dealing with different regulations, customers and infrastructures. However, there is less scope for such training as BGs...

  20. Understanding the National Domestic Waste Collection Standards

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oelofse, Suzanna HH

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The Department of Environmental Affairs with the assistance of the CSIR, developed the National Domestic Waste Collection Standards, which contain a range of service standards appropriate to different contexts. The standards, which came into effect...

  1. Plant domestication through an ecological lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milla, Rubén; Osborne, Colin P; Turcotte, Martin M; Violle, Cyrille

    2015-08-01

    Our understanding of domestication comes largely from archeology and genetics. Here, we advocate using current ecological theory and methodologies to provide novel insights into the causes and limitations of evolution under cultivation, as well as into the wider ecological impacts of domestication. We discuss the importance of natural selection under cultivation, that is, the forces promoting differences in Darwinian fitness between plants in crop populations and of constraints, that is, limitations of diverse nature that, given values for trait X, shorten the range of variation of trait Y, during the domestication process. Throughout this opinion paper, we highlight how ecology can yield insight into the effects of domestication on plant traits, on crop feedback over ecological processes, and on how species interactions develop in croplands.

  2. Domestic Violence: Protecting Yourself and Your Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... broken teeth.Ruptured eardrum.Cigarette burns.Bite marks.Rope burns.Welts (raised, red marks) on the body ... let known abuse go unreported. Contact your local law enforcement officials. Many communities have shelters for domestic ...

  3. Fertigation with domestic wastewater: Uses and implications

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jose Geraldo

    2016-05-18

    May 18, 2016 ... scarcity of water, the large amount of sewage produced and the ... Author(s) agree that this article remains permanently open access .... wastewater reuse started in the first half of the twentieth ..... domestic residual water.

  4. PREVALENCE OF DOMESTIC VIOLENCE DURING PREGNANCY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drclement

    showed complete knowledge of domestic violence. A total of 144 ... status, early marriage, alcohol and substance abuse by the ... size at 95% confidence level; Z = 1.96; d. = precision: the .... among female high school students in. Deberk ...

  5. Women in Domestic Work: Yesterday and Today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Allyson Sherman

    1980-01-01

    Provides a historical overview of private household workers and builds a demographic profile of today's domestic workers. Discusses changes in women's employment which may upgrade the status of household workers. (SK)

  6. Domestic arrangements at the Grand Master's Palace

    OpenAIRE

    de Piro, Nicholas; Office of the President of Malta

    2012-01-01

    A talk in the Rediscovering the Grandmaster's Palace series entitled: Domestic arrangements at the Grandmaster's Palace. This talk is organised by the Office of the President and delivered by Marquis Nicholas DePiro.

  7. Processing Food for the Domestic Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Lotte; McCormick, Dorothy; Kamau, Paul

    This paper addresses the domestically owned food-processing industry in Kenya and explores thesale of processed food products to the domestic ‘modern’ retail sector. Food processing represents astep up in the value chain compared to fresh food production and may thus, at least potentially, leadto...... economic development. In focusing on food-processing businesses and on domestic rather thanglobal market sales, this paper distinguishes itself from studies on Sub-Saharan African suppliers toglobal value chains. The potential importance of domestic ‘modern’ retail formats to Kenyan foodsuppliers...... and thus whether food processing – as opposed to fresh foodexports – retains importance for suppliers as well as for the Kenyan economy. This paper aims tocontribute knowledge to this subject on which very little research exists. Based on fieldwork, thepaper shows that a variety of entry barriers exist...

  8. Domestic Distortions and the Deindustrialization Hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Krugman

    1996-01-01

    It is widely believed that U.S. trade deficits have displaced workers from highly paid manufacturing jobs into less well-paid service employment, contributing to declining incomes for the nation as a whole. Although proponents of this view do not usually think of it this way, this analysis falls squarely into the `domestic distortions' framework pioneered by Jagdish Bhagwati. This paper models the deindustrialization hypothesis explicitly as a domestic distortions issue, and shows that while ...

  9. Domestic violence in Iranian infertile women

    OpenAIRE

    Sheikhan, Zohre; Ozgoli, Giti; Azar, Mahyar; AlaviMajd, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    Background: Millions of men and women suffer from infertility worldwide. In many cultures, infertile women are at risk of social and emotional problems. Infertility may affect the public health in many countries. Domestic violence is the intentional use of physical force, power or threat against oneself, another person or another group or community which leads to injury, death, mental harm, lack of development or deprivation. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of domestic violence agai...

  10. Does Domestic Service Require A College Education?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A group of vocational college students recently came to Beijing to receive two months of hands-on work experience in domestic service. Dubbed "college-educated housemaids" by the media, their debut in the capital immediately created a sensation. A large number of Beijingers seeking household help went to interview them at a domestic service agency. Some clinched a deal after the first meeting. The students,

  11. Evaluation of free i-applications for tertiary level gross anatomy education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew F. Pollard

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe use of electronic resources in education, including i-applications used on portable handheld devices, is increasing. Apple® handheld devices are popular, with free applications the most prevalent download form. Many gross anatomy i-applications are available, however no information on the quality of free anatomy products is available. Rating such products could therefore guide product recommendations.AimTo evaluate the quality and range of free iPod® applications that are applicable for tertiary level gross anatomy education.MethodsA search of the iTunes® Application Store with keywords anatomy, free, medical, functional, clinical, gross, and human was performed, with inclusion based on free applications containing human gross anatomy usable for tertiary education purposes. Application specification was noted; each was trialled independently and rated for usability, specification, academic level, and quality (image and programme.ResultsSixty-three applications were identified and eleven met inclusion criteria. Two provided gross anatomy of the entire body, nine examined specific regions or systems. Five were judged introductory in academic level, five intermediate, and one advanced. One application was rated low quality, and four excellent. None were considered difficult to use (six easy, five medium. Application size ranged between 1.2MB and 229MB (mean 27MB.ConclusionsThere are few free i-applications for learning gross anatomy and most concentrate on individual body systems, with the academic level and usability of all products well rated. Results suggest some free I-applications could be suitable adjuncts for gross anatomy education at both an undergraduate and graduate level.

  12. The domestication of Amazonia before European conquest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Charles R.; Denevan, William M.; Heckenberger, Michael J.; Junqueira, André Braga; Neves, Eduardo G.; Teixeira, Wenceslau G.; Woods, William I.

    2015-01-01

    During the twentieth century, Amazonia was widely regarded as relatively pristine nature, little impacted by human history. This view remains popular despite mounting evidence of substantial human influence over millennial scales across the region. Here, we review the evidence of an anthropogenic Amazonia in response to claims of sparse populations across broad portions of the region. Amazonia was a major centre of crop domestication, with at least 83 native species containing populations domesticated to some degree. Plant domestication occurs in domesticated landscapes, including highly modified Amazonian dark earths (ADEs) associated with large settled populations and that may cover greater than 0.1% of the region. Populations and food production expanded rapidly within land management systems in the mid-Holocene, and complex societies expanded in resource-rich areas creating domesticated landscapes with profound impacts on local and regional ecology. ADE food production projections support estimates of at least eight million people in 1492. By this time, highly diverse regional systems had developed across Amazonia where subsistence resources were created with plant and landscape domestication, including earthworks. This review argues that the Amazonian anthrome was no less socio-culturally diverse or populous than other tropical forested areas of the world prior to European conquest. PMID:26202998

  13. The domestication of Amazonia before European conquest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Charles R; Denevan, William M; Heckenberger, Michael J; Junqueira, André Braga; Neves, Eduardo G; Teixeira, Wenceslau G; Woods, William I

    2015-08-07

    During the twentieth century, Amazonia was widely regarded as relatively pristine nature, little impacted by human history. This view remains popular despite mounting evidence of substantial human influence over millennial scales across the region. Here, we review the evidence of an anthropogenic Amazonia in response to claims of sparse populations across broad portions of the region. Amazonia was a major centre of crop domestication, with at least 83 native species containing populations domesticated to some degree. Plant domestication occurs in domesticated landscapes, including highly modified Amazonian dark earths (ADEs) associated with large settled populations and that may cover greater than 0.1% of the region. Populations and food production expanded rapidly within land management systems in the mid-Holocene, and complex societies expanded in resource-rich areas creating domesticated landscapes with profound impacts on local and regional ecology. ADE food production projections support estimates of at least eight million people in 1492. By this time, highly diverse regional systems had developed across Amazonia where subsistence resources were created with plant and landscape domestication, including earthworks. This review argues that the Amazonian anthrome was no less socio-culturally diverse or populous than other tropical forested areas of the world prior to European conquest.

  14. Gross alpha determination in radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants using the track registration technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez-Navarro, M.J. [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (UPM) E.T.S.I de Caminos, Canales y Puertos, Profesor Aranguren, s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: he04@caminos.upm.es; Pujol, Ll. [Centro de Estudios y Experimentacion de Obras Publicas (CEDEX), Alfonso XII, 3, 28014 Madrid (Spain); Gonzalez-Gonzalez, J.A. [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (UPM) E.T.S.I de Caminos, Canales y Puertos, Profesor Aranguren, s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2007-03-15

    Low and intermediate level nuclear wastes (ion-exchange resins and evaporator concentrates) essentially contain beta and gamma emitters, with very few alpha emitters. Several techniques may be used to determine gross alpha activity but, in this case, solid-state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs) are a suitable technique for gross alpha determination because track detectors are not sensitive to beta and gamma emitters. Also, this technique is simple and inexpensive. In this paper, we studied the parameters (background, efficiency and self-absorption) that could affect the gross alpha determination using SSNTDs for both sample preparation methods, the 'dry method' with tensioactives and the 'wet method'. For the 'dry method', a self-absorption curve for {sup 241}Am standard was prepared using a set of varying thickness of sodium salt and for two different tensioactives: Tween{sup (R)}20 and Teg. The results showed that, below 1mg/cm{sup 2}, the self-absorption factor can be considered similar for both tensioactives and equal to unity. Several detectors for gross alpha determination were compared and we found that the most suitable techniques were ZnS(Ag) solid scintillator and track detectors. Both detectors were used to compare radioactive waste samples. Finally, the proposed methods ('dry method' with Teg tensioactive and 'wet method') using track detectors were tested by analysing the gross alpha activity of several radioactive wastes.

  15. Assessment of the effects of greywater reuse on gross solids movement in sewer systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penn, R; Schütze, M; Friedler, E

    2014-01-01

    Onsite greywater reuse (GWR) and installation of water-efficient toilets (WETs) reduce urban freshwater demand and thus enhance urban water use sustainability. Research on GWR and WETs has generally overlooked their potential effects on municipal sewer systems: GWR and WETs affect the flow regime in sewers, and consequently also influence gross solids transport. To asses these impacts, a gross solids transport model was developed. The model is based on approaches found in the literature. Hydrodynamic calculations of sewage flow were performed using the SIMBA6 simulator and then used for the gross solid movement models. Flow characteristics in the up- and downstream sections of the sewer network differ. Therefore different approaches were used to model solids movement in each of these two parts. Each model determines whether a solid moves as a result of a momentary sewage flow, and if it moves, calculation of its velocity is possible. The paper shows the adoption and implementation of two gross solids transport models using SIMBA6 and depicts the results of the effects of various GWR and WET scenarios on gross solids movement in sewers for a real case study in Israel.

