WorldWideScience

Sample records for gross consumption rate

  1. Gross efficiency during rowing is not affected by stroke rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmijster, Mathijs J; Van Soest, Arthur J; De Koning, Jos J

    2009-05-01

    It has been suggested that the optimal stroke rate in rowing is partly determined by the stroke-rate dependence of internal power losses. This should be reflected in a stroke-rate dependency of gross efficiency (e(gross)). The purpose of this study was to investigate if e(gross) is affected by stroke rate. A second aim was to determine whether internal power losses can be estimated by the negative power output during the stroke cycle (P(negative)). Seventeen well-trained female rowers participated in this study. They rowed three trials on a modified rowing ergometer on slides at a submaximal intensity, with a respiratory exchange ratio of 1 or close to 1. Stroke rates were 28, 34, and 40 strokes per minute. The trials were fully randomized. Power transfer to the flywheel was kept constant whereas e(gross) was determined during each trial. No significant differences in e(gross) were found between conditions. This finding suggests that in rowing internal power losses are not influenced by stroke rate. Furthermore, although P(negative) increased at increasing stroke rate (P measure to estimate internal power losses. This study shows that within the range of stroke rates applied in competitive rowing, internal power losses are unrelated to rowing cycle frequency.

  2. 78 FR 26575 - Gross Combination Weight Rating; Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-07

    ... Weight Rating; Definition AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION... definition of ``gross combination weight rating'' (or GCWR) to clarify that a GCWR is the greater of: the....regulations.gov . Fax: 1-202-493-2251. Mail: Docket Management Facility (M-30), U.S. Department of...

  3. 77 FR 51706 - Gross Combination Weight Rating (GCWR); Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration 49 CFR Parts 383 and 390 RIN 2126-AB53 Gross Combination Weight Rating (GCWR); Definition AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Direct final rule; request for comments. SUMMARY: The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration...

  4. Calculation of gross energy consumption[in a building]; Beregning af bruttoenergiforbrug

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelund Thomsen, Kirsten; Aggerholm, Soeren

    2000-07-01

    This bulletin presents a method for calculating the gross energy consumption of a building. The net heat demand for space heating, ventilation and domestic hot water should be calculated. Next converted to gross energy consumption, i.e. the amount of energy that is required to supply, for instance, a gas furnace in order that it produces the calculated amount of heat. First the electricity consumption required for ventilation, appliances and lighting is calculated, taking into consideration the daylight utilisation in commercial buildings. The point of departure is the existing method for calculating the net heat demand of buildings. The method includes heat supply from persons, lighting and appliances. This calculating method was later extended to include a method for calculating the energy demand for domestic hot water and addition of non-utilised heat loss from pipes and heat producing installations. This loss is calculated on the basis of loss in hot water tanks, heat and hot water pipes. Heat supply from solar collectors is calculated and deducted from the heat demand. The calculated end result is called gross heat requirement. Next the gross energy consumption for heating, ventilation and domestic hot water is determined by means of annual efficiency for heating installations. An inventory of the environmental impact is calculated based on the energy consumption measured by the total CO{sub 2} production per m{sup 2} floor area. The CO{sub 2} emission is calculated on the basis of the calculated gross energy consumption of heating and electricity, and on standard values for CO{sub 2} contents in the fuels used and emissions from electricity production issued by the Danish Energy Agency. The gross energy consumption is calculated for three examples of buildings: a single-family house, an administration building and a multi-storey building. The examples show that it is feasible to do calculations for typical buildings. Heat consumption for space heating and

  5. [Effects of nitrification inhibitors DCD and DMPP on cinnamon soil' s gross nitrogen mineralization and nitrification rates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Xu, Hui; Xia, Zong-Wei; Guo, Yan-Ling

    2012-01-01

    By using 15N pool dilution technique in combining with in situ soil cultivation, this paper studied the effects of nitrification inhibitors dicyandiamide (DCD) and 3,4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate (DMPP) on the gross nitrogen (N) mineralization and nitrification rates in a saline-alkali cinnamon soil in North China. The experiment was carried out in a maize-wheat rotation field in Yuncheng City of Shanxi Province, and three treatments were installed, i.e., urea, urea + DCD, and urea + DMPP. In the first two weeks after fertilization, DCD and DMPP made the gross N mineralization rate and gross N nitrification rate decreased by 25.5% and 7.3%, and by 60.3% and 59.1%, respectively, with a significant difference in the gross N mineralization rate but less difference in the gross N nitrification rate between the effects of DCD and DMPP. However, significant difference was observed in the gross N nitrification rate between the effects of DCD and DMPP after seven weeks of fertilization. The gross N mineralization and nitrification rates and the NH4+ and NO3-consumption rates after two weeks of fertilization were 7.2-10.0, 5.5-21.5, 9.1-12.2, and 5.1-8.4 times of those before fertilization, respectively, possibly due to the stimulating effect of N fertilization. DCD and DMPP made the fertilizer urea N more maintained in NH(4+)-N form and less accumulated in NO(3-)-N form in soil. The decreases of the gross N mineralization and nitrifications rate in the test soil due to the effects of the inhibitors would benefit the reduction of N2O emission from the soil.

  6. Direct measurements of the light dependence of gross photosynthesis and oxygen consumption in the ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailleul, B.; Park, J.; Brown, C. M.; Bidle, K. D.; Lee, S.; Falkowski, P. G.

    2016-02-01

    For decades, a lack of understanding of how respiration is influenced by light has been stymying our ability to quantitatively analyze how phytoplankton allocate carbon in situ and the biological mechanisms that participate to the fate of blooms. Using membrane inlet mass spectrometry (MIMS), the light dependencies of gross photosynthesis and oxygen uptake rates were measured during the bloom demises of two prymnesiophytes, in two open ocean regions. In the North Atlantic, dominated by Emiliania huxleyi, respiration was independent of irradiance and was higher than the gross photosynthetic rate at all irradiances. In the Amundsen Sea (Antarctica), dominated by Phaeocystis antarctica, the situation was very different. Dark respiration was one order of magnitude lower than the maximal gross photosynthetic rate. ut the oxygen uptake rate increased by 10 fold at surface irradiances, where it becomes higher than gross photosynthesis. Our results suggest that the light dependence of oxygen uptake in P. antarctica has two sources: one is independent of photosynthesis, and is possibly associated with the photo-reduction of O2 mediated by dissolved organic matter; the second reflects the activity of an oxidase fueled in the light with photosynthetic electron flow. Interestingly, these dramatic light-dependent changes in oxygen uptake were not reproduced in nutrient-replete P. antarctica cultures, in the laboratory. Our measurements highlight the importance of improving our understanding of oxygen consuming reactions in the euphotic zone, which is critical to investigating the physiology of phytoplankton and tracing the fate of phytoplankton blooms.

  7. THE ANALYSIS OF THE MAIN CHARACTERISTICS CONSIDERED FOR THE GROUPING EU MEMBER STATES ACCORDING TO GROSS INLAND ENERGY CONSUMPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POPESCU Catalin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Gross inland energy consumption represents the quantity of energy necessary to satisfy inland consumption of the geographical entity under consideration. It describes the total energy needs of a country. According to some Eurostat reports from 2013 and 2014, over the last two decades, gross inland energy consumption in the EU28, as can be noted, has changed pretty much: in 1990 cumulated 1670 million tonnes of oil equivalent (Mtoe, rose to a peak of 1830 Mtoe in 2006 and then decreased to 1680 Mtoe in 2012. These contradictory values required a comprehensive analysis and therefore, present paper describes the main characteristics related to the grouping EU Member States according to gross inland energy consumption in order to discover some common patterns among EU member states.

  8. Effects of land use change on soil gross nitrogen transformation rates in subtropical acid soils of Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yongbo; Xu, Zhihong

    2015-07-01

    Land use change affects soil gross nitrogen (N) transformations, but such information is particularly lacking under subtropical conditions. A study was carried out to investigate the potential gross N transformation rates in forest and agricultural (converted from the forest) soils in subtropical China. The simultaneously occurring gross N transformations in soil were quantified by a (15)N tracing study under aerobic conditions. The results showed that change of land use types substantially altered most gross N transformation rates. The gross ammonification and nitrification rates were significantly higher in the agricultural soils than in the forest soils, while the reverse was true for the gross N immobilization rates. The higher total carbon (C) concentrations and C / N ratio in the forest soils relative to the agricultural soils were related to the greater gross N immobilization rates in the forest soils. The lower gross ammonification combined with negligible gross nitrification rates, but much higher gross N immobilization rates in the forest soils than in the agricultural soils suggest that this may be a mechanism to effectively conserve available mineral N in the forest soils through increasing microbial biomass N, the relatively labile organic N. The greater gross nitrification rates and lower gross N immobilization rates in the agricultural soils suggest that conversion of forests to agricultural soils may exert more negative effects on the environment by N loss through NO3 (-) leaching or denitrification (when conditions for denitrification exist).

  9. Biofuel consumption rates and patterns in Kenya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kituyi, E. [Nairobi Univ. (Kenya). Dept. of Chemistry; Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Biochemistry Dept., Mainz (Germany); Marufu, L.; Huber, B.; Andreae, M.O.; Helas, G. [Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Biogeochemistry Dept., Mainz (Germany); Wandiga, SO.; Jumba, I.O. [Nairobi Univ. (Kenya). Dept. of Chemistry

    2001-07-01

    A questionnaire survey was conducted in rural and urban Kenya to establish biofuel consumption rates and patterns. The survey targeted households, commercial catering enterprises and public institutions such as schools and colleges. Firewood was the main biofuel used, mostly by rural households, who consumed the commodity at average consumption rates in the range 0.8-2.7 kg cap{sup -1} day{sup -1}. Charcoal was mostly consumed by the urban households at weighted average rates in the range 0.18-0.69 kg cap{sup -1} day{sup -1}. The consumption rates and patterns for these fuels by restaurants and academic institutions, and those for crop residues are also reported. The rates largely depended on the fuel availability but differed significantly among the three consumer groups and between rural and urban households. Other factors which may have influenced consumption rates are discussed. Although good fuelwood sufficiency was reported in the country in 1997, there were increasing difficulties in accessing these resources by most households, a situation having both short- and long-term implications for biofuel consumption rates and patterns. (Author)

  10. Gross N transformation rates after application of household compost or domestic sewage sludge to agricultural soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambus, P.; Kure, L.K.; Jensen, E.S.

    2002-01-01

    Gross N mineralization and immobilization was examined in soil amended with compost and sewage sludge on seven occasions during a year using N-15 pool dilution and enrichment techniques. Gross N mineralization was initially stimulated with both wastes and accelerated through the first 112 days...... of incubation, peaking at 5 mg N.kg(-1).d(-1) with compost compared with 4 mg N.kg(-1).d(-1) in control and sludge-treated soil. The magnitudes of mineralization rates exceeded those of immobilization by on average 6.3 ( compost) and 11.4 ( sludge) times, leading to a persistent net N mineralization cumulating...... up to 160 mg N.kg(-1) soil(compost) and 54 mg N.kg(-1) soil (sludge) over the season from May to November. The numerical model FLUAZ comprehensively predicted rates of gross mineralization and immobilization. Sludge exhibited an early season N-release, whereas compost released only 10% of the N...

  11. RANKING OF LOCAL AND DOMESTIC FUEL-ENERGY RECOURSES IN GROSS CONSUMPTION OF BELARUSSIAN FUEL-ENERGY RECOURSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. N. Rumiantsava

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Local and domestic fuel-energy recourses of theRepublicofBelarusin gross consumption of fuel-energy  recourses  has  been ranked on the  basis of the  analysis of scientific  literature,  statistical information and also fundamental documentation in the sphere of energy policy and power saving. The paper proposes to give a special emphasis on usage of products after processing domestically manufactured fuel-energy recourses that have been obtained from local and imported raw-materials with the purpose to estimate a power security level of the Republic from a new point of view.

  12. Power consumption of circulation pumps - Much too high; Viel zu gross

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nipkow, J.

    2010-07-01

    This short article takes a look at the European Union 'Ecodesign' directive and, in particular, the situation with respect to circulation pumps as used in heating systems. These pumps account for around three per cent of Swiss electricity consumption, or as the author quotes, is equivalent to the power consumption of all domestic refrigerators. The very low efficiency of older pumps is commented on and improvements in newer models are noted. The European guidelines on the energy-efficiency of these circulation pumps are looked at and the future effects on pump power consumption are discussed.

  13. Metabolic rate and gross efficiency at high work rates in world class and national level sprint skiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandbakk, Øyvind; Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Leirdal, Stig; Ettema, Gertjan

    2010-06-01

    The present study investigated metabolic rate (MR) and gross efficiency (GE) at moderate and high work rates, and the relationships to gross kinematics and physical characteristics in elite cross-country skiers. Eight world class (WC) and eight national level (NL) male sprint cross-country skiers performed three 5-min stages using the skating G3 technique, whilst roller skiing on a treadmill. GE was calculated by dividing work rate by MR. Work rate was calculated as the sum of power against gravity and frictional rolling forces. MR was calculated using gas exchange and blood lactate values. Gross kinematics, i.e. cycle length (CL) and cycle rate (CR) were measured by video analysis. Furthermore, the skiers were tested for time to exhaustion (TTE), peak oxygen uptake (VO(2peak)), and maximal speed (V(max)) on the treadmill, and maximal strength in the laboratory. Individual performance level in sprint skating was determined by FIS points. WC skiers did not differ in aerobic MR, but showed lower anaerobic MR and higher GE than NL skiers at a given speed (all P < 0.05). Moreover, WC skiers skated with longer CL and had higher V(max) and TTE (all P < 0.05). In conclusion, the present study shows that WC skiers are more efficient than NL skiers, and it is proposed that this might be due to a better technique and to technique-specific power.

  14. Developments of regional gross domestic product and the unemployment rate in Romania during 2000 - 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schonauer (Sacală Corina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Economic development of territorial units can be characterized by measuring the ability of producing goods and services and by measuring labor force in the area. The capacity of producing goods and services is measured by calculating the gross domestic product indicator. This article presents a comparative analysis of the evolution of regional GDP and the ILO unemployment rate at the level of the eight regions in Romania for a period of 13 years. The presented data come from the National Institute of Statistics of Romania.

  15. Measurements of gross energy consumption in new buildings meeting Danish building Regulations 2005. Project summary; Maeling af bruttoenergiforbrug i nybyggeri svarende til BR2005 energikrav. Projektresume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tommerup, H.

    2004-07-01

    During the heating season of 2003/2004, gross energy measurements have been made on a number of single-family houses that represent ordinary building systems in Denmark and meet future stricter energy requirements in new energy regulations of the building regulations. All the houses have floor heating and mechanical ventilation with heat recovery. When new energy regulations are introduced in the building regulations, the primary energy requirements on buildings will be based on the gross energy consumption, corresponding to the total energy consumption except electricity consumption for appliances. In relation to this, the object of the project has been to document and analyse the test result that have come to light and to compare with future requirements on the gross energy consumption. The electricity consumption of appliances is interesting too, however, as this has an effect on the heat demand. The object of the project has therefore also been to gather operation experience for the electricity consuming equipment in general with a view to throwing light on its influence on the heat demand, including to investigate how large a part of the electricity consumption proves of use in the heating of the house, and more overriding how the electricity consumption influences the heat consumption. (au)

  16. Beta-decay rate and beta-delayed neutron emission probability of improved gross theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koura, Hiroyuki

    2014-09-01

    A theoretical study has been carried out on beta-decay rate and beta-delayed neutron emission probability. The gross theory of the beta decay is based on an idea of the sum rule of the beta-decay strength function, and has succeeded in describing beta-decay half-lives of nuclei overall nuclear mass region. The gross theory includes not only the allowed transition as the Fermi and the Gamow-Teller, but also the first-forbidden transition. In this work, some improvements are introduced as the nuclear shell correction on nuclear level densities and the nuclear deformation for nuclear strength functions, those effects were not included in the original gross theory. The shell energy and the nuclear deformation for unmeasured nuclei are adopted from the KTUY nuclear mass formula, which is based on the spherical-basis method. Considering the properties of the integrated Fermi function, we can roughly categorized energy region of excited-state of a daughter nucleus into three regions: a highly-excited energy region, which fully affect a delayed neutron probability, a middle energy region, which is estimated to contribute the decay heat, and a region neighboring the ground-state, which determines the beta-decay rate. Some results will be given in the presentation. A theoretical study has been carried out on beta-decay rate and beta-delayed neutron emission probability. The gross theory of the beta decay is based on an idea of the sum rule of the beta-decay strength function, and has succeeded in describing beta-decay half-lives of nuclei overall nuclear mass region. The gross theory includes not only the allowed transition as the Fermi and the Gamow-Teller, but also the first-forbidden transition. In this work, some improvements are introduced as the nuclear shell correction on nuclear level densities and the nuclear deformation for nuclear strength functions, those effects were not included in the original gross theory. The shell energy and the nuclear deformation for

  17. Gross world product and consumption in a global warming model with endogenous technological change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerlagh, Reyer; Van der Zwaan, Bob [IVM/VU, Institute for Environmental Studies, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1087, 1081 HV, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2003-02-01

    This paper analyzes the macro-economic costs and effects on consumption and energy demand of limiting the global average atmospheric temperature increase to 2C. We use a macro-economic model in which there are two competing energy technologies (carbon and non-carbon, respectively), technological change is represented endogenously, and energy is aggregated through a CES function implying positive demand for the relatively expensive non-carbon technology. Technological change is represented through a learning curve describing decreasing energy production costs as a function of cumulative experience. We find that energy savings constitutes an important mechanism for decreasing abatement costs in the short- and medium-term, while the acquisition of additional learning experience substantially decreases abatement costs in the longer-term.

  18. An Analysis of the Co-integration and Causality Relationship between Electricity Consumption and Gross Domestic Product (GDP in the Developing Countries: An Empirical Study of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayhan Kapusuzoglu

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, long term relationship and causality relationship between electricity consumption and gross domestic product in Turkey for the period 1975-2006 were investigated. As a result of the co-integration analysis made firstly in this study, the long term relationship between the electricity consumption and gross domestic product was found. According to the result of Granger causality analysis made in accordance with vector error correction model, it was determined that there was unidirectional causality relationship between electricity consumption and gross domestic product. According to the findings, it can be said that in the process of economic growth in Turkey, gross domestic product amount was an important variable which affected the electricity consumption positively in the long term and therefore it can be said that it is important to provide the primary energy sources used in electricity energy production and electricity energy in the long term and in time without any interaction for preventing the failures which may arise during the process of economic growth and for the stability of the economic production and consumption process

  19. Gross Motor Function Classification System used in adults with cerebral palsy: agreement of self-reported versus professional rating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahnsen, Reidun; Aamodt, Geir; Rosenbaum, Peter

    2006-09-01

    The present study investigated the reliability of self-reported rating of Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels compared with professional rating, and changes in gross motor function over time, in adults with cerebral palsy. Twenty-nine females and 33 males aged between 18 years 5 months and 62 years 11 months (mean age 34y 7mo [SD 10y 6mo]) participated in the study. Participants rated their current gross motor function using the GMFCS and reported their judgement of their gross motor function at age 10 to 12 years. The project leader, a physical therapist, also classified participants' current GMFCS levels and conducted a chart review on all accessible medical records of participants' gross motor function when they were 10 to 12 years old, rating the GMFCS level accordingly. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) between self-reported and professional ratings showed excellent agreement (ICC=0.93-0.95, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.89-0.97). More than half the participants experienced a stable gross motor function from the age of 10 to 12 years to the present. Those at GMFCS Levels II and III at the age of 10 to 12 years (according to the professional rating) had significant change for the worse in gross motor function over time, with odds ratios of 9.30 (95% CI 1.2-73.0, p=0.03) and 7.00 (95% CI 1.1-43.0, p=0.04) respectively. Interview data on circumstances regarding changes in gross motor function since childhood are also reported. Changes in GMFCS level were mostly associated with physical or social environmental factors.

  20. Econometric Analysis of the Nexus of Exchange Rate Deregulation and Agricultural Share of Gross Domestic Product in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Oyinbo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the relationship between exchange rate deregulation and the agricultural share of gross domestic product in Nigeria from an econometric perspective using time series data. The data were analysed using augmented dickey fuller unit root test, unrestricted vector autoregression and pairwise granger causality. The results of the data analysis revealed the existence of unidirectional causality from exchange rate to agricultural share of gross domestic production in Nigeria and this implies that market driven exchange rate policy has been significant in influencing the trend in agricultural share of gross domestic production in Nigeria. However, it is recommended that the monetary authority of Nigeria should closely monitor the movement of the market driven exchange rate so that exchange rate deregulation does not become counterproductive through unhealthy price distortions on agricultural production, international trade and foreign direct investment in the agricultural sector of Nigeria’s economy.

  1. Laboratory hedonic ratings as predictors of consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandstra, E.H.; Graaf, de C.; Trijp, van H.C.M.; Staveren, van W.A.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the predictive validity of laboratory sensory tests on consumption. Thirty-six subjects (30 women, six men; mean age 21 years) participated in a taste-and-spit test, a taste-and-swallow test, a fixed quantity test in which an amount of 300 g was consume

  2. Vodka and violence: alcohol consumption and homicide rates in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pridemore, William Alex

    2002-12-01

    In Russia, rates of alcohol consumption and homicide are among the highest in the world, and already-high levels increased dramatically after the breakup of the Soviet Union. Rates of both, however, vary greatly among Russia's 89 regions. We took advantage of newly available vital statistics and socioeconomic data to examine the regional covariation of drinking and lethal violence. Log-log models were employed to estimate the impact of alcohol consumption on regional homicide rates, controlling for structural factors thought to influence the spatial distribution of homicide rates. Results revealed a positive and significant relationship between alcohol consumption and homicide, with a 1% increase in regional consumption of alcohol associated with an approximately 0.25% increase in homicide rates. In Russia, higher regional rates of alcohol consumption are associated with higher rates of homicide.

  3. Methodological proposal for territorial distribution of the percentage reduction in gross inland energy consumption according to the EU energy policy strategic goal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolon-Becerra, A.; Lastra-Bravo, X. [University of Almeria, Ctra Sacramento s/n. La Canada de San Urbano. C.P. 04120, Almeria (Spain); Botta, G.F. [University of Buenos Aires, Av. San Martin 4453, C.P. 1427, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2010-11-15

    A 20% reduction in the consumption of energy is one of the main goals of the European Union's (EU) 20/20/20 Energy Strategy. But the uniform application of this overall goal to all of the countries is neither fair nor equitable, as it does not take into consideration the characteristics of the energy system in each Member State. This article therefore proposes a nonlinear distribution methodology with objective, dynamic goals for reducing gross inland energy consumption, according to the context and characteristics of each member state. We hope it will open discussion on how these overall goals can be weighted. Then we analyse the situation of the energy indicators related to energy efficiency in the reference year (2005) used by the EU for reaching its goal of reducing the gross inland consumption by 20% by 2020, and its progress from 1996 to 2007. Finally, the methodology proposed is applied to the year 2020 on the NUTS0 territorial level, that is, to members of the EU, according to the EUROSTAT Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics (NUTS). Weighting is done based on energy intensity, per capita gross inland consumption and per capita energy intensity in two scenarios, the EU-15 and EU-27. (author)

  4. Comprehensive Time-Series Regression Models Using GRETL - U.S. GDP and Government Consumption Expenditures & Gross Investment from 1980 to 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Juehui Shi

    2014-01-01

    Using Gretl, I apply ARMA, Vector ARMA, VAR, state-space model with a Kalman filter, transfer-function and intervention models, unit root tests, cointegration test, volatility models (ARCH, GARCH, ARCH-M, GARCH-M, Taylor-Schwert GARCH, GJR, TARCH, NARCH, APARCH, EGARCH) to analyze quarterly time series of GDP and Government Consumption Expenditures & Gross Investment (GCEGI) from 1980 to 2013. The article is organized as: (I) Definition; (II) Regression Models; (III) Discussion. Additionally,...

  5. Linear extension rates and gross carbonate production of Acropora cervicornis at Coral Gardens, Belize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeling, E.; Greer, L.; Lescinsky, H.; Humston, R.; Wirth, K. R.; Baums, I. B.; Curran, A.

    2014-12-01

    Branching Acropora coral species have fast growth and carbonate production rates, and thus have functioned as important reef-building species throughout the Pleistocene and Holocene. Recently, net carbonate production (kg CaCO3 m-2 year-1) has been recognized as an important measure of reef health, especially when monitoring endangered species, such as Acropora cervicornis. This study examines carbonate production in a thriving population of A. cervicornis at the Coral Gardens reef in Belize. Photographic surveys were conducted along five transects of A. cervicornis-dominated reefs from 2011-2014. Matching photographs from 2013 and 2014 were scaled to 1 m2 and compared to calculate 84 individual A. cervicornis linear extension rates across the reef. Linear extension rates averaged 12.4 cm/yr and were as high as 17 cm/yr in some areas of the reef. Carbonate production was calculated two ways. The first followed the standard procedure of multiplying percent live coral cover, by the linear extension rate and skeletal density. The second used the number of live coral tips per square meter in place of percent live coral multiplied by the average cross-sectional area of the branches. The standard method yielded a carbonate production rate of 113 kg CaCO3 m-2 year-1 for the reef, and the tip method yielded a rate of 6 kg m-2 year-1. We suggest that the tip method is a more accurate measure of production, because A. cervicornis grows primarily from the live tips, with only limited radial growth and resheeting over dead skeleton. While this method omits the contributions of radial growth and resheeting, and is therefore somewhat of an underestimate, our future work will quantify these aspects of growth in a more complete carbonate budget. Still, our estimate suggests a carbonate production rate per unit area of A. cervicornis that is on par with other Caribbean coral species, rather than two orders of magnitude higher as reported by Perry et al (2013). Although gross coral

  6. NM Gross Receipts Baseline

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  7. 城市工业用水总量核算方法探讨%Study on city gross industrial water consumption accounting method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阿依古丽·艾科拜尔; 束龙仓; 鲁程鹏; 张刚; 李伟

    2015-01-01

    To solve the problems which is found during the water consumption account assess under the strictest Chinese water resource management standard, we explored suitable ways of gross industrial water comsumption accounting method, based on analyzing industrial water consumption of Jining City.We took typical enterprises, which are selected according to the result of cluster analysis, as the example to reckon the gross industrial water consumption.By comparing the accounting data with measured data, we evaluated the applicability of the accounting method.The result shows that the relative error between the acconnting value and the actual value of the gross industrial water consumption of Jining City is 4.66%, and using typical enterprise as an example to account industrial gross water consumption is reasonable.%针对我国最严格水资源管理制度下用水总量考核中存在的问题,在分析济宁市工业用水规律的基础上,探索核算工业用水总量的方法。针对大样本工业用水户的情况,基于聚类分析的结果选取典型样本企业,以典型样本企业的用水指标推算工业用水总量。通过核算数据与实测数据的对比,给出核算结果,评价核算方法的适用性。结果表明:2011年济宁市工业用水总量核算值与实际值相对误差为4.66%,以典型样本企业核算工业用水总量的过程更符合实际情况。

  8. Metabolically Derived Human Ventilation Rates: A Revised Approach Based Upon Oxygen Consumption Rates (Final Report, 2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA announced the availability of the final report, Metabolically Derived Human Ventilation Rates: A Revised Approach Based Upon Oxygen Consumption Rates. This report provides a revised approach for calculating an individual's ventilation rate directly from their oxygen c...

  9. The influence of incline and speed on work rate, gross efficiency and kinematics of roller ski skating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandbakk, Øyvind; Ettema, Gertjan; Holmberg, Hans-Christer

    2012-08-01

    During competitions, elite cross-country skiers produce higher external work rates on uphill than on flat terrain. However, it is not presently known whether this reflects solely higher energy expenditure. Furthermore, the kinematic factors associated with these higher rates of uphill work have not yet been examined. Therefore, in the present investigation the work rate and associated kinematic parameters at similar metabolic rates during roller ski skating on flat and uphill terrains have been compared. Seven elite male skiers performed six 5-min sub-maximal exercise bouts at the same low, moderate and high metabolic rates on 2 and 8% inclines, while roller skiing on a treadmill employing the G3 skating technique. The work rate was calculated as work against gravity and friction, whereas the energetic equivalent of VO(2) was taken as the metabolic rate. Gross efficiency was defined as work rate divided by metabolic rate. Kinematic parameters were analyzed in three dimensions. At the same metabolic rate, the work rate, cycle rate, work per cycle and relative duration of propulsive phases during a cycle of movement were all higher on the 8% than on the 2% incline at all speeds (all P < 0.05). At similar work rates, gross efficiency was greater on the 8% incline (P < 0.05). In conclusion, these elite skiers consistently demonstrated higher work rates on the 8% incline. To achieve the higher work rates on the steeper incline, these elite skiers employed higher cycle rates and performed more work per cycle, in association with a longer relative propulsive phase.

  10. Fish oil reduces heart rate and oxygen consumption during exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peoples, Gregory E; McLennan, Peter L; Howe, Peter R C; Groeller, Herbert

    2008-12-01

    Dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are readily incorporated into heart and skeletal muscle membranes where, in the heart, animal studies show they reduce O2 consumption. To test the hypothesis that omega-3 PUFAs alter O2 efficiency in humans, the effects of fish oil (FO) supplementation on O2 consumption during exercise were evaluated. Sixteen well-trained men (cyclists), randomly assigned to receive 8 x 1 g capsules per day of olive oil (control) or FO for 8 weeks in a double-blind, parallel design, completed the study (control: n = 7, age 27.1 +/- 2.7 years; FO: n = 9, age 23.2 +/- 1.2 years). Subjects used an electronically braked cycle ergometer to complete peak O2 consumption tests (VO 2peak) and sustained submaximal exercise tests at 55% of peak workload (from the VO 2peak test) before and after supplementation. Whole-body O2 consumption and indirect measurements of myocardial O2 consumption [heart rate and rate pressure product (RPP)] were assessed. FO supplementation increased omega-3 PUFA content of erythrocyte cell membranes. There were no differences in VO 2peak (mL kg(-1) min(-1)) (control: pre 66.8 +/- 2.4, post 67.2 +/- 2.3; FO: pre 68.3 +/- 1.4, post 67.2 +/- 1.2) or peak workload after supplementation. The FO supplementation lowered heart rate (including peak heart rate) during incremental workloads to exhaustion (P exercise heart rate, whole-body O2 consumption, and RPP (P heart and skeletal muscle to reduce both whole-body and myocardial O2 demand during exercise, without a decrement in performance.

  11. Biomass burning fuel consumption rates: a field measurement database

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Leeuwen, TT

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Landscape fires show large variability in the amount of biomass or fuel consumed per unit area burned. These fuel consumption (FC) rates depend on the biomass available to burn and the fraction of the biomass that is actually combusted, and can...

  12. Quantifying consumption rates of dissolved oxygen along bed forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boano, Fulvio; De Falco, Natalie; Arnon, Shai

    2016-04-01

    Streambed interfaces represent hotspots for nutrient transformations because they host different microbial species, and the evaluation of these reaction rates is important to assess the fate of nutrients in riverine environments. In this work we analyze a series of flume experiments on oxygen demand in dune-shaped hyporheic sediments under losing and gaining flow conditions. We employ a new modeling code to quantify oxygen consumption rates from observed vertical profiles of oxygen concentration. The code accounts for transport by molecular diffusion and water advection, and automatically determines the reaction rates that provide the best fit between observed and modeled concentration values. The results show that reaction rates are not uniformly distributed across the streambed, in agreement with the expected behavior predicted by hyporheic exchange theory. Oxygen consumption was found to be highly influenced by the presence of gaining or losing flow conditions, which controlled the delivery of labile DOC to streambed microorganisms.

  13. Estimation and Forecasting the Gross Domestic Product´s Growth Rate in Ecuador: a Short-term Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadier Alberto Torres−Sánchez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ecuador is the seventh largest economy in Latin America. From 2000 to 2012, the country has been expanding at an average rate of 1,15 % on a quarter over quarter basis, mostly due to a rise in exports. Ecuador´s economy is highly dependent on oil exports. In order to reach its full growth potential, the country needs to reduce its dependence on oil revenue; increase the tax base; achieve political stability and reduce the levels of poverty and inequality. The main objective of this research is specifically marked in estimate and forecast the Gross Domestic Product´s Growth Rate in Ecuador, applying for this Box – Jenkins´ Methodology for ARIMA models. It was obtained a forecast of 3,96 % approximately, that represents a logical result according with the time series.

  14. Gross world product and consumption in a global warming model with endogenous technological change. A study with DEMETER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Zwaan, B.C.C. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands); Gerlagh, R. [Institute for Environmental Studies IVM, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2002-06-01

    This paper analyzes the macro-economic costs and effects on consumption and energy demand of limiting the global average atmospheric temperature increase to 2 degrees Celsius. We use a macro-economic model (DEMETER: DE-carbonization Model with Endogenous Technologies for Emission Reduction) in which there are two competing energy technologies (carbon and non-carbon, respectively), technological change is represented endogenously, and energy is aggregated through a CES function implying positive demand for the relatively expensive non-carbon technology. Technological change is represented through a learning curve describing decreasing energy production costs as a function of cumulative experience. We compare scenarios that (1) allow for energy savings, versus scenarios that assume energy demand following an exogenous path, and scenarios that (2) allow for enhanced learning effects resulting from increased experience obtained with the carbon and non-carbon technologies, versus scenarios that assume production costs following an exogenous path. We find that energy savings constitutes an important mechanism for decreasing abatement costs in the short and medium term, while the acquisition of additional learning experience substantially decreases abatement costs in the longer term.

  15. Music increases alcohol consumption rate in young females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, Lorenzo D; Dodd, Hannah

    2013-10-01

    Previous field research has shown that individuals consumed more alcohol and at a faster rate in environments paired with loud music. Theoretically, this effect has been linked to approach/avoidance accounts of how music influences arousal and mood, but no work has tested this experimentally. In the present study, female participants (n = 45) consumed an alcoholic (4% alcohol-by-volume) beverage in one of three contexts: slow tempo music, fast tempo music, or a no-music control. Results revealed that, compared with the control, the beverage was consumed fastest in the two music conditions. Interestingly, whereas arousal and negative mood declined in the control condition, this was not the case for either of the music conditions, suggesting a downregulation of alcohol effects. We additionally found evidence for music to disrupt sensory systems in that, counterintuitively, faster consumption was driven by increases in perceived alcohol strength, which, in turn, predicted lower breath alcohol level (BrAL). These findings suggest a unique interaction of music environment and psychoactive effects of alcohol itself on consumption rate. Because alcohol consumed at a faster rate induces greater intoxication, these findings have implications for applied and theoretical work.

  16. An Analysis of Energy Consumption on ACK+Rate Packet in Rate Based Transport Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.Ganeshkumar

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Rate based transport protocol determines the rate of data transmission between the sender and receiver and then sends the data according to that rate. To notify the rate to the sender, the receiver sends ACK+Rate packet based on epoch timer expiry. In this paper, through detailed arguments and simulation it is shown that the transmission of ACK+Rate packet based on epoch timer expiry consumes more energy in network with low mobility. To overcome this problem, a new technique called Dynamic Rate Feedback (DRF is proposed. DRF sends ACK+Rate whenever there is a change in rate of ±25% than the previous rate. Based on ns2 simulation DRF is compared with ATP.Keywords- Ad hoc network, Ad hoc transport Protocol, Rate based transport protocols, energy consumption, Intermediate node

  17. Biomass burning fuel consumption rates: a field measurement database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. T. van Leeuwen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Landscape fires show large variability in the amount of biomass or fuel consumed per unit area burned. These fuel consumption (FC rates depend on the biomass available to burn and the fraction of the biomass that is actually combusted, and can be combined with estimates of area burned to assess emissions. While burned area can be detected from space and estimates are becoming more reliable due to improved algorithms and sensors, FC rates are either modeled or taken selectively from the literature. We compiled the peer-reviewed literature on FC rates for various biomes and fuel categories to better understand FC rates and variability, and to provide a~database that can be used to constrain biogeochemical models with fire modules. We compiled in total 76 studies covering 10 biomes including savanna (15 studies, average FC of 4.6 t DM (dry matter ha−1, tropical forest (n = 19, FC = 126, temperate forest (n = 11, FC = 93, boreal forest (n = 16, FC = 39, pasture (n = 6, FC = 28, crop residue (n = 4, FC = 6.5, chaparral (n = 2, FC = 32, tropical peatland (n = 4, FC = 314, boreal peatland (n = 2, FC = 42, and tundra (n = 1, FC = 40. Within biomes the regional variability in the number of measurements was sometimes large, with e.g. only 3 measurement locations in boreal Russia and 35 sites in North America. Substantial regional differences were found within the defined biomes: for example FC rates of temperate pine forests in the USA were 38% higher than Australian forests dominated by eucalypt trees. Besides showing the differences between biomes, FC estimates were also grouped into different fuel classes. Our results highlight the large variability in FC rates, not only between biomes but also within biomes and fuel classes. This implies that care should be taken with using averaged values, and our comparison with FC rates from GFED3 indicates that also modeling studies have difficulty in representing the dynamics governing FC.

  18. Fish consumption, sleep, daily functioning, and heart rate variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Anita L; Dahl, Lisbeth; Olson, Gina; Thornton, David; Graff, Ingvild E; Frøyland, Livar; Thayer, Julian F; Pallesen, Staale

    2014-05-15

    This study investigated the effects of fatty fish on sleep, daily functioning and biomarkers such as heart rate variability (HRV), vitamin D status (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) + docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) in red blood cells. Moreover the relationship among sleep, daily functioning, HRV, vitamin D status, and levels of EPA+DHA was investigated. Ninety-five male forensic patients from a secure forensic inpatient facility in the USA were randomly assigned into a Fish or a Control group. The Fish group received Atlantic salmon three times per week from September to February, and the Control group was provided an alternative meal (e.g., chicken, pork, beef), but with the same nutritional value as their habitual diet, three times per week during the same period. Sleep (sleep latency, sleep efficiency, actual sleep time, and actual wake time), self-perceived sleep quality and daily functioning, as well as vitamin D status, EPA+DHA, and HRV, were assessed pre- and post-intervention period. There was a significant increase in sleep latency from pre- to post-test in the Control group. The Fish group reported better daily functioning than the Control group during post-test. Fish consumption throughout the wintertime had also an effect on resting HRV and EPA+DHA, but not on vitamin D status. However, at post-test, the vitamin D status in the Fish group was still closer to the level regarded as optimal compared to the Control group. Vitamin D status correlated negatively with actual wake time and positively with sleep efficiency during pre-test, as well as positively with daily functioning and sleep quality during post-test. Finally, HRV correlated negatively with sleep latency and positively with daily functioning. Fish consumption seemed to have a positive impact on sleep in general and also on daily functioning, which may be related to vitamin D status and HRV.

  19. Oxygen consumption of cycle ergometry is nonlinearly related to work rate and pedal rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Londeree, B R; Moffitt-Gerstenberger, J; Padfield, J A; Lottmann, D

    1997-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to develop an equation to predict the oxygen cost of cycle ergometry. Forty subjects performed an incremental cycle ergometer test on three occasions at 50, 70, or 90 rpm in a counterbalanced order. Work rate was incremented every 5 or 6 min when steady rate values were achieved. To ensure accurate work rates, ergometer resistance was calibrated and flywheel revolutions were electronically measured. Oxygen consumption was measured with a computer interfaced system which provided results every minute. Oxygen consumption (mL.min-1) was the dependent variable, and independent variables were work rate (WR in kgm.min-1), pedal rate (rpm), weight (Kg), and gender (males, 0; females, 1). The following nonlinear equation was selected; VO2 = 0.42.WR1.2 + 0.00061.rpm3 + 6.35.Wt + 0.1136.RPM50.WR-0.10144.RPM90-WR-52-Gender, R2 = 0.9961, Sy.x = 106 mL.min-1, where RPM50: 50 rpm = 1, and RPM90: 90 rpm = 1, else = 0. It was concluded that the oxygen cost of cycle ergometry is nonlinearly related to work rate and pedal rate, linearly related to weight, and that females use less oxygen for a particular work rate.

  20. Forecasting increasing rate of power consumption based on immune genetic algorithm combined with neural network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨淑霞

    2008-01-01

    Considering the factors affecting the increasing rate of power consumption, the BP neural network structure and the neural network forecasting model of the increasing rate of power consumption were established. Immune genetic algorithm was applied to optimizing the weight from input layer to hidden layer, from hidden layer to output layer, and the threshold value of neuron nodes in hidden and output layers. Finally, training the related data of the increasing rate of power consumption from 1980 to 2000 in China, a nonlinear network model between the increasing rate of power consumption and influencing factors was obtained. The model was adopted to forecasting the increasing rate of power consumption from 2001 to 2005, and the average absolute error ratio of forecasting results is 13.521 8%. Compared with the ordinary neural network optimized by genetic algorithm, the results show that this method has better forecasting accuracy and stability for forecasting the increasing rate of power consumption.

  1. Oxygen Consumption by Red Wines. Part I: Consumption Rates, Relationship with Chemical Composition, and Role of SO₂.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Vicente; Carrascon, Vanesa; Bueno, Mónica; Ugliano, Maurizio; Fernandez-Zurbano, Purificación

    2015-12-30

    Fifteen Spanish red wines extensively characterized in terms of SO2, color, antioxidant indexes, metals, and polyphenols were subjected to five consecutive sensor-controlled cycles of air saturation at 25 °C. Within each cycle, O2 consumption rates cannot be interpreted by simple kinetic models. Plots of cumulated consumed O2 made it possible to define a fast and highly wine-dependent initial O2 consumption rate and a second and less variable average O2 consumption rate which remains constant in saturations 2 to 5. Both rates have been satisfactorily modeled, and in both cases they were independent of Fe and SO2 and highly dependent on Cu levels. Average rates were also related to Mn, pH, Folin, protein precipitable proanthocyanidins (PPAs), and polyphenolic profile. Initial rates were strong and negatively correlated to SO2 consumption, indicating that such an initial rate is either controlled by an unknown antioxidant present in some wines or affected by a poor real availability of SO2. Remaining unreacted SO2 is proportional to initial combined SO2 and to final free acetaldehyde.

  2. Renewable energy sources and their contribution to gross domestic energy consumption in Italy in years 1992 and 1993; Censimento per il territorio italiano dei dati relativi alle fonti rinnovabili di energia ed al loro contributo al bilancio energetico per gli anni 1992 e 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menna, P. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche, Portici (Italy). Dip. Energia

    1995-11-01

    In 1992, the gross domestic energy consumption in Italy was 167.5 MTOE (including bunkers) while in 1993 it decreased to 165.9 MTOE. The overall electricity demand passed from 244.8 TWh in 1992 to 246.6 TWh in 1993. In the same period, the overall contribution from Renewable Energy Sources (RES) kept almost constant at 5.y consumption. The RES contribution represented a share larger than gross National production of energy in 1992.

  3. Determining oxygen consumption rate and asphyxiation point in Chanodichthys mongolicus using an improved respirometer chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Longwu; Jiang, Haifeng; Tong, Guangxiang; Xu, Wei

    2016-05-01

    Knowledge of oxygen consumption rates and asphyxiation points in fish is important to determine appropriate stocking and water quality management in aquaculture. The oxygen consumption rate and asphyxiation point in Chanodichthys mongolicus were detected under laboratory conditions using an improved respirometer chamber. The results revealed that more accurate estimates can be obtained by adjusting the volume of the respirometer chamber, which may avoid system errors caused by either repeatedly adjusting fish density or selecting different equipment specifications. The oxygen consumption rate and asphyxiation point of C. mongolicus increased with increasing water temperature and decreasing fish size. Changes in the C. mongolicus oxygen consumption rate were divided into three stages at water temperatures of 11-33°C: (1) a low temperature oxygen consumption rate stage when water temperature was 11-19°C, (2) the optimum temperature oxygen consumption rate stage when water temperature was 19-23°C, and (3) a high temperature oxygen consumption rate stage when water temperature was > 27°C. The temperature quotients (Q10) obtained suggested that C. mongolicus preferred a temperature range of 19-23°C. At 19°C, C. mongolicus exhibited higher oxygen consumption rates during the day when the maximum values were observed at 10:00 and 14:00 than at night when the minimum occurred at 02:00.

  4. The relationship between antimicrobial consumption and the rates of resistance of Klebsiela pneumoniae in respiratory unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xin-yun; ZHUO Chao; XIAO Xiang-lin; YUAN Jin-Ping; YANG Ling

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between the consumption of antibacterial agents and resistance rate of Klebsiela pneumoniae(KP)in the hospital respiratory unit for 3 consecutive years in 2005-2007. Methods The total antibacterial consumption expressed as defined DDDs/100BD, as well as resistance rate of total KP and producing ESBLs KP were collected, and their correlation was analyzed. Results The rate of resistance of KP to cefoperazone/sulbactam, Cefepime, Imipenem, Moxifloxacin was significantly positively associated with the consumption of Cefotaxime, Ceftazidime, Moxifloxacin, Amikacin respectively;A significant positive association was observed between the rate of resistance of KP to Piperacillin/Tazobactam, Ceftriaxone and the consumption of Imipenem; The rate of resistance of KP to Piperacillin, Cefotaxime, Ciprofloxacin was significantly positively associated with the consumption of Levofloxacin. ESBLs producing bacilli of KP were detected in 44 of 75 isolates (58.7%), The rate of resistance of producing ES-BLs KP to Piperacillin/Tazobactarn, Ceftriaxone was significantly positively associated with the consumption of Imipenem, Ceftazidime; A significant positive association was observed between the rate of resistance of producing ESBLs KP to Piperacillin, Imipenem and the consumption of Moxifloxacin. There was no significant correlation in other drugs. Conclusions A relationship existed between antimicrobial consumption and rates of resistance of KP in the hospital respiratory unit. We must use antibiotics carefully and with reason to control and lessen the drug resistance of bacterial.

  5. Power consumption analysis of constant bit rate video transmission over 3G networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ukhanova, Ann; Belyaev, Evgeny; Wang, Le

    2012-01-01

    for the 3GPP transition state machine that allows to decrease power consumption on a mobile device taking signaling traffic, buffer size and latency restrictions into account. Furthermore, we discuss the gain in power consumption vs. PSNR for transmitted video and show the possibility of performing power......This paper presents an analysis of the power consumption of video data transmission with constant bit rate over 3G mobile wireless networks. The work includes the description of the radio resource control transition state machine in 3G networks, followed by a detailed power consumption analysis...... consumption management based on the requirements for the video quality....

  6. Prediction Model and Algorithm of Industrial Gross Output Value Based on Electric Power Consumption%基于电力消耗的行业总产值预测模型及算法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晔; 王国瑞; 方彦军

    2014-01-01

    在“大数据”技术背景下,获取广东省规模以上工业企业电力消耗及总产值月度数据,基于人工神经网络结构建立行业总产值预测模型,并提出一种新的带抱团行为的粒子群优化算法完成对神经网络预测模型的参数优化,进而实现各行业基于电力消耗的总产值有效预测。仿真分析表明,新的改进型带抱团行为的粒子群优化算法具有更快的收敛速度和更高的寻优精度,能够有效地优化神经网络模型参数,实现基于电力消耗的行业总产值的有效、可靠预测。%In the context of big data technology,a prediction model for industrial gross output value based on artificial neural network was built by achieving monthly data of electric power consumption and output value of industrial enterprises above Guangdong provincial designated size. Meanwhile,a kind of new particle swarm optimization with gathering behavior was proposed to finish optimization on parameters of ANN prediction model and realize effective prediction on gross value based on electric consumption of all industries. Simulation analysis indicated that the new improved PSO was provided with faster convergence speed and higher optimizing precision which was able effectively optimize parameters of ANN model and realize effective and reliable prediction on gross output value of industries based on electric power consumption.

  7. Oxygen Consumption Rate and Energy Expenditure in Mice: Indirect Calorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Ran; Tong, Qingchun

    2017-01-01

    Global obesity epidemic demands more effective therapeutic treatments and better understanding of obesity pathophysiology. Since obesity results from energy imbalance, accurate quantification of energy intake and energy expenditure (EE) becomes an essential prerequisite to phenotype the cause for obesity development. Indirect calorimetry has long been used as one of the most established methods in EE quantification by detecting changes in levels of O2 consumption and CO2 production. In this article, we describe procedures and important considerations for an effective measurement using indirect calorimetry.

  8. NM Gross Receipts July - December 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  9. NM Gross Receipts January - June 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  10. NM Gross Receipts January - June 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  11. NM Gross Receipts January - June 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  12. NM Gross Receipts January - June 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  13. NM Gross Receipts July - December 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  14. Power consumption analysis of constant bit rate data transmission over 3G mobile wireless networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Le; Ukhanova, Ann; Belyaev, Evgeny

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the analysis of the power consumption of data transmission with constant bit rate over 3G mobile wireless networks. Our work includes the description of the transition state machine in 3G networks, followed by the detailed energy consumption analysis and measurement results...

  15. An investigation on the assessed thermal sensation and human body exergy consumption rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simone, Angela; Kolarik, Jakub; Iwamatsu, Toshiya

    2010-01-01

    -environment research has been explored in the present work. The relationship of subjectively assessed thermal sensation data, from earlier thermal comfort studies, to the calculated human-body exergy consumption has been analysed. The results show that the minimum human body exergy consumption rate was related...

  16. Ecosystem and soil fluxes of carbonyl sulfide (COS) and CO2 to constrain rates of gross photosynthesis (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibt, U. H.; Maseyk, K. S.; Lett, C.; Sun, W.; Berry, J. A.; Billesbach, D. P.; Campbell, J.; Torn, M. S.

    2013-12-01

    A promising new approach to constrain biosphere-atmosphere carbon and water exchange is the use of carbonyl sulfide (COS). COS is taken up by leaves via the same pathway as CO2, leading to a close coupling of vegetation COS and CO2 fluxes during photosynthesis. It has been proposed that the gross fluxes of photosynthesis and respiration can be quantified through the concurrent measurements of COS and CO2. Using newly available instrumentation, we conducted field campaigns to quantify COS and CO2 exchange in the Southern Great Plains, OK, and in the Santa Monica mountains, CA. We found that soils can act as sinks or sources of COS, correlated with soil temperature and moisture. At the ecosystem scale, we observed a strong uptake of COS by the canopy with a diel signal that mirrored net CO2 fluxes. Combining soil and ecosystem data of COS and CO2, we demonstrate how soil COS fluxes can be taken into account when partitioning net ecosystem exchange into photosynthesis and respiration.

  17. A relation between calculated human body exergy consumption rate and subjectively assessed thermal sensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simone, Angela; Kolarik, Jakub; Iwamatsu, Toshiya

    2011-01-01

    . Generally, the relationship between air temperature and the exergy consumption rate, as a first approximation, shows an increasing trend. Taking account of both convective and radiative heat exchange between the human body and the surrounding environment by using the calculated operative temperature, exergy...... consumption rates increase as the operative temperature increases above 24 ◦C or decreases below 22 ◦C. With the data available so far, a second-order polynomial relationship between thermal sensation and the exergy consumption rate was established....... occupants, it is reasonable to consider both the exergy flows in building and those within the human body. Until now, no data have been available on the relation between human-body exergy consumption rates and subjectively assessed thermal sensation. The objective of the present work was to relate thermal...

  18. Gross motor control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross motor control is the ability to make large, general movements (such as waving an arm or lifting a leg). ... Gross motor control is a milestone in the development of an infant. Infants develop gross motor control before they develop ...

  19. Synchronous temperature rate control for refrigeration with reduced energy consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Alberto Regio; Keres, Stephen L.; Kuehl, Steven J.; Litch, Andrew D.; Richmond, Peter J.; Wu, Guolian

    2015-09-22

    Methods of operation for refrigerator appliance configurations with a controller, a condenser, at least one evaporator, a compressor, and two refrigeration compartments. The configuration may be equipped with a variable-speed or variable-capacity compressor, variable speed evaporator or compartment fans, a damper, and/or a dual-temperature evaporator with a valve system to control flow of refrigerant through one or more pressure reduction devices. The methods may include synchronizing alternating cycles of cooling each compartment to a temperature approximately equal to the compartment set point temperature by operation of the compressor, fans, damper and/or valve system. The methods may also include controlling the cooling rate in one or both compartments. Refrigeration compartment cooling may begin at an interval before or after when the freezer compartment reaches its lower threshold temperature. Freezer compartment cooling may begin at an interval before or after when the freezer compartment reaches its upper threshold temperature.

  20. Role of self-caught fish in total fish consumption rates for recreational fishermen: Average consumption for some species exceeds allowable intake

    OpenAIRE

    Burger, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    Studies of fish consumption focus on recreational or subsistence fishing, on awareness and adherence to advisories, consumption patterns, and contaminants in fish. Yet the general public obtains their fish from commercial sources. In this paper I examine fish consumption patterns of recreational fishermen in New Jersey to determine: 1) consumption rates for self-caught fish and for other fish, 2) meals consumed per year, 3) average meal size, and average daily intake of mercury, and 4) variat...

  1. Something from nothing: Estimating consumption rates using propensity scores, with application to emissions reduction policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardsley, Nicholas; Büchs, Milena; Schnepf, Sylke V

    2017-01-01

    Consumption surveys often record zero purchases of a good because of a short observation window. Measures of distribution are then precluded and only mean consumption rates can be inferred. We show that Propensity Score Matching can be applied to recover the distribution of consumption rates. We demonstrate the method using the UK National Travel Survey, in which c.40% of motorist households purchase no fuel. Estimated consumption rates are plausible judging by households' annual mileages, and highly skewed. We apply the same approach to estimate CO2 emissions and outcomes of a carbon cap or tax. Reliance on means apparently distorts analysis of such policies because of skewness of the underlying distributions. The regressiveness of a simple tax or cap is overstated, and redistributive features of a revenue-neutral policy are understated.

  2. THE IMPLICATIONS OF GROSS FIXED CAPITAL AND UNEMPLOYMENT RATE ON GENERAL GOVERNMENT DEFICIT. EMPIRICAL STUDY AT THE EUROPEAN LEVEL

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we have evaluated the influence of the modification of public investment level and unemployment rate on the general government deficit at the European Union level. We have created a regression model that shows that a sustained and increased investment policy and the reduction of unemployment rate have a favorable effect on the objective of minimizing the budget deficit. In the last years European Union’s countries had to face a difficult problem concerning fiscal policy. They ha...

  3. THE IMPLICATIONS OF GROSS FIXED CAPITAL AND UNEMPLOYMENT RATE GENERAL GOVERNMENT DEFICIT. EMPIRICAL STUDY AT THE EUROPEAN LEVEL

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we evaluate the influence of the modification of public investment level and unemployment rate on the general government deficit at the European Union level. We create a regression model that shows that a sustained and increased investment policy and the reduction of unemployment rate have a favorable effect on the objective of minimizing the budget deficit. In the last years European Union’s countries had to face a difficult problem concerning fiscal policy. They have to make p...

  4. A new method combining soil oxygen concentration measurements with the quantification of gross nitrogen turnover rates and associated formation of N2O and N2 emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gütlein, Adrian; Dannenmann, Michael; Sörgel, Christoph; Meier, Rudi; Meyer, Astrid; Kiese, Ralf

    2014-05-01

    Climate change and the expansion of land use have led to significant changes in terrestrial ecosystems. These include changes in the biogeochemical cycle of nitrogen and therewith implications for biodiversity, water cycle and pedosphere-atmosphere exchange. To understand these impacts detailed research on nitrogen turnover and fluxes are conducted at various (semi-) natural and managed ecosystems in the Mt. Kilimanjaro region. In this context, we execute 15N tracing analyses on soil samples in our stable isotope laboratory including a new experimental setup. The soils were sampled from different forest ecosystems of Mt. Kilimanjaro varying in altitude (1600 - 4500 m) and will be analyzed for gross rates of ammonification and nitrification, gross rates of microbial inorganic N uptake as well as for the gaseous losses of ^15N2 and ^15N2O using ^15NH4+ and ^15NO3- tracing and pool dilution approaches. Since nitrogen turnover of nitrification and denitrification is dependent on soil oxygen concentrations we developed an incubation method which allows to adjust soil samples to different oxygen concentrations. For this purpose, soil is incubated in glass bottles with side tubes to ensure a constant gas flow over the whole incubation time. To adjust the oxygen levels in the laboratory experiment as close as possible to the natural conditions, we started to monitor soil oxygen concentrations with a FirestingO2 Sensor (Pyroscience) connected to a timer and a datalogger (MSR 145 IP 60 E3333) at a Mt. Kilimanjaro rainforest site. The equipment is complemented with soil temperature, moisture and pressure sensors (MSR 145 IP 60). A solar panel connected to an energy source guarantees a working time for over 2 years by a measuring frequency of 20 seconds each 30 minutes. The new laboratory incubation method together with in-situ oxygen concentration measurements in soils will facilitate laboratory incubations with realistic oxygen concentrations and thus will allow for a better

  5. THE IMPLICATIONS OF GROSS FIXED CAPITAL AND UNEMPLOYMENT RATE ON GENERAL GOVERNMENT DEFICIT. EMPIRICAL STUDY AT THE EUROPEAN LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Carp

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we have evaluated the influence of the modification of public investment level and unemployment rate on the general government deficit at the European Union level. We have created a regression model that shows that a sustained and increased investment policy and the reduction of unemployment rate have a favorable effect on the objective of minimizing the budget deficit. In the last years European Union’s countries had to face a difficult problem concerning fiscal policy. They had to make public investments to stimulate economic growth and, in the same time, they had to meet the convergence criteria’s of public deficit. On the other hand, EU has to deal with a higher rate of unemployment. Through our model we try to see how European Union countries should implement their political strategies on unemployment and investment with the main objective of reducing the general government deficit.

  6. Oxygen Consumption by Postfermentation Wine Yeast Lees: Factors Affecting Its Rate and Extent under Oenological Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Volker; Müller, Jonas; Schmidt, Dominik

    2016-01-01

    Postfermentation wine yeast lees show antioxidant properties based on their ability to consume dissolved oxygen. The oxygen consumption capacity of suspended yeast lees obtained after fermentations with six commercial active dry yeast strains was investigated in model, white and red wines using fluorescence-based oxygen sensors operating in a nondestructive way. In model solution, the oxygen consumption rate of yeast lees was shown to depend on their amount, yeast strain, sulfur dioxide and t...

  7. Tobacco use, Alcohol Consumption and Self-rated Oral Health among Nigerian Prison Officials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clement Chinedu Azodo

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Data from this survey revealed that the majority of the participants rated their oral health as good/excellent. The prevalence of tobacco use and alcohol consumption among prison officials was higher than reported values among the general population in Nigeria. This indicates that more surveillance and intervention studies are needed to evaluate the best way to control tobacco use and alcohol consumption among prison officials in Nigeria.

  8. Food consumption and growth rates of juvenile black carp fed natural and prepared feeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgins, Nathaniel C.; Schramm, Harold L.; Gerard, Patrick D.

    2014-01-01

    The introduced mollusciphagic black carp Mylopharyngodon piceus poses a significant threat to native mollusks in temperate waters throughout the northern hemisphere, but consumption rates necessary to estimate the magnitude of impact on mollusks have not been established. We measured food consumption and growth rates for small (77–245 g) and large (466–1,071 g) triploid black carp held individually under laboratory conditions at 20, 25, and 30°C. Daily consumption rates (g food · g wet weight fish−1·d−1·100) of black carp that received prepared feed increased with temperature (small black carp 1.39–1.71; large black carp 1.28–2.10), but temperature-related increases in specific growth rate (100[ln(final weight) - ln(initial weight)]/number of days) only occurred for the large black carp (small black carp −0.02 to 0.19; large black carp 0.16–0.65). Neither daily consumption rates (5.90–6.28) nor specific growth rates (0.05–0.24) differed among temperatures for small black carp fed live snails. The results of these laboratory feeding trials indicate food consumption rates can vary from 289.9 to 349.5 J·g−1·d−1 for 150 g black carp receiving prepared feed, from 268.8 to 441.0 J·g−1·d−1for 800 g black carp receiving prepared feed, and from 84.8 to 90.2 J·g−1·d−1 for 150 g black carp that feed on snails. Applying estimated daily consumption rates to estimated biomass of native mollusks indicates that a relatively low biomass of bla

  9. Diet composition and food consumption rate of harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena ) in the western Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Heidi; Ross, Stine Dalmann; Siebert, Ursula

    2017-01-01

    Stomach content composition and prey-specific consumption rates of juvenile and adult harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) were estimated from a data set including 339 stomachs collected over a 32 yr period (1980–2011) in the western Baltic Sea. The stomach contents were mainly hard parts of fish...... acquisition method. Yearly consumption rates for porpoises in the western Baltic Sea were obtained in three scenarios on the daily energy requirements of a porpoise in combination with an estimate including the 95% CLs of the porpoise population size. Cod of age groups 1 and 2 and intermediate-sized herring...

  10. Oxygen Consumption by Postfermentation Wine Yeast Lees: Factors Affecting Its Rate and Extent under Oenological Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Müller

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Postfermentation wine yeast lees show antioxidant properties based on their ability to consume dissolved oxygen. The oxygen consumption capacity of suspended yeast lees obtained after fermentations with six commercial active dry yeast strains was investigated in model, white and red wines using fluorescence-based oxygen sensors operating in a nondestructive way. In model solution, the oxygen consumption rate of yeast lees was shown to depend on their amount, yeast strain, sulfur dioxide and temperature. It is slightly lower in red than in white wines. It is strongly decreased by current levels of free sulfur dioxide, thus excluding the complementary use of both as antioxidants in wine. However, in 25 randomly sampled white wines produced under commercial conditions, the rate and extent of oxygen consumption during the first six months of postfermentation had no significant correlation with any of these interacting factors, making it difficult to predict the actual antioxidant effect of yeast lees. In these wines, yeast lees consumed 0 to 47 % of the dissolved oxygen. Although total oxygen consumption capacity of yeast lees is not a limiting factor under commercial winemaking conditions, their oxygen consumption proceeds at a limited rate that reduces but cannot totally prevent concomitant chemical oxidation of the wine.