  16. Gross Motor Function Measure Evolution Ratio: Use as a Control for Natural Progression in Cerebral Palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marois, Pierre; Marois, Mikael; Pouliot-Laforte, Annie; Vanasse, Michel; Lambert, Jean; Ballaz, Laurent

    2016-05-01

    To develop a new way to interpret Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM-66) score improvement in studies conducted without control groups in children with cerebral palsy (CP). The curves, which describe the pattern of motor development according to the children's Gross Motor Function Classification System level, were used as historical control to define the GMFM-66 expected natural evolution in children with CP. These curves have been modeled and generalized to fit the curve to particular children characteristics. Research center. Not applicable. Not applicable. Not applicable. Assuming that the GMFM-66 score evolution followed the shape of the Rosenbaum curves, by taking into account the age and GMFM-66 score of children, the expected natural evolution of the GMFM-66 score was predicted for any group of children with CP who were Motor Function Measure Evolution Ratio, was defined as follows: Gross Motor Function Measure Evolution Ratio=measured GMFM-66 score change/expected natural evolution. For practical or ethical reasons, it is almost impossible to use control groups in studies evaluating effectiveness of many therapeutic modalities. The Gross Motor Function Measure Evolution Ratio gives the opportunity to take into account the expected natural evolution of the gross motor function of children with CP, which is essential to accurately interpret the therapy effect on the GMFM-66. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Determination of natural radioactivity by gross alpha and beta measurements in ground water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turhan, S; Ozçitak, E; Taşkin, H; Varinlioğlu, A

    2013-06-01

    In this study, the activity concentrations of the gross α and β in ground water samples collected from the different drilled wells in Nevşehir province were measured to assess annual effective dose due to the ingestion of the water samples. Nevşehir province is one of the major cities of Cappadocia Region which is a popular tourist destination as it has many areas with unique geological, historic, and cultural features. Sampling and measurements were carried out in the autumn of 2011 and the spring of 2012. The values of the activity concentrations of the gross α and β measured in the water samples ranged from 80 to 380 mBq L(-1) with a mean of 192 mBq L(-1) and 120-3470 mBq L(-1) with a mean of 579 mBq L(-1) respectively. All values of the gross α were lower than the limit value of 500 mBq L(-1) while two ground water samples were found to have gross β activity concentrations of greater than 1000 mBq L(-1). Therefore two water samples were the subject of further radioisotope-specific analysis. The obtained result indicated that the elevated activity concentrations of the gross β in these water samples are dominated by (40)K activity. Annual effective doses ranged from 0.04 to 0.20 mSv y(-1).

  18. GENDER DIFFERENCES IN FINE AND GROSS MOTOR SKILLS OF NORMALLY DEVELOPING OVERWEIGHT AND OBESE ADOLESCENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şehmus ASLAN

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to compare girls’ and boys’ fine and gross motor skills in normally developing overweight and obese adolescents. 18 girls and 28 boys with 12-18 age range, in totally 46 overweight and obese adolecents participated in the study. Body mass index of participants were calculated. Fine and gross motor skills of adolescents were assessed by Short Form Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOT-2 SF. There was no differences between girls and boys for BOT-2 SF total scores (p>0.05, but it was found differences in several items of BOT-2 SF. Scores of test items for fine motor scores in the girls were higher than the boys (p0.05. Gross motor skill tests including jumping in place, dribling a ball, sit-ups, one- legged stationary hop test scores were higher in the boys, while tapping feet and fingers test score was higher in the girls (p<0.05. Our results suggested that there is differences between girls’ and boys’ fine and gross motor skills in normally developing overweight and obese adolescents. Girls have better fine motor skill performance while boys have better gross motor skill performance in overweight and obese adolescents.

  19. ASSETS ADMITTED TO COVER GROSS TECHNICAL RESERVES CASE STUDY: INSURANCE – REINSURANCE COMPANY ASTRA SA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IRINELA – CONSTANTINA BADEA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze the asset structure and the coverage of gross technical reserves of the Insurance – Reinsurance Company Astra SA, for the period 2003 – 2014. Insurance companies are required to constitute technical reserves, in order to cope with the payment obligations to policyholders. These reserves may only be covered on account of certain assets, admitted by law. In Romania, Orders No. 8 and 9/2011, issued by the Insurance Supervisory Commission, contain Rules regarding the assets admitted to cover gross technical reserves, the dispersion of assets admitted to cover gross technical reserves and the liquidity coefficient. Order No. 9/2011, relating to general insurance, has been amended by Rule No. 22/2014. In this paper, we have analyzed the main elements of Astra’s assets, their share in total assets and we have calculated the coverage of gross technical reserves by total assets and liquid assets. In 2013 and 2014, the value of total assets was below the value of gross tehnical reserves, which demonstrated Astra’s financial instability, through negative capital and the inability to meet the obligations to policyholders. Failure to comply with the prudential indicators has been one of the main causes of Astra`s bankruptcy.

  20. Association of therapeutic occasion, gross motor function grading and developmental level with gross motor functional recovery in children with cerebral palsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The abnormal posture and motor pattern have not stabilized in children with cerebral palsy at early period, thus timely treatment can establish normal postural reflex and motor pattern, and prevent complications of muscle contracture, ankylosis, skeletal deformity, etc. The clinical factors affecting the rehabilitative efficacy of gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy should be observed.OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of therapeutic occasion, grading of gross motor function and developmental level on the rehabilitative efficacy in children with cerebral palsy.DESIGN: A case-controlled analysis.SETTING: Qilu Children's Hospital of Shandong University.PARTICIPANTS: Totally 138 children with cerebral palsy, who were hospitalized for 12 months in the Rehabilitation Center of Qilu Children's Hospital, Shandong University, were selected from April 2004 to September 2006, and all the children were diagnosed to be accorded with the standard set by the national seminar on cerebral palsy in 2004. There were 97 males and 41 females, including 55 cases of 0 - 2 years old,47 cases of 2 - 4 years and 36 cases of 4 - 6 years. Informed contents were obtained from relatives of all the children.METHODS: ① Comprehensive rehabilitation treatment: Vojta method was to induce the children to turn over the body and crawl by stimulating reflective turn over and crawling on belly. Bobath method including trainings of head control, turning over body, keeping sitting position, keeping balance, crawling, keeping standing position, and walking, etc.; The children were massaged by using the maneuvers of push, press, rub,pull, wave, etc. according to the sites and types of palsy. Acupuncture was performed mainly at bilateral motor areas, the needle was retained for 1 hour per time, 6 days continuously every week, and followed by a 1-day interval. ② Prognosis assessment: The gross motor functional grading of the children with cerebral palsy at admission was

  1. Wild genius - domestic fool? Spatial learning abilities of wild and domestic guinea pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachser Norbert

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Domestic animals and their wild relatives differ in a wide variety of aspects. The process of domestication of the domestic guinea pig (Cavia aperea f. porcellus, starting at least 4500 years ago, led to changes in the anatomy, physiology, and behaviour compared with their wild relative, the wild cavy, Cavia aperea. Although domestic guinea pigs are widely used as a laboratory animal, learning and memory capabilities are often disregarded as being very scarce. Even less is known about learning and memory of wild cavies. In this regard, one striking domestic trait is a reduction in relative brain size, which in the domesticated form of the guinea pig amounts to 13%. However, the common belief, that such a reduction of brain size in the course of domestication of different species is accomplished by less learning capabilities is not at all very well established in the literature. Indeed, domestic animals might also even outperform their wild conspecifics taking advantage of their adaptation to a man-made environment. In our study we compared the spatial learning abilities of wild and domestic guinea pigs. We expected that the two forms are different regarding their learning performance possibly related to the process of domestication. Therefore wild cavies as well as domestic guinea pigs of both sexes, aged 35 to 45 days, were tested in the Morris water maze to investigate their ability of spatial learning. Results Both, wild cavies and domestic guinea pigs were able to learn the task, proving the water maze to be a suitable test also for wild cavies. Regarding the speed of learning, male as well as female domestic guinea pigs outperformed their wild conspecifics significantly. Interestingly, only domestic guinea pigs showed a significant spatial association of the platform position, while other effective search strategies were used by wild cavies. Conclusion The results demonstrate that domestic guinea pigs do not at all

  2. Domesticated animals and human infectious diseases of zoonotic origins: domestication time matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morand, Serge; McIntyre, K Marie; Baylis, Matthew

    2014-06-01

    The rate of emergence for emerging infectious diseases has increased dramatically over the last century, and research findings have implicated wildlife as an importance source of novel pathogens. However, the role played by domestic animals as amplifiers of pathogens emerging from the wild could also be significant, influencing the human infectious disease transmission cycle. The impact of domestic hosts on human disease emergence should therefore be ascertained. Here, using three independent datasets we showed positive relationships between the time since domestication of the major domesticated mammals and the total number of parasites or infectious diseases they shared with humans. We used network analysis, to better visualize the overall interactions between humans and domestic animals (and amongst animals) and estimate which hosts are potential sources of parasites/pathogens for humans (and for all other hosts) by investigating the network architecture. We used centrality, a measure of the connection amongst each host species (humans and domestic animals) in the network, through the sharing of parasites/pathogens, where a central host (i.e. high value of centrality) is the one that is infected by many parasites/pathogens that infect many other hosts in the network. We showed that domesticated hosts that were associated a long time ago with humans are also the central ones in the network and those that favor parasites/pathogens transmission not only to humans but also to all other domesticated animals. These results urge further investigation of the diversity and origin of the infectious diseases of domesticated animals in their domestication centres and the dispersal routes associated with human activities. Such work may help us to better understand how domesticated animals have bridged the epidemiological gap between humans and wildlife.

  3. Phylogeography and domestication of Indian river buffalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Niraj

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The water buffalo- Bubalus bubalis holds tremendous potential in livestock sector in many Asian countries, particularly India. The origin, domestication and genetic structure of the Indian river buffalo are poorly understood. Therefore, to understand the relationship among the maternal lineages of Indian river buffalo breeds and their domestication process, we analysed mitochondrial D-loop region of 217 animals representing eight breeds from eight different locations in India along with published sequences of Mediterranean buffalo. Results The maximum parsimony tree showed one major clade with six internal branches. Reduced median network revealed expansion from more than one set of haplotypes indicating complex domestication events for this species. In addition, we found several singleton haplotypes. Using rho statistics, we obtained a time estimate of 6300 years BP for the expansion of one set of hapltoypes of the Indian domestic buffalo. A few breed specific branches in the network indicated an ancient time depth of differentiation of some of the maternal lineages of river buffalo breeds. The multidimensional display of breed pairwise FST values showed significant breed differentiation. Conclusion Present day river buffalo is the result of complex domestication processes involving more than one maternal lineage and a significant maternal gene flow from the wild populations after the initial domestication events. Our data are consistent with the available archaeological information in supporting the proposition that the river buffalo was likely to be domesticated in the Western region of the Indian subcontinent, specifically the present day breeding tracts of the Mehsana, Surati and Pandharpuri breeds.

  4. Molecular Population Genetics of Rice Domestication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian Tang; Suhua Shi

    2007-01-01

    Domestication is a selection process that genetically modifies species to meet human needs. A most intriguing feature of domestication is the extreme phenotypic diversification among breeds. What could be the ultimate source of such genetic variations? Another notable outcome of artificial selection is the reduction in the fitness of domesticated species when they live in the wild without human assistance. The complete sequences of the two subspecies of rice cultivars provide an opportunity to address these questions. Between the two subspecies, we found much higher rates of non-synonymous (N) than synonymous (S) substitutions and the N/S ratios are higher between cultivars than between wild species. Most interestingly, substitutions of highly dissimilar amino acids that are deleterious and uncommon between natural species are disproportionately common between the two subspecies of rice. We suggest strong selection in the absence of effective recombination may be the driving force, which we called the domestication-associated Hill-Robertson effect. These hitchhiking mutations may contribute to some fitness reduction in cultivars. Comparisons of the two genomes also reveal the existence of highly divergent regions in the genomes. Haplotypes in these regions often form highly polymorphic linkage blocks that are much older than speciation between wild species. Genes from such regions could contribute to the differences between indica and japonica and are likely to be involved in the diversifying selection under domestication. Their existence suggests that the amount of genetic variation within the single progenitor species Oryza ruflpogon may be insufficient to account for the variation among rice cultivars, which may come from a more inclusive gene pool comprising most of the A-genome wild species. Genes from the highly polymorphic regions also provide strong support for the independent domestication of the two subspecies. The genomic variation in rice has revealing

  5. Evidence of long-term gene flow and selection during domestication from analyses of Eurasian wild and domestic pig genomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frantz, L.A.F.; Schraiber, J.G.; Madsen, O.; Megens, H.J.W.C.; Cagan, A.; Bosse, M.; Paudel, Y.; Crooijmans, R.P.M.A.; Larson, G.; Groenen, M.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, the process of domestication is assumed to be initiated by humans, involve few individuals and rely on reproductive isolation between wild and domestic forms. We analyzed pig domestication using over 100 genome sequences and tested whether pig domestication followed a traditional line

  6. Gross β activity level of fallout in the environment around Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Ji-Da; CHEN Bin; WU Zong-Mei

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the measurement results of gross β activities in fallout samples collected from the environment around Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) during 1993-2002. The gross β activity of 191 samples collected at five monitoring spots were (0.11~3.64) Bq · m-2 · d-1, with an average of (0.91 ±0.49) Bq · m-2 · d-1. This value was lower than (1.02±0.35) Bq·m-2·d-1 , the average of the samples collected at the reference spot in Hangzhou.It indicated that no obvious rise in the gross β activity level of fallout was observed in ambience of Qinshan NPP.

  7. Integrable Gross-Neveu models with fermion-fermion and fermion-antifermion pairing

    CERN Document Server

    Thies, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The massless Gross-Neveu and chiral Gross-Neveu models are well known examples of integrable quantum field theories in 1+1 dimensions. We address the question whether integrability is preserved if one either replaces the four-fermion interaction in fermion-antifermion channels by a dual interaction in fermion-fermion channels, or if one adds such a dual interaction to an existing integrable model. The relativistic Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov approach is adequate to deal with the large N limit of such models. In this way, we construct and solve three integrable models with Cooper pairing. We also identify a candidate for a fourth integrable model with maximal kinematic symmetry, the "perfect" Gross-Neveu model. This type of field theories can serve as exactly solvable toy models for color superconductivity in quantum chromodynamics.

  8. MODERN STATE AND PROSPECTS OF DEVELOPMENT OF THE DOMESTIC RESOURCE BASE OF SUGAR PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalayan G. G.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The main indicators of production of factory sugar beet in the Russian Federation and in the Krasnodar region are considered in the article. The structure of sown areas and gross harvests of sugar beet on federal districts and the main producing regions of the country are visually presented. The tendency of change of yield capacity of sugar beet for 1990-2014 is revealed on the basis of analytical alignment. The assessment of stability of level and tendency of change of yield capacity and sown areas of sugar beet is given for the Krasnodar region and in general for the Russian Federation. The influence of the factors on the size of gross harvests of root crops of sugar beet is analyzed. Agro climatic conditions of cultivation of sugar beet are studied. The features of production of sugar beet in the natural and economic zones of the Krasnodar region are revealed. The dynamics of application of the mineral and organic fertilizers under harvest of sugar beet in the agricultural organizations of the Krasnodar region is considered. The current state of the national selection and seed farming is characterized. The growing dependence on import of the seed material is revealed. The attention is focused on the main problems creating threat of further development of a sugar beet subcomplex of the region and ensuring food security of the country on sugar in the conditions of action of the international sanctions. The prospects of increase in production of sugar from domestic raw materials are noted

  9. Energetic potential of bamboo culms for industrial and domestic use in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ailton Leonel Balduino Junior

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study aimed to determine the energetic quality of the Bambusa vulgaris culms for combustion (in natura and as a charcoal. Five individuals (culms of Bambusa vulgaris of 3 years of age were analyzed, gathered in the city of Florianópolis, Santa Catarina. In the in natura culms it was determined the moisture content freshly gathered (39%; basic density (0.624gcm-3; the chemical composition (total extractive content (16.26% and lignin content (25.76%; the proximate chemical composition (volatiles content (82.25%; fixed carbon content (15.26% and ash (2.49% and gross calorific value (4571kcalkg-1. In the charcoal, produced in the laboratory, the determined properties were the gravimetric yield (36.40%;the apparent density (0.372gcm-3; volatiles content (27.55%; fixed carbon content (67.32%; ash (5.12% and gross calorific value (7431kcalkg-1. The Bambusa vulgaris species has potential for use in the energy generation either in natura, as chips for burning in boilers or in the charcoal form for domestic use, it can be used to broaden the base of biomass for energy generation and to replace the timber species of Pinus and Eucalyptus gender used for this purpose in the Southern region of Brazil.

  10. From wild animals to domestic pets, an evolutionary view of domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Carlos A; Macdonald, David W; O'Brien, Stephen J

    2009-06-16

    Artificial selection is the selection of advantageous natural variation for human ends and is the mechanism by which most domestic species evolved. Most domesticates have their origin in one of a few historic centers of domestication as farm animals. Two notable exceptions are cats and dogs. Wolf domestication was initiated late in the Mesolithic when humans were nomadic hunter-gatherers. Those wolves less afraid of humans scavenged nomadic hunting camps and over time developed utility, initially as guards warning of approaching animals or other nomadic bands and soon thereafter as hunters, an attribute tuned by artificial selection. The first domestic cats had limited utility and initiated their domestication among the earliest agricultural Neolithic settlements in the Near East. Wildcat domestication occurred through a self-selective process in which behavioral reproductive isolation evolved as a correlated character of assortative mating coupled to habitat choice for urban environments. Eurasian wildcats initiated domestication and their evolution to companion animals was initially a process of natural, rather than artificial, selection over time driven during their sympatry with forbear wildcats.

  11. Effects of Job Features on Domestic Outsourcing as a Strategy for Combining Paid and Domestic Work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijter, Esther de; Lippe, Tanja van der

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the influence of job features on domestic outsourcing. The central hypothesis is that households use outsourcing more often if the partners are less available for domestic chores and caregiving because of job demands. Analyses of data on 795 Dutch couples show that if they work

  12. 26 CFR 1.904(g)-1 - Overall domestic loss and the overall domestic loss account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... loss account. 1.904(g)-1 Section 1.904(g)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... States § 1.904(g)-1 Overall domestic loss and the overall domestic loss account. For further guidance, see § 1.904(g)-1T....

  13. Effects of Job Features on Domestic Outsourcing as a Strategy for Combining Paid and Domestic Work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijter, Esther de; Lippe, Tanja van der

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the influence of job features on domestic outsourcing. The central hypothesis is that households use outsourcing more often if the partners are less available for domestic chores and caregiving because of job demands. Analyses of data on 795 Dutch couples show that if they work

  14. Transmission of Mannheimia haemolytica from domestic sheep (Ovis aries) to bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis): unequivocal demonstration with green fluorescent protein-tagged organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Paulraj K; Shanthalingam, Sudarvili; Dassanayake, Rohana P; Subramaniam, Renuka; Herndon, Caroline N; Knowles, Donald P; Rurangirwa, Fred R; Foreyt, William J; Wayman, Gary; Marciel, Ann Marie; Highlander, Sarah K; Srikumaran, Subramaniam

    2010-07-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) died of pneumonia when commingled with domestic sheep (Ovis aries) but did not conclusively prove that the responsible pathogens were transmitted from domestic to bighorn sheep. The objective of this study was to determine, unambiguously, whether Mannheimia haemolytica can be transmitted from domestic to bighorn sheep when they commingle. Four isolates of M. haemolytica were obtained from the pharynx of two of four domestic sheep and tagged with a plasmid carrying the genes for green fluorescent protein (GFP) and ampicillin resistance (AP(R)). Four domestic sheep, colonized with the tagged bacteria, were kept about 10 m apart from four bighorn sheep for 1 mo with no clinical signs of pneumonia observed in the bighorn sheep during that period. The domestic and bighorn sheep were then allowed to have fence-line contact for 2 mo. During that period, three bighorn sheep acquired the tagged bacteria from the domestic sheep. At the end of the 2 mo of fence-line contact, the animals were allowed to commingle. All four bighorn sheep died 2 days to 9 days following commingling. The lungs from all four bighorn sheep showed gross and histopathologic lesions characteristic of M. haemolytica pneumonia. Tagged M. haemolytica were isolated from all four bighorn sheep, as confirmed by growth in ampicillin-containing culture medium, PCR-amplification of genes encoding GFP and Ap(R), and immunofluorescent staining of GFP. These results unequivocally demonstrate transmission of M. haemolytica from domestic to bighorn sheep, resulting in pneumonia and death of bighorn sheep.

  15. EFFECT OF SENSORY INTEGRATION THERAPY ON GROSS MOTOR FUNCTION IN CHILDREN WITH CEREBRAL PALSY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Shamsoddini

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveThe primary problem in children with cerebral palsy (CP, frequently referred for occupational therapy, is gross motor dysfunction. The current study was designed to investigate the effects of sensory integration therapy (SIT on gross motor skills in CP patients.Materials & MethodsTwenty-four children with diplegic spastic CP were randomly divided into two groups: First group (n=14,6 girls, 8 boys, age range 2 to 6 years, mean age 3.9 years; the second or control group (n=10, 5 girls, 5 boys, age range 2 to 6 years, mean age 3.4 years. SIT training was given to the first group and only the home program was given for the second group. All children were evaluated with gross motor function measurement (GMFM 88 for rolling, sitting, crawling, standing and walking position before and after intervention. Treatment duration for both groups was 1 hour, 5 days per week for a period of 12 weeks.ResultsGross motor function in children of the case group improved significantly better that in the control group, after intervention in sitting (P=0.02, crawling (P=0.001 and standing (P=0.03 positions; however no significant difference was seen in rolling (P=0.65 and walking (P=0.69 ability assessment.ConclusionThis study showed the beneficial effects of the SIT training program for children with CP; the SIT intervention had a significantly positive effect on gross motor function in the children with diplegic spastic CP. Moreover the results of the present study showed that sensory integration and vestibular stimulation were effective in children with cerebral palsy.Keywords:Cerebral palsy, Children, Gross motor, Occupational therapy, Sensory integration

  16. Effect of cerebrolysin on gross motor function of children with cerebral palsy: a clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasiri, Jafar; Safavifar, Faezeh

    2017-01-10

    Gross motor dysfunction is considered as the most challenging problem in cerebral palsy (CP). It is proven that improvement of gross motor function could reduce CP-related disabilities and provide better quality of life in this group of patients. Therefore, the aim of this trial is to evaluate the effectiveness of cerebrolysin (CBL) on gross motor function of children with CP who are undergoing treatment. In this clinical trial study, paediatric patients aged 18-75 months with spastic diplegic or quadriplegic cerebral palsy, who were under rehabilitation therapy, were selected and randomly allocated in control and CBL groups. Patients in CBL group underwent treatment with standard rehabilitation therapy plus CBL. The latter was administrated intramuscularly as a single daily dose of 0.1 cc/kg for 10 days and then continued weekly for 4 months. Gross motor function of participants in the two studied groups, before and after trial, was evaluated and compared using the validated Persian version of gross motor function classification system-expanded and revised (GMFCS-E&R). During this trial, 108 patients with CP were evaluated for eligibility. From these, 50 patients were enrolled and randomly allocated in the CBL and control groups. Four months after trial, the mean level of GMFCS decreased significantly in the two groups (P < 0.05). However, it was significantly lower in the CBL group than in the control group (2.1 vs. 3.16, P < 0.05). The results of this trial indicated that CBL could improve gross motor function in patients with CP. This finding is consistent with neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects of CBL, which have been reported in various clinical trials in other neurological disorders. Further studies are recommended to establish the value of continued neuroprotection and to determine the pharmacokinetics/dynamics of CBL in this group of patients.