  11. Oxygen Consumption by Postfermentation Wine Yeast Lees: Factors Affecting Its Rate and Extent under Oenological Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Jonas; Schmidt, Dominik

    2016-01-01

    Summary Postfermentation wine yeast lees show antioxidant properties based on their ability to consume dissolved oxygen. The oxygen consumption capacity of suspended yeast lees obtained after fermentations with six commercial active dry yeast strains was investigated in model, white and red wines using fluorescence-based oxygen sensors operating in a nondestructive way. In model solution, the oxygen consumption rate of yeast lees was shown to depend on their amount, yeast strain, sulfur dioxide and temperature. It is slightly lower in red than in white wines. It is strongly decreased by current levels of free sulfur dioxide, thus excluding the complementary use of both as antioxidants in wine. However, in 25 randomly sampled white wines produced under commercial conditions, the rate and extent of oxygen consumption during the first six months of postfermentation had no significant correlation with any of these interacting factors, making it difficult to predict the actual antioxidant effect of yeast lees. In these wines, yeast lees consumed 0 to 47% of the dissolved oxygen. Although total oxygen consumption capacity of yeast lees is not a limiting factor under commercial winemaking conditions, their oxygen consumption proceeds at a limited rate that reduces but cannot totally prevent concomitant chemical oxidation of the wine. PMID:28115896

  12. An Analysis of Energy Consumption on ACK plus Rate Packet in Rate Based Transport Protocol

    CERN Document Server

    Ganeshkumar, P

    2009-01-01

    Rate based transport protocol determines the rate of data transmission between the sender and receiver and then sends the data according to that rate. To notify the rate to the sender, the receiver sends ACKplusRate packet based on epoch timer expiry. In this paper, through detailed arguments and simulation it is shown that the transmission of ACKplusRate packet based on epoch timer expiry consumes more energy in network with low mobility. To overcome this problem, a new technique called Dynamic Rate Feedback (DRF) is proposed. DRF sends ACKplusRate whenever there is a change in rate of (plus or minus) 25 percent than the previous rate. Based on ns2 simulation DRF is compared with a reliable transport protocol for ad hoc network (ATP)

  13. Oxygen consumption rates by different oenological tannins in a model wine solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual, Olga; Vignault, Adeline; Gombau, Jordi; Navarro, Maria; Gómez-Alonso, Sergio; García-Romero, Esteban; Canals, Joan Miquel; Hermosín-Gutíerrez, Isidro; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis; Zamora, Fernando

    2017-11-01

    The kinetics of oxygen consumption by different oenological tannins were measured in a model wine solution using the non-invasive method based on luminiscence. The results indicate that the oxygen consumption rate follows second-order kinetics depending on tannin and oxygen concentrations. They also confirm that the oxygen consumption rate is influenced by temperature in accordance with Arrhenius law. The indications are that ellagitannins are the fastest oxygen consumers of the different oenological tannins, followed in decreasing order by quebracho tannins, skin tannins, seed tannins and finally gallotannins. This methodology can therefore be proposed as an index for determining the effectiveness of different commercial tannins in protecting wines against oxidation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Oxygen consumption rate v. rate of energy utilization of fishes: a comparison and brief history of the two measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, J A

    2016-01-01

    Accounting for energy use by fishes has been taking place for over 200 years. The original, and continuing gold standard for measuring energy use in terrestrial animals, is to account for the waste heat produced by all reactions of metabolism, a process referred to as direct calorimetry. Direct calorimetry is not easy or convenient in terrestrial animals and is extremely difficult in aquatic animals. Thus, the original and most subsequent measurements of metabolic activity in fishes have been measured via indirect calorimetry. Indirect calorimetry takes advantage of the fact that oxygen is consumed and carbon dioxide is produced during the catabolic conversion of foodstuffs or energy reserves to useful ATP energy. As measuring [CO2 ] in water is more challenging than measuring [O2 ], most indirect calorimetric studies on fishes have used the rate of O2 consumption. To relate measurements of O2 consumption back to actual energy usage requires knowledge of the substrate being oxidized. Many contemporary studies of O2 consumption by fishes do not attempt to relate this measurement back to actual energy usage. Thus, the rate of oxygen consumption (M˙O2 ) has become a measurement in its own right that is not necessarily synonymous with metabolic rate. Because all extant fishes are obligate aerobes (many fishes engage in substantial net anaerobiosis, but all require oxygen to complete their life cycle), this discrepancy does not appear to be of great concern to the fish biology community, and reports of fish oxygen consumption, without being related to energy, have proliferated. Unfortunately, under some circumstances, these measures can be quite different from one another. A review of the methodological history of the two measurements and a look towards the future are included.

  15. Renewable energy sources and their contribution to the gross domestic energy consumption in Italy in the year 1994; Censimento per il territorio italiano dei dati relativi alle fonti rinnovabili di energia ed al loro contributo al bilancio energetico per l`anno 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menna, P.; Manzo, R. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Portici, Naples (Italy). Dip. Energia

    1996-11-01

    The gross domestic energy consumption in 1994 (including bunkers) decreased to 165.8 Mtoe from the 1993 figure of 166.6 Mtoe. At the same time the overall electricity demand reached 253.6 TWh from 246.6 TWh, closely reflecting the 2 contribution of renewable energy sources (hydroelectricity, geothermal, biomasses, solar, wind) to the national energy consumption has been 9 1994. It represented more than 34% of the domestic energy production.

  16. Gross National Happiness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giri, Krishna Prasad; Kjær-Rasmussen, Lone Krogh

    This paper investigates practices related to the ideology of infusing Gross National Happiness (GNH) into school curriculum, the effectiveness of the meditation and mind training and the implication of GNH for school environment. It also explores how GNH ambience has been managed and practiced...... of Gross National Happiness and Educating for Gross National happiness....

  17. Northern squawfish Ptychochelius oregonensis, O2 consumption rate: Effects of temperature and body size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cech, Joseph J.; Castleberry, Daniel T.; Hopkins, Todd E.; Petersen, James H.

    1994-01-01

    Northern squawfish, Ptychocheilus oregonensis (live weight range 0.361–1.973 kg), O2consumption was measured with temperature-controlled, flow-through respirometers for >24 h. Mean standard O2 consumption rate of northern squawfish increased with acclimation temperature: 24.3, 49.1, 75.0, and 89.4 mg∙kg−0.67∙h−1 at 9, 15, 18, and 21 °C, respectively. Q10analysis showed that O2 consumption rate temperature sensitivity was greatest at the intermediate acclimation temperatures (15–18 °C, Q10 = 4.10), moderate at the lower acclimation temperatures (9–15 °C, Q10 = 3.23), and lowest at the higher acclimation temperatures (18–21 °C, Q10 = 1.80). Overall Q10 was 2.96 (9–21 °C). Body size (W, grams) and temperature (T, degrees Celcius) were related to O2 consumption (, grams per gram per day) by W−0.285∙e0.105T. Northern squawfish red to white muscle ratios significantly exceeded those of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, in cross sections at 50 and 75% of standard length. High metabolic rates and red to white muscle ratios argue for comparability of northern squawfish with active predators such as sympatric rainbow trout.

  18. Prey-Mediated Effects of Drought on the Consumption Rates of Coccinellid Predators of Elatobium abietinum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer A. Banfield-Zanin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Climate change in the UK is predicted to cause an increase in summer drought events. Elatobium abietinum is an important pest of Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis, causing defoliation of trees, and is predicted to become more abundant in response to climatic change, reducing spruce productivity. Populations are also moderated by invertebrate predators, though the extent to which this might be modified under a changing climate is unclear. Elatobium abietinum is preyed upon by the coccinellid species Aphidecta obliterata (a spruce specialist and Adalia bipunctata (a generalist, populations of which naturally occur in spruce plantations. This study sought to investigate the effect of different intensities and frequencies of drought on the consumption rate of the aphids by the two coccinellids. In Petri dish trials, severe drought stress increased the consumption rates of 3rd instar aphids by both adult and larval coccinellids. Moderate intermittent stress tended to result in a reduced consumption rate for larval coccinellids only, suggesting an age-dependent response. The findings of this study suggest that, under drought conditions, a prey-mediated effect on predator consumption, and, therefore, biocontrol efficacy, is likely, with drought intensity and frequency playing an important role in determining the nature of the response.

  19. Effects of nitrification inhibitors DCD and DMPP on cinnamon soil' s gross nitrogen mineralization and nitrification rates%硝化抑制剂DCD、 DMPP对褐土氮总矿化速率和硝化速率的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章燕; 徐慧; 夏宗伟; 郭彦玲

    2012-01-01

    By using 15N pool dilution technique in combining with in situ soil cultivation, this paper studied the effects of nitrification inhibitors dicyandiamide (DCD) and 3 ,4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate (DMPP) on the gross nitrogen (N) mineralization and nitrification rates in a saline-alkali cinnamon soil in North China. The experiment was carried out in a maize-wheat rotation field in Yuncheng City of Shanxi Province, and three treatments were installed, i. e. , urea, urea + DCD, and urea + DMPP. In the first two weeks after fertilization, DCD and DMPP made the gross N mineralization rate and gross N nitrification rate decreased by 25. 5% and 7. 3% , and by 60. 3% and 59. 1% , respectively, with a significant difference in the gross N mineralization rate but less difference in the gross N nitrification rate between the effects of DCD and DMPP. However, significant difference was observed in the gross N nitrification rate between the effects of DCD and DMPP after seven weeks of fertilization. The gross N mineralization and nitrification rates and the NH4+ and NO3-consumption rates after two weeks of fertilization were 7.2-10.0, 5.5-21. 5, 9.1-12. 2, and 5. 1-8. 4 times of those before fertilization, respectively, possibly due to the stimulating effect of N fertilization. DCD and DMPP made the fertilizer urea N more maintained in NH4+-N form and less accumulated in NO3--N form in soil. The decreases of the gross N mineralization and nitrifications rate in the test soil due to the effects of the inhibitors would benefit the reduction of N2O emission from the soil.%采用15N库稀释-原位培养法研究了硝化抑制剂DCD、DMPP对华北盐碱性褐土氮总矿化速率和硝化速率的影响.试验在山西省运城市种植玉米的盐碱性土壤上进行,设单施尿素、尿素+DCD、尿素+DMPP 3个处理.结果表明:施肥后2周,DCD、DMPP分别使氮总矿化速率和氮总硝化速率减少了25.5%、7.3%和60.3%、59.1%,DCD对氮总矿化速率的

  20. 7 CFR 1424.7 - Gross payable units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Biodiesel producers will be eligible for payments on gross payable units for all biodiesel production from... rates. Unless otherwise determined by CCC, gross payable units for biodiesel production from eligible... biodiesel production gross payable units. (3) Adding the APP and BPP to determine biodiesel gross...

  1. The Impact of Alternative Trait-Scaling Hypotheses for the Maximum Photosynthetic Carboxylation Rate (V (sub cmax)) on Global Gross Primary Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Anthony P.; Quaife, Tristan; Van Bodegom, Peter M.; De Kauwe, Martin G.; Keenan, Trevor F.; Joiner, Joanna; Lomas, Mark R.; MacBean, Natasha; Xu, Chongang; Yang, Xiaojuan; hide

    2017-01-01

    The maximum photosynthetic carboxylation rate (V (sub cmax)) is an influential plant trait that has multiple scaling hypotheses, which is a source of uncertainty in predictive understanding of global gross primary production (GPP). Four trait-scaling hypotheses (plant functional type, nutrient limitation, environmental filtering, and plant plasticity) with nine specific implementations were used to predict global V(sub cmax) distributions and their impact on global GPP in the Sheffield Dynamic Global Vegetation Model (SDGVM). Global GPP varied from 108.1 to 128.2 petagrams of Carbon (PgC) per year, 65 percent of the range of a recent model intercomparison of global GPP. The variation in GPP propagated through to a 27percent coefficient of variation in net biome productivity (NBP). All hypotheses produced global GPP that was highly correlated (r equals 0.85-0.91) with three proxies of global GPP. Plant functional type-based nutrient limitation, underpinned by a core SDGVM hypothesis that plant nitrogen (N) status is inversely related to increasing costs of N acquisition with increasing soil carbon, adequately reproduced global GPP distributions. Further improvement could be achieved with accurate representation of water sensitivity and agriculture in SDGVM. Mismatch between environmental filtering (the most data-driven hypothesis) and GPP suggested that greater effort is needed understand V(sub cmax) variation in the field, particularly in northern latitudes.

  2. Correlation Analysis of Cocoa Consumption Data with Worldwide Incidence Rates of Testicular Cancer and Hypospadias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Giannandrea

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The underlying reasons for the increasing occurrence of male reproductive diseases (MRD such as hypospadias, cryptorchidism, and testicular cancer (TC over the last decades are still unknown. It has been hypothesized that the risk of MRD is determined in utero and that pregnancy dietary intake could also affect MRD risk in the offspring. Various studies in animals reported that cocoa and theobromine, the main stimulant of cocoa, exert toxic effects on the testis, inducing testicular atrophy and impaired sperm quality. A correlation analysis was conducted to examine the possible role of cocoa consumption on the occurrence of selected MRD during the prenatal and early life period of cases. The incidence rates between 1998-2002 of TC in 18 countries obtained from Cancer Incidence in Five Continents were correlated with the average per-capita consumption of cocoa (kg/capita/year (FAOSTAT-Database in these countries from 1965 to 1980, i.e. the period corresponding to the early life of TC cases. In order to test the above correlation in the case of hypospadias, the mean prevalence at birth in 20 countries (1999-2003 with average per-capita consumption of cocoa in these countries in the same period corresponding to pregnancy were used. The consumption of cocoa in the period 1965–80, was most closely correlated with the incidence of TC in young adults (r=0.859; p<0.001. An analogous significant correlation was also observed between early cocoa consumption and the prevalence rates of hypospadias in the period 1999-2003 (r=0.760; p<0.001. Although the ecological approach used in this study cannot provide an answer on the causal relationship between consumption of cocoa in early life and TC and hypospadias, the results are suggestive and indicate the need of further analytic studies to investigate the role of individual exposure to cocoa, particularly during the prenatal and in early life of the patients.

  3. Effect of temperate climate tree species on gross ammonification, gross nitrification and N2O formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüggemann, N.; Rosenkranz, P.; Papen, H.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.

    2003-04-01

    Microbial nitrogen turnover processes in the soil, like ammonification, nitrification and denitrification, play an important role in the formation of nitrous oxide (N2O): (i) ammonification, because it releases nitrogen from organic material in the form of ammonium (NH4+), which in turn can serve as substrate for nitrification; (ii) nitrification itself (i.e. the turnover of NH4+ to nitrate, NO3-), during which nitric oxide (NO) and N2O can be released as by-products at varying ratios; (iii) denitrification, in which NO3- serves as electron acceptor and is converted to molecular nitrogen (N2) via NO and N2O as intermediates, that can also be partially lost to the atmosphere. Temperate forest soils are a substantial source of atmospheric N2O contributing up to 10% to the total atmospheric N2O budget. However, this figure is afflicted with a huge uncertainty due to a number of factors governing the soil N2O formation, consumption, release and uptake, which are not fully understood at present. To one of these factors belongs the influence of the tree species on nitrogen turnover processes in the soil and the formation of N trace gases related with them. The aim of the present work was to analyse this tree species effect for the temperate climate region. For this purpose the effect of five different temperate tree species, having the same age and growing on the same soil in direct vicinity to each other, on gross ammonification and gross nitrification as well as on N2O formation was investigated. The trees (common beech, Fagus sylvatica; pedunculate oak, Quercus robur; Norway spruce, Picea abies; Japanese larch, Larix leptolepis; mountain pine, Pinus mugo) were part of a species trial in Western Jutland, Denmark, established in 1965 on a former sandy heathland. Samples from the soil under these five tree species were taken in spring and in summer 2002, respectively, differentiating between organic layer and mineral soil. The gross rates of ammonification as well of

  4. Indoor air pollution, nighttime heart rate variability and coffee consumption among convenient store workers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Jen Chuang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The association between ambient air pollution and heart rate variability (HRV has been well-documented. Little is known about the association of HRV at night with indoor air pollution and coffee consumption. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of HRV indices with indoor air pollution, working time and coffee consumption. METHODS: We recruited 60 young healthy convenient store workers to monitor indoor PM2.5 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 µm exposures, coffee consumption (yes vs. no and HRV indices during daytime (0700-1500 hours and nighttime (2300-0700 hours. We used linear mixed effects models to assess the associations of HRV indices with indoor PM2.5 exposures and coffee consumption. RESULTS: We observed the inverse association between indoor PM2.5 exposures and HRV indices, with a decrease in all HRV indices with increased indoor PM2.5 exposures. However, the decrease was most pronounced during nighttime, where a 1 interquartile range (IQR increase in indoor PM2.5 at 4-hr time-weighted moving average was associated with a change of -4.78% 5-min standard deviation (SD of normal-to-normal intervals for 5-min segment (SDNN and -3.23% 5-min square root of the mean squared differences of successive intervals for 5-min segment (r-MSSD. Effects of indoor PM2.5 were lowest for participants with coffee consumption during daytime. CONCLUSIONS: Indoor PM2.5 exposures were associated with decreased 5-min SDNN and 5-min r-MSSD, especially during nighttime. The effect of indoor PM2.5 on HRV indices may be modified by coffee consumption in young healthy convenient store workers.

  5. Subjective thermal sensation and human body exergy consumption rate: analysis and correlation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simone, Angela; Dovjak, M.; Kolarik, Jakub

    2011-01-01

    The exergy approach to design and operation of climate conditioning systems is relatively well established, while its exploitation in connection to human perception of the indoor environment is relatively rare. As a building should provide healthy and comfortable environment for its occupants......, it is reasonable to consider both the exergy flows in building and those within the human body. There is a need to verify the human-body exergy model with the Thermal-Sensation (TS) response of subjects exposed to different combinations of indoor climate parameters (temperature, humidity, etc.). First results...... available on the relation between human-body exergy consumption rates and subjectively assessed thermal sensation showed that the minimum human body exergy consumption rate is associated with thermal sensation votes close to thermal neutrality, tending to slightly cool side of thermal sensation. By applying...

  6. Subjective thermal sensation and human body exergy consumption rate: analysis and correlation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simone, Angela; Dovjak, M.; Kolarik, Jakub

    2011-01-01

    The exergy approach to design and operation of climate conditioning systems is relatively well established, while its exploitation in connection to human perception of the indoor environment is relatively rare. As a building should provide healthy and comfortable environment for its occupants......, it is reasonable to consider both the exergy flows in building and those within the human body. There is a need to verify the human-body exergy model with the Thermal-Sensation (TS) response of subjects exposed to different combinations of indoor climate parameters (temperature, humidity, etc.). First results...... available on the relation between human-body exergy consumption rates and subjectively assessed thermal sensation showed that the minimum human body exergy consumption rate is associated with thermal sensation votes close to thermal neutrality, tending to slightly cool side of thermal sensation. By applying...

  7. Human Islet Oxygen Consumption Rate and DNA Measurements Predict Diabetes Reversal in Nude Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Papas, K.K.; Colton, C. K.; Nelson, R. A.; Rozak, P.R.; Avgoustiniatos, E.S.; Scott, W. E.; Wildey, G. M.; Pisania, A.; Weir, G. C.; Hering, B. J.

    2007-01-01

    There is a need for simple, quantitative and prospective assays for islet quality assessment that are predictive of islet transplantation outcome. The current state-of-the-art athymic nude mouse bioassay is costly, technically challenging and retrospective. In this study, we report on the ability of 2 parameters characterizing human islet quality: (1) oxygen consumption rate (OCR), a measure of viable volume; and (2) OCR/DNA, a measure of fractional viability, to predict diabetes reversal in ...

  8. Uptake rate of cationic mitochondrial inhibitor MKT-077 determines cellular oxygen consumption change in carcinoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John L Chunta

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Since tumor radiation response is oxygen-dependent, radiosensitivity can be enhanced by increasing tumor oxygenation. Theoretically, inhibiting cellular oxygen consumption is the most efficient way to increase oxygen levels. The cationic, rhodacyanine dye-analog MKT-077 inhibits mitochondrial respiration and could be an effective metabolic inhibitor. However, the relationship between cellular MKT-077 uptake and metabolic inhibition is unknown. We hypothesized that rat and human mammary carcinoma cells would take up MKT-077, causing a decrease in oxygen metabolism related to drug uptake. METHODS: R3230Ac rat breast adenocarcinoma cells were exposed to MKT-077. Cellular MKT-077 concentration was quantified using spectroscopy, and oxygen consumption was measured using polarographic electrodes. MKT-077 uptake kinetics were modeled by accounting for uptake due to both the concentration and potential gradients across the plasma and mitochondrial membranes. These kinetic parameters were used to model the relationship between MKT-077 uptake and metabolic inhibition. MKT-077-induced changes in oxygen consumption were also characterized in MDA-MB231 human breast carcinoma cells. RESULTS: Cells took up MKT-077 with a time constant of ∼1 hr, and modeling showed that over 90% of intracellular MKT-077 was bound or sequestered, likely by the mitochondria. The uptake resulted in a rapid decrease in oxygen consumption, with a time constant of ∼30 minutes. Surprisingly the change in oxygen consumption was proportional to uptake rate, not cellular concentration. MKT-077 proved a potent metabolic inhibitor, with dose-dependent decreases of 45-73% (p = 0.003. CONCLUSIONS: MKT-077 caused an uptake rate-dependent decrease in cellular metabolism, suggesting potential efficacy for increasing tumor oxygen levels and radiosensitivity in vivo.

  9. Quantitative measurement and visualization of biofilm O 2 consumption rates in membrane filtration systems

    KAUST Repository

    Prest, Emmanuelle I E C

    2012-03-01

    There is a strong need for techniques enabling direct assessment of biological activity of biofouling in membrane filtration systems. Here we present a new quantitative and non-destructive method for mapping O 2 dynamics in biofilms during biofouling studies in membrane fouling simulators (MFS). Transparent planar O 2 optodes in combination with a luminescence lifetime imaging system were used to map the two-dimensional distribution of O 2 concentrations and consumption rates inside the MFS. The O 2 distribution was indicative for biofilm development. Biofilm activity was characterized by imaging of O 2 consumption rates, where low and high activity areas could be clearly distinguished. The spatial development of O 2 consumption rates, flow channels and stagnant areas could be determined. This can be used for studies on concentration polarization, i.e. salt accumulation at the membrane surface resulting in increased salt passage and reduced water flux. The new optode-based O 2 imaging technique applied to MFS allows non-destructive and spatially resolved quantitative biological activity measurements (BAM) for on-site biofouling diagnosis and laboratory studies. The following set of complementary tools is now available to study development and control of biofouling in membrane systems: (i) MFS, (ii) sensitive pressure drop measurement, (iii) magnetic resonance imaging, (iv) numerical modelling, and (v) biological activity measurement based on O 2 imaging methodology. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  10. Fish consumption behavior and rates in native and non-native people in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Batang, Zenon; Alikunhi, Nabeel; Al-Jahdali, Ramzi; Al-Jebreen, Dalal; Aziz, Mohammed A M; Al-Suwailem, Abdulaziz

    2014-08-01

    Fish are a healthy source of protein and nutrients, but contaminants in fish may provide health risks. Determining the risk from contaminants in fish requires site-specific information on consumption patterns. We examine consumption rates for resident and expatriates in the Jeddah region of Saudi Arabia, by species of fish and fishing location. For Saudis, 3.7% of males and 4.3% of females do not eat fish; for expatriates, the percent not eating fish is 6.6% and 6.1% respectively. Most people eat fish at home (over 90%), and many eat fish at restaurants (65% and 48%, respectively for Saudis and expatriates). Fish eaten at home comes from local fish markets, followed by supermarkets. Saudis included fish in their diets at an average of 1.4 ± 1.2 meals/week at home and 0.8 ± 0.7 meals/week at restaurants, while expats ate 2.0 ± 1.7 meals/week at home and 1.1 ± 1.1 meals/week in restaurants. Overall, Saudis ate 2.2 fish meals/week, while expats ate 3.1 meals/week. Grouper (Epinephelus and Cephalopholis) were eaten by 72% and 60% respectively. Plectropomus pessuliferus was the second favorite for both groups and Hipposcarus harid and Lethrinus lentjan were in 3rd and 4th place in terms of consumption. Average meal size was 68 g for Saudis and 128 g for expatriates. These data can be used by health professionals, risk assessors, and environmental regulators to examine potential risk from contaminants in fish, and to compare consumption rates with other sites.

  11. Fish consumption behavior and rates in native and non-native people in Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Burger, Joanna

    2014-08-01

    Fish are a healthy source of protein and nutrients, but contaminants in fish may provide health risks. Determining the risk from contaminants in fish requires site-specific information on consumption patterns. We examine consumption rates for resident and expatriates in the Jeddah region of Saudi Arabia, by species of fish and fishing location. For Saudis, 3.7% of males and 4.3% of females do not eat fish; for expatriates, the percent not eating fish is 6.6% and 6.1% respectively. Most people eat fish at home (over 90%), and many eat fish at restaurants (65% and 48%, respectively for Saudis and expatriates). Fish eaten at home comes from local fish markets, followed by supermarkets. Saudis included fish in their diets at an average of 1.4±1.2 meals/week at home and 0.8±0.7 meals/week at restaurants, while expats ate 2.0±1.7 meals/week at home and 1.1±1.1 meals/week in restaurants. Overall, Saudis ate 2.2 fish meals/week, while expats ate 3.1 meals/week. Grouper (Epinephelus and Cephalopholis) were eaten by 72% and 60% respectively. Plectropomus pessuliferus was the second favorite for both groups and Hipposcarus harid and Lethrinus lentjan were in 3rd and 4th place in terms of consumption. Average meal size was 68. g for Saudis and 128. g for expatriates. These data can be used by health professionals, risk assessors, and environmental regulators to examine potential risk from contaminants in fish, and to compare consumption rates with other sites. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

  12. Developmental patterns of O2 consumption, heart rate and O2 pulse in unturned eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, J T; Haque, M A; Hou, P C; Tazawa, H

    1996-01-01

    The effects of failure to turn eggs on the developmental patterns of oxygen consumption (MO2), heart rate (fH) and O2 pulse during the second half of incubation of individual chicken eggs were examined. The MO2 of unturned eggs increased at a significantly lower rate than the control toward the end of prenatal incubation, and the plateau MO2 between day 17 and 19 was significantly lower than the control. Lack of turning also resulted in significant changes in the developmental patterns of fH and O2 pulse. It is suggested that the effects of lack of egg-turning on the developmental patterns of MO2 may be attributable to lower embryonic growth rate in addition to impairment of gas exchange through the chorioallantoic gas exchanger.

  13. Light pollution reduces activity, food consumption and growth rates in a sandy beach invertebrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luarte, T; Bonta, C C; Silva-Rodriguez, E A; Quijón, P A; Miranda, C; Farias, A A; Duarte, C

    2016-11-01

    The continued growth of human activity and infrastructure has translated into a widespread increase in light pollution. Natural daylight and moonlight cycles play a fundamental role for many organisms and ecological processes, so an increase in light pollution may have profound effects on communities and ecosystem services. Studies assessing ecological light pollution (ELP) effects on sandy beach organisms have lagged behind the study of other sources of disturbance. Hence, we assessed the influence of this stressor on locomotor activity, foraging behavior, absorption efficiency and growth rate of adults of the talitrid amphipod Orchestoidea tuberculata. In the field, an artificial light system was assembled to assess the local influence of artificial light conditions on the amphipod's locomotor activity and use of food patches in comparison to natural (ambient) conditions. Meanwhile in the laboratory, two experimental chambers were set to assess amphipod locomotor activity, consumption rates, absorption efficiency and growth under artificial light in comparison to natural light-dark cycles. Our results indicate that artificial light have significantly adverse effects on the activity patterns and foraging behavior of the amphipods, resulting on reduced consumption and growth rates. Given the steady increase in artificial light pollution here and elsewhere, sandy beach communities could be negatively affected, with unexpected consequences for the whole ecosystem. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE INCIDENCE RATES OF TESTICULAR AND PROSTATIC CANCERS AND FOOD CONSUMPTIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李湘鸣; 刘秀梵; 佐藤·章夫

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To determine the relationships between the incidence rates of testicular and prostatic cancers and food consumptions in order to study the etiologic cause and the mechanism of the development of male genital organ cancer. Methods: The incidence rates of testicular and prostatic cancers in 42 countries (region) were correlated with the dietary practices in these countries. These data came from the cancer rate database (1988-1992) and the food supply database (1961-1990) provided by the Department of Environmental Health, Medical University of Yamanashi, Japan. Results: The incidence rates of testicular and prostatic cancers varied greatly from country to country but in China the rates of the both malignancies were lower than that of USA and Japan. This may be due to the difference in lifestyle, especially in dietary practices. Among the food items weexamined, cheese was most closely correlated with the incidence of testicular cancer at ages 20-39, followed by animal fats and milk. The correlation coefficient (r) was the highest (r= 0.804) when calculated for cheese consumed during the period of 1961-1965 (maternal or prepubertal consumption). Stepwise- multiple-regression analysis revealed that cheese (1961-1965) made a significant contribution to the incidence of testicular cancer. Multiple coefficient ( r) is 0.920. As far as prostatic cancer was concerned, milk was most closely correlated (r=0.711) with its incidence, followed by meat and coffee. Stepwise-multiple-regression analysis identified milk, meat, butter and coffee as significant factors contributing to the incidence of prostatic cancer (R=0.993).The results of our study suggest a role of milk and dairy practices in the development of testicular and prostatic cancers.

  15. Relationships between butterflyfish (Chaetodontidae) feeding rates and coral consumption on the Great Barrier Reef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregson, M. A.; Pratchett, M. S.; Berumen, M. L.; Goodman, B. A.

    2008-09-01

    This study explored differences in the feeding rate among 20 species of coral reef butterflyfishes (Chaetodontidae) from Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef. Feeding rate, measured as bites per minute (b.p.m.), varied between 2.98 ± 0.65 and 12.29 ± 0.27 (mean ± SE) according to species and was positively related to the proportional consumption of coral ( r 2 = 0.40, n = 20, P < 0.01), independent of phylogeny (standardised independent contrasts r 2 = 0.29, n = 19, P < 0.05). All species fed actively throughout the day, with obligate corallivores having a higher feeding rate at all times than either facultative corallivores or non-corallivores. The feeding rate of the obligate corallivores was also highest during the middle of the day. For eight of the species for which data was available, there was a positive correlation between bite rate and competitive dominance ( r = 0.71, P < 0.05). Chaetodon ephippium was the only species for which the feeding rate of pairs was higher than for solitary individuals.

  16. A new method for measuring the oxygen diffusion constant and oxygen consumption rate of arteriolar walls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Nobuhiko; Horinouchi, Hirohisa; Ushiyama, Akira; Minamitani, Haruyuki

    2012-01-01

    Oxygen transport is believed to primarily occur via capillaries and depends on the oxygen tension gradient between the vessels and tissues. As blood flows along branching arterioles, the O(2) saturation drops, indicating either consumption or diffusion. The blood flow rate, the O(2) concentration gradient, and Krogh's O(2) diffusion constant (K) of the vessel wall are parameters affecting O(2)delivery. We devised a method for evaluating K of arteriolar wall in vivo using phosphorescence quenching microscopy to measure the partial pressure of oxygen in two areas almost simultaneously. The K value of arteriolar wall (inner diameter, 63.5 ± 11.9 μm; wall thickness, 18.0 ± 1.2 μm) was found to be 6.0 ± 1.2 × 10(-11) (cm(2)/s)(ml O(2)·cm(-3) tissue·mmHg(-1)). The arteriolar wall O(2) consumption rate (M) was 1.5 ± 0.1 (ml O(2)·100 cm(-3) tissue·min(-1)), as calculated using Krogh's diffusion equation. These results suggest that the arteriolar wall consumes a considerable proportion of the O(2) that diffuses through it.

  17. Loovkirjutamist õpetab Philip Gross

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    T.S. Elioti luulepreemia laureaat Philip Gross on Tallinna Ülikooli talvekooli rahvusvahelise kursuse "Poetry: A Conversation between Words and Silence" läbiviija. Oma seminarides keskendub ta lisaks loovkirjutamisele ka loova lugemise vajadusele

  18. Gross Sales Tax Collections

    Data.gov (United States)

    City of Jackson, Mississippi — This data is captured directly from the MS Department of Revenue and specific to the City of Jackson. It is compiled from Gross Sales Tax reported by taxpayers each...

  19. The relationship between heart rate and rate of oxygen consumption in Galapagos marine iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus) at two different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Patrick J; Frappell, Peter B; Wang, Tobias; Wikelski, Martin

    2002-07-01

    To enable the use of heart rate (fH) for estimating field metabolic rate (FMR) in free-ranging Galapagos marine iguanas Amblyrhynchus cristatus, we determined the relationships between fH and mass-specific rate of oxygen consumption (sVO2) in seven iguanas before and during exercise on a treadmill and during the post-exercise period. The experiments were conducted at 27 and 35 degrees C, which are the temperatures that represent the lowest and highest average body temperatures of these animals in the field during summer. There were linear and significant relationships between fH and sVO2 at both temperatures (r(2)=0.86 and 0.91 at 27 degrees C and 36 degrees C, respectively). The slopes of the two regression lines did not differ, but there were significant differences in their intercepts. Thus, while heart rate can be used to predict FMR, the effects of temperature on the intercept of the regression must be taken into account when converting fH to sVO2. On the basis of our data, this can be achieved by applying the following formula: sVO2=0.0113fH-0.2983Q(10)((T(b)-27)/10). The increase in sVO2 with elevated body temperature results from an increase in fH, with no significant change in mass-specific oxygen pulse (sO(2) pulse; cardiac stroke volume times the difference in oxygen content between arterial and mixed venous blood). However, during exercise at both temperatures, increases in fH are insufficient to provide all of the additional O(2) required and there are also significant increases in the sO(2) pulses. This creates the situation whereby the same fH at the two temperatures can represent different values of sVO2.

  20. Role of self-caught fish in total fish consumption rates for recreational fishermen: Average consumption for some species exceeds allowable intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    Studies of fish consumption focus on recreational or subsistence fishing, on awareness and adherence to advisories, consumption patterns, and contaminants in fish. Yet the general public obtains their fish from commercial sources. In this paper I examine fish consumption patterns of recreational fishermen in New Jersey to determine: 1) consumption rates for self-caught fish and for other fish, 2) meals consumed per year, 3) average meal size, and average daily intake of mercury, and 4) variations in these parameters for commonly-consumed fish, and different methods of computing intake. Over 300 people were interviewed at fishing sites and fishing clubs along the New Jersey shore. Consumption patterns of anglers varied by species of fish. From 2 to 90 % of the anglers ate the different fish species, and between 9 and 75 % gave fish away to family or friends. Self-caught fish made up 7 to 92 % of fish diets. On average, self-caught fish were eaten for only 2 to 6 months of the year, whereas other fish (commercial or restaurant) were eaten up to 10 months a year. Anglers consumed from 5 to 36 meals of different fish a year, which resulted in intake of mercury ranging from 0.01 to 0.22 ug/kg/day. Average intake of Mako shark, swordfish, and tuna (sushi, canned tuna, self-caught tuna) exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's oral, chronic reference dose for mercury of 0.1 ug/kg/day. However, computing intake using consumption for the highest month results in average mercury intake exceeding the reference dose for striped bass and bluefish as well. These data, and the variability in consumption patterns, have implications for risk assessors, risk managers, and health professionals.

  1. Is Urbanisation Rate a Feasible Supplemental Parameter in Forecasting Electricity Consumption in China?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biao Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional method of forecasting electricity consumption based only on GDP was sometimes ineffective. In this paper, urbanisation rate (UR was introduced as an additional predictor to improve the electricity demand forecast in China at provincial scale, which was previously based only on GDP. Historical data of Shaanxi province from 2000 to 2013 was collected and used as case study. Four regression models were proposed and GDP, UR, and electricity consumption (EC were used to establish the parameters in each model. The model with least average error of hypothetical forecast results in the latest three years was selected as the optimal forecast model. This optimal model divides total EC into four parts, of which forecasts can be made separately. It was found that GDP was only better correlated than UR on household EC, whilst UR was better on the three sectors of industries. It was concluded that UR is a valid predictor to forecast electricity demand at provincial level in China nowadays. Being provided the planned value of GDP and UR from the government, EC in 2015 were forecasted as 131.3 GWh.

  2. Protein expression and oxygen consumption rate of early postmortem mitochondria relate to meat tenderness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabež, V; Kathri, M; Phung, V; Moe, K M; Slinde, E; Skaugen, M; Saarem, K; Egelandsdal, B

    2015-04-01

    Oxygen consumption rate (OCR) of muscle fibers from bovine semimembranosus muscle of 41 animals was investigated 3 to 4 h and 3 wk postmortem. Significant relations (P meat. Tender (22.92 ± 2.2 N/cm2) and tough (72.98 ± 7.2 N/cm2) meat samples (4 samples each), separated based on their OCR measurements, were selected for proteomic studies using mitochondria isolated approximately 2.5 h postmortem. Twenty-six differently expressed proteins (P meat and 19 in tough meat. In tender meat, the more prevalent antioxidant and chaperon enzymes may reduce reactive oxygen species and prolong oxygen removal by the electron transport system (ETS). Glycolytic, Krebs cycle, and ETS enzymes were also more abundant in tender meat

  3. Acclimation to constant and variable temperatures in plethodontid salamanders--I. Rates of oxygen consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feder, M E

    1985-01-01

    In preliminary experiments, salamanders of three species (Desmognathus ochrophaeus, Plethodon cinereus and Plethodon jordani) required 5-11 days to complete metabolic acclimation to a constant warm temperature; the rate of oxygen consumption (VO2) decreased 16-28% during acclimation. Unfed animals of each species underwent cyclic exposure to 5 and 21 degrees C at three different cycle periods (12 hr, 4-5 days, 51 days), or constant exposure to 14 degrees C for 102 days. The experimental treatments significantly affected the VO2 measured at 5, 14, 17.5 and 21 degrees C. The direction and magnitude of the acclimatory effects upon VO2 were inconsistent among species and among experimental temperatures, and resulted in little energy saving. The VO2 during exposure to cyclic temperatures averaged only 83% of that during preliminary experiments, perhaps as a response to starvation.

  4. Effect of exercise intensity on post-exercise oxygen consumption and heart rate recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Theresa N; Webster, Christopher; Lamberts, Robert P; Lambert, Michael I

    2014-09-01

    There is some evidence that measures of acute post-exercise recovery are sensitive to the homeostatic stress of the preceding exercise and these measurements warrant further investigation as possible markers of training load. The current study investigated which of four different measures of metabolic and autonomic recovery was most sensitive to changes in exercise intensity. Thirty-eight moderately trained runners completed 20-min bouts of treadmill exercise at 60, 70 and 80% of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and four different recovery measurements were determined: the magnitude of excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOCMAG), the time constant of the oxygen consumption recovery curve (EPOCτ), heart rate recovery within 1 min (HRR60s) and the time constant of the heart rate recovery curve (HRRτ) . Despite significant differences in exercise parameters at each exercise intensity, only EPOCMAG showed significantly slower recovery with each increase in exercise intensity at the group level and in the majority of individuals. EPOCτ was significantly slower at 70 and 80% of VO₂max vs. 60% VO₂max and HRRτ was only significantly slower when comparing the 80 vs. 60% VO₂max exercise bouts. In contrast, HRR60s reflected faster recovery at 70 and 80% of VO₂max than at 60% VO₂max. Of the four recovery measurements investigated, EPOCMAG was the most sensitive to changes in exercise intensity and shows potential to reflect changes in the homeostatic stress of exercise at the group and individual level. Determining EPOCMAG may help to interpret the homeostatic stress of laboratory-based research trials or training sessions.

  5. Detection of the oxygen consumption rate of migrating zebrafish by electrochemical equalization systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasukawa, Tomoyuki; Koide, Masahiro; Tatarazako, Norihisa; Abe, Ryoko; Shiku, Hitoshi; Mizutani, Fumio; Matsue, Tomokazu

    2014-01-07

    A novel measurement system to determine oxygen consumption rates via respiration in migrating Zebrafish (Danio rerio) has been developed. A signal equalization system was adapted to detect oxygen in a chamber with one fish, because typical electrochemical techniques cannot measure respiration activities for migrating organisms. A closed chamber was fabricated using a pipet tip attached to a Pt electrode, and a columnar Vycor glass tip was used as the salt bridge. Pt electrode, which was attached to the chamber with one zebrafish, and Ag electrode were immersed in 10 mM potassium iodide (KI), and both the electrodes were connected externally to form a galvanic cell. Pt and Ag electrodes act as the cathode and anode to reduce oxygen and oxidize silver, respectively, allowing the deposition of insoluble silver iodide (AgI). The AgI acts as the signal source accumulated on the Ag electrode by conversion of oxygen. The amount of AgI deposited on the Ag electrode was determined by cathodic stripping voltammetry. The presence of zebrafish or its embryo led to a decrease in the stripping currents generated by a 10 min conversion of oxygen to AgI. The conversion of oxygen to AgI is disturbed by the migration of the zebrafish and allows the detection of different equalized signals corresponding to respiration activity. The oxygen consumption rates of the zebrafish and its embryo were estimated and determined to be ∼4.1 and 2.4 pmol·s(-1), respectively. The deposited AgI almost completely disappeared with a single stripping process. The signal equalization system provides a method to determine the respiration activities for migrating zebrafish and could be used to estimate environmental risk and for effective drug screening.

  6. Caffeine Consumption and Heart Rate and Blood Pressure Response to Regadenoson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitar, Abbas; Mastouri, Ronald; Kreutz, Rolf P

    2015-01-01

    Current guidelines recommend that caffeinated products should be avoided for at least 12 hours prior to regadenoson administration. We intended to examine the effect of caffeine consumption and of timing of last dose on hemodynamic effects after regadenoson administration for cardiac stress testing. 332 subjects undergoing regadenoson stress testing were enrolled. Baseline characteristics, habits of coffee/caffeine exposure, baseline vital signs and change in heart rate, blood pressure, percent of maximal predicted heart rate, and percent change in heart rate were prospectively collected. Non-coffee drinkers (group 1) (73 subjects) and subjects who last drank coffee >24 hours (group 3) (139 subjects) prior to regadenoson did not demonstrate any difference in systolic blood pressure, heart rate change, maximal predicted heart rate and percent change in heart rate. Systolic blood pressure change (15.2±17.1 vs. 7.2±10.2 mmHg, p = 0.001), heart rate change (32.2±14 vs. 27.3±9.6 bpm, p = 0.038) and maximal predicted heart rate (65.5±15.6 vs. 60.7±8.6%, p = 0.038) were significantly higher in non-coffee drinkers (group 1) compared to those who drank coffee 12-24 hours prior (group 2) (108 subjects). Subjects who drank coffee >24 hours prior (group 3) exhibited higher systolic blood pressure change (13±15.8 vs. 7±10.2, p = 0.007), and heart rate change (32.1±15.3 vs. 27.3±9.6, p = 0.017) as compared to those who drank coffee 12-24 hours prior to testing (group 2). Caffeine exposure 12-24 hours prior to regadenoson administration attenuates the vasoactive effects of regadenoson, as evidenced by a blunted rise in heart rate and systolic blood pressure. These results suggest that caffeine exposure within 24 hours may reduce the effects of regadenoson administered for vasodilatory cardiac stress testing.

  7. Emperor penguin oxygen consumption, heart rate and plasma lactate levels during graded swimming exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooyman, G L; Ponganis, P J

    1994-10-01

    Oxygen consumption (VO2), heart rate and blood chemistry were measured in four emperor penguins, Aptenodytes forsteri (Gray), during graded swimming exercise. The maximum VO2 obtained, 52 ml O2 kg-1 min-1, was 7.8 times the measured resting VO2 of 6.7 ml O2 kg-1 min-1 and 9.1 times the predicted resting VO2. As the swimming effort rose, a linear increase in surface and submerged heart rates (fH) occurred. The highest average maximum surface and submersion heart rates of any bird were 213 and 210 beats min-1, respectively. No increase in plasma lactate concentrations occurred until VO2 was greater than 25 ml O2 kg-1 min-1. At the highest VO2 values measured, plasma lactate concentration reached 9.4 mmol l-1. In comparison with other animals of approximately the same mass, the aerobic capacity of the emperor penguin is less than those of the emu and dog but about the same as those of the seal, sea lion and domestic goat. For aquatic animals, a low aerobic capacity seems to be consistent with the needs of parsimonious oxygen utilization while breath-holding.

  8. Growth, condition, diet, and consumption rates of northern pike in three Arizona reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flinders, J.M.; Bonar, Scott A.

    2008-01-01

    Northern pike (Esox lucius L.) introductions are controversial in the western United States due to suspected impacts they might have on established sport fisheries and potential illegal introductions. Tbree Arizona reservoirs, Parker Canyon Lake, Upper Lake Mary and Long Lake were sampled to examine the diet, consumption dynamics, and growth of northern pike. Northern pike diets varied by season and reservoir. In Parker Canyon Lake, diets were dominated by rainbow trout in winter and spring and bluegill and green sunfish in the fall. In Long Lake the northern pike ate crayfish in spring and early summer and switched to young of the year common carp in summer and fall. Black crappie, golden shiners, and crayfish were the major prey in Upper Lake Mary during spring, but they switched to stocked rainbow trout in the fall. Northern pike growth was in the high range of growth reported throughout the United States. Estimated northern pike specific consumption rate (scr) of rainbow trout (g/g/d ?? 10-6) was greatest in Upper Lake Mary (scr = 329.1 ?? 23.7 g/g/d ?? 10-6) where stocked fingerling (280 mm TL) rainbow trout stocked in Long Lake (scr = 1.4 ?? 0.1 g/g/d ?? 10-6) and Parker Canyon Lake (scr = 287.2 ?? 15.1 g/g/d ?? 10-6) where catchable-sized rainbow trout were stocked. Managers should consider the cost-benefits of stocking fish >200 mm TL in lakes containing northern pike. ?? Copyright by the North American Lake Management Society 2008.

  9. Oxygen consumption and heart rate responses to isolated ballet exercise sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues-Krause, Josianne; Dos Santos Cunha, Giovani; Alberton, Cristine Lima; Follmer, Bruno; Krause, Mauricio; Reischak-Oliveira, Alvaro

    2014-01-01

    Ballet stage performances are associated with higher cardiorespiratory demand than rehearsals and classes. Hence, new interest is emerging to create periodized training that enhances dancers' fitness while minimizing delayed exercise-induced fatigue and possible injuries. Finding out in what zones of intensity dancers work during different ballet movements may support the use of supplemental training adjusted to the needs of the individual dancer. Therefore, the main purpose of this study was to describe dancers' oxygen consumption (VO2) and heart rate (HR) responses during the performance of nine isolated ballet exercise sets, as correlated with their first and second ventilatory thresholds (VT1 and VT2). Twelve female ballet dancers volunteered for the study. Their maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max), VT1, and VT2 were determined by use of an incremental treadmill test. Nine sets of ballet movements were assessed: pliés, tendus, jetés, rond de jambes, fondus, grand adage (adage), grand battements, temps levés, and sautés. The sets were randomly executed and separated by 5 minute rest periods. ANOVA for repeated measurements followed by the Bonferroni Post-hoc test were applied (p ballet sets. This stratification followed closely, but not exactly, the variation in HR. For example, rond de jambes (156.8 ± 19 b·min(-1)) did not show any significant difference from all the other ballet sets, nor VT1 or VT2. It is concluded that the workloads of isolated ballet sets, based on VO2 responses, vary between low and moderate aerobic intensity in relation to dancers' VT1 and VT2. However, ballet set workloads may be higher when based on HR responses, due to the intermittent and isometric components of dance.

  10. A mesoscopic stochastic model for the specific consumption rate in substrate-limited microbial growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The specific consumption rate of substrate, as well as the associated specific growth rate, is an essential parameter in the mathematical description of substrate-limited microbial growth. In this paper we develop a completely new kinetic model of substrate transport, based on recent knowledge on the structural biology of transport proteins, which correctly describes very accurate experimental results at near-zero substrate concentration values found in the literature, where the widespread Michaelis-Menten model fails. Additionally, our model converges asymptotically to Michaelis-Menten predictions as substrate concentration increases. Instead of the single active site enzymatic reaction of Michaelis-Menten type, the proposed model assumes a multi-site kinetics, simplified as an apparent all-or-none mechanism for the transport, which is controlled by means of the local substrate concentration in the close vicinity of the transport protein. Besides, the model also assumes that this local concentration is not equal to the mean substrate concentration experimentally determined in the culture medium. Instead, we propose that it fluctuates with a mostly exponential distribution of Weibull type. PMID:28187189

  11. Season and application rates affect vaccine bait consumption by prairie dogs in Colorado and Utah, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripp, Daniel W.; Rocke, Tonie E.; Streich, Sean P.; Brown, Nathanael L.; Fernandez, Julia Rodriguez-Ramos; Miller, Michael W.

    2014-01-01

    Plague, a zoonotic disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, causes high rates of mortality in prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.). An oral vaccine against plague has been developed for prairie dogs along with a palatable bait to deliver vaccine and a biomarker to track bait consumption. We conducted field trials between September 2009 and September 2012 to develop recommendations for bait distribution to deliver plague vaccine to prairie dogs. The objectives were to evaluate the use of the biomarker, rhodamine B, in field settings to compare bait distribution strategies, to compare uptake of baits distributed at different densities, to assess seasonal effects on bait uptake, and to measure bait uptake by nontarget small mammal species. Rhodamine B effectively marked prairie dogs' whiskers during these field trials. To compare bait distribution strategies, we applied baits around active burrows or along transects at densities of 32, 65, and 130 baits/ha. Distributing baits at active burrows or by transect did not affect uptake by prairie dogs. Distributing baits at rates of ≥65/ha (or ≥1 bait/active burrow) produced optimal uptake, and bait uptake by prairie dogs in the autumn was superior to uptake in the spring. Six other species of small mammals consumed baits during these trials. All four species of tested prairie dogs readily consumed the baits, demonstrating that vaccine uptake will not be an obstacle to plague control via oral vaccination.

  12. Spatial and temporal variation in domestic biofuel consumption rates and patterns in Zimbabwe: implications for atmospheric trace gas emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludwig, J.; Andreae, M.O.; Helas, G. [Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Mainz (Germany). Dept. of Biogeochemistry; Marufu, L. [Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Mainz (Germany). Dept. of Biogeochemistry; University of Utrecht, (Netherlands). Institute for Marine and Atmospheric Research Utrecht; Lelieveld, J. [University of Utrecht, (Netherlands). Institute for Marine and Atmospheric Research Utrecht

    1999-05-01

    An ecologically nationwide and all-year-round domestic biofuel consumption study was conducted in Zimbabwe from January 1996 to March 1997. The study aimed at (a) establishing the determinants and magnitudes of spatial and temporal variations in biofuel consumption rates, (b) estimating the overall mean national rural and urban consumption rates, and (c) estimating the contribution of domestic biomass burning in Zimbabwe to the emission of atmospheric trace gases. The main source of spatial variation in biofuel consumption rates was found to be settlement type (rural or urban). Within a settlement type, per capita consumption rates varied in time and space with household size, ambient temperature, and physical availability. In rural areas wood and agricultural residues were consumed at national average rates of 1.3{+-}0.2 and 0.07{+-}0.01 tonnes capita{sup -1} year{sup -1}, respectively. In urban centres wood was consumed at an average rate of 0.4{+-}0.26 tonnes capita{sup -1} year{sup -1}. These consumption rates translate into emission outputs from Zimbabwe of 4.6 Tg CO{sub 2}-C year{sup -1}, 0.4 Tg CO-C year{sup -1}, 5.3 Gg NO-N year{sup -1}, 14.5 Gg CH{sub 4}-C year{sup -1}, 24.2 Gg NMHC-C year{sup -1}, 2.9 Gg organic acid-C year{sup -1} (formic and acetic acids) and 48.4 Gg aerosol-C year{sup -1}. For CO{sub 2}, CO, and NO, these domestic biofuel emissions represent 41{+-}6%, 67{+-}6%, and 8{+-}1%, respectively, of the total output of all sources evaluated and documented in Zimbabwe to date. This means that of the studied sources, domestic biomass burning is the major source of CO{sub 2} and CO emission in Zimbabwe.

  13. Optimal Consumption and Portfolio Decision with Convertible Bond in Affine Interest Rate and Heston’s SV Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Chang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We are concerned with an optimal investment-consumption problem with stochastic affine interest rate and stochastic volatility, in which interest rate dynamics are described by the affine interest rate model including the Cox-Ingersoll-Ross model and the Vasicek model as special cases, while stock price is driven by Heston’s stochastic volatility (SV model. Assume that the financial market consists of a risk-free asset, a zero-coupon bond (or a convertible bond, and a risky asset. By using stochastic dynamic programming principle and the technique of separation of variables, we get the HJB equation of the corresponding value function and the explicit expressions of the optimal investment-consumption strategies under power utility and logarithmic utility. Finally, we analyze the impact of market parameters on the optimal investment-consumption strategies by giving a numerical example.

  14. Alcohol Consumption and Abuse among College Students: Alarming Rates among the Best and the Brightest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuertes, Jairo N.; Hoffman, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study examined alcohol consumption at two college campuses, a "dry" urban campus and a "wet" rural campus. We examined alcohol consumption as a function of students' membership in: Greek Organizations, NCAA Varsity Athletic teams, or as being Unaffiliated in these groups. Participants: Two hundred eighty-eight…

  15. The oxygen consumption rates of different life stages of the endoparasitic nematode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willie van Aardt

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The oxygen consumption rates of different life stages of the endoparasitic nematode, Pratylenchus zeae (Nematoda: Tylenchida during non- and post-anhydrobiosisPratylenchus zeae, widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions, is an endoparasite in roots of maize and other crop plants. The nematode is attracted to plant roots by CO2 and root exudates and feeds primarily on cells of the root cortex, making channels and openings where the eggs are deposited, with the result that secondary infection occurs due to bacteria and fungi. Nothing is known about the respiration physiology of this nematode and how it manages to survive during dry seasons. To measure the oxygen consumption rate (VO2 of individual P. zeae (less than half a millimeter long, a special measuring technique namely Cartesian diver micro-respirometry was applied. The Cartesian divers were machined from Perspex, and proved to be more accurate to measure VO2 compared with heavier glass divers used in similar experiments on free living nematodes. An accuracy of better than one nanoliter of oxygen consumed per hour was achieved with a single P. zeae inside the diver. Cartesian diver micro-respirometry measurements are based in principle on the manometric changes that occur in a fl otation tube in a manometer set-up when oxygen is consumed by P. zeae and CO2 from the animal is chemically absorbed. VO2 was measured for eggs (length: < 0.05 mm, larvae (length: 0.36 mm and adults (length: 0.47 mm before induction to anhydrobiosis. P. zeae from infected maize roots were extracted and exposed aseptically to in vitro maize root cultures in a grow cabinet at 50 % to 60% relative humidity at 28 ºC using eggs, larvae and adults. VO2 was also measured for post-anhydrobiotic eggs, larvae and adults by taking 50 individuals, eggs and larvae from the culture and placing them in Petri-dishes with 1% agar/water to dry out for 11 days at 28 ºC and 50% relative humidity. The VO2 was measured

  16. On-line monitoring of oxygen as a method to qualify the oxygen consumption rate of wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevares, Ignacio; Martínez-Martínez, Víctor; Martínez-Gil, Ana; Martín, Roberto; Laurie, V Felipe; Del Álamo-Sanza, María

    2017-08-15

    Measuring the oxygen content during winemaking and bottle storage has become increasingly popular due to its impact on the sensory quality and longevity of wines. Nevertheless, only a few attempts to describe the kinetics of oxygen consumption based on the chemical composition of wines have been published. Therefore, this study proposes firstly a new fitting approach describing oxygen consuming kinetics and secondly the use of an Artificial Neural Network approach to describe and compare the oxygen avidity of wines according to their basic chemical composition (i.e. the content of ethanol, titratable acidity, total sulfur dioxide, total phenolics, iron and copper). The results showed no significant differences in the oxygen consumption rate between white and red wines, and allowed the sorting of the wines studied according to their oxygen consumption rate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A system for accurate on-line measurement of total gas consumption or production rates in microbioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, Michiel; Heijnen, Joseph J.; Gardeniers, Johannes G.E.; Oudshoorn, Arthur; Noorman, Henk; Visser, Jan; van der Wielen, Luuk A.M.; van Gulik, Walter M.

    2009-01-01

    A system has been developed, based on pressure controlled gas pumping, for accurate measurement of total gas consumption or production rates in the nmol/min range, applicable for on-line monitoring of bioconversions in microbioreactors. The system was validated by carrying out a bioconversion with

  18. A system for accurate on-line measurement of total gas consumption or production rates in microbioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, van Michiel; Heijnen, Joseph J.; Gardeniers, Han; Oudshoorn, Arthur; Noorman, Henk; Visser, Jan; Wielen, van der Luuk A.M.; Gulik, van Walter M.

    2009-01-01

    A system has been developed, based on pressure controlled gas pumping, for accurate measurement of total gas consumption or production rates in the nmol/min range, applicable for on-line monitoring of bioconversions in microbioreactors. The system was validated by carrying out a bioconversion with k

  19. Islet Oxygen Consumption Rate (OCR Dose Predicts Insulin Independence in Clinical Islet Autotransplantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klearchos K Papas

    Full Text Available Reliable in vitro islet quality assessment assays that can be performed routinely, prospectively, and are able to predict clinical transplant outcomes are needed. In this paper we present data on the utility of an assay based on cellular oxygen consumption rate (OCR in predicting clinical islet autotransplant (IAT insulin independence (II. IAT is an attractive model for evaluating characterization assays regarding their utility in predicting II due to an absence of confounding factors such as immune rejection and immunosuppressant toxicity.Membrane integrity staining (FDA/PI, OCR normalized to DNA (OCR/DNA, islet equivalent (IE and OCR (viable IE normalized to recipient body weight (IE dose and OCR dose, and OCR/DNA normalized to islet size index (ISI were used to characterize autoislet preparations (n = 35. Correlation between pre-IAT islet product characteristics and II was determined using receiver operating characteristic analysis.Preparations that resulted in II had significantly higher OCR dose and IE dose (p<0.001. These islet characterization methods were highly correlated with II at 6-12 months post-IAT (area-under-the-curve (AUC = 0.94 for IE dose and 0.96 for OCR dose. FDA/PI (AUC = 0.49 and OCR/DNA (AUC = 0.58 did not correlate with II. OCR/DNA/ISI may have some utility in predicting outcome (AUC = 0.72.Commonly used assays to determine whether a clinical islet preparation is of high quality prior to transplantation are greatly lacking in sensitivity and specificity. While IE dose is highly predictive, it does not take into account islet cell quality. OCR dose, which takes into consideration both islet cell quality and quantity, may enable a more accurate and prospective evaluation of clinical islet preparations.

  20. The effect of turbidity and prey fish density on consumption rates of piscivorous Eurasian perch Perca fluviatilis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Lene; Berg, Søren; Baktoft, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    piscivorous Eurasian perch Perca fluviatilis L. This was done in outdoor mesocosm (16 m2) experiments with clear water and two levels of turbidity (25 and 105 NTU) and two prey fish densities [3.1 and 12.5 roach Rutilus rutilus (L.) individuals m–2]. Perch consumption rates were affected by visibility less...... than expected, while they were highly affected by increased prey fish density. Perch responded to high prey density in all visibility conditions, indicating that prey density is more crucial for consumption than visibility in turbid lakes...

  1. RELATION OF BODY WEIGHT AND FOOD CONSUMPTION TO METABOLIC RATE OF JUVENILE JAPANESE SEA BASS,LATEOLABRAX JAPONICUS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The metabolic rate of Japanese sea bass, Lateolabrax japonicus (C & V), was estimated in laboratory at temperature 25.2±0.5℃. The fresh weight of the fish was 4.64-52.28 g (average of 17.81±0.33 g). The routine metabolism was related to body weight by the exponential equation: Rr=14.966W0.74 (r=0.934). The rate of feeding metabolism increased linearly with food consumption. Feeding metabolic rate was 1.8-2.4 times the routine metabolic rate.

  2. The relationship between body temperature, heart rate, breathing rate, and rate of oxygen consumption, in the tegu lizard (Tupinambis merianae) at various levels of activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piercy, Joanna; Rogers, Kip; Reichert, Michelle; Andrade, Denis V; Abe, Augusto S; Tattersall, Glenn J; Milsom, William K

    2015-12-01

    The present study determined whether EEG and/or EMG recordings could be used to reliably define activity states in the Brazilian black and white tegu lizard (Tupinambis merianae) and then examined the interactive effects of temperature and activity states on strategies for matching O2 supply and demand. In a first series of experiments, the rate of oxygen consumption (VO2), breathing frequency (fR), heart rate (fH), and EEG and EMG (neck muscle) activity were measured in different sleep/wake states (sleeping, awake but quiet, alert, or moving). In general, metabolic and cardio-respiratory changes were better indictors of the transition from sleep to wake than were changes in the EEG and EMG. In a second series of experiments, the interactive effects of temperature (17, 27 and 37 °C) and activity states on fR, tidal volume (VT), the fraction of oxygen extracted from the lung per breath (FIO2-FEO2), fH, and the cardiac O2 pulse were quantified to determine the relative roles of each of these variables in accommodating changes in VO2. The increases in oxygen supply to meet temperature- and activity-induced increases in oxygen demand were produced almost exclusively by increases in fH and fR. Regression analysis showed that the effects of temperature and activity state on the relationships between fH, fR and VO2 was to extend a common relationship along a single curve, rather than separate relationships for each metabolic state. For these lizards, the predictive powers of fR and fH were maximized when the effects of changes in temperature, digestive state and activity were pooled. However, the best r(2) values obtained were 0.63 and 0.74 using fR and fH as predictors of metabolic rate, respectively.