  17. The dead end of domestic violence: spotlight on children's narratives during forensic investigations following domestic homicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Carmit

    2014-12-01

    The current study provides an in-depth exploration of the narratives of children who witnessed their father killing their mother. This exploration was conducted using a thematic analysis of the children's forensic interviews based on seven investigative interviews that were conducted with children following the domestic homicide. Investigative interviews were selected for study only for substantiated cases and only if the children disclosed the domestic homicide. All of the investigative interviews were conducted within 24h of the domestic homicide. Thematic analysis revealed the following four key categories: the domestic homicide as the dead end of domestic violence, what I did when daddy killed mommy, that one time that daddy killed mommy, and mommy will feel better and will go back home. The discussion examines the multiple layers of this phenomenon as revealed in the children's narratives and its consequences for professionals within the legal and clinical contexts.

  18. Human tuberculosis predates domestication in ancient Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Oussama; Lee, Oona Y-C; Wu, Houdini H T; Besra, Gurdyal S; Minnikin, David E; Llewellyn, Gareth; Williams, Christopher M; Maixner, Frank; O'Sullivan, Niall; Zink, Albert; Chamel, Bérénice; Khawam, Rima; Coqueugniot, Eric; Helmer, Daniel; Le Mort, Françoise; Perrin, Pascale; Gourichon, Lionel; Dutailly, Bruno; Pálfi, György; Coqueugniot, Hélène; Dutour, Olivier

    2015-06-01

    The question of pre-neolithic tuberculosis is still open in paleopathological perspective. One of the major interests is to explore what type of infection could have existed around the early stage of animal domestication. Paleopathological lesions evoking skeletal TB were observed on five human skeletons coming from two PPNB sites in Syria, which belongs to the geographical cradle of agriculture. These sites represent respectively pre-domestication phase (Dja'de el Mughara, Northern Syria, 8800-8300 BCE cal.) and early domestication phase (Tell Aswad, Southern Syria, 8200-7600 BCE cal.). MicroCT scan analyses were performed on two specimens (one per site) and revealed microscopic changes in favor of TB infection. Detection of lipid biomarkers is positive for two specimens (one per site). Initial molecular analysis further indicates the presence of TB in one individual from Dja'de. Interestingly, no morphological evidence of TB was observed on animal remains of wild and newly domesticated species, discovered in these sites. These observations strongly suggest the presence of human tuberculosis before domestication and at its early stages.

  19. Storytelling and story testing in domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbault, Pascale; Allaby, Robin G; Boivin, Nicole; Rudzinski, Anna; Grimaldi, Ilaria M; Pires, J Chris; Climer Vigueira, Cynthia; Dobney, Keith; Gremillion, Kristen J; Barton, Loukas; Arroyo-Kalin, Manuel; Purugganan, Michael D; Rubio de Casas, Rafael; Bollongino, Ruth; Burger, Joachim; Fuller, Dorian Q; Bradley, Daniel G; Balding, David J; Richerson, Peter J; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Larson, Greger; Thomas, Mark G

    2014-04-29

    The domestication of plants and animals marks one of the most significant transitions in human, and indeed global, history. Traditionally, study of the domestication process was the exclusive domain of archaeologists and agricultural scientists; today it is an increasingly multidisciplinary enterprise that has come to involve the skills of evolutionary biologists and geneticists. Although the application of new information sources and methodologies has dramatically transformed our ability to study and understand domestication, it has also generated increasingly large and complex datasets, the interpretation of which is not straightforward. In particular, challenges of equifinality, evolutionary variance, and emergence of unexpected or counter-intuitive patterns all face researchers attempting to infer past processes directly from patterns in data. We argue that explicit modeling approaches, drawing upon emerging methodologies in statistics and population genetics, provide a powerful means of addressing these limitations. Modeling also offers an approach to analyzing datasets that avoids conclusions steered by implicit biases, and makes possible the formal integration of different data types. Here we outline some of the modeling approaches most relevant to current problems in domestication research, and demonstrate the ways in which simulation modeling is beginning to reshape our understanding of the domestication process.

  20. Early Holocene chicken domestication in northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Hai; Gao, Jianqiang; Yu, Baoquan; Zhou, Hui; Cai, Dawei; Zhang, Youwen; Chen, Xiaoyong; Wang, Xi; Hofreiter, Michael; Zhao, Xingbo

    2014-12-01

    Chickens represent by far the most important poultry species, yet the number, locations, and timings of their domestication have remained controversial for more than a century. Here we report ancient mitochondrial DNA sequences from the earliest archaeological chicken bones from China, dating back to ∼ 10,000 B.P. The results clearly show that all investigated bones, including the oldest from the Nanzhuangtou site, are derived from the genus Gallus, rather than any other related genus, such as Phasianus. Our analyses also suggest that northern China represents one region of the earliest chicken domestication, possibly dating as early as 10,000 y B.P. Similar to the evidence from pig domestication, our results suggest that these early domesticated chickens contributed to the gene pool of modern chicken populations. Moreover, our results support the idea that multiple members of the genus Gallus, specifically Gallus gallus and Gallus sonneratii contributed to the gene pool of the modern domestic chicken. Our results provide further support for the growing evidence of an early mixed agricultural complex in northern China.

  1. Reshaping of the maize transcriptome by domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson-Wagner, Ruth; Briskine, Roman; Schaefer, Robert; Hufford, Matthew B; Ross-Ibarra, Jeffrey; Myers, Chad L; Tiffin, Peter; Springer, Nathan M

    2012-07-17

    Through domestication, humans have substantially altered the morphology of Zea mays ssp. parviglumis (teosinte) into the currently recognizable maize. This system serves as a model for studying adaptation, genome evolution, and the genetics and evolution of complex traits. To examine how domestication has reshaped the transcriptome of maize seedlings, we used expression profiling of 18,242 genes for 38 diverse maize genotypes and 24 teosinte genotypes. We detected evidence for more than 600 genes having significantly different expression levels in maize compared with teosinte. Moreover, more than 1,100 genes showed significantly altered coexpression profiles, reflective of substantial rewiring of the transcriptome since domestication. The genes with altered expression show a significant enrichment for genes previously identified through population genetic analyses as likely targets of selection during maize domestication and improvement; 46 genes previously identified as putative targets of selection also exhibit altered expression levels and coexpression relationships. We also identified 45 genes with altered, primarily higher, expression in inbred relative to outcrossed teosinte. These genes are enriched for functions related to biotic stress and may reflect responses to the effects of inbreeding. This study not only documents alterations in the maize transcriptome following domestication, identifying several genes that may have contributed to the evolution of maize, but highlights the complementary information that can be gained by combining gene expression with population genetic analyses.

  2. Domestic utility attitudes toward foreign uranium supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-06-01

    The current embargo on the enrichment of foreign-origin uranium for use in domestic utilization facilities is scheduled to be removed in 1984. The pending removal of this embargo, complicated by a depressed worldwide market for uranium, has prompted consideration of a new or extended embargo within the US Government. As part of its on-going data collection activities, Nuclear Resources International (NRI) has surveyed 50 domestic utility/utility holding companies (representing 60 lead operator-utilities) on their foreign uranium purchase strategies and intentions. The most recent survey was conducted in early May 1981. A number of qualitative observations were made during the course of the survey. The major observations are: domestic utility views toward foreign uranium purchase are dynamic; all but three utilities had some considered foreign purchase strategy; some utilities have problems with buying foreign uranium from particular countries; an inducement is often required by some utilities to buy foreign uranium; opinions varied among utilities concerning the viability of the domestic uranium industry; and many utilities could have foreign uranium fed through their domestic uranium contracts (indirect purchases). The above observations are expanded in the final section of the report. However, it should be noted that two of the observations are particularly important and should be seriously considered in formulation of foreign uranium import restrictions. These important observations are the dynamic nature of the subject matter and the potentially large and imbalanced effect the indirect purchases could have on utility foreign uranium procurement.

  3. Acute gross sterile pyuria after oral ciprofloxacin treatment of urinary tract infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pathoom Sukkaromdee; Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2016-01-01

    The sterile pyuria is an interesting problem in urology. Acute gross sterile pyuria is not a common clinical problem and is difficult to make a correct diagnosis. Here, the authors reported a case of acute gross sterile pyuria after oral ciprofloxacin treatment of urinary tract infection. The patient developed problem after complete course of 7-day acute upper urinary tract treatment. The patient was observed with cloudy whitish urine that had never seen before. The urinalysis showed sterile pyuria. This case was treated by conservative method and the problem was resolved within 7 days.

  4. Btryoid Wilm's tumor in a child presenting with gross hematuria: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chae Jung; Im, Young Jae; Shin, Hyun Joo; Kim, Myung Joon; Lee, Mi Jung [Severance Children' s Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    We report a unique case of botryoid Wilms' tumor with its characteristic imaging findings in a 5-month-old boy presenting with gross hematuria. In our case, ultrasonography revealed lobulated hyperechoic lesions filling the pelvicalyceal system without parenchymal invasion, mimicking a blood clot. However, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated the exact extent of the lesion with diffusion restriction and delayed enhancement suggestive of a tumor. Despite their rarity, botryoid Wilms' tumors should be included in the differential diagnosis of lobulated renal pelvic lesions presenting as gross hematuria in children, and MRI can suggest the diagnosis.

  5. MODELING AND FORECASTING THE GROSS ENROLLMENT RATIO IN ROMANIAN PRIMARY SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARINOIU CRISTIAN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The gross enrollment ratio in primary school is one of the basic indicators used in order to evaluate the proposed objectives of the educational system. Knowing its evolution allows a more rigorous substantiation of the strategies and of the human resources politics not only from the educational field but also from the economic one. In this paper we propose an econometric model in order to describe the gross enrollment ratio in Romanian primary school and we achieve its prediction for the next years, having as a guide the Box-Jenkins’s methodology. The obtained results indicate the continuous decrease of this rate for the next years.

  6. Improving gross motor function and postural control with hippotherapy in children with Down syndrome: case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champagne, Danielle; Dugas, Claude

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this case report is to describe the impact of an 11-week hippotherapy program on the gross motor functions of two children (respectively 28 and 37 months old) diagnosed with Down syndrome. Hippotherapy is a strategy that uses the horse's motion to stimulate and enhance muscle contraction and postural control. The children were assessed by the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) and accelerometry. The results indicate that both children improved on many dimensions of the GMFM. Power spectral analysis of the acceleration signals showed improvement in postural control of either the head or trunk, because the children adopted two different adaptative strategies to perturbation induced by the moving horse.

  7. Production of table potatoes in Europe – a multinational gross margin analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren Marcus; Bizik, J.; Dalla Costa, L.

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines different cropping practies, cost structures and gross margins for conventional table potato cropping in 6 different regions within the European Union: Czech Republic, Denmark, Italy, Poland, Portugal and Slovakia. Findings from this study show that potato cropping practies...... varies significantly between the various countries with major differences in yield and costs. Italy and Denmark are two regions with highest gross margins due to hight yields and revenues. Poland is by far the largest potato producing country among the 6 countries. The production is primarily based...

  8. No First-Order Phase Transition in the Gross-Neveu Model?

    CERN Document Server

    Brzoska, A; Brzoska, Andrej; Thies, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Within a variational calculation we investigate the role of baryons for the structure of dense matter in the Gross-Neveu model. We construct a trial ground state at finite baryon density which breaks translational invariance. Its scalar potential interpolates between widely spaced kinks and antikinks at low density and the value zero at infinite density. Its energy is lower than the one of the standard Fermi gas at all densities considered. This suggests that the discrete gamma_5 symmetry of the Gross-Neveu model does not get restored in a first order phase transition at finite density, at variance with common wisdom.

  9. Mechanisms and dynamic of domestic violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abidovic Amela

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The most common synonyms for term family are: love, support, understanding, warmness, etc. The family should present the place of the most protected living where each its member gets everything what he/she needs for undisturbed psychological and physical growth. However, sometimes it isn't like that and the family present the place of violence, harassment and neglecting. Unfortunately, domestic violence is as old as the human being. Special mechanisms and tactics of harassment are built through history. They succeeded to make the domestic violence hidden and away from detailed socio-psyhological researches and practical interventions for so long. The aim of this work is to inspire experts' attention to more often phenomenon of domestic violence, and the need for more detailed analysis of mechanisms which determine appearance and maintenance of violence, and all this with intention to find out the most adequate solution in prevention of this social problem.

  10. Therapists' prototypical assessment of domestic violence situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasko, Kelly A; Winek, Jon L; Bieschke, Kathleen J

    2007-04-01

    Prototypical perceptions by therapists have the potential to influence the therapeutic process of assessment. The purpose of this study is to begin to develop an understanding of how prototypes might affect marriage and family therapists' assessments of domestic violence situations. Participants evaluated one of three domestic violence scenarios that were identical in dynamics but different in terms of sexual orientation of the couple (i.e., heterosexual, gay, or lesbian). The most significant finding was that initial assessments of victim and perpetrator identification and power attribution differed depending on the sexual orientation of the couple. The "man as perpetrator, woman as victim" prototypical paradigm for heterosexual domestic violence emerged. In the same-sex scenarios, often "both" partners were perceived to be indicated both as victim and perpetrator.

  11. Domestic support and the Doha development agenda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zobbe, Henrik; Jensen, Hans Grinsted

    Following the July 2004 Framework, this paper suggest that regardless of low or high level of reductions, Iceland, Norway, Switzerland, the European Union, and United States have problems with both Total AMS and the overall base level of Total Trade Distorting Domestic Support. When recent policy...... reforms and likely changes such as the Agenda 2000, the Midterm Review Reform, the proposed sugar reform in the European Union and the farm bills of 1996 and 2002 in the United States are taken into account, it becomes clear that both the European Union and the United States would be able to accommodate...... low or moderate reductions in both Total AMS and Total Trade Distorting Domestic Support. In respect of high reductions, further domestic reforms would be needed for both the European Union and the United States....

  12. JOB CENTRE FOR DOMESTIC STAFF IN SWITZERLAND

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service; http://www.cern.ch/relations/

    2001-01-01

    The Permanent mission of Switzerland to the International Organisations in Geneva has informed CERN that the Geneva Welcome Centre has set up an employment registration desk for the domestic staff of international civil servants. The aim of this pilot project is, on the one hand, to help international civil servants find domestic staff and, on the other hand, to help domestic staff holding an 'F'-type carte de légitimation find employment within 30 days after the expiry of a contract. For more information, please contact the Geneva Welcome Centre, La Pastorale, 106, route de Ferney, Case postale 103, 1211 Genève 20, tel. (+41.22) 918 02 70, fax (+41.22) 918 02 79), http://geneva-international.org/Welcome.E.html.

  13. Training for Internationalization through Domestic Geographical Dispersion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santangelo, Grazia D.; Stucchi, Tamara

    organizational learning, we seek to solve this puzzle in relation to the internationalization of Indian BGs. In particular, we argue that in heterogeneous domestic emerging markets BG’s geographical dispersion across sub-national states provides training for internationalization. To internationalize successfully......, BGs need to develop the capability of managing geographically dispersed units in institutional heterogeneous contexts. Domestic geographical dispersion would indeed help the BG dealing with different regulations, customers and infrastructures. However, there is less scope for such training as BGs...... become more internationally experienced, and the benefits of domestic geographical dispersions are limited by the degree of urbanization of sub-national states. We test our argument on a sample of 693 Indian BGs over the period 2001-2010....

  14. A comparative view of the evolution of grasses under domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glémin, Sylvain; Bataillon, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Crop grasses were among the first plants to be domesticated c. 12,000 yr ago, and they still represent the main staple crops for humans. During domestication, as did many other crops, grasses went through dramatic genetic and phenotypic changes. The recent massive increase in genomic data has provided new tools to investigate the genetic basis and consequences of domestication. Beyond the genetics of domestication, many aspects of grass biology, including their phylogeny and developmental biology, are also increasingly well studied, offering a unique opportunity to analyse the domestication process in a comparative way. Taking such a comparative point of view, we review the history of domesticated grasses and how domestication affected their phenotypic and genomic diversity. Considering recent theoretical developments and the accumulation of genetic data, we revisit more specifically the role of mating systems in the domestication process. We close by suggesting future directions for the study of domestication in grasses.

  15. The Gender Wage Gap and Domestic Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizer, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Three quarters of all violence against women is perpetrated by domestic partners. This study exploits exogenous changes in the demand for labor in female-dominated industries to estimate the impact of the male-female wage gap on domestic violence. Decreases in the wage gap reduce violence against women, consistent with a household bargaining model. These findings shed new light on the health production process as well as observed income gradients in health and suggest that in addition to addressing concerns of equity and efficiency, pay parity can also improve the health of American women via reductions in violence. PMID:25110354

  16. Domestic violence among Iraqi refugees in Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tappis, Hannah; Biermann, Elizabeth; Glass, Nancy; Tileva, Margarita; Doocy, Shannon

    2012-01-01

    A domestic violence questionnaire was administered to 701 adult females in a sample of 813 Iraqi households in Syria; unmarried women and women whose husbands were away were excluded, yielding a final sample of 486. Lifetime physical, verbal, or emotional abuse was reported by 30%, and approximately 20% experienced abuse within the past year. Non-Damascus residence, children Syria were associated with increased risk of domestic violence within the past year. Support services are inadequate and should be expanded; and longer-term prevention measures also should be implemented.

  17. The Gender Wage Gap and Domestic Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizer, Anna

    2010-09-01

    Three quarters of all violence against women is perpetrated by domestic partners. This study exploits exogenous changes in the demand for labor in female-dominated industries to estimate the impact of the male-female wage gap on domestic violence. Decreases in the wage gap reduce violence against women, consistent with a household bargaining model. These findings shed new light on the health production process as well as observed income gradients in health and suggest that in addition to addressing concerns of equity and efficiency, pay parity can also improve the health of American women via reductions in violence.

  18. Particle Emissions from Domestic Gas Cookers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glarborg, Peter; Livbjerg, Hans; Wagner, Ayten Yilmaz

    2010-01-01

    The authors experimentally studied the formation of submicron particles from a domestic gas cooker in a compartment free from external particle sources. The effects of fuel (methane, natural gas, odorant-free natural gas), primary aeration, flow rate, and fuel sulphur content on particle emissions...... were investigated. The experiments confirmed reports from literature that blue burning flames of domestic gas cookers emit submicron particles. The particle number concentrations varied in the range 103-106 particles/cm3, depending on the fuel, flow rate, and primary air addition. The diameters...

  19. Multilevel Flow Modeling of Domestic Heating Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Junjie; Lind, Morten; You, Shi

    2012-01-01

    of complementing this reasoning methodology. Domestic heating systems, as the main resource to meet the thermal requirements of end-users, have different implementations in Europe in order to achieve various degrees of controllability and heating efficiencies. As all the heating systems serve the same basic needs...... i.e. supplying and transferring thermal energy, it is off interest to use MFM to investigate similarities and differences between different implementations. In this paper, three typical domestic European heating systems, which differ from each other in the number of temperature sensors and auxiliary...

  20. Quality Assessment of Domesticated Animal Genome Assemblies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seemann, Stefan E; Anthon, Christian; Palasca, Oana

    2015-01-01

    domesticated animal genomes still need to be sequenced deeper in order to produce high-quality assemblies. In the meanwhile, ironically, the extent to which RNAseq and other next-generation data is produced frequently far exceeds that of the genomic sequence. Furthermore, basic comparative analysis is often...... affected by the lack of genomic sequence. Herein, we quantify the quality of the genome assemblies of 20 domesticated animals and related species by assessing a range of measurable parameters, and we show that there is a positive correlation between the fraction of mappable reads from RNAseq data...

  1. Demand Response on domestic thermostatically controlled loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lakshmanan, Venkatachalam

    . In general, the electricity consumers are classified as industrial, commercial and domestic. In this dissertation, only the thermostatically controlled loads (TCLs) in the domestic segment are considered for the demand response study. The study is funded by Danish Council for Strategic Research (DCSR......, with respect to different power reduction levels, are analysed. Finally, the impact of demand response activation on the TCLs aggregated power is studied in terms of error in power limit, ramping rates and peak overshoot in different control scenarios. Lastly, the advantage and disadvantage of the different...

  2. [Nursing discourse on domestic violence in Taiwan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Hsiu; Huang, Joh-Jong

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this article was to perform a critical appraisal of nursing discourses on domestic violence published in journals between 1999 and 2007 in Taiwan. All searched materials were retrieved from official websites using key words "domestic violence" or "marital violence". Ten related articles were obtained in all. The most significant finding was related to autonomic nursing intervention, which can effectively meet the needs of abused women. Such an approach differs from traditional order-based nursing activities in the patriarchal practicum of medical teams and offers a promising way to reform medical team hierarchies.

  3. Domestic tourism in Uruguay: a matrix approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Domínguez Pérez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper domestic tourism in Uruguay is analyzed by introducing an Origin-Destination matrix approach, and an attraction coefficient is calculated. We show that Montevideo is an attractive destination to every department except itself (even if it emits more trips than it receives, and the Southeast region is the main destination. Another important outcome is the importance of intra-regional patterns, associated to trips to bordering departments. Findings provide destination managers with practical knowledge, useful for reducing seasonality and attracting more domestic tourists throughout the year, as well as to deliver a better service offer, that attracts both usual visitors and new ones from competitive destinations.