  3. Coffee and tea consumption in relation to estimated glomerular filtration rate : results from the population-based longitudinal Doetinchem Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herber-Gast, Gerrie-Cor M.; van Essen, Hanneke; Verschuren, W. M. Monique; Stehouwer, Coen D. A.; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Spijkerman, Annemieke M. W.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although coffee consumption and tea consumption have been linked to diabetes, the relation with kidney function is less clear and is underresearched. Objective: We investigated the prospective associations of coffee and tea consumption with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). De

  4. Both superficial and deep zone articular chondrocyte subpopulations exhibit the Crabtree effect but have different basal oxygen consumption rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heywood, Hannah K; Knight, Martin M; Lee, David A

    2010-06-01

    In the absence of in vivo measurements, the oxygen concentration within articular cartilage is calculated from the balance between cellular oxygen consumption and mass transfer. Current estimates of the oxygen tension within articular cartilage are based on oxygen consumption data from full-depth tissue samples. However, superficial and deep cell subpopulations of articular cartilage express intrinsic metabolic differences. We test the hypothesis that the subpopulations differ with respect to their intrinsic oxygen consumption rate. Chondrocytes from the full cartilage thickness demonstrate enhanced oxygen consumption when deprived of glucose, consistent with the Crabtree phenomena. Chondrocyte subpopulations differ in the prevailing availability of oxygen and glucose, which decrease with distance from the cartilage-synovial fluid interface. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that the oxygen consumption of each subpopulation is modulated by nutrient availability, by examining the expression of the Crabtree effect. The deep cells had a greater oxygen consumption than the superficial cells (V(max) of 6.6 compared to 3.2 fmol/cell/h), consistent with our observations of mitochondrial volume (mean values 52.0 vs. 36.4 microm(3)/cell). Both populations expressed the Crabtree phenomena, with oxygen consumption increasing approximately 2.5-fold in response to glycolytic inhibition by glucose deprivation or 2-deoxyglucose. Over 90% of this increase was oligomycin-sensitive and thus accounted for by oxidative phosphorylation. The data contributes towards our understanding of chondrocyte energy metabolism and provides information valuable for the accurate calculation of the oxygen concentration that the cells experience in vivo. The work has further application to the optimisation of bioreactor design and engineered tissues.

  5. Development, consumption rates and reproductive biology of Orius albidipennis reared on various prey

    Science.gov (United States)

    The reproductive biology and feeding consumption of Orius albidipennis fed on eggs of Anagasta (Ephestia) kuehniella, Tetranychus urticae, and Trialeurodes vaporariorum, and larvae of Gynaikothrips ficorum were investigated under 26±1°C, 60±10 % RH and 16:8 L/D photoperiod in laboratory. Results ind...

  6. Diffusion and Monod kinetics model to determine in vivo human corneal oxygen-consumption rate during soft contact lens wear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Castillo, Luis F; da Silva, Ana R Ferreira; Hernández, Saul I; Aguilella, M; Andrio, Andreu; Mollá, Sergio; Compañ, Vicente

    2015-01-01

    We present an analysis of the corneal oxygen consumption Qc from non-linear models, using data of oxygen partial pressure or tension (P(O2) ) obtained from in vivo estimation previously reported by other authors. (1) METHODS: Assuming that the cornea is a single homogeneous layer, the oxygen permeability through the cornea will be the same regardless of the type of lens that is available on it. The obtention of the real value of the maximum oxygen consumption rate Qc,max is very important because this parameter is directly related with the gradient pressure profile into the cornea and moreover, the real corneal oxygen consumption is influenced by both anterior and posterior oxygen fluxes. Our calculations give different values for the maximum oxygen consumption rate Qc,max, when different oxygen pressure values (high and low P(O2)) are considered at the interface cornea-tears film. Present results are relevant for the calculation on the partial pressure of oxygen, available at different depths into the corneal tissue behind contact lenses of different oxygen transmissibility. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Espana.

  7. Gross decontamination experiment report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, R.; Kinney, K.; Dettorre, J.; Gilbert, V.

    1983-07-01

    A Gross Decontamination Experiment was conducted on various levels and surfaces of the TMI - Unit 2 reactor building in March 1982. The polar crane, D-rings, missile shields, refueling canals, refueling bridges, equipment, and elevations 305' and 347'-6'' were flushed with low pressure water. Additionally, floor surfaces on elevation 305' and floor surfaces and major pieces of equipment on elevation 347'-6'' were sprayed with high pressure water. Selective surfaces were decontaminated with a mechanical scrubber and chemicals. Strippable coating was tested and evaluated on equipment and floor surfaces. The effectiveness, efficiency, and safety of several decontamination techniques were established for the large, complex decontamination effort. Various decontamination equipment was evaluated and its effectiveness was documented. Decontamination training and procedures were documented and evaluated, as were the support system and organization for the experiment.

  8. Unsteady-state human-body exergy consumption rate and its relation to subjective assessment of dynamic thermal environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schweiker, Marcel; Kolarik, Jakub; Dovjak, Mateja

    2016-01-01

    Few examples studied applicability of exergy analysis on human thermal comfort. These examples relate the human-body exergy consumption rate with subjectively obtained thermal sensation votes and had been based on steady-state calculation methods. However, humans are rarely exposed to steady......-state thermal environments. Therefore, the first objective of the current paper was to compare a recently introduced unsteady-state model with previously used steady-state model using data obtained under both constant and transient temperature conditions. The second objective was to explore a relationship...... between the human-body exergy consumption rate and subjective assessment of thermal environment represented by thermal sensation as well as to extend the investigation towards thermal acceptability votes. Comparison of steady-state and unsteady-state model showed that results from both models were...

  9. Experimental Investigation of a Natural Circulation Solar Domestic Water Heater Performance under Standard Consumption Rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolaei, Alireza Rezania; Taherian, H.; Ganji, D. D.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports experimental studies on the performance of a natural circulation solar water heater considering the weather condition of a city in north of Iran. The tests are done on clear and partly cloudy days. The variations of storage tank temperature due to consumption from the tank, daily...... consumption influence on the solar water heater efficiency, and on the input temperature of the collector are studied and the delivered daily useful energy has been obtained. The results show that by withdrawing from storage tank, the system as well as its collector efficiency will increase. Considering...... the value of the coefficient FRUL and τα, which are obtained experimentally as 6.03 and 0.83 respectively, average. monthly total load that is covered by this solar water heating system is estimated....

  10. Uptake Rate of Cationic Mitochondrial Inhibitor MKT-077 Determines Cellular Oxygen Consumption Change in Carcinoma Cells

    OpenAIRE

    John L Chunta; Vistisen, Kerry S.; Zeinab Yazdi; Braun, Rod D.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Since tumor radiation response is oxygen-dependent, radiosensitivity can be enhanced by increasing tumor oxygenation. Theoretically, inhibiting cellular oxygen consumption is the most efficient way to increase oxygen levels. The cationic, rhodacyanine dye-analog MKT-077 inhibits mitochondrial respiration and could be an effective metabolic inhibitor. However, the relationship between cellular MKT-077 uptake and metabolic inhibition is unknown. We hypothesized that rat and human mam...

  11. Alcohol consumption and rates of cancer screening: Is cancer risk overestimated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Lin; Mukamal, Kenneth J

    2016-02-01

    Alcohol consumption in moderation has been associated with incident breast and colorectal cancer. Whether these associations may be overestimated by more intensive screening among moderate consumers is unknown. This study examines the associations of alcohol consumption with cancer screening. In six iterations (2002-2012) of the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, a telephone survey of US adults conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, participants reported their alcohol use and recent screening for several cancers. We assessed whether alcohol use was associated with breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer screening after sample-weighted adjustment for sociodemographic and healthcare utilization factors. Among 2,191,483 survey respondents, 80.5 % (weighted prevalence) of eligible individuals reported having an up-to-date mammogram, 87.7 % having a Pap test, and 56.8 % having a colonoscopy/sigmoidoscopy. For all breast, cervical, and colorectal cancers, moderate consumers were more likely to report screening (84.7, 91.2, 61.1 %) than non-consumers, even after multivariate adjustment (adjusted prevalence ratios 1.04, 1.04, 1.07; p cancer screening. In the USA, moderate consumers consistently report a greater likelihood of breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer screening than do non-consumers. Given the likelihood of overdiagnosis, further study of alcohol consumption and cancer should include cancer-specific mortality, which is less sensitive to differences in screening and detection.

  12. Trophic interactions and consumption rates of subyearling Chinook Salmon and nonnative juvenile American Shad in Columbia River reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskell, Craig A.; Beauchamp, David A.; Bollins, Stephen M

    2017-01-01

    We used a large lampara seine coupled with nonlethal gastric lavage to examine the diets and estimate consumption rates of subyearling Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha during July and August 2013. During August we also examined the diet and consumption rates of juvenile American Shad Alosa sapidissima, a potential competitor of subyearling Chinook Salmon. Subyearling Chinook Salmon consumed Daphnia in July but switched to feeding on smaller juvenile American Shad in August. We captured no juvenile American Shad in July, but in August juvenile American Shad consumed cyclopoid and calanoid copepods. Stomach evacuation rates for subyearling Chinook Salmon were high during both sample periods (0.58 h−1 in July, 0.51 h−1 in August), and daily ration estimates were slightly higher than values reported in the literature for other subyearlings. By switching from planktivory to piscivory, subyearling Chinook Salmon gained greater growth opportunity. While past studies have shown that juvenile American Shad reduce zooplankton availability for Chinook Salmon subyearlings, our work indicates that they also become important prey after Daphnia abundance declines. The diet and consumption data here can be used in future bioenergetics modeling to estimate the growth of subyearling Chinook Salmon in lower Columbia River reservoirs.

  13. Effect of glucose concentration on the rate of fructose consumption in native strains isolated from the fermentation of Agave duranguensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Campillo, M; Urtíz, N; Soto, O; Barrio, E; Rutiaga, M; Páez, J

    2012-12-01

    Studies on hexose consumption by Saccharomyces cerevisiae show that glucose is consumed faster than fructose when both are present (9:1 fructose to glucose) in the medium during the fermentation of Agave. The objective of this work was to select strains of S. cerevisiae that consume fructose equal to or faster than glucose at high fructose concentrations by analyzing the influence of different glucose concentrations on the fructose consumption rate. The optimal growth conditions were determined by a kinetics assay using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using 50 g of glucose and 50 g of fructose per liter of synthetic medium containing peptone and yeast extract. Using the same substrate concentrations, strain ITD-00185 was shown to have a higher reaction rate for fructose over glucose. At 75 g of fructose and 25 g of glucose per liter, strain ITD-00185 had a productivity of 1.02 gL(-1) h(-1) after 40 h and a fructose rate constant of 0.071 h(-1). It was observed that glucose concentration positively influences fructose consumption when present in a 3:1 ratio of fructose to glucose. Therefore, adapted strains at high fructose concentrations could be used as an alternative to traditional fermentation processes.

  14. High oxygen consumption rates in the deep layers of the North Aegean Sea (eastern Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. SOUVERMEZOGLOU

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Severe winter meteorological conditions promote dense water formation over the shelves of the North Aegean Sea. The newly formed dense water fills the deep basins of the North Aegean Sea, contributing to their ventilation and the downward transport of organic and inorganic material. The great bathymetric variability imposes limitations on the deep circulation and the communication between the various basins and makes the North Aegean Sea an appropriate area for the monitoring of oxygen consumption in the deep layers. Historical hydrographic data suggest that there was extensive production of dense water in the North Aegean Sea on two occasions during the last decade, the winters of 1987 and 1992-1993. Our data series from August 1986 to September 1989 and from March 1997 to February 1999, permitted us to follow, step by step, the oxygen consumption and the nutrient regeneration in the deep basins of the northern Aegean Sea during these periods of isolation. The organic matter reaching the bottom layer just after the deep water formation event is rich in labile and easily oxidizable material and its decomposition leads to a significant oxygen uptake during the first year of stagnation. The further decomposition of the remaining semi-labile and refractory material turns over on greater time scales, by consuming lesser amounts of oxygen. A more significant oxygen decrease is recorded in the eastern basin (Lemnos Basin of the North Aegean Trough, than in the central (Athos Basin and the western (North Sporades Basin ones and is attributed to the irregular contribution of the Black Sea Water (BSW to the water masses formed on the different shelves of the North Aegean Sea. Our results and the existing data on the Turkish straits showed that dissolved organic matter is the major constituent responsible for this high oxygen consumption. The slightly different particulate organic carbon fluxes to these depressions play a secondary role.

  15. High oxygen consumption rates in the deep layers of the North Aegean Sea (eastern Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. SOUVERMEZOGLOU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Severe winter meteorological conditions promote dense water formation over the shelves of the North Aegean Sea. The newly formed dense water fills the deep basins of the North Aegean Sea, contributing to their ventilation and the downward transport of organic and inorganic material. The great bathymetric variability imposes limitations on the deep circulation and the communication between the various basins and makes the North Aegean Sea an appropriate area for the monitoring of oxygen consumption in the deep layers. Historical hydrographic data suggest that there was extensive production of dense water in the North Aegean Sea on two occasions during the last decade, the winters of 1987 and 1992-1993. Our data series from August 1986 to September 1989 and from March 1997 to February 1999, permitted us to follow, step by step, the oxygen consumption and the nutrient regeneration in the deep basins of the northern Aegean Sea during these periods of isolation. The organic matter reaching the bottom layer just after the deep water formation event is rich in labile and easily oxidizable material and its decomposition leads to a significant oxygen uptake during the first year of stagnation. The further decomposition of the remaining semi-labile and refractory material turns over on greater time scales, by consuming lesser amounts of oxygen. A more significant oxygen decrease is recorded in the eastern basin (Lemnos Basin of the North Aegean Trough, than in the central (Athos Basin and the western (North Sporades Basin ones and is attributed to the irregular contribution of the Black Sea Water (BSW to the water masses formed on the different shelves of the North Aegean Sea. Our results and the existing data on the Turkish straits showed that dissolved organic matter is the major constituent responsible for this high oxygen consumption. The slightly different particulate organic carbon fluxes to these depressions play a secondary role.

  16. Relationship of efficiency indices with performance, heart rate, oxygen consumption, blood parameters, and estimated heat production in Nellore steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, A S; Nascimento, M L; Tullio, R R; Rosa, A N; Alencar, M M; Lanna, D P

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the relationship of efficiency indices with performance, heart rate, oxygen consumption, blood parameters, and estimated heat production (EHP) in Nellore steers. Eighteen steers were individually lot-fed diets of 2.7 Mcal ME/kg DM for 84 d. Estimated heat production was determined using oxygen pulse (OP) methodology, in which heart rate (HR) was monitored for 4 consecutive days. Oxygen pulse was obtained by simultaneously measuring HR and oxygen consumption during a 10- to 15-min period. Efficiency traits studied were feed efficiency (G:F) and residual feed intake (RFI) obtained by regression of DMI in relation to ADG and midtest metabolic BW (RFI). Alternatively, RFI was also obtained based on equations reported by the NRC's to estimate individual requirement and DMI (RFI calculated by the NRC [1996] equation [RFI]). The slope of the regression equation and its significance was used to evaluate the effect of efficiency indices (RFI, RFI, or G:F) on the traits studied. A mixed model was used considering RFI, RFI, or G:F and pen type as fixed effects and initial age as a covariate. For HR and EHP variables, day was included as a random effect. There was no relationship between efficiency indices and back fat depth measured by ultrasound or daily HR and EHP ( > 0.05). Because G:F is obtained in relation to BW, the slope of G:F was positive and significant ( consumption per beat was not related to G:F; however, it was lower for RFI- and RFI-efficient steers, and consequently, oxygen volume (mL·min·kg) and OP (μL O·beat·kg) were also lower ( 0.05); however, G:F-efficient steers showed lower hematocrit and hemoglobin concentrations ( consumption and OP were detected, indicating that the OP methodology may be useful to predict growth efficiency.

  17. The Effects of the Habitual Consumption of Miso Soup on the Blood Pressure and Heart Rate of Japanese Adults: A Cross-sectional Study of a Health Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Koji; Miyata, Kenji; Mohri, Masahiro; Origuchi, Hideki; Yamamoto, Hideo

    Objective It is recommended that middle-aged and elderly individuals reduce their salt intake because of the high prevalence of hypertension. The consumption of miso soup is associated with salt intake, and the reduced consumption of miso soup has been recommended. Recent studies have demonstrated that the consumption of miso soup can attenuate an autonomic imbalance in animal models. However, it is unclear whether these results are applicable to humans. This study examined the cross-sectional association between the frequency of miso soup consumption and the blood pressure and heart rate of human subjects. Methods A total of 527 subjects of 50 to 81 years of age who participated in our hospital health examination were enrolled in the present study and divided into four groups based on the frequency of their miso soup consumption ([bowl(s) of miso soup/week] Group 1, blood pressure levels and heart rates of the subjects in each group were compared. Furthermore, a multivariable analysis was performed to determine whether miso soup consumption was an independent factor affecting the incidence of hypertension or the heart rate. Results The frequency of miso soup consumption was not associated with blood pressure. The heart rate was, however, lower in the participants who reported a high frequency of miso soup consumption. A multivariable analysis revealed that the participants who reported a high frequency of miso soup consumption were more likely to have a lower heart rate, but that the consumption of miso soup was not associated with the incidence of hypertension. Conclusion These results indicate that miso soup consumption might decrease the heart rate, but not have a significant effect on the blood pressure of in middle-aged and elderly Japanese individuals.

  18. Low plastic ingestion rate in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) from Newfoundland destined for human consumption collected through citizen science methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liboiron, Max; Liboiron, France; Wells, Emily; Richárd, Natalie; Zahara, Alexander; Mather, Charles; Bradshaw, Hillary; Murichi, Judyannet

    2016-12-15

    Marine microplastics are a contaminant of concern because their small size allows ingestion by a wide range of marine life. Using citizen science during the Newfoundland recreational cod fishery, we sampled 205 Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) destined for human consumption and found that 5 had eaten plastic, an ingestion prevalence rate of 2.4%. This ingestion rate for Atlantic cod is the second lowest recorded rate in the reviewed published literature (the lowest is 1.4%), and the lowest for any fish in the North Atlantic. This is the first report for plastic ingestion in fish in Newfoundland, Canada, a province dependent on fish for sustenance and livelihoods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of food on immature development, consumption rate, and relative growth rate of Toxorhynchites splendens (Diptera: Culicidae, a predator of container breeding mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Dominic Amalraj

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Food utilization by the larvae of Toxorhynchites splendens (Wiedemann was studied in the laboratory by offering larvae of Aedes aegypti Linnaeus, Anopheles stephensi (Liston, and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say. Quantitative analyses of data indicated that immature development was significantly faster with increase in food availability. The regression analysis showed that the degrees of the relationship between immature duration (Id and food availability were higher when offered early instars of prey (first and second instars than late instars. Consumption rate (Cr of the predator increased with increase in food availability and this relationship was highly significant when larvae of An. stephensi were offered as food. Consumption rate to food level decreased with increase in the age class of the prey. There was a significant negative correlation between Id and Cr. This aspect helps to increase population turnover of T. splendens in a shorter period when the prey is abundant. Conversely, the predator compensated the loss in daily food intake at low food level by extending Id thereby attains the minimum threshold pupal weight for adult emergence. There was an increase in the relative growth rate (RGR of the predator when An. stephensi was offered as prey and this was related to the high protein content of the prey per body weight. There was a positive correlation between Cr and RGR. This adaptive life characteristic strategy of this predator is useful for mass-rearing for large scale field release programmes in the control of container breeding mosquitoes is discussed.

  20. Persistence, switch rates, drug consumption and costs of biological treatment of rheumatoid arthritis: an observational study in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degli Esposti, Luca; Favalli, Ennio Giulio; Sangiorgi, Diego; Di Turi, Roberta; Farina, Giuseppina; Gambera, Marco; Ravasio, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this analysis was to provide an estimate of drug utilization indicators (persistence, switch rate and drug consumption) on biologics and the corresponding costs (drugs, admissions and specialist care) incurred by the Italian National Health Service in the management of adult patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods We conducted an observational retrospective cohort analysis using the administrative databases of three local health units. We considered all patients aged ≥18 years with a diagnosis of RA and at least one biologic drug prescription between January 2010 and December 2012 (recruitment period). Persistence was defined as maintenance over the last 3 months of the follow-up period of the same biological therapy administered at the index date. A switch was defined as the presence of a biological therapy other than that administered at the index date during the last 3 months of the follow-up period. Hospital admissions (with a diagnosis of RA or other RA-related diagnoses), specialist outpatient services, instrumental diagnostics and pharmaceutical consumption were assessed. Results The drug utilization analysis took into account only biologics with at least 90 patients on treatment at baseline (adalimumab n=144, etanercept n=236 and infliximab n=94). In each year, etanercept showed better persistence with initial treatment than adalimumab or infliximab. Etanercept was characterized by the lowest number of patients increasing the initial drug consumption (2.6%) and by the highest number of patients reducing the initial drug consumption (10.5%). The mean cost of treatment for a patient persisting with the initial treatment was €12,388 (€14,182 for adalimumab, €12,103 for etanercept and €11,002 for infliximab). The treatment costs for patients switching from initial treatment during the first year of follow-up were higher than for patients who did not switch (€12,710 vs. €11,332). Conclusion Persistence, switch rate

  1. Using Less Oil Despite the unquenchable thirst for oil to fuel nina's fast growing economy,the oil consumption growth rate is dropping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    At first glance, the official figures of China's oil consumption in 2005 seem a bit confusing. With a robust economic growth and rising annual oil imports, China made the surprise announcement that its oil consumption growth rate was dropping sharply, from 15.3 percent in 2004 to 2.1 percent in 2005. Earlier, China's Ministry of

  2. Noninvasive optical quantification of absolute blood flow, blood oxygenation, and oxygen consumption rate in exercising skeletal muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurley, Katelyn; Shang, Yu; Yu, Guoqiang

    2012-07-01

    This study investigates a method using novel hybrid diffuse optical spectroscopies [near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS)] to obtain continuous, noninvasive measurement of absolute blood flow (BF), blood oxygenation, and oxygen consumption rate (\\Vdot O2) in exercising skeletal muscle. Healthy subjects (n=9) performed a handgrip exercise to increase BF and \\Vdot O2 in forearm flexor muscles, while a hybrid optical probe on the skin surface directly monitored oxy-, deoxy-, and total hemoglobin concentrations ([HbO2], [Hb], and THC), tissue oxygen saturation (StO2), relative BF (rBF), and relative oxygen consumption rate (r\\Vdot O2). The rBF and r\\Vdot O2 signals were calibrated with absolute baseline BF and \\Vdot O2 obtained through venous and arterial occlusions, respectively. Known problems with muscle-fiber motion artifacts in optical measurements during exercise were mitigated using a novel gating algorithm that determined muscle contraction status based on control signals from a dynamometer. Results were consistent with previous findings in the literature. This study supports the application of NIRS/DCS technology to quantitatively evaluate hemodynamic and metabolic parameters in exercising skeletal muscle and holds promise for improving diagnosis and treatment evaluation for patients suffering from diseases affecting skeletal muscle and advancing fundamental understanding of muscle and exercise physiology.

  3. Gross job flows and firms

    OpenAIRE

    Scott Schuh; Robert K. Triest

    1999-01-01

    This paper extends the work of Dunne, Roberts, and Samuelson [3] and Davis, Haltiwanger, and Schuh [2] on gross job flows among manufacturing plants. Gross job creation, destruction, and reallocation have been shown to be important in understanding the birth, growth, and death of plants, and the relation of plant life cycles to the business cycle. However, little is known about job flows between firms or how job flows among plants occur within firms (corporate restructuring). We use informati...

  4. The relationship between oxygen consumption rate and viability of in vivo-derived pig embryos vitrified by the micro volume air cooling method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakagami, N; Nishida, K; Misumi, K; Hirayama, Y; Yamashita, S; Hoshi, H; Misawa, H; Akiyama, K; Suzuki, C; Yoshioka, K

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the viability of vitrified-warmed in vivo-derived pig embryos after measuring the oxygen consumption rate. Six days after artificial insemination, blastocysts were collected from gilts and vitrified by the micro volume air cooling method. The oxygen consumption rate was measured in 60 vitrified-warmed embryos, which were then cultured for 48h to assess the viability. The survival (re-expansion) rate of embryos after warming was 85.0%. The average oxygen consumption rate of embryos immediately after warming was greater in embryos which could re-expand during subsequent culture (F=0.75±0.04) than that in those which failed to re-expand (F=0.33±0.05). Moreover, the oxygen consumption rate of vitrified-warmed embryos was greater in the hatched (F=0.88±0.06) than that in the not-hatched group (F=0.53±0.04). When the oxygen consumption rate of the vitrified-warmed embryos and the numbers of viable and dead cells in embryos were determined, there was a positive correlation between the oxygen consumption rate and the number of live cells (Pconsumption rate were surgically transferred into uterine horns of two recipients. Both of the recipients become pregnant and farrowed 12 healthy piglets. These results demonstrate that the oxygen consumption rate of vitrified-warmed pig embryos can be related to the number of live cells and that the measurement of oxygen consumption of embryos after cryopreservation may be useful for estimating embryo survivability.

  5. Sum Rate and Power Consumption of a Circular-Layout Distributed Antenna System with MMSE Receivers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAN Jiansong; LI Yunzhou; ZHOU Shidong; WANG Jing

    2008-01-01

    The distributed antenna system (DAS) is considered as a promising architecture for future wireless access. This paper describes the uplink of a power-controlled circular-layout DAS (CL-DAS) with minimum mean-square error (MMSE) receivers. Results from random matrix theory are used to show that for such a DAS, the per-user sum rate and the total transmit power both converge as the number of users and antennas goes to infinity with a constant ratio of antennas to users. The relationship between the asymptotic per-user sum rate and the asymptotic total transmit power is given for all possible values of the radius of the circle on which antennas are placed. This rate-power relationship is then used to find the optimal radius. With this op-timal radius, the CL-DAS is proved to offer a significant gain compared with a traditional co-located antenna system. Simulation results demonstrate the validity of the analysis and the superiority of the DAS.

  6. Mandated recycling rates: Impacts on energy consumption and municipal waste volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaines, L.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Stodolsky, F. [Argonne National Lab., Washington, DC (United States)

    1994-03-01

    In 1992, Congress sought to rewrite its comprehensive solid waste legislation the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Commodity-specific recycling rates were proposed for consumer-goods packaging, materials and newsprint. In this paper, we compare the impacts on energy, materials use, and landfill volume of recycling at those rates to the impacts associated with alternative methods of disposition to determine, the optimal method for each material. Alternative paths for material disposition include reuse, recycling to the same product, recycling to a lower-valued product, combustion for energy recovery, incineration without energy recovery, and landfilling. The recovery rates considered during RCRA reauthorization are summarized. Combustion was specifically excluded by Congress to meet recovery goals. This exclusion is probably based on the idea that combustion is a form of disposal and therefore wastes resources and has negative environmental effects. Our paper does not make that assumption. A report by Gaines and Stodolsky, from which this paper is derived, offers a more complete discussion of energy and S impacts.

  7. Pornography consumption, sexual experiences, lifestyles, and self-rated health among male adolescents in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattebo, Magdalena; Tydén, Tanja; Häggström-Nordin, Elisabet; Nilsson, Kent W; Larsson, Margareta

    2013-09-01

    To describe patterns of pornography use among high school boys and to investigate differences between frequent, average, and nonfrequent users of pornography with respect to sexual experiences, lifestyles, and self-rated health. A population-based classroom survey among 16-year-old boys (n = 477), from 53 randomly selected high school classes in 2 towns in mid-Sweden. Almost all boys, 96% (n = 453), had watched pornography. Frequent users of pornography (everyday) (10%, n = 47) differed from average users (63%, n = 292) and nonfrequent users (27%, n = 126). Frequent users versus average users and nonfrequent users had more sexual experiences, such as one night stands (45, 32, 25%, respectively) and sex with friends more than 10 times (13, 10, 2%). A higher proportion of frequent users spent more than 10 straight hours at the computer several times a week (32, 5, 8%) and reported more relationship problems with peers (38, 22, 21%), truancy at least once a week (11, 6, 5%), obesity (13, 3, 3%), use of oral tobacco (36, 29, 20%), and use of alcohol (77, 70, 52%) versus average and nonfrequent users. One third of frequent users watched more pornography than they actually wanted. There were no differences between the groups regarding physical and psychological self-rated health. The boys, defined as frequent users of pornography, were more sexually experienced, spent more time at the computer, and reported an unhealthier lifestyle compared with average and nonfrequent users. No differences regarding self-rated health were detected even though obesity was twice as common among frequent users.

  8. OPTIMAL INVESTMENT CONSUMPTION MODEL WITH A HIGHER INTEREST RATE FOR BORROWING%高贷款利率的最优消费投资模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    费为银; 吴让泉

    2000-01-01

    This paper considers a consumption and investment decision problem with a higher in terest rate for borrowing as well as the dividend rate. Wealth is divided into a riskless asset and risky asset with logrithmic Brownian motion price fluctuations. The stochastic control problem of maximizating expected utility from terminal wealth and consumption is studied. Equivalent conditions for optimality are obtained. By using duality methods ,the existence of optimal portfolio consumption is proved ,and the explicit solutions leading to feedback formulae are derived for deteministic coefficients.

  9. Induction of microcin B17 formation in Escherichia coli ZK650 by limitation of oxygen and glucose is independent of glucose consumption rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Q; Fang, A; Demain, A L

    2001-06-01

    We examined the consumption of glucose from the media in which Escherichia coli ZK650 was grown. This organism, which produces the polypeptide antibiotic microcin B17 best under conditions of limiting supplies of glucose and air, was grown with a low level of glucose (0.5 mg/ml) as well as a high level (5.0 mg/ml) under both high and low aeration. Glucose consumption rates were virtually identical under both high and low aeration. Thus, glucose consumption rate is not a regulating factor in microcin B17 formation.

  10. The jumbo squid, Dosidicus gigas (Ommastrephidae), living in oxygen minimum zones I: Oxygen consumption rates and critical oxygen partial pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trueblood, Lloyd A.; Seibel, Brad A.

    2013-10-01

    Dosidicus gigas is a large, metabolically active, epipelagic squid known to undertake diel vertical migrations across a large temperature and oxygen gradient in the Eastern Pacific. Hypoxia is known to cause metabolic suppression in D. gigas. However, the precise oxygen level at which metabolic suppression sets in is unknown. Here we describe a novel ship-board swim tunnel respirometer that was used to measure metabolic rates and critical oxygen partial pressures (Pcrit) for adult squids (2-7kg). Metabolic rate measurements were validated by comparison to the activity of the Krebs cycle enzyme, citrate synthase, in mantle muscle tissue (2-17kg). We recorded a mean routine metabolic rate of 5.91μmolg-1h-1 at 10°C and 12.62μmolg-1h-1 at 20°C. A temperature coefficient, Q10, of 2.1 was calculated. D. gigas had Pcrits of 1.6 and 3.8kPa at 10 and 20°C, respectively. Oxygen consumption rate (MO2) varied with body mass (M) according to MO2=11.57M-0.12±0.03 at 10°C. Citrate synthase activity varied with body mass according to Y=9.32M-0.19±0.02.

  11. Geomicrobiological linkages between short-chain alkane consumption and sulfate reduction rates in seep sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Arpita; Rogers, Daniel R; Adams, Melissa M; Joye, Samantha B; Girguis, Peter R

    2013-01-01

    Marine hydrocarbon seeps are ecosystems that are rich in methane, and, in some cases, short-chain (C2-C5) and longer alkanes. C2-C4 alkanes such as ethane, propane, and butane can be significant components of seeping fluids. Some sulfate-reducing microbes oxidize short-chain alkanes anaerobically, and may play an important role in both the competition for sulfate and the local carbon budget. To better understand the anaerobic oxidation of short-chain n-alkanes coupled with sulfate-reduction, hydrocarbon-rich sediments from the Gulf of Mexico (GoM) were amended with artificial, sulfate-replete seawater and one of four n-alkanes (C1-C4) then incubated under strict anaerobic conditions. Measured rates of alkane oxidation and sulfate reduction closely follow stoichiometric predictions that assume the complete oxidation of alkanes to CO2 (though other sinks for alkane carbon likely exist). Changes in the δ(13)C of all the alkanes in the reactors show enrichment over the course of the incubation, with the C3 and C4 incubations showing the greatest enrichment (4.4 and 4.5‰, respectively). The concurrent depletion in the δ(13)C of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) implies a transfer of carbon from the alkane to the DIC pool (-3.5 and -6.7‰ for C3 and C4 incubations, respectively). Microbial community analyses reveal that certain members of the class Deltaproteobacteria are selectively enriched as the incubations degrade C1-C4 alkanes. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that distinct phylotypes are enriched in the ethane reactors, while phylotypes in the propane and butane reactors align with previously identified C3-C4 alkane-oxidizing sulfate-reducers. These data further constrain the potential influence of alkane oxidation on sulfate reduction rates (SRRs) in cold hydrocarbon-rich sediments, provide insight into their contribution to local carbon cycling, and illustrate the extent to which short-chain alkanes can serve as electron donors and govern microbial community

  12. Geomicrobiological linkages between short-chain alkane consumption and sulfate reduction rates in seep sediments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arpita eBose

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Marine hydrocarbon seeps are ecosystems that are rich in methane, and, in some cases, short-chain (C2-C5 and longer alkanes. C2-C4 alkanes such as ethane, propane and butane can be significant components of seeping fluids. Some sulfate-reducing microbes oxidize short-chain alkanes anaerobically, and may play an important role in both the competition for sulfate and the local carbon budget. To better understand the anaerobic oxidation of short-chain n-alkanes coupled with sulfate-reduction, hydrocarbon-rich sediments from the Gulf of Mexico were amended with artificial, sulfate-replete seawater and one of four n-alkanes (C1-C4 then incubated under strict anaerobic conditions. Measured rates of alkane oxidation and sulfate reduction closely follow stoichiometric predictions that assume the complete oxidation of alkanes to CO2 (though other sinks for alkane carbon likely exist. Changes in the δ13C of all the alkanes in the reactors show enrichment over the course of the incubation, with the C3 and C4 incubations showing the greatest enrichment (4.4‰ and 4.5‰ respectively. The concurrent depletion in the δ13C of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC implies a transfer of carbon from the alkane to the DIC pool (-3.5 and -6.7‰ for C3 and C4 incubations, respectively. Microbial community analyses reveal that certain members of the class Deltaproteobacteria are selectively enriched as the incubations degrade C1-C4 alkanes. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that distinct phylotypes are enriched in the ethane reactors, while phylotypes in the propane and butane reactors align with previously identified C3-C4 alkane-oxidizing sulfate-reducers. These data further constrain the potential influence of alkane oxidation on sulfate reduction rates in cold hydrocarbon-rich sediments, provide insight into their contribution to local carbon cycling, and illustrate the extent to which short-chain alkanes can serve as electron donors and govern microbial community

  13. Cervical gross tumor volume dose predicts local control using magnetic resonance imaging/diffusion-weighted imaging-guided high-dose-rate and positron emission tomography/computed tomography-guided intensity modulated radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyk, Pawel; Jiang, Naomi; Sun, Baozhou; DeWees, Todd A; Fowler, Kathryn J; Narra, Vamsi; Garcia-Ramirez, Jose L; Schwarz, Julie K; Grigsby, Perry W

    2014-11-15

    Magnetic resonance imaging/diffusion weighted-imaging (MRI/DWI)-guided high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy and (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) - positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT)-guided intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for the definitive treatment of cervical cancer is a novel treatment technique. The purpose of this study was to report our analysis of dose-volume parameters predicting gross tumor volume (GTV) control. We analyzed the records of 134 patients with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stages IB1-IVB cervical cancer treated with combined MRI-guided HDR and IMRT from July 2009 to July 2011. IMRT was targeted to the metabolic tumor volume and lymph nodes by use of FDG-PET/CT simulation. The GTV for each HDR fraction was delineated by use of T2-weighted or apparent diffusion coefficient maps from diffusion-weighted sequences. The D100, D90, and Dmean delivered to the GTV from HDR and IMRT were summed to EQD2. One hundred twenty-five patients received all irradiation treatment as planned, and 9 did not complete treatment. All 134 patients are included in this analysis. Treatment failure in the cervix occurred in 24 patients (18.0%). Patients with cervix failures had a lower D100, D90, and Dmean than those who did not experience failure in the cervix. The respective doses to the GTV were 41, 58, and 136 Gy for failures compared with 67, 99, and 236 Gy for those who did not experience failure (PD100, D90, and Dmean doses required for ≥90% local control to be 69, 98, and 260 Gy (P<.001). Total dose delivered to the GTV from combined MRI-guided HDR and PET/CT-guided IMRT is highly correlated with local tumor control. The findings can be directly applied in the clinic for dose adaptation to maximize local control. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Selective Feeding and Microalgal Consumption Rates by Crown-Of-Thorns Seastar (Acanthaster cf. solaris Larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Mellin

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Outbreaks of the crown-of-thorns seastar (CoTS represent a major cause of coral loss on the Great Barrier Reef. Outbreaks can be explained by enhanced larval survival supported by higher phytoplankton availability after flood events, yet little is known about CoTS larvae feeding behaviour, in particular their potential for selective feeding. Here, single- and mixed-species feeding experiment were conducted on CoTS larvae using five algae (Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Pavlova lutheri, Tisochrysis lutea, Dunaliella sp. and Chaetoceros sp. and two algal concentrations (1000 and 2500 algae·mL−1. Cell counts using flow-cytometry at the beginning and end of each incubation experiment allowed us to calculate the filtration and ingestion rates of each species by CoTS larvae. In line with previous studies, CoTS larvae ingested more algae when the initial algal concentration was higher. We found evidence for the selective ingestion of some species (Chaetoceros sp., Dunaliella sp. over others (P. lutheri, P. tricornutum. The preferred algal species had the highest energy content, suggesting that CoTS selectively ingested the most energetic algae. Ultimately, combining these results with spatio-temporal patterns in phytoplankton communities will help elucidate the role of larval feeding behaviour in determining the frequency and magnitude of CoTS outbreaks.

  15. In vitro measurements of oxygen consumption rates in hTERT-RPE cells exposed to low levels of red light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigle, Jeffrey C.; Castellanos, Cherry C.

    2016-03-01

    Exposure to 2.88 J/cm2 of red light induces an adaptive response against a lethal pulse of 2.0 μm laser radiation in hTERT-RPE cells in vitro, but not in a knockdown mutant for vascular endothelial growth factor c (VEGF-C). The generally accepted initiation sequence for photobiomodulation is that absorption of red light by cytochome c oxidase (CCOX) of the electron transport chain increases the binding affinity of CCOX for O2 vs. nitric oxide (NO). This results in displacement of NO by O2 in the active site of CCOX, thereby increasing cellular respiration and intracellular ATP. We've previously reported that red-light exposure induces a small, but consistently reproducible, increase in NO levels in these cells. But the relative importance of NO and oxidative phosphorylation is unclear because little is known about the relative contributions of NO and ATP to the response. However, if NO dissociation from CCOX actually increases oxidative phosphorylation, one should see a corresponding increase in oxygen consumption. A Seahorse Extracellular Flux Analyzer was used to measure oxygen consumption rates (OCR) in normal and mutant cells as a proxy for oxidative phosphorylation. Both basal respiration and maximum respiration rates in normal cells are significantly higher than in the mutant. The normal cells have a significant amount of "excess capacity," whereas the VEGF-C(KD) have little or none. The OCR in exposed normal cells is lower than in unexposed cells when measured immediately after exposure. The exposures used for these experiments had no effect on the OCR in mutant cells.

  16. Exploratory multivariate analysis of the effect of fatty fish consumption and medicinal use on heart rate and heart rate variability data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjorn eGrung

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The overall aim of the present study was to explore the relationship between medicinal use and fatty fish consumption on heart rate variability (HRV and heart rate (HR in a group of forensic inpatients on a variety of medications. A total of 49 forensic inpatients, randomly assigned to a fish group (n=27 or a control group (n=22 were included in the present study. Before and by the end of the food intervention period HR and HRV were measured during an experimental test procedure. An additional aim of this paper is to show how multivariate data analysis can highlight differences and similarities between the groups, thus being a valuable addition to traditional statistical hypothesis testing. The results indicate that fish consumption may have a positive effect on both HR and HRV regardless of medication, but that the influence of medication is strong enough to mask the true effect of fish consumption. Without correcting for medication, the fish group and control group become indistinguishable (p = 0.0794, Cohen’s d = 0.60. The effect of medication is demonstrated by establishing a multivariate regression model that estimates HR and HRV in a recovery phase based on HR and HRV data recorded during psychological tests. The model performance is excellent for HR data, but yields poor results for HRV when employed on participants undergoing the more severe medical treatments. This indicates that the HRV behavior of this group is very different from that of the participants on no or lower level of medication. When focusing on the participants on a constant medication regime, a substantial improvement in HRV and HR for the fish group compared to the control group is indicated by a principal component analysis and t tests (p = 0.00029, Cohen’s d = 2.72. In a group of psychiatric inpatients characterized by severe mental health problems consuming different kinds of medication, the fish diet improved HR and HRV, indices of both emotional regulation and

  17. On a question of Gross

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Abhijit

    2007-03-01

    Using the notion of weighted sharing of sets we prove two uniqueness theorems which improve the results proved by Fang and Qiu [H. Qiu, M. Fang, A unicity theorem for meromorphic functions, Bull. Malaysian Math. Sci. Soc. 25 (2002) 31-38], Lahiri and Banerjee [I. Lahiri, A. Banerjee, Uniqueness of meromorphic functions with deficient poles, Kyungpook Math. J. 44 (2004) 575-584] and Yi and Lin [H.X. Yi, W.C. Lin, Uniqueness theorems concerning a question of Gross, Proc. Japan Acad. Ser. A 80 (2004) 136-140] and thus provide an answer to the question of Gross [F. Gross, Factorization of meromorphic functions and some open problems, in: Proc. Conf. Univ. Kentucky, Lexington, KY, 1976, in: Lecture Notes in Math., vol. 599, Springer, Berlin, 1977, pp. 51-69], under a weaker hypothesis.

  18. Equestrian expertise affecting physical fitness, body compositions, lactate, heart rate and calorie consumption of elite horse riding players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Bong-Ju; Jeon, Sang-Yong; Lim, Sung-Ro; Lee, Kyu-Eon; Jee, Hyunseok

    2015-01-01

    Horse riding (HR) is a sport harmonized with rider and horse. HR is renowned as an effective sport for young and old women and men. There is rare study regarding comparison between elite horse riders and amateurs. We aimed to investigate comprehensive ranges of parameters such as change of lactate, heart rate, calorie, VO2max, skeletal muscle mass, body water, body fat, etc between amateurs and professionals to emphasize HR not only as a sport training but also as a therapeutic aspect. We performed 3 experiments for comparing physical fitness, body compositions, lactate value, heart rate and calorie consumption change before and after riding between amateurs and elites. Around 3 yr riding experienced elites are preeminent at balance capability compared to 1 yr riding experienced amateurs. During 18 min horse riding, skeletal muscle mass and body fat were interestingly increased and decreased, respectively. Lactate response was more sensitive in elites rather than amateurs and its recovery was reversely reacted. Exercise intensity estimated from heart rate was significantly higher in elites (PHorse riding possibly induces various physiological (muscle strength, balance, oxidative capability, flexibility, and metabolic control) changes within body and is thus highly recommended as combined exercise for women, children, and aged as therapeutic and leisure sport activity. PMID:26171385

  19. The effects of physical fitness and body composition on oxygen consumption and heart rate recovery after high-intensity exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, E Z; Bastos, F N; Papoti, M; Freitas Junior, I F; Gobatto, C A; Balikian Junior, P

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the potential relationship between excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC), heart rate recovery (HRR) and their respective time constants (tvo2 and t HR) and body composition and aerobic fitness (VO2max) variables after an anaerobic effort. 14 professional cyclists (age=28.4±4.8 years, height=176.0±6.7 cm, body mass=74.4±8.1 kg, VO2max=66.8±7.6 mL·kg - 1·min - 1) were recruited. Each athlete made 3 visits to the laboratory with 24 h between each visit. During the first visit, a total and segmental body composition assessment was carried out. During the second, the athletes undertook an incremental test to determine VO2max. In the final visit, EPOC (15-min) and HRR were measured after an all-out 30 s Wingate test. The results showed that EPOC is positively associated with % body fat (r=0.64), total body fat (r=0.73), fat-free mass (r=0.61) and lower limb fat-free mass (r=0.55) and negatively associated with HRR (r= - 0.53, pEPOC after high-intensity exercise. Even in short-term exercise, the major metabolic disturbance due to higher muscle mass and total muscle mass may increase EPOC. However, body fat impedes HRR and delays recovery of oxygen consumption after effort in highly trained athletes. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Coffee Consumption and Heart Rate Variability: The Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Rackel Aguiar Mendes; Araújo, Larissa Fortunato; de Figueiredo, Roberta Carvalho; Goulart, Alessandra C; Schmidt, Maria Ines; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Ribeiro, Antonio Luiz Pinho

    2017-07-13

    Studies have shown that acute coffee ingestion can affect cardiovascular autonomic activity, although the chronic effects on heart rate variability (HRV) remain controversial. A cross-sectional study with baseline data (2008-2010) from ELSA-Brasil cohort of 15,105 (aged 35-74), based in six Brazilian states. Coffee consumption in the previous 12 months was measured using the semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire, and HRV was obtained through electrocardiographic tracings during 10 min at rest. Independent association between the frequency of coffee consumption "never or almost never", "≤1 cup/day", "2-3 cups/day", "≥3 cups/day", and HRV was estimated using generalized linear regression, adjusting for socio-demographic characteristics, health-related behavior, markers of abnormal metabolism, and the presence of coronary artery disease. Further, we applied Bonferroni correction in the full models. The mean age was 52 years (standard deviation (SD) = 9.1), and 52% was female; 9.5% never/almost never consumed coffee. In univariate analysis, coffee consumers had reduced values of HRV indexes, but after full adjustments and correction for multiple comparisons, these associations disappeared. A trend of reduction in HRV vagal indexes was observed in those that consumed ≥3 cups of coffee/day. Most of the effects attributed to the chronic use of coffee on the HRV indexes is related to the higher prevalence of unhealthy habits in coffee users, such as smoking and alcohol use. Adjustment for confounding factors weaken this association, making it non-significant. The effect of higher daily doses of coffee on the autonomic system should be evaluated in further studies.

  1. Coffee Consumption and Heart Rate Variability: The Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rackel Aguiar Mendes de Oliveira

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that acute coffee ingestion can affect cardiovascular autonomic activity, although the chronic effects on heart rate variability (HRV remain controversial. Method: A cross-sectional study with baseline data (2008–2010 from ELSA-Brasil cohort of 15,105 (aged 35–74, based in six Brazilian states. Coffee consumption in the previous 12 months was measured using the semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire, and HRV was obtained through electrocardiographic tracings during 10 min at rest. Independent association between the frequency of coffee consumption “never or almost never”, “≤1 cup/day”, “2–3 cups/day”, “≥3 cups/day”, and HRV was estimated using generalized linear regression, adjusting for socio-demographic characteristics, health-related behavior, markers of abnormal metabolism, and the presence of coronary artery disease. Further, we applied Bonferroni correction in the full models. Results: The mean age was 52 years (standard deviation (SD = 9.1, and 52% was female; 9.5% never/almost never consumed coffee. In univariate analysis, coffee consumers had reduced values of HRV indexes, but after full adjustments and correction for multiple comparisons, these associations disappeared. A trend of reduction in HRV vagal indexes was observed in those that consumed ≥3 cups of coffee/day. Conclusion: Most of the effects attributed to the chronic use of coffee on the HRV indexes is related to the higher prevalence of unhealthy habits in coffee users, such as smoking and alcohol use. Adjustment for confounding factors weaken this association, making it non-significant. The effect of higher daily doses of coffee on the autonomic system should be evaluated in further studies.

  2. Association of heart rate and blood pressure among European adolescents with usual food consumption: The HELENA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julián-Almárcegui, C; Vandevijvere, S; Gottrand, F; Beghin, L; Dallongeville, J; Sjöstrom, M; Leclercq, C; Manios, Y; Widhalm, K; Ferreira De Morares, A C; Gónzalez-Gross, M; Stehle, P; Castillo, M J; Moreno, L A; Kersting, M; Vyncke, K; De Henauw, S; Huybrechts, I

    2016-06-01

    In adults, there is some evidence that improving diet reduces blood pressure (BP) and the subsequent risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). However, studies that analyse this association in adolescents are still scarce. The objective of the present study was to examine the associations between heart rate, systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP) and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) among European adolescents and usual intake of vegetables, fruits, dairy products, meat, fish, high-sugar foods and savoury snacks. In total, 2283 adolescents from the HELENA-study (12.5-17.5 years old; 1253 girls) were included. Dietary intake was assessed using two computerized 24-hour dietary recalls. Age, sex, body mass index, maternal educational level, physical activity and Tanner stage were considered as confounders. Associations were examined by mixed model analysis stratified by sex. Tests for trend were assessed by tertiles of intake while controlling for the aforementioned confounders. Dairy products and fish intake were negatively associated with BP and heart rate. Significant decreasing trends were observed for heart rate and BP across tertiles of dairy products, fish intake and high-sugar foods intake (p trends were observed for SBP and MAP across tertiles of savoury snack intake (p products consumption with blood pressure and heart rate have been found in European adolescents. Dietary intervention studies are needed to explore these associations in the context of the modification of several risk factors for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Copyright © 2016 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The Impact of Food Consumption, Government Type and Effectiveness, on the Rate of Somali Maritime Piracy, 2000-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Rohrer

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of maritime piracy off the Horn of Africa is still a developing area of academic research. The work that has been conducted to date has remained largely qualitative.   Two recurring assumptions made but not empirically tested in this area of research are 1 the perceived link between government stability and the rate of maritime piracy, and 2 drought conditions implying food shortages in Somalia, and their impact on the rate of maritime piracy off the Horn of Africa.  The findings of this project show a strong increase in maritime piracy following the transition from assorted Islamic Courts to the Transitional Federal Government (TFG.  However, variations in the consumption of staple foodstuffs, and an index of the World Bank Governance Indicators do not have a significant impact on the frequency of maritime piracy in the region.  If maritime piracy off the Somali coast is to be eliminated, rather than policed, efforts should be made to encourage the development of governmental institutions that utilize culturally-respected institutions supported by the local populace.

  4. Feeding Activity, Rate of Consumption, Daily Ration and Prey Selection of Major Predators in John Day Reservoir, 1985: Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, Douglas E.; United States. Bonneville Power Administration; U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service; National Fishery Research Center (U.S.)

    1986-10-01

    This report summarizes activities in 1985 to determine the extent of predation on juvenile salmonids in John Day Reservoir. To estimate consumption of juvenile salmonids we used the composition of the natural diet of predators and in the laboratory determined rate of gastric evacuation by predators. Salmonids were the single most important food item for northern squawfish (Ptychocheilus oregonensis) at McNary tailrace during all sampling periods and at John Day forebay during July. Salmonids accounted for 11.6% of the diet of walleye (Stizostedion vitreum vitreum) in 1985 which was about twice that found in previous years. Salmonids contributed little to smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui) diet but comprised about 25% of the diet of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). Composition of prey taxa in beach seine catches in 1985 was similar to 1983 and 1984 with chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tschawytscha), northern squawfish, largescale sucker (Catostomus macrocheilus), and sand roller (Percopsis transmontana) dominating the catch at main channel stations and crappies (Pomoxis spp.) and largescale sucker dominating at backwater stations. Preliminary results of beach seine efficiency studies suggest that seine efficiency varied significantly among prey species and between substrate types in 1985. Results of digestion rate experiments indicate that gastric evacuation in northern squawfish can be predicted using water temperature, prey weight, predator weight and time. 19 refs., 19 figs., 13 tabs.

  5. Cervical Gross Tumor Volume Dose Predicts Local Control Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging/Diffusion-Weighted Imaging—Guided High-Dose-Rate and Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography—Guided Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyk, Pawel; Jiang, Naomi; Sun, Baozhou; DeWees, Todd A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri (United States); Fowler, Kathryn J.; Narra, Vamsi [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri (United States); Garcia-Ramirez, Jose L.; Schwarz, Julie K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri (United States); Grigsby, Perry W., E-mail: pgrigsby@wustl.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri (United States); Division of Nuclear Medicine, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri (United States); Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri (United States); Alvin J. Siteman Cancer Center, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri (United States)

    2014-11-15

    Purpose: Magnetic resonance imaging/diffusion weighted-imaging (MRI/DWI)-guided high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy and {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) — positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT)-guided intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for the definitive treatment of cervical cancer is a novel treatment technique. The purpose of this study was to report our analysis of dose-volume parameters predicting gross tumor volume (GTV) control. Methods and Materials: We analyzed the records of 134 patients with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stages IB1-IVB cervical cancer treated with combined MRI-guided HDR and IMRT from July 2009 to July 2011. IMRT was targeted to the metabolic tumor volume and lymph nodes by use of FDG-PET/CT simulation. The GTV for each HDR fraction was delineated by use of T2-weighted or apparent diffusion coefficient maps from diffusion-weighted sequences. The D100, D90, and Dmean delivered to the GTV from HDR and IMRT were summed to EQD2. Results: One hundred twenty-five patients received all irradiation treatment as planned, and 9 did not complete treatment. All 134 patients are included in this analysis. Treatment failure in the cervix occurred in 24 patients (18.0%). Patients with cervix failures had a lower D100, D90, and Dmean than those who did not experience failure in the cervix. The respective doses to the GTV were 41, 58, and 136 Gy for failures compared with 67, 99, and 236 Gy for those who did not experience failure (P<.001). Probit analysis estimated the minimum D100, D90, and Dmean doses required for ≥90% local control to be 69, 98, and 260 Gy (P<.001). Conclusions: Total dose delivered to the GTV from combined MRI-guided HDR and PET/CT-guided IMRT is highly correlated with local tumor control. The findings can be directly applied in the clinic for dose adaptation to maximize local control.

  6. The effect of caffeine consumption on the success rate of pregnancy as well various performance parameters of in-vitro fertilization treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saleh, Iman; El-Doush, Inaam; Grisellhi, Bellido; Coskun, Serdar

    2010-12-01

    This study evaluated the effect of caffeine consumption on the success rate of pregnancy and various in vitro fertilization (IVF) performance parameters. Serum and follicular fluid samples were collected from 619 women undergoing IVF treatment (2002-2003). Caffeine assessment was based on measuring the levels of caffeine in serum and follicular fluid and on the number of coffee or tea or caffeinated drinks consumed per day. A total of 97.3% of participants reported the consumption of caffeinated drinks such as coffee, tea and soft drinks. Their average caffeine consumption was 455.82 mg/day (range: 3.71-3561 mg/day). Coffee was the primary source of caffeine intake. The average caffeine levels in serum (0.913 µg/ml) were significantly higher than in follicular fluid (0.701 µg/ml). After controlling for various potential confounding variables, no association was found between coffee or tea consumption and the success rate of pregnancy. Looking at the effect of caffeine consumption on the IVF performance parameters, we found that the number of eggs decreased as the caffeine serum levels increased (P=0.011). An increase in coffee consumption was positively associated with the number of aborted pregnancy (P=0.007), while the number of good embryo decreased with high tea consumption (P=0.015). Though no association was seen between coffee or tea consumption and pregnancy rate, this study is the first to report that caffeine can reach the follicular fluid and there is a suggestive evidence of its possible harmful role on the consequences of reproductive process. This clearly warrants further investigation.

  7. Rates of oxygen consumption and tolerance of hypoxia and desiccation in Chinese black sleeper (Bostrichthys sinensis) and mudskipper (Boleophthalmus pectinirostris) embryos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Shixi; HONG Wanshu; ZHANG Qiyong; WU Renxie; WANG Qiong

    2006-01-01

    The rates of oxygen consumption, tolerance of hypoxia and desiccation of the Chinese black sleeper (Bostrichthys sinensis) and mudskipper (Boleophthalmus pectinirostris) embryos were investigated. The pattern of oxygen consumption of the Chinese black sleeper embryos was similar to that of the mudskipper ones. The lowest rates of oxygen consumption[(1.65±0.66)nmol/(ind.·h)] of the Chinese black sleeper embryos 16 h after fertilization and the lowest rates of oxygen consumption [(0.79±0.08)nmol/(ind.·h)] of the mudskipper embryos 6 h after fertilization were recorded, respectively. Then the rates of oxygen consumption of these two species embryos increased gradually until hatching [(8.26±1.70)nmol/(ind.·h)in the Chinese black sleeper, (2.69±0.23)nmol/(ind.·h) in mudskipper]. After exposure to hypoxia water (0.16 mg/dm3), bradycardia of the embryos occurred in both the Chinese black sleeper and the mudskipper. However, the Chinese black sleeper embryos survived approximately 45 min longer than the mudskipper ones. After exposure to desiccation at a relative humidity of 58%, bradycardia of the embryos was observed in both the Chinese black sleeper and the mudskipper, and the Chinese black sleeper embryos lived approximately 9 min longer than the mudskipper ones.

  8. Oxygen and SO2 consumption rates in white and rosé wines. Relationship with and effects on wine chemical composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrascón, Vanesa; Bueno, Mónica; Fernandez-Zurbano, Purificación; Ferreira, Vicente

    2017-10-02

    This paper addresses the study of O2 and SO2 consumption rates of white and rosé wines, their relationship to the initial chemical composition and their effects on the chemical changes experienced by wine during oxidation. Eight wines were subjected to five consecutive air-saturation cycles. O2 was monitored periodically; SO2, color and antioxidant indexes were determined after each cycle, and the initial and final composition of the wines were thoroughly determined. Wines consumed oxygen at progressively decreasing rates. In the last cycles, after a strong decrease, consistent increases of oxygen levels were seen. Oxygen consumption rates were satisfactorily modelled, being proportional to wine Copper, quercetin and kaempherol contents, and negatively proportional to cinnamic acids. SO2 consumption rates were highly diverse between wines and were positively related to free SO2, Mn and pH, among others. In the last saturations, SO2 consumption took place regardless O2 consumption, implying that SO2 should reduce chemical species oxidized in previous saturations. Some volatile phenols seem to be the endpoint of radical-mediated oxidation of polyphenols taking place preferably in the first saturation.

  9. Aclarubicin, an anthracycline anti-cancer drug, fluorescently contrasts mitochondria and reduces the oxygen consumption rate in living human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iihoshi, Haruka; Ishihara, Takaya; Kuroda, Shogo; Ishihara, Naotada; Saitoh, Hisato

    2017-08-05

    Aclarubicin (Acla), an effective anthracycline chemotherapeutic agent for hematologic cancers and solid tumors, is documented to perturb chromatin function via histone eviction and DNA topoisomerase inhibition in the nucleus, but much less attention has been paid to cytotoxic function in the cytoplasm. Here, we showed that Acla emitted fluorescence and that human cervical cancer HeLa cells exposed to Acla exhibited bright fluorescence signals in the cytoplasm when fluorescence microscopy was performed using the red filter (excitation 530-550nm/emission 575nm). Intriguingly, most of the signals appeared to be partitioned and enriched in entangled tubule-like structures; moreover, these signals merged with the mitochondria-specific MitoTracker signals. Notably, analysis of mitochondrial respiratory activity revealed that the oxygen consumption rate was decreased in Acla-treated cells. These findings suggest that Acla accumulates efficiently in the mitochondria of living human cells and leads to mitochondrial dysfunction, implying a previously overlooked cytotoxicity of Acla in the cytoplasm and adding mechanistic insight of the anti-cancer activity, as well as the side effects, of Acla/anthracycline-based chemotherapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of auricular acupuncture on heart rate, oxygen consumption and blood lactic acid for elite basketball athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zen-Pin; Chen, Yi-Hung; Fan, Chia; Wu, Huey-June; Lan, Lawrence W; Lin, Jaung-Geng

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of auricular acupuncture on athletes' recovery abilities after exercise. Subjects were selected from twenty-four male elite university basketball players, randomly divided into two groups: auricular acupuncture group (AAG), and normal control group (NCG), each group containing twelve subjects. Auricular acupuncture was experimented to each AAG athlete while no auricular acupuncture was conducted to each NCG athlete. Each subject in both groups performed a ride on the stationary bike until exhausted. The data of heart rate (HR(max)), oxygen consumption (VO(2 max)), and blood lactic acid were measured at four points of time: during the rest period after warm-ups and at the 5th, 30th and 60th minutes post-exercise, respectively. One-way ANOVA and repeated Scheffé methods were used to test the differences of the data between these two groups. The results showed that both HR(max) and blood lactic acid in AAG were significantly lower than those in NCG at the 30th and 60th minutes post-exercise. This suggests that auricular acupuncture can enhance athletes' recovery abilities after aggressive exercise.

  11. Event-Associated Oxygen Consumption Rate Increases ca. Five-Fold When Interictal Activity Transforms into Seizure-Like Events In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Schoknecht

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Neuronal injury due to seizures may result from a mismatch of energy demand and adenosine triphosphate (ATP synthesis. However, ATP demand and oxygen consumption rates have not been accurately determined, yet, for different patterns of epileptic activity, such as interictal and ictal events. We studied interictal-like and seizure-like epileptiform activity induced by the GABAA antagonist bicuculline alone, and with co-application of the M-current blocker XE-991, in rat hippocampal slices. Metabolic changes were investigated based on recording partial oxygen pressure, extracellular potassium concentration, and intracellular flavine adenine dinucleotide (FAD redox potential. Recorded data were used to calculate oxygen consumption and relative ATP consumption rates, cellular ATP depletion, and changes in FAD/FADH2 ratio by applying a reactive-diffusion and a two compartment metabolic model. Oxygen-consumption rates were ca. five times higher during seizure activity than interictal activity. Additionally, ATP consumption was higher during seizure activity (~94% above control than interictal activity (~15% above control. Modeling of FAD transients based on partial pressure of oxygen recordings confirmed increased energy demand during both seizure and interictal activity and predicted actual FAD autofluorescence recordings, thereby validating the model. Quantifying metabolic alterations during epileptiform activity has translational relevance as it may help to understand the contribution of energy supply and demand mismatches to seizure-induced injury.