  4. Transnational communication and domestic environmental policy learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sietske VEENMAN

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to provide patterns of how transnational communication may lead to domestic policy learning. Existing theories of policy learning, policy diffusion and policy convergence assume that transnational communication may lead to domestic policy learning and policy change, but do not suggest general, empirically investigated patterns. Two case studies on the policy of noise abatement around airports and the policy of contaminated land show that different venues in which transnational communication takes place may induce different types of policy change at the national level.

  5. Domestic abuse against minors: A victomological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SORIN M. RĂDULESCU

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The study presents the main findings of the secondary analysis conducted by the author on the statistics of the Prosecutors' Office with the High Court of Cassation and Justice in the period between 2005 and the first semester of 2007, regarding domestic physical and sexual abuse against minors. The study emphasizes the increase or decrease trends in the number of victims of domestic abuse according to the category of crime (for example manslaughter, battery resulting in death, battery and other types of violence, rape, incest, sexual corruption, etc. as well as in relation to aggressors and victims.

  6. Model Estimates Of Gross Domestic Product In Relation to Export And Import Of Fuels, Focused on the Elasticity and Determination Of Directly and Indirectly Associated Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Săvoiu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is based on several interrogative assumptions related to the positive impact of the crises and the recession on determinations in the econometric models of Romania’s GDP as a variable dependent in relation to the export and import of fuels. After a short introductory section, which details, in a relative manner, the overall goal and the objectives of the paper, a first section makes use of elasticity and the modern solutions of building the coefficient of elasticity, proposing an original alternative to existing variants, and afterwards the next section builds on these statistical tools in the econometric modeling of Romania’s GDP, starting from the ratios and value indicators and offering a few original models where the export and import of fuels are the key initial explanatory factors. The final remarks reinterpret the role of the energy resources, as well as that of the related flows, in enhancing statistical connections, and especially the role of crises and recessions in validating econometric models, by raising their degree of predictability.

  7. Analysis of the relation between energy, population and gross domestic product in Mercosul; Analisis de la relacion energia-poblacion-producto bruto interno (PBI) en el Mercosur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerra, Sinclair M.-G.; Tapia, Julia E.S. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica

    1996-12-31

    This paper discusses the relation between end-use energy and population in Mercosul. The first part of the paper analysis the selected variables by the historical point of view during the time period of 1970-1993, considering five study unities: each country which is a member of Mercosul and Mercosul as a whole. In the second part a future energy demand for the years 2000 and 2005 is projected considering a determined population and most probable economic evolution scenarios 11 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  8. The dynamic model on the impact of biodiesel blend mandate (B5) on Malaysian palm oil domestic demand: A preliminary finding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidin, Norhaslinda Zainal; Applanaidu, Shri-Dewi; Sapiri, Hasimah

    2014-12-01

    Over the last ten years, world biofuels production has increased dramatically. The biodiesel demand is driven by the increases in fossil fuel prices, government policy mandates, income from gross domestic product and population growth. In the European Union, biofuel consumption is mostly driven by blending mandates in both France and Germany. In the case of Malaysia, biodiesel has started to be exported since 2006. The B5 of 5% blend of palm oil based biodiesel into diesel in all government vehicles was implemented in February 2009 and it is expected to be implemented nationwide in the nearest time. How will the blend mandate will project growth in the domestic demand of palm oil in Malaysia? To analyze this issue, a system dynamics model was constructed to evaluate the impact of blend mandate implementation on the palm oil domestic demand influence. The base run of simulation analysis indicates that the trend of domestic demand will increase until 2030 in parallel with the implementation of 5 percent of biodiesel mandate. Finally, this study depicts that system dynamics is a useful tool to gain insight and to experiment with the impact of changes in blend mandate implementation on the future growth of Malaysian palm oil domestic demand sector.

  9. Sunflower domestication alleles support single domestication center in eastern North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackman, Benjamin K; Scascitelli, Moira; Kane, Nolan C; Luton, Harry H; Rasmussen, David A; Bye, Robert A; Lentz, David L; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2011-08-23

    Phylogenetic analyses of genes with demonstrated involvement in evolutionary transitions can be an important means of resolving conflicting hypotheses about evolutionary history or process. In sunflower, two genes have previously been shown to have experienced selective sweeps during its early domestication. In the present study, we identified a third candidate early domestication gene and conducted haplotype analyses of all three genes to address a recent, controversial hypothesis about the origin of cultivated sunflower. Although the scientific consensus had long been that sunflower was domesticated once in eastern North America, the discovery of pre-Columbian sunflower remains at archaeological sites in Mexico led to the proposal of a second domestication center in southern Mexico. Previous molecular studies with neutral markers were consistent with the former hypothesis. However, only two indigenous Mexican cultivars were included in these studies, and their provenance and genetic purity have been questioned. Therefore, we sequenced regions of the three candidate domestication genes containing SNPs diagnostic for domestication from large, newly collected samples of Mexican sunflower landraces and Mexican wild populations from a broad geographic range. The new germplasm also was genotyped for 12 microsatellite loci. Our evidence from multiple evolutionarily important loci and from neutral markers supports a single domestication event for extant cultivated sunflower in eastern North America.

  10. When domestic goes capital: Juror decision making in capital murder trials involving domestic homicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Tara N; Smith, M Dwayne; Fogel, Sondra J; Bjerregaard, Beth

    2015-08-01

    Prior research suggests that homicide cases involving familial offenders and victims are subject to a "domestic discount" that reduces sentencing severity. However, the operation of a domestic discount in regard to death penalty sentencing has been rarely examined. The current research uses a near-population of jury decisions in capital murder trials conducted in North Carolina from 1991 to 2009 (n = 800), and a series of logistic regression analyses to determine whether there is (a) a direct effect between offender-victim relationship (e.g., domestic, friend/acquaintance, and stranger) and jury decision making, and/or (b) whether domestic offender-victim relationship (as well as other offender-victim relationships) moderates the effect of legal and extralegal case characteristics on jury assessment of the death penalty. Our findings revealed no empirical support for a "domestic discount" whereby juries are less likely to impose death sentences in cases involving domestic homicides. However, substantial differences in predictors of death sentencing were found across offender-victim dyads; most notably, domestic homicide cases demonstrated the most legalistic model of jury decisions to impose death sentences.

  11. Gross hepatomegaly due to ‘minimal change’ liver disease in a young female alcoholic

    OpenAIRE

    Majumdar, Sisir K.; Shaw, G K; Aps, E. J.; Thomson, Allan D.; O Gorman, P.; Bugler, J.

    1982-01-01

    The case of a grossly enlarged liver due to alcohol excess in a woman of 21 is reported. This case further demonstrates that a chronic alcoholic can have gross hepatomegaly with normal histology and normal liver function tests. The possible pathogenetic basis of ethanol-induced hepatomegaly (‘minimal change’ liver disease) is discussed.

  12. 26 CFR 1.62-1T - Adjusted gross income (temporary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... section 165 for losses incurred in any transaction entered into for profit though not connected with a... determining adjusted gross income, expenses must be those directly, and not those merely remotely, connected... research scientist, is employed by Corporation X. B gives a speech before members of Association Y,...

  13. Terrestrial gross carbon dioxide uptake: Global distribution and covariation with climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beer, C.; Veenendaal, E.M.

    2010-01-01

    Terrestrial gross primary production (GPP) is the largest global CO2 flux driving several ecosystem functions. We provide an observation-based estimate of this flux at 123 ± 8 petagrams of carbon per year (Pg C year-1) using eddy covariance flux data and various diagnostic models. Tropical forests

  14. 7 CFR 1400.501 - Determination of average adjusted gross income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... renewable energy; (4) The sale, including the sale of easements and development rights, of farm, ranch... renewable energy; (7) The feeding, rearing, or finishing of livestock; (8) The sale of land that has been..., and farm operations. (c) Except as otherwise provided in this subpart, adjusted gross income means:...

  15. Development of the Gross Motor Function Classification System for Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Peter L.; Palisano, Robert J.; Bartlett, Doreen J.; Galuppi, Barbara E.; Russell, Dianne J.

    2008-01-01

    The Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) for cerebral palsy has been widely used internationally for clinical, research, and administrative purposes. This paper recounts the ideas and work behind the creation of the GMFCS, reports on the lessons learned, and identifies some philosophical challenges inherent in trying to develop an…

  16. The gross motor function measure is a valid and sensitive outcome measure for spinal muscular atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Leslie; Owens, Hollis; Hynan, Linda S; Iannaccone, Susan T

    2006-06-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy is a genetic disease of the anterior horn cell with high morbidity rate in childhood. Certain drugs may be of benefit and are in or under consideration for Phase II trials. Outcome measures that are age appropriate and representative of disease activity remain under study. Several have not yet been validated for spinal muscular atrophy. The Gross Motor Function Measure is a measure of motor function. We showed previously that the Gross Motor Function Measure is a reliable outcome measure to assess motor function in children with spinal muscular atrophy. By collating our data from 40 spinal muscular atrophy patients, ages 5 through 17 years, we now show the validity of the Gross Motor Function Measure when compared to Quantitative Muscle Testing and ambulatory status in children with spinal muscular atrophy. The median for Gross Motor Function Measure total scores for walkers was 237 (range: 197-261) and for non-walkers, 64 (range: 4-177; PGross Motor Function Measure is valid and sensitive as an outcome measure for clinical trials in pediatric spinal muscular atrophy.

  17. Stereoscopic Anatomy: Evaluation of a New Teaching System in Human Gross Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prentice, Ernest D.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    A stereoscopic slide-based autoinstructional program has been developed as a substitute for dissection in teaching gross anatomy. Evaluation data suggest that this program, while having minor limitations in terms of anatomical orientation, does provide a viable alternative to dissection. (Editor/LBH)

  18. Student performance on practical gross anatomy examinations is not affected by assessment modality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Amanda J; Innes, Stanley I; Stomski, Norman J; Armson, Anthony J

    2016-01-01

    Anatomical education is becoming modernized, not only in its teaching and learning, but also in its assessment formats. Traditional "steeplechase" examinations are being replaced with online gross anatomy examinations. The aims of this study were to: (1) determine if online anatomy practical examinations are equivalent to traditional anatomy practical examinations; and (2) to examine if students' perceptions of the online or laboratory testing environments influenced their performance on the examinations. In phase one, 10 third-year students were interviewed to generate perception items to which five anatomy lecturers assigned content validity. In phase two, students' gross anatomical knowledge was assessed by examinations in two modes and their perceptions were examined using the devised survey instrument. Forty-five second-year chiropractic students voluntarily participated in Phase Two. The two randomly allocated groups completed the examinations in a sequential cross-over manner. Student performance on the gross anatomy examination was not different between traditional "steeplechase" (mean ± standard deviation (SD): 69 ± 11%) and online (68 ± 15%) modes. The majority of students (87%) agreed that they felt comfortable using computers for gross anatomy examinations. However, fewer students found it easy to orientate images of cadaver specimens online. The majority of students (85%) agreed that they felt comfortable working with cadavers but there was less agreement on the effect of moving around the laboratory during practical examinations. This data will allow anatomists to confidently implement online assessments without fear of jeopardizing academic rigor or student performance. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.

  19. Scattering and duality in the 2 dimensional OSp(2|2) gross neveu and sigma models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saleur, H.; Pozsgay, B.

    2010-01-01

    We write the thermodynamic Bethe ansatz for the massive OSp(2|2) Gross Neveu and sigma models. We find evidence that the GN S matrix proposed by Bassi and Leclair [12] is the correct one. We determine features of the sigma model S matrix, which seem highly unconventional; we conjecture in particular

  20. Gross and microscopic pathology of hard and soft corals in New Caledonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, Thierry M.; Aeby, Greta S.; Lasne, Gregory; Tribollet, Aline

    2014-01-01

    We surveyed the reefs of Grande Terre, New Caledonia, for coral diseases in 2010 and 2013. Lesions encountered in hard and soft corals were systematically described at the gross and microscopic level. We sampled paired and normal tissues from 101 and 65 colonies in 2010 and 2013, respectively, comprising 51 species of corals from 27 genera. Tissue loss was the most common gross lesion sampled (40%) followed by discoloration (28%), growth anomalies (13%), bleaching (10%), and flatworm infestation (1%). When grouped by gross lesions, the diversity of microscopic lesions as measured by Shannon–Wiener index was highest for tissue loss, followed by discoloration, bleaching, and growth anomaly. Our findings document an extension of the range of certain diseases such as Porites trematodiasis and endolithic hypermycosis (dark spots) to the Western Pacific as well as the presence of a putative cnidarian endosymbiont. We also expand the range of species infected by cell-associated microbial aggregates, and confirm the trend that these aggregates predominate in dominant genera of corals in the Indo-Pacific. This study highlights the importance of including histopathology as an integral component of baseline coral disease surveys, because a given gross lesion might be associated with multiple potential causative agents.

  1. 48 CFR 29.401-4 - New Mexico gross receipts and compensating tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false New Mexico gross receipts and compensating tax. 29.401-4 Section 29.401-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS TAXES Contract Clauses 29.401-4 New Mexico...

  2. 20 CFR 10.712 - What amounts are included in the gross recovery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... recovery? 10.712 Section 10.712 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF... gross recovery? (a) When a settlement or judgment is paid to, or for, one individual, the entire amount... recovery. If a settlement or judgment is paid to or for more than one individual or in more than...

  3. Gross genomic damage measured by DNA image cytometry independently predicts gastric cancer patient survival

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belien, J.A.M.; Buffart, T.E.; Gill, A.; Broeckaert, M.A.M.; Quirke, P.; Meijer, G.A.; Grabsch, H.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: DNA aneuploidy reflects gross genomic changes. It can be measured by flow cytometry (FCM-DNA) or image cytometry (ICM-DNA). In gastric cancer, the prevalence of DNA aneuploidy has been reported to range from 27 to 100%, with conflicting associations with clinicopathological variables. Th

  4. Medical gross anatomy as a predictor of performance on the USMLE Step 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Cathryn A; Tucker, Richard P

    2005-03-01

    Traditional predictors of medical school performance, such as Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) scores and grade point averages, are often used during the admissions process to help identify the prospective students who are most likely to complete the basic science portion of the curriculum successfully. Here we analyzed the admissions files and student records of 285 first-year medical students who matriculated at the University of California at Davis School of Medicine between 1999 and 2001 to determine if performance in medical gross anatomy is a similar, if not better, predictor of performance on the United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) Step 1 than traditional predictors used by medical school admissions committees. Though MCAT scores and grade point averages were correlated with scores on the USMLE Step 1, only the score on the biological science section of the MCAT was significantly correlated with passing the licensing examination. In contrast, class rank in medical gross anatomy and the score on a gross anatomy comprehensive final examination were correlated both with scores on the USMLE Step 1 and passing the examination. Our results indicate that medical schools should consider performance in medical gross anatomy just as much, if not more, than traditional predictors of medical school performance when trying to identify students who may need more time or tutoring to pass the licensing examination.

  5. Gross motor skills and sports participation of children with visual impairments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwen, S; Visscher, C.; Hartman, E.; Lemmink, K.A.P.M.

    2007-01-01

    Gross motor skill performance of children with visual impairments and its association with the degree of visual impairment and sports participation was examined. Twenty children with visual impairments (M age = 9.2 years, SD =1.5) and 100 sighted children (M age = 9.1 years, SD = 1.5) from mainstrea

  6. Assessment of Preschoolers' Gross Motor Proficiency: Revisiting Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Hazel Mei Yung

    2011-01-01

    Literature reveals that there are very few validated motor proficiency tests for young children. According to Gallahue and Ozmun, the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency is a valid test. However, manipulative skills, which are classified as gross motor skills by most motor development specialists, are only tested in the Upper Limb…

  7. Gross Motor Performance and Physical Fitness in Children with Psychiatric Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emck, Claudia; Bosscher, Ruud J.; van Wieringen, Piet C. W.; Doreleijers, Theo; Beek, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: Gross motor performance appears to be impaired in children with psychiatric disorders but little is known about which skill domains are affected in each disorder, nor about possible accompanying deficits in physical fitness. The present study has sought to provide information about these issues in children with emotional, behavioural, and…

  8. Comparison of a Gross Anatomy Laboratory to Online Anatomy Software for Teaching Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathiowetz, Virgil; Yu, Chih-Huang; Quake-Rapp, Cindee

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the grades, self-perceived learning, and satisfaction between occupational therapy students who used a gross anatomy laboratory versus online anatomy software (AnatomyTV) as tools to learn anatomy at a large public university and a satellite campus in the mid-western United States. The goal was to determine if…

  9. Medical Student Preferences for Self-Directed Study Resources in Gross Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi-Lundberg, Derek L.; Low, Tze Feng; Patman, Phillip; Turner, Paul; Sinha, Sankar N.

    2016-01-01

    Gross anatomy instruction in medical curricula involve a range of resources and activities including dissection, prosected specimens, anatomical models, radiological images, surface anatomy, textbooks, atlases, and computer-assisted learning (CAL). These resources and activities are underpinned by the expectation that students will actively engage…

  10. Student Performance on Practical Gross Anatomy Examinations Is Not Affected by Assessment Modality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Amanda J.; Innes, Stanley I.; Stomski, Norman J.; Armson, Anthony J.

    2016-01-01

    Anatomical education is becoming modernized, not only in its teaching and learning, but also in its assessment formats. Traditional "steeplechase" examinations are being replaced with online gross anatomy examinations. The aims of this study were to: (1) determine if online anatomy practical examinations are equivalent to traditional…

  11. Effects of winter flooding on mass and gross energy of bottomland hardwood acorns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan G. Leach; Jacob N. Straub; Richard M. Kaminski; Andrew W. Ezell; Tracy S. Hawkins; Theodor D. Leininger

    2012-01-01

    Decomposition of red oak acorns (Quercus spp.; Section Erythrobalanus) could decrease forage biomass and gross energy (GE) available to wintering ducks from acorns. We estimated changes in mass and GE for 3 species of red oak acorns in flooded and non-flooded bottomland hardwood forests in Mississippi during winter 2009–2010. Mass...

  12. Method of Multi-dimensional Gross Errors Snooping of GPS Velocity Estimation in Airborne Gravimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHENG Kai

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Precision velocity plays an important role in airborne gravimetry. Since the aircraft in a state of stable flight, we could establish a strict state equation with constant acceleration model for it, then obtained predicted velocity which was used for constructing a priori residual Q to detect the gross errors. Theoretical research showed that Q was influenced by the accuracy of predicted velocity and the measurement errors. According to the statistical features of Q combined with IGG Ⅲ principle, we could lower the contribution of the observation that contained the gross errors. Static testing was used for analyzing the characteristic of measurement errors as well as the accuracy of predicted velocity under the simulated ideal flight environment where the acceleration was approximate to a constant, the results also showed the relationship between the sampling rate and the ability of detecting gross errors. Both the static and kinematic tests demonstrate that new method can well detect the gross error smaller than 1 cycle.

  13. Self-Pacing a Gross Motor Skills Course: Crawler Tractor Operator, MOS 62E20.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Mark F.; Taylor, John E.

    As part of the Army's emphasis on performance-oriented instruction in training centers, a study was conducted to determine the feasibility of using self-paced instruction in a gross motor skills course. The Crawler Tractor Operator Course, a seven-week heavy equipment course conducted at Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri was selected for the study…

  14. Gross Square Feet Per Student. IssueTrak: A CEFPI Brief on Educational Facility Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlers, Art

    The Council of Educational Facility Planners International regularly provides the recommended number of gross square feet (gsf) per student figures. This report provides revised numbers based on responses from its Design Portfolio winners over the past 5 years. Average national averages of square footage space per student for Canada and the…

  15. A longitudinal study on gross motor development in children with learning disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westendorp, Marieke; Hartman, Esther; Houwen, Suzanne; Huijgen, Barbara C. H.; Smith, Joanne; Visscher, Chris

    This longitudinal study examined the development of gross motor skills, and sex-differences therein, in 7; to 11-years-old children with learning disorders (LD) and compared the results with typically developing children to determine the performance level of children with LD. In children with LD (n

  16. Remarks on the Blow-Up Solutions for the Critical Gross-Pitaevskii Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoguang Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the blow-up solutions of the critical Gross-Pitaevskii equation, which models the Bose-Einstein condensate. The existence and qualitative properties of the minimal blow-up solutions are obtained.

  17. Gross motor skills and sports participation of children with visual impairments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwen, S; Visscher, C.; Hartman, E.; Lemmink, K.A.P.M.

    Gross motor skill performance of children with visual impairments and its association with the degree of visual impairment and sports participation was examined. Twenty children with visual impairments (M age = 9.2 years, SD =1.5) and 100 sighted children (M age = 9.1 years, SD = 1.5) from

  18. Hydrodynamical form for the one-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haidar Mohamad

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We establish a well-posedness result for the hydrodynamical form (HGP of the one dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation (GP via the classical form of this equation. The result established in this way proves that (HGP is locally well-posed since the solution of (GP can vanished at some $t\

  19. The effect of ambient temperature on gross-efficiency in cycling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hettinga, F.J.; Koning, J.J. de; Vrijer, A. de; Wüst, R.C.I.; Daanen, H.A.M.; Foster, C.

    2007-01-01

    Time-trial performance deteriorates in the heat. This might potentially be the result of a temperature-induced decrease in gross-efficiency (GE). The effect of high ambient temperature on GE during cycling will be studied, with the intent of determining if a heat-induced change in GE could account f

  20. The Effects of Modified Games on the Development of Gross Motor Skill in Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestari, Indah; Ratnaningsih, Tri

    2016-01-01

    Gross motor skills on children must be optimized much earlier since it plays important role not only on their interaction process but also in supporting other multiple developments. One of the means in developing child's motor skill is by providing innovative games i.e. modified games including game format, game timing, and game sequence. The…

  1. Hand-rim Forces and Gross Mechanical Efficiency at Various Frequencies of Wheelchair Propulsion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenton, J. P.; van der Woude, L. H. V.; Fowler, N. E.; Nicholson, G.; Tolfrey, K.; Goosey-Tolfrey, V. L.