  12. Event-Associated Oxygen Consumption Rate Increases ca. Five-Fold When Interictal Activity Transforms into Seizure-Like Events In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoknecht, Karl; Berndt, Nikolaus; Rösner, Jörg; Heinemann, Uwe; Dreier, Jens P; Kovács, Richard; Friedman, Alon; Liotta, Agustin

    2017-09-07

    Neuronal injury due to seizures may result from a mismatch of energy demand and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis. However, ATP demand and oxygen consumption rates have not been accurately determined, yet, for different patterns of epileptic activity, such as interictal and ictal events. We studied interictal-like and seizure-like epileptiform activity induced by the GABAA antagonist bicuculline alone, and with co-application of the M-current blocker XE-991, in rat hippocampal slices. Metabolic changes were investigated based on recording partial oxygen pressure, extracellular potassium concentration, and intracellular flavine adenine dinucleotide (FAD) redox potential. Recorded data were used to calculate oxygen consumption and relative ATP consumption rates, cellular ATP depletion, and changes in FAD/FADH₂ ratio by applying a reactive-diffusion and a two compartment metabolic model. Oxygen-consumption rates were ca. five times higher during seizure activity than interictal activity. Additionally, ATP consumption was higher during seizure activity (~94% above control) than interictal activity (~15% above control). Modeling of FAD transients based on partial pressure of oxygen recordings confirmed increased energy demand during both seizure and interictal activity and predicted actual FAD autofluorescence recordings, thereby validating the model. Quantifying metabolic alterations during epileptiform activity has translational relevance as it may help to understand the contribution of energy supply and demand mismatches to seizure-induced injury.

  13. Effect of Arachidonic Acid on the Rate of Oxygen Consumption in Isolated Cardiomyocytes from Intact Rats and Animals with Ischemic or Diabetic Injury to the Heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egorova, M V; Kutsykova, T V; Afanas'ev, S A; Popov, S V

    2015-12-01

    We studied the rate of oxygen consumption by isolated cardiomyocytes from intact rats and animals with experimental myocardial infarction or streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus. The measurements were performed in standard incubation medium under various conditions of oxygenation and after addition of arachidonic acid (20 μmol/liter). Under normoxic conditions, arachidonic acid improves respiration of cardiomyocytes from intact animals, but reduces this parameter in cells isolated from animals with pathologies. The intensity of O2 consumption by cardiomyocytes from intact rats and animals with pathologies was shown to decrease during hypoxia. Addition of arachidonic acid aggravated inhibition of respiration for cardiomyocytes from intact rats and specimens with myocardial infarction, but had no effect in diabetes mellitus. The effect of arachidonic acid on oxygen consumption rate is probably mediated by a nonspecific mechanism realized at the mitochondrial level.

  14. Some implications of changing patterns of mineral consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzie, W. David; DeYoung, Jr., John H.; Steblez, Walter G.

    2003-01-01

    DeYoung and Menzie (1999) examined the relations among population, Gross Domestic Product, and mineral consumption (aluminum, cement, copper, and salt) for Japan, Korea, and the United States between 1965 and 1995. They noted the extremely rapid growth of consumption in Korea between 1975 and 1995. Concomitantly, Korea's population growth rate declined. This paper extends that earlier work by examining patterns of consumption of these same commodities in the twenty most populous countries for the period 1970 through 1995. Developed countries, such as France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States, show patterns of consumption that are stable (cement, copper, and salt) or grow slowly (aluminum). Some developing countries, including China, Thailand, and Turkey, show more rapid growth of consumption, especially of cement, copper, and aluminum. These changing patterns of mineral consumption in developing countries have important implications -- if they continue, there could be major increases in world mineral consumption and major increases in environmental residuals from mineral production and use. If China reaches the level of consumption of copper of developed countries, world consumption could reach levels more than twice that of 1995 (10.5 million tons).

  15. Effects of food ration on SMR: influence of food consumption on individual variation in metabolic rate in juvenile coho salmon (Onchorhynchus kisutch).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Leeuwen, Travis E; Rosenfeld, Jordan S; Richards, Jeffrey G

    2012-03-01

    1. Consistency of differences in standard metabolic rate (SMR) between individual juvenile salmonids and the apparently limited ability of individuals to regulate their SMR has led many researchers to conclude that differences in individual SMR are fixed (i.e. genetic). 2. To test for the effects of food ration on individual performance and metabolism, SMR was estimated by measuring oxygen consumption using flow-through respirometry on individually separated young of the year coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) placed on varying food rations over a period of 44 days. 3. Results demonstrate that the quantity of food consumed directly affects SMR of juvenile coho salmon, independent of specific dynamic action (SDA, an elevation in metabolic rate from the increased energy demands associated with digestion immediately following a meal) and indicates that higher food consumption is a cause of elevated SMR rather than a consequence of it. Juvenile coho salmon therefore demonstrated an ability to regulate their SMR according to food availability and ultimately food consumption. 4. This study indicates that food consumption may play a pivotal role in understanding individual variation in SMR independent of inherent genetic differences. We suggest that studies involving SMR need to be cautious about the effects of intra-individual differences in food consumption in communal tanks or in different microhabitats in the wild as disproportionate food consumption may contribute more to variation in SMR than intrinsic (genetic) factors. 5. In general, our results suggest that evolutionary changes in SMR are likely a response to selection on food consumption and growth, rather than SMR itself.

  16. Trends in incidence rate, health care consumption, and costs for patients admitted with a humeral fracture in The Netherlands between 1986 and 2012

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.C. Mahabier (Kiran); D. den Hartog (Dennis); M.J.M. Panneman (Martien); J.R. van Veldhuizen (Joyce); S. Polinder (Suzanne); M.H.J. Verhofstad (Michiel); E.M.M. van Lieshout (Esther)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: This study aimed to examine long-term population-based trends in the incidence rate of patients with a humeral fracture admitted to a hospital in the Netherlands from 1986 to 2012 and to give a detailed overview of the health care consumption and productivity loss with asso

  17. Simultaneous evaluation of substrate-dependent oxygen consumption rates and mitochondrial membrane potential by TMRM and safranin in cortical mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Subir Roy; Djordjevic, Jelena; Albensi, Benedict C; Fernyhough, Paul

    2015-12-08

    Mitochondrial membrane potential (mtMP) is critical for maintaining the physiological function of the respiratory chain to generate ATP. The present study characterized the inter-relationship between mtMP, using safranin and tetramethyl rhodamine methyl ester (TMRM), and mitochondrial respiratory activity and established a protocol for functional analysis of mitochondrial bioenergetics in a multi-sensor system. Coupled respiration was decreased by 27 and 30-35% in the presence of TMRM and safranin respectively. Maximal respiration was higher than coupled with Complex I- and II-linked substrates in the presence of both dyes. Safranin showed decreased maximal respiration at a higher concentration of carbonyl cyanide-4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenylhydrazone (FCCP) compared with TMRM. FCCP titration revealed that maximal respiration in the presence of glutamate and malate was not sustainable at higher FCCP concentrations as compared with pyruvate and malate. Oxygen consumption rate (OCR) and mtMP in response to mitochondrial substrates were higher in isolated mitochondria compared with tissue homogenates. Safranin exhibited higher sensitivity to changes in mtMP than TMRM. This multi-sensor system measured mitochondrial parameters in the brain of transgenic mice that model Alzheimer's disease (AD), because mitochondrial dysfunction is believed to be a primary event in the pathogenesis of AD. The coupled and maximal respiration of electron transport chain were decreased in the cortex of AD mice along with the mtMP compared with age-matched controls. Overall, these data demonstrate that safranin and TMRM are suitable for the simultaneous evaluation of mtMP and respiratory chain activity using isolated mitochondria and tissue homogenate. However, certain care should be taken concerning the selection of appropriate substrates and dyes for specific experimental circumstances.

  18. Oxygen concentration profiles and the consumption rates at the sediment-water interface off Hachinohe, Northeastern Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguri, K.; Toyofuku, T.; Fontanier, C.; Schiebel, R.; de Noojer, L. J.; Koho, K.; Reichart, G. J.; Kitazato, H.

    2012-04-01

    The intermediate waters off Hachinohe (northeastern Japan) signify one of the lowest oxygen (O2) concentrations in the open ocean around Japanese islands today, indicating below 40μM O2 between 800 to 1200m water depths due to high seasonal primary productivity at the sea surface. To investigate biogeochemical microenvironments, especially to unravel the relationships and interactions between distributions of benthic organisms and the O2 distributions where the low O2 water intersect the sea floor, we conducted a multidisciplinary cruise (KT11-20) by R/V Tansei-maru, JAMSTEC from 21 to 25/Aug/2011. During the cruise, we selected twelve sampling sites offshore from 50 to 2000m in water depth. Dissolved O2 concentrations 10m above the sea floor at 200, 500, 1000, 1250, and 2000m absolute water depths were 253, 112, 36.4, 33.1 and 70μM, respectively. From 500, 1000, and 2000m sites, undisturbed sediment cores were collected using with a multiple core sampler. O2 microprofiles in these cores were measured after on board incubations of >7 hours, using an incubator set to the temperatures and O2 concentrations observed at the sampling sites. O2 penetration depths at the respective sites at 500, 1000, and 2000m were 1.5-2.8, 3.9-6.8 and 5.0mm respectively, which implies O2 consumption rates (using the model by Berg et al. 1998) of 2.7-4.2, 0.6-0.7 and 1.4-1.6 mmol/m2/d, respectively. Our results indicate that in O2 depleted area off Hachinohe, minimum remineralization of organic materials by molecular O2 diffusion is very low in the area impacted by O2 depletion (1000m) nevertheless the O2 penetration depths at the site show deeper values than those from 500m depth.

  19. Wood fuel consumption and mortality rates in Sub-Saharan Africa: Evidence from a dynamic panel study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, Chindo; Abdul-Rahim, A S; Chin, Lee; Mohd-Shahwahid, H O

    2017-06-01

    This study examined the impact of wood fuel consumption on health outcomes, specifically under-five and adult mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa, where wood usage for cooking and heating is on the increase. Generalized method of moment (GMM) estimators were used to estimate the impact of wood fuel consumption on under-five and adult mortality (and also male and female mortality) in the region. The findings revealed that wood fuel consumption had significant positive impact on under-five and adult mortality. It suggests that over the studied period, an increase in wood fuel consumption has increased the mortality of under-five and adult. Importantly, it indicated that the magnitude of the effect of wood fuel consumption was more on the under-five than the adults. Similarly, assessing the effect on a gender basis, it was revealed that the effect was more on female than male adults. This finding suggests that the resultant mortality from wood smoke related infections is more on under-five children than adults, and also are more on female adults than male adults. We, therefore, recommended that an alternative affordable, clean energy source for cooking and heating should be provided to reduce the wood fuel consumption.

  20. [Energy consumption and GDP growth in Beijing: cointegration and causality analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cao-Cao; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Chun-Lan; Wang, Hai-Hua; Li, Zheng

    2012-06-01

    In this paper, the Johansen cointegration technique and the vector error correction model (VECM) were used to examine the causal relationship between energy consumption (LEC) and gross domestic product (LGDP) for Beijing during the period of 1980 to 2008. Results indicated that LEC and LGDP for Beijing were related by one cointegrating vector and there was a long-run unidirectional causal relationship from GDP to energy consumption. The long-term and short-term elasticity from economy to energy consumption were 0.44 and 0.12 separately. Statistic analysis showed that from 1980 to 2008 every 1% growth in GDP annually would drive energy consumption increasing rate by 0.4% correspondently. And the effect imposed from economy to energy consumption was lagging. It showed that energy consumption was not a strong exogenous variable as to economy. The finding has significant implications from the point of view of energy conservation, emission reduction and economic development.

  1. Eight-day consumption of inulin added to a yogurt breakfast lowers postprandial appetite ratings but not energy intakes in young healthy females: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heap, Sarah; Ingram, Jessica; Law, Marron; Tucker, Amy J; Wright, Amanda J

    2016-01-28

    Increasing feelings of satiety may reduce appetite and energy intake. The role of inulin consumption in impacting satiety is unclear. A randomised double-blind controlled crossover trial aimed to determine the effects of inulin+yogurt on satiety after 1 and 8-d consumption. The preload breakfast included 100 g vanilla yogurt with (yogurt-inulin (YI)) and without (yogurt-control (YC)) 6 g inulin. A total of nineteen healthy females (22·8 (sd 2·7) years) with non-restrained eating behaviour and taking hormonal contraceptives participated in the study. Day 1 and 8 visual analogue scale (VAS) ratings of Hunger, Fullness, Desire to Eat and Prospective Food Consumption (PFC) were collected at fasting and every 30 min for 180 min. Energy intake was calculated from a weighed ad libitum lunch and remainder of day food records. Total AUC was calculated for each VAS. Day 1 (VAS only) and 8 (VAS and energy intakes) data were compared between YI and YC using ANCOVA, and ANOVA was used to compare energy intakes on Day 1. There were no significant differences between Day 1 YI and YC AUC appetite ratings or energy intakes. However, 8-d consumption of YI v. YC was associated with lower Desire to Eat and PFC ratings but similar lunch and total day energy intakes. Therefore, the addition of 6 g inulin to a commercially available yogurt affected feelings of appetite, but not energy intake, after repeated consumption. These results suggest that inulin may be a suitable ingredient to increase dietary fibre consumption, with potential to impact appetite.

  2. Wii, Kinect, and Move. Heart Rate, Oxygen Consumption, Energy Expenditure, and Ventilation due to Different Physically Active Video Game Systems in College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheer, Krista S; Siebrant, Sarah M; Brown, Gregory A; Shaw, Brandon S; Shaw, Ina

    Nintendo Wii, Sony Playstation Move, and Microsoft XBOX Kinect are home video gaming systems that involve player movement to control on-screen game play. Numerous investigations have demonstrated that playing Wii is moderate physical activity at best, but Move and Kinect have not been as thoroughly investigated. The purpose of this study was to compare heart rate, oxygen consumption, and ventilation while playing the games Wii Boxing, Kinect Boxing, and Move Gladiatorial Combat. Heart rate, oxygen consumption, and ventilation were measured at rest and during a graded exercise test in 10 males and 9 females (19.8 ± 0.33 y, 175.4 ± 2.0 cm, 80.2 ± 7.7 kg,). On another day, in a randomized order, the participants played Wii Boxing, Kinect Boxing, and Move Gladiatorial Combat while heart rate, ventilation, and oxygen consumption were measured. There were no differences in heart rate (116.0 ± 18.3 vs. 119.3 ± 17.6 vs. 120.1 ± 17.6 beats/min), oxygen consumption (9.2 ± 3.0 vs. 10.6 ± 2.4 vs. 9.6 ± 2.4 ml/kg/min), or minute ventilation (18.9 ± 5.7 vs. 20.8 ± 8.0 vs. 19.7 ± 6.4 L/min) when playing Wii boxing, Kinect boxing, or Move Gladiatorial Combat (respectively). Playing Nintendo Wii Boxing, XBOX Kinect Boxing, and Sony PlayStation Move Gladiatorial Combat all increase heart rate, oxygen consumption, and ventilation above resting levels but there were no significant differences between gaming systems. Overall, playing a "physically active" home video game system does not meet the minimal threshold for moderate intensity physical activity, regardless of gaming system.

  3. Gross anatomy of network security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Thomas J.

    2002-01-01

    Information security involves many branches of effort, including information assurance, host level security, physical security, and network security. Computer network security methods and implementations are given a top-down description to permit a medically focused audience to anchor this information to their daily practice. The depth of detail of network functionality and security measures, like that of the study of human anatomy, can be highly involved. Presented at the level of major gross anatomical systems, this paper will focus on network backbone implementation and perimeter defenses, then diagnostic tools, and finally the user practices (the human element). Physical security measures, though significant, have been defined as beyond the scope of this presentation.

  4. Non-linear scaling of oxygen consumption and heart rate in a very large cockroach species (Gromphadorhina portentosa): correlated changes with body size and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streicher, Jeffrey W; Cox, Christian L; Birchard, Geoffrey F

    2012-04-01

    Although well documented in vertebrates, correlated changes between metabolic rate and cardiovascular function of insects have rarely been described. Using the very large cockroach species Gromphadorhina portentosa, we examined oxygen consumption and heart rate across a range of body sizes and temperatures. Metabolic rate scaled positively and heart rate negatively with body size, but neither scaled linearly. The response of these two variables to temperature was similar. This correlated response to endogenous (body mass) and exogenous (temperature) variables is likely explained by a mutual dependence on similar metabolic substrate use and/or coupled regulatory pathways. The intraspecific scaling for oxygen consumption rate showed an apparent plateauing at body masses greater than about 3 g. An examination of cuticle mass across all instars revealed isometric scaling with no evidence of an ontogenetic shift towards proportionally larger cuticles. Published oxygen consumption rates of other Blattodea species were also examined and, as in our intraspecific examination of G. portentosa, the scaling relationship was found to be non-linear with a decreasing slope at larger body masses. The decreasing slope at very large body masses in both intraspecific and interspecific comparisons may have important implications for future investigations of the relationship between oxygen transport and maximum body size in insects.

  5. The Effects of Interest Rate on the Optimal Consumption Path in a Bewley Model with the Co-existence of Currency and Credit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Aqil Hoseiny

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In the Bewley models, the endowment is faced to idiosyncratic risks. But contingent claims markets is restricted or completely excluded by assumption and so households couldn’t insure themselves against these risks. Consequently, households will have strong motive to precautionary saving for self-insurance. Households’ only option is to “self-insure” by managing a stock of a single asset to buffer their consumption against adverse shocks. The bewley models differ mainly with respect to the particular asset that is the instrument for self-insurance: fiat currency, credit (such as IOU's, bank deposits, government bonds and so on or capital. In these models if the interest rate would be equal to the rate of the time preference then asset and consumption diverge to infinity and so monetary equilibrium doesn't exist. Therefore these models conclude that the use of Friedman rule can be misleading in an incomplete market setup. Therefore these models reduce the interest rate so that asset and consumption converge and consequently the monetary equilibrium exists.In this paper we extend the bewley models and construct a heterogeneous model with idiosyncratic risks and borrowing constraint where agents hold money and bearing interest assets as government bonds for precautionary motives and self-insurance. We show that the consequences of bewley models in this condition are still true: There should be the interest rate lower than time preference to insure the existence of monetary equilibrium. With sufficient uncertainty in the income and interest rate sequences, consumption will grow without bound even if the rate of interest is equal to or greater than the discount rate.

  6. Oxygen consumption rate of freshwater pearl mussel (Hyriopsis cumingii) reared in ponds%池塘养殖三角帆蚌的耗氧率

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑侠飞; 王岩

    2013-01-01

    Oxygen consumption rate is an important physiological parameter for evaluating the adaptation and influence of aquatic animals to the surrounding environment.The oxygen consumption rate of bivalve is dependent on various internal and external factors,such as developmental stage,body mass and sexual cycle stage,geographic latitude,season,temperature oscillation,feeding condition,oxygen saturation in water,and tidal conditions.Therefore,oxygen consumption rate of bivalve measured in situ is more accurate in reflecting metabolic intensity of the bivalve in natural habitat than that measured under laboratory condition.In this study,oxygen consumption rate of freshwater pearl mussel Hyriopsis cumingii with different mussel sizes was measured in situ using flow through respirometry.The mussels included one-year-old (shell lengths were 52 and 77 mm respectively) and two-year-old (shell lengths were 69,87 and 102 mm respectively) ones.The measurement lasted for 3 days,during which the mussels were put in respirometers and aerated well water flow through the respirometers.Water samples were collected at the inlet and outlet of respirometers at 0:00,6:00,12:00 and 18:00 every day,and dissolved oxygen was analyzed with the Winkler method.During the measurement,water temperature was (22.7 ± 0.7) ℃,and pH was 8.07 ± 0.02,and dissolved oxygen concentration in water flowing into the respirometers was (6.05± 0.52) mg/L.The results showed that the mass-specific oxygen consumption rate decreased with the increase of body mass of the mussels.When the shell lengths were 52,77,69,87 and 102 mm,the oxygen consumption rate of per unit mass was (27.85±7.15),(17.94±4.89),(18.76±6.55),(14.26±3.24) and (14.25±2.51) mg/(kg·h),respectively.The individual oxygen consumption rate [CI/(mg/(individual.d))] significantly correlated to mussel mass (m/g) and shell length (L/mm),and the regression equation was lg CI =0.781 lg m-0.051 (R2 =0.826,n =43,P<0.05) or lg CI =2.648 lg L-4 (R2 =0

  7. Gross nitrous oxide production drives net nitrous oxide fluxes across a salt marsh landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wendy H; Silver, Whendee L

    2016-06-01

    Sea level rise will change inundation regimes in salt marshes, altering redox dynamics that control nitrification - a potential source of the potent greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide (N2 O) - and denitrification, a major nitrogen (N) loss pathway in coastal ecosystems and both a source and sink of N2 O. Measurements of net N2 O fluxes alone yield little insight into the different effects of redox conditions on N2 O production and consumption. We used in situ measurements of gross N2 O fluxes across a salt marsh elevation gradient to determine how soil N2 O emissions in coastal ecosystems may respond to future sea level rise. Soil redox declined as marsh elevation decreased, with lower soil nitrate and higher ferrous iron in the low marsh compared to the mid and high marshes (P Net N2 O fluxes differed significantly among marsh zones (P = 0.009), averaging 9.8 ± 5.4 μg N m(-2)  h(-1) , -2.2 ± 0.9 μg N m(-2)  h(-1) , and 0.67 ± 0.57 μg N m(-2)  h(-1) in the low, mid, and high marshes, respectively. Both net N2 O release and uptake were observed in the low and high marshes, but the mid-marsh was consistently a net N2 O sink. Gross N2 O production was highest in the low marsh and lowest in the mid-marsh (P = 0.02), whereas gross N2 O consumption did not differ among marsh zones. Thus, variability in gross N2 O production rates drove the differences in net N2 O flux among marsh zones. Our results suggest that future studies should focus on elucidating controls on the processes producing, rather than consuming, N2 O in salt marshes to improve our predictions of changes in net N2 O fluxes caused by future sea level rise.

  8. A survey of gross alpha and gross beta activity in soil samples in Kinta District, Perak, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Siak Kuan; Wagiran, Husin; Ramli, Ahmad Termizi

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the gross alpha and gross beta activity concentrations from the different soil types found in the Kinta District, Perak, Malaysia. A total of 128 soil samples were collected and their dose rates were measured 1 m above the ground. Gross alpha and gross beta activity measurements were carried out using gas flow proportional counter, Tennelec Series 5 LB5500 Automatic Low Background Counting System. The alpha activity concentration ranged from 15 to 9634 Bq kg(-1) with a mean value of 1558±121 Bq kg(-1). The beta activity concentration ranged from 142 to 6173 Bq kg(-1) with a mean value of 1112±32 Bq kg(-1). High alpha and beta activity concentrations are from the same soil type. The results of the analysis show a strong correlation between the gross alpha activity concentration and dose rate (R = 0.92). The data obtained can be used as a database for each soil type.

  9. Bioenergetics assessment of fish and crayfish consumption by river otter (Lontra canadensis): integrating prey availability, diet, and field metabolic rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekar, Matthew P.; Magoulick, Daniel D.; Beringer, J.

    2010-01-01

    River otters (Lontra canadensis) are important predators in aquatic ecosystems, but few studies quantify their prey consumption. We trapped crayfish monthly as an index of availability and collected otter scat for diet analysis in the Ozark Mountains of northwestern Arkansas, USA. We measured otter daily energy expenditure (DEE) with the doubly labeled water method to develop a bioenergetics model for estimating monthly prey consumption. Meek's crayfish (Orconectes meeki) catch-per-unit-effort was positively related to stream temperature, indicating that crayfish were more available during warmer months. The percentage frequency of occurrence for crayfish in scat samples peaked at 85.0% in summer and was lowest (42.3%) in winter. In contrast, the percentage occurrence of fish was 13.3% in summer and 57.7% in winter. Estimates of DEE averaged 4738 kJ·day-1 for an otter with a body mass of 7842 g. Total biomass consumption ranged from 35 079 to 52 653 g·month-1 (wet mass), corresponding to a high proportion of fish and crayfish in the diet, respectively. Otter consumption represents a large fraction of prey production, indicating potentially strong effects of otters on trophic dynamics in stream ecosystems.

  10. Vermicomposting of source-separated human faeces by Eisenia fetida: effect of stocking density on feed consumption rate, growth characteristics and vermicompost production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Kunwar D; Tare, Vinod; Ahammed, M Mansoor

    2011-06-01

    The main objective of the present study was to determine the optimum stocking density for feed consumption rate, biomass growth and reproduction of earthworm Eisenia fetida as well as determining and characterising vermicompost quantity and product, respectively, during vermicomposting of source-separated human faeces. For this, a number of experiments spanning up to 3 months were conducted using soil and vermicompost as support materials. Stocking density in the range of 0.25-5.00 kg/m(2) was employed in different tests. The results showed that 0.40-0.45 kg-feed/kg-worm/day was the maximum feed consumption rate by E. fetida in human faeces. The optimum stocking densities were 3.00 kg/m(2) for bioconversion of human faeces to vermicompost, and 0.50 kg/m(2) for earthworm biomass growth and reproduction.

  11. Study on the effect of dry extract of Tribulus terrestris on the forage consumption rate in japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimo PENKOV

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available An investigation of Vemo Herb® additive on the forage consumption rate in Japanese quail (Pharaoh breed has been conducted. The experiment was carried out for 10 weeks with 52 female and 16 male sexually matured Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica distributed in four groups: control group (without additive, first experimental group - 4 mg*kg-1 of live weight for 10 weeks; second experimental group - 10 mg*kg-1 of live weight during the first five weeks of the study (after that the product was no more supplemented and third experimental group - 10 mg*kg-1 of live weight during the whole study period. It was observed, a tendency of decreasing of the forage consumption rate for the whole experimental period (no statistical significance for all the experimental groups compared to the control group, but some of the weekly differences are significant.

  12. CONSUMPTION OF SATURATED ANIMAL FATS IN THE DIET OF HUMANS MAY DECREASE THE RATE OF HEART DISEASE IN THE FUTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Soroush Niknamian; Mehrandokht Nekavand

    2017-01-01

    Fats, as part of the human dietary regime are a concentrated source of energy. Animals contain saturated and plants contain unsaturated type of fatty acids. In this prospective research, the role of animal saturated fatty acids is highlighted and is proven to be a rational dietary source for the human diet. Saturated fats consumption is a wise choice in order to reduce the coronary heart disease risk, although it is believed in an opposite way. Researching through the healthiest tribes and kn...

  13. The study on oxygen consumption rate in juvenile tench (Tinca tinca)%丁(鱼岁)幼鱼耗氧率研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐连伟; 董宏伟; 郭维士

    2012-01-01

    The effects of weight, temperature, salinity, pH, body color and photoperiod on oxygen consumption rate were studied at (20 ±0. 5)℃ in this paper, with juvenile tench Tinea tinea samples of (126. 9~151. 6) g body weight and (21. 7~22. 6) cm body length. The results showed that diurnal rhythm of the consumption was observed in the experiment, the two oxygen consumption peaks occurred at nearly 6;00 and 18;00. The oxygen consumption ( Y ' ) increased with body weight ( W) increasing, while the oxygen consumption rate ( Y) decreased with the body weight increasing, the correlation formulas was Y ' = 0. 6787W0.697(r =0.9995)and Y = 0.6807W-0.3034(r = -0.9983). And the oxygen consumption and the oxygen consumption rate (Y) raised with the increase of water temperature ( T) from 15℃ to 30℃ (the correlation formulas was Y= 0. 106T0.4688, r = 0. 9943 ) and decreased with the increase of pH from 6. 0 to 9. 0. When salinity changed from 0 to 9, the oxygen consumption rate raised in the beginning then decreased. And the oxygen consumption rate was effected by body color and photoperiod significantly ( P <0.05).%研究了体重、水温、盐度、pH、光周期和体色对丁(鱼岁)(Tinca tinca)幼鱼耗氧率的影响.结果表明:在水温(20±0.5)℃下,丁(鱼岁)[体重(126.9151.6)g,体长(21.71 ~22.64) cm]的耗氧率有明显的昼夜节律性,一昼夜出现两个耗氧高峰,分别在6:00和18:00;耗氧率(Y)与体重(W)呈负相关,关系式为:Y=0.6807W-0.3034(r=-0.9983);耗氧量(Y’)与体重呈正相关,关系式为:Y'=0.6787W0.697(r=0.9995).在(15~ 30)℃水温范围内,耗氧率(Y)随着水温(T)的上升而增大,关系式为:Y =0.106T0.4688(r =0.9943).盐度升高(0~9),耗氧率先升高后降低.耗氧率随着pH值(6.0 ~9.0)的升高而降低.体色和光周期对丁(鱼岁)耗氧率有显著的影响(P<0.05).

  14. 新改进的水电厂耗水率考核方法%Improved Assessment Method of Water Consumption Rate for Hydropower Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    涂启玉; 蔡建章

    2013-01-01

    The Water Consumption Rate is a important index of appraisal to the hydropower plant. The general calculation method is very difficult to evaluate electricity generating benefit of the different hydropower plants or the only station during different periods. So, this paper introduces the assessment method of standard water consumption rate and a-doptes new long-term average water consumption rate calculation method based on water power formula to assess the generating capacity of cascade reservoirs, which avoids the drawbacks of conventional metod.%耗水率是考核水电厂发电能力的重要指标,一般计算方法很难评价水电厂之间及同一水电厂不同时段的发电效益,因此引入标准耗水率的考核方法,并基于水能计算公式的梯级长期平均耗水率计算新方法考核整个梯级水电站的发电能力,避免了常规梯级耗水率计算方法的弊端.

  15. Evaluation of gross radioactivity in foodstuffs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zorer, Oezlem Selcuk; Oeter, Cigdem [Yuzuncu Yil Univ., Van (Turkey). Dept. of Chemistry

    2015-05-15

    The paper presents the results of radiological investigations of food products sampled in the summer and fall of 2011 and 2012 in different parts of Van, Turkey. Gross radioactivity measurements in food products were evaluated. Food items were divided into eight groups: (1) water, (2) fish, (3) cheese products, (4) fruits, (5) vegetables, (6) herbs, (7) walnut and (8) rock salt. The levels of the gross alpha and gross beta radioactivity in all food samples varied widely ranging from 0.070 to 10.885 Bq/g and from 0.132 to 48.285 Bq/g on dry mass basis, respectively. In one sample, gross alpha and gross beta activity concentrations were found to be relatively high according to the other samples and in all samples, the gross alpha radioactivity was measured lower than the gross beta radioactivity. The gross α and gross β activities were measured by using α/β counter of the multi-detector low background system (PIC MPC-9604).

  16. Combined climate factors alleviate changes in gross soil nitrogen dynamics in heathlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjorsne, Anna-Karin; Rutting, Tobias; Ambus, Per

    2014-01-01

    of exposure to three climate change factors, i.e. warming, elevated CO2 (eCO(2)) and summer drought, applied both in isolation and in combination. By conducting laboratory N-15 tracing experiments we show that warming increased both gross N mineralization and nitrification rates. In contrast, gross...

  17. Measures of Gross National Happiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruut Veenhoven

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Happiness is rising on the political agenda and this calls for measures of how well nations perform in creating great happiness for a great number, analogous to measures of success in creating wealth, such as GDP. Happiness is defined as subjective enjoyment of one’s life as-a-whole and this can be measured using self-reports. Question on happiness are currently used in large scale surveys of the general population in nations. As a result we have now comparable data on happiness in 144 contemporary nations and time-series of 25 years and longer on 11 developed nations. These data can be aggregated in different ways: If the aim is simply greater happiness for a greater number of citizens, Average happiness (AH is an appropriate measure. If the focus is on enduring happiness, it is better to combine average happiness with longevity in an index of Happy Life Years (HLY. If the aim is to reduce disparity among citizens a relevant indicator is the Inequality of Happiness (IH in the nations as measured with the standard deviation. Average and dispersion can also be combined in an index of Inequality-Adjusted Happiness (IAH. Comparison across nations shows sizable differences on all these measures of gross national happiness and these differences correspond with societal characteristics that can be influenced by policy makers, such as freedom and justice. Comparison over time shows major improvement during the last decade.

  18. 210Po, 210Pb, 40K and 137Cs in edible wild berries and mushrooms and ingestion doses to man from high consumption rates of these wild foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwynn, Justin P; Nalbandyan, Anna; Rudolfsen, Geir

    2013-02-01

    This paper discusses activity concentrations of (210)Po, (210)Pb, (40)K and (137)Cs in edible wild berries and mushrooms collected from Øvre Dividalen national park, Northern Norway and derives committed effective ingestion doses to man based on high consumption rates of these wild foods. Edible wild berries and mushrooms accumulated similar levels of (210)Pb, but mushrooms accumulated higher levels of (210)Po and (40)K than berries. There appears to be a clear difference in the ability of Leccinum spp. of fungi to accumulate (210)Po and/or translocate (210)Po to mushrooms compared to Russula spp. of fungi. Activity concentrations of (137)Cs in edible wild berries and mushrooms from Øvre Dividalen national park reflected the lower levels of fallout of this radionuclide in Northern Norway compared to more central areas following the Chernobyl accident. For mushrooms, ingestion doses are dominated by (210)Po, while for berries, (40)K is typically the main contributor to dose. Based on high consumption rates, ingestion doses arising from the combination of (210)Po, (210)Pb and (40)K were up to 0.05 mSv/a for berries and 0.50 mSv/a for mushrooms. Consumption of such wild foods may result in a significant contribution to total annual doses when consumed in large quantities, particularly when selecting mushrooms species that accumulate high activity concentrations of (210)Po.

  19. Metabolism and Excretion Rates of Parent and Hydroxy-PAHs in Urine Collected after Consumption of Traditionally Smoked Salmon for Native American Volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motorykin, Oleksii; Santiago-Delgado, Lisandra; Rohlman, Diana; Schrlau, Jill E.; Harper, Barbara; Harris, Stuart; Harding, Anna; Kile, Molly L.; Massey Simonich, Staci L.

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have been published on the excretion rates of parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and hydroxy-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OH-PAHs) following oral exposure. This study investigated metabolism and excretion rates of 4 parent PAHs and 10 OH-PAHs after the consumption of smoked salmon. Nine members of the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation consumed 50 g of traditionally smoked salmon with breakfast and five urine samples were collected during the following 24 hours. The concentrations of OH-PAHs increased from 43.9 μg/g creatinine for 2-OH-Nap to 349 ng/g creatinine for 1-OH-Pyr, 3 to 6 hr post-consumption. Despite volunteers following a restricted diet, there appeared to be a secondary source of naphthalene and fluorene, which led to excretion efficiencies greater than 100%. For the parent PAHs that were detected in urine, the excretion efficiencies ranged from 13% for phenanthrene (and its metabolite) to 240% for naphthalene (and its metabolites). The half-lives for PAHs ranged from 1.4 hr for retene to 3.3 hr for pyrene. The half-lives for OH-PAHs were higher and ranged from 1.7 hr for 9-OH-fluorene to 7.0 hr for 3-OH-fluorene. The concentrations of most parent PAHs, and their metabolites, returned to the background levels 24 hr post-consumption. PMID:25659315

  20. Recognition and rating of effecting indexes on consumption of different sites poplar wood production in Iran for paper making industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ebrahim lashkarbolouki

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Considering the growth in population, the need for wood consumption also increases. The rapid progress of science and technology doubles the wood consumption. Supplying this need at a glance was focused on the forests. Forests for many reasons have faced decrease in production and this extreme need for wood, by planting fast growing trees (poplar, eucalypt, Paulownia … makes it possible. One of industries plenty of the wood is paper industry that needs to huge primary wood material. This industry can continue their production activities by using the wood of poplar. This research was found out with the aim of assessing the practical characteristics of poplar wood by nondestructive test method in paper production industry. Poplar sites were selected in areas of country that poplar trees were planted widely. For locating the production of different site in paper industry found out Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP in Expert choice 11 software. For field studies of this research, the questionnaires were prepared and sent for expert and university professors with special expertise in this industry. The results showed that: Production of Pulp and paper industry: in this industry among of five main indexes influencing in pulp and paper production, fiber morphology trait recognized as first priority with weighting value (0.435. Production allocations with their weighting value are determined: Sari (0.240, Fouman (0.236, Lashtnasha (0.182, Abhar (0.174 and Zanjan (0.168, respectively.

  1. Evaluation of the contributions of four components of gross domestic product in various regions in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanmang Wu

    Full Text Available Four major components influence the growth of the gross domestic product in Chinese provinces: consumption, investment, transnational exports, and inter-provincial exports. By splitting a competitive input-output table into a non-competitive input-output table, this study used an input-output model to measure the contributions of the four components of gross domestic product in various regions in China. We found that international exports drove the growth of the gross domestic product more strongly in the eastern region than in other regions. Investment and inter-provincial exports were the major impetus for gross domestic product growth in the central and western regions. We also found that consumption played a minimal role in driving the growth of the gross domestic product in all regions in China. According to these findings, although various regions can share much in terms of policies to transform the impetus for economic growth, there should be different foci for different regions. Their shared policy is to increase the role of final consumption in stimulating economic growth. Region-specific policies mandate that the eastern region should strengthen the driving force provided by international exports and that the central and western regions should strengthen indigenous growth capabilities by improving scientific innovation, industrial support, and institutional innovation.

  2. The Mechanics of Gross Moist Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeljka Fuchs

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The gross moist stability relates the net lateral outflow of moist entropy or moist static energy from an atmospheric convective region to some measure of the strength of the convection in that region. If the gross moist stability can be predicted as a function of the local environmental conditions, then it becomes the key element in understanding how convection is controlled by the large-scale flow. This paper provides a guide to the various ways in which the gross moist stability is defined and the subtleties of its calculation from observations and models. Various theories for the determination of the gross moist stability are presented and its roles in current conceptual models for the tropical atmospheric circulation are analyzed. The possible effect of negative gross moist stability on the development and dynamics of tropical disturbances is currently of great interest.

  3. Analysis of Wartime Consumption Rates for Chemical Defensive Equipment. Volume 2. Appendices A, B, and C, Documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-05-01

    or PX attack. REFERENCES: FM 21-40 TM 3-6665-205-1011-1012 CPr Klewin and CPT Levy, C&S Div, DCD, USACMLS, Mar 84 COAC 3-83, 29 Feb 84 CTA -50-970 B...equals 12 hours CONSUMPTION: MONTHfl JAN 1 FEB 1 MAR 2 APR 2 MAY 3 JUN 5 JUL. 5 AUG 5 SEP 4 ocT 3 NOV 1 DEC 1 The # of missions is based upon the chart...M2 Bradley (aN J81750), M247 Sgt York (G96572) ASSUMPTIONS: 1. 20.000 maximum Cr for GB attacks 2. 20,000 CT per GB attack 3. CK will cause greater

  4. Ambulatory 24-hour cardiac oxygen consumption and blood pressure-heart rate variability: effects of nebivolol and valsartan alone and in combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izzo, Joseph L; Khan, Safi U; Saleem, Osman; Osmond, Peter J

    2015-07-01

    We compared an angiotensin receptor blocker (valsartan; VAL), a beta-blocker (nebivolol; NEB) and the combination of NEB/VAL with respect to 24-hour myocardial oxygen consumption (determined by 24-hour ambulatory heart rate-central systolic pressure product [ACRPP]) and its components. Subjects with hypertension (systolic blood pressure >140 or diastolic blood pressure >90; n = 26) were studied in a double-blinded, double-dummy, forced-titration, crossover design with 3 random-order experimental periods: VAL 320 mg, NEB 40 mg, and NEB/VAL 320/40 mg daily. After 4 weeks of each drug, ambulatory pulse wave analysis (MobilOGraph) was performed every 20 minutes for 24 hours. All three treatments resulted in nearly identical brachial and central systolic blood pressures. NEB alone or in combination with VAL resulted in lower ACRPP (by 11%-14%; P heart rate (by 18%-20%; P heart rate were also lower with NEB and NEB/VAL than VAL. Results in African Americans, the majority subpopulation, were similar to those of the entire treatment group. We conclude that the rate-slowing effects of NEB cause ambulatory cardiac myocardial oxygen consumption to be lower with NEB monotherapy or NEB/VAL combination therapy than with VAL monotherapy. NEB/VAL is not superior to NEB alone in controlling heart rate, blood pressure, or ACRPP. Heart rate variability but not ACRPP variability is reduced by NEB or the combination NEB/VAL. There is no attenuation of beta-blocker-induced rate-slowing effects of in African Americans. Copyright © 2015 American Society of Hypertension. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Betting on rising electricity rates with solar power systems. The amended direct consumption regulation; Mit Solaranlagen auf steigende Strompreise wetten. Die erweiterte Direktverbrauchsregelung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellershoff, Jan-Kristof [Gleiss Lutz Rechtsanwaelte, Muenchen (Germany); Obst, Michael [Gleiss Lutz Rechtsanwaelte, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    When the German government decided to cut down funds for photovoltaic power systems in June 2010, many were unaware of the fact that the amended EEG (Renewables Act) also affected the so-called direct consumption regulation according to Section 33 No. 2 EEG. This regulation offers chances for good profits to owners of photovoltaic power systems in case of increasing electricity rates, at limited risk. It is also a model of better integration of renewable energy sources in the existing markets and systems as set down by the German government in its energy concept of 28 September 2010.

  6. The effects of interval- vs. continuous exercise on excess post-exercise oxygen consumption and substrate oxidation rates in subjects with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karstoft, Kristian; Wallis, Gareth A; Pedersen, Bente K; Solomon, Thomas P J

    2016-09-01

    For unknown reasons, interval training often reduces body weight more than energy-expenditure matched continuous training. We compared the acute effects of time-duration and oxygen-consumption matched interval- vs. continuous exercise on excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC), substrate oxidation rates and lipid metabolism in the hours following exercise in subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Following an overnight fast, ten T2D subjects (M/F: 7/3; age=60.3±2.3years; body mass index (BMI)=28.3±1.1kg/m(2)) completed three 60-min interventions in a counterbalanced, randomized order: 1) control (CON), 2) continuous walking (CW), 3) interval-walking (IW - repeated cycles of 3min of fast and 3min of slow walking). Indirect calorimetry was applied during each intervention and repeatedly for 30min per hour during the following 5h. A liquid mixed meal tolerance test (MMTT, 450kcal) was consumed by the subjects 45min after completion of the intervention with blood samples taken regularly. Exercise interventions were successfully matched for total oxygen consumption (CW=1641±133mL/min; IW=1634±126mL/min, P>0.05). EPOC was higher after IW (8.4±1.3l) compared to CW (3.7±1.4l, PEPOC than oxygen-consumption matched continuous exercise during a post-exercise MMTT in subjects with T2D, whereas effects on substrate oxidation and lipid metabolism are comparable. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Metabolic Profiling Reveals Differences in Plasma Concentrations of Arabinose and Xylose after Consumption of Fiber-Rich Pasta and Wheat Bread with Differential Rates of Systemic Appearance of Exogenous Glucose in Healthy Men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pantophlet, Andre J.; Wopereis, Suzan; Eelderink, Coby; Vonk, Roel J.; Stroeve, Johanna H.; Bijlsma, Sabina; van Stee, Leo; Bobeldijk, Ivana; Priebes, Marion G.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The consumption of products rich in cereal fiber and with a low glycemic index is implicated in a lower risk of metabolic diseases. Previously, we showed that the consumption of fiber-rich pasta compared with bread resulted in a lower rate of appearance of exogenous glucose and a lower

  8. On Sum Rate and Power Consumption of Multi-User Distributed Antenna System with Circular Antenna Layout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gan Jiansong

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the uplink of a power-controlled multi-user distributed antenna system (DAS with antennas deployed on a circle. Applying results from random matrix theory, we prove that for such a DAS, the per-user sum rate and the total transmit power both converge as user number and antenna number go to infinity with a constant ratio. The relationship between the asymptotic per-user sum rate and the asymptotic total transmit power is revealed for all possible values of the radius of the circle on which antennas are placed. We then use this rate-power relationship to find the optimal radius. With this optimal radius, the circular layout DAS (CL-DAS is proved to offer a significant gain compared with a traditional colocated antenna system (CAS. Simulation results are provided, which demonstrate the validity of our analysis.

  9. On Sum Rate and Power Consumption of Multi-User Distributed Antenna System with Circular Antenna Layout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiansong Gan

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the uplink of a power-controlled multi-user distributed antenna system (DAS with antennas deployed on a circle. Applying results from random matrix theory, we prove that for such a DAS, the per-user sum rate and the total transmit power both converge as user number and antenna number go to infinity with a constant ratio. The relationship between the asymptotic per-user sum rate and the asymptotic total transmit power is revealed for all possible values of the radius of the circle on which antennas are placed. We then use this rate-power relationship to find the optimal radius. With this optimal radius, the circular layout DAS (CL-DAS is proved to offer a significant gain compared with a traditional colocated antenna system (CAS. Simulation results are provided, which demonstrate the validity of our analysis.

  10. Modeling the Oxygen Consumption Rates in Pacific Salmon and Steelhead: An Assessment of Current Models and Practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trudel, Marc; Geist, David R.; Welch, David W.

    2004-03-01

    Bioenergetic models of fish have been used to study a large number of processes. Like most models, bioenergetic models require the estimation of numerous parameters. As a consequence, they have often relied on parameters borrowed from other species or values extrapolated from other life stages or size-classes. The magnitude of the biases associated with these practices remains largely unknown. The objective of this study was to determine whether or not metabolic rates could be extrapolated between closely related species and life stages. We focused on Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. and steelhead O. mykiss, as the metabolic rates of these species have been well documented. Our analyses showed that models derived from closely related species did not accurately predict the metabolic rates of salmon, indicating that the practice of "species borrowing" should be avoided in assessing fish metabolic rates. Our work also showed that allometric equations of metabolic rates were not stable when measured over small size ranges and that biases could be introduced when these models are extrapolated to smaller or larger fish. In addition, we found that, except for steelhead, published models of Pacific salmon metabolic rate were inaccurate. Mean bias ranged from close to 0% to over 200% depending on size and water temperature, with about two-thirds of the bias values exceeding 20%. These biases could have large impacts on bioenergetic model predictions. Increased funding and scientific recognition of the need for additional basic research will be necessary to build more accurate bioenergetic models for Pacific salmon, especially models applied to the ocean phase of the life cycle.

  11. The future of gross anatomy teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malamed, S; Seiden, D

    1995-01-01

    A survey of U.S. departments of anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry shows that 39% of the respondent anatomy departments reported declines in the numbers of graduate students taking the human gross anatomy course. Similarly, 42% of the departments reported decreases in the numbers of graduate students teaching human gross anatomy. These decreases were greater in anatomy than in physiology and in biochemistry. The percentages of departments reporting increases in students taking or teaching their courses was 6% for human gross anatomy and 0% to 19% for physiology and biochemistry courses. To reverse this trend the establishment of specific programs for the training of gross anatomy teachers is advocated. These new teachers will be available as the need for them is increasingly recognized in the future.

  12. FUZZY ECCENTRICITY AND GROSS ERROR IDENTIFICATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The dominant and recessive effect made by exceptional interferer is analyzed in measurement system based on responsive character, and the gross error model of fuzzy clustering based on fuzzy relation and fuzzy equipollence relation is built. The concept and calculate formula of fuzzy eccentricity are defined to deduce the evaluation rule and function of gross error, on the base of them, a fuzzy clustering method of separating and discriminating the gross error is found. Utilized in the dynamic circular division measurement system, the method can identify and eliminate gross error in measured data, and reduce measured data dispersity. Experimental results indicate that the use of the method and model enables repetitive precision of the system to improve 80% higher than the foregoing system, to reach 3.5 s, and angle measurement error is less than 7 s.

  13. Validating the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Downs, Jenny; Stahlhut, Michelle; Wong, Kingsley;

    2016-01-01

    Rett syndrome is a pervasive neurodevelopmental disorder associated with a pathogenic mutation on the MECP2 gene. Impaired movement is a fundamental component and the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale was developed to measure gross motor abilities in this population. The current study investigated...... the validity and reliability of the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale. Video data showing gross motor abilities supplemented with parent report data was collected for 255 girls and women registered with the Australian Rett Syndrome Database, and the factor structure and relationships between motor scores, age...... and genotype were investigated. Clinical assessment scores for 38 girls and women with Rett syndrome who attended the Danish Center for Rett Syndrome were used to assess consistency of measurement. Principal components analysis enabled the calculation of three factor scores: Sitting, Standing and Walking...

  14. Kefir consumption does not alter plasma lipid levels or cholesterol fractional synthesis rates relative to milk in hyperlipidemic men: a randomized controlled trial [ISRCTN10820810

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mafu Akier

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fermented milk products have been shown to affect serum cholesterol concentrations in humans. Kefir, a fermented milk product, has been traditionally consumed for its potential health benefits but has to date not been studied for its hypocholesterolemic properties. Methods Thirteen healthy mildly hypercholesterolemic male subjects consumed a dairy supplement in randomized crossover trial for 2 periods of 4 wk each. Subjects were blinded to the dairy supplement consumed. Blood samples were collected at baseline and after 4 wk of supplementation for measurement of plasma total, low-density lipoprotein, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations, as well as fatty acid profile and cholesterol synthesis rate. Fecal samples were collected at baseline and after 2 and 4 wk of supplementation for determination of fecal short chain fatty acid level and bacterial content. Results Kefir had no effect on total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol or triglyceride concentrations nor on cholesterol fractional synthesis rates after 4 wk of supplementation. No significant change on plasma fatty acid levels was observed with diet. However, both kefir and milk increased (p Conclusions Since kefir consumption did not result in lowered plasma lipid concentrations, the results of this study do not support consumption of kefir as a cholesterol-lowering agent.

  15. Kefir consumption does not alter plasma lipid levels or cholesterol fractional synthesis rates relative to milk in hyperlipidemic men: a randomized controlled trial [ISRCTN10820810

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Onge, Marie-Pierre; Farnworth, Edward R; Savard, Tony; Chabot, Denise; Mafu, Akier; Jones, Peter JH

    2002-01-01

    Background Fermented milk products have been shown to affect serum cholesterol concentrations in humans. Kefir, a fermented milk product, has been traditionally consumed for its potential health benefits but has to date not been studied for its hypocholesterolemic properties. Methods Thirteen healthy mildly hypercholesterolemic male subjects consumed a dairy supplement in randomized crossover trial for 2 periods of 4 wk each. Subjects were blinded to the dairy supplement consumed. Blood samples were collected at baseline and after 4 wk of supplementation for measurement of plasma total, low-density lipoprotein, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations, as well as fatty acid profile and cholesterol synthesis rate. Fecal samples were collected at baseline and after 2 and 4 wk of supplementation for determination of fecal short chain fatty acid level and bacterial content. Results Kefir had no effect on total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol or triglyceride concentrations nor on cholesterol fractional synthesis rates after 4 wk of supplementation. No significant change on plasma fatty acid levels was observed with diet. However, both kefir and milk increased (p Kefir supplementation resulted in increased fecal bacterial content in the majority of the subjects. Conclusions Since kefir consumption did not result in lowered plasma lipid concentrations, the results of this study do not support consumption of kefir as a cholesterol-lowering agent. PMID:11825344

  16. Determination of relative CMRO2 from CBF and BOLD changes: significant increase of oxygen consumption rate during visual stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, S.G.; Rostrup, Egill; Larsson, H.B.;

    1999-01-01

    The blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) effect in functional magnetic resonance imaging depends on at least partial uncoupling between cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) changes. By measuring CBF and BOLD simultaneously, the relative change in CMRO2 can b...

  17. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia presenting with gross hematuria

    OpenAIRE

    Kalbani, Naifain Al; Weitzman, Sheila; Abdelhaleem, Mohamed; Carcao, Manuel; Abla, Oussama

    2007-01-01

    A case of a six-year-old boy presenting with gross hematuria is reported. Investigations revealed the etiology of the hematuria to be thrombocytopenia in the setting of newly diagnosed acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The diagnosis of leukemia was confirmed by bone marrow examination. The patient’s hematuria completely resolved with platelet transfusions. Although thrombocytopenia is a very common presenting feature of acute lymphoblastic leukemia, gross hematuria is exceedingly rare. Thus, thro...

  18. Rates of consumption of atmospheric CO2 through the weathering of loess during the next 100 yr of climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Pollard

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Quantifying how C fluxes will change in the future is a complex task for models because of the coupling between climate, hydrology, and biogeochemical reactions. Here we investigate how pedogenesis of the Peoria loess, which has been weathering for the last 13 kyr, will respond over the next 100 yr of climate change. Using a cascade of numerical models for climate (ARPEGE, vegetation (CARAIB and weathering (WITCH we explore the effect of an increase in CO2 of 315 ppmv (1950 to 700 ppmv (2100 projection. The increasing CO2 results in an increase in temperature along the entire transect. In contrast, drainage increases slightly for a focus pedon in the South but decreases strongly in the North. These two variables largely determine the behavior of weathering. In addition, although CO2 production rate increases in the soils in response to global warming, the rate of diffusion back to the atmosphere also increases, maintaining a roughly constant or even decreasing CO2 concentration in the soil gas phase. Our simulations predict that temperature increasing in the next 100 yr causes the weathering rates of the silicates to increase into the future. In contrast, the weathering rate of dolomite – which consumes most of the CO2-decreases due to its retrograde solubility in both end members (South and North of the transect. We thus infer slower rates of advance of the dolomite reaction front into the subsurface, and faster rates of advance of the silicate reaction front. However, additional simulations for 9 pedons located along the North–South transect show that dolomite weathering will increase in the central part of the Mississippi Valley, owing to a maximum in the response of vertical drainage to the ongoing climate change. The carbonate reaction front can be likened to a terrestrial lysocline because it represents a depth interval over which carbonate dissolution rates increase drastically. However, in contrast to the lower pH and shallower

  19. Validating the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Jenny; Stahlhut, Michelle; Wong, Kingsley; Syhler, Birgit; Bisgaard, Anne-Marie; Jacoby, Peter; Leonard, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Rett syndrome is a pervasive neurodevelopmental disorder associated with a pathogenic mutation on the MECP2 gene. Impaired movement is a fundamental component and the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale was developed to measure gross motor abilities in this population. The current study investigated the validity and reliability of the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale. Video data showing gross motor abilities supplemented with parent report data was collected for 255 girls and women registered with the Australian Rett Syndrome Database, and the factor structure and relationships between motor scores, age and genotype were investigated. Clinical assessment scores for 38 girls and women with Rett syndrome who attended the Danish Center for Rett Syndrome were used to assess consistency of measurement. Principal components analysis enabled the calculation of three factor scores: Sitting, Standing and Walking, and Challenge. Motor scores were poorer with increasing age and those with the p.Arg133Cys, p.Arg294* or p.Arg306Cys mutation achieved higher scores than those with a large deletion. The repeatability of clinical assessment was excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient for total score 0.99, 95% CI 0.93-0.98). The standard error of measurement for the total score was 2 points and we would be 95% confident that a change 4 points in the 45-point scale would be greater than within-subject measurement error. The Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale could be an appropriate measure of gross motor skills in clinical practice and clinical trials.

  20. Determination of relative CMRO2 from CBF and BOLD changes: significant increase of oxygen consumption rate during visual stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, S.G.; Rostrup, Egill; Larsson, H.B.

    1999-01-01

    be estimated during neural activity using a reference condition obtained with known CMRO2 change. In this work, nine subjects were studied at a magnetic field of 1.5 T; each subject underwent inhalation of a 5% carbon dioxide gas mixture as a reference and two visual stimulation studies. Relative CBF and BOLD......The blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) effect in functional magnetic resonance imaging depends on at least partial uncoupling between cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) changes. By measuring CBF and BOLD simultaneously, the relative change in CMRO2 can...

  1. Maximal oxygen consumption increases with temperature in the European eel (Anguilla anguilla) through increased heart rate and arteriovenous extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claësson, Débora; Wang, Tobias; Malte, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Global warming results in increasing water temperature, which may represent a threat to aquatic ectotherms. The rising temperature affects ecology through physiology, by exerting a direct limiting effect on the individual. The mechanism controlling individual thermal tolerance is still elusive, but some evidence shows that the heart plays a central role, and that insufficient transport of oxygen to the respiring tissues may determine the thermal tolerance of animals. In this study, the influence of the heart in thermal limitation was investigated by measurements of aerobic scope in the European eel (Anguilla anguilla) together with measurements of cardiac output during rest and activity. Aerobic capacity was not limited by an acutely increased temperature in the European eel. Oxygen demand was met by an increase in heart rate and arteriovenous extraction. These findings suggest that thermal tolerance during exposure to acute temperature changes is not defined by oxygen transport capacity in the eel, and other mechanisms may play a central role in limiting thermal tolerance in these fish.

  2. Oxygen consumption and heart rate responses during and after constant load and alternating intensity exercise at 105% of lactate threshold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanoudaki, S; Karatzanos, E; Baltopoulos, P; Maridaki, M

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was a secondary-analysis of previously published data, in order to compare the acute VO2 responses, the time spent at high percentage of VO2max and total VO2 consumed (TVO2) between constant and alternating intensity exercise of the same intensity and duration. This study also aimed to examine VO2 and heart rate (HR) responses one hour after both exercises. Ten recreationally trained men (24.7±4.7 years) completed the following two exercise tests lasting an hour each and having the same mean intensity at 105% of lactate threshold (70% VO2max): 1) constant load cycling (CON), and 2) alternating intensity exercise (ALT), during which 40 seconds of light exercise (47% VO2max) were alternated with 20 seconds of supramaximal intensity at 120% of VO2max. TVO2 (69.89±7.02 vs. 58.22±9.13 mL/kg/min, P=0.03) and HR (142±16, 128±12, P=0.04) was higher in CON exercise compared to ALT. All participants reached 70% and 80% of VO2max irrespective of the exercise protocol. In ALT exercise the time spent at 90% was higher compared to CON exercise (70.81±21.37 vs. 36.88±11.88 seconds). Also, TVO2 recovery values after ALT exercise was higher compared to CON (11.1 ±2.93 vs. 9.94±3.54 mL/kg/min). ALT exercise allowed participants to spend longer time at 90% of VO2max, even if TVO2 in CON exercise was higher, suggesting that in ALT exercise greater aerobic stress (as based on exercise intensity) is imposed on the athletes. While VO2 recovery values were higher in ALT compared to CON, indicating different substrate utilization during and after exercise.

  3. Mass-balance modeling of mineral weathering rates and CO2 consumption in the forested, metabasaltic Hauver Branch watershed, Catoctin Mountain, Maryland, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Karen; Price, Jason R.; Szymanski, David W.

    2013-01-01

    Mineral weathering rates and a forest macronutrient uptake stoichiometry were determined for the forested, metabasaltic Hauver Branch watershed in north-central Maryland, USA. Previous studies of Hauver Branch have had an insufficient number of analytes to permit determination of rates of all the minerals involved in chemical weathering, including biomass. More equations in the mass-balance matrix were added using existing mineralogic information. The stoichiometry of a deciduous biomass term was determined using multi-year weekly to biweekly stream-water chemistry for a nearby watershed, which drains relatively unreactive quartzite bedrock.At Hauver Branch, calcite hosts ~38 mol% of the calcium ion (Ca2+) contained in weathering minerals, but its weathering provides ~90% of the stream water Ca2+. This occurs in a landscape with a regolith residence time of more than several Ka (kiloannum). Previous studies indicate that such old regolith does not typically contain dissolving calcite that affects stream Ca2+/Na+ ratios. The relatively high calcite dissolution rate likely reflects dissolution of calcite in fractures of the deep critical zone.Of the carbon dioxide (CO2) consumed by mineral weathering, calcite is responsible for approximately 27%, with the silicate weathering consumption rate far exceeding that of the global average. The chemical weathering of mafic terrains in decaying orogens thus may be capable of influencing global geochemical cycles, and therefore, climate, on geological timescales. Based on carbon-balance calculations, atmospheric-derived sulfuric acid is responsible for approximately 22% of the mineral weathering occurring in the watershed. Our results suggest that rising air temperatures, driven by global warming and resulting in higher precipitation, will cause the rate of chemical weathering in the Hauver Branch watershed to increase until a threshold temperature is reached. Beyond the threshold temperature, increased recharge would

  4. Concurrent Validity of Preschooler Gross Motor Quality Scale with Test of Gross Motor Development-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shih-Heng; Sun, Hsiao-Ling; Zhu, Yi-Ching; Huang, Li-chi; Hsieh, Yueh-Ling

    2011-01-01

    Preschooler Gross Motor Quality Scale (PGMQ) was recently developed to evaluate motor skill quality of preschoolers. The purpose of this study was to establish the concurrent validity of PGMQ using Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (TGMD-2) as the gold standard. One hundred and thirty five preschool children aged from three to six years were…

  5. Antibiotic stewardship ward rounds and a dedicated prescription chart reduce antibiotic consumption and pharmacy costs without affecting inpatient mortality or re-admission rates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom H Boyles

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Antibiotic consumption is a major driver of bacterial resistance. To address the increasing burden of multi-drug resistant bacterial infections, antibiotic stewardship programmes are promoted worldwide to rationalize antibiotic prescribing and conserve remaining antibiotics. Few studies have been reported from developing countries and none from Africa that report on an intervention based approach with outcomes that include morbidity and mortality. METHODS: An antibiotic prescription chart and weekly antibiotic stewardship ward round was introduced into two medical wards of an academic teaching hospital in South Africa between January-December 2012. Electronic pharmacy records were used to collect the volume and cost of antibiotics used, the patient database was analysed to determine inpatient mortality and 30-day re-admission rates, and laboratory records to determine use of infection-related tests. Outcomes were compared to a control period, January-December 2011. RESULTS: During the intervention period, 475.8 defined daily doses were prescribed per 1000 inpatient days compared to 592.0 defined daily doses/1000 inpatient days during the control period. This represents a 19.6% decrease in volume with a cost reduction of 35% of the pharmacy's antibiotic budget. There was a concomitant increase in laboratory tests driven by requests for procalcitonin. There was no difference in inpatient mortality or 30-day readmission rate during the control and intervention periods. CONCLUSIONS: Introduction of antibiotic stewardship ward rounds and a dedicated prescription chart in a developing country setting can achieve reduction in antibiotic consumption without harm to patients. Increased laboratory costs should be anticipated when introducing an antibiotic stewardship program.