    2013-01-01

    To determine the effects of push frequency changes on force application, fraction of effective force (FEF) and gross efficiency (GE) during hand-rim propulsion. 8 male able-bodied participants performed five 4-min sub-maximal exercise bouts at 1.8 m.s(-1); the freely chosen frequency (FCF), followed

  2. 26 CFR 1.951-1 - Amounts included in gross income of United States shareholders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... shareholders. Therefore, the redemption rights are not restrictions or other limitations within the meaning of... States shareholders. 1.951-1 Section 1.951-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... included in gross income of United States shareholders. (a) In general. If a foreign corporation is...

  3. Joint control of terrestrial gross primary productivity by plant phenology and physiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xia, J.; Niu, S.; Ciais, P.; Janssens, I.A.; Chen, J.; Ammann, C.; Arain, A.; Blanken, P.D.; Cescatti, A.; Moors, E.J.

    2015-01-01

    Terrestrial gross primary productivity (GPP) varies greatly over time and space. A better understanding of this variability is necessary for more accurate predictions of the future climate–carbon cycle feedback. Recent studies have suggested that variability in GPP is driven by a broad range of biot

  4. Spatial patterns for the three species Gross-Pitaevskii system in the plane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Squassina

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we highlight some particular spatial patterns of ground state solutions for the three species Gross-Pitaevskii system in the plane having physical coefficients with particular attention to the cases where the inter-species coefficients become large. The solutions models least energy stationary states of a mixture of three Bose-Einstein condensates.

  5. An Efficient Compact Finite Difference Method for the Solution of the Gross-Pitaevskii Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongpei Zhang

    2015-01-01

    matrices. The CFDM-AIF method is implemented to investigate the ground and first excited state solutions of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation in two-dimensional (2D and three-dimensional (3D Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs. Numerical results are presented to demonstrate the validity, accuracy, and efficiency of the CFDM-AIF method.

  6. Direct measurements of the light dependence of gross photosynthesis and oxygen consumption in the ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailleul, B.; Park, J.; Brown, C. M.; Bidle, K. D.; Lee, S.; Falkowski, P. G.

    2016-02-01

    For decades, a lack of understanding of how respiration is influenced by light has been stymying our ability to quantitatively analyze how phytoplankton allocate carbon in situ and the biological mechanisms that participate to the fate of blooms. Using membrane inlet mass spectrometry (MIMS), the light dependencies of gross photosynthesis and oxygen uptake rates were measured during the bloom demises of two prymnesiophytes, in two open ocean regions. In the North Atlantic, dominated by Emiliania huxleyi, respiration was independent of irradiance and was higher than the gross photosynthetic rate at all irradiances. In the Amundsen Sea (Antarctica), dominated by Phaeocystis antarctica, the situation was very different. Dark respiration was one order of magnitude lower than the maximal gross photosynthetic rate. ut the oxygen uptake rate increased by 10 fold at surface irradiances, where it becomes higher than gross photosynthesis. Our results suggest that the light dependence of oxygen uptake in P. antarctica has two sources: one is independent of photosynthesis, and is possibly associated with the photo-reduction of O2 mediated by dissolved organic matter; the second reflects the activity of an oxidase fueled in the light with photosynthetic electron flow. Interestingly, these dramatic light-dependent changes in oxygen uptake were not reproduced in nutrient-replete P. antarctica cultures, in the laboratory. Our measurements highlight the importance of improving our understanding of oxygen consuming reactions in the euphotic zone, which is critical to investigating the physiology of phytoplankton and tracing the fate of phytoplankton blooms.

  7. A longitudinal study on gross motor development in children with learning disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westendorp, Marieke; Hartman, Esther; Houwen, Suzanne; Huijgen, Barbara C. H.; Smith, Joanne; Visscher, Chris

    2014-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the development of gross motor skills, and sex-differences therein, in 7; to 11-years-old children with learning disorders (LD) and compared the results with typically developing children to determine the performance level of children with LD. In children with LD (n

  8. Effects of Aquatic Intervention on Gross Motor Skills in Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roostaei, Meysam; Baharlouei, Hamzeh; Azadi, Hamidreza; Fragala-Pinkham, Maria A

    2016-12-14

    To review the literature on the effects of aquatic intervention on gross motor skills for children with cerebral palsy (CP). Six databases were searched from inception to January 2016. Aquatic studies for children aged 1-21 years with any type or CP classification and at least one outcome measuring gross motor skills were included. Information was extracted on study design, outcomes, and aquatic program type, frequency, duration, and intensity. Quality was rated using the Centre of Evidence-Based Medicine: Levels of Evidence and the PEDro scale. Of the 11 studies which met inclusion criteria, only two used randomized control trial design, and the results were mixed. Quality of evidence was rated as moderate to high for only one study. Most studies used quasi-experimental designs and reported improvements in gross motor skills for within group analyses after aquatic programs were held for two to three times per week and lasting for 6-16 weeks. Participants were classified according to the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels I-V, and were aged 3-21 years. Mild to no adverse reactions were reported. Evidence on aquatic interventions for ambulatory children with CP is limited. Aquatic exercise is feasible and adverse effects are minimal; however, dosing parameters are unclear. Further research is needed to determine aquatic intervention effectiveness and exercise dosing across age categories and GMFCS levels.

  9. Gross Motor Performance and Physical Fitness in Children with Psychiatric Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emck, Claudia; Bosscher, Ruud J.; van Wieringen, Piet C. W.; Doreleijers, Theo; Beek, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: Gross motor performance appears to be impaired in children with psychiatric disorders but little is known about which skill domains are affected in each disorder, nor about possible accompanying deficits in physical fitness. The present study has sought to provide information about these issues in children with emotional, behavioural, and…

  10. 46 CFR 130.130 - Steering on OSVs of less than 100 gross tons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... must be installed in the pilothouse to indicate operation of the power units. (e) The auxiliary means... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steering on OSVs of less than 100 gross tons. 130.130... VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Vessel Control § 130.130 Steering on OSVs of...

  11. A note on a proof of F. Hahn concerning the gross substitutability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgi, G

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this note is to investigate the assumptions and the proofs of some results by F. Hahn, which have been stated in several other classics of Economic Theory. The results deal with the relations between the gross substitutability and the weak axiom of revealed preference, in a pure exchange economy, ruled by the Walras law.

  12. Joint control of terrestrial gross primary productivity by plant phenology and physiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xia, J.; Niu, S.; Ciais, P.; Janssens, I.A.; Chen, J.; Ammann, C.; Arain, A.; Blanken, P.D.; Cescatti, A.; Moors, E.J.

    2015-01-01

    Terrestrial gross primary productivity (GPP) varies greatly over time and space. A better understanding of this variability is necessary for more accurate predictions of the future climate–carbon cycle feedback. Recent studies have suggested that variability in GPP is driven by a broad range of

  13. Associations between gross motor and communicative development in at-risk infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBarton, Eve Sauer; Iverson, Jana M

    2016-08-01

    Infants' advances in locomotion relate to advances in communicative development. However, little is known about these relations in infants at risk for delays in these domains and whether they may extend to earlier achievements in gross motor development in infancy. We examined whether advances in sitting and prone locomotion are related to communicative development in infants who have an older sibling with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and are at risk for motor and communication delays (heightened-risk; HR). We conducted a longitudinal study with 37 HR infants who did not receive an ASD diagnosis at 36 months. Infants were observed monthly between the ages of 5 and 14 months. We assessed gross motor development using the Alberta Infant Motor Scales (AIMS) and recorded ages of onset of verbal and nonverbal communicative behaviors. Results indicated increased presence of early gross motor delay from 5 to 10 months. In addition, there were positive relations between sitting and gesture and babble onset and between prone development and gesture onset. Thus, links between gross motor development and communication extend to at-risk development and provide a starting point for future research on potential cascading consequences of motor advances on communication development.

  14. The phase diagram of the massive Gross-Neveu model, revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Schnetz, O; Urlichs, K; Schnetz, Oliver; Thies, Michael; Urlichs, Konrad

    2005-01-01

    The massive Gross-Neveu model is solved in the large N limit at finite temperature and chemical potential. The phase diagram features a kink-antikink crystal phase which was missed in previous works. Translated into the framework of condensed matter physics our results generalize the bipolaron lattice in non-degenerate conducting polymers to finite temperature.

  15. 26 CFR 41.4482(b)-1 - Definition of taxable gross weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... oilfield machinery, etc.) mounted on the vehicle for use on construction jobs, in oilfield operations, etc...) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES EXCISE TAX ON USE OF CERTAIN HIGHWAY MOTOR VEHICLES Tax on Use of Certain Highway Motor Vehicles § 41.4482(b)-1 Definition of taxable gross weight. (a) Actual unloaded weight—(1)...

  16. The Impact of Gross Anatomy on the Future Head and Neck Surgeon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archibald, David J.; Carlson, Matthew L.

    2009-01-01

    Gross anatomy is not only a rite of passage for medical students as they enter the world of practicing medicine but may also be an unrecognized fork in the road in their pursuit of choosing a medical specialty. Otolaryngology: head and neck surgery tends to be poorly represented in medical school curriculum, often only offered as an elective…

  17. Building a Low-Cost Gross Anatomy Laboratory: A Big Step for a Small University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Evan

    2010-01-01

    This article illustrates details of the planning, building, and improvement phases of a cost-efficient, full-dissection gross anatomy laboratory on a campus of an historically design-centric university. Special considerations were given throughout the project to the nature of hosting cadavers in a building shared amongst all undergraduate majors.…

  18. A "Second Life" for Gross Anatomy: Applications for Multiuser Virtual Environments in Teaching the Anatomical Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, April; Hazzard, Matthew; Challman, Sandra D.; Morgenstein, Aaron M.; Brueckner, Jennifer K.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the emerging role of educational multiuser virtual environments, specifically Second Life[TM], in anatomical sciences education. Virtual worlds promote inquiry-based learning and conceptual understanding, potentially making them applicable for teaching and learning gross anatomy. A short introduction to Second Life as an…

  19. The impact of unit cost reductions on gross profit: Increasing or decreasing returns?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ely Dahan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We suggest that marketers actively participate in reducing unit costs during new product development, consistent with the theme of integrated marketing and manufacturing. Most marketing managers misjudge the impact on gross profit of reducing variable unit manufacturing costs, mistakenly believing that such cost reductions yield decreasing or linear returns while they actually generate increasing returns.

  20. Evidence of long-term gene flow and selection during domestication from analyses of Eurasian wild and domestic pig genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantz, Laurent A F; Schraiber, Joshua G; Madsen, Ole; Megens, Hendrik-Jan; Cagan, Alex; Bosse, Mirte; Paudel, Yogesh; Crooijmans, Richard P M A; Larson, Greger; Groenen, Martien A M

    2015-10-01

    Traditionally, the process of domestication is assumed to be initiated by humans, involve few individuals and rely on reproductive isolation between wild and domestic forms. We analyzed pig domestication using over 100 genome sequences and tested whether pig domestication followed a traditional linear model or a more complex, reticulate model. We found that the assumptions of traditional models, such as reproductive isolation and strong domestication bottlenecks, are incompatible with the genetic data. In addition, our results show that, despite gene flow, the genomes of domestic pigs have strong signatures of selection at loci that affect behavior and morphology. We argue that recurrent selection for domestic traits likely counteracted the homogenizing effect of gene flow from wild boars and created 'islands of domestication' in the genome. Our results have major ramifications for the understanding of animal domestication and suggest that future studies should employ models that do not assume reproductive isolation.