  6. BOREAS HYD-8 Gross Precipitation Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Richard; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Knapp, David E. (Editor); Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Hydrology (HYD)-08 team made measurements of surface hydrological processes at the Southern Study Area-Old Black Spruce (SSA-OBS) Tower Flux site to support its research into point hydrological processes and the spatial variation of these processes. Data collected may be useful in characterizing canopy interception, drip, throughfall, moss interception, drainage, evaporation, and capacity during the growing season at daily temporal resolution. This particular data set contains the gross precipitation measurements for July to August 1996. Gross precipitation is the precipitation that falls that is not intercepted by tree canopies. These data are stored in ASCII text files. The HYD-08 gross precipitation data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  7. The Online Morphology Control and Dynamic Studies on Improving Vitamin B12 Production by Pseudomonas denitrificans with Online Capacitance and Specific Oxygen Consumption Rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ze-Jian; Shi, Hui-Lin; Wang, Ping

    2016-07-01

    The relationship between the morphological character of Pseudomonas denitrificans and vitamin B12 synthesis based on real-time capacitance measurement and online specific oxygen consumption rate (Q O2) control was established for enhancing vitamin B12 production. Results demonstrated that the threshold Q O2 value lower than 2.0 mmol/gDCW/l would greatly stimulate the state transfer from the cell number growth phase to the cell elongation phase and promote rapid vitamin B12 biosynthesis, while the vitamin B12 biosynthesis rate could also be inhibited when the rate of cell's length-to-width ratio (ratio-LW) was higher than 10:1. Furthermore, the optimal morphology controlling strategy was achieved based on online Q O2 control, which increases the appropriate active cell numbers at the former phase, and then control the elongation of ratio-LW no more than 10:1 at the vitamin B12 biosynthesis phase. The maximal vitamin B12 production reached 239.7 mg/l at 168 h, which was improved by 14.7 % compared with the control (208 mg/l). This online controlling strategy would be effectively applied for improving industrial vitamin B12 fermentation.

  8. An ecological study of cancer mortality rates in the United States with respect to solar ultraviolet-B doses, smoking, alcohol consumption and urban/rural residence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, William B

    2010-04-01

    The Cohort Consortium Vitamin D Polling Project of Rarer Cancers (VDPP ) study failed to find a beneficial role of prediagnostic serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels on risk of seven types of rarer cancer: endometrial, esophageal, gastric, kidney, ovarian and pancreatic cancer and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). However, ecological studies and studies of oral vitamin D intake have generally found solar ultraviolet B (UVB) and oral vitamin D inversely correlated with incidence and/or mortality rates of these cancers. To explore the discrepancy, I conducted an ecological study of cancer mortality rates for white Americans in the United States for 1950-1994 with data for 503 state economic areas in multiple linear regression analyses with respect to UVB for July, lung cancer, alcohol consumption and urban/rural residence. UVB was significantly inversely correlated with six types of cancer (not pancreatic cancer) in both periods. However, the adjusted R(2) values were much lower for cancers with lower mortality rates than those in an earlier ecological study that used state-averaged data. This finding suggests that the VDPP study may have had too few cases. Thus, the VDPP study should not be considered as providing strong evidence against the solar UVB-vitamin D-cancer hypothesis.

  9. Stimulation of gross dimethylsulfide (DMS) production by solar radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galí, Martí; Saló, Violeta; Almeda, Rodrigo; Calbet, Albert; Simó, Rafel

    2011-08-01

    Oceanic gross DMS production (GP) exerts a fundamental control on the concentration and the sea-air flux of this climatically-active trace gas. However, it is a poorly constrained process, owing to the complexity of the microbial food web processes involved and their interplay with physical forcing, particularly with solar radiation. The “inhibitor method”, using dimethyldisulfide (DMDS) or other compounds to inhibit bacterial DMS consumption, has been frequently used to determine GP in dark incubations. In the work presented here, DMDS addition was optimized for its use in light incubations. By comparing simultaneous dark and light measurements of GP in meso- to ultraoligotrophic waters, we found a significant enhancement of GP in natural sunlight in 7 out of 10 experiments. Such stimulation, which was generally between 30 and 80% on a daily basis, occurred throughout contrasting microbial communities and oceanographic settings.

  10. Scenarios Analysis of the Energies’ Consumption and Carbon Emissions in China Based on a Dynamic CGE Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanying Chi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the development trends and variation characteristics of China’s economy, energy consumption and carbon emissions from 2007 to 2030, and the impacts on China’s economic growth, energy consumption, and carbon emissions under the carbon tax policy scenarios, based on the dynamic computable general equilibrium (CGE model. The results show that during the simulation period, China’s economy will keep a relatively high growth rate, but the growth rate will slow down under the benchmark scenario. The energy consumption intensity and the carbon emissions intensity per unit of Gross Domestic Product (GDP will continually decrease. The energy consumption structure and industrial structure will gradually optimize. With the economic growth, the total energy consumption will constantly increase, and the carbon dioxide emissions are still large, and the situation of energy-saving and emission-reduction is still serious. The carbon tax is very important for energy-saving and emission-reduction and energy consumption structure optimization, and the effect of the carbon tax on GDP is small. If the carbon tax could be levied and the enterprise income tax could be reduced at the same time, the dual goals of reducing energy consumption and carbon emissions and increasing the GDP growth can be achieved. Improving the technical progress level of clean power while implementing a carbon tax policy is very meaningful to optimize energy consumption structure and reduce the carbon emissions, but it has some offsetting effect to reduce energy consumption.

  11. Multiregional estimation of gross internal migration flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot, D K; Milne, W J

    1989-01-01

    "A multiregional model of gross internal migration flows is presented in this article. The interdependence of economic factors across all regions is recognized by imposing a non-stochastic adding-up constraint that requires total inmigration to equal total outmigration in each time period. An iterated system estimation technique is used to obtain asymptotically consistent and efficient parameter estimates. The model is estimated for gross migration flows among the Canadian provinces over the period 1962-86 and then is used to examine the likelihood of a wash-out effect in net migration models. The results indicate that previous approaches that use net migration equations may not always be empirically justified."

  12. The Gross conjecture over rational function fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OUYANG; Yi

    2005-01-01

    We study the Gross conjecture for the cyclotomic function field extension k(∧f)/k where k = Fq(t) is the rational function field and f is a monic polynomial in Fq[t].We prove the conjecture in the Fermat curve case(i.e., when f = t(t - 1)) by a direct calculation. We also prove the case when f is irreducible, which is analogous to the Weil reciprocity law. In the general case, we manage to show the weak version of the Gross conjecture here.

  13. Assembling consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assembling Consumption marks a definitive step in the institutionalisation of qualitative business research. By gathering leading scholars and educators who study markets, marketing and consumption through the lenses of philosophy, sociology and anthropology, this book clarifies and applies...... societies. This is an essential reading for both seasoned scholars and advanced students of markets, economies and social forms of consumption....

  14. Gross efficiency and energy expenditure in kayak ergometer exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, B B; Mourão, L; Massart, A; Figueiredo, P; Vilas-Boas, J P; Santos, A M C; Fernandes, R J

    2012-08-01

    We purposed to study energy expenditure, power output and gross efficiency during kayak ergometer exercise in 12 elite sprint kayakers. 6 males (age 24.2±4.8 years, height 180.4±4.8 cm, body mass 79.7±8.5 kg) and 6 females (age 24.3±4.5 years, height 164.5±3.9 cm, body mass 65.4±3.5 kg), performed an incremental intermittent protocol on kayak ergometer with VO2 and blood lactate concentration assessment, a non-linear increase between power output and energy expenditure being observed. Paddling power output, energy expenditure and gross efficiency corresponding to VO2max averaged 199.92±50.41 W, 75.27±6.30 ml.kg - 1.min - 1, and 10.10±1.08%. Male kayakers presented higher VO2max, power output and gross efficiency at the VO2max, and lower heart rate and maximal lactate concentration than females, but no differences were found between genders regarding energy expenditure at VO2max. Aerobic and anaerobic components of energy expenditure evidenced a significant contribution of anaerobic energy sources in sprint kayak performance. Results also suggested the dependence of the gross efficiency on the changes in the amount of the aerobic and anaerobic contributions, at heavy and severe intensities. The inter-individual variance of the relationship between energy expenditure and the corresponding paddling power output revealed a relevant tracking for females (FDγ=0.73±0.06), conversely to the male group (FDγ=0.27±0.08), supporting that some male kayakers are more skilled in some paddling intensities than others.

  15. Gross Revenue risk in Swiss dairy farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benni, El N.; Finger, R.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated how agricultural policy reforms, including market liberalization and market deregulation, have influenced gross revenue risk of Swiss dairy producers using farm-level panel data between 1990 and 2009. Based on detrended data, variance decomposition was applied to assess how o

  16. Gross Revenue risk in Swiss dairy farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benni, El N.; Finger, R.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated how agricultural policy reforms, including market liberalization and market deregulation, have influenced gross revenue risk of Swiss dairy producers using farm-level panel data between 1990 and 2009. Based on detrended data, variance decomposition was applied to assess how

  17. Tariff design for communication-capable metering systems in conjunction with time-variant electricity consumption rates; Gestaltung von Tarifen fuer kommunikationsfaehige Messsysteme im Verbund mit zeitvariablen Stromtarifen. Eine empirische Analyse von Praeferenzen privater Stromkunden in Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerpott, Torsten J.; Paukert, Mathias [Duisburg-Essen Univ., Duisburg (Germany). Lehrstuhl Unternehmens- und Technologieplanung, Schwerpunkt Telekommunikationswirtschaft

    2013-06-15

    In Germany too, communication-capable electricity metering systems (CMS) together with time-based differentiation of kWh-rates for energy consumption are increasingly proliferated among household customers. Nevertheless, empirical evidence with respect to preferences of members of this customer group for the design of CMS tariff elements and of time-variant electricity consumption rates is still scarce. The present study captures such preferences by means of conjoint analysis of data obtained in an online survey of 754 German-speaking adults. Examined CMS tariff elements are a one-off installation fee and monthly recurring use charges. The studied characteristics of time-based rates are the number of time/tariff blocks, the maximum spread between kWh-rates for different time windows and the adaptability/predictability of kWh-rates. Most respondents judged multidimensional CMS and electricity consumption tariff offerings mainly in light of the CMS tariff characteristics. The vast majority of the participants perceived kWh-rates, which may change with a minimum lead time of one day as reducing the benefit of CMS and consumption tariff bundles. Tariff preferences on the one hand were only rarely significantly related to customers' socio-demographic and electricity procurement characteristics as well as their CMS-related expectations/assessments on the other. The willingness to accept CMS-related one-off installation and recurring service charges as well as the propensity to opt for time-dependent electricity consumption tariff variants differing clearly from non-differentiated electricity price schemes appear to be positively affected by customers' practical application experience with CMS and time-variant electricity consumption rates. Conclusions are drawn for energy suppliers seeking to propagate CMS-based time-variant tariffs among household customers in Germany and for future scholarly research. (orig.)

  18. The response of gross nitrogen mineralization to labile carbon inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtson, Per

    2014-05-01

    Input of labile carbon sources to forest soils commonly result in priming, i.e. an increase in the microbial decomposition of soil organic matter. Efforts aimed at quantifying the extent of priming have, to date, largely focused on soil organic matter decomposition manifested as soil respiration. Less is known about how gross nitrogen mineralization responds to input of labile carbon. It is often assumed that increased priming results in decreased soil carbon stocks. However, microbial mineralization of organic nitrogen into plant available forms is a major factor limiting primary production in forests. If increased decomposition of soil organic matter in response to labile carbon is accompanied by a concurrent increased nitrogen mineralization, this could result in elevated primary production and higher rates of plant derived organic matter input to soils. Therefore, in order to fully understand the effect of priming on net ecosystem exchange and soil carbon stocks, it is vital to consider if increased decomposition of soil organic matter caused by priming also results in increased nitrogen mineralization. Here I present the results from a series of experiments aimed at determining if, and to which extent, gross nitrogen mineralization is stimulated by input of labile carbon. The results suggest that it is by no means uncommon to find an increase in gross N mineralization rates in response to labile carbon inputs. The magnitude of the increase seems dependent on the nitrogen status of the soil, as well as the concentration and rate of labile carbon inputs. However, continuous input of labile carbon sources that also contains nitrogen, e.g. amino acids, seems to inhibit rather than increase the mineralization of organic nitrogen. These findings suggest that there is a potential for a positive feedback between priming and primary production that needs to be considered in order to fully understand the influence of priming on net ecosystem exchange and soil carbon

  19. Determination of respiration, gross nitrification and denitrification in soil profile using BaPS system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Shu-tao; HUANG Yao

    2006-01-01

    A facility of BaPS (Barometric Process Separation) was used to determine soil respiration, gross nitrification and denitrification in a winter wheat field with depths of 0-7, 7-14 and 14-21 cm. N2O production was determined by a gas chromatograph. Crop root mass and relevant soil parameters were measured. Results showed that soil respiration and gross nitrification decreased with the increase of soil depth, while denitrification did not change significantly. In comparison with no-plowing plot, soil respiration increased significantly in plowing plot, especially in the surface soil of 0-7 cm, while gross nitrification and denitrification rates were not affected by plowing. Cropping practice in previous season was found to affect soil gross nitrification in the following wheat-growing season. Higher gross nitrification rate occurred in the filed plot with preceding crop of rice compared with that of maize for all the three depths of 0-7, 7-14 and 14-21 cm. A further investigation indicated that the nitrification for all the cases accounted for about 76% of the total nitrogen transformation processes of nitrification and denitrification and the N2O production correlated with nitrification significantly, suggesting that nitrification is a key process of soil N2O production in the wheat field. In addition, the variations of soil respiration and gross nitrification were exponentially dependent on root mass (P<0.001).

  20. Sustainable Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    2015-01-01

    The intention of this chapter is to explore the role of consumption and consumers in relation to sustainability transition processes and wider systemic transformations. In contrast to the individualistic focus in much research on sustainable consumption, the embeddedness of consumption activities...... in wider social, economic and technological frameworks is emphasised. In particular, the chapter is inspired by practice theory and transition theory. First, various trends in consumption are outlined to highlight some of the challenges for sustainability transitions. Then, it is discussed how consumption...... patterns are shaped over time and what should be considered in sustainability strategies. While discussions on consumption often take their point of departure in the perspective of the individual and then zoom to the wider context, the present approach is the opposite. The outline starts with the basic...

  1. Activity level of gross α and gross β in airborne aerosol samples around the Qinshan NPP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Bin; YE Jida; CHEN Qianyuan; WU Xiaofei; SONG Weili; WANG Hongfeng

    2007-01-01

    The monitoring results of gross α and gross β activity from 2001 to 2005 for environmental airborne aerosol samples around the Qinshan NPP base are presented in this paper. A total of 170 aerosol samples were collected from monitoring sites of Caichenmen village, Qinlian village, Xiajiawan village and Yangliucun village around the Qinshan NPP base. The measured specific activity of gross α and gross β are in the range of 0.02 ~ 0.38 mBq/m3 and 0.10 ~ 1.81 mBq/m3, respectively, with an average of 0.11 mBq/m3 and 0.45mBq/m3, respectively. They are lower than the average of 0.15 mBq/m3 and 0.52mBq/m3, of reference site at Hangzhou City. It is indicated that the specific activity of gross α and gross β for environmental aerosol samples around the Qinshan NPP base had not been increased in normal operating conditions of the NPP.

  2. Effects of exercise-induced muscle damage on resting metabolic rate, sub-maximal running and post-exercise oxygen consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, Dean Gareth; Lamb, Kevin; Nicholas, Ceri; Twist, Craig

    2014-01-01

    Exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD), described as the acute weakness of the musculature after unaccustomed eccentric exercise, increases oxidative metabolism at rest and during endurance exercise. However, it is not known whether oxygen uptake during recovery from endurance exercise is increased when experiencing symptoms of EIMD. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of EIMD on physiological and metabolic responses before, during and after sub-maximal running. After a 12 h fast, eight healthy male participants completed baseline measurements comprising resting metabolic rate (RMR), indirect markers of EIMD, 10 min of sub-maximal running and 30 min of recovery to ascertain excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC). Measurements were then repeated at 24 and 48 h after 100 Smith-machine squats. Data analysis revealed significant (PEPOC were increased in the two days after squatting exercise (PEPOC. Individuals engaging in unaccustomed resistance exercise that results in muscle damage should be mindful of the increases in resting energy expenditure and increased metabolic demand to exercise in the days that follow.

  3. Development of a new oxygen consumption rate assay in cultures of Acanthamoeba (Protozoa: Lobosea) and its application to evaluate viability and amoebicidal activity in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heredero-Bermejo, I; Criado-Fornelio, A; Soliveri, J; Díaz-Martín, J A; Matilla-Fuentes, J; Sánchez-Arias, J A; Copa-Patiño, J L; Pérez-Serrano, J

    2015-08-01

    A new fluorometric method has been developed for measuring the oxygen consumption rate (OCR) of Acanthamoeba cultures in microplates and for screening molecules with amoebicidal activity against this microorganism. The use of a biofunctional matrix (containing an oxygen-sensitive fluorogenic probe) attached to the microplate wells allowed continuous measurement of OCR in the medium, hence assessment of amoebic growth. The new OCR method applied to cell viability yielded a linear relationship and monitoring was much quicker than with indirect viability assays previously used. In addition, two drugs were tested in a cytotoxicity assay monitored by the new OCR viability test. With this procedure, the standard amoebicidal drug chlorhexidine digluconate showed an IC50 of 3.53 + 1.3 mg/l against Acanthamoeba polyphaga and 3.19 + 1.2 mg/l against Acanthamoeba castellanii, whereas a cationic dendrimer [G1Si(NMe3+)4] showed an IC50 of 6.42 + 1.3 mg/l against A. polyphaga. These data agree with previous studies conducted in our laboratory. Therefore, the new OCR method has proven powerful and quick for amoebicidal drug screening and is likely to be applied in biochemical studies concerning protozoa respiration and metabolism.

  4. Effects of Salinity and Light on Oxygen Consumption Rate and Ammonia Excretion Rate of Tegillarca granosa%盐度和光照对泥蚶耗氧率和排氨率的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊安安; 袁星; 汪先进; 林; 黄建荣; 黎祖福

    2015-01-01

    为了解盐度对泥蚶(Tegillarca granosa)生理活动的影响,探究其昼夜活动节律,在室内实验条件下,控制水温25℃,采用静水养殖法,以耗氧率和排氨率分别作为呼吸和排泄的生理指标,研究了20、24、28、30、32共计5个盐度梯度下泥蚶的呼吸和排泄强度,同时对泥蚶在光照条件和暗处理下的呼吸与排泄强度进行了测定。结果表明,泥蚶耗氧率和排氨率随着盐度的升高均先上升、后下降,耗氧率为0.33~0.48 mg/(g·h),排氨率为0.044~0.067 mg/(g·h);泥蚶在盐度28的环境下呼吸和排泄强度最高,且不同盐度下耗氧率之间、排氨率之间差异显著(P <0.05)。暗处理下泥蚶的耗氧率在0.42~0.53 mg/(g·h),排氨率在0.049~0.057 mg/(g·h);光照条件下泥蚶的耗氧率在0.40~0.44 mg/(g·h),排氨率为0.042~0.051 mg/(g·h);暗处理条件下呼吸与排泄强度比光照条件下的更高,但2种状态下耗氧率和排氨率差异均不显著(P >0.05);表明实验条件下泥蚶对光照和暗处理反应不明显,即泥蚶不存在明显的昼夜节律现象。%Tegillarca granosa,also called the blood clam,is an important species in traditional shellfish farming, high in nutrient content and economic value.Respiration and excretion rates are typically used to indicate their lev-el of physiological activity.To better understand the metabolic intensity and circadian rhythms of T.granosa under different environmental conditions,we investigated the effects of salinity and light on the physiological activity of T. granosa and the results provide a theoretical basis for scientific culture.Physiological indices of respiration and ex-cretion were expressed by oxygen consumption rate and ammonia excretion rate.In August,2014,healthy blood clams were randomly assigned to five groups,acclimated to and then tested in

  5. Sugar consumption and global prevalence of obesity and hypertension: an ecological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siervo, Mario; Montagnese, Concetta; Mathers, John C; Soroka, Katrina R; Stephan, Blossom C M; Wells, Jonathan C K

    2014-03-01

    The nutrition transition model provides an integrated approach to analyse global changes in food consumption and lifestyle patterns. Whether variability in food availability for consumption, lifestyle and sociodemographic factors is associated with the worldwide prevalence distribution of overweight, obesity and hypertension is unclear. Ecological analysis. Country-specific prevalence estimates of overweight, obesity and hypertension were obtained. Prevalence estimates were then matched to year- and country-specific food and energy availability for consumption of cereals, sugar, sweeteners and honey, vegetable oils, fruits, starchy roots, pulses, total vegetables, alcoholic beverages, total meat, animal fat, eggs, milk, and fish and seafood. The per capita Gross Domestic Product (GDP), urbanization rates and prevalence of physical inactivity for each country were also obtained. The overweight, obesity and hypertension databases included information from 128, 123 and seventy-nine countries, respectively. Consumption of sugar and animal products were directly associated with GDP and urbanization rates. In a multivariate regression model, physical inactivity (B = 0·01, se = 0·005, P = 0·003), cereal consumption (B = -0·02, se = 0·006, P < 0·001) and sugar consumption (B = 0·03, se = 0·01, P = 0·03) were significant predictors of obesity prevalence. Midpoint age (B = 0·21, se = 0·10, P = 0·02), prevalence of overweight (B = 0·18, se = 0·08, P = 0·02) and consumption of cereals (B = -0·22, se = 0·10, P = 0·02) were significant predictors of hypertension. Women appeared to have a significant obesity excess compared with men. High sugar consumption and sedentary lifestyle are associated with increased obesity prevalence. The non-linear association of sugar consumption with prevalence of obesity suggests that effective strategies to reduce its consumption may have differential effects in countries at different stages of the nutrition transition.

  6. The effect of three weeks green tea extract consumption on blood pressure, heart rate responses to a single bout resistance exercise in hypertensive women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arazi, Hamid; Samami, Nader; Kheirkhah, Jalal; Taati, Behzad

    2014-09-01

    Resistance exercise (RE) may lead to a post-exercise hypotension (PEH) response. Previous studies showed that green tea (GT) and its polyphenols, especially Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) may have a favorable effect on blood pressure (BP). We investigated the green tea extract (GTE) effects on BP, heart rate (HR), and rate pressure product (RPP) responses to a low-intensity RE in hypertensive women. Middle-aged women (n = 24, 46.4 ± 6.3 years old; 66.6 ± 9.2 kg; 166.3 ± 4.2 cm) were randomly assigned into three groups of eight persons. GTE consumption group (T) and RE group (R), respectively, ingested GTE (~75 mg EGCG) and placebo (PL; maltodextrin) capsules two times a day for three weeks and then completed 2 circuits of six RE using 50% one repetition maximum (1RM). Patients of control group (C) just ingested PL and rested in a non-exercise control trial. BP, HR and RPP were measured prior and post-exercise at 0, 15, 30, 45, and 60 min. The repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed that there were no significant alterations for arterial BP, HR and RPP of C group. HR of T and R groups was increased immediately after RE. A significant fall of systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) occurred in both T and R groups for 60 min post-exercise compared to resting values. Mean arterial BP (MAP) and RPP decreased significantly after RE in both exercise groups from 15 to 60 min. During 45 and 60 time points, T group had a lower RPP values than C group. The differences between T and R groups were only MAP at 0 and 15 time points. Three weeks of GTE ingestion did not influenced SBP, DBP and HR but may be have a favorable effect on MAP and RPP responses to an acute RE during 1 h recovery of exercise.

  7. Noncommutative complex Grosse-Wulkenhaar model

    CERN Document Server

    Hounkonnou, Mahouton Norbert

    2012-01-01

    This paper stands for an application of the noncommutative (NC) Noether theorem, given in our previous work [AIP Proc 956 (2007) 55-60], for the NC complex Grosse-Wulkenhaar model. It provides with an extension of a recent work [Physics Letters B 653 (2007) 343-345]. The local conservation of energy-momentum tensors (EMTs) is recovered using improvement procedures based on Moyal algebraic techniques. Broken dilatation symmetry is discussed. NC gauge currents are also explicitly computed.

  8. Water consumption from hydropower plants – review of published estimates and an assessment of the concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. H. Bakken

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Since the report from IPCC on renewable energy (IPCC, 2012 was published; more studies on water consumption from hydropower have become available. The newly published studies do not, however, contribute to a more consistent picture on what the "true" water consumption from hydropower plants is. The dominant calculation method is the gross evaporation from the reservoirs divided by the annual power production, which appears to be an over-simplistic calculation method that possibly produces a biased picture of the water consumption of hydropower plants. This review paper shows that the water footprint of hydropower is used synonymously with water consumption, based on gross evaporation rates. This paper also documents and discusses several methodological problems when applying this simplified approach (gross evaporation divided by annual power production for the estimation of water consumption from hydropower projects. A number of short-comings are identified, including the lack of clarity regarding the setting of proper system boundaries in space and time. The methodology of attributing the water losses to the various uses in multi-purpose reservoirs is not developed. Furthermore, a correct and fair methodology for handling water consumption in reservoirs based on natural lakes is needed, as it appears meaningless that all the evaporation losses from a close-to-natural lake should be attributed to the hydropower production. It also appears problematic that the concept is not related to the impact the water consumption will have on the local water resources, as high water consumption values might not be problematic per se. Finally, it appears to be a paradox that a reservoir might be accorded a very high water consumption/footprint and still be the most feasible measure to improve the availability of water in a region. We argue that reservoirs are not always the problem; rather they may contribute to the solution of the problems of water scarcity

  9. Water consumption from hydropower plants – review of published estimates and an assessment of the concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. H. Bakken

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the report from IPCC on renewable energy (IPCC, 2012 was published; more studies on water consumption from hydropower have become available. The newly published studies do not, however, contribute to a more consistent picture on what the "true" water consumption from hydropower plants is. The dominant calculation method is the gross evaporation from the reservoirs divided by the annual power production, which appears to be an over-simplistic calculation method that possibly produces a biased picture of the water consumption of hydropower plants. This review paper shows that the water footprint of hydropower is used synonymously to water consumption, based on gross evaporation rates. This paper also documents and discusses several methodological problems when applying this simplified approach (gross evaporation divided by annual power production for the estimation of water consumption from hydropower projects. A number of short-comings are identified, including the lack of clarity regarding the setting of proper system boundaries in space and time. The methodology of attributing the water losses to the various uses in multi-purpose reservoirs is not developed. Furthermore, a correct and fair methodology for handling water consumption in reservoirs based on natural lakes is needed, as it appears meaningless that all the evaporation losses from a close to natural lake should be attributed to the hydropower production. It also appears problematic that the concept is not related to the impact the water consumption will have on the local water resources, as high water consumption values might not be problematic per se. Finally, it appears to be a paradox that a reservoir might be accorded a very high water consumption/footprint and still be the most feasible measure to improve the availability of water in a region. We argue that reservoirs are not always the problem; rather they may contribute to the solution of the problems of water scarcity

  10. Water consumption from hydropower plants - review of published estimates and an assessment of the concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakken, T. H.; Killingtveit, Å.; Engeland, K.; Alfredsen, K.; Harby, A.

    2013-10-01

    Since the report from IPCC on renewable energy (IPCC, 2012) was published; more studies on water consumption from hydropower have become available. The newly published studies do not, however, contribute to a more consistent picture on what the "true" water consumption from hydropower plants is. The dominant calculation method is the gross evaporation from the reservoirs divided by the annual power production, which appears to be an over-simplistic calculation method that possibly produces a biased picture of the water consumption of hydropower plants. This review paper shows that the water footprint of hydropower is used synonymously with water consumption, based on gross evaporation rates. This paper also documents and discusses several methodological problems when applying this simplified approach (gross evaporation divided by annual power production) for the estimation of water consumption from hydropower projects. A number of short-comings are identified, including the lack of clarity regarding the setting of proper system boundaries in space and time. The methodology of attributing the water losses to the various uses in multi-purpose reservoirs is not developed. Furthermore, a correct and fair methodology for handling water consumption in reservoirs based on natural lakes is needed, as it appears meaningless that all the evaporation losses from a close-to-natural lake should be attributed to the hydropower production. It also appears problematic that the concept is not related to the impact the water consumption will have on the local water resources, as high water consumption values might not be problematic per se. Finally, it appears to be a paradox that a reservoir might be accorded a very high water consumption/footprint and still be the most feasible measure to improve the availability of water in a region. We argue that reservoirs are not always the problem; rather they may contribute to the solution of the problems of water scarcity. The authors

  11. Evaluation of free i-applications for tertiary level gross anatomy education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew F. Pollard

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe use of electronic resources in education, including i-applications used on portable handheld devices, is increasing. Apple® handheld devices are popular, with free applications the most prevalent download form. Many gross anatomy i-applications are available, however no information on the quality of free anatomy products is available. Rating such products could therefore guide product recommendations.AimTo evaluate the quality and range of free iPod® applications that are applicable for tertiary level gross anatomy education.MethodsA search of the iTunes® Application Store with keywords anatomy, free, medical, functional, clinical, gross, and human was performed, with inclusion based on free applications containing human gross anatomy usable for tertiary education purposes. Application specification was noted; each was trialled independently and rated for usability, specification, academic level, and quality (image and programme.ResultsSixty-three applications were identified and eleven met inclusion criteria. Two provided gross anatomy of the entire body, nine examined specific regions or systems. Five were judged introductory in academic level, five intermediate, and one advanced. One application was rated low quality, and four excellent. None were considered difficult to use (six easy, five medium. Application size ranged between 1.2MB and 229MB (mean 27MB.ConclusionsThere are few free i-applications for learning gross anatomy and most concentrate on individual body systems, with the academic level and usability of all products well rated. Results suggest some free I-applications could be suitable adjuncts for gross anatomy education at both an undergraduate and graduate level.

  12. Analysis of the Correlation between GDP and the Final Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin ANGHELACHE

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the researches performed by the author regarding the evolution of Gross Domestic Product. One of the main aspects of GDP analysis is the correlation with the final consumption, an important macroeconomic indicator. The evolution of the Gross Domestic Product is highly influenced by the evolution of the final consumption. To analyze the correlation, the paper proposes the use of the linear regression model, as one of the most appropriate instruments for such scientific approach. The regression model described in the article uses the GDP as resultant variable and the final consumption as factorial variable.

  13. 中国消费率变动趋势及其影响因素分析%Analysis on Change in Consumption Rate and Its Main Factors in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马喆; 潘宏

    2011-01-01

    According to the analysis for consumption rate and its change,this paper shows that the rate is decreasing and the trend is due to the resident consumption rate.The factors,influencing consumption rate,is the final consumption expenditure rate of increase,pattern of economic increase,resident income standard and house price,and finally provides these relevant policy proposals.%对1978-2008年间中国消费率及其变动的实证分析表明,中国消费率整体上呈下降趋势,且这一趋势由居民消费率下降所主导。影响消费率变动的因素主要有最终消费支出增长率、经济增长模式、居民收入水平、住宅销售价格等,并在此基础上提出相应的政策建议。

  14. COAL CONSUMPTION AND ECONOMIC GROWTH IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alper Aslan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This aim of this paper is to use asymmetric causality tests to examine the coal consumption and Gross Domestic Product (GDP relationship in Turkey based on data from 1980 to 2006. To investigate this relationship, a multivariate system is employed by including fixed capital formation and labor force variables into the model. The empirical results obtained from asymmetric causality tests show no causality for coal consumption and GDP relationship in Turkey. The results indicate that coal consumption does not affect growth; hence, energy conservation policies may be pursued without adversely affecting growth in Turkey. Thus, neutrality hypothesis is confirmed for Turkey. This means that a decrease in coal consumption does not affect economic growth and vice versa. In this case, policymakers should explore the feasibility of either decreasing the coal consumption or increasing the efficiency of coal consumption.

  15. The Renminbi Exchange Rate Reform and the Rebalancing of China’s Growth Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANBO; SONG; SEAN; MACKINNON; SONGTAO; TAN

    2015-01-01

    This paper posits that a proper way to estimate the Renminbi(RMB) exchange rate is to base the evaluation on the Balassa-Samuelson effect, and that the optimal way to facilitate China’s growth model transformation is gradual RMB internationalization and capital account liberalization. Regression estimates show that the gross domestic product per capita growth rate, or the productivity growth rate, has strong explanatory validity when estimating the RMB exchange rate. The findings further assert that, as the growth of gross fixed capital formation slows, and the growth of household consumption speeds up, China’s economic growth will be sustained. The RMB exchange rate regime is one in which gradual reforms must yield to interest rates levels and hence should only be revalued conditionally.

  16. The effects of interval- vs. continuous exercise on excess post-exercise oxygen consumption and substrate oxidation rates in subjects with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karstoft, Kristian; Wallis, Gareth A.; Pedersen, Bente K.

    2016-01-01

    Background For unknown reasons, interval training often reduces body weight more than energy-expenditure matched continuous training. We compared the acute effects of time-duration and oxygen-consumption matched interval- vs. continuous exercise on excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC...... (MMTT, 450 kcal) was consumed by the subjects 45 min after completion of the intervention with blood samples taken regularly. Results Exercise interventions were successfully matched for total oxygen consumption (CW = 1641 ± 133 mL/min; IW = 1634 ± 126 mL/min, P > 0.05). EPOC was higher after IW (8......, free fatty acids and glycerol concentrations, and glycerol kinetics were increased comparably during and after IW and CW compared to CON. Conclusions Interval exercise results in greater EPOC than oxygen-consumption matched continuous exercise during a post-exercise MMTT in subjects with T2D, whereas...

  17. The Gross Motor Skills of Children with Mild Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonis, Karen P.; Jernice, Tan Sing Yee

    2014-01-01

    Many international studies have examined the gross motor skills of children studying in special schools while local studies of such nature are limited. This study investigated the gross motor skills of children with Mild Learning Disabilities (MLD; n = 14, M age = 8.93 years, SD = 0.33) with the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (TGMD-2, Ulrich,…

  18. 7 CFR 1410.44 - Average adjusted gross income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Average adjusted gross income. 1410.44 Section 1410... Average adjusted gross income. (a) Benefits under this part will not be available to persons or legal entities whose average adjusted gross income exceeds $1,000,000 or as further specified in part...

  19. 7 CFR 701.17 - Average adjusted gross income limitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9003), each applicant must meet the provisions of the Adjusted Gross Income Limitations at 7 CFR part... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Average adjusted gross income limitation. 701.17... RELATED PROGRAMS PREVIOUSLY ADMINISTERED UNDER THIS PART § 701.17 Average adjusted gross income...

  20. Slower heart rate and oxygen consumption kinetic responses in the on- and off-transient during a discontinuous incremental exercise: effects of aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões, Rodrigo P; Bonjorno, José C; Beltrame, Thomas; Catai, Aparecida M; Arena, Ross; Borghi-Silva, Audrey

    2013-01-01

    The analysis of the kinetic responses of heart rate (HR) and oxygen consumption (VO(2)) are an important tool for the evaluation of exercise performance and health status. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of aging on the HR and VO(2) kinetics during the rest-exercise transition (on-transient) and the exercise-recovery transition (off-transient), in addition to investigating the influence of exercise intensity (mild and moderate) on these variables. A total of 14 young (23±3 years) and 14 elderly (70±4 years) healthy men performed an incremental exercise testing (ramp protocol) on a cycle-ergometer to determine the maximal power (MP). Discontinuous exercise testing was initiated at 10% of the MP with subsequent increases of 10% until exhaustion. The measurement of HR, ventilatory and metabolic variables and blood lactate were obtained at rest and during the discontinuous exercise. The lactate threshold was determined in each subject and was similar between the groups (30±7% of MP in the young group and 29±5% of MP in the elderly group, p>0.05). The HR and VO(2) kinetics (on- and off-transient) were slower in the elderly group compared to the young group (pexercise intensity. We concluded that the elderly group presented with slower HR and VO(2) kinetics in relation to the young group for both on- and off-transients of the dynamic exercise. Moreover, in the young group, the kinetic responses were slower in the moderate intensity in relation to the mild intensity.

  1. Elasticity Ratio of Resource Consumption and the Resource Consumption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meng Weihua; Zhu Dajian; Zhou Xinhong

    2009-01-01

    Today the resources are becoming scarcer,which should not be regarded as unexhausted any more.Correspondingly,the production would be constrained by the scarcity of resources clearly.Then the economic researchers would pay much more attention to reducing the consumption of natural resources in the future.Therefore this paper brings foreword the conception of elasticity ratio of resource consumption based on the concept of elasticity and analyzes the relationship between the parameters.For the certain relationships between the elasticity ratio of resource consumption and resource consumption,this-paper will try to reveal,to keep economy growing while resource consumption reducing,what conditions should be met as to the relationships among resource productivity,its growth rate,energy saving efficiency,economic growth rate and elasticity ratio of resource consumption.This paper proves the relationship between the China's energy consumption and economy growth using statistic data from 1978 to 2003

  2. Energy sustainability: consumption, efficiency, and ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of the critical challenges in achieving sustainability is finding a way to meet the energy consumption needs of a growing population in the face of increasing economic prosperity and finite resources. According to ecological footprint computations, the global resource consumption began exceeding planetary supply in 1977 and by 2030, global energy demand, population, and gross domestic product are projected to greatly increase over 1977 levels. With the aim of finding sustainable energy solutions, we present a simple yet rigorous procedure for assessing and counterbalancing the relationship between energy demand, environmental impact, population, GDP, and energy efficiency. Our analyses indicated that infeasible increases in energy efficiency (over 100 %) would be required by 2030 to return to 1977 environmental impact levels and annual reductions (2 and 3 %) in energy demand resulted in physical, yet impractical requirements; hence, a combination of policy and technology approaches is needed to tackle this critical challenge. This work emphasizes the difficulty in moving toward energy sustainability and helps to frame possible solutions useful for policy and management. Based on projected energy consumption, environmental impact, human population, gross domestic product (GDP), and energy efficiency, for this study, we explore the increase in energy-use efficiency and the decrease in energy use intensity required to achieve sustainable environmental impact le

  3. Sustainable consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prothero, Andrea; Dobscha, Susan; Freund, Jim

    2011-01-01

    This essay explores sustainable consumption and considers possible roles for marketing and consumer researchers and public policy makers in addressing the many sustainability challenges that pervade our planet. Future research approaches to this interdisciplinary topic need to be comprehensive...

  4. Baryons in Massive Gross-Neveu Models

    CERN Document Server

    Thies, M; Thies, Michael; Urlichs, Konrad

    2005-01-01

    Baryons in the large N limit of (1+1)-dimensional Gross-Neveu models with either discrete or continuous chiral symmetry have long been known. We generalize their construction to the case where the symmetry is explicitly broken by a bare mass term in the Lagrangian. In the discrete symmetry case, the exact solution is found for arbitrary bare fermion mass, using the Hartree-Fock approach. In the continuous symmetry case, a derivative expansion allows us to rederive a formerly proposed Skyrme-type model and to compute systematically corrections to the leading order description based on an effective sine-Gordon theory.

  5. Empirical Estimation of GDP determinants, Household Consumption Expenditure and the Consumption Multiplier in Pakistan (1985-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveed Ahmed SHAIKH

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Present study empirically estimates the impact of consumption on Gross Domestic Product in Pakistan using annual data for 27 years (1985-2011. Stepwise regression method is applied on GDP as dependent variable and several other variables like Household Consumption, Foreign Direct Investment, International Trade, Domestic Savings, Value Addition in Industry, Agriculture and Services Sectors taken independent of each other, External Debt, Remittances, Gross Capital Formation and Population as independent variables. The empirical results suggest that the change in GDP is significantly explained from the change in Agriculture and Services Sectors’ Value Addition, Gross Domestic Savings, External Debt and Household Consumption. The Standardized Beta values of the coefficients of accepted variables suggest that the household final consumption expenditure is the biggest determinant of GDP out of the accepted variables. Further the consumption multiplier has been estimated from the estimated value of marginal propensity to consume (MPC which suggests that rise of each Pakistani rupee (local currency in household income leads to a rise of PKR 0.821 (Pak Rupee in household final consumption. Further, given the MPC value, through induced expenditure, the multiplier effect is thus estimated at 5.587.Keywords. Gross domestic product, Marginal propensity to consume, Consumption multiplier, Stepwise regression.JEL. E2, E21, E210.

  6. Conspicuous Consumption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    China validated a new consumption tax policy on April 1 that levies higher taxes on luxury goods such as yachts and limousines, as well as wooden disposable chopsticks and wooden flooring. This marked the most profound change in the consumption tax since 1994 and is thought to be the first step in an overall tax reform in the country. Consumer tariffs, which are handed over to state coffers, consist of excise taxes and the taxes on imported goods collected by customs agencies.

  7. 盐度对双齿围沙蚕耗氧率和排氨率的影响%Effects of salinity on oxygen consumption rate and ammonia-N excretion rate of Perinereis aibuhitensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡东亿; 阎希柱

    2014-01-01

    为优化双齿围沙蚕养殖条件,促进沙蚕资源的合理开发和利用,作者探讨了不同盐度下(8、16、24、32、40、45)双齿围沙蚕(Perinereis aibuhitensis)耗氧率和排氨率的情况。结果表明:盐度对双齿围沙蚕的耗氧率和排氨率均有显著性影响(P<0.05)。在盐度为8~32时,耗氧率随着盐度的升高呈先下降后上升的趋势;在盐度为24时耗氧率最低(0.22 mg /(g·h)±0.01 mg/(g·h));在盐度为32时耗氧率达到最大值(0.37 mg/(g·h)±0.05 mg/(g·h))。在盐度为8~40条件下,沙蚕的排氨率随着盐度的升高呈先降低后上升的趋势;在盐度为24时,双齿围沙蚕的排氨率最低(0.10µmol/(g·h)±0.02µmol/(g·h));当盐度为40时排氨率达到最大值(0.94µmol/(g·h)±0.11µmol/(g·h))。盐度为8~40时,沙蚕的O︰N比值随着盐度的上升呈先升高后降低的趋势,在盐度24和32时,沙蚕的 O︰N 比值分别为130.84和126.47,且变化较小,当盐度40时, O︰N比值急剧下降到13.3,然后再度上升。综合上述结果,双齿围沙蚕生活的最适盐度为24~32。%The oxygen consumption rate and ammonia-N excretion rate of Perinereis aibuhitensis were determined at different salinity (8, 16, 24, 32, 40 and 45) in order to optimize P. aibuhitensis farming conditions and promote the rational development and utilization of Nereis resources. The results showed that (1) The oxygen consumption rate and ammonia-N excretion rate were significantly affected by salinity (P<0.05); (2) oxygen consumption rate first decreased and then increased with the increase of salinity at the range of 8 to 32, which was the lowest (0.22±0.01 mg /g·h) at the salinity of 24, and reached the maximum value (0.37±0.05 mg /(g·h)) at 32; (3) ammonia-N excretion rate first decreased and then increased with the increase of salinity at the range of 8 to 40. At salinity of 24, ammonia-N excretion rate was the lowest, and reached the maximum value at the salinity of 40

  8. Growth Index and Oxygen Consumption Rate in the Period of Post-embryonic Development of Onychodactylus fischeri%爪鲵生长与耗氧率的胚后发育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    晁贺; 张永冈; 王勇; 梁传成; 王丽文

    2013-01-01

    [ Objective ] In order to reveal the relationship between body weight, length and age in the period of post-embryonic development of Onychodactylus fischeri, the relationship between oxygen consumption rate and body weight with oxygen consumption rate in different developmental stages. [Method] We observed 139 Onychodactylus fischeri in the period of post-embryonic development, measured their body weight and body length to conduct the clustering analysis by the way of using mathematical statistics; then we determined the oxygen consumption rate of larval , subadult and adult Onychodactylus fischeri in the resting state with the enclosed energy metabolism analyzer. [ Result ] The results showed that the average body weight and length were both positively correlated to age; In resting state, the adult Onychodactylus fischeri had the lowest oxygen consumption rate, whereas the subadult had the highest oxygen consumption rate, and negatively correlated to the body weight. [Conclusion ] The growth and oxygen consumption rate of the Onychodactylus fischeri in the period of post-embryonic development shows the characteristics of the cold water streams animals.%[目的]揭示爪鲵(Onychodactylus fischeri)胚后生长发育过程中体重、体长与年龄的关系,探讨不同发育阶段的耗氧率及体重与耗氧率的关系.[方法]对139尾爪鲵的胚后发育进行观察,测量其体重、体长,运用数理统计法进行聚类分析;应用封闭式能量代谢仪测定静息状态下幼体、亚成体、成体爪鲵的耗氧率.[结果]在一定范围内,爪鲵的体长、体重与年龄,体重与体长均呈正向指数相关,且相关性达显著水平;在静息状态下,亚成体爪鲵的耗氧率最高,成体最低,而且耗氧率与体重呈负指数相关,相关性达显著水平.[结论]爪鲵生长与耗氧率的胚后发育表现出冷水溪流型动物的特点.

  9. Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with improved insulin sensitivity, reduced basal insulin secretion rate and lower fasting glucagon concentration in healthy women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnet, F; Disse, E; Laville, M

    2012-01-01

    Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes with a stronger effect in women. As the underlying mechanisms remain poorly characterised, we investigated its relationship with insulin resistance, insulin secretion, clearance of insulin and glucagon concentration....

  10. Lean consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Womack, James P; Jones, Daniel T

    2005-03-01

    During the past 20 years, the real price of most consumer goods has fallen worldwide, the variety of goods and the range of sales channels offering them have continued to grow, and product quality has steadily improved. So why is consumption often so frustrating? It doesn't have to be--and shouldn't be--the authors say. They argue that it's time to apply lean thinking to the processes of consumption--to give consumers the full value they want from goods and services with the greatest efficiency and the least pain. Companies may think they save time and money by off-loading work to the consumer but, in fact, the opposite is true. By streamlining their systems for providing goods and services, and by making it easier for customers to buy and use those products and services, a growing number of companies are actually lowering costs while saving everyone time. In the process, these businesses are learning more about their customers, strengthening consumer loyalty, and attracting new customers who are defecting from less user-friendly competitors. The challenge lies with the retailers, service providers, manufacturers, and suppliers that are not used to looking at total cost from the standpoint of the consumer and even less accustomed to working with customers to optimize the consumption process. Lean consumption requires a fundamental shift in the way companies think about the relationship between provision and consumption, and the role their customers play in these processes. It also requires consumers to change the nature of their relationships with the companies they patronize. Lean production has clearly triumphed over similar obstacles in recent years to become the dominant global manufacturing model. Lean consumption, its logical companion, can't be far behind.

  11. Electricity Consumption and Economic Growth: Analysis and Forecasts using VAR/VEC Approach for Greece with Capital Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Georgantopoulos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper tests for the existence and direction of causality between electricity consumption and real gross domestic product for Greece. The study examines a trivariate system with capital formation for the period 1980-2010. Robust empirical results indicate that all variables are integrated of order one and cointegration analysis reports that cointegrating relationship exists between the variables. VAR/VEC approach suggests that all variables return to the long-run equilibrium whenever there is a deviation from the cointegrating relationship and that unidirectional causal links exists running from capital formation and electricity consumption to RGDP in the short-run implying that the economy of Greece is strongly energy dependent. Forecasts for the period 2011-2020 indicate increasing consumption of electricity and positive growth rates from 2013. Policy makers will need to liberalise the electricity sector and to turn the economy towards renewable and natural gas sources in order to reduce imports of oil and coal dependency.

  12. [Gross anatomy dissection and the legal control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashina, Shohei; Shibata, Yosaburo

    2010-12-01

    In Japan, dissection of human body is generally prohibited by the Penal Code, i.e. the criminal law. However, the Postmortem Examination and Corpse Preservation Act allows for the dissection of the body in very limited situations, that include gross anatomy dissection and pathological and forensic autopsy in medical and dental schools. Growing numbers of co-medical schools have been founded more recently in Japan, and not a small number of co-medical schools try to adopt human body dissection in the course of anatomy education. The present short communication reminds us of the ways of thinking of the Postmortem Examination and Corpse Preservation Act and the Act on Body Donation for Medical and Dental Education in order that anatomy education in medical as well as co-medical schools takes place under the regulation by these two laws.

  13. Specific features of measuring the ecologically adjusted gross regional product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douginets Ganna V.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article formulates a necessity of deepening and improvement of ecological and economic indicators and considers the existing indices and indicators of sustainable development. It conducts a comparative analysis of existing norms of calculation of the ecological tax and fees for environmental pollution. It marks main problems of nature management in Ukraine and their consequences, namely, negative impact on health of the population. It offers methods of measurement of the ecologically adjusted gross regional product (EGRP on the basis of improvement of the cost method. It analyses dependence of the regional welfare on the state of environment with the help of measuring the EGRP of Ukrainian regions. It studies the pressure on Ukrainian regions by components: pollution of aquatic environment, atmospheric air, land resources and rates of waste formation. It conducts grouping of regions by EGRP per capita with specification of positive and negative dynamics of the indicator.

  14. MODELING AND FORECASTING THE GROSS ENROLLMENT RATIO IN ROMANIAN PRIMARY SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARINOIU CRISTIAN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The gross enrollment ratio in primary school is one of the basic indicators used in order to evaluate the proposed objectives of the educational system. Knowing its evolution allows a more rigorous substantiation of the strategies and of the human resources politics not only from the educational field but also from the economic one. In this paper we propose an econometric model in order to describe the gross enrollment ratio in Romanian primary school and we achieve its prediction for the next years, having as a guide the Box-Jenkins’s methodology. The obtained results indicate the continuous decrease of this rate for the next years.

  15. Unsustainable Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    2014-01-01

    , research on the root causes of environmentally harmful human behavior is reviewed. Why is there no satiation of consumption in sight, even in the most affluent countries, and why do people continue to make choices that are known to be environmentally harmful? While potentially catastrophic, the harms from...

  16. Flexible Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm Jacobsen, Peter; Pallesen, Trine

    This report presents the first findings from our qualitative study of consumer behaviour vis-à-vis flexible consumption. The main of objective of this report is to present our first round of data from Bornholm, and to assist the design of products/services designed in WP6. In the report, we adopt...

  17. Robust Principal Component Test in Gross Error Detection and Identification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Principle component analysis (PCA) based chi-square test is more sensitive to subtle gross errors and has greater power to correctly detect gross errors than classical chi-square test. However, classical principal component test (PCT) is non-robust and can be very sensitive to one or more outliers. In this paper, a Huber function liked robust weight factor was added in the collective chi-square test to eliminate the influence of gross errors on the PCT. Meanwhile, robust chi-square test was applied to modified simultaneous estimation of gross error (MSEGE) strategy to detect and identify multiple gross errors. Simulation results show that the proposed robust test can reduce the possibility of type Ⅱ errors effectively. Adding robust chi-square test into MSEGE does not obviously improve the power of multiple gross error identification, the proposed approach considers the influence of outliers on hypothesis statistic test and is more reasonable.

  18. An Empirical Study on the Dynamic Effect of the Macro Tax Burden on Consumption Rate%宏观税负对消费率动态效应的实证研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪咸林; 王济时

    2016-01-01

    文章采用增值税、消费税、个人所得税、GDP、社会消费品零售额的2005年第1季度至2015年第3季度数据,运用向量误差修正VEC模型的脉冲响应及方差分解进行分析,观察以上各税种的宏观税负变化对社会消费率的动态影响效应。研究发现消费税、个人所得税、增值税的宏观税负都与社会消费率呈负相关关系,即当出现宏观税负的正向冲击后,社会消费率都出现下降。从冲击的程度来看,增值税最强,个人所得税次之,消费税最弱。从冲击的解释力来看,依然是增值税最强,个人所得税次之,消费税最弱。从作用时间来看,消费税对消费率的影响是暂时的,而增值税、个人所得税对消费率的影响是持久的。%In this paper,we use the data of VAT,consumption tax,personal income tax,GDP,social consumer goods retail sales from the first quarter of 2005 to the third quarter of 2015,employing the VEC model’s impulse response and variance decomposition to analyze the dynamic effect of the macro tax burden on social consumption rates. The study shows that the macro tax burden of consumption tax,personal income tax,value-added tax is negatively correlated with social consumption rate. That is,when the positive effect of the macro tax burden comes,social consumption rates decline. From the viewpoint of impact extent,the value-added tax is the most powerful while personal income tax is weaker as well as consumption tax is the weakest. From the viewpoint of the impact of the explanatory power,the value-added tax remains the top power and personal income tax is weaker as well as consumption tax is the weakest. However,from the viewpoint of the time of action,the consumption tax affects consumption rate temporarily while the value-added tax and personal income tax have a long-term influence.

  19. Collaborative Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerdrum Pedersen, Esben Rahbek; Netter, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore barriers and opportunities for business models based on the ideas of collaborative consumption within the fashion industry. Design/methodology/approach – The analysis is based on a multiple-case study of Scandinavian fashion libraries – a new......, clothes-sharing concept that has emerged as a fashion niche within the last decade. Findings – It is concluded that fashion libraries offers interesting perspectives, e.g. by allowing people to experiment with styles without having to pay the full cost and becoming a meeting place for young designers...... and end consumers. However, at present fashion libraries remain a small-scale phenomenon with difficulties reaching the mainstream market, not least due to limited financial and human resources as well as conventional fashion consumption patterns. Research limitations/implications – The study is limited...

  20. Collaborative Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerdrum Pedersen, Esben Rahbek; Netter, Sarah

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore barriers and opportunities for business models based on the ideas of collaborative consumption within the fashion industry. Design/methodology/approach: The analysis is based on a multiple-­‐‑case study of Scandinavian fashion libraries – a new......, clothes-­‐‑sharing concept that has emerged as a fashion niche within the last decade. Findings: It is concluded that fashion libraries offers interesting perspectives, e.g. by allowing people to experiment with styles without having to pay the full cost and becoming a meeting place for young designers...... and end consumers. However, at present fashion libraries remain a small-­‐‑scale phenomenon with difficulties reaching the mainstream market, not least due to limited financial and human resources as well as conventional fashion consumption patterns. Research limitations/implications: The study is limited...

  1. Positioning consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkier, Bente; Keller, Margit

    2014-01-01

    positionings emerges based on empirical examples of research in parent–children consumption. Positionings are flexible discursive fixations of the relationship between the performances of the practitioner, other practitioners, media discourse and consumption activities. The basic positioning types...... are the practice maintenance and the practice change position, with different sorts of adapting in between. Media discourse can become a resource for a resistant position against social control or for an appropriating position in favour of space for action. Regardless of the current relation to a particular media...... discourse, practitioners attempt to maintain their self-positioning of competence when performing. This leads us, as researchers, to caution against any a priori anticipation of the anchoring power of media discourses within everyday activities....

  2. Transdisciplinary Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue L.T. McGregor

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available For the past 100 years, research about consumption has stemmed from two main disciplines: (a consumer studies/consumer sciences (including consumer policy and education (a spin off from home economics and (b consumer behaviour research (a spin off from marketing. This paper focuses on these two disciplines because the results of their respective research are used to shape consumer policy and consumer protection legislation and regulations, marketplace competition policy and regulations, consumer product and service information, media coverage of consumer issues, consumer education curricula and pedagogy, and insights into an evolving consumer culture. This paper asks consumer studies/sciences and consumer behaviour scholars to embrace the transdisciplinary methodology in addition to the traditional empirical, interpretive and critical methodologies. It provides an overview of the four axioms of transdisciplinary methodology with examples to illustrate how consumer-related research would change to address the complex reality of 21st century consumption.

  3. TERATOGENIC EFFECTS OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES: GROSS ANOMALIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Prakash

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available BACK GROUND: Prenatal exposure of AgNPs can induces devastative and detrimental effect in the organogenesis period of the developing embryos and foetuses. Organogenesis period is highly condemnatory and persuadable. Any injury to embryo during this period leads to dysmorphogenesis or even death AIM: The present study means to evaluate the gross anomalies on developing f o etus subsequent to silver nanoparticle ingestion during the gestational period. MATERIAL & METHOD: Random selections of pregnant Swiss albino mice were selected. AgNPs, of 20 - 100 nm size ra nge, were administered to pregnant mice by repeated oral gavages at concentra tions of 0.5, 1, 5, 10, 15 & 20 mg/kg/day during 4 - 17 gestational day. All dams were subjected to exteriorization on GD 18. The fetuses were evaluated for body malformation effects . RESULTS: Repeated oral gavages treatment with AgNPs at a concentration of 0.5mg/kg/day caused resorption (4.61% and intra uterine growth retardation (7.69% with no gross morphology alteration. 1 mg/kg/day caused resorption (9.23% and intra uterine growth retardation (10.76% with a rare case of haemorrhagic conception (1.53%, 5mg/kg/day caused limb malformation (7.01% resorption (17.54% and intra uterine growth retardation (17.54%, closed type Neural tube deformity (5.26%, 10mg/kg/day caused 20 % of limb malformation including Amelia, foot and tail vein hemorrhages and simple tail vein haemorrhage (3.50% each, resorption (22.80%, intra uterine growth retardation (29.82%, 15mg/kg/day caused severe hemorrhage within the entire body (22.80%, lim b anomaly including syndactyly and oligodactyly (8.77%, resorption (42.10%, intra uterine growth retardation (45.61%, 20mg/kg/day caused Omphalocele (3.27%, Bidiscoidal placental anomaly (9.83%, resorption (29.50% and intra uterine growth retardation (62.29%. CONCLUSION: The results show that a repeated oral dose of AgNPs during pregnancy caused fetal body dysmorphogenesis which is dose

  4. Income and Consumption Smoothing among US States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent; Yosha, Oved

    states. The fraction of a shock to gross state products smoothed by the federal tax-transfer system is the same for various regions and other clubs of states. We calculate the scope for consumption smoothing within various regions and clubs, finding that most gains from risk sharing can be achieved......We quantify the amount of cross-sectional income and consumption smoothing achieved within subgroups of states, such as regions or clubs, e.g. the club of rich states. We find that there is much income smoothing between as well as within regions. By contrast, consumption smoothing occurs mainly...... within regions but not between regions. This suggests that capital markets transcend regional barriers while credit markets are regional in their nature. Smoothing within the club of rich states is accomplished mainly via capital markets whereas consumption smoothing is dominant within the club of poor...

  5. Gross revenue risk in Swiss dairy farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Benni, N; Finger, R

    2013-02-01

    This study investigated how agricultural policy reforms, including market liberalization and market deregulation, have influenced gross revenue risk of Swiss dairy producers using farm-level panel data between 1990 and 2009. Based on detrended data, variance decomposition was applied to assess how output prices and yields contributed to revenue risk over 3 different periods: the whole period (1990-2009), the first decade (1990-1999), and the second decade (1999-2009). In addition, the effect of expected changes in animal-based support for roughage-consuming cattle and price volatility on revenue risk was evaluated using a simulation model. Prices were the main contributor to revenue risk, even if the importance of yield risk increased over time. Swiss dairy producers can profit from natural hedge but market deregulation and market liberalization have reduced the natural hedge at the farm level. An increase in price volatility would substantially increase revenue risk and would, together with the abandonment of direct payments, reduce the comparative advantage of dairy production for risk-averse decision makers. Depending on other available risk management strategies, price risk management instruments might be a valuable solution for Swiss dairy producers in the future.

  6. Guidelines for Standard Photography in Gross and Clinical Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barut, Cagatay; Ertilav, Hakan

    2011-01-01

    Photography has a widespread usage in medicine and anatomy. In this review, authors focused on the usage of photography in gross and clinical anatomy. Photography in gross and clinical anatomy is not only essential for accurate documentation of morphological findings but also important in sharing knowledge and experience. Photographs of cadavers…

  7. 26 CFR 1.61-4 - Gross income of farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Gross income of farmers. (a) Farmers using the cash method of accounting. A farmer using the cash receipts and disbursements method of accounting shall include in his gross income for the taxable year— (1) The amount of cash and the value of merchandise or other property received during the taxable...

  8. Guidelines for Standard Photography in Gross and Clinical Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barut, Cagatay; Ertilav, Hakan

    2011-01-01

    Photography has a widespread usage in medicine and anatomy. In this review, authors focused on the usage of photography in gross and clinical anatomy. Photography in gross and clinical anatomy is not only essential for accurate documentation of morphological findings but also important in sharing knowledge and experience. Photographs of cadavers…

  9. Psychiatric Symptoms in Children with Gross Motor Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emck, Claudia; Bosscher, Ruud J.; van Wieringen, Piet C. W.; Doreleijers, Theo; Beek, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Children with psychiatric disorders often demonstrate gross motor problems. This study investigates if the reverse also holds true by assessing psychiatric symptoms present in children with gross motor problems. Emotional, behavioral, and autism spectrum disorders (ASD), as well as psychosocial problems, were assessed in a sample of 40 children…

  10. The Gross Anatomy Course: An Analysis of Its Importance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockers, Anja; Jerg-Bretzke, Lucia; Lamp, Christoph; Brinkmann, Anke; Traue, Harald C.; Bockers, Tobias M.

    2010-01-01

    The gross anatomy dissection course is a cost-intensive piece of undergraduate medical education that students and professionals alike describe as very important within the overall medical curriculum. We sought to understand more explicitly students' valuation of gross anatomy as an "important" course and so developed a quantitative…

  11. Effects of Aquatic Intervention on Gross Motor Skills in Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roostaei, Meysam; Baharlouei, Hamzeh; Azadi, Hamidreza; Fragala-Pinkham, Maria A

    2016-12-14

    To review the literature on the effects of aquatic intervention on gross motor skills for children with cerebral palsy (CP). Six databases were searched from inception to January 2016. Aquatic studies for children aged 1-21 years with any type or CP classification and at least one outcome measuring gross motor skills were included. Information was extracted on study design, outcomes, and aquatic program type, frequency, duration, and intensity. Quality was rated using the Centre of Evidence-Based Medicine: Levels of Evidence and the PEDro scale. Of the 11 studies which met inclusion criteria, only two used randomized control trial design, and the results were mixed. Quality of evidence was rated as moderate to high for only one study. Most studies used quasi-experimental designs and reported improvements in gross motor skills for within group analyses after aquatic programs were held for two to three times per week and lasting for 6-16 weeks. Participants were classified according to the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels I-V, and were aged 3-21 years. Mild to no adverse reactions were reported. Evidence on aquatic interventions for ambulatory children with CP is limited. Aquatic exercise is feasible and adverse effects are minimal; however, dosing parameters are unclear. Further research is needed to determine aquatic intervention effectiveness and exercise dosing across age categories and GMFCS levels.

  12. Oxygenation, local muscle oxygen consumption and joint specific power in cycling: the effect of cadence at a constant external work rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skovereng, Knut; Ettema, Gertjan; van Beekvelt, Mireille C P

    2016-06-01

    The present study investigates the effect of cadence on joint specific power and oxygenation and local muscle oxygen consumption in the vastus lateralis and vastus medialis in addition to the relationship between joint specific power and local muscle oxygen consumption (mVO2). Seventeen recreationally active cyclists performed 6 stages of constant load cycling using cadences of 60, 70, 80, 90, 100 and 110 rpm. Joint specific power was calculated using inverse dynamics and mVO2 and oxygenation were measured using near-infrared spectroscopy. Increasing cadence led to increased knee joint power and decreased hip joint power while the ankle joint was unaffected. Increasing cadence also led to an increased deoxygenation in both the vastus lateralis and vastus medialis. Vastus lateralis mVO2 increased when cadence was increased. No effect of cadence was found for vastus medialis mVO2. This study demonstrates a different effect of cadence on the mVO2 of the vastus lateralis and vastus medialis. The combined mVO2 of the vastus lateralis and medialis showed a linear increase with increasing knee joint specific power, demonstrating that the muscles combined related to power generated over the joint.

  13. Analysis on Consumption Rate of Residents in China%基于城乡二元经济结构的中国居民消费率分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马喆; 刘敏

    2012-01-01

    1978—2009年中国最终消费率的下降由居民消费率主导。基于城乡差距和城市化水平的实证分析表明,在其他条件不变情况下,居民消费率分别与农村居民消费率、城乡居民消费差距、城市化水平和农村居民平均消费倾向正相关,与城乡居民收入差距负相关。应通过提高农村居民消费率、扩大城镇消费规模、推进城市化进程、缩小城乡居民收入差距等途径,提高居民消费率。%The reduction of consumption rate of China from 1978 to 2009 was caused by the decrease of con- sumption rata of residents (CRR). The positive analysis based on the difference between urban and rural areas and urbanization will indicate that CRR has a positive correlation with consumption rate of rural residents (CRRr), differences of consumption between urban and rural residents(Dcs), urbanization rate(UR), while has a negative correlation with difference of income between urban and rural residents (Din). We should improve CRRr, increase consumption of urban residents, promote urbanization, and reduce Din, in order to raise CRR.

  14. The responses of photosynthesis and oxygen consumption to short-term changes in temperature and irradiance in a cyanobacterial mat (Ebro Delta, Spain)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Epping, E.H.G.; Kühl, Michael

    2000-01-01

    We have evaluated the effects of short-term changes in incident irradiance and temperature on oxygenic photosynthesis and oxygen consumption in a hypersaline cyanobacterial mat from the Ebro Delta, Spain, in which Microcoleus chthonoplastes was the dominant phototrophic organism. The mat...... production, and oxygen consumption in the aphotic layer of the mat. The lowest surface irradiance that resulted in detectable rates of gross photosynthesis increased with increasing temperature from 50 mmol photons m22 s21 at 158C to 500 mmol photons m22 s21 at 308C. These threshold irradiances were also...... apparent from the areal rates of net oxygen production and point to the shift of M. chthonoplastes from anoxygenic to oxygenic photosynthesis and stimulation of sulphide production and oxidation rates at elevated temperatures. The rate of net oxygen production per unit area of mat at maximum irradiance, J0...

  15. Socio-Demographic Differences in Energy Drink Consumption and Reasons for Consumption among US College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulos, Natalie S.; Pasch, Keryn E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Energy drink consumption has become increasingly prevalent among US college students, yet little is known about current rates of consumption and reasons for consumption among current energy drink users, particularly differences related to gender and race/ethnicity. Objectives: To better understand energy drink consumption alone and…

  16. Socio-Demographic Differences in Energy Drink Consumption and Reasons for Consumption among US College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulos, Natalie S.; Pasch, Keryn E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Energy drink consumption has become increasingly prevalent among US college students, yet little is known about current rates of consumption and reasons for consumption among current energy drink users, particularly differences related to gender and race/ethnicity. Objectives: To better understand energy drink consumption alone and…

  17. Electricity Consumption and Economic Growth: Trivariate investigation in Botswana with Capital Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakiru Adebola Solarin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the relationship between electricity consumption and real gross domestic product in Botswana (the world’s largest producer of diamonds. The study includes capital formation in a trivariate system for the period covering 1980-2008. Zivot and Andrews (1992 unit roots test; bound test for cointegration, and Granger causality test are employed. Unidirectional causality is found from electricity consumption to real gross domestic product is in line with study of Altinay and Karagol (2005 among others. The long run estimate reinforce the Granger causality tests by indicating that electricity consumption is positively associated with real gross domestic product in the long run. Further findings suggest unidirectional causality from capital formation to real gross domestic product. The implication is that Botswana- being a highly energy dependent country- will have the performance of its capital formation on the economy partly determined by adequate electricity.

  18. 我国省际劳动、资本、消费有效税率的估算与比较%Estimation and Comparison of China’s Provincial Effective Tax Rates of Labor, Capital and Consumption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜艳凤

    2015-01-01

    As a general method to measure the actual tax burden, the average effective tax rate is adopted in this paper to estimate the provincial labor, capital and consumption effective tax rate in 1998-2012 to understand the real burden of the three factors, and compare them with that of other countries.The calculation results show that in all the provinces, the labor income effective tax rate presents a rising trend, the capital effective tax rate first falls and then rises, and the consumption ef-fective tax rate exhibits irregular upward trend.The capital effective tax rate is far higher than labor income and consumption expenditure effective tax rate.The labor and consumption effective tax rates are below the average level in the world, while the capital effective tax rate is above the average level.In terms of regional difference, effective tax rates of labor, capital and consumption are the highest in the eastern regions, slightly lower in the western regions, and the lowest in the central regions. These findings demonstrate that the tax burden in the western regions is relatively higher and there is a need to seek suitable ways to reduce the tax burden in the western regions to balance the area tax burden among different regions across the country.%国际上衡量实际税收负担的一般方法为平均有效税率,采用这一国际通行方法,核算了1998-2012年我国各省级劳动、资本收入以及消费支出的平均有效税率,以反映这三种要素的真实负担情况,并将它与世界其它国家进行了比较研究。结果表明:各省劳动收入有效税率则呈上升态势,资本有效税率呈先下降再上升趋势,消费有效税率呈现不规则上升趋势;资本收入有效税率大大高于劳动收入和消费支出的有效税率;各省劳动和消费的有效税率还处于世界平均偏下水平,而资本有效税率处于世界平均偏上水平;地区比较来看,东部地区的劳动、资本

  19. Energy consumption projection of Nepal: An econometric approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parajuli, Ranjan; Østergaard, Poul A.; Dalgaard, Tommy

    2014-01-01

    In energy dependent economies, energy consumption is often linked with the growth in Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Energy intensity, defined herewith, as the ratio of the total primary energy consumption (TPE) to the GDP, is a useful concept for understanding the relation between energy demand...... and economic development. The scope of this article is to assess the future primary energy consumption of Nepal, and the projection is carried out along with the formulation of simple linear logarithmic energy consumption models. This initiates with a hypothesis that energy consumption is dependent...... with the national macro-economic parameters. To test the hypothesis, nexus between energy consumption and possible determinant variables are examined. Status of energy consumption between the period of 1996 and 2009, and for the same period, growth of economic parameters are assessed. Three scenarios are developed...

  20. Gross Nitrogen Mineralization in Surface Sediments of the Yangtze Estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xianbiao; Hou, Lijun; Liu, Min; Li, Xiaofei; Yin, Guoyu; Zheng, Yanling; Deng, Fengyu

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen mineralization is a key biogeochemical process transforming organic nitrogen to inorganic nitrogen in estuarine and coastal sediments. Although sedimentary nitrogen mineralization is an important internal driver for aquatic eutrophication, few studies have investigated sedimentary nitrogen mineralization in these environments. Sediment-slurry incubation experiments combined with 15N isotope dilution technique were conducted to quantify the potential rates of nitrogen mineralization in surface sediments of the Yangtze Estuary. The gross nitrogen mineralization (GNM) rates ranged from 0.02 to 5.13 mg N kg(-1) d(-1) in surface sediments of the study area. The GNM rates were generally higher in summer than in winter, and the relative high rates were detected mainly at sites near the north branch and frontal edge of this estuary. The spatial and temporal distributions of GNM rates were observed to depend largely on temperature, salinity, sedimentary organic carbon and nitrogen contents, and extracellular enzyme (urease and L-glutaminase) activities. The total mineralized nitrogen in the sediments of the Yangtze Estuary was estimated to be about 6.17 × 10(5) t N yr(-1), and approximately 37% of it was retained in the estuary. Assuming the retained mineralized nitrogen is totally released from the sediments into the water column, which contributed 12-15% of total dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) sources in this study area. This result indicated that the mineralization process is a significant internal nitrogen source for the overlying water of the Yangtze Estuary, and thus may contribute to the estuarine and coastal eutrophication.

  1. Gross Nitrogen Mineralization in Surface Sediments of the Yangtze Estuary.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianbiao Lin

    Full Text Available Nitrogen mineralization is a key biogeochemical process transforming organic nitrogen to inorganic nitrogen in estuarine and coastal sediments. Although sedimentary nitrogen mineralization is an important internal driver for aquatic eutrophication, few studies have investigated sedimentary nitrogen mineralization in these environments. Sediment-slurry incubation experiments combined with 15N isotope dilution technique were conducted to quantify the potential rates of nitrogen mineralization in surface sediments of the Yangtze Estuary. The gross nitrogen mineralization (GNM rates ranged from 0.02 to 5.13 mg N kg(-1 d(-1 in surface sediments of the study area. The GNM rates were generally higher in summer than in winter, and the relative high rates were detected mainly at sites near the north branch and frontal edge of this estuary. The spatial and temporal distributions of GNM rates were observed to depend largely on temperature, salinity, sedimentary organic carbon and nitrogen contents, and extracellular enzyme (urease and L-glutaminase activities. The total mineralized nitrogen in the sediments of the Yangtze Estuary was estimated to be about 6.17 × 10(5 t N yr(-1, and approximately 37% of it was retained in the estuary. Assuming the retained mineralized nitrogen is totally released from the sediments into the water column, which contributed 12-15% of total dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN sources in this study area. This result indicated that the mineralization process is a significant internal nitrogen source for the overlying water of the Yangtze Estuary, and thus may contribute to the estuarine and coastal eutrophication.

  2. 论消费税征收范围与税率结构的改革%On the reform of consumption tax scope and the tax rate structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马殷春

    2014-01-01

    Consumption tax has played an irreplaceable role in China's economic development and social justice. Since the introduction of the consumption tax in China,there have existed some drawbacks in the tax system.To exert better role of the consumption tax in economic development,we should carry out the reform to adjust the tax scope,to improve tax aspects,to set more reasonable tax rates and to strengthen the collection management,etc..%消费税在我国经济发展、社会公平等方面发挥了不可替代的作用,自开征以来,我国的消费税制存在着一定的弊端。为进一步发挥消费税在经济发展中的重要作用,应从调整征税范围、完善征税环节、合理设置税率、加强征收管理等方面改革消费税制。

  3. Feasibility of mapping the tissue mass corrected bioscale of cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen consumption using 17-oxygen and 23-sodium MR imaging in a human brain at 9.4 T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Ian C; Thulborn, Keith R

    2010-06-01

    The reduction of molecular oxygen to water is the final step of oxidative phosphorylation that couples adenosine triphosphate production to the reoxidation of reducing equivalents formed during the oxidation of glucose to carbon dioxide. This coupling makes the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen consumption (CMRO(2)) an excellent reflection of the metabolic health of the brain. A multi-nuclear magnetic resonance (MR) imaging based method for CMRO(2) mapping is proposed. Oxygen consumption is determined by applying a new three-phase metabolic model for water generation and clearance to the changing 17-oxygen ((17)O) labeled water MR signal measured using quantitative (17)O MR imaging during inhalation of (17)O-enriched oxygen gas. These CMRO(2) data are corrected for the regional brain tissue mass computed from quantitative 23-sodium MR imaging of endogenous tissue sodium ions to derive quantitative results of oxygen consumption in micromoles O(2)/g tissue/minute that agree with literature results reported from positron emission tomography. The proposed technique is demonstrated in the human brain using a 9.4 T MR scanner optimized for human brain imaging.

  4. Estimating the gross moist stability in shallow and deep convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C. A.; Jong, B. T.; Chou, C.

    2015-12-01

    Gross moist stability has been used to study the link between tropical deep convection and large scale circulation in a moist static energy (MSE) budget. Here we aim to calculate the gross moist stability from more realistic profiles of vertical velocity and extend it beyond deep convection, adding shallow convection. Based on a principal component analysis, we were able to decompose the vertical velocity into two leading modes, which are dominated by deep and shallow convection, respectively. According to the deep and shallow modes, we calculate the gross moist stability for these two modes and discuss the roles of deep and shallow convection in the MSE budget. The gross moist stability of deep convection tends to be positive in the tropics, while that of shallow convection is negative over most areas of the tropics. This implies that deep convection exports MSE to stabilize the atmosphere and shallow convection imports MSE to enhance deep convection and destabilize the atmosphere. Based on the spatial distribution, moisture tends to reduce the gross moist stability of deep convection, while dry static energy has little impact. Deeper deep convection tends to have greater gross moist stability. For shallow convection, on the other hand, the gross moist stability is affected not only by low-level moisture but also mid-level moisture. Both moister low-level and drier mid-level moisture reduce the gross moist stability of shallow convection. Greater low-level dry static energy, which is associated with warmer sea surface temperature, also tends to reduce gross moist stability.

  5. The gross motor function measure is a valid and sensitive outcome measure for spinal muscular atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Leslie; Owens, Hollis; Hynan, Linda S; Iannaccone, Susan T

    2006-06-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy is a genetic disease of the anterior horn cell with high morbidity rate in childhood. Certain drugs may be of benefit and are in or under consideration for Phase II trials. Outcome measures that are age appropriate and representative of disease activity remain under study. Several have not yet been validated for spinal muscular atrophy. The Gross Motor Function Measure is a measure of motor function. We showed previously that the Gross Motor Function Measure is a reliable outcome measure to assess motor function in children with spinal muscular atrophy. By collating our data from 40 spinal muscular atrophy patients, ages 5 through 17 years, we now show the validity of the Gross Motor Function Measure when compared to Quantitative Muscle Testing and ambulatory status in children with spinal muscular atrophy. The median for Gross Motor Function Measure total scores for walkers was 237 (range: 197-261) and for non-walkers, 64 (range: 4-177; PGross Motor Function Measure is valid and sensitive as an outcome measure for clinical trials in pediatric spinal muscular atrophy.

  6. Method of Multi-dimensional Gross Errors Snooping of GPS Velocity Estimation in Airborne Gravimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHENG Kai

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Precision velocity plays an important role in airborne gravimetry. Since the aircraft in a state of stable flight, we could establish a strict state equation with constant acceleration model for it, then obtained predicted velocity which was used for constructing a priori residual Q to detect the gross errors. Theoretical research showed that Q was influenced by the accuracy of predicted velocity and the measurement errors. According to the statistical features of Q combined with IGG Ⅲ principle, we could lower the contribution of the observation that contained the gross errors. Static testing was used for analyzing the characteristic of measurement errors as well as the accuracy of predicted velocity under the simulated ideal flight environment where the acceleration was approximate to a constant, the results also showed the relationship between the sampling rate and the ability of detecting gross errors. Both the static and kinematic tests demonstrate that new method can well detect the gross error smaller than 1 cycle.

  7. Patterns in Vegetable Consumption: Implications for Tailored School Meal Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlowski, Marietta; Lee, Miryoung; Spears, William; Narayan, Roopsi; Pobocik, Rebecca S.; Kennel, Julie; Krafka, Erin; Patton, Susan

    2017-01-01

    Background: Vegetable consumption is a challenging behavioral target; consumption rates are below recommended levels and when interventions produce improvements, increases in vegetable consumption are typically a fraction of the change in fruit consumption. We describe vegetable consumption within Ohio school meals and examine how fruit selection,…

  8. 10 CFR 431.134 - Uniform test methods for the measurement of energy consumption and water consumption of automatic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... consumption and water consumption of automatic commercial ice makers. 431.134 Section 431.134 Energy... of energy consumption and water consumption of automatic commercial ice makers. (a) Scope. This... consumption, but instead calculate the energy use rate (kWh/100 lbs Ice) by dividing the energy consumed...

  9. CHEMICAL WEATHERING PROCESSES AND ATMOSPHERIC CO2 CONSUMPTION OF HUANGHE RIVER AND CHANGJIANG RIVER BASINS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jing-ying; ZHANG Jing

    2005-01-01

    Rock weathering plays an important role in studying the long-term carbon cycles and global climaticchange. According to the statistics analysis, the Huanghe (Yellow) River water chemistry was mainly controlled byevaporite and carbonate weathering, which were responsible for over 90% of total dissolved ions. As compared withthe Huanghe River basin, dissolved load of the Changjiang (Yangtze) River was mainly originated from the carbonate dissolution.The chemical weathering rates were estimated to be 39.29t/(km2·a)and 61.58t/(km2·a)by deduting the HCO3- derived from atmosphere in the Huanghe River and Changjiang River watersheds, respectively. The CO2 con-sumption rates by rock weathering were calculated to be 120.84 × 103mol/km2 and 452.46 × 103mol/km2 annually in thetwo basins, respectively. The total CO2 consumption of the two basins amounted to 918.51 × 109mol/a, accounting for3.83% of the world gross. In contrast to other world watersheds, the stronger evaporite reaction and infirm silicateweathering can explain such feature that CO2 consumption rates were lower than a global average, suggesting that thesequential weathering may be go on in the two Chinese drainage basins.

  10. Sectoral contributions to Nigerian gross domestic product using a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences ... This study analyzed sectoral contributions to Gross Domestic Product by Agriculture, Industry and services ... KEYWORDS: Granger causality, Unit root, VAR model and sectoral contribution ...

  11. Determinação e modelagem da taxa de consumo de biomassa queimada Determination and modeling the consumption rate of burned biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Pereira

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho avalia o emprego da energia radiativa do fogo (ERF para estimar as emissões de material particulado com diâmetro menor que 2,5µm (PM2,5µm, a partir da obtenção do coeficiente multiplicativo, que relaciona o consumo de biomassa com a ERF liberada. Para isto, foram utilizados dados provenientes dos produtos do MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer e do produto derivado do satélite GOES (Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite, para calcular o total de aerossóis emitidos para a atmosfera. O CCATT-BRAMS (Coupled Chemistry-Aerosol-Tracer Transport model coupled to Brazilian Regional Atmospheric Modelling System foi utilizado para estimar a concentração de PM2,5µm provenientes da queima de biomassa. Estes dados foram comparados com os dados de campo obtidos nos experimentos do LBA (Large Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere SMOCC (Smoke, Aerosols, Clouds, rainfall, and Climate e RaCCI (Radiation, Cloud, and Climate Interactions. A estimativa da emissão de PM2,5µm (µg.m-3 apresentou uma correlação com os dados do SMOCC/RaCCI superiores a 92%. Ainda, constatou-se que o consumo máximo diário pode exceder 5 Tg (milhões de toneladas, com uma média diária de 2,1 Tg. O método resultante das análises de laboratório permitiu estimar a biomassa consumida em 0,28 ± 0,01 Pg (10(15 g para a América do Sul, entre Julho e Novembro de 2002.The present study evaluates the use of fire radiative energy (FRE to estimate the emissions of particulate matter with diameter less than 2.5 μm (PM2,5µm from the multiplicative coefficient relating the biomass consumption with the released FRE. The MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer and GOES (Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite products were utilized to calculate the total amount of aerosol emitted to the atmosphere. The CCATT-BRAMS (Coupled Chemistry-Aerosol-Tracer Transport model coupled to Brazilian Regional Atmospheric Modelling

  12. Gross congenital malformation at birth in a government hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Sachdeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A hospital-based cross-sectional study was undertaken to determine proportion of gross congenital malformation (GCMF occurring at intramural births. Rate of GCMF was found to be 16.4/1000 consecutive singleton births (>28 weeks with three leading malformation as anencephaly (44.68%, talipes equinovarus (17.02% and meningomyelocele (10.63%. Higher risk of malformed births were noticed amongst un-booked (2.07% in-comparison to booked (1.01% mothers; women with low level of education (up to 8 years [2.14%] vs. at least 9 years of schooling [0.82%]; gravida status of at least 3 (2.69% followed by 1 (1.43% and 2 (1.0% respectively; pre-term (5.13% vs. term (0.66%; cesarean section (4.36% versus vaginal delivery (0.62%. Mortality was significantly higher among congenitally malformed (17.35% than normal (0.34% newborns. With-in study limitation, emergence of neural tube defect as the single largest category of congenital malformation indicates maternal malnutrition (especially folic acid that needs appropriate attention and management.

  13. Analysis of consumption behaviour concerning current income and lags consumption: Empirical evidence from Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Qayyum Khan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available As in other economies, consumption expenditure is the largest component of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP of Pakistan economy. The figure has been estimated around 80 percent of the GDP and demonstrates that historically, Pakistan’s economic growth is characterized as consumption-led growth. The present paper aims to explore the relationship between income and consumption using annual time series data for the period: 1975 to 2012 in Pakistan. For empirical investigation the linear regression model and the method of Least Squares is used as analytical techniques. Empirical results support the existence of a significant positive relationship between income and consumption. The finding suggests that long term committed planning is indispensable to enhance the productive capacity of the economy, employment opportunities and reduce poverty levels more effectively.

  14. Premedical anatomy experience and student performance in medical gross anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondrashov, Peter; McDaniel, Dalton J; Jordan, Rebecca M

    2017-04-01

    Gross anatomy is considered one of the most important basic science courses in medical education, yet few medical schools require its completion prior to matriculation. The effect of taking anatomy courses before entering medical school on performance in medical gross anatomy has been previously studied with inconsistent results. The effect of premedical anatomy coursework on performance in medical gross anatomy, overall medical school grade point average (GPA), and Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing Examination Level 1 (COMLEX 1) score was evaluated in 456 first-year osteopathic medical students along with a survey on its perceived benefits on success in medical gross anatomy course. No significant differences were found in gross anatomy grade, GPA, or COMLEX 1 score between students with premedical anatomy coursework and those without. However, significant differences and higher scores were observed in students who had taken three or more undergraduate anatomy courses including at least one with cadaveric laboratory. There was significantly lower perceived benefit for academic success in the medical gross anatomy course (P<.001) from those students who had taken premedical anatomy courses (5.9 of 10) compared with those who had not (8.2 of 10). Results suggest that requiring any anatomy course as a prerequisite for medical school would not have significant effect on student performance in the medical gross anatomy course. However, requiring more specific anatomy coursework including taking three or more undergraduate anatomy courses, one with cadaveric laboratory component, may result in higher medical gross anatomy grades, medical school GPA, and COMLEX 1 scores. Clin. Anat. 30:303-311, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND REAL GDP IN IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar Naji Meidani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As one of the most important production factors and one of the most urgent final products, energy has a special position in the growth and development of the country. This paper examines the causal relationship between Real GDP and energy consumption in various economic sectors including (household and commercial, industry, transportation and agriculture sectors for Iran during 1967–2010 using the time series technique known as the Toda-Yamamoto method. Moreover, an error correction model is also estimated so that the results of these two methods are compared. We found a strong unidirectional causality from energy consumption in industry sector to real gross domestic product. Energy consumption in industry sector can observably promote the development of economy.

  16. Gross violation of human rights and inequality in city of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruotti, Caren; Freitas, Taís Viudes de; Almeida, Juliana Feliciano de; Peres, Maria Fernanda Tourinho

    2009-06-01

    To analyze the profile of gross human rights violations, and the relationship between these violations and socioeconomic and demographic indicators. Cross-sectional ecological study of 96 census districts of the city of São Paulo (Southeastern Brazil) in the year 2000. The data used came from the gross human rights violations database maintained by the Núcleo de Estudos de Violência (Center for the Study of Violence) at the Universidade de São Paulo. This database contains information on all the cases of summary executions, lynching and police violence reported on the written press. Socioeconomic and demographic data were obtained from the 2000 Census carried out by the Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics). A descriptive analysis of the data was carried out, and the association between the dependent variable - gross human rights violations (number of police violence victims, lynching episodes and summary executions) -, and different socioeconomic and demographic variables was tested. In order to test this association the Spearman's correlation test was used. The correlations between gross human rights violations and the socioeconomic and demographic indicators were statistically significant, except for the urbanization rate and the hospital beds per 1000 inhabitants. The strongest correlations were found between the dependent variable and the following variables: size of the resident population (r=0,693), proportion of youths aged from 15 to 24 years (r=0,621), and proportion of household heads with no education or with up to three years of schooling (r=0,590). Gross human rights violations more markedly occur in the population with the worst living conditions. Therefore, in a scenario in which inequality in attaining social and economic rights is directly superposed to the violation of civil rights, the violence cycle is intensified and perpetuated.

  17. Gross Motor Profile and Its Association with Socialization Skills in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardiono D. Pusponegoro

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: Children with ASD had lower gross motor skills compared to typically developing children. Gross motor impairments were found in 20% of the ASD children, and these children also had lower socialization skills than those without gross motor impairments.

  18. 流速对细鳞裂腹鱼游泳行为及能量消耗影响的研究%EFFECTS OF FLOW RATE ON SWIMMING BEHAVIOR AND ENERGY CONSUMPTION OF SCHIZOTHORAX CHONGI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁喜; 涂志英; 韩京成; 王学祥; 石小涛; 刘国勇; 黄应平

    2012-01-01

    通过自制密封的鱼类游泳实验装置,研究了流速对细鳞裂腹鱼游泳行为和能量消耗的影响.结果显示,细鳞裂腹鱼的摆尾频率随游泳速度的变化有明显的变化规律,摆尾频率随着流速的增加而显著性的增加,而摆尾幅度有减小趋势,差异性不显著.结果还表明,(26±1)℃时,(10.60-0.54) cm细鳞裂腹鱼的相对临界游泳速度为(11.5-0.5) BL/s,绝对临界游泳速度为(110.28±2.02) cm/s.测定的相对临界流速较其他的鲤科鱼大,是对生存水流环境(流速0.5-1.5m/s)适应性的表现.这一结果表明鱼类的游泳能力是能够训练的.运动代谢率与相对流速的关系为,AMR=93.08e(0.307v)+ 314.33,R2=0.994;单位距离能耗与流速的指数关系为COT=28e (-1.03v) +6.05,R2=0.998.流速达到8 BL/s时,裂腹鱼耗氧率开始下降,从流速7 BL/s时,(1245.57±90.97)mg O2/(kg·h)最大,下降到(978.78± 189.38) mg O2/(kg·h).1-7 BL/s流速范围内,裂腹鱼单位时间内的耗氧率随着游泳速度的增加而增加,而且随着游泳速度的增加,单位距离能耗(COT)逐渐减少,最小能耗在6倍体长流速,0.68m/s时,为(6.00±1.57) J/(kg·m),其能量利用效率最大.%The aims of the present experiment were to gain the motion regular patterns, the physical activity level, the rules of metabolic energy requirements and the lowest oxygen consumption of Schizothorax chongi (Cyprinida, Schizothoracinae). The flow rate was the main condition considered, and it was one of the major factors of the river environment. In the experiment, effects of flow rate on swimming behavior and energy consumption of Schizothorax chongi had been tested in a special sealed experimental device. The results suggested that the tail beat frequencies (TBF) of Schizothorax chongi increased with the swimming speed. But the tail beat amplitude decreased as the swimming speed increasing. According to the results of the oxygen consumption to the swimming speed, the oxygen

  19. Energy consumption, income, and carbon emissions in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soytas, Ugur [Department of Business Administration, Middle East Technical University Ankara, Turkey 06531 (Turkey); Sari, Ramazan [Department of Economics, Abant Izzet Baysal University Bolu, Turkey 14280 (Turkey); Ewing, Bradley T. [Rawls College of Business Texas Tech University Lubbock, TX 79409-2101 (United States)

    2007-05-15

    This paper investigates the effect of energy consumption and output on carbon emissions in the United States. Earlier research focused on testing the existence and/or shape of an environmental Kuznets curve without taking energy consumption into account. We investigate the Granger causality relationship between income, energy consumption, and carbon emissions, including labor and gross fixed capital formation in the model. We find that income does not Granger cause carbon emissions in the US in the long run, but energy use does. Hence, income growth by itself may not become a solution to environmental problems. (author)

  20. 头孢噻肟钠-舒巴坦钠使用量与鲍曼不动杆菌耐药的相关性%Consumption of cefotaxime sodium-sulbactam sodium and resistance rates of Acinetobacter baumannii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹何慧; 吴常达; 周琴

    2013-01-01

      目的:评估不同使用量的头孢噻肟钠-舒巴坦钠复合制剂与鲍曼不动杆菌耐药的相关性。方法:将经生化分析和药敏鉴定的114株痰培养鲍曼不动杆菌随机分为实验组和对照组。实验组(57株)采用头孢噻肟钠-舒巴坦钠复合制剂抑菌,对照组(57株)采用头孢噻肟钠单方制剂抑菌,依据不同抗菌药平均每天每100床患者用药的频率和同期对鲍曼不动杆菌的耐药率变化,对两组抗菌药物使用量与耐药率进行相关性统计分析。结果:实验组对鲍曼不动杆菌的平均耐药率为42.4%,对照组的耐药率为63.5%。头孢噻肟钠-舒巴坦钠复方制剂与鲍曼不动杆菌对该药耐药率正相关(P=0.0288);头孢噻肟钠单方制剂与鲍曼不动杆菌耐药率也正相关(P=0.0093)。相对于单方制剂用药,复方用药可有效改善耐药菌对抗菌药的敏感性。结论:头孢噻肟钠-舒巴坦钠抗菌药物使用量与鲍曼不动杆菌耐药性存在相关性,且随着抗菌药使用量的增加,细菌的耐药性越大。%Objective: To assess the correlation between consumption of cefotaxime sodium-sulbactam sodium and resistance rates of Acinetobacter baumannii. Methods: 114 strains of Acinetobacter baumanni , confirmed by biochemical analysis and drug susceptibility test, were randomly assigned to experiment group(n=57, cefotaxime sodium-sulbactam sodium were administered ) or control group(n=57, cefotaxime sodium only was administered ). According to antibacterial consumption which defined as daily doses per 100 bed-days and the resistance rate of Acinetobacter baumanni , the correlation was statistically analyzed between the two groups. Results: The average resistance rate against acinetobacter baumanni in the experimental group was 42.4%, the control group was 63.5%.The resistance to consumption of cefotaxime sodium-sulbactam sodium was significantly correlated with resistance to

  1. Seasonal concentrations of cesium-137 in rumen content, skeletal muscles and feces of caribou from the Porcupine herd: lichen ingestion rates and implications for human consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Allaye-Chan

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available The Porcupine caribou herd was monitored for cesium-137 during 1987 to address human health concerns over potential meat contamination by radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl accident, and to determine lichen intake rates based on body burdens of radiocesium. A total of 36 caribou were collected from northwestern Alaska and the Yukon Territories in March, June, September, and November. Mean radiocesium concentrations in skeletal muscle peaked in March at 133 Bq/kg fresh weight. This value should not prove hazardous to human health. Radiocesium concentrations in skeletal muscle (wet weight ranged from approximately 22 to 50% of radiocesium concentrations in rumen contents (dry weight, and from approximately 15 to 37% of radiocesium concentrations in feces (dry weight. Radioactivity in feces was significantly correlated with radioactivity in rumen contents. Computer simulations relating lichen intake rates to radiocesium body burdens are presented for 3 scenarios: (1 when seasonal intakes were adjusted to provide the optimum fit between simulated and observed radiocesium body burdens (2 when seasonal intakes were based on empirical data, and (3 when seasonal intakes were adjusted to yield a "conventional" radiocesium curve of a slow fall build-up prior to a late winter plateau.

  2. Final Report Balancing energy conservation and occupant needs in ventilation rate standards for Big Box stores in California. Predicted indoor air quality and energy consumption using a matrix of ventilation scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apte, Michael G. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mendell, Mark J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sohn, Michael D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Dutton, Spencer M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Berkeley, Pam M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Spears, Michael [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2011-02-01

    Through mass-balance modeling of various ventilation scenarios that might satisfy the ASHRAE 62.1 Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) Procedure, we estimate indoor concentrations of contaminants of concern (COCs) in California “big box” stores, compare estimates to available thresholds, and for selected scenarios estimate differences in energy consumption. Findings are intended to inform decisions on adding performance-based approaches to ventilation rate (VR) standards for commercial buildings. Using multi-zone mass-balance models and available contaminant source rates, we estimated concentrations of 34 COCs for multiple ventilation scenarios: VRmin (0.04 cfm/ft2 ), VRmax (0.24 cfm/ft2 ), and VRmid (0.14 cfm/ft2 ). We compared COC concentrations with available health, olfactory, and irritant thresholds. We estimated building energy consumption at different VRs using a previously developed EnergyPlus model. VRmax did control all contaminants adequately, but VRmin did not, and VRmid did so only marginally. Air cleaning and local ventilation near strong sources both showed promise. Higher VRs increased indoor concentrations of outdoor air pollutants. Lowering VRs in big box stores in California from VRmax to VRmid would reduce total energy use by an estimated 6.6% and energy costs by 2.5%. Reducing the required VRs in California’s big box stores could reduce energy use and costs, but poses challenges for health and comfort of occupants. Source removal, air cleaning, and local ventilation may be needed at reduced VRs, and even at current recommended VRs. Also, alternative ventilation strategies taking climate and season into account in ventilation schedules may provide greater energy cost savings than constant ventilation rates, while improving IAQ.

  3. Metabolic Profiling Reveals Differences in Plasma Concentrations of Arabinose and Xylose after Consumption of Fiber-Rich Pasta and Wheat Bread with Differential Rates of Systemic Appearance of Exogenous Glucose in Healthy Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantophlet, Andre J; Wopereis, Suzan; Eelderink, Coby; Vonk, Roel J; Stroeve, Johanna H; Bijlsma, Sabina; van Stee, Leo; Bobeldijk, Ivana; Priebe, Marion G

    2017-02-01

    The consumption of products rich in cereal fiber and with a low glycemic index is implicated in a lower risk of metabolic diseases. Previously, we showed that the consumption of fiber-rich pasta compared with bread resulted in a lower rate of appearance of exogenous glucose and a lower glucose clearance rate quantified with a dual-isotope technique, which was in accordance with a lower insulin and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide response. To gain more insight into the acute metabolic consequences of the consumption of products resulting in differential glucose kinetics, postprandial metabolic profiles were determined. In a crossover study, 9 healthy men [mean ± SEM age: 21 ± 0.5 y; mean ± SEM body mass index (kg/m(2)): 22 ± 0.5] consumed wheat bread (132 g) and fresh pasta (119 g uncooked) enriched with wheat bran (10%) meals. A total of 134 different metabolites in postprandial plasma samples (at -5, 30, 60, 90, 120, and 180 min) were quantified by using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-based metabolomics approach (secondary outcomes). Two-factor ANOVA and advanced multivariate statistical analysis (partial least squares) were applied to detect differences between both food products. Forty-two different postprandial metabolite profiles were identified, primarily representing pathways related to protein and energy metabolism, which were on average 8% and 7% lower after the men consumed pasta rather than bread, whereas concentrations of arabinose and xylose were 58% and 53% higher, respectively. Arabinose and xylose are derived from arabinoxylans, which are important components of wheat bran. The higher bioavailability of arabinose and xylose after pasta intake coincided with a lower rate of appearance of glucose and amino acids. We speculate that this higher bioavailability is due to higher degradation of arabinoxylans by small intestinal microbiota, facilitated by the higher viscosity of arabinoxylans after pasta intake than after bread

  4. Does Energy Consumption Volatility Affect Real GDP Volatility? An Empirical Analysis for the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul Rashid; Ozge Kandemir Kocaaslan

    2013-01-01

    This paper empirically examines the relation between energy consumption volatility and unpredictable variations in real gross domestic product (GDP) in the UK. Estimating the Markov switching ARCH model we find a significant regime switching in the behavior of both energy consumption and GDP volatility. The results from the Markov regime-switching model show that the variability of energy consumption has a significant role to play in determining the behavior of GDP volatilities. Moreover, the...

  5. Gross Pollutant Traps: Wet Load Assessment at Sungai Kerayong, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Shah, M. R.; Zahari, N. M.; Said, N. F. Md; Sidek, L. M.; Basri, H.; Noor, M. S. F. Md; Husni, M. M. Mohammad; Jajarmizadeh, Milad; Roseli, ZA; Mohd. Dom, N.

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this project is to carry out assessment on the effectiveness and performance of Gross Pollutant Traps (GPTs) stormwater quality control in the urban areas. The study aims to provide a management and planning tool for effective management of the gross pollutants in the urban areas specifically in River of Life (ROL) project. ROL project is a Malaysian Government initiative under the Economic Transformation Program. One of the program in the greater Klang Valley is to transform Klang River into a vibrant and livable waterfront by the year 2020. The main river in ROL catchment is Sungai Klang (upper catchment), with main tributaries Sungai Gombak, Sungai Batu, Sungai Jinjang, Sungai Keroh, Sungai Bunus, Sungai Ampang and Sungai Kerayong. This paper objective is to study the gross pollutant wet load at Sungai Kerayong 1 and Sungai Kerayong 2 which is located at the downstream location of the ROL project. The result shows that Sungai Kerayong 2 produced higher gross pollutant wet load (8025.33 kg/ha/yr) than Sungai Kerayong 1 (4695.12 kg/ha/yr). This could be due to high contributions amounts of gross pollutant traps from residential area, the degree of develop area, and also the location of the river itself related to climate and rainfall.

  6. Relationships between energy consumption and climate change in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIANHuaisui; YUANShunquan; SUNJiulin; LIZehui

    2004-01-01

    Energy consumption has an inevitable connection with economic level and climate. Based on selected data covering annual total energy consumption and its composition and that of all kinds of energy in 1953-1999, the annual residential energy consumption and the coal and electricity consumption in 1980-1999 in China, the acreage of crops under cultivation suffered from drought and flood annually and gross domestic product (GDP) in 1953-1999 in the whole country, and mean daily temperature data from 29 provincial meteorological stations in the whole country from 1970 to 1999, this paper divides energy consumption into socio-economic energy consumption and climatic energy consumption in the way of multinomial. Itchanges between the climate energy consumption andalso goes further into the relations and their changes between the climate energy consumptionenergy consumption and the economic level inand climate factor and between the socio-economic energy between the climate energy level in China with the method of statistical analysis. At present, there are obvious transitions in the changing relationships of the energy consumption to economy and climate, which comprises the transition of economic system from resource-intensive industry to technology-intensive industry and the transition of climatic driving factors of the energy consumption from driven by the disasters of drought and flood to driven by temperature.

  7. Mineralización bruta de nitrógeno bajo labranza convencional, siembra directa y pastura Gross nitrogen mineralization under conventional tillage, no tillage and pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Videla

    2005-12-01

    de entre 0,47 y 0,97, significativos en todos los momentos. Después de cinco años de implantada, PP produjo un aumento en TMB con respecto a los manejos agrícolas, mientras que el mismo período bajo SD no mejoró las TMB respecto a la LC. Por otro lado, las TCB no presentaron diferencias en respuesta al manejo y ni PP ni SD mejoraron las TNB respecto a LC.The intensification of conventional agriculture in the southeastern Buenos Aires province (Argentine produced soil fertility degradation. No-tillage (SDagriculture and the inclusion of pastures (PP in crop rotations, represent management alternatives to reduce conventional tillage (LC effects. A laboratory experiment was carried out with the aims of: a studying nitrogen mineralization (TMB, nitrification (TNB and consumption (TCB gross rates in a Mollisol under LC, SD and PP and b quantifying the potentially mineralizable nitrogen through anaerobic incubation (NAN and its relation with mineralization rates. The studied soil was a Typic Argiudoll - Petrocalcic Paleudoll complex which had been under conventional tillage for 17 yr until 1994 when it was converted to three different soil management systems: continuous PP and continuous cropping under SD, and under LC. Gross processes were estimated through the 15N dilution technique, adding 15N-labeled (NH42SO4 (10% 15N at. exc. four times during an 35-d incubation period and NAN was determined through short anaerobic incubations. Gross N mineralization rates ranged between 0.17 and 1.36 mg N kg-1 day-1. The soil under PP treatment presented higher TMB than cropping managements. Gross consumption rates ranged between 0.47 and 3.21 mg N kg-1 day-1, being nitrification the most important consumption process for all three management systems (80 %. Cumulative mineralized N (P= 28.6 mg kg-1, SD= 19.7 mg kg-1 and LC= 10.8 mg kg-1 was different among management systems, whereas cumulative consumed N were not (P= 72.6 mg kg-1, SD= 56.9 mg kg-1 and LC= 74.1 mg kg-1. The soil

  8. Construction of the Comprehensive Energy Consumption Assessment Model for Star-rated Hotels and the Difference Analysis%星级酒店综合能耗测评模型构建及差异分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄崎; 康建成; 黄晨皓

    2015-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed a rapid development of star-rated hotels in China, especially high-end star-rated hotels. Consequently, there are now approximately12 000 hotels in China. One bottleneck within the industry is its huge energy consumption and carbon emissions, but the development of a comprehensive energy consumption assessment has lagged. Here, a comprehensive energy consumption and carbon emission model suitable for hospitality is established, using comprehensive data collected for hotels over six years and with reference to general international methods, decomposition analysis methods as recommended by the IPCC, and related standards in China. Our study shows that the maximum comparable unit energy consumption per building area among four- and ifve-star hotels is 73.26 kg ce m-2 y-1. Through energy-saving reconstruction, the comprehensive energy consumption of ifve-star hotels has declined by 4.1% in six years and is smaller than the advanced comparable value of 55 kg ce m-2 y-1. The comparable unit energy consumption per area building of most two- and three-star hotels (53 kg ce m-2 y-1) is higher than the reasonable value. There are large numbers of hotels of this type in China and the potential energy savings are huge. Analyzing factors of energy consumption, we found that indirect carbon emissions from electricity usage are the most signiifcant. From an energy consumption structural perspective, Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) System accounts for most energy consumption. This research provides a foundation for further examination of energy-savings, emission reduction plans and Monitoring Reporting Veriifcation (MRV) in the hospitality sector.%我国星级酒店发展迅速,近几年星级酒店统计数量在12000家左右,其中高星级酒店数量提升较快。行业发展的瓶颈之一就是巨大的能耗与碳排放,但对酒店企业综合能耗测评与评估研究相对滞后。通过对上海等地区酒店长达6

  9. Positive effect of reduced aeration rate on growth and stereospecificity of DL-malic acid consumption by Azospirillum brasilense: improving the shelf life of a liquid inoculant formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco-Espinosa, Karen; García-Cabrera, Ramsés I; Bedoya-López, Andrea; Trujillo-Roldán, Mauricio A; Valdez-Cruz, Norma A

    2015-02-10

    Azospirillum brasilense has significance as a growth promoter in plants of commercial interest. Two industrial native strains (Start and Calf), used as a part of an inoculant formulation in Mexico during the last 15 years, were incubated in laboratory-scale pneumatic bioreactors at different aeration rates. In both strains, the positive effect of decreased aeration was observed. At the lowest (0.1 vvm, air volume/liquid volume×minute), the highest biomass were obtained for Calf (7.8 × 10(10)CFU/ml), and Start (2.9 × 10(9)CFU/ml). These were higher in one magnitude order compared to cultures carried out at 0.5 vvm, and two compared to those at 1.0 vvm. At lower aeration, both stereoisomeric forms of malic acid were consumed, but at higher aeration, just L-malate was consumed. A reduction in aeration allows an increase of the shelf life and the microorganism saved higher concentrations of polyhydroxybutyrate. The selected fermentation conditions are closely related to those prevalent in large-scale bioreactors and offer the possibility of achieving high biomass titles with high shelf life at a reduced costs, due to the complete use of a carbon source at low aeration of a low cost raw material as DL-malic acid mixture in comparison with the L-malic acid stereoisomer.

  10. 75 FR 73998 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; New Pneumatic Tires for Motor Vehicles With a Gross...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ... Vehicle Safety Standards; New Pneumatic Tires for Motor Vehicles With a Gross Vehicle Weight Rating (GVWR... Federal motor vehicle safety standard (FMVSS) that applies to new pneumatic tires for use on vehicles with... (NPRM) proposing to upgrade FMVSS No. 119 (49 CFR 571.119), which applies to new pneumatic tires...

  11. Big like a gym. New business models for public utilities; Gross wie eine Turnhalle. Neue Geschaeftsmodelle fuer Stadtwerke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarzburger, Heiko

    2013-10-01

    Electricity storage is no longer a vision, also in the case of greater power ratings too. The breakthrough is done: ready-to-connect systems are available as complete packages or containers. [German] Stromspeicher sind keine Vision mehr. Auch nicht fuer grosse Leistungen. Der Durchbruch ist geschafft: Anschlussfertige Systeme sind als Container oder Gesamtpakete verfuegbar.

  12. Analysis of the Evolution of the Gross Domestic Product by Means of Cyclic Regressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalin Angelo Ioan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we will carry out an analysis on the regularity of the Gross Domestic Product of a country, in our case the United States. The method of analysis is based on a new method of analysis – the cyclic regressions based on the Fourier series of a function. Another point of view is that of considering instead the growth rate of GDP the speed of variation of this rate, computed as a numerical derivative. The obtained results show a cycle for this indicator for 71 years, the mean square error being 0.93%. The method described allows an prognosis on short-term trends in GDP.

  13. Gross municipal product: the design procedure and application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Vasilevich Kolechkov

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the actual problem to find the adequate methods to assess the economic performance of municipalities conditioned by their growing independence and role in the development of regional economy. Nowadays many researchers are working on the practical application and testing of various approaches to assessing theterritory economicresults based on thecalculation of gross municipal product (GМP. However, the development of methodological reasonable calculation tools is still at an early stage. In this article presents a simplified method of calculating the gross municipal product, an analysis of the dynamics and territorialindustrial structure GМP, implemented in terms of grouping areas GМP methods hierarchical cluster analysis of the economic characteristics of the obtained clustersbased on systematic occurring in the economic literature, methodological developments in the calculation of gross municipal product, determination of strengths and weaknesses of different methodological approaches

  14. Anatomy of the Gross Intestine of the Capybara (Hydrochoerus Hydrochaeris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelia Vazquez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The anatomy of the gross intestine and its mesentery of the capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris have not been described completely. Approach: In the present study, eight adult capybaras were studied using gross dissection. Results: The cecum was the largest part of the intestine and was divided into base, body and apex. The cecocolic fold joined the cecum to the full extent of the proximal loop of ascending colon. The ascending colon was divided into two ansae, one proximal and one distal or spiral. The distal ansa had a spiral arrangement and was placed cranially to the right, covered ventrally by the apex of the cecum. This ansa had a centripetal gyrus to the left, a central flexure and a centrifugal gyrus turning to the right that was continuous with the transverse colon in the right colic flexure. Conclusion: The gross intestine of the capybara was different to other previously studied rodents.

  15. Potato production in Europe - a gross margin analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren Marcus; Bizik, Jan; Costa, Luisa Dalla;

    The purpose of this paper is to examine different cropping practices, cost structures and gross margins for producing conventional table potatoes in 6 different regions within the European Union: Czech Republic, Denmark, Italy, Poland, Portugal and Slovakia. Findings from this study show that pot......The purpose of this paper is to examine different cropping practices, cost structures and gross margins for producing conventional table potatoes in 6 different regions within the European Union: Czech Republic, Denmark, Italy, Poland, Portugal and Slovakia. Findings from this study show...... that potato cropping practices varies signifi-cantly between these countries with major differences in yields and costs. Italy and Denmark are the two regions with highest gross margins due to high yields and reve-nues. Poland is by far the largest potato producing country among the 6 countries ex...

  16. Study on Relationship of Energy Consumption and Economic Growth in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang-wei, Li; Xun-gang, Zheng

    Energy is one of the most basic materials of the national economy, which plays an important role in national productin and life. The relationship between energy consumption and economic growth has been a fascinating question since energy crisis in 70s of last century. This paper analyzes the relationship between energy consumption and economic development based on the VAR model using temporal series of China from 1990 to 2009, then uses impulse response function and variance decomposition to portray the correlations between economic growth and energy consumption. The result shows that there exists a unidirectional causality from energy consumption to gross domestic product and energy consumption can observably promote the development of economy.

  17. Ludwik Gross, Sarah Stewart, and the 1950s discoveries of Gross murine leukemia virus and polyoma virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Gregory J

    2014-12-01

    The Polish-American scientist Ludwik Gross made two important discoveries in the early 1950s. He showed that two viruses - murine leukemia virus and parotid tumor virus - could cause cancer when they were injected into susceptible animals. At first, Gross's discoveries were greeted with skepticism: it seemed implausible that viruses could cause a disease as complex as cancer. Inspired by Gross's initial experiments, similar results were obtained by Sarah Stewart and Bernice Eddy who later renamed the parotid tumor virus SE polyoma virus after finding it could cause many different types of tumors in mice, hamsters, and rats. Eventually the "SE" was dropped and virologists adopted the name "polyoma virus." After Gross's work was published, additional viruses capable of causing solid tumors or blood-borne tumors in mice were described by Arnold Graffi, Charlotte Friend, John Moloney and others. By 1961, sufficient data had been accumulated for Gross to confidently publish an extensive monograph--Oncogenic Viruses--the first history of tumor virology, which became a standard reference work and marked the emergence of tumor virology as a distinct, legitimate field of study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Numerical simulation for the Gross-Pitaevskii equation based on the lattice Boltzmann method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huimin

    2017-09-01

    A lattice Boltzmann model for the Gross-Pitaevskii equation is proposed in this paper. Some numerical tests for one- and two-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation have been conducted. The waves of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation are simulated. Numerical results show that the lattice Boltzmann method is an effective method for the wave of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation.

  19. 29 CFR 779.259 - What is included in annual gross volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is included in annual gross volume. 779.259 Section... Coverage Annual Gross Volume of Sales Made Or Business Done § 779.259 What is included in annual gross volume. (a) The annual gross volume of sales made or business done of an enterprise consists of its...

  20. 29 CFR 794.122 - Ascertainment of “annual” gross sales volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ascertainment of âannualâ gross sales volume. 794.122... Annual Gross Volume of Sales § 794.122 Ascertainment of “annual” gross sales volume. The annual gross volume of sales of an enterprise engaged in the wholesale or bulk distribution of petroleum...

  1. Happy Life Years: a measure of Gross National Happiness

    OpenAIRE

    Veenhoven, Ruut

    2004-01-01

    textabstractHappiness is defined as the degree to which a person enjoys his or her life-as-a-whole. Accordingly ‘Gross National Happiness’ is defined as the degree to which citizens in a country enjoy the life they live. Individual happiness can be measured by self-report on a single standard question. Hence Gross National Happiness can be measured by the average response to such questions in general populations surveys. Survey data on average self-report of happiness can be combined with est...

  2. The Impact of Investments and Gross Value Added upon Earnings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa APARASCHIVEI

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we tried to capture the impact of investments and gross value added, but also the impact of the employment on the average wage. The analysis refers to the period 1998- 2008 and we are using data on the activities of the Romanian economy. The results of this study confirm the negative influence of the employment, being consistent with the theory. Also, the impact of investments and that of gross value added came out to be positive and significant.

  3. Revised Phase Diagram of the Gross-Neveu Model

    CERN Document Server

    Thies, M; Thies, Michael; Urlichs, Konrad

    2003-01-01

    We confirm earlier hints that the conventional phase diagram of the discrete chiral Gross-Neveu model in the large N limit is deficient at non-zero chemical potential. We present the corrected phase diagram constructed in mean field theory. It has three different phases, including a kink-antikink crystal phase. All transitions are second order. The driving mechanism for the new structure of baryonic matter in the Gross-Neveu model is an Overhauser type instability with gap formation at the Fermi surface.

  4. Analysis of Energy Consumption in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhou; Tong Lizhi; Sun Juan

    2010-01-01

    @@ 1. Present characteristics of Beijing's energy consumption 1.1 The slowing of the growth in total energy consumption In 2008, Beijing's total energy consumption reached 63.437 million tons of standard coal, an increase of 586.6 thousand tons compared with the previous year. The increasing range was 1%, dropping 5.45% compared with the previous year, as shown in Figure 1. Since 2005, the annual growth rate of the total energy consumption showed a decreasing trend each year. The city's GDP over the same period reached RMB 1.048803 trillion, increasing 9%. The energy consumption rate fell clearly. In 2008, the energy consumption rate was 0.61 tons of standard coal per 10 thousand yuan GDP, a decline of 7.4%. It continued the favorable condition of 2007's energy saving.

  5. A panel study of nuclear energy consumption and economic growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apergis, Nicholas [Department of Banking and Financial Management, University of Piraeus, Karaoli and Dimitriou 80, Piraeus, ATTIKI 18534 (Greece); Payne, James E. [Interim Dean and Professor of Economics, College of Arts and Sciences, Illinois State University, Normal, IL 61790-4100 (United States)

    2010-05-15

    This study examines the relationship between nuclear energy consumption and economic growth for sixteen countries within a multivariate panel framework over the period 1980-2005. Pedroni's (1999, 2004) heterogeneous panel cointegration test reveals there is a long-run equilibrium relationship between real GDP, nuclear energy consumption, real gross fixed capital formation, and the labor force with the respective coefficients positive and statistically significant. The results of the panel vector error correction model finds bidirectional causality between nuclear energy consumption and economic growth in the short-run while unidirectional causality from nuclear energy consumption to economic growth in the long-run. Thus, the results provide support for the feedback hypothesis associated with the relationship between nuclear energy consumption and economic growth. (author)

  6. The effect of aqueous extract of gross and commercial yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis) on intra-abdominal and epididymal fat and glucose levels in male Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Raquel D'Agostini; Bueno, Audrin Loss Scopel; Gallon, Carin Weirich; Gomes, Luana Ferreira; Kaiser, Samuel; Pavei, Cabral; Ortega, George González; Kucharski, Luiz Carlos; Jahn, Matheus Parmegiani

    2011-09-01

    This study analyzed the plasma lipid profile, glucose levels and fat deposits in male rats treated with aqueous extract of gross yerba mate, commercial yerba mate or water. Yerba mate treatment did not change body weight gain and lipid profile. The consumption of gross yerba mate significantly increased blood glucose (6.6 mmol/L) as compared to the water (4.8 mmol/L) and commercial group (5.2 mmol/L) and decreased epididymal and intra-abdominal deposits (10.1mg/g and 23.7 mg/g of weight) as compared to the water (15.4 mg/g and 36.9 mg/g of weight) and commercial group (12.5mg/g and 28 mg/g of weight). The results suggest that gross yerba mate reduces fat more efficiently but produces a greater increase in blood glucose when compared to commercial yerba mate and water groups.

  7. Dietary lipid and gross energy affect protein utilization in the rare minnow Gobiocypris rarus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Benli; Xiong, Xiaoqin; Xie, Shouqi; Wang, Jianwei

    2016-07-01

    An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to detect the optimal dietary protein and energy, as well as the effects of protein to energy ratio on growth, for the rare minnow ( Gobiocypris rarus), which are critical to nutrition standardization for model fish. Twenty-four diets were formulated to contain three gross energy (10, 12.5, 15 kJ/g), four protein (20%, 25%, 30%, 35%), and two lipid levels (3%, 6%). The results showed that optimal dietary E/P was 41.7-50 kJ/g for maximum growth in juvenile rare minnows at 6% dietary crude lipid. At 3% dietary lipid, specific growth rate (SGR) increased markedly when E/P decreased from 62.5 kJ/g to 35.7 kJ/g and gross energy was 12.5 kJ/g, and from 75 kJ/g to 42.9 kJ/g when gross energy was 15.0 kJ/g. The optimal gross energy was estimated at 12.5 kJ/g and excess energy decreased food intake and growth. Dietary lipid exhibited an apparent protein-sparing effect. Optimal protein decreased from 35% to 25%-30% with an increase in dietary lipid from 3% to 6% without adversely effecting growth. Dietary lipid level affects the optimal dietary E/P ratio. In conclusion, recommended dietary protein and energy for rare minnow are 20%-35% and 10-12.5 kJ/g, respectively.

  8. 温度和盐度对岱衢族大黄鱼排氨率和耗氧率的影响%Effects of temperature and salinity on ammonia excretion rate and oxygen consumption rate of Dai-qu stock large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭念岗; 吴雄飞; 沈伟良

    2014-01-01

    采用静水封闭的实验方法研究了温度(8℃、14℃、20℃、26℃、31℃)和盐度(5、15、25、35)对体质量353.2 g岱衢族大黄鱼( Pseudosciaena crocea)排氨率和耗氧率的影响,同时测定其在不同温度下浮头点和窒息点。结果显示,随着温度升高,排氨率和耗氧率均先增大后减小,在26℃时两者达到最大值,温度对两者存在显著影响( P<0�05);随着盐度的升高,排氨率和耗氧率均先增大后减小,盐度25时两者达到最大值,盐度对两者存在显著影响( P<0.05);浮头点和窒息点随着温度上升呈现先降低后升高趋势,在14℃达最小值,温度对浮头点和窒息点存在显著影响(P<0.05)。研究认为,在温度26℃、盐度25的环境条件下,岱衢族大黄鱼代谢旺盛,是其比较适合的生长条件;14℃可以作为苗种运输时的温度。%The effects of temperature ( 8 ℃, 14 ℃, 20 ℃, 26 ℃, 31 ℃) and salinity ( 5, 15, 25, 35 ) on ammonia excretion rate and oxygen consumption rate of Dai-qu stock large yellow croaker ( Pseudosciaena crocea) with average body weight of 353.2 g were determined by sealed-still water experimental methods, and the floating point and the suffocation point at different temperatures were measured as well. The results showed that both of the ammonia excretion rate and oxygen consumption rate of Dai-qu large yellow croaker were both increased first and then decreased with temperature rose, and they reached to the maximum value of 26 ℃. Water temperature had significant effects on ammonia excretion rate and oxygen consumption rate ( P<0.05) . Ammonia excretion rate and oxygen consumption of the fish increased first and then reduced with salinity rose, and they reached to the maximum value of salinity 25. Salinity had significant effects on the ammonia excretion rate and oxygen consumption rate (P<0.05). With the temperature rose, the floating

  9. Monitoring of gross alpha, gross beta and actinides activities in exhaust air released from the waste isolation pilot plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thakur, P., E-mail: pthakur@cemrc.org [Carlsbad Environmental Monitoring and Research Center, 1400 University Drive, Carlsbad, New Mexico 88220 (United States); Mulholland, G.P. [Carlsbad Environmental Monitoring and Research Center, 1400 University Drive, Carlsbad, New Mexico 88220 (United States)

    2011-09-15

    The simultaneous measurements of gross alpha and beta activities is one of the simplest radioanalytical technique used as a method for screening samples of both high and low activities of alpha and beta emitting radionuclides in environmental and bioassay samples. Such measurements are of great interest from both a radiological, waste disposal viewpoint, and to establish a trend of radioactivity based on long term monitoring. At the WIPP (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant) site, unfiltered exhaust air from the underground repository is the most important effluent. As part of its monitoring program, the particulates from WIPP exhaust air are collected everyday at a location typically called the Fixed Air Sampler (FAS) site or Station A, this site is located at the release point for aerosol effluents from the underground to the environment. The measurements of gross alpha and beta activity on air filter samples were performed using an ultra low level counter, PIC-MPC 9604-{alpha}/{beta}, from Protean Instrument Corporation. The high sensitivity of the gross alpha and beta instrument enables detection of low value activity from the air filters. In 2009, the values of gross alpha and beta activity concentrations ranged from Simultaneous measurements of gross alpha and gross beta activities in the particulates from WIPP exhaust air were performed. > Ultra low level counter, PIC-MPC 9604-{alpha}/{beta} counter was used for the measurements. > Values of gross alpha activity concentrations ranged from Values of gross beta activity concentrations ranged from

  10. 26 CFR 1.555-2 - Additions to gross income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Corporation sells 90percent of its stock in the Y Corporation and thus is a minority shareholder in the Y... on which the required United States group exists, and (2) Such foreign corporation is a shareholder... the gross income of its shareholders, whether United States shareholders or other foreign...

  11. Comments on the research article by Gross et al. (2012)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guntur, Srinivas; Sørensen, Niels N.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this Letter to the Editor is to present a discussion on the physics of rotational augmentation based on existing work. One of the latest works by Gross et al. (2012) is highlighted here, and its conclusions are discussed. Based on the existing understanding of rotational augmentati...

  12. Effective Collaboration among the Gross Motor Assessment Team Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menear, Kristi S.; Davis, Timothy D.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the gross motor assessment team (GMAT) members' roles and collaborative approach to making appropriate decisions and modifications when addressing the needs of individuals with disabilities in physical education. Case studies of students are used to demonstrate effective uses of the GMAT. The primary outcome of the GMAT's…

  13. 40 CFR 403.15 - Net/Gross calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... STANDARDS GENERAL PRE-TREAT-MENT REGULATIONS FOR EXIST-ING AND NEW SOURCES OF POLLUTION § 403.15 Net/Gross... pollutants in the Industrial User's intake water in accordance with this section. Any Industrial User wishing... of the Industrial User, the applicable Standard will be calculated on a “net” basis (i.e., adjusted...

  14. Rubriek 'Meten in de praktijk': Gross Motor Function Measure.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenhof, C.; Ketelaar, M.

    2004-01-01

    De Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) is een instrument dat de grof-motorische vaardigheden meet van kinderen met cerebrale parese. De GMFM is expliciet ontwikkeld als evaluatief meetinstrument, wat betekent dat het bedoeld is om veranderingen over de tijd of verandering en die optreden na behandel

  15. Development of the Gross Motor Function Classification System (1997)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    To address the need for a standardized system to classify the gross motor function of children with cerebral palsy, the authors developed a five-level classification system analogous to the staging and grading systems used in medicine. Nominal group process and Delphi survey consensus methods were used to examine content validity and revise the…

  16. Effective Collaboration among the Gross Motor Assessment Team Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menear, Kristi S.; Davis, Timothy D.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the gross motor assessment team (GMAT) members' roles and collaborative approach to making appropriate decisions and modifications when addressing the needs of individuals with disabilities in physical education. Case studies of students are used to demonstrate effective uses of the GMAT. The primary outcome of the GMAT's…

  17. Assessing Gross Motor Skills of Kosovar Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shala, Merita

    2009-01-01

    In the light of the new developments in preschool education in Kosovo, this study attempts to carry out an assessment of the development of gross motor skills of preschool children attending institutional education. The emphasis is on creating a set of tests to measure the motor attainments of these children by conducting assessments of the…

  18. Gross and Microscopic Lesions in Corals from Micronesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, T M; Aeby, G S; Hughen, K A

    2016-01-01

    The authors documented gross and microscopic morphology of lesions in corals on 7 islands spanning western, southern, and eastern Micronesia, sampling 76 colonies comprising 30 species of corals among 18 genera, with Acropora, Porites, and Montipora dominating. Tissue loss comprised the majority of gross lesions sampled (41%), followed by discoloration (30%) and growth anomaly (29%). Of 31 cases of tissue loss, most lesions were subacute (48%), followed by acute and chronic (26% each). Of 23 samples with discoloration, most were dark discoloration (40%), with bleaching and other discoloration each constituting 30%. Of 22 growth anomalies, umbonate growth anomalies composed half, with exophytic, nodular, and rugose growth anomalies composing the remainder. On histopathology, for 9 cases of dark discoloration, fungal infections predominated (77%); for 7 bleached corals, depletion of zooxanthellae from the gastrodermis made up a majority of microscopic diagnoses (57%); and for growth anomalies other than umbonate, hyperplasia of the basal body wall was the most common microscopic finding (63%). For the remainder of the gross lesions, no single microscopic finding constituted >50% of the total. Host response varied with the agent present on histology. Fragmentation of tissues was most often associated with algae (60%), whereas necrosis dominated (53%) for fungi. Two newly documented potentially symbiotic tissue-associated metazoans were seen in Porites and Montipora. Findings of multiple potential etiologies for a given gross lesion highlight the importance of incorporating histopathology in coral disease surveys. This study also expands the range of corals infected with cell-associated microbial aggregates.

  19. Gross and microscopic lesions in corals from Micronesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, Thierry M.; Aeby, Greta S.; Hughen, Konrad A.

    2015-01-01

    The authors documented gross and microscopic morphology of lesions in corals on 7 islands spanning western, southern, and eastern Micronesia, sampling 76 colonies comprising 30 species of corals among 18 genera, with Acropora, Porites, and Montipora dominating. Tissue loss comprised the majority of gross lesions sampled (41%), followed by discoloration (30%) and growth anomaly (29%). Of 31 cases of tissue loss, most lesions were subacute (48%), followed by acute and chronic (26% each). Of 23 samples with discoloration, most were dark discoloration (40%), with bleaching and other discoloration each constituting 30%. Of 22 growth anomalies, umbonate growth anomalies composed half, with exophytic, nodular, and rugose growth anomalies composing the remainder. On histopathology, for 9 cases of dark discoloration, fungal infections predominated (77%); for 7 bleached corals, depletion of zooxanthellae from the gastrodermis made up a majority of microscopic diagnoses (57%); and for growth anomalies other than umbonate, hyperplasia of the basal body wall was the most common microscopic finding (63%). For the remainder of the gross lesions, no single microscopic finding constituted >50% of the total. Host response varied with the agent present on histology. Fragmentation of tissues was most often associated with algae (60%), whereas necrosis dominated (53%) for fungi. Two newly documented potentially symbiotic tissue-associated metazoans were seen in Porites and Montipora. Findings of multiple potential etiologies for a given gross lesion highlight the importance of incorporating histopathology in coral disease surveys. This study also expands the range of corals infected with cell-associated microbial aggregates.

  20. Happy Life Years: a measure of Gross National Happiness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractHappiness is defined as the degree to which a person enjoys his or her life-as-a-whole. Accordingly ‘Gross National Happiness’ is defined as the degree to which citizens in a country enjoy the life they live. Individual happiness can be measured by self-report on a single standard

  1. Strategic improvements for gross anatomy web-based teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marker, David R; Juluru, Krishna; Long, Chris; Magid, Donna

    2012-01-01

    Current generations of graduate students have been immersed in technology from their early school years and have high expectations regarding digital resources. To better meet the expectations of Gross Anatomy students at our institution, electronic radiology teaching files for first-year coursework were organized into a web site. The web site was custom designed to provide material that directly correlated to the Gross Anatomy dissection and lectures. Quick links provided sets of images grouped by anatomic location. Additionally, Lab and Study Companions provided specific material for the students to review prior to and after lectures and gross dissections. Student opinions of this education resource were compared to student opinions of the prior year's digital teaching files. The new content was ranked as more user friendly (3.1 points versus 2.3 points) and more useful for learning anatomy (3.3 points versus 2.6 points). Many students reported that using the web portal was critical in helping them to better understand relationships of anatomical structures. These findings suggest that a well-organized web portal can provide a user-friendly, valuable educational resource for medical students who are studying Gross Anatomy.

  2. Fine and Gross Motor Ability in Males with ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Both fine and gross motor abilities were evaluated in 10-year-old males with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and compared to a group of control children at the School of Psychology, Curtin University of Technology, Perth, Australia.

  3. Construction of 2-dimensional Grosse-Wulkenhaar Model

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Zhituo

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we construct the noncommutative Grosse-Wulkenhaar model on 2-dimensional Moyal plane with the method of loop vertex expansion. We treat renormalization with this new tool, adapt Nelson's argument and prove Borel summability of the perturbation series. This is the first non-commutative quantum field theory model to be built in a non-perturbative sense.

  4. Monopol suretab kohaliku loomakasvataja / Oleg Gross ; interv . Illar Mõttus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Gross, Oleg, 1952-

    2005-01-01

    Väike-Maarja jäätmetehase monopoolse seisundi vastu sõna võtnud OG Elektra omanik Oleg Gross on kindel, et jäätmetehasega suretatakse kohalikud väiksemad lihatootjad välja. Kommenteerivad talupidaja Jüri Järvet ja Rakvere Lihakombinaadi direktor Olle Horm

  5. ɛ-expansion in the Gross-Neveu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, Avinash

    2016-10-01

    We use the recently developed CFT techniques of Rychkov and Tan to compute anomalous dimensions in the O( N ) Gross-Neveu model in d = 2 + ɛ dimensions. To do this, we extend the "cowpie contraction" algorithm of arXiv:1506.06616 to theories with fermions. Our results match perfectly with Feynman diagram computations.

  6. Barn music at St Donat's castle / Philip Gross

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Gross, Philip, 1952-

    2011-01-01

    Muusikafestivalist "Vale of Glamorgan", mis oli 2010. a. pühendatud Arvo Pärdile. Eesti kammermuusikaansambli Resonabilis kavas oli ka festivali tellimusel valminud uelsi helilooja Gareth Peredur Churchilli "Vocable", mille teksti kirjutas Philip Gross. Festivalikontsertide muljeid leiab Grossi luuletsüklis "Barn music" (avaldatud samas ajakirjanumbris, lk. 42-43)

  7. Samuel D. Gross: the nestor of American surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo-Pereyra, Luis H

    2006-01-01

    Samuel David Gross (1805-1884) represented the most notable surgeon of his generation and was honored with the title of "The Nestor of American Surgeon" by surgeon biographer Isaac Minis Hays. Of Pennsylvania Dutch stock, he was born on the family farm near Easton, Pennsylvania. He attended Wilkebarré Academy and Lawrenceville High School, noted private institutions of the day. He apprenticed under Doctor Joseph K. Swift of Easton and later with Professor George McClellan while in Philadelphia. In 1828, he graduated from Jefferson Medical College and remained for a short time in Philadelphia. Professor Gross focused his professional pursuits in the cities of Easton (1830-1833), Cincinnati (1833-1840), Louisville (1840-1856), and Philadelphia (1856-1882). He retired from Jefferson Medical College two years before his death in 1884. Samuel D. Gross' contributions to surgery were numerous and diverse. He was recognized as a prolific author of classic texts of pathology, surgery, and history, an educator, a leader, a surgical researcher, and a pioneer surgeon practitioner. His influence in national affairs was immense, and his recognition as a respected surgeon was unmatched. He remains the most distinguished surgeon of his times. History values him as a hard working, honest, highly competent, and committed individual. His capacity for work and his dedication to a single cause were unrivaled. Doctor Gross integrated the best that surgery could give to future generations of surgical professionals.

  8. Attitudes of Healthcare Students on Gross Anatomy Laboratory Sessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashiro, Yukiko; Anahara, Reiko; Kohno, Toshihiko; Mori, Chisato; Matsuno, Yoshiharu

    2009-01-01

    At Chiba University, gross anatomy laboratory sessions ("laboratories") are required for physical therapy students. Though most physical therapy schools require their students to participate in laboratories so that they will better understand the structure of the human body, few data exist on the value of these laboratories specifically…

  9. Uniqueness of Meromorphic Functions and Question of Gross

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仪洪勋

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, we deal with the problem of uniqueness of meromorphic functions. It is shown that there exist two finite sets Sj (j=1, 2) such that any two nonconstant meromorphic functions f and g satisfying Ef(Sj)=Eg(Sj) for j = 1,2 must be identical, which answers a question posed by Gross.

  10. Interlimb Coordination: An Important Facet of Gross-Motor Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobbio, Tatiana; Gabbard, Carl; Cacola, Priscila

    2009-01-01

    Motor development attains landmark significance during early childhood. Although early childhood educators may be familiar with the gross-motor skill category, the subcategory of interlimb coordination needs greater attention than it typically receives from teachers of young children. Interlimb coordination primarily involves movements requiring…

  11. Barn music at St Donat's castle / Philip Gross

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Gross, Philip, 1952-

    2011-01-01

    Muusikafestivalist "Vale of Glamorgan", mis oli 2010. a. pühendatud Arvo Pärdile. Eesti kammermuusikaansambli Resonabilis kavas oli ka festivali tellimusel valminud uelsi helilooja Gareth Peredur Churchilli "Vocable", mille teksti kirjutas Philip Gross. Festivalikontsertide muljeid leiab Grossi luuletsüklis "Barn music" (avaldatud samas ajakirjanumbris, lk. 42-43)

  12. 75 FR 15610 - Exclusions From Gross Income of Foreign Corporations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 Exclusions From Gross Income of Foreign Corporations CFR Correction In Title 26 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 1 (Sec. Sec. 1.851 to 1.907), revised as...

  13. Gross Motor Development, Movement Abnormalities, and Early Identification of Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozonoff, Sally; Young, Gregory S.; Goldring, Stacy; Greiss-Hess, Laura; Herrera, Adriana M.; Steele, Joel; Macari, Suzanne; Hepburn, Susan; Rogers, Sally J.

    2008-01-01

    Gross motor development (supine, prone, rolling, sitting, crawling, walking) and movement abnormalities were examined in the home videos of infants later diagnosed with autism (regression and no regression subgroups), developmental delays (DD), or typical development. Group differences in maturity were found for walking, prone, and supine, with…

  14. Outcomes of a Rotational Dissection System in Gross Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshak, David W.; Oakes, Joanne; Hsieh, Pei-Hsuan; Chuang, Alice Z.; Cleary, Leonard J.

    2015-01-01

    At the University of Texas Houston Medical School, a rotational dissection system was introduced to improve coordination between the Gross Anatomy and the Introduction to Clinical Medicine (ICM) courses. Six students were assigned to each cadaver and divided into two teams. For each laboratory, one team was assigned to dissect and the other to…

  15. Strategic Improvements for Gross Anatomy Web-Based Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Marker

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Current generations of graduate students have been immersed in technology from their early school years and have high expectations regarding digital resources. To better meet the expectations of Gross Anatomy students at our institution, electronic radiology teaching files for first-year coursework were organized into a web site. The web site was custom designed to provide material that directly correlated to the Gross Anatomy dissection and lectures. Quick links provided sets of images grouped by anatomic location. Additionally, Lab and Study Companions provided specific material for the students to review prior to and after lectures and gross dissections. Student opinions of this education resource were compared to student opinions of the prior year’s digital teaching files. The new content was ranked as more user friendly (3.1 points versus 2.3 points and more useful for learning anatomy (3.3 points versus 2.6 points. Many students reported that using the web portal was critical in helping them to better understand relationships of anatomical structures. These findings suggest that a well-organized web portal can provide a user-friendly, valuable educational resource for medical students who are studying Gross Anatomy.

  16. Energy consumption: energy consumption in mainland Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnussen, Inger Helene; Killingland, Magnus; Spilde, Dag

    2012-07-25

    The purpose of this report is to describe trends in energy consumption in mainland Norway, with an emphasis on key trends within the largest consumer groups. We also explain common terms and concepts in the field of energy consumption. Finally, we look at forecasts for future energy consumption, produced by bodies outside NVE. Total final energy consumption in mainland Norway in 2009 was 207 TWh. The most important end-user groups are households, service industries, manufacturing industry and transport. In addition, the energy sector in mainland Norway consumed 15 TWh. Energy consumed in the energy sector is not considered as final consumption, as the energy is used to produce new energy products. The long-term trend in energy consumption in mainland Norway is that fuel in the transport sector and electricity for the energy sector increases, while energy consumption in other sectors flattens out. The main reason for an increased use of fuel in the transport sector is the rise in the number of motorised machinery and vehicles in mainland Norway. This has caused a rise in gasoline and diesel consumption of 75 per cent since 1976. The petroleum sector is the largest consumer of energy within the energy sector in mainland Norway, and electricity from onshore to platforms in the North Sea and to new shore side installations has led to a rise in electricity consumption from 1 TWh in 1995 to 5 TWh in 2009. The energy consumption in households showed flat trend from 1996 to 2009, after many years of growth. The main reasons are a warmer climate, higher energy prices, the use of heats pumps and more energy-efficient buildings. In the service industries, the growth in energy consumptions has slightly decreased since the late 1990s, for much the same reasons as for households. In manufacturing industries the energy consumption have flatten out mainly due to the closure of energy-intensive businesses and the establishment of new more energy-efficient businesses. Electricity is

  17. Prediction of the fuel consumption of heavy goods vehicles by computer simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renouf, M.A.

    The requirement for a computer simulation model of the fuel consumption of Heavy Goods Vehicles is identified and a model is defined. Different operating conditions are simulated and the results compared with those produced by an instrumented articulated vehicle operating at different gross vehicle weights. A comparison is made over short distances and defined conditions on the TRRL test track, and definition of driver behavior enables the experimental situation to be represented. Longer road routes including sections of urban, rural and motorway roads were also simulated and the model accurately predicted the fuel consumption for all gross vehicle weights tested.

  18. Climate change amplifies gross nitrogen turnover in montane grasslands of Central Europe both in summer and winter seasons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhe; Wang, Changhui; Unteregelsbacher, Sebastian; Lu, Haiyan; Gschwendtner, Silvia; Gasche, Rainer; Kolar, Allison; Schloter, Michael; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus; Dannenmann, Michael

    2016-04-01

    The carbon and nitrogen rich soils of montane grasslands are exposed to above average warming and to altered precipitation patterns as a result of global change. In order to investigate the consequences of climatic change for soil nitrogen turnover, we translocated intact plant-soil mesocosms along an elevational gradient. Following three years of equilibration, we monitored the dynamics of gross nitrogen turnover and ammonia oxidizing microbes over an entire year. Gross nitrogen turnover and gene levels of ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and archaea (AOA) showed pronounced seasonal dynamics. While both summer and winter periods equally contributed to cumulative annual N turnover, the highest gross N turnover and abundance of ammonia oxidizers were observed in frozen soil of climate change sites due to physical liberation of organic substrates and their rapid turnover in the unfrozen soil water film. The control site never experienced soil freezing due to a significant insulating snowpack. Climate change conditions accelerated gross N mineralization by 250% on average. The AOB community benefited more from increased soil ammonium production under climate change conditions than the AOA community and thus accounted for a significant increase in gross nitrification rates. Climate change impacts were restricted to the 2-6 cm topsoil and rarely occurred at 12-16 cm depth, where generally much lower N turnover was observed. Mineralization pulses in a changing climate may result in soil organic matter loss with their associated negative impacts on key soil functions. In this context, N cycling processes in frozen soil can be a hot spot for gross N turnover and thus be of paramount importance for understanding seasonal patterns, annual sum of N turnover and possible climate change feedbacks.

  19. Energy consumption projection of Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parajuli, Ranjan; Østergaard, Poul Alberg; Dalgaard, Tommy

    2014-01-01

    differing from each other on the basis of growth rates of economic indicators: total GDP, GDP-agriculture, GDP-trade, GDP-industry, and other variables including growth in private consumptions, population, transport vehicles numbers, prices of fossil fuels etc. Scenarios are: Business as Usual (BAU), Medium...

  20. LTE UE Power Consumption Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders Riis; Lauridsen, Mads; Mogensen, Preben

    2012-01-01

    is based on a review of the major power consuming parts in an LTE UE radio modem. The model includes functions of UL and DL power and data rate. Measurements on a commercial LTE USB dongle were used to assign realistic power consumption values to each model parameter. Verification measurements...

  1. Consumption Habits and Humps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft, Holger; Munk, Claus; Seifried, Frank Thomas

    We show that the optimal consumption of an individual over the life cycle can have the hump shape (inverted U-shape) observed empirically if the preferences of the individual exhibit internal habit formation. In the absence of habit formation, an impatient individual would prefer a decreasing...... consumption path over life. However, because of habit formation, a high initial consumption would lead to high required consumption in the future. To cover the future required consumption, wealth is set aside, but the necessary amount decreases with age which allows consumption to increase in the early part...... of life. At some age, the impatience outweighs the habit concerns so that consumption starts to decrease. We derive the optimal consumption strategy in closed form, deduce sufficient conditions for the presence of a consumption hump, and characterize the age at which the hump occurs. Numerical examples...

  2. Consumption Habits and Humps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft, Holger; Munk, Claus; Seifried, Frank Thomas

    2017-01-01

    We show that the optimal consumption of an individual over the life cycle can have the hump shape (inverted U-shape) observed empirically if the preferences of the individual exhibit internal habit formation. In the absence of habit formation, an impatient individual would prefer a decreasing...... consumption path over life. However, because of habit formation, a high initial consumption would lead to high required consumption in the future. To cover the future required consumption, wealth is set aside, but the necessary amount decreases with age which allows consumption to increase in the early part...... of life. At some age, the impatience outweighs the habit concerns so that consumption starts to decrease. We derive the optimal consumption strategy in closed form, deduce sufficient conditions for the presence of a consumption hump, and characterize the age at which the hump occurs. Numerical examples...

  3. Regional Inequalities in Contemporary China Measured by GDP and Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Z Zhang; Yao, S.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive picture of China?s regional inequality from 1952 to 1999 using newly released data on consumption and gross domestic product (GDP) at the provincial level. Although there are many studies on regional inequality in China, this paper is the first attempt to evaluate regional inequalities before and after the economic reforms for a time span of almost half a century. Our results show that inter-regional inequality widens over time, either measured by per capit...

  4. Consumption as a Factor of Polish Economic Growth During the Global Recession of 2008/2009: A Comparison with Spain and Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Jasiński

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The economic recession of 2007-2009 proved to be a difficult period for most European economies. Poland was among the few countries that recorded positive gross domestic product (GDP growth during that period. The main reason for its performance was that private consumption stimulated the GDP. The goal of this study was to explore the reasons that private consumption in Poland did not collapse during the economic recession through the substantial economic literature on this topic. The study compared Spain, Hungary and Poland from 2007 to 2009 to find differences specific to the latter. The most important factors differentiating Poland identified in this study were the confidence of Polish consumers in the economy and a high propensity to spend resulting in lower savings. Additional factors were a relatively low unemployment rate and relatively easy access to credit.

  5. Measurements of gross erosion of Al in the DIII-D divertor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chrobak, C., E-mail: chrobak@fusion.gat.com [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Stangeby, P.C. [University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies, Toronto M3H 5T6 (Canada); Leonard, A.W. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Rudakov, D.L. [University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, CA 92093-0417 (United States); Wong, C.P.C. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); McLean, A.G. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 700 East Ave, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Wright, G.M. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Buchenauer, D.A.; Watkins, J.G.; Wampler, W.R. [Sandia National Laboratory, P.O. Box 5800, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States); Elder, J.D. [University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies, Toronto M3H 5T6 (Canada); Doerner, R.P.; Nishijima, D.; Tynan, G.R. [University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, CA 92093-0417 (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Aluminum (Al) is a convenient proxy for beryllium (Be) plasma material interaction studies since they have a number of physical and chemical similarities. Al samples were exposed at the lower outer strike point of an L-mode divertor plasma in DIII-D (conditions 7–11 × 10{sup 18} D-ions cm{sup −2} s{sup −1}, T{sub e} = 12–47 eV). The gross erosion rate was directly measured using post-mortem ion beam analysis of small 1 mm-sized samples where local re-deposition was determined to be negligible. The gross erosion rate was also calculated using spectroscopic methods, but these rates greatly underestimate the direct (i.e. non-spectroscopic) measurement. The direct measured erosion yields were within the range of published D{sup +} → Al ion beam sputtering yields. The ionizations per photon (S/XB) coefficients used in the spectroscopic analysis were determined in separate experiments using He plasmas at the PISCES-B linear plasma facility at UCSD. The measured S/XB coefficients were on average ∼6× higher than the theoretically calculated values.

  6. Vast Portfolio Selection with Gross-exposure Constraints*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jianqing; Zhang, Jingjin; Yu, Ke

    2012-01-01

    We introduce the large portfolio selection using gross-exposure constraints. We show that with gross-exposure constraint the empirically selected optimal portfolios based on estimated covariance matrices have similar performance to the theoretical optimal ones and there is no error accumulation effect from estimation of vast covariance matrices. This gives theoretical justification to the empirical results in Jagannathan and Ma (2003). We also show that the no-short-sale portfolio can be improved by allowing some short positions. The applications to portfolio selection, tracking, and improvements are also addressed. The utility of our new approach is illustrated by simulation and empirical studies on the 100 Fama-French industrial portfolios and the 600 stocks randomly selected from Russell 3000. PMID:23293404

  7. Vast Portfolio Selection with Gross-exposure Constraints().

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jianqing; Zhang, Jingjin; Yu, Ke

    2012-01-01

    We introduce the large portfolio selection using gross-exposure constraints. We show that with gross-exposure constraint the empirically selected optimal portfolios based on estimated covariance matrices have similar performance to the theoretical optimal ones and there is no error accumulation effect from estimation of vast covariance matrices. This gives theoretical justification to the empirical results in Jagannathan and Ma (2003). We also show that the no-short-sale portfolio can be improved by allowing some short positions. The applications to portfolio selection, tracking, and improvements are also addressed. The utility of our new approach is illustrated by simulation and empirical studies on the 100 Fama-French industrial portfolios and the 600 stocks randomly selected from Russell 3000.

  8. Gross-Pitaevski map as a chaotic dynamical system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarneri, Italo

    2017-03-01

    The Gross-Pitaevski map is a discrete time, split-operator version of the Gross-Pitaevski dynamics in the circle, for which exponential instability has been recently reported. Here it is studied as a classical dynamical system in its own right. A systematic analysis of Lyapunov exponents exposes strongly chaotic behavior. Exponential growth of energy is then shown to be a direct consequence of rotational invariance and for stationary solutions the full spectrum of Lyapunov exponents is analytically computed. The present analysis includes the "resonant" case, when the free rotation period is commensurate to 2 π , and the map has countably many constants of the motion. Except for lowest-order resonances, this case exhibits an integrable-chaotic transition.

  9. The San Andreas fault experiment. [gross tectonic plates relative velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D. E.; Vonbun, F. O.

    1973-01-01

    A plan was developed during 1971 to determine gross tectonic plate motions along the San Andreas Fault System in California. Knowledge of the gross motion along the total fault system is an essential component in the construction of realistic deformation models of fault regions. Such mathematical models will be used in the future for studies which will eventually lead to prediction of major earthquakes. The main purpose of the experiment described is the determination of the relative velocity of the North American and the Pacific Plates. This motion being so extremely small, cannot be measured directly but can be deduced from distance measurements between points on opposite sites of the plate boundary taken over a number of years.

  10. GLOBALIZATION AND GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT CONSTRUCTION IN ASEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Sri Wahyudi Suliswanto

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available There is no more doubt about the importance of economic growth, which can be calculated fromGross Domestic Product (GDP. This research analyzes the role of globalization on GDP inASEAN-5 by estimating panel data. It uses a fixed effect approach to accommodate various characteristicsin the countries. To accommodate such variation, it assumes that the intercepts variesacross these countries, while the slopes remain similar. Based on the estimation result, it suggeststhat net export and foreign direct investment represent the globalization process. Both have positiveand significant influences on GDP in the corresponding countries.Keywords: Globalization, international trade, foreign direct investment, gross domestic productJEL classification numbers: E01, F51, F43

  11. PREDICTION OF GROSS FEED EFFICIENCY IN ITALIAN HOLSTEIN FRIESIAN BULLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaella Finocchiaro

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to predict gross feed efficiency of Italian Holstein Friesian bulls selected for production, functional and type traits. A total of 12,238 bulls, from the April 2015 genetic evaluation, were used. Predicted daily gross feed efficiency (pFE was obtained as ratio between milk yield (MY and predicted dry matter intake (pDMI. Phenotypic trend for MY, predicted body weight (pBW and pFE were calculated by the bull birth year. The results suggest that pFE can be successfully selected to increase profitability of dairy cattle using the current milk recording system. Direct measurements on DMI should be considered to confirm results of pFE obtained in the present study.

  12. Constructive Renormalization of 2-dimensional Grosse-Wulkenhaar Model

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Zhituo

    2012-01-01

    In this talk we briefly report the recent work on the construction of the 2-dimensional Grosse-Wulkenhaar model with the method of loop vertex expansion. We treat renormalization with this new tool, adapt Nelson's argument and prove Borel summability of the perturbation series. This is the first non-commutative quantum field theory model to be built in a non-perturbative sense.

  13. MDI Consumption Up

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhaobao

    2007-01-01

    @@ The consumption of MDI (diphenylmethane diisocyanate) in China was 631 thousand tons in 2006, an increase of 36.6% over 2005. The consumption of pure MDI was 231 thousand tons, an increase of 38.3% and the consumption of polymerized MDI was 400 thousand tons, an increase of 35.6%.

  14. Technical note: Consistent calculation of aquatic gross production from oxygen triple isotope measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kaiser

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen triple isotope measurements can be used to calculate aquatic gross oxygen production rates. Past studies have emphasised the appropriate definition of the 17O excess and often used an approximation to derive production rates from the 17O excess. Here, I show that the calculation can be phrased more consistently and without any approximations using the relative 17O/16O and 18O/16O isotope ratio differences (delta values directly. I call this the "dual delta method". The 17O excess is merely a mathematical construct and the derived production rate is independent of its definition, provided all calculations are performed with a consistent definition. I focus on the mixed layer, but also show how time series of triple isotope measurements below the mixed layer can be used to derive gross production.

    In the calculation of mixed layer productivity, I explicitly include isotopic fractionation during gas invasion and evasion, which requires the oxygen supersaturation s to be measured as well. I also suggest how bubble injection could be considered in the same mathematical framework. I distinguish between concentration steady state and isotopic steady state and show that only the latter needs to be assumed in the calculation. It is even possible to derive an estimate of the net production rate in the mixed layer that is independent of the assumption of concentration steady state.

    I review measurements of the parameters required for the calculation of gross production rates and show how their systematic uncertainties as well as the use of different published calculation methods can cause large variations in the production rates for the same underlying isotope ratios. In particular, the 17O excess of dissolved O2 in equilibrium with atmospheric O2 and the 17O excess of photosynthetic O2 need to

  15. Consistent calculation of aquatic gross production from oxygen triple isotope measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kaiser

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen triple isotope measurements can be used to calculate aquatic gross oxygen production rates. Past studies have emphasised the appropriate definition of the 17O excess and often used an approximation to derive production rates from the 17O excess. Here, I show that the calculation can be phrased more consistently and without any approximations using the relative 17O/16O and 18O/16O isotope ratio differences directly. The 17O excess is merely a mathematical construct and the derived production rate is independent of its definition, provided all calculations are performed with a consistent definition. I focus on the mixed layer, but also show how time series of triple oxygen measurements below the mixed layer can be used to derive gross production.

    In the calculation of mixed layer productivity, I explicitly include isotopic fractionation during gas invasion and evasion, which requires the oxygen supersaturation s to be measured as well. I also suggest how bubble injection could be considered in the same mathematical framework. I distinguish between concentration steady state and isotopic steady state and show that only the latter needs to be assumed in the calculation. It is even possible to derive an estimate of the net production rate in the mixed layer that is independent of the assumption of concentration steady state.

    I review measurements of the parameters required for the calculation of gross production rates and show how their systematic uncertainties as well as the use of different published calculation methods can cause large variations in the production rates for the same underlying isotope ratios. In particular, the 17O excess of dissolved O2 in equilibrium with atmospheric O2 and the 17O excess of photosynthetic O2 need to be re-measured. Because of these uncertainties, all

  16. Sugar consumption and dental caries experience in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macigo, Francis Githua; James, Regina Mutave; Ogunbodede, Eyitope; Gathece, Loice Warware

    2016-06-01

    There have been claims that dental caries experience and prevalence in Kenya has been increasing as a result of increased sugar consumption. A review of the literature in 1986 failed to link dental caries experience with an increase in gross national sugar consumption. Subsequently, a number of studies were conducted, necessitating further review to examine trends in dental caries experience and to relate this to changes in per capita sugar consumption. Studies conducted since 1980 for children 3-15 years of age were examined. Dental caries prevalence and experience for 3-5 years' (deciduous teeth) and 12 years' (permanent teeth) age groups were analysed. Calculation of per capita sugar consumption was performed using gross national annual sugar consumption for 1969-2009 national population census years. There was a gradual increase in per capita sugar consumption, from 35.5 g/day in 1969 to 60.8 g/day in 2009. Dental caries experience in deciduous teeth for children 3-5 years of age increased from a decayed, missing and filled teeth/decayed and filled teeth (dmft/dft) index of 1.5 in the 1980s to 2.95 in the 2000s. At 12 years of age, caries experience for permanent teeth increased from a DMFT of 0.2 to a DMFT of 0.92 over the same period. Dental caries prevalence for both deciduous and permanent teeth also increased with time. These observations suggest that dental caries prevalence and experience increased with time, in parallel to an increase in per capita sugar consumption. However, a clearer understanding can be derived from longitudinal studies, based on actual household age-specific sugar consumption and dental caries incidence. © 2016 FDI World Dental Federation.

  17. Landscape History of Grosses Moos, NW Swiss Alpine Foreland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joanna Heer, Aleksandra; Adamiec, Grzegorz; Veit, Heinz; May, Jan-Hendrik; Novenko, Elena; Hajdas, Irka

    2017-04-01

    The western Swiss Plateau with Lake Neuchâtel is part of the alpine foreland and among the key areas for the reconstruction of environmental changes since the last postglacial. This study was carried out in a landscape located NE of the lake and called Grosses Moos (The Large Fen) - currently designated the Swiss largest, continuous farming area, after the fen was drained in course of landscape engineering projects performed in Switzerland at the end of the 19th century. The study contributes new results from nine excavations of littoral ridges identified in Grosses Moos, and integrates sedimentology, paleo-environmental analysis and three independent chronological methods. Radiocarbon dating, pollen analysis and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) were applied to the sediments. While pollen and radiocarbon follow the standard procedures, the evaluation of the luminescence age estimates demanded adjustment according to the physical and microdosimetric properties of the alpine quartz, and consideration of the peculiarities of the changing littoral environments of Grosses Moos. The Grosses Moos landscape developed on the temporary surface of the post-Last Glacial sedimentary infill of the over-deepened glacial Aare valley. In this study the landscape history has been fitted into the existing supraregional time scales of NGRIP, the Swiss bio-zones system and the human history based on archaeological and historic records and covers a time span of up to 15'000 yr b2k. The wide-ranging suite of geomorphic features and sedimentary sequences, including littoral lake sediments, beach ridges, dunes, palaeo-channels, peat and colluvial deposits, enable the extensive reconstruction of spatially and temporally variable natural shaping processes. In addition, our results indicate remobilization of soil, colluvium, and sediment due to human settlement activities since the Neolithic - with an important increase in sediment load and spatial variability since the Bronze Age

  18. Coal consumption and economic growth: Evidence from a panel of OECD countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apergis, Nicholas, E-mail: napergis@unipi.g [Department of Banking and Financial Management, University of Piraeus, Karaoli and Dimitriou 80, Piraeus, ATTIKI 18534 (Greece); Payne, James E., E-mail: jepayne@ilstu.ed [College of Arts and Sciences, Illinois State University, Campus Box 4100, Normal, IL 61790-4100 (United States)

    2010-03-15

    This study examines the relationship between coal consumption and economic growth for 25 OECD countries within a multivariate panel framework over period 1980-2005. The panel cointegration test indicates there is a long-run equilibrium relationship between real GDP, coal consumption, real gross fixed capital formation, and the labor force. The respective coefficients for real gross fixed capital formation and the labor force are positive and statistically significant whereas the coefficient for coal consumption is negative and statistically significant. The results of the panel vector error correction model reveal bidirectional causality between coal consumption and economic growth in both the short- and long-run; however, the bidirectional causality in the short-run is negative.

  19. Coal consumption and economic growth: Evidence from a panel of OECD countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicholas Apergis; James E. Payne [University of Piraeus, Piraeus (Greece). Department of Banking and Financial Management

    2010-03-15

    This study examines the relationship between coal consumption and economic growth for 25 OECD countries within a multivariate panel framework over period 1980-2005. The Larsson et al. (2001) panel cointegration test indicates there is a long-run equilibrium relationship between real GDP, coal consumption, real gross fixed capital formation, and the labor force. The respective coefficients for real gross fixed capital formation and the labor force are positive and statistically significant whereas the coefficient for coal consumption is negative and statistically significant. The results of the panel vector error correction model reveal bidirectional causality between coal consumption and economic growth in both the short- and long-run; however, the bidirectional causality in the short-run is negative. 31 refs., 5 tabs.

  20. Coal consumption and economic growth. Evidence from a panel of OECD countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apergis, Nicholas [Department of Banking and Financial Management, University of Piraeus, Karaoli and Dimitriou 80, Piraeus, ATTIKI 18534 (Greece); Payne, James E. [College of Arts and Sciences, Illinois State University, Campus Box 4100, Normal, IL 61790-4100 (United States)

    2010-03-15

    This study examines the relationship between coal consumption and economic growth for 25 OECD countries within a multivariate panel framework over period 1980-2005. The panel cointegration test indicates there is a long-run equilibrium relationship between real GDP, coal consumption, real gross fixed capital formation, and the labor force. The respective coefficients for real gross fixed capital formation and the labor force are positive and statistically significant whereas the coefficient for coal consumption is negative and statistically significant. The results of the panel vector error correction model reveal bidirectional causality between coal consumption and economic growth in both the short- and long-run; however, the bidirectional causality in the short-run is negative. (author)

  1. Sleep-related offline improvements in gross motor task performance occur under free recall requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas eMalangre

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Nocturnal sleep effects on memory consolidation following gross motor sequence learning were examined using a complex arm movement task. This task required participants to produce non-regular spatial patterns in the horizontal plane by successively fitting a small peg into different target-holes on an electronic pegboard. The respective reaching movements typically differed in amplitude and direction. Targets were visualized prior to each transport movement on a computer screen. With this task we tested 18 subjects (22.6 +/- 1.9 years; 8 female using a between-subjects design. Participants initially learned a 10-element arm movement sequence either in the morning or in the evening. Performance was retested under free recall requirements 15 minutes post training, as well as 12 hrs and 24 hrs later. Thus each group was provided with one sleep-filled and one wake retention interval. Dependent variables were error rate (number of erroneous sequences and average sequence execution time (correct sequences only. Performance improved during acquisition. Error rate remained stable across retention. Sequence execution time (inverse to execution speed significantly decreased again during the sleep-filled retention intervals, but remained stable during the respective wake intervals. These results corroborate recent findings on sleep-related enhancement consolidation in ecological valid, complex gross motor tasks. At the same time they suggest this effect to be truly memory-based and independent from repeated access to extrinsic sequence information during retests.

  2. COST OF PRODUCTION, GROSS RETURN AND NET PROFIT IN COMMERCIAL EGG PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Farooq, Zahoor-ul-Haq1, M.A. Mian, F.R. Durrani and M. Syed

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out in Chakwal, Pakistan by collecting data from randomly selected 109 flocks to investigate cost of production, gross return and net profit per layer. Majority of the buildings in the study area were rented therefore, rent per layer was added to the total cost of production instead of depreciation on building and equipments. Overall total cost of production, gross return and net profit per layer was Rs. 393.88 ± 5.36, 432.14 ± 8.01 and 38.26 ± 6.66, respectively. Rate of return over the invested capital was 27%. Mean feed cost per layer was Rs. 302.23 ± 5.01, including Rs. 10.27 ± 0.24, 29.19 ± 0.42 and 262.77 ± 5.08 for starter, grower and layer ration, respectively. Feed cost was the major component contributing 76.73% to the total cost of production. Average cost of labor, day-old chick, building rent, vaccination, therapy, miscellaneous item, electricity, bedding material and transportation was Rs. 19.90 ± 0.45, 19.75 ± 0.05, 16.25 ± 0.26, 12.80 ± 0.10, 10.90 ± 2.32, 4.35 ± 0.09, 3.15 ± 0.07, 2.65 ± 0.09 and 1.90 ± 0.08, respectively, contributing 5.05, 5.01, 4.13, 3.25, 2.77, 1.10, 0.80, 0.67 and 0.48 % to the total cost of production. Gross return from the sale of marketable eggs, culled eggs, spent/culled bird, empty bags and manure was Rs. 388.84 ± 7.91, 3.85 ± 0.01, 35.80 ± 0.23, 2.20 ± 0.04 and 1.45 ± 0.01, respectively, contributing 89.98, 0.89, 8.28, 0.51 and 0.34% to the total return. Determining the effect of different parameters on the cost of production and net profit, large flocks, Hisex strain, brood-grow and lay system of rearing, good hygienic conditions of the farm, normal stocking rate and cage system of housing wee found to give maximum gross return as well as net profit.

  3. Decadal trends in fossil fuel energy consumption and related air pollutant emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekar Reddy, M.; Venkataraman, C.; Boucher, O.

    2003-04-01

    The economic liberalization in the early 1990s in India fuelled the industrial production, enabled the decadal annual average rate of 5.9% in the gross domestic product (GDP) during 1990-2000. This resulted in a steady increase of fossil fuels energy consumption throughout the decade. This paper investigates the trends in the GDP growth rate, sectoral fossil fuels consumption and resultant atmospheric air pollutant emissions during the above period. The fossil fuels energy consumption in the 1990 was 6875 PJ, and increased to 10801 PJ in 2000, with a decadal annual average growth rate of 5.7%. Share of the coal and petroleum fuels are 52% and 35%, respectively during 2000. The relative share contribution of power, industrial, transport, and domestic sectors are 40%, 48%, 5% and 7%, respectively. The contribution of various sectors to fossil fuels energy consumption, and the relative distribution of the different fuels within each sector will be discussed. The annual sulfur dioxide (SO_2) and aerosols (particulate matter, black carbon, organic carbon) emissions are estimated using sector and fuel specific average emission factors (mass of pollutant per unit mass of fuel burnt). The estimates take into account the changes in the fuel characteristics and technology during the study period. The estimated SO_2 emissions are 1.7 Tg S yr-1 in 1990 and increased to 2.5 Tg S yr-1 in 2000, with an annual average increase of 5%. Majority of the SO_2 emissions are from coal consumption accounting 62%, predominantly from the power plants. Trends in fuel and sectoral contributions to SO2 emissions over the decade will be presented. In the transportation sector, diesels contribute significantly to BC. Notably, in India, two-stroke engines account for 78% of total vehicle fleet, and contribute significantly to organic carbon emissions. An analysis of available SO_2 and aerosols concentration measurements will be made to explore the possible correlations between trends in the

  4. Relationship Between Gross Motor Function and Daily Functional Skill in Children With Cerebral Palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Kwon, Tae Gun; Yi, Sook-Hee; Kim, Tae Won; Chang, Hyun Jung; Kwon, Jeong-Yi

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between gross motor function and daily functional skill in children with cerebral palsy (CP) and to explore how this relationship is moderated by the Gross Motor Function Classification System, Bimanual Fine Motor Function (BFMF), neuromotor types, and limb distribution of CP. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 112 children with CP (range, 4 years to 7 years and 7 months) was performed. Gross motor function was assessed with the Gross Motor Function ...

  5. 26 CFR 1.927(b)-1T - Temporary regulations; Definition of gross receipts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Temporary regulations; Definition of gross...(b)-1T Temporary regulations; Definition of gross receipts. (a) General rule. Under section 927(b.... The FSC's gross receipts for purposes of computing its profit under the administrative pricing...

  6. The relationship between gross motor skills and academic achievement in children with learning disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westendorp, Marieke; Hartman, Esther; Houwen, Suzanne; Smith, Joanne; Visscher, Chris

    2011-01-01

    The present study compared the gross motor skills of 7- to 12-year-old children with learning disabilities (n = 104) with those of age-matched typically developing children (n = 104) using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2. Additionally, the specific relationships between subsets of gross motor

  7. 46 CFR 130.110 - Internal communications on OSVs of less than 100 gross tons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Internal communications on OSVs of less than 100 gross... Internal communications on OSVs of less than 100 gross tons. Each vessel of less than 100 gross tons... have a fixed means of communication between the pilothouse and the place where the auxiliary means...

  8. The relationship between gross motor skills and academic achievement in children with learning disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westendorp, Marieke; Hartman, Esther; Houwen, Suzanne; Smith, Joanne; Visscher, Chris

    2011-01-01

    The present study compared the gross motor skills of 7- to 12-year-old children with learning disabilities (n = 104) with those of age-matched typically developing children (n = 104) using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2. Additionally, the specific relationships between subsets of gross motor

  9. 26 CFR 1.872-1 - Gross income of nonresident alien individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gross income of nonresident alien individuals. 1...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Nonresident Aliens and Foreign Corporations § 1.872-1 Gross income of nonresident alien individuals. (a) In general—(1) Inclusions. The gross income of a nonresident...

  10. 26 CFR 20.2031-1 - Definition of gross estate; valuation of property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., except that if the executor elects the alternate valuation method under section 2032, it is the fair... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definition of gross estate; valuation of... § 20.2031-1 Definition of gross estate; valuation of property. (a) Definition of gross estate. Except...

  11. 26 CFR 1.924(a)-1T - Temporary regulations; definition of foreign trading gross receipts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... trading gross receipts. 1.924(a)-1T Section 1.924(a)-1T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... United States § 1.924(a)-1T Temporary regulations; definition of foreign trading gross receipts. (a) In general. The term “foreign trading gross receipts” means any of the five amounts described in...

  12. Habit formation, surplus consumption and return predictability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engsted, Tom; Hyde, Stuart; Vinther Møller, Stig

    2010-01-01

    -varying risk-free rate. In addition, we analyze the predictive power of the surplus consumption ratio for future stock and bond returns. We find that, although there are important cross-country differences and economically significant pricing errors, for the majority of countries in our sample the model gets...... empirical support in a variety of different dimensions, including reasonable estimates of risk-free rates. Further, for the majority of countries the surplus consumption ratio captures time-variation in expected returns. Together with the price-dividend ratio, the surplus consumption ratio contains...... significant information about future stock returns, also during the 1990s. In addition, in most countries the surplus consumption ratio is also a powerful predictor of future bond returns. Thus, the surplus consumption ratio captures time-varying expected returns in both stock and bond markets....

  13. Ratings Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lai, Signe Sophus

    2015-01-01

    tværs af medier og platforme, forskudt i tid og on-demand. This article focuses on audience ratings, which have functioned as the central ‘currency’ informing the media trade. It discusses changes to the production and accuracy of audience ratings at a time when established standards are being...... consumption. It argues that current tracking systems cannot capture increasingly cross-media, time-shifted, mobile, and on-demand audience behavior....

  14. Evaluating the Relationship between the Energy Consumption and the Macroeconomic Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Zamani

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the relationship between the energy consumption and macro-economic variables in order to explain the relationship between the Gross Domestic Product (GDP, inflation, Economic growth and employment and the energy consumption during 1360 to 1390. This study is applied based on the purpose and the library type based on the data collection and among the correlation studies based on the method and are seeking to explain the relationship and calculation of correlation rate and coefficients of each independent variables with the energy consumption by using econometric models. Data and information needed for the research are collected based on document library studies and information related to research variables by referring to the websites of Central Bank and Statistical Center of Iran. First, the significant relationship between the independent and dependent variables was studied by Pearson correlation coefficient test and then the reliability determining tests, such as the Dickey-Fuller unit root test, were used in order to determine the reliability or stability of variables used in various forms. The accuracy test of classical assumptions was done for estimated functions and assurance of desired estimations accuracy and assurance of estimated relationship and long-term and balance coefficients of independent variables. Evaluation of stability (Durability or reliability of variables was done by E Views software and the statistics R2, F and Durbin-Watson were used in the analysis as the outputs of software. The tests of classical assumptions accuracy and residual term reliability were done after estimating the model in order ensure the accuracy of regression results and implementing the relations and coefficients in the long term. Consequently, by conducting this study it was found that there is a significant correlation between the macroeconomic indicators (GDP, CPI, Economic growth and employment and the energy

  15. Sociology of Drug Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article which is a review of sociological ideas and studies of drug abusers in social situation, drug addiction steps (particularly alcohol, heroin and cocaine consumption are revised and some explanations are made. Also, the role of some sociological ideas in drug addiction is considered in which Anomie Theory reads: "because of such duality, the individuals who are not satisfied with their role are in hurt." According to this theory, drug users choose seclusion and neglecting usual social aims as well as competitive situations. Association of Differentiation Theory claims that drug use behavior is a learned behavior and the first learning occurs in a friendly small group (i.e. youngsters. Social Control theory believes that one can predict normal and abnormal behaviors through the rate of individuals' social commitments. Internal and external controls also determine commitment rate. Micro-cultural theory considers drug use as a compatibility with abnormal micro-culture rules. Symbolic Mutual Action Believes that the etiquettes which society attribute to individuals/behaviors determine their acquired social reactions rather than any inherited acquisition.

  16. The Schroedinger functional for Gross-Neveu models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leder, B.

    2007-04-18

    Gross-Neveu type models with a finite number of fermion flavours are studied on a two-dimensional Euclidean space-time lattice. The models are asymptotically free and are invariant under a chiral symmetry. These similarities to QCD make them perfect benchmark systems for fermion actions used in large scale lattice QCD computations. The Schroedinger functional for the Gross-Neveu models is defined for both, Wilson and Ginsparg-Wilson fermions, and shown to be renormalisable in 1-loop lattice perturbation theory. In two dimensions four fermion interactions of the Gross-Neveu models have dimensionless coupling constants. The symmetry properties of the four fermion interaction terms and the relations among them are discussed. For Wilson fermions chiral symmetry is explicitly broken and additional terms must be included in the action. Chiral symmetry is restored up to cut-off effects by tuning the bare mass and one of the couplings. The critical mass and the symmetry restoring coupling are computed to second order in lattice perturbation theory. This result is used in the 1-loop computation of the renormalised couplings and the associated beta-functions. The renormalised couplings are defined in terms of suitable boundary-to-boundary correlation functions. In the computation the known first order coefficients of the beta-functions are reproduced. One of the couplings is found to have a vanishing betafunction. The calculation is repeated for the recently proposed Schroedinger functional with exact chiral symmetry, i.e. Ginsparg-Wilson fermions. The renormalisation pattern is found to be the same as in the Wilson case. Using the regularisation dependent finite part of the renormalised couplings, the ratio of the Lambda-parameters is computed. (orig.)

  17. Verbal priming and taste sensitivity make moral transgressions gross.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herz, Rachel S

    2014-02-01

    The aims of the present study were to assess whether: (a) visceral and moral disgust share a common oral origin (taste); (b) moral transgressions that are also viscerally involving are evaluated accordingly as a function of individual differences in taste sensitivity; (c) verbal priming interacts with taste sensitivity to alter how disgust is experienced in moral transgressions; and (d) whether gender moderates these effects. Standard tests of disgust sensitivity, a questionnaire developed for this research assessing different types of moral transgressions (nonvisceral, implied-visceral, visceral) with the terms "angry" and "grossed-out," and a taste sensitivity test of 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) were administered to 102 participants. Results confirmed past findings that the more sensitive to PROP a participant was the more disgusted they were by visceral, but not moral, disgust elicitors. Importantly, the findings newly revealed that taste sensitivity had no bearing on evaluations of moral transgressions, regardless of their visceral nature, when "angry" was the emotion primed. However, when "grossed-out" was primed for evaluating moral violations, the more intense PROP tasted to a participant the more "grossed-out" they were by all transgressions. Women were generally more disgust sensitive and morally condemning than men, but disgust test, transgression type, and priming scale modulated these effects. The present findings support the proposition that moral and visceral disgust do not share a common oral origin, but show that linguistic priming can transform a moral transgression into a viscerally repulsive event and that susceptibility to this priming varies as a function of an individual's sensitivity to the origins of visceral disgust-bitter taste.

  18. Complex saddles in the Gross-Witten-Wadia matrix model

    CERN Document Server

    Álvarez, Gabriel; Medina, Elena

    2016-01-01

    We give an exhaustive characterization of the complex saddle point configurations of the Gross-Witten-Wadia matrix model in the large-N limit. In particular, we characterize the cases in which the saddles accumulate in one, two, or three arcs, in terms of the values of the coupling constant and of the fraction of the total unit density that is supported in one of the arcs, and derive an explicit condition for gap closing associated to nonvacuum saddles. By applying the idea of large-N instanton we also give direct analytic derivations of the weak-coupling and strong-coupling instanton actions.

  19. Pathology Gross Photography: The Beginning of Digital Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampy, B Alan; Glassy, Eric F

    2015-06-01

    The underutilized practice of photographing anatomic pathology specimens from surgical pathology and autopsies is an invaluable benefit to patients, clinicians, pathologists, and students. Photographic documentation of clinical specimens is essential for the effective practice of pathology. When considering what specimens to photograph, all grossly evident pathology, absent yet expected pathologic features, and gross-only specimens should be thoroughly documented. Specimen preparation prior to photography includes proper lighting and background, wiping surfaces of blood, removing material such as tubes or bandages, orienting the specimen in a logical fashion, framing the specimen to fill the screen, positioning of probes, and using the right-sized scale.

  20. Four loop renormalization of the Gross-Neveu model

    CERN Document Server

    Gracey, J A; Schroder, Y

    2016-01-01

    We renormalize the SU(N) Gross-Neveu model in the modified minimal subtraction (MSbar) scheme at four loops and determine the beta-function at this order. The theory ceases to be multiplicatively renormalizable when dimensionally regularized due to the generation of evanescent 4-fermi operators. The first of these appears at three loops and we correctly take their effect into account in deriving the renormalization group functions. We use the results to provide estimates of critical exponents relevant to phase transitions in graphene.

  1. Gross shell structure at high spin in heavy nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Deleplanque, M A; Pashkevich, V V; Chu, S Y; Unzhakova, A

    2004-01-01

    Experimental nuclear moments of inertia at high spins along the yrast line have been determined systematically and found to differ from the rigid-body values. The difference is attributed to shell effects and these have been calculated microscopically. The data and quantal calculations are interpreted by means of the semiclassical Periodic Orbit Theory. From this new perspective, features in the moments of inertia as a function of neutron number and spin, as well as their relation to the shell energies can be understood. Gross shell effects persist up to the highest angular momenta observed.

  2. Labor Absorption and Its Impact on Gross Regional Domestic Product

    OpenAIRE

    Made Ika Prastyadewi; Agus Suman; Devanto Shasta Pratomo

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the determinants of labor absorption in the trade, hotel and restaurant sector and its impact on Gross Regional Domestic Product/GRDP at Bali Province. This study is important due to the fact that the GRDP in this sector is the highest compared to other sector but the labor absorption is lower than the agriculture sector. This study used panel data comprising 9 regencies/cities at Bali Province in the period 2003-2009 including fixed effect model and ...

  3. Characterizing the development of sectoral gross domestic product composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Raphael; Spies, Michael; Reusser, Dominik E; Kropp, Jürgen P; Rybski, Diego

    2013-07-01

    We consider the sectoral composition of a country's gross domestic product (GDP), i.e., the partitioning into agrarian, industrial, and service sectors. Exploring a simple system of differential equations, we characterize the transfer of GDP shares between the sectors in the course of economic development. The model fits for the majority of countries providing four country-specific parameters. Relating the agrarian with the industrial sector, a data collapse over all countries and all years supports the applicability of our approach. Depending on the parameter ranges, country development exhibits different transfer properties. Most countries follow three of eight characteristic paths. The types are not random but show distinct geographic and development patterns.

  4. Gross shell structure at high spin in heavy nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deleplanque, Marie-Agnes; Frauendorf, Stefan; Pashkevich, Vitaly V.; Chu, S.Y.; Unzhakova, Anja

    2003-10-07

    Experimental nuclear moments of inertia at high spins along the yrast line have been determined systematically and found to differ from the rigid-body values. The difference is attributed to shell effect and these have been calculated microscopically. The data and quantal calculations are interpreted by means of the semiclassical Periodic Orbit Theory. From this new perspective, features in the moments of inertia as a function of neutron number and spin, as well as their relation to the shell energies can be understood. Gross shell effects persist up to the highest angular momenta observed.

  5. Snail meat: Significance and consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Dragićević Olgica; Baltić Milan Ž.

    2005-01-01

    The consumption of snail meat goes back to prehistoric times. Different ancient nations had snails on their menu, but Helices culture as a productive activity was born as a Roman culture. Some of the most economically important edible species are: Helix aspersa (Mtiller) Helixpomatia (Linne), Helix iucorum (Linne), Helix aperta (Born), Eobania vermiculata (Miiller). Together with its tasie, snail meat has several advantages over others: quite low lipid rate and calorie values versus rich mine...

  6. Relationships between Gross Motor Abilities and Problematic Behaviors of Handicapped Children in Different Age Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uesugi, Masayuki; Araki, Tomoko; Fujii, Shun; Itotani, Keisuke; Otani, Yoshitaka; Seiichi, Takemasa

    2014-12-01

    [Purpose] In this study, we examined problematic behaviors of independent-walking and non-independent-walking handicapped children in the infant, school child and adolescent development phases, using the Japanese version of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC-J) to determine if such behaviors relate to their gross motor abilities. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 86 handicapped children who were receiving physical therapy. The subjects were classified into three groups by age. Using the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS), each group was further divided into an independent-walking group and non-independent-walking group. Thirteen physical therapists and 8 occupational therapists, who were treating the subject children, rated the subjects using the ABC-J. [Results] Significant differences were observed between the independent-walking and the non-independent-walking groups in the stereotypy and lethargy scores of infants. [Conclusion] For schoolchildren and adolescents, no significant differences were observed between the independent-walking and the non-independent-walking groups in their problematic behavior scores.

  7. Improved gross efficiency during long duration submaximal cycling following a short-term high carbohydrate diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, M; Coleman, D; Hopker, J; Wiles, J

    2014-03-01

    To assess the effect of dietary manipulation on gross efficiency (GE), 15 trained male cyclists completed 3×2 h tests at submaximal exercise intensity (60% Maximal Minute Power). Using a randomized, crossover design participants consumed an isoenergetic diet (~4 000 kcal.day-1) in the 3 days preceding each test, that was either high in carbohydrate (HighCHO, [70% of the total energy derived from carbohydrate, 20% fat, 10% protein]), low in carbohydrate (LowCHO, [70% fat, 20% carbohydrate, 10% protein]) or contained a moderate amount of carbohydrate (ModCHO, [45% carbohydrate, 45% fat, 10% protein]). GE along with blood lactate and glucose were assessed every 30 min, and heart rate was measured at 5 s intervals throughout. Mean GE was significantly greater following the HighCHO than the ModCHO diet (HighCHO=20.4%±0.1%, ModCHO=19.6±0.2%; PDiet had no effect on blood glucose or lactate (P>0.05). This study suggests that before the measurement of gross efficiency, participants' diet should be controlled and monitored to ensure the validity of the results obtained.

  8. The implications of particle energy and acidic media on gross alpha and gross beta determination using liquid scintillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zapata-Garcia, D. [Laboratori de Radiologia Ambiental (LRA), Departament de Quimica Analitica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques, 1-11 Planta 3, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Llaurado, M., E-mail: montse.llaurado@ub.edu [Laboratori de Radiologia Ambiental (LRA), Departament de Quimica Analitica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques, 1-11 Planta 3, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Rauret, G. [Laboratori de Radiologia Ambiental (LRA), Departament de Quimica Analitica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques, 1-11 Planta 3, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2012-04-15

    The interaction of humans with radioactivity present in the environment from natural and artificial sources necessitates an evaluation of its risk on human health. Gross alpha and gross beta activities can provide a rapid evaluation of the radioactive content of a sample and can be simultaneously determined by using liquid scintillation counters. However, calibration of the liquid scintillation counter is required and is affected by many factors, such as particle energy and the acidity of the media. This study investigates what effect the particle energy used for calibration has on misclassification and how to account for this misclassification in routine measurements. The variability in measurement produced by the final pH, as well as any acids used in sample treatment, was also studied. These results showed that the most commonly used acid for these types of analyses, HNO{sub 3}, produced a high amount of misclassifications at very low pH. The results improved when HCl was used to adjust the sample to low pH. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We study the effect of alpha and beta energies on PSA optimisation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The optimum PSA shifts to higher values as the alpha energy increases. Beta energies do not affect it. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We study the effect of pH on the simultaneous determination of gross alpha/beta activities. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HNO{sub 3} produces a high amount of misclassification at very low pH. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The results improve when HCl is used to adjust the sample to low pH.

  9. Alcohol Consumption and Pancreatitis Mortality in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yury E Razvodovsky

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Context Pancreatitis is a major public health problem with high associated economic costs. The incidence of pancreatitis has increased in many European countries in recent decade. Accumulated research and empirical evidence suggests that excessive alcohol consumption is a major risk factor for both acute and chronic pancreatitis. Objective The aim of this study was to examine the aggregate-level relation between the alcohol consumption and pancreatitis mortality rates in Russia. Method Age-standardized sex-specific male and female pancreatitis mortality data for the period 1970-2005 and data on overall alcohol consumption were analyzed by means ARIMA (autoregressive integrated moving average time series analysis. Alcohol consumption was significantly associated with both male and female pancreatitis mortality rates: a 1 liter increase in overall alcohol consumption would result in a 7.0% increase in the male pancreatitis mortality rate and in 2.3% increase in the female mortality rate. The results of the analysis suggest that 63.1% of all male pancreatitis deaths and 26.8% female deaths in Russia could be attributed to alcohol. Conclusions The outcomes of this study provide indirect support for the hypothesisthat unfavorable mixture of higher overall level of alcohol consumption and binge drinking pattern is an important contributor to the pancreatitis mortality rate in Russian Federation.

  10. Food consumption trends and drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, John

    2010-09-27

    A picture of food consumption (availability) trends and projections to 2050, both globally and for different regions of the world, along with the drivers largely responsible for these observed consumption trends are the subject of this review. Throughout the world, major shifts in dietary patterns are occurring, even in the consumption of basic staples towards more diversified diets. Accompanying these changes in food consumption at a global and regional level have been considerable health consequences. Populations in those countries undergoing rapid transition are experiencing nutritional transition. The diverse nature of this transition may be the result of differences in socio-demographic factors and other consumer characteristics. Among other factors including urbanization and food industry marketing, the policies of trade liberalization over the past two decades have implications for health by virtue of being a factor in facilitating the 'nutrition transition' that is associated with rising rates of obesity and chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. Future food policies must consider both agricultural and health sectors, thereby enabling the development of coherent and sustainable policies that will ultimately benefit agriculture, human health and the environment.

  11. Protein consumptions in stroke patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Maghsoudi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Stroke is one of the most common causes of disabilities and death all over the world. The mortality rate of stroke is predicted to be doubled by 2030 in the Middle East countries. Nutrition is an effective strategy in prevention and management of stroke. This study assessed the relationship between various protein types and stroke risk. Materials and Methods: This hospital-based case-control study was performed in a University hospital. The data regarding consumption of usual food intake of 69 cases (46 men and 23 women and 60 controls (30 men and 30 women was collected with a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ. The mean consumption of red and white meat and vegetable and processed proteins consumption were compared between two groups. Results: The percent of total of daily protein intake were lower in patients with stroke in both sexes (25.92% vs 30.55% in men and 30.7% vs 31.14% in women. Conclusion: Lower protein consumption may be observed in patients with stroke patients in both sex.

  12. The Current Trend of China’s Zinc Consumption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正> According to estimations of zinc consumptionby China’s major zinc consumption industries,the growth rate of China’s actual zinc con-sumption in the period 1998-2002 was 10.2percent.Of China’s total zinc consumption inyear 2002,galvanizing zinc made 36 percent,

  13. Carbon dioxide emissions, output, and energy consumption categories in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amri, Fethi

    2017-06-01

    This study examines the relation between CO2 emissions, income, non-renewable, and renewable energy consumption in Algeria during the period extending from 1980 to 2011. Our work gives particular attention to the validity of environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis. The autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) with break point method outcome demonstrates the positive effect of non-renewable type of energy on CO2 emissions consumption. On the contrary, the results reveal an insignificant effect of renewable energy on environment improvement. Moreover, the results accept the existence of EKC hypothesis but the highest gross domestic product value in logarithm scale of our data is inferior to the estimated turning point. Consequently, policy-makers in Algeria should expand the ratio of renewable energy and should decrease the quota of non-renewable energy consumption.

  14. Measuring gross and net calcification of a reef coral under ocean acidification conditions: methodological considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Cohen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Ongoing ocean acidification (OA is rapidly altering carbonate chemistry in the oceans. The projected changes will likely have deleterious consequences for coral reefs by negatively affecting their growth. Nonetheless, diverse responses of reef-building corals calcification to OA hinder our ability to decipher reef susceptibility to elevated pCO2. Some of the inconsistencies between studies originate in measuring net calcification (NC, which does not always consider the proportions of the "real" (gross calcification (GC and gross dissolution in the observed response. Here we show that microcolonies of Stylophora pistillata (entirely covered by tissue, incubated under normal (8.2 and reduced (7.6 pH conditions for 16 months, survived and added new skeletal CaCO3, despite low (1.25 Ωarg conditions. Moreover, corals maintained their NC and GC rates under reduced (7.6 pH conditions and displayed positive NC rates at the low-end (7.3 pH treatment while bare coral skeleton underwent marked dissolution. Our findings suggest that S. pistillata may fall into the "low sensitivity" group with respect to OA and that their overlying tissue may be a key determinant in setting their tolerance to reduced pH by limiting dissolution and allowing them to calcify. This study is the first to measure GC and NC rates for a tropical scleractinian corals under OA conditions. We provide a detailed, realistic assessment of the problematic nature of previously accepted methods for measuring calcification (total alkalinity and 45Ca.

  15. Avoiding the Limits to Growth: Gross National Happiness in Bhutan as a Model for Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy S. Brooks

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In their 30-year update to Limits to Growth, Meadows et al. call for a vision of sustainable development that includes systemic change brought on by new perspectives on the purpose of development, new ways of measuring progress, and changes in social norms. Here, I discuss Meadows et al.’s work in the context of the literature on sustainable development and well-being as well as the development trajectory of Bhutan. I suggest that Bhutan’s development approach mirrors Meadows et al.’s recommendations and provides one model for sustainable development. The ideal of maximizing Gross National Happiness (GNH exemplifies Bhutan’s commitment to holistic development and dovetails with arguments about the shortcomings of approaches that emphasize economic growth. I provide examples of how GNH has been put into practice, describe how happiness is being measured, and discuss the emergence of social norms and a shared Bhutanese identity that may contribute to sustainable development. Bhutan’s development success suggests that an alternative to growth-centric development is viable. However, while Bhutan’s standard of living has increased, the country faces challenges, the most important of which may be their ability to manage rising consumption levels. Importantly, other nations have begun measuring well-being and considering similar development approaches.

  16. Cracking the Consumption Nut

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Increasing domestic consumption has become a hot topic filtering through various economic circles in China. In the aftermath of the global financial crisis, the call has gone out to emphasize consumption and downplay saving among people in the international community. Xia Bin,

  17. Germany: primary energy consumption in 2002; Primaerenergieverbrauch in Deutschland 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2003-03-01

    The consumption of primary energy in Germany in 2002 has declined clearly compared to the level in the year before. It amounted to 487.8 million TCE, which is 1.9% less than the 498.5 million TCE of 2001. The development is mainly due to the economic slump and to the milder weather, with higher ambient temperatures, than in 2001. On the basis of 0.2% overall economic growth, the energy productivity of the economy improved by 0.8%. It was clearly lower than over the average of the period 1991 to 2001, where it had been 1.4%. Unlike the consumption of primary energy, gross electricity consumption increased slightly along with the gross domestic product, reaching approx. 582,0 billion kWh, which is approx. 1 billion kWh above the approx. 581.0 billion kWh of 2001. While 2001 still showed an export balance of approx. 1.3 billion kWh, 2002 shows an import balance of 0.7 billion kWh. After a clear drop in the second half of 2001, oil prices picked up in 2002, especially as a result of the threat of a war in Iraq. The world market price of (Brent) crude oil was approx. 55% higher in December 2002 than it had been in late 2001; the shift in the Euro-Dollar exchange rate in favor of the Euro reduced this impact on import prices to a level of approx. +33%. Unlike oil, the import prices of natural gas were lower than those in 2001 throughout the past year. Also the prices of imported coal dropped significantly. Electricity prices continued to rise sharply, partly also as a consequence of energy policy measures. (orig.) [German] Der Primaerenergieverbrauch in Deutschland ist im Jahre 2002 gegenueber dem Vorjahr deutlich gesunken. Er lag mit 488,5 Mio. t SKE um 1,9% niedriger als 2001 mit 497,8 Mio. t. SKE. Diese Entwicklung ist im Wesentlichen auf die schwache Konjunktur und auf die gegenueber 2001 mildere Witterung mit hoeheren Umgebungstemperaturen zurueckzufuehren. Die Energieproduktivitaet der Volkswirtschaft hat sich bei einem gesamtwirtschaftlichen Wachstum von 0,2% im

  18. Experience and Sustainable Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Tove Arendt

    consumption may re-enchant ordinary consumption and thereby even become a part of marketing and the experience economy. New layers of meaning are at stake and altruistic motives come into play; doing something good for someone or something, aside from oneself, is a very strong trigger of positive emotions......Experience understood as experience-based consumption is by now fairly absent from the research agenda of the different theories on sustainable consumption. On the basis of Colin Campbell’s notion of romantic ethics and emotional sentimentality in modern hedonism, I claim that sustainable....... Very often, however, the actual purchase does not live up to the demands of doing good in the sustainable consumption chain, and the individual might end up with a guilty conscience, which again is a possible trigger for lingering in a sentimental mode of guilt. Emotions of sentimentality may actually...

  19. Experience and Sustainable Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Tove Arendt

    2014-01-01

    consumption may re-enchant ordinary consumption and thereby even become a part of marketing and the experience economy. New layers of meaning are at stake and altruistic motives come into play; doing something good for someone or something, aside from oneself, is a very strong trigger of positive emotions......Experience understood as experience-based consumption is by now fairly absent from the research agenda of the different theories on sustainable consumption. On the basis of Colin Campbell’s notion of romantic ethics and emotional sentimentality in modern hedonism, I claim that sustainable....... Very often, however, the actual purchase does not live up to the demands of doing good in the sustainable consumption chain, and the individual might end up with a guilty conscience, which again is a possible trigger for lingering in a sentimental mode of guilt. Emotions of sentimentality may actually...

  20. A Theory of LTR Junk-food Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Levy, Amnon

    2003-01-01

    LTR junk-food consumption balances the marginal satisfaction with the marginal deterioration of health. An LTR person discounts the instantaneous marginal satisfaction from junk-food consumption by its implications for his survival probability. His change rate of health evaluation is increased (decreased) by junk-food consumption when health is better (worse) than a critical level. The moderating direct effects of age and relative price on junk-food consumption may be amplified, or dimmed, by...

  1. Factors affecting alcohol consumption in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsa M.E

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Alcohol is one of the major risk factors for individuals’ and society’s health. Alcohol consumption is present since ancient years in Europe, constituting tradition, with Europeans preferring different kinds of alcohol depending on the geographic location of their country. The economic crisis that European citizens are undergoing nowadays, has an impact on their health and more specifically there has been a significant increase in alcohol consumption. Material and Methods: The purpose of this study is to explore the factors which effect the alcohol consumption and consequences of this consumption in Europe. Literature review of relevant articles, published from 2005 to 2013, to these databases: WHO, Google scholar, PubMed. Finally, 42 studies were used to our review. Results: The alcohol consumption is connected with the economic situation of the country, the availability of alcohol, the restrictions and taxes of each country. Alcohol consumption is also related with the gender and age of each individual. In Central-eastern Europe, in contrast to the south Europe, the greatest percentage of mortality caused by the alcohol consumption is found. 35,95% is the mortality rate which is found in Europe. Regarding Greece in recent years, alcohol consumption has declined, while the rates of intoxication have shown as light increase. Conclusions: The lack of legislation, the non-existence of a minimum sale price and the increased availability, can lead to increased incidence of mortality caused by the alcohol consumption. Further research regarding the correlation of economic crisis and alcohol consumption is necessary.

  2. Modeling and prediction of Turkey's electricity consumption using Artificial Neural Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kavaklioglu, Kadir; Ozturk, Harun Kemal; Canyurt, Olcay Ersel [Pamukkale University, Mechanical Engineering Department, Denizli (Turkey); Ceylan, Halim [Pamukkale University, Civil Engineering Department, Denizli (Turkey)

    2009-11-15

    Artificial Neural Networks are proposed to model and predict electricity consumption of Turkey. Multi layer perceptron with backpropagation training algorithm is used as the neural network topology. Tangent-sigmoid and pure-linear transfer functions are selected in the hidden and output layer processing elements, respectively. These input-output network models are a result of relationships that exist among electricity consumption and several other socioeconomic variables. Electricity consumption is modeled as a function of economic indicators such as population, gross national product, imports and exports. It is also modeled using export-import ratio and time input only. Performance comparison among different models is made based on absolute and percentage mean square error. Electricity consumption of Turkey is predicted until 2027 using data from 1975 to 2006 along with other economic indicators. The results show that electricity consumption can be modeled using Artificial Neural Networks, and the models can be used to predict future electricity consumption. (author)

  3. Gross community production and metabolic balance in the South Pacific Gyre, using a non intrusive bio-optical method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Claustre

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The very clear waters of the South Pacific Gyre likely constitute an end-member of oligotrophic conditions which remain essentially unknown with respect to its impact on carbon fixation and exportation. We describe a non-intrusive bio-optical method to quantify the various terms of a production budget (Gross community production, community losses, net community production in this area. This method is based on the analysis of the diel cycle in Particulate Organic Carbon (POC, derived from high frequency measurements of the particle attenuation coefficient cp. We report very high integrated rates of Gross Community Production within the euphotic layer (average of 846±484 mg C m−2 d−1 for 17 stations that are far above any rates determined using incubation techniques for such areas. Furthermore we show that the daily production of POC is essentially balanced by the losses so that the system cannot be considered as net heterotrophic. Our results thus agree well with geochemical methods, but not with incubation studies based on oxygen methods. We stress to the important role of deep layers, below the euphotic layer, in contributing to carbon fixation when incident irradiance at the ocean surface is high (absence of cloud coverage. These deep layers, not considered up to know, might fuel part of the heterotrophic processes in the upper layer, including through dissolved organic carbon. We further demonstrate that, in these extremely clear and stratified waters, integrated gross community production is proportional to the POC content and surface irradiance via an efficiency index ψ GCP*, the water column cross section for Gross Community Production. We finally discuss our results in the context of the role of oligotrophic gyre in the global carbon budget and of the possibility of using optical proxies from space for the development of growth community rather than primary production

  4. Gross Motor Profile and Its Association with Socialization Skills in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusponegoro, Hardiono D; Efar, Pustika; Soedjatmiko; Soebadi, Amanda; Firmansyah, Agus; Chen, Hui-Ju; Hung, Kun-Long

    2016-12-01

    While social impairment is considered to be the core deficit in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a large proportion of these children have poor gross motor ability, and gross motor deficits may influence socialization skills in children with ASD. The objectives of this study were to compare gross motor skills in children with ASD to typically developing children, to describe gross motor problems in children with ASD, and to investigate associations between gross motor and socialization skills in children with ASD. This was a cross-sectional study including 40 ASD children aged from 18 months to 6 years and 40 age-matched typically developing controls. Gross motor and socialization skills were scored using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, 2(nd) edition (Vineland-II). Below average gross motor function was found in eight of 40 (20%) ASD children. The mean gross motor v-scale score in the ASD group was 15.1 [standard deviation (SD) 3.12], significantly lower than in the control group [18.7, SD 2.09, p = 0.0001; 95% confidence intervals (CI) from -4.725 to -2.525]. The differences were most prominent in ball throwing and catching, using stairs, jumping, and bicycling. The ASD children with gross motor impairments had a mean socialization domain score of 66.6 (SD 6.50) compared to 85.7 (SD 10.90) in those without gross motor impairments (p = 0.0001, 95% CI from -25.327 to -12.736). Children with ASD had lower gross motor skills compared to typically developing children. Gross motor impairments were found in 20% of the ASD children, and these children also had lower socialization skills than those without gross motor impairments. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Snail meat: Significance and consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragićević Olgica

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of snail meat goes back to prehistoric times. Different ancient nations had snails on their menu, but Helices culture as a productive activity was born as a Roman culture. Some of the most economically important edible species are: Helix aspersa (Mtiller Helixpomatia (Linne, Helix iucorum (Linne, Helix aperta (Born, Eobania vermiculata (Miiller. Together with its tasie, snail meat has several advantages over others: quite low lipid rate and calorie values versus rich mineral, essential amino acid and fatty acid content. The composition of snail meat is presented. In addition, the composition of different snail species and the part analyzed (pedal mass and visceral mass is presented. Also, the differences in composition according to the species (snail meat horse/chicken meat, beef, swine meat, fish meat are presented. The French are the world's leading consumers of snails. !n France snails come to market in a variety of ways. Estimated consumption of snails in France is around 40 000 tones/year. Total French imports account for 25% of world imports. France is also the leading exporter of prepared snails, mainly sold as preserved snails and prepared dishes. Snail imports have been much higher than exports (65 tones exported in 2002. vs. 2.700 tones imported. Despite the large consumption, only 3% of snails in France come from production (farming. Italy is in second place in the world consumption of snails, and Spain and Germany are in the third and fourth place. The development of snails consumption in Italy is followed with the same amount of production of snails in the whole biological circle. In 2001, from 24,700 tons, 9,350 tons (37.8% came from production, 6 00 tons (2.4% came from nature, and 14,750 tons (59.70% came from imports (frozen, fresh and prepared snails. In Serbia, at the beginning of 2005, we had over 400 registered farms for snail production.

  6. Optimal Bilinear Control of Gross--Pitaevskii Equations

    KAUST Repository

    Hintermüller, Michael

    2013-01-01

    A mathematical framework for optimal bilinear control of nonlinear Schrödinger equations of Gross--Pitaevskii type arising in the description of Bose--Einstein condensates is presented. The obtained results generalize earlier efforts found in the literature in several aspects. In particular, the cost induced by the physical workload over the control process is taken into account rather than the often used L^2- or H^1-norms for the cost of the control action. Well-posedness of the problem and existence of an optimal control are proved. In addition, the first order optimality system is rigorously derived. Also a numerical solution method is proposed, which is based on a Newton-type iteration, and used to solve several coherent quantum control problems.

  7. Gross National Happiness: Ideology versus practices in Bhutanese Seconday Schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær-Rasmussen, Lone Krogh; Giri, Krishna Prasad

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates practices related to the ideology of infusing Gross National Happiness (GNH) into school curriculum, the effectiveness of the meditation and mind training and the implication of GNH for school environment. It also explores how GNH ambience has been managed and practiced......, the influence of the concept of GNH in school life generally and specifically and the effects on teachers and students of mindfull training in the class, how does it work? The investigation is based on empirical data from eight selected secondary schools spread all over Bhutan. Principals, teachers, students...... and parents were interviewed in 2012/2013 individually and in groups. Further more classroom observations took place. Finally the investigation is based on literature review and readings of documents, which describe and analyse policies, principles, strategies and philosophies related to the implementation...

  8. Measurement and Quantification of Gross Human Shoulder Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy T. Newkirk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The shoulder girdle plays an important role in the large pointing workspace that humans enjoy. The goal of this work was to characterize the human shoulder girdle motion in relation to the arm. The overall motion of the human shoulder girdle was characterized based on motion studies completed on test subjects during voluntary (natural/unforced motion. The collected data from the experiments were used to develop surface fit equations that represent the position and orientation of the glenohumeral joint for a given humeral pointing direction. These equations completely quantify gross human shoulder girdle motion relative to the humerus. The equations are presented along with goodness-of-fit results that indicate the equations well approximate the motion of the human glenohumeral joint. This is the first time the motion has been quantified for the entire workspace, and the equations provide a reference against which to compare future work.

  9. Labor Absorption and Its Impact on Gross Regional Domestic Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Made Ika Prastyadewi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to examine the determinants of labor absorption in the trade, hotel and restaurant sector and its impact on Gross Regional Domestic Product/GRDP at Bali Province. This study is important due to the fact that the GRDP in this sector is the highest compared to other sector but the labor absorption is lower than the agriculture sector. This study used panel data comprising 9 regencies/cities at Bali Province in the period 2003-2009 including fixed effect model and simultaneous equation model of Two-Stage Least Square. The results showed that GRDP, working age population, and the minimum wage have positive effect on employment, while the educated unemployment has no significant effect on the employment in the trade, hotel and restaurant sector. In addition, increases in employment and workers productivity have positive and significant effects the GRDP in the trade, hotel and restaurant sector at Bali Province.

  10. Full Phase Diagram of the Massive Gross-Neveu Model

    CERN Document Server

    Schnetz, O; Urlichs, K; Schnetz, Oliver; Thies, Michael; Urlichs, Konrad

    2006-01-01

    The massive Gross-Neveu model is solved in the large N limit at finite temperature and chemical potential. The scalar potential is given in terms of Jacobi elliptic functions. It contains three parameters which are determined by transcendental equations. Self-consistency of the scalar potential is proved. The phase diagram for non-zero bare quark mass is found to contain a kink-antikink crystal phase as well as a massive fermion gas phase featuring a cross-over from light to heavy effective fermion mass. For zero bare quark mass we recover the three known phases kink-antikink crystal, massless fermion gas, and massive fermion gas. All phase transitions are shown to be of second order. Equations for the phase boundaries are given and solved numerically. Implications on condensed matter physics are indicated where our results generalize the bipolaron lattice in non-degenerate conducting polymers to finite temperature.

  11. Renewable energy consumption and economic growth: Evidence from a panel of OECD countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apergis, Nicholas, E-mail: napergis@unipi.g [Chair and Professor of Economics, Department of Banking and Financial Management, University of Piraeus Karaoli and Dimitriou 80 Piraeus, ATTIKI 18534 (Greece); Payne, James E., E-mail: jepayne@ilstu.ed [College of Arts and Sciences, Illinois State University, Normal, IL 61790-4100 (United States)

    2010-01-15

    This study examines the relationship between renewable energy consumption and economic growth for a panel of twenty OECD countries over the period 1985-2005 within a multivariate framework. Given the relatively short span of the time series data, a panel cointegration and error correction model is employed to infer the causal relationship. The heterogeneous panel cointegration test reveals a long-run equilibrium relationship between real GDP, renewable energy consumption, real gross fixed capital formation, and the labor force with the respective coefficients positive and statistically significant. The Granger-causality results indicate bidirectional causality between renewable energy consumption and economic growth in both the short- and long-run.

  12. Renewable energy consumption and economic growth. Evidence from a panel of OECD countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apergis, Nicholas [Department of Banking and Financial Management, University of Piraeus Karaoli and Dimitriou, Piraeus (Greece); Payne, James E. [Interim Dean and Professor of Economics, College of Arts and Sciences, Illinois State University, Normal, IL 61790-4100 (United States)

    2010-01-15

    This study examines the relationship between renewable energy consumption and economic growth for a panel of twenty OECD countries over the period 1985-2005 within a multivariate framework. Given the relatively short span of the time series data, a panel cointegration and error correction model is employed to infer the causal relationship. The heterogeneous panel cointegration test reveals a long-run equilibrium relationship between real GDP, renewable energy consumption, real gross fixed capital formation, and the labor force with the respective coefficients positive and statistically significant. The Granger-causality results indicate bidirectional causality between renewable energy consumption and economic growth in both the short- and long-run. (author)

  13. Natural gas consumption and economic growth: A panel investigation of 67 countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apergis, Nicholas [Department of Banking and Financial Management, University of Piraeus, Karaoli and Dimitriou 80, Piraeus, ATTIKI 18534 (Greece); Payne, James E. [College of Arts and Sciences, Illinois State University, Normal, IL 61790-4100 (United States)

    2010-08-15

    This study examines the relationship between natural gas consumption and economic growth for a panel of 67 countries within a multivariate framework over the period 1992-2005. Pedroni's heterogeneous panel cointegration test reveals there is a long-run equilibrium relationship between real GDP, natural gas consumption, real gross fixed capital formation, and the labor force. The results of the panel vector error correction model reveal bidirectional causality between natural gas consumption and economic growth in both the short- and long-run. (author)

  14. A modified lattice Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook model for convection heat transfer in porous media

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Liang; Guo, Zhaoli

    2015-01-01

    The lattice Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (LBGK) model has become the most popular one in the lattice Boltzmann method for simulating the convection heat transfer in porous media. However, the LBGK model generally suffers from numerical instability at low fluid viscosities and effective thermal diffusivities. In this paper, a modified LBGK model is developed for incompressible thermal flows in porous media at the representative elementary volume scale, in which the shear rate and temperature gradient are incorporated into the equilibrium distribution functions. With two additional parameters, the relaxation times in the collision process can be fixed at a proper value invariable to the viscosity and the effective thermal diffusivity. In addition, by constructing a modified equilibrium distribution function and a source term in the evolution equation of temperature field, the present model can recover the macroscopic equations correctly through the Chapman-Enskog analysis, which is another key point different from pre...

  15. Development and Pilot Testing of the Challenge Module: A Proposed Adjunct to the Gross Motor Function Measure for High-Functioning Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Ashlea; Kavanaugh, Abi; Moher, Rosemarie; McInroy, Megan; Gupta, Neena; Salbach, Nancy M.; Wright, F. Virginia

    2011-01-01

    The aim was to develop a Challenge Module (CM) as a proposed adjunct to the Gross Motor Function Measure for children with cerebral palsy who have high-level motor function. Items were generated in a physiotherapist (PT) focus group. Item reduction was based on PTs' ratings of item importance and safety via online surveys. The proposed CM items…

  16. Evaluation of different parameters affecting the liquid scintillation spectrometry measurement of gross alpha and beta index in water samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palomo, M. [Unitat de Radioquimica Ambiental i Sanitaria, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona (Spain); Villa, M. [Centro de Investigacion, Tecnologia e Innovacion. Servicio Radioisotopos. Universidad de Sevilla (Spain); Casacuberta, N. [Institut de Ciencia i Tecnologia Ambientals-Departament de Fisica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona. Spain (Spain); Penalver, A.; Borrull, F. [Unitat de Radioquimica Ambiental i Sanitaria, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona (Spain); Aguilar, C., E-mail: carme.aguilar@urv.cat [Unitat de Radioquimica Ambiental i Sanitaria, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona (Spain)

    2011-09-15

    Liquid scintillation spectrometry is a fast competitive technique for the simultaneous evaluation of gross alpha and beta indexes. However, the implementation of this technique should not be considered as straightforward, and the pre-concentration methods to decrease the detection limit together with quenching and alpha, and beta crossover corrections should be carefully chosen according to the needs of the laboratory. Both aspects are being approached in this work as to find an easy and robust method for alpha/beta measurement in water samples, taking into account the quenching and alpha/beta crossover interferences effects. Results showed that most of the pre-concentration methods increased the quenching in the measurement, although HNO{sub 3} 0.05 M points to be the best solution for pre-concentration and re-dissolution of the sample as converges into low quenching and maximum recovery. Subsequently, in the measurement of water samples with different conductivities, the analysis of the raw counts to obtain gross alpha and beta indexes was carried out using different approaches to implement quenching and interference corrections. If quenching and salt content in the sample are relatively low, interference and quenching-efficiency corrections do not improve the accuracy of the results within the usual precision assumed for a result of gross alpha and beta index (25%). Special attention must be paid when corrections are applied to high quenched or saline samples and when alpha and beta activities values are different in several orders of magnitude. - Highlights: > Developed method for simultaneously quantifying gross alpha and gross beta indexes based on LSC was as accurate and precise as the results obtained from methods based on gas proportional counting and ZnS alpha counting. > Alpha/beta crossover and/or quenching corrections were applied and the results obtained did not improve accuracy within 25% dispersion, a widespread acceptance limit for gross alpha and

  17. A Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook kinetic model with velocity-dependent collision frequency and corrected relaxation of moments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseenko, Alexander; Euler, Craig

    2016-05-01

    We propose a Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (BGK) kinetic model in which the collision frequency is a linear combination of polynomials in the velocity variable. The coefficients of the linear combination are determined so as to enforce proper relaxation rates for a selected group of moments. The relaxation rates are obtained by a direct numerical evaluation of the full Boltzmann collision operator. The model is conservative by construction. Simulations of the problem of spatially homogeneous relaxation of hard spheres gas show improvement in accuracy of controlled moments as compared to solutions obtained by the classical BGK, ellipsoidal-statistical BGK and the Shakhov models in cases of strong deviations from continuum.

  18. Feed consumption, diet digestibility and mineral utilization in captive blackbuck (Antelope cervicapra) fed different levels of concentrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, A; Katole, S; Choubey, M; Gupta, S P; Saini, M; Kumar, V; Swarup, D

    2013-02-01

    A feeding trial was conducted to know the level of concentrates in the diet of Antelope cervicapra at which diet digestibility and mineral utilization were optimum. Fifteen blackbucks (25-33 kg BW) were distributed into three groups of five each. Fresh oat (Avena sativa) and berseem (Trifolium alexandrinum) fodders were offered ad libitum to all the animals. In addition, animals in groups II and III received concentrate mixture at the rate of 0.5 and 1% of BW, whereas animals in group I received no concentrates. As the level of concentrates increased, consumption of fodder decreased resulting in decreased consumption of neutral detergent fibre (NDFom), acid detergent fibre (ADFom), hemicellulose and cellulose. However, overall total dry matter (DM) and organic matter (OM) intake was not significantly different between the groups. Digestibility of DM, OM and gross energy (GE) increased while that of NDFom and ADFom decreased with increased level of concentrates in the diet. Intake of P, Zn, Cu and Mn increased with increased level of concentrate supplementation; however, consumption of Ca and Fe followed the reverse trend. Absorption of P and Zn increased with increased level of concentrate supplementation. Serum concentration of Zn increased when concentrate was supplemented at the rate of 0.5% BW beyond which there was no further improvement. Increasing the level of concentrates in the diet was resulted in increased serum glucose and cholesterol levels. Forage-only diet was inadequate in supply of energy, P and zinc. Supplementation of concentrates at the rate of 0.5% BW was able to meet the requirement of these nutrients. Supplementation at the rate of 1% BW supplied energy and P in excess of requirement. It was concluded that the feeding of concentrates to the captive blackbuck fed forage-based diets should be restricted to 0.5% of BW.

  19. Single Epoch GPS Deformation Signals Extraction and Gross Error Detection Technique Based on Wavelet Transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jian; GAO Jingxiang; XU Changhui

    2006-01-01

    Wavelet theory is efficient as an adequate tool for analyzing single epoch GPS deformation signal. Wavelet analysis technique on gross error detection and recovery is advanced. Criteria of wavelet function choosing and Mallat decomposition levels decision are discussed. An effective deformation signal extracting method is proposed, that is wavelet noise reduction technique considering gross error recovery, which combines wavelet multi-resolution gross error detection results. Time position recognizing of gross errors and their repairing performance are realized. In the experiment, compactly supported orthogonal wavelet with short support block is more efficient than the longer one when discerning gross errors, which can obtain more finely analyses. And the shape of discerned gross error of short support wavelet is simpler than that of the longer one. Meanwhile, the time scale is easier to identify.

  20. ECONOMETRICAL INTERPRETATION OF THE INTERDEPENDECE BETWEEN FISCALITY RATE- FISCAL INCOMES- GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CODREANU DIANA

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Econometrics has come into being and grown as a result of the need to set up instruments of investigation and increase of the methods to organize, conduct and manage the economy, and on the other hand, due to the successful statistical and mathematical me

  1. Gross and net rates of nitrogen mineralisation in soil amended with composted olive mill pomace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez-Muñoz, B.; Hatch, D. J.; Bol, R.

    2011-01-01

    Olive mill pomace is the major waste product in the olive oil industry and composting these by-products for the purpose of recycling nutrients and organic matter is a sound environmental strategy. Yet little is known about the quantity and timing of nitrogen (N) release from composted olive mill...

  2. China's Consumption Rises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Richard Zhu

    2011-01-01

    @@ The consumption in China is surging and Chinese consumers are more confident about their future this year despite the inflationary backdrop, according to the 2011 Annual Chinese Consumer Study by McKinsey & Co released recently. The survey estimates that by 2020 and within the course of one decade, real consumption will have doubled to $4.8 trillion and China will then be the world's second-biggest consumer market after the United States.Yet in some respects, private consumption remains stubbornly low.

  3. Marriage and Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blow, Laura; Browning, Martin; Ejrnæs, Mette

    We examine theoretically and empirically consumption over the early part of the life-cycle. The main focus is on the transition from being single to living with someone else. Our theoretical model allows for publicness in consumption; uncertainty concerning marriage; differences between lifetime...... incomes for prospective partners and a marriage premium. We develop a two period model to bring out the main features of the impact of marriage on consumption and saving. We then develop a multi-period model that can be taken to the data on expenditures by singles and couples aged between 18 and 30. Our...

  4. Energy-consumption modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiter, E.R.

    1980-01-01

    A highly sophisticated and accurate approach is described to compute on an hourly or daily basis the energy consumption for space heating by individual buildings, urban sectors, and whole cities. The need for models and specifically weather-sensitive models, composite models, and space-heating models are discussed. Development of the Colorado State University Model, based on heat-transfer equations and on a heuristic, adaptive, self-organizing computation learning approach, is described. Results of modeling energy consumption by the city of Minneapolis and Cheyenne are given. Some data on energy consumption in individual buildings are included.

  5. The Consumption Paradigm in Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Ardianto, Eka

    2003-01-01

    This article elaborates consumption paradigm in marketing. In background, this paper reviews different perspectives of consumption: economic perspective and marketing perspective. In ontology, this work describes various issues regarding consumption view. In epistemology, this article demonstrates how marketers especially researches explore the consumption phenomena. In methodology, the article describes experiential marketing –one of applied consumption paradigm in marketing, which could be ...

  6. The use of the stable isotope, oxygen-18, as a tracer to measure gross primary production in coastal and oligotrophic waters and in monoclonal cultures of marine phytoplankton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grande, K.D.

    1988-01-01

    A new technique was developed to measure the in vitro rates of gross oxygen production in planktonic communities, in which water is enriched with the stable isotope {sup 18}O, and photosynthetic evolution of {sup 18}O{sup 16}O is measured. In order to calculate gross oxygen production, they correct for the {sup 18}O fractionation due to respiration. The standard technique for measuring production in the oceans, {sup 14}C-bicarbonate uptake, has recently been questioned due to discrepancies with other estimates of water column production and suspected intrinsic problems with the {sup 14}C technique. They compared rates of {sup 18}O gross production and {sup 14}C production in oligotrophic and coastal sites. Samples were generally incubated under natural lighting with neutral density screening. Some oligotrophic bottles were incubated in situ at the depth of collection. Rates of {sup 14}C production were 60-100% of {sup 18}O gross production in both coastal and oceanic communities. Assuming a PQ of 1.0 to 1.5, these comparisons suggest that {sup 14}C production rates are not seriously underestimating actual in vitro rates of production. They also measured rates of light respiration in cultures and natural populations by the {sup 18}O technique. The rates of light respiration in algal cultures were generally greater than dark rates by a factor of two to ten. The increased respiration in the light could be due to increased rates of mitochondrial respiration, photorespiration or Mehler respiration. They measured the enhanced {sup 14}C production under reduced (O{sub 2}) conditions (the Warburg effect), as an estimate of the rate of photorespiration. In three clones, rates of photorespiration were a significant fraction of light respiration. In five other clones examined, photorespiration was not implicated as a source of light respiration.

  7. On the causal dynamics between renewable and non-renewable energy consumption and economic growth in developed and developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apergis, Nicholas [University of Piraeus, Department of Banking and Financial Management, Piraeus, Attiki (Greece); Payne, James E. [University of South Florida Polytechnic, Lakeland, FL (United States)

    2011-11-15

    This study extends recent work on the relationship between renewable and non-renewable energy consumption and economic growth to the case of developed and developing countries over the period 1990-2007. Heterogeneous panel cointegration procedures show a long-run equilibrium relationship between real GDP, renewable energy consumption, non-renewable energy consumption, real gross fixed capital formation, and the labor force with the respective coefficient estimates positive and statistically significant for developed and developing country panels. The results from the panel error correction models reveal bidirectional causality between renewable and non-renewable energy consumption and economic growth in the short- and long-run for each country panel. (orig.)

  8. Comment on: "Technical note: Consistent calculation of aquatic gross production from oxygen triple isotope measurements" by Kaiser (2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. P. Nicholson

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Kaiser (2011 has introduced an improved method for calculating gross productivity from the triple isotopic composition of dissolved oxygen in aquatic systems. His equation avoids approximations of previous methodologies, and also accounts for additional physical processes such as kinetic fractionation during invasion and evasion at the air-sea interface. However, when comparing his new approach to previous methods, Kaiser inconsistently defines the biological end-member with the result of overestimating the degree to which the various approaches of previous studies diverge. In particular, for his base case, Kaiser assigns a 17O excess to the product of photosynthesis (17δP that is too low, resulting in his result being ~30 % too high when compared to previous equations. When this is corrected, I find that Kaiser's equations are consistent with all previous study methodologies within about ±20 % for realistic conditions of metabolic balance (f and gross productivity (g. A methodological bias of ±20 % is of similar magnitude to current uncertainty in the wind-speed dependence of the air-sea gas transfer velocity, k, which directly impacts calculated gross productivity rates as well. While previous results could and should be revisited and corrected using the proposed improved equations, the magnitude of such corrections may be much less than implied by Kaiser.

  9. Laparoscopic ovum collection in sheep: gross and microscopic evaluation of the ovary and influence on ooctye production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, P P M; Padilha, L C; Oliveira, M E F; Motheo, T F; da Silva, A S L; Barros, F F P C; Coutinho, L N; Flôres, F N; Lopes, M C S; Bandarra, M B; Silva, M A M; Vasconcelos, R O; Rodrigues, L F S; Vicente, W R R

    2011-09-01

    Gross and microscopic evaluations of the ovaries of sheep subjected to successive ovum collection were performed with the objective of identifying if there was interference in oocyte production and morphology of gonads. Gross evaluation of the internal genital tract was also performed. Eighteen ewes of the Santa Inês breed were randomly distributed into three experimental groups of six animals each; G0, G1 and G9 with no, one and nine repetitions, respectively. Estrous synchronization was achieved with a short protocol using MAP followed by single dose stimulation with 80mg of FSHp and 300 IU of eCG (IM). Laparoscopic ovum pick-up was performed 36h later, with 7-day intervals. The number of visualized follicles, aspirated follicles and oocytes recovery was recorded. After the last intervention, ovariectomy was performed for evaluation of gross and microscopical appearance and existence of lesions caused by follicular puncture, which were classified as absent (0), mild (1), moderate (2) and severe (3). The number of visualized follicles, aspirated follicles and oocytes recovery were 13.2±2.0, 11.3±3.0 and 5.8±2.3, respectively, with a recovery rate of 51.7%. No statistical difference was found between the nine sessions (P>0.05). Nine sessions of superovulation and ovum collection procedures did not cause ovarian lesions and did not interfere with the production of follicles in ewes of the Santa Inês breed.

  10. Data on oxygen consumption rate, respiratory exchange ratio, and movement in C57BL/6J female mice on the third day of consuming a high-fat diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip M. Marvyn

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Whole animal physiological measures were assessed following three days of either standard diet or high fat diet, in either the fasted or non-fasted states. Our data shows that acute 3-day high fat feeding increases whole body lipid oxidation. When this feeding protocol is followed by an overnight fast, oxygen consumption (VO2 in the light phase is reduced in both dietary groups, but oxygen consumption in the dark phase is only reduced in mice fed the high-fat diet. Furthermore, the fasting-induced rise in dark cycle activity level observed in mice maintained on a standard diet is abolished when mice are fed a high-fat diet.

  11. Effect of physical therapy frequency on gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun-Young

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] This study attempted to investigate the effect of physical therapy frequency based on neurodevelopmental therapy on gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy. [Subjects and Methods] The study sample included 161 children with cerebral palsy who attended a convalescent or rehabilitation center for disabled individuals or a special school for children with physical disabilities in South Korea. Gross Motor Function Measure data were collected according to physical therapy frequency based on neurodevelopmental therapy for a period of 1 year. [Results] The correlation between physical therapy frequency and Gross Motor Function Measure scores for crawling and kneeling, standing, walking, running and jumping, and rolling, and the Gross Motor Function Measure total score was significant. The differences in gross motor function according to physical therapy frequency were significant for crawling, kneeling, standing, and Gross Motor Function Measure total score. The differences in gross motor function according to frequency of physical therapy were significant for standing in Gross Motor Function Classification System Level V. [Conclusion] Intensive physical therapy was more effective for improving gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy. In particular, crawling and kneeling, and standing ability showed greater increases with intensive physical therapy.

  12. Effect of physical therapy frequency on gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun-Young

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study attempted to investigate the effect of physical therapy frequency based on neurodevelopmental therapy on gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy. [Subjects and Methods] The study sample included 161 children with cerebral palsy who attended a convalescent or rehabilitation center for disabled individuals or a special school for children with physical disabilities in South Korea. Gross Motor Function Measure data were collected according to physical therapy frequency based on neurodevelopmental therapy for a period of 1 year. [Results] The correlation between physical therapy frequency and Gross Motor Function Measure scores for crawling and kneeling, standing, walking, running and jumping, and rolling, and the Gross Motor Function Measure total score was significant. The differences in gross motor function according to physical therapy frequency were significant for crawling, kneeling, standing, and Gross Motor Function Measure total score. The differences in gross motor function according to frequency of physical therapy were significant for standing in Gross Motor Function Classification System Level V. [Conclusion] Intensive physical therapy was more effective for improving gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy. In particular, crawling and kneeling, and standing ability showed greater increases with intensive physical therapy. PMID:27390440

  13. Sustainable consumption and marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van Y.K.

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable development in global food markets is hindered by the discrepancy between positive consumer attitudes towards sustainable development or sustainability and the lack of corresponding sustainable consumption by a majority of consumers. Apparently for many (light user) consumers the ‘

  14. Why Taxing Consumption?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landes, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    are controversial while the invocation of efficiency is actually grounded in an underlying view of social cooperation. Secondly, this chapter advances the idea that an ultimate justification for the choice of specific tax base (consumption, income and wealth) expresses such an underlying view. In other words......, the choice of a specific tax base is not totally instrumental, it has some intrinsic moral value too. In this respect, the chapter ends with a comparison between taxing income and taxing consumption. It is shown that a tax on consumption raises questions that should be answered by political philosophers.......Robert Frank is famous for proposing an incremental tax on consumption. His proposition is motivated by the control of positional externalities, i.e. the costs that individuals impose on each other when they consume goods for securing or acquiring social status. A close analysis of Frank...

  15. Sustainable consumption and marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van Y.K.

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable development in global food markets is hindered by the discrepancy between positive consumer attitudes towards sustainable development or sustainability and the lack of corresponding sustainable consumption by a majority of consumers. Apparently for many (light user) consumers the

  16. Marriage and Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blow, Laura; Browning, Martin; Ejrnæs, Mette

    We examine theoretically and empirically consumption over the early part of the life-cycle. The main focus is on the transition from being single to living with someone else. Our theoretical model allows for publicness in consumption; uncertainty concerning marriage; differences between lifetime...... incomes for prospective partners and a marriage premium. We develop a two period model to bring out the main features of the impact of marriage on consumption and saving. We then develop a multi-period model that can be taken to the data on expenditures by singles and couples aged between 18 and 30. Our...... empirical work is based on individual based quasi-panels from UK expenditure survey data from 1978 to 2005. The model fits the data relatively well. We find that expenditure by couples leads to 20-40 % more consumption than the same expenditure split between two comparable singles....

  17. Work-related consumption drivers and consumption at work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    2004-01-01

    The main message in this paper is that the discussion on sustainable consumption should also incorporate the consumption that occurs in relation to work and, more generally, the relationship between consumption at work and consumption at home. I start by considering how domestic consumption...... is encouraged by work-related factors and continue to consider how consumption activities occur in the workplace, so illustrating that production and consumption are intertwined. The main part of the paper deals in detail with the conceptual distinction between production and consumption. Inspiration is drawn...

  18. Work-related consumption drivers and consumption at work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    2004-01-01

    The main message in this paper is that the discussion on sustainable consumption should also incorporate the consumption that occurs in relation to work and, more generally, the relationship between consumption at work and consumption at home. I start by considering how domestic consumption...... is encouraged by work-related factors and continue to consider how consumption activities occur in the workplace, so illustrating that production and consumption are intertwined. The main part of the paper deals in detail with the conceptual distinction between production and consumption. Inspiration is drawn...

  19. The role of incline, performance level and gender on the gross mechanical efficiency of roller ski skating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Øyvind eSandbakk

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The ability to efficiently utilize metabolic energy to produce work is a key factor for endurance performance. The present study investigated the effects of incline, performance level and gender on the gross mechanical efficiency during roller ski skating. Thirty-one male and nineteen female elite cross-country skiers performed a 5-min submaximal session at approximately 75% of VO2peak on a 5% inclined treadmill using the G3 skating technique. Thereafter, a 5-min session on a 12% incline using the G2 skating technique was performed at a similar work rate. Gross efficiency was calculated as the external work rate against rolling friction and gravity divided by the metabolic rate using gas exchange. Performance level was determined by the amount of skating FIS points (the Federation of International Skiing approved scoring system for ski racing where fewer points indicate a higher performance level. Strong significant correlations between work rate and metabolic rate within both inclines and gender were revealed (r=-0.89-0.98 and P

  20. Cracking the Consumption Nut

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Increasing domestic consumption has become a hot topic filtering through various economic circles in China.In the aftermath of the global financial crisis,the call has gone out to emphasize consumption and downplay saving among people in the international community.Xia Bin,Director General of the Research Institute of Finance of the Development Research Center of the State Council,made 10suggestions in the Economic Information Daily to achieve this goal.

  1. Consumption and Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Browning, Martin; Ejrnæs, Mette

    2009-01-01

    supply. We develop two tests of the extreme hypothesis that only changes in family structure matter. We estimate effects of the numbers and ages of children on consumption. These estimates allow us to rationalize all of the increase in consumption without recourse to any of the causal mechanisms. Our...... estimates can be interpreted either as giving upper bounds on the effects of children or as evidence that the other causes are not important....

  2. Suppressed gross erosion of high-temperature lithium via rapid deuterium implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, T.; Jaworski, M. A.; Chen, M.; Carter, E. A.; Kaita, R.; Stotler, D. P.; De Temmerman, G.; Morgan, T. W.; van den Berg, M. A.; van der Meiden, H. J.

    2016-01-01

    Lithium-coated high-Z substrates are planned for use in the NSTX-U divertor and are a candidate plasma facing component (PFC) for reactors, but it remains necessary to characterize the gross Li erosion rate under high plasma fluxes (>1023 m-2 s-1), typical for the divertor region. In this work, a realistic model for the compositional evolution of a Li/D layer is developed that incorporates first principles molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of D diffusion in liquid Li. Predictions of Li erosion from a mixed Li/D material are also developed that include formation of lithium deuteride (LiD). The erosion rate of Li from LiD is predicted to be significantly lower than from pure Li. This prediction is tested in the Magnum-PSI linear plasma device at ion fluxes of 1023-1024 m-2 s-1 and Li surface temperatures  ⩽800 °C. Li/LiD coatings ranging in thickness from 0.2 to 500 μm are studied. The dynamic D/Li concentrations are inferred via diffusion simulations. The pure Li erosion rate remains greater than Langmuir Law evaporation, as expected. For mixed-material Li/LiD surfaces, the erosion rates are reduced, in good agreement with modelling in almost all cases. These results imply that the temperature limit for a Li-coated PFC may be significantly higher than previously imagined.

  3. Economic theories of sustainable consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferrer-i-Carbonell, Ada; Bergh, van den Jeroen C.J.M.

    1999-01-01

    The term `sustainable consumption' denotes the search for consumption patterns that reduce human pressure on the environment and nature. This searchinvolves three levels of research. First, the relationship between consumption, lifestyles and environmental sustainability has to be clarified. Agenera

  4. Assessment of leaching loss estimates and gross load of nitrogen from arable land in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, Markus (Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Soil Sciences)

    1999-01-01

    The focus of this thesis is on calculating N leaching loss estimates and gross loads of nitrogen. Calculations were done at two different scales, from field resolution in a small catchment to calculations at a large scale for the south and central part of Sweden. The latter study was initiated by Swedish commitments to international agreements concerning a decrease in N emissions to the Baltic Sea. Three of the papers deal with leaching of nitrogen in different periods: as it may have been in the 19[sup th] century, the current situation, and suggestions for a decrease with different countermeasures. The tools used in making these estimations were the SOIL/SOILN models. Calculations indicate that average N leaching was about the same in the 19[sup th] century as it is today at the end of the 20[sup th] century. The main reasons for high losses in the 19[sup th] century were high mineralisation rates in newly ploughed grassland, crop stress due to unfavourable conditions caused poor utilisation of N by crops, and large areas of bare fallow. N leaching was at its lowest in the 1930's due to larger N utilisation, a general termination of enhanced mineralisation and a large acreage of ley. Since then leaching has increased by on average about 60%, and more in the south of Sweden. Results also indicate that the draining of lakes has considerably decreased the retention capacity and is, along with the increase in gross load, one of the main causes of increased net load to the sea. A decrease in N leaching was estimated for the period 1985-1994. The decrease was mostly due to a smaller total area of arable land and an increase in the acreage of ley at the expense of cereals. The increase in the percentage of ley in the ten-year period (1985-1994) was the largest occurring in such a short time in the last 130 years in Sweden. Scenario calculations indicate that there is a potential for a decrease in the gross load of approximately 10 ktonnes from the current level of

  5. Assessment outcomes: computerized instruction in a human gross anatomy course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowski, Elaine L

    2002-01-01

    New and traditional educational media were used to study alternative methods of instruction in a human gross anatomy course. Three consecutive entry-level physical therapy (PT) classes (55 students total) participated in this study. No other anatomy course was available to these students during this time. During the first year, all entering PT students (n = 18) completed a traditional cadaver anatomy course. This traditional group attended weekly lectures and dissection laboratories for 15 weeks. During the second year, the next entering class of PT students (n = 17) completed a self-study, computerized noncadaver anatomy course. This self-study group attended an introductory session to receive course objectives and instruction in using the computer package chosen for the study. After the introductory session, this group worked independently for the remainder of their 15-week course. During the third year, the entering class of PT students (n = 20) attended weekly lectures and completed a self-study, computerized non-cadaver laboratory course. This lecture and self-study group attended an introductory session to review course objectives and receive instruction in using the computer package. For the remainder of their 15-week course, this group attended a weekly lecture and worked independently on the computer for the laboratory portion of their course. All groups kept time logs, recording class and study time for each day of the course. The time logs were collected on the last day of each course. Each group's performance in anatomy-based system courses was followed through the remainder of the PT curricula, including clinical rotations, and through the completion of the state board licensure examination. Data were analyzed using a multivariate analysis of variance and a Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance. There was no significant difference in anatomy course class means, class study times, performance throughout the remainder of the PT curricula, and performance

  6. Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: Modeling fuel consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger D. Ottmar

    2014-01-01

    Fuel consumption specifies the amount of vegetative biomass consumed during wildland fire. It is a two-stage process of pyrolysis and combustion that occurs simultaneously and at different rates depending on the characteristics and condition of the fuel, weather, topography, and in the case of prescribed fire, ignition rate and pattern. Fuel consumption is the basic...

  7. World distribution of gross domestic product per-capita

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustos-Guajardo, R.; Moukarzel, Cristian F.

    2015-05-01

    It is shown that the world distribution of gross domestic products per capita (GDPpc) is well described by a trade-investment model that combines yard-sale (YS) exchange and random multiplicative noise (RMN). We first derive analytically the typical value w(r, t) of the ranked wealths for a system evolving under YS exchange and RMN. The resulting analytical expressions are fitted to data for the GDPpc of up to 200 countries, in the period 1960-2013. Our model fits the data significantly better than previously proposed approaches that consider either Noise or Trade alone. Analysis of the resulting values for the fitting parameters, and of their time dependence, suggests that: (a) International trade conditions have (from 1960 to 2008) a statistical bias towards favoring richer countries. (b) Biased international commerce is the main cause for the observed divergence of GDPpc values from 1960 to 2008. (c) After 2008, the distribution of GDPpc starts to converge, and the world product per capita stops growing.

  8. Progestogen-related gross and microscopic changes in female Beagles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, L W; Kelly, W A

    1976-01-01

    Long-term studies of megestrol acetate and chlormadinone acetate in 100 female dogs are in progress. Doses of zero, one, 10 and 25 times the expected human dose of megestrol acetate and 25 times the expected human dose of chlormadinone acetate (on a milligram per kilogram body weight basis) are being given daily. During the first 4 years, eight dogs from each of the five groups were killed. The principal gross findings included enlarged uteri with mucoid material in the lumina, mammary development in dogs given middle and high doses of megestrol acetate and chlormadinone acetate, and thickened gallbladder walls in dogs given high doses of each. Histologic evaluation showed inhibition of ovulation for progestogen-treated dogs and suppression of ovarian follicular development with the high doses. Cystic endometrial hyperplasia was slight in the low-dose dogs and moderate to severe in most of the high-dose dogs; a few also had ulcerative endometritis and pyometra. The mammary glands of dogs given the middle and high doses produced lobules, acini, and secretion exceeding natural metestrus. Slight to marked cystic mucinous hyperplasia occurred in the gallbladders of most dogs given the high doses. Tow high-dose megestrol dogs had clinical signs and microscopic pancreatic, renal, and ocular changes indicative of diabetes mellitus.

  9. Stratospheric sulfate geoengineering enhances terrestrial gross primary productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, L.; Robock, A.; Tilmes, S.; Neely, R. R., III

    2015-09-01

    Stratospheric sulfate geoengineering could impact the terrestrial carbon cycle by enhancing the carbon sink. With an 8 Tg yr-1 injection of SO2 to balance a Representative Concentration Pathway 6.0 (RCP6.0) scenario, we conducted climate model simulations with the Community Earth System Model, with the Community Atmospheric Model 4 fully coupled to tropospheric and stratospheric chemistry (CAM4-chem). During the geoengineering period, as compared to RCP6.0, land-averaged downward visible diffuse radiation increased 3.2 W m-2 (11 %). The enhanced diffuse radiation combined with the cooling increased plant photosynthesis by 2.4 %, which could contribute to an additional 3.8 ± 1.1 Gt C yr-1 global gross primary productivity without nutrient limitation. This increase could potentially increase the land carbon sink. Suppressed plant and soil respiration due to the cooling would reduce natural land carbon emission and therefore further enhance the terrestrial carbon sink during the geoengineering period. This beneficial impact of stratospheric sulfate geoengineering would need to be balanced by a large number of potential risks in any future decisions about implementation of geoengineering.

  10. Stratospheric sulfate geoengineering enhances terrestrial gross primary productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Xia

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Stratospheric sulfate geoengineering could impact the terrestrial carbon cycle by enhancing the carbon sink. With an 8 Tg yr−1 injection of SO2 to balance a Representative Concentration Pathway 6.0 (RCP6.0 scenario, we conducted climate model simulations with the Community Earth System Model, with the Community Atmospheric Model 4 fully coupled to tropospheric and stratospheric chemistry (CAM4-chem. During the geoengineering period, as compared to RCP6.0, land-averaged downward visible diffuse radiation increased 3.2 W m−2 (11 %. The enhanced diffuse radiation combined with the cooling increased plant photosynthesis by 2.4 %, which could contribute to an additional 3.8 ± 1.1 Gt C yr−1 global gross primary productivity without nutrient limitation. This increase could potentially increase the land carbon sink. Suppressed plant and soil respiration due to the cooling would reduce natural land carbon emission and therefore further enhance the terrestrial carbon sink during the geoengineering period. This beneficial impact of stratospheric sulfate geoengineering would need to be balanced by a large number of potential risks in any future decisions about implementation of geoengineering.

  11. Horava-Lifshitz-like Gross-Neveu model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, A. M.; Mariz, T.; Martinez, R.; Nascimento, J. R.; Petrov, A. Yu.; Ribeiro, R. F.

    2017-03-01

    We describe a Horava-Lifshitz-like reformulated four-fermion Gross-Neveu model describing the dynamics of two-component spinors in (2 +1 )-dimensional space-time. Within our study, we introduce the Lagrange multiplier, study the gap equation (including the finite temperature case) which turns out to display essentially distinct behaviors for even and odd values of the critical exponent z , and show that the dynamical parity breaking occurs only for the odd z . We demonstrate that for any odd z , there exists a critical temperature at which the dynamical parity breaking disappears. Besides of this, we obtain the effective propagator and show that the resulting effective theory is renormalizable within the framework of the 1/N expansion for all values of z . As one more application of the dynamical parity breaking, we consider coupling of the vector field to the fermions in the case of a simplified spinor-vector coupling and discuss the generation of the Chern-Simons term.

  12. Large historical growth in global terrestrial gross primary production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, J. E.; Berry, J. A.; Seibt, U.; Smith, S. J.; Montzka, S. A.; Launois, T.; Belviso, S.; Bopp, L.; Laine, M.

    2017-04-01

    Growth in terrestrial gross primary production (GPP)—the amount of carbon dioxide that is ‘fixed’ into organic material through the photosynthesis of land plants—may provide a negative feedback for climate change. It remains uncertain, however, to what extent biogeochemical processes can suppress global GPP growth. As a consequence, modelling estimates of terrestrial carbon storage, and of feedbacks between the carbon cycle and climate, remain poorly constrained. Here we present a global, measurement-based estimate of GPP growth during the twentieth century that is based on long-term atmospheric carbonyl sulfide (COS) records, derived from ice-core, firn and ambient air samples. We interpret these records using a model that simulates changes in COS concentration according to changes in its sources and sinks—including a large sink that is related to GPP. We find that the observation-based COS record is most consistent with simulations of climate and the carbon cycle that assume large GPP growth during the twentieth century (31% ± 5% growth; mean ± 95% confidence interval). Although this COS analysis does not directly constrain models of future GPP growth, it does provide a global-scale benchmark for historical carbon-cycle simulations.

  13. Large historical growth in global terrestrial gross primary production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, J. E.; Berry, J. A.; Seibt, U.; Smith, S. J.; Montzka, S. A.; Launois, T.; Belviso, S.; Bopp, L.; Laine, M.

    2017-04-05

    Growth in terrestrial gross primary production (GPP) may provide a feedback for climate change, but there is still strong disagreement on the extent to which biogeochemical processes may suppress this GPP growth at the ecosystem to continental scales. The consequent uncertainty in modeling of future carbon storage by the terrestrial biosphere constitutes one of the largest unknowns in global climate projections for the next century. Here we provide a global, measurement-based estimate of historical GPP growth using long-term atmospheric carbonyl sulfide (COS) records derived from ice core, firn, and ambient air samples. We interpret these records using a model that relates changes in the COS concentration to changes in its sources and sinks, the largest of which is proportional to GPP. The COS history was most consistent with simulations that assume a large historical GPP growth. Carbon-climate models that assume little to no GPP growth predicted trajectories of COS concentration over the anthropogenic era that differ from those observed. Continued COS monitoring may be useful for detecting ongoing changes in GPP while extending the ice core record to glacial cycles could provide further opportunities to evaluate earth system models.

  14. A boy with fever, cough and gross haematuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzi, Giorgio; Maschio, Massimo; Poillucci, Gabriele; Pennesi, Marco; Barbi, Egidio

    2017-08-28

    A 5 year-old boy presented with 2-days of fever and cough. On examination, he had mild dyspnoea and chest pain, with crackles and hypoventilation at the right lung base. Blood tests showed: WBC 39.1×10(9)/L; N 28.9×10(9)/L; Hb 11.3gr/dL; PLT 375×10(9)/L; CRP 28.7mg/dL; ESR 41mm/h. Chest x-ray confirmed a pulmonary consolidation in the right lower lobe (figure 1), with an associated pleural effusion. Bacterial pneumonia was diagnosed and intravenous ceftriaxone 100mg/kg/die was started. The following day, he developed palpebral oedema and his urine became tea coloured. His blood pressure was 126/82mmHg (>99th percentile).(1) Serum creatinine rose from 0.45mg/dl to 1.09mg/dl (39.8µmol/L - 93.4µmol/L) and C3 was 9mg/dl (n.r. 90-180mg/dl). Urinalysis revealed gross hematuria and 3+ proteinuria, with microscopicy showing dysmorphic red blood cells with casts. Ultrasounds showed enlarged kidneys with increased echogenicity. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  15. Peer-Assisted Learning in a Gross Anatomy Dissection Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Eui-Ryoung; Chung, Eun-Kyung; Nam, Kwang-Il

    2015-01-01

    Peer-assisted learning encourages students to participate more actively in the dissection process and promotes thoughtful dissection. We implemented peer-assisted dissection in 2012 and compared its effects on students' self-assessments of learning and their academic achievement with those of faculty-led dissection. All subjects performed dissections after a lecture about upper-limb gross anatomy. Experimental group (n = 134) dissected a cadaver while guided by peer tutors who had prepared for the dissection in advance, and control group (n = 71) dissected a cadaver after the introduction by a faculty via prosection. Self-assessment scores regarding the learning objectives related to upper limbs were significantly higher in experimental group than in control group. Additionally, experimental group received significantly higher academic scores than did control group. The students in peer-assisted learning perceived themselves as having a better understanding of course content and achieved better academic results compared with those who participated in faculty-led dissection. Peer-assisted dissection contributed to self-perception and to the ability to retain and explain anatomical knowledge.

  16. An analysis of the fuel consumption of commercial vehicles by computer simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renouf, M.A.

    A computer simulation model was used to estimate the fuel consumption of goods vehicles operating in the UK over four major operating conditions, each represented by a duty cycle. The vehicles chosen for simulation ranged from 2 to 44 tons gross vehicle weight and represented vehicles operating in Europe. The compilation of data representing light vans, rigid and articulated vehicles (platform and box bodies) was related where possible to trends in vehicle characteristics with increasing gross vehicle weight. The simulation model provided the data for the formation of regression equations relating fuel consumption to gross vehicle weight for each body type and duty cycle. Four vehicles representing the major vehicle classes were chosen to examine the sensitivity of the fuel consumption changes in the assumptions made. Two additional contributions to fuel consumption considered were the extra fuel used during cold starts and delivery stops. As a check, the equations were used to calculate the fuel used by the UK national goods vehicle fleet; this figure was compared with an estimate based upon tax revenue. (Copyright (c) Crown Copyright 1981.)

  17. 基于单耗理论分析回热系统热经济性%Exergy Analysis of Thermal Economic Efficiency for Regenerative System Based on Consumption Rate Anlysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈海平; 王忠平; 石志云; 童家麟

    2012-01-01

    The regenerative system of power plants is the basis of thermal power system, which plays an important part for the thermal economy of units,so it is very necessary for regenerative system to analyze the thermal economy. In this paper, the theory of the unit fuel consumption analysis was concisely explained and the additional equipment consumption of regenerative system of 300MW power unit were calculated. Matrix method was employed to obtain the energy consumption distribution in design. The results indicate that the additional equipmentcon sumption of low pressure heaters are lower than those of high pressure heaters, and No. 3 LP heater is the weakest position, which need to be improved.%采用基于(炯)和(炯)经济学基础上提出的单耗分析理论,对引进型300MW火电机组各级加热器进行能损计算分析,得出各加热器附加单耗时空分布规律,以期为节能改进提供理论依据.分析结果表明:高压加热器的附加单耗高于低压加热器,其中3号高加是回热系统最为薄弱环节,其附加单耗为0.575g/(kW·h),具有较大的节能潜力,其次是1号、2号高加以及除氧器.

  18. DOES ENERGY CONSUMPTION VOLATILITY AFFECT REAL GDP VOLATILITY? AN EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS FOR THE UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rashid

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper empirically examines the relation between energy consumption volatility and unpredictable variations in real gross domestic product (GDP in the UK. Estimating the Markov switching ARCH model we find a significant regime switching in the behavior of both energy consumption and GDP volatility. The results from the Markov regime-switching model show that the variability of energy consumption has a significant role to play in determining the behavior of GDP volatilities. Moreover, the results suggest that the impacts of unpredictable variations in energy consumption on GDP volatility are asymmetric, depending on the intensity of volatility. In particular, we find that while there is no significant contemporaneous relationship between energy consumption volatility and GDP volatility in the first (low-volatility regime, GDP volatility is significantly positively related to the volatility of energy utilization in the second (high-volatility regime.

  19. The growth pattern and fuel life cycle analysis of the electricity consumption of Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, W M; Lai, T M; Lo, W C; Lam, K H; Chung, W L

    2012-06-01

    As the consumption of electricity increases, air pollutants from power generation increase. In metropolitans such as Hong Kong and other Asian cities, the surge of electricity consumption has been phenomenal over the past decades. This paper presents a historical review about electricity consumption, population, and change in economic structure in Hong Kong. It is hypothesized that the growth of electricity consumption and change in gross domestic product can be modeled by 4-parameter logistic functions. The accuracy of the functions was assessed by Pearson's correlation coefficient, mean absolute percent error, and root mean squared percent error. The paper also applies the life cycle approach to determine carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen oxide emissions for the electricity consumption of Hong Kong. Monte Carlo simulations were applied to determine the confidence intervals of pollutant emissions. The implications of importing more nuclear power are discussed.

  20. 2,4-D and Glyphosate affect aquatic biofilm accrual, gross primary production, and community respiration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawton E. Shaw

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D and glyphosate are widely used agricultural herbicides commonly found in surface waters near cultivated land. Field experiments were conducted to determine the effects of 2,4-D and glyphosate on biofilms in a pond next to agricultural land in Athabasca, Alberta. Contaminant-exposure substrates (CES consisted of GF/C glass fiber or a cellulose filter paper substrates placed on specimen jars filled with agar that contained low levels of nitrogen and phosphorus, and different concentrations (15, 9.0, 1.5 mM of either 2,4-D or glyphosate. Nutrients and herbicide diffused freely through the agar to the substrate surface. CES arrays were deployed 15 cm below the water surface for 22 days, after which biofilms were collected and biomass (chlorophyll a, autotroph gross primary production (GPP, and heterotroph community respiration (CR were measured. 2,4-D (15 mM caused significant decreases in rates of biomass accrual (−22%, GPP (−34%, and CR(−63%. Glyphosate (15 mM also caused significant decreases in rates of biomass accrual (−50%, GPP (−67%, and CR (−47%. For the contaminant concentrations used, mean flux rates are estimated to be between 50–700 ng cm−2 min−1.